Science.gov

Sample records for large sample naa

  1. Comparison of k0-NAA measurement results with calculated uncertainties for reference samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smodiš, B.; Bučar, T.

    2010-10-01

    Standard samples of well-defined geometry containing accurately known amounts of Co, Fe, Gd, Mo, Nd, Sb, Se, W, Zn and Zr were prepared and assayed using k0-based neutron activation analysis ( k0-NAA). Measurement results for six independent determinations of each standard spiked sample were evaluated and compared to calculated uncertainties using the computer program ERON, which computes uncertainty propagation factors from the relevant formulae and calculates the overall uncertainty following the internationally recommended approach. The calculated relative expanded uncertainties U ( k=2), which ranged from 6 to 11% for particular nuclides/gamma-lines agreed well with the measurements results thus proving the correctness of the applied approach. One of the important measures to further reduce uncertainties in the k0-NAA measurements is to review and re-determine more accurately specific nuclear constants involved in the relevant calculations.

  2. Sample registration software for process automation in the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Facility in Malaysia nuclear agency

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd Yussup, Nolida; Ibrahim, Maslina Bt. Mohd; Mokhtar, Mukhlis B.; Soh Shaari, Syirrazie Bin Che; Azman, Azraf B.; Salim, Nazaratul Ashifa Bt. Abdullah; Ismail, Nadiah Binti

    2015-04-29

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) had been established in Nuclear Malaysia since 1980s. Most of the procedures established were done manually including sample registration. The samples were recorded manually in a logbook and given ID number. Then all samples, standards, SRM and blank were recorded on the irradiation vial and several forms prior to irradiation. These manual procedures carried out by the NAA laboratory personnel were time consuming and not efficient. Sample registration software is developed as part of IAEA/CRP project on ‘Development of Process Automation in the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Facility in Malaysia Nuclear Agency (RC17399)’. The objective of the project is to create a pc-based data entry software during sample preparation stage. This is an effective method to replace redundant manual data entries that needs to be completed by laboratory personnel. The software developed will automatically generate sample code for each sample in one batch, create printable registration forms for administration purpose, and store selected parameters that will be passed to sample analysis program. The software is developed by using National Instruments Labview 8.6.

  3. Sample registration software for process automation in the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Facility in Malaysia nuclear agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Yussup, Nolida; Salim, Nazaratul Ashifa Bt. Abdullah; Ibrahim, Maslina Bt. Mohd; Mokhtar, Mukhlis B.; Soh@Shaari, Syirrazie Bin Che; Azman, Azraf B.; Ismail, Nadiah Binti

    2015-04-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) had been established in Nuclear Malaysia since 1980s. Most of the procedures established were done manually including sample registration. The samples were recorded manually in a logbook and given ID number. Then all samples, standards, SRM and blank were recorded on the irradiation vial and several forms prior to irradiation. These manual procedures carried out by the NAA laboratory personnel were time consuming and not efficient. Sample registration software is developed as part of IAEA/CRP project on `Development of Process Automation in the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Facility in Malaysia Nuclear Agency (RC17399)'. The objective of the project is to create a pc-based data entry software during sample preparation stage. This is an effective method to replace redundant manual data entries that needs to be completed by laboratory personnel. The software developed will automatically generate sample code for each sample in one batch, create printable registration forms for administration purpose, and store selected parameters that will be passed to sample analysis program. The software is developed by using National Instruments Labview 8.6.

  4. Determination of 129I in environmental samples by AMS and NAA using an anion exchange resin disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Takashi; Banba, Shigeru; Kitamura, Toshikatsu; Kabuto, Shoji; Isogai, Keisuke; Amano, Hikaru

    2007-06-01

    We have developed a new extraction method for the measurement of 129I by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) utilizing an anion exchange resin disk. In comparison to traditional methods such as solvent extraction and ion exchange, this method provides for simple and quick sample handling. This extraction method was tested on soil, seaweed and milk samples, but because of disk clogging, the milk samples and some of the seaweed could not be applied successfully. Using this new extraction method to prepare samples for AMS analysis produced isotope ratios of iodine in good agreement with neutron activation analysis (NAA). The disk extraction method which take half an hour is faster than previous techniques, such as solvent extraction or ion exchange which take a few hours. The combination of the disk method and the AMS measurement is a powerful tool for the determination of 129I. Furthermore, these data will be available for the environmental monitoring before and during the operation of a new nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Japan.

  5. [Testing the identity of hashish samples with ICP-AES and NAA and data handling with neural networks. 2. Data verification with the use of artificial neural networks].

    PubMed

    Tenhagen, A; Feuring, T; Lippe, W M

    1998-01-01

    Twenty different hashish samples, which were confiscated in Irak, Iran, Bulgaria, Switzerland, Great Britain and Germany were analysed by means of NAA and ICP-AES. We used modified ANNs to identify a repeated analysed sample out of that data pool. The ANNs are described. Especially the learning rule, a modified backpropagation method, is presented. It is obvious, that neural networks can solve the described classification tasks. There is no significant difference in the power of the applied analytical methods. PMID:9476257

  6. NAA For Human Serum Analysis: Comparison With Conventional Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Medeiros, Jose A. G.; Azevedo, Maria R.

    2010-08-04

    Instrumental and Comparator methods of Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) were applied to determine elements of clinical relevancy in serum samples of adult population (Sao Paulo city, Brazil). A comparison with the conventional analyses, Colorimetric for calcium, Titrymetric for chlorine and Ion Specific Electrode for sodium and potassium determination were also performed permitting a discussion about the performance of NAA methods for clinical chemistry research.

  7. NAA and NAAG variation in neuronal activation during visual stimulation.

    PubMed

    Castellano, G; Dias, C S B; Foerster, B; Li, L M; Covolan, R J M

    2012-11-01

    N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG) and its hydrolysis product N-acetyl-L-aspartate (NAA) are among the most important brain metabolites. NAA is a marker of neuron integrity and viability, while NAAG modulates glutamate release and may have a role in neuroprotection and synaptic plasticity. Investigating on a quantitative basis the role of these metabolites in brain metabolism in vivo by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a major challenge since the main signals of NAA and NAAG largely overlap. This is a preliminary study in which we evaluated NAA and NAAG changes during a visual stimulation experiment using functional MRS. The paradigm used consisted of a rest period (5 min and 20 s), followed by a stimulation period (10 min and 40 s) and another rest period (10 min and 40 s). MRS from 17 healthy subjects were acquired at 3T with TR/TE = 2000/288 ms. Spectra were averaged over subjects and quantified with LCModel. The main outcomes were that NAA concentration decreased by about 20% with the stimulus, while the concentration of NAAG concomitantly increased by about 200%. Such variations fall into models for the energy metabolism underlying neuronal activation that point to NAAG as being responsible for the hyperemic vascular response that causes the BOLD signal. They also agree with the fact that NAAG and NAA are present in the brain at a ratio of about 1:10, and with the fact that the only known metabolic pathway for NAAG synthesis is from NAA and glutamate.

  8. Implementation of the k0-NAA method in the NAA#3 irradiation hole of the HANARO research reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Dung, Ho Manh; Moon, Jong Hwa; Park, Kwang Won; Kim, Hark Rho

    2006-08-01

    The NAA#3 irradiation hole in the 30 MW HANARO research reactor of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), with a thermal neutron flux of 1.26×10 14 cm -2 s -1, has been regarded as suitable for the application of k0-based neutron activation analysis ( k0-NAA). The objectives of the present work were: (a) to characterize the NAA#3 irradiation hole via the determination of the neutron spectrum parameters required for the method, (b) to calibrate the HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer system via establishing the detection efficiency curves and (c) to assess the quality of the k0-NAA method by the analysis of six certified reference materials, three of which were of biological nature and three of environmental origin. The results obtained indicated that, by using the k0-NAA method, approximately 25 or 35 elements could be quantitatively determined in the biological and environmental samples, respectively. The deviations between the experimental and the certified values for the determined elements were generally within 12% with u-scores mostly below 2. The results prove that the k0-NAA method, implemented in the HANARO research reactor, is applicable for multi-element analysis in biological and environmental samples with a rather high analytical performance and that the method is available for further practical applications.

  9. The use of k0-NAA for the determination of the n( 235U)/ n( 238U) isotopic ratio in samples containing uranium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farina Arboccò, F.; Vermaercke, P.; Sneyers, L.; Soares Leal, A.; Gonçalves Bouças, J.

    2010-10-01

    In the analysis of rare earth elements in samples containing uranium by k0-neutron activation analysis fission of 235U was considered an undesired phenomenon until the "fission k0-factors" were introduced to account for natural-U fission interferences. In this work, by using a reverse perspective of the problem, the observed 235U-fission and 238U activation products (along with the k0-factors) were used to obtain information about the n( 235U)/ n( 238U) isotopic ratio in the samples. The relevant formulae and data-filtering algorithm were implemented in a home-made computer software, allowing automated evaluation and selection of unbiased data. Two radioisotopes ( 131I and 140La) were demonstrated to be reliable candidates for n( 235U)/ n( 238U) determination in environmental samples. The accuracy of this method was determined using several isotopic standards varying from a depleted to a highly enriched 235U content. An overall 2.31±0.03% overestimation of the isotopic ratio was observed (within 95% confidence level). Definition: n(X) refers to the isotopic abundance of isotope X

  10. Actinide recovery method -- Large soil samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell , S.L. III

    2000-04-25

    There is a need to measure actinides in environmental samples with lower and lower detection limits, requiring larger sample sizes. This analysis is adversely affected by sample-matrix interferences, which make analyzing soil samples above five-grams very difficult. A new Actinide-Recovery Method has been developed by the Savannah River Site Central Laboratory to preconcentrate actinides from large-soil samples. Diphonix Resin (Eichrom Industries), a 1994 R and D 100 winner, is used to preconcentrate the actinides from large soil samples, which are bound powerfully to the resin's diphosphonic acid groups. A rapid microwave-digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin, which effectively eliminates interfering matrix components from the soil matrix. The microwave-digestion technique is more effective and less tedious than catalyzed hydrogen peroxide digestions of the resin or digestion of diphosphonic stripping agents such as HEDPA. After resin digestion, the actinides are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid which can be loaded onto small extraction chromatography columns, such as TEVA Resin, U-TEVA Resin or TRU Resin (Eichrom Industries). Small, selective extraction columns do not generate large volumes of liquid waste and provide consistent tracer recoveries after soil matrix elimination.

  11. Analysis of large soil samples for actinides

    DOEpatents

    Maxwell, III; Sherrod L.

    2009-03-24

    A method of analyzing relatively large soil samples for actinides by employing a separation process that includes cerium fluoride precipitation for removing the soil matrix and precipitates plutonium, americium, and curium with cerium and hydrofluoric acid followed by separating these actinides using chromatography cartridges.

  12. Actinide Recovery Method for Large Soil Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.L. III; Nichols, S.

    1998-11-01

    A new Actinide Recovery Method has been developed by the Savannah River Site Central Laboratory to preconcentrate actinides in very large soil samples. Diphonix Resin(r) is used eliminate soil matrix interferences and preconcentrate actinides after soil leaching or soil fusion. A rapid microwave digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin(r). After the resin digestion, the actinides are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid which can be easily loaded onto small extraction-chromatography columns, such as TEVA Resin(r), U-TEVA Resin(r) or TRU Resin(r) (Eichrom Industries). This method enables the application of small, selective extraction-columns to recover actinides from very large soil samples with high selectivity, consistent tracer recoveries and minimal liquid waste.

  13. Testing the applicability of the k0-NAA method at the MINT's TRIGA MARK II reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siong, Wee Boon; Dung, Ho Manh; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Salim, Nazaratul Ashifa Abd.; Elias, Md. Suhaimi

    2006-08-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at MINT is using the NAA technique since 1980s and is the only laboratory in Malaysia equipped with a research reactor, namely the TRIGA MARK II. Throughout the years the development of NAA technique has been very encouraging and was made applicable to a wide range of samples. At present, the k0 method has become the preferred standardization method of NAA ( k0-NAA) due to its multi-elemental analysis capability without using standards. Additionally, the k0 method describes NAA in physically and mathematically understandable definitions and is very suitable for computer evaluation. Eventually, the k0-NAA method has been adopted by MINT in 2003, in collaboration with the Nuclear Research Institute (NRI), Vietnam. The reactor neutron parameters ( α and f) for the pneumatic transfer system and for the rotary rack at various locations, as well as the detector efficiencies were determined. After calibration of the reactor and the detectors, the implemented k0 method was validated by analyzing some certified reference materials (including IAEA Soil 7, NIST 1633a, NIST 1632c, NIST 1646a and IAEA 140/TM). The analysis results of the CRMs showed an average u score well below the threshold value of 2 with a precision of better than ±10% for most of the elemental concentrations obtained, validating herewith the introduction of the k0-NAA method at the MINT.

  14. How Large Should a Statistical Sample Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menil, Violeta C.; Ye, Ruili

    2012-01-01

    This study serves as a teaching aid for teachers of introductory statistics. The aim of this study was limited to determining various sample sizes when estimating population proportion. Tables on sample sizes were generated using a C[superscript ++] program, which depends on population size, degree of precision or error level, and confidence…

  15. Large-volume sampling and preconcentration for trace explosives detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Linker, Kevin Lane

    2004-05-01

    A trace explosives detection system typically contains three subsystems: sample collection, preconcentration, and detection. Sample collection of trace explosives (vapor and particulate) through large volumes of airflow helps reduce sampling time while increasing the amount of dilute sample collected. Preconcentration of the collected sample before introduction into the detector improves the sensitivity of the detector because of the increase in sample concentration. By combining large-volume sample collection and preconcentration, an improvement in the detection of explosives is possible. Large-volume sampling and preconcentration is presented using a systems level approach. In addition, the engineering of large-volume sampling and preconcentration for the trace detection of explosives is explained.

  16. LOGISTICS OF ECOLOGICAL SAMPLING ON LARGE RIVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this document are to provide an overview of the logistical problems associated with the ecological sampling of boatable rivers and to suggest solutions to those problems. It is intended to be used as a resource for individuals preparing to collect biological dat...

  17. Investigation of NAA and NAAG dynamics underlying visual stimulation using MEGA-PRESS in a functional MRS experiment.

    PubMed

    Landim, Ricardo C G; Edden, Richard A E; Foerster, Bernd; Li, Li Min; Covolan, Roberto J M; Castellano, Gabriela

    2016-04-01

    N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) is responsible for the majority of the most prominent peak in (1)H-MR spectra, and has been used as diagnostic marker for several pathologies. However, ~10% of this peak can be attributed to N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG), a neuropeptide whose release may be triggered by intense neuronal activation. Separate measurement of NAA and NAAG using MRS is difficult due to large superposition of their spectra. Specifically, in functional MRS (fMRS) experiments, most work has evaluated the sum NAA+NAAG, which does not appear to change during experiments. The aim of this work was to design and perform an fMRS experiment using visual stimulation and a spectral editing sequence, MEGA-PRESS, to further evaluate the individual dynamics of NAA and NAAG during brain activation. The functional paradigm used consisted of three blocks, starting with a rest (baseline) block of 320 s, followed by a stimulus block (640 s) and a rest block (640 s). Twenty healthy subjects participated in this study. On average, subjects followed a pattern of NAA decrease and NAAG increase during stimulation, with a tendency to return to basal levels at the end of the paradigm, with a peak NAA decrease of -(21±19)% and a peak NAAG increase of (64±62)% (Wilcoxon test, p<0.05). These results may relate to: 1) the only known NAAG synthesis pathway is from NAA and glutamate; 2) a relationship between NAAG and the BOLD response. PMID:26656908

  18. Finite dose diffusion studies: III. Effects of temperature, humidity and deposit manipulation on NAA penetration through isolated tomato fruit cuticles.

    PubMed

    Knoche, M; Bukovac, M J

    2001-08-01

    Effects of temperature, humidity, rewetting and removal of deposits on penetration of NAA [2-(1-naphthyl)acetic acid] through isolated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) fruit cuticles were studied using a finite dose diffusion system. In this system, an aqueous 5-microliter droplet (0.1 mM NAA in 20 mM citric acid buffer) is applied to the outer surface of a cuticle, which is mounted in a glass diffusion half-cell. The cell wall surface is in contact with a receiver solution (20 mM citrate). Penetration is monitored by repeated sampling of the receiver solution. Droplets appeared dry on visual inspection within 1 h of application, but significant NAA penetration continued after droplet drying. Maximum rates of NAA penetration increased exponentially as temperature was increased (from 5 degrees to 35 degrees C), the energy of activation averaging 153 (+/- 11.6)kJ mol-1. At 35 degrees C, penetration reached a plateau within 10 h of application (at 91.1 (+/- 1.0)% of dose applied) while at 5 degrees C penetration after 800 h reached only 30.2 (+/- 7.5)%. Increasing relative humidity from 20 to 80% increased maximum rates [from 1.0 (+/- 0.21) to 2.7 (+/- 0.80)% h-1] and penetration at 120 h after application [from 36.8 (+/- 2.1) to 64.3 (+/- 3.7)%]. Rewetting deposits at 120, 240 and 360 h after application resulted in increased NAA penetration. However, amounts and rates of NAA penetration progressively decreased with each subsequent rewetting. Removal of deposits by cellulose acetate stripping at various times after droplet application resulted in a rapid decrease in NAA penetration. NAA penetration following deposit removal was always less than 6.1% of the amount of NAA applied and averaged 0.5 (+/- 0.2)% when deposits were removed immediately after droplet drying. PMID:11517728

  19. SAMPLING LARGE RIVERS FOR ALGAE, BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES AND FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple projects are currently underway to increase our understanding of the effects of different sampling methods and designs used for the biological assessment and monitoring of large (boatable) rivers. Studies include methods used to assess fish, benthic macroinvertebrates, ...

  20. ANALYSIS IN BLOOD OF GOLDEN HAMSTER BY NAA FOR CLINICAL PRACTICE

    SciTech Connect

    Aguiar, R.; Zamboni, C. B.; Genezini, F. A.

    2009-06-03

    In the present study Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique has been used to determine, simultaneously, some element concentrations of clinical relevance in whole blood samples of Golden Hamster. The normal range for Br, Cl, K and Na concentrations were determined. The knowledge of these values permits clinical investigation of animal model using whole blood as well as to check the similarities with human blood.

  1. Differences in iron concentration in whole blood of animal models using NAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahovschi, V.; Zamboni, C. B.; Lopes Silva, L. F. F.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A.

    2015-07-01

    In this study Neutron Activation Analysis technique (NAA) was applied to determine Fe concentration in whole blood samples of several animal models such as: mice (Mus musculus), Golden Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), Wistar rats, Albinic Rabbits of New Zealand, Golden Retriever dogs and Crioulabreed horses. These results were compared with human whole blood estimation to check their similarities.

  2. Evaluating noninvasive genetic sampling techniques to estimate large carnivore abundance.

    PubMed

    Mumma, Matthew A; Zieminski, Chris; Fuller, Todd K; Mahoney, Shane P; Waits, Lisette P

    2015-09-01

    Monitoring large carnivores is difficult because of intrinsically low densities and can be dangerous if physical capture is required. Noninvasive genetic sampling (NGS) is a safe and cost-effective alternative to physical capture. We evaluated the utility of two NGS methods (scat detection dogs and hair sampling) to obtain genetic samples for abundance estimation of coyotes, black bears and Canada lynx in three areas of Newfoundland, Canada. We calculated abundance estimates using program capwire, compared sampling costs, and the cost/sample for each method relative to species and study site, and performed simulations to determine the sampling intensity necessary to achieve abundance estimates with coefficients of variation (CV) of <10%. Scat sampling was effective for both coyotes and bears and hair snags effectively sampled bears in two of three study sites. Rub pads were ineffective in sampling coyotes and lynx. The precision of abundance estimates was dependent upon the number of captures/individual. Our simulations suggested that ~3.4 captures/individual will result in a < 10% CV for abundance estimates when populations are small (23-39), but fewer captures/individual may be sufficient for larger populations. We found scat sampling was more cost-effective for sampling multiple species, but suggest that hair sampling may be less expensive at study sites with limited road access for bears. Given the dependence of sampling scheme on species and study site, the optimal sampling scheme is likely to be study-specific warranting pilot studies in most circumstances.

  3. Rapid Determination Of Radiostrontium In Large Soil Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Shaw, Patrick J.

    2012-05-24

    A new method for the determination of radiostrontium in large soil samples has been developed at the Savannah River Environmental Laboratory (Aiken, SC, USA) that allows rapid preconcentration and separation of strontium in large soil samples for the measurement of strontium isotopes by gas flow proportional counting. The need for rapid analyses in the event of a Radiological Dispersive Device (RDD) or Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) event is well-known. In addition, the recent accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in March, 2011 reinforces the need to have rapid analyses for radionuclides in environmental samples in the event of a nuclear accident. The method employs a novel pre-concentration step that utilizes an iron hydroxide precipitation (enhanced with calcium phosphate) followed by a final calcium fluoride precipitation to remove silicates and other matrix components. The pre-concentration steps, in combination with a rapid Sr Resin separation using vacuum box technology, allow very large soil samples to be analyzed for {sup 89,90}Sr using gas flow proportional counting with a lower method detection limit. The calcium fluoride precipitation eliminates column flow problems typically associated with large amounts of silicates in large soil samples.

  4. Investigation of saliva of patients with periodontal disease using NAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamboni, C. B.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A.; Lewgoy, H. R.

    2013-05-01

    In this study the non-stimulated whole saliva of 26 healthy subjects (mean age 33.9 ± 11.0 years, range: 26 to 49 years) and 11 patients with periodontal disease (mean age 41.7 ± 11.5 years; range 29 to 55 years) was investigated using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The samples were obtained from donors at São Paulo city (Brazil). The analyses were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazil). Considerable changes in Ca and S saliva's level were identified in patients with periodontal disease suggesting they can be used as monitors of periodontal diseases.

  5. Investigation of saliva of patients with periodontal disease using NAA

    SciTech Connect

    Zamboni, C. B.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A.

    2013-05-06

    In this study the non-stimulated whole saliva of 26 healthy subjects (mean age 33.9 {+-} 11.0 years, range: 26 to 49 years) and 11 patients with periodontal disease (mean age 41.7 {+-} 11.5 years; range 29 to 55 years) was investigated using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The samples were obtained from donors at Sao Paulo city (Brazil). The analyses were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazil). Considerable changes in Ca and S saliva's level were identified in patients with periodontal disease suggesting they can be used as monitors of periodontal diseases.

  6. N-terminal acetylome analysis reveals the specificity of Naa50 (Nat5) and suggests a kinetic competition between N-terminal acetyltransferases and methionine aminopeptidases.

    PubMed

    Van Damme, Petra; Hole, Kristine; Gevaert, Kris; Arnesen, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Cotranslational N-terminal (Nt-) acetylation of nascent polypeptides is mediated by N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs). The very N-terminal amino acid sequence largely determines whether or not a given protein is Nt-acetylated. Currently, there are six distinct NATs characterized, NatA-NatF, in humans of which the in vivo substrate specificity of Naa50 (Nat5)/NatE, an alternative catalytic subunit of the human NatA, so far remained elusive. In this study, we quantitatively compared the Nt-acetylomes of wild-type yeast S. cerevisiae expressing the endogenous yeast Naa50 (yNaa50), the congenic strain lacking yNaa50, and an otherwise identical strain expressing human Naa50 (hNaa50). Six canonical yeast NatA substrates were Nt-acetylated less in yeast lacking yNaa50 than in wild-type yeast. In contrast, the ectopically expressed hNaa50 resulted, predominantly, in the Nt-acetylation of N-terminal Met (iMet) starting N-termini, including iMet-Lys, iMet-Val, iMet-Ala, iMet-Tyr, iMet-Phe, iMet-Leu, iMet-Ser, and iMet-Thr N-termini. This identified hNaa50 as being similar, in its substrate specificity, to the previously characterized hNaa60/NatF. In addition, the identification, in yNaa50-lacking yeast expressing hNaa50, of Nt-acetylated iMet followed by a small residue such as Ser, Thr, Ala, or Val, revealed a kinetic competition between Naa50 and Met-aminopeptidases (MetAPs), and implied that Nt-acetylated iMet followed by a small residue cannot be removed by MetAPs, a deduction supported by our in vitro data. As such, Naa50-mediated Nt-acetylation may act to retain the iMet of proteins of otherwise MetAP susceptible N-termini and the fraction of retained and Nt-acetylated iMet (followed by a small residue) in such a setting would be expected to depend on the relative levels of ribosome-associated Naa50/NatA and MetAPs.

  7. Evaluating noninvasive genetic sampling techniques to estimate large carnivore abundance.

    PubMed

    Mumma, Matthew A; Zieminski, Chris; Fuller, Todd K; Mahoney, Shane P; Waits, Lisette P

    2015-09-01

    Monitoring large carnivores is difficult because of intrinsically low densities and can be dangerous if physical capture is required. Noninvasive genetic sampling (NGS) is a safe and cost-effective alternative to physical capture. We evaluated the utility of two NGS methods (scat detection dogs and hair sampling) to obtain genetic samples for abundance estimation of coyotes, black bears and Canada lynx in three areas of Newfoundland, Canada. We calculated abundance estimates using program capwire, compared sampling costs, and the cost/sample for each method relative to species and study site, and performed simulations to determine the sampling intensity necessary to achieve abundance estimates with coefficients of variation (CV) of <10%. Scat sampling was effective for both coyotes and bears and hair snags effectively sampled bears in two of three study sites. Rub pads were ineffective in sampling coyotes and lynx. The precision of abundance estimates was dependent upon the number of captures/individual. Our simulations suggested that ~3.4 captures/individual will result in a < 10% CV for abundance estimates when populations are small (23-39), but fewer captures/individual may be sufficient for larger populations. We found scat sampling was more cost-effective for sampling multiple species, but suggest that hair sampling may be less expensive at study sites with limited road access for bears. Given the dependence of sampling scheme on species and study site, the optimal sampling scheme is likely to be study-specific warranting pilot studies in most circumstances. PMID:25693632

  8. Environmental Focus in a Large National Sample of Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfredson, Gary D.

    This paper reviews research stimulated by Holland's (1997) theory of vocational personalities and work environments. It describes new research extending an examination of one part of the theory, environmental identity, to a large sample of school environments. The Organizational Focus Scale (G.D. Gottfredson and Holland, 1996b) was administrated…

  9. Comparison of large networks with sub-sampling strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Waqar; Wegner, Anatol E.; Gaunt, Robert E.; Deane, Charlotte M.; Reinert, Gesine

    2016-07-01

    Networks are routinely used to represent large data sets, making the comparison of networks a tantalizing research question in many areas. Techniques for such analysis vary from simply comparing network summary statistics to sophisticated but computationally expensive alignment-based approaches. Most existing methods either do not generalize well to different types of networks or do not provide a quantitative similarity score between networks. In contrast, alignment-free topology based network similarity scores empower us to analyse large sets of networks containing different types and sizes of data. Netdis is such a score that defines network similarity through the counts of small sub-graphs in the local neighbourhood of all nodes. Here, we introduce a sub-sampling procedure based on neighbourhoods which links naturally with the framework of network comparisons through local neighbourhood comparisons. Our theoretical arguments justify basing the Netdis statistic on a sample of similar-sized neighbourhoods. Our tests on empirical and synthetic datasets indicate that often only 10% of the neighbourhoods of a network suffice for optimal performance, leading to a drastic reduction in computational requirements. The sampling procedure is applicable even when only a small sample of the network is known, and thus provides a novel tool for network comparison of very large and potentially incomplete datasets.

  10. Comparison of large networks with sub-sampling strategies

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Waqar; Wegner, Anatol E.; Gaunt, Robert E.; Deane, Charlotte M.; Reinert, Gesine

    2016-01-01

    Networks are routinely used to represent large data sets, making the comparison of networks a tantalizing research question in many areas. Techniques for such analysis vary from simply comparing network summary statistics to sophisticated but computationally expensive alignment-based approaches. Most existing methods either do not generalize well to different types of networks or do not provide a quantitative similarity score between networks. In contrast, alignment-free topology based network similarity scores empower us to analyse large sets of networks containing different types and sizes of data. Netdis is such a score that defines network similarity through the counts of small sub-graphs in the local neighbourhood of all nodes. Here, we introduce a sub-sampling procedure based on neighbourhoods which links naturally with the framework of network comparisons through local neighbourhood comparisons. Our theoretical arguments justify basing the Netdis statistic on a sample of similar-sized neighbourhoods. Our tests on empirical and synthetic datasets indicate that often only 10% of the neighbourhoods of a network suffice for optimal performance, leading to a drastic reduction in computational requirements. The sampling procedure is applicable even when only a small sample of the network is known, and thus provides a novel tool for network comparison of very large and potentially incomplete datasets. PMID:27380992

  11. Randomized Sampling for Large Data Applications of SVM

    SciTech Connect

    Ferragut, Erik M; Laska, Jason A

    2012-01-01

    A trend in machine learning is the application of existing algorithms to ever-larger datasets. Support Vector Machines (SVM) have been shown to be very effective, but have been difficult to scale to large-data problems. Some approaches have sought to scale SVM training by approximating and parallelizing the underlying quadratic optimization problem. This paper pursues a different approach. Our algorithm, which we call Sampled SVM, uses an existing SVM training algorithm to create a new SVM training algorithm. It uses randomized data sampling to better extend SVMs to large data applications. Experiments on several datasets show that our method is faster than and comparably accurate to both the original SVM algorithm it is based on and the Cascade SVM, the leading data organization approach for SVMs in the literature. Further, we show that our approach is more amenable to parallelization than Cascade SVM.

  12. Internet cognitive testing of large samples needed in genetic research.

    PubMed

    Haworth, Claire M A; Harlaar, Nicole; Kovas, Yulia; Davis, Oliver S P; Oliver, Bonamy R; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E; Frances, Jane; Busfield, Patricia; McMillan, Andrew; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert

    2007-08-01

    Quantitative and molecular genetic research requires large samples to provide adequate statistical power, but it is expensive to test large samples in person, especially when the participants are widely distributed geographically. Increasing access to inexpensive and fast Internet connections makes it possible to test large samples efficiently and economically online. Reliability and validity of Internet testing for cognitive ability have not been previously reported; these issues are especially pertinent for testing children. We developed Internet versions of reading, language, mathematics and general cognitive ability tests and investigated their reliability and validity for 10- and 12-year-old children. We tested online more than 2500 pairs of 10-year-old twins and compared their scores to similar internet-based measures administered online to a subsample of the children when they were 12 years old (> 759 pairs). Within 3 months of the online testing at 12 years, we administered standard paper and pencil versions of the reading and mathematics tests in person to 30 children (15 pairs of twins). Scores on Internet-based measures at 10 and 12 years correlated .63 on average across the two years, suggesting substantial stability and high reliability. Correlations of about .80 between Internet measures and in-person testing suggest excellent validity. In addition, the comparison of the internet-based measures to ratings from teachers based on criteria from the UK National Curriculum suggests good concurrent validity for these tests. We conclude that Internet testing can be reliable and valid for collecting cognitive test data on large samples even for children as young as 10 years.

  13. Properties of large-scale melt-processed YBCO samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauss, S.; Elschner, S.; Bestgen, H.

    Magnetic bearings and superconducting permanent magnets are some of the first possible applications of bulk high Tc superconductors. Large samples were prepared by a new melt process starting from reacted YBCO 123 and 211 powders. The addition of PtO 2 to the mixture led to reduced 211 inclusion size and better homogeneity. Simultaneously the density of microcracks dividing the a- b basal plane was reduced. For testing the overall magnetic properties of these samples magnetization and levitation force measurements were performed. In comparison to samples without PtO 2 addition a strong increase in the magnetization M and the repulsion force from a magnet were observed. The maximum in the field dependence of M increased to more than 1000 G. According to the time dependence of the trapped field after a field cooling experiment an acceptable flux creep at 77 K for a long-term application was achieved.

  14. Graph animals, subgraph sampling, and motif search in large networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskerville, Kim; Grassberger, Peter; Paczuski, Maya

    2007-09-01

    We generalize a sampling algorithm for lattice animals (connected clusters on a regular lattice) to a Monte Carlo algorithm for “graph animals,” i.e., connected subgraphs in arbitrary networks. As with the algorithm in [N. Kashtan , Bioinformatics 20, 1746 (2004)], it provides a weighted sample, but the computation of the weights is much faster (linear in the size of subgraphs, instead of superexponential). This allows subgraphs with up to ten or more nodes to be sampled with very high statistics, from arbitrarily large networks. Using this together with a heuristic algorithm for rapidly classifying isomorphic graphs, we present results for two protein interaction networks obtained using the tandem affinity purification (TAP) method: one of Escherichia coli with 230 nodes and 695 links, and one for yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with roughly ten times more nodes and links. We find in both cases that most connected subgraphs are strong motifs ( Z scores >10 ) or antimotifs ( Z scores <-10 ) when the null model is the ensemble of networks with fixed degree sequence. Strong differences appear between the two networks, with dominant motifs in E. coli being (nearly) bipartite graphs and having many pairs of nodes that connect to the same neighbors, while dominant motifs in yeast tend towards completeness or contain large cliques. We also explore a number of methods that do not rely on measurements of Z scores or comparisons with null models. For instance, we discuss the influence of specific complexes like the 26S proteasome in yeast, where a small number of complexes dominate the k cores with large k and have a decisive effect on the strongest motifs with 6-8 nodes. We also present Zipf plots of counts versus rank. They show broad distributions that are not power laws, in contrast to the case when disconnected subgraphs are included.

  15. Spatial considerations during cryopreservation of a large volume sample.

    PubMed

    Kilbride, Peter; Lamb, Stephen; Milne, Stuart; Gibbons, Stephanie; Erro, Eloy; Bundy, James; Selden, Clare; Fuller, Barry; Morris, John

    2016-08-01

    There have been relatively few studies on the implications of the physical conditions experienced by cells during large volume (litres) cryopreservation - most studies have focused on the problem of cryopreservation of smaller volumes, typically up to 2 ml. This study explores the effects of ice growth by progressive solidification, generally seen during larger scale cryopreservation, on encapsulated liver hepatocyte spheroids, and it develops a method to reliably sample different regions across the frozen cores of samples experiencing progressive solidification. These issues are examined in the context of a Bioartificial Liver Device which requires cryopreservation of a 2 L volume in a strict cylindrical geometry for optimal clinical delivery. Progressive solidification cannot be avoided in this arrangement. In such a system optimal cryoprotectant concentrations and cooling rates are known. However, applying these parameters to a large volume is challenging due to the thermal mass and subsequent thermal lag. The specific impact of this to the cryopreservation outcome is required. Under conditions of progressive solidification, the spatial location of Encapsulated Liver Spheroids had a strong impact on post-thaw recovery. Cells in areas first and last to solidify demonstrated significantly impaired post-thaw function, whereas areas solidifying through the majority of the process exhibited higher post-thaw outcome. It was also found that samples where the ice thawed more rapidly had greater post-thaw viability 24 h post-thaw (75.7 ± 3.9% and 62.0 ± 7.2% respectively). These findings have implications for the cryopreservation of large volumes with a rigid shape and for the cryopreservation of a Bioartificial Liver Device. PMID:27256662

  16. Sampling Within k-Means Algorithm to Cluster Large Datasets

    SciTech Connect

    Bejarano, Jeremy; Bose, Koushiki; Brannan, Tyler; Thomas, Anita; Adragni, Kofi; Neerchal, Nagaraj; Ostrouchov, George

    2011-08-01

    Due to current data collection technology, our ability to gather data has surpassed our ability to analyze it. In particular, k-means, one of the simplest and fastest clustering algorithms, is ill-equipped to handle extremely large datasets on even the most powerful machines. Our new algorithm uses a sample from a dataset to decrease runtime by reducing the amount of data analyzed. We perform a simulation study to compare our sampling based k-means to the standard k-means algorithm by analyzing both the speed and accuracy of the two methods. Results show that our algorithm is significantly more efficient than the existing algorithm with comparable accuracy. Further work on this project might include a more comprehensive study both on more varied test datasets as well as on real weather datasets. This is especially important considering that this preliminary study was performed on rather tame datasets. Also, these datasets should analyze the performance of the algorithm on varied values of k. Lastly, this paper showed that the algorithm was accurate for relatively low sample sizes. We would like to analyze this further to see how accurate the algorithm is for even lower sample sizes. We could find the lowest sample sizes, by manipulating width and confidence level, for which the algorithm would be acceptably accurate. In order for our algorithm to be a success, it needs to meet two benchmarks: match the accuracy of the standard k-means algorithm and significantly reduce runtime. Both goals are accomplished for all six datasets analyzed. However, on datasets of three and four dimension, as the data becomes more difficult to cluster, both algorithms fail to obtain the correct classifications on some trials. Nevertheless, our algorithm consistently matches the performance of the standard algorithm while becoming remarkably more efficient with time. Therefore, we conclude that analysts can use our algorithm, expecting accurate results in considerably less time.

  17. The MWA GLEAM 4 Jy sample; a new large, bright radio source sample at 151 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, C. A.; Franzen, T. M. O.; Seymour, N.; White, S. V.; Murphy, T.; Salder, E. M.; Callingham, J. R.; Hunstead, R. W.; Hughes, J.; Wall, J. V.; Bell, M. E.; Dwarakanath, K. S.; For, B.-Q.; Gaensler, B. M.; Hancock, P. J.; Hindson, L.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kapinska, A. D.; Lenc, E.; McKinley, B.; Morgan, J.; Offringa, A. R.; Procopio, P.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Wayth, R. B.; Wu, C.; Zheng, Q.

    2015-10-01

    This paper outlines how the new GaLactic and Extragalactic All-sky MWA Survey (GLEAM, Wayth et al. 2015), observed by the Murchison Widefield Array covering the frequency range 72 - 231 MHz, allows identification of a new large, complete, sample of more than 2000 bright extragalactic radio sources selected at 151 MHz. With a flux density limit of 4 Jy this sample is significantly larger than the canonical fully-complete sample, 3CRR (Laing, Riley & Longair 1983). In analysing this small bright subset of the GLEAM survey we are also providing a first- user check of the GLEAM catalogue ahead of its public release (Hurley-Walker et al. in prep). Whilst significant work remains to fully characterise our new bright source sample, in time it will provide important constraints to evolutionary behaviour, across a wide redshift and intrinsic radio power range, as well as being highly complementary to results from targeted, small area surveys.

  18. Gene coexpression measures in large heterogeneous samples using count statistics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y X Rachel; Waterman, Michael S; Huang, Haiyan

    2014-11-18

    With the advent of high-throughput technologies making large-scale gene expression data readily available, developing appropriate computational tools to process these data and distill insights into systems biology has been an important part of the "big data" challenge. Gene coexpression is one of the earliest techniques developed that is still widely in use for functional annotation, pathway analysis, and, most importantly, the reconstruction of gene regulatory networks, based on gene expression data. However, most coexpression measures do not specifically account for local features in expression profiles. For example, it is very likely that the patterns of gene association may change or only exist in a subset of the samples, especially when the samples are pooled from a range of experiments. We propose two new gene coexpression statistics based on counting local patterns of gene expression ranks to take into account the potentially diverse nature of gene interactions. In particular, one of our statistics is designed for time-course data with local dependence structures, such as time series coupled over a subregion of the time domain. We provide asymptotic analysis of their distributions and power, and evaluate their performance against a wide range of existing coexpression measures on simulated and real data. Our new statistics are fast to compute, robust against outliers, and show comparable and often better general performance. PMID:25288767

  19. Gene coexpression measures in large heterogeneous samples using count statistics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y. X. Rachel; Waterman, Michael S.; Huang, Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of high-throughput technologies making large-scale gene expression data readily available, developing appropriate computational tools to process these data and distill insights into systems biology has been an important part of the “big data” challenge. Gene coexpression is one of the earliest techniques developed that is still widely in use for functional annotation, pathway analysis, and, most importantly, the reconstruction of gene regulatory networks, based on gene expression data. However, most coexpression measures do not specifically account for local features in expression profiles. For example, it is very likely that the patterns of gene association may change or only exist in a subset of the samples, especially when the samples are pooled from a range of experiments. We propose two new gene coexpression statistics based on counting local patterns of gene expression ranks to take into account the potentially diverse nature of gene interactions. In particular, one of our statistics is designed for time-course data with local dependence structures, such as time series coupled over a subregion of the time domain. We provide asymptotic analysis of their distributions and power, and evaluate their performance against a wide range of existing coexpression measures on simulated and real data. Our new statistics are fast to compute, robust against outliers, and show comparable and often better general performance. PMID:25288767

  20. Gene coexpression measures in large heterogeneous samples using count statistics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y X Rachel; Waterman, Michael S; Huang, Haiyan

    2014-11-18

    With the advent of high-throughput technologies making large-scale gene expression data readily available, developing appropriate computational tools to process these data and distill insights into systems biology has been an important part of the "big data" challenge. Gene coexpression is one of the earliest techniques developed that is still widely in use for functional annotation, pathway analysis, and, most importantly, the reconstruction of gene regulatory networks, based on gene expression data. However, most coexpression measures do not specifically account for local features in expression profiles. For example, it is very likely that the patterns of gene association may change or only exist in a subset of the samples, especially when the samples are pooled from a range of experiments. We propose two new gene coexpression statistics based on counting local patterns of gene expression ranks to take into account the potentially diverse nature of gene interactions. In particular, one of our statistics is designed for time-course data with local dependence structures, such as time series coupled over a subregion of the time domain. We provide asymptotic analysis of their distributions and power, and evaluate their performance against a wide range of existing coexpression measures on simulated and real data. Our new statistics are fast to compute, robust against outliers, and show comparable and often better general performance.

  1. Detecting large copy number variants using exome genotyping arrays in a large Swedish schizophrenia sample.

    PubMed

    Szatkiewicz, J P; Neale, B M; O'Dushlaine, C; Fromer, M; Goldstein, J I; Moran, J L; Chambert, K; Kähler, A; Magnusson, P K E; Hultman, C M; Sklar, P; Purcell, S; McCarroll, S A; Sullivan, P F

    2013-11-01

    Although copy number variants (CNVs) are important in genomic medicine, CNVs have not been systematically assessed for many complex traits. Several large rare CNVs increase risk for schizophrenia (SCZ) and autism and often demonstrate pleiotropic effects; however, their frequencies in the general population and other complex traits are unknown. Genotyping large numbers of samples is essential for progress. Large cohorts from many different diseases are being genotyped using exome-focused arrays designed to detect uncommon or rare protein-altering sequence variation. Although these arrays were not designed for CNV detection, the hybridization intensity data generated in each experiment could, in principle, be used for gene-focused CNV analysis. Our goal was to evaluate the extent to which CNVs can be detected using data from one particular exome array (the Illumina Human Exome Bead Chip). We genotyped 9100 Swedish subjects (3962 cases with SCZ and 5138 controls) using both standard genome-wide association study (GWAS) and exome arrays. In comparison with CNVs detected using GWAS arrays, we observed high sensitivity and specificity for detecting genic CNVs 400 kb including known pathogenic CNVs along with replicating the literature finding that cases with SCZ had greater enrichment for genic CNVs. Our data confirm the association of SCZ with 16p11.2 duplications and 22q11.2 deletions, and suggest a novel association with deletions at 11q12.2. Our results suggest the utility of exome-focused arrays in surveying large genic CNVs in very large samples; and thereby open the door for new opportunities such as conducting well-powered CNV assessment and comparisons between different diseases. The use of a single platform also minimizes potential confounding factors that could impact accurate detection. PMID:23938935

  2. Cosmological implications of a large complete quasar sample

    PubMed Central

    Segal, I. E.; Nicoll, J. F.

    1998-01-01

    Objective and reproducible determinations of the probabilistic significance levels of the deviations between theoretical cosmological prediction and direct model-independent observation are made for the Large Bright Quasar Sample [Foltz, C., Chaffee, F. H., Hewett, P. C., MacAlpine, G. M., Turnshek, D. A., et al. (1987) Astron. J. 94, 1423–1460]. The Expanding Universe model as represented by the Friedman–Lemaitre cosmology with parameters qo = 0, Λ = 0 denoted as C1 and chronometric cosmology (no relevant adjustable parameters) denoted as C2 are the cosmologies considered. The mean and the dispersion of the apparent magnitudes and the slope of the apparent magnitude–redshift relation are the directly observed statistics predicted. The C1 predictions of these cosmology-independent quantities are deviant by as much as 11σ from direct observation; none of the C2 predictions deviate by >2σ. The C1 deviations may be reconciled with theory by the hypothesis of quasar “evolution,” which, however, appears incapable of being substantiated through direct observation. The excellent quantitative agreement of the C1 deviations with those predicted by C2 without adjustable parameters for the results of analysis predicated on C1 indicates that the evolution hypothesis may well be a theoretical artifact. PMID:9560182

  3. Large sample hydrology in NZ: Spatial organisation in process diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, H. K.; Woods, R. A.; Clark, M. P.

    2013-12-01

    A key question in hydrology is how to predict the dominant runoff generation processes in any given catchment. This knowledge is vital for a range of applications in forecasting hydrological response and related processes such as nutrient and sediment transport. A step towards this goal is to map dominant processes in locations where data is available. In this presentation, we use data from 900 flow gauging stations and 680 rain gauges in New Zealand, to assess hydrological processes. These catchments range in character from rolling pasture, to alluvial plains, to temperate rainforest, to volcanic areas. By taking advantage of so many flow regimes, we harness the benefits of large-sample and comparative hydrology to study patterns and spatial organisation in runoff processes, and their relationship to physical catchment characteristics. The approach we use to assess hydrological processes is based on the concept of diagnostic signatures. Diagnostic signatures in hydrology are targeted analyses of measured data which allow us to investigate specific aspects of catchment response. We apply signatures which target the water balance, the flood response and the recession behaviour. We explore the organisation, similarity and diversity in hydrological processes across the New Zealand landscape, and how these patterns change with scale. We discuss our findings in the context of the strong hydro-climatic gradients in New Zealand, and consider the implications for hydrological model building on a national scale.

  4. Cosmological implications of a large complete quasar sample.

    PubMed

    Segal, I E; Nicoll, J F

    1998-04-28

    Objective and reproducible determinations of the probabilistic significance levels of the deviations between theoretical cosmological prediction and direct model-independent observation are made for the Large Bright Quasar Sample [Foltz, C., Chaffee, F. H., Hewett, P. C., MacAlpine, G. M., Turnshek, D. A., et al. (1987) Astron. J. 94, 1423-1460]. The Expanding Universe model as represented by the Friedman-Lemaitre cosmology with parameters qo = 0, Lambda = 0 denoted as C1 and chronometric cosmology (no relevant adjustable parameters) denoted as C2 are the cosmologies considered. The mean and the dispersion of the apparent magnitudes and the slope of the apparent magnitude-redshift relation are the directly observed statistics predicted. The C1 predictions of these cosmology-independent quantities are deviant by as much as 11sigma from direct observation; none of the C2 predictions deviate by >2sigma. The C1 deviations may be reconciled with theory by the hypothesis of quasar "evolution," which, however, appears incapable of being substantiated through direct observation. The excellent quantitative agreement of the C1 deviations with those predicted by C2 without adjustable parameters for the results of analysis predicated on C1 indicates that the evolution hypothesis may well be a theoretical artifact.

  5. Testing Large CICC in Short Sample Configuration and Predicting Their Performance in Large Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, N N

    2007-08-24

    It is well known that large Nb3Sn Cable-in-Conduit Conductors (CICC) do not always completely utilize current carrying capacity of the strands they are made of. The modern state of theory is not accurate enough to eliminate CICC full scale testing. Measuring properties of large CICC is not a simple task due to variety of parameters that need to be controlled, like temperature, exposure of all the strands to the peak magnetic field, mass flow and particular nonuniform current distribution. The paper presents some measurement issues of CICC testing in a short sample test facility, particularly, conditions for uniform current distribution and effect of twist pitches on the critical current.

  6. Crowdsourcing for large-scale mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) sampling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sampling a cosmopolitan mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species throughout its range is logistically challenging and extremely resource intensive. Mosquito control programmes and regional networks operate at the local level and often conduct sampling activities across much of North America. A method f...

  7. A large-scale cryoelectronic system for biological sample banking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirley, Stephen G.; Durst, Christopher H. P.; Fuchs, Christian C.; Zimmermann, Heiko; Ihmig, Frank R.

    2009-11-01

    We describe a polymorphic electronic infrastructure for managing biological samples stored over liquid nitrogen. As part of this system we have developed new cryocontainers and carrier plates attached to Flash memory chips to have a redundant and portable set of data at each sample. Our experimental investigations show that basic Flash operation and endurance is adequate for the application down to liquid nitrogen temperatures. This identification technology can provide the best sample identification, documentation and tracking that brings added value to each sample. The first application of the system is in a worldwide collaborative research towards the production of an AIDS vaccine. The functionality and versatility of the system can lead to an essential optimization of sample and data exchange for global clinical studies.

  8. Determination of k0-factors of short-lived nuclides and application of k0-NAA to selected trace elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, R.; Holzbecher, J.; Chatt, A.

    2012-07-01

    As part of the standardization program of k0-based NAA (k0-NAA) methods at the Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 reactor (DUSR) facility, the k0-factors of 15 analytically important short-lived nuclides (half-life <65 s) were determined with respect to gold (197Au). The elemental standards used were prepared mostly from their primary standard solutions. The samples were irradiated in both inner and outer pneumatic sites of the DUSR facility and counted using an HPGe-detector coupled to an ORTEC's digital gamma-ray spectrometer. The k0-factors determined using both inner and outer irradiation sites were found to be within ±5% with respect to either recommended or literature values in most cases. The Z-score values at 95% confidence level were found to be in the range of ±0.03-1.6. The k0-NAA method was applied to three different NIST standard reference materials (SRMs) and concentrations of six elements, namely Ag, F, Hf, Rb, Sc, and Se were determined using their short-lived nuclides. The concentrations of these elements were also determined by relative NAA method for comparison purposes.

  9. A large cost of female mate sampling in pronghorn.

    PubMed

    Byers, John A; Wiseman, Patryce A; Jones, Lee; Roffe, Thomas J

    2005-12-01

    We measured the energy cost of mate sampling by female pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), a species for which there are no apparent direct benefits of mate choice and for which the sampling tactic most closely resembles best-of-n or comparative Bayes. We used Global Positioning System collars to record the position of individuals at 10-min intervals during the 2 weeks preceding estrus in females that actively sampled and in females that did not sample. The difference in the 2-week energy costs of these two classes of females was 8,200 (+/-2,300) kJ, or roughly one-half of the energy cost of a single day. This value, expressed as the fraction of total yearly energy expenditure, is 59 times the value reported for a lekking bird. Our finding calls into question the common assumption in models of mate search that the cost of search is negligible as well as the common assumption that the cost of sampling must be small when there are only indirect benefits of female choice. PMID:16475083

  10. Sampling Versus Filtering in Large-Eddy Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debliquy, O.; Knaepen, B.; Carati, D.; Wray, A. A.

    2004-01-01

    A LES formalism in which the filter operator is replaced by a sampling operator is proposed. The unknown quantities that appear in the LES equations originate only from inadequate resolution (Discretization errors). The resulting viewpoint seems to make a link between finite difference approaches and finite element methods. Sampling operators are shown to commute with nonlinearities and to be purely projective. Moreover, their use allows an unambiguous definition of the LES numerical grid. The price to pay is that sampling never commutes with spatial derivatives and the commutation errors must be modeled. It is shown that models for the discretization errors may be treated using the dynamic procedure. Preliminary results, using the Smagorinsky model, are very encouraging.

  11. Transcriptomics of shading-induced and NAA-induced abscission in apple (Malus domestica) reveals a shared pathway involving reduced photosynthesis, alterations in carbohydrate transport and signaling and hormone crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), a synthetic auxin analogue, is widely used as an effective thinner in apple orchards. When applied shortly after fruit set, some fruit abscise leading to improved fruit size and quality. However, the thinning results of NAA are inconsistent and difficult to predict, sometimes leading to excess fruit drop or insufficient thinning which are costly to growers. This unpredictability reflects our incomplete understanding of the mode of action of NAA in promoting fruit abscission. Results Here we compared NAA-induced fruit drop with that caused by shading via gene expression profiling performed on the fruit abscission zone (FAZ), sampled 1, 3, and 5 d after treatment. More than 700 genes with significant changes in transcript abundance were identified from NAA-treated FAZ. Combining results from both treatments, we found that genes associated with photosynthesis, cell cycle and membrane/cellular trafficking were downregulated. On the other hand, there was up-regulation of genes related to ABA, ethylene biosynthesis and signaling, cell wall degradation and programmed cell death. While the differentially expressed gene sets for NAA and shading treatments shared only 25% identity, NAA and shading showed substantial similarity with respect to the classes of genes identified. Specifically, photosynthesis, carbon utilization, ABA and ethylene pathways were affected in both NAA- and shading-induced young fruit abscission. Moreover, we found that NAA, similar to shading, directly interfered with leaf photosynthesis by repressing photosystem II (PSII) efficiency within 10 minutes of treatment, suggesting that NAA and shading induced some of the same early responses due to reduced photosynthesis, which concurred with changes in hormone signaling pathways and triggered fruit abscission. Conclusions This study provides an extensive transcriptome study and a good platform for further investigation of possible regulatory genes involved in the

  12. Efficient Coalescent Simulation and Genealogical Analysis for Large Sample Sizes

    PubMed Central

    Kelleher, Jerome; Etheridge, Alison M; McVean, Gilean

    2016-01-01

    A central challenge in the analysis of genetic variation is to provide realistic genome simulation across millions of samples. Present day coalescent simulations do not scale well, or use approximations that fail to capture important long-range linkage properties. Analysing the results of simulations also presents a substantial challenge, as current methods to store genealogies consume a great deal of space, are slow to parse and do not take advantage of shared structure in correlated trees. We solve these problems by introducing sparse trees and coalescence records as the key units of genealogical analysis. Using these tools, exact simulation of the coalescent with recombination for chromosome-sized regions over hundreds of thousands of samples is possible, and substantially faster than present-day approximate methods. We can also analyse the results orders of magnitude more quickly than with existing methods. PMID:27145223

  13. The Lithium Abundances of a Large Sample of Red Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. J.; Tan, K. F.; Wang, L.; Zhao, G.; Sato, Bun'ei; Takeda, Y.; Li, H. N.

    2014-04-01

    The lithium abundances for 378 G/K giants are derived with non-local thermodynamic equilibrium correction considered. Among these are 23 stars that host planetary systems. The lithium abundance is investigated, as a function of metallicity, effective temperature, and rotational velocity, as well as the impact of a giant planet on G/K giants. The results show that the lithium abundance is a function of metallicity and effective temperature. The lithium abundance has no correlation with rotational velocity at v sin i < 10 km s-1. Giants with planets present lower lithium abundance and slow rotational velocity (v sin i < 4 km s-1). Our sample includes three Li-rich G/K giants, 36 Li-normal stars, and 339 Li-depleted stars. The fraction of Li-rich stars in this sample agrees with the general rate of less than 1% in the literature, and the stars that show normal amounts of Li are supposed to possess the same abundance at the current interstellar medium. For the Li-depleted giants, Li-deficiency may have already taken place at the main sequence stage for many intermediate mass (1.5-5 M ⊙) G/K giants. Finally, we present the lithium abundance and kinematic parameters for an enlarged sample of 565 giants using a compilation of the literature, and confirm that the lithium abundance is a function of metallicity and effective temperature. With the enlarged sample, we investigate the differences between the lithium abundance in thin-/thick-disk giants, which indicate that the lithium abundance in thick-disk giants is more depleted than that in thin-disk giants.

  14. The lithium abundances of a large sample of red giants

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y. J.; Tan, K. F.; Wang, L.; Zhao, G.; Li, H. N.; Sato, Bun'ei; Takeda, Y. E-mail: gzhao@nao.cas.cn

    2014-04-20

    The lithium abundances for 378 G/K giants are derived with non-local thermodynamic equilibrium correction considered. Among these are 23 stars that host planetary systems. The lithium abundance is investigated, as a function of metallicity, effective temperature, and rotational velocity, as well as the impact of a giant planet on G/K giants. The results show that the lithium abundance is a function of metallicity and effective temperature. The lithium abundance has no correlation with rotational velocity at v sin i < 10 km s{sup –1}. Giants with planets present lower lithium abundance and slow rotational velocity (v sin i < 4 km s{sup –1}). Our sample includes three Li-rich G/K giants, 36 Li-normal stars, and 339 Li-depleted stars. The fraction of Li-rich stars in this sample agrees with the general rate of less than 1% in the literature, and the stars that show normal amounts of Li are supposed to possess the same abundance at the current interstellar medium. For the Li-depleted giants, Li-deficiency may have already taken place at the main sequence stage for many intermediate mass (1.5-5 M {sub ☉}) G/K giants. Finally, we present the lithium abundance and kinematic parameters for an enlarged sample of 565 giants using a compilation of the literature, and confirm that the lithium abundance is a function of metallicity and effective temperature. With the enlarged sample, we investigate the differences between the lithium abundance in thin-/thick-disk giants, which indicate that the lithium abundance in thick-disk giants is more depleted than that in thin-disk giants.

  15. Neutral hydrogen observations of a large sample of galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, J.R.; Tully, R.B.

    1981-10-01

    A sample of 1787 nearby galaxies has been observed in the 21 cm line with the NRAO 91 m and 43 m telescopes and the Bonn 100 m telescope. A total of 1171 galaxies were detected. The radio observations provide an accurate heliocentric velocity, an H I flux, and a line profile width for each detection. Literature optical magnitudes, dimensions, and morphological types are reduced to common systems and tabulated. Intrinsic luminosities, dimensions, H I masses, and total masses are determined, assuming distances derived from redshifts.

  16. Concentration of Ca in blood of amateur runners using NAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, L.; Zamboni, C. B.; Metairon, S.; Nunes, L. A. S.; Lourenço, T. F.; Macedo, D. V.

    2013-05-01

    In this study the Ca levels were determined in amateur runners blood at LABEX (Laboratório de Bioquímica do Exercício - UNICAMP, Brazil), using Neutron Activation Analyses (NAA) technique. The range established at rest (162 - 410 mgL-1) when compared with control group (51 - 439 mgL-1) suggests that there is a dependency of these limits in the function of the adopted physical training.

  17. Sodium Analysis in Whole Blood of Athletes Using NAA

    SciTech Connect

    Kovacs, Luciana; Zamboni, Cibele B.

    2010-08-04

    In this investigation the sodium levels in blood were analyzed in athletes submitted to constant load exercise at treadmill (LABEX and UNICAMP) by NAA. These data were compared with the rest condition (before starting the exercise program) as well as with the sodium levels of the healthy group (control group) select from Blood Banks. The results showed alterations in sodium levels of the athletes during the exercise training, mainly increase, suggesting the necessity of its evaluation during physical activities.

  18. Concentration of Ca in blood of amateur runners using NAA

    SciTech Connect

    Kovacs, L.; Zamboni, C. B.; Metairon, S.; Nunes, L. A. S.; Lourenco, T. F.; Macedo, D. V.

    2013-05-06

    In this study the Ca levels were determined in amateur runners blood at LABEX (Laboratorio de Bioquimica do Exercicio - UNICAMP, Brazil), using Neutron Activation Analyses (NAA) technique. The range established at rest (162 - 410 mgL{sup -1}) when compared with control group (51 - 439 mgL{sup -1}) suggests that there is a dependency of these limits in the function of the adopted physical training.

  19. Sodium Analysis in Whole Blood of Athletes Using NAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, Luciana; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Nunes, Lázaro A. S.; Macedo, Denise V.

    2010-08-01

    In this investigation the sodium levels in blood were analyzed in athletes submitted to constant load exercise at treadmill (LABEX and UNICAMP) by NAA. These data were compared with the rest condition (before starting the exercise program) as well as with the sodium levels of the healthy group (control group) select from Blood Banks. The results showed alterations in sodium levels of the athletes during the exercise training, mainly increase, suggesting the necessity of its evaluation during physical activities.

  20. Measuring Empathizing and Systemizing with a Large US Sample

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Daniel B.; Skagerberg, Elin M.

    2012-01-01

    A large number of people completed one of two versions of the empathizing quotient (EQ) and systemizing quotient (SQ). One version had the negatively phrased items all re-worded. These re-worded items were answered more rapidly than the original items, and for the SQ produced a more reliable scale. Subjects gave self-assessments of empathizing and systemizing, and these were moderately correlated, r≈.6, with their respective quotients. Females had on average higher empathizing scores and males had on average higher systemizing scores. If a female-male pair was chosen at random, the female would have the higher empathizing score about two-thirds of the time, and the males would have the higher systemizing score about two-thirds of the time. PMID:22384049

  1. Preparation of zeolite NaA for CO2 capture from nickel laterite residue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Tao; Liu, Li-ying; Xiao, Penny; Che, Shuai; Wang, He-ming

    2014-08-01

    Zeolite NaA was successfully prepared from nickel laterite residue for the first time via a fusion-hydrothermal procedure. The structure and morphology of the as-synthesized zeolite NaA were characterized with a range of experimental techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. It was revealed that the structures of the produced zeolites were dependent on the molar ratios of the reactants and hydrothermal reaction conditions, so the synthesis conditions were optimized to obtain pure zeolite NaA. Adsorption of nitrogen and carbon dioxide on the prepared zeolite NaA was also measured and analyzed. The results showed that zeolite NaA could be prepared with reasonable purity, it had physicochemical properties comparable with zeolite NaA made from other methods, and it had excellent gas adsorption properties, thus demonstrating that zeolite NaA could be prepared from nickel laterite residue.

  2. Thin Porous Metal Sheet-Supported NaA Zeolite Membrane for Water/Ethanol Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jian; Liu, Wei

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports preparation and separation testing results of water-selective zeolite membrane, such as NaA (or 4A-type), supported on a robust, porous metal sheet of 50um thickness. The thin sheet support is of large potential for development of a low-cost, inorganic membrane module of high surface area packing density. The porous Ni alloy sheet of micrometer or sub-micrometer mean pore size, which was prepared by a proprietary process, is used to evaluate different zeolite membrane deposition methods and conditions. The membranes are characterized by SEM, XRD and water/ethanol separation tests. Quality NaA zeolite membrane at thickness <2um is obtained with the secondary hydrothermal growth method. This membrane shows water/ethanol separation factor of >10,000 and water permeation flux of about 4 kg/(m2•h) at 75ºC with a feed of 10wt% water in ethanol. The membrane is also demonstrated with good stability in 66-hour continuous testing at 75ºC and 90ºC.

  3. Application of parametric and non-parametric statistics to sounding rocket dispersion including large sample and small sample theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgarvey, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    Analytical methods for obtaining large and small samples to be used in sounding rocket dispersion statistics are described. When the distribution of the parent population is assumed known, a method is called parametric. When no assumption is made about the parent population, the method is called nonparametric. Parametric and nonparametric methods are given for both large and small samples. The assumed distribution for the parametric case will be normal and it is shown that sample nonparametric theory is easier to apply in many cases, giving essentially the same results as parametric theory. The method is applied to the dispersion of NASA sounding rockets from 1959 to 1974.

  4. Analysis of Cl and Na in Hyperimmune Sera by NAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, T. S.; Zamboni, C. B.; Marcelino, J. R.

    2011-08-01

    The Cl and Na concentration values in four types of hyperimmune sera (anti-Bothrops, anti-Diphtheria, anti-Rabies and anti-Tetanus) used for immunological therapy were determined using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). These data were compatible with the specifications established by the Word Health Organization (WHO-OMS) and with the Brazilian Official Pharmacopea (Pharmaceutical Code Official of the Country). These data are an important support for quality control of hyperimmune sera production at Butantan Institute (São Paulo city, Brazil), responsible for supplying the Brazilian market.

  5. The biological functions of Naa10 — From amino-terminal acetylation to human disease

    PubMed Central

    Dörfel, Max J.; Lyon, Gholson J.

    2015-01-01

    N-terminal acetylation (NTA) is one of the most abundant protein modifications known, and the N-terminal acetyltransferase (NAT) machinery is conserved throughout all Eukarya. Over the past 50 years, the function of NTA has begun to be slowly elucidated, and this includes the modulation of protein–protein interaction, protein-stability, protein function, and protein targeting to specific cellular compartments. Many of these functions have been studied in the context of Naa10/NatA; however, we are only starting to really understand the full complexity of this picture. Roughly, about 40% of all human proteins are substrates of Naa10 and the impact of this modification has only been studied for a few of them. Besides acting as a NAT in the NatA complex, recently other functions have been linked to Naa10, including post-translational NTA, lysine acetylation, and NAT/KAT-independent functions. Also, recent publications have linked mutations in Naa10 to various diseases, emphasizing the importance of Naa10 research in humans. The recent design and synthesis of the first bisubstrate inhibitors that potently and selectively inhibit the NatA/Naa10 complex, monomeric Naa10, and hNaa50 further increases the toolset to analyze Naa10 function. PMID:25987439

  6. Influence of NaA Zeolite Crystal Expansion/Contraction on Zeolite Membrane Separations

    SciTech Connect

    Sorenson, Stephanie G; Payzant, E Andrew; Gibbons, Will T; Soydas, Belma; Kita, Hidetoshi; Noble, Richard D; Falconer, John L.

    2011-01-01

    In-situ powder XRD measurements showed that the NaA zeolite unit cell contracts and expands upon adsorption, and these changes in zeolite crystal size correlate with permeation changes through NaA zeolite membranes. These membranes had high pervaporation selectivities, even though gas permeation was mainly through defects, as indicated by Knudsen selectivities for gases. At 300 K and a thermodynamic activity of 0.03, water contracted the NaA crystals by 0.22 vol%, and this contraction increased the helium flux through two NaA membranes by approximately 80%. Crystal contraction also increased the fluxes of i-butane during vapor permeation and i-propanol (IPA) during pervaporation (~ 0.03 wt% water). At activities above 0.07, water expanded NaA crystals and correspondingly decreased the membrane fluxes of helium, i-butane, and IPA. Similarly, methanol contracted NaA crystals by 0.05 vol% at an activity of 0.02, and this contraction slightly increased the helium and i-butane fluxes through a NaA membrane. Above an activity of 0.06, methanol expanded the crystals, and the fluxes of helium and i-butane through a NaA membrane decreased. The adsorbate-induced changes explain some pervaporation behavior reported by others, and they indicate that crystal expansion and contraction may increase or decrease zeolite NaA membrane selectivity by changing the defect sizes.

  7. Factor Structure and Correlates of the Dissociative Experiences Scale in a Large Offender Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Mark A.; Poythress, Norman G.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Douglas, Kevin S.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the psychometric properties, factor structure, and construct validity of the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) in a large offender sample (N = 1,515). Although the DES is widely used with community and clinical samples, minimal work has examined offender samples. Participants were administered self-report and interview…

  8. Reversible emission evolution from Ag activated zeolite Na-A upon dehydration/hydration

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Hui E-mail: fujii@eedept.kobe-u.ac.jp; Imakita, Kenji; Fujii, Minoru E-mail: fujii@eedept.kobe-u.ac.jp

    2014-11-24

    Reversible emission evolution of thermally treated Ag activated zeolite Na-A upon dehydration/hydration in vacuum/water vapor was observed. The phenomenon was observed even for the sample with low Ag{sup +}-Na{sup +} exchanging (8.3%), indicating that the emission from Ag activated zeolites may not come from Ag clusters while from the surrounding coordinated Ag{sup +} ions or Ag{sup 0} atoms. It was disclosed that the characteristic yellow-green emission at ∼560 ± 15 nm is strongly associated with the coordinating water molecules to the Ag{sup +} ions or Ag{sup 0} atoms, which is clear evidence for that the efficient emission from Ag activated zeolites may not originate from the quantum confinement effect.

  9. Sampling benthic macroinvertebrates in a large flood-plain river: Considerations of study design, sample size, and cost

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartsch, L.A.; Richardson, W.B.; Naimo, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    Estimation of benthic macroinvertebrate populations over large spatial scales is difficult due to the high variability in abundance and the cost of sample processing and taxonomic analysis. To determine a cost-effective, statistically powerful sample design, we conducted an exploratory study of the spatial variation of benthic macroinvertebrates in a 37 km reach of the Upper Mississippi River. We sampled benthos at 36 sites within each of two strata, contiguous backwater and channel border. Three standard ponar (525 cm(2)) grab samples were obtained at each site ('Original Design'). Analysis of variance and sampling cost of strata-wide estimates for abundance of Oligochaeta, Chironomidae, and total invertebrates showed that only one ponar sample per site ('Reduced Design') yielded essentially the same abundance estimates as the Original Design, while reducing the overall cost by 63%. A posteriori statistical power analysis (alpha = 0.05, beta = 0.20) on the Reduced Design estimated that at least 18 sites per stratum were needed to detect differences in mean abundance between contiguous backwater and channel border areas for Oligochaeta, Chironomidae, and total invertebrates. Statistical power was nearly identical for the three taxonomic groups. The abundances of several taxa of concern (e.g., Hexagenia mayflies and Musculium fingernail clams) were too spatially variable to estimate power with our method. Resampling simulations indicated that to achieve adequate sampling precision for Oligochaeta, at least 36 sample sites per stratum would be required, whereas a sampling precision of 0.2 would not be attained with any sample size for Hexagenia in channel border areas, or Chironomidae and Musculium in both strata given the variance structure of the original samples. Community-wide diversity indices (Brillouin and 1-Simpsons) increased as sample area per site increased. The backwater area had higher diversity than the channel border area. The number of sampling sites

  10. Recrystallization of white slime (raw material for obtained Na-A zeolite)

    SciTech Connect

    Ganbarov, D.M.

    1986-03-01

    The authors show the possibility of using white slime (hydroxide cancrinite) as the starting material for obtaining Na-A zeolite. The effect of temperature, aging process, and structure of the starting material on the kinetics of Na-A zeolite crystallization is studied.

  11. Automated sample treatment with the injection of large sample volumes for the determination of contaminants and metabolites in urine.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gonzalo, Encarnación; García-Gómez, Diego; Herrero-Hernández, Eliseo; Carabias-Martínez, Rita

    2010-08-01

    This work reports the development of a simple and automated method for the quantitative determination of several contaminants (triazine, phenylurea, and phenoxyacid herbicides; carbamate insecticides and industrial chemicals) and their metabolites in human urine with a simplified sample treatment. The method is based on the online coupling of an extraction column with RP LC separation-UV detection; this coupling enabled fast online cleanup of the urine samples, efficiently eliminating matrix components and providing appropriate selectivity for the determination of such compounds. The variables affecting the automated method were optimized: sorbent type, washing solvent and time, and the sample volume injected. The optimized sample treatment reported here allowed the direct injection of large volumes of urine (1500 microL) into the online system as a way to improve the sensitivity of the method; limits of detection in the 1-10 ng/mL range were achieved for an injected volume of 1500 microL of urine, precision being 10% or better at a concentration level of 20 ng/mL. The online configuration proposed has advantages such as automation (all the steps involved in the analysis - injection of the urine, sample cleanup, analyte enrichment, separation and detection - are carried out automatically) with high precision and sensitivity, reducing manual sample manipulation to freezing and sample filtration.

  12. PORTABLE ULTRAFILTRATION DEVICE FOR CONCENTRATION PATHOGENS FROM LARGE VOUME SAMPLES OF DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Symposium Paper in proceedings of Water Security Congress, Washington, D.C., 12 Sep 2006 - Development and testing of several potential protocols utilizing ultrafiltration to collect and concentrate microorganisms from large volume water samples.

  13. Eclipsing binary stars in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds from the MACHO project: The Sample

    SciTech Connect

    Faccioli, L; Alcock, C; Cook, K; Prochter, G; Protopapas, P; Syphers, D

    2007-03-29

    We present a new sample of 4634 eclipsing binary stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), expanding on a previous sample of 611 objects and a new sample of 1509 eclipsing binary stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), that were identified in the light curve database of the MACHO project. We perform a cross correlation with the OGLE-II LMC sample, finding 1236 matches. A cross correlation with the OGLE-II SMC sample finds 698 matches. We then compare the LMC subsamples corresponding to center and the periphery of the LMC and find only minor differences between the two populations. These samples are sufficiently large and complete that statistical studies of the binary star populations are possible.

  14. Large Sample Confidence Limits for Goodman and Kruskal's Proportional Prediction Measure TAU-b

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Kenneth J.; Mielke, Paul W.

    1976-01-01

    A Fortran Extended program which computes Goodman and Kruskal's Tau-b, its asymmetrical counterpart, Tau-a, and three sets of confidence limits for each coefficient under full multinomial and proportional stratified sampling is presented. A correction of an error in the calculation of the large sample standard error of Tau-b is discussed.…

  15. A Test of Spearman's ''Law of Diminishing Returns'' in Two Large Samples of Danish Military Draftees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmann, Peter; Teasdale, Thomas W.

    2004-01-01

    Spearman's ''Law of Diminishing Returns'' (SLODR) predicts that "g" saturation for cognitive tests will be lower at high ability levels than at low ability levels. This hypothesis was tested in two large samples of Danish military draftees (n=33,833 and n=25,020). The subjects were representative samples of the young adult male population and 95%…

  16. Analysis of Large Data Logs: An Application of Poisson Sampling on Excite Web Queries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmutlu, H. Cenk; Spink, Amanda; Ozmutlu, Seda

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the need for tools that allow effective analysis of search engine queries to provide a greater understanding of Web users' information seeking behavior and describes a study that developed an effective strategy for selecting samples from large-scale data sets. Reports on Poisson sampling with data logs from the Excite search engine.…

  17. Large Sample Hydrology : Building an international sample of watersheds to improve consistency and robustness of model evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathevet, Thibault; Kumar, Rohini; Gupta, Hoshin; Vaze, Jai; Andréassian, Vazken

    2015-04-01

    This poster introduces the aims of the Large Sample Hydrology working group (LSH-WG) of the new IAHS Panta Rhei decade (2013-2022). The aim of the LSH-WG is to promote large sample hydrology, as discussed by Gupta et al. (2014) and to invite the community to collaborate on building and sharing a comprehensive and representative world-wide sample of watershed datasets. By doing so, LSH will allow the community to work towards 'hydrological consistency' (Martinez and Gupta, 2011) as a basis for hydrologic model development and evaluation, thereby increasing robustness of the model evaluation process. Classical model evaluation metrics based on 'robust statistics' are needed, but clearly not sufficient: multi-criteria assessments based on multiple hydrological signatures can help to better characterize hydrological functioning. Further, large-sample data sets can greatly facilitate: (i) improved understanding through rigorous testing and comparison of competing model hypothesis and structures, (ii) improved robustness of generalizations through statistical analyses that minimize the influence of outliers and case-specific studies, (iii) classification, regionalization and model transfer across a broad diversity of hydrometeorological contexts, and (iv) estimation of predictive uncertainties at a location and across locations (Mathevet et al., 2006; Andréassian et al., 2009; Gupta et al., 2014) References Andréassian, V., Perrin, C., Berthet, L., Le Moine, N., Lerat, J., Loumagne, C., Oudin, L., Mathevet, T., Ramos, M. H., and Valéry, A.: Crash tests for a standardized evaluation of hydrological models, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 1757-1764, 2009. Gupta, H. V., Perrin, C., Blöschl, G., Montanari, A., Kumar, R., Clark, M., and Andréassian, V.: Large-sample hydrology: a need to balance depth with breadth, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 463-477, doi:10.5194/hess-18-463-2014, 2014. Martinez, G. F., and H. V.Gupta (2011), Hydrologic consistency as a basis for

  18. 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility decontamination, sampling, and analysis plan

    SciTech Connect

    Knaus, Z.C.

    1995-06-12

    This is the decontamination, sampling, and analysis plan for the closure activities at the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility at Hanford Reservation. This document supports the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility Closure Plan, DOE-RL-90-25. The 105-DR LSFF, which operated from about 1972 to 1986, was a research laboratory that occupied the former ventilation supply room on the southwest side of the 105-DR Reactor facility in the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site. The LSFF was established to investigate fire fighting and safety associated with alkali metal fires in the liquid metal fast breeder reactor facilities. The decontamination, sampling, and analysis plan identifies the decontamination procedures, sampling locations, any special handling requirements, quality control samples, required chemical analysis, and data validation needed to meet the requirements of the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility Closure Plan in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  19. A novel computational approach towards the certification of large-scale boson sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Joonsuk

    Recent proposals of boson sampling and the corresponding experiments exhibit the possible disproof of extended Church-Turning Thesis. Furthermore, the application of boson sampling to molecular computation has been suggested theoretically. Till now, however, only small-scale experiments with a few photons have been successfully performed. The boson sampling experiments of 20-30 photons are expected to reveal the computational superiority of the quantum device. A novel theoretical proposal for the large-scale boson sampling using microwave photons is highly promising due to the deterministic photon sources and the scalability. Therefore, the certification protocol of large-scale boson sampling experiments should be presented to complete the exciting story. We propose, in this presentation, a computational protocol towards the certification of large-scale boson sampling. The correlations of paired photon modes and the time-dependent characteristic functional with its Fourier component can show the fingerprint of large-scale boson sampling. This work was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology(NRF-2015R1A6A3A04059773), the ICT R&D program of MSIP/IITP [2015-019, Fundamental Research Toward Secure Quantum Communication] and Mueunjae Institute for Chemistry (MIC) postdoctoral fellowship.

  20. RAPID FUSION METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF PLUTONIUM ISOTOPES IN LARGE RICE SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.

    2013-03-01

    A new rapid fusion method for the determination of plutonium in large rice samples has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used to determine very low levels of plutonium isotopes in rice. The recent accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in March, 2011 reinforces the need to have rapid, reliable radiochemical analyses for radionuclides in environmental and food samples. Public concern regarding foods, particularly foods such as rice in Japan, highlights the need for analytical techniques that will allow very large sample aliquots of rice to be used for analysis so that very low levels of plutonium isotopes may be detected. The new method to determine plutonium isotopes in large rice samples utilizes a furnace ashing step, a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method, a lanthanum fluoride matrix removal step, and a column separation process with TEVA Resin cartridges. The method can be applied to rice sample aliquots as large as 5 kg. Plutonium isotopes can be determined using alpha spectrometry or inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. The rapid fusion technique is a rugged sample digestion method that ensures that any refractory plutonium particles are effectively digested. The MDA for a 5 kg rice sample using alpha spectrometry is 7E-5 mBq g{sup -1}. The method can easily be adapted for use by ICP-MS to allow detection of plutonium isotopic ratios.

  1. The N-terminal acetyltransferase Naa10 is essential for zebrafish development

    PubMed Central

    Ree, Rasmus; Myklebust, Line M.; Thiel, Puja; Foyn, Håvard; Fladmark, Kari E.; Arnesen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    N-terminal acetylation, catalysed by N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs), is among the most common protein modifications in eukaryotes and involves the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to the α-amino group of the first amino acid. Functions of N-terminal acetylation include protein degradation and sub-cellular targeting. Recent findings in humans indicate that a dysfunctional Nα-acetyltransferase (Naa) 10, the catalytic subunit of NatA, the major NAT, is associated with lethality during infancy. In the present study, we identified the Danio rerio orthologue zebrafish Naa 10 (zNaa10). In vitro N-terminal acetylation assays revealed that zNaa10 has NAT activity with substrate specificity highly similar to that of human Naa10. Spatiotemporal expression pattern was determined by in situ hybridization, showing ubiquitous expression with especially strong staining in brain and eye. By morpholino-mediated knockdown, we demonstrated that naa10 morphants displayed increased lethality, growth retardation and developmental abnormalities like bent axis, abnormal eyes and bent tails. In conclusion, we identified the zebrafish Naa10 orthologue and revealed that it is essential for normal development and viability of zebrafish. PMID:26251455

  2. Modern sampled-data control theory: Design of the Large Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, B. C.; Singh, G.

    1974-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine the effect of varying the sampling period on the dynamic response of the sampled-data Large Space Telescope (LST) system. A range of sampling periods was recommended based on the criterion that self-sustained oscillations are to be avoided in the LST system. The step responses of the LST system were then investigated when various sampling periods are used. For small sampling periods, the dynamic behavior of the sampled-data system is very similar to that of the continuous-data system. When T is large (but less than 0.25 sec) the overshoot of the step response of the sampled-data becomes greater. However, the dynamic behavior of the sampled-data system may be improved by redesigning the controller. It appears that a sampling period as high as 0.1 second is feasible for the LST system. However, it should be noted that the conclusions are obtained with the existing system model. Other practical considerations such as noise, coupling effects and quantization errors, may restrict the sampling period to a lower value.

  3. Smart sampling and incremental function learning for very large high dimensional data.

    PubMed

    Loyola R, Diego G; Pedergnana, Mattia; Gimeno García, Sebastián

    2016-06-01

    Very large high dimensional data are common nowadays and they impose new challenges to data-driven and data-intensive algorithms. Computational Intelligence techniques have the potential to provide powerful tools for addressing these challenges, but the current literature focuses mainly on handling scalability issues related to data volume in terms of sample size for classification tasks. This work presents a systematic and comprehensive approach for optimally handling regression tasks with very large high dimensional data. The proposed approach is based on smart sampling techniques for minimizing the number of samples to be generated by using an iterative approach that creates new sample sets until the input and output space of the function to be approximated are optimally covered. Incremental function learning takes place in each sampling iteration, the new samples are used to fine tune the regression results of the function learning algorithm. The accuracy and confidence levels of the resulting approximation function are assessed using the probably approximately correct computation framework. The smart sampling and incremental function learning techniques can be easily used in practical applications and scale well in the case of extremely large data. The feasibility and good results of the proposed techniques are demonstrated using benchmark functions as well as functions from real-world problems.

  4. Big data and large sample size: a cautionary note on the potential for bias.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Robert M; Chambers, David A; Glasgow, Russell E

    2014-08-01

    A number of commentaries have suggested that large studies are more reliable than smaller studies and there is a growing interest in the analysis of "big data" that integrates information from many thousands of persons and/or different data sources. We consider a variety of biases that are likely in the era of big data, including sampling error, measurement error, multiple comparisons errors, aggregation error, and errors associated with the systematic exclusion of information. Using examples from epidemiology, health services research, studies on determinants of health, and clinical trials, we conclude that it is necessary to exercise greater caution to be sure that big sample size does not lead to big inferential errors. Despite the advantages of big studies, large sample size can magnify the bias associated with error resulting from sampling or study design.

  5. RAPID SEPARATION METHOD FOR 237NP AND PU ISOTOPES IN LARGE SOIL SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.; Culligan, B.; Noyes, G.

    2010-07-26

    A new rapid method for the determination of {sup 237}Np and Pu isotopes in soil and sediment samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used for large soil samples. The new soil method utilizes an acid leaching method, iron/titanium hydroxide precipitation, a lanthanum fluoride soil matrix removal step, and a rapid column separation process with TEVA Resin. The large soil matrix is removed easily and rapidly using this two simple precipitations with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time.

  6. Contemporary models of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: An evaluation with a large clinical sample.

    PubMed

    De Nadai, Alessandro; Nagpal, Prianka S; Piacentini, John; Peris, Tara S; Geffken, Gary R; Geller, Daniel A; Murphy, Tanya K; Storch, Eric A; Lewin, Adam B

    2015-09-30

    We evaluated the construct validity of the Child Yale-Brofwn Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CYBOCS) in a large clinical sample (N=730) using confirmatory factor analysis. Results found inadequate fit for a priori models, though a model accounting for overlapping item content displayed good fit. Parallel obsessions/compulsions items may provide largely redundant information on the CYBOCS. Findings suggest modifying the CYBOCS to reduce burden on researchers, patients, and clinicians, and to more accurately measure pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

  7. Uncertainty of the sample size reduction step in pesticide residue analysis of large-sized crops.

    PubMed

    Omeroglu, P Yolci; Ambrus, Á; Boyacioglu, D; Majzik, E Solymosne

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the uncertainty of the sample size reduction step, each unit in laboratory samples of papaya and cucumber was cut into four segments in longitudinal directions and two opposite segments were selected for further homogenisation while the other two were discarded. Jackfruit was cut into six segments in longitudinal directions, and all segments were kept for further analysis. To determine the pesticide residue concentrations in each segment, they were individually homogenised and analysed by chromatographic methods. One segment from each unit of the laboratory sample was drawn randomly to obtain 50 theoretical sub-samples with an MS Office Excel macro. The residue concentrations in a sub-sample were calculated from the weight of segments and the corresponding residue concentration. The coefficient of variation calculated from the residue concentrations of 50 sub-samples gave the relative uncertainty resulting from the sample size reduction step. The sample size reduction step, which is performed by selecting one longitudinal segment from each unit of the laboratory sample, resulted in relative uncertainties of 17% and 21% for field-treated jackfruits and cucumber, respectively, and 7% for post-harvest treated papaya. The results demonstrated that sample size reduction is an inevitable source of uncertainty in pesticide residue analysis of large-sized crops. The post-harvest treatment resulted in a lower variability because the dipping process leads to a more uniform residue concentration on the surface of the crops than does the foliar application of pesticides.

  8. Two phase sampling for wheat acreage estimation. [large area crop inventory experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. W.; Hay, C. M.

    1977-01-01

    A two phase LANDSAT-based sample allocation and wheat proportion estimation method was developed. This technique employs manual, LANDSAT full frame-based wheat or cultivated land proportion estimates from a large number of segments comprising a first sample phase to optimally allocate a smaller phase two sample of computer or manually processed segments. Application to the Kansas Southwest CRD for 1974 produced a wheat acreage estimate for that CRD within 2.42 percent of the USDA SRS-based estimate using a lower CRD inventory budget than for a simulated reference LACIE system. Factor of 2 or greater cost or precision improvements relative to the reference system were obtained.

  9. Novel Technique for Sampling of Breast Implant–associated Seroma in Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    T’Kindt, Johan; Mertens, Marianne; Colpaert, Steven D. M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: We describe a novel technique for the sampling of breast implant–associated seroma. Using a blunt-tip lipofilling cannula, we have the freedom of movement to sample all fluid collections and prevent the misfortunes of damaging the implant. Also, we have demonstrated the inability of the Coleman style I lipofilling cannula to perforate a silicone breast implant. This practical and reliable technique will prove to be useful in managing the breast implant–associated seroma, especially with the rising incidence of the anaplastic large cell lymphoma, where the sampling of seroma is mandatory. PMID:27200250

  10. Coding SNPs as intrinsic markers for sample tracking in large-scale transcriptome studies

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weihong; Gao, Hong; Seok, Junhee; Wilhelmy, Julie; Mindrinos, Michael N.; Davis, Ronald W.; Xiao, Wenzhong

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale transcriptome profiling in clinical studies often involves assaying multiple samples of a patient to monitor disease progression, treatment effect, and host response in multiple tissues. Such profiling is prone to human error, which often results in mislabeled samples. Here, we present a method to detect mislabeled sample outliers using coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (cSNPs) specifically designed on the microarray and demonstrate that the mislabeled samples can be efficiently identified by either simple clustering of allele-specific expression scores or Mahalanobis distance-based outlier detection method. Based on our results, we recommend the incorporation of cSNPs into future transcriptome array designs as intrinsic markers for sample tracking. PMID:22668418

  11. Coding SNPs as intrinsic markers for sample tracking in large-scale transcriptome studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weihong; Gao, Hong; Seok, Junhee; Wilhelmy, Julie; Mindrinos, Michael N; Davis, Ronald W; Xiao, Wenzhong

    2012-06-01

    Large-scale transcriptome profiling in clinical studies often involves assaying multiple samples of a patient to monitor disease progression, treatment effect, and host response in multiple tissues. Such profiling is prone to human error, which often results in mislabeled samples. Here, we present a method to detect mislabeled sample outliers using coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (cSNPs) specifically designed on the microarray and demonstrate that the mislabeled samples can be efficiently identified by either simple clustering of allele-specific expression scores or Mahalanobis distance-based outlier detection method. Based on our results, we recommend the incorporation of cSNPs into future transcriptome array designs as intrinsic markers for sample tracking.

  12. On the accuracy of protein determination in large biological samples by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasviki, K.; Stamatelatos, I. E.; Yannakopoulou, E.; Papadopoulou, P.; Kalef-Ezra, J.

    2007-10-01

    A prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) facility has been developed for the determination of nitrogen and thus total protein in large volume biological samples or the whole body of small animals. In the present work, the accuracy of nitrogen determination by PGNAA in phantoms of known composition as well as in four raw ground meat samples of about 1 kg mass was examined. Dumas combustion and Kjeldahl techniques were also used for the assessment of nitrogen concentration in the meat samples. No statistically significant differences were found between the concentrations assessed by the three techniques. The results of this work demonstrate the applicability of PGNAA for the assessment of total protein in biological samples of 0.25-1.5 kg mass, such as a meat sample or the body of small animal even in vivo with an equivalent radiation dose of about 40 mSv.

  13. Software engineering the mixed model for genome-wide association studies on large samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mixed models improve the ability to detect phenotype-genotype associations in the presence of population stratification and multiple levels of relatedness in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), but for large data sets the resource consumption becomes impractical. At the same time, the sample siz...

  14. Imitation of Tongue Protrusion in Human Neonates: Specificity of the Response in a Large Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Emese; Pilling, Karen; Orvos, Hajnalka; Molnar, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Although a large body of evidence has accumulated on the young human infant's ability to imitate, the phenomenon has failed to gain unanimous acceptance. Imitation of tongue protrusion, the most tested gesture to date, was examined in a sample of 115 newborns in the first 5 days of life in 3 seating positions. An ethologically based…

  15. A flux extraction device to measure the magnetic moment of large samples; application to bulk superconductors.

    PubMed

    Egan, R; Philippe, M; Wera, L; Fagnard, J F; Vanderheyden, B; Dennis, A; Shi, Y; Cardwell, D A; Vanderbemden, P

    2015-02-01

    We report the design and construction of a flux extraction device to measure the DC magnetic moment of large samples (i.e., several cm(3)) at cryogenic temperature. The signal is constructed by integrating the electromotive force generated by two coils wound in series-opposition that move around the sample. We show that an octupole expansion of the magnetic vector potential can be used conveniently to treat near-field effects for this geometrical configuration. The resulting expansion is tested for the case of a large, permanently magnetized, type-II superconducting sample. The dimensions of the sensing coils are determined in such a way that the measurement is influenced by the dipole magnetic moment of the sample and not by moments of higher order, within user-determined upper bounds. The device, which is able to measure magnetic moments in excess of 1 A m(2) (1000 emu), is validated by (i) a direct calibration experiment using a small coil driven by a known current and (ii) by comparison with the results of numerical calculations obtained previously using a flux measurement technique. The sensitivity of the device is demonstrated by the measurement of flux-creep relaxation of the magnetization in a large bulk superconductor sample at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K). PMID:25725888

  16. In-situ sampling of a large-scale particle simulation for interactive visualization and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Woodring, Jonathan L; Ahrens, James P; Heitmann, Katrin

    2010-12-09

    We propose storing a random sampling of data from large scale particle simulations, such as the Roadrunner Universe MC{sup 3} cosmological simulation, to be used for interactive post-analysis and visualization. Simulation data generation rates will continue to be far greater than storage bandwidth rates and other limiting technologies by many orders of magnitude. This implies that only a very small fraction of data generated by the simulation can ever be stored and subsequently post-analyzed. The limiting technology in this situation is analogous to the problem in many population surveys: there aren't enough human resources to query a large population. To cope with the lack of resources, statistical sampling techniques are used to create a representative data set of a large population. Mirroring that situation, we propose to store a simulation-time random sampling of the particle data to cope with the bOlllenecks and support interactive, exploratory post-analysis. The particle samples are immediately stored in a level-ol-detail format for post-visualization and analysis, which amortizes the cost of post-processing for interactive visualization. Additionally, we incorporate a system for recording and visualizing sample approximation error information for confidence and importance highlighting.

  17. A flux extraction device to measure the magnetic moment of large samples; application to bulk superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, R.; Philippe, M.; Wera, L.; Fagnard, J. F.; Vanderheyden, B.; Dennis, A.; Shi, Y.; Cardwell, D. A.; Vanderbemden, P.

    2015-02-01

    We report the design and construction of a flux extraction device to measure the DC magnetic moment of large samples (i.e., several cm3) at cryogenic temperature. The signal is constructed by integrating the electromotive force generated by two coils wound in series-opposition that move around the sample. We show that an octupole expansion of the magnetic vector potential can be used conveniently to treat near-field effects for this geometrical configuration. The resulting expansion is tested for the case of a large, permanently magnetized, type-II superconducting sample. The dimensions of the sensing coils are determined in such a way that the measurement is influenced by the dipole magnetic moment of the sample and not by moments of higher order, within user-determined upper bounds. The device, which is able to measure magnetic moments in excess of 1 A m2 (1000 emu), is validated by (i) a direct calibration experiment using a small coil driven by a known current and (ii) by comparison with the results of numerical calculations obtained previously using a flux measurement technique. The sensitivity of the device is demonstrated by the measurement of flux-creep relaxation of the magnetization in a large bulk superconductor sample at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K).

  18. Large Deviations and Importance Sampling for Systems of Slow-Fast Motion

    SciTech Connect

    Spiliopoulos, Konstantinos

    2013-02-15

    In this paper we develop the large deviations principle and a rigorous mathematical framework for asymptotically efficient importance sampling schemes for general, fully dependent systems of stochastic differential equations of slow and fast motion with small noise in the slow component. We assume periodicity with respect to the fast component. Depending on the interaction of the fast scale with the smallness of the noise, we get different behavior. We examine how one range of interaction differs from the other one both for the large deviations and for the importance sampling. We use the large deviations results to identify asymptotically optimal importance sampling schemes in each case. Standard Monte Carlo schemes perform poorly in the small noise limit. In the presence of multiscale aspects one faces additional difficulties and straightforward adaptation of importance sampling schemes for standard small noise diffusions will not produce efficient schemes. It turns out that one has to consider the so called cell problem from the homogenization theory for Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations in order to guarantee asymptotic optimality. We use stochastic control arguments.

  19. Measuring effective radium concentration with large numbers of samples. Part II--general properties and representativity.

    PubMed

    Girault, Frédéric; Perrier, Frédéric

    2012-11-01

    Effective radium concentration EC(Ra), product of radium concentration and radon emanation, is the source term for radon release into the pore space of rocks and the environment. Over a period of three years, we performed more than 6000 radon-222 accumulation experiments in the laboratory with scintillation flasks and SSNTDs and we obtained experimental EC(Ra) values from more than 1570 rock and soil samples. With this method, which allowed the measurement of EC(Ra) from large numbers of samples with sufficient accuracy and uncertainty, as detailed in the companion paper, the dependence of the emanation factor on temperature and moisture content is revisited. In addition, with such a large EC(Ra) dataset, dispersion of EC(Ra) can be studied at sample-scale (cm to dm) and at scarp-scale (m to tens of m). Furthermore, we are able to discuss the representativity of obtained EC(Ra) values at field-scale, and to investigate the spatial variations of EC(Ra) over kilometric scales, within geological formations and across formations and faults. This experimental study opens new perspectives in the understanding of radium geochemistry and illustrates the importance of studying the radon source term with large numbers of samples for the modelling of geological and environmental processes, and also for the assessment of the radon health hazard.

  20. The x ray properties of a large, uniform QSO sample: Einstein observations of the LBQS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margon, B.; Anderson, S. F.; Xu, X.; Green, P. J.; Foltz, C. B.

    1992-01-01

    Although there are large numbers of Quasi Stellar Objects (QSO's) now observed in X rays, extensive X-ray observations of uniformly selected, 'complete' QSO samples are more rare. The Large Bright QSO Survey (LBQS) consists of about 1000 objects with well understood properties, most brighter than B = 18.8 and thus amenable to X-ray detections in relatively brief exposures. The sample is thought to be highly complete in the range 0.2 less than z less than 3.3, a significantly broader interval than many other surveys. The Einstein IPC observed 150 of these objects, mostly serendipitously, during its lifetime. We report the results of an analysis of these IPC data, considering not only the 20 percent of the objects we find to have positive X-ray detections, but also the ensemble X-ray properties derived by 'image stacking'.

  1. Tracing the trajectory of skill learning with a very large sample of online game players.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Tom; Dewar, Michael

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, we analyzed data from a very large sample (N = 854,064) of players of an online game involving rapid perception, decision making, and motor responding. Use of game data allowed us to connect, for the first time, rich details of training history with measures of performance from participants engaged for a sustained amount of time in effortful practice. We showed that lawful relations exist between practice amount and subsequent performance, and between practice spacing and subsequent performance. Our methodology allowed an in situ confirmation of results long established in the experimental literature on skill acquisition. Additionally, we showed that greater initial variation in performance is linked to higher subsequent performance, a result we link to the exploration/exploitation trade-off from the computational framework of reinforcement learning. We discuss the benefits and opportunities of behavioral data sets with very large sample sizes and suggest that this approach could be particularly fecund for studies of skill acquisition.

  2. An immunomagnetic separator for concentration of pathogenic micro-organisms from large volume samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotariu, Ovidiu; Ogden, Iain D.; MacRae, Marion; Bădescu, Vasile; Strachan, Norval J. C.

    2005-05-01

    The standard method of immunomagnetic separation of pathogenic bacteria from food and environmental matrices processes 1 ml volumes. Pathogens present at low levels (<1 pathogenic bacteria per ml) will not be consistently detected by this method. Here a flow through immunomagnetic separator (FTIMS) has been designed and tested to process large volume samples (>50 ml). Preliminary results show that between 70 and 113 times more Escherchia coli O157 are recovered compared with the standard 1 ml method.

  3. RAPID METHOD FOR PLUTONIUM, AMERICIUM AND CURIUM IN VERY LARGE SOIL SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S

    2007-01-08

    The analysis of actinides in environmental soil and sediment samples is very important for environmental monitoring. There is a need to measure actinide isotopes with very low detection limits. A new, rapid actinide separation method has been developed and implemented that allows the measurement of plutonium, americium and curium isotopes in very large soil samples (100-200 g) with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of matrix interferences. This method uses stacked TEVA Resin{reg_sign}, TRU Resin{reg_sign} and DGA-Resin{reg_sign} cartridges from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) that allows the rapid separation of plutonium (Pu), americium (Am), and curium (Cm) using a single multistage column combined with alpha spectrometry. The method combines an acid leach step and innovative matrix removal using cerium fluoride precipitation to remove the difficult soil matrix. This method is unique in that it provides high tracer recoveries and effective removal of interferences with small extraction chromatography columns instead of large ion exchange resin columns that generate large amounts of acid waste. By using vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates, sample preparation time is minimized.

  4. An atomic-absorption method for the determination of gold in large samples of geologic materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    VanSickle, Gordon H.; Lakin, Hubert William

    1968-01-01

    A laboratory method for the determination of gold in large (100-gram) samples has been developed for use in the study of the gold content of placer deposits and of trace amounts of gold in other geologic materials. In this method the sample is digested with bromine and ethyl ether, the gold is extracted into methyl isobutyl ketone, and the determination is made by atomicabsorption spectrophotometry. The lower limit of detection is 0.005 part per million in the sample. The few data obtained so far by this method agree favorably with those obtained by assay and by other atomic-absorption methods. About 25 determinations can be made per man-day.

  5. Large antenna experiments aboard the space shuttle: Application of nonuniform sampling techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahmatsamii, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Future satellite communication and scientific spacecraft will utilize antennas with dimensions as large as 20 meters. In order to commercially use these large, low sidelobe and multiple beam antennas, a high level of confidence must be established as to their performance in the 0-g and space environment. Furthermore, it will be desirable to demonstrate the applicability of surface compensation techniques for slowly varying surface distortions which could result from thermal effects. An overview of recent advances in performing RF measurements on large antennas is presented with emphasis given to the application of a space based far-field range utilizing the Space Shuttle and the concept of a newly developed nonuniform sampling technique.

  6. Statistical characterization of a large geochemical database and effect of sample size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, C.; Manheim, F. T.; Hinde, J.; Grossman, J.N.

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated statistical distributions for concentrations of chemical elements from the National Geochemical Survey (NGS) database of the U.S. Geological Survey. At the time of this study, the NGS data set encompasses 48,544 stream sediment and soil samples from the conterminous United States analyzed by ICP-AES following a 4-acid near-total digestion. This report includes 27 elements: Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Ti, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Ga, La, Li, Mn, Nb, Nd, Ni, Pb, Sc, Sr, Th, V, Y and Zn. The goal and challenge for the statistical overview was to delineate chemical distributions in a complex, heterogeneous data set spanning a large geographic range (the conterminous United States), and many different geological provinces and rock types. After declustering to create a uniform spatial sample distribution with 16,511 samples, histograms and quantile-quantile (Q-Q) plots were employed to delineate subpopulations that have coherent chemical and mineral affinities. Probability groupings are discerned by changes in slope (kinks) on the plots. Major rock-forming elements, e.g., Al, Ca, K and Na, tend to display linear segments on normal Q-Q plots. These segments can commonly be linked to petrologic or mineralogical associations. For example, linear segments on K and Na plots reflect dilution of clay minerals by quartz sand (low in K and Na). Minor and trace element relationships are best displayed on lognormal Q-Q plots. These sensitively reflect discrete relationships in subpopulations within the wide range of the data. For example, small but distinctly log-linear subpopulations for Pb, Cu, Zn and Ag are interpreted to represent ore-grade enrichment of naturally occurring minerals such as sulfides. None of the 27 chemical elements could pass the test for either normal or lognormal distribution on the declustered data set. Part of the reasons relate to the presence of mixtures of subpopulations and outliers. Random samples of the data set with successively

  7. From large-eddy simulation to multi-UAVs sampling of shallow cumulus clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamraoui, Fayçal; Roberts, Greg; Burnet, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    In-situ sampling of clouds that can provide simultaneous measurements at satisfying spatio-temporal resolutions to capture 3D small scale physical processes continues to present challenges. This project (SKYSCANNER) aims at bringing together cloud sampling strategies using a swarm of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) based on Large-eddy simulation (LES). The multi-UAV-based field campaigns with a personalized sampling strategy for individual clouds and cloud fields will significantly improve the understanding of the unresolved cloud physical processes. An extensive set of LES experiments for case studies from ARM-SGP site have been performed using MesoNH model at high resolutions down to 10 m. The carried out simulations led to establishing a macroscopic model that quantifies the interrelationship between micro- and macrophysical properties of shallow convective clouds. Both the geometry and evolution of individual clouds are critical to multi-UAV cloud sampling and path planning. The preliminary findings of the current project reveal several linear relationships that associate many cloud geometric parameters to cloud related meteorological variables. In addition, the horizontal wind speed indicates a proportional impact on cloud number concentration as well as triggering and prolonging the occurrence of cumulus clouds. In the framework of the joint collaboration that involves a Multidisciplinary Team (including institutes specializing in aviation, robotics and atmospheric science), this model will be a reference point for multi-UAVs sampling strategies and path planning.

  8. Specific Antibodies Reacting with SV40 Large T Antigen Mimotopes in Serum Samples of Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Tognon, Mauro; Corallini, Alfredo; Manfrini, Marco; Taronna, Angelo; Butel, Janet S.; Pietrobon, Silvia; Trevisiol, Lorenzo; Bononi, Ilaria; Vaccher, Emanuela; Barbanti-Brodano, Giuseppe; Martini, Fernanda; Mazzoni, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Simian Virus 40, experimentally assayed in vitro in different animal and human cells and in vivo in rodents, was classified as a small DNA tumor virus. In previous studies, many groups identified Simian Virus 40 sequences in healthy individuals and cancer patients using PCR techniques, whereas others failed to detect the viral sequences in human specimens. These conflicting results prompted us to develop a novel indirect ELISA with synthetic peptides, mimicking Simian Virus 40 capsid viral protein antigens, named mimotopes. This immunologic assay allowed us to investigate the presence of serum antibodies against Simian Virus 40 and to verify whether Simian Virus 40 is circulating in humans. In this investigation two mimotopes from Simian Virus 40 large T antigen, the viral replication protein and oncoprotein, were employed to analyze for specific reactions to human sera antibodies. This indirect ELISA with synthetic peptides from Simian Virus 40 large T antigen was used to assay a new collection of serum samples from healthy subjects. This novel assay revealed that serum antibodies against Simian Virus 40 large T antigen mimotopes are detectable, at low titer, in healthy subjects aged from 18–65 years old. The overall prevalence of reactivity with the two Simian Virus 40 large T antigen peptides was 20%. This new ELISA with two mimotopes of the early viral regions is able to detect in a specific manner Simian Virus 40 large T antigen-antibody responses. PMID:26731525

  9. Specific Antibodies Reacting with SV40 Large T Antigen Mimotopes in Serum Samples of Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Tognon, Mauro; Corallini, Alfredo; Manfrini, Marco; Taronna, Angelo; Butel, Janet S; Pietrobon, Silvia; Trevisiol, Lorenzo; Bononi, Ilaria; Vaccher, Emanuela; Barbanti-Brodano, Giuseppe; Martini, Fernanda; Mazzoni, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Simian Virus 40, experimentally assayed in vitro in different animal and human cells and in vivo in rodents, was classified as a small DNA tumor virus. In previous studies, many groups identified Simian Virus 40 sequences in healthy individuals and cancer patients using PCR techniques, whereas others failed to detect the viral sequences in human specimens. These conflicting results prompted us to develop a novel indirect ELISA with synthetic peptides, mimicking Simian Virus 40 capsid viral protein antigens, named mimotopes. This immunologic assay allowed us to investigate the presence of serum antibodies against Simian Virus 40 and to verify whether Simian Virus 40 is circulating in humans. In this investigation two mimotopes from Simian Virus 40 large T antigen, the viral replication protein and oncoprotein, were employed to analyze for specific reactions to human sera antibodies. This indirect ELISA with synthetic peptides from Simian Virus 40 large T antigen was used to assay a new collection of serum samples from healthy subjects. This novel assay revealed that serum antibodies against Simian Virus 40 large T antigen mimotopes are detectable, at low titer, in healthy subjects aged from 18-65 years old. The overall prevalence of reactivity with the two Simian Virus 40 large T antigen peptides was 20%. This new ELISA with two mimotopes of the early viral regions is able to detect in a specific manner Simian Virus 40 large T antigen-antibody responses. PMID:26731525

  10. Measuring effective radium concentration with large numbers of samples. Part I--experimental method and uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Girault, Frédéric; Perrier, Frédéric

    2012-11-01

    Effective radium concentration EC(Ra), product of radium concentration and radon emanation, is the source term for radon release into the pore space of rocks and the environment. To measure EC(Ra), we have conducted, over a period of three years, more than 5500 radon-222 accumulation experiments in the laboratory with scintillation flasks, and about 700 with integrating solid state nuclear track detectors, leading to experimental values of EC(Ra) for more than 1570 rock and soil samples. Through detailed systematic checks and intercomparison between various repeated experiments, the experimental uncertainty has been assessed, and ranges from 30% (1 σ) for EC(Ra) values smaller than 0.2 Bq kg(-1) to about 8-10% for EC(Ra) values larger than 50 Bq kg(-1). The detection limit, defined as the 90% probability for obtaining a non-zero experimental EC(Ra) value at 68% confidence level, depends on the mass of the sample with respect to the volume of the accumulation volume, and typically varies between 0.04 and 0.09 Bq kg(-1). To measure EC(Ra) from large numbers of samples with sufficient accuracy and uncertainty for our purpose, i.e. for the most natural objects encountered in the environment, the accumulation method with scintillation flask emerged as particularly useful and robust. Properties of EC(Ra) and interpretations inferred from this large data set are presented in the companion paper.

  11. Software engineering the mixed model for genome-wide association studies on large samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiwu; Buckler, Edward S; Casstevens, Terry M; Bradbury, Peter J

    2009-11-01

    Mixed models improve the ability to detect phenotype-genotype associations in the presence of population stratification and multiple levels of relatedness in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), but for large data sets the resource consumption becomes impractical. At the same time, the sample size and number of markers used for GWAS is increasing dramatically, resulting in greater statistical power to detect those associations. The use of mixed models with increasingly large data sets depends on the availability of software for analyzing those models. While multiple software packages implement the mixed model method, no single package provides the best combination of fast computation, ability to handle large samples, flexible modeling and ease of use. Key elements of association analysis with mixed models are reviewed, including modeling phenotype-genotype associations using mixed models, population stratification, kinship and its estimation, variance component estimation, use of best linear unbiased predictors or residuals in place of raw phenotype, improving efficiency and software-user interaction. The available software packages are evaluated, and suggestions made for future software development.

  12. Monte Carlo calculations of the HPGe detector efficiency for radioactivity measurement of large volume environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Azbouche, Ahmed; Belgaid, Mohamed; Mazrou, Hakim

    2015-08-01

    A fully detailed Monte Carlo geometrical model of a High Purity Germanium detector with a (152)Eu source, packed in Marinelli beaker, was developed for routine analysis of large volume environmental samples. Then, the model parameters, in particular, the dead layer thickness were adjusted thanks to a specific irradiation configuration together with a fine-tuning procedure. Thereafter, the calculated efficiencies were compared to the measured ones for standard samples containing (152)Eu source filled in both grass and resin matrices packed in Marinelli beaker. From this comparison, a good agreement between experiment and Monte Carlo calculation results was obtained highlighting thereby the consistency of the geometrical computational model proposed in this work. Finally, the computational model was applied successfully to determine the (137)Cs distribution in soil matrix. From this application, instructive results were achieved highlighting, in particular, the erosion and accumulation zone of the studied site.

  13. Large sample inference for a win ratio analysis of a composite outcome based on prioritized components.

    PubMed

    Bebu, Ionut; Lachin, John M

    2016-01-01

    Composite outcomes are common in clinical trials, especially for multiple time-to-event outcomes (endpoints). The standard approach that uses the time to the first outcome event has important limitations. Several alternative approaches have been proposed to compare treatment versus control, including the proportion in favor of treatment and the win ratio. Herein, we construct tests of significance and confidence intervals in the context of composite outcomes based on prioritized components using the large sample distribution of certain multivariate multi-sample U-statistics. This non-parametric approach provides a general inference for both the proportion in favor of treatment and the win ratio, and can be extended to stratified analyses and the comparison of more than two groups. The proposed methods are illustrated with time-to-event outcomes data from a clinical trial.

  14. Sampling large landscapes with small-scale stratification-User's Manual

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bart, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    This manual explains procedures for partitioning a large landscape into plots, assigning the plots to strata, and selecting plots in each stratum to be surveyed. These steps are referred to as the "sampling large landscapes (SLL) process." We assume that users of the manual have a moderate knowledge of ArcGIS and Microsoft ® Excel. The manual is written for a single user but in many cases, some steps will be carried out by a biologist designing the survey and some steps will be carried out by a quantitative assistant. Thus, the manual essentially may be passed back and forth between these users. The SLL process primarily has been used to survey birds, and we refer to birds as subjects of the counts. The process, however, could be used to count any objects. ®

  15. Vibrio parahaemolyticus in shellfish and clinical samples during two large epidemics of diarrhoea in southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Fuenzalida, Loreto; Hernández, Cristina; Toro, Jessica; Rioseco, M Luisa; Romero, Jaime; Espejo, Romilio T

    2006-04-01

    Large epidemics of diarrhoea associated with seafood consumption and Vibrio parahaemolyticus occurred during the austral summers of 2004 and 2005 in the environs of Puerto Montt, Chile (41 degrees 29'S 72 degrees 24'W). There are no reports of V. parahaemolyticus infections before 2004 in this region, their absence being explained by the low ocean temperatures which seldom reach 16 degrees C. We analysed V. parahaemolyticus obtained from shellfish and clinical samples during epidemics. Isolates were examined using conventional protocols and an improved method for restriction enzyme analysis using total bacterial DNA which permits direct genome restriction enzyme analysis by conventional gel electrophoresis (DGREA) with a similar discrimination index as restriction fragment length polymorphism-pulsed field gel electrophoresis (RFLP-PFGE). Analysis of clinical samples showed that the epidemics were caused by the V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 pandemic clonal group. On the other hand, analysis of shellfish samples during both epidemics showed that 53% contained V. parahaemolyticus (3-93 g(-1)). Detailed analysis of 50 positive shellfish samples showed that only three contained detectable levels of the pandemic clone. Most V. parahaemolyticus isolates obtained from shellfish corresponded to non-pandemic clones differentiated into 14 groups by DGREA. In summary, the causative agent during epidemics was only a minor component of a small but diverse population of V. parahaemolyticus in shellfish. PMID:16584479

  16. Protistan community analysis: key findings of a large-scale molecular sampling

    PubMed Central

    Grossmann, Lars; Jensen, Manfred; Heider, Dominik; Jost, Steffen; Glücksman, Edvard; Hartikainen, Hanna; Mahamdallie, Shazia S; Gardner, Michelle; Hoffmann, Daniel; Bass, David; Boenigk, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Protists are perhaps the most lineage-rich of microbial lifeforms, but remain largely unknown. High-throughput sequencing technologies provide opportunities to screen whole habitats in depth and enable detailed comparisons of different habitats to measure, compare and map protistan diversity. Such comparisons are often limited by low sample numbers within single studies and a lack of standardisation between studies. Here, we analysed 232 samples from 10 sampling campaigns using a standardised PCR protocol and bioinformatics pipeline. We show that protistan community patterns are highly consistent within habitat types and geographic regions, provided that sample processing is standardised. Community profiles are only weakly affected by fluctuations of the abundances of the most abundant taxa and, therefore, provide a sound basis for habitat comparison beyond random short-term fluctuations in the community composition. Further, we provide evidence that distribution patterns are not solely resulting from random processes. Distinct habitat types and distinct taxonomic groups are dominated by taxa with distinct distribution patterns that reflect their ecology with respect to dispersal and habitat colonisation. However, there is no systematic shift of the distribution pattern with taxon abundance. PMID:26859769

  17. Protistan community analysis: key findings of a large-scale molecular sampling.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, Lars; Jensen, Manfred; Heider, Dominik; Jost, Steffen; Glücksman, Edvard; Hartikainen, Hanna; Mahamdallie, Shazia S; Gardner, Michelle; Hoffmann, Daniel; Bass, David; Boenigk, Jens

    2016-09-01

    Protists are perhaps the most lineage-rich of microbial lifeforms, but remain largely unknown. High-throughput sequencing technologies provide opportunities to screen whole habitats in depth and enable detailed comparisons of different habitats to measure, compare and map protistan diversity. Such comparisons are often limited by low sample numbers within single studies and a lack of standardisation between studies. Here, we analysed 232 samples from 10 sampling campaigns using a standardised PCR protocol and bioinformatics pipeline. We show that protistan community patterns are highly consistent within habitat types and geographic regions, provided that sample processing is standardised. Community profiles are only weakly affected by fluctuations of the abundances of the most abundant taxa and, therefore, provide a sound basis for habitat comparison beyond random short-term fluctuations in the community composition. Further, we provide evidence that distribution patterns are not solely resulting from random processes. Distinct habitat types and distinct taxonomic groups are dominated by taxa with distinct distribution patterns that reflect their ecology with respect to dispersal and habitat colonisation. However, there is no systematic shift of the distribution pattern with taxon abundance. PMID:26859769

  18. Protistan community analysis: key findings of a large-scale molecular sampling.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, Lars; Jensen, Manfred; Heider, Dominik; Jost, Steffen; Glücksman, Edvard; Hartikainen, Hanna; Mahamdallie, Shazia S; Gardner, Michelle; Hoffmann, Daniel; Bass, David; Boenigk, Jens

    2016-09-01

    Protists are perhaps the most lineage-rich of microbial lifeforms, but remain largely unknown. High-throughput sequencing technologies provide opportunities to screen whole habitats in depth and enable detailed comparisons of different habitats to measure, compare and map protistan diversity. Such comparisons are often limited by low sample numbers within single studies and a lack of standardisation between studies. Here, we analysed 232 samples from 10 sampling campaigns using a standardised PCR protocol and bioinformatics pipeline. We show that protistan community patterns are highly consistent within habitat types and geographic regions, provided that sample processing is standardised. Community profiles are only weakly affected by fluctuations of the abundances of the most abundant taxa and, therefore, provide a sound basis for habitat comparison beyond random short-term fluctuations in the community composition. Further, we provide evidence that distribution patterns are not solely resulting from random processes. Distinct habitat types and distinct taxonomic groups are dominated by taxa with distinct distribution patterns that reflect their ecology with respect to dispersal and habitat colonisation. However, there is no systematic shift of the distribution pattern with taxon abundance.

  19. Rotation, Obliquities, and Flaring Rates from a Large Uniform Sample of Solar Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzasi, Derek L.; Lezcano, Andy; Preston, Heather

    2015-08-01

    We have conducted an in-depth analysis of light curves from four years of data for more than 2300 narrowly-selected solar analogs in the Kepler field. The overall Kepler sample is large enough to enable statistically significant studies of even such a narrowly-defined group. This avoids the confusion possible when studies indiscriminately include low-mass stars with a relatively wide dispersion of masses. Our sample also includes both probable exoplanet host stars (KOIs) and stars without detected planetary systems. We are able to reliably detect and characterize variability at levels below that seen in the Sun, and thus to retrieve rotation periods for more than 90% of the targets. We show the distribution of rotation periods and the period-activity relation for our sample, and discuss implications for gyrochronology. In addition, we examine systematic differences between the photometric behavior of KOIs and non-KOIs and the constraints these differences place on the obliquity of exoplanet systems. Finally, we discuss the frequency of white-light flares in our sample.

  20. Synthesis of zeolite NaA membrane from fused fly ash extract.

    PubMed

    Ameh, Alechine E; Musyoka, Nicholas M; Fatoba, Ojo O; Syrtsova, Daria A; Teplyakov, Vladimir V; Petrik, Leslie F

    2016-01-01

    Zeolite-NaA membranes were synthesized from an extract of fused South African fly ash on a porous titanium support by a secondary growth method. The influence of the synthesis molar regime on the formation of zeolite NaA membrane layer was investigated. Two synthesis mixtures were generated by adding either aluminium hydroxide or sodium aluminate to the fused fly ash extract. The feedstock material and the synthesized membranes were characterized by X-diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF). It was found by XRD and SEM that the cubic crystals of a typical zeolite NaA with a dense intergrown layer was formed on the porous Ti support. The study shows that the source of Al used had an effect on the membrane integrity as sodium aluminate provided the appropriate amount of Na(+) to form a coherent membrane of zeolite NaA, whereas aluminium hydroxide did not. Morphological, the single hydrothermal stage seeded support formed an interlocked array of zeolite NaA particles with neighbouring crystals. Also, a robust, continuous and well-intergrown zeolite NaA membrane was formed with neighbouring crystals of zeolite fused to each other after the multiple stage synthesis. The synthesized membrane was permeable to He (6.0 × 10(6) L m(-2)h(-1) atm(-1)) and CO2 (5.6 × 10(6) L m(-2)h(-1) atm(-1)), which indicate that the layer of the membrane was firmly attached to the porous Ti support. Membrane selectivity was maintained showing membrane integrity with permselectivity of 1.1, showing that a waste feedstock, fly ash, could be utilized for preparing robust zeolite NaA membranes on Ti support.

  1. Analysis of medieval limestone sculpture from southwestern France and the Paris Basin by NAA

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, L.; Harbottle, G.

    1994-12-31

    Compositional characterization of limestone from sources known to medieval craftsmen and from the monuments they built can be used in conjunction with stylistic and iconographic criteria to infer geographic origin of sculptures that have lost their histories. Limestone from 47 quarrying locations in France and from numerous medieval monuments have been subjected to neutron activation analysis (NAA) to form the nucleus of the Brookhaven Limestone Database. Even though the method and techniques of NAA are well established, this paper briefly summarizes the parameters and experimental conditions useful for determining those concentration variables for which limestone from different sources exhibits significant and reproducible differences.

  2. Tracing the trajectory of skill learning with a very large sample of online game players.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Tom; Dewar, Michael

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, we analyzed data from a very large sample (N = 854,064) of players of an online game involving rapid perception, decision making, and motor responding. Use of game data allowed us to connect, for the first time, rich details of training history with measures of performance from participants engaged for a sustained amount of time in effortful practice. We showed that lawful relations exist between practice amount and subsequent performance, and between practice spacing and subsequent performance. Our methodology allowed an in situ confirmation of results long established in the experimental literature on skill acquisition. Additionally, we showed that greater initial variation in performance is linked to higher subsequent performance, a result we link to the exploration/exploitation trade-off from the computational framework of reinforcement learning. We discuss the benefits and opportunities of behavioral data sets with very large sample sizes and suggest that this approach could be particularly fecund for studies of skill acquisition. PMID:24379154

  3. Psychopathic traits and reactive-proactive aggression in a large community sample of Polish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Perenc, Lidia; Radochonski, Mieczyslaw

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents results of the only large-scale study carried-out in Poland to date on the prevalence of psychopathic traits and their relationship with aggressive behaviour in mainstream adolescents. The sample consists of 9,415 students (4,808 boys, 4,607 girls) in the first to third grades at 142 public secondary schools. Psychopathic traits were measured by teacher-report ratings with the antisocial process screening device (APSD), while aggressive behaviours were assessed using the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire. Analysis of results revealed that boys scored much higher than girls in total APSD scale measuring psychopathic traits. Only 2.68% of assessed adolescents scored above the cut-off of 25 points. Results also showed significant correlations between psychopathic traits and both proactive and reactive aggression. The authors concluded that screening a large sample to identify children and youths with psychopathic traits has some important advantages but, on the other hand, it is a sensitive undertaking because of the label 'psychopath' can have negative consequences for the subjects.

  4. Characterising resting-state functional connectivity in a large sample of adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Mostert, Jeanette C; Shumskaya, Elena; Mennes, Maarten; Onnink, A Marten H; Hoogman, Martine; Kan, Cornelis C; Arias Vasquez, Alejandro; Buitelaar, Jan; Franke, Barbara; Norris, David G

    2016-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood psychiatric disorder that often persists into adulthood. While several studies have identified altered functional connectivity in brain networks during rest in children with ADHD, few studies have been performed on adults with ADHD. Existing studies have generally investigated small samples. We therefore investigated aberrant functional connectivity in a large sample of adult patients with childhood-onset ADHD, using a data-driven, whole-brain approach. Adults with a clinical ADHD diagnosis (N=99) and healthy, adult comparison subjects (N=113) underwent a 9-minute resting-state fMRI session in a 1.5T MRI scanner. After elaborate preprocessing including a thorough head-motion correction procedure, group independent component analysis (ICA) was applied from which we identified six networks of interest: cerebellum, executive control, left and right frontoparietal and two default-mode networks. Participant-level network maps were obtained using dual-regression and tested for differences between patients with ADHD and controls using permutation testing. Patients showed significantly stronger connectivity in the anterior cingulate gyrus of the executive control network. Trends were also observed for stronger connectivity in the cerebellum network in ADHD patients compared to controls. However, there was considerable overlap in connectivity values between patients and controls, leading to relatively low effect sizes despite the large sample size. These effect sizes were slightly larger when testing for correlations between hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms and connectivity strength in the executive control and cerebellum networks. This study provides important insights for studies on the neurobiology of adult ADHD; it shows that resting-state functional connectivity differences between adult patients and controls exist, but have smaller effect sizes than existing literature suggested.

  5. Reconstruction of large, irregularly sampled multidimensional images. A tensor-based approach.

    PubMed

    Morozov, Oleksii Vyacheslav; Unser, Michael; Hunziker, Patrick

    2011-02-01

    Many practical applications require the reconstruction of images from irregularly sampled data. The spline formalism offers an attractive framework for solving this problem; the currently available methods, however, are hard to deploy for large-scale interpolation problems in dimensions greater than two (3-D, 3-D+time) because of an exponential increase of their computational cost (curse of dimensionality). Here, we revisit the standard regularized least-squares formulation of the interpolation problem, and propose to perform the reconstruction in a uniform tensor-product B-spline basis as an alternative to the classical solution involving radial basis functions. Our analysis reveals that the underlying multilinear system of equations admits a tensor decomposition with an extreme sparsity of its one dimensional components. We exploit this property for implementing a parallel, memory-efficient system solver. We show that the computational complexity of the proposed algorithm is essentially linear in the number of measurements and that its dependency on the number of dimensions is significantly less than that of the original sparse matrix-based implementation. The net benefit is a substantial reduction in memory requirement and operation count when compared to standard matrix-based algorithms, so that even 4-D problems with millions of samples become computationally feasible on desktop PCs in reasonable time. After validating the proposed algorithm in 3-D and 4-D, we apply it to a concrete imaging problem: the reconstruction of medical ultrasound images (3-D+time) from a large set of irregularly sampled measurements, acquired by a fast rotating ultrasound transducer.

  6. Experimental measurements of charge carrier mobility: lifetime products for large sample of pixilated CZT detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadawale, S. V.; Shanmugam, M.; Purohit, Shishir; Acharya, Y. B.; Sudhakar, Manju

    2012-07-01

    Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT) is thought to be a primary work horse for hard X-ray astronomy in future. Due to the relatively large band-gap, it offers near room temperature operation while maintaining much better energy resolution then scintillator detectors operating in similar energy range. Further, CZT detectors are available in the form of pixilated detectors with area up to few cm2 and hence it is possible to realize very large detector area by having an array of such pixilated CZT detectors. However, it is well known that the energy spectrum of mono-energetic X-ray measured by CZT detectors does not have a Gaussian shape but has significant low-energy tail. This is mainly due to relatively poor mobility and small life time of the charge carriers, particularly of holes, in the CZT crystals. Thus, in order to understand spectral response for a large array of CZT detectors consisting of multiple elements / pixels, it is essential to characterize the mobility-lifetime products of charge carriers for each individual elements / pixels. Here we present experimental measurements of charge carrier mobility-lifetime products for large sample of multi-pixel CZT detectors. The mobility-lifetime products are measured by simultaneously fitting a ‘CZT line’ model to pixel wise spectra of 122 keV X-rays from 57Co at three different bias voltages. These were carried out as a part of selection of CZT detector modules for the “High Energy X-ray spectrometer (HEX)” onboard Indian moon mission - Chandrayaan-1.

  7. Structure and function of human Naa60 (NatF), a Golgi-localized bi-functional acetyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ji-Yun; Liu, Liang; Cao, Chun-Ling; Li, Mei-Jun; Tan, Kemin; Yang, Xiaohan; Yun, Cai-Hong

    2016-01-01

    N-terminal acetylation (Nt-acetylation), carried out by N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs), is a conserved and primary modification of nascent peptide chains. Naa60 (also named NatF) is a recently identified NAT found only in multicellular eukaryotes. This protein was shown to locate on the Golgi apparatus and mainly catalyze the Nt-acetylation of transmembrane proteins, and it also harbors lysine N(ε)-acetyltransferase (KAT) activity to catalyze the acetylation of lysine ε-amine. Here, we report the crystal structures of human Naa60 (hNaa60) in complex with Acetyl-Coenzyme A (Ac-CoA) or Coenzyme A (CoA). The hNaa60 protein contains an amphipathic helix following its GNAT domain that may contribute to Golgi localization of hNaa60, and the β7-β8 hairpin adopted different conformations in the hNaa60(1-242) and hNaa60(1-199) crystal structures. Remarkably, we found that the side-chain of Phe 34 can influence the position of the coenzyme, indicating a new regulatory mechanism involving enzyme, co-factor and substrates interactions. Moreover, structural comparison and biochemical studies indicated that Tyr 97 and His 138 are key residues for catalytic reaction and that a non-conserved β3-β4 long loop participates in the regulation of hNaa60 activity. PMID:27550639

  8. Structure and function of human Naa60 (NatF), a Golgi-localized bi-functional acetyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ji-Yun; Liu, Liang; Cao, Chun-Ling; Li, Mei-Jun; Tan, Kemin; Yang, Xiaohan; Yun, Cai-Hong

    2016-01-01

    N-terminal acetylation (Nt-acetylation), carried out by N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs), is a conserved and primary modification of nascent peptide chains. Naa60 (also named NatF) is a recently identified NAT found only in multicellular eukaryotes. This protein was shown to locate on the Golgi apparatus and mainly catalyze the Nt-acetylation of transmembrane proteins, and it also harbors lysine Nε-acetyltransferase (KAT) activity to catalyze the acetylation of lysine ε-amine. Here, we report the crystal structures of human Naa60 (hNaa60) in complex with Acetyl-Coenzyme A (Ac-CoA) or Coenzyme A (CoA). The hNaa60 protein contains an amphipathic helix following its GNAT domain that may contribute to Golgi localization of hNaa60, and the β7-β8 hairpin adopted different conformations in the hNaa60(1-242) and hNaa60(1-199) crystal structures. Remarkably, we found that the side-chain of Phe 34 can influence the position of the coenzyme, indicating a new regulatory mechanism involving enzyme, co-factor and substrates interactions. Moreover, structural comparison and biochemical studies indicated that Tyr 97 and His 138 are key residues for catalytic reaction and that a non-conserved β3-β4 long loop participates in the regulation of hNaa60 activity. PMID:27550639

  9. Comparing two fish sampling standards over time: largely congruent results but with caveats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yule, Daniel L.; Evrard, Lori M.; Cachera, Sébastien; Colon, Michel; Guillard, Jean

    2013-01-01

    1. We sampled Lake Bourget (surface area = 44 km2) using CEN standard gillnet and provisional standard acoustic survey methods over 3 years (2005, 2010 and 2011) as the fish community responded to re-oligotrophication. A total of 16 species were caught in benthic gillnets and three species in pelagic gillnets. 2. Lake Bourget results were consistent with a recent study (Emmrich et al., Freshwater Biology, 57, 2012, 2436) showing strong correspondence between average biomass-per-unit-effort (BPUE) in standard benthic gillnets and average acoustic volume backscattering when smaller lakes (0.25–5.45 km2) were treated as sample units. 3. The BPUE of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus), perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) measured by benthic gillnets all declined significantly with increasing bathymetric depth; 93% of nets set at depths >50 m caught zero fish. 4. Pelagic gillnetting indicated that small (20 m) increased significantly after 2005. 5. Both surveys showed whitefish biomass increased significantly during the study, but whitefish ≥25 cm were poorly represented in benthic gillnet catches. Contrary to the acoustic findings, the BPUE of perch and roach in benthic gillnets did not vary significantly over time. This metric is insensitive to changes in size structure in that a high catch of small fish and a low catch of large fish in different years can provide similar average BPUE estimates. 6. We examined correlations between BPUE in benthic gillnets and acoustic methods at fine spatial scales by averaging acoustic backscattering measurements encompassed by buffers of varying size (250–2000 m) around individual gillnets and by averaging samples collected from lake quadrants. Correlations at fines scales were generally poor, and only in 1 year was the quadrant correlation significant. The lack of correlation can be explained, in part, by the two gears sampling different components of the fish community. Conversely, in pelagic habitat, where the

  10. Consistent estimation of complete neuronal connectivity in large neuronal populations using sparse "shotgun" neuronal activity sampling.

    PubMed

    Mishchenko, Yuriy

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the properties of recently proposed "shotgun" sampling approach for the common inputs problem in the functional estimation of neuronal connectivity. We study the asymptotic correctness, the speed of convergence, and the data size requirements of such an approach. We show that the shotgun approach can be expected to allow the inference of complete connectivity matrix in large neuronal populations under some rather general conditions. However, we find that the posterior error of the shotgun connectivity estimator grows quickly with the size of unobserved neuronal populations, the square of average connectivity strength, and the square of observation sparseness. This implies that the shotgun connectivity estimation will require significantly larger amounts of neuronal activity data whenever the number of neurons in observed neuronal populations remains small. We present a numerical approach for solving the shotgun estimation problem in general settings and use it to demonstrate the shotgun connectivity inference in the examples of simulated synfire and weakly coupled cortical neuronal networks. PMID:27515518

  11. Correlation Analysis of Optical and Radio Light Curves for a Large Sample of Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, S. D.; Smith, A. G.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.

    1995-08-01

    The Rosemary Hill Observatory has accumulated internally consistent light curves extending over as much as 26 years for a large sample of active galactic nuclei. Forty-six of these optical records have been compared with similar radio records from the University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory and the Algonquin Radio Observatory. For 18 objects, pairs of records were sufficiently long and unconfused to allow reliable application of the Discrete Correlation Function analysis; this group included 8 BL Lacertids, 8 quasars, and 2 Seyfert galaxies. Nine of the 18 sources showed positive radio-optical correlations, with the radio events lagging the optical by intervals ranging from 0 to 14 months. Consistent with the relativistic beaming model of the BL Lacertids, the group displaying correlations was dominated by this type of object.

  12. Consistent estimation of complete neuronal connectivity in large neuronal populations using sparse "shotgun" neuronal activity sampling.

    PubMed

    Mishchenko, Yuriy

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the properties of recently proposed "shotgun" sampling approach for the common inputs problem in the functional estimation of neuronal connectivity. We study the asymptotic correctness, the speed of convergence, and the data size requirements of such an approach. We show that the shotgun approach can be expected to allow the inference of complete connectivity matrix in large neuronal populations under some rather general conditions. However, we find that the posterior error of the shotgun connectivity estimator grows quickly with the size of unobserved neuronal populations, the square of average connectivity strength, and the square of observation sparseness. This implies that the shotgun connectivity estimation will require significantly larger amounts of neuronal activity data whenever the number of neurons in observed neuronal populations remains small. We present a numerical approach for solving the shotgun estimation problem in general settings and use it to demonstrate the shotgun connectivity inference in the examples of simulated synfire and weakly coupled cortical neuronal networks.

  13. Ultrasensitive multiplex optical quantification of bacteria in large samples of biofluids

    PubMed Central

    Pazos-Perez, Nicolas; Pazos, Elena; Catala, Carme; Mir-Simon, Bernat; Gómez-de Pedro, Sara; Sagales, Juan; Villanueva, Carlos; Vila, Jordi; Soriano, Alex; García de Abajo, F. Javier; Alvarez-Puebla, Ramon A.

    2016-01-01

    Efficient treatments in bacterial infections require the fast and accurate recognition of pathogens, with concentrations as low as one per milliliter in the case of septicemia. Detecting and quantifying bacteria in such low concentrations is challenging and typically demands cultures of large samples of blood (~1 milliliter) extending over 24–72 hours. This delay seriously compromises the health of patients. Here we demonstrate a fast microorganism optical detection system for the exhaustive identification and quantification of pathogens in volumes of biofluids with clinical relevance (~1 milliliter) in minutes. We drive each type of bacteria to accumulate antibody functionalized SERS-labelled silver nanoparticles. Particle aggregation on the bacteria membranes renders dense arrays of inter-particle gaps in which the Raman signal is exponentially amplified by several orders of magnitude relative to the dispersed particles. This enables a multiplex identification of the microorganisms through the molecule-specific spectral fingerprints. PMID:27364357

  14. Characterizing Large Text Corpora Using a Maximum Variation Sampling Genetic Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Robert M

    2006-01-01

    An enormous amount of information available via the Internet exists. Much of this data is in the form of text-based documents. These documents cover a variety of topics that are vitally important to the scientific, business, and defense/security communities. Currently, there are a many techniques for processing and analyzing such data. However, the ability to quickly characterize a large set of documents still proves challenging. Previous work has successfully demonstrated the use of a genetic algorithm for providing a representative subset for text documents via adaptive sampling. In this work, we further expand and explore this approach on much larger data sets using a parallel Genetic Algorithm (GA) with adaptive parameter control. Experimental results are presented and discussed.

  15. Ultrasensitive multiplex optical quantification of bacteria in large samples of biofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazos-Perez, Nicolas; Pazos, Elena; Catala, Carme; Mir-Simon, Bernat; Gómez-de Pedro, Sara; Sagales, Juan; Villanueva, Carlos; Vila, Jordi; Soriano, Alex; García de Abajo, F. Javier; Alvarez-Puebla, Ramon A.

    2016-07-01

    Efficient treatments in bacterial infections require the fast and accurate recognition of pathogens, with concentrations as low as one per milliliter in the case of septicemia. Detecting and quantifying bacteria in such low concentrations is challenging and typically demands cultures of large samples of blood (~1 milliliter) extending over 24–72 hours. This delay seriously compromises the health of patients. Here we demonstrate a fast microorganism optical detection system for the exhaustive identification and quantification of pathogens in volumes of biofluids with clinical relevance (~1 milliliter) in minutes. We drive each type of bacteria to accumulate antibody functionalized SERS-labelled silver nanoparticles. Particle aggregation on the bacteria membranes renders dense arrays of inter-particle gaps in which the Raman signal is exponentially amplified by several orders of magnitude relative to the dispersed particles. This enables a multiplex identification of the microorganisms through the molecule-specific spectral fingerprints.

  16. NO RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INTELLIGENCE AND FACIAL ATTRACTIVENESS IN A LARGE, GENETICALLY INFORMATIVE SAMPLE

    PubMed Central

    Mitchem, Dorian G.; Zietsch, Brendan P.; Wright, Margaret J.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Hewitt, John K.; Keller, Matthew C.

    2015-01-01

    Theories in both evolutionary and social psychology suggest that a positive correlation should exist between facial attractiveness and general intelligence, and several empirical observations appear to corroborate this expectation. Using highly reliable measures of facial attractiveness and IQ in a large sample of identical and fraternal twins and their siblings, we found no evidence for a phenotypic correlation between these traits. Likewise, neither the genetic nor the environmental latent factor correlations were statistically significant. We supplemented our analyses of new data with a simple meta-analysis that found evidence of publication bias among past studies of the relationship between facial attractiveness and intelligence. In view of these results, we suggest that previously published reports may have overestimated the strength of the relationship and that the theoretical bases for the predicted attractiveness-intelligence correlation may need to be reconsidered. PMID:25937789

  17. [Impact of TDZ and NAA on adventitious bud induction and cluster bud multiplication in Tulipa edulis].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li-Fang; Xu, Chao; Zhu, Zai-Biao; Yang, He-Tong; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Xu, Hong-jian; Ma, Hong-Jian; Zhao, Gui-Hua

    2014-08-01

    To explore the method of explants directly induced bud and establish the tissue culture system of mutiple shoot by means of direct organogenesis, core bud and daughter bulbs (the top of bud stem expanded to form daughter bulb) of T. edulis were used as explants and treated with thidiazuron (TDZ) and 1-naphthlcetic acid (NAA). The results showed that the optimal medium for bud inducted form core bud and daughter bulb were MS + TDZ 2.0 mg x L(-1) + NAA 4.0 mg x L(-1) and MS +TDZ 2.0 mg x L(-1) + NAA 2.0 mg x L(-1) respectively, both of them had a bud induction rate of 72.92%, 79.22%. The optimal medium for cluster buds multiplication was MS + TDZ 0.2 mg x L(-1) + NAA 0.2 mg x L(-1), and proliferation coefficient was 2.23. After proliferation, cluster buds rooting occurred on MS medium with IBA 1.0 mg x L(-1) and the rooting rate was 52.6%, three to five seedlings in each plant. Using core bud and daughter bulb of T. edulis, the optimum medium for adventitious bud directly inducted from daughter bulb, core bud and cluster bud multiplication were screened out and the tissue culture system of multiple shoot by means of direct organogenesis was established. PMID:25509282

  18. Expanding the Phenotype Associated with NAA10-Related N-Terminal Acetylation Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Saunier, Chloé; Støve, Svein Isungset; Popp, Bernt; Gérard, Bénédicte; Blenski, Marina; AhMew, Nicholas; de Bie, Charlotte; Goldenberg, Paula; Isidor, Bertrand; Keren, Boris; Leheup, Bruno; Lampert, Laetitia; Mignot, Cyril; Tezcan, Kamer; Mancini, Grazia M S; Nava, Caroline; Wasserstein, Melissa; Bruel, Ange-Line; Thevenon, Julien; Masurel, Alice; Duffourd, Yannis; Kuentz, Paul; Huet, Frédéric; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; van Slegtenhorst, Marjon; Faivre, Laurence; Piton, Amélie; Reis, André; Arnesen, Thomas; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Zweier, Christiane

    2016-08-01

    N-terminal acetylation is a common protein modification in eukaryotes associated with numerous cellular processes. Inherited mutations in NAA10, encoding the catalytic subunit of the major N-terminal acetylation complex NatA have been associated with diverse, syndromic X-linked recessive disorders, whereas de novo missense mutations have been reported in one male and one female individual with severe intellectual disability but otherwise unspecific phenotypes. Thus, the full genetic and clinical spectrum of NAA10 deficiency is yet to be delineated. We identified three different novel and one known missense mutation in NAA10, de novo in 11 females, and due to maternal germ line mosaicism in another girl and her more severely affected and deceased brother. In vitro enzymatic assays for the novel, recurrent mutations p.(Arg83Cys) and p.(Phe128Leu) revealed reduced catalytic activity. X-inactivation was random in five females. The core phenotype of X-linked NAA10-related N-terminal-acetyltransferase deficiency in both males and females includes developmental delay, severe intellectual disability, postnatal growth failure with severe microcephaly, and skeletal or cardiac anomalies. Genotype-phenotype correlations within and between both genders are complex and may include various factors such as location and nature of mutations, enzymatic stability and activity, and X-inactivation in females. PMID:27094817

  19. NAA TECHNIQUE FOR CLINICAL INVESTIGATION OF MICE IMMUNIZED WITH BOTHROP VENOM

    SciTech Connect

    Zamboni, C. B.; Aguiar, R. O.; Kovacs, L.; Suzuki, M.; Sant'Anna, O. A.

    2009-06-03

    In the present study Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique was used to determine sodium concentration in whole blood of mice immunized with Bothrops venom. With this value it was possible to perform clinical investigation in this animal model using whole blood.

  20. Characterization of Ions in Urine of Animal Model with Acute Renal Failure using NAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Pessoal, Edson A.; Borges, Fernanda T.

    2011-08-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique has been used to determine elements concentrations in urine of rats Wistar (control group) and rats Wistar with Acute Renal Failure (ARF). These data contribute for applications in health area related to biochemical analyses using urine to monitor the dialyze treatment.

  1. Expanding the Phenotype Associated with NAA10-Related N-Terminal Acetylation Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Saunier, Chloé; Støve, Svein Isungset; Popp, Bernt; Gérard, Bénédicte; Blenski, Marina; AhMew, Nicholas; de Bie, Charlotte; Goldenberg, Paula; Isidor, Bertrand; Keren, Boris; Leheup, Bruno; Lampert, Laetitia; Mignot, Cyril; Tezcan, Kamer; Mancini, Grazia M S; Nava, Caroline; Wasserstein, Melissa; Bruel, Ange-Line; Thevenon, Julien; Masurel, Alice; Duffourd, Yannis; Kuentz, Paul; Huet, Frédéric; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; van Slegtenhorst, Marjon; Faivre, Laurence; Piton, Amélie; Reis, André; Arnesen, Thomas; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Zweier, Christiane

    2016-08-01

    N-terminal acetylation is a common protein modification in eukaryotes associated with numerous cellular processes. Inherited mutations in NAA10, encoding the catalytic subunit of the major N-terminal acetylation complex NatA have been associated with diverse, syndromic X-linked recessive disorders, whereas de novo missense mutations have been reported in one male and one female individual with severe intellectual disability but otherwise unspecific phenotypes. Thus, the full genetic and clinical spectrum of NAA10 deficiency is yet to be delineated. We identified three different novel and one known missense mutation in NAA10, de novo in 11 females, and due to maternal germ line mosaicism in another girl and her more severely affected and deceased brother. In vitro enzymatic assays for the novel, recurrent mutations p.(Arg83Cys) and p.(Phe128Leu) revealed reduced catalytic activity. X-inactivation was random in five females. The core phenotype of X-linked NAA10-related N-terminal-acetyltransferase deficiency in both males and females includes developmental delay, severe intellectual disability, postnatal growth failure with severe microcephaly, and skeletal or cardiac anomalies. Genotype-phenotype correlations within and between both genders are complex and may include various factors such as location and nature of mutations, enzymatic stability and activity, and X-inactivation in females.

  2. [Impact of TDZ and NAA on adventitious bud induction and cluster bud multiplication in Tulipa edulis].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li-Fang; Xu, Chao; Zhu, Zai-Biao; Yang, He-Tong; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Xu, Hong-jian; Ma, Hong-Jian; Zhao, Gui-Hua

    2014-08-01

    To explore the method of explants directly induced bud and establish the tissue culture system of mutiple shoot by means of direct organogenesis, core bud and daughter bulbs (the top of bud stem expanded to form daughter bulb) of T. edulis were used as explants and treated with thidiazuron (TDZ) and 1-naphthlcetic acid (NAA). The results showed that the optimal medium for bud inducted form core bud and daughter bulb were MS + TDZ 2.0 mg x L(-1) + NAA 4.0 mg x L(-1) and MS +TDZ 2.0 mg x L(-1) + NAA 2.0 mg x L(-1) respectively, both of them had a bud induction rate of 72.92%, 79.22%. The optimal medium for cluster buds multiplication was MS + TDZ 0.2 mg x L(-1) + NAA 0.2 mg x L(-1), and proliferation coefficient was 2.23. After proliferation, cluster buds rooting occurred on MS medium with IBA 1.0 mg x L(-1) and the rooting rate was 52.6%, three to five seedlings in each plant. Using core bud and daughter bulb of T. edulis, the optimum medium for adventitious bud directly inducted from daughter bulb, core bud and cluster bud multiplication were screened out and the tissue culture system of multiple shoot by means of direct organogenesis was established.

  3. Prevalence of Learned Grapheme-Color Pairings in a Large Online Sample of Synesthetes

    PubMed Central

    Witthoft, Nathan; Winawer, Jonathan; Eagleman, David M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we estimate the minimum prevalence of grapheme-color synesthetes with letter-color matches learned from an external stimulus, by analyzing a large sample of English-speaking grapheme-color synesthetes. We find that at least 6% (400/6588 participants) of the total sample learned many of their matches from a widely available colored letter toy. Among those born in the decade after the toy began to be manufactured, the proportion of synesthetes with learned letter-color pairings approaches 15% for some 5-year periods. Among those born 5 years or more before it was manufactured, none have colors learned from the toy. Analysis of the letter-color matching data suggests the only difference between synesthetes with matches to the toy and those without is exposure to the stimulus. These data indicate learning of letter-color pairings from external contingencies can occur in a substantial fraction of synesthetes, and are consistent with the hypothesis that grapheme-color synesthesia is a kind of conditioned mental imagery. PMID:25739095

  4. Identifying Microlenses In Large, Non-uniformly Sampled Surveys: The Case Of PTF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Agúeros, M.; Fournier, A.; Ofek, E.; Street, R.

    2012-05-01

    Many current photometric, time-domain surveys are driven by specific goals, such as supernova searches, transiting exoplanet discoveries, or stellar variability studies, which set the cadence with which individual fields get re-imaged. In the case of the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), several such sub-surveys are being conducted in parallel, leading to an extremely non-uniform sampling gradient over the survey footprint of nearly 20,000 deg^2: while the typical 7.26 deg^2 PTF field has been imaged 15 times, 1000 deg^2 of the survey has been observed more than 150 times. We use the existing PTF data to study the trade-off between a large survey footprint and irregular sampling when searching for microlensing events, and to examine the probability that such events can be recovered in these data. We conduct Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate our detection efficiency in a hypothetical survey field as a function of both the baseline and number of observations. We also apply variability statistics to systematically differentiate between periodic, transient, and flat light curves. Preliminary results suggest that both recovery and discovery of microlensing events are possible with a careful consideration of photometric systematics. This work can help inform predictions about the observability of microlensing signals in future wide-field time-domain surveys such as that of LSST.

  5. Quantitative video sampling of coral reef benthos: large-scale application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carleton, J. H.; Done, T. J.

    1995-02-01

    The feasibility of reliably estimating percent cover of coral reef benthos by video techniques is examined. Video belt transects were recorded within study areas on Davies and John Brewer Reefs in the central Great Barrier Reef during September 1988. Two years later in September 1990, the study area at Davies Reef was resampled concurrently by video and line intercept transects. Percent cover data of major coral growth forms and non-biotic physionomic attributes were extracted from video footage by scoring the identity of items located at even or random spaced points along the transect. A cost-benefit analysis which compared increases in precision with increases in sampling effort suggested that the optimum regime for analyzing 200 m long video transects was five subsamples of 110 random points or one sample of 550. This regime resolved both spatial variability at large and smaller spatial scales (between study areas and among transects) and temporal change (within a single study area over a two year period) for total live coral and individual growth forms. The strengths of the technique lie in its cost-savings in filed expenses, and in the production of a permanent visual record. The limitations of the technique lie in reduced taxonomic resolution when compared with “hands on” field techniques. The results suggest that for broad taxonomic categories of coral reef benthos reliable estimates of relative abundance can be obtained by video techniques.

  6. Prevalence of learned grapheme-color pairings in a large online sample of synesthetes.

    PubMed

    Witthoft, Nathan; Winawer, Jonathan; Eagleman, David M

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we estimate the minimum prevalence of grapheme-color synesthetes with letter-color matches learned from an external stimulus, by analyzing a large sample of English-speaking grapheme-color synesthetes. We find that at least 6% (400/6588 participants) of the total sample learned many of their matches from a widely available colored letter toy. Among those born in the decade after the toy began to be manufactured, the proportion of synesthetes with learned letter-color pairings approaches 15% for some 5-year periods. Among those born 5 years or more before it was manufactured, none have colors learned from the toy. Analysis of the letter-color matching data suggests the only difference between synesthetes with matches to the toy and those without is exposure to the stimulus. These data indicate learning of letter-color pairings from external contingencies can occur in a substantial fraction of synesthetes, and are consistent with the hypothesis that grapheme-color synesthesia is a kind of conditioned mental imagery. PMID:25739095

  7. Detecting Superior Face Recognition Skills in a Large Sample of Young British Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bobak, Anna K.; Pampoulov, Philip; Bate, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The Cambridge Face Memory Test Long Form (CFMT+) and Cambridge Face Perception Test (CFPT) are typically used to assess the face processing ability of individuals who believe they have superior face recognition skills. Previous large-scale studies have presented norms for the CFPT but not the CFMT+. However, previous research has also highlighted the necessity for establishing country-specific norms for these tests, indicating that norming data is required for both tests using young British adults. The current study addressed this issue in 254 British participants. In addition to providing the first norm for performance on the CFMT+ in any large sample, we also report the first UK specific cut-off for superior face recognition on the CFPT. Further analyses identified a small advantage for females on both tests, and only small associations between objective face recognition skills and self-report measures. A secondary aim of the study was to examine the relationship between trait or social anxiety and face processing ability, and no associations were noted. The implications of these findings for the classification of super-recognizers are discussed. PMID:27713706

  8. Development of high-efficiency passive counters (HEPC) for the verification of large LEU samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peerani, P.; Canadell, V.; Garijo, J.; Jackson, K.; Jaime, R.; Looman, M.; Ravazzani, A.; Schwalbach, P.; Swinhoe, M.

    2009-04-01

    A paper describing the conceptual idea of using passive neutron assay for the verification of large size uranium samples in fuel fabrication plants was first presented at the 2001 ESARDA conference. The advantages of this technique, as a replacement of active interrogation using the PHOto-Neutron Interrogation Device (PHONID) device, were evident provided that a suitable detector with higher efficiency than those commercially available would be realised. The previous paper also included a feasibility study based on the experimental data. To implement this technique, a high-efficiency passive counter (HEPC) has been designed by the JRC, Ispra. JRC has also built a first smaller-scale prototype. This paper will describe the tests made in the PERLA laboratory and report the performance of the prototype. In parallel, the design of the large HEPC has been finalised for Euratom safeguards. Two units for the fuel fabrication plants in Dessel (B) and Juzbado (E) have been produced by a commercial manufacturer under JRC specifications. The two detectors have been installed in the two sites in summer 2004 after an extensive test campaign in PERLA. Since then they are in use and some feedback on the experience gained is reported at the end of this paper.

  9. Calcium Isolation from Large-Volume Human Urine Samples for 41Ca Analysis by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Miller, James J; Hui, Susanta K; Jackson, George S; Clark, Sara P; Einstein, Jane; Weaver, Connie M; Bhattacharyya, Maryka H

    2013-01-01

    Calcium oxalate precipitation is the first step in preparation of biological samples for 41Ca analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry. A simplified protocol for large-volume human urine samples was characterized, with statistically significant increases in ion current and decreases in interference. This large-volume assay minimizes cost and effort and maximizes time after 41Ca administration during which human samples, collected over a lifetime, provide 41Ca:Ca ratios that are significantly above background. PMID:23672965

  10. Minimizing uncertainty of daily rainfall interpolation over large catchments through realistic sampling of anisotropic correlogram parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyasi-Agyei, Yeboah

    2016-04-01

    It has been established that daily rainfall gauged network density is not adequate for the level of hydrological modelling required of large catchments involving pollutant and sediment transport, such as the catchments draining the coastal regions of Queensland, Australia, to the sensitive Great Barrier Reef. This paper seeks to establish a link between the spatial structure of radar and gauge rainfall for improved interpolation of the limited gauged data over a grid or functional units of catchments in regions with or without radar records. The study area is within Mt. Stapylton weather radar station range, a 128 km square region for calibration and validation, and the Brisbane river catchment for validation only. Two time periods (2000-01-01 to 2008-12-31 and 2009-01-01 to 2015-06-30) were considered, the later period for calibration when radar records were available and both time periods for validation without regard to radar information. Anisotropic correlograms of both the gauged and radar data were developed and used to establish the linkage required for areas without radar records. The maximum daily temperature significantly influenced the distributional parameters of the linkage. While the gauged, radar and sampled correlogram parameters reproduced the mean estimates similarly using leave-one-out cross-validation of Ordinary Kriging, the gauged parameters overestimated the standard deviation (SD) which reflects uncertainty by over 91% of cases compared with the radar or the sampled parameter sets. However, the distribution of the SD generated by the radar and the sampled correlogram parameters could not be distinguished, with a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test p-value of 0.52. For the validation case with the catchment, the percentage overestimation of SD by the gauged parameter sets decreased to 81.2% and 87.1% for the earlier and later time periods, respectively. It is observed that the extreme wet days' parameters and statistics were fairly widely distributed

  11. Applications of large-volume sampling assemblies for the determination of organochlorines in seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Risebrough, R.W.; Lappe, B.W. de; Ramer, R.

    1995-12-31

    In the 1970s an overly ambitious attempt to construct a global mass balance of PCBs was thwarted by the difficulties in obtaining credible values of their seawater concentrations. Concepts of transfer processes have since shifted from a simplistic one-way passage of PCBs from land to sea to continuous exchanges between and among all local media, including transfer from seawater to the atmosphere, with the net fluxes determined by local chemical potentials. Seawater measurements continue to be critically important. The authors describe the latest in a series of sampling assemblies for the determination of PCBs and other organochlorines in natural waters. Each has used glass fiber filters for the collection of particles and a high-density porous polyurethane foam for extraction from the seawater phase. The latest versions provide for the prevention of channeling around the foam medium, forcing water through the foam, and for the possibility of the analysis of separate modular units to estimate recoveries. Sample volumes have ranged from 100 to 3,600 liters at sites in coastal California and San Francisco Bay, the eastern Pacific, and coastal Catalonia. The latest version (1995) addresses and at least partially corrects the principal deficiencies of earlier versions --, the large volume of solvents and the considerable personnel time required in sample workup. The authors present recovery data for PCBs, other organochlorines, PAHs, and several herbicides. In the eastern Pacific, PCBs were not detected at a sensitivity level in the order of 1 pg/liter; toxaphene and alpha-HCH were the most abundant organochlorines at those sites. They are now somewhat closer to the goal of formulating global mass balance equations and of estimating global inventories of these contaminants.

  12. Assessing the Validity of Single-item Life Satisfaction Measures: Results from Three Large Samples

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Felix; Lucas, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The present paper assessed the validity of single-item life satisfaction measures by comparing single-item measures to the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) - a more psychometrically established measure. Methods Two large samples from Washington (N=13,064) and Oregon (N=2,277) recruited by the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and a representative German sample (N=1,312) recruited by the Germany Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) were included in the present analyses. Single-item life satisfaction measures and the SWLS were correlated with theoretically relevant variables, such as demographics, subjective health, domain satisfaction, and affect. The correlations between the two life satisfaction measures and these variables were examined to assess the construct validity of single-item life satisfaction measures. Results Consistent across three samples, single-item life satisfaction measures demonstrated substantial degree of criterion validity with the SWLS (zero-order r = 0.62 – 0.64; disattenuated r = 0.78 – 0.80). Patterns of statistical significance for correlations with theoretically relevant variables were the same across single-item measures and the SWLS. Single-item measures did not produce systematically different correlations compared to the SWLS (average difference = 0.001 – 0.005). The average absolute difference in the magnitudes of the correlations produced by single-item measures and the SWLS were very small (average absolute difference = 0.015 −0.042). Conclusions Single-item life satisfaction measures performed very similarly compared to the multiple-item SWLS. Social scientists would get virtually identical answer to substantive questions regardless of which measure they use. PMID:24890827

  13. The Soft X-Ray Emission in a Large Sample of Galaxy Clusters with ROSAT PSPC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonamente, Massimiliano; Lieu, Richard; Joy, Marshall K.; Nevalainen, Jukka H.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The study of soft X-ray emission of 38 X-ray selected galaxy clusters observed by ROSAT PSPC indicates that the soft excess phenomenon may be a common occurrence in galaxy clusters. Excess soft X-ray radiation, above the contribution from the hot intra-cluster medium, is evident in a large fraction of sources, and is clearly detected with large statistical significance in the deepest observations. The investigation relies on new, high resolution 21 cm HI observations. The sample selection also features analysis of infrared images, to further ensure reliability of results with respect to the characteristics of Galactic absorption. The possibility of background or calibration effects as cause of the excess emission is likewise investigated; a detailed analysis of the distribution of the excess emission with respect to detector position and Galactic HI column density shows that the excess emission is a genuine celestial phenomenon. We find evidence for a preferential distribution of the soft excess emission at distances larger than approx. 150-200 kpc from the centers of clusters; this behavior may be naturally explained in the context of a non-thermal Inverse-Compton scenario. Alternatively, we propose that the phenomenon maybe caused by thermal emission of very large-scale 'warm' filaments seen in recent hydrodynamic simulations. This new interpretation relieves the very demanding requirements of either the traditional intra-cluster 'warm' gas and the non-thermal scenarios. We also investigate the possibility of the soft excess originating from unresolved, X-ray faint cluster galaxies.

  14. Is NAA reduction in normal contralateral cerebral tissue in stroke patients dependent on underlying risk factors?

    PubMed Central

    Walker, P M; Salem, D Ben; Giroud, M; Brunotte, F

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose This retrospective study investigated the dependence of N‐acetyl aspartate (NAA) ratios on risk factors for cerebral vasculopathy such as sex, age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, carotid stenosis, and dyslipidaemia, which may have affected brain vessels and induced metabolic brain abnormalities prior to stroke. We hypothesise that in stroke patients metabolic alterations in the apparently normal contralateral brain are dependent on the presence or not of such risk factors. Methods Fifty nine patients (31 male, 28 female: 58.8±16.1 years old) with cortical middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory infarction were included. Long echo time chemical shift imaging spectroscopy was carried out on a Siemens 1.5 T Magnetom Vision scanner using a multi‐voxel PRESS technique. Metabolite ratios (NAA/choline, NAA/creatine, lactate/choline, etc) were studied using uni‐ and multivariate analyses with respect to common risk factors. The influence of age, stroke lesion size, and time since stroke was studied using a linear regression approach. Results Age, sex, and hypertension all appeared to individually influence metabolite ratios, although only hypertension was significant after multivariate analysis. In both basal ganglia and periventricular white matter regions in apparently normal contralateral brain, the NAA/choline ratio was significantly lower in hypertensive (1.37±0.16 and 1.50±0.19, respectively) than in normotensive patients (1.72±0.19 and 1.85±0.15, respectively). Conclusions Regarding MCA infarction, contralateral tissue remote from the lesion behaves abnormally in the presence of hypertension, the NAA ratios in hypertensive patients being significantly lower. These data suggest that hypertension may compromise the use of contralateral tissue data as a reference for comparison with ischaemic tissue. PMID:16614018

  15. Improving sensitivity by large-volume sample stacking using the electroosmotic flow pump to analyze some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs by capillary electrophoresis in water samples.

    PubMed

    Macià, Alba; Borrull, Francesc; Aguilar, Carme; Calull, Marta

    2003-08-01

    Large-volume sample stacking using the electroosmotic flow (EOF) pump (LVSEP) has been used to analyze some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in water samples. With methanol as the run buffer solvent to suppress the EOF, sensitivity was enhanced by 80-100-fold. The sample for the analysis of real water sample was pretreated by solid-phase extraction (SPE). When the method was based on off-line SPE-LVSEP-CE, sensitivity improved by as much as 1000 times.

  16. THE X-RAY VARIABILITY OF A LARGE, SERENDIPITOUS SAMPLE OF SPECTROSCOPIC QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, Robert R.; Brandt, W. N.

    2012-02-10

    We analyze the X-ray variability of 264 Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectroscopic quasars using the Chandra public archive. This data set consists of quasars with spectroscopic redshifts out to z Almost-Equal-To 5 and covers rest-frame timescales up to {Delta}t{sub sys} Almost-Equal-To 2000 days, with three or more X-ray observations available for 82 quasars. It therefore samples longer timescales and higher luminosities than previous large-scale analyses of active galactic nucleus (AGN) variability. We find significant ({approx}>3{sigma}) variation in Almost-Equal-To 30% of the quasars overall; the fraction of sources with detected variability increases strongly with the number of available source counts up to Almost-Equal-To 70% for sources with {>=}1000 counts per epoch. Assuming that the distribution of fractional variation is Gaussian, its standard deviation is Almost-Equal-To 16% on {approx}>1 week timescales, which is not enough to explain the observed scatter in quasar X-ray-to-optical flux ratios as being due to variability alone. We find no evidence in our sample that quasars are more variable at higher redshifts (z > 2), as has been suggested in previous studies. Quasar X-ray spectra vary similarly to some local Seyfert AGNs in that they steepen as they brighten, with evidence for a constant, hard spectral component that is more prominent in fainter stages. We identify one highly variable Narrow Line Seyfert 1-type spectroscopic quasar in the Chandra Deep Field-North. We constrain the rate of kilosecond-timescale flares in the quasar population using Almost-Equal-To 8 months of total exposure and also constrain the distribution of variation amplitudes between exposures; extreme changes (>100%) are quite rare, while variation at the 25% level occurs in <25% of observations. [O III] {lambda}5007 A emission may be stronger in sources with lower levels of X-ray variability; if confirmed, this would represent an additional link between small-scale (corona) and

  17. Broad absorption line variability on multi-year timescales in a large quasar sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filiz Ak, Nurten

    Outflows launched near the central supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are a common and important component of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Outflows in luminous AGNs (i.e., quasars) play a key role in mass accretion onto SMBH as well as in the feedback into host galaxies. The most prominent signature of such outflows appears as broad absorption lines (BALs) that are blueshifted from the emission line with a few thousands km s--1 velocities. In this dissertation, I place further constrains upon the size scale, internal structure, dynamics, and evolution of the outflows investigating profiles, properties, and variation characteristics of BAL troughs. I present observational results on BAL troughs in a large quasar sample utilizing spectroscopic observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey spanning on multi-year timescales. The results presented here, for the first time, provide a large and well-defined variability data base capable of discriminating between time-dependent hydrodynamic wind calculations in a statistically powerful manner. In a study of 582 quasars, I present 21 examples of BAL trough disappearance. Approximately 3.3% of BAL quasars show disappearing C IV trough on rest-frame timescales of 1.1--3.9 yr. BAL disappearance appears to occur mainly for shallow and weak or moderate-strength absorption troughs but not the strongest ones. When one BAL trough in a quasar spectrum disappears, the other present troughs usually weaken. Possible causes of such coordinated variations could be disk-wind rotation or variations of shielding gas that lead to variations of ionizing-continuum radiation. I present a detailed study on the variability of 428 C IV and 235 Si IV BAL troughs using a systematically observed sample of 291 BAL quasars. BAL variation distributions indicate that BAL disappearance is an extreme type of general BAL variability, rather than a qualitatively distinct phenomenon. The high observed frequency of BAL variability on multi-year timescales is

  18. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in a Large Sample of Anxiety Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bystritsky, Alexander; Hovav, Sarit; Sherbourne, Cathy; Stein, Murray B.; Rose, Raphael D.; Campbell-Sills, Laura; Golinelli, Daniela; Sullivan, Greer; Craske, Michelle G.; Roy-Byrne, Peter P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine a large sample of patients with anxiety and the association between types of complementary and alternative treatments that were used, demographic variables, diagnostic categories, and treatment outcomes. Method Cross-sectional and longitudinal survey during the Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management (CALM) study that assessed this intervention against the Usual Care in a sample of patients with anxiety recruited from primary care. Interviewer-administered questionnaires via a centralized telephone survey by blinded assessment raters. The interviews were done at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months of the study. A total of 1004 adults ages 18–75 who met DSM-IV criteria for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), Panic Disorder, Social Anxiety Disorder, or Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. We assessed medication/herbal use, the use of any alternative therapies, and combined Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) use. Results We found an extensive (43%) use of a variety of CAM treatments that is consistent with previous study results in populations with anxiety. Only a few significant demographic or interventional characteristics of CAM users were found. Users most often had a diagnosis of GAD, were older, more educated, and had two or more chronic medical conditions. CAM users who had a 50% or more drop in anxiety scores over 18 months were less likely to report continued use of alternative therapies. Conclusions The study confirms the importance of awareness of CAM use in this population for possible interference with traditional first-line treatments of these disorders, but also for finding the best integrative use for patients who require multiple treatment modalities. PMID:22304968

  19. Proposed production of a large (approx. 40. mu. g) sample of /sup 254/Es

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, J.E.; Alexander, C.W.; King, L.J.

    1985-01-01

    A recent workshop sponsored by the National Research Council has made it clear that the key to further substantial progress in heavy element research is the expanded use of 276-day /sup 254/Es as target material. Einsteinium-254 has the greatest mass and charge of any nuclide that can be produced in the required multimicrogram quantities in the foreseeable future. Four major laboratories (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)) active in transplutonium research have collaborated to propose a major new thrust in transplutonium research that will require an order of magnitude more /sup 254/Es than is normally available. This project, called LEAP (an acronym for Large Einsteinium Activation Program) has goals of determining the inorganic chemistry and nuclear chemistry and physics of the transeinsteinium elements through atomic number 109, plus a search for superheavy elements. LEAP is based on using approx.40-..mu..g of /sup 254/Es as a target for heavy-ion accelerators. The Tranuranium Processing Plant (TRU) of the Chemical Technology Division of ORNL has been given the task of determining the feasibility of producing a 40 ..mu..g sample of /sup 254/Es and, if later requested, of actually producing the sample. This task, which has been under way for several years, is directed toward three areas of investigation: (1) experimental determination of the neutron cross sections of certain transplutonium isotopes important to the production of /sup 254/Es; (2) selection of a /sup 254/Es production scheme; and (3) development of the necessary hardware, followed by an actual test irradiation. 12 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Analyzing large-scale samples highlights significant association between rs10411210 polymorphism and colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    He, Dongfeng; Ma, Lihong; Feng, Rennan; Zhang, Liangcai; Jiang, Yongshuai; Zhang, Yanqiao; Liu, Guiyou

    2015-08-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common form of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the Western countries. In order to detect common CRC genetic variants, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been performed and reported some novel CRC susceptibility variants. RHPN2 is located on 9q13.11, which encodes a member of the rhophilin family of Ras-homologous (Rho)-GTPase binding proteins. RHPN2 gene rs10411210 polymorphism was identified to be significantly associated with CRC in European ancestry. GWAS and candidate studies investigate whether rs10411210 polymorphism is associated with CRC risk in European, Asian and American populations. However, most studies reported no association. Evidence shows that RHPN2 rs10411210 variant may be a prognostic biomarker for patients with surgically resected CRC. Here we reevaluated this association using large-scale samples from 15 studies (131580 samples including 53564 CRC cases and 78016 controls) using meta-analysis method by searching the PubMed and Google Scholar databases. We did not identify significant heterogeneity among these 15 studies (P=0.4201 and I(2)=2.8%). Our results showed significant association between rs10411210 and CRC (P=9.17E-14, odds ratio (OR)=1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.13). In subgroup analysis, we found significant association between rs10411210 and CRC in European population with P=5.70E-09, OR=1.14, 95% CI 1.10-1.20 and Asian population with P=3.36E-07, OR=1.11, 95% CI 1.07-1.16, but not American population with P=0.0576, OR=1.05, 95% CI 1.00-1.09. Collectively, our analysis further highlights significant association between rs10411210 polymorphism and colorectal cancer.

  1. ALPHA ELEMENT ABUNDANCES IN A LARGE SAMPLE OF GALACTIC PLANETARY NEBULAE

    SciTech Connect

    Milingo, J. B.; Kwitter, K. B.; Souza, S. P.; Henry, R. B. C. E-mail: kkwitter@williams.ed E-mail: henry@mail.nhn.ou.ed

    2010-03-10

    In this paper, we present emission line strengths, abundances, and element ratios (X/O for Ne, S, Cl, and Ar) for a sample of 38 Galactic disk planetary nebulae (PNe) consisting primarily of Peimbert classification Type I. Spectrophotometry for these PNe incorporates an extended optical/near-IR range of lambdalambda3600-9600 A including the [S III] lines at 9069 A and 9532 A, setting this relatively large sample apart from typical spectral coverage. We have utilized Emission Line Spectrum Analyzer, a five-level atom abundance routine, to determine T{sub e} , N{sub e} , ionization correction factors, and total element abundances, thereby continuing our work toward a uniformly processed set of data. With a compilation of data from >120 Milky Way PNe, we present results from our most recent analysis of abundance patterns in Galactic disk PNe. With a wide range of metallicities, galactocentric distances, and both Type I and non-Type I objects, we have examined the alpha elements against H II regions and blue compact galaxies (H2BCGs) to discern signatures of depletion or enhancement in PNe progenitor stars, particularly the destruction or production of O and Ne. We present evidence that many PNe have higher Ne/O and lower Ar/Ne ratios compared to H2BCGs within the range of 8.5-9.0 for 12 + log(O/H). This suggests that Ne is being synthesized in the low- and intermediate-mass progenitors. Sulfur abundances in PNe continue to show great scatter and are systematically lower than those found in H2BCG at a given metallicity. Although we find that PNe do show some distinction in alpha elements when compared to H2BCG, within the Peimbert classification types studied, PNe do not show significant differences in alpha elements amongst themselves, at least to an extent that would distinguish in situ nucleosynthesis from the observed dispersion in abundance ratios.

  2. Mapping the Snow Line Altitude for Large Glacier Samples from Multitemporal Landsat Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastner, P.; Nicholson, L. I.; Notarnicola, C.; Prinz, R.; Sailer, R.

    2015-12-01

    The cryosphere of mountain regions is fastly changing in response to climate change. This is particularly evident in global-scale glacier retreat. Trends in snow cover, however, are more difficult to determine, as annual fluctuations can be very large. Snow is an important parameter in the energy and mass balance of glaciers and the snow line altitude (SLA) at the end of the melting period can be considered as a proxy for the equilibrium line altitude (ELA). By frequently observing the SLA from satellite, region-wide monitoring of glaciers and improved calibration and validation of transient glacier (mass balance) models is possible. In the near future, frequent mapping of the SLA will be strongly facilitated by satellite missions like Sentinel 2A/B, where the same region will be covered every 5 days with 10 m spatial resolution. For this study we have developed an automated tool to derive the SLA for large glacier samples from remote sensing data. The method is first applied in the Ötztal Alps (Austria) where reliable in-situ data of mass balance and ELA are available for several glaciers over a 30-years period. The algorithm currently works with multi-temporal Landsat imagery (1972-2015), digital glacier outlines and a high-quality national DEM. All input datasets are atmospherically and topographically pre-processed before the SLA is automatically retrieved for each glacier. The remote-sensing derived SLA is generally about 200 m lower than the ELA, however, a clear trend in the altitude of the end of summer snow line is detectable (~ 200 m), which is in agreement with the ELA trend observed in the field. After bias correction and conversion to mass balance, the variability in observed mass balance can be well reproduced from the satellite-derived SLA time series. This is promising for application of the approach in other regions.

  3. Large sample area and size are needed for forest soil seed bank studies to ensure low discrepancy with standing vegetation.

    PubMed

    Shen, You-xin; Liu, Wei-li; Li, Yu-hui; Guan, Hui-lin

    2014-01-01

    A large number of small-sized samples invariably shows that woody species are absent from forest soil seed banks, leading to a large discrepancy with the seedling bank on the forest floor. We ask: 1) Does this conventional sampling strategy limit the detection of seeds of woody species? 2) Are large sample areas and sample sizes needed for higher recovery of seeds of woody species? We collected 100 samples that were 10 cm (length) × 10 cm (width) × 10 cm (depth), referred to as larger number of small-sized samples (LNSS) in a 1 ha forest plot, and placed them to germinate in a greenhouse, and collected 30 samples that were 1 m × 1 m × 10 cm, referred to as small number of large-sized samples (SNLS) and placed them (10 each) in a nearby secondary forest, shrub land and grass land. Only 15.7% of woody plant species of the forest stand were detected by the 100 LNSS, contrasting with 22.9%, 37.3% and 20.5% woody plant species being detected by SNLS in the secondary forest, shrub land and grassland, respectively. The increased number of species vs. sampled areas confirmed power-law relationships for forest stand, the LNSS and SNLS at all three recipient sites. Our results, although based on one forest, indicate that conventional LNSS did not yield a high percentage of detection for woody species, but SNLS strategy yielded a higher percentage of detection for woody species in the seed bank if samples were exposed to a better field germination environment. A 4 m2 minimum sample area derived from power equations is larger than the sampled area in most studies in the literature. Increased sample size also is needed to obtain an increased sample area if the number of samples is to remain relatively low. PMID:25140738

  4. Horvitz-Thompson survey sample methods for estimating large-scale animal abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Garton, E.O.

    1994-01-01

    Large-scale surveys to estimate animal abundance can be useful for monitoring population status and trends, for measuring responses to management or environmental alterations, and for testing ecological hypotheses about abundance. However, large-scale surveys may be expensive and logistically complex. To ensure resources are not wasted on unattainable targets, the goals and uses of each survey should be specified carefully and alternative methods for addressing these objectives always should be considered. During survey design, the impoflance of each survey error component (spatial design, propofiion of detected animals, precision in detection) should be considered carefully to produce a complete statistically based survey. Failure to address these three survey components may produce population estimates that are inaccurate (biased low), have unrealistic precision (too precise) and do not satisfactorily meet the survey objectives. Optimum survey design requires trade-offs in these sources of error relative to the costs of sampling plots and detecting animals on plots, considerations that are specific to the spatial logistics and survey methods. The Horvitz-Thompson estimators provide a comprehensive framework for considering all three survey components during the design and analysis of large-scale wildlife surveys. Problems of spatial and temporal (especially survey to survey) heterogeneity in detection probabilities have received little consideration, but failure to account for heterogeneity produces biased population estimates. The goal of producing unbiased population estimates is in conflict with the increased variation from heterogeneous detection in the population estimate. One solution to this conflict is to use an MSE-based approach to achieve a balance between bias reduction and increased variation. Further research is needed to develop methods that address spatial heterogeneity in detection, evaluate the effects of temporal heterogeneity on survey

  5. NAA10 mutation causing a novel intellectual disability syndrome with Long QT due to N-terminal acetyltransferase impairment

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Jillian P.; Støve, Svein I.; McGorrian, Catherine; Galvin, Joseph; Blenski, Marina; Dunne, Aimee; Ennis, Sean; Brett, Francesca; King, Mary D.; Arnesen, Thomas; Lynch, Sally Ann

    2015-01-01

    We report two brothers from a non-consanguineous Irish family presenting with a novel syndrome characterised by intellectual disability, facial dysmorphism, scoliosis and long QT. Their mother has a milder phenotype including long QT. X-linked inheritance was suspected. Whole exome sequencing identified a novel missense variant (c.128 A > C; p.Tyr43Ser) in NAA10 (X chromosome) as the cause of the family’s disorder. Sanger sequencing confirmed that the mutation arose de novo in the carrier mother. NAA10 encodes the catalytic subunit of the major human N-terminal acetylation complex NatA. In vitro assays for the p.Tyr43Ser mutant enzyme showed a significant decrease in catalytic activity and reduced stability compared to wild-type Naa10 protein. NAA10 has previously been associated with Ogden syndrome, Lenz microphthalmia syndrome and non-syndromic developmental delay. Our findings expand the clinical spectrum of NAA10 and suggest that the proposed correlation between mutant Naa10 enzyme activity and phenotype severity is more complex than anticipated; the p.Tyr43Ser mutant enzyme has less catalytic activity than the p.Ser37Pro mutant associated with lethal Ogden syndrome but results in a milder phenotype. Importantly, we highlight the need for cardiac assessment in males and females with NAA10 variants as both patients and carriers can have long QT. PMID:26522270

  6. NAA-modified DNA oligonucleotides with zwitterionic backbones: stereoselective synthesis of A–T phosphoramidite building blocks

    PubMed Central

    Schmidtgall, Boris; Höbartner, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Summary Modifications of the nucleic acid backbone are essential for the development of oligonucleotide-derived bioactive agents. The NAA-modification represents a novel artificial internucleotide linkage which enables the site-specific introduction of positive charges into the otherwise polyanionic backbone of DNA oligonucleotides. Following initial studies with the introduction of the NAA-linkage at T–T sites, it is now envisioned to prepare NAA-modified oligonucleotides bearing the modification at X–T motifs (X = A, C, G). We have therefore developed the efficient and stereoselective synthesis of NAA-linked 'dimeric' A–T phosphoramidite building blocks for automated DNA synthesis. Both the (S)- and the (R)-configured NAA-motifs were constructed with high diastereoselectivities to furnish two different phosphoramidite reagents, which were employed for the solid phase-supported automated synthesis of two NAA-modified DNA oligonucleotides. This represents a significant step to further establish the NAA-linkage as a useful addition to the existing 'toolbox' of backbone modifications for the design of bioactive oligonucleotide analogues. PMID:25670992

  7. NAA10 mutation causing a novel intellectual disability syndrome with Long QT due to N-terminal acetyltransferase impairment.

    PubMed

    Casey, Jillian P; Støve, Svein I; McGorrian, Catherine; Galvin, Joseph; Blenski, Marina; Dunne, Aimee; Ennis, Sean; Brett, Francesca; King, Mary D; Arnesen, Thomas; Lynch, Sally Ann

    2015-01-01

    We report two brothers from a non-consanguineous Irish family presenting with a novel syndrome characterised by intellectual disability, facial dysmorphism, scoliosis and long QT. Their mother has a milder phenotype including long QT. X-linked inheritance was suspected. Whole exome sequencing identified a novel missense variant (c.128 A > C; p.Tyr43Ser) in NAA10 (X chromosome) as the cause of the family's disorder. Sanger sequencing confirmed that the mutation arose de novo in the carrier mother. NAA10 encodes the catalytic subunit of the major human N-terminal acetylation complex NatA. In vitro assays for the p.Tyr43Ser mutant enzyme showed a significant decrease in catalytic activity and reduced stability compared to wild-type Naa10 protein. NAA10 has previously been associated with Ogden syndrome, Lenz microphthalmia syndrome and non-syndromic developmental delay. Our findings expand the clinical spectrum of NAA10 and suggest that the proposed correlation between mutant Naa10 enzyme activity and phenotype severity is more complex than anticipated; the p.Tyr43Ser mutant enzyme has less catalytic activity than the p.Ser37Pro mutant associated with lethal Ogden syndrome but results in a milder phenotype. Importantly, we highlight the need for cardiac assessment in males and females with NAA10 variants as both patients and carriers can have long QT. PMID:26522270

  8. NAA10 mutation causing a novel intellectual disability syndrome with Long QT due to N-terminal acetyltransferase impairment.

    PubMed

    Casey, Jillian P; Støve, Svein I; McGorrian, Catherine; Galvin, Joseph; Blenski, Marina; Dunne, Aimee; Ennis, Sean; Brett, Francesca; King, Mary D; Arnesen, Thomas; Lynch, Sally Ann

    2015-11-02

    We report two brothers from a non-consanguineous Irish family presenting with a novel syndrome characterised by intellectual disability, facial dysmorphism, scoliosis and long QT. Their mother has a milder phenotype including long QT. X-linked inheritance was suspected. Whole exome sequencing identified a novel missense variant (c.128 A > C; p.Tyr43Ser) in NAA10 (X chromosome) as the cause of the family's disorder. Sanger sequencing confirmed that the mutation arose de novo in the carrier mother. NAA10 encodes the catalytic subunit of the major human N-terminal acetylation complex NatA. In vitro assays for the p.Tyr43Ser mutant enzyme showed a significant decrease in catalytic activity and reduced stability compared to wild-type Naa10 protein. NAA10 has previously been associated with Ogden syndrome, Lenz microphthalmia syndrome and non-syndromic developmental delay. Our findings expand the clinical spectrum of NAA10 and suggest that the proposed correlation between mutant Naa10 enzyme activity and phenotype severity is more complex than anticipated; the p.Tyr43Ser mutant enzyme has less catalytic activity than the p.Ser37Pro mutant associated with lethal Ogden syndrome but results in a milder phenotype. Importantly, we highlight the need for cardiac assessment in males and females with NAA10 variants as both patients and carriers can have long QT.

  9. A test of the interpersonal theory of suicide in a large sample of current firefighters.

    PubMed

    Chu, Carol; Buchman-Schmitt, Jennifer M; Hom, Melanie A; Stanley, Ian H; Joiner, Thomas E

    2016-06-30

    Recent research suggests that firefighters experience elevated rates of suicidal ideation and behaviors. The interpersonal theory of suicide may shed light on this finding. This theory postulates that suicidal desire is strongest among individuals experiencing perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness, and that the combination of suicide desire and acquired capability for suicide is necessary for the development of suicidal behaviors. We tested the propositions of the interpersonal theory in a large sample of current United States firefighters (N=863). Participants completed self-report measures of perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, fearlessness about death (FAD; a component of acquired capability), and career suicidal ideation and suicide attempt history. Regression models were used to examine the association between interpersonal theory constructs, career suicidal ideation severity, and the presence of career suicide attempts. In line with theory predictions, the three-way interaction between perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and FAD was significantly associated with career suicide attempts, beyond participant sex. However, findings were no longer significant after accounting for years of firefighter service or age. Contrary to predictions, the two-way interaction between perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness was not significantly related to career suicidal ideation severity. Applications of the theory to firefighters and future research are discussed.

  10. Large-sample hydrology: a need to balance depth with breadth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, H. V.; Perrin, C.; Blöschl, G.; Montanari, A.; Kumar, R.; Clark, M.; Andréassian, V.

    2014-02-01

    A holy grail of hydrology is to understand catchment processes well enough that models can provide detailed simulations across a variety of hydrologic settings at multiple spatiotemporal scales, and under changing environmental conditions. Clearly, this cannot be achieved only through intensive place-based investigation at a small number of heavily instrumented catchments, or by empirical methods that do not fully exploit our understanding of hydrology. In this opinion paper, we discuss the need to actively promote and pursue the use of a "large catchment sample" approach to modeling the rainfall-runoff process, thereby balancing depth with breadth. We examine the history of such investigations, discuss the benefits (improved process understanding resulting in robustness of prediction at ungauged locations and under change), examine some practical challenges to implementation and, finally, provide perspectives on issues that need to be taken into account as we move forward. Ultimately, our objective is to provoke further discussion and participation, and to promote a potentially important theme for the upcoming Scientific Decade of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences entitled Panta Rhei.

  11. Building blocks for developing spatial skills: evidence from a large, representative U.S. sample.

    PubMed

    Jirout, Jamie J; Newcombe, Nora S

    2015-03-01

    There is evidence suggesting that children's play with spatial toys (e.g., puzzles and blocks) correlates with spatial development. Females play less with spatial toys than do males, which arguably accounts for males' spatial advantages; children with high socioeconomic status (SES) also show an advantage, though SES-related differences in spatial play have been less studied than gender-related differences. Using a large, nationally representative sample from the standardization study of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Fourth Edition, and controlling for other cognitive abilities, we observed a specific relation between parent-reported frequency of spatial play and Block Design scores that was invariant across gender and SES. Reported spatial play was higher for boys than for girls, but controlling for spatial play did not eliminate boys' relative advantage on this subtest. SES groups did not differ in reported frequency of spatial play. Future research should consider quality as well as quantity of play, and should explore underlying mechanisms to evaluate causality.

  12. BROAD ABSORPTION LINE DISAPPEARANCE ON MULTI-YEAR TIMESCALES IN A LARGE QUASAR SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Filiz Ak, N.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, D. P.; Hall, P. B.; Anderson, S. F.; Gibson, R. R.; Lundgren, B. F.; Myers, A. D.; Petitjean, P.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Shen Yue; York, D. G.; Bizyaev, D.; Brinkmann, J.; Malanushenko, E.; Oravetz, D. J.; Pan, K.; Simmons, A. E.; Weaver, B. A.

    2012-10-01

    We present 21 examples of C IV broad absorption line (BAL) trough disappearance in 19 quasars selected from systematic multi-epoch observations of 582 bright BAL quasars (1.9 < z < 4.5) by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-I/II (SDSS-I/II) and SDSS-III. The observations span 1.1-3.9 yr rest-frame timescales, longer than have been sampled in many previous BAL variability studies. On these timescales, Almost-Equal-To 2.3% of C IV BAL troughs disappear and Almost-Equal-To 3.3% of BAL quasars show a disappearing trough. These observed frequencies suggest that many C IV BAL absorbers spend on average at most a century along our line of sight to their quasar. Ten of the 19 BAL quasars showing C IV BAL disappearance have apparently transformed from BAL to non-BAL quasars; these are the first reported examples of such transformations. The BAL troughs that disappear tend to be those with small-to-moderate equivalent widths, relatively shallow depths, and high outflow velocities. Other non-disappearing C IV BALs in those nine objects having multiple troughs tend to weaken when one of them disappears, indicating a connection between the disappearing and non-disappearing troughs, even for velocity separations as large as 10,000-15,000 km s{sup -1}. We discuss possible origins of this connection including disk-wind rotation and changes in shielding gas.

  13. A test of the interpersonal theory of suicide in a large sample of current firefighters.

    PubMed

    Chu, Carol; Buchman-Schmitt, Jennifer M; Hom, Melanie A; Stanley, Ian H; Joiner, Thomas E

    2016-06-30

    Recent research suggests that firefighters experience elevated rates of suicidal ideation and behaviors. The interpersonal theory of suicide may shed light on this finding. This theory postulates that suicidal desire is strongest among individuals experiencing perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness, and that the combination of suicide desire and acquired capability for suicide is necessary for the development of suicidal behaviors. We tested the propositions of the interpersonal theory in a large sample of current United States firefighters (N=863). Participants completed self-report measures of perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, fearlessness about death (FAD; a component of acquired capability), and career suicidal ideation and suicide attempt history. Regression models were used to examine the association between interpersonal theory constructs, career suicidal ideation severity, and the presence of career suicide attempts. In line with theory predictions, the three-way interaction between perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and FAD was significantly associated with career suicide attempts, beyond participant sex. However, findings were no longer significant after accounting for years of firefighter service or age. Contrary to predictions, the two-way interaction between perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness was not significantly related to career suicidal ideation severity. Applications of the theory to firefighters and future research are discussed. PMID:27078756

  14. Using Co-Occurrence to Evaluate Belief Coherence in a Large Non Clinical Sample

    PubMed Central

    Pechey, Rachel; Halligan, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Much of the recent neuropsychological literature on false beliefs (delusions) has tended to focus on individual or single beliefs, with few studies actually investigating the relationship or co-occurrence between different types of co-existing beliefs. Quine and Ullian proposed the hypothesis that our beliefs form an interconnected web in which the beliefs that make up that system must somehow “cohere” with one another and avoid cognitive dissonance. As such beliefs are unlikely to be encapsulated (i.e., exist in isolation from other beliefs). The aim of this preliminary study was to empirically evaluate the probability of belief co-occurrence as one indicator of coherence in a large sample of subjects involving three different thematic sets of beliefs (delusion-like, paranormal & religious, and societal/cultural). Results showed that the degree of belief co-endorsement between beliefs within thematic groupings was greater than random occurrence, lending support to Quine and Ullian’s coherentist account. Some associations, however, were relatively weak, providing for well-established examples of cognitive dissonance. PMID:23155383

  15. ORBITAL MONITORING OF THE ASTRALUX LARGE M-DWARF MULTIPLICITY SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Janson, Markus; Bergfors, Carolina; Brandner, Wolfgang; Schlieder, Joshua; Köhler, Rainer; Hormuth, Felix; Henning, Thomas; Hippler, Stefan; Bonnefoy, Mickaël

    2014-10-01

    Orbital monitoring of M-type binaries is essential for constraining their fundamental properties. This is particularly useful in young systems, where the extended pre-main-sequence evolution can allow for precise isochronal dating. Here, we present the continued astrometric monitoring of the more than 200 binaries of the AstraLux Large Multiplicity Survey, building both on our previous work, archival data, and new astrometric data spanning the range of 2010-2012. The sample is very young overall—all included stars have known X-ray emission, and a significant fraction (18%) of them have recently also been identified as members of young moving groups in the solar neighborhood. We identify ∼30 targets that both have indications of being young and for which an orbit either has been closed or appears possible to close in a reasonable time frame (a few years to a few decades). One of these cases, GJ 4326, is, however, identified as probably being substantially older than has been implied from its apparent moving group membership, based on astrometric and isochronal arguments. With further astrometric monitoring, these targets will provide a set of empirical isochrones, against which theoretical isochrones can be calibrated, and which can be used to evaluate the precise ages of nearby young moving groups.

  16. Timeless: A Large Sample Study on the Temporal Robustness of Affective Responses

    PubMed Central

    Postzich, Christopher; Blask, Katarina; Frings, Christian; Walther, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Emotion and its effects on other psychological phenomena are frequently studied by presenting emotional pictures for a short amount of time. However, the duration of exposure strongly differs across paradigms. In order to ensure the comparability of affective response elicitation across those paradigms, it is crucial to empirically validate emotional material not only with regard to the affective dimensions valence and arousal, but also with regard to varying presentation times. Despite this operational necessity for the temporal robustness of emotional material, there is only tentative empirical evidence on this issue. To close this gap, we conducted a large sample study testing for the influence of presentation time on affective response elicitation. Two hundred and forty emotional pictures were presented for either 200 or 1000 ms and were rated by 302 participants on the core affect dimensions valence and arousal. The most important finding was that affective response elicitation was comparable for 200 and 1000 ms presentation times, indicating reliable temporal robustness of affective response elicitation within the supra-liminal spectrum. Yet, a more detailed look on the data showed that presentation time impacted particularly on high arousing negative stimuli. However, because these interaction effects were exceedingly small, they must be interpreted with caution and do not endanger the main finding, namely the quite reliable temporal robustness of affective response elicitation. Results are discussed with regard to the comparability of affective response elicitation across varying paradigms. PMID:27313561

  17. Patterns of intimate partner violence in a large, epidemiological sample of divorcing couples.

    PubMed

    Beck, Connie J A; Anderson, Edward R; O'Hara, Karey L; Benjamin, G Andrew H

    2013-10-01

    In many jurisdictions divorcing couples are court-ordered to participate in divorce mediation to resolve parenting plan disputes prior to a court allowing a case to proceed to trial. Historically, a significant number (40-80%) of these divorcing couples enter this highly stressful legal process having experienced violence and abuse within the relationship (Pearson, 1997). Several researchers have developed typologies that describe couple-level patterns of Intimate Partner Violence and Abuse (IPV/A) behaviors; one research team suggested their typology could apply specifically to such divorcing people (Kelly & Johnson, 2008). In this context, identification and accurate classification of IPV/A can lead to better decisions as long-term, difficult to modify custody orders concerning the children are made during divorce mediation. Accurate identification and classification of IPV/A can also assist clinical researchers designing specialized interventions for couples and individuals experiencing IPV/A, mental health practitioners who may treat these families, and custody evaluators who may make recommendations to the courts. The current study includes a large epidemiological sample of divorcing couples and provides a robust statistical solution with five distinct categories of IPV/A. Two of the five categories were similar to those proposed by Johnson (2006c). The current study also provides descriptions and frequencies of each type of IPV/A, and discusses implications for court personnel, researchers and practitioners.

  18. Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool Performance in a Large Sample of Postmenopausal Women of Mendoza, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Saraví, Fernando D.

    2013-01-01

    The Osteoporosis Self-assessment Tool (OST) is a clinical instrument designed to select patients at risk of osteoporosis, who would benefit from a bone mineral density measurement. The OST only takes into account the age and weight of the subject. It was developed for Asian women and later validated for European and North American white women. The performance of the OST in a sample of 4343 women from Greater Mendoza, a large metropolitan area of Argentina, was assessed. Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans of lumbar spine and hip were obtained. Patients were classified as either osteoporotic (N = 1830) or nonosteoporotic (n = 2513) according to their lowest T-score at any site. Osteoporotic patients had lower OST scores (P < 0.0001). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve showed an area under the curve of 71% (P < 0.0001), with a sensitivity of 83.7% and a specificity of 44% for a cut-off value of 2. Positive predictive value was 52% and negative predictive value was 79%. The odds ratio for the diagnosis of osteoporosis was 4.06 (CI95 3.51 to 4.71; P < 0.0001). It is concluded that the OST is useful for selecting postmenopausal women for DXA testing in the studied population. PMID:23533947

  19. Building blocks for developing spatial skills: evidence from a large, representative U.S. sample.

    PubMed

    Jirout, Jamie J; Newcombe, Nora S

    2015-03-01

    There is evidence suggesting that children's play with spatial toys (e.g., puzzles and blocks) correlates with spatial development. Females play less with spatial toys than do males, which arguably accounts for males' spatial advantages; children with high socioeconomic status (SES) also show an advantage, though SES-related differences in spatial play have been less studied than gender-related differences. Using a large, nationally representative sample from the standardization study of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Fourth Edition, and controlling for other cognitive abilities, we observed a specific relation between parent-reported frequency of spatial play and Block Design scores that was invariant across gender and SES. Reported spatial play was higher for boys than for girls, but controlling for spatial play did not eliminate boys' relative advantage on this subtest. SES groups did not differ in reported frequency of spatial play. Future research should consider quality as well as quantity of play, and should explore underlying mechanisms to evaluate causality. PMID:25626442

  20. Use of field-applied quality control samples to monitor performance of a Goulden large-sample extractor/GC-MS method for pesticides in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foreman, W.T.; Gates, Paul M.; Foster, G.D.; Rinella, F.A.; McKenzie, S.W.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1985, the Goulden large-sample extractor (GLSE) has been used to isolate a broad array of trace-organic contaminants from large volumes of water. In this study, field-applied quality control measures, including matrix and surrogate spikes and blanks, were used to monitor method performance from GLSE extraction through GC-MS analysis. The method was applied to the determination of multiple classes of pesticides isolated from 4- to 112-L filtered surface-water samples. Average recoveries of six surrogate compounds ranged from 84 ?? 18% for [2H10]diazinon to 15 ?? 13% for 4,4'-[2H8]DDT, the low recoveries for which were largely a result of unmonitored breakdown of this surrogate by the GC injection system. Field-matrix-spike samples were prepared by fortifying 10-L, 35-L, and 110-L filtered surface-water samples with 68 pesticides to amended concentrations of 11- to 50-ng/L each. Recoveries ranged from not detected to greater than 100%. Variability in pesticide recoveries from triplicate 10-L water samples collected at one site averaged 5.7% relative standard deviation and did not exceed 19%.Since 1985, the Goulden large-sample extractor (GLSE) has been used to isolate a broad array of trace-organic contaminants from large volumes of water. In this study, field-applied quality control measures, including matrix and surrogate spikes and blanks, were used to monitor method performance from GLSE extraction through GC-MS analysis. The method was applied to the determination of multiple classes of pesticides isolated from 4- to 112-L filtered surface-water samples. Average recoveries of six surrogate compounds ranged from 84 ?? 18% for [2H10]diazinon to 15 ?? 13% for 4,4???-[2H8]DDT, the low recoveries for which were largely a result of unmonitored breakdown of this surrogate by the GC injection system. Field-matrix-spike samples were prepared by fortifying 10-L, 35-L, and 110-L filtered surface-water samples with 68 pesticides to amended concentrations of 11- to 50

  1. DNA from Dust: Comparative Genomics of Large DNA Viruses in Field Surveillance Samples

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Utsav; Bell, Andrew S.; Renner, Daniel W.; Kennedy, David A.; Shreve, Jacob T.; Cairns, Chris L.; Jones, Matthew J.; Dunn, Patricia A.; Read, Andrew F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The intensification of the poultry industry over the last 60 years facilitated the evolution of increased virulence and vaccine breaks in Marek’s disease virus (MDV-1). Full-genome sequences are essential for understanding why and how this evolution occurred, but what is known about genome-wide variation in MDV comes from laboratory culture. To rectify this, we developed methods for obtaining high-quality genome sequences directly from field samples without the need for sequence-based enrichment strategies prior to sequencing. We applied this to the first characterization of MDV-1 genomes from the field, without prior culture. These viruses were collected from vaccinated hosts that acquired naturally circulating field strains of MDV-1, in the absence of a disease outbreak. This reflects the current issue afflicting the poultry industry, where virulent field strains continue to circulate despite vaccination and can remain undetected due to the lack of overt disease symptoms. We found that viral genomes from adjacent field sites had high levels of overall DNA identity, and despite strong evidence of purifying selection, had coding variations in proteins associated with virulence and manipulation of host immunity. Our methods empower ecological field surveillance, make it possible to determine the basis of viral virulence and vaccine breaks, and can be used to obtain full genomes from clinical samples of other large DNA viruses, known and unknown. IMPORTANCE Despite both clinical and laboratory data that show increased virulence in field isolates of MDV-1 over the last half century, we do not yet understand the genetic basis of its pathogenicity. Our knowledge of genome-wide variation between strains of this virus comes exclusively from isolates that have been cultured in the laboratory. MDV-1 isolates tend to lose virulence during repeated cycles of replication in the laboratory, raising concerns about the ability of cultured isolates to accurately

  2. Note: Design and development of wireless controlled aerosol sampling network for large scale aerosol dispersion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, V.; Subramanian, V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2015-07-01

    Wireless based custom built aerosol sampling network is designed, developed, and implemented for environmental aerosol sampling. These aerosol sampling systems are used in field measurement campaign, in which sodium aerosol dispersion experiments have been conducted as a part of environmental impact studies related to sodium cooled fast reactor. The sampling network contains 40 aerosol sampling units and each contains custom built sampling head and the wireless control networking designed with Programmable System on Chip (PSoC™) and Xbee Pro RF modules. The base station control is designed using graphical programming language LabView. The sampling network is programmed to operate in a preset time and the running status of the samplers in the network is visualized from the base station. The system is developed in such a way that it can be used for any other environment sampling system deployed in wide area and uneven terrain where manual operation is difficult due to the requirement of simultaneous operation and status logging.

  3. Note: Design and development of wireless controlled aerosol sampling network for large scale aerosol dispersion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalakrishnan, V.; Subramanian, V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2015-07-15

    Wireless based custom built aerosol sampling network is designed, developed, and implemented for environmental aerosol sampling. These aerosol sampling systems are used in field measurement campaign, in which sodium aerosol dispersion experiments have been conducted as a part of environmental impact studies related to sodium cooled fast reactor. The sampling network contains 40 aerosol sampling units and each contains custom built sampling head and the wireless control networking designed with Programmable System on Chip (PSoC™) and Xbee Pro RF modules. The base station control is designed using graphical programming language LabView. The sampling network is programmed to operate in a preset time and the running status of the samplers in the network is visualized from the base station. The system is developed in such a way that it can be used for any other environment sampling system deployed in wide area and uneven terrain where manual operation is difficult due to the requirement of simultaneous operation and status logging.

  4. The NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery: Results from a Large Normative Developmental Sample (PING)

    PubMed Central

    Akshoomoff, Natacha; Newman, Erik; Thompson, Wesley K.; McCabe, Connor; Bloss, Cinnamon S.; Chang, Linda; Amaral, David G.; Casey, B. J.; Ernst, Thomas M.; Frazier, Jean A.; Gruen, Jeffrey R.; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Kenet, Tal; Kennedy, David N.; Libiger, Ondrej; Mostofsky, Stewart; Murray, Sarah S.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Schork, Nicholas; Dale, Anders M.; Jernigan, Terry L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NTCB) was designed to provide a brief, efficient computerized test of key neuropsychological functions appropriate for use in children as young as 3 years of age. This report describes the performance of a large group of typically developing children and adolescents and examines the impact of age and sociocultural variables on test performance. Method The NTCB was administered to a sample of 1020 typically developing males and females ranging in age from 3 to 20 years, diverse in terms of socioeconomic status (SES) and race/ethnicity, as part of the new publicly accessible Pediatric Imaging, Neurocognition, and Genetics (PING) data resource, at 9 sites across the United States. Results General additive models of nonlinear age-functions were estimated from age-differences in test performance on the 8 NTCB subtests while controlling for family SES and genetic ancestry factors (GAFs). Age accounted for the majority of the variance across all NTCB scores, with additional significant contributions of gender on some measures, and of SES and race/ethnicity (GAFs) on all. After adjusting for age and gender, SES and GAFs explained a substantial proportion of the remaining unexplained variance in Picture Vocabulary scores. Conclusions The results highlight the sensitivity to developmental effects and efficiency of this new computerized assessment battery for neurodevelopmental research. Limitations are observed in the form of some ceiling effects in older children, some floor effects, particularly on executive function tests in the youngest participants, and evidence for variable measurement sensitivity to cultural/socioeconomic factors. PMID:24219608

  5. Adapting hydrological model structure to catchment characteristics: A large-sample experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addor, Nans; Clark, Martyn P.; Nijssen, Bart

    2016-04-01

    Current hydrological modeling frameworks do not offer a clear way to systematically investigate the relationship between model complexity and model fidelity. The characterization of this relationship has so far relied on comparisons of different modules within the same model or comparisons of entirely different models. This lack of granularity in the differences between the model constructs makes it difficult to pinpoint model features that contribute to good simulations and means that the number of models or modeling hypotheses evaluated is usually small. Here we use flexible modeling frameworks to comprehensively and systematically compare modeling alternatives across the continuum of model complexity. A key goal is to explore which model structures are most adequate for catchments in different hydroclimatic conditions. Starting from conceptual models based on the Framework for Understanding Structural Errors (FUSE), we progressively increase model complexity by replacing conceptual formulations by physically explicit ones (process complexity) and by refining model spatial resolution (spatial complexity) using the newly developed Structure for Unifying Multiple Modeling Alternatives (SUMMA). To investigate how to best reflect catchment characteristics using model structure, we rely on a recently released data set of 671 catchments in the continuous United States. Instead of running hydrological simulations in every catchment, we use clustering techniques to define catchment clusters, run hydrological simulations for representative members of each cluster, develop hypotheses (e.g., when specific process representations have useful explanatory power) and test these hypotheses using other members of the cluster. We thus refine our catchment clustering based on insights into dominant hydrological processes gained from our modeling approach. With this large-sample experiment, we seek to uncover trade-offs between realism and practicality, and formulate general

  6. Religion and the Unmaking of Prejudice toward Muslims: Evidence from a Large National Sample

    PubMed Central

    Shaver, John H.; Troughton, Geoffrey; Sibley, Chris G.; Bulbulia, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    In the West, anti-Muslim sentiments are widespread. It has been theorized that inter-religious tensions fuel anti-Muslim prejudice, yet previous attempts to isolate sectarian motives have been inconclusive. Factors contributing to ambiguous results are: (1) failures to assess and adjust for multi-level denomination effects; (2) inattention to demographic covariates; (3) inadequate methods for comparing anti-Muslim prejudice relative to other minority group prejudices; and (4) ad hoc theories for the mechanisms that underpin prejudice and tolerance. Here we investigate anti-Muslim prejudice using a large national sample of non-Muslim New Zealanders (N = 13,955) who responded to the 2013 New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study. We address previous shortcomings by: (1) building Bayesian multivariate, multi-level regression models with denominations modeled as random effects; (2) including high-resolution demographic information that adjusts for factors known to influence prejudice; (3) simultaneously evaluating the relative strength of anti-Muslim prejudice by comparing it to anti-Arab prejudice and anti-immigrant prejudice within the same statistical model; and (4) testing predictions derived from the Evolutionary Lag Theory of religious prejudice and tolerance. This theory predicts that in countries such as New Zealand, with historically low levels of conflict, religion will tend to increase tolerance generally, and extend to minority religious groups. Results show that anti-Muslim and anti-Arab sentiments are confounded, widespread, and substantially higher than anti-immigrant sentiments. In support of the theory, the intensity of religious commitments was associated with a general increase in tolerance toward minority groups, including a poorly tolerated religious minority group: Muslims. Results clarify religion’s power to enhance tolerance in peaceful societies that are nevertheless afflicted by prejudice. PMID:26959976

  7. Employment and Income of People Who Experience Mental Illness and Homelessness in a Large Canadian Sample

    PubMed Central

    Poremski, Daniel; Distasio, Jino; Hwang, Stephen W; Latimer, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Research suggests that homeless people with mental illness may have difficulty obtaining employment and disability benefits. Our study provides a comprehensive description of sources of income and employment rates in a large Canadian sample. Methods: Participants (n = 2085) from the 5 sites of the At Home/Chez Soi study were asked about their income, employment, and desire for work during the pre-baseline period. The proportion of participants employed, receiving government support, and relying on income from other activities were compared across sites, as were total income and income from different sources. Generalized linear models were used to identify participant characteristics associated with total income. Results: Unemployment ranged from 93% to 98% across 5 sites. The per cent of participants who wanted to work ranged from 61% to 83%. Participants relied predominantly on government assistance, with 29.5% relying exclusively on welfare, and 46.2% receiving disability benefits. Twenty-eight per cent of participants received neither social assistance nor disability income. Among the 2085 participants, 6.8% reported income from panhandling, 2.1% from sex trade, and 1.2% from selling drugs. Regression models showed that income differed significantly among sites and age groups, and was significantly lower for people with psychotic illnesses. Conclusion: These results suggest that homeless people with mental illness are predominantly unemployed, despite expressing a desire to work. In Canada, this group relies predominantly on welfare, but has access to disability benefits and employment insurance. These findings highlight the importance of developing effective interventions to support employment goals and facilitate access to benefits. PMID:26454725

  8. Orbital Monitoring of the AstraLux Large M-dwarf Multiplicity Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janson, Markus; Bergfors, Carolina; Brandner, Wolfgang; Bonnefoy, Mickaël; Schlieder, Joshua; Köhler, Rainer; Hormuth, Felix; Henning, Thomas; Hippler, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Orbital monitoring of M-type binaries is essential for constraining their fundamental properties. This is particularly useful in young systems, where the extended pre-main-sequence evolution can allow for precise isochronal dating. Here, we present the continued astrometric monitoring of the more than 200 binaries of the AstraLux Large Multiplicity Survey, building both on our previous work, archival data, and new astrometric data spanning the range of 2010-2012. The sample is very young overall—all included stars have known X-ray emission, and a significant fraction (18%) of them have recently also been identified as members of young moving groups in the solar neighborhood. We identify ~30 targets that both have indications of being young and for which an orbit either has been closed or appears possible to close in a reasonable time frame (a few years to a few decades). One of these cases, GJ 4326, is, however, identified as probably being substantially older than has been implied from its apparent moving group membership, based on astrometric and isochronal arguments. With further astrometric monitoring, these targets will provide a set of empirical isochrones, against which theoretical isochrones can be calibrated, and which can be used to evaluate the precise ages of nearby young moving groups. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, under observing programs 081.C-0314(A), 082.C-0053(A), and 084.C-0812(A), and on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).

  9. Religion and the Unmaking of Prejudice toward Muslims: Evidence from a Large National Sample.

    PubMed

    Shaver, John H; Troughton, Geoffrey; Sibley, Chris G; Bulbulia, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    In the West, anti-Muslim sentiments are widespread. It has been theorized that inter-religious tensions fuel anti-Muslim prejudice, yet previous attempts to isolate sectarian motives have been inconclusive. Factors contributing to ambiguous results are: (1) failures to assess and adjust for multi-level denomination effects; (2) inattention to demographic covariates; (3) inadequate methods for comparing anti-Muslim prejudice relative to other minority group prejudices; and (4) ad hoc theories for the mechanisms that underpin prejudice and tolerance. Here we investigate anti-Muslim prejudice using a large national sample of non-Muslim New Zealanders (N = 13,955) who responded to the 2013 New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study. We address previous shortcomings by: (1) building Bayesian multivariate, multi-level regression models with denominations modeled as random effects; (2) including high-resolution demographic information that adjusts for factors known to influence prejudice; (3) simultaneously evaluating the relative strength of anti-Muslim prejudice by comparing it to anti-Arab prejudice and anti-immigrant prejudice within the same statistical model; and (4) testing predictions derived from the Evolutionary Lag Theory of religious prejudice and tolerance. This theory predicts that in countries such as New Zealand, with historically low levels of conflict, religion will tend to increase tolerance generally, and extend to minority religious groups. Results show that anti-Muslim and anti-Arab sentiments are confounded, widespread, and substantially higher than anti-immigrant sentiments. In support of the theory, the intensity of religious commitments was associated with a general increase in tolerance toward minority groups, including a poorly tolerated religious minority group: Muslims. Results clarify religion's power to enhance tolerance in peaceful societies that are nevertheless afflicted by prejudice.

  10. Religion and the Unmaking of Prejudice toward Muslims: Evidence from a Large National Sample.

    PubMed

    Shaver, John H; Troughton, Geoffrey; Sibley, Chris G; Bulbulia, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    In the West, anti-Muslim sentiments are widespread. It has been theorized that inter-religious tensions fuel anti-Muslim prejudice, yet previous attempts to isolate sectarian motives have been inconclusive. Factors contributing to ambiguous results are: (1) failures to assess and adjust for multi-level denomination effects; (2) inattention to demographic covariates; (3) inadequate methods for comparing anti-Muslim prejudice relative to other minority group prejudices; and (4) ad hoc theories for the mechanisms that underpin prejudice and tolerance. Here we investigate anti-Muslim prejudice using a large national sample of non-Muslim New Zealanders (N = 13,955) who responded to the 2013 New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study. We address previous shortcomings by: (1) building Bayesian multivariate, multi-level regression models with denominations modeled as random effects; (2) including high-resolution demographic information that adjusts for factors known to influence prejudice; (3) simultaneously evaluating the relative strength of anti-Muslim prejudice by comparing it to anti-Arab prejudice and anti-immigrant prejudice within the same statistical model; and (4) testing predictions derived from the Evolutionary Lag Theory of religious prejudice and tolerance. This theory predicts that in countries such as New Zealand, with historically low levels of conflict, religion will tend to increase tolerance generally, and extend to minority religious groups. Results show that anti-Muslim and anti-Arab sentiments are confounded, widespread, and substantially higher than anti-immigrant sentiments. In support of the theory, the intensity of religious commitments was associated with a general increase in tolerance toward minority groups, including a poorly tolerated religious minority group: Muslims. Results clarify religion's power to enhance tolerance in peaceful societies that are nevertheless afflicted by prejudice. PMID:26959976

  11. Assessment of the intrinsic uncertainty of the k0-based NAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bučar, Tinkara; Smodiš, Borut

    2006-08-01

    This paper addresses the intrinsic uncertainty of k0 neutron activation analysis (NAA) by evaluating the partial uncertainties of the nuclear parameters and parameters given by the irradiation conditions. Uncertainty propagation factors are determined from the basic equations of the k0-NAA and the combined uncertainties are calculated using a software package specially developed for this purpose. The nuclear parameter values and respective uncertainties are taken from an IUPAC database. The uncertainties are calculated for specific conditions given at the TRIGA Mark II reactor of the Jožef Stefan Institute, for all reactions where data is available. On average, neutron reaction-specific values in the range of 1-2% were obtained for 44 elements. For 23 elements, some data are missing in the database, so the values should be obtained elsewhere. The developed approach is generally applicable to other neutron flux conditions.

  12. Best Practices in Using Large, Complex Samples: The Importance of Using Appropriate Weights and Design Effect Compensation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Jason W.

    2011-01-01

    Large surveys often use probability sampling in order to obtain representative samples, and these data sets are valuable tools for researchers in all areas of science. Yet many researchers are not formally prepared to appropriately utilize these resources. Indeed, users of one popular dataset were generally found "not" to have modeled the analyses…

  13. Investigation of Fe and Ca in non-stimulated human saliva using NAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Medeiros, J. A. G.; Zamboni, C. B.; Kovacs, L.; Lewgoy, H. R.

    2015-07-01

    In this study we investigated non-stimulated human whole saliva of healthy subjects and patients with periodontal disease using Neutron Activation Analysis technique (NAA). The measurements were performed in the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN-CNEN/SP. We found considerable metabolic changes mainly in Fe and Ca concentration in whole saliva of periodontal patients. These data are useful for identifying or preventing this oral disease in the Brazilian population.

  14. Study of Mn Phytoavailability in Soil Treated with Biosolids Using NAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Fátima Mateus, Natalina; Filho, Tufic Madi

    2011-08-01

    This work evaluated the behavior of Mn absorption by Eucalyptus grandis that was cultivated in soil treated with biosolid. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) followed by gamma ray spectrometry was the analytical method used to determine the Mn content. Manganese is an important micronutrient because it is an activator of enzymes, controller of oxyreduction reactions, essential to the photosynthesis and synthesis of chlorophyll and protein. The results showed that the phytoavailability of Mn was reduced increasing the doses of biosolid applied.

  15. Computer-assisted uncertainty assessment of k0-NAA measurement results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bučar, T.; Smodiš, B.

    2008-10-01

    In quantifying measurement uncertainty of measurement results obtained by the k0-based neutron activation analysis ( k0-NAA), a number of parameters should be considered and appropriately combined in deriving the final budget. To facilitate this process, a program ERON (ERror propagatiON) was developed, which computes uncertainty propagation factors from the relevant formulae and calculates the combined uncertainty. The program calculates uncertainty of the final result—mass fraction of an element in the measured sample—taking into account the relevant neutron flux parameters such as α and f, including their uncertainties. Nuclear parameters and their uncertainties are taken from the IUPAC database (V.P. Kolotov and F. De Corte, Compilation of k0 and related data for NAA). Furthermore, the program allows for uncertainty calculations of the measured parameters needed in k0-NAA: α (determined with either the Cd-ratio or the Cd-covered multi-monitor method), f (using the Cd-ratio or the bare method), Q0 (using the Cd-ratio or internal comparator method) and k0 (using the Cd-ratio, internal comparator or the Cd subtraction method). The results of calculations can be printed or exported to text or MS Excel format for further analysis. Special care was taken to make the calculation engine portable by having possibility of its incorporation into other applications (e.g., DLL and WWW server). Theoretical basis and the program are described in detail, and typical results obtained under real measurement conditions are presented.

  16. A representative microbial sampling method for large commercial containers of raw beef based on purge.

    PubMed

    Dorsa, W J; Siragusa, S R

    1998-02-01

    The purge from beef combos ( a boxed collection of beef trimmings) was tested as a means of representatively sampling the microbial content of this raw product. In the first experiment, purge was sampled from model beef combos that had been inoculated with bovine feces.. Data from this experiment indicated a strong correlation (r = 0.94) between the total aerobic bacteria counts derived from the purge samples of a model beef combo and the total aerobic bacteria present in a rinse sample of the entire model beef combo. In a second experiment, two 500-g meat pieces were inoculated with an antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli O157:H7 and place at various levels within a 75-cm meat column. The marked bacteria were retrievable from the purge of the meat column after 24 h, showing that bacteria are carried downward into the purge. During the third part of the study, 90 beef combos (approximately 900 kg beef/combo) were randomly selected at the receiving dock of a commercial grinding facility and sampled using both purge and concurrently used 11-g core samples. Purge samples from these combos recovered significantly greater numbers of mesophilic and psychrotrophic aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and E. coli than core samples from the same combos. Additionally, coliforms and E. coli were recoverable from 100% and 80%, respectively, of the purge samples taken, whereas core samples were only able to recover 60% and 40%, respectively, from the same combos. These findings indicate that a purge sample from a beef combo is a more efficacious sampling method for determining the general bacterial profile and identifying the presence of coliforms and E. coli than randomly taken core samples. PMID:9708274

  17. A comparison of two sampling designs for fish assemblage assessment in a large river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiraly, Ian A.; Coghlan Jr., Stephen M.; Zydlewski, Joseph; Hayes, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We compared the efficiency of stratified random and fixed-station sampling designs to characterize fish assemblages in anticipation of dam removal on the Penobscot River, the largest river in Maine. We used boat electrofishing methods in both sampling designs. Multiple 500-m transects were selected randomly and electrofished in each of nine strata within the stratified random sampling design. Within the fixed-station design, up to 11 transects (1,000 m) were electrofished, all of which had been sampled previously. In total, 88 km of shoreline were electrofished during summer and fall in 2010 and 2011, and 45,874 individuals of 34 fish species were captured. Species-accumulation and dissimilarity curve analyses indicated that all sampling effort, other than fall 2011 under the fixed-station design, provided repeatable estimates of total species richness and proportional abundances. Overall, our sampling designs were similar in precision and efficiency for sampling fish assemblages. The fixed-station design was negatively biased for estimating the abundance of species such as Common Shiner Luxilus cornutus and Fallfish Semotilus corporalis and was positively biased for estimating biomass for species such as White Sucker Catostomus commersonii and Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar. However, we found no significant differences between the designs for proportional catch and biomass per unit effort, except in fall 2011. The difference observed in fall 2011 was due to limitations on the number and location of fixed sites that could be sampled, rather than an inherent bias within the design. Given the results from sampling in the Penobscot River, application of the stratified random design is preferable to the fixed-station design due to less potential for bias caused by varying sampling effort, such as what occurred in the fall 2011 fixed-station sample or due to purposeful site selection.

  18. Note: Design and development of wireless controlled aerosol sampling network for large scale aerosol dispersion experiments.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, V; Subramanian, V; Baskaran, R; Venkatraman, B

    2015-07-01

    Wireless based custom built aerosol sampling network is designed, developed, and implemented for environmental aerosol sampling. These aerosol sampling systems are used in field measurement campaign, in which sodium aerosol dispersion experiments have been conducted as a part of environmental impact studies related to sodium cooled fast reactor. The sampling network contains 40 aerosol sampling units and each contains custom built sampling head and the wireless control networking designed with Programmable System on Chip (PSoC™) and Xbee Pro RF modules. The base station control is designed using graphical programming language LabView. The sampling network is programmed to operate in a preset time and the running status of the samplers in the network is visualized from the base station. The system is developed in such a way that it can be used for any other environment sampling system deployed in wide area and uneven terrain where manual operation is difficult due to the requirement of simultaneous operation and status logging. PMID:26233420

  19. Irritability without Elation in a Large Bipolar Youth Sample: Frequency and Clinical Description

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Jeffrey; Birmaher, Boris; Leonard, Henrietta; Strober, Michael; Axelson, David; Ryan, Neal; Yang, Mei; Gill, Marykay; Dyl, Jennifer; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Swenson, Lance; Goldstein, Benjamin; Goldstein, Tina; Stout, Robert; Keller, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of 361 youths with bipolar disorder reveal that irritable-only subgroups constitute 10 percent of this sample while elated-only subgroups constitute 15 percent of the sample. These findings support continued consideration for episodic irritability in the diagnosis of pediatric bipolar disorder.

  20. Psychopathic Traits in a Large Community Sample: Links to Violence, Alcohol Use, and Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Craig S.; Hare, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies conducted with offender or forensic psychiatric samples have revealed that individuals with psychopathic traits are at risk for violence and other externalizing psychopathology. These traits appear to be continuously distributed in these samples, leading investigators to speculate on the presence of such traits in the general…

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF PHYSICAL FACTORS ON COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF SAMPLING METHODS IN LARGE RIVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1999, we compared five existing benthic macroinvertebrate sampling methods used in boatable rivers. Each sampling protocol was performed at each of 60 sites distributed among four rivers in the Ohio River drainage basin. Initial comparison of methods using key macroinvertebr...

  2. An organellar nα-acetyltransferase, naa60, acetylates cytosolic N termini of transmembrane proteins and maintains Golgi integrity.

    PubMed

    Aksnes, Henriette; Van Damme, Petra; Goris, Marianne; Starheim, Kristian K; Marie, Michaël; Støve, Svein Isungset; Hoel, Camilla; Kalvik, Thomas Vikestad; Hole, Kristine; Glomnes, Nina; Furnes, Clemens; Ljostveit, Sonja; Ziegler, Mathias; Niere, Marc; Gevaert, Kris; Arnesen, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    N-terminal acetylation is a major and vital protein modification catalyzed by N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs). NatF, or Nα-acetyltransferase 60 (Naa60), was recently identified as a NAT in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we find that Naa60 differs from all other known NATs by its Golgi localization. A new membrane topology assay named PROMPT and a selective membrane permeabilization assay established that Naa60 faces the cytosolic side of intracellular membranes. An Nt-acetylome analysis of NAA60-knockdown cells revealed that Naa60, as opposed to other NATs, specifically acetylates transmembrane proteins and has a preference for N termini facing the cytosol. Moreover, NAA60 knockdown causes Golgi fragmentation, indicating an important role in the maintenance of the Golgi's structural integrity. This work identifies a NAT associated with membranous compartments and establishes N-terminal acetylation as a common modification among transmembrane proteins, a thus-far poorly characterized part of the N-terminal acetylome.

  3. Active tracking of rejected dried blood samples in a large program in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Inalegwu, Auchi; Phillips, Sunny; Datir, Rawlings; Chime, Christopher; Ozumba, Petronilla; Peters, Samuel; Ogbanufe, Obinna; Mensah, Charles; Abimiku, Alash’Le; Dakum, Patrick; Ndembi, Nicaise

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To study the impact of rejection at different levels of health care by retrospectively reviewing records of dried blood spot samples received at the molecular laboratory for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) early infant diagnosis (EID) between January 2008 and December 2012. METHODS: The specimen rejection rate, reasons for rejection and the impact of rejection at different levels of health care was examined. The extracted data were cleaned and checked for consistency and then de-duplicated using the unique patient and clinic identifiers. The cleaned data were ciphered and exported to SPSS version 19 (SPSS 2010 IBM Corp, New York, United States) for statistical analyses. RESULTS: Sample rejection rate of 2.4% (n = 786/32552) and repeat rate of 8.8% (n = 69/786) were established. The mean age of infants presenting for first HIV molecular test among accepted valid samples was 17.83 wk (95%CI: 17.65-18.01) vs 20.30 wk (95%CI: 16.53-24.06) for repeated samples. HIV infection rate was 9.8% vs 15.9% for accepted and repeated samples. Compared to tertiary healthcare clinics, secondary and primary clinics had two-fold and three-fold higher likelihood of sample rejection, respectively (P < 0.05). We observed a significant increase in sample rejection rate with increasing number of EID clinics (r = 0.893, P = 0.041). The major reasons for rejection were improper sample collection (26.3%), improper labeling (16.4%) and insufficient blood (14.8%). CONCLUSION: Programs should monitor pre-analytical variables and incorporate continuous quality improvement interventions to reduce errors associated with sample rejection and improve patient retention. PMID:27175352

  4. Wood Dust Sampling: Field Evaluation of Personal Samplers When Large Particles Are Present

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Taekhee; Harper, Martin; Slaven, James E.; Lee, Kiyoung; Rando, Roy J.; Maples, Elizabeth H.

    2011-01-01

    Recent recommendations for wood dust sampling include sampling according to the inhalable convention of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 7708 (1995) Air quality—particle size fraction definitions for health-related sampling. However, a specific sampling device is not mandated, and while several samplers have laboratory performance approaching theoretical for an ‘inhalable’ sampler, the best choice of sampler for wood dust is not clear. A side-by-side field study was considered the most practical test of samplers as laboratory performance tests consider overall performance based on a wider range of particle sizes than are commonly encountered in the wood products industry. Seven companies in the wood products industry of the Southeast USA (MS, KY, AL, and WV) participated in this study. The products included hardwood flooring, engineered hardwood flooring, door skins, shutter blinds, kitchen cabinets, plywood, and veneer. The samplers selected were 37-mm closed-face cassette with ACCU-CAP™, Button, CIP10-I, GSP, and Institute of Occupational Medicine. Approximately 30 of each possible pairwise combination of samplers were collected as personal sample sets. Paired samplers of the same type were used to calculate environmental variance that was then used to determine the number of pairs of samples necessary to detect any difference at a specified level of confidence. Total valid sample number was 888 (444 valid pairs). The mass concentration of wood dust ranged from 0.02 to 195 mg m−3. Geometric mean (geometric standard deviation) and arithmetic mean (standard deviation) of wood dust were 0.98 mg m−3 (3.06) and 2.12 mg m−3 (7.74), respectively. One percent of the samples exceeded 15 mg m−3, 6% exceeded 5 mg m−3, and 48% exceeded 1 mg m−3. The number of collected pairs is generally appropriate to detect a 35% difference when outliers (negative mass loadings) are removed. Statistical evaluation of the nonsimilar sampler pair

  5. Performance of the goulden large-sample extractor in multiclass pesticide isolation and preconcentration from stream water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, G.D.; Foreman, W.T.; Gates, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    The reliability of the Goulden large-sample extractor in preconcentrating pesticides from water was evaluated from the recoveries of 35 pesticides amended to filtered stream waters. Recoveries greater than 90% were observed for many of the pesticides in each major chemical class, but recoveries for some of the individual pesticides varied in seemingly unpredictable ways. Corrections cannot yet be factored into liquid-liquid extraction theory to account for matrix effects, which were apparent between the two stream waters tested. The Goulden large-sample extractor appears to be well suited for rapid chemical screening applications, with quantitative analysis requiring special quality control considerations. ?? 1991 American Chemical Society.

  6. Rotation, activity, and stellar obliquities in a large uniform sample of Kepler solar analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzasi, Derek; Lezcano, Andy; Preston, Heather L.

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we undertook a deep photometric examination of a narrowly-defined sample of solar analogs in the Kepler field, with the goals of producing a uniform and statistically meaningful sample of such stars, comparing the properties of planet hosts to those of the general stellar population, and examining the behavior of rotation and photometric activity among stars with similar overall physical parameters. We successfully derived photometric activity indicators and rotation periods for 95 planet hosts (Kepler objects of interest [KOIs]) and 954 solar analogs without detected planets; 573 of these rotation periods are reported here for the first time. Rotation periods average roughly 20 d, but the distribution has a wide dispersion, with a tail extending to P > 35 d which appears to be inconsistent with published gyrochronological relations. We observed a weak rotation-activity relation for stars with rotation periods less than about 12 d; for slower rotators, the relation is dominated by scatter. However, we are able to state that the solar activity level derived from Virgo data is consistent with the majority of stars with similar rotation periods in our sample. Finally, our KOI sample is consistently approximately 0.3 dex more variable than our non-KOIs; we ascribe the difference to a selection effect due to low orbital obliquity in the planet-hosting stars and derive a mean obliquity for our sample of χ = 6+5°-6, similar to that seen in the solar system.

  7. CASP10-BCL::Fold efficiently samples topologies of large proteins.

    PubMed

    Heinze, Sten; Putnam, Daniel K; Fischer, Axel W; Kohlmann, Tim; Weiner, Brian E; Meiler, Jens

    2015-03-01

    During CASP10 in summer 2012, we tested BCL::Fold for prediction of free modeling (FM) and template-based modeling (TBM) targets. BCL::Fold assembles the tertiary structure of a protein from predicted secondary structure elements (SSEs) omitting more flexible loop regions early on. This approach enables the sampling of conformational space for larger proteins with more complex topologies. In preparation of CASP11, we analyzed the quality of CASP10 models throughout the prediction pipeline to understand BCL::Fold's ability to sample the native topology, identify native-like models by scoring and/or clustering approaches, and our ability to add loop regions and side chains to initial SSE-only models. The standout observation is that BCL::Fold sampled topologies with a GDT_TS score > 33% for 12 of 18 and with a topology score > 0.8 for 11 of 18 test cases de novo. Despite the sampling success of BCL::Fold, significant challenges still exist in clustering and loop generation stages of the pipeline. The clustering approach employed for model selection often failed to identify the most native-like assembly of SSEs for further refinement and submission. It was also observed that for some β-strand proteins model refinement failed as β-strands were not properly aligned to form hydrogen bonds removing otherwise accurate models from the pool. Further, BCL::Fold samples frequently non-natural topologies that require loop regions to pass through the center of the protein.

  8. Rapid fusion method for the determination of Pu, Np, and Am in large soil samples

    DOE PAGES

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian; Hutchison, Jay B.; McAlister, Daniel R.

    2015-02-14

    A new rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method for the preparation of 10-20 g soil samples has been developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The method enables lower detection limits for plutonium, neptunium, and americium in environmental soil samples. The method also significantly reduces sample processing time and acid fume generation compared to traditional soil digestion techniques using hydrofluoric acid. Ten gram soil aliquots can be ashed and fused using the new method in 1-2 hours, completely dissolving samples, including refractory particles. Pu, Np and Am are separated using stacked 2mL cartridges of TEVA and DGA Resin and measuredmore » using alpha spectrometry. The method can be adapted for measurement by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Two 10 g soil aliquots of fused soil may be combined prior to chromatographic separations to further improve detection limits. Total sample preparation time, including chromatographic separations and alpha spectrometry source preparation, is less than 8 hours.« less

  9. Rapid fusion method for the determination of Pu, Np, and Am in large soil samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian; Hutchison, Jay B.; McAlister, Daniel R.

    2015-02-14

    A new rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method for the preparation of 10-20 g soil samples has been developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The method enables lower detection limits for plutonium, neptunium, and americium in environmental soil samples. The method also significantly reduces sample processing time and acid fume generation compared to traditional soil digestion techniques using hydrofluoric acid. Ten gram soil aliquots can be ashed and fused using the new method in 1-2 hours, completely dissolving samples, including refractory particles. Pu, Np and Am are separated using stacked 2mL cartridges of TEVA and DGA Resin and measured using alpha spectrometry. The method can be adapted for measurement by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Two 10 g soil aliquots of fused soil may be combined prior to chromatographic separations to further improve detection limits. Total sample preparation time, including chromatographic separations and alpha spectrometry source preparation, is less than 8 hours.

  10. Clustering on very small scales from a large, complete sample of confirmed quasar pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eftekharzadeh, Sarah; Myers, Adam D.; Djorgovski, Stanislav G.; Graham, Matthew J.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Mahabal, Ashish A.; Richards, Gordon T.

    2016-06-01

    We present by far the largest sample of spectroscopically confirmed binaryquasars with proper transverse separations of 17.0 ≤ Rprop ≤ 36.6 h-1 kpc. Our sample, whichis an order-of-magnitude larger than previous samples, is selected from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging over an area corresponding to the SDSS 6th data release (DR6). Our quasars are targeted using a Kernel Density Estimation technique (KDE), and confirmed using long-slit spectroscopy on a range of facilities.Our most complete sub-sample of 44 binary quasars with g<20.85, extends across angular scales of 2.9" < Δθ < 6.3", and is targeted from a parent sample that would be equivalent to a full spectroscopic survey of nearly 300,000 quasars.We determine the projected correlation function of quasars (\\bar Wp) over proper transverse scales of 17.0 ≤ Rprop ≤ 36.6 h-1 kpc, and also in 4 bins of scale within this complete range.To investigate the redshift evolution of quasar clustering on small scales, we make the first self-consistent measurement of the projected quasar correlation function in 4 bins of redshift over 0.4 ≤ z ≤ 2.3.

  11. Enrichment of diluted cell populations from large sample volumes using 3D carbon-electrode dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Islam, Monsur; Natu, Rucha; Larraga-Martinez, Maria Fernanda; Martinez-Duarte, Rodrigo

    2016-05-01

    Here, we report on an enrichment protocol using carbon electrode dielectrophoresis to isolate and purify a targeted cell population from sample volumes up to 4 ml. We aim at trapping, washing, and recovering an enriched cell fraction that will facilitate downstream analysis. We used an increasingly diluted sample of yeast, 10(6)-10(2) cells/ml, to demonstrate the isolation and enrichment of few cells at increasing flow rates. A maximum average enrichment of 154.2 ± 23.7 times was achieved when the sample flow rate was 10 μl/min and yeast cells were suspended in low electrically conductive media that maximizes dielectrophoresis trapping. A COMSOL Multiphysics model allowed for the comparison between experimental and simulation results. Discussion is conducted on the discrepancies between such results and how the model can be further improved. PMID:27375816

  12. Enrichment of diluted cell populations from large sample volumes using 3D carbon-electrode dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Islam, Monsur; Natu, Rucha; Larraga-Martinez, Maria Fernanda; Martinez-Duarte, Rodrigo

    2016-05-01

    Here, we report on an enrichment protocol using carbon electrode dielectrophoresis to isolate and purify a targeted cell population from sample volumes up to 4 ml. We aim at trapping, washing, and recovering an enriched cell fraction that will facilitate downstream analysis. We used an increasingly diluted sample of yeast, 10(6)-10(2) cells/ml, to demonstrate the isolation and enrichment of few cells at increasing flow rates. A maximum average enrichment of 154.2 ± 23.7 times was achieved when the sample flow rate was 10 μl/min and yeast cells were suspended in low electrically conductive media that maximizes dielectrophoresis trapping. A COMSOL Multiphysics model allowed for the comparison between experimental and simulation results. Discussion is conducted on the discrepancies between such results and how the model can be further improved.

  13. Predictive Value of Callous-Unemotional Traits in a Large Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Paul; Rowe, Richard; Flach, Clare; Briskman, Jacqueline; Ford, Tamsin; Maughan, Barbara; Scott, Stephen; Goodman, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Callous-unemotional (CU) traits in children and adolescents are increasingly recognized as a distinctive dimension of prognostic importance in clinical samples. Nevertheless, comparatively little is known about the longitudinal effects of these personality traits on the mental health of young people from the general population. Using a…

  14. Autosomal STR allele frequencies for the CODIS system from a large random population sample in Chile.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Ismael A; Villouta, Pamela; Herrera, Sandra; Melo, Francisco

    2012-05-01

    The thirteen autosomal STR loci of the CODIS system were typed from DNA of 732 unrelated male individuals sampled from different locations in Chile. This is the first report of allele frequencies for the thirteen STRs loci defined in the CODIS system from the Chilean population.

  15. Moderators of implicit and explicit drinking identity in a large US adult sample.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Kristen P; Gasser, Melissa L; Werntz, Alexandra; Namaky, Nauder; Baldwin, Scott A; Teachman, Bethany A

    2016-09-01

    Drinking identity (viewing oneself as a drinker) is a potential risk factor for problematic drinking in US undergraduate samples. Whether that risk extends to a broader, more general US sample is unknown. Additionally, there are critical, unanswered questions with respect to moderators of the drinking identity-problematic drinking relationship; an important issue for designing prevention efforts. Study aims were to assess the unique associations and interactive effects of implicit and explicit measures of drinking identity on problematic drinking, and to evaluate age and sex as potential moderators of the drinking identity-problematic drinking relationship. A sample of 11,320 adults aged 18-98 completed measures of implicit and explicit drinking identity and problematic drinking (the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test; AUDIT). Implicit and explicit drinking identity had positive, significant associations with AUDIT scores, as expected. Moderation analyses indicated small, but significant, interactions. There was an implicit by explicit identity interaction consistent with a synergistic effect: lower implicit and explicit identity was linked to a greater probability of being a non-drinker. Age moderated explicit but not implicit identity: lower drinking identity appeared to be more protective for younger individuals. Sex moderated implicit but not explicit identity: a weaker positive association with implicit identity and AUDIT scores was observed among men, potentially reflecting stigma against women's drinking. Findings suggest that drinking identity's potential as a risk factor for problematic drinking extends to a more general US sample and that both implicit and explicit identity should be targeted in prevention efforts. PMID:27156218

  16. Rapid method to determine 89Sr/90Sr in large concrete samples

    DOE PAGES

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian; Hutchison, Jay B.; Utsey, Robin C.; Sudowe, Ralf; McAlister, Daniel R.

    2016-03-24

    Here, a new rapid method has been developed that provides high quality low-level measurements of 89,90Sr in concrete samples with an MDA (Minimum Detectable Activity) of <1 mBq g-1. The new method is fast, meets new decommissioning regulatory limits and is robust even if refractory particles are present. The method utilizes a rapid fusion to ensure total dissolution of samples and rapid preconcentration and separation of 89,90Sr from 5-10 g concrete samples. When, the 89Sr/90Sr ratio is high, Sr can be isolated from up to 5g concrete samples, total 89/90Sr measured, and then 90Sr determined via 90Y separated after amore » period of ingrowth. Another approach allows the immediate determination of 90Sr in 10 g concrete aliquots without waiting for 90Y ingrowth, in instances where the shorter lived 89Sr is unlikely to be encountered.« less

  17. Gender Differences in Achievement in a Large, Nationally Representative Sample of Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheiber, Caroline; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Hajovsky, Daniel B.; Kaufman, Alan S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate developmental gender differences in academic achievement areas, with the primary focus on writing, using the child and adolescent portion (ages 6-21 years) of the "Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-Second Edition, Brief Form," norming sample (N = 1,574). Path analytic models with gender,…

  18. Intellectual Abilities in a Large Sample of Children with Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome: An Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Smedt, Bert; Devriendt, K.; Fryns, J. -P.; Vogels, A.; Gewillig, M.; Swillen, A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Learning disabilities are one of the most consistently reported features in Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome (VCFS). Earlier reports on IQ in children with VCFS were, however, limited by small sample sizes and ascertainment biases. The aim of the present study was therefore to replicate these earlier findings and to investigate intellectual…

  19. Homogenization of sample absorption for the imaging of large and dense fossils with synchrotron microtomography.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Sophie; Fernandez, Vincent; Pierce, Stephanie E; Tafforeau, Paul

    2013-09-01

    Propagation phase-contrast synchrotron radiation microtomography (PPC-SRμCT) has proved to be very successful for examining fossils. Because fossils range widely in taphonomic preservation, size, shape and density, X-ray computed tomography protocols are constantly being developed and refined. Here we present a 1-h procedure that combines a filtered high-energy polychromatic beam with long-distance PPC-SRμCT (sample to detector: 4-16 m) and an attenuation protocol normalizing the absorption profile (tested on 13-cm-thick and 5.242 g cm(-3) locally dense samples but applicable to 20-cm-thick samples). This approach provides high-quality imaging results, which show marked improvement relative to results from images obtained without the attenuation protocol in apparent transmission, contrast and signal-to-noise ratio. The attenuation protocol involves immersing samples in a tube filled with aluminum or glass balls in association with a U-shaped aluminum profiler. This technique therefore provides access to a larger dynamic range of the detector used for tomographic reconstruction. This protocol homogenizes beam-hardening artifacts, thereby rendering it effective for use with conventional μCT scanners.

  20. Moderators of implicit and explicit drinking identity in a large US adult sample.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Kristen P; Gasser, Melissa L; Werntz, Alexandra; Namaky, Nauder; Baldwin, Scott A; Teachman, Bethany A

    2016-09-01

    Drinking identity (viewing oneself as a drinker) is a potential risk factor for problematic drinking in US undergraduate samples. Whether that risk extends to a broader, more general US sample is unknown. Additionally, there are critical, unanswered questions with respect to moderators of the drinking identity-problematic drinking relationship; an important issue for designing prevention efforts. Study aims were to assess the unique associations and interactive effects of implicit and explicit measures of drinking identity on problematic drinking, and to evaluate age and sex as potential moderators of the drinking identity-problematic drinking relationship. A sample of 11,320 adults aged 18-98 completed measures of implicit and explicit drinking identity and problematic drinking (the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test; AUDIT). Implicit and explicit drinking identity had positive, significant associations with AUDIT scores, as expected. Moderation analyses indicated small, but significant, interactions. There was an implicit by explicit identity interaction consistent with a synergistic effect: lower implicit and explicit identity was linked to a greater probability of being a non-drinker. Age moderated explicit but not implicit identity: lower drinking identity appeared to be more protective for younger individuals. Sex moderated implicit but not explicit identity: a weaker positive association with implicit identity and AUDIT scores was observed among men, potentially reflecting stigma against women's drinking. Findings suggest that drinking identity's potential as a risk factor for problematic drinking extends to a more general US sample and that both implicit and explicit identity should be targeted in prevention efforts.

  1. Effect of Comorbidity on Treatment of Anxious Children and Adolescents: Results from a Large, Combined Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapee, Ronald M.; Lyneham, Heidi J.; Hudson, Jennifer L.; Kangas, Maria; Wuthrich, Viviana M.; Schniering, Carolyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the influence of comorbid disorders on the degree of change and the endpoint of cognitive-behavioral treatment in anxious young people. Method: Data on 750 children 6 to 18 years old were compiled from different samples within one clinic. All children had a primary anxiety disorder and…

  2. A large spectrum of alpha and beta papillomaviruses are detected in human stool samples.

    PubMed

    Di Bonito, Paola; Della Libera, Simonetta; Petricca, Sabrina; Iaconelli, Marcello; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Graffeo, Rosalia; Accardi, Luisa; La Rosa, Giuseppina

    2015-03-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have been detected in urban wastewaters, demonstrating that epitheliotropic viruses can find their way into sewage through the washing of skin and mucous membranes. Papillomavirus shedding through faeces is still an unexplored issue. The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence of HPVs in stool samples. We analysed 103 faecal specimens collected from hospitalized patients with diarrhoea using validated primers able to detect α, β and γ HPVs. PCR products underwent sequencing analysis and sequences were aligned to reference genomes from the Papillomavirus Episteme database. A total of 15 sequences were characterized from the faecal samples. Thirteen samples (12.6 %) were positive for nine genotypes belonging to the α and β genera: HPV32 (LR, α1), HPV39 (HR, α7), HPV44 (LR, α10), HPV8 (β1), HPV9, HPV23, HPV37, HPV38 and HPV120 (β2). Two putative novel genotypes of the β genus, species 1 and 2, were also detected. The tissue(s) of origin is unknown, since faeces can collect HPVs originating from or passing through the entire digestive system. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation on the occurrence and diversity of HPVs in faecal samples. Results from this study demonstrate that HPVs can find their way into sewage as a consequence of shedding in the faeces. This highlights the need for further studies aimed at understanding the prevalence of HPV in different water environments and the potential for waterborne transmission.

  3. Atypical carcinoid and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung: a proteomic dataset from formalin-fixed archival samples.

    PubMed

    Tanca, Alessandro; Addis, Maria Filippa; Pisanu, Salvatore; Abbondio, Marcello; Pagnozzi, Daniela; Eccher, Albino; Rindi, Guido; Cossu-Rocca, Paolo; Uzzau, Sergio; Fanciulli, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    Here we present a dataset generated using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded archival samples from two rare lung neuroendocrine tumor subtypes (namely, two atypical carcinoids, ACs, and two large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, LCNECs). Samples were subjected to a shotgun proteomics pipeline, comprising full-length protein extraction, SDS removal through spin columns, in solution trypsin digestion, long gradient liquid chromatography peptide separation and LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 1260 and 2436 proteins were identified in the AC and LCNEC samples, respectively, with FDR <1%. MS data are available in the PeptideAtlas repository at http://www.peptideatlas.org/PASS/PASS00375.

  4. Atypical carcinoid and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung: a proteomic dataset from formalin-fixed archival samples

    PubMed Central

    Tanca, Alessandro; Addis, Maria Filippa; Pisanu, Salvatore; Abbondio, Marcello; Pagnozzi, Daniela; Eccher, Albino; Rindi, Guido; Cossu-Rocca, Paolo; Uzzau, Sergio; Fanciulli, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Here we present a dataset generated using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded archival samples from two rare lung neuroendocrine tumor subtypes (namely, two atypical carcinoids, ACs, and two large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, LCNECs). Samples were subjected to a shotgun proteomics pipeline, comprising full-length protein extraction, SDS removal through spin columns, in solution trypsin digestion, long gradient liquid chromatography peptide separation and LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 1260 and 2436 proteins were identified in the AC and LCNEC samples, respectively, with FDR <1%. MS data are available in the PeptideAtlas repository at http://www.peptideatlas.org/PASS/PASS00375. PMID:27054153

  5. Atypical carcinoid and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung: a proteomic dataset from formalin-fixed archival samples.

    PubMed

    Tanca, Alessandro; Addis, Maria Filippa; Pisanu, Salvatore; Abbondio, Marcello; Pagnozzi, Daniela; Eccher, Albino; Rindi, Guido; Cossu-Rocca, Paolo; Uzzau, Sergio; Fanciulli, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    Here we present a dataset generated using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded archival samples from two rare lung neuroendocrine tumor subtypes (namely, two atypical carcinoids, ACs, and two large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, LCNECs). Samples were subjected to a shotgun proteomics pipeline, comprising full-length protein extraction, SDS removal through spin columns, in solution trypsin digestion, long gradient liquid chromatography peptide separation and LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 1260 and 2436 proteins were identified in the AC and LCNEC samples, respectively, with FDR <1%. MS data are available in the PeptideAtlas repository at http://www.peptideatlas.org/PASS/PASS00375. PMID:27054153

  6. Development of a Solid Phase Extraction Method for Agricultural Pesticides in Large-Volume Water Samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analytical method using solid phase extraction (SPE) and analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was developed for the trace determination of a variety of agricultural pesticides and selected transformation products in large-volume high-elevation lake water sa...

  7. EVALUATION OF SAMPLING FREQUENCIES REQUIRED TO ESTIMATE NUTRIENT AND SUSPENDED SEDIMENT LOADS IN LARGE RIVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nutrients and suspended sediments in streams and large rivers are two major issues facing state and federal agencies. Accurate estimates of nutrient and sediment loads are needed to assess a variety of important water-quality issues including total maximum daily loads, aquatic ec...

  8. Multi-stage sampling for large scale natural resources surveys: A case study of rice and waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stafford, J.D.; Reinecke, K.J.; Kaminski, R.M.; Gerard, P.D.

    2005-01-01

    Large-scale sample surveys to estimate abundance and distribution of organisms and their habitats are increasingly important in ecological studies. Multi-stage sampling (MSS) is especially suited to large-scale surveys because of the natural clustering of resources. To illustrate an application, we: (1) designed a stratified MSS to estimate late autumn abundance (kg/ha) of rice seeds in harvested fields as food for waterfowl wintering in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV); (2) investigated options for improving the MSS design; and (3) compared statistical and cost efficiency of MSS to simulated simple random sampling (SRS). During 2000?2002, we sampled 25?35 landowners per year, 1 or 2 fields per landowner per year, and measured seed mass in 10 soil cores collected within each field. Analysis of variance components and costs for each stage of the survey design indicated that collecting 10 soil cores per field was near the optimum of 11?15, whereas sampling >1 field per landowner provided few benefits because data from fields within landowners were highly correlated. Coefficients of variation (CV) of annual estimates of rice abundance ranged from 0.23 to 0.31 and were limited by variation among landowners and the number of landowners sampled. Design effects representing the statistical efficiency of MSS relative to SRS ranged from 3.2 to 9.0, and simulations indicated SRS would cost, on average, 1.4 times more than MSS because clustering of sample units in MSS decreased travel costs. We recommend MSS as a potential sampling strategy for large-scale natural resource surveys and specifically for future surveys of the availability of rice as food for waterfowl in the MAV and similar areas.

  9. Early Literacy Individual Growth and Development Indicators (EL-IGDIs): Growth Trajectories Using a Large, Internet-Based Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseth, Cary J.; Missall, Kristen N.; McConnell, Scott R.

    2012-01-01

    Early literacy individual growth and development indicators (EL-IGDIs) assess preschoolers' expressive vocabulary development and phonological awareness. This study investigated longitudinal change in EL-IGDIs using a large (N=7355), internet-based sample of 36- to 60-month-old United States preschoolers without identified risks for later…

  10. The Relationship between Intelligence and Multiple Domains of Religious Belief: Evidence from a Large Adult US Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Gary J.; Ritchie, Stuart J.; Bates, Timothy C.

    2011-01-01

    High levels of religiosity have been linked to lower levels of intelligence in a number of recent studies. These results have generated both controversy and theoretical interest. Here in a large sample of US adults we address several issues that restricted the generalizability of these previous results. We measured six dimensions of religiosity…

  11. Psychometric Support of the School Climate Measure in a Large, Diverse Sample of Adolescents: A Replication and Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zullig, Keith J.; Collins, Rani; Ghani, Nadia; Patton, Jon M.; Huebner, E. Scott; Ajamie, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Background: The School Climate Measure (SCM) was developed and validated in 2010 in response to a dearth of psychometrically sound school climate instruments. This study sought to further validate the SCM on a large, diverse sample of Arizona public school adolescents (N = 20,953). Methods: Four SCM domains (positive student-teacher relationships,…

  12. Large homogeneous sample of X-ray selected AGN and its study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, Areg M.; Paronyan, Gurgen M.; Abrahamyan, Hayk V.

    2015-08-01

    The combined catalogue of AGN (ROSAT BSC/FSC AGN) selected from optical identifications of X-ray sources based on Hamburg--ROSAT Catalogue (HRC) and Byurakan--Hamburg--ROSAT Catalogue (BHRC) is a homogeneous sample for statistical studies. Optically identified X-ray sources from ROSAT Bright Source Catalogue (BSC) and Faint Source Catalogue (FSC) are included, 4253 X-ray selected AGN in total. All these sources are confirmed or candidate AGN based on Hamburg Quasar Survey (HQS) low-dispersion spectra. 3352 of them are listed in the Catalogue of QSOs and Active Galaxies (Véron-Cetty & Véron (2010; 13th version) and 387 are in the Multifrequency Catalogue of Blazars (Roma--BZCAT) by Massaro et al. (2012). We carried out classification for 210 of these candidate sources based on available SDSS spectra and enlarged the sample of confirmed AGN to 3650. A special emphasis is made on narrow-line Sy1.0-Sy1.5 galaxies and QSOs, as many of them have soft X-ray, strong FeII lines, and relatively narrow lines coming from BLR (“narrow broad lines”) we have classified 45 new AGN as such objects. We carried out statistical investigations of the sample, including study of luminosity function, flux-ratios for different ranges, luminosity evolution, etc. Multiwavelength SEDs have also been constructed to follow their behavior for different kinds of AGN and link these SEDs to classifications. The sample is a relevant sources for identification of new blazars.

  13. A Protocol for mtGenome Analysis on Large Sample Numbers

    PubMed Central

    Hamoy, Igor G; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, André M; Alvarez, Luiz; Barbosa, Silvanira; Silva, Artur; Santos, Sidney; Gusmão, Leonor; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ândrea

    2014-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome is widely studied in a variety of fields, such as population, forensic, and human and medical genetics. Most studies have been limited to a small portion of the sequence that, although highly diverse, does not describe the total variability. The arrival of modern high-throughput sequencing technologies has made it possible to investigate larger sequences in a shorter amount of time as well as in a more affordable fashion. This work aims to describe a protocol for sequencing and analyzing the complete mitochondrial genome with the Ion PGM™ platform. To evaluate the protocol, the mitochondrial genome was sequenced to approximately 210 Mbp, with high-quality sequences distributed between 12 samples that had an average coverage of 1023× per sample. Several variant callers were compared to improve the protocol outcome. The results suggest that it is possible to run up to 120 samples per run without any loss of any significant quality. Therefore, this protocol is an efficient and accurate tool for full mitochondrial genome analysis. PMID:25002812

  14. Using Retrospective Sampling to Estimate Models of Relationship Status in Large Longitudinal Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    O’Malley, A. James; Paul, Sudeshna

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of longitudinal models of relationship status between all pairs of individuals (dyads) in social networks is challenging due to the complex inter-dependencies among observations and lengthy computation times. To reduce the computational burden of model estimation, a method is developed that subsamples the “always-null” dyads in which no relationships develop throughout the period of observation. The informative sampling process is accounted for by weighting the likelihood contributions of the observations by the inverses of the sampling probabilities. This weighted-likelihood estimation method is implemented using Bayesian computation and evaluated in terms of its bias, efficiency, and speed of computation under various settings. Comparisons are also made to a full information likelihood-based procedure that is only feasible to compute when limited follow-up observations are available. Calculations are performed on two real social networks of very different sizes. The easily computed weighted-likelihood procedure closely approximates the corresponding estimates for the full network, even when using low sub-sampling fractions. The fast computation times make the weighted-likelihood approach practical and able to be applied to networks of any size. PMID:26692600

  15. Irreducibility and efficiency of ESIP to sample marker genotypes in large pedigrees with loops

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Soledad A; Fernando, Rohan L; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Stricker, Christian; Schelling, Matthias; Carriquiry, Alicia L

    2002-01-01

    Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods have been proposed to overcome computational problems in linkage and segregation analyses. This approach involves sampling genotypes at the marker and trait loci. Among MCMC methods, scalar-Gibbs is the easiest to implement, and it is used in genetics. However, the Markov chain that corresponds to scalar-Gibbs may not be irreducible when the marker locus has more than two alleles, and even when the chain is irreducible, mixing has been observed to be slow. Joint sampling of genotypes has been proposed as a strategy to overcome these problems. An algorithm that combines the Elston-Stewart algorithm and iterative peeling (ESIP sampler) to sample genotypes jointly from the entire pedigree is used in this study. Here, it is shown that the ESIP sampler yields an irreducible Markov chain, regardless of the number of alleles at a locus. Further, results obtained by ESIP sampler are compared with other methods in the literature. Of the methods that are guaranteed to be irreducible, ESIP was the most efficient. PMID:12427385

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: VLT/NaCo Large program I. Sample (Desidera+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desidera, S.; Covino, E.; Messina, S.; Carson, J.; Hagelberg, J.; Schlieder, J. E.; Biazzo, K.; Alcala, J.; Chauvin, G.; Vigan, A.; Beuzit, J. L.; Bonavita, M.; Bonnefoy, M.; Delorme, P.; D'Orazi, V.; Esposito, M.; Feldt, M.; Girardi, L.; Gratton, R.; Henning, T.; Lagrange, A. M.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Launhardt, R.; Marmier, M.; Melo, C.; Meyer, M.; Mouillet, D.; Moutou, C.; Segransan, D.; Udry, S.; Zaidi, C. M.

    2014-10-01

    Stellar parameters for 86 stars observed in NaCo Large Program and their wide companions are presented. These include coordinates, magnitudes, spectral types, metallicity, mass, distance, radial velocities, proper motions, space velocities Xray luminosity, chromospheric emission, rotation period, projected rotational velocity, lithium equivalent width, effective temperature, age (Tables 9-12). Table D1 summarizes the details of the rotation period search (results for individual segments and for the whole timeseries). (13 data files).

  17. Strategies and equipment for sampling suspended sediment and associated toxic chemicals in large rivers - with emphasis on the Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meade, R.H.; Stevens, H.H.

    1990-01-01

    A Lagrangian strategy for sampling large rivers, which was developed and tested in the Orinoco and Amazon Rivers of South America during the early 1980s, is now being applied to the study of toxic chemicals in the Mississippi River. A series of 15-20 cross-sections of the Mississippi mainstem and its principal tributaries is sampled by boat in downstream sequence, beginning upriver of St. Louis and concluding downriver of New Orleans 3 weeks later. The timing of the downstream sampling sequence approximates the travel time of the river water. Samples at each cross-section are discharge-weighted to provide concentrations of dissolved and suspended constituents that are converted to fluxes. Water-sediment mixtures are collected from 10-40 equally spaced points across the river width by sequential depth integration at a uniform vertical transit rate. Essential equipment includes (i) a hydraulic winch, for sensitive control of vertical transit rates, and (ii) a collapsible-bag sampler, which allows integrated samples to be collected at all depths in the river. A section is usually sampled in 4-8 h, for a total sample recovery of 100-120 l. Sampled concentrations of suspended silt and clay are reproducible within 3%.

  18. Petascale resources and CP2K: enabling sampling, large scale models or correlation beyond DFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandevondele, Joost

    2014-03-01

    Already with modest computer resources, GGA DFT simulations of models containing a few hundred atoms can contribute greatly to chemistry, physics and materials science. With the advent of petascale resources, new length, time and accuracy scales can be explored. Recently, we have made progress in all three directions: (1) A novel Tree Monte Carlo (TMC) algorithm introduces a further level of parallelism and allows for generating long Markov chains. Sampling 100'000s of configurations with DFT, the dielectric constant and order-disorder transition in water ice Ih/XI has been studied. (2) The removal of all non-linear scaling steps from GGA DFT calculations and the development of a massively parallel GPU-accelerated sparse matrix library make structural relaxation and MD possible for systems containing 10'000s of atoms. (3) A well parallelized implementation of a novel algorithm to compute four center intergrals over molecular states (RI-GPW), allows for many-body perturbation theory (MP2, RPA) calculations on a few hundred atoms. Sampling liquid water at the MP2 level yields a very satisfying model of liquid water, without empirical parameters.

  19. Season of birth and population schizotypy: Results from a large sample of the adult general population.

    PubMed

    Konrath, Lisa; Beckius, Danièle; Tran, Ulrich S

    2016-08-30

    Although the last years have seen an increasing interest in schizotypy and its pathogenesis, there exist only a handful of studies examining the possible interaction between season of birth (SOB) and schizotypic personality structure. Available research used differing screening instruments, rendering comparisons between studies difficult, and sample sizes in adult populations may have been too small to detect a mild effect. The current study examined the association between SOB and psychometric schizotypy in the so far single-largest sample from the adult general population (N=8114), balanced for men and women, and utilizing a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of schizotypy. Using the 12 most informative items of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire Brief, we obtained evidence of a small, but significant, effect of late winter and early spring births (February/March) on psychometric schizotypy. The effect was not constrained to women, but affected men and women alike. The observed association between SOB and schizotypy appears compatible with seasonal variations of temperature and influenza prevalence, and with recent evidence on seasonal variability in the activity of the human immune system. Our findings lend support to the continuum hypothesis of schizotypy and schizophrenia, for which SOB effects have been previously established. PMID:27310922

  20. microRNA-342-5p and miR-608 inhibit colon cancer tumorigenesis by targeting NAA10

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bai; Jiang, Dejun; Wan, Zhihua; Yang, Qingmei; Jiang, Fei; Wei, Ping; Bai, Song

    2016-01-01

    miRNAs have been shown to play pivotal roles in the establishment and progression of colon cancer, but their underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. N-acetyltransferase NAA10 participates in many cellular processes, including tumorigenesis. Here we showed that miR-342-5p and miR-608 suppressed the tumorigenesis of colon cancer cells in vitro and in vivo by targeting NAA10 mRNA for degradation. Overexpression of miR-342-5p or miR-608 decreased NAA10 mRNA and protein levels and thereby suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and cell-cycle progression, as well as promoted apoptosis in SW480 and SW620 cells. More importantly, miR-342-5p and miR-608 significantly decreased the tumorigenic capacity of SW480 and SW620 cells in a mouse xenograft model. We also observed an inverse correlation between the expression of NAA10 and that of both miRNAs. Our results implicate miR-342-5p and miR-608 in colon cancer development and unveil the underlying mechanism of this phenomenon, which involves NAA10. PMID:26646451

  1. Mapping of different structures on large area of granite sample using laser-ablation based analytical techniques, an exploratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotný, K.; Kaiser, J.; Galiová, M.; Konečná, V.; Novotný, J.; Malina, R.; Liška, M.; Kanický, V.; Otruba, V.

    2008-10-01

    Laser-ablation based analytical techniques represent a simple way for fast chemical analysis of different materials. In this work, an exploratory study of multi-element (Ca, Al, Fe, Mn) mappings of a granite sample surface was performed by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and subsequently by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analysis. The operating parameters (e.g. pulse energy, ablation-crater size) were optimized for both techniques in order to achieve the appropriate conditions for two-dimensional high-resolution compositional mappings of mineral microstructures in large sample areas. The sample was scanned with 100 × 100 individual sample points to map an area of 20 × 20 mm 2. The normalized signals were used for construct of contour plots which were colored according local distribution of the selected elements. The results of two laser-based methods were compared and found to be similar.

  2. Recovery of Cryptosporidium oocysts from small and large volume water samples using a compressed foam filter system.

    PubMed

    Sartory, D P; Parton, A; Parton, A C; Roberts, J; Bergmann, K

    1998-12-01

    A novel filter system comprising open cell reticulated foam rings compressed between retaining plates and fitted into a filtration housing was evaluated for the recovery of oocysts of Cryptosporidium from water. Mean recoveries of 90.2% from seeded small and large volume (100-2000 l) tap water samples, and 88.8% from 10-20 l river water samples, were achieved. Following a simple potassium citrate flotation concentrate clean-up procedure, mean recoveries were 56.7% for the tap water samples and 60.9% for river water samples. This represents a marked improvement in capture and recovery of Cryptosporidium oocysts from water compared with conventional polypropylene wound cartridge filters and membrane filters.

  3. Insights into a spatially embedded social network from a large-scale snowball sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illenberger, J.; Kowald, M.; Axhausen, K. W.; Nagel, K.

    2011-12-01

    Much research has been conducted to obtain insights into the basic laws governing human travel behaviour. While the traditional travel survey has been for a long time the main source of travel data, recent approaches to use GPS data, mobile phone data, or the circulation of bank notes as a proxy for human travel behaviour are promising. The present study proposes a further source of such proxy-data: the social network. We collect data using an innovative snowball sampling technique to obtain details on the structure of a leisure-contacts network. We analyse the network with respect to its topology, the individuals' characteristics, and its spatial structure. We further show that a multiplication of the functions describing the spatial distribution of leisure contacts and the frequency of physical contacts results in a trip distribution that is consistent with data from the Swiss travel survey.

  4. Wedge sampling for computing clustering coefficients and triangle counts on large graphs

    DOE PAGES

    Seshadhri, C.; Pinar, Ali; Kolda, Tamara G.

    2014-05-08

    Graphs are used to model interactions in a variety of contexts, and there is a growing need to quickly assess the structure of such graphs. Some of the most useful graph metrics are based on triangles, such as those measuring social cohesion. Despite the importance of these triadic measures, algorithms to compute them can be extremely expensive. We discuss the method of wedge sampling. This versatile technique allows for the fast and accurate approximation of various types of clustering coefficients and triangle counts. Furthermore, these techniques are extensible to counting directed triangles in digraphs. Our methods come with provable andmore » practical time-approximation tradeoffs for all computations. We provide extensive results that show our methods are orders of magnitude faster than the state of the art, while providing nearly the accuracy of full enumeration.« less

  5. Wedge sampling for computing clustering coefficients and triangle counts on large graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Seshadhri, C.; Pinar, Ali; Kolda, Tamara G.

    2014-05-08

    Graphs are used to model interactions in a variety of contexts, and there is a growing need to quickly assess the structure of such graphs. Some of the most useful graph metrics are based on triangles, such as those measuring social cohesion. Despite the importance of these triadic measures, algorithms to compute them can be extremely expensive. We discuss the method of wedge sampling. This versatile technique allows for the fast and accurate approximation of various types of clustering coefficients and triangle counts. Furthermore, these techniques are extensible to counting directed triangles in digraphs. Our methods come with provable and practical time-approximation tradeoffs for all computations. We provide extensive results that show our methods are orders of magnitude faster than the state of the art, while providing nearly the accuracy of full enumeration.

  6. An empirical investigation of incompleteness in a large clinical sample of obsessive compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Sibrava, Nicholas J; Boisseau, Christina L; Eisen, Jane L; Mancebo, Maria C; Rasmussen, Steven A

    2016-08-01

    Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a disorder with heterogeneous clinical presentations. To advance our understanding of this heterogeneity we investigated the prevalence and clinical features associated with incompleteness (INC), a putative underlying core feature of OCD. We predicted INC would be prominent in individuals with OCD and associated with greater severity and impairment. We examined the impact of INC in 307 adults with primary OCD. Participants with clinically significant INC (22.8% of the sample) had significantly greater OCD severity, greater rates of comorbidity, poorer ratings of functioning, lower quality of life, and higher rates of unemployment and disability. Participants with clinically significant INC were also more likely to be diagnosed with OCPD and to endorse symmetry/exactness obsessions and ordering/arranging compulsions than those who reported low INC. Our findings provide evidence that INC is associated with greater severity, comorbidity, and impairment, highlighting the need for improved assessment and treatment of INC in OCD. PMID:27268401

  7. Study of the performance of a large sample of Philips photomultipliers type XP2972

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonesini, M.; Bonvin, E.; Booth, P. S. L.; Carroll, L. J.; Cavalli, D.; Cecchet, G.; Costa, G.; Dorsaz, P. A.; Edwards, D. N.; Fischer, J. R.; Fluri, L.; Frame, D.; Jack, S.; Jackson, J. N.; Kelly, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M. N.; Lucock, R.; Lynch, J. G.; Macavero, E.; Mandelli, L.; Martin, M.; Mathys, L.; Maxwell, A.; Mazzanti, M.; Myerscough, J. J.; Negus, P. J.; Pensotti-Rancoita, S.; Perini, L.; Perrin, D.; Range, W. H.; Rutschmann, J.; Rosselet, L.; Snow, S. W.; Tamborini, M.; Thompson, A. S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Wells, J.; Werlen, M.; Geneva-Glasgow-Liverpool-Milan-Neuchâtel Collaboration

    1988-02-01

    The gain of the Philips XP2972 phototube was measured as a function of time and anode current using 3456 tubes in conditions simulating the experimental situation at the CERN SPS. After an initial ageing period of 35 h, the mean gain variation was measured to be 0.7% with an rms of 0.5% over 12 h at constant anode current ( Ia=1.6 μA). At an approximately constant gain of 2.2×10 5, the majority (88%) of the tubes show an increase in gain with an average of 1.6% and an rms of 1.1% when the anode current rises from about 10 nA to 1.6 μA. These characteristics were used to select and distribute the tubes on the electromagnetic calorimeter of the CERN WA70 experiment. Short term instability and photocathode homogeneity were studied on a reduced sample.

  8. Investigating the [CII]-PAHs relation in a large sample of local galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contursi, Alessandra; Brauher, James; Helou, George

    2003-02-01

    We present preliminary results about the linear correlation existing between the Mid Infrared (MIR) Aromatic Features seen in emission (AFEs) and the emission of the main cooling line of the neutral atomic medium, [CII] at 158 μm, for a sample of 140 galaxies. A similar analysis on a smaller sample of normal galaxies only, has been already published by Helou et al. (2001ApJ...548L..73H). The final aim of the work presented here is to further investigate the physical origin and implications of such a relation and to see if the same results hold for a much wider variety of galaxy types and activities. When only spiral galaxies are considered, we confirm the results already obtained in previous works by Malhotra et al. (Malhotra et al. 2001ApJ...561..766M) and Helou et al. (2001ApJ...548L..73H): there exists a difference between the behavior of the [CII]/FIR and [CII]/AFE ratios as a function of the 60 μm 100 μm IRAS colors: while [CII]/FIR decreases with the IRAS color, the [CII]/AFE ratio stays constant. The same result seems to hold also for early-type and irregular galaxies although they show a much higher dispersion in the [CII]/AFE ratio. As first step of the analysis, we concentrate on understanding the origin of the dispersion in order to separate intrinsic physical behavior from errors in the ISOCAM photometry. There exist few outsiders with a [CII]/AFE ratio lower than the main trend outlined from late spiral and irregular galaxies, although, at this preliminary stage of the analysis, we are not yet able to explain the physical origin.

  9. Associations between motor timing, music practice, and intelligence studied in a large sample of twins.

    PubMed

    Ullén, Fredrik; Mosing, Miriam A; Madison, Guy

    2015-03-01

    Music performance depends critically on precise processing of time. A common model behavior in studies of motor timing is isochronous serial interval production (ISIP), that is, hand/finger movements with a regular beat. ISIP accuracy is related to both music practice and intelligence. Here we present a study of these associations in a large twin cohort, demonstrating that the effects of music practice and intelligence on motor timing are additive, with no significant multiplicative (interaction) effect. Furthermore, the association between music practice and motor timing was analyzed with the use of a co-twin control design using intrapair differences. These analyses revealed that the phenotypic association disappeared when all genetic and common environmental factors were controlled. This suggests that the observed association may not reflect a causal effect of music practice on ISIP performance but rather reflect common influences (e.g., genetic effects) on both outcomes. The relevance of these findings for models of practice and expert performance is discussed.

  10. Multispectral laser-induced fluorescence imaging system for large biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Moon S.; Lefcourt, Alan M.; Chen, Yud-Ren

    2003-07-01

    A laser-induced fluorescence imaging system developed to capture multispectral fluorescence emission images simultaneously from a relatively large target object is described. With an expanded, 355-nm Nd:YAG laser as the excitation source, the system captures fluorescence emission images in the blue, green, red, and far-red regions of the spectrum centered at 450, 550, 678, and 730 nm, respectively, from a 30-cm-diameter target area in ambient light. Images of apples and of pork meat artificially contaminated with diluted animal feces have demonstrated the versatility of fluorescence imaging techniques for potential applications in food safety inspection. Regions of contamination, including sites that were not readily visible to the human eye, could easily be identified from the images.

  11. Wind tunnel study of twelve dust samples by large particle size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannak, B.; Corsmeier, U.; Kottmeier, Ch.; Al-azab, T.

    2014-12-01

    Due to the lack of data by large dust and sand particle, the fluid dynamics characteristics, hence the collection efficiencies of different twelve dust samplers have been experimentally investigated. Wind tunnel tests were carried out at wind velocities ranging from 1 up to 5.5 ms-1. As a large solid particle of 0.5 and 1 mm in diameter, Polystyrene pellets called STYRO Beads or polystyrene sphere were used instead of sand or dust. The results demonstrate that the collection efficiency is relatively acceptable only of eight tested sampler and lie between 60 and 80% depending on the wind velocity and particle size. These samplers are: the Cox Sand Catcher (CSC), the British Standard Directional Dust Gauge (BSD), the Big Spring Number Eight (BSNE), the Suspended Sediment Trap (SUSTRA), the Modified Wilson and Cooke (MWAC), the Wedge Dust Flux Gauge (WDFG), the Model Series Number 680 (SIERRA) and the Pollet Catcher (POLCA). Generally they can be slightly recommended as suitable dust samplers but with collecting error of 20 up to 40%. However the BSNE verify the best performance with a catching error of about 20% and can be with caution selected as a suitable dust sampler. Quite the contrary, the other four tested samplers which are the Marble Dust Collector (MDCO), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the Inverted Frisbee Sampler (IFS) and the Inverted Frisbee Shaped Collecting Bowl (IFSCB) cannot be recommended due to their very low collection efficiency of 5 up to 40%. In total the efficiency of sampler may be below 0.5, depending on the frictional losses (caused by the sampler geometry) in the fluid and the particle's motion, and on the intensity of airflow acceleration near the sampler inlet. Therefore, the literature data of dust are defective and insufficient. To avoid false collecting data and hence inaccurate mass flux modeling, the geometry of the dust sampler should be considered and furthermore improved.

  12. Bayesian Statistical Analysis Applied to NAA Data for Neutron Flux Spectrum Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiesa, D.; Previtali, E.; Sisti, M.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we present a statistical method, based on Bayesian statistics, to evaluate the neutron flux spectrum from the activation data of different isotopes. The experimental data were acquired during a neutron activation analysis (NAA) experiment [A. Borio di Tigliole et al., Absolute flux measurement by NAA at the Pavia University TRIGA Mark II reactor facilities, ENC 2012 - Transactions Research Reactors, ISBN 978-92-95064-14-0, 22 (2012)] performed at the TRIGA Mark II reactor of Pavia University (Italy). In order to evaluate the neutron flux spectrum, subdivided in energy groups, we must solve a system of linear equations containing the grouped cross sections and the activation rate data. We solve this problem with Bayesian statistical analysis, including the uncertainties of the coefficients and the a priori information about the neutron flux. A program for the analysis of Bayesian hierarchical models, based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulations, is used to define the problem statistical model and solve it. The energy group fluxes and their uncertainties are then determined with great accuracy and the correlations between the groups are analyzed. Finally, the dependence of the results on the prior distribution choice and on the group cross section data is investigated to confirm the reliability of the analysis.

  13. Soil sampling and isolation of extracellular DNA from large amount of starting material suitable for metabarcoding studies.

    PubMed

    Taberlet, Pierre; Prud'Homme, Sophie M; Campione, Etienne; Roy, Julien; Miquel, Christian; Shehzad, Wasim; Gielly, Ludovic; Rioux, Delphine; Choler, Philippe; Clément, Jean-Christophe; Melodelima, Christelle; Pompanon, François; Coissac, Eric

    2012-04-01

    DNA metabarcoding refers to the DNA-based identification of multiple species from a single complex and degraded environmental sample. We developed new sampling and extraction protocols suitable for DNA metabarcoding analyses targeting soil extracellular DNA. The proposed sampling protocol has been designed to reduce, as much as possible, the influence of local heterogeneity by processing a large amount of soil resulting from the mixing of many different cores. The DNA extraction is based on the use of saturated phosphate buffer. The sampling and extraction protocols were validated first by analysing plant DNA from a set of 12 plots corresponding to four plant communities in alpine meadows, and, second, by conducting pilot experiments on fungi and earthworms. The results of the validation experiments clearly demonstrated that sound biological information can be retrieved when following these sampling and extraction procedures. Such a protocol can be implemented at any time of the year without any preliminary knowledge of specific types of organisms during the sampling. It offers the opportunity to analyse all groups of organisms using a single sampling/extraction procedure and opens the possibility to fully standardize biodiversity surveys.

  14. Efficient inference of population size histories and locus-specific mutation rates from large-sample genomic variation data

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskar, Anand; Wang, Y.X. Rachel; Song, Yun S.

    2015-01-01

    With the recent increase in study sample sizes in human genetics, there has been growing interest in inferring historical population demography from genomic variation data. Here, we present an efficient inference method that can scale up to very large samples, with tens or hundreds of thousands of individuals. Specifically, by utilizing analytic results on the expected frequency spectrum under the coalescent and by leveraging the technique of automatic differentiation, which allows us to compute gradients exactly, we develop a very efficient algorithm to infer piecewise-exponential models of the historical effective population size from the distribution of sample allele frequencies. Our method is orders of magnitude faster than previous demographic inference methods based on the frequency spectrum. In addition to inferring demography, our method can also accurately estimate locus-specific mutation rates. We perform extensive validation of our method on simulated data and show that it can accurately infer multiple recent epochs of rapid exponential growth, a signal that is difficult to pick up with small sample sizes. Lastly, we use our method to analyze data from recent sequencing studies, including a large-sample exome-sequencing data set of tens of thousands of individuals assayed at a few hundred genic regions. PMID:25564017

  15. A large depth of field LIBS measuring system for elemental analysis of moving samples of raw coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redoglio, D.; Golinelli, E.; Musazzi, S.; Perini, U.; Barberis, F.

    2016-02-01

    We present preliminary results of laboratory tests carried out on moving samples of coal by means of an innovative LIBS system with a large depth of field. The measuring system has been conceived to operate on line in a coal fired power plant. To duplicate at laboratory level the real situation, the coal samples are sequentially positioned under the measuring head by means of a translation/rotation unit that allows reproducing the behavior of the raw coal transported by a conveyor belt. Experimental results show that both carbon and hydrogen concentration as well as the content of some inorganic components (Al, Ca, Fe, Si) can be evaluated with good accuracy.

  16. A Principle Component Analysis of Galaxy Properties from a Large, Gas-Selected Sample

    DOE PAGES

    Chang, Yu-Yen; Chao, Rikon; Wang, Wei-Hao; Chen, Pisin

    2012-01-01

    Disney emore » t al. (2008) have found a striking correlation among global parameters of H i -selected galaxies and concluded that this is in conflict with the CDM model. Considering the importance of the issue, we reinvestigate the problem using the principal component analysis on a fivefold larger sample and additional near-infrared data. We use databases from the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L -band Feed Array Survey for the gas properties, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey for the optical properties, and the Two Micron All Sky Survey for the near-infrared properties. We confirm that the parameters are indeed correlated where a single physical parameter can explain 83% of the variations. When color ( g - i ) is included, the first component still dominates but it develops a second principal component. In addition, the near-infrared color ( i - J ) shows an obvious second principal component that might provide evidence of the complex old star formation. Based on our data, we suggest that it is premature to pronounce the failure of the CDM model and it motivates more theoretical work.« less

  17. Photoperiod is associated with hippocampal volume in a large community sample

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Megan A.; Leckie, Regina L.; Donofry, Shannon D.; Gianaros, Peter J.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Manuck, Stephen B.; Roecklein, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    Although animal research has demonstrated seasonal changes in hippocampal volume, reflecting seasonal neuroplasticity, seasonal differences in human hippocampal volume have yet to be documented. Hippocampal volume has also been linked to depressed mood, a seasonally varying phenotype. Therefore, we hypothesized that seasonal differences in day-length (i.e., photoperiod) would predict differences in hippocampal volume, and that this association would be linked to low mood. Healthy participants aged 30–54 (M = 43; SD = 7.32) from the University of Pittsburgh Adult Health and Behavior II project (n = 404; 53% female) were scanned in a 3T MRI scanner. Hippocampal volumes were determined using an automated segmentation algorithm using FreeSurfer. A mediation model tested whether hippocampal volume mediated the relationship between photoperiod and mood. Secondary analyses included seasonally fluctuating variables (i.e., sleep and physical activity) which have been shown to influence hippocampal volume. Shorter photoperiods were significantly associated with higher BDI scores (R2= 0.01, β =−0.12, p = 0.02) and smaller hippocampal volumes (R2= 0.40, β = 0.08, p = 0.04). However, due to the lack of an association between hippocampal volume and Beck Depression Inventory scores in the current sample, the mediation hypothesis was not supported. This study is the first to demonstrate an association between season and hippocampal volume. These data offer preliminary evidence that human hippocampal plasticity could be associated with photoperiod and indicates a need for longitudinal studies. PMID:25394737

  18. QUANTITATIVE EXAMINATION OF A LARGE SAMPLE OF SUPRA-ARCADE DOWNFLOWS IN ERUPTIVE SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, Sabrina L.

    2011-04-01

    Sunward-flowing voids above post-coronal mass ejection flare arcades were first discovered using the soft X-ray telescope aboard Yohkoh and have since been observed with TRACE (extreme ultraviolet (EUV)), SOHO/LASCO (white light), SOHO/SUMER (EUV spectra), and Hinode/XRT (soft X-rays). Supra-arcade downflow (SAD) observations suggest that they are the cross-sections of thin flux tubes retracting from a reconnection site high in the corona. Supra-arcade downflowing loops (SADLs) have also been observed under similar circumstances and are theorized to be SADs viewed from a perpendicular angle. Although previous studies have focused on dark flows because they are easier to detect and complementary spectral data analysis reveals their magnetic nature, the signal intensity of the flows actually ranges from dark to bright. This implies that newly reconnected coronal loops can contain a range of hot plasma density. Previous studies have presented detailed SAD observations for a small number of flares. In this paper, we present a substantial SADs and SADLs flare catalog. We have applied semi-automatic detection software to several of these events to detect and track individual downflows thereby providing statistically significant samples of parameters such as velocity, acceleration, area, magnetic flux, shrinkage energy, and reconnection rate. We discuss these measurements (particularly the unexpected result of the speeds being an order of magnitude slower than the assumed Alfven speed), how they were obtained, and potential impact on reconnection models.

  19. The Symbol Digit Modalities Test: Normative data from a large nationally representative sample of Australians.

    PubMed

    Kiely, Kim M; Butterworth, Peter; Watson, Nicole; Wooden, Mark

    2014-12-01

    Data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey were used to calculate weighted norms for the written version of the Symbol Digits Modalities Test (SDMT) by gender, 5-year age groups and four levels of educational attainment. The sample comprised 14,456 Australians (47% male; age range 15-100), of whom 25% reported a tertiary qualification, 30% reported a technical qualification (diploma or trade certificate), 16% reported completing Year 12 (final year of high school), and 29% reported their highest level of educational attainment to be Year 11 or below. Participants were excluded if they reported physical or neurological conditions that limited performance. Age, gender, and education were all significantly associated with SDMT performance, as was poor health, and cultural background. The reported norms are of greater scope and precision than previously available and have utility in a range of clinical and research settings. Indeed, normative data for the SDMT that are representative of a national population have not previously been published. PMID:25352087

  20. HST hot Jupiter transmission spectral survey: The atmospheric circulation of a large hot Jupiter sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataria, Tiffany; Sing, David Kent; Lewis, Nikole K.; Fortney, Jonathan; Marley, Mark; Showman, Adam P.

    2015-12-01

    Even as we move towards characterizing smaller and cooler exoplanets, hot Jupiters continue to be the best transiting planets for probing the atmospheric properties of exoplanets and refining current theory. Here we present results from a comprehensive atmospheric circulation study of nine transiting hot Jupiters that probe a wide range of planetary properties, including orbital distance, rotation rate, mass, radius, gravity and stellar insolation. We utilize these circulation models to aid in the interpretation of transmission spectra obtained using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) and Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) as a part of a large Hubble Space Telescope (HST) transmission spectral survey. These observations have shown a range of spectral behavior over optical and infrared wavelengths, suggesting diverse cloud and haze properties in their atmospheres. Our “grid” of models recovers trends shown in other parametric studies of hot Jupiters, particularly increased day-night temperature contrast with increasing equilibrium temperature and equatorial superrotation. Furthermore, we show that three-dimensional variations in temperature, particularly across the western and eastern terminators and from the equator to the pole, can vary by hundreds of Kelvin. This can result in vastly different cloud properties across the limb, which can lead to variations in transmission spectra. Finally, we comment on prospects with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) to further characterize hot Jupiters out to longer wavelengths.

  1. Olfactory Performance in a Large Sample of Early-Blind and Late-Blind Individuals.

    PubMed

    Sorokowska, Agnieszka

    2016-10-01

    Previous examinations of olfactory sensitivity in blind people have produced contradictory findings. Thus, whether visual impairment is associated with increased olfactory abilities is unclear. In the present investigation, I aimed to resolve the existing questions via a relatively large-scale study comprising early-blind (N = 43), and late-blind (N = 41) and sighted (N = 84) individuals matched in terms of gender and age. To compare the results with those of previous studies, I combined data from a free odor identification test, extensive psychophysical testing (Sniffin' Sticks test), and self-assessed olfactory performance. The analyses revealed no significant effects of sight on olfactory threshold, odor discrimination, cued identification, or free identification scores; neither was the performance of the early-blind and late-blind participants significantly different. Additionally, the self-assessed olfactory abilities of the blind people were no different than those of the sighted people. These results suggest that sensory compensation in visually impaired is not pronounced with regards to olfactory abilities as measured by standardized smell tests. PMID:27439429

  2. The Implications of Detrital Zircon Maximum Depositional Age (MDA) from Large Sample Datasets (n>500)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutts, D. S.; Matthews, W.; Guest, B.; Hubbard, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    The youngest sub-population of a detrital zircon geochronological dataset is routinely used to approximate the age of deposition for a sample. The ages represent a maximum depositional age (MDA) because the detrital zircons analyzed crystallized at depth, in a magma chamber prior to being exposed at the surface through erosion or volcanic eruption. Dickinson and Gehrels (2009) demonstrate four methods of calculating the MDA of a zircon population using U-Pb ages, which are assessed in this study. Previous MDA studies used relatively small datasets (n<100), reducing the likelihood of finding the youngest population in a sample. We consider large-n datasets (n>500), which have a greater likelihood of capturing a significant proportion of the youngest population and therefore have the potential to improve the accuracy of a calculated MDA. We assess the effects of sample size and MDA calculation methods using a numerical model consisting of a simulated population of detrital zircon grains with known ages. Using our population of 25048 simulated grains, we ran repeated trials of varying sample sizes (n=50, 100, 300, 500, 700, 1000, 1500) to compare the output of MDA calculation techniques. As sample size increases the youngest sub-population of zircons is better defined, and the MDA decreases and becomes more precise. As a further test, model results are compared to U-Pb data (n=695) from a sample of the Maasrichtian-Paleocene Gabriola Formation (Nanaimo Group, B.C., Canada). Similar trials of varying sample sizes show the same decrease in MDA. Biostratigraphic analysis assigned the formation to the Maastrichtian (72.1 - 66.0 Ma), however, our results indicate that deposition took place in the Danian (66.0 - 61.6 Ma). This result has implications for the timing of forearc basin fill, and more broadly, the evolution of the Western North American Cordillera. MDA methods on large-n datasets can be used to hone stratigraphic correlations and calculate sediment accumulation

  3. Broad Absorption Line Variability on Multi-Year Timescales in a Large Quasar Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, W. N.; Filiz Ak, N.; Hall, P. B.; Schneider, D. P.; SDSS-III BAL Variability Team

    2014-01-01

    We have performed a detailed investigation of the variability of 428 C IV and 235 Si IV Broad Absorption Line (BAL) troughs identified in multi-epoch observations of 291 quasars by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-I/II/III. These observations primarily sample rest-frame timescales of 1-3 yr over which significant rearrangement of the BAL wind is expected. We derive a number of observational results on, e.g., the frequency of BAL variability, the velocity range over which BAL variability occurs, the primary observed form of BAL-trough variability, the dependence of BAL variability upon timescale, the frequency of BAL strengthening vs. weakening, correlations between BAL variability and BAL-trough profiles, relations between C IV and Si IV BAL variability, coordinated multi-trough variability, and BAL variations as a function of quasar properties. We assess implications of these observational results for quasar winds. Our results support models where most BAL absorption is formed within an order-of-magnitude of the wind-launching radius, although a significant minority of BAL troughs may arise on larger scales. We estimate an average lifetime for a BAL trough along our line-of-sight of a few thousand years. BAL disappearance and emergence events appear to be extremes of general BAL variability, rather than being qualitatively distinct phenomena. We derive the parameters of a random-walk model for BAL EW variability, finding that this model can acceptably describe some key aspects of EW variability. The coordinated trough variability of BAL quasars with multiple troughs suggests that changes in "shielding gas" may play a significant role in driving general BAL variability. The good prospects for significantly extending this work will be briefly summarized.

  4. The Energy Budget of GRBs Based on a Large Sample of Prompt and Afterglow Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wygoda, N.; Guetta, D.; Mandich, M. A.; Waxman, E.

    2016-06-01

    We compare the isotropic equivalent 15-2000 keV γ-ray energy, E γ , emitted by a sample of 91 swift Gamma-Ray Bursts with known redshifts, with the isotropic equivalent fireball energy, E fb, as estimated within the fireball model framework from X-ray afterglow observations of these bursts. The uncertainty in E γ , which spans the range of ˜1051 to ˜1053.5 erg, is ≈25% on average, due mainly to the extrapolation from the BAT detector band to the 15-2000 keV band. The uncertainty in E fb is approximately a factor of 2, due mainly to the X-ray measurements’ scatter. We find E γ and E fb to be tightly correlated. The average(std) of {η }γ 11 {hr}\\equiv {{log}}10({E}γ /(3{\\varepsilon }{{e}}{E}{{fb}}11 {hr})) are -0.34(0.60), and the upper limit on the intrinsic spread of η γ is approximately 0.5 ({\\varepsilon }{{e}} is the fraction of energy carried by electrons and {E}{{fb}}x {hr} is inferred from the X-ray flux at x hours). {E}{{fb}}3 {hr} and {E}{{fb}}11 {hr} are similar, with an average(std) of {{log}}10({E}{{fb}}3 {hr}/{E}{{fb}}11 {hr}) of 0.04(0.28). The small variance of η γ implies that burst-to-burst variations in {\\varepsilon }{{e}} and in the efficiency of fireball energy conversion to γ-rays are small, and suggests that both are of order unity. The small variance of η γ and the similarity of {E}{{fb}}3 {hr} and {E}{{fb}}11 {hr} further imply that deviations from a simple fireball model description, if present, are small. This puts stringent constraints on models incorporating such modifications (due e.g., to radiative losses, energy injection, off-axis viewing).

  5. The Energy Budget of GRBs Based on a Large Sample of Prompt and Afterglow Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wygoda, N.; Guetta, D.; Mandich, M. A.; Waxman, E.

    2016-06-01

    We compare the isotropic equivalent 15–2000 keV γ-ray energy, E γ , emitted by a sample of 91 swift Gamma-Ray Bursts with known redshifts, with the isotropic equivalent fireball energy, E fb, as estimated within the fireball model framework from X-ray afterglow observations of these bursts. The uncertainty in E γ , which spans the range of ˜1051 to ˜1053.5 erg, is ≈25% on average, due mainly to the extrapolation from the BAT detector band to the 15–2000 keV band. The uncertainty in E fb is approximately a factor of 2, due mainly to the X-ray measurements’ scatter. We find E γ and E fb to be tightly correlated. The average(std) of {η }γ 11 {hr}\\equiv {{log}}10({E}γ /(3{\\varepsilon }{{e}}{E}{{fb}}11 {hr})) are ‑0.34(0.60), and the upper limit on the intrinsic spread of η γ is approximately 0.5 ({\\varepsilon }{{e}} is the fraction of energy carried by electrons and {E}{{fb}}x {hr} is inferred from the X-ray flux at x hours). {E}{{fb}}3 {hr} and {E}{{fb}}11 {hr} are similar, with an average(std) of {{log}}10({E}{{fb}}3 {hr}/{E}{{fb}}11 {hr}) of 0.04(0.28). The small variance of η γ implies that burst-to-burst variations in {\\varepsilon }{{e}} and in the efficiency of fireball energy conversion to γ-rays are small, and suggests that both are of order unity. The small variance of η γ and the similarity of {E}{{fb}}3 {hr} and {E}{{fb}}11 {hr} further imply that deviations from a simple fireball model description, if present, are small. This puts stringent constraints on models incorporating such modifications (due e.g., to radiative losses, energy injection, off-axis viewing).

  6. BROAD ABSORPTION LINE VARIABILITY ON MULTI-YEAR TIMESCALES IN A LARGE QUASAR SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Filiz Ak, N.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, D. P.; Hall, P. B.; Anderson, S. F.; Hamann, F.; Lundgren, B. F.; Myers, Adam D.; Pâris, I.; Petitjean, P.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Shen, Yue; York, Don

    2013-11-10

    We present a detailed investigation of the variability of 428 C IV and 235 Si IV broad absorption line (BAL) troughs identified in multi-epoch observations of 291 quasars by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-I/II/III. These observations primarily sample rest-frame timescales of 1-3.7 yr over which significant rearrangement of the BAL wind is expected. We derive a number of observational results on, e.g., the frequency of BAL variability, the velocity range over which BAL variability occurs, the primary observed form of BAL-trough variability, the dependence of BAL variability upon timescale, the frequency of BAL strengthening versus weakening, correlations between BAL variability and BAL-trough profiles, relations between C IV and Si IV BAL variability, coordinated multi-trough variability, and BAL variations as a function of quasar properties. We assess implications of these observational results for quasar winds. Our results support models where most BAL absorption is formed within an order-of-magnitude of the wind-launching radius, although a significant minority of BAL troughs may arise on larger scales. We estimate an average lifetime for a BAL trough along our line-of-sight of a few thousand years. BAL disappearance and emergence events appear to be extremes of general BAL variability, rather than being qualitatively distinct phenomena. We derive the parameters of a random-walk model for BAL EW variability, finding that this model can acceptably describe some key aspects of EW variability. The coordinated trough variability of BAL quasars with multiple troughs suggests that changes in 'shielding gas' may play a significant role in driving general BAL variability.

  7. Broad Absorption Line Variability on Multi-year Timescales in a Large Quasar Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filiz Ak, N.; Brandt, W. N.; Hall, P. B.; Schneider, D. P.; Anderson, S. F.; Hamann, F.; Lundgren, B. F.; Myers, Adam D.; Pâris, I.; Petitjean, P.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Shen, Yue; York, Don

    2013-11-01

    We present a detailed investigation of the variability of 428 C IV and 235 Si IV broad absorption line (BAL) troughs identified in multi-epoch observations of 291 quasars by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-I/II/III. These observations primarily sample rest-frame timescales of 1-3.7 yr over which significant rearrangement of the BAL wind is expected. We derive a number of observational results on, e.g., the frequency of BAL variability, the velocity range over which BAL variability occurs, the primary observed form of BAL-trough variability, the dependence of BAL variability upon timescale, the frequency of BAL strengthening versus weakening, correlations between BAL variability and BAL-trough profiles, relations between C IV and Si IV BAL variability, coordinated multi-trough variability, and BAL variations as a function of quasar properties. We assess implications of these observational results for quasar winds. Our results support models where most BAL absorption is formed within an order-of-magnitude of the wind-launching radius, although a significant minority of BAL troughs may arise on larger scales. We estimate an average lifetime for a BAL trough along our line-of-sight of a few thousand years. BAL disappearance and emergence events appear to be extremes of general BAL variability, rather than being qualitatively distinct phenomena. We derive the parameters of a random-walk model for BAL EW variability, finding that this model can acceptably describe some key aspects of EW variability. The coordinated trough variability of BAL quasars with multiple troughs suggests that changes in "shielding gas" may play a significant role in driving general BAL variability.

  8. Statistical techniques for detecting the intergalactic magnetic field from large samples of extragalactic Faraday rotation data

    SciTech Connect

    Akahori, Takuya; Gaensler, B. M.; Ryu, Dongsu E-mail: bryan.gaensler@sydney.edu.au

    2014-08-01

    Rotation measure (RM) grids of extragalactic radio sources have been widely used for studying cosmic magnetism. However, their potential for exploring the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) in filaments of galaxies is unclear, since other Faraday-rotation media such as the radio source itself, intervening galaxies, and the interstellar medium of our Galaxy are all significant contributors. We study statistical techniques for discriminating the Faraday rotation of filaments from other sources of Faraday rotation in future large-scale surveys of radio polarization. We consider a 30° × 30° field of view toward the south Galactic pole, while varying the number of sources detected in both present and future observations. We select sources located at high redshifts and toward which depolarization and optical absorption systems are not observed so as to reduce the RM contributions from the sources and intervening galaxies. It is found that a high-pass filter can satisfactorily reduce the RM contribution from the Galaxy since the angular scale of this component toward high Galactic latitudes would be much larger than that expected for the IGMF. Present observations do not yet provide a sufficient source density to be able to estimate the RM of filaments. However, from the proposed approach with forthcoming surveys, we predict significant residuals of RM that should be ascribable to filaments. The predicted structure of the IGMF down to scales of 0.°1 should be observable with data from the Square Kilometre Array, if we achieve selections of sources toward which sightlines do not contain intervening galaxies and RM errors are less than a few rad m{sup –2}.

  9. The Pemberton Happiness Index: Validation of the Universal Portuguese version in a large Brazilian sample.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Bianca Sakamoto Ribeiro; de Camargos, Mayara Goulart; Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Hervás, Gonzalo; Vázquez, Carmelo; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-09-01

    The Pemberton Happiness Index (PHI) is a recently developed integrative measure of well-being that includes components of hedonic, eudaimonic, social, and experienced well-being. The PHI has been validated in several languages, but not in Portuguese. Our aim was to cross-culturally adapt the Universal Portuguese version of the PHI and to assess its psychometric properties in a sample of the Brazilian population using online surveys.An expert committee evaluated 2 versions of the PHI previously translated into Portuguese by the original authors using a standardized form for assessment of semantic/idiomatic, cultural, and conceptual equivalence. A pretesting was conducted employing cognitive debriefing methods. In sequence, the expert committee evaluated all the documents and reached a final Universal Portuguese PHI version. For the evaluation of the psychometric properties, the data were collected using online surveys in a cross-sectional study. The study population included healthcare professionals and users of the social network site Facebook from several Brazilian geographic areas. In addition to the PHI, participants completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Diener and Emmons' Positive and Negative Experience Scale (PNES), Psychological Well-being Scale (PWS), and the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS). Internal consistency, convergent validity, known-group validity, and test-retest reliability were evaluated. Satisfaction with the previous day was correlated with the 10 items assessing experienced well-being using the Cramer V test. Additionally, a cut-off value of PHI to identify a "happy individual" was defined using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve methodology.Data from 1035 Brazilian participants were analyzed (health professionals = 180; Facebook users = 855). Regarding reliability results, the internal consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.890 and 0.914) and test-retest (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.814) were both considered

  10. The Pemberton Happiness Index: Validation of the Universal Portuguese version in a large Brazilian sample.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Bianca Sakamoto Ribeiro; de Camargos, Mayara Goulart; Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Hervás, Gonzalo; Vázquez, Carmelo; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-09-01

    The Pemberton Happiness Index (PHI) is a recently developed integrative measure of well-being that includes components of hedonic, eudaimonic, social, and experienced well-being. The PHI has been validated in several languages, but not in Portuguese. Our aim was to cross-culturally adapt the Universal Portuguese version of the PHI and to assess its psychometric properties in a sample of the Brazilian population using online surveys.An expert committee evaluated 2 versions of the PHI previously translated into Portuguese by the original authors using a standardized form for assessment of semantic/idiomatic, cultural, and conceptual equivalence. A pretesting was conducted employing cognitive debriefing methods. In sequence, the expert committee evaluated all the documents and reached a final Universal Portuguese PHI version. For the evaluation of the psychometric properties, the data were collected using online surveys in a cross-sectional study. The study population included healthcare professionals and users of the social network site Facebook from several Brazilian geographic areas. In addition to the PHI, participants completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Diener and Emmons' Positive and Negative Experience Scale (PNES), Psychological Well-being Scale (PWS), and the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS). Internal consistency, convergent validity, known-group validity, and test-retest reliability were evaluated. Satisfaction with the previous day was correlated with the 10 items assessing experienced well-being using the Cramer V test. Additionally, a cut-off value of PHI to identify a "happy individual" was defined using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve methodology.Data from 1035 Brazilian participants were analyzed (health professionals = 180; Facebook users = 855). Regarding reliability results, the internal consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.890 and 0.914) and test-retest (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.814) were both considered

  11. The influence of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and coumarin on flavonoid production by fungus Phellinus sp.: modeling of production kinetic profiles.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-Kui; Li, Le; Peterson, Eric Charles; Ruan, Tingting; Duan, Xiaoyi

    2015-11-01

    For the purpose of improving the fungal production of flavonoids, the influence of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and coumarin on flavonoid production by fungus Phellinus sp. P0988 was investigated by developing the corresponding kinetics of flavonoid production in a 7-L bioreactor. Phellinus sp. was confirmed to form flavonoids in pellets and broth when cultivated in basic medium, and the optimum concentration of NAA and coumarin in medium for flavonoid production were determined to be 0.03 and 0.02 g/L, respectively. The developed unstructured mathematical models were in good agreement with the experimental results with respect to flavonoid production kinetic profiles with NAA and coumarin supplementation at optimum levels and revealed significant accuracy in terms of statistical consistency and robustness. Analysis of these kinetic processes indicated that NAA and coumarin supplementations imposed a stronger positive influence on flavonoid production and substrate consumption compared to their effects on cell growth. The separate addition of NAA and coumarin resulted in enhancements in final product accumulation and productivity, achieving final flavonoid concentrations of 3.60 and 2.75 g/L, respectively, and glucose consumption showed a significant decrease compared to the non-supplemented control as well. Also, the separate presence of NAA and coumarin respectively decreased maintenance coefficients (M s) from 2.48 in the control to 1.39 and 0.22, representing decreases of 43.9 and 91.1 %, respectively. The current study is the first known application of mathematical kinetic models to explore the influence of medium components adding on flavonoid production by fungi.

  12. RF Surface Impedance Measurement of Polycrystalline and Large Grain Nb Disk Sample at 7.5 GHz

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Binping; Geng, Rongli; Kelley, Michael J.; Marhauser, Frank; Phillips, H. Larry; Reece, Charles E.; Wang, Haipeng

    2009-11-01

    A Surface Impedance Characterization (SIC) system has been proposed at the 2005 SRF workshop and recently updated as detailed at the 2009 PAC conference. Currently the SIC system can measure samples in a temperature range from 2K to 20K exposed to an RF magnetic flux density of less than 3mT. We report on new results of a BCP etched large grain Nb sample measured with this system as compared with previous results of a BCP etched polycrystalline Nb sample. The design of an upgraded SIC system for use at higher magnetic flux densities is on the way to more efficiently investigate correlations between local material characteristics and associated SRF properties, both for preparation studies of bulk niobium and also new thin film SRF developments.

  13. BERYLLIUM AND ALPHA-ELEMENT ABUNDANCES IN A LARGE SAMPLE OF METAL-POOR STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Boesgaard, Ann Merchant; Rich, Jeffrey A.; Levesque, Emily M.; Bowler, Brendan P. E-mail: jrich@ifa.hawaii.edu E-mail: bpbowler@ifa.hawaii.edu

    2011-12-20

    The light elements, Li, Be, and B, provide tracers for many aspects of astronomy including stellar structure, Galactic evolution, and cosmology. We have made observations of Be in 117 metal-poor stars ranging in metallicity from [Fe/H] = -0.5 to -3.5 with Keck I/HIRES. Our spectra are high resolution ({approx}42,000) and high signal to noise (the median is 106 per pixel). We have determined the stellar parameters spectroscopically from lines of Fe I, Fe II, Ti I, and Ti II. The abundances of Be and O were derived by spectrum synthesis techniques, while abundances of Fe, Ti, and Mg were found from many spectral line measurements. There is a linear relationship between [Fe/H] and A(Be) with a slope of +0.88 {+-} 0.03 over three orders of magnitude in [Fe/H]. We find that Be is enhanced relative to Fe; [Be/Fe] is +0.40 near [Fe/H] {approx}-3.3 and drops to 0.0 near [Fe/H] {approx}-1.7. For the relationship between A(Be) and [O/H], we find a gradual change in slope from 0.69 {+-} 0.13 for the Be-poor/O-poor stars to 1.13 {+-} 0.10 for the Be-rich/O-rich stars. Inasmuch as the relationship between [Fe/H] and [O/H] seems robustly linear (slope = +0.75 {+-} 0.03), we conclude that the slope change in Be versus O is due to the Be abundance. Much of the Be would have been formed in the vicinity of Type II supernova (SN II) in the early history of the Galaxy and by Galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) spallation in the later eras. Although Be is a by-product of CNO, we have used Ti and Mg abundances as alpha-element surrogates for O in part because O abundances are rather sensitive to both stellar temperature and surface gravity. We find that A(Be) tracks [Ti/H] very well with a slope of 1.00 {+-} 0.04. It also tracks [Mg/H] very well with a slope of 0.88 {+-} 0.03. We have kinematic information on 114 stars in our sample and they divide equally into dissipative and accretive stars. Almost the full range of [Fe/H] and [O/H] is covered in each group. There are distinct differences in

  14. A topological analysis of large-scale structure, studied using the CMASS sample of SDSS-III

    SciTech Connect

    Parihar, Prachi; Gott, J. Richard III; Vogeley, Michael S.; Choi, Yun-Young; Kim, Juhan; Kim, Sungsoo S.; Speare, Robert; Brownstein, Joel R.; Brinkmann, J. E-mail: yy.choi@khu.ac.kr

    2014-12-01

    We study the three-dimensional genus topology of large-scale structure using the northern region of the CMASS Data Release 10 (DR10) sample of the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We select galaxies with redshift 0.452 < z < 0.625 and with a stellar mass M {sub stellar} > 10{sup 11.56} M {sub ☉}. We study the topology at two smoothing lengths: R {sub G} = 21 h {sup –1} Mpc and R {sub G} = 34 h {sup –1} Mpc. The genus topology studied at the R {sub G} = 21 h {sup –1} Mpc scale results in the highest genus amplitude observed to date. The CMASS sample yields a genus curve that is characteristic of one produced by Gaussian random phase initial conditions. The data thus support the standard model of inflation where random quantum fluctuations in the early universe produced Gaussian random phase initial conditions. Modest deviations in the observed genus from random phase are as expected from shot noise effects and the nonlinear evolution of structure. We suggest the use of a fitting formula motivated by perturbation theory to characterize the shift and asymmetries in the observed genus curve with a single parameter. We construct 54 mock SDSS CMASS surveys along the past light cone from the Horizon Run 3 (HR3) N-body simulations, where gravitationally bound dark matter subhalos are identified as the sites of galaxy formation. We study the genus topology of the HR3 mock surveys with the same geometry and sampling density as the observational sample and find the observed genus topology to be consistent with ΛCDM as simulated by the HR3 mock samples. We conclude that the topology of the large-scale structure in the SDSS CMASS sample is consistent with cosmological models having primordial Gaussian density fluctuations growing in accordance with general relativity to form galaxies in massive dark matter halos.

  15. A Topological Analysis of Large-Scale Structure, Studied Using the CMASS Sample of SDSS-III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parihar, Prachi; Vogeley, Michael S.; Gott, J. Richard, III; Choi, Yun-Young; Kim, Juhan; Kim, Sungsoo S.; Speare, Robert; Brownstein, Joel R.; Brinkmann, J.

    2014-12-01

    We study the three-dimensional genus topology of large-scale structure using the northern region of the CMASS Data Release 10 (DR10) sample of the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We select galaxies with redshift 0.452 < z < 0.625 and with a stellar mass M stellar > 1011.56 M ⊙. We study the topology at two smoothing lengths: R G = 21 h -1 Mpc and R G = 34 h -1 Mpc. The genus topology studied at the R G = 21 h -1 Mpc scale results in the highest genus amplitude observed to date. The CMASS sample yields a genus curve that is characteristic of one produced by Gaussian random phase initial conditions. The data thus support the standard model of inflation where random quantum fluctuations in the early universe produced Gaussian random phase initial conditions. Modest deviations in the observed genus from random phase are as expected from shot noise effects and the nonlinear evolution of structure. We suggest the use of a fitting formula motivated by perturbation theory to characterize the shift and asymmetries in the observed genus curve with a single parameter. We construct 54 mock SDSS CMASS surveys along the past light cone from the Horizon Run 3 (HR3) N-body simulations, where gravitationally bound dark matter subhalos are identified as the sites of galaxy formation. We study the genus topology of the HR3 mock surveys with the same geometry and sampling density as the observational sample and find the observed genus topology to be consistent with ΛCDM as simulated by the HR3 mock samples. We conclude that the topology of the large-scale structure in the SDSS CMASS sample is consistent with cosmological models having primordial Gaussian density fluctuations growing in accordance with general relativity to form galaxies in massive dark matter halos.

  16. The preparation and characterization of synthetic multi-element standards for testing the performance of k0-NAA: the state of affairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eguskiza, M.; Robouch, P.; De Corte, F.; Pommé, S.

    2001-07-01

    As part of the general QC/QA management of the k0-standardization, three types of `SMELS' (synthetic multi-element standards) are being developed to check the performance of k0-NAA when implemented in a laboratory. Phenol-formaldehyde resin is proposed in this paper as the matrix of choice. Based on previous work, this material could be prepared with sufficient purity so as to make interferences with the spiking elements negligible. The matrix was found to be adequately resistant towards high neutron flux irradiation. A selection was made of compounds, soluble in ethyl alcohol, for spiking the prepolymer ethanolic solution with the elements of interest. Finally, some prototypes were prepared and a satisfactory homogeneity of the spiked elements was found for 50 mg sample intake.

  17. A priori evaluation of two-stage cluster sampling for accuracy assessment of large-area land-cover maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wickham, J.D.; Stehman, S.V.; Smith, J.H.; Wade, T.G.; Yang, L.

    2004-01-01

    Two-stage cluster sampling reduces the cost of collecting accuracy assessment reference data by constraining sample elements to fall within a limited number of geographic domains (clusters). However, because classification error is typically positively spatially correlated, within-cluster correlation may reduce the precision of the accuracy estimates. The detailed population information to quantify a priori the effect of within-cluster correlation on precision is typically unavailable. Consequently, a convenient, practical approach to evaluate the likely performance of a two-stage cluster sample is needed. We describe such an a priori evaluation protocol focusing on the spatial distribution of the sample by land-cover class across different cluster sizes and costs of different sampling options, including options not imposing clustering. This protocol also assesses the two-stage design's adequacy for estimating the precision of accuracy estimates for rare land-cover classes. We illustrate the approach using two large-area, regional accuracy assessments from the National Land-Cover Data (NLCD), and describe how the a priorievaluation was used as a decision-making tool when implementing the NLCD design.

  18. Prevalence and Predictors of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use in a Large Insured Sample of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Owen-Smith, Ashli A.; Bent, Stephen; Lynch, Frances L.; Coleman, Karen J.; Yau, Vincent M.; Pearson, Kathryn A.; Massolo, Maria L.; Quinn, Virginia; Croen, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present study was to examine the prevalence and predictors of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use as well as parental perceptions of CAM efficacy in a large, geographically diverse sample of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Methodology Data were obtained from a web-based survey administered to parents of children with ASD at four sites participating in the Mental Health Research Network (MHRN). The web survey obtained information about services and treatments received by children with ASD as well as the caregivers’ experiences with having a child with ASD. Results Approximately 88% of the sample had either used CAM in the past or had recently used some type of CAM. The following characteristics were associated with CAM use: greater parental education, younger child age, a mix of regular and special classroom settings and prescription drug use in the past three months. Conclusions The use of CAM was very prevalent in this large, geographically diverse sample of children with ASD. It is critical that providers be prepared to discuss the advantages and potential side effects with families to help them make well-informed health care decisions and prevent possible CAM-drug interactions. PMID:26366192

  19. Identifying Microlensing Events in Large, Non-Uniformly Sampled Surveys: The Case of the Palomar Transient Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Agueros, M. A.; Fournier, A.; Street, R.; Ofek, E.; Levitan, D. B.; PTF Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Many current photometric, time-domain surveys are driven by specific goals such as searches for supernovae or transiting exoplanets, or studies of stellar variability. These goals in turn set the cadence with which individual fields are re-imaged. In the case of the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), several such sub-surveys are being conducted in parallel, leading to extremely non-uniform sampling over the survey's nearly 20,000 sq. deg. footprint. While the typical 7.26 sq. deg. PTF field has been imaged 20 times in R-band, ~2300 sq. deg. have been observed more than 100 times. We use the existing PTF data 6.4x107 light curves) to study the trade-off that occurs when searching for microlensing events when one has access to a large survey footprint with irregular sampling. To examine the probability that microlensing events can be recovered in these data, we also test previous statistics used on uniformly sampled data to identify variables and transients. We find that one such statistic, the von Neumann ratio, performs best for identifying simulated microlensing events. We develop a selection method using this statistic and apply it to data from all PTF fields with >100 observations to uncover a number of interesting candidate events. This work can help constrain all-sky event rate predictions and tests microlensing signal recovery in large datasets, both of which will be useful to future wide-field, time-domain surveys such as the LSST.

  20. [A Large Number of Circulating Tumor Cells(CTCs)Can Be Isolated from Samples Obtained by Using Leukapheresis Procedures].

    PubMed

    Soya, Ryoko; Taguchi, Jyunichi; Nagakawa, Yuichi; Takahashi, Osamu; Sandoh, Norimasa; Hosokawa, Yuichi; Kasuya, Kazuhiko; Umeda, Naoki; Okamoto, Masato; Tsujitani, Shunichi; Tsuchida, Akihiko

    2015-09-01

    We hypothesized that a large number of circulating tumor cells(CTCs)may be isolated from samples obtained by using the leukapheresis procedures that are utilized to collect peripheral blood mononuclear cells for dendritic cell vaccine therapy. We utilized the CellSearch System to determine the number of CTCs in samples obtained by using leukapheresis in 7 patients with colorectal cancer, 5 patients with breast cancer, and 3 patients with gastric cancer. In all patients, a large number of CTCs were isolated. The mean number of CTCs per tumor was 17.1(range 10-34)in colorectal cancer, 10.0(range 2-27)in breast cancer, and 24.0(range 2-42)in gastric cancer. We succeeded in culturing the isolated CTCs from 7 patients with colorectal cancer, 5 patients with breast cancer, and 3 patients with gastric cancer. In conclusion, compared to conventional methods, a large number of CTCs can be obtained by using leukapheresis procedures. The molecular analyses of the CTCs isolated by using this method should be promising in the development of personalized cancer treatments.

  1. Negative symptoms in schizophrenia: a study in a large clinical sample of patients using a novel automated method

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rashmi; Jayatilleke, Nishamali; Broadbent, Matthew; Chang, Chin-Kuo; Foskett, Nadia; Gorrell, Genevieve; Hayes, Richard D; Jackson, Richard; Johnston, Caroline; Shetty, Hitesh; Roberts, Angus; McGuire, Philip; Stewart, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify negative symptoms in the clinical records of a large sample of patients with schizophrenia using natural language processing and assess their relationship with clinical outcomes. Design Observational study using an anonymised electronic health record case register. Setting South London and Maudsley NHS Trust (SLaM), a large provider of inpatient and community mental healthcare in the UK. Participants 7678 patients with schizophrenia receiving care during 2011. Main outcome measures Hospital admission, readmission and duration of admission. Results 10 different negative symptoms were ascertained with precision statistics above 0.80. 41% of patients had 2 or more negative symptoms. Negative symptoms were associated with younger age, male gender and single marital status, and with increased likelihood of hospital admission (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.39), longer duration of admission (β-coefficient 20.5 days, 7.6–33.5), and increased likelihood of readmission following discharge (OR 1.58, 1.28 to 1.95). Conclusions Negative symptoms were common and associated with adverse clinical outcomes, consistent with evidence that these symptoms account for much of the disability associated with schizophrenia. Natural language processing provides a means of conducting research in large representative samples of patients, using data recorded during routine clinical practice. PMID:26346872

  2. Large volume splitless injection with concurrent solvent recondensation: keeping the sample in place in the hot vaporizing chamber.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, Maurus; Fiscalini, Alessandro; Grob, Koni

    2004-10-01

    An injector liner packed with a plug of glass wool is compared with a laminar and a mini laminar liner for large volume (20-50 microL) splitless injection with concurrent solvent recondensation (CSR-LV splitless injection). Videos from experiments with perylene solutions injected into imitation injectors show that glass wool perfectly arrested the sample liquid and kept it in place until the solvent had evaporated. The sample must be transferred from the needle to the glass wool as a band, avoiding 'thermospraying' by partial solvent evaporation inside the needle. The liquid contacted the liner wall when the band was directed towards it, but from there it was largely diverted to the glass wool. In the laminar liners, part of the liquid remained and evaporated at the entrance of the obstacle, while the other proceeded to the center cavity. Vapors formed in the center cavity drove liquid from the entrance of the obstacle upwards, but the importance of such problems could not be verified in the real injector. Some liquid split into small droplets broke through the obstacle and entered the column. Breakthrough through the laminar liners was confirmed by a chromatographic experiment. An improved design of a laminar liner for large volume injection is discussed as a promising alternative if glass wool causes problems originating from insufficient inertness. PMID:15537071

  3. Statistical Analysis of a Large Sample Size Pyroshock Test Data Set Including Post Flight Data Assessment. Revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Anne M.

    2010-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra spacecraft was launched on an Atlas IIAS launch vehicle on its mission to observe planet Earth in late 1999. Prior to launch, the new design of the spacecraft's pyroshock separation system was characterized by a series of 13 separation ground tests. The analysis methods used to evaluate this unusually large amount of shock data will be discussed in this paper, with particular emphasis on population distributions and finding statistically significant families of data, leading to an overall shock separation interface level. The wealth of ground test data also allowed a derivation of a Mission Assurance level for the flight. All of the flight shock measurements were below the EOS Terra Mission Assurance level thus contributing to the overall success of the EOS Terra mission. The effectiveness of the statistical methodology for characterizing the shock interface level and for developing a flight Mission Assurance level from a large sample size of shock data is demonstrated in this paper.

  4. Testing a discrete choice experiment including duration to value health states for large descriptive systems: addressing design and sampling issues.

    PubMed

    Bansback, Nick; Hole, Arne Risa; Mulhern, Brendan; Tsuchiya, Aki

    2014-08-01

    There is interest in the use of discrete choice experiments that include a duration attribute (DCETTO) to generate health utility values, but questions remain on its feasibility in large health state descriptive systems. This study examines the stability of DCETTO to estimate health utility values from the five-level EQ-5D, an instrument with depicts 3125 different health states. Between January and March 2011, we administered 120 DCETTO tasks based on the five-level EQ-5D to a total of 1799 respondents in the UK (each completed 15 DCETTO tasks on-line). We compared models across different sample sizes and different total numbers of observations. We found the DCETTO coefficients were generally consistent, with high agreement between individual ordinal preferences and aggregate cardinal values. Keeping the DCE design and the total number of observations fixed, subsamples consisting of 10 tasks per respondent with an intermediate sized sample, and 15 tasks with a smaller sample provide similar results in comparison to the whole sample model. In conclusion, we find that the DCETTO is a feasible method for developing values for larger descriptive systems such as EQ-5D-5L, and find evidence supporting important design features for future valuation studies that use the DCETTO.

  5. The Mass of the Galaxy from Large Samples of Field Horizontal-Branch Stars in the SDSS Early Data Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beers, T. C.; Chiba, M.; Sakamoto, T.; Wilhelm, R.; Allende Prieto, C.; Sommer-Larsen, J.; Newberg, H. J.; Yanny, B.; Marsteller, B.; Pier, J. R.

    2004-07-01

    We present a new estimate of the mass of the Milky Way, making use of a large sample of 955 field horizontal-branch (FHB) stars from the Early Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. This sample of stars has been classified on the basis of an automated analysis approach, in combination with other methods, in order to obtain estimates of the physical parameters of the stars, i.e., T_eff, log g, [Fe/H], and should be relatively free of contamination from halo blue stragglers. The stars all have measured radial velocities and photometric distance estimates, and the sample includes objects as distant as ˜ 75 kpc from the Galactic center. Application of a Bayesian likelihood method, for a specific model of the Galaxy, indicates that the total mass of the Galaxy lies in the range 1.5-4.0 x 1012 M⊙. Our sample appears to reveal a clear signature of a dual halo population of FHB stars, with the boundary between the inner and outer halo around 20 kpc, and the possibility of rather striking differences in the rotational properties of the Galaxy at low metallicity.

  6. Prefrontal NAA and Glx Levels in Different Stages of Psychotic Disorders: a 3T 1H-MRS Study

    PubMed Central

    Liemburg, Edith; Sibeijn-Kuiper, Anita; Bais, Leonie; Pijnenborg, Gerdina; Knegtering, Henderikus; van der Velde, Jorien; Opmeer, Esther; de Vos, Annerieke; Dlabac-De Lange, Jozarni; Wunderink, Lex; Aleman, André

    2016-01-01

    H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H-MRS) can offer insights in various neuropathologies by measuring metabolite levels in the brain. In the current study we investigated the levels of glutamate + glutamine (Glx, neurotransmitter and precursor) and N-Acetyl Aspartate + glutamic acid (NAA + NAAG; neuronal viability) in the prefrontal cortex of patients with a psychotic disorder and people at Ultra High Risk (UHR) for psychosis. A 1H-MRS spectrum was acquired in 31 patients with a recent onset psychotic disorder and 60 with a chronic state, 16 UHR patients and 36 healthy controls. Absolute metabolite levels were calculated using LCModel with a reference water peak. Groups were compared while taking into account age and partial volume effects. Moreover, we investigated associations with positive and negative symptoms, duration of illness, and antipsychotic treatment in patients. The most notable finding is that chronicity of schizophrenia was related to decreased levels of Glx and NAA. On the other hand, although on an exploratory note, UHR showed increased levels of prefrontal Glx and NAA levels with increasing age. Our results may indicate an initial Glx and NAA increase and subsequent decrease during illness progression that may be related to the neurotoxic effects of glutamate. PMID:26903078

  7. Synthesis of Na-A and/or Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composites from carbonized rice husk

    SciTech Connect

    Katsuki, Hiroaki; Komarneni, Sridhar

    2009-07-15

    Na-A and/or Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composites were prepared under hydrothermal conditions by NaOH dissolution of silica first from carbonized rice husk followed by addition of NaAlO{sub 2} and in situ crystallization of zeolites i.e., using a two-step process. When a one-step process was used, both Na-A and Na-X zeolites crystallized on the surface of carbon. Na-A or Na-X zeolite crystals were prepared on the porous carbonized rice husk at 90 deg. C for 2-6 h by changing the SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O/Na{sub 2}O and Na{sub 2}O/SiO{sub 2} molar ratios of precursors in the two-step process. The surface area and NH{sub 4}{sup +}-cation exchange capacity (CEC) of Na-A zeolite/porous carbon were found to be 171 m{sup 2}/g and 506 meq/100 g, respectively, while those of Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composites were 676 m{sup 2}/g and 317 meq/100 g, respectively. Na-A and Na-X zeolites are well-known microporous and hydrophilic materials while carbonized rice husk was found to be mesoporous (pores of {approx}3.9 nm) and hydrophobic. These hybrid microporous-mesoporous and hydrophilic-hydrophobic composites are expected to be useful for decontamination of metal cations as well as organic contaminants simultaneously. - Graphical Abstract: Novel Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composite.

  8. Inferring Population Size History from Large Samples of Genome-Wide Molecular Data - An Approximate Bayesian Computation Approach

    PubMed Central

    Boitard, Simon; Rodríguez, Willy; Jay, Flora; Mona, Stefano; Austerlitz, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Inferring the ancestral dynamics of effective population size is a long-standing question in population genetics, which can now be tackled much more accurately thanks to the massive genomic data available in many species. Several promising methods that take advantage of whole-genome sequences have been recently developed in this context. However, they can only be applied to rather small samples, which limits their ability to estimate recent population size history. Besides, they can be very sensitive to sequencing or phasing errors. Here we introduce a new approximate Bayesian computation approach named PopSizeABC that allows estimating the evolution of the effective population size through time, using a large sample of complete genomes. This sample is summarized using the folded allele frequency spectrum and the average zygotic linkage disequilibrium at different bins of physical distance, two classes of statistics that are widely used in population genetics and can be easily computed from unphased and unpolarized SNP data. Our approach provides accurate estimations of past population sizes, from the very first generations before present back to the expected time to the most recent common ancestor of the sample, as shown by simulations under a wide range of demographic scenarios. When applied to samples of 15 or 25 complete genomes in four cattle breeds (Angus, Fleckvieh, Holstein and Jersey), PopSizeABC revealed a series of population declines, related to historical events such as domestication or modern breed creation. We further highlight that our approach is robust to sequencing errors, provided summary statistics are computed from SNPs with common alleles. PMID:26943927

  9. Inferring Population Size History from Large Samples of Genome-Wide Molecular Data - An Approximate Bayesian Computation Approach.

    PubMed

    Boitard, Simon; Rodríguez, Willy; Jay, Flora; Mona, Stefano; Austerlitz, Frédéric

    2016-03-01

    Inferring the ancestral dynamics of effective population size is a long-standing question in population genetics, which can now be tackled much more accurately thanks to the massive genomic data available in many species. Several promising methods that take advantage of whole-genome sequences have been recently developed in this context. However, they can only be applied to rather small samples, which limits their ability to estimate recent population size history. Besides, they can be very sensitive to sequencing or phasing errors. Here we introduce a new approximate Bayesian computation approach named PopSizeABC that allows estimating the evolution of the effective population size through time, using a large sample of complete genomes. This sample is summarized using the folded allele frequency spectrum and the average zygotic linkage disequilibrium at different bins of physical distance, two classes of statistics that are widely used in population genetics and can be easily computed from unphased and unpolarized SNP data. Our approach provides accurate estimations of past population sizes, from the very first generations before present back to the expected time to the most recent common ancestor of the sample, as shown by simulations under a wide range of demographic scenarios. When applied to samples of 15 or 25 complete genomes in four cattle breeds (Angus, Fleckvieh, Holstein and Jersey), PopSizeABC revealed a series of population declines, related to historical events such as domestication or modern breed creation. We further highlight that our approach is robust to sequencing errors, provided summary statistics are computed from SNPs with common alleles.

  10. DETERMINATION OF 237NP AND PU ISOTOPES IN LARGE SOIL SAMPLES BY INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.

    2010-07-26

    A new method for the determination of {sup 237}Np and Pu isotopes in large soil samples has been developed that provides enhanced uranium removal to facilitate assay by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). This method allows rapid preconcentration and separation of plutonium and neptunium in large soil samples for the measurement of {sup 237}Np and Pu isotopes by ICP-MS. {sup 238}U can interfere with {sup 239}Pu measurement by ICP-MS as {sup 238}UH{sup +} mass overlap and {sup 237}Np via {sup 238}U peak tailing. The method provides enhanced removal of uranium by separating Pu and Np initially on TEVA Resin, then transferring Pu to DGA resin for additional purification. The decontamination factor for removal of uranium from plutonium for this method is greater than 1 x 10{sup 6}. Alpha spectrometry can also be applied so that the shorter-lived {sup 238}Pu isotope can be measured successfully. {sup 239}Pu, {sup 242}Pu and {sup 237}Np were measured by ICP-MS, while {sup 236}Pu and {sup 238}Pu were measured by alpha spectrometry.

  11. Genetic diversity and expression of the [NiFe] hydrogenase large-subunit gene of Desulfovibrio spp. in environmental samples.

    PubMed Central

    Wawer, C; Jetten, M S; Muyzer, G

    1997-01-01

    The genetic diversity and expression of the [NiFe] hydrogenase large-subunit gene of Desulfovibrio spp. in environmental samples were determined in order to show in parallel the existing and active members of Desulfovibrio populations. DNA and total RNA were extracted from different anaerobic bioreactor samples; RNA was transcribed into cDNA. Subsequently, PCR was performed to amplify a ca.-440-bp fragment of the [NiFe] hydrogenase large-subunit gene and its mRNA. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis was used to separate the PCR products according to their sequence and thereby to visualize the individual community members. Desulfovibrio strains corresponding to amplified [NiFe] hydrogenase transcripts were regarded as metabolically active, because in pure cultures transcripts were detectable in exponentially growing cells but not in cultures in the stationary phase. DNA sequencing and comparative sequence analysis were used to identify the detected organisms on the basis of their [NiFe] hydrogenase sequences. The genes of characterized Desulfovibrio spp. showed a considerable extent of divergence (ca. 30%), whereas sequences obtained from bacterial populations of the bioreactors showed a low level of variation and indicated the coexistence of closely related strains probably belonging to the species Desulfovibrio sulfodismutans. Under methanogenic conditions, all detected populations were active; under denitrifying conditions, no [NiFe] hydrogenase mRNA was visible. Changes in activity and composition of Desulfovibrio populations caused by changes in the environmental conditions could be monitored by using the approach described in this study. PMID:9361423

  12. A magnetic sorbent for the efficient and rapid extraction of organic micropollutants from large-volume environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mancheng; Zhou, Qing; Li, Aimin; Shuang, Chendong; Wang, Wei; Wang, Mengqiao

    2013-11-01

    A magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) method based on a novel magnetic sorbent was proposed for the extraction of target compounds from large-volume water samples. First, magnetic hypercrosslinked microspheres (NAND-1) were prepared via membrane emulsification-suspension polymerization and post crosslinking reaction. To ensure that the Fe3O4 nanoparticles could completely pass through the membrane without blocking the pores, oleic acid was used to modify the Fe3O4 nanoparticles, which enhanced lipophilicity and monodispersity of the magnetite nanoparticles. The obtained NAND-1 microspheres exhibited super paramagnetic characteristics and excellent magnetic responsiveness with a saturation magnetization of 2.53 emu/g. In addition, a uniform particle size (~8 μm) and a large average surface area (1303.59 m(2)/g) were also observed, which were both beneficial for the extraction of the target compounds. Thus, NAND-1 has the potential to simultaneously exhibit good extraction efficiencies toward different types of organic micropollutants (OMPs), including triazines, carbamazepine and diethyl phthalate. The conditions of the MSPE based on NAND-1 were optimized by single factor and orthogonal design experiments. This MSPE method needed only a small amount of sorbent (50mg/L) for the extraction of OMPs from a large-volume aquatic sample (5L) and reached equilibrium in a short amount of time (30 min). Moreover, the solution volume, the pH, and the salinity had insignificant influences on the extraction of the eight target OMPs. Under the optimum conditions, the recoveries of the eight OMPs calculated by analyzing the spiked samples were from 91.7% to 99.4%. The NAND-1 could be recycled ten times and still achieve recoveries of the eight OMPs higher than 86%. The limits of detection of the eight OMPs ranged from 1.76 to 27.56 ng/L, and the limits of quantification were from 5.71 to 92.05 ng/L. These results indicated that the proposed method, based on the use of NAND-1

  13. A large spectroscopic sample of L and T dwarfs from UKIDSS LAS: peculiar objects, binaries, and space density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marocco, F.; Jones, H. R. A.; Day-Jones, A. C.; Pinfield, D. J.; Lucas, P. W.; Burningham, B.; Zhang, Z. H.; Smart, R. L.; Gomes, J. I.; Smith, L.

    2015-06-01

    We present the spectroscopic analysis of a large sample of late-M, L, and T dwarfs from the United Kingdom Deep Infrared Sky Survey. Using the YJHK photometry from the Large Area Survey and the red-optical photometry from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey we selected a sample of 262 brown dwarf candidates and we have followed-up 196 of them using the echelle spectrograph X-shooter on the Very Large Telescope. The large wavelength coverage (0.30-2.48 μm) and moderate resolution (R ˜ 5000-9000) of X-shooter allowed us to identify peculiar objects including 22 blue L dwarfs, 2 blue T dwarfs, and 2 low-gravity M dwarfs. Using a spectral indices-based technique, we identified 27 unresolved binary candidates, for which we have determined the spectral type of the potential components via spectral deconvolution. The spectra allowed us to measure the equivalent width of the prominent absorption features and to compare them to atmospheric models. Cross-correlating the spectra with a radial velocity standard, we measured the radial velocity of our targets, and we determined the distribution of the sample, which is centred at -1.7 ± 1.2 km s-1 with a dispersion of 31.5 km s-1. Using our results, we estimated the space density of field brown dwarfs and compared it with the results of numerical simulations. Depending on the binary fraction, we found that there are (0.85 ± 0.55) × 10-3 to (1.00 ± 0.64) × 10-3 objects per cubic parsec in the L4-L6.5 range, (0.73 ± 0.47) × 10-3 to (0.85 ± 0.55) × 10-3 objects per cubic parsec in the L7-T0.5 range, and (0.74 ± 0.48) × 10-3 to (0.88 ± 0.56) × 10-3 objects per cubic parsec in the T1-T4.5 range. We notice that there seems to be an excess of objects in the L-T transition with respect to the late-T dwarfs, a discrepancy that could be explained assuming a higher binary fraction than expected for the L-T transition, or that objects in the high-mass end and low-mass end of this regime form in different environments, i.e. following

  14. Water maser variability over 20 years in a large sample of star-forming regions: the complete database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felli, M.; Brand, J.; Cesaroni, R.; Codella, C.; Comoretto, G.; Di Franco, S.; Massi, F.; Moscadelli, L.; Nesti, R.; Olmi, L.; Palagi, F.; Panella, D.; Valdettaro, R.

    2007-12-01

    Context: Water vapor emission at 22 GHz from masers associated with star-forming regions is highly variable. Aims: We present a database of up to 20 years of monitoring of a sample of 43 masers within star-forming regions. The sample covers a large range of luminosities of the associated IRAS source and is representative of the entire population of H2O masers of this type. The database forms a good starting point for any further study of H2O maser variability. Methods: The observations were obtained with the Medicina 32-m radiotelescope, at a rate of 4-5 observations per year. Results: To provide a database that can be easily accessed through the web, we give for each source: plots of the calibrated spectra, the velocity-time-flux density plot, the light curve of the integrated flux, the lower and upper envelopes of the maser emission, the mean spectrum, and the rate of the maser occurrence as a function of velocity. Figures for just one source are given in the text for representative purposes. Figures for all the sources are given in electronic form the appendix. A discussion of the main properties of the H2O variability in our sample will be presented in a forthcoming paper. Based on observations with the Medicina radiotelescope operated by INAF - Istituto di Radioastronomia.

  15. Structural Validity of the Tonic Immobility Scale in a Population Exposed to Trauma: Evidence from Two Large Brazilian Samples

    PubMed Central

    Reichenheim, Michael; Souza, Wanderson; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Figueira, Ivan; Quintana, Maria Inês; de Mello, Marcelo Feijó; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; de Jesus Mari, Jair; Andreoli, Sergio Baxter

    2014-01-01

    Background Tonic Immobility is a temporary state of motor inhibition in situations involving extreme fear. The first scale developed for its assessment was the 10-item Tonic Immobility Scale (TIS). However, there are still few studies on its structural (dimensional) validity. The objective of this study was to reassess the factor structure of the TIS applied to representative samples exposed to general trauma of two Brazilian mega-cities. Methods The sample comprised 3,223 participants reporting at least one traumatic experience. In São Paulo (n = 2,148), a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) first tested the originally proposed two-dimensional structure. This was followed by sequential Exploratory Structural Equation Models to identify the best fitting model, and subsequently tested in Rio de Janeiro (n = 1,075) via CFA. Alternative reduced versions were further explored using the aggregate sample. Model-based Item Response Theory (IRT) location parameters were also investigated. Results An absence of factor-based convergent and discriminant validity rejected the original proposition. However, the one-dimensional structure still held several residual correlations. Further exploration indicated the sustainability of reduced versions with seven (alternative A) and six (alternative B) items. Both presented excellent fit and no relevant residual item correlation. According to the IRT location parameters, items in alternative B covered a wider range of the latent trait. The Loevinger's H scalability coefficients underscored this pattern. Conclusions The original model did not hold. A one-factor solution was the most tenable in both large samples, but with significant item residual correlations, indicating that content redundancies persisted. Further reduced and simplified versions of the TIS proved promising. Although studies are yet to be carried out in other settings, it is the authors' impression that the restricted versions of the TIS are already apt for

  16. Extracting samples of high diversity from thematic collections of large gene banks using a genetic-distance based approach

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Breeding programs are usually reluctant to evaluate and use germplasm accessions other than the elite materials belonging to their advanced populations. The concept of core collections has been proposed to facilitate the access of potential users to samples of small sizes, representative of the genetic variability contained within the gene pool of a specific crop. The eventual large size of a core collection perpetuates the problem it was originally proposed to solve. The present study suggests that, in addition to the classic core collection concept, thematic core collections should be also developed for a specific crop, composed of a limited number of accessions, with a manageable size. Results The thematic core collection obtained meets the minimum requirements for a core sample - maintenance of at least 80% of the allelic richness of the thematic collection, with, approximately, 15% of its size. The method was compared with other methodologies based on the M strategy, and also with a core collection generated by random sampling. Higher proportions of retained alleles (in a core collection of equal size) or similar proportions of retained alleles (in a core collection of smaller size) were detected in the two methods based on the M strategy compared to the proposed methodology. Core sub-collections constructed by different methods were compared regarding the increase or maintenance of phenotypic diversity. No change on phenotypic diversity was detected by measuring the trait "Weight of 100 Seeds", for the tested sampling methods. Effects on linkage disequilibrium between unlinked microsatellite loci, due to sampling, are discussed. Conclusions Building of a thematic core collection was here defined by prior selection of accessions which are diverse for the trait of interest, and then by pairwise genetic distances, estimated by DNA polymorphism analysis at molecular marker loci. The resulting thematic core collection potentially reflects the maximum

  17. Human Naa50 Protein Displays Broad Substrate Specificity for Amino-terminal Acetylation: DETAILED STRUCTURAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS USING TETRAPEPTIDE LIBRARY.

    PubMed

    Reddi, Ravikumar; Saddanapu, Venkateshwarlu; Chinthapalli, Dinesh Kumar; Sankoju, Priyanka; Sripadi, Prabhakar; Addlagatta, Anthony

    2016-09-23

    Amino-terminal acetylation is a critical co-translational modification of the newly synthesized proteins in a eukaryotic cell carried out by six amino-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs). All NATs contain at least one catalytic subunit, and some contain one or two additional auxiliary subunits. For example, NatE is a complex of Naa10, Naa50, and Naa15 (auxiliary). In the present study, the crystal structure of human Naa50 suggested the presence of CoA and acetylated tetrapeptide (AcMMXX) that have co-purified with the protein. Biochemical and thermal stability studies on the tetrapeptide library with variations in the first and second positions confirm our results from the crystal structure that a peptide with Met-Met in the first two positions is the best substrate for this enzyme. In addition, Naa50 acetylated all MXAA peptides except for MPAA. Transcriptome analysis of 10 genes that make up six NATs in humans from eight different cell lines suggests that components of NatE are transcribed in all cell lines, whereas others are variable. Because Naa10 is reported to acetylate all amino termini that are devoid of methionine and Naa50 acetylates all other peptides that are followed by methionine, we believe that NatE complex can be a major contributor for amino-terminal acetylation at the ribosome exit tunnel.

  18. Human Naa50 Protein Displays Broad Substrate Specificity for Amino-terminal Acetylation: DETAILED STRUCTURAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS USING TETRAPEPTIDE LIBRARY.

    PubMed

    Reddi, Ravikumar; Saddanapu, Venkateshwarlu; Chinthapalli, Dinesh Kumar; Sankoju, Priyanka; Sripadi, Prabhakar; Addlagatta, Anthony

    2016-09-23

    Amino-terminal acetylation is a critical co-translational modification of the newly synthesized proteins in a eukaryotic cell carried out by six amino-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs). All NATs contain at least one catalytic subunit, and some contain one or two additional auxiliary subunits. For example, NatE is a complex of Naa10, Naa50, and Naa15 (auxiliary). In the present study, the crystal structure of human Naa50 suggested the presence of CoA and acetylated tetrapeptide (AcMMXX) that have co-purified with the protein. Biochemical and thermal stability studies on the tetrapeptide library with variations in the first and second positions confirm our results from the crystal structure that a peptide with Met-Met in the first two positions is the best substrate for this enzyme. In addition, Naa50 acetylated all MXAA peptides except for MPAA. Transcriptome analysis of 10 genes that make up six NATs in humans from eight different cell lines suggests that components of NatE are transcribed in all cell lines, whereas others are variable. Because Naa10 is reported to acetylate all amino termini that are devoid of methionine and Naa50 acetylates all other peptides that are followed by methionine, we believe that NatE complex can be a major contributor for amino-terminal acetylation at the ribosome exit tunnel. PMID:27484799

  19. Brief Report: The Go/No-Go Task Online: Inhibitory Control Deficits in Autism in a Large Sample.

    PubMed

    Uzefovsky, F; Allison, C; Smith, P; Baron-Cohen, S

    2016-08-01

    Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC, also referred to as Autism Spectrum Disorders) entail difficulties with inhibition: inhibiting action, inhibiting one's own point of view, and inhibiting distractions that may interfere with a response set. However, the association between inhibitory control (IC) and ASC, especially in adulthood, is unclear. The current study measured IC, using the Go/No-Go task online, in a large adult sample of 201 people with ASC and 240 controls. Number of both False Alarm and False Positive responses were significantly associated with autistic traits and diagnostic status, separately, but not jointly. These findings suggest that deficits in inhibition are associated with ASC. Future studies need to investigate the role of inhibition in ASC in everyday difficulties. PMID:27103120

  20. What do temporal profiles tell us about adolescent alcohol use? Results from a large sample in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    McKay, Michael T; Andretta, James R; Magee, Jennifer; Worrell, Frank C

    2014-12-01

    The psychological construct broadly known as time perspective is potentially useful in understanding a range of adolescent behaviours, including alcohol use. However, the utility of the construct has been hindered by measurement and conceptual problems. To date the vast majority of studies have assessed the relationship between time perspective and other measures in a variable-focussed (correlational) rather than a person-centred way. The present series of studies used a person-centred approach to assess the relationship between temporal profiles and alcohol use in a large sample (n = 1620) of adolescents from High Schools in Northern Ireland. Although a 'Balanced' time perspective has been suggested as optimal, the present study suggests that having a 'Future' temporal profile is associated with less problematic use of alcohol, while having a 'Past Negative' or 'Hedonist' profile is associated with more problematic consumption. Results are discussed in the context of the time perspective and alcohol use literatures.

  1. Dual Frequency VLBI Monitoring of a Large Sample of Compact Extragalactic Sources at 8 and 32 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.; Majid, W. A.; Romero-Wolf, A.; Snedeker, L.; García-Miró, C.; Sotuela, I.; Horiuchi, S.

    2012-01-01

    We are carrying out regular monitoring of 400+ compact extragalactic sources using large DSN (Deep Space Network) antennas over intercontinental baselines at 8, and 32 GHz simultaneously. This program provides precision astrometric measurements of AGN compact cores, used to maintain the JPL extragalactic reference frame. In addition to astrometric observables, this program has the potential to provide regular flux density measurements at each of these observing frequencies with precision at the level of 10-20%. Such monitoring of compact radio emission serves as a direct measure of AGN core activity, probing intrinsic jet parameters and providing the opportunity for discriminating between different models of the high-energy emission in these objects by cross-correlating the radio and gamma-ray flux densities. Simultaneous multi-frequency observations will provide high precision spectral information of AGN compact emission regions at the parsec-scale unaffected by the errors often introduced when combining multi-frequency data obtained at different epochs. The spectral index can be used to compare the relativistic electron energy distribution with the photon spectral index seen in gamma-rays. For instance, if Compton up-scattering by the radio synchrotron electron population is the basic process producing the gamma-rays, the spectra in both spectral regions should be directly related. By providing measurements on both East-West and North-South baselines with large antennas and Gbit/s recording capability, our program can probe sources at the 30 mJy flux limit (10-sigma), potentially increasing the sample to a fainter population of sources. In these regards, our program complements well existing northern and southern hemisphere VLBI monitoring programs, by providing flux measurements at 32 GHz, covering a fainter population sample, and by filling the gap for sources in the [-20:-40] degree declination range. Further, our program also provides additional flexibility

  2. The disruptive effects of pain on n-back task performance in a large general population sample.

    PubMed

    Attridge, Nina; Noonan, Donna; Eccleston, Christopher; Keogh, Edmund

    2015-10-01

    Pain captures attention, displaces current concerns, and prioritises escape and repair. This attentional capture can be measured by its effects on general cognition. Studies on induced pain, naturally occurring acute pain, and chronic pain all demonstrate a detrimental effect on specific tasks of attention, especially those that involve working memory. However, studies to date have relied on relatively small samples and/or one type of pain, thus restricting our ability to generalise to wider populations. We investigated the effect of pain on an n-back task in a large heterogeneous sample of 1318 adults. Participants were recruited from the general population and tested through the internet. Despite the heterogeneity of pain conditions, participant characteristics, and testing environments, we found a performance decrement on the n-back task for those with pain, compared with those without pain; there were significantly more false alarms on nontarget trials. Furthermore, we also found an effect of pain intensity; performance was poorer in participants with higher intensity compared with that in those with lower intensity pain. We suggest that the effects of pain on attention found in the laboratory occur in more naturalistic settings. Pain is common in the general population, and such interruption may have important, as yet uninvestigated, consequences for tasks of everyday cognition that involve working memory, such as concentration, reasoning, motor planning, and prospective memory.

  3. Relations between Executive Function and Academic Achievement from Ages 5 to 17 in a Large, Representative National Sample

    PubMed Central

    Best, John R.; Miller, Patricia H.; Naglieri, Jack A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined age-related changes in complex executive function (EF) in a large, representative sample (N = 2,036) aged 5 to 17 using the Cognitive Assessment System (CAS; Naglieri & Das, 1997a). Relations between complex EF and academic achievement were examined on a sub-sample (N = 1,395) given the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement–Revised (Woodcock & Johnson, 1989). Performance on the three complex EF tasks improved until at least age 15, although improvement slowed with increasing age and varied some across tasks. Moreover, the different developmental patterns in the correlations between completion time and accuracy provide clues to developmental processes. Examination of individual achievement subtests clarified the specific aspects of academic performance most related to complex EF. Finally, the correlation between complex EF and academic achievement varied across ages, but the developmental pattern of the strength of these correlations was remarkably similar for overall math and reading achievement, suggesting a domain-general relation between complex EF and academic achievement. PMID:21845021

  4. Reliability and statistical power analysis of cortical and subcortical FreeSurfer metrics in a large sample of healthy elderly.

    PubMed

    Liem, Franziskus; Mérillat, Susan; Bezzola, Ladina; Hirsiger, Sarah; Philipp, Michel; Madhyastha, Tara; Jäncke, Lutz

    2015-03-01

    FreeSurfer is a tool to quantify cortical and subcortical brain anatomy automatically and noninvasively. Previous studies have reported reliability and statistical power analyses in relatively small samples or only selected one aspect of brain anatomy. Here, we investigated reliability and statistical power of cortical thickness, surface area, volume, and the volume of subcortical structures in a large sample (N=189) of healthy elderly subjects (64+ years). Reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient) of cortical and subcortical parameters is generally high (cortical: ICCs>0.87, subcortical: ICCs>0.95). Surface-based smoothing increases reliability of cortical thickness maps, while it decreases reliability of cortical surface area and volume. Nevertheless, statistical power of all measures benefits from smoothing. When aiming to detect a 10% difference between groups, the number of subjects required to test effects with sufficient power over the entire cortex varies between cortical measures (cortical thickness: N=39, surface area: N=21, volume: N=81; 10mm smoothing, power=0.8, α=0.05). For subcortical regions this number is between 16 and 76 subjects, depending on the region. We also demonstrate the advantage of within-subject designs over between-subject designs. Furthermore, we publicly provide a tool that allows researchers to perform a priori power analysis and sensitivity analysis to help evaluate previously published studies and to design future studies with sufficient statistical power.

  5. Statistical process control charts for attribute data involving very large sample sizes: a review of problems and solutions.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Mohammed A; Panesar, Jagdeep S; Laney, David B; Wilson, Richard

    2013-04-01

    The use of statistical process control (SPC) charts in healthcare is increasing. The primary purpose of SPC is to distinguish between common-cause variation which is attributable to the underlying process, and special-cause variation which is extrinsic to the underlying process. This is important because improvement under common-cause variation requires action on the process, whereas special-cause variation merits an investigation to first find the cause. Nonetheless, when dealing with attribute or count data (eg, number of emergency admissions) involving very large sample sizes, traditional SPC charts often produce tight control limits with most of the data points appearing outside the control limits. This can give a false impression of common and special-cause variation, and potentially misguide the user into taking the wrong actions. Given the growing availability of large datasets from routinely collected databases in healthcare, there is a need to present a review of this problem (which arises because traditional attribute charts only consider within-subgroup variation) and its solutions (which consider within and between-subgroup variation), which involve the use of the well-established measurements chart and the more recently developed attribute charts based on Laney's innovative approach. We close by making some suggestions for practice. PMID:23365140

  6. Construction and sequence sampling of deep-coverage, large-insert BAC libraries for three model lepidopteran species

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chengcang; Proestou, Dina; Carter, Dorothy; Nicholson, Erica; Santos, Filippe; Zhao, Shaying; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Goldsmith, Marian R

    2009-01-01

    Background Manduca sexta, Heliothis virescens, and Heliconius erato represent three widely-used insect model species for genomic and fundamental studies in Lepidoptera. Large-insert BAC libraries of these insects are critical resources for many molecular studies, including physical mapping and genome sequencing, but not available to date. Results We report the construction and characterization of six large-insert BAC libraries for the three species and sampling sequence analysis of the genomes. The six BAC libraries were constructed with two restriction enzymes, two libraries for each species, and each has an average clone insert size ranging from 152–175 kb. We estimated that the genome coverage of each library ranged from 6–9 ×, with the two combined libraries of each species being equivalent to 13.0–16.3 × haploid genomes. The genome coverage, quality and utility of the libraries were further confirmed by library screening using 6~8 putative single-copy probes. To provide a first glimpse into these genomes, we sequenced and analyzed the BAC ends of ~200 clones randomly selected from the libraries of each species. The data revealed that the genomes are AT-rich, contain relatively small fractions of repeat elements with a majority belonging to the category of low complexity repeats, and are more abundant in retro-elements than DNA transposons. Among the species, the H. erato genome is somewhat more abundant in repeat elements and simple repeats than those of M. sexta and H. virescens. The BLAST analysis of the BAC end sequences suggested that the evolution of the three genomes is widely varied, with the genome of H. virescens being the most conserved as a typical lepidopteran, whereas both genomes of H. erato and M. sexta appear to have evolved significantly, resulting in a higher level of species- or evolutionary lineage-specific sequences. Conclusion The high-quality and large-insert BAC libraries of the insects, together with the identified BACs

  7. Technologies for pre-screening IAEA swipe samples

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Nicholas A.; Steeb, Jennifer L.; Lee, Denise L.; Huckabay, Heath A.; Ticknor, Brian W.

    2015-11-09

    During the course of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections, many samples are taken for the purpose of verifying the declared facility activities and identifying any possible undeclared activities. One of these sampling techniques is the environmental swipe sample. Due to the large number of samples collected, and the amount of time that is required to analyze them, prioritizing these swipes in the field or upon receipt at the Network of Analytical Laboratories (NWAL) will allow sensitive or mission-critical analyses to be performed sooner. As a result of this study, technologies were placed into one of three categories: recommended, promising, or not recommended. Both neutron activation analysis (NAA) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) are recommended for further study and possible field deployment. These techniques performed the best in initial trials for pre-screening and prioritizing IAEA swipes. We learned that for NAA more characterization of cold elements (such as calcium and magnesium) would need to be emphasized, and for XRF it may be appropriate to move towards a benchtop XRF versus a handheld XRF due to the increased range of elements available on benchtop equipment. Promising techniques that will require additional research and development include confocal Raman microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, and infrared (IR) microscopy. These techniques showed substantive responses to uranium compounds, but expensive instrumentation upgrades (confocal Raman) or university engagement (fluorescence microscopy) may be necessary to investigate the utility of the techniques completely. Point-and-shoot (handheld) Raman and attenuated total reflectance–infrared (ATR-IR) measurements are not recommended, as they have not shown enough promise to continue investigations.

  8. Effects of IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3 on Rooting and Morphological Features of Melissa officinalis L. Stem Cuttings

    PubMed Central

    Guney, Kerim

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed the potential of producing Melissa officinalis L. using stem cuttings. Four different hormones (IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3) were applied to the cuttings, with and without buds, in two doses (1000 mg/L and 5000 mg/L), and after 60 days, 10 morphological characteristics of newly generated plants were detected, and a statistical analysis was carried out. The results of the study show that the cuttings with at least one bud must be used in order to produce M. officinalis using stem cuttings. Even though the auxin group hormones (IAA, IBA, and NAA) do not have an apparent effect on rooting percentage, these hormones were detected to affect the morphological characteristics of the newly generated plants, especially root generation. GA3 application has a considerable effect on stem height. PMID:23818834

  9. Effects of IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3 on rooting and morphological features of Melissa officinalis L. stem cuttings.

    PubMed

    Sevik, Hakan; Guney, Kerim

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed the potential of producing Melissa officinalis L. using stem cuttings. Four different hormones (IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3) were applied to the cuttings, with and without buds, in two doses (1000 mg/L and 5000 mg/L), and after 60 days, 10 morphological characteristics of newly generated plants were detected, and a statistical analysis was carried out. The results of the study show that the cuttings with at least one bud must be used in order to produce M. officinalis using stem cuttings. Even though the auxin group hormones (IAA, IBA, and NAA) do not have an apparent effect on rooting percentage, these hormones were detected to affect the morphological characteristics of the newly generated plants, especially root generation. GA3 application has a considerable effect on stem height. PMID:23818834

  10. Effects of IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3 on rooting and morphological features of Melissa officinalis L. stem cuttings.

    PubMed

    Sevik, Hakan; Guney, Kerim

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed the potential of producing Melissa officinalis L. using stem cuttings. Four different hormones (IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3) were applied to the cuttings, with and without buds, in two doses (1000 mg/L and 5000 mg/L), and after 60 days, 10 morphological characteristics of newly generated plants were detected, and a statistical analysis was carried out. The results of the study show that the cuttings with at least one bud must be used in order to produce M. officinalis using stem cuttings. Even though the auxin group hormones (IAA, IBA, and NAA) do not have an apparent effect on rooting percentage, these hormones were detected to affect the morphological characteristics of the newly generated plants, especially root generation. GA3 application has a considerable effect on stem height.

  11. K{sub 0}-NAA for the Determination of Trace Elements in a Synthetic Material: a Collaborative Study

    SciTech Connect

    Vermaercke, P.; Robouch, P.

    2008-08-14

    As part of an interlaboratory comparison in order to certify a synthetic material to be used for the validation of the proper implementation of k0-NAA a collaborative trial was organised. Based on this collaborative study RSD{sub r} values (repeatability relative standard deviation) ranging typically from 1 to 2% could be achieved, while RSD{sub R} values (reproducibility relative standard deviation) ranged typically from 2 to 5%. These values were then compared with the Horwitz criterium leading to HORRAT values in most cases well below 1, although two exceeding 1, depending on the element to be determined. It could be concluded that k{sub 0}-NAA is a very precise method, but that still some inconsistencies for certain elements do exist.

  12. Applications of XRF, NAA and low-kV radiographic techniques in the study of body composition and diseased tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, D. A.; Ng, K. H.; Green, S.; Mountford, P. J.; Shukri, A.; Evans, J.

    1996-05-01

    Members of this group have responded to a number of challenging health issues by attempting to devise sensitive XRF, NAA and low-kV radiographic measurement systems foboth in vivo and in vitro applications. These studies are generally either of toxicological importance, examine potential for diagnosing the presence of disease, or offer effective means for monitoring potentially harmful side-effects of therapy. Particular examples include the in vivo XRF investigation of human skeletal uptake of Pb in working and living environments, in vivo XRF monitoring of elevated levels of Fe in skin (indicating the presence of an undesirable side-effect of the treatment of thalassaemia), in vivo NAA monitoring of elevated levels of Al in bone (indicating an undesirable side-effect of the treatment of chronic renal failure) and in vitro characterization, by means of low-kV imaging, of a range of calcification parameters in healthy and diseased breast tissue. The latter investigation has been conducted in association with an in vitro NAA study of concentrations of trace elements in the same types of tissue. Figures of merit for the various measurement systems have been obtained in terms of minimum detectable levels and concentrations (MDL's and MDC's) and where applicable, image related parameters.

  13. Towards a generic variable column length method development strategy for samples with a large variety in polarity.

    PubMed

    Cabooter, Deirdre; Choikhet, Konstantin; Lestremau, François; Dittmann, Monika; Desmet, Gert

    2014-11-12

    The development of a novel set-up for the sequential analysis of compounds with a large variety in polarity on HILIC and reversed-phase columns, coupled in series, is discussed. For this purpose, a commercially available ultra-high performance LC system, equipped with two switching valves is employed. The switching valves allow connecting the HILIC and reversed-phase columns either in series or in parallel to the system. An interface to couple the HILIC and reversed-phase columns is developed and optimized. The sample is first injected onto a HILIC column. Apolar compounds in the sample are not retained and will elute close to or within the void volume of the HILIC column. Accurate switching of the valves allows redirecting these compounds towards a trap loop while more polar compounds are retained and separated on the HILIC column. After separation and detection of the polar compounds, the configuration of the valves is switched again to direct the apolar compounds from the trap loop towards a reversed-phase column for separation. To deal with the incompatibility of the mobile phases of HILIC and reversed-phase column separations, commercially available Jet weaver mixers are included in the set-up to allow for an intermediate solvent exchange. The proof-of-concept is demonstrated for the analysis of pharmaceuticals that can be found in waste water and surface water. It is demonstrated that the set-up provides robust analyses with peak capacities that are intermediate to one-dimensional and two-dimensional separations.

  14. The Role of Family Environment in Depressive Symptoms among University Students: A Large Sample Survey in China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yanjie; Chen, Lu; Qiu, Xiaohui; Qiao, Zhengxue; Zhou, Jiawei; Pan, Hui; Ban, Bo; Zhu, Xiongzhao; He, Jincai; Ding, Yongqing; Bai, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between family environment and depressive symptoms and to evaluate the influence of hard and soft family environmental factors on depression levels in a large sample of university students in China. Methods A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was used to select 6,000 participants. The response rate was 88.8%, with 5,329 students completing the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Family Environment Scale Chinese Version (FES-CV), which was adapted for the Chinese population. Differences between the groups were tested for significance by the Student’s t-test; ANOVA was used to test continuous variables. The relationship between soft family environmental factors and BDI were tested by Pearson correlation analysis. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was conducted to model the effects of hard environmental factors and soft environmental factors on depression in university students. Results A total of 11.8% of students scored above the threshold of moderate depression(BDI≧14). Hard family environmental factors such as parent relationship, family economic status, level of parental literacy and non-intact family structure were associated with depressive symptoms. The soft family environmental factors—conflict and control—were positively associated with depression, while cohesion was negatively related to depressive symptom after controlling for other important associates of depression. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that the soft family environment correlates more strongly with depression than the hard family environment. Conclusions Soft family environmental factors—especially cohesion, conflict and control—appeared to play an important role in the occurrence of depressive symptoms. These findings underline the significance of the family environment as a source of risk factors for depression among university students in China and suggest that family-based interventions and improvement are very

  15. Development of an Abbreviated Form of the Penn Line Orientation Test Using Large Samples and Computerized Adaptive Test Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Tyler M.; Scott, J. Cobb; Reise, Steven P.; Port, Allison M.; Jackson, Chad T.; Ruparel, Kosha; Savitt, Adam P.; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.

    2015-01-01

    Visuospatial processing is a commonly assessed neurocognitive domain, with deficits linked to dysfunction in right posterior regions of the brain. With the growth of large-scale clinical research studies there is an increased need for efficient and scalable assessments of neurocognition, including visuospatial processing. The purpose of the current study was to use a novel method that combines item response theory (IRT) and computerized adaptive testing (CAT) approaches to create an abbreviated form of the computerized Penn Line Orientation Test (PLOT). The 24-item PLOT was administered to 8,498 youths (aged 8 to 21) as part of the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort study and, by web-based data collection, in an independent sample of 4,593 adults from Great Britain as part of a television documentary. IRT-based CAT simulations were used to select the best PLOT items for an abbreviated form by performing separate simulations in each group and choosing only items that were selected as useful (i.e., high item discrimination and in the appropriate difficulty range) in at least one of the simulations. Fifteen items were chosen for the final, short form of the PLOT, indicating substantial agreement among the models in how they evaluated each item's usefulness. Moreover, this abbreviated version performed comparably to the full version in tests of sensitivity to age and sex effects. This abbreviated version of the PLOT cuts administration time by 50% without detectable loss of information, which points to its feasibility for large-scale clinical and genomic studies. PMID:25822834

  16. Using Genetic Algorithms in a Large Nationally Representative American Sample to Abbreviate the Multidimensional Experiential Avoidance Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Sahdra, Baljinder K.; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Parker, Philip; Scrucca, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Genetic algorithms (GAs) are robust machine learning approaches for abbreviating a large set of variables into a shorter subset that maximally captures the variance in the original data. We employed a GA-based method to shorten the 62-item Multidimensional Experiential Avoidance Questionnaire (MEAQ) by half without much loss of information. Experiential avoidance or the tendency to avoid negative internal experiences is a key target of many psychological interventions and its measurement is an important issue in psychology. The 62-item MEAQ has been shown to have good psychometric properties, but its length may limit its use in most practical settings. The recently validated 15-item brief version (BEAQ) is one short alternative, but it reduces the multidimensional scale to a single dimension. We sought to shorten the 62-item MEAQ by half while maintaining fidelity to its six dimensions. In a large nationally representative sample of Americans (N = 7884; 52% female; Age: M = 47.9, SD = 16), we employed a GA method of scale abbreviation implemented in the R package, GAabbreviate. The GA-derived short form, MEAQ-30 with five items per subscale, performed virtually identically to the original 62-item MEAQ in terms of inter-subscales correlations, factor structure, factor correlations, and zero-order correlations and unique latent associations of the six subscales with other measures of mental distress, wellbeing and personal strivings. The two measures also showed similar distributions of means across American census regions. The MEAQ-30 provides a multidimensional assessment of experiential avoidance whilst minimizing participant burden. The study adds to the emerging literature on the utility of machine learning methods in psychometrics. PMID:26941672

  17. Neuroanatomical correlates of attitudes toward suicide in a large healthy sample: A voxel-based morphometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huijuan; Wang, Yongchao; Liu, Wei; Wei, Dongtao; Yang, Junyi; Du, Xue; Tian, Xue; Qiu, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that permissive attitudes toward suicide are positively associated with mental illness (e.g., depression and loneliness). Evidence suggests that there are abnormalities in the cognitive and brain functioning of suicidal patients. Nevertheless, there has been no evidence of the correlation between attitudes toward suicide and abnormal brain structure variations in healthy people. Therefore, in this study, we seek to investigate the neuroanatomical differences in healthy participants with regard to attitudes toward suicide. The results show that permissive attitudes toward suicide were significantly correlated with gray matter volume (GMV) in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the left cerebellum in the large sample (n=405), which may be related to inefficient inhibitory control of negative emotion. Then, in a subset of healthy individuals with permissive attitudes (n=113), we also observed that stronger permissive attitudes toward suicide were positively related to the larger GMV in the left DLPFC and the left middle temporal gyrus (MTG), which may be associated with sensitivity of emotional feeling. Furthermore, loneliness had a mediating effect on the relation between the DLPFC volume and attitudes toward suicide. Taken together, neuroanatomical differences in healthy participants with permissive attitudes toward suicide may provide a better understanding of permissive attitudes toward suicide as a likely risk factor for suicidal behavior.

  18. Mapping Genetic Loci That Determine Leukocyte Telomere Length in a Large Sample of Unselected Female Sibling Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Andrew, Toby; Aviv, Abraham; Falchi, Mario; Surdulescu, Gabriela L.; Gardner, Jeffrey P.; Lu, Xiaobin; Kimura, Masayuki; Kato, Bernet S.; Valdes, Ana M.; Spector, Tim D.

    2006-01-01

    Telomeres play a central role in cellular senescence and cancer pathobiology and are associated with age-related diseases such as atherosclerosis and dementia. Telomere length varies between individuals of the same age, is influenced by DNA-damaging factors such as oxidative stress, and is heritable. We performed a quantitative-trait linkage analysis using an ∼10-cM genomewide map for mean leukocyte terminal-restriction fragment (TRF) lengths measured by Southern blotting, in 2,050 unselected women aged 18–80 years, comprising 1,025 complete dizygotic twin pairs. Heritability of mean batch-adjusted TRF was 36% (95% confidence interval [CI] 18%–48%), with a large common environmental effect of 49% (95% CI 40%–58%). Significant linkage was observed on chromosome 14 (LOD 3.9) at 14q23.2, and suggestive linkage at 10q26.13 (LOD 2.4) and 3p26.1 (LOD 2.7). This is the first report of loci, mapped in a sample of healthy individuals, that influence mean telomere variation in humans. PMID:16400618

  19. Associations Between IQ, Total and Regional Brain Volumes and Demography in a Large Normative Sample of Healthy Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Nicholas; Froimowitz, Michael P.; Bigler, Erin D.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2010-01-01

    In the course of efforts to establish quantitative MRI-based norms for healthy brain development (Brain Development Cooperative Group, 2006), previously unreported associations of parental education and temporal and frontal lobe volumes with full scale IQ and its verbal and performance subscales were discovered. Our findings were derived from the largest, most representative MRI sample to date of healthy children and adolescents, ages 4 years 10 months to 18 years 4 months. We first find that parental education has a strong association with IQ in children that is not mediated by total or regional brain volumes. Second, we find that our observed associations between temporal gray matter, temporal white matter and frontal white matter volumes with full scale IQ, between 0.14 to 0.27 in children and adolescents, are due in large part to their correlations with performance IQ and not verbal IQ. The volumes of other lobar gray and white matter, subcortical gray matter (thalamus, caudate nucleus, putamen and globus pallidus), cerebellum and brainstem do not contribute significantly to IQ variation. Third, we find that head circumference is an insufficient index of cerebral volume in typically developing older children and adolescents. The relations between total and regional brain volumes and IQ can best be discerned when additional variables known to be associated with IQ, especially parental education and other demographic measures, are considered concurrently. PMID:20446134

  20. Examining gray matter structures associated with individual differences in global life satisfaction in a large sample of young adults.

    PubMed

    Kong, Feng; Ding, Ke; Yang, Zetian; Dang, Xiaobin; Hu, Siyuan; Song, Yiying; Liu, Jia

    2015-07-01

    Although much attention has been directed towards life satisfaction that refers to an individual's general cognitive evaluations of his or her life as a whole, little is known about the neural basis underlying global life satisfaction. In this study, we used voxel-based morphometry to investigate the structural neural correlates of life satisfaction in a large sample of young healthy adults (n = 299). We showed that individuals' life satisfaction was positively correlated with the regional gray matter volume (rGMV) in the right parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), and negatively correlated with the rGMV in the left precuneus and left ventromedial prefrontal cortex. This pattern of results remained significant even after controlling for the effect of general positive and negative affect, suggesting a unique structural correlates of life satisfaction. Furthermore, we found that self-esteem partially mediated the association between the PHG volume and life satisfaction as well as that between the precuneus volume and global life satisfaction. Taken together, we provide the first evidence for the structural neural basis of life satisfaction, and highlight that self-esteem might play a crucial role in cultivating an individual's life satisfaction.

  1. Examining gray matter structures associated with individual differences in global life satisfaction in a large sample of young adults

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Feng; Ding, Ke; Yang, Zetian; Dang, Xiaobin; Hu, Siyuan; Song, Yiying

    2015-01-01

    Although much attention has been directed towards life satisfaction that refers to an individual’s general cognitive evaluations of his or her life as a whole, little is known about the neural basis underlying global life satisfaction. In this study, we used voxel-based morphometry to investigate the structural neural correlates of life satisfaction in a large sample of young healthy adults (n = 299). We showed that individuals’ life satisfaction was positively correlated with the regional gray matter volume (rGMV) in the right parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), and negatively correlated with the rGMV in the left precuneus and left ventromedial prefrontal cortex. This pattern of results remained significant even after controlling for the effect of general positive and negative affect, suggesting a unique structural correlates of life satisfaction. Furthermore, we found that self-esteem partially mediated the association between the PHG volume and life satisfaction as well as that between the precuneus volume and global life satisfaction. Taken together, we provide the first evidence for the structural neural basis of life satisfaction, and highlight that self-esteem might play a crucial role in cultivating an individual’s life satisfaction. PMID:25406366

  2. The Contribution of the Left Mid-fusiform Cortical Thickness to Chinese and English Reading in a Large Chinese Sample

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingxia; Li, Jin; Chen, Chuansheng; Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhonglin; Chen, Chunhui; He, Qinghua; Wei, Miao; Dong, Qi

    2012-01-01

    Previous functional neuroimaging studies have shown that the left mid-fusiform cortex plays a critical role in reading. However, there is very limited research relating this region’s anatomical structure to reading performance either in native or second language. Using structural MRI and three reading tasks (Chinese characters, English words, and alphabetic pseudowords) and a non-reading task (visual-auditory learning), this study investigated the contributions of the left mid-fusiform cortical thickness to reading in a large sample of 226 Chinese subjects. Results showed that cortical thickness in the left mid-fusiform gyrus was positively correlated with performance on all three reading tasks but not with the performance on the non-reading task. Our findings provide structural evidence for the left mid-fusiform cortex as the “gateway” region for reading Chinese and English. The absence of the association between the left mid-fusiform cortical thickness and non-reading performance implied the specific role of this area in reading skills, not in general language skills. PMID:23022094

  3. N-acetylaspartate (NAA) induces neuronal differentiation of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line and sensitizes it to chemotherapeutic agents

    PubMed Central

    Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Ruggieri, Vitalba; Tataranni, Tiziana; Agriesti, Francesca; Laurenzana, Ilaria; Fratello, Angelo; Capitanio, Nazzareno; Piccoli, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most commonly extra-cranial solid tumor of childhood frequently diagnosed. The nervous system-specific metabolite N-acetylaspartate (NAA) is synthesized from aspartate and acetyl-CoA in neurons, it is among the most abundant metabolites present in the central nervous system (CNS) and appears to be involved in many CNS disorders. The functional significance of the high NAA concentration in the brain remains uncertain, but it confers to NAA a unique clinical significance exploited in magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In the current study, we show that treatment of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma-derived cell line with sub-cytotoxic physiological concentrations of NAA inhibits cell growth. This effect is partly due to enhanced apoptosis, shown by decrease of the anti-apoptotic factors survivin and Bcl-xL, and partly to arrest of the cell-cycle progression, linked to enhanced expression of the cyclin-inhibitors p53, p21Cip1/Waf1 and p27Kip1. Moreover, NAA-treated SH-SY5Y cells exhibited morphological changes accompanied with increase of the neurogenic markers TH and MAP2 and down-regulation of the pluripotency markers OCT4 and CXCR4/CD184. Finally, NAA-pre-treated SH-SY5Y cells resulted more sensitive to the cytotoxic effect of the chemotherapeutic drugs Cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the neuronal differentiating effects of NAA in neuroblastoma cells. NAA may be a potential preconditioning or adjuvant compound in chemotherapeutic treatment. PMID:27036033

  4. N-acetylaspartate (NAA) induces neuronal differentiation of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line and sensitizes it to chemotherapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Ruggieri, Vitalba; Tataranni, Tiziana; Agriesti, Francesca; Laurenzana, Ilaria; Fratello, Angelo; Capitanio, Nazzareno; Piccoli, Claudia

    2016-05-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most commonly extra-cranial solid tumor of childhood frequently diagnosed. The nervous system-specific metabolite N-acetylaspartate (NAA) is synthesized from aspartate and acetyl-CoA in neurons, it is among the most abundant metabolites present in the central nervous system (CNS) and appears to be involved in many CNS disorders. The functional significance of the high NAA concentration in the brain remains uncertain, but it confers to NAA a unique clinical significance exploited in magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In the current study, we show that treatment of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma-derived cell line with sub-cytotoxic physiological concentrations of NAA inhibits cell growth. This effect is partly due to enhanced apoptosis, shown by decrease of the anti-apoptotic factors survivin and Bcl-xL, and partly to arrest of the cell-cycle progression, linked to enhanced expression of the cyclin-inhibitors p53, p21Cip1/Waf1 and p27Kip1. Moreover, NAA-treated SH-SY5Y cells exhibited morphological changes accompanied with increase of the neurogenic markers TH and MAP2 and down-regulation of the pluripotency markers OCT4 and CXCR4/CD184. Finally, NAA-pre-treated SH-SY5Y cells resulted more sensitive to the cytotoxic effect of the chemotherapeutic drugs Cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil.To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the neuronal differentiating effects of NAA in neuroblastoma cells. NAA may be a potential preconditioning or adjuvant compound in chemotherapeutic treatment.

  5. N-acetylaspartate (NAA) induces neuronal differentiation of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line and sensitizes it to chemotherapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Ruggieri, Vitalba; Tataranni, Tiziana; Agriesti, Francesca; Laurenzana, Ilaria; Fratello, Angelo; Capitanio, Nazzareno; Piccoli, Claudia

    2016-05-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most commonly extra-cranial solid tumor of childhood frequently diagnosed. The nervous system-specific metabolite N-acetylaspartate (NAA) is synthesized from aspartate and acetyl-CoA in neurons, it is among the most abundant metabolites present in the central nervous system (CNS) and appears to be involved in many CNS disorders. The functional significance of the high NAA concentration in the brain remains uncertain, but it confers to NAA a unique clinical significance exploited in magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In the current study, we show that treatment of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma-derived cell line with sub-cytotoxic physiological concentrations of NAA inhibits cell growth. This effect is partly due to enhanced apoptosis, shown by decrease of the anti-apoptotic factors survivin and Bcl-xL, and partly to arrest of the cell-cycle progression, linked to enhanced expression of the cyclin-inhibitors p53, p21Cip1/Waf1 and p27Kip1. Moreover, NAA-treated SH-SY5Y cells exhibited morphological changes accompanied with increase of the neurogenic markers TH and MAP2 and down-regulation of the pluripotency markers OCT4 and CXCR4/CD184. Finally, NAA-pre-treated SH-SY5Y cells resulted more sensitive to the cytotoxic effect of the chemotherapeutic drugs Cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil.To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the neuronal differentiating effects of NAA in neuroblastoma cells. NAA may be a potential preconditioning or adjuvant compound in chemotherapeutic treatment. PMID:27036033

  6. Evaluation of single and two-stage adaptive sampling designs for estimation of density and abundance of freshwater mussels in a large river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.R.; Rogala, J.T.; Gray, B.R.; Zigler, S.J.; Newton, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Reliable estimates of abundance are needed to assess consequences of proposed habitat restoration and enhancement projects on freshwater mussels in the Upper Mississippi River (UMR). Although there is general guidance on sampling techniques for population assessment of freshwater mussels, the actual performance of sampling designs can depend critically on the population density and spatial distribution at the project site. To evaluate various sampling designs, we simulated sampling of populations, which varied in density and degree of spatial clustering. Because of logistics and costs of large river sampling and spatial clustering of freshwater mussels, we focused on adaptive and non-adaptive versions of single and two-stage sampling. The candidate designs performed similarly in terms of precision (CV) and probability of species detection for fixed sample size. Both CV and species detection were determined largely by density, spatial distribution and sample size. However, designs did differ in the rate that occupied quadrats were encountered. Occupied units had a higher probability of selection using adaptive designs than conventional designs. We used two measures of cost: sample size (i.e. number of quadrats) and distance travelled between the quadrats. Adaptive and two-stage designs tended to reduce distance between sampling units, and thus performed better when distance travelled was considered. Based on the comparisons, we provide general recommendations on the sampling designs for the freshwater mussels in the UMR, and presumably other large rivers.

  7. Pristine moon rocks - A 'large' felsite and a metal-rich ferroan anorthosite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Paul H.; Jerde, Eric A.; Kallemeyn, Gregory W.

    1987-01-01

    Results of elemental analyses, performed either by instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) or radiochemical NAA, of 19 lunar rock samples obtained by the Apollo 15, 17, and 12 missions are presented. Two of the samples are most extraordinary: 'large' (1 g) felsite from Apollo 12 and a pristine ferroan anorthosite from Apollo 15. The felsite is mainly a graphic intergrowth of K-feldspar and a silica phase, with about 6 pct plagioclase and 1 pct each of ferroaugite, ilmenite, and fayalitic olivine. The Fe-metal content of ferroan anorthosite is 1.2 wt pct in the thin section studied (but, based on mass balance for Co and Ni, must have been lower in the chip used for bulk-rock analysis); the measured bulk-rock concentrations of siderophile elements Re, Os, and Ir are far higher than previously observed among pristine lunar anorthosites. These results underscore the uncertainty associated with any attempt to estimate the overall siderophile element contents of the moon's crust.

  8. Predictors of vitamin D biochemical status in a large sample of middle-aged male smokers from Finland

    PubMed Central

    Brock, KE; Graubard, BI; Fraser, DR; Weinstein, SJ; Stolzenberg-Solomon, RZ; Lim, U; Tangrea, JA; Virtamo, J; Ke, L; Snyder, K; Albanes, D

    2012-01-01

    Objectives As vitamin D deficiency is considered to be more common in regions with little solar ultraviolet light in winter, the aim of the present study was to investigate predictors of vitamin D status by season within a large sample of male smokers from Finland, a country where there is negligible solar ultraviolet light in winter. Methods Vitamin D (measured by 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) nmol/L) and other serum constituents were assayed and measured anthropometry, and self-reported dietary intake and physical activity (PA) were obtained and analysed by step-wise multiple linear and logistic regression in 2,271 middle-aged Finnish male smokers. Results Twenty-seven % of the population in winter and 17% in summer had serum 25(OH)D levels < 25 nmol/L, respectively. In summer, in multiple logistic regression analyses with adjustment for confounding and other predictors, high dietary vitamin D (OR=3.6; 95% CI= 1.5–8.5), some leisure time PA (OR=2.0; 95% CI=1.3–3.1) and having a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 21 kg/m2 compared to < 21 kg/m2 (OR=2.6; 95% CI=1.3–5.0) were associated with 25(OH)D ≥ 25 nmol/L. In winter, additional modifiable factors were occupational PA (OR=1.6; 95% CI=1.1–2.5), and high fish (OR=3.1; 95% CI=1.7–6.2) or poultry consumption (OR=1.7; 95%CI=1.1–2.7). Predictors from linear regression analyses of continuous levels of 25(OH)D were similar to the logistic regression analyses of 25(OH)D < 25 nmol/L. Conclusion In this Finnish sample more vitamin D intake, PA and having a BMI ≥ 21 may play important modifiable roles in maintaining an adequate vitamin D status. PMID:20051977

  9. Characteristics of Beverage Consumption Habits among a Large Sample of French Adults: Associations with Total Water and Energy Intakes

    PubMed Central

    Szabo de Edelenyi, Fabien; Druesne-Pecollo, Nathalie; Arnault, Nathalie; González, Rebeca; Buscail, Camille; Galan, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adequate hydration is a key factor for correct functioning of both cognitive and physical processes. In France, public health recommendations about adequate total water intake (TWI) only state that fluid intake should be sufficient, with particular attention paid to hydration for seniors, especially during heatwave periods. The objective of this study was to calculate the total amount of water coming from food and beverages and to analyse characteristics of consumption in participants from a large French national cohort. Methods: TWI, as well as contribution of food and beverages to TWI was assessed among 94,939 adult participants in the Nutrinet-Santé cohort (78% women, mean age 42.9 (SE 0.04)) using three 24-h dietary records at baseline. Statistical differences in water intakes across age groups, seasons and day of the week were assessed. Results: The mean TWI was 2.3 L (Standard Error SE 4.7) for men and 2.1 L (SE 2.4) for women. A majority of the sample did comply with the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) adequate intake recommendation, especially women. Mean total energy intake (EI) was 1884 kcal/day (SE 1.5) (2250 kcal/day (SE 3.6) for men and 1783 kcal/day (SE 1.5) for women). The contribution to the total EI from beverages was 8.3%. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by hot beverages. The variety score, defined as the number of different categories of beverages consumed during the three 24-h records out of a maximum of 8, was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.4); and with EI (r = 0.2), suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. We found differences in beverage consumptions and water intakes according to age and seasonality. Conclusions: The present study gives an overview of the water intake characteristics in a large population of French adults. TWI was found to be globally in line with public health recommendations. PMID:27727164

  10. Determination of dissolved-phase pesticides in surface water from the Yakima River basin, Washington, using the Goulden large-sample extractor and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, G.D.; Gates, Paul M.; Foreman, W.T.; McKenzie, S.W.; Rinella, F.A.

    1993-01-01

    Concentrations of pesticides in the dissolved phase of surface water samples from the Yakima River basin, WA, were determined using preconcentration in the Goulden large-sample extractor (GLSE) and gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Sample volumes ranging from 10 to 120 L were processed with the GLSE, and the results from the large-sample analyses were compared to those derived from 1-L continuous liquid-liquid extractions. Few of the 40 target pesticides were detected in 1-L samples, whereas large-sample preconcentration in the GLSE provided detectable levels for many of the target pesticides. The number of pesticides detected in GLSE processed samples was usually directly proportional to sample volume, although the measured concentrations of the pesticides were generally lower at the larger sample volumes for the same water source. The GLSE can be used to provide lower detection levels relative to conventional liquid-liquid extraction in GC/MS analysis of pesticides in samples of surface water. ?? 1993 American Chemical Society.

  11. Determination of dissolved-phase pesticides in surface water from the Yakima River basin, Washington, using the Goulden large-sample extractor and gas chromatography/mass spectrometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, Gregory D.; Gates, Paul M.; Foreman, William T.; McKenzie, Stuart W.; Rinella, Frank A.

    1993-01-01

    Concentrations of pesticides in the dissolved phase of surface water samples from the Yakima River basin, WA, were determined using preconcentration in the Goulden large-sample extractor (GLSE) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Sample volumes ranging from 10 to 120 L were processed with the GLSE, and the results from the large-sample analyses were compared to those derived from 1-L continuous liquid-liquid extractions Few of the 40 target pesticides were detected in 1-L samples, whereas large-sample preconcentration in the GLSE provided detectable levels for many of the target pesticides. The number of pesticides detected in GLSE processed samples was usually directly proportional to sample volume, although the measured concentrations of the pesticides were generally lower at the larger sample volumes for the same water source. The GLSE can be used to provide lower detection levels relative to conventional liquid-liquid extraction in GC/MS analysis of pesticides in samples of surface water.

  12. A PRIOR EVALUATION OF TWO-STAGE CLUSTER SAMPLING FOR ACCURACY ASSESSMENT OF LARGE-AREA LAND-COVER MAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two-stage cluster sampling reduces the cost of collecting accuracy assessment reference data by constraining sample elements to fall within a limited number of geographic domains (clusters). However, because classification error is typically positively spatially correlated, withi...

  13. Detailed abundances for a large sample of giant stars in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae (NGC 104)

    SciTech Connect

    Cordero, M. J.; Pilachowski, C. A.; Johnson, C. I.; McDonald, I.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Simmerer, J. E-mail: catyp@astro.indiana.edu E-mail: mcdonald@jb.man.ac.uk E-mail: jennifer@physics.utah.edu

    2014-01-01

    47 Tuc is an ideal target to study chemical evolution and globular cluster (GC) formation in massive more metal-rich GCs, as it is the closest massive GC. We present chemical abundances for O, Na, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe, Ni, La, and Eu in 164 red giant branch stars in the massive GC 47 Tuc using spectra obtained with both the Hydra multifiber spectrograph at the Blanco 4 m telescope and the FLAMES multiobject spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope. We find an average [Fe/H] = –0.79 ± 0.09 dex, consistent with literature values, as well as overabundances of alpha-elements ([α/Fe] ∼ 0.3 dex). The n-capture process elements indicate that 47 Tuc is r process-dominated ([Eu/La] = +0.24), and the light elements O, Na, and Al exhibit star-to-star variations. The Na-O anticorrelation, a signature typically seen in Galactic GCs, is present in 47 Tuc, and extends to include a small number of stars with [O/Fe] ∼ –0.5. Additionally, the [O/Na] ratios of our sample reveal that the cluster stars can be separated into three distinct populations. A Kolmogorov-Smirnov test demonstrates that the O-poor/Na-rich stars are more centrally concentrated than the O-rich/Na-poor stars. The observed number and radial distribution of 47 Tuc's stellar populations, as distinguished by their light element composition, agrees closely with the results obtained from photometric data. We do not find evidence supporting a strong Na-Al correlation in 47 Tuc, which is consistent with current models of asymptotic giant branch nucleosynthesis yields.

  14. Morphometry and pattern of a large sample of Canadian eskers: new insights into ice sheet meltwater drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storrar, Robert; Stokes, Chris; Evans, David

    2013-04-01

    Meltwater drainage systems beneath ice sheets are a poorly understood, yet fundamentally important environment for understanding glacier dynamics, which are strongly influenced by the nature and quantity of meltwater entering the subglacial system. Contemporary sub-ice sheet meltwater drainage systems are notoriously difficult to access and monitor, but it is possible to utilise the exposed beds of past ice sheets to further our understanding of subglacial drainage. In particular, eskers record deposition in glacial drainage channels and are widespread on the exposed beds of former ice sheets, although they have rarely been studied in detail at the ice sheet scale. This paper presents the results of a remote sensing investigation of a large sample (>20,000) of eskers mapped from Landsat imagery of Canada and formed under the North American Ice Sheet Complex. Within a GIS framework, we investigate their spatial arrangement and morphometry, including length, fragmentation, sinuosity, spacing, frequency and tributaries. Results indicate that the channels in which eskers formed were often very long (hundreds of km) and often very straight (mean sinuosity approximates 1). In some locations, the lateral distance between neighbouring eskers is remarkably consistent and results indicate a preferred spacing of around 12 km. In other locations, typically over soft sediments, esker patterns are more chaotic, as predicted by theory. Significantly, comparison to an existing ice margin chronology reveals that the meltwater drainage system of the ice sheet became more organised and efficient during deglaciation: the number of eskers at the ice margin increased as deglaciation progressed and eskers became more closely spaced. The data presented in this paper provide an alternative perspective on the problems surrounding ice sheet meltwater drainage and are particularly suitable for: (i), assessment of the factors that control esker location and formation; (ii), rigorous testing of

  15. Detailed Abundances for a Large Sample of Giant Stars in the Globular Cluster 47 Tucanae (NGC 104)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero, M. J.; Pilachowski, C. A.; Johnson, C. I.; McDonald, I.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Simmerer, J.

    2014-01-01

    47 Tuc is an ideal target to study chemical evolution and globular cluster (GC) formation in massive more metal-rich GCs, as it is the closest massive GC. We present chemical abundances for O, Na, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe, Ni, La, and Eu in 164 red giant branch stars in the massive GC 47 Tuc using spectra obtained with both the Hydra multifiber spectrograph at the Blanco 4 m telescope and the FLAMES multiobject spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope. We find an average [Fe/H] = -0.79 ± 0.09 dex, consistent with literature values, as well as overabundances of alpha-elements ([α/Fe] ~ 0.3 dex). The n-capture process elements indicate that 47 Tuc is r process-dominated ([Eu/La] = +0.24), and the light elements O, Na, and Al exhibit star-to-star variations. The Na-O anticorrelation, a signature typically seen in Galactic GCs, is present in 47 Tuc, and extends to include a small number of stars with [O/Fe] ~ -0.5. Additionally, the [O/Na] ratios of our sample reveal that the cluster stars can be separated into three distinct populations. A Kolmogorov-Smirnov test demonstrates that the O-poor/Na-rich stars are more centrally concentrated than the O-rich/Na-poor stars. The observed number and radial distribution of 47 Tuc's stellar populations, as distinguished by their light element composition, agrees closely with the results obtained from photometric data. We do not find evidence supporting a strong Na-Al correlation in 47 Tuc, which is consistent with current models of asymptotic giant branch nucleosynthesis yields.

  16. HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-DRB1 allele distribution in a large Armenian population sample.

    PubMed

    Matevosyan, L; Chattopadhyay, S; Madelian, V; Avagyan, S; Nazaretyan, M; Hyussian, A; Vardapetyan, E; Arutunyan, R; Jordan, F

    2011-07-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A, HLA-B, and HLA-DRB1 gene frequencies were investigated in 4279 unrelated Armenian bone marrow donors. HLA alleles were defined by using PCR amplification with sequence specific primers (PCR-SSP) high- and low-resolution kits. The aim of this study was to examine the HLA diversity at the high-resolution level in a large Armenian population sample, and to compare HLA allele group distribution in Armenian subpopulations. The most frequently observed alleles in the HLA class I were HLA-A*0201, A*0101, A*2402, A*0301, HLA-B*5101, HLA-B*3501, and B*4901. Among DRB1 alleles, high frequencies of DRB1*1104 and DRB1*1501 were observed, followed by DRB1*1101 and DRB1*1401. The most common three-locus haplotype found in the Armenian population was A*33-B*14-DRB1*01, followed by A*03-B*35-DRB1*01. Our results show a similar distribution of alleles in Armenian subpopulations from different countries, and from different regions of the Republics of Armenia and Karabagh. The low level of genetic distances between subpopulations indicates a high level of population homogeneity, and the genetic distances between Armenians and other populations show Armenians as a distinct ethnic group relative to others, reflecting the fact that Armenians have been an 'isolated population' throughout centuries. This study is the first comprehensive investigation of HLA-allele group distribution in a subset of Armenian populations, and the first to provide HLA-allele and haplotype frequencies at a high-resolution level. It is a valuable reference for organ transplantation and for future studies of HLA-associated diseases in Armenian populations.

  17. Practical recipes for the model order reduction, dynamical simulation and compressive sampling of large-scale open quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidles, John A.; Garbini, Joseph L.; Harrell, Lee E.; Hero, Alfred O.; Jacky, Jonathan P.; Malcomb, Joseph R.; Norman, Anthony G.; Williamson, Austin M.

    2009-06-01

    Practical recipes are presented for simulating high-temperature and nonequilibrium quantum spin systems that are continuously measured and controlled. The notion of a spin system is broadly conceived, in order to encompass macroscopic test masses as the limiting case of large-j spins. The simulation technique has three stages: first the deliberate introduction of noise into the simulation, then the conversion of that noise into an equivalent continuous measurement and control process, and finally, projection of the trajectory onto state-space manifolds having reduced dimensionality and possessing a Kähler potential of multilinear algebraic form. These state-spaces can be regarded as ruled algebraic varieties upon which a projective quantum model order reduction (MOR) is performed. The Riemannian sectional curvature of ruled Kählerian varieties is analyzed, and proved to be non-positive upon all sections that contain a rule. These manifolds are shown to contain Slater determinants as a special case and their identity with Grassmannian varieties is demonstrated. The resulting simulation formalism is used to construct a positive P-representation for the thermal density matrix. Single-spin detection by magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) is simulated, and the data statistics are shown to be those of a random telegraph signal with additive white noise. Larger-scale spin-dust models are simulated, having no spatial symmetry and no spatial ordering; the high-fidelity projection of numerically computed quantum trajectories onto low dimensionality Kähler state-space manifolds is demonstrated. The reconstruction of quantum trajectories from sparse random projections is demonstrated, the onset of Donoho-Stodden breakdown at the Candès-Tao sparsity limit is observed, a deterministic construction for sampling matrices is given and methods for quantum state optimization by Dantzig selection are given.

  18. Clinical effectiveness of a residential pain management programme – comparing a large recent sample with previously published outcome data

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jared G; Knight, Lucie; Stewart, Amy; Smith, Emma L; McCracken, Lance M

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Observational studies using routinely collected data indicate that pain management programmes (PMPs) based on cognitive-behavioural principles are associated with clinically meaningful improvements for individuals with chronic pain. This study evaluated change across functional measures in a sample of chronic pain patients attending a 4-week residential PMP between 2006 and 2010. The findings were directly compared with published outcomes from an earlier period (1989–1998) at the same service. Methods: Participants included 760 consecutive completers of a multidisciplinary PMP. Data were collected at pre-PMP, post-PMP (1-month post-discharge) and at a 9-month follow-up session. Group-based treatment effects and the reliability and clinical significance of change across functional measures were calculated and compared across cohorts. Results: Effect sizes for the recent cohort ranged from small to medium (.43–.67) for pain and physical functioning outcomes to large (.90–1.12) for psychological outcomes at post-treatment (n = 654), and from small (.30–.51) to medium (.58–.71) at 9-month follow-up (n = 493). Clinically significant gains on pain and psychological measures were achieved by 19–55% of patients at post-treatment and 17–44% at follow-up. Comparisons with the earlier cohort showed significantly stronger post-treatment outcomes but differences at follow-up were less marked. Discussion: These results add to the evidence base supporting the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT)-based pain management interventions. There were significantly larger gains in patient functioning in the recent dataset, suggesting improved programme delivery. But effects were less marked in the longer term, indicating a need for improvements in therapeutic models and related methods to promote meaningful and lasting changes. PMID:27551411

  19. The Genetic-Environmental Etiology of Parents' Perceptions and Self-Assessed Behaviours toward Their 5-Month-Old Infants in a Large Twin and Singleton Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boivin, Michel; Perusse, Daniel; Dionne, Ginette; Saysset, Valerie; Zoccolillo, Mark; Tarabulsy, George M.; Tremblay, Nathalie; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Given the importance of parenting for the child's early socio-emotional development, parenting perceptions and behaviours, and their correlates, should be assessed as early as possible in the child's life. The goals of the present study were 1) to confirm, in two parallel population-based samples, including a large sample of twins, the…

  20. The galatic and LMC extreme line supergiants compared: IUE observations of the Henize-Carlson and Zoo star samples of massive supergiants. [Large Magellanic cloud (LMC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shore, S. N.; Sanduleak, N.; Brown, D. N.; Sonneborn, G.; Bopp, B. W.; Robinson, C. R.

    1988-01-01

    The Henize-Carlson sample of galactic massive supergiants, and a comparison between the Galactic and LMC samples are discussed. Several of the stars, notably He3-395 and S 127/LMC, have very similar shell characteristics. There appears to be little difference, other than luminosity, between the LMC and Galactic samples. One star, He3-1482, was detected with the Very Large Array at 6 cm. The UV data is combined with IRAS and optical information.

  1. Fruit and vegetable intake and body mass index in a large sample of middle-aged Australian men and women.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Karen; Kowal, Paul; Soriano, Melinda M; Williams, Sharon; Banks, Emily; Vo, Kha; Byles, Julie

    2014-06-17

    Dietary guidelines around the world recommend increased intakes of fruits and non-starchy vegetables for the prevention of chronic diseases and possibly obesity. This study aimed to describe the association between body mass index (BMI) and habitual fruit and vegetable consumption in a large sample of 246,995 Australian adults aged 45 + year who had been recruited for the "45 and Up" cohort study. Fruit and vegetable intake was assessed using validated short questions, while weight and height were self-reported. Multinomial logistic regression was used, by sex, to assess the association between fruit and vegetable intake and BMI. Compared to the referent normal weight category (BMI 18.5 to 24.9), the odds ratio (OR) of being in the highest vegetable intake quartile was 1.09 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.14) for overweight women (BMI 25.0-29.9) and 1.18 (95% CI 1.12-1.24) for obese women. The association was in the opposite direction for fruit for overweight (OR 0.85; 95% CI 0.80-0.90) and obese women (OR 0.75; 95% CI 0.69-0.80). Obese and overweight women had higher odds of being in the highest intake quartile for combined fruit and vegetable intake, and were more likely to meet the "2 and 5" target or to have five or more serves of fruit and vegetables per day. In contrast, overweight men were less likely to be in high intake quartiles and less likely to meet recommended target of 5 per day, but there was no consistent relationship between obesity and fruit and vegetable intake. Underweight women and underweight men were less likely to be in the highest intake quartiles or to meet the recommended targets. These data suggest that improving adherence to dietary targets for fruit and vegetables may be a dietary strategy to overcome overweight among men, but that overweight and obese women are already adhering to these targets. The association between fruit and vegetable intake and underweight in adults suggests that improving fruit and vegetables intakes are

  2. Overweight and Obesity: Prevalence and Correlates in a Large Clinical Sample of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuckerman, Katharine E.; Hill, Alison P.; Guion, Kimberly; Voltolina, Lisa; Fombonne, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) and childhood obesity (OBY) are rising public health concerns. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of overweight (OWT) and OBY in a sample of 376 Oregon children with ASD, and to assess correlates of OWT and OBY in this sample. We used descriptive statistics, bivariate, and focused multivariate analyses to…

  3. Research study on stabilization and control modern sampled-data control theory. Design of the Large Space Telescope system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, B. C.; Singh, G.

    1974-01-01

    The numerical technique is applied to the prediction of self-sustained oscillations in a two-axis model of the nonlinear system with sampled data. The sampled-data two-axis LST system model, and its stability equation are analyzed along with the exact solution of the stability equation by numerical-iterative techniques.

  4. Analysis of SMELS and reference materials for validation of the k0-based internal monostandard NAA method using in-situ detection efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, R.; Swain, K. K.; Reddy, A. V. R.

    2010-10-01

    Three synthetic multielement standards (SMELS I, II and III) and two reference materials (RMs), SL-3 and Soil-7 of IAEA were analyzed for validation of the k0-based internal monostandard neutron activation analysis (IM-NAA) method utilizing in-situ relative detection efficiency. The internal monostandards used in SMELS and RMs were Au and Sc, respectively. The samples were irradiated in Apsara and Dhruva reactors, BARC and radioactive assay was carried out using a 40% relative efficiency HPGe detector coupled to an 8 k MCA. Concentrations of 23 elements were determined in both SMELS and RMs. In the case of RMs, concentrations of a few elements, whose certified values are not available, could also be determined. The % deviations for the elements determined in SMELS with respect to the assigned values and RMs with respect to certified values were within ±8%. The Z-score values at 95% confidence level for most of the elements in both the materials were within ±1.

  5. Determination of inorganic elements in blood of mice immunized with Bothrops Snake venom using XRF and NAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes da Silva, L. F. F.; Zamboni, C. B.; Bahovschi, V.; Metairon, S.; Suzuki, M. F.; Sant'Anna, O. A.; Rizzutto, M. A.

    2015-07-01

    In this work, mice genetically modified [HIII line] were immunized against different Bothrops snake venoms to produce anti-Bothrops serum (antivenom). The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) techniques were used to evaluate Ca and Fe concentrations in blood of these immunized mice in order to establish a potential correlation between both phenotypes: antibody response and blood constituents after Bothrops venom administration. The results were compared with the control group (mice not immunized) and with human being estimative. These data are important for clinical screening of patients submitted to immunological therapy as well as the understanding of the envenoming mechanisms.

  6. Remote Sensing Data with the Conditional Latin Hypercube Sampling and Geostatistical Approach to Delineate Landscape Changes Induced by Large Chronological Physical Disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yu-Pin; Chu, Hone-Jay; Wang, Cheng-Long; Yu, Hsiao-Hsuan; Wang, Yung-Chieh

    2009-01-01

    This study applies variogram analyses of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) images derived from SPOT HRV images obtained before and after the ChiChi earthquake in the Chenyulan watershed, Taiwan, as well as images after four large typhoons, to delineate the spatial patterns, spatial structures and spatial variability of landscapes caused by these large disturbances. The conditional Latin hypercube sampling approach was applied to select samples from multiple NDVI images. Kriging and sequential Gaussian simulation with sufficient samples were then used to generate maps of NDVI images. The variography of NDVI image results demonstrate that spatial patterns of disturbed landscapes were successfully delineated by variogram analysis in study areas. The high-magnitude Chi-Chi earthquake created spatial landscape variations in the study area. After the earthquake, the cumulative impacts of typhoons on landscape patterns depended on the magnitudes and paths of typhoons, but were not always evident in the spatiotemporal variability of landscapes in the study area. The statistics and spatial structures of multiple NDVI images were captured by 3,000 samples from 62,500 grids in the NDVI images. Kriging and sequential Gaussian simulation with the 3,000 samples effectively reproduced spatial patterns of NDVI images. However, the proposed approach, which integrates the conditional Latin hypercube sampling approach, variogram, kriging and sequential Gaussian simulation in remotely sensed images, efficiently monitors, samples and maps the effects of large chronological disturbances on spatial characteristics of landscape changes including spatial variability and heterogeneity. PMID:22389593

  7. Remote sensing data with the conditional latin hypercube sampling and geostatistical approach to delineate landscape changes induced by large chronological physical disturbances.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Pin; Chu, Hone-Jay; Wang, Cheng-Long; Yu, Hsiao-Hsuan; Wang, Yung-Chieh

    2009-01-01

    This study applies variogram analyses of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) images derived from SPOT HRV images obtained before and after the ChiChi earthquake in the Chenyulan watershed, Taiwan, as well as images after four large typhoons, to delineate the spatial patterns, spatial structures and spatial variability of landscapes caused by these large disturbances. The conditional Latin hypercube sampling approach was applied to select samples from multiple NDVI images. Kriging and sequential Gaussian simulation with sufficient samples were then used to generate maps of NDVI images. The variography of NDVI image results demonstrate that spatial patterns of disturbed landscapes were successfully delineated by variogram analysis in study areas. The high-magnitude Chi-Chi earthquake created spatial landscape variations in the study area. After the earthquake, the cumulative impacts of typhoons on landscape patterns depended on the magnitudes and paths of typhoons, but were not always evident in the spatiotemporal variability of landscapes in the study area. The statistics and spatial structures of multiple NDVI images were captured by 3,000 samples from 62,500 grids in the NDVI images. Kriging and sequential Gaussian simulation with the 3,000 samples effectively reproduced spatial patterns of NDVI images. However, the proposed approach, which integrates the conditional Latin hypercube sampling approach, variogram, kriging and sequential Gaussian simulation in remotely sensed images, efficiently monitors, samples and maps the effects of large chronological disturbances on spatial characteristics of landscape changes including spatial variability and heterogeneity. PMID:22389593

  8. Ca II Triplet Spectroscopy of Small Magellanic Cloud Red Giants. IV. Abundances for a Large Sample of Field Stars and Comparison with the Cluster Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, M. C.; Geisler, D.; Carraro, G.; Clariá, J. J.; Villanova, S.; Gramajo, L. V.; Sarajedini, A.; Grocholski, A. J.

    2016-09-01

    This paper represents a major step forward in the systematic and homogeneous study of Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) star clusters and field stars carried out by applying the calcium triplet technique. We present in this work the radial velocity and metallicity of approximately 400 red giant stars in 15 SMC fields, with typical errors of about 7 km s-1 and 0.16 dex, respectively. We added to this information our previously determined metallicity values for 29 clusters and approximately 350 field stars using the identical techniques. Using this enlarged sample, we analyze the metallicity distribution and gradient in this galaxy. We also compare the chemical properties of the clusters and of their surrounding fields. We find a number of surprising results. While the clusters, taken as a whole, show no strong evidence for a metallicity gradient (MG), the field stars exhibit a clear negative gradient in the inner region of the SMC, consistent with the recent results of Dobbie et al. For distances to the center of the galaxy less than 4°, field stars show a considerably smaller metallicity dispersion than that of the clusters. However, in the external SMC regions, clusters and field stars exhibit similar metallicity dispersions. Moreover, in the inner region of the SMC, clusters appear to be concentrated in two groups: one more metal-poor and another more metal-rich than field stars. Individually considered, neither cluster group presents an MG. Most surprisingly, the MG for both stellar populations (clusters and field stars) appears to reverse sign in the outer regions of the SMC. The difference between the cluster metallicity and the mean metallicity of the surrounding field stars turns out to be a strong function of the cluster metallicity. These results could be indicating different chemical evolution histories for these two SMC stellar populations. They could also indicate variations in the chemical behavior of the SMC in its internal and external regions.

  9. Ca II Triplet Spectroscopy of Small Magellanic Cloud Red Giants. IV. Abundances for a Large Sample of Field Stars and Comparison with the Cluster Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, M. C.; Geisler, D.; Carraro, G.; Clariá, J. J.; Villanova, S.; Gramajo, L. V.; Sarajedini, A.; Grocholski, A. J.

    2016-09-01

    This paper represents a major step forward in the systematic and homogeneous study of Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) star clusters and field stars carried out by applying the calcium triplet technique. We present in this work the radial velocity and metallicity of approximately 400 red giant stars in 15 SMC fields, with typical errors of about 7 km s‑1 and 0.16 dex, respectively. We added to this information our previously determined metallicity values for 29 clusters and approximately 350 field stars using the identical techniques. Using this enlarged sample, we analyze the metallicity distribution and gradient in this galaxy. We also compare the chemical properties of the clusters and of their surrounding fields. We find a number of surprising results. While the clusters, taken as a whole, show no strong evidence for a metallicity gradient (MG), the field stars exhibit a clear negative gradient in the inner region of the SMC, consistent with the recent results of Dobbie et al. For distances to the center of the galaxy less than 4°, field stars show a considerably smaller metallicity dispersion than that of the clusters. However, in the external SMC regions, clusters and field stars exhibit similar metallicity dispersions. Moreover, in the inner region of the SMC, clusters appear to be concentrated in two groups: one more metal-poor and another more metal-rich than field stars. Individually considered, neither cluster group presents an MG. Most surprisingly, the MG for both stellar populations (clusters and field stars) appears to reverse sign in the outer regions of the SMC. The difference between the cluster metallicity and the mean metallicity of the surrounding field stars turns out to be a strong function of the cluster metallicity. These results could be indicating different chemical evolution histories for these two SMC stellar populations. They could also indicate variations in the chemical behavior of the SMC in its internal and external regions.

  10. Arctic-HYCOS: a Large Sample observing system for estimating freshwater fluxes in the drainage basin of the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietroniro, Al; Korhonen, Johanna; Looser, Ulrich; Hardardóttir, Jórunn; Johnsrud, Morten; Vuglinsky, Valery; Gustafsson, David; Lins, Harry F.; Conaway, Jeffrey S.; Lammers, Richard; Stewart, Bruce; Abrate, Tommaso; Pilon, Paul; Sighomnou, Daniel; Arheimer, Berit

    2015-04-01

    The Arctic region is an important regulating component of the global climate system, and is also experiencing a considerable change during recent decades. More than 10% of world's river-runoff flows to the Arctic Ocean and there is evidence of changes in its fresh-water balance. However, about 30% of the Arctic basin is still ungauged, with differing monitoring practices and data availability from the countries in the region. A consistent system for monitoring and sharing of hydrological information throughout the Arctic region is thus of highest interest for further studies and monitoring of the freshwater flux to the Arctic Ocean. The purpose of the Arctic-HYCOS project is to allow for collection and sharing of hydrological data. Preliminary 616 stations were identified with long-term daily discharge data available, and around 250 of these already provide online available data in near real time. This large sample will be used in the following scientific analysis: 1) to evaluate freshwater flux to the Arctic Ocean and Seas, 2) to monitor changes and enhance understanding of the hydrological regime and 3) to estimate flows in ungauged regions and develop models for enhanced hydrological prediction in the Arctic region. The project is intended as a component of the WMO (World Meteorological Organization) WHYCOS (World Hydrological Cycle Observing System) initiative, covering the area of the expansive transnational Arctic basin with participation from Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russian Federation, Sweden and United States of America. The overall objective is to regularly collect, manage and share high quality data from a defined basic network of hydrological stations in the Arctic basin. The project focus on collecting data on discharge and possibly sediment transport and temperature. Data should be provisional in near-real time if available, whereas time-series of historical data should be provided once quality assurance has been completed. The

  11. Combination of the auxins NAA, IBA, and IAA with GA3 improves the commercial seed-tuber production of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) under in vitro conditions.

    PubMed

    Kumlay, Ahmet Metin

    2014-01-01

    The study compared the effects of 1.0 × MS medium containing various concentrations of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), alone or in combination with gibberellic acid (GA3) in micropropagation of three potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Pasinler, Granola, and Caspar using binodal stem cuttings. The results testified improved regeneration on 1.0 × MS medium containing variants of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 on all cultivars. The minimum days to shoot induction on three cultivars ranged 4.25-5 d on 1.0 × MS medium containing 0.25 mg L(-1) GA3 + 1 mg L(-1) NAA. The longest shoots (11.8 cm), maximum number of nodes (13.50), and maximum number of leaves (11.00) were recorded on cv. Caspar on 1.0 × MS medium containing 1 mg L(-1) NAA + 0.25 mg L(-1) GA3. The minimum time to root induction (12.25 d) was noted on cv. Pasinler on the same medium. All of the regenerated shoots could be easily rooted. The results showed that the combined effect of various concentrations of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 was more pronounced compared to the auxins used alone. The results of this research are of significant importance for potato breeders. PMID:25028654

  12. The studies on the toxicity mechanism of environmentally hazardous natural (IAA) and synthetic (NAA) auxin--The experiments on model Arabidopsis thaliana and rat liver plasma membranes.

    PubMed

    Hąc-Wydro, Katarzyna; Flasiński, Michał

    2015-06-01

    This paper concerns the studies towards membrane-damage effect of two auxins: indole-3-acetic acid - IAA and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid - NAA on plant (Arabidopsis thaliana) and animal (rat liver) model membranes. The foregoing auxins are plant growth regulators widely used in agriculture to control the quality of the crop. However, their accumulation in the environment makes them hazardous for the living organisms. The aim of our investigations was to compare the effect of natural (IAA) vs. synthetic (NAA) auxin on the organization of plant and animal model membranes and find a possible correlation between membrane-disturbing effect of these compounds and their toxicity. The collected data evidenced that auxins cause destabilization of membranes, decrease their condensation and weakens interactions of molecules. The alterations in the morphology of model systems were also noticed. The foregoing effects of auxins are concentration-dependent and additionally NAA was found to act on animal vs. plant membranes more selectively than IAA. Interestingly, both IAA and NAA induce the strongest disordering in model lipid system at the concentration, which is frequently reported as toxic to animal and plants. Based on the above findings it was proposed that membrane-damage effect induced by IAA and NAA may be important from the point of view of the mechanism of toxicity of these compounds and cannot be ignored in further investigations in this area.

  13. Combination of the auxins NAA, IBA, and IAA with GA3 improves the commercial seed-tuber production of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) under in vitro conditions.

    PubMed

    Kumlay, Ahmet Metin

    2014-01-01

    The study compared the effects of 1.0 × MS medium containing various concentrations of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), alone or in combination with gibberellic acid (GA3) in micropropagation of three potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Pasinler, Granola, and Caspar using binodal stem cuttings. The results testified improved regeneration on 1.0 × MS medium containing variants of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 on all cultivars. The minimum days to shoot induction on three cultivars ranged 4.25-5 d on 1.0 × MS medium containing 0.25 mg L(-1) GA3 + 1 mg L(-1) NAA. The longest shoots (11.8 cm), maximum number of nodes (13.50), and maximum number of leaves (11.00) were recorded on cv. Caspar on 1.0 × MS medium containing 1 mg L(-1) NAA + 0.25 mg L(-1) GA3. The minimum time to root induction (12.25 d) was noted on cv. Pasinler on the same medium. All of the regenerated shoots could be easily rooted. The results showed that the combined effect of various concentrations of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 was more pronounced compared to the auxins used alone. The results of this research are of significant importance for potato breeders.

  14. Dynamical properties of confined water nanoclusters: Simulation study of hydrated zeolite NaA: structural and vibrational properties.

    PubMed

    Demontis, Pierfranco; Gulín-González, Jorge; Jobic, Hervé; Masia, Marco; Sale, Roberto; Suffritti, Giuseppe B

    2008-08-01

    Water nanoclusters confined to zeolitic cavities have been extensively investigated by various experimental techniques. We report a series of molecular dynamics simulations at different temperatures and for water nanoclusters of different sizes in order to attempt an atomistic interpretation of the properties of these systems. The cavities of zeolite NaA are spherical in shape and about 1 nm in diameter and can host nanoclusters of water containing nearly up to 24 water molecules. A modified interaction potential, yielding a better reproduction of experimental hydration energy and water diffusivity across a number of different zeolites, is proposed. Molecular dynamics simulations reproduce the known experimental structural features obtained by X-ray diffraction. Variations of simulated vibrational IR and IINS spectra with temperature and size of nanoclusters are in good agreement with experiment. The simulated water nanoclusters in zeolite NaA are found to be too small to crystallize and, at low temperature, behave as amorphous ice, in agreement with recent experimental results for similar water nanoclusters in reverse micelles.

  15. Large-Scale Prospective T Cell Function Assays in Shipped, Unfrozen Blood Samples: Experiences from the Multicenter TRIGR Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Roy K.; Becker, Dorothy J.; Girgis, Rose; Palmer, Jerry P.; Cuthbertson, David; Krischer, Jeffrey P.

    2014-01-01

    Broad consensus assigns T lymphocytes fundamental roles in inflammatory, infectious, and autoimmune diseases. However, clinical investigations have lacked fully characterized and validated procedures, equivalent to those of widely practiced biochemical tests with established clinical roles, for measuring core T cell functions. The Trial to Reduce Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in the Genetically at Risk (TRIGR) type 1 diabetes prevention trial used consecutive measurements of T cell proliferative responses in prospectively collected fresh heparinized blood samples shipped by courier within North America. In this article, we report on the quality control implications of this simple and pragmatic shipping practice and the interpretation of positive- and negative-control analytes in our assay. We used polyclonal and postvaccination responses in 4,919 samples to analyze the development of T cell immunocompetence. We have found that the vast majority of the samples were viable up to 3 days from the blood draw, yet meaningful responses were found in a proportion of those with longer travel times. Furthermore, the shipping time of uncooled samples significantly decreased both the viabilities of the samples and the unstimulated cell counts in the viable samples. Also, subject age was significantly associated with the number of unstimulated cells and T cell proliferation to positive activators. Finally, we observed a pattern of statistically significant increases in T cell responses to tetanus toxin around the timing of infant vaccinations. This assay platform and shipping protocol satisfy the criteria for robust and reproducible long-term measurements of human T cell function, comparable to those of established blood biochemical tests. We present a stable technology for prospective disease-relevant T cell analysis in immunological diseases, vaccination medicine, and measurement of herd immunity. PMID:24334687

  16. Construct Validity Evidence for Single-Response Items to Estimate Physical Activity Levels in Large Sample Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Allen W.; Morrow, James R., Jr.; Bowles, Heather R.; FitzGerald, Shannon J.; Blair, Steven N.

    2007-01-01

    Valid measurement of physical activity is important for studying the risks for morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to examine evidence of construct validity of two similar single-response items assessing physical activity via self-report. Both items are based on the stages of change model. The sample was 687 participants (men =…

  17. Characteristics of Internet Gamblers among a Sample of Students at a Large, Public University in Southwestern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shead, N. Will; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Fong, Timothy W.; Gupta, Rina

    2012-01-01

    There is a current lack of descriptive information on college students who gamble on the Internet. With the increasing popularity of Internet gambling, this study aimed to better understand the profile of Internet gamblers among a sample of college students. Of 909 students at the University of California-Los Angeles who completed an online…

  18. Self-Esteem Development across the Life Span: A Longitudinal Study with a Large Sample from Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orth, Ulrich; Maes, Jürgen; Schmitt, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the development of self-esteem across the life span. Data came from a German longitudinal study with 3 assessments across 4 years of a sample of 2,509 individuals ages 14 to 89 years. The self-esteem measure used showed strong measurement invariance across assessments and birth cohorts. Latent growth curve analyses indicated…

  19. Sampling large geographic areas for rare species using environmental DNA: a study of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus occupancy in western Montana.

    PubMed

    McKelvey, K S; Young, M K; Knotek, W L; Carim, K J; Wilcox, T M; Padgett-Stewart, T M; Schwartz, M K

    2016-03-01

    This study tested the efficacy of environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling to delineate the distribution of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in headwater streams in western Montana, U.S.A. Surveys proved fast, reliable and sensitive: 124 samples were collected across five basins by a single crew in c. 8 days. Results were largely consistent with past electrofishing, but, in a basin where S. confluentus were known to be scarce, eDNA samples indicated that S. confluentus were more broadly distributed than previously thought.

  20. Sampling large geographic areas for rare species using environmental DNA: a study of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus occupancy in western Montana.

    PubMed

    McKelvey, K S; Young, M K; Knotek, W L; Carim, K J; Wilcox, T M; Padgett-Stewart, T M; Schwartz, M K

    2016-03-01

    This study tested the efficacy of environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling to delineate the distribution of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in headwater streams in western Montana, U.S.A. Surveys proved fast, reliable and sensitive: 124 samples were collected across five basins by a single crew in c. 8 days. Results were largely consistent with past electrofishing, but, in a basin where S. confluentus were known to be scarce, eDNA samples indicated that S. confluentus were more broadly distributed than previously thought. PMID:26762274

  1. Examination of Sex Differences in a Large Sample of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhardt, Vanessa P.; Wetherby, Amy M.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Lord, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Despite consistent and substantive research documenting a large male to female ratio in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), only a modest body of research exists examining sex differences in characteristics. This study examined sex differences in developmental functioning and early social communication in children with ASD as compared to children with…

  2. A Large Sample Comparison of Grade Based Student Learning Outcomes in Online vs. Face-to-Face Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, Joseph K.; Jacquemin, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Comparisons of grade based learning outcomes between online and face-to-face course formats have become essential because the number of online courses, online programs and institutional student enrollments have seen rapid growth in recent years. Overall, online education is largely viewed by education professionals as being equivalent to…

  3. Measuring and mitigating inhibition during quantitative real time PCR analysis of viral nucleic acid extracts from large-volume environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Gibson, K E; Schwab, K J; Spencer, S K; Borchardt, M A

    2012-09-01

    Naturally-occurring inhibitory compounds are a major concern during qPCR and RT-qPCR analysis of environmental samples, particularly large volume water samples. Here, a standardized method for measuring and mitigating sample inhibition in environmental water concentrates is described. Specifically, the method 1) employs a commercially available standard RNA control; 2) defines inhibition by the change in the quantification cycle (C(q)) of the standard RNA control when added to the sample concentrate; and 3) calculates a dilution factor using a mathematical formula applied to the change in C(q) to indicate the specific volume of nuclease-free water necessary to dilute the effect of inhibitors. The standardized inhibition method was applied to 3,193 large-volume water (surface, groundwater, drinking water, agricultural runoff, sewage) concentrates of which 1,074 (34%) were inhibited. Inhibition level was not related to sample volume. Samples collected from the same locations over a one to two year period had widely variable inhibition levels. The proportion of samples that could have been reported as false negatives if inhibition had not been mitigated was between 0.3% and 71%, depending on water source. These findings emphasize the importance of measuring and mitigating inhibition when reporting qPCR results for viral pathogens in environmental waters to minimize the likelihood of reporting false negatives and under-quantifying virus concentration.

  4. Determination of Atto- to Femtogram Levels of Americium and Curium Isotopes in Large-Volume Urine Samples by Compact Accelerator Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiongxin; Christl, Marcus; Kramer-Tremblay, Sheila; Synal, Hans-Arno

    2016-03-01

    Ultralow level analysis of actinides in urine samples may be required for dose assessment in the event of internal exposures to these radionuclides at nuclear facilities and nuclear power plants. A new bioassay method for analysis of sub-femtogram levels of Am and Cm in large-volume urine samples was developed. Americium and curium were co-precipitated with hydrous titanium oxide from the urine matrix and purified by column chromatography separation. After target preparation using mixed titanium/iron oxides, the final sample was measured by compact accelerator mass spectrometry. Urine samples spiked with known quantities of Am and Cm isotopes in the range of attogram to femtogram levels were measured for method evaluation. The results are in good agreement with the expected values, demonstrating the feasibility of compact accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for the determination of minor actinides at the levels of attogram/liter in urine samples to meet stringent sensitivity requirements for internal dosimetry assessment. PMID:26822907

  5. ESO Very Large Telescope Optical Spectroscopy of BL Lacertae Objects. IV. New Spectra and Properties of the Full Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landoni, M.; Falomo, R.; Treves, A.; Sbarufatti, B.; Barattini, M.; Decarli, R.; Kotilainen, J.

    2013-04-01

    We present the last chapter of a spectroscopy program aimed at deriving the redshift or a lower limit to the redshift of BL Lac objects using medium-resolution spectroscopy. Here we report new spectra for 33 BL Lac object candidates obtained in 2008-2009, confirming the BL Lac nature of 25 sources and obtaining new redshifts for 5 objects. These new observations are combined with our previous data in order to construct a homogeneous sample of ~70 BL Lac objects with high-quality spectroscopy. All these spectra can be accessed at the Web site http://www.oapd.inaf.it/zbllac/. The average spectrum, beaming properties of the full sample, discussion of intervening systems, and future perspectives are addressed.

  6. HIV risk behaviors in the U.S. transgender population: prevalence and predictors in a large internet sample.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Jamie; Romine, Rebecca Swinburne; Bockting, Walter O

    2014-01-01

    To study the influence of gender on HIV risk, a sample of the U.S. transgender population (N = 1,229) was recruited via the Internet. HIV risk and prevalence were lower than reported in prior studies of localized, urban samples but higher than the overall U.S. population. Findings suggest that gender nonconformity alone does not itself result in markedly higher HIV risk. Sex with nontransgender men emerged as the strongest independent predictor of unsafe sex for both male-to-female (MtF) and female-to-male (FtM) participants. These sexual relationships constitute a process that may either affirm or problematize gender identity and sexual orientation, with different emphases for MtFs and FtMs, respectively.

  7. On Matrix Sampling and Imputation of Context Questionnaires with Implications for the Generation of Plausible Values in Large-Scale Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, David; Su, Dan

    2016-01-01

    This article presents findings on the consequences of matrix sampling of context questionnaires for the generation of plausible values in large-scale assessments. Three studies are conducted. Study 1 uses data from PISA 2012 to examine several different forms of missing data imputation within the chained equations framework: predictive mean…

  8. Evidence from a Large Sample on the Effects of Group Size and Decision-Making Time on Performance in a Marketing Simulation Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treen, Emily; Atanasova, Christina; Pitt, Leyland; Johnson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Marketing instructors using simulation games as a way of inducing some realism into a marketing course are faced with many dilemmas. Two important quandaries are the optimal size of groups and how much of the students' time should ideally be devoted to the game. Using evidence from a very large sample of teams playing a simulation game, the study…

  9. A Large Sample Evaluation of a Court-Mandated Batterer Intervention Program: Investigating Differential Program Effect for African American and Caucasian Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttell, Frederick P.; Carney, Michelle Mohr

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to (a) evaluate a 26-week batterer intervention program by investigating changes in psychological variables related to abuse (i.e., truthfulness, violence, lethality, control, alcohol use, drug use, and stress coping abilities) between pretreatment and posttreatment assessments in a large sample of…

  10. The Sloan Lens ACS Survey. I. A Large Spectroscopically Selected Sample of Massive Early-Type Lens Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolton, Adam S.; Burles, Scott; Koopmans, Leon V. E.; Treu, Tommaso; Moustakas, Leonidas A.

    2006-01-01

    The Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey is an efficient Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Snapshot imaging survey for new galaxy-scale strong gravitational lenses. The targeted lens candidates are selected spectroscopically from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database of galaxy spectra for having multiple nebular emission lines at a redshift significantly higher than that of the SDSS target galaxy. The SLACS survey is optimized to detect bright early-type lens galaxies with faint lensed sources in order to increase the sample of known gravitational lenses suitable for detailed lensing, photometric, and dynamical modeling. In this paper, the first in a series on the current results of our HST Cycle 13 imaging survey, we present a catalog of 19 newly discovered gravitational lenses, along with nine other observed candidate systems that are either possible lenses, nonlenses, or nondetections. The survey efficiency is thus >=68%. We also present Gemini 8 m and Magellan 6.5 m integral-field spectroscopic data for nine of the SLACS targets, which further support the lensing interpretation. A new method for the effective subtraction of foreground galaxy images to reveal faint background features is presented. We show that the SLACS lens galaxies have colors and ellipticities typical of the spectroscopic parent sample from which they are drawn (SDSS luminous red galaxies and quiescent MAIN sample galaxies), but are somewhat brighter and more centrally concentrated. Several explanations for the latter bias are suggested. The SLACS survey provides the first statistically significant and homogeneously selected sample of bright early-type lens galaxies, furnishing a powerful probe of the structure of early-type galaxies within the half-light radius. The high confirmation rate of lenses in the SLACS survey suggests consideration of spectroscopic lens discovery as an explicit science goal of future spectroscopic galaxy surveys.

  11. A Critical Proton MR Spectroscopy Marker of Alzheimer's Disease Early Neurodegenerative Change: Low Hippocampal NAA/Cr Ratio Impacts APOE ɛ4 Mexico City Children and Their Parents.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Melo-Sánchez, Gastón; Rodríguez-Díaz, Joel; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Styner, Martin; Mukherjee, Partha S; Lin, Weili; Jewells, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Severe air pollution exposures produce systemic, respiratory, myocardial, and brain inflammation and Alzheimer's disease (AD) hallmarks in clinically healthy children. We tested whether hippocampal metabolite ratios are associated with contrasting levels of air pollution, APOE, and body mass index (BMI) in paired healthy children and one parent sharing the same APOE alleles. We used 1H-MRS to interrogate bilateral hippocampal single-voxel in 57 children (12.45 ± 3.4 years) and their 48 parents (37.5 ± 6.78 years) from a low pollution city versus Mexico City (MC). NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, and mI/Cr metabolite ratios were analyzed. The right hippocampus NAA/Cr ratio was significantly different between cohorts (p = 0.007). The NAA/Cr ratio in right hippocampus in controls versus APOE ɛ4 MC children and in left hippocampus in MC APOE ɛ4 parents versus their children was significantly different after adjusting for age, gender, and BMI (p = 0.027 and 0.01, respectively). The NAA/Cr ratio is considered reflective of neuronal density/functional integrity/loss of synapses/higher pTau burden, thus a significant decrease in hippocampal NAA/Cr ratios may constitute a spectral marker of early neurodegeneration in young urbanites. Decreases in NAA/Cr correlate well with cognitive function, behavioral symptoms, and dementia severity; thus, since the progression of AD starts decades before clinical diagnosis, our findings support the hypothesis that under chronic exposures to fine particulate matter and ozone above the standards, neurodegenerative processes start in childhood and APOE ɛ4 carriers are at higher risk. Gene and environmental factors are critical in the development of AD and the identification and neuroprotection of young urbanites at high risk must become a public health priority. PMID:26402110

  12. A Critical Proton MR Spectroscopy Marker of Alzheimer's Disease Early Neurodegenerative Change: Low Hippocampal NAA/Cr Ratio Impacts APOE ɛ4 Mexico City Children and Their Parents.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Melo-Sánchez, Gastón; Rodríguez-Díaz, Joel; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Styner, Martin; Mukherjee, Partha S; Lin, Weili; Jewells, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Severe air pollution exposures produce systemic, respiratory, myocardial, and brain inflammation and Alzheimer's disease (AD) hallmarks in clinically healthy children. We tested whether hippocampal metabolite ratios are associated with contrasting levels of air pollution, APOE, and body mass index (BMI) in paired healthy children and one parent sharing the same APOE alleles. We used 1H-MRS to interrogate bilateral hippocampal single-voxel in 57 children (12.45 ± 3.4 years) and their 48 parents (37.5 ± 6.78 years) from a low pollution city versus Mexico City (MC). NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, and mI/Cr metabolite ratios were analyzed. The right hippocampus NAA/Cr ratio was significantly different between cohorts (p = 0.007). The NAA/Cr ratio in right hippocampus in controls versus APOE ɛ4 MC children and in left hippocampus in MC APOE ɛ4 parents versus their children was significantly different after adjusting for age, gender, and BMI (p = 0.027 and 0.01, respectively). The NAA/Cr ratio is considered reflective of neuronal density/functional integrity/loss of synapses/higher pTau burden, thus a significant decrease in hippocampal NAA/Cr ratios may constitute a spectral marker of early neurodegeneration in young urbanites. Decreases in NAA/Cr correlate well with cognitive function, behavioral symptoms, and dementia severity; thus, since the progression of AD starts decades before clinical diagnosis, our findings support the hypothesis that under chronic exposures to fine particulate matter and ozone above the standards, neurodegenerative processes start in childhood and APOE ɛ4 carriers are at higher risk. Gene and environmental factors are critical in the development of AD and the identification and neuroprotection of young urbanites at high risk must become a public health priority.

  13. Conditional sampling technique to test the applicability of the Taylor hypothesis for the large-scale coherent structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussain, A. K. M. F.

    1980-01-01

    Comparisons of the distributions of large scale structures in turbulent flow with distributions based on time dependent signals from stationary probes and the Taylor hypothesis are presented. The study investigated an area in the near field of a 7.62 cm circular air jet at a Re of 32,000, specifically having coherent structures through small-amplitude controlled excitation and stable vortex pairing in the jet column mode. Hot-wire and X-wire anemometry were employed to establish phase averaged spatial distributions of longitudinal and lateral velocities, coherent Reynolds stress and vorticity, background turbulent intensities, streamlines and pseudo-stream functions. The Taylor hypothesis was used to calculate spatial distributions of the phase-averaged properties, with results indicating that the usage of the local time-average velocity or streamwise velocity produces large distortions.

  14. Assessment of fish assemblages and minimum sampling effort required to determine botic integrity of large rivers in southern Idaho, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maret, Terry R.; Ott, D.S.

    2004-01-01

    width was determined to be sufficient for collecting an adequate number of fish to estimate species richness and evaluate biotic integrity. At most sites, about 250 fish were needed to effectively represent 95 percent of the species present. Fifty-three percent of the sites assessed, using an IBI developed specifically for large Idaho rivers, received scores of less than 50, indicating poor biotic integrity.

  15. High-contrast X-ray micro-tomography of low attenuation samples using large area hybrid semiconductor pixel detector array of 10 × 5 Timepix chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karch, J.; Krejci, F.; Bartl, B.; Dudak, J.; Kuba, J.; Kvacek, J.; Zemlicka, J.

    2016-01-01

    State-of-the-art hybrid pixel semiconductor detectors provide excellent imaging properties such as unlimited dynamic range, high spatial resolution, high frame rate and energy sensitivity. Nevertheless, a limitation in the use of these devices for imaging has been the small sensitive area of a few square centimetres. In the field of microtomography we make use of a large area pixel detector assembled from 50 Timepix edgeless chips providing fully sensitive area of 14.3 × 7.15 cm2. We have successfully demonstrated that the enlargement of the sensitive area enables high-quality tomographic measurements of whole objects with high geometrical magnification without any significant degradation in resulting reconstructions related to the chip tilling and edgeless sensor technology properties. The technique of micro-tomography with the newly developed large area detector is applied for samples formed by low attenuation, low contrast materials such a seed from Phacelia tanacetifolia, a charcoalified wood sample and a beeswax seal sample.

  16. Endo- and ectoparasites of large whales (Cetartiodactyla: Balaenopteridae, Physeteridae): Overcoming difficulties in obtaining appropriate samples by non- and minimally-invasive methods.

    PubMed

    Hermosilla, Carlos; Silva, Liliana M R; Prieto, Rui; Kleinertz, Sonja; Taubert, Anja; Silva, Monica A

    2015-12-01

    Baleen and sperm whales, belonging to the Order Cetartiodactyla, are the largest and heaviest existent mammals in the world, collectively known as large whales. Large whales have been subjected to a variety of conservation means, which could be better monitored and managed if physiological and pathophysiological information, such as pathogen infections, could already be gathered from free-swimming animals instead of carcasses. Parasitic diseases are increasingly recognized for their profound influences on individual, population, and even ecosystem health. Furthermore, a number of parasite species have gained importance as opportunistic neozoan infections in the marine environment. Nonetheless, traditional approaches to study parasitic diseases have been impractical for large whales, since there is no current routine method for the capture and handling of these large animals and there is presently no practical method to obtain blood samples remotely from free-ranging whales. Therefore, we here not only intend to review the endo- and ectoparasite fauna of large whales but also to provide new insights in current available methods for gathering parasitological data by using non- or minimally invasive sampling techniques. We focus on methods, which will allow detailed parasitological studies to gain a broader knowledge on parasitoses affecting wild, free-swimming large whale populations.

  17. Endo- and ectoparasites of large whales (Cetartiodactyla: Balaenopteridae, Physeteridae): Overcoming difficulties in obtaining appropriate samples by non- and minimally-invasive methods.

    PubMed

    Hermosilla, Carlos; Silva, Liliana M R; Prieto, Rui; Kleinertz, Sonja; Taubert, Anja; Silva, Monica A

    2015-12-01

    Baleen and sperm whales, belonging to the Order Cetartiodactyla, are the largest and heaviest existent mammals in the world, collectively known as large whales. Large whales have been subjected to a variety of conservation means, which could be better monitored and managed if physiological and pathophysiological information, such as pathogen infections, could already be gathered from free-swimming animals instead of carcasses. Parasitic diseases are increasingly recognized for their profound influences on individual, population, and even ecosystem health. Furthermore, a number of parasite species have gained importance as opportunistic neozoan infections in the marine environment. Nonetheless, traditional approaches to study parasitic diseases have been impractical for large whales, since there is no current routine method for the capture and handling of these large animals and there is presently no practical method to obtain blood samples remotely from free-ranging whales. Therefore, we here not only intend to review the endo- and ectoparasite fauna of large whales but also to provide new insights in current available methods for gathering parasitological data by using non- or minimally invasive sampling techniques. We focus on methods, which will allow detailed parasitological studies to gain a broader knowledge on parasitoses affecting wild, free-swimming large whale populations. PMID:26835249

  18. Endo- and ectoparasites of large whales (Cetartiodactyla: Balaenopteridae, Physeteridae): Overcoming difficulties in obtaining appropriate samples by non- and minimally-invasive methods

    PubMed Central

    Hermosilla, Carlos; Silva, Liliana M.R.; Prieto, Rui; Kleinertz, Sonja; Taubert, Anja; Silva, Monica A.

    2015-01-01

    Baleen and sperm whales, belonging to the Order Cetartiodactyla, are the largest and heaviest existent mammals in the world, collectively known as large whales. Large whales have been subjected to a variety of conservation means, which could be better monitored and managed if physiological and pathophysiological information, such as pathogen infections, could already be gathered from free-swimming animals instead of carcasses. Parasitic diseases are increasingly recognized for their profound influences on individual, population, and even ecosystem health. Furthermore, a number of parasite species have gained importance as opportunistic neozoan infections in the marine environment. Nonetheless, traditional approaches to study parasitic diseases have been impractical for large whales, since there is no current routine method for the capture and handling of these large animals and there is presently no practical method to obtain blood samples remotely from free-ranging whales. Therefore, we here not only intend to review the endo- and ectoparasite fauna of large whales but also to provide new insights in current available methods for gathering parasitological data by using non- or minimally invasive sampling techniques. We focus on methods, which will allow detailed parasitological studies to gain a broader knowledge on parasitoses affecting wild, free-swimming large whale populations. PMID:26835249

  19. Research study on stabilization and control modern sampled-data control theory. [design of the Large Space Telescope system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, B. C.; Singh, G.

    1974-01-01

    The methods of continuous and discrete describing function analysis were applied to predicting the existence of self-sustained oscillations in the single-axis model of the large space telescope system with nonlinear control moment gyroscope friction characteristics. It is shown that the stability equations may be solved by a numerical-iterative technique using the describing function analysis, instead of the usual graphical methods. The numerical method is found to be effective in leading to a convergent solution rapidly, with an appropriate guess of the initial condition.

  20. Functions of nonsuicidal self-injury: exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in a large community sample of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dahlström, Örjan; Zetterqvist, Maria; Lundh, Lars-Gunnar; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2015-03-01

    Given that nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is prevalent in adolescents, structured assessment is an essential tool to guide treatment interventions. The Functional Assessment of Self-Mutilation (FASM) is a self-report scale that assesses frequency, methods, and functions of NSSI. FASM was administered to 3,097 Swedish adolescents in a community sample. With the aim of examining the underlying factor structure of the functions of FASM in this sample, the adolescents with NSSI who completed all function items (n = 836) were randomly divided into 2 subsamples for cross-validation purposes. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was followed by a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using the mean and variance adjusted weighted least squares (WLSMV) estimator in the Mplus statistical modeling program. The results of the EFA suggested a 3-factor model (social influence, automatic functions, and nonconformist peer identification), which was supported by a good fit in the CFA. Factors differentiated between social/interpersonal and automatic/intrapersonal functions. Based on learning theory and the specific concepts of negative and positive reinforcement, the nonconformist peer identification factor was then split into 2 factors (peer identification and avoiding demands). The resulting 4-factor model showed an excellent fit. Dividing social functions into separate factors (social influence, peer identification, and avoiding demands) can be helpful in clinical practice, where the assessment of NSSI functions is an important tool with direct implications for treatment.

  1. Functions of nonsuicidal self-injury: exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in a large community sample of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dahlström, Örjan; Zetterqvist, Maria; Lundh, Lars-Gunnar; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2015-03-01

    Given that nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is prevalent in adolescents, structured assessment is an essential tool to guide treatment interventions. The Functional Assessment of Self-Mutilation (FASM) is a self-report scale that assesses frequency, methods, and functions of NSSI. FASM was administered to 3,097 Swedish adolescents in a community sample. With the aim of examining the underlying factor structure of the functions of FASM in this sample, the adolescents with NSSI who completed all function items (n = 836) were randomly divided into 2 subsamples for cross-validation purposes. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was followed by a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using the mean and variance adjusted weighted least squares (WLSMV) estimator in the Mplus statistical modeling program. The results of the EFA suggested a 3-factor model (social influence, automatic functions, and nonconformist peer identification), which was supported by a good fit in the CFA. Factors differentiated between social/interpersonal and automatic/intrapersonal functions. Based on learning theory and the specific concepts of negative and positive reinforcement, the nonconformist peer identification factor was then split into 2 factors (peer identification and avoiding demands). The resulting 4-factor model showed an excellent fit. Dividing social functions into separate factors (social influence, peer identification, and avoiding demands) can be helpful in clinical practice, where the assessment of NSSI functions is an important tool with direct implications for treatment. PMID:25558962

  2. Automated Large Scale Parameter Extraction of Road-Side Trees Sampled by a Laser Mobile Mapping System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindenbergh, R. C.; Berthold, D.; Sirmacek, B.; Herrero-Huerta, M.; Wang, J.; Ebersbach, D.

    2015-08-01

    In urbanized Western Europe trees are considered an important component of the built-up environment. This also means that there is an increasing demand for tree inventories. Laser mobile mapping systems provide an efficient and accurate way to sample the 3D road surrounding including notable roadside trees. Indeed, at, say, 50 km/h such systems collect point clouds consisting of half a million points per 100m. Method exists that extract tree parameters from relatively small patches of such data, but a remaining challenge is to operationally extract roadside tree parameters at regional level. For this purpose a workflow is presented as follows: The input point clouds are consecutively downsampled, retiled, classified, segmented into individual trees and upsampled to enable automated extraction of tree location, tree height, canopy diameter and trunk diameter at breast height (DBH). The workflow is implemented to work on a laser mobile mapping data set sampling 100 km of road in Sachsen, Germany and is tested on a stretch of road of 7km long. Along this road, the method detected 315 trees that were considered well detected and 56 clusters of tree points were no individual trees could be identified. Using voxels, the data volume could be reduced by about 97 % in a default scenario. Processing the results of this scenario took ~2500 seconds, corresponding to about 10 km/h, which is getting close to but is still below the acquisition rate which is estimated at 50 km/h.

  3. The dependence of the soft X ray spectral slope with radio property, luminosity, and redshift, for a large sample of AGN from the Einstein IPC data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brunner, H.; Worrall, D. M.; Wilkes, Belinda J.; Elvis, Martin

    1989-01-01

    The dependence of the soft X-ray spectral slope on radio, optical and X-ray properties, and on redshift are reported for a large sample of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). The sample includes 317 optically and radio-selected AGN from a preliminary version of the Einstein Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) quasar and AGN data base. The main results are: the difference in X-ray slope between radio-loud and radio-quiet AGN were confirmed for an independent and much larger sample of sources; a difference in X-ray slope between flat and steep radio spectrum AGN is observed only in high luminosity sub-sample; in flat radio spectrum AGNs there is an indication for a dependence of the X-ray spectral index on X-ray luminosity redshift and alpha sub 0x.

  4. Psychometric Properties of Carver and White's (1994) BIS/BAS Scales in a Large Sample of Offenders.

    PubMed

    Poythress, Norman G; Skeem, Jennifer L; Weir, John; Lilienfeld, Scott O; Douglas, Kevin S; Edens, John F; Kennealy, Patrick J

    2008-12-01

    Contemporary motivational theories of psychopathy (Lykken, 1995) employ constructs from Gray's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST; Gray, 1982), behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system (BAS) functioning, to explain etiologic differences in psychopathy subtypes. Carver and White's (1994) BIS/BAS scales are the most widely used measures of these constructs, yet there is a dearth of research on how these measures perform with offenders. Using a sample of 1,515 offenders, we found evidence that five, rather than the usual four factors, underpin the BIS/BAS scales. Importantly, BIS items that tap into anxiety and fear sensitivity, respectively, split to form separate factors, yielding a structure that is more consistent with the revised (Gray & McNaughton, 2000) than with the earlier version of RST. Implications for the use of the BIS/BAS scales to study psychopathy in offenders are discussed.

  5. Benchmark Dose Estimation for Cadmium-Induced Renal Effects Based on a Large Sample Population from Five Chinese Provinces.

    PubMed

    Ke, Shen; Ke, Qin Mei; Jia, Wen Jing; Cheng, Xi Yu; Li, Hao; Zhang, Jie Ying; Luo, Hui Fang; He, Jin Sheng; Chen, Zhi Nan

    2015-05-01

    A survey involving 6103 participants from five Chinese provinces was conducted to evaluate the threshold value of urinary cadmium (UCd) for renal dysfunction as benchmark dose low (BMDL). The urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (UNAG) was chosen as an effect biomarker. The UCd BMDLs for UNAG ranged from 2.18 μg/g creatinine (cr) to 4.26 μg/g cr in the populations of different provinces. The selection of the sample population and area affect the evaluation of the BMDL. The reference level of UCd for renal effects was further evaluated based on the data of all 6103 subjects. With benchmark responses (BMR) of 10%/5%, the overall UCd BMDLs for males in the total population were 3.73/2.08 μg/g cr. The BMD was slightly lower in females, thereby indicating that females may be relatively more sensitive to Cd exposure than are males.

  6. Detecting the Seeds of Nassella neesiana in Large Round Hay Bales, by Means of Non-Destructive Core Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Grech, Charles; McLaren, David; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh

    2015-01-01

    In the last three decades or so there has been a significant increase in fodder trading, both in terms of the quantity of fodder traded and in terms of its economic value to the industry. Often, this fodder type may be supplied free of charge to graziers in distress due to circumstances that follow natural disasters such as bushfires, drought, and flood. However, because of the obvious urgency arising from these situations, it is suspected that much relief fodder may unintentionally pose an elevated risk for dispersal of weeds since it may be supplied from pasture not normally used for trade in fodder, and therefore is of unknown quality. Previous destructive method to detect weed propagules in bales of fodder are cumbersome, time consuming and of limited ecological and statistical value. Therefore, objective of this paper was to development of a convenient method to assess round pasture hay bales for the presence of weed propagules, to prevent unintentional spread of noxious species in hay bales. To examine this objective known quantity of seeds were added in a series of distributions to bales of seed free pasture hay, and a positive correlation for the amount of seed added per bale with that recovered in core samples was observed. Whilst the number of seeds detected per bale varied according to the distribution of seeds within the bales and the number of cores analysed, the absolute detection of seeds suggests that this sampling method is worthy of further examination. In addition, a pragmatic estimation of bale remnants after stock feeding has been investigated to more closely estimate the potential size of the remaining seed bank. The authors propose that development of this approach is timely, in the light of future climatic uncertainty driving extreme weather events that increase the need for relief fodder, which can be a potential vector for the spread of noxious weed seeds. PMID:26348493

  7. Detecting the Seeds of Nassella neesiana in Large Round Hay Bales, by Means of Non-Destructive Core Sampling.

    PubMed

    Weller, Sandra; Florentine, Singarayer; Sillitoe, James; Grech, Charles; McLaren, David; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh

    2015-01-01

    In the last three decades or so there has been a significant increase in fodder trading, both in terms of the quantity of fodder traded and in terms of its economic value to the industry. Often, this fodder type may be supplied free of charge to graziers in distress due to circumstances that follow natural disasters such as bushfires, drought, and flood. However, because of the obvious urgency arising from these situations, it is suspected that much relief fodder may unintentionally pose an elevated risk for dispersal of weeds since it may be supplied from pasture not normally used for trade in fodder, and therefore is of unknown quality. Previous destructive method to detect weed propagules in bales of fodder are cumbersome, time consuming and of limited ecological and statistical value. Therefore, objective of this paper was to development of a convenient method to assess round pasture hay bales for the presence of weed propagules, to prevent unintentional spread of noxious species in hay bales. To examine this objective known quantity of seeds were added in a series of distributions to bales of seed free pasture hay, and a positive correlation for the amount of seed added per bale with that recovered in core samples was observed. Whilst the number of seeds detected per bale varied according to the distribution of seeds within the bales and the number of cores analysed, the absolute detection of seeds suggests that this sampling method is worthy of further examination. In addition, a pragmatic estimation of bale remnants after stock feeding has been investigated to more closely estimate the potential size of the remaining seed bank. The authors propose that development of this approach is timely, in the light of future climatic uncertainty driving extreme weather events that increase the need for relief fodder, which can be a potential vector for the spread of noxious weed seeds.

  8. ROXA: a new multi-frequency selected large sample of blazars with SDSS and 2dF optical spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Cavazzuti, Elisabetta; Giommi, Paolo; Turriziani, Sara

    2007-07-12

    Blazars are a small fraction of the overall AGN population but contribute in a fundamental way to the extragalactic cosmic backgrounds in the hard X-ray and {gamma}-ray bands and are the largest contaminant of CMB fluctuation maps. So far the number of known blazars is of the order of several hundreds, but the forthcoming AGILE, GLAST and Planck space observatories will detect a very large number of new objects of this type. We present the Radio - Optical - X-ray catalog (ROXA), a list of 816 objects among which are 510 confirmed blazars. This is useful for the planning of future identification work using SWIFT, AGILE, GLAST and Planck data.

  9. Statistical Analysis of the Long Baseline Variability Properties of a Large Gamma-Ray Selected Blazar AGN Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrader, Chris R.

    2013-06-01

    The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has cataloged over 1800 gamma-ray (>100 MeV) point sources of which more than 1100 are identified with AGN. These AGN, and a large number of unidentified high-latitude objects of which a large fraction are also likely AGN, are predominantly representative of the radio-loud “blazar” subclass. The emission from these objects is well known to be beaming dominated and is almost always variable, often exhibiting high-amplitude flaring. To date there have been numerous studies of individual objects including multi-wavelength campaigns in some cases including parsec-scale radio jet morphological study. Collectively, this has led to new insight in to our understanding of the blazar phenomena and jet propagation in general. However, there remains a dearth of information on the collective variability characteristics of the population as a statistical ensemble. What, for example, are the distributions of flare amplitudes, durations, temporal profiles and recurrence histories among the gamma-ray blazar subclasses? Given the unprecedented sky coverage of Fermi - the full sky is observed approximately every two orbits leading to an approximate one part in 6 monitoring duty cycle for any point on the sky - we have begun to explore this issue. A light curve database compiled and maintained (weekly) by the Fermi Science Support Center contains flux histories for every source in the Fermi 2FGL catalog. In this contribution, we present our analysis of the statistical properties of the high-latitude component of this light curve database.

  10. Decline of Neuropsychological Abilities in a Large Sample of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Two-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Martina; Carletto, Sara; Ostacoli, Luca; Scavelli, Francesco; Pia, Lorenzo; Pagani, Marco; Bertolotto, Antonio; Malucchi, Simona; Signori, Alessio; Cavallo, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this longitudinal study, we monitored two large groups of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and healthy controls (HC) for 2 years, with the aim of comparing their neuropsychological profile over time. Method: Three hundred and twenty-two patients with MS and 303 HC were administered the Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological tests (BRB-N); neuropsychiatric measures were also administered. Two follow-ups were scheduled at 1 and 2 years, respectively. Results: A linear mixed model (LMM) with random intercept was run by considering participants’ performance on each test of the BRB-N at the three assessment points (baseline and follow-ups) as the within-subjects variable, and group (patients and controls) as the between-subjects factor. The interaction term was statistically significant for the tests: Symbol Digit Modalities test (SDMT) (p = 0.044), Paced Auditory Serial Addition test (PASAT) (p = 0.011) and Word List Generation (WLG) (p < 0.001), whereas for the PASAT-3 approached statistical significance (p = 0.05). In addition, a LMM with random intercept was also run by identifying three groups (controls, relapsing-remitting course of MS (i.e. RR-MS), and prog-MS). The interaction term was statistically significant for: PASAT-3 (p = 0.017), PASAT-2 (p = 0.0026), and WLG (p = 0.0022). Conclusions: Our results corroborate on a very large scale evidence that the abilities tapped by the tasks SDMT, PASAT and WLG are particularly sensitive to MS, and further extend this issue by showing that these abilities are likely to be more sensitive than others to the progression of the disease, as compared to HC. PMID:27375468

  11. Comparative study of activation analyses for the determination of trace halogens in geological and cosmochemical samples.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Tomoshi; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru

    2007-09-01

    Halogens (fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine) were determined by activation analyses (neutron activation analysis (NAA), photon activation analysis (PAA) and prompt gamma-ray analysis (PGA)) for geological and cosmochemical solid samples. We studied how each analytical method was for the determination of trace amounts of halogens in rock samples. Radiochemical NAA (RNAA) showed the highest analytical reliability for three halogens (chlorine, bromine and iodine), whereas a set of four halogens (fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine) could be determined in principle by radiochemical PAA (RPAA) from a single specimen. Although it is a non-destructive method, PGA showed an analytical sensitivity for chlorine comparable to those of RNAA and RPAA.

  12. Comparison of Two Methods for Estimating the Sampling-Related Uncertainty of Satellite Rainfall Averages Based on a Large Radar Data Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor); Bell, Thomas L.; Steiner, Matthias; Zhang, Yu; Wood, Eric F.

    2002-01-01

    The uncertainty of rainfall estimated from averages of discrete samples collected by a satellite is assessed using a multi-year radar data set covering a large portion of the United States. The sampling-related uncertainty of rainfall estimates is evaluated for all combinations of 100 km, 200 km, and 500 km space domains, 1 day, 5 day, and 30 day rainfall accumulations, and regular sampling time intervals of 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 8 h, and 12 h. These extensive analyses are combined to characterize the sampling uncertainty as a function of space and time domain, sampling frequency, and rainfall characteristics by means of a simple scaling law. Moreover, it is shown that both parametric and non-parametric statistical techniques of estimating the sampling uncertainty produce comparable results. Sampling uncertainty estimates, however, do depend on the choice of technique for obtaining them. They can also vary considerably from case to case, reflecting the great variability of natural rainfall, and should therefore be expressed in probabilistic terms. Rainfall calibration errors are shown to affect comparison of results obtained by studies based on data from different climate regions and/or observation platforms.

  13. TIGER2 with solvent energy averaging (TIGER2A): An accelerated sampling method for large molecular systems with explicit representation of solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xianfeng; Snyder, James A.; Stuart, Steven J.; Latour, Robert A.

    2015-10-01

    The recently developed "temperature intervals with global exchange of replicas" (TIGER2) accelerated sampling method is found to have inaccuracies when applied to systems with explicit solvation. This inaccuracy is due to the energy fluctuations of the solvent, which cause the sampling method to be less sensitive to the energy fluctuations of the solute. In the present work, the problem of the TIGER2 method is addressed in detail and a modification to the sampling method is introduced to correct this problem. The modified method is called "TIGER2 with solvent energy averaging," or TIGER2A. This new method overcomes the sampling problem with the TIGER2 algorithm and is able to closely approximate Boltzmann-weighted sampling of molecular systems with explicit solvation. The difference in performance between the TIGER2 and TIGER2A methods is demonstrated by comparing them against analytical results for simple one-dimensional models, against replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations for sampling the conformation of alanine dipeptide and the folding behavior of (AAQAA)3 peptide in aqueous solution, and by comparing their performance in sampling the behavior of hen egg-white lysozyme in aqueous solution. The new TIGER2A method solves the problem caused by solvent energy fluctuations in TIGER2 while maintaining the two important characteristics of TIGER2, i.e., (1) using multiple replicas sampled at different temperature levels to help systems efficiently escape from local potential energy minima and (2) enabling the number of replicas used for a simulation to be independent of the size of the molecular system, thus providing an accelerated sampling method that can be used to efficiently sample systems considered too large for the application of conventional temperature REMD.

  14. Transcriptomics of shading-induced and NAA-induced abscission in apple (Malus domestica) reveals a shared pathway involving reduced photosynthesis, alterations in carbohydrate transport and signaling and hormone crosstalk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), a synthetic auxin analogue, is widely used as an effective thinner in apple orchards. When applied shortly after fruit set, some fruit abscise leading to improved fruit size and quality. However, the thinning results of NAA are inconsistent and difficult to predict, s...

  15. Distinct Variants of Extreme Psychopathic Individuals in Society at Large: Evidence from a Population-Based Sample

    PubMed Central

    Drislane, Laura E.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Sourander, Andre; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Aggen, Steven H.; Elonheimo, Henrik; Parkkola, Kai; Multimaki, Petteri; Kendler, Kenneth S.

    2014-01-01

    This study used model-based cluster analysis to identify subtypes of men who scored high in overall psychopathy (i.e., ≥ 95th percentile on the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure; n = 193) from a larger sample evaluated for service in the Finnish military (N= 4043). Cluster variates consisted of scores on distinct facets of psychopathy together with a measure of negative affectivity. The best-fitting model specified two clusters, representing ‘primary’ (n = 110) and ‘secondary’ psychopathy (n = 83) groups. Compared to a low-psychopathy comparison group (n = 1878), both psychopathy subgroups showed markedly elevated levels of externalizing symptoms and criminal behavior. Secondary psychopathic participants also reported high levels of internalizing problems including anxiousness, depression, and somatization, and scored higher on the disinhibition facet of psychopathy relative to the primary group. By contrast, primary psychopathic individuals reported fewer internalizing problems than either the secondary psychopathy or comparison groups and scored higher on the boldness facet of psychopathy. Primary psychopathic participants also had higher rates of violent crimes than the secondary psychopaths. Implications for conceptualizing and studying psychopathy in non-forensic populations are discussed. PMID:24512459

  16. PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF THE THREE PATHWAYS TO WELL-BEING SCALE IN A LARGE SAMPLE OF ARGENTINEAN ADOLESCENTS.

    PubMed

    Góngora, Vanesa C; Castro Solano, Alejandro

    2015-08-01

    The Authentic Happiness Theory considers that well-being can be reached by three main pathways: a pleasant life, an engaged life, or a meaningful life. This study investigates the psychometric properties of the Three Pathways to Well-being scale in Argentinean adolescents and compares that to prior results for Argentinean adults. A sample of 255 Argentinean adolescent students (110 boys, 145 girls) aged between 13 and 18 years (M age = 15.5, SD = 1.6) was used in this study. The participants completed the Spanish versions of the Three Pathways to Well-being scale, the Meaning in Life Questionnaire, the Satisfaction With Life Scale, and the Personal Wellbeing Index. Confirmatory factor analyses verified the three-factor structure of the test, accounting for 46% of the variance. The internal consistencies were α = .76 for the pleasant life, α = .80 for the engaged life, and α = .70 for the meaningful life. Concurrent validity was examined with the Satisfaction With Life Scale, the Personal Wellbeing Index, and the Meaning in Life Questionnaire, and the engaged life was the pathway most strongly associated with the positive related measures. PMID:26302293

  17. Analysis of a large sample of neutrino-induced muons with the ArgoNeuT detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, C.; Antonello, M.; Baller, B.; Bolton, T.; Bromberg, C.; Cavanna, F.; Church, E.; Edmunds, D.; Ereditato, A.; Farooq, S.; Fleming, B.; Greenlee, H.; Guenette, R.; Haug, S.; Horton-Smith, G.; James, C.; Klein, E.; Lang, K.; Laurens, P.; Linden, S.; McKee, D.; Mehdiyev, R.; Page, B.; Palamara, O.; Partyka, K.; Rameika, G.; Rebel, B.; Rossi, B.; Soderberg, M.; Spitz, J.; Szelc, A. M.; Weber, M.; Yang, T.; Zeller, G. P.

    2012-10-01

    ArgoNeuT, or Argon Neutrino Test, is a 170 liter liquid argon time projection chamber designed to collect neutrino interactions from the NuMI beam at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. ArgoNeuT operated in the NuMI low-energy beam line directly upstream of the MINOS Near Detector from September 2009 to February 2010, during which thousands of neutrino and anti-neutrino events were collected. The MINOS Near Detector was used to measure muons downstream of ArgoNeuT. Though ArgoNeuT is primarily an R&D project, the data collected provide a unique opportunity to measure neutrino cross sections in the 0.1-10 GeV energy range. Fully reconstructing the muon from these interactions is imperative for these measurements. This paper focuses on the complete kinematic reconstruction of neutrino-induced through-going muons tracks. Analysis of this high statistics sample of minimum ionizing tracks demonstrates the reliability of the geometric and calorimetric reconstruction in the ArgoNeuT detector.

  18. Problematic internet use and problematic online gaming are not the same: findings from a large nationally representative adolescent sample.

    PubMed

    Király, Orsolya; Griffiths, Mark D; Urbán, Róbert; Farkas, Judit; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Tamás, Domokos; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2014-12-01

    There is an ongoing debate in the literature whether problematic Internet use (PIU) and problematic online gaming (POG) are two distinct conceptual and nosological entities or whether they are the same. The present study contributes to this question by examining the interrelationship and the overlap between PIU and POG in terms of sex, school achievement, time spent using the Internet and/or online gaming, psychological well-being, and preferred online activities. Questionnaires assessing these variables were administered to a nationally representative sample of adolescent gamers (N=2,073; Mage=16.4 years, SD=0.87; 68.4% male). Data showed that Internet use was a common activity among adolescents, while online gaming was engaged in by a considerably smaller group. Similarly, more adolescents met the criteria for PIU than for POG, and a small group of adolescents showed symptoms of both problem behaviors. The most notable difference between the two problem behaviors was in terms of sex. POG was much more strongly associated with being male. Self-esteem had low effect sizes on both behaviors, while depressive symptoms were associated with both PIU and POG, affecting PIU slightly more. In terms of preferred online activities, PIU was positively associated with online gaming, online chatting, and social networking, while POG was only associated with online gaming. Based on our findings, POG appears to be a conceptually different behavior from PIU, and therefore the data support the notion that Internet Addiction Disorder and Internet Gaming Disorder are separate nosological entities.

  19. Temperamental Emotionality in Preschool-Aged Children and Depressive Disorders in Parents: Associations in a Large Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Olino, Thomas M.; Klein, Daniel N.; Dyson, Margaret W.; Rose, Suzanne A.; Durbin, C. Emily

    2010-01-01

    Researchers and clinicians have long hypothesized that there are temperamental vulnerabilities to depressive disorders. Despite the fact that individual differences in temperament should be evident in early childhood, most studies have focused on older youth and adults. We hypothesized that if early childhood temperament is a risk factor for depressive disorders, it should be associated with better-established risk markers, such parental depression. Hence, we examined the associations of laboratory-assessed positive emotionality (PE), negative emotionality (NE), and behavioral inhibition (BI) with semi-structured interview-based diagnoses of parental depressive disorders in a community sample of 536 three-year old children. Children with higher levels of NE and BI had higher probabilities of having a depressed parent. However, both main effects were qualified by interactions with child PE. At high and moderate, but not low, levels of child PE, greater NE and BI were associated with higher rates of parental depression. Conversely, at low, but not high and moderate, levels of child NE, low PE was associated with a higher rate of parental depression. Child temperament was not associated with parental anxiety and substance use disorders. These findings indicate that laboratory-assessed temperament in young children is associated with parental depressive disorders, however the relations are complex and it is important to consider interactions between temperament dimensions rather than focusing exclusively on main effects. PMID:20677836

  20. NIHAO project - I. Reproducing the inefficiency of galaxy formation across cosmic time with a large sample of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liang; Dutton, Aaron A.; Stinson, Gregory S.; Macciò, Andrea V.; Penzo, Camilla; Kang, Xi; Keller, Ben W.; Wadsley, James

    2015-11-01

    We introduce project NIHAO (Numerical Investigation of a Hundred Astrophysical Objects), a set of 100 cosmological zoom-in hydrodynamical simulations performed using the GASOLINE code, with an improved implementation of the SPH algorithm. The haloes in our study range from dwarf (M200 ˜ 5 × 109 M⊙) to Milky Way (M200 ˜ 2 × 1012 M⊙) masses, and represent an unbiased sampling of merger histories, concentrations and spin parameters. The particle masses and force softenings are chosen to resolve the mass profile to below 1 per cent of the virial radius at all masses, ensuring that galaxy half-light radii are well resolved. Using the same treatment of star formation and stellar feedback for every object, the simulated galaxies reproduce the observed inefficiency of galaxy formation across cosmic time as expressed through the stellar mass versus halo mass relation, and the star formation rate versus stellar mass relation. We thus conclude that stellar feedback is the chief piece of physics required to limit the efficiency of star formation in galaxies less massive than the Milky Way.

  1. Saturday night's alright for fighting: antisocial traits, fighting, and weapons carrying in a large sample of youth.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Christopher J; Cricket Meehan, D

    2010-12-01

    The current study examines risk and protective factors for youth antisocial personality and behavior from a multivariate format. It is hoped that this research will elucidate those risk and protective factors most important for focus of future prevention and intervention efforts. The current study examines multiple factors associated with youth antisocial traits and behavior in a sample of 8,256 youth (mean age 14), with the goal of identifying the strongest and most consistent risk or protective factors. Data was collected from the Ohio version of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System's (YRBSS) school-based Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) developed by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses identified peer delinquency, drug use and negative community influences as predictive of antisocial traits. Schools and families functioned as protective factors. Youth who fought frequently tended to be male, antisocial, dug using, depressed, and associated with delinquent peers. Weapons carrying was most common among drug using, antisocial males. Television and video game use were not predictive of antisocial, fighting or weapons carrying outcomes. Developmental patterns across age ranges regarding the relative importance of specific risk factors were also examined. Strategies for intervention and prevention of youth violence that focus on peers, neighborhoods, depression, and families may be particularly likely to bear fruit.

  2. Identification of quantitative trait transcripts for growth traits in the large scales of liver and muscle samples.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xinwei; Yang, Hui; Yang, Bin; Chen, Congying; Huang, Lusheng

    2015-07-01

    Growth-related traits are economically important traits to the pig industry. Identification of causative gene and mutation responsible for growth-related QTL will facilitate the improvement of pig growth through marker-assisted selection. In this study, we applied whole genome gene expression and quantitative trait transcript (QTT) analyses in 497 liver and 586 longissimus dorsi muscle samples to identify candidate genes and dissect the genetic basis of pig growth in a white Duroc × Erhualian F2 resource population. A total of 20,108 transcripts in liver and 23,728 transcripts in muscle with expression values were used for association analysis between gene expression level and phenotypic value. At the significance threshold of P < 0.0005, we identified a total of 169 and 168 QTTs for nine growth-related traits in liver and muscle, respectively. We also found that some QTTs were correlated to more than one trait. The QTTs identified here showed high tissue specificity. We did not identify any QTTs that were associated with one trait in both liver and muscle. Through an integrative genomic approach, we identified SDR16C5 as the important candidate gene in pig growth trait. These findings contribute to further identification of the causative genes for porcine growth traits and facilitate improvement of pig breeding.

  3. Saturday night's alright for fighting: antisocial traits, fighting, and weapons carrying in a large sample of youth.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Christopher J; Cricket Meehan, D

    2010-12-01

    The current study examines risk and protective factors for youth antisocial personality and behavior from a multivariate format. It is hoped that this research will elucidate those risk and protective factors most important for focus of future prevention and intervention efforts. The current study examines multiple factors associated with youth antisocial traits and behavior in a sample of 8,256 youth (mean age 14), with the goal of identifying the strongest and most consistent risk or protective factors. Data was collected from the Ohio version of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System's (YRBSS) school-based Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) developed by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses identified peer delinquency, drug use and negative community influences as predictive of antisocial traits. Schools and families functioned as protective factors. Youth who fought frequently tended to be male, antisocial, dug using, depressed, and associated with delinquent peers. Weapons carrying was most common among drug using, antisocial males. Television and video game use were not predictive of antisocial, fighting or weapons carrying outcomes. Developmental patterns across age ranges regarding the relative importance of specific risk factors were also examined. Strategies for intervention and prevention of youth violence that focus on peers, neighborhoods, depression, and families may be particularly likely to bear fruit. PMID:20405321

  4. PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF THE THREE PATHWAYS TO WELL-BEING SCALE IN A LARGE SAMPLE OF ARGENTINEAN ADOLESCENTS.

    PubMed

    Góngora, Vanesa C; Castro Solano, Alejandro

    2015-08-01

    The Authentic Happiness Theory considers that well-being can be reached by three main pathways: a pleasant life, an engaged life, or a meaningful life. This study investigates the psychometric properties of the Three Pathways to Well-being scale in Argentinean adolescents and compares that to prior results for Argentinean adults. A sample of 255 Argentinean adolescent students (110 boys, 145 girls) aged between 13 and 18 years (M age = 15.5, SD = 1.6) was used in this study. The participants completed the Spanish versions of the Three Pathways to Well-being scale, the Meaning in Life Questionnaire, the Satisfaction With Life Scale, and the Personal Wellbeing Index. Confirmatory factor analyses verified the three-factor structure of the test, accounting for 46% of the variance. The internal consistencies were α = .76 for the pleasant life, α = .80 for the engaged life, and α = .70 for the meaningful life. Concurrent validity was examined with the Satisfaction With Life Scale, the Personal Wellbeing Index, and the Meaning in Life Questionnaire, and the engaged life was the pathway most strongly associated with the positive related measures.

  5. The frequency of stellar X-ray flares from a large-scale XMM-Newton sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pye, J.; Rosen, S.

    2014-07-01

    The XMM-Newton Serendipitous Source Catalogue has been used as the basis for a survey of X-ray flares from late-type (i.e. spectral type F-M) stars in the Hipparcos Tycho catalogue. The XMM catalogue and its associated data products provide an excellent basis for a comprehensive and sensitive survey of stellar flares - both from targeted active stars and from those observed serendipitously in the ~half-degree diameter field-of-view of each observation. Our sample contains ˜ 130 flares with well-observed profiles; they range in duration from ˜ 1000 s to ˜ 10,000 s, have peak X-ray luminosities log(L_x, erg/s) from ˜ 29 to ˜ 32, and X-ray energy output log(E_x, erg) from ˜ 32 to ˜ 35. We present flare frequency distributions from both target and serendipitous observations. The latter provide an unbiased (with respect to stellar activity) estimate and allow us to predict numbers of stellar flares that may be detected in future X-ray wide-field surveys such as those based on "Lobster-eye" optics. We also compare the XMM-derived estimates with values derived from earlier X-ray transient surveys. Predictions for future wide-angle surveys are of value both for the study of the stellar energetics and for determining likely "contaminant" levels in programmes aimed at other types of transient event such as gamma-ray bursts.

  6. Who art thou? Personality predictors of artistic preferences in a large UK sample: the importance of openness.

    PubMed

    Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Reimers, Stian; Hsu, Anne; Ahmetoglu, Gorkan

    2009-08-01

    The present study examined individual differences in artistic preferences in a sample of 91,692 participants (60% women and 40% men), aged 13-90 years. Participants completed a Big Five personality inventory (Goldberg, 1999) and provided preference ratings for 24 different paintings corresponding to cubism, renaissance, impressionism, and Japanese art, which loaded on to a latent factor of overall art preferences. As expected, the personality trait openness to experience was the strongest and only consistent personality correlate of artistic preferences, affecting both overall and specific preferences, as well as visits to galleries, and artistic (rather than scientific) self-perception. Overall preferences were also positively influenced by age and visits to art galleries, and to a lesser degree, by artistic self-perception and conscientiousness (negatively). As for specific styles, after overall preferences were accounted for, more agreeable, more conscientious and less open individuals reported higher preference levels for impressionist, younger and more extraverted participants showed higher levels of preference for cubism (as did males), and younger participants, as well as males, reported higher levels of preferences for renaissance. Limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:19026107

  7. Carbon fiber plume sampling for large scale fire tests at Dugway Proving Ground. [fiber release during aircraft fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chovit, A. R.; Lieberman, P.; Freeman, D. E.; Beggs, W. C.; Millavec, W. A.

    1980-01-01

    Carbon fiber sampling instruments were developed: passive collectors made of sticky bridal veil mesh, and active instruments using a light emitting diode (LED) source. These instruments measured the number or number rate of carbon fibers released from carbon/graphite composite material when the material was burned in a 10.7 m (35 ft) dia JP-4 pool fire for approximately 20 minutes. The instruments were placed in an array suspended from a 305 m by 305 m (1000 ft by 1000 ft) Jacob's Ladder net held vertically aloft by balloons and oriented crosswind approximately 140 meters downwind of the pool fire. Three tests were conducted during which released carbon fiber data were acquired. These data were reduced and analyzed to obtain the characteristics of the released fibers including their spatial and size distributions and estimates of the number and total mass of fibers released. The results of the data analyses showed that 2.5 to 3.5 x 10 to the 8th power single carbon fibers were released during the 20 minute burn of 30 to 50 kg mass of initial, unburned carbon fiber material. The mass released as single carbon fibers was estimated to be between 0.1 and 0.2% of the initial, unburned fiber mass.

  8. SELF-REPORT OF EMPATHY: A SHORTENED FRENCH ADAPTATION OF THE INTERPERSONAL REACTIVITY INDEX (IRI) USING TWO LARGE BELGIAN SAMPLES.

    PubMed

    Braun, Stéphanie; Rosseel, Yves; Kempenaers, Chantal; Loas, Gwenole; Linkowski, Paul

    2015-12-01

    For more than 30 years, the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) has been used to measure the multidimensional aspects of empathy. But the 28-item, 4-factor model of Davis (1980 ) is currently contested because of methodological issues and for theoretical reasons. Confirmatory (CFA) and exploratory factor analyses (EFA) were applied in two French-speaking Belgian student samples (1,244 participants in the first and 729 in the second study) to test this model and to propose a shortened version. A non-optimal fit was found with respect to the CFI value (Study 1). By splitting the student group into two random subsamples, EFA and then CFA were used to propose a 15-item, 4-factor model with good fit indices. A CFA on the second student group (Study 2) replicated this model. Results are discussed considering the influence of social desirability response bias, an absence of strong invariance across sex and the usefulness of self-report scales to measure empathy. PMID:26595295

  9. Self-esteem development across the life span: a longitudinal study with a large sample from Germany.

    PubMed

    Orth, Ulrich; Maes, Jürgen; Schmitt, Manfred

    2015-02-01

    The authors examined the development of self-esteem across the life span. Data came from a German longitudinal study with 3 assessments across 4 years of a sample of 2,509 individuals ages 14 to 89 years. The self-esteem measure used showed strong measurement invariance across assessments and birth cohorts. Latent growth curve analyses indicated that self-esteem follows a quadratic trajectory across the life span, increasing during adolescence, young adulthood, and middle adulthood, reaching a peak at age 60 years, and then declining in old age. No cohort effects on average levels of self-esteem or on the shape of the trajectory were found. Moreover, the trajectory did not differ across gender, level of education, or for individuals who had lived continuously in West versus East Germany (i.e., the 2 parts of Germany that had been separate states from 1949 to 1990). However, the results suggested that employment status, household income, and satisfaction in the domains of work, relationships, and health contribute to a more positive life span trajectory of self-esteem. The findings have significant implications, because they call attention to developmental stages in which individuals may be vulnerable because of low self-esteem (such as adolescence and old age) and to factors that predict successful versus problematic developmental trajectories.

  10. Externalizing Psychopathology and Marital Adjustment in Long-Term Marriages: Results from a Large Combined Sample of Married Couples

    PubMed Central

    Humbad, Mikhila N.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Iacono, William G.; Burt, S. Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated the associations between externalizing psychopathology and marital adjustment in a combined sample of 1,805 married couples. We further considered the role of personality in these associations, as personality has been found to predict both the development of externalizing psychopathology as well as marital distress and instability. Diagnostic interviews assessed Conduct Disorder, adult symptoms of Antisocial Personality Disorder, and Alcohol Dependence. Personality was assessed using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire. The Dyadic Adjustment Scale was used to measure marital adjustment. Results indicate that more externalizing psychopathology, greater Negative Emotionality, and lower Communal Positive Emotionality were associated with reduced marital adjustment in both individuals and their spouses. Low Constraint was associated with reduced marital adjustment for individuals but not for their spouses. Multivariate analyses indicated externalizing psychopathology continued to predict marital adjustment even when accounting for overlap with personality. These results highlight the importance of examining the presence of externalizing psychopathology and the personality attributes of both members of a dyad when considering psychological predictors of marital adjustment. PMID:20141252

  11. Wide allelic heterogeneity with predominance of large IDS gene complex rearrangements in a sample of Mexican patients with Hunter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Alcántara-Ortigoza, M A; García-de Teresa, B; González-Del Angel, A; Berumen, J; Guardado-Estrada, M; Fernández-Hernández, L; Navarrete-Martínez, J I; Maza-Morales, M; Rius-Domínguez, R

    2016-05-01

    Hunter syndrome or mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPSII) is caused by pathogenic variants in the IDS gene. This is the first study that examines the mutational spectrum in 25 unrelated Mexican MPSII families. The responsible genotype was identified in 96% of the families (24/25) with 10 novel pathogenic variants: c.133G>C, c.1003C>T, c.1025A>C, c.463_464delinsCCGTATAGCTGG, c.754_767del, c.1132_1133del, c.1463del, c.508-1G>C, c.1006+1G>T and c.(-217_103del). Extensive IDS gene deletions were identified in four patients; using DNA microarray analysis two patients showed the loss of the entire AFF2 gene, and epilepsy developed in only one of them. Wide allelic heterogeneity was noted, with large gene alterations (e.g. IDS/IDSP1 gene inversions, partial to extensive IDS deletions, and one chimeric IDS-IDSP1 allele) that occurred at higher frequencies than previously reported (36% vs 18.9-29%). The frequency of carrier mothers (80%) is consistent with previous descriptions (>70%). Carrier assignment allowed molecular prenatal diagnoses. Notably, somatic and germline mosaicism was identified in one family, and two patients presented thrombocytopenic purpura and pancytopenia after idursulfase enzyme replacement treatment. Our findings suggest a wide allelic heterogeneity in Mexican MPSII patients; DNA microarray analysis contributes to further delineation of the resulting phenotype for IDS and neighboring loci deletions.

  12. DS86 neutron dose: Monte Carlo analysis for depth profile of 152Eu activity in a large stone sample.

    PubMed

    Endo, S; Iwatani, K; Oka, T; Hoshi, M; Shizuma, K; Imanaka, T; Takada, J; Fujita, S; Hasai, H

    1999-06-01

    The depth profile of 152Eu activity induced in a large granite stone pillar by Hiroshima atomic bomb neutrons was calculated by a Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP). The pillar was on the Motoyasu Bridge, located at a distance of 132 m (WSW) from the hypocenter. It was a square column with a horizontal sectional size of 82.5 cm x 82.5 cm and height of 179 cm. Twenty-one cells from the north to south surface at the central height of the column were specified for the calculation and 152Eu activities for each cell were calculated. The incident neutron spectrum was assumed to be the angular fluence data of the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86). The angular dependence of the spectrum was taken into account by dividing the whole solid angle into twenty-six directions. The calculated depth profile of specific activity did not agree with the measured profile. A discrepancy was found in the absolute values at each depth with a mean multiplication factor of 0.58 and also in the shape of the relative profile. The results indicated that a reassessment of the neutron energy spectrum in DS86 is required for correct dose estimation.

  13. An experimental technique for studying shock propagation in large-scale samples of snow and other highly-porous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlich, David C.; Curran, Donald R.

    1994-07-01

    Electromagnetic particle-velocity gages were emplaced along a diagonal within large (roughly 40 by 60 by 10 cm) specimens of artificially-made snow (ρ0≊0.35 g/cm3) and a snow-matching grout (ρ0≊0.25 g/cm3), to record transmitted pulse histories at various depths in the specimen. The snow was produced by a leased cryogenic snow-making system at a newly-established permanent cold-temperatures facility at SRI's remote explosives test site. Nearly uniaxial strain loading was achieved by a line detonation wave running through dilute explosives tile (DET) squares in contact with a slanted top face of the specimen block. Peak particle velocities ranged from ≊0.6 mm/μs at the He interface to ≊0.25 mm/μs at depths of ≊6 cm. Corresponding peak stresses were calculated to be from ≊1.0 to ≊0.25 kbar.

  14. Fat Reduction Efforts: A 24-Month Longitudinal Comparison of a Large Sample of Maintainers, Relapsers, and Non-Changers.

    PubMed

    Yusufov, Miryam; Paiva, Andrea L; Redding, Colleen A; Lipschitz, Jessica M; Gokbayrak, N Simay; Greene, Geoffrey; Rossi, Joseph S; Blissmer, Bryan; Velicer, Wayne F; Prochaska, James O

    2016-01-01

    This research examined dynamic transtheoretical model (TTM) constructs for dietary fat reduction. This secondary data analysis pooled three large population-based TTM-tailored school, worksite, medical, and home-based intervention studies and examined use of constructs across three groups organized by longitudinal progress (dynatypes): Maintainers, Relapsers, and Stable Non-Changers. The criteria for successful change, at the time, were that less than 30% of calories came from fat. A total of 2,718 adults met criteria for an unhealthy diet at baseline. The majority of participants were female, White, married, and middle-aged. Demographics, Stage of Change, Processes of Change, Decisional Balance, and Temptations were measured. Dynatype groups were assessed with reliable and valid scales assessing constructs at baseline and 6, 12, and 24 months. Analyses included a multivariate analysis of variance followed by a series of analyses of variance, with Tukey follow-up tests assessing differences in use of TTM constructs across the three groups at each time point. Relapsers and Maintainers were similar in their use of all TTM Processes of Change at baseline, with the exception of Self-Liberation (η(2) = 0.15, p < .001) and Reinforcement Management (η(2) = 0.01, p < .001). Although Relapsers reverted to an unhealthy diet, their overall greater use of Processes of Change suggests that their behaviors and strategy use remain better than that of the Stable Non-Changer group. Results suggest that specific cognitive and behavioral constructs may contribute differentially to intervention outcomes. PMID:26452769

  15. Fat Reduction Efforts: A 24-Month Longitudinal Comparison of a Large Sample of Maintainers, Relapsers, and Non-Changers.

    PubMed

    Yusufov, Miryam; Paiva, Andrea L; Redding, Colleen A; Lipschitz, Jessica M; Gokbayrak, N Simay; Greene, Geoffrey; Rossi, Joseph S; Blissmer, Bryan; Velicer, Wayne F; Prochaska, James O

    2016-01-01

    This research examined dynamic transtheoretical model (TTM) constructs for dietary fat reduction. This secondary data analysis pooled three large population-based TTM-tailored school, worksite, medical, and home-based intervention studies and examined use of constructs across three groups organized by longitudinal progress (dynatypes): Maintainers, Relapsers, and Stable Non-Changers. The criteria for successful change, at the time, were that less than 30% of calories came from fat. A total of 2,718 adults met criteria for an unhealthy diet at baseline. The majority of participants were female, White, married, and middle-aged. Demographics, Stage of Change, Processes of Change, Decisional Balance, and Temptations were measured. Dynatype groups were assessed with reliable and valid scales assessing constructs at baseline and 6, 12, and 24 months. Analyses included a multivariate analysis of variance followed by a series of analyses of variance, with Tukey follow-up tests assessing differences in use of TTM constructs across the three groups at each time point. Relapsers and Maintainers were similar in their use of all TTM Processes of Change at baseline, with the exception of Self-Liberation (η(2) = 0.15, p < .001) and Reinforcement Management (η(2) = 0.01, p < .001). Although Relapsers reverted to an unhealthy diet, their overall greater use of Processes of Change suggests that their behaviors and strategy use remain better than that of the Stable Non-Changer group. Results suggest that specific cognitive and behavioral constructs may contribute differentially to intervention outcomes.

  16. Wide allelic heterogeneity with predominance of large IDS gene complex rearrangements in a sample of Mexican patients with Hunter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Alcántara-Ortigoza, M A; García-de Teresa, B; González-Del Angel, A; Berumen, J; Guardado-Estrada, M; Fernández-Hernández, L; Navarrete-Martínez, J I; Maza-Morales, M; Rius-Domínguez, R

    2016-05-01

    Hunter syndrome or mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPSII) is caused by pathogenic variants in the IDS gene. This is the first study that examines the mutational spectrum in 25 unrelated Mexican MPSII families. The responsible genotype was identified in 96% of the families (24/25) with 10 novel pathogenic variants: c.133G>C, c.1003C>T, c.1025A>C, c.463_464delinsCCGTATAGCTGG, c.754_767del, c.1132_1133del, c.1463del, c.508-1G>C, c.1006+1G>T and c.(-217_103del). Extensive IDS gene deletions were identified in four patients; using DNA microarray analysis two patients showed the loss of the entire AFF2 gene, and epilepsy developed in only one of them. Wide allelic heterogeneity was noted, with large gene alterations (e.g. IDS/IDSP1 gene inversions, partial to extensive IDS deletions, and one chimeric IDS-IDSP1 allele) that occurred at higher frequencies than previously reported (36% vs 18.9-29%). The frequency of carrier mothers (80%) is consistent with previous descriptions (>70%). Carrier assignment allowed molecular prenatal diagnoses. Notably, somatic and germline mosaicism was identified in one family, and two patients presented thrombocytopenic purpura and pancytopenia after idursulfase enzyme replacement treatment. Our findings suggest a wide allelic heterogeneity in Mexican MPSII patients; DNA microarray analysis contributes to further delineation of the resulting phenotype for IDS and neighboring loci deletions. PMID:26762690

  17. k0-NAA quality assessment in an Algerian laboratory by analysis of SMELS and four IAEA reference materials using Es-Salam research reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidatou, L. A.; Dekar, S.; Boukari, S.

    2012-08-01

    Different types of synthetic multi-element standard material (SMELS) and four IAEA reference materials, 140, Sl-1, Soil-7 and Lichen-336 were analyzed for validation and QC/QA of the k0-standardised Neutron Activation Analysis (k0-NAA). The samples of SMELS and RMs were irradiated at Es-Salam research reactor and measured on an absolutely calibrated HPGe detector with 35% relative efficiency connected to a Canberra Genie 2k inspector. Concentrations of 33 elements such as As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, In, K, La, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Tm, U, Yb, Zn, and Zr were determined in SMELS and RMs. The analytical results agreed well with the assigned values of SMELS and certified values of RMs. In the case of RMs, concentrations of a few elements, whose certified values are not available, could be determined. The comparison between experimental values and assigned/certified data for SMELS and RMs was made by means of the results from Relative Bias, Z-score and U-score. The relatives bias of the elements determined in SMELS with respect to the assigned values were all within±4.6%. For RMs with respect to certified values were within±10% except for few elements for which RB varied from -28.6% to +12.8%. The Z-score values at 95% confidence level for most of the elements in both the materials were within ±1. The U-scores for most of the elements were lower than 1.

  18. MZDASoft-A Software Architecture that Enables Large Scale Comparison of Protein Expression Levels over Multiple Samples Based on LC-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Bari, Mehrab Ghanat; Ramirez, Nelson; Wang, Zhiwei; Zhang, Jianqiu (Michelle)

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE Without accurate peak linking/alignment, only the expression levels of a small percentage of proteins can be compared across multiple samples in Liquid-Chromatography Mass Spectrometry/Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) due to the selective nature of tandem MS peptide identification. This greatly hampers biomedical research that aims at finding biomarkers for disease diagnosis, treatment, and the understanding of disease mechanisms. A recent algorithm, PeakLink, has allowed the accurate linking of LC-MS peaks without tandem MS identifications to their corresponding ones with identifications across multiple samples collected from different instruments, tissues and labs, which greatly enhanced the ability of comparing proteins. However, PeakLink cannot be implemented practically for large number of samples based on existing software architectures, because it requires access to peak elution profiles from multiple LC-MS/MS samples simultaneously. METHODS We propose a new architecture based on parallel processing, which extracts LC-MS peak features, and saves them in database files to enable the implementation of PeakLink for multiple samples. The software has been deployed in High Performance Computing (HPC) environments. The core part of the software, MZDASoft Parallel Peak Extractor (PPE), can be downloaded with users and developer’s guide, and it can be run on HPC centers directly. The quantification applications, MZDASoft TandemQuant and MZDASoft PeakLink are written in Matlab, which are compiled with Matlab runtime compiler. A sample script that incorporates all necessary processing steps of MZDASoft for LC-MS/MS quantification in a parallel processing environment is available. The project webpage is http://compgenomics.utsa.edu/zgroup/MZDASoft. RESULTS The proposed architecture enables the implementation of PeakLink for multiple samples. Significantly more (100%–500%) proteins can be compared over multiple samples with better quantification

  19. Chronic neck and shoulder pain, age, and working conditions: longitudinal results from a large random sample in France

    PubMed Central

    Cassou, B; Derriennic, F; Monfort, C; Norton, J; Touranchet, A

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To analyse the effects of age and occupational factors on both the incidence and the disappearance of chronic neck and shoulder pain after a five year follow up period. Methods: A prospective longitudinal investigation (ESTEV) was carried out in 1990 and 1995 in seven regions of France. A random sample of male and female workers born in 1938, 1943, 1948, and 1953 was selected from the occupational physicians' files. In 1990, 21 378 subjects were interviewed (88% of those contacted), and 87% were interviewed again in 1995. Chronic neck and shoulder pain satisfying specific criteria, and psychosocial working conditions were investigated by a structured self administered questionnaire and a clinical examination. Results: Prevalence (men 7.8%, women 14.8% in 1990) and incidence (men 7.3%, women 12.5% for the period 1990–95) of chronic neck and shoulder pain increased with age, and were more frequent among women than men in every birth cohort. The disappearance rate of chronic neck and shoulder pain decreased with age. Some adverse working conditions (repetitive work under time constraints, awkward work for men, repetitive work for women) contributed to the development of these disorders, independently of age. Psychosocial factors seemed to play a role in both the development and disappearance of chronic neck and shoulder pain. Data did not show specific interactions between age and working conditions. Conclusions: The aging of the workforce appears to contribute to the widespread concern about chronic neck and shoulder pain. A better understanding of work activity regulation of older workers can open up new preventive prospects. PMID:12151610

  20. Minimization of Childhood Maltreatment Is Common and Consequential: Results from a Large, Multinational Sample Using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Kai; Thomas, Michael L; Sciolla, Andres F; Schneider, Beacher; Pappas, Katherine; Bleijenberg, Gijs; Bohus, Martin; Bekh, Bradley; Carpenter, Linda; Carr, Alan; Dannlowski, Udo; Dorahy, Martin; Fahlke, Claudia; Finzi-Dottan, Ricky; Karu, Tobi; Gerdner, Arne; Glaesmer, Heide; Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Heins, Marianne; Kenny, Dianna T; Kim, Daeho; Knoop, Hans; Lobbestael, Jill; Lochner, Christine; Lauritzen, Grethe; Ravndal, Edle; Riggs, Shelley; Sar, Vedat; Schäfer, Ingo; Schlosser, Nicole; Schwandt, Melanie L; Stein, Murray B; Subic-Wrana, Claudia; Vogel, Mark; Wingenfeld, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment has diverse, lifelong impact on morbidity and mortality. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) is one of the most commonly used scales to assess and quantify these experiences and their impact. Curiously, despite very widespread use of the CTQ, scores on its Minimization-Denial (MD) subscale-originally designed to assess a positive response bias-are rarely reported. Hence, little is known about this measure. If response biases are either common or consequential, current practices of ignoring the MD scale deserve revision. Therewith, we designed a study to investigate 3 aspects of minimization, as defined by the CTQ's MD scale: 1) its prevalence; 2) its latent structure; and finally 3) whether minimization moderates the CTQ's discriminative validity in terms of distinguishing between psychiatric patients and community volunteers. Archival, item-level CTQ data from 24 multinational samples were combined for a total of 19,652 participants. Analyses indicated: 1) minimization is common; 2) minimization functions as a continuous construct; and 3) high MD scores attenuate the ability of the CTQ to distinguish between psychiatric patients and community volunteers. Overall, results suggest that a minimizing response bias-as detected by the MD subscale-has a small but significant moderating effect on the CTQ's discriminative validity. Results also may suggest that some prior analyses of maltreatment rates or the effects of early maltreatment that have used the CTQ may have underestimated its incidence and impact. We caution researchers and clinicians about the widespread practice of using the CTQ without the MD or collecting MD data but failing to assess and control for its effects on outcomes or dependent variables. PMID:26815788

  1. Fundamental Parameters of a Large, Unbiased Sample of Massive, Young, Embedded Star Clusters in the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallilar, Yigit; Barnes, Peter; Lada, Elizabeth; Ryder, Stuart

    2015-08-01

    Massive star cluster formation in our Galaxy is still a mystery. Unlike studies on nearby star formation regions (Pleiades, Orion Nebula), there is no unbiased sample of massive young star clusters except the CHaMP survey, which is focused on the Carina Arm (Barnes et al. 2011, ApJS, 196, 12). In this project, we examine properties of young clusters identified in the CHaMP survey through infrared photometry. Near infrared (J,H,K) imaging was obtained with the Australian Astronomical Telescope and deep mid infrared (IRAC bands 1,2) imaging was obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope during the warm mission. Photometric analysis was performed with a combination of Sextrac- tor and Psfex software. Photometric calibration for NIR data was handled exploiting 2Mass coverage for our fields. For MIR data, photometric calibration was obtained using GLIMPSE coverage for a small number of our images, then bootstrapping this to calibrate other images, since all images are obtained with the same pipeline. To identify cluster members, we provide constraints on the source classification using field AGB stars and faint background galaxies, which have similar characteristics as reddened young stellar objects. Predicted locations of these objects on color-magnitude and color-color diagrams are used as a guide, as are the stellar classification parameter from Sextractor and faint galaxy catalogs covering our fields. We also examine extinction properties towards these young clusters, exploiting well known properties of AGB star population in our fields. Combining the IR data with existing mm-wave specroscopy, we compute values for the gas to dust ratio of these young clusters using extinction properties plus differential H-K color maps and NH column density measurements, all obtained as a part of the CHaMP survey. These results help us to identify evolutionary stages of these young clusters. Eventually, we will constrain cluster properties like age, distance and metallicity with

  2. Minimization of Childhood Maltreatment Is Common and Consequential: Results from a Large, Multinational Sample Using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Sciolla, Andres F.; Schneider, Beacher; Pappas, Katherine; Bleijenberg, Gijs; Bohus, Martin; Bekh, Bradley; Carpenter, Linda; Carr, Alan; Dannlowski, Udo; Dorahy, Martin; Fahlke, Claudia; Finzi-Dottan, Ricky; Karu, Tobi; Gerdner, Arne; Glaesmer, Heide; Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Heins, Marianne; Kenny, Dianna T; Kim, Daeho; Knoop, Hans; Lobbestael, Jill; Lochner, Christine; Lauritzen, Grethe; Ravndal, Edle; Riggs, Shelley; Sar, Vedat; Schäfer, Ingo; Schlosser, Nicole; Schwandt, Melanie L; Stein, Murray B; Subic-Wrana, Claudia; Vogel, Mark; Wingenfeld, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment has diverse, lifelong impact on morbidity and mortality. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) is one of the most commonly used scales to assess and quantify these experiences and their impact. Curiously, despite very widespread use of the CTQ, scores on its Minimization-Denial (MD) subscale—originally designed to assess a positive response bias—are rarely reported. Hence, little is known about this measure. If response biases are either common or consequential, current practices of ignoring the MD scale deserve revision. Therewith, we designed a study to investigate 3 aspects of minimization, as defined by the CTQ’s MD scale: 1) its prevalence; 2) its latent structure; and finally 3) whether minimization moderates the CTQ’s discriminative validity in terms of distinguishing between psychiatric patients and community volunteers. Archival, item-level CTQ data from 24 multinational samples were combined for a total of 19,652 participants. Analyses indicated: 1) minimization is common; 2) minimization functions as a continuous construct; and 3) high MD scores attenuate the ability of the CTQ to distinguish between psychiatric patients and community volunteers. Overall, results suggest that a minimizing response bias—as detected by the MD subscale—has a small but significant moderating effect on the CTQ’s discriminative validity. Results also may suggest that some prior analyses of maltreatment rates or the effects of early maltreatment that have used the CTQ may have underestimated its incidence and impact. We caution researchers and clinicians about the widespread practice of using the CTQ without the MD or collecting MD data but failing to assess and control for its effects on outcomes or dependent variables. PMID:26815788

  3. Problematic Internet Use and Problematic Online Gaming Are Not the Same: Findings from a Large Nationally Representative Adolescent Sample

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Mark D.; Urbán, Róbert; Farkas, Judit; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Tamás, Domokos; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2014-01-01

    Abstract There is an ongoing debate in the literature whether problematic Internet use (PIU) and problematic online gaming (POG) are two distinct conceptual and nosological entities or whether they are the same. The present study contributes to this question by examining the interrelationship and the overlap between PIU and POG in terms of sex, school achievement, time spent using the Internet and/or online gaming, psychological well-being, and preferred online activities. Questionnaires assessing these variables were administered to a nationally representative sample of adolescent gamers (N=2,073; Mage=16.4 years, SD=0.87; 68.4% male). Data showed that Internet use was a common activity among adolescents, while online gaming was engaged in by a considerably smaller group. Similarly, more adolescents met the criteria for PIU than for POG, and a small group of adolescents showed symptoms of both problem behaviors. The most notable difference between the two problem behaviors was in terms of sex. POG was much more strongly associated with being male. Self-esteem had low effect sizes on both behaviors, while depressive symptoms were associated with both PIU and POG, affecting PIU slightly more. In terms of preferred online activities, PIU was positively associated with online gaming, online chatting, and social networking, while POG was only associated with online gaming. Based on our findings, POG appears to be a conceptually different behavior from PIU, and therefore the data support the notion that Internet Addiction Disorder and Internet Gaming Disorder are separate nosological entities. PMID:25415659

  4. Gaussian mixture modeling of hemispheric lateralization for language in a large sample of healthy individuals balanced for handedness.

    PubMed

    Mazoyer, Bernard; Zago, Laure; Jobard, Gaël; Crivello, Fabrice; Joliot, Marc; Perchey, Guy; Mellet, Emmanuel; Petit, Laurent; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Hemispheric lateralization for language production and its relationships with manual preference and manual preference strength were studied in a sample of 297 subjects, including 153 left-handers (LH). A hemispheric functional lateralization index (HFLI) for language was derived from fMRI acquired during a covert sentence generation task as compared with a covert word list recitation. The multimodal HFLI distribution was optimally modeled using a mixture of 3 and 4 Gaussian functions in right-handers (RH) and LH, respectively. Gaussian function parameters helped to define 3 types of language hemispheric lateralization, namely "Typical" (left hemisphere dominance with clear positive HFLI values, 88% of RH, 78% of LH), "Ambilateral" (no dominant hemisphere with HFLI values close to 0, 12% of RH, 15% of LH) and "Strongly-atypical" (right-hemisphere dominance with clear negative HFLI values, 7% of LH). Concordance between dominant hemispheres for hand and for language did not exceed chance level, and most of the association between handedness and language lateralization was explained by the fact that all Strongly-atypical individuals were left-handed. Similarly, most of the relationship between language lateralization and manual preference strength was explained by the fact that Strongly-atypical individuals exhibited a strong preference for their left hand. These results indicate that concordance of hemispheric dominance for hand and for language occurs barely above the chance level, except in a group of rare individuals (less than 1% in the general population) who exhibit strong right hemisphere dominance for both language and their preferred hand. They call for a revisit of models hypothesizing common determinants for handedness and for language dominance.

  5. A large sample investigation of temporal scale-invariance in rainfall over the tropical urban island of Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandapaka, Pradeep V.; Qin, Xiaosheng

    2015-11-01

    Scaling behavior of rainfall time series is characterized using monofractal, spectral, and multifractal frameworks. The study analyzed temporal scale-invariance of rainfall in the tropical island of Singapore using a large dataset comprising 31 years of hourly and 3 years of 1-min rainfall measurements. First, the rainfall time series is transformed into an occurrence-non-occurrence binary series, and its scaling behavior is analyzed using box-counting analysis. The results indicated that the rainfall support displays fractal structure, but within a limited range of scales. The rainfall support has a fractal dimension ( D f ) of 0.56 for scales ranging from 1 min to 1.5 h and a D f of 0.37 from 1.5 h to 1.5 days. The results further showed that the fractal dimension decreases with the increase in the threshold used to define binary series. Spectral analysis carried out on the rainfall time series and the corresponding binary series showed three distinct scaling regimes of 4 min-2 h, 2-24 h, and 24 h-1 month. In all the scaling regimes, the spectral exponents for the rainfall series were smaller than those for the binary series. The study then investigated the presence of multiscaling behavior in rainfall time series using moment scaling analysis. The results confirmed that the rainfall fluctuations display a multiscaling structure, which was modeled in the framework of universal multifractals. The results from this study would not only improve our understanding of the temporal rainfall structure in Singapore and the surrounding Maritime Continent but also help us build and parameterize parsimonious models and statistical downscaling techniques for rainfall in this region.

  6. Maternal intrusiveness, family financial means, and anxiety across childhood in a large multiphase sample of community youth.

    PubMed

    Cooper-Vince, Christine E; Pincus, Donna B; Comer, Jonathan S

    2014-01-01

    Intrusive parenting has been positively associated with child anxiety, although examinations of this relationship to date have been largely confined to middle to upper middle class families and have rarely used longitudinal designs. With several leading interventions for child anxiety emphasizing the reduction of parental intrusiveness, it is critical to determine whether the links between parental intrusiveness and child anxiety broadly apply to families of all financial means, and whether parental intrusiveness prospectively predicts the development of child anxiety. This study employed latent growth curve analysis to evaluate the interactive effects of maternal intrusiveness and financial means on the developmental trajectory of child anxiety from 1st grade to age 15 in 1,121 children (50.7 % male) and their parents from the NICHD SECCYD. The overall model was found to provide good fit, revealing that early maternal intrusiveness and financial means did not impact individual trajectories of change in child anxiety, which were stable from 1st to 5th grade, and then decrease from 5th grade to age 15. Cross-sectional analyses also examined whether family financial means moderated contemporaneous relationships between maternal intrusiveness and child anxiety in 3rd and 5th grades. The relationship between maternal intrusiveness and child anxiety was moderated by family financial means for 1st graders, with stronger links found among children of lower family financial means, but not for 3rd and 5th graders. Neither maternal intrusiveness nor financial means in 1st grade predicted subsequent changes in anxiety across childhood. Findings help elucidate for whom and when maternal intrusiveness has the greatest link with child anxiety and can inform targeted treatment efforts.

  7. Long-term resource variation and group size: A large-sample field test of the Resource Dispersion Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Dominic DP; Baker, Samantha; Morecroft, Michael D; Macdonald, David W

    2001-01-01

    Background The Resource Dispersion Hypothesis (RDH) proposes a mechanism for the passive formation of social groups where resources are dispersed, even in the absence of any benefits of group living per se. Despite supportive modelling, it lacks empirical testing. The RDH predicts that, rather than Territory Size (TS) increasing monotonically with Group Size (GS) to account for increasing metabolic needs, TS is constrained by the dispersion of resource patches, whereas GS is independently limited by their richness. We conducted multiple-year tests of these predictions using data from the long-term study of badgers Meles meles in Wytham Woods, England. The study has long failed to identify direct benefits from group living and, consequently, alternative explanations for their large group sizes have been sought. Results TS was not consistently related to resource dispersion, nor was GS consistently related to resource richness. Results differed according to data groupings and whether territories were mapped using minimum convex polygons or traditional methods. Habitats differed significantly in resource availability, but there was also evidence that food resources may be spatially aggregated within habitat types as well as between them. Conclusions This is, we believe, the largest ever test of the RDH and builds on the long-term project that initiated part of the thinking behind the hypothesis. Support for predictions were mixed and depended on year and the method used to map territory borders. We suggest that within-habitat patchiness, as well as model assumptions, should be further investigated for improved tests of the RDH in the future. PMID:11511326

  8. Quantitative Prediction of Beef Quality Using Visible and NIR Spectroscopy with Large Data Samples Under Industry Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, T.; Ren, J.; Craigie, C.; Zabalza, J.; Maltin, Ch.; Marshall, S.

    2015-03-01

    It is well known that the eating quality of beef has a significant influence on the repurchase behavior of consumers. There are several key factors that affect the perception of quality, including color, tenderness, juiciness, and flavor. To support consumer repurchase choices, there is a need for an objective measurement of quality that could be applied to meat prior to its sale. Objective approaches such as offered by spectral technologies may be useful, but the analytical algorithms used remain to be optimized. For visible and near infrared (VISNIR) spectroscopy, Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) is a widely used technique for meat related quality modeling and prediction. In this paper, a Support Vector Machine (SVM) based machine learning approach is presented to predict beef eating quality traits. Although SVM has been successfully used in various disciplines, it has not been applied extensively to the analysis of meat quality parameters. To this end, the performance of PLSR and SVM as tools for the analysis of meat tenderness is evaluated, using a large dataset acquired under industrial conditions. The spectral dataset was collected using VISNIR spectroscopy with the wavelength ranging from 350 to 1800 nm on 234 beef M. longissimus thoracis steaks from heifers, steers, and young bulls. As the dimensionality with the VISNIR data is very high (over 1600 spectral bands), the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique was applied for feature extraction and data reduction. The extracted principal components (less than 100) were then used for data modeling and prediction. The prediction results showed that SVM has a greater potential to predict beef eating quality than PLSR, especially for the prediction of tenderness. The infl uence of animal gender on beef quality prediction was also investigated, and it was found that beef quality traits were predicted most accurately in beef from young bulls.

  9. Maternal intrusiveness, family financial means, and anxiety across childhood in a large multiphase sample of community youth

    PubMed Central

    Cooper-Vince, Christine E.; Pincus, Donna B.; Comer, Jonathan S.

    2013-01-01

    Intrusive parenting has been positively associated with child anxiety, although examinations of this relationship to date have been largely confined to middle to upper middle class families and have rarely used longitudinal designs. With several leading interventions for child anxiety emphasizing the reduction of parental intrusiveness, it is critical to determine whether the links between parental intrusiveness and child anxiety broadly apply to families of all financial means, and whether parental intrusiveness prospectively predicts the development of child anxiety. This study employed latent growth curve analysis to evaluate the interactive effects of maternal intrusiveness and financial means on the developmental trajectory of child anxiety from 1st grade to age 15 in 1,121 children (50.7% male) and their parents from the NICHD SECCYD. The overall model was found to provide good fit, revealing that early maternal intrusiveness and financial means did not impact individual trajectories of change in child anxiety, which were stable from 1st to 5th grade, and then decrease from 5th grade to age 15. Cross-sectional analyses also examined whether family financial means moderated contemporaneous relationships between maternal intrusiveness and child anxiety in 3rd and 5th grades. The relationship between maternal intrusiveness and child anxiety was moderated by family financial means for 1st graders, with stronger links found among children of lower family financial means, but not for 3rd and 5th graders. Neither maternal intrusiveness nor financial means in 1st grade predicted subsequent changes in anxiety across childhood. Findings help elucidate for whom and when maternal intrusiveness has the greatest link with child anxiety and can inform targeted treatment efforts. PMID:23929005

  10. Non-destructive elemental analysis of large meteorite samples by prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis with the internal mono-standard method.

    PubMed

    Latif, Sk A; Oura, Y; Ebihara, M; Nakahara, H

    2013-11-01

    Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) using the internal mono-standard method was tested for its applicability to analyzing large solid samples including irregularly shaped meteorite samples. For evaluating the accuracy and precision of the method, large quantities of the Geological Survey of Japan standardized rock powders (JB-1a, JG-1a, and JP-1) were analyzed and 12 elements (B, Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Sm, and Gd) were determined by using Si as an internal standard element. Analytical results were mostly in agreement with literature values within 10 %. The precision of the method was also shown to be within 10 % (1σ) for most of these elements. The analytical procedure was then applied to four stony meteorites (Allende, Kimble County, Leedey, Lake Labyrinth) and four iron meteorites (Canyon Diablo, Toluca (Mexico), Toluca (Xiquipilco), Squaw Creek) consisting of large chunks or single slabs. For stony meteorites, major elements (Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, and Ni), minor elements (Na and Mn) and trace element (B, Cl, K, Ti, Co, and Sm) were determined with adequate accuracy. For iron meteorites, results for the Co and Ni mass fractions determined are all consistent with corresponding literature values. After the analysis, it was confirmed that the residual radioactivity remaining in the sample after PGNAA was very low and decreased down to the background level. This study shows that PGNAA with the internal mono-standard method is highly practical for determining the elemental composition of large, irregularly shaped solid samples including meteorites.

  11. Non-destructive elemental analysis of large meteorite samples by prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis with the internal mono-standard method.

    PubMed

    Latif, Sk A; Oura, Y; Ebihara, M; Nakahara, H

    2013-11-01

    Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) using the internal mono-standard method was tested for its applicability to analyzing large solid samples including irregularly shaped meteorite samples. For evaluating the accuracy and precision of the method, large quantities of the Geological Survey of Japan standardized rock powders (JB-1a, JG-1a, and JP-1) were analyzed and 12 elements (B, Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Sm, and Gd) were determined by using Si as an internal standard element. Analytical results were mostly in agreement with literature values within 10 %. The precision of the method was also shown to be within 10 % (1σ) for most of these elements. The analytical procedure was then applied to four stony meteorites (Allende, Kimble County, Leedey, Lake Labyrinth) and four iron meteorites (Canyon Diablo, Toluca (Mexico), Toluca (Xiquipilco), Squaw Creek) consisting of large chunks or single slabs. For stony meteorites, major elements (Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, and Ni), minor elements (Na and Mn) and trace element (B, Cl, K, Ti, Co, and Sm) were determined with adequate accuracy. For iron meteorites, results for the Co and Ni mass fractions determined are all consistent with corresponding literature values. After the analysis, it was confirmed that the residual radioactivity remaining in the sample after PGNAA was very low and decreased down to the background level. This study shows that PGNAA with the internal mono-standard method is highly practical for determining the elemental composition of large, irregularly shaped solid samples including meteorites. PMID:24037616

  12. Expression of cytochromes P450 3A and P-glycoprotein in human large intestine in paired tumour and normal samples.

    PubMed

    Canaparo, Roberto; Nordmark, Anna; Finnström, Niklas; Lundgren, Stefan; Seidegård, Janeric; Jeppsson, Bengt; Edwards, Robert J; Boobis, Alan R; Rane, Anders

    2007-04-01

    Our objective was to investigate the expression of different cytochromes P450 3A (CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP3A7) and P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) genes along the human large intestine in paired tumour and normal samples. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was used to measure CYP3A4-, CYP3A5-, CYP3A7- and ABCB1-specific mRNA expression, and Western blot analysis was used to measure membrane protein levels of CYP3A4/7, CYP3A5 and P-glycoprotein. Levels of mRNA and membrane protein fractions in the large intestine were compared with those of normal human liver. The mRNA expressions of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP3A7 and ABCB1 in the large intestine were found to be highly variable, but overall the levels were significantly lower than those measured in liver (P < 0.0001, P < 0.001, P < 0.0001 and P < 0.01, respectively). At the membrane protein level, CYP3A4/7 was detected in all large intestine samples examined and the levels were substantially higher than those of the liver (P < 0.01). Although expression of CYP3A5 was detected in all large intestine samples, in most the levels were too low to allow quantification. P-glycoprotein was readily detected at levels slightly higher than those of liver (P < 0.05). Comparison between paired samples of normal and tumour in large intestine showed no significant differences in either the mRNA or membrane protein levels of these genes. In conclusion, this work suggests a potential role of the large intestine in the absorption and metabolism of xenobiotics and nutrients and no difference in the CYP3A and P-glycoprotein membrane protein fractions and mRNA expression between normal and tumour tissues.

  13. Sensitive and Rapid Detection of Viable Giardia Cysts and Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts in Large-Volume Water Samples with Wound Fiberglass Cartridge Filters and Reverse Transcription-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Kaucner, Christine; Stinear, Timothy

    1998-01-01

    We recently described a reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) for detecting low numbers of viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts spiked into clarified environmental water concentrates. We have now modified the assay for direct analysis of primary sample concentrates with simultaneous detection of viable C. parvum oocysts, Giardia cysts, and a novel type of internal positive control (IPC). The IPC was designed to assess both efficiency of mRNA isolation and potential RT-PCR inhibition. Sensitivity testing showed that low numbers of organisms, in the range of a single viable cyst and oocyst, could be detected when spiked into 100-μl packed pellet volumes of concentrates from creek and river water samples. The RT-PCR was compared with an immunofluorescence (IF) assay by analyzing 29 nonspiked environmental water samples. Sample volumes of 20 to 1,500 liters were concentrated with a wound fiberglass cartridge filter. Frequency of detection for viable Giardia cysts increased from 24% by IF microscopy to 69% by RT-PCR. Viable C. parvum oocysts were detected only once by RT-PCR (3%) in contrast to detection of viable Cryptosporidium spp. in four samples by IF microscopy (14%), suggesting that Cryptosporidium species other than C. parvum were present in the water. This combination of the large-volume sampling method with RT-PCR represents a significant advance in terms of protozoan pathogen monitoring and in the wider application of PCR technology to this field of microbiology. PMID:9572946

  14. Method for determination of neptunium in large-sized urine samples using manganese dioxide coprecipitation and 242Pu as yield tracer.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per

    2013-02-01

    A novel method for bioassay of large volumes of human urine samples using manganese dioxide coprecipitation for preconcentration was developed for rapid determination of (237)Np. (242)Pu was utilized as a nonisotopic tracer to monitor the chemical yield of (237)Np. A sequential injection extraction chromatographic (SI-EC) system coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) was exploited to facilitate the rapid column separation and quantification. The analytical results demonstrated satisfactory performance of the MnO(2) coprecipitation as indicated by the high chemical yields close to 100% and high separation capacity of processing up to 5 L of human urine samples. The MnO(2) coprecipitation process is simple and straightforward in which a batch (8-12) of samples can be pretreated within 4 h (i.e., <0.5 h/sample). In connection with the automated column separation and ICPMS quantification, which takes less than 1.5 h in total, the overall analytical time was on average less than 2 h for each sample. The high effectiveness and sample throughput make the developed method well suited for urine bioassay of (237)Np in routine monitoring of occupationally internal radiation exposure and rapid analysis of neptunium contamination level for emergency preparedness.

  15. Detection of Babesia bovis in blood samples and its effect on the hematological and serum biochemical profile in large ruminants from Southern Punjab

    PubMed Central

    Zulfiqar, Samreen; Shahnawaz, Sadia; Ali, Muhammad; Bhutta, Arif Mahmood; Iqbal, Shahid; Hayat, Sikandar; Qadir, Shazia; Latif, Muhammad; Kiran, Nazia; Saeed, Ali; Ali, Muhammad; Iqbal, Furhan

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the presence of Babesia bovis (B. bovis) in large ruminants in southern Punjab and its effect on hematological and serum biochemical profile of host animals. Methods Blood samples were collected from 144 large ruminants, including 105 cattle and 39 buffaloes, from six districts in southern Punjab including Multan, Layyah, Muzaffar Garh, Bhakar, Bahawalnagar and Vehari. Data on the characteristics of animals and herds were collected through questionnaires. Different blood (hemoglobin, glucose) and serum (ALT, AST, LDH, cholesterol) parameters of calves and cattle were measured and compared between parasite positive and negative samples to demonstrate the effect of B. bovis on the blood and serological profile of infected animals. Results 27 out of 144 animals, from 5 out of 6 sampling districts, produced the 541-bp fragment specific for B. bovis. Age of animals (P=0.02), presence of ticks on animals (P=0.04) and presence of ticks on dogs associated with herds (P=0.5) were among the major risk factors involved in the spread of bovine babesiosis in the study area. ALT concentrations were the only serum biochemical values that significantly varied between parasite positive and negative cattle. Conclusions : This study has reported for the first time the presence of B. bovis in large ruminant and the results can lead to the prevention of babesiosis in the region to increase the livestock output. PMID:23569878

  16. [Determination of trace and ultra-trace level bromate in water by large volume sample injection with enrichment column for on-line preconcentration coupled with ion chromatography].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; He, Qingqing; Yang, Lili; Hu, Enyu; Wang, Meifei

    2015-10-01

    A method for the determination of trace and ultra-trace level bromate in water by ion chromatography with large volume sample injection for on-line preconcentration was established. A high capacity Dionex IonPac AG23 guard column was simply used as the enrichment column instead of the loop for the preconcentration of bromate. High purity KOH solution used as eluent for gradient elution was on-line produced by an eluent generator automatically. The results showed that a good linear relationship of bromate was exhibited in the range of 0.05-51.2 μg/L (r ≥ 0.999 5), and the method detection limit was 0.01 μg/L. Compared with conventional sample injection, the injection volume was up to 5 mL, and the enrichment factor of this method was about 240 times. This method was successfully applied for several real samples of pure water which were purchased in the supermarket, and the recoveries of bromate were between 90%-100% with the RSDs (n = 6) of 2.1%-6.4% at two spiked levels. This method without pretreatment is simple, and of high accuracy and precision. The preconcentration can be achieved by large volume sample injection. It is suitable for the analysis of trace and ultra-trace level bromate.

  17. CMOS correlated-double-sampling and hold structure based on novel dynamic source-follower for large format infrared focal-plane-array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhi; Yuan, Xianghui; Huang, Youshu

    2003-07-01

    In this paper, a CMOS correlated double sampling and hold (CDSH) structure based on novel dynamic source follower for large format infrared focal-plane array (IRFPA) is proposed. The primary noise (fixed-pattern noise (FPN) and KTC reset noise, etc) of the CMOS image sensor is reduced, through the improved CDSH structure based on the novel dynamic source follower, and all pixels in the selected row can start integrating simultaneously; the readout process happens in the next row selection time, which can increase the frame frequency, and the output waveform is boxcar, which is easy-to-realize analog/digital conversion. SPICE simulation results have shown that the proposed improved CDSH structure can achieve the advantages of simple driving signal, large dynamic range in large format IRFPA with low power consumption.

  18. A splice donor mutation in NAA10 results in the dysregulation of the retinoic acid signaling pathway and causes Lenz microphthalmia syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Esmailpour, Taraneh; Riazifar, Hamidreza; Liu, Linan; Donkervoort, Sandra; Huang, Vincent H; Madaan, Shreshtha; Shoucri, Bassem M; Busch, Anke; Wu, Jie; Towbin, Alexander; Chadwick, Robert B; Sequeira, Adolfo; Vawter, Marquis P; Sun, Guoli; Johnston, Jennifer J; Biesecker, Leslie G; Kawaguchi, Riki; Sun, Hui; Kimonis, Virginia; Huang, Taosheng

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Lenz microphthalmia syndrome (LMS) is a genetically heterogeneous X-linked disorder characterised by microphthalmia/anophthalmia, skeletal abnormalities, genitourinary malformations, and anomalies of the digits, ears, and teeth. Intellectual disability and seizure disorders are seen in about 60% of affected males. To date, no gene has been identified for LMS in the microphthalmia syndrome 1 locus (MCOPS1). In this study, we aim to find the disease-causing gene for this condition. Methods and results Using exome sequencing in a family with three affected brothers, we identified a mutation in the intron 7 splice donor site (c.471+2T→A) of the N-acetyltransferase NAA10 gene. NAA10 has been previously shown to be mutated in patients with Ogden syndrome, which is clinically distinct from LMS. Linkage studies for this family mapped the disease locus to Xq27-Xq28, which was consistent with the locus of NAA10. The mutation co-segregated with the phenotype and cDNA analysis showed aberrant transcripts. Patient fibroblasts lacked expression of full length NAA10 protein and displayed cell proliferation defects. Expression array studies showed significant dysregulation of genes associated with genetic forms of anophthalmia such as BMP4, STRA6, and downstream targets of BCOR and the canonical WNT pathway. In particular, STRA6 is a retinol binding protein receptor that mediates cellular uptake of retinol/vitamin A and plays a major role in regulating the retinoic acid signalling pathway. A retinol uptake assay showed that retinol uptake was decreased in patient cells. Conclusions We conclude that the NAA10 mutation is the cause of LMS in this family, likely through the dysregulation of the retinoic acid signalling pathway. PMID:24431331

  19. Combination of the Auxins NAA, IBA, and IAA with GA3 Improves the Commercial Seed-Tuber Production of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) under In Vitro Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kumlay, Ahmet Metin

    2014-01-01

    The study compared the effects of 1.0 × MS medium containing various concentrations of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), alone or in combination with gibberellic acid (GA3) in micropropagation of three potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Pasinler, Granola, and Caspar using binodal stem cuttings. The results testified improved regeneration on 1.0 × MS medium containing variants of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 on all cultivars. The minimum days to shoot induction on three cultivars ranged 4.25–5 d on 1.0 × MS medium containing 0.25 mg L−1  GA3 + 1 mg L−1 NAA. The longest shoots (11.8 cm), maximum number of nodes (13.50), and maximum number of leaves (11.00) were recorded on cv. Caspar on 1.0 × MS medium containing 1 mg L−1  NAA + 0.25 mg L−1 GA3. The minimum time to root induction (12.25 d) was noted on cv. Pasinler on the same medium. All of the regenerated shoots could be easily rooted. The results showed that the combined effect of various concentrations of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 was more pronounced compared to the auxins used alone. The results of this research are of significant importance for potato breeders. PMID:25028654

  20. Large-Scale Multiplexed Quantitative Discovery Proteomics Enabled by the Use of an O-18-Labeled “Universal” Reference Sample

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Weijun; Liu, Tao; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Petritis, Brianne O.; Polpitiya, Ashoka D.; Kaushal, Amit; Xiao, Wenzhong; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Jescheke, Marc G.; Jaitly, Navdeep; Monroe, Matthew E.; Moore, Ronald J.; Moldawer, Lyle L.; Davis, Ronald W.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Hemdon, David N.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative comparison of protein abundances across a relatively large number of patient samples is an important challenge for clinical proteomic applications. Herein we describe a dual-quantitation strategy that allows the simultaneous integration of complementary label-free and stable isotope labeling based approaches without increasing the number of LC-MS analyses. The approach utilizes a stable isotope 18O-labeled “universal” reference sample as a comprehensive set of internal standards spiked into each individually processed unlabeled patient sample. The quantitative data are based on both the direct 16O-MS intensities for label-free quantitation and the 16O/18O isotopic peptide pair ratios that compare each patient sample to the identical labeled reference. The effectiveness of this dual-quantitation approach for large scale quantitative proteomics is demonstrated by the application to a set of 38 clinical plasma samples from surviving and non-surviving severe burn patients. With the coupling of immunoaffinity depletion, cysteinyl-peptide enrichment based fractionation, high resolution LC-MS measurements, and the dual-quantitation approach, a total of 318 proteins were confidently quantified with at least two peptides and 263 proteins were quantified by both approaches. The strategy also enabled a direct comparison between the two approaches with the labeling approach showing significantly better precision in quantitation while the label-free approach resulted in more protein identifications. The relative abundance differences determined by the two approaches also show strong correlation. Finally, the dual-quantitation strategy allowed us to identify more candidate protein biomarkers, illustrating the complementary nature of the two quantitative methods.

  1. Dual-domain microchip-based process for volume reduction solid phase extraction of nucleic acids from dilute, large volume biological samples.

    PubMed

    Reedy, Carmen R; Hagan, Kristin A; Strachan, Briony C; Higginson, Joshua J; Bienvenue, Joan M; Greenspoon, Susan A; Ferrance, Jerome P; Landers, James P

    2010-07-01

    A microfluidic device was developed to carry out integrated volume reduction and purification of nucleic acids from dilute, large volume biological samples commonly encountered in forensic genetic analysis. The dual-phase device seamlessly integrates two orthogonal solid-phase extraction (SPE) processes, a silica solid phase using chaotrope-driven binding and an ion exchange phase using totally aqueous chemistry (chitosan phase), providing the unique capability of removing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) inhibitors used in silica-based extractions (guanidine and isopropanol). Nucleic acids from a large volume sample are shown to undergo a substantial volume reduction on the silica phase, followed by a more stringent extraction on the chitosan phase. The key to interfacing the two steps is mixing of the eluted nucleic acids from the first phase with loading buffer which is facilitated by flow-mediated mixing over a herringbone mixing region in the device. The complete aqueous chemistry associated with the second purification step yields a highly concentrated PCR-ready eluate of nucleic acids devoid of PCR inhibitors that are reagent-based (isopropanol) and sample-based (indigo dye), both of which are shown to be successfully removed using the dual-phase device but not by the traditional microfluidic SPE (muSPE). The utility of the device for purifying DNA was demonstrated with dilute whole blood, dilute semen, a semen stain, and a blood sample inhibited with indigo dye, with the resultant DNA from all shown to be PCR amplifiable. The same samples purified using muSPE were not all PCR amplifiable due to a smaller concentration of the DNA and the lack of PCR-compatible aqueous chemistry in the extraction method. The utility of the device for the purification of RNA was also demonstrated, by the extraction of RNA from a dilute semen sample, with the resulting RNA amplified using reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. The vrSPE-SPE device reliably yields a volume reduction for

  2. Implicit and explicit anti-fat bias among a large sample of medical doctors by BMI, race/ethnicity and gender.

    PubMed

    Sabin, Janice A; Marini, Maddalena; Nosek, Brian A

    2012-01-01

    Overweight patients report weight discrimination in health care settings and subsequent avoidance of routine preventive health care. The purpose of this study was to examine implicit and explicit attitudes about weight among a large group of medical doctors (MDs) to determine the pervasiveness of negative attitudes about weight among MDs. Test-takers voluntarily accessed a public Web site, known as Project Implicit®, and opted to complete the Weight Implicit Association Test (IAT) (N = 359,261). A sub-sample identified their highest level of education as MD (N = 2,284). Among the MDs, 55% were female, 78% reported their race as white, and 62% had a normal range BMI. This large sample of test-takers showed strong implicit anti-fat bias (Cohen's d = 1.0). MDs, on average, also showed strong implicit anti-fat bias (Cohen's d = 0.93). All test-takers and the MD sub-sample reported a strong preference for thin people rather than fat people or a strong explicit anti-fat bias. We conclude that strong implicit and explicit anti-fat bias is as pervasive among MDs as it is among the general public. An important area for future research is to investigate the association between providers' implicit and explicit attitudes about weight, patient reports of weight discrimination in health care, and quality of care delivered to overweight patients.

  3. Detecting the Land-Cover Changes Induced by Large-Physical Disturbances Using Landscape Metrics, Spatial Sampling, Simulation and Spatial Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Hone-Jay; Lin, Yu-Pin; Huang, Yu-Long; Wang, Yung-Chieh

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of the study are to integrate the conditional Latin Hypercube Sampling (cLHS), sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS) and spatial analysis in remotely sensed images, to monitor the effects of large chronological disturbances on spatial characteristics of landscape changes including spatial heterogeneity and variability. The multiple NDVI images demonstrate that spatial patterns of disturbed landscapes were successfully delineated by spatial analysis such as variogram, Moran’I and landscape metrics in the study area. The hybrid method delineates the spatial patterns and spatial variability of landscapes caused by these large disturbances. The cLHS approach is applied to select samples from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) images from SPOT HRV images in the Chenyulan watershed of Taiwan, and then SGS with sufficient samples is used to generate maps of NDVI images. In final, the NDVI simulated maps are verified using indexes such as the correlation coefficient and mean absolute error (MAE). Therefore, the statistics and spatial structures of multiple NDVI images present a very robust behavior, which advocates the use of the index for the quantification of the landscape spatial patterns and land cover change. In addition, the results transferred by Open Geospatial techniques can be accessed from web-based and end-user applications of the watershed management. PMID:22399972

  4. Detecting the land-cover changes induced by large-physical disturbances using landscape metrics, spatial sampling, simulation and spatial analysis.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hone-Jay; Lin, Yu-Pin; Huang, Yu-Long; Wang, Yung-Chieh

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of the study are to integrate the conditional Latin Hypercube Sampling (cLHS), sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS) and spatial analysis in remotely sensed images, to monitor the effects of large chronological disturbances on spatial characteristics of landscape changes including spatial heterogeneity and variability. The multiple NDVI images demonstrate that spatial patterns of disturbed landscapes were successfully delineated by spatial analysis such as variogram, Moran'I and landscape metrics in the study area. The hybrid method delineates the spatial patterns and spatial variability of landscapes caused by these large disturbances. The cLHS approach is applied to select samples from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) images from SPOT HRV images in the Chenyulan watershed of Taiwan, and then SGS with sufficient samples is used to generate maps of NDVI images. In final, the NDVI simulated maps are verified using indexes such as the correlation coefficient and mean absolute error (MAE). Therefore, the statistics and spatial structures of multiple NDVI images present a very robust behavior, which advocates the use of the index for the quantification of the landscape spatial patterns and land cover change. In addition, the results transferred by Open Geospatial techniques can be accessed from web-based and end-user applications of the watershed management. PMID:22399972

  5. Different profiles of acute stress disorder differentially predict posttraumatic stress disorder in a large sample of female victims of sexual trauma.

    PubMed

    Shevlin, Mark; Hyland, Philip; Elklit, Ask

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to test the dimensional structure of acute stress disorder (ASD). Latent profile analysis was conducted on scores from the Acute Stress Disorder Scale (Bryant, Moulds, & Guthrie, 2000) using a large sample of female victims of sexual trauma. Four distinct classes were found. Two of the classes represented high and low levels of ASD, and the high ASD class was associated with a high probability of subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There were 2 intermediate classes that were differentiated by the number of arousal symptoms, and the class with high levels of arousal symptoms had a higher risk of PTSD. The results suggested that ASD is best described by qualitatively and quantitatively differing subgroups in this sample, whereas previous research has assumed ASD to be dimensional. This may explain the limited success of using ASD to predict subsequent PTSD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. The importance of experimental design and QC samples in large-scale and MS-driven untargeted metabolomic studies of humans.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Warwick B; Wilson, Ian D; Nicholls, Andrew W; Broadhurst, David

    2012-09-01

    The metabolic investigation of the human population is becoming increasingly important in the study of health and disease. The phenotypic variation can be investigated through the application of metabolomics; to provide a statistically robust investigation, the study of hundreds to thousands of individuals is required. In untargeted and MS-focused metabolomic studies this once provided significant hurdles. However, recent innovations have enabled the application of MS platforms in large-scale, untargeted studies of humans. Herein we describe the importance of experimental design, the separation of the biological study into multiple analytical experiments and the incorporation of QC samples to provide the ability to perform signal correction in order to reduce analytical variation and to quantitatively determine analytical precision. In addition, we describe how to apply this in quality assurance processes. These innovations have opened up the capabilities to perform routine, large-scale, untargeted, MS-focused studies.

  7. Detailed deposition density maps constructed by large-scale soil sampling for gamma-ray emitting radioactive nuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kimiaki; Tanihata, Isao; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Saito, Takashi; Shimoura, Susumu; Otsuka, Takaharu; Onda, Yuichi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Ikeuchi, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Kinouchi, Nobuyuki; Saegusa, Jun; Seki, Akiyuki; Takemiya, Hiroshi; Shibata, Tokushi

    2015-01-01

    Soil deposition density maps of gamma-ray emitting radioactive nuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident were constructed on the basis of results from large-scale soil sampling. In total 10,915 soil samples were collected at 2168 locations. Gamma rays emitted from the samples were measured by Ge detectors and analyzed using a reliable unified method. The determined radioactivity was corrected to that of June 14, 2011 by considering the intrinsic decay constant of each nuclide. Finally the deposition maps were created for (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (131)I, (129m)Te and (110m)Ag. The radioactivity ratio of (134)Cs-(137)Cs was almost constant at 0.91 regardless of the locations of soil sampling. The radioactivity ratios of (131)I and (129m)Te-(137)Cs were relatively high in the regions south of the Fukushima NPP site. Effective doses for 50 y after the accident were evaluated for external and inhalation exposures due to the observed radioactive nuclides. The radiation doses from radioactive cesium were found to be much higher than those from the other radioactive nuclides. PMID:24703526

  8. Membrane assisted solvent extraction coupled to large volume injection-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for trace analysis of synthetic musks in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Posada-Ureta, O; Olivares, M; Navarro, P; Vallejo, A; Zuloaga, O; Etxebarria, N

    2012-03-01

    This work describes the optimisation, validation and application of membrane assisted solvent extraction (MASE) together with a large volume injection (LVI) in a programmable temperature vaporisation (PTV) injector coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the quantification of ten synthetic musk fragrances (musks) in surface and wastewater samples. Regarding the MASE, musks were extracted from 150 mL of aqueous samples to 200 μL of n-hexane hold in home-made low density polyethylene (LDPE) bags. The extraction took 240 min and the performance of the method made possible the direct analysis of the extracts by LVI-PTV-GC-MS without needing any further treatment and avoiding losses of analytes. During the optimisation of LVI-PTV set-up, the response surfaces of every analyte signal against the cryo-focussing temperature, injection speed and vent time were built. Finally, the figures of merit of the whole procedure allowed the analysis of most of the musks owing to the low method detection limits (between 4 and 25 ng L⁻¹) and good precisions (<20%). In fact, this method was successfully applied to the analysis of musks in surface and wastewater samples. Galaxolide and tonalide are the main two synthetic musks observed in most of the analysed environmental water samples.

  9. Detailed deposition density maps constructed by large-scale soil sampling for gamma-ray emitting radioactive nuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kimiaki; Tanihata, Isao; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Saito, Takashi; Shimoura, Susumu; Otsuka, Takaharu; Onda, Yuichi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Ikeuchi, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Kinouchi, Nobuyuki; Saegusa, Jun; Seki, Akiyuki; Takemiya, Hiroshi; Shibata, Tokushi

    2015-01-01

    Soil deposition density maps of gamma-ray emitting radioactive nuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident were constructed on the basis of results from large-scale soil sampling. In total 10,915 soil samples were collected at 2168 locations. Gamma rays emitted from the samples were measured by Ge detectors and analyzed using a reliable unified method. The determined radioactivity was corrected to that of June 14, 2011 by considering the intrinsic decay constant of each nuclide. Finally the deposition maps were created for (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (131)I, (129m)Te and (110m)Ag. The radioactivity ratio of (134)Cs-(137)Cs was almost constant at 0.91 regardless of the locations of soil sampling. The radioactivity ratios of (131)I and (129m)Te-(137)Cs were relatively high in the regions south of the Fukushima NPP site. Effective doses for 50 y after the accident were evaluated for external and inhalation exposures due to the observed radioactive nuclides. The radiation doses from radioactive cesium were found to be much higher than those from the other radioactive nuclides.

  10. Absence of cystic fibrosis mutations in a large Asian population sample and occurrence of a homozygous S549N mutation in an inbred Pakistani family.

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, A; Richardson, R J; Boohene, J; Jackson, A; Nelson, R; Bhattacharya, S S

    1993-01-01

    The occurrence of cystic fibrosis is very rare in the Asian population. Carriers of the mutations most commonly found in Caucasians were not detected in a large Asian population sample of almost 900 chromosomes. However, an affected Pakistani child born to consanguineous parents was further investigated and shown to be homozygous for the mutation S549N (G-->A). Molecular and clinical data are presented which may improve our understanding of the phenotypic effects of the S549N mutation in the CFTR gene. Images PMID:7680378

  11. Large volume of water samples introduced in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of 15 triazole fungicides by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nie, Jing; Chen, Fujiang; Song, Zhiyu; Sun, Caixia; Li, Zuguang; Liu, Wenhan; Lee, Mawrong

    2016-10-01

    A novel method of large volume of water samples directly introduced in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was developed, which is based on ultrasound/manual shaking-synergy-assisted emulsification and self-generating carbon dioxide gas (CO2) breaking down the emulsion for the determination of 15 triazole fungicides by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. This technique makes low-density extraction solvent toluene (180 μL) dissolve in 200 mL of samples containing 0.05 mol L(-1) of HCl and 5 % of NaCl (w/v) to form a well emulsion by synergy of ultrasound and manual shaking, and injects NaHCO3 solution (1.0 mol L(-1)) to generate CO2 achieving phase separation with the assistance of ultrasound. The entire process is accomplished within 8 min. The injection of NaHCO3 to generate CO2 achieves phase separation that breaks through the centrifugation limited large volume aqueous samples. In addition, the device could be easily cleaned, and this kind of vessel could be reconfigured for any volume of samples. Under optimal conditions, the low limits of detection ranging from 0.7 to 51.7 ng L(-1), wide linearity, and enrichment factors obtained were in the range 924-3669 for different triazole fungicides. Southern end of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal water (Hangzhou, China) was used to verify the applicability of the developed method. Graphical Abstract Flow chart of ultrasound/manual shaking-synergy-assisted emulsification and self-generating carbon dioxide gas breaking down the emulsion. PMID:27580608

  12. A Large Sample Volume Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Probe for In-Situ Investigations with Constant Flow of Reactants

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jian Z.; Sears, Jesse A.; Mehta, Hardeep S.; Ford, Joseph J.; Kwak, Ja Hun; Zhu, Kake; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun; Hoyt, David W.; Peden, Charles HF

    2012-02-21

    A large-sample-volume constant-flow magic angle sample spinning (CF-MAS) NMR probe is reported for in-situ studies of the reaction dynamics, stable intermediates/transition states, and mechanisms of catalytic reactions. In our approach, the reactants are introduced into the catalyst bed using a fixed tube at one end of the MAS rotor while a second fixed tube, linked to a vacuum pump, is attached at the other end of the rotor. The pressure difference between both ends of the catalyst bed inside the sample cell space forces the reactants flowing through the catalyst bed, which improves the diffusion of the reactants and products. This design allows the use of a large sample volume for enhanced sensitivity and thus permitting in-situ 13C CF-MAS studies at natural abundance. As an example of application, we show that reactants, products and reaction transition states associated with the 2-butanol dehydration reaction over a mesoporous silicalite supported heteropoly acid catalyst (HPA/meso-silicalite-1) can all be detected in a single 13C CF-MAS NMR spectrum at natural abundance. Coke products can also be detected at natural 13C abundance and under the stopped flow condition. Furthermore, 1H CF-MAS NMR is used to identify the surface functional groups of HPA/meso-silicalite-1 under the condition of in-situ drying . We also show that the reaction dynamics of 2-butanol dehydration using HPA/meso-silicalite-1 as a catalyst can be explored using 1H CF-MAS NMR.

  13. Large volume of water samples introduced in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of 15 triazole fungicides by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nie, Jing; Chen, Fujiang; Song, Zhiyu; Sun, Caixia; Li, Zuguang; Liu, Wenhan; Lee, Mawrong

    2016-10-01

    A novel method of large volume of water samples directly introduced in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was developed, which is based on ultrasound/manual shaking-synergy-assisted emulsification and self-generating carbon dioxide gas (CO2) breaking down the emulsion for the determination of 15 triazole fungicides by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. This technique makes low-density extraction solvent toluene (180 μL) dissolve in 200 mL of samples containing 0.05 mol L(-1) of HCl and 5 % of NaCl (w/v) to form a well emulsion by synergy of ultrasound and manual shaking, and injects NaHCO3 solution (1.0 mol L(-1)) to generate CO2 achieving phase separation with the assistance of ultrasound. The entire process is accomplished within 8 min. The injection of NaHCO3 to generate CO2 achieves phase separation that breaks through the centrifugation limited large volume aqueous samples. In addition, the device could be easily cleaned, and this kind of vessel could be reconfigured for any volume of samples. Under optimal conditions, the low limits of detection ranging from 0.7 to 51.7 ng L(-1), wide linearity, and enrichment factors obtained were in the range 924-3669 for different triazole fungicides. Southern end of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal water (Hangzhou, China) was used to verify the applicability of the developed method. Graphical Abstract Flow chart of ultrasound/manual shaking-synergy-assisted emulsification and self-generating carbon dioxide gas breaking down the emulsion.

  14. Influence of large-scale motion on turbulent transport for confined coaxial jets. Volume 1: Analytical analysis of the experimental data using conditional sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brondum, D. C.; Bennett, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    The existence of large scale coherent structures in turbulent shear flows has been well documented. Discrepancies between experimental and computational data suggest a necessity to understand the roles they play in mass and momentum transport. Using conditional sampling and averaging on coincident two component velocity and concentration velocity experimental data for swirling and nonswirling coaxial jets, triggers for identifying the structures were examined. Concentration fluctuation was found to be an adequate trigger or indicator for the concentration-velocity data, but no suitable detector was located for the two component velocity data. The large scale structures are found in the region where the largest discrepancies exist between model and experiment. The traditional gradient transport model does not fit in this region as a result of these structures. The large scale motion was found to be responsible for a large percentage downstream at approximately the mean velocity of the overall flow in the axial direction. The radial mean velocity of the structures was found to be substantially greater than that of the overall flow.

  15. Comparative evaluation of seven different sample treatment approaches for large-scale multiclass sport drug testing in urine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Romero, Juan C; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2014-09-26

    Sample preparation is a critical step in large-scale multiclass analysis such as sport drug testing. Due to the wide heterogeneity of the analytes and the complexity of the matrix, the selection of a correct sample preparation method is essential, looking for a compromise between good recoveries for most of the analytes and cleanliness of the extract. In the present work, seven sample preparation procedures based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) (with 5 different cartridges), liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and sorbent-supported liquid extraction (SLE) were evaluated for multiclass sport drug testing in urine. The selected SPE sorbents were polymeric cartridges Agilent PLEXA™ and Oasis HLB™, mixed mode cation and anion exchange cartridges Oasis MAX™ and MCX™, and C18 cartridges. LLE was performed using tert-butyl methyl ether and SLE was carried out using Agilent Chem Elut™ cartridges. To evaluate the proposed extraction procedures, a list of 189 compounds were selected as representative from different groups of doping agents, including 34 steroids, 14 glucocorticosteroids, 24 diuretics and masking agents, 11 stimulants, 9 beta-agonist, 16 beta-blockers, 6 Selective Estrogen Receptors Modulators (SERMs), 24 narcotics and 22 other drugs of abuse/sport drugs. Blank urine samples were spiked at two levels of concentration, 2.5 and 25μgL(-1) and extracted with the different extraction protocols (n=6). The analysis of the extracts was carried out by liquid chromatography electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The use of solid-phase extraction with polymer cartridges provided high recoveries for most of the analytes tested and was found the more suitable method for this type of application given the additional advantages such as low sample and solvent consumption along with increased automation and throughput.

  16. A compact DD neutron generator–based NAA system to quantify manganese (Mn) in bone in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yingzi; Byrne, Patrick; Wang, Haoyu; Koltick, David; Zheng, Wei; Nie, Linda H.

    2015-01-01

    A deuterium-deuterium (DD) neutron generator–based neutron activation analysis (NAA) system has been developed to quantify metals, including manganese (Mn), in bone in vivo. A DD neutron generator with a flux of up to 3*109 neutrons/second was set up in our lab for this purpose. Optimized settings, including moderator, reflector, and shielding material and thickness, were selected based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations conducted in our previous work. Hand phantoms doped with different Mn concentrations were irradiated using the optimized DD neutron generator irradiation system. The Mn characteristic γ-rays were collected by an HPGe detector system with 100% relative efficiency. The calibration line of the Mn/calcium (Ca) count ratio versus bone Mn concentration was obtained (R2 = 0.99) using the hand phantoms. The detection limit (DL) was calculated to be about 1.05 μg/g dry bone (ppm) with an equivalent dose of 85.4 mSv to the hand. The DL can be reduced to 0.74 ppm by using two 100% HPGe detectors. The whole body effective dose delivered to the irradiated subject was calculated to be about 17 μSv. Given the average normal bone Mn concentration of 1 ppm in the general population, this system is promising for in vivo bone Mn quantification in humans. PMID:25154883

  17. De novo missense mutations in the NAA10 gene cause severe non-syndromic developmental delay in males and females

    PubMed Central

    Popp, Bernt; Støve, Svein I; Endele, Sabine; Myklebust, Line M; Hoyer, Juliane; Sticht, Heinrich; Azzarello-Burri, Silvia; Rauch, Anita; Arnesen, Thomas; Reis, André

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies revealed the power of whole-exome sequencing to identify mutations in sporadic cases with non-syndromic intellectual disability. We now identified de novo missense variants in NAA10 in two unrelated individuals, a boy and a girl, with severe global developmental delay but without any major dysmorphism by trio whole-exome sequencing. Both de novo variants were predicted to be deleterious, and we excluded other variants in this gene. This X-linked gene encodes N-alpha-acetyltransferase 10, the catalytic subunit of the NatA complex involved in multiple cellular processes. A single hypomorphic missense variant p.(Ser37Pro) was previously associated with Ogden syndrome in eight affected males from two different families. This rare disorder is characterized by a highly recognizable phenotype, global developmental delay and results in death during infancy. In an attempt to explain the discrepant phenotype, we used in vitro N-terminal acetylation assays which suggested that the severity of the phenotype correlates with the remaining catalytic activity. The variant in the Ogden syndrome patients exhibited a lower activity than the one seen in the boy with intellectual disability, while the variant in the girl was the most severe exhibiting only residual activity in the acetylation assays used. We propose that N-terminal acetyltransferase deficiency is clinically heterogeneous with the overall catalytic activity determining the phenotypic severity. PMID:25099252

  18. De novo missense mutations in the NAA10 gene cause severe non-syndromic developmental delay in males and females.

    PubMed

    Popp, Bernt; Støve, Svein I; Endele, Sabine; Myklebust, Line M; Hoyer, Juliane; Sticht, Heinrich; Azzarello-Burri, Silvia; Rauch, Anita; Arnesen, Thomas; Reis, André

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies revealed the power of whole-exome sequencing to identify mutations in sporadic cases with non-syndromic intellectual disability. We now identified de novo missense variants in NAA10 in two unrelated individuals, a boy and a girl, with severe global developmental delay but without any major dysmorphism by trio whole-exome sequencing. Both de novo variants were predicted to be deleterious, and we excluded other variants in this gene. This X-linked gene encodes N-alpha-acetyltransferase 10, the catalytic subunit of the NatA complex involved in multiple cellular processes. A single hypomorphic missense variant p.(Ser37Pro) was previously associated with Ogden syndrome in eight affected males from two different families. This rare disorder is characterized by a highly recognizable phenotype, global developmental delay and results in death during infancy. In an attempt to explain the discrepant phenotype, we used in vitro N-terminal acetylation assays which suggested that the severity of the phenotype correlates with the remaining catalytic activity. The variant in the Ogden syndrome patients exhibited a lower activity than the one seen in the boy with intellectual disability, while the variant in the girl was the most severe exhibiting only residual activity in the acetylation assays used. We propose that N-terminal acetyltransferase deficiency is clinically heterogeneous with the overall catalytic activity determining the phenotypic severity.

  19. A compact DD neutron generator-based NAA system to quantify manganese (Mn) in bone in vivo.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingzi; Byrne, Patrick; Wang, Haoyu; Koltick, David; Zheng, Wei; Nie, Linda H

    2014-09-01

    A deuterium-deuterium (DD) neutron generator-based neutron activation analysis (NAA) system has been developed to quantify metals, including manganese (Mn), in bone in vivo. A DD neutron generator with a flux of up to 3*10(9) neutrons s(-1) was set up in our lab for this purpose. Optimized settings, including moderator, reflector, and shielding material and thickness, were selected based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations conducted in our previous work. Hand phantoms doped with different Mn concentrations were irradiated using the optimized DD neutron generator irradiation system. The Mn characteristic γ-rays were collected by an HPGe detector system with 100% relative efficiency. The calibration line of the Mn/calcium (Ca) count ratio versus bone Mn concentration was obtained (R(2) = 0.99) using the hand phantoms. The detection limit (DL) was calculated to be about 1.05 μg g(-1) dry bone (ppm) with an equivalent dose of 85.4 mSv to the hand. The DL can be reduced to 0.74 ppm by using two 100% HPGe detectors. The whole body effective dose delivered to the irradiated subject was calculated to be about 17 μSv. Given the average normal bone Mn concentration of 1 ppm in the general population, this system is promising for in vivo bone Mn quantification in humans.

  20. Novel Synthesis Method of Micronized Ti-Zeolite Na-A and Cytotoxic Activity of Its Silver Exchanged Form

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, H. F.; Hegazy, W. H.; Abo-almaged, H. H.; El-Bassyouni, G. T.

    2015-01-01

    The core-shell method is used as a novel synthetic process of micronized Ti-Zeolite Na-A which involves calcination at 700°C of coated Egyptian Kaolin with titanium tetrachloride in acidic medium as the first step. The produced Ti-coated metakaolinite is subjected to microwave irradiation at low temperature of 80°C for 2 h. The prepared micronized Ti-containing Zeolites-A (Ti-Z-A) is characterized by FTIR, XRF, XRD, SEM, and EDS elemental analysis. Ag-exchanged form of Ti-Z-Ag is also prepared and characterized. The Wt% of silver exchanged onto the Ti-Zeolite structure was determined by atomic absorption spectra. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of Ti-Z-Ag against human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HePG2), colon cell line carcinoma (HCT116), lung carcinoma cell line (A549), and human Caucasian breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) is reported. The results were promising and revealed that the exchanged Ag form of micronized Ti-Zeolite-A can be used as novel antitumor drug. PMID:25705142

  1. Velocity dispersions and dynamical masses for a large sample of quiescent galaxies at z >1: Improved measures of the growth in mass and size

    SciTech Connect

    Belli, Sirio; Newman, Andrew B.; Ellis, Richard S.

    2014-03-10

    We present Keck LRIS spectroscopy for a sample of 103 massive (M > 10{sup 10.6} M {sub ☉}) galaxies with redshifts 0.9 < z < 1.6. Of these, 56 are quiescent with high signal-to-noise absorption line spectra, enabling us to determine robust stellar velocity dispersions for the largest sample yet available beyond a redshift of 1. Together with effective radii measured from deep Hubble Space Telescope images, we calculate dynamical masses and address key questions relating to the puzzling size growth claimed by many observers for quiescent galaxies over the redshift interval 0 < z < 2. Our large sample provides the first opportunity to carefully examine the relationship between stellar and dynamical masses at high redshift. We find this relation closely follows that determined locally. We also confirm the utility of the locally established empirical calibration which enables high-redshift velocity dispersions to be estimated photometrically, and we determine its accuracy to be 35%. To address recent suggestions that progenitor bias—the continued arrival of recently quenched larger galaxies—can largely explain the size evolution of quiescent galaxies, we examine the growth at fixed velocity dispersion assuming this quantity is largely unaffected by the merger history. Using the velocity dispersion-age relation observed in the local universe, we demonstrate that significant size and mass growth have clearly occurred in individual systems. Parameterizing the relation between mass and size growth over 0 < z < 1.6 as R∝M {sup α}, we find α = 1.6 ± 0.3, in agreement with theoretical expectations from simulations of minor mergers. Relaxing the assumption that the velocity dispersion is unchanging, we examine growth assuming a constant ranking in galaxy velocity dispersion. This approach is applicable only to the large-dispersion tail of the distribution, but yields a consistent growth rate of α = 1.4 ± 0.2. Both methods confirm that progenitor bias alone is

  2. The Hiroshima thermal-neutron discrepancy for (36)Cl at large distances. Part I: New (36)Cl measurements in granite samples exposed to A-bomb neutrons.

    PubMed

    Huber, Thomas; Rühm, Werner; Kato, Kazuo; Egbert, Stephen D; Kubo, Florian; Lazarev, Vitali; Nolte, Eckehart

    2005-10-01

    The long-lived radioisotope (36)Cl (half-life: 301,000 years) was measured in granite samples exposed to A-bomb neutrons at distances from 94 to 1,591 m from the hypocenter in Hiroshima, by means of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Measured (36)Cl/Cl ratios decrease from 1.6 x 10(-10) close to the hypocenter to about 1-2 x 10(-13), at a distance of 1,300 m from the hypocenter. At this distance and beyond the measured (36)Cl/Cl ratios do not change significantly and scatter around values of 1-2 x 10(-13). These findings suggest that the (36)Cl had been predominantly produced by thermalized neutrons from the A-bomb via neutron capture on stable (35)Cl, at distances from the hypocenter smaller than about 1,200 m. At larger distances, however, confounding processes induced by cosmic rays or neutrons from the decay of uranium and thorium become important. This hypothesis is theoretically and experimentally supported in a consecutive paper. The results are compared to calculations that are based on the most recent dosimetry system DS02. Close to the hypocenter, measured (36)Cl/Cl ratios are lower than those calculated, while they are significantly higher at large distances from the hypocenter. If the contribution of the cosmic rays and of the neutrons from the decay of uranium and thorium in the sample was subtracted, however, no significant deviation from the DS02 calculations was observed, at those distances. Thus, the Hiroshima neutron discrepancy reported in the literature for (36)Cl for samples from large distances from the hypocenter, i.e., higher measured (36)Cl/Cl ratios than predicted by the previous dosimetry system DS86, was not confirmed.

  3. Statistical searches for microlensing events in large, non-uniformly sampled time-domain surveys: A test using palomar transient factory data

    SciTech Connect

    Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Agüeros, Marcel A.; Fournier, Amanda P.; Street, Rachel; Ofek, Eran O.; Covey, Kevin R.; Levitan, David; Sesar, Branimir; Laher, Russ R.; Surace, Jason

    2014-01-20

    Many photometric time-domain surveys are driven by specific goals, such as searches for supernovae or transiting exoplanets, which set the cadence with which fields are re-imaged. In the case of the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), several sub-surveys are conducted in parallel, leading to non-uniform sampling over its ∼20,000 deg{sup 2} footprint. While the median 7.26 deg{sup 2} PTF field has been imaged ∼40 times in the R band, ∼2300 deg{sup 2} have been observed >100 times. We use PTF data to study the trade off between searching for microlensing events in a survey whose footprint is much larger than that of typical microlensing searches, but with far-from-optimal time sampling. To examine the probability that microlensing events can be recovered in these data, we test statistics used on uniformly sampled data to identify variables and transients. We find that the von Neumann ratio performs best for identifying simulated microlensing events in our data. We develop a selection method using this statistic and apply it to data from fields with >10 R-band observations, 1.1 × 10{sup 9} light curves, uncovering three candidate microlensing events. We lack simultaneous, multi-color photometry to confirm these as microlensing events. However, their number is consistent with predictions for the event rate in the PTF footprint over the survey's three years of operations, as estimated from near-field microlensing models. This work can help constrain all-sky event rate predictions and tests microlensing signal recovery in large data sets, which will be useful to future time-domain surveys, such as that planned with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  4. Statistical Searches for Microlensing Events in Large, Non-uniformly Sampled Time-Domain Surveys: A Test Using Palomar Transient Factory Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Agüeros, Marcel A.; Fournier, Amanda P.; Street, Rachel; Ofek, Eran O.; Covey, Kevin R.; Levitan, David; Laher, Russ R.; Sesar, Branimir; Surace, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Many photometric time-domain surveys are driven by specific goals, such as searches for supernovae or transiting exoplanets, which set the cadence with which fields are re-imaged. In the case of the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), several sub-surveys are conducted in parallel, leading to non-uniform sampling over its ~20,000 deg2 footprint. While the median 7.26 deg2 PTF field has been imaged ~40 times in the R band, ~2300 deg2 have been observed >100 times. We use PTF data to study the trade off between searching for microlensing events in a survey whose footprint is much larger than that of typical microlensing searches, but with far-from-optimal time sampling. To examine the probability that microlensing events can be recovered in these data, we test statistics used on uniformly sampled data to identify variables and transients. We find that the von Neumann ratio performs best for identifying simulated microlensing events in our data. We develop a selection method using this statistic and apply it to data from fields with >10 R-band observations, 1.1 × 109 light curves, uncovering three candidate microlensing events. We lack simultaneous, multi-color photometry to confirm these as microlensing events. However, their number is consistent with predictions for the event rate in the PTF footprint over the survey's three years of operations, as estimated from near-field microlensing models. This work can help constrain all-sky event rate predictions and tests microlensing signal recovery in large data sets, which will be useful to future time-domain surveys, such as that planned with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  5. Systemic control of cell division and endoreduplication by NAA and BAP by modulating CDKs in root tip cells of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Tank, Jigna G; Thaker, Vrinda S

    2014-01-01

    Molecular mechanism regulated by auxin and cytokinin during endoreduplication, cell division, and elongation process is studied by using Allium cepa roots as a model system. The activity of CDK genes modulated by auxin and cytokinin during cell division, elongation, and endoreduplication process is explained in this research work. To study the significance of auxin and cytokinin in the management of cell division and endoreduplication process in plant meristematic cells at molecular level endoreduplication was developed in root tips of Allium cepa by giving colchicine treatment. There were inhibition of vegetative growth, formation of c-tumor at root tip, and development of endoreduplicated cells after colchicine treatment. This c-tumor was further treated with NAA and BAP to reinitiate vegetative growth in roots. BAP gave positive response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from center of c-tumor. However, NAA gave negative response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from c-tumor. Further, CDKs gene expression analysis from normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormone (NAA or BAP) treated root tip was done and remarkable changes in transcription level of CDK genes in normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormones treated cells were observed.

  6. A propidium monoazide-quantitative PCR method for the detection and quantification of viable Enterococcus faecalis in large-volume samples of marine waters.

    PubMed

    Salam, Khaled W; El-Fadel, Mutasem; Barbour, Elie K; Saikaly, Pascal E

    2014-10-01

    The development of rapid detection assays of cell viability is essential for monitoring the microbiological quality of water systems. Coupling propidium monoazide with quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR) has been successfully applied in different studies for the detection and quantification of viable cells in small-volume samples (0.25-1.00 mL), but it has not been evaluated sufficiently in marine environments or in large-volume samples. In this study, we successfully integrated blue light-emitting diodes for photoactivating PMA and membrane filtration into the PMA-qPCR assay for the rapid detection and quantification of viable Enterococcus faecalis cells in 10-mL samples of marine waters. The assay was optimized in phosphate-buffered saline and seawater, reducing the qPCR signal of heat-killed E. faecalis cells by 4 log10 and 3 log10 units, respectively. Results suggest that high total dissolved solid concentration (32 g/L) in seawater can reduce PMA activity. Optimal PMA-qPCR standard curves with a 6-log dynamic range and detection limit of 10(2) cells/mL were generated for quantifying viable E. faecalis cells in marine waters. The developed assay was compared with the standard membrane filter (MF) method by quantifying viable E. faecalis cells in seawater samples exposed to solar radiation. The results of the developed PMA-qPCR assay did not match that of the standard MF method. This difference in the results reflects the different physiological states of E. faecalis cells in seawater. In conclusion, the developed assay is a rapid (∼5 h) method for the quantification of viable E. faecalis cells in marine recreational waters, which should be further improved and tested in different seawater settings.

  7. Elastic Properties of Subduction Zone Materials in the Large Shallow Slip Environment for the Tohoku 2011 Earthquake: Laboratory data from JFAST Core Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeppson, T.; Tobin, H. J.

    2014-12-01

    The 11 March 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake (Mw=9.0) produced large displacements of ~50 meters near the Japan Trench. In order to understand earthquake propagation and slip stabilization in this environment, quantitative values of the real elastic properties of fault zones and their surrounding wall rock material is crucial. Because elastic and mechanical properties of faults and wallrocks are controlling factors in fault strength, earthquake generation and propagation, and slip stabilization, an understanding of these properties and their depth dependence is essential to understanding and accurately modeling earthquake rupture. In particular, quantitatively measured S-wave speeds, needed for estimation of elastic properties, are scarce in the literature. We report laboratory ultrasonic velocity measurements performed at elevated pressures, as well as the calculated dynamic elastic moduli, for samples of the rock surrounding the Tohoku earthquake principal fault zone recovered by drilling during IODP Expedition 343, Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (JFAST). We performed measurements on five samples of gray mudstone from the hanging wall and one sample of underthrust brown mudstone from the footwall. We find P- and S-wave velocities of 2.0 to 2.4 km/s and 0.7 to 1.0 km/s, respectively, at 5 MPa effective pressure. At the same effective pressure, the hanging wall samples have shear moduli ranging from 1.4 to 2.2 GPa and the footwall sample has a shear modulus of 1.0 GPa. While these values are perhaps not surprising for shallow, clay-rich subduction zone sediments, they are substantially lower than the 30 GPa commonly assumed for rigidity in earthquake rupture and propagation models [e.g., Ide et al., 1993; Liu and Rice, 2005; Loveless and Meade, 2011]. In order to better understand the elastic properties of shallow subduction zone sediments, our measurements from the Japan Trench are compared to similar shallow drill core samples from the Nankai Trough, Costa Rica

  8. The VLT/NaCo large program to probe the occurrence of exoplanets and brown dwarfs in wide orbits. I. Sample definition and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desidera, S.; Covino, E.; Messina, S.; Carson, J.; Hagelberg, J.; Schlieder, J. E.; Biazzo, K.; Alcalá, J. M.; Chauvin, G.; Vigan, A.; Beuzit, J. L.; Bonavita, M.; Bonnefoy, M.; Delorme, P.; D'Orazi, V.; Esposito, M.; Feldt, M.; Girardi, L.; Gratton, R.; Henning, T.; Lagrange, A. M.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Launhardt, R.; Marmier, M.; Melo, C.; Meyer, M.; Mouillet, D.; Moutou, C.; Segransan, D.; Udry, S.; Zaidi, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Context. Young, close stars are ideal targets for searching planets using the direct imaging technique. The determination of stellar parameters is crucial for the interpretation of imaging survey results, particularly since the luminosity of substellar objects has a strong dependence on system age. Aims: We have conducted a large program with NaCo at the VLT to search for planets and brown dwarfs in wide orbits around 86 stars. A large fraction of the targets observed with NaCo were poorly investigated in the literature. We performed a study to characterize the fundamental properties (age, distance, and mass) of the stars in our sample. To improve target age determinations, we compiled and analyzed a complete set of age diagnostics. Methods: We measured spectroscopic parameters and age diagnostics using dedicated observations acquired with FEROS and CORALIE spectrographs at La Silla Observatory. We also made extensive use of archival spectroscopic data and the results that are available in the literature. Additionally, we exploited photometric time-series, which are available in ASAS and Super-WASP archives, to derive a rotational period for a large fraction of our program stars. Results: We provided updated characterization of all the targets observed in the VLT NaCo Large program, a survey designed to probe the occurrence of exoplanets and brown dwarfs in wide orbits. The median distance and age of our program stars are 64 pc and 100 Myr, respectively. Nearly all the stars have masses between 0.70 and 1.50 M⊙, with a median value of 1.01 M⊙. The typical metallicity is close to solar with a dispersion that is smaller than that of samples usually observed in radial velocity surveys. Several stars are confirmed or proposed here to be members of close young moving groups. Eight spectroscopic binaries are identified. Based on observations collected at La Silla and Paranal Observatory, ESO (Chile) using FEROS, HARPS, and NaCo; with the CORALIE echelle spectrograph

  9. Impurities analysis of polycrystalline silicon substrates: Neutronic Activation Analysis (NAA) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lounis, A.; Lenouar, K.; Gritly, Y.; Abbad, B.; Azzaz, M.; Taïbi, K.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we have determined the concentration of some impurities such as carbon, iron, copper, titanium, nickel of the flat product (polycrystalline silicon). These impurities generate a yield decrease in the photovoltaic components. The material (polycrystalline silicon) used in this work is manufactured by the Unit of Silicon Technology Development (UDTS Algiers, Algeria). The 80 kg ingot has been cutted into 16 briquettes in order to have plates (flat product) of 100 mm×100 mm dimensions. Each briquette is divided into three parts top (T), middle (M) and bottom (B). For this purpose, the following instrumental analysis techniques have been employed: neutronic analysis (neutronic activation analysis) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Masses of 80 mg are sampled and form of discs 18 mm in diameter, then exposed to a flux of neutron of 2.1012neutron cm-2 s-1 during 15 min. The energetic profile of incidental flux is constituted of fast neutrons (ΦR = 3.1012n.cm-2 s-1; E = 2 Mev), thermal neutrons (ΦTH = 1013n.cm-2 s-1; E = 0.025 ev) and epithermal neutrons (Φepi = 7.1011 n cm-2 s-1; E>4.9 ev), irradiation time 15 mn, after 20 mn of decrement, acquisitions of 300 s are carried out. The results are expressed by disintegration per second which does not exceed the 9000 Bq, 500 Bq and 2600 Bq, respectively for copper, titanium and nickel. It is observed that the impurities concentrations in the medium are higher. The impurities in the bottom of the ingots originate from the crucible. The impurities in the top originate from impurities dissolved in the liquid silicon, which have segregated to the top layer of the ingot and after solidification diffuse. Silicon corresponds to a mixture of three isotopes 28Si, 29Si and 30Si. These elements clearly appear on the mass spectrum (SIMS). The presence of iron and the one of nickel has been noticed.

  10. Schooling has smaller or insignificant effects on adult health in the US than suggested by cross-sectional associations: new estimates using relatively large samples of identical twins.

    PubMed

    Amin, Vikesh; Behrman, Jere R; Kohler, Hans-Peter

    2015-02-01

    Numerous theoretical reasons have been posited about why more schooling might improve health. Adult health outcomes and behaviors generally are significantly associated with schooling. However, such associations do not necessarily imply that schooling has causal effects on health outcomes and behaviors. Causal estimates based on schooling variation from policies and from within-MZ (monozygotic) twins have reached mixed conclusions. This study contributed new estimates of cross-sectional associations and within-MZ causal effects using three relatively large US twins samples. The estimates suggested that schooling was significantly associated with numerous health outcomes and behaviors. However, with within-MZ twins control for unobserved factors, schooling was no longer associated with most indicators of better health (with the exception of self-reported health), while it continued to be associated with outcomes such as fertility and spousal schooling. Similar patterns were observed for spousal schooling. PMID:25110343

  11. Mental health and substance abuse characteristics among a clinical sample of urban American Indian/Alaska native youths in a large California metropolitan area: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Daniel L; Johnson, Carrie L

    2012-02-01

    This study analyzes descriptive data among a clinical sample of American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) youths receiving mental health services in a large California metropolitan area. Among 118 urban AI/AN youths, mood disorders (41.5%) and adjustment disorder (35.4%) were the most common mental health diagnoses. Alcohol (69.2%) and marijuana (50.0%) were the most commonly used substances. Witnessing domestic violence (84.2%) and living with someone who had a substance abuse problem (64.7%) were reported. The majority of patients demonstrated various behavior and emotional problems. Enhancing culturally relevant mental health and substance abuse treatment and prevention programs for urban AI/AN youth is suggested.

  12. Prevalence and predictors of Axis I disorders in a large sample of treatment-seeking victims of sexual abuse and incest

    PubMed Central

    McElroy, Eoin; Shevlin, Mark; Elklit, Ask; Hyland, Philip; Murphy, Siobhan; Murphy, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a common occurrence and a robust, yet non-specific, predictor of adult psychopathology. While many demographic and abuse factors have been shown to impact this relationship, their common and specific effects remain poorly understood. Objective This study sought to assess the prevalence of Axis I disorders in a large sample of help-seeking victims of sexual trauma, and to examine the common and specific effects of demographic and abuse characteristics across these different diagnoses. Method The participants were attendees at four treatment centres in Denmark that provide psychological therapy for victims of CSA (N=434). Axis I disorders were assessed using the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between CSA characteristics (age of onset, duration, number of abusers, number of abusive acts) and 10 adult clinical syndromes. Results There was significant variation in the prevalence of disorders and the abuse characteristics were differentially associated with the outcome variables. Having experienced sexual abuse from more than one perpetrator was the strongest predictor of psychopathology. Conclusions The relationship between CSA and adult psychopathology is complex. Abuse characteristics have both unique and shared effects across different diagnoses. Highlights of the article The prevalence of Axis I disorders were assessed in a large sample of sexual abuse and incest survivors. The impact of demographic and abuse characteristics were also examined. There was significant variation in the prevalence of disorders. Abuse characteristics were differentially associated with the disorders. Abuse from multiple perpetrators was the strongest overall predictor of psychopathology. PMID:27064976

  13. Compton suppression method and epithermal NAA in the determination of nutrients and heavy metals in Nigerian food and beverages.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Y A; Landsberger, S; O'Kelly, D J; Braisted, J; Gabdo, H; Ewa, I O B; Umar, I M; Funtua, I I

    2010-10-01

    We used in this study Compton suppression method and epithermal neutron activation analysis to determine the concentration of nutrients and heavy metals in Nigerian food and beverages. The work was performed at the University of Texas TRIGA Reactor by short, medium, and long irradiation protocols, using thermal flux of 1.4x10(12)n cm(-2)s(-1) and epithermal flux of 1.4x10(11)n cm(-2)s(-1). Application of Compton suppression method has reduced interferences from Compton scattered photons thereby allowing easy evaluation of Na, Cl, Ca, Cu, Mn, Mg, Co, Cr, Rb, Fe, and Se. The epithermal NAA method has enabled determination of Cd, As, Ba, Sr, Br, I, and V with little turn-around time. Quality Control and Quality Assurance of the method was tested by analyzing four Standard Reference Materials (non-fat powdered milk, apple leaves, citrus leaves, and peach leaves) obtained from National Institute for Standards and Technology. Our results show that sorghum, millet, and maize have high values of Zn, Mn, Fe, low values of Cd, As, and Se. Powdered milks, rice, beans, and soybeans were found to have moderate amounts of all the elements. Tobacco recorded high content of Cd, Mn, and As, whereas tea, tsobo leaves, Baobab leaves, and okro seed have more As values than others. However, biscuits, macaroni, spaghetti, and noodles show lower concentrations of all the elements. The distribution of these nutrients and heavy metals in these food and beverages shows the need to fortify biscuits and pastas with micro and macro-nutrients and reduce the use of tobacco, tea, tsobo leaves, Baobab leaves, and Okro seed to avoid intake of heavy elements.

  14. Does developmental timing of exposure to child maltreatment predict memory performance in adulthood? Results from a large, population-based sample.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Erin C; Busso, Daniel S; Raffeld, Miriam R; Smoller, Jordan W; Nelson, Charles A; Doyle, Alysa E; Luk, Gigi

    2016-01-01

    Although maltreatment is a known risk factor for multiple adverse outcomes across the lifespan, its effects on cognitive development, especially memory, are poorly understood. Using data from a large, nationally representative sample of young adults (Add Health), we examined the effects of physical and sexual abuse on working and short-term memory in adulthood. We examined the association between exposure to maltreatment as well as its timing of first onset after adjusting for covariates. Of our sample, 16.50% of respondents were exposed to physical abuse and 4.36% to sexual abuse by age 17. An analysis comparing unexposed respondents to those exposed to physical or sexual abuse did not yield any significant differences in adult memory performance. However, two developmental time periods emerged as important for shaping memory following exposure to sexual abuse, but in opposite ways. Relative to non-exposed respondents, those exposed to sexual abuse during early childhood (ages 3-5), had better number recall and those first exposed during adolescence (ages 14-17) had worse number recall. However, other variables, including socioeconomic status, played a larger role (than maltreatment) on working and short-term memory. We conclude that a simple examination of "exposed" versus "unexposed" respondents may obscure potentially important within-group differences that are revealed by examining the effects of age at onset to maltreatment.

  15. [Development of a method for measuring dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) and dissolved ferrous iron in large batch in pore water samples of sediments with micro-volumes].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Zhu, Chun-Gang; Di, Xu; Ding, Shi-Ming

    2014-04-01

    A method was established to measure the concentrations of dissolved reactive phosphate (DRP) and dissolved ferrous iron (Fe) in micro-volume solution samples through colorimetric determination in large batch using a 384-well Microplate Spectrophotometer. Concentrations of DRP and dissolved Fe were determined by the molybdenum blue and phenanthroline colorimetric methods, respectively. The results showed that the sample consumption used for each parameter was between 20 and 50 microL after dilution, and the detection limits for DRP and dissolved Fe were 0.006 mg x L(-1) and 0.010 mg x L(-1) respectively, while the analytical precision varied between 1% and 5%. The established method was applied to measure DRP and dissolved Fe in pore waters of sediment profiles in Lake Taihu, which were collected by a high-resolution Peeper (HR-Peeper) device with a vertical resolution of 2 mm. The results showed a simultaneous increase of DRP and dissolved Fe in their concentrations with the depth of two sediment profiles investigated.

  16. Large volume sample stacking with EOF and sweeping in CE for determination of common preservatives in cosmetic products by chemometric experimental design.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yi-Cian; Wang, Chun-Chi; Chen, Yen-Ling; Wu, Shou-Mei

    2012-05-01

    This study proposes a capillary electrophoresis method incorporating large volume sample stacking, EOF and sweeping for detection of common preservatives used in cosmetic products. The method was developed using chemometric experimental design (fractional factorial design and central composite design) to determine multiple separation variables by efficient steps. The samples were loaded by hydrodynamic injection (10 psi, 90 s), and separated by phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 3) containing 30% methanol and 80 mM SDS at -20 kV. During method validation, calibration curves were found to be linear over a range of 5-100 μg/mL for butyl paraben and isobutyl paraben; 0.05-10 μg/mL for ethyl paraben; 0.2-50 μg/mL for dehydroacetic acid; 0.5-70 μg/mL for methyl paraben; 5-350 μg/mL for sorbic acid; 0.02-450 μg/mL for p-hydroxybenzoic acid and 0.05-10 μg/mL for salicylic acid and benzoic acid. The analytes were analysed simultaneously and their detection limits (S/N = 3) were down to 0.005-2 μg/mL. The analysis method was successfully used for detection of preservatives used in commercial cosmetics.

  17. Highly sensitive Escherichia coli O157:H7 detection in a large volume sample using a conical polymer tube chamber consisting of micro-glass beads.

    PubMed

    Won, Ji Yeong; Min, Junhong

    2010-09-15

    In this study, we developed a method for the highly sensitive detection of viable pathogenic bacteria in a large volume sample by performing RNA concentration, amplification, and using fluorescently tagged capture probes in a single polymer chamber without transferring RNA samples from one chamber to another. Nucleic acids were extracted from Escherichia coli O157:H7 and loaded into glass micro-beads embedded in a conical polymer tube chamber. Nucleic acids were concentrated in the micro-tube in a low pH buffer (pH 5). The mRNA, which was adsorbed to the glass micro-beads, was amplified by Nucleic Acid Sequence Based Amplification in the same chamber at a relatively high pH (pH 8.9). The products amplified were measured using the hair-loop type detection probe with FAM and DABCYL, which was pre-mixed in the NASBA mater mixture. As a result, high sensitivity (100% for rain water and 60% for river water) with less than 10 viable E. coli O157:H7 in 100ml could be achieved within 4h using the simple method proposed in this study.

  18. Analysis of Six β-Lactam Residues in Milk and Egg by Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography with Large-Volume Sample Stacking and Polarity Switching.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yu-Xiu; Chen, Guan-Hua; Fang, Rou; Zhang, Li; Yi, Ling-Xiao; Meng, Hong-Lian

    2016-05-01

    A new micellar electrokinetic chromatography method with large-volume sample stacking and polarity switching was developed to analyze amoxicllin, cephalexin, oxacillin, penicillin G, cefazolin, and cefoperazone in milk and egg. The important parameters influencing separation and enrichment factors were optimized. The optimized running buffer consisted of 10 mM phosphate and 22 mM SDS at pH 6.7. The sample size was 1.47 kPa × 690 s, the reverse voltage was 20 kV, and the electric current recovery was 95%. Under these optimum conditions, the enrichment factors of six β-lactams were 193-601. Their LODs were <0.26 ng/g, and LOQs were all 2 ng/g, which was only 1/50-1/2 of the maximum residual limits demanded by U.S. and Japanese regulations. The intraday and interday RSDs of method were lower than 3.70 and 3.91%, respectively. The method can be applied to determine these six antibiotic residues in egg and milk. PMID:27088652

  19. Comparison of eleven methods for genomic DNA extraction suitable for large-scale whole-genome genotyping and long-term DNA banking using blood samples.

    PubMed

    Psifidi, Androniki; Dovas, Chrysostomos I; Bramis, Georgios; Lazou, Thomai; Russel, Claire L; Arsenos, Georgios; Banos, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    Over the recent years, next generation sequencing and microarray technologies have revolutionized scientific research with their applications to high-throughput analysis of biological systems. Isolation of high quantities of pure, intact, double stranded, highly concentrated, not contaminated genomic DNA is prerequisite for successful and reliable large scale genotyping analysis. High quantities of pure DNA are also required for the creation of DNA-banks. In the present study, eleven different DNA extraction procedures, including phenol-chloroform, silica and magnetic beads based extractions, were examined to ascertain their relative effectiveness for extracting DNA from ovine blood samples. The quality and quantity of the differentially extracted DNA was subsequently assessed by spectrophotometric measurements, Qubit measurements, real-time PCR amplifications and gel electrophoresis. Processing time, intensity of labor and cost for each method were also evaluated. Results revealed significant differences among the eleven procedures and only four of the methods yielded satisfactory outputs. These four methods, comprising three modified silica based commercial kits (Modified Blood, Modified Tissue, Modified Dx kits) and an in-house developed magnetic beads based protocol, were most appropriate for extracting high quality and quantity DNA suitable for large-scale microarray genotyping and also for long-term DNA storage as demonstrated by their successful application to 600 individuals.

  20. Moving into a new era of periodontal genetic studies: relevance of large case-control samples using severe phenotypes for genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Vaithilingam, R D; Safii, S H; Baharuddin, N A; Ng, C C; Cheong, S C; Bartold, P M; Schaefer, A S; Loos, B G

    2014-12-01

    Studies to elucidate the role of genetics as a risk factor for periodontal disease have gone through various phases. In the majority of cases, the initial 'hypothesis-dependent' candidate-gene polymorphism studies did not report valid genetic risk loci. Following a large-scale replication study, these initially positive results are believed to be caused by type 1 errors. However, susceptibility genes, such as CDKN2BAS (Cyclin Dependend KiNase 2B AntiSense RNA; alias ANRIL [ANtisense Rna In the Ink locus]), glycosyltransferase 6 domain containing 1 (GLT6D1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), have been reported as conclusive risk loci of periodontitis. The search for genetic risk factors accelerated with the advent of 'hypothesis-free' genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, despite many different GWAS being performed for almost all human diseases, only three GWAS on periodontitis have been published - one reported genome-wide association of GLT6D1 with aggressive periodontitis (a severe phenotype of periodontitis), whereas the remaining two, which were performed on patients with chronic periodontitis, were not able to find significant associations. This review discusses the problems faced and the lessons learned from the search for genetic risk variants of periodontitis. Current and future strategies for identifying genetic variance in periodontitis, and the importance of planning a well-designed genetic study with large and sufficiently powered case-control samples of severe phenotypes, are also discussed. PMID:24528298

  1. Brief report: accuracy and response time for the recognition of facial emotions in a large sample of children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Fink, Elian; de Rosnay, Marc; Wierda, Marlies; Koot, Hans M; Begeer, Sander

    2014-09-01

    The empirical literature has presented inconsistent evidence for deficits in the recognition of basic emotion expressions in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), which may be due to the focus on research with relatively small sample sizes. Additionally, it is proposed that although children with ASD may correctly identify emotion expression they rely on more deliberate, more time-consuming strategies in order to accurately recognize emotion expressions when compared to typically developing children. In the current study, we examine both emotion recognition accuracy and response time in a large sample of children, and explore the moderating influence of verbal ability on these findings. The sample consisted of 86 children with ASD (M age = 10.65) and 114 typically developing children (M age = 10.32) between 7 and 13 years of age. All children completed a pre-test (emotion word-word matching), and test phase consisting of basic emotion recognition, whereby they were required to match a target emotion expression to the correct emotion word; accuracy and response time were recorded. Verbal IQ was controlled for in the analyses. We found no evidence of a systematic deficit in emotion recognition accuracy or response time for children with ASD, controlling for verbal ability. However, when controlling for children's accuracy in word-word matching, children with ASD had significantly lower emotion recognition accuracy when compared to typically developing children. The findings suggest that the social impairments observed in children with ASD are not the result of marked deficits in basic emotion recognition accuracy or longer response times. However, children with ASD may be relying on other perceptual skills (such as advanced word-word matching) to complete emotion recognition tasks at a similar level as typically developing children.

  2. Photo anthropometric variations in Japanese facial features: Establishment of large-sample standard reference data for personal identification using a three-dimensional capture system.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Y; Wada, B; Taniguchi, K; Miyasaka, S; Imaizumi, K

    2015-12-01

    This study clarifies the anthropometric variations of the Japanese face by presenting large-sample population data of photo anthropometric measurements. The measurements can be used as standard reference data for the personal identification of facial images in forensic practices. To this end, three-dimensional (3D) facial images of 1126 Japanese individuals (865 male and 261 female Japanese individuals, aged 19-60 years) were acquired as samples using an already validated 3D capture system, and normative anthropometric analysis was carried out. In this anthropometric analysis, first, anthropological landmarks (22 items, i.e., entocanthion (en), alare (al), cheilion (ch), zygion (zy), gonion (go), sellion (se), gnathion (gn), labrale superius (ls), stomion (sto), labrale inferius (li)) were positioned on each 3D facial image (the direction of which had been adjusted to the Frankfort horizontal plane as the standard position for appropriate anthropometry), and anthropometric absolute measurements (19 items, i.e., bientocanthion breadth (en-en), nose breadth (al-al), mouth breadth (ch-ch), bizygomatic breadth (zy-zy), bigonial breadth (go-go), morphologic face height (se-gn), upper-lip height (ls-sto), lower-lip height (sto-li)) were exported using computer software for the measurement of a 3D digital object. Second, anthropometric indices (21 items, i.e., (se-gn)/(zy-zy), (en-en)/(al-al), (ls-li)/(ch-ch), (ls-sto)/(sto-li)) were calculated from these exported measurements. As a result, basic statistics, such as the mean values, standard deviations, and quartiles, and details of the distributions of these anthropometric results were shown. All of the results except "upper/lower lip ratio (ls-sto)/(sto-li)" were normally distributed. They were acquired as carefully as possible employing a 3D capture system and 3D digital imaging technologies. The sample of images was much larger than any Japanese sample used before for the purpose of personal identification. The

  3. Zirconia coated stir bar sorptive extraction combined with large volume sample stacking capillary electrophoresis-indirect ultraviolet detection for the determination of chemical warfare agent degradation products in water samples.

    PubMed

    Li, Pingjing; Hu, Bin; Li, Xiaoyong

    2012-07-20

    In this study, a sensitive, selective and reliable analytical method by combining zirconia (ZrO₂) coated stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) with large volume sample stacking capillary electrophoresis-indirect ultraviolet (LVSS-CE/indirect UV) was developed for the direct analysis of chemical warfare agent degradation products of alkyl alkylphosphonic acids (AAPAs) (including ethyl methylphosphonic acid (EMPA) and pinacolyl methylphosphonate (PMPA)) and methylphosphonic acid (MPA) in environmental waters. ZrO₂ coated stir bar was prepared by adhering nanometer-sized ZrO₂ particles onto the surface of stir bar with commercial PDMS sol as adhesion agent. Due to the high affinity of ZrO₂ to the electronegative phosphonate group, ZrO₂ coated stir bars could selectively extract the strongly polar AAPAs and MPA. After systematically optimizing the extraction conditions of ZrO₂-SBSE, the analytical performance of ZrO₂-SBSE-CE/indirect UV and ZrO₂-SBSE-LVSS-CE/indirect UV was assessed. The limits of detection (LODs, at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3) obtained by ZrO₂-SBSE-CE/indirect UV were 13.4-15.9 μg/L for PMPA, EMPA and MPA. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=7, c=200 μg/L) of the corrected peak area for the target analytes were in the range of 6.4-8.8%. Enhancement factors (EFs) in terms of LODs were found to be from 112- to 145-fold. By combining ZrO₂ coating SBSE with LVSS as a dual preconcentration strategy, the EFs were magnified up to 1583-fold, and the LODs of ZrO₂-SBSE-LVSS-CE/indirect UV were 1.4, 1.2 and 3.1 μg/L for PMPA, EMPA, and MPA, respectively. The RSDs (n=7, c=20 μg/L) were found to be in the range of 9.0-11.8%. The developed ZrO₂-SBSE-LVSS-CE/indirect UV method has been successfully applied to the analysis of PMPA, EMPA, and MPA in different environmental water samples, and the recoveries for the spiked water samples were found to be in the range of 93.8-105.3%. PMID:22673812

  4. Application of bimodal distribution to the detection of changes in uranium concentration in drinking water collected by random daytime sampling method from a large water supply zone.

    PubMed

    Garboś, Sławomir; Święcicka, Dorota

    2015-11-01

    The random daytime (RDT) sampling method was used for the first time in the assessment of average weekly exposure to uranium through drinking water in a large water supply zone. Data set of uranium concentrations determined in 106 RDT samples collected in three runs from the water supply zone in Wroclaw (Poland), cannot be simply described by normal or log-normal distributions. Therefore, a numerical method designed for the detection and calculation of bimodal distribution was applied. The extracted two distributions containing data from the summer season of 2011 and the winter season of 2012 (nI=72) and from the summer season of 2013 (nII=34) allowed to estimate means of U concentrations in drinking water: 0.947 μg/L and 1.23 μg/L, respectively. As the removal efficiency of uranium during applied treatment process is negligible, the effect of increase in uranium concentration can be explained by higher U concentration in the surface-infiltration water used for the production of drinking water. During the summer season of 2013, heavy rains were observed in Lower Silesia region, causing floods over the territory of the entire region. Fluctuations in uranium concentrations in surface-infiltration water can be attributed to releases of uranium from specific sources - migration from phosphate fertilizers and leaching from mineral deposits. Thus, exposure to uranium through drinking water may increase during extreme rainfall events. The average chronic weekly intakes of uranium through drinking water, estimated on the basis of central values of the extracted normal distributions, accounted for 3.2% and 4.1% of tolerable weekly intake.

  5. Application of dried blood spots to determine vitamin D status in a large nutritional study with unsupervised sampling: the Food4Me project.

    PubMed

    Hoeller, Ulrich; Baur, Manuela; Roos, Franz F; Brennan, Lorraine; Daniel, Hannelore; Fallaize, Rosalind; Forster, Hannah; Gibney, Eileen R; Gibney, Mike; Godlewska, Magdalena; Hartwig, Kai; Kolossa, Silvia; Lambrinou, Christina P; Livingstone, Katherine M; Lovegrove, Julie A; Macready, Anna L; Manios, Yannis; Marsaux, Cyril F M; Martinez, J Alfredo; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Moschonis, George; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; O'Donovan, Clare B; San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Saris, Wim H M; Surwiłło, Agnieszka; Traczyk, Iwona; Tsirigoti, Lydia; Walsh, Marianne C; Woolhead, Clara; Mathers, John C; Weber, Peter

    2016-01-28

    An efficient and robust method to measure vitamin D (25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) and 25-hydroxy vitamin D2 in dried blood spots (DBS) has been developed and applied in the pan-European multi-centre, internet-based, personalised nutrition intervention study Food4Me. The method includes calibration with blood containing endogenous 25(OH)D3, spotted as DBS and corrected for haematocrit content. The methodology was validated following international standards. The performance characteristics did not reach those of the current gold standard liquid chromatography-MS/MS in plasma for all parameters, but were found to be very suitable for status-level determination under field conditions. DBS sample quality was very high, and 3778 measurements of 25(OH)D3 were obtained from 1465 participants. The study centre and the season within the study centre were very good predictors of 25(OH)D3 levels (P<0·001 for each case). Seasonal effects were modelled by fitting a sine function with a minimum 25(OH)D3 level on 20 January and a maximum on 21 July. The seasonal amplitude varied from centre to centre. The largest difference between winter and summer levels was found in Germany and the smallest in Poland. The model was cross-validated to determine the consistency of the predictions and the performance of the DBS method. The Pearson's correlation between the measured values and the predicted values was r 0·65, and the sd of their differences was 21·2 nmol/l. This includes the analytical variation and the biological variation within subjects. Overall, DBS obtained by unsupervised sampling of the participants at home was a viable methodology for obtaining vitamin D status information in a large nutritional study.

  6. Increased sampling of both genes and taxa improves resolution of phylogenetic relationships within Magnoliidae, a large and early-diverging clade of angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Massoni, Julien; Forest, Félix; Sauquet, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Magnoliidae have been supported as a clade in the majority of large-scale molecular phylogenetic studies of angiosperms. This group consists of about 10,000 species assigned to 20 families and four orders, Canellales, Piperales, Laurales, and Magnoliales. Some relationships among the families are still largely debated. Here, we reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of Magnoliidae as a whole, sampling 199 species (representing ca. 75% of genera) and 12 molecular markers from the three genomes (plastid atpB, matK, trnL intron, trnL-trnF spacer, ndhF, rbcL; mitochondrial atp1, matR, mtSSU, mtLSU; nuclear 18s rDNA, 26S rDNA). Maximum likelihood, Bayesian and maximum parsimony analyses yielded congruent trees, with good resolution and high support values for higher-level relationships. This study further confirms, with greater levels of support, two major clades in Magnoliidae: Canellales+Piperales and Laurales+Magnoliales. Relationships among the 20 families are, in general, well resolved and supported. Several previously ambiguous relationships are now well supported. For instance, the Aristolochiaceae s.l. (incl. Asaroideae, Aristolochioideae, and Lactoris) are monophyletic with high support when Hydnoraceae are excluded. The latter family was not included in most previous studies because of the lack of suitable plastid sequences, a consequence of the parasitic habit of its species. Here, we confirm that it belongs in Aristolochiaceae. Our analyses also provide moderate support for a sister group relationship between Lauraceae and Monimiaceae. Conversely, the exact position of Magnoliaceae remains very difficult to determine. This study provides a robust phylogenetic background to address the evolutionary history of an important and highly diverse clade of early-diverging angiosperms.

  7. Dynamics of large submarine landslide from analyzing the basal section of mass-transport deposits sampled by IODP Nankai Trough Submarine Landslide History (NanTroSLIDE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strasser, M.; Dugan, B.; Henry, P.; Jurado, M. J.; Kanagawa, K.; Kanamatsu, T.; Moore, G. F.; Panieri, G.; Pini, G. A.

    2014-12-01

    Mulitbeam swath bathymetry and reflection seismic data image large submarine landslide complexes along ocean margins worldwide. However, slope failure initiation, acceleration of motion and mass-transport dynamics of submarine landslides, which are all key to assess their tsunamigenic potential or impact on offshore infrastructure, cannot be conclusively deduced from geometric expression and acoustic characteristics of geophysical data sets alone, but cores and in situ data from the subsurface are needed to complement our understanding of submarine landslide dynamics. Here we present data and results from drilling, logging and coring thick mass-transport deposits (MTDs) in the Nankai Trough accretionary prism during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expeditions 333 and 338. We integrate analysis on 3D seismic and Logging While Drilling (LWD) data sets, with data from laboratory analysis on core samples (geotechnical shear experiments, X-ray Computed Tomography (X-CT), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of deformation indicators, and magnetic fabric analysis) to study nature and mode of deformation and dynamics of mass transport in this active tectonic setting. In particular, we show that Fe-S filaments commonly observed on X-ray CT data of marine sediments, likely resulting from early diagenesis of worm burrows, are folded in large MTDs and display preferential orientation at their base. The observed lineation has low dip and is interpreted as the consequence of shear along the basal surface, revealing a new proxy for strain in soft sediments that can be applied to cores that reach through the entire depth of MTDs. Shear deformation in the lower part of thick MTDs is also revealed from AMS data, which - in combination with other paleo-magnetic data - is used to reconstruct strain and transport direction of the landslides.

  8. The percentage flow-mediated dilation index: a large-sample investigation of its appropriateness, potential for bias and causal nexus in vascular medicine.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Greg; Batterham, Alan M

    2013-12-01

    The percentage flow-mediated dilation index (FMD%) scales the increase in arterial diameter (Ddiff) as a constant proportion of baseline artery diameter (Dbase). We have demonstrated, albeit with small samples, that the scaling properties of FMD% can lead to biased inferences on endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the underlying rationale and potential bias of FMD% using a selection of new examples from the large (n = 3499) and diverse Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). In this dataset, we found that smaller values of Ddiff are associated with larger values of Dbase, which contradicts the scaling properties of FMD%. Consequently, FMD% 'over-scales' and naturally generates an even stronger negative correlation between itself and Dbase. Using a data simulation, we show that this FMD%-Dbase correlation can be a statistical artefact due to inappropriate scaling. The new examples we present from MESA indicate that FMD% biases the differences in flow-mediated response between men and women, Framingham risk score categories, and diseased and healthy people. We demonstrate how FMD%, as an exposure for predicting cardiovascular disease, is confounded by its dependency on Dbase, which itself could be clinically important. This critical review, incorporating an allometric analysis of a large dataset, suggests that the FMD% index has a less-than-clear rationale, can itself generate the Dbase-dependency problem, provides biased estimates of differences in the flow-mediated response, complicates the interpretation of the flow-mediated protocol and clouds the causal pathway to vascular disease. These interpretative problems can be resolved by applying accepted allometric principles to the flow-mediated response.

  9. What Types of Pornography Do People Use and Do They Cluster? Assessing Types and Categories of Pornography Consumption in a Large-Scale Online Sample.

    PubMed

    Hald, Gert Martin; Štulhofer, Aleksandar

    2016-09-01

    Previous research on exposure to different types of pornography has primarily relied on analyses of millions of search terms and histories or on user exposure patterns within a given time period rather than the self-reported frequency of consumption. Further, previous research has almost exclusively relied on theoretical or ad hoc overarching categorizations of different types of pornography, when investigating patterns of pornography exposure, rather than latent structure analyses of these exposure patterns. In contrast, using a large sample of 18- to 40-year-old heterosexual and nonheterosexual Croatian men and women, this study investigated the self-reported frequency of using 27 different types of pornography and statistically explored their latent structures. The