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Sample records for large target volumes

  1. Targeted Screening and Quantification of dl-PCBs and Dioxins in Various Foodstuffs by Programmed-temperature Vaporizer Large-volume Injection Coupled to GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ngoc Huy; Bugey, Aurélie; Zimmerli, Pierre; Nançoz, Joëlle; Ortelli, Didier; Edder, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    In 2009, high concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were found in soils located near the municipal garbage incinerator of Geneva. The matter of food contamination in this area was raised. Based on exposure criteria, a strategy of analysis of animal fats has been established with farmers in the Geneva area. Most methods of analysis of dl-PCBs, dioxins and furans, are based on gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) and considered as the reference methodology. An innovative approach was developed by programmed-temperature vaporizer large-volume injection (PTV-LV) and gas chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) analysis. This analytical method was validated and was found suitable for screening and quantification of target compounds in animal fats (beef, pork, sheep, etc. ). PTV-LV coupled to GC-MS/MS appeared to be a good alternative compared to the GC-HRMS strategy, offering a good compromise between sensitivity, versatility of instrumentation, and economical aspects. A survey of 121 samples was conducted.

  2. SU-E-T-480: Radiobiological Dose Comparison of Single Fraction SRS, Multi-Fraction SRT and Multi-Stage SRS of Large Target Volumes Using the Linear-Quadratic Formula

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, C; Hrycushko, B; Jiang, S; Meyer, J; Timmerman, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To compare the radiobiological effect on large tumors and surrounding normal tissues from single fraction SRS, multi-fractionated SRT, and multi-staged SRS treatment. Methods: An anthropomorphic head phantom with a centrally located large volume target (18.2 cm{sup 3}) was scanned using a 16 slice large bore CT simulator. Scans were imported to the Multiplan treatment planning system where a total prescription dose of 20Gy was used for a single, three staged and three fractionated treatment. Cyber Knife treatment plans were inversely optimized for the target volume to achieve at least 95% coverage of the prescription dose. For the multistage plan, the target was segmented into three subtargets having similar volume and shape. Staged plans for individual subtargets were generated based on a planning technique where the beam MUs of the original plan on the total target volume are changed by weighting the MUs based on projected beam lengths within each subtarget. Dose matrices for each plan were export in DICOM format and used to calculate equivalent dose distributions in 2Gy fractions using an alpha beta ratio of 10 for the target and 3 for normal tissue. Results: Singe fraction SRS, multi-stage plan and multi-fractionated SRT plans had an average 2Gy dose equivalent to the target of 62.89Gy, 37.91Gy and 33.68Gy, respectively. The normal tissue within 12Gy physical dose region had an average 2Gy dose equivalent of 29.55Gy, 16.08Gy and 13.93Gy, respectively. Conclusion: The single fraction SRS plan had the largest predicted biological effect for the target and the surrounding normal tissue. The multi-stage treatment provided for a more potent biologically effect on target compared to the multi-fraction SRT treatments with less biological normal tissue than single-fraction SRS treatment.

  3. Large volume manufacture of dymalloy

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-22

    The purpose of this research was to test the commercial viability and feasibility of Dymalloy, a composite material to measure thermal conductivity. Dymalloy was developed as part of a CRADA with Sun Microsystems. Sun Microsystems was a potential end user of Dymalloy as a substrate for MCMS. Sun had no desire to be involved in the manufacture of this material. The goal of this small business CRADA with Spectra Mat was to establish the high volume commercial manufacturing industry source for Dymalloy required by an end-user such as Sun Microsystems. The difference between the fabrication technique developed during the CRADA and this proposed work related to the mechanical technique of coating the diamond powder. Mechanical parts for the high-volume diamond powder coating process existed; however, they needed to be installed in an existing coating system for evaluation. Sputtering systems similar to the one required for this project were available at LLNL. Once the diamond powder was coated, both LLNL and Spectra Mat could make and test the Dymalloy composites. Spectra Mat manufactured Dymalloy composites in order to evaluate and establish a reasonable cost estimate on their existing processing capabilities. This information was used by Spectra Mat to define the market and cost-competitive products that could be commercialized from this new substrate material.

  4. Simulating cosmic reionization: how large a volume is large enough?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iliev, Ilian T.; Mellema, Garrelt; Ahn, Kyungjin; Shapiro, Paul R.; Mao, Yi; Pen, Ue-Li

    2014-03-01

    We present the largest-volume (425 Mpc h-1 = 607 Mpc on a side) full radiative transfer simulation of cosmic reionization to date. We show that there is significant additional power in density fluctuations at very large scales. We systematically investigate the effects this additional power has on the progress, duration and features of reionization and on selected reionization observables. We find that comoving volume of ˜100 Mpc h-1 per side is sufficient for deriving a convergent mean reionization history, but that the reionization patchiness is significantly underestimated. We use jackknife splitting to quantify the convergence of reionization properties with simulation volume. We find that sub-volumes of ˜100 Mpc h-1 per side or larger yield convergent reionization histories, except for the earliest times, but smaller volumes of ˜50 Mpc h-1 or less are not well converged at any redshift. Reionization history milestones show significant scatter between the sub-volumes, as high as Δz ˜ 1 for ˜50 Mpc h-1 volumes. If we only consider mean-density sub-regions the scatter decreases, but remains at Δz ˜ 0.1-0.2 for the different size sub-volumes. Consequently, many potential reionization observables like 21-cm rms, 21-cm PDF skewness and kurtosis all show good convergence for volumes of ˜200 Mpc h-1, but retain considerable scatter for smaller volumes. In contrast, the three-dimensional 21-cm power spectra at large scales (k < 0.25 h Mpc-1) do not fully converge for any sub-volume size. These additional large-scale fluctuations significantly enhance the 21-cm fluctuations, which should improve the prospects of detection considerably, given the lower foregrounds and greater interferometer sensitivity at higher frequencies.

  5. Variation in the Gross Tumor Volume and Clinical Target Volume for Preoperative Radiotherapy of Primary Large High-Grade Soft Tissue Sarcoma of the Extremity Among RTOG Sarcoma Radiation Oncologists

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Dian; Bosch, Walter; Kirsch, David G.; Al Lozi, Rawan; El Naqa, Issam; Roberge, David; Finkelstein, Steven E.; Petersen, Ivy; Haddock, Michael; Chen, Yen-Lin E.; Saito, Naoyuki G.; Hitchcock, Ying J.; Wolfson, Aaron H.; DeLaney, Thomas F.

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate variability in the definition of preoperative radiotherapy gross tumor volume (GTV) and clinical target volume (CTV) delineated by sarcoma radiation oncologists. Methods and Materials: Extremity sarcoma planning CT images along with the corresponding diagnostic MRI from two patients were distributed to 10 Radiation Therapy Oncology Group sarcoma radiation oncologists with instructions to define GTV and CTV using standardized guidelines. The CT data with contours were then returned for central analysis. Contours representing statistically corrected 95% (V95) and 100% (V100) agreement were computed for each structure. Results: For the GTV, the minimum, maximum, mean (SD) volumes (mL) were 674, 798, 752 {+-} 35 for the lower extremity case and 383, 543, 447 {+-} 46 for the upper extremity case. The volume (cc) of the union, V95 and V100 were 882, 761, and 752 for the lower, and 587, 461, and 455 for the upper extremity, respectively. The overall GTV agreement was judged to be almost perfect in both lower and upper extremity cases (kappa = 0.9 [p < 0.0001] and kappa = 0.86 [p < 0.0001]). For the CTV, the minimum, maximum, mean (SD) volumes (mL) were 1145, 1911, 1605 {+-} 211 for the lower extremity case and 637, 1246, 1006 {+-} 180 for the upper extremity case. The volume (cc) of the union, V95, and V100 were 2094, 1609, and 1593 for the lower, and 1533, 1020, and 965 for the upper extremity cases, respectively. The overall CTV agreement was judged to be almost perfect in the lower extremity case (kappa = 0.85 [p < 0.0001]) but only substantial in the upper extremity case (kappa = 0.77 [p < 0.0001]). Conclusions: Almost perfect agreement existed in the GTV of these two representative cases. Tshere was no significant disagreement in the CTV of the lower extremity, but variation in the CTV of upper extremity was seen, perhaps related to the positional differences between the planning CT and the diagnostic MRI.

  6. Interobserver Variation of Clinical Target Volume Delineation in Gastric Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, Edwin; Verheij, Marcel

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate interobserver variability in clinical target volume (CTV) delineation in gastric cancer performed with the help of a delineation guide. Patients and Methods: Ten radiotherapy centers that participate in the CRITICS Phase III trial were provided with a delineation atlas, preoperative CT scans, a postoperative planning CT scan, and clinical information for a gastric cancer case and were asked to construct a CTV and create a dosimetric plan according to departmental policy. Results: The volumes of the CTVs and planning target volumes (PTVs) differed greatly, with a mean (SD) CTV volume of 392 (176) cm{sup 3} (range, 240-821cm{sup 3}) and PTV volume of 915 (312) cm{sup 3} (range, 634-1677cm{sup 3}). The overlapping volume was 376cm{sup 3} for the CTV and 890cm{sup 3} for the PTV. The greatest differences in the CTV were seen at the cranial and caudal parts. After planning, dose coverage of the overlapping PTV volume showed less variability than the CTV. Conclusion: In this series of 10 plans, variability of the CTV in postoperative chemoradiotherapy for gastric cancer is large. Strict and clear delineation guidelines should be provided, especially in Phase III multicenter studies. Adaptations of these guidelines should be evaluated in clinical studies.

  7. Large volume flow-through scintillating detector

    DOEpatents

    Gritzo, Russ E.; Fowler, Malcolm M.

    1995-01-01

    A large volume flow through radiation detector for use in large air flow situations such as incinerator stacks or building air systems comprises a plurality of flat plates made of a scintillating material arranged parallel to the air flow. Each scintillating plate has a light guide attached which transfers light generated inside the scintillating plate to an associated photomultiplier tube. The output of the photomultiplier tubes are connected to electronics which can record any radiation and provide an alarm if appropriate for the application.

  8. Safety considerations in large-volume lipoplasty.

    PubMed

    Giese, S Y

    2001-11-01

    Proper patient selection, diligent fluid management, and attention to body temperature are important safety considerations in large-volume lipoplasty (LVL). Complications related to fluid overload, lidocaine toxicity, coagulopathies, and lengthy combined surgical procedures are preventable and not directly linked to LVL technique. Benefits as well as morbidity and mortality from LVL can be weighed against risk factors such as obesity, a prediabetic condition, and/or adverse effects of weight-loss medications. The author describes how she incorporates safeguards into her LVL procedures. (Aesthetic Surg J 2001;21:545-548.).

  9. LARGE volume string compactifications at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Anguelova, Lilia; Calò, Vincenzo; Cicoli, Michele E-mail: v.calo@qmul.ac.uk

    2009-10-01

    We present a detailed study of the finite-temperature behaviour of the LARGE Volume type IIB flux compactifications. We show that certain moduli can thermalise at high temperatures. Despite that, their contribution to the finite-temperature effective potential is always negligible and the latter has a runaway behaviour. We compute the maximal temperature T{sub max}, above which the internal space decompactifies, as well as the temperature T{sub *}, that is reached after the decay of the heaviest moduli. The natural constraint T{sub *} < T{sub max} implies a lower bound on the allowed values of the internal volume V. We find that this restriction rules out a significant range of values corresponding to smaller volumes of the order V ∼ 10{sup 4}l{sub s}{sup 6}, which lead to standard GUT theories. Instead, the bound favours values of the order V ∼ 10{sup 15}l{sub s}{sup 6}, which lead to TeV scale SUSY desirable for solving the hierarchy problem. Moreover, our result favours low-energy inflationary scenarios with density perturbations generated by a field, which is not the inflaton. In such a scenario, one could achieve both inflation and TeV-scale SUSY, although gravity waves would not be observable. Finally, we pose a two-fold challenge for the solution of the cosmological moduli problem. First, we show that the heavy moduli decay before they can begin to dominate the energy density of the Universe. Hence they are not able to dilute any unwanted relics. And second, we argue that, in order to obtain thermal inflation in the closed string moduli sector, one needs to go beyond the present EFT description.

  10. SUSY's Ladder: reframing sequestering at Large Volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reece, Matthew; Xue, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Theories with approximate no-scale structure, such as the Large Volume Scenario, have a distinctive hierarchy of multiple mass scales in between TeV gaugino masses and the Planck scale, which we call SUSY's Ladder. This is a particular realization of Split Supersymmetry in which the same small parameter suppresses gaugino masses relative to scalar soft masses, scalar soft masses relative to the gravitino mass, and the UV cutoff or string scale relative to the Planck scale. This scenario has many phenomenologically interesting properties, and can avoid dangers including the gravitino problem, flavor problems, and the moduli-induced LSP problem that plague other supersymmetric theories. We study SUSY's Ladder using a superspace formalism that makes the mysterious cancelations in previous computations manifest. This opens the possibility of a consistent effective field theory understanding of the phenomenology of these scenarios, based on power-counting in the small ratio of string to Planck scales. We also show that four-dimensional theories with approximate no-scale structure enforced by a single volume modulus arise only from two special higher-dimensional theories: five-dimensional supergravity and ten-dimensional type IIB supergravity. This gives a phenomenological argument in favor of ten dimensional ultraviolet physics which is different from standard arguments based on the consistency of superstring theory.

  11. Combined Recipe for Clinical Target Volume and Planning Target Volume Margins

    SciTech Connect

    Stroom, Joep; Gilhuijs, Kenneth; Vieira, Sandra; Chen, Wei; Salguero, Javier; Moser, Elizabeth; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To develop a combined recipe for clinical target volume (CTV) and planning target volume (PTV) margins. Methods and Materials: A widely accepted PTV margin recipe is M{sub geo} = aΣ{sub geo} + bσ{sub geo}, with Σ{sub geo} and σ{sub geo} standard deviations (SDs) representing systematic and random geometric uncertainties, respectively. On the basis of histopathology data of breast and lung tumors, we suggest describing the distribution of microscopic islets around the gross tumor volume (GTV) by a half-Gaussian with SD Σ{sub micro}, yielding as possible CTV margin recipe: M{sub micro} = ƒ(N{sub i}) × Σ{sub micro}, with N{sub i} the average number of microscopic islets per patient. To determine ƒ(N{sub i}), a computer model was developed that simulated radiation therapy of a spherical GTV with isotropic distribution of microscopic disease in a large group of virtual patients. The minimal margin that yielded D{sub min} <95% in maximally 10% of patients was calculated for various Σ{sub micro} and N{sub i}. Because Σ{sub micro} is independent of Σ{sub geo}, we propose they should be added quadratically, yielding for a combined GTV-to-PTV margin recipe: M{sub GTV-PTV} = √([aΣ{sub geo}]{sup 2} + [ƒ(N{sub i})Σ{sub micro}]{sup 2}) + bσ{sub geo}. This was validated by the computer model through numerous simultaneous simulations of microscopic and geometric uncertainties. Results: The margin factor ƒ(N{sub i}) in a relevant range of Σ{sub micro} and N{sub i} can be given by: ƒ(N{sub i}) = 1.4 + 0.8log(N{sub i}). Filling in the other factors found in our simulations (a = 2.1 and b = 0.8) yields for the combined recipe: M{sub GTV-PTV} = √((2.1Σ{sub geo}){sup 2} + ([1.4 + 0.8log(N{sub i})] × Σ{sub micro}){sup 2}) + 0.8σ{sub geo}. The average margin difference between the simultaneous simulations and the above recipe was 0.2 ± 0.8 mm (1 SD). Calculating M{sub geo} and M{sub micro} separately and adding them linearly overestimated PTVs by on

  12. Large-volume sampling and preconcentration for trace explosives detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Linker, Kevin Lane

    2004-05-01

    A trace explosives detection system typically contains three subsystems: sample collection, preconcentration, and detection. Sample collection of trace explosives (vapor and particulate) through large volumes of airflow helps reduce sampling time while increasing the amount of dilute sample collected. Preconcentration of the collected sample before introduction into the detector improves the sensitivity of the detector because of the increase in sample concentration. By combining large-volume sample collection and preconcentration, an improvement in the detection of explosives is possible. Large-volume sampling and preconcentration is presented using a systems level approach. In addition, the engineering of large-volume sampling and preconcentration for the trace detection of explosives is explained.

  13. Large space systems technology, 1980, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopriver, F., III (Compiler)

    1981-01-01

    The technological and developmental efforts in support of the large space systems technology are described. Three major areas of interests are emphasized: (1) technology pertient to large antenna systems; (2) technology related to large space systems; and (3) activities that support both antenna and platform systems.

  14. The persistence of the large volumes in black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Yen Chin

    2015-08-01

    Classically, black holes admit maximal interior volumes that grow asymptotically linearly in time. We show that such volumes remain large when Hawking evaporation is taken into account. Even if a charged black hole approaches the extremal limit during this evolution, its volume continues to grow; although an exactly extremal black hole does not have a "large interior". We clarify this point and discuss the implications of our results to the information loss and firewall paradoxes.

  15. High density three-dimensional localization microscopy across large volumes

    PubMed Central

    Legant, Wesley R.; Shao, Lin; Grimm, Jonathan B.; Brown, Timothy A.; Milkie, Daniel E.; Avants, Brian B.; Lavis, Luke D.; Betzig, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Extending three-dimensional (3D) single molecule localization microscopy away from the coverslip and into thicker specimens will greatly broaden its biological utility. However, localizing molecules in 3D with high precision in such samples, while simultaneously achieving the extreme labeling densities required for high resolution of densely crowded structures is challenging due to the limitations both of conventional imaging modalities and of conventional labeling techniques. Here, we combine lattice light sheet microscopy with newly developed, freely diffusing, cell permeable chemical probes with targeted affinity towards either DNA, intracellular membranes, or the plasma membrane. We use this combination to perform high localization precision, ultra-high labeling density, multicolor localization microscopy in samples up to 20 microns thick, including dividing cells and the neuromast organ of a zebrafish embryo. We also demonstrate super-resolution correlative imaging with protein specific photoactivable fluorophores, providing a mutually compatible, single platform alternative to correlative light-electron microscopy over large volumes. PMID:26950745

  16. Large mode-volume, large beta, photonic crystal laser resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Dezfouli, Mohsen Kamandar; Dignam, Marc M.

    2014-12-15

    We propose an optical resonator formed from the coupling of 13, L2 defects in a triangular-lattice photonic crystal slab. Using a tight-binding formalism, we optimized the coupled-defect cavity design to obtain a resonator with predicted single-mode operation, a mode volume five times that of an L2-cavity mode and a beta factor of 0.39. The results are confirmed using finite-difference time domain simulations. This resonator is very promising for use as a single mode photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with high saturation output power compared to a laser consisting of one of the single-defect cavities.

  17. Technologies for imaging neural activity in large volumes

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Na; Freeman, Jeremy; Smith, Spencer L.

    2017-01-01

    Neural circuitry has evolved to form distributed networks that act dynamically across large volumes. Collecting data from individual planes, conventional microscopy cannot sample circuitry across large volumes at the temporal resolution relevant to neural circuit function and behaviors. Here, we review emerging technologies for rapid volume imaging of neural circuitry. We focus on two critical challenges: the inertia of optical systems, which limits image speed, and aberrations, which restrict the image volume. Optical sampling time must be long enough to ensure high-fidelity measurements, but optimized sampling strategies and point spread function engineering can facilitate rapid volume imaging of neural activity within this constraint. We also discuss new computational strategies for the processing and analysis of volume imaging data of increasing size and complexity. Together, optical and computational advances are providing a broader view of neural circuit dynamics, and help elucidate how brain regions work in concert to support behavior. PMID:27571194

  18. Sparticle spectra from Large-Volume String Compactifications

    SciTech Connect

    Conlon, Joseph P.

    2007-11-20

    Large-volume models are a promising approach to stabilising moduli and generating the weak hierarchy through TeV-supersymmetry. I describe the pattern of sparticle mass spectra that arises in these models.

  19. [Clinical to planning target volume margins in prostate cancer radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Ramiandrisoa, F; Duvergé, L; Castelli, J; Nguyen, T D; Servagi-Vernat, S; de Crevoisier, R

    2016-10-01

    The knowledge of inter- and intrafraction motion and deformations of the intrapelvic target volumes (prostate, seminal vesicles, prostatectomy bed and lymph nodes) as well as the main organs at risk (bladder and rectum) allow to define rational clinical to planning target volume margins, depending on the different radiotherapy techniques and their uncertainties. In case of image-guided radiotherapy, prostate margins and seminal vesicles margins can be between 5 and 10mm. The margins around the prostatectomy bed vary from 10 to 15mm and those around the lymph node clinical target volume between 7 and 10mm. Stereotactic body radiotherapy allows lower margins, which are 3 to 5mm around the prostate. Image-guided and stereotactic body radiotherapy with adequate margins allow finally moderate or extreme hypofractionation.

  20. [Radiotherapy for cervix carcinomas: clinical target volume delineation].

    PubMed

    Gnep, K; Mazeron, R

    2013-10-01

    Concurrent chemoradiation followed by brachytherapy is currently the standard treatment for locally advanced cervix carcinomas. Modern radiation techniques require planning based on 3D images, and therefore an accurate delineation of target volumes. The clinical target volume (CTV) used for the different phases of treatment are now well defined, but are not always easy to delineate on a CT scan which is currently the standard examination for simulation in radiotherapy. MRI and PET-CT are routinely performed at diagnosis, and can be used to improve the accuracy of the delineation. The objective of this review is to describe the definitions and recommendations of CTV in the treatment of cervical cancer.

  1. Coherent motility measurements of biological objects in a large volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebersberger, J.; Weigelt, G.; Li, Yajun

    1986-05-01

    We have performed space-time intensity cross-correlation measurements of boiling image plane speckle interferograms to investigate the motility of a large number of small biological objects. Experiments were carried out with Artemia Salina species at various water temperatures. The advantage of this method is the fact that many objects in a large volume can be measured simultaneously.

  2. Large-Volume High-Pressure Mineral Physics in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebermann, Robert C.; Prewitt, Charles T.; Weidner, Donald J.

    American high-pressure research with large sample volumes developed rapidly in the 1950s during the race to produce synthetic diamonds. At that time the piston cylinder, girdle (or belt), and tetrahedral anvil devices were invented. However, this development essentially stopped in the late 1950s, and while the diamond anvil cell has been used extensively in the United States with spectacular success for high-pressure experiments in small sample volumes, most of the significant technological advances in large-volume devices have taken place in Japan. Over the past 25 years, these technical advances have enabled a fourfold increase in pressure, with many important investigations of the chemical and physical properties of materials synthesized at high temperatures and pressures that cannot be duplicated with any apparatus currently available in the United States.

  3. A method to individualize adaptive planning target volumes for deformable targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Pauliina; Redpath, Anthony Thomas; Høyer, Morten; Muren, Ludvig Paul

    2009-12-01

    We have investigated a method to individualize the planning target volume (PTV) for deformable targets in radiotherapy by combining a computer tomography (CT) scan with multiple cone beam (CB)CT scans. All combinations of the CT and up to five initial CBCTs were considered. To exclude translational motion, the clinical target volumes (CTVs) in the CBCTs were matched to the CTV in the CT. PTVs investigated were the unions, the intersections and all other structures defined by a volume with a constant CTV location frequency. The method was investigated for three bladder cancer patients with a CT and 20-27 CBCTs. Reliable alternatives to a standard PTV required use of at least four scans for planning. The CTV unions of four or five scans gave similar results when considering the fraction of individual repeat scan CTVs they volumetrically covered to at least 99%. For patient 1, 64% of the repeat scan CTVs were covered by these unions and for patient 2, 86% were covered. Further, the PTVs defined by the volume occupied by the CTV in all except one of the four or five planning scans seemed clinically feasible. On average, 52% of the repeat CBCT CTVs for patient 1 and 64% for patient 2 were covered to minimum 99% of their total volume. For patient 3, the method failed due to poor volume control of the bladder. The suggested PTVs could, with considerably improved conformity, complement the standard PTV.

  4. Monte Carlo Simulations for Dosimetry in Prostate Radiotherapy with Different Intravesical Volumes and Planning Target Volume Margins

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Wei; Yu, Dong; He, Hengda; Liu, Qian

    2016-01-01

    In prostate radiotherapy, the influence of bladder volume variation on the dose absorbed by the target volume and organs at risk is significant and difficult to predict. In addition, the resolution of a typical medical image is insufficient for visualizing the bladder wall, which makes it more difficult to precisely evaluate the dose to the bladder wall. This simulation study aimed to quantitatively investigate the relationship between the dose received by organs at risk and the intravesical volume in prostate radiotherapy. The high-resolution Visible Chinese Human phantom and the finite element method were used to construct 10 pelvic models with specific intravesical volumes ranging from 100 ml to 700 ml to represent bladders of patients with different bladder filling capacities during radiotherapy. This series of models was utilized in six-field coplanar 3D conformal radiotherapy simulations with different planning target volume (PTV) margins. Each organ’s absorbed dose was calculated using the Monte Carlo method. The obtained bladder wall displacements during bladder filling were consistent with reported clinical measurements. The radiotherapy simulation revealed a linear relationship between the dose to non-targeted organs and the intravesical volume and indicated that a 10-mm PTV margin for a large bladder and a 5-mm PTV margin for a small bladder reduce the effective dose to the bladder wall to similar degrees. However, larger bladders were associated with evident protection of the intestines. Detailed dosimetry results can be used by radiation oncologists to create more accurate, individual water preload protocols according to the patient’s anatomy and bladder capacity. PMID:27441944

  5. Large discharge-volume, silent discharge spark plug

    DOEpatents

    Kang, Michael

    1995-01-01

    A large discharge-volume spark plug for providing self-limiting microdischarges. The apparatus includes a generally spark plug-shaped arrangement of a pair of electrodes, where either of the two coaxial electrodes is substantially shielded by a dielectric barrier from a direct discharge from the other electrode, the unshielded electrode and the dielectric barrier forming an annular volume in which self-terminating microdischarges occur when alternating high voltage is applied to the center electrode. The large area over which the discharges occur, and the large number of possible discharges within the period of an engine cycle, make the present silent discharge plasma spark plug suitable for use as an ignition source for engines. In the situation, where a single discharge is effective in causing ignition of the combustible gases, a conventional single-polarity, single-pulse, spark plug voltage supply may be used.

  6. Large volume leukapheresis: Efficacy and safety of processing patient's total blood volume six times.

    PubMed

    Bojanic, Ines; Dubravcic, Klara; Batinic, Drago; Cepulic, Branka Golubic; Mazic, Sanja; Hren, Darko; Nemet, Damir; Labar, Boris

    2011-04-01

    Large-volume leukapheresis (LVL) differs from standard leukapheresis by increased blood flow and an altered anticoagulation regimen. An open issue is to what degree a further increase in processed blood volume is reasonable in terms of higher yields and safety. In 30 LVL performed in patients with hematologic malignancies, 6 total blood volumes were processed. LVL resulted in a higher CD34+ cell yield without a change in graft quality. Although a marked platelet decrease can be expected, LVL is safe and can be recommended as the standard procedure for patients who mobilize low numbers of CD34+ cells and when high number of CD34+ cells are required.

  7. Target-based fiber assignment for large survey spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Christoph E. R.; Makarem, Laleh; Kneib, Jean-Paul

    2016-07-01

    Next generation massive spectroscopic survey projects have to process a massive amount of targets. The preparation of subsequent observations should be feasible in a reasonable amount of time. We present a fast algorithm for target assignment that scales as O(log(n)). Our proposed algorithm follow a target based approach, which enables to assign large number of targets to their positioners quickly and with a very high assignment efficiency. We also discuss additional optimization of the fiber positioning problem to take into account the positioner collision problems and how to use the algorithm for an optimal survey strategy. We apply our target-based algorithm in the context of the MOONS project.

  8. Identifying radiotherapy target volumes in brain cancer by image analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kun; Montgomery, Dean; Feng, Yang; Steel, Robin; Liao, Hanqing; McLaren, Duncan B; Erridge, Sara C; McLaughlin, Stephen; Nailon, William H

    2015-10-01

    To establish the optimal radiotherapy fields for treating brain cancer patients, the tumour volume is often outlined on magnetic resonance (MR) images, where the tumour is clearly visible, and mapped onto computerised tomography images used for radiotherapy planning. This process requires considerable clinical experience and is time consuming, which will continue to increase as more complex image sequences are used in this process. Here, the potential of image analysis techniques for automatically identifying the radiation target volume on MR images, and thereby assisting clinicians with this difficult task, was investigated. A gradient-based level set approach was applied on the MR images of five patients with grades II, III and IV malignant cerebral glioma. The relationship between the target volumes produced by image analysis and those produced by a radiation oncologist was also investigated. The contours produced by image analysis were compared with the contours produced by an oncologist and used for treatment. In 93% of cases, the Dice similarity coefficient was found to be between 60 and 80%. This feasibility study demonstrates that image analysis has the potential for automatic outlining in the management of brain cancer patients, however, more testing and validation on a much larger patient cohort is required.

  9. Identifying radiotherapy target volumes in brain cancer by image analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Kun; Montgomery, Dean; Feng, Yang; Steel, Robin; Liao, Hanqing; McLaren, Duncan B.; Erridge, Sara C.; McLaughlin, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    To establish the optimal radiotherapy fields for treating brain cancer patients, the tumour volume is often outlined on magnetic resonance (MR) images, where the tumour is clearly visible, and mapped onto computerised tomography images used for radiotherapy planning. This process requires considerable clinical experience and is time consuming, which will continue to increase as more complex image sequences are used in this process. Here, the potential of image analysis techniques for automatically identifying the radiation target volume on MR images, and thereby assisting clinicians with this difficult task, was investigated. A gradient-based level set approach was applied on the MR images of five patients with grades II, III and IV malignant cerebral glioma. The relationship between the target volumes produced by image analysis and those produced by a radiation oncologist was also investigated. The contours produced by image analysis were compared with the contours produced by an oncologist and used for treatment. In 93% of cases, the Dice similarity coefficient was found to be between 60 and 80%. This feasibility study demonstrates that image analysis has the potential for automatic outlining in the management of brain cancer patients, however, more testing and validation on a much larger patient cohort is required. PMID:26609418

  10. Concentration of Enteroviruses from Large Volumes of Water

    PubMed Central

    Sobsey, Mark D.; Wallis, Craig; Henderson, Marilyn; Melnick, Joseph L.

    1973-01-01

    An improved method for concentrating viruses from large volumes of clean waters is described. It was found that, by acidification, viruses in large volumes of water could be efficiently adsorbed to epoxy-fiber-glass and nitrocellulose filters in the absence of exogenously added salts. Based upon this finding, a modified version of our previously described virus concentration system was developed for virus monitoring of clean waters. In this procedure the water being tested is acidified by injection of N HCl prior to passage through a virus adsorber consisting of a fiber-glass cartridge depth filter and an epoxy-fiber-glass membrane filter in series. The adsorbed viruses are then eluted with a 1-liter volume of pH 11.5 eluent and reconcentrated by adsorption to and elution from a small epoxy-fiber-glass filter series. With this method small quantities of poliovirus in 100-gallon (378.5-liter) volumes of tapwater were concentrated nearly 40,000-fold with an average virus recovery efficiency of 77%. Images PMID:16349972

  11. Large volume multiple-path nuclear pumped laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohl, F.; Deyoung, R. J. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Large volumes of gas are excited by using internal high reflectance mirrors that are arranged so that the optical path crosses back and forth through the excited gaseous medium. By adjusting the external dielectric mirrors of the laser, the number of paths through the laser cavity can be varied. Output powers were obtained that are substantially higher than the output powers of previous nuclear laser systems.

  12. Parallel Rendering of Large Time-Varying Volume Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garbutt, Alexander E.

    2005-01-01

    Interactive visualization of large time-varying 3D volume datasets has been and still is a great challenge to the modem computational world. It stretches the limits of the memory capacity, the disk space, the network bandwidth and the CPU speed of a conventional computer. In this SURF project, we propose to develop a parallel volume rendering program on SGI's Prism, a cluster computer equipped with state-of-the-art graphic hardware. The proposed program combines both parallel computing and hardware rendering in order to achieve an interactive rendering rate. We use 3D texture mapping and a hardware shader to implement 3D volume rendering on each workstation. We use SGI's VisServer to enable remote rendering using Prism's graphic hardware. And last, we will integrate this new program with ParVox, a parallel distributed visualization system developed at JPL. At the end of the project, we Will demonstrate remote interactive visualization using this new hardware volume renderer on JPL's Prism System using a time-varying dataset from selected JPL applications.

  13. Comparison of three image segmentation techniques for target volume delineation in positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Drever, Laura A; Roa, Wilson; McEwan, Alexander; Robinson, Don

    2007-03-09

    Incorporation of positron emission tomography (PET) data into radiotherapy planning is currently under investigation for numerous sites including lung, brain, head and neck, breast, and prostate. Accurate tumor-volume quantification is essential to the proper utilization of the unique information provided by PET. Unfortunately,target delineation within PET currently remains a largely unaddressed problem. We therefore examined the ability of three segmentation methods-thresholding, Sobel edge detection, and the watershed approach-to yield accurate delineation of PET target cross-sections. A phantom study employing well-defined cylindrical and spherical volumes and activity distributions provided an opportunity to assess the relative efficacy with which the three approaches could yield accurate target delineation in PET. Results revealed that threshold segmentation can accurately delineate target cross-sections, but that the Sobel and watershed techniques both consistently fail to correctly identify the size of experimental volumes. The usefulness of threshold-based segmentation is limited, however, by the dependence of the correct threshold (that which returns the correct area at each image slice) on target size.

  14. Construction of an unyielding target for large horizontal impacts.

    SciTech Connect

    Ammerman, Douglas James; Davie, Neil Thomas; Kalan, Robert J.

    2010-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has constructed an unyielding target at the end of its 2000-foot rocket sled track. This target is made up of approximately 5 million pounds of concrete, an embedded steel load spreading structure, and a steel armor plate face that varies from 10 inches thick at the center to 4 inches thick at the left and right edges. The target/track combination will allow horizontal impacts at regulatory speeds of very large objects, such as a full-scale rail cask, or high-speed impacts of smaller packages. The load-spreading mechanism in the target is based upon the proven design that has been in use for over 20 years at Sandia's aerial cable facility. That target, with a weight of 2 million pounds, has successfully withstood impact forces of up to 25 million pounds. It is expected that the new target will be capable of withstanding impact forces of more than 70 million pounds. During construction various instrumentation was placed in the target so that the response of the target during severe impacts can be monitored. This paper will discuss the construction of the target and provide insights on the testing capabilities at the sled track with this new target.

  15. Lymphatic atlas-based target volume definition for intensity-modulated radiation therapy planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qatarneh, S. M.; Kiricuta, I. C.; Brahme, A.; Noz, M. E.; Ferreira, B.; Kim, W. C.; Lind, B. K.

    2007-10-01

    Despite the improvements in current imaging modalities such as CT and MRI, the detection of normal or malignant lymph nodes remains a challenge due to the large variability in lymph node characteristics and the variation in imaging quality and the limited imaging resolution. A computerized lymph node atlas could be the ideal tool for target volume definition based on the distribution of normal lymph nodes surrounding the verified malignant nodes to improve the accuracy of intensity-modulated radiation therapy planning. The standard lymph node topography in the newly constructed 3D lymph node atlas offers a detailed topographical distribution of discrete nodal locations in relation to surrounding organs at risk. In the present paper, the recently developed lymph node atlas is used for selection and delineation of target volumes in the head and neck, thorax and pelvic region. Image registration techniques were implemented to integrate the topography of the lymph node atlas into the patient's data set. By combining the knowledge-based lymph node distribution with the patient's data set, more detailed definitions of the target volumes were obtained to facilitate biologically based treatment plan optimization. The response values of the biologically optimized treatment plans were used to derive the probability of tumor control and the probability of complications in organs at risk. The treatment outcome of the lung reference plan showed a lower probability of recurrence in comparison to planning without the lymph node atlas. The lymph node atlas can improve and standardize the target volume definition by including more accurate anatomical knowledge for target volume definition and biologically optimized radiation therapy planning.

  16. Geometric Measures of Large Biomolecules: Surface, Volume and Pockets

    PubMed Central

    Mach, Paul; Koehl, Patrice

    2011-01-01

    Geometry plays a major role in our attempt to understand the activity of large molecules. For example, surface area and volume are used to quantify the interactions between these molecules and the water surrounding them in implicit solvent models. In addition, the detection of pockets serves as a starting point for predictive studies of biomolecule-ligand interactions. The alpha shape theory provides an exact and robust method for computing these geometric measures. Several implementations of this theory are currently available. We show however that these implementations fail on very large macromolecular systems. We show that these difficulties are not theoretical; rather, they are related to the architecture of current computers that rely on the use of cache memory to speed up calculation. By rewriting the algorithms that implement the different steps of the alpha shape theory such that we enforce locality, we show that we can remediate these cache problems; the corresponding code, UnionBall has an apparent (n) behavior over a large range of values of n (up to tens of millions), where n is the number of atoms. As an example, it takes 136 seconds with UnionBall to compute the contribution of each atom to the surface area and volume of a viral capsid with more than five million atoms on a commodity PC. UnionBall includes functions for computing the surface area and volume of the intersection of two, three and four spheres that are fully detailed in an appendix. UnionBall is available as an OpenSource software. PMID:21823134

  17. Specific detection of DNA using quantum dots and magnetic beads for large volume samples

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yeon S.; Kim, Byoung CHAN; Lee, Jin Hyung; Kim, Jungbae; Gu, Man Bock

    2006-10-01

    Here we present a sensitive DNA detection protocol using quantum dots (QDs) and magnetic beads (MBs) for large volume samples. In this study, QDs, conjugated with streptavidin, were used to produce fluorescent signals while magnetic beads (MBs) were used to isolate and concentrate the signals. The presence of target DNAs lead to the sandwich hybridization between the functionalized QDs, the target DNAs and the MBs. In fact, the QDs-MBs complex, which is bound using the target DNA, can be isolated and then concentrated. The binding of the QDs to the surface of the MBs was confirmed by confocal microscopy and Cd elemental analysis. It was found that the fluorescent intensity was proportional to concentration of the target DNA, while the presence of noncomplementary DNA produced no significant fluorescent signal. In addition, the presence of low copies of target DNAs such as 0.5 pM in large volume samples up to 40 ml were successfully detected by using a magnet-assisted concentration protocol which consequently results in the enhancement of the sensitivity more than 100-fold.

  18. Electrolyte and plasma enzyme analyses during large-volume liposuction.

    PubMed

    Lipschitz, Avron H; Kenkel, Jeffrey M; Luby, Maureen; Sorokin, Evan; Rohrich, Rod J; Brown, Spencer A

    2004-09-01

    Substantial fluid shifts occur during liposuction as wetting solution is infiltrated subcutaneously and fat is evacuated, causing potential electrolyte imbalances. In the porcine model for large-volume liposuction, plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine transaminase levels were elevated following liposuction. These results raised concerns for possible mechanical injury and/or lidocaine-induced hepatocellular toxicity in a clinical setting. The first objective of this human model study was to explore the effect of the liposuction procedure on electrolyte balance. The second objective was to determine whether elevated plasma aminotransferase levels were observed subsequent to large-volume liposuction. Five female volunteers underwent three-stage, ultrasound-assisted liposuction. Blood samples were collected perioperatively. Plasma levels of sodium, potassium, venous carbon dioxide, blood urea nitrogen, chloride, and creatinine were determined. Liver function analyte levels were measured, including albumin, total protein, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and total bilirubin. To further define intracellular enzyme release, creatine kinase levels were measured. Mild hyponatremia was evident postoperatively (134 to 136 mmol/liter) in four patients. Hypokalemia was evident intraoperatively in all subjects (mean +/- SEM; 3.3 +/- 0.16 mmol/liter; range, 3.0 to 3.4 mmol/liter). Hypoalbuminemia and hypoproteinemia were observed throughout the study (baseline: 2.9 +/- 0.2 g/dl; range, 2.6 to 3.5 g/dl), decreasing to 10 to 40 percent 24 hours postoperatively (2.0 +/- 0.2 g/dl; range, 1.7 to 2.1 g/dl). Aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, and creatine kinase levels were significantly elevated after the procedure (190 +/- 47.1 U/liter, 50 +/- 7.7 U/liter, and 11,219 +/- 2556.7 U/liter, respectively) (p < 0.01). Release of antidiuretic hormone and even mildly hypotonic intravenous fluid

  19. Optimized Planning Target Volume for Intact Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Alvin; Jensen, Lindsay G.; Sun Shuai; Song, William Y.; Yashar, Catheryn M.; Mundt, Arno J.; Zhang Fuquan; Jiang, Steve B.; Mell, Loren K.

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To model interfraction clinical target volume (CTV) variation in patients with intact cervical cancer and design a planning target volume (PTV) that minimizes normal tissue dose while maximizing CTV coverage. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 50 patients undergoing external-beam radiotherapy for intact cervical cancer using daily online cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The CBCTs (n = 972) for each patient were rigidly registered to the planning CT. The CTV was delineated on the planning CT (CTV{sub 0}) and the set of CBCTs ({l_brace}CTV{sub 1}-CTV{sub 25}{r_brace}). Manual (n = 98) and automated (n = 668) landmarks were placed over the surface of CTV{sub 0} with reference to defined anatomic structures. Normal vectors were extended from each landmark, and the minimum length required for a given probability of encompassing CTV{sub 1}-CTV{sub 25} was computed. The resulting expansions were used to generate an optimized PTV. Results: The mean (SD; range) normal vector length to ensure 95% coverage was 4.3 mm (2.7 mm; 1-16 mm). The uniform expansion required to ensure 95% probability of CTV coverage was 13 mm. An anisotropic margin of 20 mm anteriorly and posteriorly and 10 mm superiorly, inferiorly, and laterally also would have ensured a 95% probability of CTV coverage. The volume of the 95% optimized PTV (1470 cm{sup 3}) was significantly lower than both the anisotropic PTV (2220 cm{sup 3}) and the uniformly expanded PTV (2110 cm{sup 3}) (p < 0.001). For a 95% probability of CTV coverage, normal lengths of 1-3 mm were found along the superior and lateral regions of CTV{sub 0}, 5-10 mm along the interfaces of CTV{sub 0} with the bladder and rectum, and 10-14 mm along the anterior surface of CTV{sub 0} at the level of the uterus. Conclusion: Optimizing PTV definition according to surface landmarking resulted in a high probability of CTV coverage with reduced PTV volumes. Our results provide data justifying planning margins to use in practice and

  20. Volumetric leak detection in large underground storage tanks. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, J.W.; Wise, R.F.; Maresca, J.W.

    1991-08-01

    A set of experiments was conducted to determine whether volumetric leak detection system presently used to test underground storage tanks (USTs) up to 38,000 L (10,000 gal) in capacity could meet EPA's regulatory standards for tank tightness and automatic tank gauging systems when used to test tanks up to 190,000 L (50,000 gal) in capacity. The experiments, conducted on two partially filled 190,000-L (50,000-gal) USTs at Griffiss Air Force Base in upstate New York during late August 1990, showed that a system's performance in large tanks depends primarily on the accuracy of the temperature compensation, which is inversely proportional to the volume of product in the tank. Errors in temperature compensation that were negligible in tests in small tanks were important in large tanks. The experiments further suggest that a multiple-test strategy is also required.

  1. Ultra-rapid formation of large volumes of evolved magma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaut, C.; Jaupart, C.

    2006-10-01

    We discuss evidence for, and evaluate the consequences of, the growth of magma reservoirs by small increments of thin (⋍ 1-2 m) sills. For such thin units, cooling proceeds faster than the nucleation and growth of crystals, which only allows a small amount of crystallization and leads to the formation of large quantities of glass. The heat balance equation for kinetic-controlled crystallization is solved numerically for a range of sill thicknesses, magma injection rates and crustal emplacement depths. Successive injections lead to the accumulation of poorly crystallized chilled magma with the properties of a solid. Temperatures increase gradually with each injection until they become large enough to allow a late phase of crystal nucleation and growth. Crystallization and latent heat release work in a positive feedback loop, leading to catastrophic heating of the magma pile, typically by 200 °C in a few decades. Large volumes of evolved melt are made available in a short time. The time for the catastrophic heating event varies as Q- 2 , where Q is the average magma injection rate, and takes values in a range of 10 5-10 6 yr for typical geological magma production rates. With this mechanism, storage of large quantities of magma beneath an active volcanic center may escape detection by seismic methods.

  2. SUSY’s Ladder: Reframing sequestering at Large Volume

    DOE PAGES

    Reece, Matthew; Xue, Wei

    2016-04-07

    Theories with approximate no-scale structure, such as the Large Volume Scenario, have a distinctive hierarchy of multiple mass scales in between TeV gaugino masses and the Planck scale, which we call SUSY's Ladder. This is a particular realization of Split Supersymmetry in which the same small parameter suppresses gaugino masses relative to scalar soft masses, scalar soft masses relative to the gravitino mass, and the UV cutoff or string scale relative to the Planck scale. This scenario has many phenomenologically interesting properties, and can avoid dangers including the gravitino problem, flavor problems, and the moduli-induced LSP problem that plague othermore » supersymmetric theories. We study SUSY's Ladder using a superspace formalism that makes the mysterious cancelations in previous computations manifest. This opens the possibility of a consistent effective field theory understanding of the phenomenology of these scenarios, based on power-counting in the small ratio of string to Planck scales. We also show that four-dimensional theories with approximate no-scale structure enforced by a single volume modulus arise only from two special higher-dimensional theories: five-dimensional supergravity and ten-dimensional type IIB supergravity. As a result, this gives a phenomenological argument in favor of ten dimensional ultraviolet physics which is different from standard arguments based on the consistency of superstring theory.« less

  3. SUSY’s Ladder: Reframing sequestering at Large Volume

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, Matthew; Xue, Wei

    2016-04-07

    Theories with approximate no-scale structure, such as the Large Volume Scenario, have a distinctive hierarchy of multiple mass scales in between TeV gaugino masses and the Planck scale, which we call SUSY's Ladder. This is a particular realization of Split Supersymmetry in which the same small parameter suppresses gaugino masses relative to scalar soft masses, scalar soft masses relative to the gravitino mass, and the UV cutoff or string scale relative to the Planck scale. This scenario has many phenomenologically interesting properties, and can avoid dangers including the gravitino problem, flavor problems, and the moduli-induced LSP problem that plague other supersymmetric theories. We study SUSY's Ladder using a superspace formalism that makes the mysterious cancelations in previous computations manifest. This opens the possibility of a consistent effective field theory understanding of the phenomenology of these scenarios, based on power-counting in the small ratio of string to Planck scales. We also show that four-dimensional theories with approximate no-scale structure enforced by a single volume modulus arise only from two special higher-dimensional theories: five-dimensional supergravity and ten-dimensional type IIB supergravity. As a result, this gives a phenomenological argument in favor of ten dimensional ultraviolet physics which is different from standard arguments based on the consistency of superstring theory.

  4. Large-scale Direct Targeting for Drug Repositioning and Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Chunli; Guo, Zihu; Huang, Chao; Wu, Ziyin; Li, Yan; Chen, Xuetong; Fu, Yingxue; Ru, Jinlong; Ali Shar, Piar; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    A system-level identification of drug-target direct interactions is vital to drug repositioning and discovery. However, the biological means on a large scale remains challenging and expensive even nowadays. The available computational models mainly focus on predicting indirect interactions or direct interactions on a small scale. To address these problems, in this work, a novel algorithm termed weighted ensemble similarity (WES) has been developed to identify drug direct targets based on a large-scale of 98,327 drug-target relationships. WES includes: (1) identifying the key ligand structural features that are highly-related to the pharmacological properties in a framework of ensemble; (2) determining a drug’s affiliation of a target by evaluation of the overall similarity (ensemble) rather than a single ligand judgment; and (3) integrating the standardized ensemble similarities (Z score) by Bayesian network and multi-variate kernel approach to make predictions. All these lead WES to predict drug direct targets with external and experimental test accuracies of 70% and 71%, respectively. This shows that the WES method provides a potential in silico model for drug repositioning and discovery. PMID:26155766

  5. Large volume water sprays for dispersing warm fogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, V. W.; Anderson, B. J.; Burns, R. A.; Lala, G. G.; Meyer, M. B.

    A new method for dispersing of warm fogs which impede visibility and alter schedules is described. The method uses large volume recycled water sprays to create curtains of falling drops through which the fog is processed by the ambient wind and spray-induced air flow; the fog droplets are removed by coalescence/rainout. The efficiency of this fog droplet removal process depends on the size spectra of the spray drops and optimum spray drop size is calculated as between 0.3-1.0 mm in diameter. Water spray tests were conducted in order to determine the drop size spectra and temperature response of sprays produced by commercially available fire-fighting nozzles, and nozzle array tests were utilized to study air flow patterns and the thermal properties of the overall system. The initial test data reveal that the fog-dispersal procedure is effective.

  6. Large space telescope, phase A. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Phase A study of the Large Space Telescope (LST) is reported. The study defines an LST concept based on the broad mission guidelines provided by the Office of Space Science (OSS), the scientific requirements developed by OSS with the scientific community, and an understanding of long range NASA planning current at the time the study was performed. The LST is an unmanned astronomical observatory facility, consisting of an optical telescope assembly (OTA), scientific instrument package (SIP), and a support systems module (SSM). The report consists of five volumes. The report describes the constraints and trade off analyses that were performed to arrive at a reference design for each system and for the overall LST configuration. A low cost design approach was followed in the Phase A study. This resulted in the use of standard spacecraft hardware, the provision for maintenance at the black box level, growth potential in systems designs, and the sharing of shuttle maintenance flights with other payloads.

  7. Multisystem organ failure after large volume injection of castor oil.

    PubMed

    Smith, Silas W; Graber, Nathan M; Johnson, Rudolph C; Barr, John R; Hoffman, Robert S; Nelson, Lewis S

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of multisystem organ failure after large volume subcutaneous injection of castor oil for cosmetic enhancement. An unlicensed practitioner injected 500 mL of castor oil bilaterally to the hips and buttocks of a 28-year-old male to female transsexual. Immediate local pain and erythema were followed by abdominal and chest pain, emesis, headache, hematuria, jaundice, and tinnitus. She presented to an emergency department 12 hours postinjection. Persistently hemolyzed blood samples complicated preliminary laboratory analysis. She rapidly deteriorated despite treatment and developed fever, tachycardia, hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, hepatitis, respiratory distress, and anuric renal failure. An infectious diseases evaluation was negative. After intensive supportive care, including mechanical ventilation and hemodialysis, she was discharged 11 days later, requiring dialysis for an additional 1.5 months. Castor oil absorption was inferred from recovery of the Ricinus communis biomarker, ricinine, in the patient's urine (41 ng/mL). Clinicians should anticipate multiple complications after unapproved methods of cosmetic enhancement.

  8. Striped Bass, morone saxatilis, egg incubation in large volume jars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harper, C.J.; Wrege, B.M.; Jeffery, Isely J.

    2010-01-01

    The standard McDonald jar was compared with a large volume jar for striped bass, Morone saxatilis, egg incubation. The McDonald jar measured 16 cm in diameter by 45 cm in height and had a volume of 6 L. The experimental jar measured 0.4 m in diameter by 1.3 m in height and had a volume of 200 L. The hypothesis is that there is no difference in percent survival of fry hatched in experimental jars compared with McDonald jars. Striped bass brood fish were collected from the Coosa River and spawned using the dry spawn method of fertilization. Four McDonald jars were stocked with approximately 150 g of eggs each. Post-hatch survival was estimated at 48, 96, and 144 h. Stocking rates resulted in an average egg loading rate (??1 SE) in McDonald jars of 21.9 ?? 0.03 eggs/mL and in experimental jars of 10.9 ?? 0.57 eggs/mL. The major finding of this study was that average fry survival was 37.3 ?? 4.49% for McDonald jars and 34.2 ?? 3.80% for experimental jars. Although survival in experimental jars was slightly less than in McDonald jars, the effect of container volume on survival to 48 h (F = 6.57; df = 1,5; P > 0.05), 96 h (F = 0.02; df = 1, 4; P > 0.89), and 144 h (F = 3.50; df = 1, 4; P > 0.13) was not statistically significant. Mean survival between replicates ranged from 14.7 to 60.1% in McDonald jars and from 10.1 to 54.4% in experimental jars. No effect of initial stocking rate on survival (t = 0.06; df = 10; P > 0.95) was detected. Experimental jars allowed for incubation of a greater number of eggs in less than half the floor space of McDonald jars. As hatchery production is often limited by space or water supply, experimental jars offer an alternative to extending spawning activities, thereby reducing labor and operations cost. As survival was similar to McDonald jars, the experimental jar is suitable for striped bass egg incubation. ?? Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2010.

  9. Volume visualization of multiple alignment of large genomicDNA

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Nameeta; Dillard, Scott E.; Weber, Gunther H.; Hamann, Bernd

    2005-07-25

    Genomes of hundreds of species have been sequenced to date, and many more are being sequenced. As more and more sequence data sets become available, and as the challenge of comparing these massive ''billion basepair DNA sequences'' becomes substantial, so does the need for more powerful tools supporting the exploration of these data sets. Similarity score data used to compare aligned DNA sequences is inherently one-dimensional. One-dimensional (1D) representations of these data sets do not effectively utilize screen real estate. As a result, tools using 1D representations are incapable of providing informatory overview for extremely large data sets. We present a technique to arrange 1D data in 3D space to allow us to apply state-of-the-art interactive volume visualization techniques for data exploration. We demonstrate our technique using multi-millions-basepair-long aligned DNA sequence data and compare it with traditional 1D line plots. The results show that our technique is superior in providing an overview of entire data sets. Our technique, coupled with 1D line plots, results in effective multi-resolution visualization of very large aligned sequence data sets.

  10. On the specificity of antibiotics targeting the large ribosomal subunit.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Daniel N

    2011-12-01

    The peptidyltransferase center of the large ribosomal subunit is responsible for catalyzing peptide bonds. This active site is the target of a variety of diverse antibiotics, many of which are used clinically. The past decade has seen a plethora of structures of antibiotics in complex with the large ribosomal subunit, providing unprecedented insight into the mechanism of action of these inhibitors. Ten distinct antibiotics (chloramphenicol, clindamycin, linezolid, tiamulin, sparsomycin, and five macrolides) have been crystallized in complex with four distinct ribosomal species, three bacterial, and one archaeal. This review aims to compare these structures in order to provide insight into the conserved and species-specific modes of interaction for particular members of each class of antibiotics. Coupled with the wealth of biochemical data, a picture is emerging defining the specific functional states of the ribosome that antibiotics preferentially target. Such mechanistic insight into antibiotic inhibition will be important for the development of the next generation of antimicrobial agents.

  11. Testing large volume water treatment and crude oil ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report EPA’s Homeland Security Research Program (HSRP) partnered with the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to build the Water Security Test Bed (WSTB) at the INL test site outside of Idaho Falls, Idaho. The WSTB was built using an 8-inch (20 cm) diameter cement-mortar lined drinking water pipe that was previously taken out of service. The pipe was exhumed from the INL grounds and oriented in the shape of a small drinking water distribution system. Effluent from the pipe is captured in a lagoon. The WSTB can support drinking water distribution system research on a variety of drinking water treatment topics including biofilms, water quality, sensors, and homeland security related contaminants. Because the WSTB is constructed of real drinking water distribution system pipes, research can be conducted under conditions similar to those in a real drinking water system. In 2014, WSTB pipe was experimentally contaminated with Bacillus globigii spores, a non-pathogenic surrogate for the pathogenic B. anthracis, and then decontaminated using chlorine dioxide. In 2015, the WSTB was used to perform the following experiments: • Four mobile disinfection technologies were tested for their ability to disinfect large volumes of biologically contaminated “dirty” water from the WSTB. B. globigii spores acted as the biological contaminant. The four technologies evaluated included: (1) Hayward Saline C™ 6.0 Chlorination System, (2) Advanced Oxidation Process (A

  12. New Large Volume Press Beamlines at the Canadian Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, H. J.; Hormes, J.; Lauterjung, J.; Secco, R.; Hallin, E.

    2013-12-01

    The Canadian Light Source, the German Research Centre for Geosciences and the Western University recently agreed to establish two new large volume press beamlines at the Canadian Lightsource. As the first step a 250 tons DIA-LVP will be installed at the IDEAS beamline in 2014. The further development is associated with the construction of a superconducting wiggler beamline at the Brockhouse sector. A 1750 tons DIA LVP will be installed there about 2 years later. Up to the completion of this wiggler beamline the big press will be used for offline high pressure high temperature experiments under simulated Earth's mantle conditions. In addition to X-ray diffraction, all up-to-date high pressure techniques as ultrasonic interferometry, deformation analyses by X-radiography, X-ray densitometry, falling sphere viscosimetry, multi-staging etc. will be available at both beamlines. After the required commissioning the beamlines will be open to the worldwide user community from Geosciences, general material sciences, physics, chemistry, biology etc. based on the evaluation and ranking of the submitted user proposals by an international review panel.

  13. Feasibility of large volume tumor ablation using multiple-mode strategy with fast scanning method: A numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hao; Shen, Guofeng; Qiao, Shan; Chen, Yazhu

    2017-03-01

    Sonication with fast scanning method can generate homogeneous lesions without complex planning. But when the target region is large, switching focus too fast will reduce the heat accumulation, the margin of which may not ablated. Furthermore, high blood perfusion rate will reduce this maximum volume that can be ablated. Therefore, fast scanning method may not be applied to large volume tumor. To expand the therapy scope, this study combines the fast scan method with multiple mode strategy. Through simulation and experiment, the feasibility of this new strategy is evaluated and analyzed.

  14. Technology transfer from NASA to targeted industries, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccain, Wayne; Schroer, Bernard J.; Souder, William E.; Spann, Mary S.; Watters, Harry; Ziemke, M. Carl

    1993-01-01

    This volume contains the following materials to support Volume 1: (1) Survey of Metal Fabrication Industry in Alabama; (2) Survey of Electronics Manufacturing/Assembly Industry in Alabama; (3) Apparel Modular Manufacturing Simulators; (4) Synopsis of a Stereolithography Project; (5) Transferring Modular Manufacturing Technology to an Apparel Firm; (6) Letters of Support; (7) Fact Sheets; (8) Publications; and (9) One Stop Access to NASA Technology Brochure.

  15. High volume fabrication of laser targets using MEMS techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spindloe, C.; Arthur, G.; Hall, F.; Tomlinson, S.; Potter, R.; Kar, S.; Green, J.; Higginbotham, A.; Booth, N.; Tolley, M. K.

    2016-04-01

    The latest techniques for the fabrication of high power laser targets, using processes developed for the manufacture of Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) devices are discussed. These laser targets are designed to meet the needs of the increased shot numbers that are available in the latest design of laser facilities. Traditionally laser targets have been fabricated using conventional machining or coarse etching processes and have been produced in quantities of 10s to low 100s. Such targets can be used for high complexity experiments such as Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) studies and can have many complex components that need assembling and characterisation with high precision. Using the techniques that are common to MEMS devices and integrating these with an existing target fabrication capability we are able to manufacture and deliver targets to these systems. It also enables us to manufacture novel targets that have not been possible using other techniques. In addition, developments in the positioning systems that are required to deliver these targets to the laser focus are also required and a system to deliver the target to a focus of an F2 beam at 0.1Hz is discussed.

  16. Analysis of Laser-Target Interaction. Volume 1. Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-01

    Previously, a model was constructed to describe energy transfer to an aluminum alloy target A12024 by a plasma ignited over the target surface. 1,2 The...intensity absorbed by the three non- aluminum alloys is shown as a function of time. A similar plot for oxidized steel is given in Fig. 3. 5. Typical...such as aluminum or copper cover poorly con- ducting targets such as SS304 and Ti6Al4V. 347 For an aluminum target over an aluminum alloy , the substrate

  17. [Definition of accurate planning target volume margins for esophageal cancer radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Lesueur, P; Servagi-Vernat, S

    2016-10-01

    More than 4000 cases of esophagus neoplasms are diagnosed every year in France. Radiotherapy, which can be delivered in preoperative or exclusive with a concomitant chemotherapy, plays a central role in treatment of esophagus cancer. Even if efficacy of radiotherapy no longer has to be proved, the prognosis of esophagus cancer remains unfortunately poor with a high recurrence rate. Toxicity of esophageal radiotherapy is correlated with the irradiation volume, and limits dose escalation and local control. Esophagus is a deep thoracic organ, which undergoes cardiac and respiratory motion, making the radiotherapy delivery more difficult and increasing the planning target volume margins. Definition of accurate planning target volume margins, taking into account the esophagus' intrafraction motion and set up margins is very important to be sure to cover the clinical target volume and restrains acute and late radiotoxicity. In this article, based on a review of the literature, we propose planning target volume margins adapted to esophageal radiotherapy.

  18. Delineation of Supraclavicular Target Volumes in Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Lindsay C.; Diehn, Felix E.; Boughey, Judy C.; Childs, Stephanie K.; Park, Sean S.; Yan, Elizabeth S.; Petersen, Ivy A.; Mutter, Robert W.

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: To map the location of gross supraclavicular metastases in patients with breast cancer, in order to determine areas at highest risk of harboring subclinical disease. Methods and Materials: Patients with axial imaging of gross supraclavicular disease were identified from an institutional breast cancer registry. Locations of the metastatic lymph nodes were transferred onto representative axial computed tomography images of the supraclavicular region and compared with the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) breast cancer atlas for radiation therapy planning. Results: Sixty-two patients with 161 supraclavicular nodal metastases were eligible for study inclusion. At the time of diagnosis, 117 nodal metastases were present in 44 patients. Forty-four nodal metastases in 18 patients were detected at disease recurrence, 4 of whom had received prior radiation to the supraclavicular fossa. Of the 161 nodal metastases, 95 (59%) were within the RTOG consensus volume, 4 nodal metastases (2%) in 3 patients were marginally within the volume, and 62 nodal metastases (39%) in 30 patients were outside the volume. Supraclavicular disease outside the RTOG consensus volume was located in 3 regions: at the level of the cricoid and thyroid cartilage (superior to the RTOG volume), in the posterolateral supraclavicular fossa (posterolateral to the RTOG volume), and in the lateral low supraclavicular fossa (lateral to the RTOG volume). Only women with multiple supraclavicular metastases had nodal disease that extended superiorly to the level of the thyroid cartilage. Conclusions: For women with risk of harboring subclinical supraclavicular disease warranting the addition of supraclavicular radiation, coverage of the posterior triangle and the lateral low supraclavicular region should be considered. For women with known supraclavicular disease, extension of neck coverage superior to the cricoid cartilage may be warranted.

  19. Data fusion for planning target volume and isodose prediction in prostate brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouranian, Saman; Ramezani, Mahdi; Mahdavi, S. Sara; Spadinger, Ingrid; Morris, William J.; Salcudean, Septimiu E.; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2015-03-01

    In low-dose prostate brachytherapy treatment, a large number of radioactive seeds is implanted in and adjacent to the prostate gland. Planning of this treatment involves the determination of a Planning Target Volume (PTV), followed by defining the optimal number of seeds, needles and their coordinates for implantation. The two major planning tasks, i.e. PTV determination and seed definition, are associated with inter- and intra-expert variability. Moreover, since these two steps are performed in sequence, the variability is accumulated in the overall treatment plan. In this paper, we introduce a model based on a data fusion technique that enables joint determination of PTV and the minimum Prescribed Isodose (mPD) map. The model captures the correlation between different information modalities consisting of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) volumes, PTV and isodose contours. We take advantage of joint Independent Component Analysis (jICA) as a linear decomposition technique to obtain a set of joint components that optimally describe such correlation. We perform a component stability analysis to generate a model with stable parameters that predicts the PTV and isodose contours solely based on a new patient TRUS volume. We propose a framework for both modeling and prediction processes and evaluate it on a dataset of 60 brachytherapy treatment records. We show PTV prediction error of 10:02+/-4:5% and the V100 isodose overlap of 97+/-3:55% with respect to the clinical gold standard.

  20. Collection of more hematopoietic progenitor cells with large volume leukapheresis in patients with multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Desikan, K R; Jagannath, S; Siegel, D; Nelson, J; Bracy, D; Barlogie, B; Tricot, G

    1998-02-01

    Reinfusion of mobilized peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) after high dose chemotherapy accelerates hematopoietic recovery. Because of the relatively low content of hematopoietic progenitors in the peripheral blood even after mobilization, multiple leukapheresis procedures are necessary to reach the required target number of CD34 cells to ensure prompt engraftment post-transplantation. Our previous studies have shown that the highest proportions of hematopoietic progenitors cells (CD34) are collected during the first three days of apheresis, whereas peak levels of myeloma cells are observed during subsequent days. Therefore, large volume leukapheresis (LVL), defined as processing of greater than 3 blood volumes or a total of at least 15 liters, was explored in 23 myeloma patients, undergoing 91 procedures; 14 patients were mobilized with high dose cyclophosphamide (6g/m2) and hematopoietic growth factors and 9 with G-CSF only. CD34 yields were measured separately for the first and last two hours of collection. We observed no decrease in CD34 cells/kg during the last two hours of collection and when the LVL collections were compared to historical matched controls, mobilized with the same regimen, the median quantity of CD34 cells/kg/liter collected remained equivalent during all days of apheresis. When compared to G-CSF only, mobilization with high dose cyclophosphamide appeared to result in superior hematopoietic stem cell collections. Interestingly, the G-CSF group experienced a progressive decrease in platelets during consecutive days of LVL, while the opposite was seen in the cyclophosphamide group. LVL procedures were not associated with a higher complication rate than standard volume apheresis. We conclude that LVL procedures allow collection of more CD34 cell per session while not jeopardizing progenitor cell collections during subsequent sessions. Since more CD34 cells are collected, fewer days are required to attain the optimal target of progenitor cells

  1. Atlas-Based Semiautomatic Target Volume Definition (CTV) for Head-and-Neck Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Strassmann, Gerd; Abdellaoui, Soulimane; Richter, Detlef; Bekkaoui, Fayzal; Haderlein, Marlene; Fokas, Emmanouil; Timmesfeld, Nina; Vogel, Birgitt M.D.; Henzel, Martin; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: To develop a new semiautomatic method to improve target delineation in head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: We implemented an atlas-based software program using fourteen anatomic landmarks as well as the most superior and inferior computerd tomography slices for automatic target delineation, using an advanced laryngeal carcinoma as an example. Registration was made by an affine transformation. Evaluation was performed with manually drawn contours for comparison. Three physicians sampled and further applied a target volume atlas to ten other computer tomography data sets. In addition, a rapid three-dimensional (3D) correction program was developed. Results: The mean time to the first semiautomatic target delineation proposal was 2.7 minutes. Manual contouring required 20.2 minutes per target, whereas semiautomatic target volume definition with the rapid 3D correction was completed in only 9.7 minutes. The net calculation time for image registration of the target volume atlas was negligible (approximately 0.6 seconds). Our method depicted a sufficient adaptation of the target volume atlas on the new data sets, with a mean similarity index of 77.2%. The similarity index increased up to 85% after 3D correction performed by the physicians. Conclusions: We have developed a new, feasible method for semiautomatic contouring that saves a significant amount (51.8%) of target delineation time for head-and-neck cancer patients. This approach uses a target volume atlas and a landmark model. The software was evaluated by means of laryngeal cancer but has important implications for various tumor types whereby target volumes remain constant in form and do not move with respiration.

  2. International Spine Radiosurgery Consortium Consensus Guidelines for Target Volume Definition in Spinal Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Brett W.; Spratt, Daniel E.; Lovelock, Michael; Bilsky, Mark H.; Lis, Eric; Ryu, Samuel; Sheehan, Jason; Gerszten, Peter C.; Chang, Eric; Gibbs, Iris; Soltys, Scott; Sahgal, Arjun; Deasy, Joe; Flickinger, John; Quader, Mubina; Mindea, Stefan; and others

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: Spinal stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is increasingly used to manage spinal metastases. However, target volume definition varies considerably and no consensus target volume guidelines exist. This study proposes consensus target volume definitions using common scenarios in metastatic spine radiosurgery. Methods and Materials: Seven radiation oncologists and 3 neurological surgeons with spinal radiosurgery expertise independently contoured target and critical normal structures for 10 cases representing common scenarios in metastatic spine radiosurgery. Each set of volumes was imported into the Computational Environment for Radiotherapy Research. Quantitative analysis was performed using an expectation maximization algorithm for Simultaneous Truth and Performance Level Estimation (STAPLE) with kappa statistics calculating agreement between physicians. Optimized confidence level consensus contours were identified using histogram agreement analysis and characterized to create target volume definition guidelines. Results: Mean STAPLE agreement sensitivity and specificity was 0.76 (range, 0.67-0.84) and 0.97 (range, 0.94-0.99), respectively, for gross tumor volume (GTV) and 0.79 (range, 0.66-0.91) and 0.96 (range, 0.92-0.98), respectively, for clinical target volume (CTV). Mean kappa agreement was 0.65 (range, 0.54-0.79) for GTV and 0.64 (range, 0.54-0.82) for CTV (P<.01 for GTV and CTV in all cases). STAPLE histogram agreement analysis identified optimal consensus contours (80% confidence limit). Consensus recommendations include that the CTV should include abnormal marrow signal suspicious for microscopic invasion and an adjacent normal bony expansion to account for subclinical tumor spread in the marrow space. No epidural CTV expansion is recommended without epidural disease, and circumferential CTVs encircling the cord should be used only when the vertebral body, bilateral pedicles/lamina, and spinous process are all involved or there is extensive metastatic

  3. Technology transfer from NASA to targeted industries, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccain, Wayne; Schroer, Bernard J.; Souder, William E.; Spann, Mary S.; Watters, Harry; Ziemke, M. Carl

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) technology transfer to three target industries with focus on the apparel manufacturing industry in Alabama. Also included in this report are an analysis of the 1992 problem statements submitted by Alabama firms, the results of the survey of 1987-88 NASA Tech Brief requests, the results of the followup to Alabama submitted problem statements, and the development of the model describing the MSFC technology transfer process.

  4. Large-volume leukaphereses may be more efficient than standard-volume leukaphereses for collection of peripheral blood progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Passos-Coelho, J L; Machado, M A; Lúcio, P; Leal-Da-Costa, F; Silva, M R; Parreira, A

    1997-10-01

    To overcome the need for multiple leukaphereses to collect enough PBPC for autologous transplantation, large-volume leukaphereses (LVL) are used to process multiple blood volumes per session. We compared the efficiency of CD34+ cell collection by LVL (n = 63; median blood volumes processed 11.1) with that of standard-volume leukaphereses (SVL) (n = 38; median blood volumes processed 1.9). To achieve this in patients with different peripheral blood concentrations of CD34+ cells, we analyzed the ratio of CD34+ cells collected per unit of blood volume processed, divided by the number of CD34+ cells in total blood volume at the beginning of apheresis. For LVL, 30% (9%-323%) of circulating CD34+ cells were collected per blood volume compared with 42% (7%-144%) for SVL (p = 0.02). However, in LVL patients, peripheral blood CD34+ cells/L decreased a median of 54% during LVL (similar data for SVL not available). The number of CD34+ cells collected per blood volume processed after 4 and 8 blood volumes and at the end of LVL were 0.32 (0.01-2.05), 0.24 (0.01-1.68), and 0.22 (0.01-2.40) x 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg, respectively (p = 0.0007), despite the 54% decrease in peripheral blood CD34+ cells/L throughout LVL. A median 66% decrease in the platelet count was also observed during LVL. Thus, LVL may be more efficient than SVL for PBPC collection, allowing, in most patients, the collection in one LVL of sufficient PBPC to support autologous transplantation.

  5. Large space telescope, phase A. Volume 3: Optical telescope assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development and characteristics of the optical telescope assembly for the Large Space Telescope are discussed. The systems considerations are based on mission-related parameters and optical equipment requirements. Information is included on: (1) structural design and analysis, (2) thermal design, (3) stabilization and control, (4) alignment, focus, and figure control, (5) electronic subsystem, and (6) scientific instrument design.

  6. RADON DIAGNOSTIC MEASUREMENT GUIDANCE FOR LARGE BUILDINGS - VOLUME 2. APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the development of radon diagnostic procedures and mitigation strategies applicable to a variety of large non-residential buildings commonly found in Florida. The investigations document and evaluate the nature of radon occurrence and entry mechanisms for rad...

  7. Large space telescope, phase A. Volume 4: Scientific instrument package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design and characteristics of the scientific instrument package for the Large Space Telescope are discussed. The subjects include: (1) general scientific objectives, (2) package system analysis, (3) scientific instrumentation, (4) imaging photoelectric sensors, (5) environmental considerations, and (6) reliability and maintainability.

  8. Large space telescope, phase A. Volume 5: Support systems module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development and characteristics of the support systems module for the Large Space Telescope are discussed. The following systems and described: (1) thermal control, (2) electrical, (3) communication and data landing, (4) attitude control system, and (5) structural features. Analyses of maintainability and reliability considerations are included.

  9. Large-Volume Resonant Microwave Discharge for Plasma Cleaning of a CEBAF 5-Cell SRF Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    J. Mammosser, S. Ahmed, K. Macha, J. Upadhyay, M. Nikoli, S. Popovi, L. Vuakovi

    2012-07-01

    We report the preliminary results on plasma generation in a 5-cell CEBAF superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavity for the application of cavity interior surface cleaning. CEBAF currently has {approx}300 of these five cell cavities installed in the Jefferson Lab accelerator which are mostly limited by cavity surface contamination. The development of an in-situ cavity surface cleaning method utilizing a resonant microwave discharge could lead to significant CEBAF accelerator performance improvement. This microwave discharge is currently being used for the development of a set of plasma cleaning procedures targeted to the removal of various organic, metal and metal oxide impurities. These contaminants are responsible for the increase of surface resistance and the reduction of RF performance in installed cavities. The CEBAF five cell cavity volume is {approx} 0.5 m2, which places the discharge in the category of large-volume plasmas. CEBAF cavity has a cylindrical symmetry, but its elliptical shape and transversal power coupling makes it an unusual plasma application, which requires special consideration of microwave breakdown. Our preliminary study includes microwave breakdown and optical spectroscopy, which was used to define the operating pressure range and the rate of removal of organic impurities.

  10. [Multimodalities imaging for target volume definition in radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Daisne, Jean-François; Grégoire, Vincent

    2006-12-01

    Modern radiotherapy delivery nowadays relies on tridimensional, conformal techniques. The aim is to better target the tumor while decreasing the dose administered to surrounding normal tissues. Gold standard imaging modality remains computed-tomography (CT) scanner. However, the intrinsic lack of contrast between soft tissues leads to high variabilities in target definition. The risks are : a geographical miss with tumor underirradiation on the one hand, and a tumor overestimation with undue normal tissues irradiation on the other hand. Alternative imaging modalities like magnetic resonance imaging and functional positron emission tomography could theoretically overcome the lack of soft tissues contrast of CT. However, the fusion of the different imaging modalities images requires the use of sophisticated computer algorithms. We will briefly review them. We will then review the different clinical results reported with multi-modalities imaging for tumors of the head, neck, lung, esophagus, cervix and lymphomas. Finally, we will briefly give practical recommendations for multi-modality imaging in radiotherapy treatment planning process.

  11. Real-time visualization of large volume datasets on standard PC hardware.

    PubMed

    Xie, Kai; Yang, Jie; Zhu, Y M

    2008-05-01

    In medical area, interactive three-dimensional volume visualization of large volume datasets is a challenging task. One of the major challenges in graphics processing unit (GPU)-based volume rendering algorithms is the limited size of texture memory imposed by current GPU architecture. We attempt to overcome this limitation by rendering only visible parts of large CT datasets. In this paper, we present an efficient, high-quality volume rendering algorithm using GPUs for rendering large CT datasets at interactive frame rates on standard PC hardware. We subdivide the volume dataset into uniform sized blocks and take advantage of combinations of early ray termination, empty-space skipping and visibility culling to accelerate the whole rendering process and render visible parts of volume data. We have implemented our volume rendering algorithm for a large volume data of 512 x 304 x 1878 dimensions (visible female), and achieved real-time performance (i.e., 3-4 frames per second) on a Pentium 4 2.4GHz PC equipped with NVIDIA Geforce 6600 graphics card ( 256 MB video memory). This method can be used as a 3D visualization tool of large CT datasets for doctors or radiologists.

  12. Cone-Beam CT Localization of Internal Target Volumes for Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy of Lung Lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zhiheng Wu, Q. Jackie; Marks, Lawrence B.; Larrier, Nicole; Yin Fangfang

    2007-12-01

    Purpose: In this study, we investigate a technique of matching internal target volumes (ITVs) in four-dimensional (4D) simulation computed tomography (CT) to the composite target volume in free-breathing on-board cone-beam (CB) CT. The technique is illustrated by using both phantom and patient cases. Methods and Materials: A dynamic phantom with a target ball simulating respiratory motion with various amplitude and cycle times was used to verify localization accuracy. The dynamic phantom was scanned using simulation CT with a phase-based retrospective sorting technique. The ITV was then determined based on 10 sets of sorted images. The size and epicenter of the ITV identified from 4D simulation CT images and the composite target volume identified from on-board CBCT images were compared to assess localization accuracy. Similarly, for two clinical cases of patients with lung cancer, ITVs defined from 4D simulation CT images and CBCT images were compared. Results: For the phantom, localization accuracy between the ITV in 4D simulation CT and the composite target volume in CBCT was within 1 mm, and ITV was within 8.7%. For patient cases, ITVs on simulation CT and CBCT were within 8.0%. Conclusion: This study shows that CBCT is a useful tool to localize ITV for targets affected by respiratory motion. Verification of the ITV from 4D simulation CT using on-board free-breathing CBCT is feasible for the target localization of lung tumors.

  13. Evaluation of Peritumoral Edema in the Delineation of Radiotherapy Clinical Target Volumes for Glioblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Eric L. . E-mail: echang@mdanderson.org; Akyurek, Serap; Avalos, Tedde C; Rebueno, Neal C; Spicer, Chris C; Garcia, John C; Famiglietti, Robin; Allen, Pamela K.; Chao, K.S. Clifford; Mahajan, Anita; Woo, Shiao Y.; Maor, Moshe H.

    2007-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the spatial relationship between peritumoral edema and recurrence pattern in patients with glioblastoma (GBM). Methods and Materials: Forty-eight primary GBM patients received three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy that did not intentionally include peritumoral edema within the clinical target volume between July 2000 and June 2001. All 48 patients have subsequently recurred, and their original treatment planning parameters were used for this study. New theoretical radiation treatment plans were created for the same 48 patients, based on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) target delineation guidelines that specify inclusion of peritumoral edema. Target volume and recurrent tumor coverage, as well as percent volume of normal brain irradiated, were assessed for both methods of target delineation using dose-volume histograms. Results: A comparison between the location of recurrent tumor and peritumoral edema volumes from all 48 cases failed to show correlation by linear regression modeling (r {sup 2} 0.0007; p = 0.3). For patients with edema >75 cm{sup 3}, the percent volume of brain irradiated to 46 Gy was significantly greater in treatment plans that intentionally included peritumoral edema compared with those that did not (38% vs. 31%; p = 0.003). The pattern of failure was identical between the two sets of plans (40 central, 3 in-field, 3 marginal, and 2 distant recurrence). Conclusion: Clinical target volume delineation based on a 2-cm margin rather than on peritumoral edema did not seem to alter the central pattern of failure for patients with GBM. For patients with peritumoral edema >75 cm{sup 3}, using a constant 2-cm margin resulted in a smaller median percent volume of brain being irradiated to 30 Gy, 46 Gy, and 50 Gy compared with corresponding theoretical RTOG plans that deliberately included peritumoral edema.

  14. Systems and methods for the detection of low-level harmful substances in a large volume of fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, Michael V.; Roybal, Lyle G.; Lindquist, Alan; Gallardo, Vincente

    2016-03-15

    A method and device for the detection of low-level harmful substances in a large volume of fluid comprising using a concentrator system to produce a retentate and analyzing the retentate for the presence of at least one harmful substance. The concentrator system performs a method comprising pumping at least 10 liters of fluid from a sample source through a filter. While pumping, the concentrator system diverts retentate from the filter into a container. The concentrator system also recirculates at least part of the retentate in the container again through the filter. The concentrator system controls the speed of the pump with a control system thereby maintaining a fluid pressure less than 25 psi during the pumping of the fluid; monitors the quantity of retentate within the container with a control system, and maintains a reduced volume level of retentate and a target volume of retentate.

  15. Radiation from Large Gas Volumes and Heat Exchange in Steam Boiler Furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, A. N.

    2015-09-15

    Radiation from large cylindrical gas volumes is studied as a means of simulating the flare in steam boiler furnaces. Calculations of heat exchange in a furnace by the zonal method and by simulation of the flare with cylindrical gas volumes are described. The latter method is more accurate and yields more reliable information on heat transfer processes taking place in furnaces.

  16. An instrument for collecting discrete large-volume water samples suitable for ecological studies of microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wommack, K. Eric; Williamson, Shannon J.; Sundbergh, Arthur; Helton, Rebekah R.; Glazer, Brian T.; Portune, Kevin; Craig Cary, S.

    2004-11-01

    Microbiological investigations utilizing molecular genetic approaches to characterize microbial communities can require large volume water samples, tens to hundreds of liters. The requirement for large volume samples can be especially challenging in deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments of the oceanic ridge system. By and large studies of these environments rely on deep submergence vehicles. However collection of large volume (>100 L) water samples adjacent to the benthos is not feasible due to weight considerations. To address the technical difficulty of collecting large volume water samples from hydrothermal diffuse flow environments, a semi-autonomous large-volume water sampler (LVWS) was designed. The LVWS is capable of reliably collecting and bringing to the surface 120 L water samples from diffuse flow environments. Microscopy, molecular genetic and chemical analyses of water samples taken from 9°N East Pacific Rise are shown to demonstrate the utility of the LVWS for studies of near-benthos environments. To our knowledge this is the first report of virioplankton abundance within diffuse-flow waters of a deep-sea hydrothermal vent environment. Because of its simple design and relatively low cost, the LVWS should be applicable to a variety of studies which require large-volume water samples collected immediately adjacent to the benthos.

  17. Large-volume protein crystal growth for neutron macromolecular crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Joseph D.; Baird, James K.; Coates, Leighton; Garcia-Ruiz, Juan M.; Hodge, Teresa A.; Huang, Sijay

    2015-03-30

    Neutron macromolecular crystallography (NMC) is the prevailing method for the accurate determination of the positions of H atoms in macromolecules. As neutron sources are becoming more available to general users, finding means to optimize the growth of protein crystals to sizes suitable for NMC is extremely important. Historically, much has been learned about growing crystals for X-ray diffraction. However, owing to new-generation synchrotron X-ray facilities and sensitive detectors, protein crystal sizes as small as in the nano-range have become adequate for structure determination, lessening the necessity to grow large crystals. Here, some of the approaches, techniques and considerations for the growth of crystals to significant dimensions that are now relevant to NMC are revisited. We report that these include experimental strategies utilizing solubility diagrams, ripening effects, classical crystallization techniques, microgravity and theoretical considerations.

  18. Large-volume protein crystal growth for neutron macromolecular crystallography

    DOE PAGES

    Ng, Joseph D.; Baird, James K.; Coates, Leighton; ...

    2015-03-30

    Neutron macromolecular crystallography (NMC) is the prevailing method for the accurate determination of the positions of H atoms in macromolecules. As neutron sources are becoming more available to general users, finding means to optimize the growth of protein crystals to sizes suitable for NMC is extremely important. Historically, much has been learned about growing crystals for X-ray diffraction. However, owing to new-generation synchrotron X-ray facilities and sensitive detectors, protein crystal sizes as small as in the nano-range have become adequate for structure determination, lessening the necessity to grow large crystals. Here, some of the approaches, techniques and considerations for themore » growth of crystals to significant dimensions that are now relevant to NMC are revisited. We report that these include experimental strategies utilizing solubility diagrams, ripening effects, classical crystallization techniques, microgravity and theoretical considerations.« less

  19. Inter- and Intrafractional Movement-Induced Dose Reduction of Prostate Target Volume in Proton Beam Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Myonggeun; Kim, Dongwook; Shin, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Yong Lee, Se Byeong; Kim, Dae Yong; Kim, Joo Young; Pyo, Hong Ryull; Cho, Kwan Ho

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: To quantify proton radiotherapy dose reduction in the prostate target volume because of the three-dimensional movement of the prostate based on an analysis of dose-volume histograms (DVHs). Methods and Materials: Twelve prostate cancer patients underwent scanning in supine position, and a target contour was delineated for each using a proton treatment planning system. To simulate target movement, the contour was displaced from 3 to 15 mm in 3-mm intervals in the superior-to-inferior (SI), inferior-to-superior (IS), anterior-to-posterior (AP), posterior-to-anterior (PA), and left-to-right (LR) directions. Results: For both intra- and interfractional movements, the average coverage index and conformity index of the target were reduced in all directions. For interfractional movements, the magnitude of dose reduction was greater in the LR direction than in the AP, PA, SI. and IS directions. Although the reduction of target dose was proportional to the magnitude of intrafractional movement in all directions, a proportionality between dose reduction and the magnitude of interfractional target movement was clear only in the LR direction. Like the coverage index and conformity index, the equivalent uniform dose and homogeneity index showed similar reductions for both types of target movements. Conclusions: Small target movements can significantly reduce target proton radiotherapy dose during treatment of prostate cancer patients. Attention should be given to interfractional target movement along the longitudinal direction, as image-guided radiotherapy may be ineffective if margins are not sufficient.

  20. Sand tank experiment of a large volume biodiesel spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scully, K.; Mayer, K. U.

    2015-12-01

    Although petroleum hydrocarbon releases in the subsurface have been well studied, the impacts of subsurface releases of highly degradable alternative fuels, including biodiesel, are not as well understood. One concern is the generation of CH4­ which may lead to explosive conditions in underground structures. In addition, the biodegradation of biodiesel consumes O2 that would otherwise be available for the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons that may be present at a site. Until now, biodiesel biodegradation in the vadose zone has not been examined in detail, despite being critical to understanding the full impact of a release. This research involves a detailed study of a laboratory release of 80 L of biodiesel applied at surface into a large sandtank to examine the progress of biodegradation reactions. The experiment will monitor the onset and temporal evolution of CH4 generation to provide guidance for site monitoring needs following a biodiesel release to the subsurface. Three CO2 and CH4 flux chambers have been deployed for long term monitoring of gas emissions. CO2 fluxes have increased in all chambers over the 126 days since the start of the experiment. The highest CO2 effluxes are found directly above the spill and have increased from < 0.5 μmol m-2 s-1 to ~3.8 μmol m-2 s-1, indicating an increase in microbial activity. There were no measurable CH4 fluxes 126 days into the experiment. Sensors were emplaced to continuously measure O2, CO2, moisture content, matric potential, EC, and temperature. In response to the release, CO2 levels have increased across all sensors, from an average value of 0.1% to 0.6% 126 days after the start of the experiment, indicating the rapid onset of biodegradation. The highest CO2 values observed from samples taken in the gas ports were 2.5%. Average O2 concentrations have decreased from 21% to 17% 126 days after the start of the experiment. O2 levels in the bottom central region of the sandtank declined to approximately 12%.

  1. Large Variations in Ice Volume During the Middle Eocene "Doubthouse"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawber, C. F.; Tripati, A. K.

    2008-12-01

    The onset of glacial conditions in the Cenozoic is widely held to have begun ~34 million years ago, coincident with the Eocene-Oligocene boundary1. Warm and high pCO2 'greenhouse' intervals such as the Eocene are generally thought to be ice-free2. Yet the sequence stratigraphic record supports the occurrence of high-frequency sea-level change of tens of meters in the Middle and Late Eocene3, and large calcite and seawater δ18O excursions (~0.5-1.0 permil) have been reported in foraminifera from open ocean sediments4. As a result, the Middle Eocene is often considered the intermediary "doubthouse". The extent of continental ice during the 'doubthouse' is controversial, with estimates of glacioeustatic sea level fall ranging from 30 to 125m2,3,5. We present a new δ18Osw reconstruction for Ocean Drilling Project (ODP) Site 1209 in the tropical Pacific Ocean. It is the first continuous high-resolution record for an open-ocean site that is not directly influenced by changes in the carbonate compensation depth, which enables us to circumvent many of the limitations of existing records. Our record shows increases of 0.8 ± 0.2 (1 s.e) permil and 1.1 ± 0.2 permil at ~44-45 and ~42-41 Ma respectively, which suggests glacioeustatic sea level variations of ~90 m during the Middle Eocene. Modelling studies have shown that fully glaciating Antarctica during the Eocene should drive a change in seawater (δ18Osw) of 0.45 permil, and lower sea level by ~55 m6. Our results therefore support significant ice storage in both the Northern and Southern Hemisphere during the Middle Eocene 'doubthouse'. 1.Miller, Kenneth G. et al., 1990, Eocene-Oligocene sea-level changes in the New Jersey coastal plain linked to the deep-sea record. Geological Society of America Bulletin 102, 331-339 2.Pagani, M. et al., 2005, Marked decline in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations during the Paleogene. Science 309 (5734), 600-603. 3.Browning, J., Miller, K., and Pak, D., 1996, Global implications

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging- Versus Computed Tomography-Based Target Volume Delineation of the Glandular Breast Tissue (Clinical Target Volume Breast) in Breast-Conserving Therapy: An Exploratory Study

    SciTech Connect

    Giezen, Marina; Kouwenhoven, Erik; Scholten, Astrid N.; Coerkamp, Emile G.; Heijenbrok, Mark; Jansen, Wim P.A.; Mast, Mirjam E.; Petoukhova, Anna L.; Struikmans, Henk

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: To examine MRI and CT for glandular breast tissue (GBT) volume delineation and to assess interobserver variability. Methods and Materials: Fifteen breast cancer patients underwent a planning CT and MRI, consecutively, in the treatment position. Four observers (two radiation oncologists and two radiologists) delineated the GBT according to the CT and separately to the MR images. Volumes, centers of mass, maximum extensions with standard deviations (SD), and interobserver variability were quantified. Observers viewed delineation differences between MRI and CT and delineation differences among observers. Results: In cranio-lateral and cranio-medial directions, GBT volumes were delineated larger using MRI when compared with those delineated with CT. Center of mass on MRI shifted a mean (SD) 17% (4%) into the cranial direction and a mean 3% (4%) into the dorsal direction when compared with that on the planning CT. Only small variations between observers were noted. The GBT volumes were approximately 4% larger on MRI (mean [SD] ratio MRI to CT GBT volumes, 1.04 [0.06]). Findings were concordant with viewed MRI and CT images and contours. Conformity indices were only slightly different; mean conformity index was 77% (3%) for MRI and 79% (4%) for CT. Delineation differences arising from personal preferences remained recognizable irrespective of the imaging modality used. Conclusions: Contoured GBT extends substantially further into the cranio-lateral and cranio-medial directions on MRI when compared with CT. Interobserver variability is comparable for both imaging modalities. Observers should be aware of existing personal delineation preferences. Institutions are recommended to review and discuss target volume delineations and to design supplementary guidelines if necessary.

  3. A 3D time reversal cavity for the focusing of high-intensity ultrasound pulses over a large volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, J.; Arnal, B.; Tanter, M.; Pernot, M.

    2017-02-01

    Shock wave ultrasound therapy techniques, increasingly used for non-invasive surgery, require extremely high pressure amplitudes in precise focal spots, and large high-power transducers arranged on a spherical shell are usually used to achieve that. This solution allows limited steering of the beam around the geometrical focus of the device at the cost of a large number of transducer elements, and the treatment of large and moving organs like the heart is challenging or impossible. This paper validates numerically and experimentally the possibility of using a time reversal cavity (TRC) for the same purpose. A 128-element, 1 MHz power transducer combined with different multiple scattering media in a TRC was used. We were able to focus high-power ultrasound pulses over a large volume in a controlled manner, with a limited number of transducer elements. We reached sufficiently high pressure amplitudes to erode an Ultracal® target over a 10 cm2 area.

  4. Center-stabilized Yang-Mills Theory:Confinement and Large N Volume Independence

    SciTech Connect

    Unsal, Mithat; Yaffe, Laurence G.; /Washington U., Seattle

    2008-03-21

    We examine a double trace deformation of SU(N) Yang-Mills theory which, for large N and large volume, is equivalent to unmodified Yang-Mills theory up to O(1/N{sup 2}) corrections. In contrast to the unmodified theory, large N volume independence is valid in the deformed theory down to arbitrarily small volumes. The double trace deformation prevents the spontaneous breaking of center symmetry which would otherwise disrupt large N volume independence in small volumes. For small values of N, if the theory is formulated on R{sup 3} x S{sup 1} with a sufficiently small compactification size L, then an analytic treatment of the non-perturbative dynamics of the deformed theory is possible. In this regime, we show that the deformed Yang-Mills theory has a mass gap and exhibits linear confinement. Increasing the circumference L or number of colors N decreases the separation of scales on which the analytic treatment relies. However, there are no order parameters which distinguish the small and large radius regimes. Consequently, for small N the deformed theory provides a novel example of a locally four-dimensional pure gauge theory in which one has analytic control over confinement, while for large N it provides a simple fully reduced model for Yang-Mills theory. The construction is easily generalized to QCD and other QCD-like theories.

  5. Plasma response to electron energy filter in large volume plasma device

    SciTech Connect

    Sanyasi, A. K.; Awasthi, L. M.; Mattoo, S. K.; Srivastava, P. K.; Singh, S. K.; Singh, R.; Kaw, P. K.

    2013-12-15

    An electron energy filter (EEF) is embedded in the Large Volume Plasma Device plasma for carrying out studies on excitation of plasma turbulence by a gradient in electron temperature (ETG) described in the paper of Mattoo et al. [S. K. Mattoo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 255007 (2012)]. In this paper, we report results on the response of the plasma to the EEF. It is shown that inhomogeneity in the magnetic field of the EEF switches on several physical phenomena resulting in plasma regions with different characteristics, including a plasma region free from energetic electrons, suitable for the study of ETG turbulence. Specifically, we report that localized structures of plasma density, potential, electron temperature, and plasma turbulence are excited in the EEF plasma. It is shown that structures of electron temperature and potential are created due to energy dependence of the electron transport in the filter region. On the other hand, although structure of plasma density has origin in the particle transport but two distinct steps of the density structure emerge from dominance of collisionality in the source-EEF region and of the Bohm diffusion in the EEF-target region. It is argued and experimental evidence is provided for existence of drift like flute Rayleigh-Taylor in the EEF plasma.

  6. Sparing Healthy Tissue and Increasing Tumor Dose Using Bayesian Modeling of Geometric Uncertainties for Planning Target Volume Personalization

    SciTech Connect

    Herschtal, Alan; Te Marvelde, Luc; Mengersen, Kerrie; Foroudi, Farshad; Eade, Thomas; Pham, Daniel; Caine, Hannah; Kron, Tomas

    2015-06-01

    Objective: To develop a mathematical tool that can update a patient's planning target volume (PTV) partway through a course of radiation therapy to more precisely target the tumor for the remainder of treatment and reduce dose to surrounding healthy tissue. Methods and Materials: Daily on-board imaging was used to collect large datasets of displacements for patients undergoing external beam radiation therapy for solid tumors. Bayesian statistical modeling of these geometric uncertainties was used to optimally trade off between displacement data collected from previously treated patients and the progressively accumulating data from a patient currently partway through treatment, to optimally predict future displacements for that patient. These predictions were used to update the PTV position and margin width for the remainder of treatment, such that the clinical target volume (CTV) was more precisely targeted. Results: Software simulation of dose to CTV and normal tissue for 2 real prostate displacement datasets consisting of 146 and 290 patients treated with a minimum of 30 fractions each showed that re-evaluating the PTV position and margin width after 8 treatment fractions reduced healthy tissue dose by 19% and 17%, respectively, while maintaining CTV dose. Conclusion: Incorporating patient-specific displacement patterns from early in a course of treatment allows PTV adaptation for the remainder of treatment. This substantially reduces the dose to healthy tissues and thus can reduce radiation therapy–induced toxicities, improving patient outcomes.

  7. Accelerated large volume irradiation with dynamic Jaw/Dynamic Couch Helical Tomotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Helical Tomotherapy (HT) has unique capacities for the radiotherapy of large and complicated target volumes. Next generation Dynamic Jaw/Dynamic Couch HT delivery promises faster treatments and reduced exposure of organs at risk due to a reduced dose penumbra. Methods Three challenging clinical situations were chosen for comparison between Regular HT delivery with a field width of 2.5 cm (Reg 2.5) and 5.0 cm (Reg 5.0) and DJDC delivery with a maximum field width of 5.0 cm (DJDC 5.0): Hemithoracic Irradiation, Whole Abdominal Irradiation (WAI) and Total Marrow Irradiation (TMI). For each setting, five CT data sets were chosen, and target coverage, conformity, integral dose, dose exposure of organs at risk (OAR) and treatment time were calculated. Results Both Reg 5.0 and DJDC 5.0 achieved a substantial reduction in treatment time while maintaining similar dose coverage. Treatment time could be reduced from 10:57 min to 3:42 min / 5:10 min (Reg 5.0 / DJDC 5.0) for Hemithoracic Irradiation, from 18:03 min to 8:02 min / 8:03 min for WAI and to 18:25 min / 18:03 min for TMI. In Hemithoracic Irradiation, OAR exposure was identical in all modalities. For WAI, Reg 2.5 resulted in lower exposure of liver and bone. DJDC plans showed a small but significant increase of ∼ 1 Gy to the kidneys, the parotid glans and the thyroid gland. While Reg 5.0 and DJDC were identical in terms of OAR exposure, integral dose was substantially lower with DJDC, caused by a smaller dose penumbra. Conclusions Although not clinically available yet, next generation DJDC HT technique is efficient in improving the treatment time while maintaining comparable plan quality. PMID:23146914

  8. ALK Signaling and Target Therapy in Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Tabbó, Fabrizio; Barreca, Antonella; Piva, Roberto; Inghirami, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    The discovery by Morris et al. (1994) of the genes contributing to the t(2;5)(p23;q35) translocation has laid the foundation for a molecular based recognition of anaplastic large cell lymphoma and highlighted the need for a further stratification of T-cell neoplasia. Likewise the detection of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) genetic lesions among many human cancers has defined unique subsets of cancer patients, providing new opportunities for innovative therapeutic interventions. The objective of this review is to appraise the molecular mechanisms driving ALK-mediated transformation, and to maintain the neoplastic phenotype. The understanding of these events will allow the design and implementation of novel tailored strategies for a well-defined subset of cancer patients. PMID:22649787

  9. Production of large resonant plasma volumes in microwave electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Alton, G.D.

    1998-11-24

    Microwave injection methods are disclosed for enhancing the performance of existing electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources. The methods are based on the use of high-power diverse frequency microwaves, including variable-frequency, multiple-discrete-frequency, and broadband microwaves. The methods effect large resonant ``volume`` ECR regions in the ion sources. The creation of these large ECR plasma volumes permits coupling of more microwave power into the plasma, resulting in the heating of a much larger electron population to higher energies, the effect of which is to produce higher charge state distributions and much higher intensities within a particular charge state than possible in present ECR ion sources. 5 figs.

  10. Production of large resonant plasma volumes in microwave electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Alton, Gerald D.

    1998-01-01

    Microwave injection methods for enhancing the performance of existing electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources. The methods are based on the use of high-power diverse frequency microwaves, including variable-frequency, multiple-discrete-frequency, and broadband microwaves. The methods effect large resonant "volume" ECR regions in the ion sources. The creation of these large ECR plasma volumes permits coupling of more microwave power into the plasma, resulting in the heating of a much larger electron population to higher energies, the effect of which is to produce higher charge state distributions and much higher intensities within a particular charge state than possible in present ECR ion sources.

  11. The effect of image-guided radiation therapy on the margin between the clinical target volume and planning target volume in lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Jun; Li, Minghui; Zhang, Tao; Han, Wei; Chen, Dongfu; Hui, Zhouguang; Lv, Jima; Zhang, Zhong; Zhang, Yin; Zhang, Liansheng; Zheng, Rong; Dai, Jianrong; Wang, Luhua

    2014-02-15

    Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) on the margin between the clinical target volume (CTV) and planning target volume (PTV) in lung cancer. Methods: The CTV and PTV margin were determined in three dimensions by four radiation oncologists using a standard method in 10 lung cancer patients, and compared to consensus values. Transfer error was measured using a rigid phantom containing gold markers. Systematic error and random error set up errors were calculated in three dimensions from pre-treatment and post-treatment cone beam CT scans. Finally, the margin between the CTV and PTV was corrected for set up error and calculated. Results: The margins between the CTV and PTV with IGRT (and without IGRT) were 0.88 cm (0.96 cm), 0.99 cm (1.08 cm) and 1.28 cm (1.82 cm) in the anterior and posterior (AP), left and right (LR) and superior and inferior (SI) directions, respectively. Images from two other patients verified the validity of the corrected margin. The target delineation errors of the radiation oncologists are considered to be the largest compared with the set up errors. The application of IGRT reduced the set up errors and the margins between CTV and PTV. Conclusions: The delineation errors of radiation oncologists are the most important factor to consider for the margin between CTV and PTV for lung cancer. IGRT can reduce the margins by reducing the set up errors, especially in the SI direction. Further research is required to assess whether the reduction in the margin is solely based on set up errors.

  12. 3D porous sol-gel matrix incorporated microdevice for effective large volume cell sample pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chan Joo; Jung, Jae Hwan; Seo, Tae Seok

    2012-06-05

    In this study, we demonstrated an effective sample pretreatment microdevice that could perform the capture, purification, and release of pathogenic bacteria with a large-volume sample and at a high speed and high-capture yield. We integrated a sol-gel matrix into the microdevice which forms three-dimensional (3D) micropores for the cell solution to pass through and provides a large surface area for the immobilization of antibodies to capture the target Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) cells. The antibody was linked to the surface of the sol-gel via a photocleavable linker, allowing the cell-captured antibody moiety to be released by UV irradiation. In addition to the optimization of the antibody immobilization and UV cleavage processes, the cell-capture efficiency was maximized by controlling the sample flow rate with a pumping scheme (3 steps, 5 steps: 3 steps with one flutter step, 7 steps: 3 steps with two flutter steps) and the pumping time (100, 200, and 300 ms). A quantitative capture analysis was performed by targeting a specific gene site of protein A of S. aureus in real-time PCR (RT-PCR). While the 3-step process with an actuation time of 100 ms showed the fastest flow rate (1 mL sample processing time in 10 min), the pumping scheme with the 7-step process and the 300 ms actuation time revealed the highest cell-capture efficiency. A limit of detection study with the 7-step and the 300 ms pumping scheme demonstrated that 100 cells per 100 μL were detected with a 70% yield, and even a single cell could be analyzed via on-chip sample preparation. Thus, our novel sol-gel based microdevice was proven more cost-effective, simple, and efficient in terms of its sample pretreatment ability compared to the use of a conventional 2D flat microdevice. This proposed sample pretreatment device can be further incorporated to an analytical functional unit to realize a micrototal analysis system (μTAS) with sample-in-answer-out capability in the fields of biomedical

  13. Effects of large volume, ice-cold intravenous fluid infusion on respiratory function in cardiac arrest survivors.

    PubMed

    Jacobshagen, Claudius; Pax, Anja; Unsöld, Bernhard W; Seidler, Tim; Schmidt-Schweda, Stephan; Hasenfuss, Gerd; Maier, Lars S

    2009-11-01

    International guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation recommend mild hypothermia (32-34 degrees C) for 12-24h in comatose survivors of cardiac arrest. To induce therapeutic hypothermia a variety of external and intravascular cooling devices are available. A cheap and effective method for inducing hypothermia is the infusion of large volume, ice-cold intravenous fluid. There are concerns regarding the effects of rapid infusion of large volumes of fluid on respiratory function in cardiac arrest survivors. We have retrospectively studied the effects of high volume cold fluid infusion on respiratory function in 52 resuscitated cardiac arrest patients. The target temperature of 32-34 degrees C was achieved after 4.1+/-0.5h (cooling rate 0.48 degrees C/h). During this period 3427+/-210 mL ice-cold fluid was infused. Despite significantly reduced LV-function (EF 35.8+/-2.2%) the respiratory status of these patients did not deteriorate significantly. On intensive care unit admission the mean PaO(2) was 231.4+/-20.6 mmHg at a F(i)O(2) of 0.82+/-0.03 (PaO(2)/F(i)O(2)=290.0+/-24.1) and a PEEP level of 7.14+/-0.31 mbar. Until reaching the target temperature of large volume, ice-cold fluid is an effective and inexpensive method for inducing therapeutic hypothermia. Resuscitation from cardiac arrest is associated with a deterioration in respiratory function. The infusion of large volumes of cold fluid does not cause a statistically significant further deterioration in respiratory function. A larger, randomized and prospective study is required to assess the efficacy and safety of ice-cold fluid infusion for

  14. Rapid estimate of solid volume in large tuff cores using a gas pycnometer

    SciTech Connect

    Thies, C.; Geddis, A.M.; Guzman, A.G.

    1996-09-01

    A thermally insulated, rigid-volume gas pycnometer system has been developed. The pycnometer chambers have been machined from solid PVC cylinders. Two chambers confine dry high-purity helium at different pressures. A thick-walled design ensures minimal heat exchange with the surrounding environment and a constant volume system, while expansion takes place between the chambers. The internal energy of the gas is assumed constant over the expansion. The ideal gas law is used to estimate the volume of solid material sealed in one of the chambers. Temperature is monitored continuously and incorporated into the calculation of solid volume. Temperature variation between measurements is less than 0.1{degrees}C. The data are used to compute grain density for oven-dried Apache Leap tuff core samples. The measured volume of solid and the sample bulk volume are used to estimate porosity and bulk density. Intrinsic permeability was estimated from the porosity and measured pore surface area and is compared to in-situ measurements by the air permeability method. The gas pycnometer accommodates large core samples (0.25 m length x 0.11 m diameter) and can measure solid volume greater than 2.20 cm{sup 3} with less than 1% error.

  15. Target Earth: evidence for large-scale impact events.

    PubMed

    Grieve, R A

    1997-05-30

    Unlike the Moon, the Earth has retained only a small sample of its population of impact structures. Currently, over 150 impact structures are known and there are 15 instances of impact known from the stratigraphic record, some of which have been correlated with known impact structures. The terrestrial record is biased toward younger and larger structures on the stable cratonic areas of the crust, because of the effects of constant surface renewal on the Earth. The high level of endogenic geologic activity also affects the morphology and morphometry of terrestrial impact structures; although, the same general morphologic forms that occur on the other terrestrial planets can be observed. A terrestrial cratering rate of 5.6 +/- 2.8 x 10(-15) km-1 a-1 for structures > or = 20 km in diameter can be derived, which is equivalent to that estimated from astronomical observations. Although there are claims to the contrary, the overall uncertainties in the ages of structures in the impact record preclude the determination of any periodicity in the record. Small terrestrial impact structures are the result of the impact of iron or stony iron bodies, with weaker stony and icy bodies being crushed on atmospheric passage. At larger structures (>1 km), trace element geochemistry suggests that approximately 50% of the impact flux is from chondritic bodies, but this may be a function of the signal:noise ratio of the meteoritic tracer elements. Evidence for impact in the stratigraphic record is both chemical and physical. Although currently small in number, there are indications that more evidence will be forthcoming with time. Such searches for evidence of impact have been stimulated by the chemical and physical evidence of the involvement of impact at the K/T boundary. There will, however, be problems in differentiating geochemically the signal of even relatively large impact events from the background cosmic flux of every day meteoritic debris. Even with these biases and

  16. Large-volume diamond cells for neutron diffraction above 90GPa

    SciTech Connect

    Boehler, Reinhard; Guthrie, Malcolm; Molaison, Jamie J; Moreira Dos Santos, Antonio F; Sinogeikin, Stanislav; Machida, Shinichi; Pradhan, Neelam; Tulk, Christopher A

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative high pressure neutron-diffraction measurements have traditionally required large sample volumes of at least 25 mm3 due to limited neutron flux. Therefore, pressures in these experiments have been limited to below 25 GPa. In comparison, for X-ray diffraction, sample volumes in conventional diamond cells for pressures up to 100 GPa have been less than 1 10 4 mm3. Here, we report a new design of strongly supported conical diamond anvils for neutron diffraction that has reached 94 GPa with a sample volume of 2 10 2 mm3, a 100-fold increase. This sample volume is sufficient to measure full neutron-diffraction patterns of D2O ice to this pressure at the high flux Spallation Neutrons and Pressure beamline at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This provides an almost fourfold extension of the previous pressure regime for such measurements.

  17. Mechanically Cooled Large-Volume Germanium Detector Systems for Nuclear Explosion Monitoring DOENA27323-1

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, E.L.

    2006-07-28

    Compact maintenance free mechanical cooling systems are being developed to operate large volume germanium detectors for field applications. To accomplish this we are utilizing a newly available generation of Stirling-cycle mechanical coolers to operate the very largest volume germanium detectors with no maintenance. The user will be able to leave these systems unplugged on the shelf until needed. The flip of a switch will bring a system to life in ~ 1 hour for measurements. The maintenance-free operating lifetime of these detector systems will exceed 5 years. These features are necessary for remote long-duration liquid-nitrogen free deployment of large-volume germanium gamma-ray detector systems for Nuclear Explosion Monitoring. The Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer (RASA) will greatly benefit from the availability of such detectors by eliminating the need for liquid nitrogen at RASA sites while still allowing the very largest available germanium detectors to be reliably utilized.

  18. High Energy Performance Tests of Large Volume LaBr{sub 3}:Ce Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Naqvi, A.A.; Gondal, M.A.; Khiari, F.Z.; Dastageer, M.A.; Maslehuddin, M.M.; Al-Amoudi, O.S.B.

    2015-07-01

    High energy prompt gamma ray tests of a large volume cylindrical 100 mm x 100 mm (height x diameter) LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detector were carried out using a portable neutron generator-based Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) setup. In this study prompt gamma-rays yield were measured from water samples contaminated with toxic elements such nickel, chromium and mercury compounds with gamma ray energies up to 10 MeV. The experimental yield of prompt gamma-rays from toxic elements were compared with the results of Monte Carlo calculations. In spite of its higher intrinsic background due to its larger volume, an excellent agreement between the experimental and calculated yields of high energy gamma-rays from Ni, Cr and Hg samples has been achieved for the large volume LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detector. (authors)

  19. Guidelines for delineation of lymphatic clinical target volumes for high conformal radiotherapy: head and neck region

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The success of radiotherapy depends on the accurate delineation of the clinical target volume. The delineation of the lymph node regions has most impact, especially for tumors in the head and neck region. The purpose of this article was the development an atlas for the delineation of the clinical target volume for patients, who should receive radiotherapy for a tumor of the head and neck region. Literature was reviewed for localisations of the adjacent lymph node regions and their lymph drain in dependence of the tumor entity. On this basis the lymph node regions were contoured on transversal CT slices. The probability for involvement was reviewed and a recommendation for the delineation of the CTV was generated. PMID:21854585

  20. Development of a Solid Phase Extraction Method for Agricultural Pesticides in Large-Volume Water Samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analytical method using solid phase extraction (SPE) and analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was developed for the trace determination of a variety of agricultural pesticides and selected transformation products in large-volume high-elevation lake water sa...

  1. A New Electropositive Filter for Concentrating Enterovirus and Norovirus from Large Volumes of Water - MCEARD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The detection of enteric viruses in environmental water usually requires the concentration of viruses from large volumes of water. The 1MDS electropositive filter is commonly used for concentrating enteric viruses from water but unfortunately these filters are not cost-effective...

  2. Postoperative radiation in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and target volume delineation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yingming; Li, Minghuan; Kong, Li; Yu, Jinming

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is the sixth leading cause of cancer death worldwide, and patients who are treated with surgery alone, without neoadjuvant therapies, experience frequent relapses. Whether postoperative therapies could reduce the recurrence or improve overall survival is still controversial for these patients. The purpose of our review is to figure out the value of postoperative adjuvant therapy and address the disputes about target volume delineation according to published data. Based on the evidence of increased morbidity and disadvantages on patient survival caused by postoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy (RT) alone provided by studies in the early 1990s, the use of postoperative adjuvant therapies in cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma has diminished substantially and has been replaced gradually by neoadjuvant chemoradiation. With advances in surgery and RT, accumulating evidence has recently rekindled interest in the delivery of postoperative RT or chemoradiotherapy in patients with stage T3/T4 or N1 (lymph node positive) carcinomas after radical surgery. However, due to complications with the standard radiation field, a nonconforming modified field has been adopted in most studies. Therefore, we analyze different field applications and provide suggestions on the optimization of the radiation field based on the major sites of relapse and the surgical non-clearance area. For upper and middle thoracic esophageal carcinomas, the bilateral supraclavicular and superior mediastinal areas remain common sites of recurrence and should be encompassed within the clinical target volume. In contrast, a consensus has yet to be reached regarding lower thoracic esophageal carcinomas; the “standard” clinical target volume is still recommended. Further studies of larger sample sizes should focus on different recurrence patterns, categorized by tumor locations, refined classifications, and differing molecular biology, to provide more information on the

  3. Comparison of Various Radiation Therapy Techniques in Breast Cancer Where Target Volume Includes Mammaria Interna Region

    SciTech Connect

    Dogan, Mehmet Hakan; Zincircioglu, Seyit Burhanedtin Zorlu, Faruk

    2009-04-01

    In breast cancer radiotherapy, the internal mammary lymphatic chain is treated in the target volume in a group of patients with high-risk criteria. Because of the variability of the anatomic region and structures in the irradiation field, there are a number of different techniques in breast radiotherapy. While irradiating the target volume, we also consider minimizing the dose to critical structures such as heart, lung, and contralateral breast tissue. In this study, we evaluated the dose distribution of different radiotherapy techniques in patients with left-sided breast cancer who had breast-conserving surgery. A three-dimensional computerized planning system (3DCPS) was used for each patient to compare wide-field, oblique photon-electron, and perpendicular photon-electron techniques in terms of dose homogeneities in the target volume; the doses received by the contralateral breast, heart, and lung; and the coverage of the internal mammary chain. Data from 3DCPS were controlled by the Rando-phantom and thermoluminescence dosimetry. Critical structures were irradiated with acceptable dose percentages in addition to the internal mammary chain with both wide-field and photon-electron techniques. We detected more frequent hot spots in the oblique photon-electron technique than in the other techniques, and this situation necessitated changing the junctions. The wide-field technique was easy to perform and exposed less radiation dose to the heart than photon-electron techniques. In conclusion, we suggest the use of the wide-field technique in breast irradiation when the internal mammary area is in the target volume.

  4. SU-E-T-578: On Definition of Minimum and Maximum Dose for Target Volume

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Y; Yu, J; Xiao, Y

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate the impact of different minimum and maximum dose definitions in radiotherapy treatment plan quality evaluation criteria by using tumor control probability (TCP) models. Methods: Dosimetric criteria used in RTOG 1308 protocol are used in the investigation. RTOG 1308 is a phase III randomized trial comparing overall survival after photon versus proton chemoradiotherapy for inoperable stage II-IIIB NSCLC. The prescription dose for planning target volume (PTV) is 70Gy. Maximum dose (Dmax) should not exceed 84Gy and minimum dose (Dmin) should not go below 59.5Gy in order for the plan to be “per protocol” (satisfactory).A mathematical model that simulates the characteristics of PTV dose volume histogram (DVH) curve with normalized volume is built. The Dmax and Dmin are noted as percentage volumes Dη% and D(100-δ)%, with η and d ranging from 0 to 3.5. The model includes three straight line sections and goes through four points: D95%= 70Gy, Dη%= 84Gy, D(100-δ)%= 59.5 Gy, and D100%= 0Gy. For each set of η and δ, the TCP value is calculated using the inhomogeneously irradiated tumor logistic model with D50= 74.5Gy and γ50=3.52. Results: TCP varies within 0.9% with η; and δ values between 0 and 1. With η and η varies between 0 and 2, TCP change was up to 2.4%. With η and δ variations from 0 to 3.5, maximum of 8.3% TCP difference is seen. Conclusion: When defined maximum and minimum volume varied more than 2%, significant TCP variations were seen. It is recommended less than 2% volume used in definition of Dmax or Dmin for target dosimetric evaluation criteria. This project was supported by NIH grants U10CA180868, U10CA180822, U24CA180803, U24CA12014 and PA CURE Grant.

  5. Large-volume leukapheresis for peripheral blood stem cell collection in patients with hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Malachowski, M E; Comenzo, R L; Hillyer, C D; Tiegerman, K O; Berkman, E M

    1992-10-01

    Large-volume leukapheresis (LVL, 15-35 L) was performed in two groups of patients (n = 10) with hematologic malignancies to obtain peripheral blood stem cells for bone marrow rescue following high-dose chemotherapy. The target cell count was 7 x 10(8) mononuclear cells (MNCs = lymphocytes and monocytes) per kg of body weight. Group A patients (n = 4) were studied on Day 1 of LVL, and components were collected from them as four sequential samples. Total MNCs collected averaged 1.29 x 10(10), total colony-forming-units granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM) averaged 12.1 x 10(6), and a 1.8-fold mobilization of CFU-GM was observed (p < 0.05, Sample 1 vs. Sample 4). Group B patients (n = 6) were studied throughout the three consecutive planned days of 5-hour LVL. An average of three LVL procedures per patient was performed (range, 1.25-4), and an average of 27 L (range, 24-33) of blood per LVL was processed. The blood:ACD-A ratio was 24:1 with 3000 units of heparin per 500 mL of ACD-A; heparin was also added to the collection bags. The component had an average hematocrit (Hct) of 0.02 and MNC content of 93 percent. The patients' pre-LVL and post-LVL average Hct varied significantly (before Day 1, 0.36 +/- 0.08; after Day 3, 0.28 +/- 0.06; p < 0.05). Platelet counts also decreased, with post-Day 3 counts averaging 19 percent of the average pre-Day 1 counts (p < 0.05). A decrease in the average MNC count after LVL was significant on Day 1 only (p < 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Evaluation of Bacillus oleronius as a Biological Indicator for Terminal Sterilization of Large-Volume Parenterals.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Masamitsu; Fujifuru, Masato; Okada, Aki; Takai, Katsuya; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Udagawa, Takeshi; Miyake, Makoto; Naruyama, Shintaro; Tokuda, Hiroshi; Nishioka, Goro; Yoden, Hikaru; Aoki, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    In the production of large-volume parenterals in Japan, equipment and devices such as tanks, pipework, and filters used in production processes are exhaustively cleaned and sterilized, and the cleanliness of water for injection, drug materials, packaging materials, and manufacturing areas is well controlled. In this environment, the bioburden is relatively low, and less heat resistant compared with microorganisms frequently used as biological indicators such as Geobacillus stearothermophilus (ATCC 7953) and Bacillus subtilis 5230 (ATCC 35021). Consequently, the majority of large-volume parenteral solutions in Japan are manufactured under low-heat sterilization conditions of F0 <2 min, so that loss of clarity of solutions and formation of degradation products of constituents are minimized. Bacillus oleronius (ATCC 700005) is listed as a biological indicator in "Guidance on the Manufacture of Sterile Pharmaceutical Products Produced by Terminal Sterilization" (guidance in Japan, issued in 2012). In this study, we investigated whether B. oleronius is an appropriate biological indicator of the efficacy of low-heat, moist-heat sterilization of large-volume parenterals. Specifically, we investigated the spore-forming ability of this microorganism in various cultivation media and measured the D-values and z-values as parameters of heat resistance. The D-values and z-values changed depending on the constituents of large-volume parenteral products. Also, the spores from B. oleronius showed a moist-heat resistance that was similar to or greater than many of the spore-forming organisms isolated from Japanese parenteral manufacturing processes. Taken together, these results indicate that B. oleronius is suitable as a biological indicator for sterility assurance of large-volume parenteral solutions subjected to low-heat, moist-heat terminal sterilization.

  7. GPU-Based 3D Cone-Beam CT Image Reconstruction for Large Data Volume

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xing; Hu, Jing-jing; Zhang, Peng

    2009-01-01

    Currently, 3D cone-beam CT image reconstruction speed is still a severe limitation for clinical application. The computational power of modern graphics processing units (GPUs) has been harnessed to provide impressive acceleration of 3D volume image reconstruction. For extra large data volume exceeding the physical graphic memory of GPU, a straightforward compromise is to divide data volume into blocks. Different from the conventional Octree partition method, a new partition scheme is proposed in this paper. This method divides both projection data and reconstructed image volume into subsets according to geometric symmetries in circular cone-beam projection layout, and a fast reconstruction for large data volume can be implemented by packing the subsets of projection data into the RGBA channels of GPU, performing the reconstruction chunk by chunk and combining the individual results in the end. The method is evaluated by reconstructing 3D images from computer-simulation data and real micro-CT data. Our results indicate that the GPU implementation can maintain original precision and speed up the reconstruction process by 110–120 times for circular cone-beam scan, as compared to traditional CPU implementation. PMID:19730744

  8. The large volume radiometric calorimeter system: A transportable device to measure scrap category plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Duff, M.F.; Wetzel, J.R.; Breakall, K.L.; Lemming, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    An innovative design concept has been used to design a large volume calorimeter system. The new design permits two measuring cells to fit in a compact, nonevaporative environmental bath. The system is mounted on a cart for transportability. Samples in the power range of 0.50 to 12.0 W can be measured. The calorimeters will receive samples as large as 22.0 cm in diameter by 43.2 cm high, and smaller samples can be measured without lengthening measurement time or increasing measurement error by using specially designed sleeve adapters. This paper describes the design considerations, construction, theory, applications, and performance of the large volume calorimeter system. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Simplification and validation of a large volume polyurethane foam sampler for the analysis of persistent hydrophobic compounds in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Choi, J W; Lee, J H; Moon, B S; Kannan, K

    2008-08-01

    The use of a large volume polyurethane foam (PUF) sampler was validated for rapid extraction of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), in raw water and treated water from drinking water plants. To validate the recovery of target compounds in the sampling process, a (37)Cl-labeled standard was spiked into the 1st PUF plug prior to filtration. An accelerated solvent extraction method, as a pressurized liquid extractor (PLE), was optimized to extract the PUF plug. For sample preparation, tandem column chromatography (TCC) clean-up was used for rapid analysis. The recoveries of labeled compounds in the analytical method were 80-110% (n = 9). The optimized PUF-PLE-TCC method was applied in the analysis of raw water and treated potable water from seven drinking water plants in South Korea. The sample volume used was between 18 and 102 L for raw water at a flow rate of 0.4-2 L min(-1), 95 and 107 L for treated water at a flow rate of 1.5-2.2 L min(-1). Limit of quantitation (LOQ) was a function of sample volume and it decreased with increasing sample volume. The LOQ of PCDD/Fs in raw waters analyzed by this method was 3-11 times lower than that described using large-size disk-type solid phase extraction (SPE) method. The LOQ of PCDD/F congeners in raw water and treated water were 0.022-3.9 ng L(-1) and 0.018-0.74 ng L(-1), respectively. Octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) was found in some raw water samples, while their concentrations were well below the tentative criterion set by the Japanese Environmental Ministry for drinking water. OCDD was below the LOQ in the treated drinking water.

  10. Resonators for solid-state lasers with large-volume fundamental mode and high alignment stability

    SciTech Connect

    Magni, V.

    1986-01-01

    Resonators containing a focusing rod are thoroughly analyzed. It is shown that, as a function of the dioptric power of the rod, two stability zones of the same width exist and that the mode volume in the rod always presents a stationary point. At this point, the output power is insensitive to the focal length fluctuations, and the mode volume inside the rod is inversely proportional to the range of the input power for which the resonator is stable. The two zones are markedly different with respect to misalignment sensitivity, which is, in general, much greater in one zone than in the other. Two design procedures are presented for monomode solid-state laser resonators with large mode volume and low sensitivity both to focal length fluctuations and to misalignment.

  11. Constitutive modeling of large inelastic deformation of amorphous polymers: Free volume and shear transformation zone dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voyiadjis, George Z.; Samadi-Dooki, Aref

    2016-06-01

    Due to the lack of the long-range order in their molecular structure, amorphous polymers possess a considerable free volume content in their inter-molecular space. During finite deformation, these free volume holes serve as the potential sites for localized permanent plastic deformation inclusions which are called shear transformation zones (STZs). While the free volume content has been experimentally shown to increase during the course of plastic straining in glassy polymers, thermal analysis of stored energy due to the deformation shows that the STZ nucleation energy decreases at large plastic strains. The evolution of the free volume, and the STZs number density and nucleation energy during the finite straining are formulated in this paper in order to investigate the uniaxial post-yield softening-hardening behavior of the glassy polymers. This study shows that the reduction of the STZ nucleation energy, which is correlated with the free volume increase, brings about the post-yield primary softening of the amorphous polymers up to the steady-state strain value; and the secondary hardening is a result of the increased number density of the STZs, which is required for large plastic strains, while their nucleation energy is stabilized beyond the steady-state strain. The evolutions of the free volume content and STZ nucleation energy are also used to demonstrate the effect of the strain rate, temperature, and thermal history of the sample on its post-yield behavior. The obtained results from the model are compared with the experimental observations on poly(methyl methacrylate) which show a satisfactory consonance.

  12. [Clinical to target volume margins determination in radiotherapy for anal cancers].

    PubMed

    Libois, V; Mahé, M-A; Rio, E; Maingon, P

    2016-10-01

    There are very few data on the expansion from the clinical target volume (CTV) to the planning target volume (PTV) in the anal cancer treatment. This article aims to collect the different elements needed for the construction of a PTV from scientific data based on a literature analysis. We reviewed the articles published in the medical literature from the last 20years. They concerned setup errors and internal organ mobility of the different volumes of patients treated by conformational radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (anal canal, meso-rectum, common, intern and extern, inguinal and pre-sacral lymph nodes). CTV to PTV margins admitted in the guidelines and atlas of consensus groups (SFRO, RTOG, AGITG) are from 0.7 to 1cm in all directions, based on expert's opinions but not on scientific data. There are no specific studies on the canal anal mobility. Most of the data are from other pelvis cancers (gynecologic, rectum and prostate). Setup errors can be reduced by daily imaging. Patient repositioning and immobilization modalities are mostly local habits rather than scientific consensus. A three-dimensional 1cm margin is generally admitted. Margins reduction must be careful and has to be assessed.

  13. Using Histopathology Breast Cancer Data to Reduce Clinical Target Volume Margins at Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Stroom, Joep Schlief, Angelique; Alderliesten, Tanja; Peterse, Hans; Bartelink, Harry; Gilhuijs, Kenneth

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to quantify the incidence and extension of microscopic disease around primary breast tumors in patients undergoing breast-conserving therapy (BCT), focusing on a potential application to reduce radiotherapy boost volumes. Methods and Materials: An extensive pathology tumor-distribution study was performed using 38 wide local excision specimens of BCT patients. Specimen orientation was recorded and microscopic findings reconstructed to assess the incidence of microscopic disease around the macroscopic tumor. A model of disease spread was built, showing probability of disease extension outside a treated volume (P{sub out,vol}). The model was applied in 10 new BCT patients. Taking asymmetry of tumor excision into account, new asymmetric margins for the clinical target volume of the boost (CTV{sub boost}) were evaluated that minimize the volume without increasing P{sub out,TTV} (TTV being total treated volume: V{sub surgery} + CTV{sub boost}). Potential reductions in CTV{sub boost} and TTV were evaluated. Results: Microscopic disease beyond the tumor boundary occurred isotropically at distances > 1 cm (intended surgical margin) and > 1.5 cm (intended TTV margin) in 53% and 36% of the excision specimens, respectively. In the 10 prospective patients, the average P{sub out,TTV} was, however, only 16% due to larger surgical margins than intended in some directions. Asymmetric CTV{sub boost} margins reduced the CTV{sub boost} and TTV by 27% (20 cc) and 12% (21 cc) on average, without compromising tumor coverage. Conclusions: Microscopic disease extension may occur beyond the current CTV{sub boost} in approximately one sixth of patients. An asymmetric CTV{sub boost} that corrects for asymmetry of the surgical excision has the potential to reduce boost volumes while maintaining tumor coverage.

  14. Pyrometry in the Multianvil Press: New approach for temperature measurement in large volume press experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanehira, T.; Wang, Y.; Prakapenka, V.; Rivers, M. L.

    2008-12-01

    Temperature measurement in large volume press experiments has been based on thermocouple emf, which has well known problems: unknown pressure dependence of emf [e.g., 1], chemical reaction between thermocouple and other materials, deformation related texture development in the thermocouple wires [2], and so on. Thus, different techniques to measure temperatures in large volume press experiments other than thermocouples are required to measure accurate temperatures under high pressures. Here we report a new development using pyrometry in the multianvil press, where temperatures are derived on the basis of spectral radiometry. Several high pressure runs were conducted using the 1000 ton press with a DIA module installed at 13 ID-D GSECARS beamline at Advanced Photon Source (APS) [3]. The cubic pressure medium, 14 mm edge length, was made of soft-fired pyrophyllite with a graphite furnace. A moissanite (SiC) single crystal was built inside the pressure medium as a window for the thermal emission signal to go through. An MgO disk with 1.0 mm thickness was inserted in a gap between the top of the SiC crystal and thermocouple hot junction. The bottom of the window crystal was in direct contact with the tip of the anvil, which had a 1.5 mm diameter hole drilled all the way through the anvil axis. An optical fiber was inserted in this hole and the open end of fiber was in contact with the SiC crystal. Thermal spectral radiance from the inner cell assembly was obtained via the fiber and recorded by an Ocean Optics HP2000 spectrometer. The system response of spectrometer was calibrated by a tungsten ribbon ramp (OL550S, Optronic Laboratories, Inc.) with standard of spectral radiance. The cell assembly was compressed up to target value of 15 tons and then temperature was increased up to 1573 K. Radiation spectra were mainly obtained above 873 K and typical integration time was 1 ms or 10 ms. Data collection was done in the process of increase and decrease of temperature. In

  15. Geophysics Under Pressure: Large-Volume Presses Versus the Diamond-Anvil Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazen, R. M.

    2002-05-01

    Prior to 1970, the legacy of Harvard physicist Percy Bridgman dominated high-pressure geophysics. Massive presses with large-volume devices, including piston-cylinder, opposed-anvil, and multi-anvil configurations, were widely used in both science and industry to achieve a range of crustal and upper mantle temperatures and pressures. George Kennedy of UCLA was a particularly influential advocate of large-volume apparatus for geophysical research prior to his death in 1980. The high-pressure scene began to change in 1959 with the invention of the diamond-anvil cell, which was designed simultaneously and independently by John Jamieson at the University of Chicago and Alvin Van Valkenburg at the National Bureau of Standards in Washington, DC. The compact, inexpensive diamond cell achieved record static pressures and had the advantage of optical access to the high-pressure environment. Nevertheless, members of the geophysical community, who favored the substantial sample volumes, geothermally relevant temperature range, and satisfying bulk of large-volume presses, initially viewed the diamond cell with indifference or even contempt. Several factors led to a gradual shift in emphasis from large-volume presses to diamond-anvil cells in geophysical research during the 1960s and 1970s. These factors include (1) their relatively low cost at time of fiscal restraint, (2) Alvin Van Valkenburg's new position as a Program Director at the National Science Foundation in 1964 (when George Kennedy's proposal for a Nation High-Pressure Laboratory was rejected), (3) the development of lasers and micro-analytical spectroscopic techniques suitable for analyzing samples in a diamond cell, and (4) the attainment of record pressures (e.g., 100 GPa in 1975 by Mao and Bell at the Geophysical Laboratory). Today, a more balanced collaborative approach has been adopted by the geophysics and mineral physics community. Many high-pressure laboratories operate a new generation of less expensive

  16. A magnetic sorbent for the efficient and rapid extraction of organic micropollutants from large-volume environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mancheng; Zhou, Qing; Li, Aimin; Shuang, Chendong; Wang, Wei; Wang, Mengqiao

    2013-11-05

    A magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) method based on a novel magnetic sorbent was proposed for the extraction of target compounds from large-volume water samples. First, magnetic hypercrosslinked microspheres (NAND-1) were prepared via membrane emulsification-suspension polymerization and post crosslinking reaction. To ensure that the Fe3O4 nanoparticles could completely pass through the membrane without blocking the pores, oleic acid was used to modify the Fe3O4 nanoparticles, which enhanced lipophilicity and monodispersity of the magnetite nanoparticles. The obtained NAND-1 microspheres exhibited super paramagnetic characteristics and excellent magnetic responsiveness with a saturation magnetization of 2.53 emu/g. In addition, a uniform particle size (~8 μm) and a large average surface area (1303.59 m(2)/g) were also observed, which were both beneficial for the extraction of the target compounds. Thus, NAND-1 has the potential to simultaneously exhibit good extraction efficiencies toward different types of organic micropollutants (OMPs), including triazines, carbamazepine and diethyl phthalate. The conditions of the MSPE based on NAND-1 were optimized by single factor and orthogonal design experiments. This MSPE method needed only a small amount of sorbent (50mg/L) for the extraction of OMPs from a large-volume aquatic sample (5L) and reached equilibrium in a short amount of time (30 min). Moreover, the solution volume, the pH, and the salinity had insignificant influences on the extraction of the eight target OMPs. Under the optimum conditions, the recoveries of the eight OMPs calculated by analyzing the spiked samples were from 91.7% to 99.4%. The NAND-1 could be recycled ten times and still achieve recoveries of the eight OMPs higher than 86%. The limits of detection of the eight OMPs ranged from 1.76 to 27.56 ng/L, and the limits of quantification were from 5.71 to 92.05 ng/L. These results indicated that the proposed method, based on the use of NAND-1

  17. Assembly, operation and disassembly manual for the Battelle Large Volume Water Sampler (BLVWS)

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, V.W.; Campbell, R.M.

    1984-12-01

    Assembly, operation and disassembly of the Battelle Large Volume Water Sampler (BLVWS) are described in detail. Step by step instructions of assembly, general operation and disassembly are provided to allow an operator completely unfamiliar with the sampler to successfully apply the BLVWS to his research sampling needs. The sampler permits concentration of both particulate and dissolved radionuclides from large volumes of ocean and fresh water. The water sample passes through a filtration section for particle removal then through sorption or ion exchange beds where species of interest are removed. The sampler components which contact the water being sampled are constructed of polyvinylchloride (PVC). The sampler has been successfully applied to many sampling needs over the past fifteen years. 9 references, 8 figures.

  18. HYBRID BRIDGMAN ANVIL DESIGN: AN OPTICAL WINDOW FOR IN-SITU SPECTROSCOPY IN LARGE VOLUME PRESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Lipp, M J; Evans, W J; Yoo, C S

    2005-07-29

    The absence of in-situ optical probes for large volume presses often limits their application to high-pressure materials research. In this paper, we present a unique anvil/optical window-design for use in large volume presses, which consists of an inverted diamond anvil seated in a Bridgman type anvil. A small cylindrical aperture through the Bridgman anvil ending at the back of diamond anvil allows optical access to the sample chamber and permits direct optical spectroscopy measurements, such as ruby fluorescence (in-situ pressure) or Raman spectroscopy. This performance of this anvil-design has been demonstrated by loading KBr to a pressure of 14.5 GPa.

  19. The large volume calorimeter for measuring the pressure cooker'' shipping container

    SciTech Connect

    Kasperski, P.W.; Duff, M.F.; Wetzel, J.R. ); Baker, L.B.; MacMurdo, K.W. )

    1991-01-01

    A precise, low wattage, large volume calorimeter system has been developed at Mound to measure two configurations of the 12081 containment vessel. This system was developed and constructed to perform verification measurements at the Savannah River Site. The calorimeter system has performance design specifications of {plus minus}0.3% error above the 2-watt level, and {plus minus}(0.03% plus 0.006 watts) at power levels below 2 watts (one sigma). Data collected during performance testing shows measurement errors well within this range, even down to 0.1-watt power levels. The development of this calorimeter shows that ultra-precise measurements can be achieved on extremely large volume sample configurations. 1 ref., 5 figs.

  20. Large-aperture chirped volume Bragg grating based fiber CPA system.

    PubMed

    Liao, Kai-Hsiu; Cheng, Ming-Yuan; Flecher, Emilie; Smirnov, Vadim I; Glebov, Leonid B; Galvanauskas, Almantas

    2007-04-16

    A fiber chirped pulse amplification system at 1558 nm was demonstrated using a large-aperture volume Bragg grating stretcher and compressor made of Photo-Thermal-Refractive (PTR) glass. Such PTR glass based gratings represent a new type of pulse stretching and compressing devices which are compact, monolithic and optically efficient. Furthermore, since PTR glass technology enables volume gratings with transverse apertures which are large, homogeneous and scalable, it also enables high pulse energies and powers far exceeding those achievable with other existing compact pulse-compression technologies. Additionally, reciprocity of chirped gratings with respect to stretching and compression also enables to address a long-standing problem in CPA system design of stretcher-compressor dispersion mismatch.

  1. Large-aperture chirped volume Bragg grating based fiber CPA system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Kai-Hsiu; Cheng, Ming-Yuan; Flecher, Emilie; Smirnov, Vadim I.; Glebov, Leonid B.; Galvanauskas, Almantas

    2007-04-01

    A fiber chirped pulse amplification system at 1558nm was demonstrated using a large-aperture volume Bragg grating stretcher and compressor made of Photo-Thermal-Refractive (PTR) glass. Such PTR glass based gratings represent a new type of pulse stretching and compressing devices which are compact, monolithic and optically efficient. Furthermore, since PTR glass technology enables volume gratings with transverse apertures which are large, homogeneous and scalable, it also enables high pulse energies and powers far exceeding those achievable with other existing compact pulse-compression technologies. Additionally, reciprocity of chirped gratings with respect to stretching and compression also enables to address a long-standing problem in CPA system design of stretcher-compressor dispersion mismatch.

  2. SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey data release 12: Galaxy target selection and large-scale structure catalogues

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Beth; Ho, Shirley; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Percival, Will J.; Tinker, Jeremy; Tojeiro, Rito; White, Marin; Daniel J. Einstein; Maraston, Claudia; Ross, Ashley J.; Sanchez, Ariel G.; Schlegel, David; Sheldon, Erin; Strauss, Michael A.; Thomas, Daniel; Wake, David; Beutler, Florian; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Bolton, Adam S.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Chuang, Chia -Hsun; Dawson, Kyle; Harding, Paul; Kitaura, Francisco -Shu; Leauthaud, Alexie; Masters, Karen; McBride, Cameron K.; More, Surhud; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Oravetz, Daniel; Nuza, Sebastian E.; Pan, Kaike; Parejko, John; Pforr, Janine; Prada, Francisco; Rodriguez-Torres, Sergio; Salazar-Albornoz, Salvador; Samushia, Lado; Schneider, Donald P.; Scoccola, Claudia G.; Simmons, Audrey; Vargas-Magana, Mariana

    2015-11-17

    The Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) III project, has provided the largest survey of galaxy redshifts available to date, in terms of both the number of galaxy redshifts measured by a single survey, and the effective cosmological volume covered. Key to analysing the clustering of these data to provide cosmological measurements is understanding the detailed properties of this sample. Potential issues include variations in the target catalogue caused by changes either in the targeting algorithm or properties of the data used, the pattern of spectroscopic observations, the spatial distribution of targets for which redshifts were not obtained, and variations in the target sky density due to observational systematics. We document here the target selection algorithms used to create the galaxy samples that comprise BOSS. We also present the algorithms used to create large-scale structure catalogues for the final Data Release (DR12) samples and the associated random catalogues that quantify the survey mask. The algorithms are an evolution of those used by the BOSS team to construct catalogues from earlier data, and have been designed to accurately quantify the galaxy sample. Furthermore, the code used, designated mksample, is released with this paper.

  3. SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey data release 12: Galaxy target selection and large-scale structure catalogues

    DOE PAGES

    Reid, Beth; Ho, Shirley; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; ...

    2015-11-17

    The Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) III project, has provided the largest survey of galaxy redshifts available to date, in terms of both the number of galaxy redshifts measured by a single survey, and the effective cosmological volume covered. Key to analysing the clustering of these data to provide cosmological measurements is understanding the detailed properties of this sample. Potential issues include variations in the target catalogue caused by changes either in the targeting algorithm or properties of the data used, the pattern of spectroscopic observations, the spatial distribution of targets formore » which redshifts were not obtained, and variations in the target sky density due to observational systematics. We document here the target selection algorithms used to create the galaxy samples that comprise BOSS. We also present the algorithms used to create large-scale structure catalogues for the final Data Release (DR12) samples and the associated random catalogues that quantify the survey mask. The algorithms are an evolution of those used by the BOSS team to construct catalogues from earlier data, and have been designed to accurately quantify the galaxy sample. Furthermore, the code used, designated mksample, is released with this paper.« less

  4. Technical note: rapid, large-volume resuscitation at resuscitative thoracotomy by intra-cardiac catheterization

    PubMed Central

    Cawich, Shamir O; Naraynsingh, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    An emergency thoracotomy may be life-saving by achieving four goals: (i) releasing cardiac tamponade, (ii) controlling haemorrhage, (iii) allowing access for internal cardiac massage and (iv) clamping the descending aorta to isolate circulation to the upper torso in damage control surgery. We theorize that a new goal should be achieving rapid, large-volume fluid resuscitation and we describe a technique to achieve this. PMID:27887010

  5. Rapid Adaptive Optical Recovery of Optimal Resolution over LargeVolumes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Milkie, Dan; Saxena, Ankur; Engerer, Peter; Misgeld, Thomas; Bronner, Marianne E.; Mumm, Jeff; Betzig, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Using a de-scanned, laser-induced guide star and direct wavefront sensing, we demonstrate adaptive correction of complex optical aberrations at high numerical aperture and a 14 ms update rate. This permits us to compensate for the rapid spatial variation in aberration often encountered in biological specimens, and recover diffraction-limited imaging over large (> 240 μm)3 volumes. We applied this to image fine neuronal processes and subcellular dynamics within the zebrafish brain. PMID:24727653

  6. Retroperitoneal Sarcoma Target Volume and Organ at Risk Contour Delineation Agreement Among NRG Sarcoma Radiation Oncologists

    SciTech Connect

    Baldini, Elizabeth H.; Abrams, Ross A.; Bosch, Walter; Roberge, David; Haas, Rick L.M.; Catton, Charles N.; Indelicato, Daniel J.; Olsen, Jeffrey R.; Deville, Curtiland; Chen, Yen-Lin; Finkelstein, Steven E.; DeLaney, Thomas F.; Wang, Dian

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the variability in target volume and organ at risk (OAR) contour delineation for retroperitoneal sarcoma (RPS) among 12 sarcoma radiation oncologists. Methods and Materials: Radiation planning computed tomography (CT) scans for 2 cases of RPS were distributed among 12 sarcoma radiation oncologists with instructions for contouring gross tumor volume (GTV), clinical target volume (CTV), high-risk CTV (HR CTV: area judged to be at high risk of resulting in positive margins after resection), and OARs: bowel bag, small bowel, colon, stomach, and duodenum. Analysis of contour agreement was performed using the simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) algorithm and kappa statistics. Results: Ten radiation oncologists contoured both RPS cases, 1 contoured only RPS1, and 1 contoured only RPS2 such that each case was contoured by 11 radiation oncologists. The first case (RPS 1) was a patient with a de-differentiated (DD) liposarcoma (LPS) with a predominant well-differentiated (WD) component, and the second case (RPS 2) was a patient with DD LPS made up almost entirely of a DD component. Contouring agreement for GTV and CTV contours was high. However, the agreement for HR CTVs was only moderate. For OARs, agreement for stomach, bowel bag, small bowel, and colon was high, but agreement for duodenum (distorted by tumor in one of these cases) was fair to moderate. Conclusions: For preoperative treatment of RPS, sarcoma radiation oncologists contoured GTV, CTV, and most OARs with a high level of agreement. HR CTV contours were more variable. Further clarification of this volume with the help of sarcoma surgical oncologists is necessary to reach consensus. More attention to delineation of the duodenum is also needed.

  7. Scanning laser optical computed tomography system for large volume 3D dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, Kurtis H.; Battista, Jerry J.; Jordan, Kevin J.

    2017-04-01

    Stray light causes artifacts in optical computed tomography (CT) that negatively affect the accuracy of radiation dosimetry in gels or solids. Scatter effects are exacerbated by a large dosimeter volume, which is desirable for direct verification of modern radiotherapy treatment plans such as multiple-isocenter radiosurgery. The goal in this study was to design and characterize an optical CT system that achieves high accuracy primary transmission measurements through effective stray light rejection, while maintaining sufficient scan speed for practical application. We present an optical imaging platform that uses a galvanometer mirror for horizontal scanning, and a translation stage for vertical movement of a laser beam and small area detector for minimal stray light production and acceptance. This is coupled with a custom lens-shaped optical CT aquarium for parallel ray sampling of projections. The scanner images 15 cm diameter, 12 cm height cylindrical volumes at 0.33 mm resolution in approximately 30 min. Attenuation coefficients reconstructed from CT scans agreed with independent cuvette measurements within 2% for both absorbing and scattering solutions as well as small 1.25 cm diameter absorbing phantoms placed within a large, scattering medium that mimics gel. Excellent linearity between the optical CT scanner and the independent measurement was observed for solutions with between 90% and 2% transmission. These results indicate that the scanner should achieve highly accurate dosimetry of large volume dosimeters in a reasonable timeframe for clinical application to radiotherapy dose verification procedures.

  8. 3D cell-printing of large-volume tissues: Application to ear regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Seob; Kim, Byung Soo; Seo, Dong Hwan; Park, Jeong Hun; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2017-01-17

    The three-dimensional (3D) printing of large-volume cells, printed in a clinically relevant size, is one of the most important challenges in the field of tissue engineering. However, few studies have reported the fabrication of large-volume cell-printed constructs (LCCs). To create LCCs, appropriate fabrication conditions should be established: factors involved include fabrication time, residence time, and temperature control of the cell-laden hydrogel in the syringe to ensure high cell viability and functionality. The prolonged time required for 3D printing of LCCs can reduce cell viability and result in insufficient functionality of the construct, because the cells are exposed to a harsh environment during the printing process. In this regard, we present an advanced 3D cell-printing system composed of a clean air workstation, humidifier, and Peltier system, which provides a suitable printing environment for production of LCCs with high cell viability. We confirmed that the advanced 3D cell-printing system was capable of providing enhanced printability of hydrogels and fabricating an ear-shaped LCC with high cell viability. In vivo results for the ear-shaped LCC also showed that printed chondrocytes proliferated sufficiently and differentiated into cartilage tissue. Thus, we conclude that the advanced 3D cell-printing system is a versatile tool to create cell-printed constructs for the generation of large-volume tissues.

  9. Scanning laser optical computed tomography system for large volume 3D dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Kurtis H; Battista, Jerry J; Jordan, Kevin J

    2017-04-07

    Stray light causes artifacts in optical computed tomography (CT) that negatively affect the accuracy of radiation dosimetry in gels or solids. Scatter effects are exacerbated by a large dosimeter volume, which is desirable for direct verification of modern radiotherapy treatment plans such as multiple-isocenter radiosurgery. The goal in this study was to design and characterize an optical CT system that achieves high accuracy primary transmission measurements through effective stray light rejection, while maintaining sufficient scan speed for practical application. We present an optical imaging platform that uses a galvanometer mirror for horizontal scanning, and a translation stage for vertical movement of a laser beam and small area detector for minimal stray light production and acceptance. This is coupled with a custom lens-shaped optical CT aquarium for parallel ray sampling of projections. The scanner images 15 cm diameter, 12 cm height cylindrical volumes at 0.33 mm resolution in approximately 30 min. Attenuation coefficients reconstructed from CT scans agreed with independent cuvette measurements within 2% for both absorbing and scattering solutions as well as small 1.25 cm diameter absorbing phantoms placed within a large, scattering medium that mimics gel. Excellent linearity between the optical CT scanner and the independent measurement was observed for solutions with between 90% and 2% transmission. These results indicate that the scanner should achieve highly accurate dosimetry of large volume dosimeters in a reasonable timeframe for clinical application to radiotherapy dose verification procedures.

  10. Conference on physics from large gamma-ray detec tor arrays. Volume 2: Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The conference on 'Physics from Large gamma-ray Detector Arrays' is a continuation of the series of conferences that have been organized every two years by the North American Heavy-ion Laboratories. The aim of the conference this year was to encourage discussion of the physics that can be studied with such large arrays. This volume is the collected proceedings from this conference. It discusses properties of nuclear states which can be created in heavy-ion reactions, and which can be observed via such detector systems.

  11. Prospects of the search for neutrino bursts from supernovae with Baksan large volume scintillation detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkov, V. B.

    2016-11-01

    Observing a high-statistics neutrino signal from the supernova explosions in the Galaxy is a major goal of low-energy neutrino astronomy. The prospects for detecting all flavors of neutrinos and antineutrinos from the core-collapse supernova (ccSN) in operating and forthcoming large liquid scintillation detectors (LLSD) are widely discussed now. One of proposed LLSD is Baksan Large Volume Scintillation Detector (BLVSD). This detector will be installed at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory (BNO) of the Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, at a depth of 4800 m.w.e. Low-energy neutrino astronomy is one of the main lines of research of the BLVSD.

  12. Does targeted pre-load optimisation by stroke volume variation attenuate a reduction in cardiac output in the prone position.

    PubMed

    Wu, C-Y; Lee, T-S; Chan, K-C; Jeng, C-S; Cheng, Y-J

    2012-07-01

    The prone position can reduce cardiac output by up to 25% due to reduced preload. We hypothesised that preload optimisation targeted to stroke volume variation before turning prone might alleviate this. A supine threshold stroke volume variation of 14% in a preliminary study identified patients whose cardiac outputs would decline when turned prone. In 45 patients, cardiac output declined only in the group whose supine stroke volume variation was high (mean (SD) 5.1 (2.0) to 3.9 (1.9) l.min(-1) ; p < 0.001), but not in patients in whom it was low, or in those in whom stroke volume variation was high, but who received volume preload (p = 0.525 and 0.941, respectively). We conclude that targeted preload optimisation using a supine stroke volume variation value < 14% is effective in preventing falls in cardiac output induced by the prone position.

  13. Gas-filled targets for large scalelength plasma interaction experiments on Nova

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, L.V.; Berger, R.L.; Munro, D.H.

    1994-11-01

    Stimulated Brillouin backscatter from large scale length gas-filled targets has been measured on Nova. These targets were designed to approximate conditions in indirect drive ignition target designs in underdense plasma electron density (n{sub e}{approximately}10{sup 21}/cm{sup 3}), temperature (T{sub e}>3 keV), and gradient scale lengths (L{sub n}{approximately} mm, L{sub v}>6 mm) as well as calculated gain for stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS). The targets used in these experiments were gas-filled balloons with polyimide walls (gasbags) and gas-filled hohlraums. Detailed characterization using x-ray imaging and x-ray and optical spectroscopy verifies that the calculated plasma conditions are achieved. Time-resolved SBS backscatter from these targets is <3% for conditions similar to ignition target designs.

  14. Large-volume paracentesis with indwelling peritoneal catheter and albumin infusion: a community hospital study

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Daniel K.; Walayat, Saqib; Jinma, Ren; Ahmed, Zohair; Ragunathan, Karthik; Dhillon, Sonu

    2016-01-01

    Background The management of ascites can be problematic. This is especially true in patients with diuretic refractory ascites who develop a tense abdomen. This often results in hypotension and decreased venous return with resulting renal failure. In this paper, we further examine the risks and benefits of utilizing an indwelling peritoneal catheter to remove large-volume ascites over a 72-h period while maintaining intravascular volume and preventing renal failure. Methods We retrospectively reviewed charts and identified 36 consecutive patients undergoing continuous large-volume paracentesis with an indwelling peritoneal catheter. At the time of drain placement, no patients had signs or laboratory parameters suggestive of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. The patients underwent ascitic fluid removal through an indwelling peritoneal catheter and were supported with scheduled albumin throughout the duration. The catheter was used to remove up to 3 L every 8 h for a maximum of 72 h. Regular laboratory and ascitic fluid testing was performed. All patients had a clinical follow-up within 3 months after the drain placement. Results An average of 16.5 L was removed over the 72-h time frame of indwelling peritoneal catheter maintenance. The albumin infusion utilized correlated to 12 mg/L removed. The average creatinine trend improved in a statistically significant manner from 1.37 on the day of admission to 1.21 on the day of drain removal. No patients developed renal failure during the hospital course. There were no documented episodes of neutrocytic ascites or bacterial peritonitis throughout the study review. Conclusion Large-volume peritoneal drainage with an indwelling peritoneal catheter is safe and effective for patients with tense ascites. Concomitant albumin infusion allows for maintenance of renal function, and no increase in infectious complications was noted. PMID:27802853

  15. Multiple myeloma patients receiving large volume leukapheresis efficiently yield enough CD34+ cells to allow double transplants.

    PubMed

    Zubair, A C; Rymer, R; Young, J; Keeton, U; Befort, R; Nolot, B; Evans, C; Bleach, T; Torloni, A

    2009-01-01

    Current protocols for myeloma patients require more than one autologous transplant. We performed a retrospective study to determine the cost-effectiveness of large volume leukapheresis (LVL) compared with standard volume leukapheresis (SVL) collection when two transplants are required. We evaluated 87 patients who underwent a cumulative total of 260 LVL and SVL collections. The median product volume per collection was 356 ml for LVL, and this was significantly higher than the median product volume per collection for SVL (median 149.5 ml, P < 0.001). The median total CD34+ cell yield/kg was 6.4 x 10(6) for LVL and 5.2 x 10(6) for SVL. This difference was statistically significant (P = 0.005). Because the target CD34+ cell dose for a single transplant was 3 x 10(6)/kg at our institution, overall the LVL yields enough CD34+ cells that could allow for two transplants. Therefore, more patients in the LVL group were able to undergo a potential second transplant. Because of the reserved cells for a second transplant, LVL patients received significantly less CD34+ cell/kg per transplant than the patients in SVL group (P = <0.001). As a result, LVL group had statistically significant but clinically insignificant delay in neutrophil (P = <0.001) and platelet (P = 0.02) engraftments. Additionally, using LVL instead of SVL to collect >or=6 x 10(6)/kg CD34+ cells may potentially save $7,497 per patient. We therefore conclude that LVL is the method of choice for collection of multiple myeloma patients when two transplants are anticipated.

  16. Colorimetric paper-based detection of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes from large volumes of agricultural water.

    PubMed

    Bisha, Bledar; Adkins, Jaclyn A; Jokerst, Jana C; Chandler, Jeffrey C; Pérez-Méndez, Alma; Coleman, Shannon M; Sbodio, Adrian O; Suslow, Trevor V; Danyluk, Michelle D; Henry, Charles S; Goodridge, Lawrence D

    2014-06-09

    This protocol describes rapid colorimetric detection of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes from large volumes (10 L) of agricultural waters. Here, water is filtered through sterile Modified Moore Swabs (MMS), which consist of a simple gauze filter enclosed in a plastic cartridge, to concentrate bacteria. Following filtration, non-selective or selective enrichments for the target bacteria are performed in the MMS. For colorimetric detection of the target bacteria, the enrichments are then assayed using paper-based analytical devices (µPADs) embedded with bacteria-indicative substrates. Each substrate reacts with target-indicative bacterial enzymes, generating colored products that can be detected visually (qualitative detection) on the µPAD. Alternatively, digital images of the reacted µPADs can be generated with common scanning or photographic devices and analyzed using ImageJ software, allowing for more objective and standardized interpretation of results. Although the biochemical screening procedures are designed to identify the aforementioned bacterial pathogens, in some cases enzymes produced by background microbiota or the degradation of the colorimetric substrates may produce a false positive. Therefore, confirmation using a more discriminatory diagnostic is needed. Nonetheless, this bacterial concentration and detection platform is inexpensive, sensitive (0.1 CFU/ml detection limit), easy to perform, and rapid (concentration, enrichment, and detection are performed within approximately 24 hr), justifying its use as an initial screening method for the microbiological quality of agricultural water.

  17. Mechanically Cooled Large-Volume Germanium Detector Systems for Neclear Explosion Monitoring DOENA27323-2

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, E.L.

    2006-10-30

    Compact maintenance free mechanical cooling systems are being developed to operate large volume high-resolution gamma-ray detectors for field applications. To accomplish this we are utilizing a newly available generation of Stirling-cycle mechanical coolers to operate the very largest volume germanium detectors with no maintenance. The user will be able to leave these systems unplugged on the shelf until needed. The maintenance-free operating lifetime of these detector systems will exceed 5 years. Three important factors affect the operation of mechanically cooled germanium detectors: temperature, vacuum, and vibration. These factors will be studied in the laboratory at the most fundamental levels to insure a solid understanding of the physical limitations each factor places on a practical mechanically cooled germanium detector system. Using this knowledge, mechanically cooled germanium detector prototype systems will be designed and fabricated.

  18. The complex aerodynamic footprint of desert locusts revealed by large-volume tomographic particle image velocimetry.

    PubMed

    Henningsson, Per; Michaelis, Dirk; Nakata, Toshiyuki; Schanz, Daniel; Geisler, Reinhard; Schröder, Andreas; Bomphrey, Richard J

    2015-07-06

    Particle image velocimetry has been the preferred experimental technique with which to study the aerodynamics of animal flight for over a decade. In that time, hardware has become more accessible and the software has progressed from the acquisition of planes through the flow field to the reconstruction of small volumetric measurements. Until now, it has not been possible to capture large volumes that incorporate the full wavelength of the aerodynamic track left behind during a complete wingbeat cycle. Here, we use a unique apparatus to acquire the first instantaneous wake volume of a flying animal's entire wingbeat. We confirm the presence of wake deformation behind desert locusts and quantify the effect of that deformation on estimates of aerodynamic force and the efficiency of lift generation. We present previously undescribed vortex wake phenomena, including entrainment around the wing-tip vortices of a set of secondary vortices borne of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the shear layer behind the flapping wings.

  19. Non-contact spectroscopic determination of large blood volume fractions in turbid media

    PubMed Central

    Bremmer, Rolf H.; Kanick, Stephen C.; Laan, Nick; Amelink, Arjen; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.

    2011-01-01

    We report on a non-contact method to quantitatively determine blood volume fractions in turbid media by reflectance spectroscopy in the VIS/NIR spectral wavelength range. This method will be used for spectral analysis of tissue with large absorption coefficients and assist in age determination of bruises and bloodstains. First, a phantom set was constructed to determine the effective photon path length as a function of μa and μs′ on phantoms with an albedo range: 0.02-0.99. Based on these measurements, an empirical model of the path length was established for phantoms with an albedo > 0.1. Next, this model was validated on whole blood mimicking phantoms, to determine the blood volume fractions ρ = 0.12-0.84 within the phantoms (r = 0.993; error < 10%). Finally, the model was proved applicable on cotton fabric phantoms. PMID:21339884

  20. The use of digital volume tomography in imaging an unusually large composite odontoma in the mandible.

    PubMed

    Bhatavadekar, Neel B; Bouquot, Jerry E

    2009-01-01

    The odontoma is the most common of all odontogenic tumors. Digital volume tomography (DVT) provides a major advantage of decreased radiation and cost-effectiveness, as compared to a conventional computed tomography. There is no known published report utilizing this DVT analysis for assessing and localizing on odontomo. The purpose of this case report was to document the use of digital volume tomography to assess an unusually large composite odontoma in the mondible. Tomographic sections revealed expansion of the buccol cortex and occasional thinning of both the buccol and lingual cortical plates, although there was no pronounced clinically detectable cortical expansion. The sections further demonstrated enomel ond dentin in on irregular mass bearing no morphologic similority to rudimentary teeth. This case highlights the importance of early diagnosis and intervention for treating on odontoma while demonstrating the value of tomographic imaging as on aid to diagnosis.

  1. The complex aerodynamic footprint of desert locusts revealed by large-volume tomographic particle image velocimetry

    PubMed Central

    Henningsson, Per; Michaelis, Dirk; Nakata, Toshiyuki; Schanz, Daniel; Geisler, Reinhard; Schröder, Andreas; Bomphrey, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Particle image velocimetry has been the preferred experimental technique with which to study the aerodynamics of animal flight for over a decade. In that time, hardware has become more accessible and the software has progressed from the acquisition of planes through the flow field to the reconstruction of small volumetric measurements. Until now, it has not been possible to capture large volumes that incorporate the full wavelength of the aerodynamic track left behind during a complete wingbeat cycle. Here, we use a unique apparatus to acquire the first instantaneous wake volume of a flying animal's entire wingbeat. We confirm the presence of wake deformation behind desert locusts and quantify the effect of that deformation on estimates of aerodynamic force and the efficiency of lift generation. We present previously undescribed vortex wake phenomena, including entrainment around the wing-tip vortices of a set of secondary vortices borne of Kelvin–Helmholtz instability in the shear layer behind the flapping wings. PMID:26040598

  2. Very Large Area/Volume Microwave ECR Plasma and Ion Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E. (Inventor); Patterson, Michael J. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention is an apparatus and method for producing very large area and large volume plasmas. The invention utilizes electron cyclotron resonances in conjunction with permanent magnets to produce dense, uniform plasmas for long life ion thruster applications or for plasma processing applications such as etching, deposition, ion milling and ion implantation. The large area source is at least five times larger than the 12-inch wafers being processed to date. Its rectangular shape makes it easier to accommodate to materials processing than sources that are circular in shape. The source itself represents the largest ECR ion source built to date. It is electrodeless and does not utilize electromagnets to generate the ECR magnetic circuit, nor does it make use of windows.

  3. A volume law for specification of linear channel storage for estimation of large floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shangyou; Cordery, Ian; Sharma, Ashish

    2000-02-01

    A method of estimating large floods using a linear storage-routing approach is presented. The differences between the proposed approach and those traditionally used are (1) that the flood producing properties of basins are represented by a linear system, (2) the storage parameters of the distributed model are determined using a volume law which, unlike other storage-routing models, accounts for the distribution of storage in natural basins, and (3) the basin outflow hydrograph is determined analytically and expressed in a succinct mathematical form. The single model parameter is estimated from observed data without direct fitting, unlike most traditionally used methods. The model was tested by showing it could reproduce observed large floods on a number of basins. This paper compares the proposed approach with a traditionally used storage routing approach using observed flood data from the Hacking River basin in New South Wales, Australia. Results confirm the usefulness of the proposed approach for estimation of large floods.

  4. Two-field Kaehler moduli inflation in large volume moduli stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Huan-Xiong; Ma, Hong-Liang E-mail: hlma@mail.ustc.edu.cn

    2008-08-15

    In this paper we present a two-field inflation model, which is distinctive in having a non-canonical kinetic Lagrangian and comes from the large volume approach to the moduli stabilization in flux compactification of type IIB superstring on a Calabi-Yau orientifold with h{sup (1,2)}>h{sup (1,1)}{>=}4. The Kaehler moduli are classified as the volume modulus, heavy moduli and two light moduli. The axion-dilaton, complex structure moduli and all heavy Kaehler moduli including the volume modulus are frozen by a non-perturbatively corrected flux superpotential and the {alpha}{sup '}-corrected Kaehler potential in the large volume limit. The minimum of the scalar potential at which the heavy moduli are stabilized provides the dominant potential energy for the surviving light Kaehler moduli. We consider a simplified case where the axionic components in the light Kaehler moduli are further stabilized at the potential minimum and only the geometrical components are taken as scalar fields to drive an assisted-like inflation. For a certain range of moduli stabilization parameters and inflation initial conditions, we obtain a nearly flat power spectrum of the curvature perturbation, with n{sub s} Almost-Equal-To 0.96 at Hubble exit, and an inflationary energy scale of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} GeV. In our model, there is significant correlation between the curvature and isocurvature perturbations on super-Hubble scales, so at the end of inflation a great deal of the curvature power spectrum originates from this correlation.

  5. Large intestine-targeted nanoparticle-releasing oral vaccine to control genitorectal viral infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qing; Talton, James; Zhang, Guofeng; Cunningham, Tshaka; Wang, Zijian; Waters, Robert C.; Kirk, James; Eppler, Bärbel; Dennis M, Klinman; Sui, Yongjun; Gagnon, Susan; Belyakov, Igor M.; Mumper, Russell J.; Berzofsky, Jay A.

    2012-01-01

    Both rectal and vaginal mucosal surfaces serve as transmission routes for pathogenic microorganisms. Vaccination through large intestinal mucosa, previously proven protective for both mucosal sites in animal studies, can be achieved successfully by direct intra-colorectal (i.c.r.) administration, which is, however, clinically impractical. Oral delivery seems preferable, but risks vaccine destruction in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, we designed a large intestine-targeted oral delivery with pH-dependent microparticles containing vaccine nanoparticles, which induced colorectal immunity in mice comparably to colorectal vaccination and protected against rectal or vaginal viral challenge. Conversely, vaccine targeted to the small intestine induced only small intestinal immunity and provided no rectal or vaginal protection, demonstrating functional compartmentalization within the gut mucosal immune system. Therefore, using this oral vaccine delivery system to target the large intestine, but not the small intestine, may represent a feasible novel strategy for immune protection of rectal and vaginal mucosa. PMID:22797811

  6. Dosimetric Advantages of Midventilation Compared With Internal Target Volume for Radiation Therapy of Pancreatic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lens, Eelco Horst, Astrid van der; Versteijne, Eva; Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Bel, Arjan

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: The midventilation (midV) approach can be used to take respiratory-induced pancreatic tumor motion into account during radiation therapy. In this study, the dosimetric consequences for organs at risk and tumor coverage of using a midV approach compared with using an internal target volume (ITV) were investigated. Methods and Materials: For each of the 18 patients, 2 treatment plans (25 × 2.0 Gy) were created, 1 using an ITV and 1 using a midV approach. The midV dose distribution was blurred using the respiratory-induced motion from 4-dimensional computed tomography. The resulting planning target volume (PTV) coverage for this blurred dose distribution was analyzed; PTV coverage was required to be at least V{sub 95%} >98%. In addition, the change in PTV size and the changes in V{sub 10Gy}, V{sub 20Gy}, V{sub 30Gy}, V{sub 40Gy}, D{sub mean} and D{sub 2cc} for the stomach and for the duodenum were analyzed; differences were tested for significance using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: Using a midV approach resulted in sufficient target coverage. A highly significant PTV size reduction of 13.9% (P<.001) was observed. Also, all dose parameters for the stomach and duodenum, except the D{sub 2cc} of the duodenum, improved significantly (P≤.002). Conclusions: By using the midV approach to account for respiratory-induced tumor motion, a significant PTV reduction and significant dose reductions to the stomach and to the duodenum can be achieved when irradiating pancreatic tumors.

  7. Targeted Large-Scale Deletion of Bacterial Genomes Using CRISPR-Nickases.

    PubMed

    Standage-Beier, Kylie; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Xiao

    2015-11-20

    Programmable CRISPR-Cas systems have augmented our ability to produce precise genome manipulations. Here we demonstrate and characterize the ability of CRISPR-Cas derived nickases to direct targeted recombination of both small and large genomic regions flanked by repetitive elements in Escherichia coli. While CRISPR directed double-stranded DNA breaks are highly lethal in many bacteria, we show that CRISPR-guided nickase systems can be programmed to make precise, nonlethal, single-stranded incisions in targeted genomic regions. This induces recombination events and leads to targeted deletion. We demonstrate that dual-targeted nicking enables deletion of 36 and 97 Kb of the genome. Furthermore, multiplex targeting enables deletion of 133 Kb, accounting for approximately 3% of the entire E. coli genome. This technology provides a framework for methods to manipulate bacterial genomes using CRISPR-nickase systems. We envision this system working synergistically with preexisting bacterial genome engineering methods.

  8. A Novel Technique for Endovascular Removal of Large Volume Right Atrial Tumor Thrombus.

    PubMed

    Nickel, Barbara; McClure, Timothy; Moriarty, John

    2015-08-01

    Venous thromboembolic disease is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in the setting of large volume pulmonary embolism. Thrombolytic therapy has been shown to be a successful treatment modality; however, its use somewhat limited due to the risk of hemorrhage and potential for distal embolization in the setting of large mobile thrombi. In patients where either thrombolysis is contraindicated or unsuccessful, and conventional therapies prove inadequate, surgical thrombectomy may be considered. We present a case of percutaneous endovascular extraction of a large mobile mass extending from the inferior vena cava into the right atrium using the Angiovac device, a venovenous bypass system designed for high-volume aspiration of undesired endovascular material. Standard endovascular methods for removal of cancer-associated thrombus, such as catheter-directed lysis, maceration, and exclusion, may prove inadequate in the setting of underlying tumor thrombus. Where conventional endovascular methods either fail or are unsuitable, endovascular thrombectomy with the Angiovac device may be a useful and safe minimally invasive alternative to open resection.

  9. A Novel Technique for Endovascular Removal of Large Volume Right Atrial Tumor Thrombus

    SciTech Connect

    Nickel, Barbara; McClure, Timothy Moriarty, John

    2015-08-15

    Venous thromboembolic disease is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in the setting of large volume pulmonary embolism. Thrombolytic therapy has been shown to be a successful treatment modality; however, its use somewhat limited due to the risk of hemorrhage and potential for distal embolization in the setting of large mobile thrombi. In patients where either thrombolysis is contraindicated or unsuccessful, and conventional therapies prove inadequate, surgical thrombectomy may be considered. We present a case of percutaneous endovascular extraction of a large mobile mass extending from the inferior vena cava into the right atrium using the Angiovac device, a venovenous bypass system designed for high-volume aspiration of undesired endovascular material. Standard endovascular methods for removal of cancer-associated thrombus, such as catheter-directed lysis, maceration, and exclusion, may prove inadequate in the setting of underlying tumor thrombus. Where conventional endovascular methods either fail or are unsuitable, endovascular thrombectomy with the Angiovac device may be a useful and safe minimally invasive alternative to open resection.

  10. Cryogenic loading of large volume presses for high-pressure experimentation and synthesis of novel materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lipp, M J; Evans, W J; Yoo, C S

    2005-01-21

    We present an efficient easily implemented method for loading cryogenic fluids in a large volume press. We specifically apply this method to the high-pressure synthesis of an extended solid derived from CO using a Paris-Edinburgh cell. This method employs cryogenic cooling of Bridgman type WC anvils well insulated from other press components, condensation of the load gas within a brass annulus surrounding the gasket between the Bridgman anvils. We demonstrate the viability of the described approach by synthesizing macroscopic amounts (several milligrams) of polymeric CO-derived material, which were recovered to ambient conditions after compression of pure CO to 5 GPa or above.

  11. Incarceration of umbilical hernia: a rare complication of large volume paracentesis.

    PubMed

    Khodarahmi, Iman; Shahid, Muhammad Usman; Contractor, Sohail

    2015-09-01

    We present two cases of umbilical hernia incarceration following large volume paracentesis (LVP) in patients with cirrhotic ascites. Both patients became symptomatic within 48 hours after the LVP. Although being rare, given the significantly higher mortality rate of cirrhotic patients undergoing emergent herniorrhaphy, this complication of LVP is potentially serious. Therefore, it is recommended that patients be examined closely for the presence of umbilical hernias before removal of ascitic fluid and an attempt should be made for external reduction of easily reducible hernias, if a hernia is present.

  12. Capillary gas chromatographic analysis of nerve agents using large volume injections.

    PubMed

    Degenhardt-Langelaan, C E; Kientz, C E

    1996-02-02

    The use of large volume injections has been studied for the verification of intact organophosphorus chemical warfare agents in water samples. As the use of ethyl acetate caused severe detection problems new potential solvents were evaluated. With the developed procedure, the nerve agents sarin, tabun, soman, DFP and VX can be determined in freshly prepared water samples at ppt levels. Except for the nerve agent tabun all other agents added to the water samples were still present after 8 days at 20-60% levels, if the pH of the water sample is adjusted to ca. 5 shortly after sampling and adjusted to pH 7 for analysis.

  13. Incarceration of umbilical hernia: a rare complication of large volume paracentesis

    PubMed Central

    Khodarahmi, Iman; Shahid, Muhammad Usman; Contractor, Sohail

    2015-01-01

    We present two cases of umbilical hernia incarceration following large volume paracentesis (LVP) in patients with cirrhotic ascites. Both patients became symptomatic within 48 hours after the LVP. Although being rare, given the significantly higher mortality rate of cirrhotic patients undergoing emergent herniorrhaphy, this complication of LVP is potentially serious. Therefore, it is recommended that patients be examined closely for the presence of umbilical hernias before removal of ascitic fluid and an attempt should be made for external reduction of easily reducible hernias, if a hernia is present. PMID:26629305

  14. Large Volume, Optical and Opto-Mechanical Metrology Techniques for ISIM on JWST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadjimichael, Theo

    2015-01-01

    The final, flight build of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element of the James Webb Space Telescope is the culmination of years of work across many disciplines and partners. This paper covers the large volume, ambient, optical and opto-mechanical metrology techniques used to verify the mechanical integration of the flight instruments in ISIM, including optical pupil alignment. We present an overview of ISIM's integration and test program, which is in progress, with an emphasis on alignment and optical performance verification. This work is performed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, in close collaboration with the European Space Agency, the Canadian Space Agency, and the Mid-Infrared Instrument European Consortium.

  15. GMP Cryopreservation of Large Volumes of Cells for Regenerative Medicine: Active Control of the Freezing Process

    PubMed Central

    Massie, Isobel; Selden, Clare; Hodgson, Humphrey; Gibbons, Stephanie; Morris, G. John

    2014-01-01

    Cryopreservation protocols are increasingly required in regenerative medicine applications but must deliver functional products at clinical scale and comply with Good Manufacturing Process (GMP). While GMP cryopreservation is achievable on a small scale using a Stirling cryocooler-based controlled rate freezer (CRF) (EF600), successful large-scale GMP cryopreservation is more challenging due to heat transfer issues and control of ice nucleation, both complex events that impact success. We have developed a large-scale cryocooler-based CRF (VIA Freeze) that can process larger volumes and have evaluated it using alginate-encapsulated liver cell (HepG2) spheroids (ELS). It is anticipated that ELS will comprise the cellular component of a bioartificial liver and will be required in volumes of ∼2 L for clinical use. Sample temperatures and Stirling cryocooler power consumption was recorded throughout cooling runs for both small (500 μL) and large (200 mL) volume samples. ELS recoveries were assessed using viability (FDA/PI staining with image analysis), cell number (nuclei count), and function (protein secretion), along with cryoscanning electron microscopy and freeze substitution techniques to identify possible injury mechanisms. Slow cooling profiles were successfully applied to samples in both the EF600 and the VIA Freeze, and a number of cooling and warming profiles were evaluated. An optimized cooling protocol with a nonlinear cooling profile from ice nucleation to −60°C was implemented in both the EF600 and VIA Freeze. In the VIA Freeze the nucleation of ice is detected by the control software, allowing both noninvasive detection of the nucleation event for quality control purposes and the potential to modify the cooling profile following ice nucleation in an active manner. When processing 200 mL of ELS in the VIA Freeze—viabilities at 93.4%±7.4%, viable cell numbers at 14.3±1.7 million nuclei/mL alginate, and protein secretion at 10.5±1.7

  16. Alginate Hydrogel Microencapsulation Inhibits Devitrification and Enables Large-Volume Low-CPA Cell Vitrification.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haishui; Choi, Jung Kyu; Rao, Wei; Zhao, Shuting; Agarwal, Pranay; Zhao, Gang; He, Xiaoming

    2015-11-25

    Cryopreservation of stem cells is important to meet their ever-increasing demand by the burgeoning cell-based medicine. The conventional slow freezing for stem cell cryopreservation suffers from inevitable cell injury associated with ice formation and the vitrification (i.e., no visible ice formation) approach is emerging as a new strategy for cell cryopreservation. A major challenge to cell vitrification is intracellular ice formation (IIF, a lethal event to cells) induced by devitrification (i.e., formation of visible ice in previously vitrified solution) during warming the vitrified cells at cryogenic temperature back to super-zero temperatures. Consequently, high and toxic concentrations of penetrating cryoprotectants (i.e., high CPAs, up to ~8 M) and/or limited sample volumes (up to ~2.5 μl) have been used to minimize IIF during vitrification. We reveal that alginate hydrogel microencapsulation can effectively inhibit devitrification during warming. Our data show that if ice formation were minimized during cooling, IIF is negligible in alginate hydrogel-microencapsulated cells during the entire cooling and warming procedure of vitrification. This enables vitrification of pluripotent and multipotent stem cells with up to ~4 times lower concentration of penetrating CPAs (up to 2 M, low CPA) in up to ~100 times larger sample volume (up to ~250 μl, large volume).

  17. A scale down process for the development of large volume cryopreservation☆

    PubMed Central

    Kilbride, Peter; Morris, G. John; Milne, Stuart; Fuller, Barry; Skepper, Jeremy; Selden, Clare

    2014-01-01

    The process of ice formation and propagation during cryopreservation impacts on the post-thaw outcome for a sample. Two processes, either network solidification or progressive solidification, can dominate the water–ice phase transition with network solidification typically present in small sample cryo-straws or cryo-vials. Progressive solidification is more often observed in larger volumes or environmental freezing. These different ice phase progressions could have a significant impact on cryopreservation in scale-up and larger volume cryo-banking protocols necessitating their study when considering cell therapy applications. This study determines the impact of these different processes on alginate encapsulated liver spheroids (ELS) as a model system during cryopreservation, and develops a method to replicate these differences in an economical manner. It was found in the current studies that progressive solidification resulted in fewer, but proportionally more viable cells 24 h post-thaw compared with network solidification. The differences between the groups diminished at later time points post-thaw as cells recovered the ability to undertake cell division, with no statistically significant differences seen by either 48 h or 72 h in recovery cultures. Thus progressive solidification itself should not prove a significant hurdle in the search for successful cryopreservation in large volumes. However, some small but significant differences were noted in total viable cell recoveries and functional assessments between samples cooled with either progressive or network solidification, and these require further investigation. PMID:25219980

  18. Alginate Hydrogel Microencapsulation Inhibits Devitrification and Enables Large-Volume Low-CPA Cell Vitrification

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Haishui; Choi, Jung Kyu; Rao, Wei; Zhao, Shuting; Agarwal, Pranay; Zhao, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation of stem cells is important to meet their ever-increasing demand by the burgeoning cell-based medicine. The conventional slow freezing for stem cell cryopreservation suffers from inevitable cell injury associated with ice formation and the vitrification (i.e., no visible ice formation) approach is emerging as a new strategy for cell cryopreservation. A major challenge to cell vitrification is intracellular ice formation (IIF, a lethal event to cells) induced by devitrification (i.e., formation of visible ice in previously vitrified solution) during warming the vitrified cells at cryogenic temperature back to super-zero temperatures. Consequently, high and toxic concentrations of penetrating cryoprotectants (i.e., high CPAs, up to ~8 M) and/or limited sample volumes (up to ~2.5 μl) have been used to minimize IIF during vitrification. We reveal that alginate hydrogel microencapsulation can effectively inhibit devitrification during warming. Our data show that if ice formation were minimized during cooling, IIF is negligible in alginate hydrogel-microencapsulated cells during the entire cooling and warming procedure of vitrification. This enables vitrification of pluripotent and multipotent stem cells with up to ~4 times lower concentration of penetrating CPAs (up to 2 M, low CPA) in up to ~100 times larger sample volume (up to ~250 μl, large volume). PMID:26640426

  19. Dosimetric evaluation of planning target volume margin reduction for prostate cancer via image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Taejin; Kang, Sei-Kwon; Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Park, Soah; Yoon, Jai-Woong; Han, Taejin; Kim, Haeyoung; Lee, Meyeon; Kim, Kyoung-Joo; Bae, Hoonsik; Suh, Tae-Suk

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to quantitatively estimate the dosimetric benefits of the image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system for the prostate intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) delivery. The cases of eleven patients who underwent IMRT for prostate cancer without a prostatectomy at our institution between October 2012 and April 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. For every patient, clinical target volume (CTV) to planning target volume (PTV) margins were uniformly used: 3 mm, 5 mm, 7 mm, 10 mm, 12 mm, and 15 mm. For each margin size, the IMRT plans were independently optimized by one medical physicist using Pinnalce3 (ver. 8.0.d, Philips Medical System, Madison, WI) in order to maintain the plan quality. The maximum geometrical margin (MGM) for every CT image set, defined as the smallest margin encompassing the rectum at least at one slice, was between 13 mm and 26 mm. The percentage rectum overlapping PTV (%V ROV ), the rectal normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) and the mean rectal dose (%RD mean ) increased in proportion to the increase of PTV margin. However the bladder NTCP remained around zero to some extent regardless of the increase of PTV margin while the percentage bladder overlapping PTV (%V BOV ) and the mean bladder dose (%BD mean ) increased in proportion to the increase of PTV margin. Without relatively large rectum or small bladder, the increase observed for rectal NTCP, %RDmean and %BD mean per 1-mm PTV margin size were 1.84%, 2.44% and 2.90%, respectively. Unlike the behavior of the rectum or the bladder, the maximum dose on each femoral head had little effect on PTV margin. This quantitative study of the PTV margin reduction supported that IG-IMRT has enhanced the clinical effects over prostate cancer with the reduction of normal organ complications under the similar level of PTV control.

  20. Hybrid Parallelism for Volume Rendering on Large, Multi-core Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Howison, Mark; Bethel, E. Wes; Childs, Hank

    2010-06-14

    This work studies the performance and scalability characteristics of"hybrid" parallel programming and execution as applied to raycasting volume rendering -- a staple visualization algorithm -- on a large, multi-core platform. Historically, the Message Passing Interface (MPI) has become the de-facto standard for parallel programming and execution on modern parallel systems. As the computing industry trends towards multi-core processors, with four- and six-core chips common today and 128-core chips coming soon, we wish to better understand how algorithmic and parallel programming choices impact performance and scalability on large, distributed-memory multi-core systems. Our findings indicate that the hybrid-parallel implementation, at levels of concurrency ranging from 1,728 to 216,000, performs better, uses a smaller absolute memory footprint, and consumes less communication bandwidth than the traditional, MPI-only implementation.

  1. MPI-hybrid Parallelism for Volume Rendering on Large, Multi-core Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Howison, Mark; Bethel, E. Wes; Childs, Hank

    2010-03-20

    This work studies the performance and scalability characteristics of"hybrid'" parallel programming and execution as applied to raycasting volume rendering -- a staple visualization algorithm -- on a large, multi-core platform. Historically, the Message Passing Interface (MPI) has become the de-facto standard for parallel programming and execution on modern parallel systems. As the computing industry trends towards multi-core processors, with four- and six-core chips common today and 128-core chips coming soon, we wish to better understand how algorithmic and parallel programming choices impact performance and scalability on large, distributed-memory multi-core systems. Our findings indicate that the hybrid-parallel implementation, at levels of concurrency ranging from 1,728 to 216,000, performs better, uses a smaller absolute memory footprint, and consumes less communication bandwidth than the traditional, MPI-only implementation.

  2. Effectiveness of nuclear interceptors against large single volume chemical/biological warheads

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, E.

    1993-01-01

    In a continuing series of calculations which explore potential nuclear defenses against chemical and/or bacteriological warheads the author has now completed a study in which he postulated a large canister geometry. Instead of looking at a collection of smaller submunitions as done previously, he has now one single large volume of Sarin (a nerve agent). This is a more stressing case for nuclear defense, in that neutrons must traverse a long path in the hydrogenous solution if they are to deposit their energy in the region of Sarin farthest from the source. The author presents results from Monte Carlo calculations which indicate that differences in energy deposition between Sarin regions close to the source and those farthest from the source have increased very significantly.

  3. Hybrid Parallelism for Volume Rendering on Large, Multi- and Many-core Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Howison, Mark; Bethel, E. Wes; Childs, Hank

    2011-01-01

    With the computing industry trending towards multi- and many-core processors, we study how a standard visualization algorithm, ray-casting volume rendering, can benefit from a hybrid parallelism approach. Hybrid parallelism provides the best of both worlds: using distributed-memory parallelism across a large numbers of nodes increases available FLOPs and memory, while exploiting shared-memory parallelism among the cores within each node ensures that each node performs its portion of the larger calculation as efficiently as possible. We demonstrate results from weak and strong scaling studies, at levels of concurrency ranging up to 216,000, and with datasets as large as 12.2 trillion cells. The greatest benefit from hybrid parallelism lies in the communication portion of the algorithm, the dominant cost at higher levels of concurrency. We show that reducing the number of participants with a hybrid approach significantly improves performance.

  4. Hybrid Parallelism for Volume Rendering on Large, Multi-core Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howison, M.; Bethel, E. W.; Childs, H.

    2011-10-01

    This work studies the performance and scalability characteristics of "hybrid" parallel programming and execution as applied to raycasting volume rendering - a staple visualization algorithm - on a large, multi-core platform. Historically, the Message Passing Interface (MPI) has become the de-facto standard for parallel programming and execution on modern parallel systems. As the computing industry trends towards multi-core processors, with four- and six-core chips common today, as well as processors capable of running hundreds of concurrent threads (GPUs), we wish to better understand how algorithmic and parallel programming choices impact performance and scalability on large, distributed-memory multi-core systems. Our findings indicate that the hybrid-parallel implementation, at levels of concurrency ranging from 1,728 to 216,000, performs better, uses a smaller absolute memory footprint, and consumes less communication bandwidth than the traditional, MPI-only implementation.

  5. Large volume leukapheresis maximizes the progenitor cell yield for allogeneic peripheral blood progenitor donation.

    PubMed

    Kobbe, G; Soehngen, D; Heyll, A; Fischer, J; Thiele, K P; Aul, C; Wernet, P

    1997-04-01

    We have investigated the efficiency and safety of large volume leukapheresis (LVL) for the collection of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs) from healthy donors. In six apheresis sessions in four healthy individuals on a COBE-BCT Spectra cell separator (median processed volume 3.5 X total blood volume, TBV, range 3.3-4.4 X TBV), harvested cells were collected sequentially into three single bags. The collection bags were changed after processing 33%, 66%, and 100% of the prospective apheresis volume, allowing analysis of PBPCs collected at different periods during one harvest. Mononuclear cells (MNCs), CD34+ cells, CD34+ subsets, and lymphocyte subsets were determined in each bag. Substantially more PBPCs were harvested than were in the circulation before G-CSF administration preceding LVL (median 171%, range 69-267%), reflecting progenitor release during the procedure. In donors 1 and 3, the CD34+ cell yields decreased in the third bag to 53% and 42% of that collected in the first bag, whereas the progenitor cell yields in donors 2 and 4 were stable or rose during the procedure, achieving in the third bag 157% and 105% of the number of CD34+ cells collected in the first bag. Minor changes were found in the subsets of CD34+ cells, lymphocytes, and monocytes collected at different periods during a single harvest. LVL was well tolerated. Reversible thombocytopenia developed in all cases. No late effects attributable to LVL or G-CSF were found in the 4 donors and 16 other healthy individuals who have undergone LVL in our institution. We conclude that LVL is safe and maximizes PBPC yields for allogeneic transplantation.

  6. Targeted tandem duplication of a large chromosomal segment in Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Tadashi; Sato, Atsushi; Ogawa, Masahiro; Hanya, Yoshiki; Oguma, Tetsuya

    2014-08-01

    We describe here the first successful construction of a targeted tandem duplication of a large chromosomal segment in Aspergillus oryzae. The targeted tandem chromosomal duplication was achieved by using strains that had a 5'-deleted pyrG upstream of the region targeted for tandem chromosomal duplication and a 3'-deleted pyrG downstream of the target region. Consequently,strains bearing a 210-kb targeted tandem chromosomal duplication near the centromeric region of chromosome 8 and strains bearing a targeted tandem chromosomal duplication of a 700-kb region of chromosome 2 were successfully constructed. The strains bearing the tandem chromosomal duplication were efficiently obtained from the regenerated protoplast of the parental strains. However, the generation of the chromosomal duplication did not depend on the introduction of double-stranded breaks(DSBs) by I-SceI. The chromosomal duplications of these strains were stably maintained after five generations of culture under nonselective conditions. The strains bearing the tandem chromosomal duplication in the 700-kb region of chromosome 2 showed highly increased protease activity in solid-state culture, indicating that the duplication of large chromosomal segments could be a useful new breeding technology and gene analysis method.

  7. Enrichment of diluted cell populations from large sample volumes using 3D carbon-electrode dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Islam, Monsur; Natu, Rucha; Larraga-Martinez, Maria Fernanda; Martinez-Duarte, Rodrigo

    2016-05-01

    Here, we report on an enrichment protocol using carbon electrode dielectrophoresis to isolate and purify a targeted cell population from sample volumes up to 4 ml. We aim at trapping, washing, and recovering an enriched cell fraction that will facilitate downstream analysis. We used an increasingly diluted sample of yeast, 10(6)-10(2) cells/ml, to demonstrate the isolation and enrichment of few cells at increasing flow rates. A maximum average enrichment of 154.2 ± 23.7 times was achieved when the sample flow rate was 10 μl/min and yeast cells were suspended in low electrically conductive media that maximizes dielectrophoresis trapping. A COMSOL Multiphysics model allowed for the comparison between experimental and simulation results. Discussion is conducted on the discrepancies between such results and how the model can be further improved.

  8. Evaluation of potential internal target volume of liver tumors using cine-MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Akino, Yuichi; Oh, Ryoong-Jin; Masai, Norihisa; Shiomi, Hiroya; Inoue, Toshihiko

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) is widely used for evaluating moving tumors, including lung and liver cancers. For patients with unstable respiration, however, the 4DCT may not visualize tumor motion properly. High-speed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences (cine-MRI) permit direct visualization of respiratory motion of liver tumors without considering radiation dose exposure to patients. Here, the authors demonstrated a technique for evaluating internal target volume (ITV) with consideration of respiratory variation using cine-MRI. Methods: The authors retrospectively evaluated six patients who received stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) to hepatocellular carcinoma. Before acquiring planning CT, sagittal and coronal cine-MRI images were acquired for 30 s with a frame rate of 2 frames/s. The patient immobilization was conducted under the same condition as SBRT. Planning CT images were then acquired within 15 min from cine-MRI image acquisitions, followed by a 4DCT scan. To calculate tumor motion, the motion vectors between two continuous frames of cine-MRI images were calculated for each frame using the pyramidal Lucas–Kanade method. The target contour was delineated on one frame, and each vertex of the contour was shifted and copied onto the following frame using neighboring motion vectors. 3D trajectory data were generated with the centroid of the contours on sagittal and coronal images. To evaluate the accuracy of the tracking method, the motion of clearly visible blood vessel was analyzed with the motion tracking and manual detection techniques. The target volume delineated on the 50% (end-exhale) phase of 4DCT was translated with the trajectory data, and the distribution of the occupancy probability of target volume was calculated as potential ITV (ITV {sub Potential}). The concordance between ITV {sub Potential} and ITV estimated with 4DCT (ITV {sub 4DCT}) was evaluated using the Dice’s similarity coefficient (DSC). Results

  9. Mechanically Cooled Large-Volume Germanium Detector Systems for Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, Ethan L.; Pehl, Richard H.; Lathrop, James R.; Martin, Gregory N.; Mashburn, R. B.; Miley, Harry S.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Bowyer, Ted W.

    2006-09-21

    Compact maintenance free mechanical cooling systems are being developed to operate large volume (~570 cm3, ~3 kg, 140% or larger) germanium detectors for field applications. We are using a new generation of Stirling-cycle mechanical coolers for operating the very largest volume germanium detectors with absolutely no maintenance or liquid nitrogen requirements. The user will be able to leave these systems unplugged on the shelf until needed. The flip of a switch will bring a system to life in ~1 hour for measurements. The maintenance-free operating lifetime of these detector systems will exceed five years. These features are necessary for remote long-duration liquid-nitrogen free deployment of large-volume germanium gamma-ray detector systems for Nuclear Explosion Monitoring (NEM). The Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer (RASA) will greatly benefit from the availability of such detectors by eliminating the need for liquid nitrogen at RASA sites while still allowing the very largest available germanium detectors to be utilized. These mechanically cooled germanium detector systems being developed here will provide the largest, most sensitive detectors possible for use with the RASA. To provide such systems, the appropriate technical fundamentals are being researched. Mechanical cooling of germanium detectors has historically been a difficult endeavor. The success or failure of mechanically cooled germanium detectors stems from three main technical issues: temperature, vacuum, and vibration. These factors affect one another. There is a particularly crucial relationship between vacuum and temperature. These factors will be experimentally studied both separately and together to insure a solid understanding of the physical limitations each factor places on a practical mechanically cooled germanium detector system for field use. Using this knowledge, a series of mechanically cooled germanium detector prototype systems are being designed and fabricated. Our collaborators

  10. Geochemical correlation of three large-volume ignimbrites from the Yellowstone hotspot track, Idaho, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Ben S.; Branney, M. J.; Barry, T. L.; Barfod, D.; Bindeman, I.; Wolff, J. A.; Bonnichsen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Three voluminous rhyolitic ignimbrites have been identified along the southern margin of the central Snake River Plain. As a result of wide-scale correlations, new volume estimates can be made for these deposits: ~350 km3 for the Steer Basin Tuff and Cougar Point Tuff XI, and ~1,000 km3 for Cougar Point Tuff XIII. These volumes exclude any associated regional ashfalls and correlation across to the north side of the plain, which has yet to be attempted. Each correlation was achieved using a combination of methods including field logging, whole rock and mineral chemistry, magnetic polarity, oxygen isotope signature and high-precision 40Ar/39Ar geochronology. The Steer Basin Tuff, Cougar Point Tuff XI and Cougar Point Tuff XIII have deposit characteristics typical of `Snake River (SR)-type' volcanism: they are very dense, intensely welded and rheomorphic, unusually well sorted with scarce pumice and lithic lapilli. These features differ significantly from those of deposits from the better-known younger eruptions of Yellowstone. The ignimbrites also exhibit marked depletion in δ18O, which is known to characterise the SR-type rhyolites of the central Snake River Plain, and cumulatively represent ~1,700 km3 of low δ18O rhyolitic magma (feldspar values 2.3-2.9‰) erupted within 800,000 years. Our work reduces the total number of ignimbrites recognised in the central Snake River Plain by 6, improves the link with the ashfall record of Yellowstone hotspot volcanism and suggests that more large-volume ignimbrites await discovery through detailed correlation work amidst the vast ignimbrite record of volcanism in this bimodal large igneous province.

  11. Development of large volume double ring penning plasma discharge source for efficient light emissions.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Ram; Vyas, Gheesa Lal; Jain, Jalaj; Prajapati, Jitendra; Pal, Udit Narayan; Chowdhuri, Malay Bikas; Manchanda, Ranjana

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, the development of large volume double ring Penning plasma discharge source for efficient light emissions is reported. The developed Penning discharge source consists of two cylindrical end cathodes of stainless steel having radius 6 cm and a gap 5.5 cm between them, which are fitted in the top and bottom flanges of the vacuum chamber. Two stainless steel anode rings with thickness 0.4 cm and inner diameters 6.45 cm having separation 2 cm are kept at the discharge centre. Neodymium (Nd(2)Fe(14)B) permanent magnets are physically inserted behind the cathodes for producing nearly uniform magnetic field of ~0.1 T at the center. Experiments and simulations have been performed for single and double anode ring configurations using helium gas discharge, which infer that double ring configuration gives better light emissions in the large volume Penning plasma discharge arrangement. The optical emission spectroscopy measurements are used to complement the observations. The spectral line-ratio technique is utilized to determine the electron plasma density. The estimated electron plasma density in double ring plasma configuration is ~2 × 10(11) cm(-3), which is around one order of magnitude larger than that of single ring arrangement.

  12. Clinical, biochemical, and hormonal changes after a single, large-volume paracentesis in cirrhosis with ascites.

    PubMed

    Gentile, S; Angelico, M; Bologna, E; Capocaccia, L

    1989-03-01

    The use of paracentesis has recently been reproposed as a safe and effective alternative to diuretics for management of ascites. We have investigated the clinical and biochemical effects of large-volume paracentesis in 19 cirrhotics with tense ascites, and the relative changes in the hormones involved in sodium and water renal handling. Plasma renin activity (PRA), aldosterone (PA), and arginine vasopressin (AVP) levels and conventional liver and renal function tests were measured before and after 1, 2, and 7 days after the paracentesis. No complications were observed, but patients regained 37% of the weight lost after 1 wk. Percent weight regained was significantly and directly correlated with PA concentration measured before the paracentesis. No changes were recorded after paracentesis in biochemical and clinical data, except for a significant drop in diastolic blood pressure. No changes in AVP levels were observed. A significant increase in PA occurred after paracentesis, with a maximum peak after 48 h. The increase in PA was not accompanied by changes in PRA, but was associated with a reduction of urinary sodium excretion. A relevant fraction of body aldosterone was confined to the ascitic fluid. We conclude that the clinical results of a large-volume paracentesis can be predicted in part on the basis of PA measurement, and that removal of ascites is followed by an increase of PA of uncertain origin and effectiveness.

  13. Development of large volume double ring penning plasma discharge source for efficient light emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash, Ram; Vyas, Gheesa Lal; Jain, Jalaj; Prajapati, Jitendra; Pal, Udit Narayan; Chowdhuri, Malay Bikas; Manchanda, Ranjana

    2012-12-15

    In this paper, the development of large volume double ring Penning plasma discharge source for efficient light emissions is reported. The developed Penning discharge source consists of two cylindrical end cathodes of stainless steel having radius 6 cm and a gap 5.5 cm between them, which are fitted in the top and bottom flanges of the vacuum chamber. Two stainless steel anode rings with thickness 0.4 cm and inner diameters 6.45 cm having separation 2 cm are kept at the discharge centre. Neodymium (Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B) permanent magnets are physically inserted behind the cathodes for producing nearly uniform magnetic field of {approx}0.1 T at the center. Experiments and simulations have been performed for single and double anode ring configurations using helium gas discharge, which infer that double ring configuration gives better light emissions in the large volume Penning plasma discharge arrangement. The optical emission spectroscopy measurements are used to complement the observations. The spectral line-ratio technique is utilized to determine the electron plasma density. The estimated electron plasma density in double ring plasma configuration is {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}, which is around one order of magnitude larger than that of single ring arrangement.

  14. Colloids Versus Albumin in Large Volume Paracentesis to Prevent Circulatory Dysfunction: Evidence-based Case Report.

    PubMed

    Widjaja, Felix F; Khairan, Paramita; Kamelia, Telly; Hasan, Irsan

    2016-04-01

    Large volume paracentesis may cause paracentesis induced circulatory dysfunction (PICD). Albumin is recommended to prevent this abnormality. Meanwhile, the price of albumin is too expensive and there should be another alternative that may prevent PICD. This report aimed to compare albumin to colloids in preventing PICD. Search strategy was done using PubMed, Scopus, Proquest, dan Academic Health Complete from EBSCO with keywords of "ascites", "albumin", "colloid", "dextran", "hydroxyethyl starch", "gelatin", and "paracentesis induced circulatory dysfunction". Articles was limited to randomized clinical trial and meta-analysis with clinical question of "In hepatic cirrhotic patient undergone large volume paracentesis, whether colloids were similar to albumin to prevent PICD". We found one meta-analysis and four randomized clinical trials (RCT). A meta analysis showed that albumin was still superior of which odds ratio 0.34 (0.23-0.51). Three RCTs showed the same results and one RCT showed albumin was not superior than colloids. We conclude that colloids could not constitute albumin to prevent PICD, but colloids still have a role in patient who undergone paracentesis less than five liters.

  15. Broadband frequency ECR ion source concepts with large resonant plasma volumes

    SciTech Connect

    Alton, G.D.

    1995-12-31

    New techniques are proposed for enhancing the performances of ECR ion sources. The techniques are based on the use of high-power, variable-frequency, multiple-discrete-frequency, or broadband microwave radiation, derived from standard TWT technology, to effect large resonant ``volume`` ECR sources. The creation of a large ECR plasma ``volume`` permits coupling of more power into the plasma, resulting in the heating of a much larger electron population to higher energies, the effect of which is to produce higher charge state distributions and much higher intensities within a particular charge state than possible in present forms of the ECR ion source. If successful, these developments could significantly impact future accelerator designs and accelerator-based, heavy-ion-research programs by providing multiply-charged ion beams with the energies and intensities required for nuclear physics research from existing ECR ion sources. The methods described in this article can be used to retrofit any ECR ion source predicated on B-minimum plasma confinement techniques.

  16. Large-volume flux closure during plasmoid-mediated reconnection in coaxial helicity injection

    SciTech Connect

    Ebrahimi, F.; Raman, R.

    2016-03-23

    A large-volume flux closure during transient coaxial helicity injection (CHI) in NSTX-U is demonstrated through resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations. Several major improvements, including the improved positioning of the divertor poloidal field coils, are projected to improve the CHI start-up phase in NSTX-U. Simulations in the NSTX-U configuration with constant in time coil currents show that with strong flux shaping the injected open field lines (injector flux) rapidly reconnect and form large volume of closed flux surfaces. This is achieved by driving parallel current in the injector flux coil and oppositely directed currents in the flux shaping coils to form a narrow injector flux footprint and push the injector flux into the vessel. As the helicity and plasma are injected into the device, the oppositely directed field lines in the injector region are forced to reconnect through a local Sweet-Parker type reconnection, or to spontaneously reconnect when the elongated current sheet becomes MHD unstable to form plasmoids. In these simulations for the first time, it is found that the closed flux is over 70% of the initial injector flux used to initiate the discharge. Furthermore, these results could work well for the application of transient CHI in devices that employ super conducting coils to generate and sustain the plasma equilibrium.

  17. Large-volume flux closure during plasmoid-mediated reconnection in coaxial helicity injection

    DOE PAGES

    Ebrahimi, F.; Raman, R.

    2016-03-23

    A large-volume flux closure during transient coaxial helicity injection (CHI) in NSTX-U is demonstrated through resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations. Several major improvements, including the improved positioning of the divertor poloidal field coils, are projected to improve the CHI start-up phase in NSTX-U. Simulations in the NSTX-U configuration with constant in time coil currents show that with strong flux shaping the injected open field lines (injector flux) rapidly reconnect and form large volume of closed flux surfaces. This is achieved by driving parallel current in the injector flux coil and oppositely directed currents in the flux shaping coils to form amore » narrow injector flux footprint and push the injector flux into the vessel. As the helicity and plasma are injected into the device, the oppositely directed field lines in the injector region are forced to reconnect through a local Sweet-Parker type reconnection, or to spontaneously reconnect when the elongated current sheet becomes MHD unstable to form plasmoids. In these simulations for the first time, it is found that the closed flux is over 70% of the initial injector flux used to initiate the discharge. Furthermore, these results could work well for the application of transient CHI in devices that employ super conducting coils to generate and sustain the plasma equilibrium.« less

  18. Localization Accuracy of the Clinical Target Volume During Image-Guided Radiotherapy of Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hugo, Geoffrey D.; Weiss, Elisabeth; Badawi, Ahmed; Orton, Matthew

    2011-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the position and shape of the originally defined clinical target volume (CTV) over the treatment course, and to assess the impact of gross tumor volume (GTV)-based online computed tomography (CT) guidance on CTV localization accuracy. Methods and Materials: Weekly breath-hold CT scans were acquired in 17 patients undergoing radiotherapy. Deformable registration was used to propagate the GTV and CTV from the first weekly CT image to all other weekly CT images. The on-treatment CT scans were registered rigidly to the planning CT scan based on the GTV location to simulate online guidance, and residual error in the CTV centroids and borders was calculated. Results: The mean GTV after 5 weeks relative to volume at the beginning of treatment was 77% {+-} 20%, whereas for the prescribed CTV, it was 92% {+-} 10%. The mean absolute residual error magnitude in the CTV centroid position after a GTV-based localization was 2.9 {+-} 3.0 mm, and it varied from 0.3 to 20.0 mm over all patients. Residual error of the CTV centroid was associated with GTV regression and anisotropy of regression during treatment (p = 0.02 and p = 0.03, respectively; Spearman rank correlation). A residual error in CTV border position greater than 2 mm was present in 77% of patients and 50% of fractions. Among these fractions, residual error of the CTV borders was 3.5 {+-} 1.6 mm (left-right), 3.1 {+-} 0.9 mm (anterior-posterior), and 6.4 {+-} 7.5 mm (superior-inferior). Conclusions: Online guidance based on the visible GTV produces substantial error in CTV localization, particularly for highly regressing tumors. The results of this study will be useful in designing margins for CTV localization or for developing new online CTV localization strategies.

  19. Target-Based Drug Repositioning Using Large-Scale Chemical-Protein Interactome Data.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Ryusuke; Iwata, Hiroaki; Mizutani, Sayaka; Yamanishi, Yoshihiro

    2015-12-28

    Drug repositioning, or the identification of new indications for known drugs, is a useful strategy for drug discovery. In this study, we developed novel computational methods to predict potential drug targets and new drug indications for systematic drug repositioning using large-scale chemical-protein interactome data. We explored the target space of drugs (including primary targets and off-targets) based on chemical structure similarity and phenotypic effect similarity by making optimal use of millions of compound-protein interactions. On the basis of the target profiles of drugs, we constructed statistical models to predict new drug indications for a wide range of diseases with various molecular features. The proposed method outperformed previous methods in terms of interpretability, applicability, and accuracy. Finally, we conducted a comprehensive prediction of the drug-target-disease association network for 8270 drugs and 1401 diseases and showed biologically meaningful examples of newly predicted drug targets and drug indications. The predictive model is useful to understand the mechanisms of the predicted drug indications.

  20. Pathways of deep cyclones associated with large volume changes (LVCs) and major Baltic inflows (MBIs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Andreas; Höflich, Katharina; Post, Piia; Myrberg, Kai

    2017-03-01

    Large volume changes (LVCs) and major Baltic inflows (MBIs) are essential processes for the water exchange and renewal of the stagnant water in the Baltic Sea deep basins. These strong inflows are known to be forced by persistent westerly wind conditions. In this study, MBIs are considered as subset of LVCs transporting with the large water volume a big amount of highly saline and oxygenated water into the Baltic Sea. Since the early 1980s the frequency of MBIs has dropped drastically from 5 to 7 events to only one inflow per decade, and long lasting periods without MBIs became the usual state. Only in January 1993, 2003 and December 2014 MBIs occurred that were able to interrupt the stagnation periods in the deep basins of the Baltic Sea. However, in spite of the decreasing frequency of MBIs, there is no obvious decrease of LVCs. The Landsort sea level is known to reflect the mean sea level of the Baltic Sea very well, and hence LVCs have been calculated for the period 1887-2015 filtering daily time series of Landsort sea surface elevation anomalies. The cases with local minimum and maximum difference resulting in at least 60 km3 of water volume change excluding the volume change due to runoff have been chosen for a closer study (1948-2013) of characteristic pathways of deep cyclones. The average duration of LVCs is about 40 days. During this time, 5-6 deep cyclones move along characteristic storm tracks. Furthermore, MBIs are characterized by even higher cyclonic activity compared to average LVCs. We obtained four main routes of deep cyclones which were associated with LVCs, but also with the climatology. One is approaching from the west at about 56-60°N, passing the northern North Sea, northern Denmark, Sweden and the Island of Gotland. A second broad corridor of frequent cyclone pathways enters the study area north of Scotland between 60 and 66°N turning north-eastwards along the northern coast of Scandinavia. This branch bifurcates into smaller routes. One

  1. Calcium isolation from large-volume human urine samples for 41Ca analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Miller, James J; Hui, Susanta K; Jackson, George S; Clark, Sara P; Einstein, Jane; Weaver, Connie M; Bhattacharyya, Maryka H

    2013-08-01

    Calcium oxalate precipitation is the first step in preparation of biological samples for (41)Ca analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry. A simplified protocol for large-volume human urine samples was characterized, with statistically significant increases in ion current and decreases in interference. This large-volume assay minimizes cost and effort and maximizes time after (41)Ca administration during which human samples, collected over a lifetime, provide (41)Ca:Ca ratios that are significantly above background.

  2. Predicting nurse staffing needs for a labor and birth unit in a large-volume perinatal service.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Kathleen Rice

    2015-01-01

    This project was designed to test a nurse staffing model for its ability to accurately determine staffing needs for a large-volume labor and birth unit based on a staffing gap analysis using the nurse staffing guidelines from the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses (AWHONN). The staffing model and the AWHONN staffing guidelines were found to be reliable methods to predict staffing needs for a large-volume labor and birth unit.

  3. Radiotherapy planning for glioblastoma based on a tumor growth model: improving target volume delineation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unkelbach, Jan; Menze, Bjoern H.; Konukoglu, Ender; Dittmann, Florian; Le, Matthieu; Ayache, Nicholas; Shih, Helen A.

    2014-02-01

    Glioblastoma differ from many other tumors in the sense that they grow infiltratively into the brain tissue instead of forming a solid tumor mass with a defined boundary. Only the part of the tumor with high tumor cell density can be localized through imaging directly. In contrast, brain tissue infiltrated by tumor cells at low density appears normal on current imaging modalities. In current clinical practice, a uniform margin, typically two centimeters, is applied to account for microscopic spread of disease that is not directly assessable through imaging. The current treatment planning procedure can potentially be improved by accounting for the anisotropy of tumor growth, which arises from different factors: anatomical barriers such as the falx cerebri represent boundaries for migrating tumor cells. In addition, tumor cells primarily spread in white matter and infiltrate gray matter at lower rate. We investigate the use of a phenomenological tumor growth model for treatment planning. The model is based on the Fisher-Kolmogorov equation, which formalizes these growth characteristics and estimates the spatial distribution of tumor cells in normal appearing regions of the brain. The target volume for radiotherapy planning can be defined as an isoline of the simulated tumor cell density. This paper analyzes the model with respect to implications for target volume definition and identifies its most critical components. A retrospective study involving ten glioblastoma patients treated at our institution has been performed. To illustrate the main findings of the study, a detailed case study is presented for a glioblastoma located close to the falx. In this situation, the falx represents a boundary for migrating tumor cells, whereas the corpus callosum provides a route for the tumor to spread to the contralateral hemisphere. We further discuss the sensitivity of the model with respect to the input parameters. Correct segmentation of the brain appears to be the most

  4. Structure-Promiscuity Relationship Puzzles-Extensively Assayed Analogs with Large Differences in Target Annotations.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ye; Jasial, Swarit; Gilberg, Erik; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2017-03-06

    Publicly available screening data were systematically searched for extensively assayed structural analogs with large differences in the number of targets they were active against. Screening compounds with potential chemical liabilities that may give rise to assay artifacts were identified and excluded from the analysis. "Promiscuity cliffs" were frequently identified, defined here as pairs of structural analogs with a difference of at least 20 target annotations across all assays they were tested in. New assay indices were introduced to prioritize cliffs formed by screening compounds that were extensively tested in comparably large numbers of assays including many shared assays. In these cases, large differences in promiscuity degrees were not attributable to differences in assay frequency and/or lack of assay overlap. Such analog pairs have high priority for further exploring molecular origins of multi-target activities. Therefore, these promiscuity cliffs and associated target annotations are made freely available. The corresponding analogs often represent equally puzzling and interesting examples of structure-promiscuity relationships.

  5. Safety of large-volume leukapheresis for collection of peripheral blood progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Reik, R A; Noto, T A; Fernandez, H F

    1997-01-01

    Large volume leukapheresis (LVL) reduces the number of procedures required to obtain adequate peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs) for autologous hematopoietic reconstitution. LVL involves the processing of > 15 L or 5 patient blood volumes using high flow rates. We report our experience with LVL evaluating its efficiency and adverse effects in 71 adult patients with hematologic or solid organ malignancies. All were mobilized with chemotherapy and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). All collections used a double lumen apheresis catheter. Mean values per LVL were as follows: blood processed, 24.6 L; patient blood volumes processed, 5.9; ACD-A used, 1,048 ml; heparin used, 6,148 units; collect time, 290 min; blood flow rate, 89 ml/min. Eighty percent of the collections were completed in one or two procedures to obtain > or = 6.0 x 10(8) MNCs/kg body weight. The most frequent side effect (39%) was parasthesia due to citrate-related hypocalcemia. This was managed with oral calcium supplements and/or slower flow rates. Post-LVL electrolyte changes were generally asymptomatic. Prophylactic oral potassium supplements were administered in 57% of cases. Other reactions included hypotension (4%), prolonged parasthesia (1.4%), and headache (1.4%). Catheter problems in 9 (13%) of the procedures were attributed to clot formation (37%) or positional effects (63%). No bleeding occurred. Post-LVL decreases in hematocrit and platelet count averaged 3.5% and 46%, respectively. Six (4%) of the procedures required red blood cell transfusions. Platelet transfusions were given in 19 (13%) of the procedures. We conclude that adverse reactions with LVL are similar to those reported for conventional PBPC collections, making it safe and efficacious as an outpatient procedure.

  6. Random forest classification of large volume structures for visuo-haptic rendering in CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastmeyer, Andre; Fortmeier, Dirk; Handels, Heinz

    2016-03-01

    For patient-specific voxel-based visuo-haptic rendering of CT scans of the liver area, the fully automatic segmentation of large volume structures such as skin, soft tissue, lungs and intestine (risk structures) is important. Using a machine learning based approach, several existing segmentations from 10 segmented gold-standard patients are learned by random decision forests individually and collectively. The core of this paper is feature selection and the application of the learned classifiers to a new patient data set. In a leave-some-out cross-validation, the obtained full volume segmentations are compared to the gold-standard segmentations of the untrained patients. The proposed classifiers use a multi-dimensional feature space to estimate the hidden truth, instead of relying on clinical standard threshold and connectivity based methods. The result of our efficient whole-body section classification are multi-label maps with the considered tissues. For visuo-haptic simulation, other small volume structures would have to be segmented additionally. We also take a look into these structures (liver vessels). For an experimental leave-some-out study consisting of 10 patients, the proposed method performs much more efficiently compared to state of the art methods. In two variants of leave-some-out experiments we obtain best mean DICE ratios of 0.79, 0.97, 0.63 and 0.83 for skin, soft tissue, hard bone and risk structures. Liver structures are segmented with DICE 0.93 for the liver, 0.43 for blood vessels and 0.39 for bile vessels.

  7. Measurements of Elastic and Inelastic Properties under Simulated Earth's Mantle Conditions in Large Volume Apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, H. J.

    2012-12-01

    The interpretation of highly resolved seismic data from Earths deep interior require measurements of the physical properties of Earth's materials under experimental simulated mantle conditions. More than decade ago seismic tomography clearly showed subduction of crustal material can reach the core mantle boundary under specific circumstances. That means there is no longer space for the assumption deep mantle rocks might be much less complex than deep crustal rocks known from exhumation processes. Considering this geophysical high pressure research is faced the challenge to increase pressure and sample volume at the same time to be able to perform in situ experiments with representative complex samples. High performance multi anvil devices using novel materials are the most promising technique for this exciting task. Recent large volume presses provide sample volumes 3 to 7 orders of magnitude bigger than in diamond anvil cells far beyond transition zone conditions. The sample size of several cubic millimeters allows elastic wave frequencies in the low to medium MHz range. Together with the small and even adjustable temperature gradients over the whole sample this technique makes anisotropy and grain boundary effects in complex systems accessible for elastic and inelastic properties measurements in principle. The measurements of both elastic wave velocities have also no limits for opaque and encapsulated samples. The application of triple-mode transducers and the data transfer function technique for the ultrasonic interferometry reduces the time for saving the data during the experiment to about a minute or less. That makes real transient measurements under non-equilibrium conditions possible. A further benefit is, both elastic wave velocities are measured exactly simultaneously. Ultrasonic interferometry necessarily requires in situ sample deformation measurement by X-radiography. Time-resolved X-radiography makes in situ falling sphere viscosimetry and even the

  8. Determination of the large scale volume weighted halo velocity bias in simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Pengjie; Jing, Yipeng

    2015-06-01

    A profound assumption in peculiar velocity cosmology is bv=1 at sufficiently large scales, where bv is the volume-weighted halo(galaxy) velocity bias with respect to the matter velocity field. However, this fundamental assumption has not been robustly verified in numerical simulations. Furthermore, it is challenged by structure formation theory (Bardeen, Bond, Kaiser and Szalay, Astrophys. J. 304, 15 (1986); Desjacques and Sheth, Phys. Rev D 81, 023526 (2010), which predicts the existence of velocity bias (at least for proto-halos) due to the fact that halos reside in special regions (local density peaks). The major obstacle to measuring the volume-weighted velocity from N-body simulations is an unphysical sampling artifact. It is entangled in the measured velocity statistics and becomes significant for sparse populations. With recently improved understanding of the sampling artifact (Zhang, Zheng and Jing, 2015, PRD; Zheng, Zhang and Jing, 2015, PRD), for the first time we are able to appropriately correct this sampling artifact and then robustly measure the volume-weighted halo velocity bias. (1) We verify bv=1 within 2% model uncertainty at k ≲0.1 h /Mpc and z =0 - 2 for halos of mass ˜1012- 1013h-1M⊙ and, therefore, consolidate a foundation for the peculiar velocity cosmology. (2) We also find statistically significant signs of bv≠1 at k ≳0.1 h /Mpc . Unfortunately, whether this is real or caused by a residual sampling artifact requires further investigation. Nevertheless, cosmology based on the k ≳0.1 h /Mpc velocity data should be careful with this potential velocity bias.

  9. [Margin determination from clinical to planning target volume for lung cancer treated with conformal or intensity-modulated irradiation].

    PubMed

    Berthelot, K; Thureau, S; Giraud, P

    2016-10-01

    Technological progress in radiotherapy enables more precision for treatment planning and delivery. The margin determination between the clinical target volume and the planning target volumes stem from the estimation of geometric uncertainties of the tumour localization into the radiation beam. The inner motion complexity of lung tumours has led to the use of 4D computed tomography and nurtures specific dosimetric concerns. Few strategies consisting in integrating tumour motion allow margin reduction regarding inner movements. The patient immobilization and onboard imagery improvement decrease the setup uncertainties. Each step between the initial planning imagery and treatment delivery has to be analysed as systematic or random errors to calculate the optimal planning margin.

  10. A large volume cell for in situ neutron diffraction studies of hydrothermal crystallizations.

    PubMed

    Xia, Fang; Qian, Gujie; Brugger, Joël; Studer, Andrew; Olsen, Scott; Pring, Allan

    2010-10-01

    A hydrothermal cell with 320 ml internal volume has been designed and constructed for in situ neutron diffraction studies of hydrothermal crystallizations. The cell design adopts a dumbbell configuration assembled with standard commercial stainless steel components and a zero-scattering Ti-Zr alloy sample compartment. The fluid movement and heat transfer are simply driven by natural convection due to the natural temperature gradient along the fluid path, so that the temperature at the sample compartment can be stably sustained by heating the fluid in the bottom fluid reservoir. The cell can operate at temperatures up to 300 °C and pressures up to 90 bars and is suitable for studying reactions requiring a large volume of hydrothermal fluid to damp out the negative effect from the change of fluid composition during the course of the reactions. The capability of the cell was demonstrated by a hydrothermal phase transformation investigation from leucite (KAlSi(2)O(6)) to analcime (NaAlSi(2)O(6)⋅H(2)O) at 210 °C on the high intensity powder diffractometer Wombat in ANSTO. The kinetics of the transformation has been resolved by collecting diffraction patterns every 10 min followed by Rietveld quantitative phase analysis. The classical Avrami/Arrhenius analysis gives an activation energy of 82.3±1.1 kJ  mol(-1). Estimations of the reaction rate under natural environments by extrapolations agree well with petrological observations.

  11. A large volume cell for in situ neutron diffraction studies of hydrothermal crystallizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Fang; Qian, Gujie; Brugger, Joël; Studer, Andrew; Olsen, Scott; Pring, Allan

    2010-10-01

    A hydrothermal cell with 320 ml internal volume has been designed and constructed for in situ neutron diffraction studies of hydrothermal crystallizations. The cell design adopts a dumbbell configuration assembled with standard commercial stainless steel components and a zero-scattering Ti-Zr alloy sample compartment. The fluid movement and heat transfer are simply driven by natural convection due to the natural temperature gradient along the fluid path, so that the temperature at the sample compartment can be stably sustained by heating the fluid in the bottom fluid reservoir. The cell can operate at temperatures up to 300 °C and pressures up to 90 bars and is suitable for studying reactions requiring a large volume of hydrothermal fluid to damp out the negative effect from the change of fluid composition during the course of the reactions. The capability of the cell was demonstrated by a hydrothermal phase transformation investigation from leucite (KAlSi2O6) to analcime (NaAlSi2O6ṡH2O) at 210 °C on the high intensity powder diffractometer Wombat in ANSTO. The kinetics of the transformation has been resolved by collecting diffraction patterns every 10 min followed by Rietveld quantitative phase analysis. The classical Avrami/Arrhenius analysis gives an activation energy of 82.3±1.1 kJ mol-1. Estimations of the reaction rate under natural environments by extrapolations agree well with petrological observations.

  12. A Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) Approach to Analyzing Large Volumes of Tissue to Detect Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Kempen, Paul J.; Thakor, Avnesh S.; Zavaleta, Cristina; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Sinclair, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The use of nanoparticles for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer requires the complete characterization of their toxicity, including accurately locating them within biological tissues. Owing to their size, traditional light microscopy techniques are unable to resolve them. Transmission electron microscopy provides the necessary spatial resolution to image individual nanoparticles in tissue but is severely limited by the very small analysis volume, usually on the order of tens of cubic microns. In this work we developed a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) approach to analyze large volumes of tissue for the presence of polyethylene glycol coated Raman-active-silica-gold-nanoparticles (PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs). This approach utilizes the simultaneous bright and dark field imaging capabilities of STEM along with careful control of the image contrast settings to readily identify PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs in mouse liver tissue without the need for additional time consuming analytical characterization. We utilized this technique to analyze 243,000 µm3 of mouse liver tissue for the presence of PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs. Nanoparticles injected into the mice intravenously via the tail-vein accumulated in the liver while those injected intrarectally did not, indicating that they remain in the colon and do not pass through the colon wall into the systemic circulation. PMID:23803218

  13. Evaluation of Large Volume SrI2(Eu) Scintillator Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Sturm, B W; Cherepy, N J; Drury, O B; Thelin, P A; Fisher, S E; Magyar, A F; Payne, S A; Burger, A; Boatner, L A; Ramey, J O; Shah, K S; Hawrami, R

    2010-11-18

    There is an ever increasing demand for gamma-ray detectors which can achieve good energy resolution, high detection efficiency, and room-temperature operation. We are working to address each of these requirements through the development of large volume SrI{sub 2}(Eu) scintillator detectors. In this work, we have evaluated a variety of SrI{sub 2} crystals with volumes >10 cm{sup 3}. The goal of this research was to examine the causes of energy resolution degradation for larger detectors and to determine what can be done to mitigate these effects. Testing both packaged and unpackaged detectors, we have consistently achieved better resolution with the packaged detectors. Using a collimated gamma-ray source, it was determined that better energy resolution for the packaged detectors is correlated with better light collection uniformity. A number of packaged detectors were fabricated and tested and the best spectroscopic performance was achieved for a 3% Eu doped crystal with an energy resolution of 2.93% FWHM at 662keV. Simulations of SrI{sub 2}(Eu) crystals were also performed to better understand the light transport physics in scintillators and are reported. This study has important implications for the development of SrI{sub 2}(Eu) detectors for national security purposes.

  14. A large volume uniform plasma generator for the experiments of electromagnetic wave propagation in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Min; Li Xiaoping; Xie Kai; Liu Donglin; Liu Yanming

    2013-01-15

    A large volume uniform plasma generator is proposed for the experiments of electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in plasma, to reproduce a 'black out' phenomenon with long duration in an environment of the ordinary laboratory. The plasma generator achieves a controllable approximate uniform plasma in volume of 260 mm Multiplication-Sign 260 mm Multiplication-Sign 180 mm without the magnetic confinement. The plasma is produced by the glow discharge, and the special discharge structure is built to bring a steady approximate uniform plasma environment in the electromagnetic wave propagation path without any other barriers. In addition, the electron density and luminosity distributions of plasma under different discharge conditions were diagnosed and experimentally investigated. Both the electron density and the plasma uniformity are directly proportional to the input power and in roughly reverse proportion to the gas pressure in the chamber. Furthermore, the experiments of electromagnetic wave propagation in plasma are conducted in this plasma generator. Blackout phenomena at GPS signal are observed under this system and the measured attenuation curve is of reasonable agreement with the theoretical one, which suggests the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. A scanning transmission electron microscopy approach to analyzing large volumes of tissue to detect nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kempen, Paul J; Thakor, Avnesh S; Zavaleta, Cristina; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Sinclair, Robert

    2013-10-01

    The use of nanoparticles for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer requires the complete characterization of their toxicity, including accurately locating them within biological tissues. Owing to their size, traditional light microscopy techniques are unable to resolve them. Transmission electron microscopy provides the necessary spatial resolution to image individual nanoparticles in tissue, but is severely limited by the very small analysis volume, usually on the order of tens of cubic microns. In this work, we developed a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) approach to analyze large volumes of tissue for the presence of polyethylene glycol-coated Raman-active-silica-gold-nanoparticles (PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs). This approach utilizes the simultaneous bright and dark field imaging capabilities of STEM along with careful control of the image contrast settings to readily identify PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs in mouse liver tissue without the need for additional time-consuming analytical characterization. We utilized this technique to analyze 243,000 mm³ of mouse liver tissue for the presence of PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs. Nanoparticles injected into the mice intravenously via the tail vein accumulated in the liver, whereas those injected intrarectally did not, indicating that they remain in the colon and do not pass through the colon wall into the systemic circulation.

  16. Computation and volume rendering of large-scale EOF coherent modes in rotating turbulent flow data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrouchov, G.; Pugmire, D.; Rosenberg, D. L.; Chen, W.; Pouquet, A.

    2013-12-01

    The computation of empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) is used to extract major coherent modes of variability in spatio-temporal data. We explore the computation of EOF in three spatial dimensions over time and present the result with volume rendering software. To accomplish this, we use an HPC extension of the R language, pbdR (see r-pbd.org), that we embed in the VisIt visualization system. VisIt provides parallel data reader capability as well as the volume rendering ability to present the computed EOFs. The data we consider derives from direct numerical simulation on a grid of 20483 points of rapidly rotating turbulent flows that are forced at intermediate scales. Injection of energy at these scales at small Rossby number (~0.04) leads to a direct cascade of energy to small scales, and an inverse cascade to large scales. We will use pdbR to examine the spatio-temporal interactions and ergodicity of waves and turbulent eddies in these flows.

  17. Detection of fast flying nanoparticles by light scattering over a large volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettazzi, F.; Bäumer, S.; van der Donck, J.; Deutz, A.

    2015-06-01

    is a well-known detection method which is applied in many different scientific and technology domains including atmospheric physics, environmental control, and biology. It allows contactless and remote detection of sub-micron size particles. However, methods for detecting a single fast moving particle smaller than 100 nm are lacking. In the present work we report a preliminary design study of an inline large area detector for nanoparticles larger than 50 nm which move with velocities up to 100 m/s. The detector design is based on light scattering using commercially available components. The presented design takes into account all challenges connected to the inline implementation of the scattering technique in the system: the need for the detector to have a large field of view to cover a volume with a footprint commensurate to an area of 100mm x 100mm, the necessity to sense nanoparticles transported at high velocity, and the requirement of large capture rate with a false detection as low as one false positive per week. The impact of all these stringent requirements on the expected sensitivity and performances of the device is analyzed by mean of a dedicated performance model.

  18. Isolation of organic acids from large volumes of water by adsorption chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aiken, George R.

    1984-01-01

    The concentrations of dissolved organic carbon from most natural waters ranges from 1 to 20 milligrams carbon per liter, of which approximately 75 percent are organic acids. These acids can be chromatographically fractionated into hydrophobic organic acids, such as humic substances, and hydrophilic organic acids. To effectively study any of these organic acids, they must be isolated from other organic and inorganic species, and concentrated. Usually, large volumes of water must be processed to obtain sufficient quantities of material, and adsorption chromatography on synthetic, macroporous resins has proven to be a particularly effective method for this purpose. The use of the nonionic Amberlite XAD-8 and Amberlite XAD-4 resins and the anion exchange resin Duolite A-7 for isolating and concentrating organic acids from water is presented.

  19. A large volume 2000 MPA air source for the radiatively driven hypersonic wind tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Constantino, M

    1999-07-14

    An ultra-high pressure air source for a hypersonic wind tunnel for fluid dynamics and combustion physics and chemistry research and development must provide a 10 kg/s pure air flow for more than 1 s at a specific enthalpy of more than 3000 kJ/kg. The nominal operating pressure and temperature condition for the air source is 2000 MPa and 900 K. A radial array of variable radial support intensifiers connected to an axial manifold provides an arbitrarily large total high pressure volume. This configuration also provides solutions to cross bore stress concentrations and the decrease in material strength with temperature. [hypersonic, high pressure, air, wind tunnel, ground testing

  20. Monte Carlo calculations of the HPGe detector efficiency for radioactivity measurement of large volume environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Azbouche, Ahmed; Belgaid, Mohamed; Mazrou, Hakim

    2015-08-01

    A fully detailed Monte Carlo geometrical model of a High Purity Germanium detector with a (152)Eu source, packed in Marinelli beaker, was developed for routine analysis of large volume environmental samples. Then, the model parameters, in particular, the dead layer thickness were adjusted thanks to a specific irradiation configuration together with a fine-tuning procedure. Thereafter, the calculated efficiencies were compared to the measured ones for standard samples containing (152)Eu source filled in both grass and resin matrices packed in Marinelli beaker. From this comparison, a good agreement between experiment and Monte Carlo calculation results was obtained highlighting thereby the consistency of the geometrical computational model proposed in this work. Finally, the computational model was applied successfully to determine the (137)Cs distribution in soil matrix. From this application, instructive results were achieved highlighting, in particular, the erosion and accumulation zone of the studied site.

  1. Improved large-volume sampler for the collection of bacterial cells from aerosol.

    PubMed

    White, L A; Hadley, D J; Davids, D E; Naylor, R

    1975-03-01

    A modified large-volume sampler was demonstrated to be an efficient device for the collection of mono-disperse aerosols of rhodamine B and poly-disperse aerosols of bacterial cells. Absolute efficiency for collection of rhodamine B varied from 100% with 5-mum particles to about 70% with 0.5-mum particles. The sampler concentrated the particles from 950 liters of air into a flow of between 1 and 2 ml of collecting fluid per min. Spores of Bacillus subtilis var. niger were collected at an efficiency of about 82% compared to the collection in the standard AGI-30 sampler. In the most desirable collecting fluids tested, aerosolized cells of Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli, and Aerobacter aerogenes were collected at comparative efficiencies of approximately 90, 80, and 90%, respectively. The modified sampler has practical application in the study of aerosol transmission of respiratory pathogens.

  2. AC Magnetic Properties of Large Volume of Water — Susceptibility Measurement in Unshielded Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukada, Keiji; Kiwa, Toshihiko; Masuda, Yuuki

    2006-10-01

    To investigate the effect of low-frequency magnetic-field exposure of a human body, the low-frequency AC magnetic property of a large volume of water was measured by low-frequency magnetic field exposure (from 50 Hz to 1.2 kHz). The results indicate that the AC magnetic property of water is due to diamagnetism in the low-frequency range. The phase between the main magnetic field and the generated magnetic field remained constant at about 180°. Results were not affected by conductivity or pH. Moreover, the magnetic-field strength from water showed a susceptibility frequency dependence proportional to the frequency above approximately 400 Hz. Because of the incremental effects of susceptibility, the magnetic field from water was measured using a conventional magnetic sensor (magnetic resistive; MR) in an unshielded environment.

  3. Isolation of organic acids from large volumes of water by adsorption on macroporous resins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aiken, George R.; Suffet, I.H.; Malaiyandi, Murugan

    1987-01-01

    Adsorption on synthetic macroporous resins, such as the Amberlite XAD series and Duolite A-7, is routinely used to isolate and concentrate organic acids from forge volumes of water. Samples as large as 24,500 L have been processed on site by using these resins. Two established extraction schemes using XAD-8 and Duolite A-7 resins are described. The choice of the appropriate resin and extraction scheme is dependent on the organic solutes of interest. The factors that affect resin performance, selectivity, and capacity for a particular solute are solution pH, resin surface area and pore size, and resin composition. The logistical problems of sample handling, filtration, and preservation are also discussed.

  4. Large volume liquid helium relief device verifacation apparatus for the alpha magnetic spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimas, Richard John; McIntyre, P.; Colvin, John; Zeigler, John; Van Sciver, Steven; Ting, Samual

    2012-06-01

    Here we present details of an experiment for verifying the liquid helium vessel relief device for the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer-02 (AMS-02). The relief device utilizes a series of rupture discs designed to open in the event of a vacuum failure of the AMS-02 cryogenic system. A failure of this type is classified to be a catastrophic loss of insulating vacuum accident. This apparatus differs from other approaches due to the size of the test volumes used. The verification apparatus consists of a 250 liter vessel used for the test quantity of liquid helium that is located inside a vacuum insulated vessel. A large diameter valve is suddenly opened to simulate the loss of insulating vacuum in a repeatable manner. Pressure and temperature vs. time data are presented and discussed in the context of the AMS-02 hardware configuration.

  5. Measurement of the velocity of neutrinos from the CNGS beam with the large volume detector.

    PubMed

    Agafonova, N Yu; Aglietta, M; Antonioli, P; Ashikhmin, V V; Bari, G; Bertoni, R; Bressan, E; Bruno, G; Dadykin, V L; Fulgione, W; Galeotti, P; Garbini, M; Ghia, P L; Giusti, P; Kemp, E; Mal'gin, A S; Miguez, B; Molinario, A; Persiani, R; Pless, I A; Ryasny, V G; Ryazhskaya, O G; Saavedra, O; Sartorelli, G; Shakyrianova, I R; Selvi, M; Trinchero, G C; Vigorito, C; Yakushev, V F; Zichichi, A; Razeto, A

    2012-08-17

    We report the measurement of the time of flight of ∼17 GeV ν(μ) on the CNGS baseline (732 km) with the Large Volume Detector (LVD) at the Gran Sasso Laboratory. The CERN-SPS accelerator has been operated from May 10th to May 24th 2012, with a tightly bunched-beam structure to allow the velocity of neutrinos to be accurately measured on an event-by-event basis. LVD has detected 48 neutrino events, associated with the beam, with a high absolute time accuracy. These events allow us to establish the following limit on the difference between the neutrino speed and the light velocity: -3.8 × 10(-6) < (v(ν)-c)/c < 3.1 × 10(-6) (at 99% C.L.). This value is an order of magnitude lower than previous direct measurements.

  6. Floating substructure flexibility of large-volume 10MW offshore wind turbine platforms in dynamic calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, Michael; Melchior Hansen, Anders; Bredmose, Henrik

    2016-09-01

    Designing floating substructures for the next generation of 10MW and larger wind turbines has introduced new challenges in capturing relevant physical effects in dynamic simulation tools. In achieving technically and economically optimal floating substructures, structural flexibility may increase to the extent that it becomes relevant to include in addition to the standard rigid body substructure modes which are typically described through linear radiation-diffraction theory. This paper describes a method for the inclusion of substructural flexibility in aero-hydro-servo-elastic dynamic simulations for large-volume substructures, including wave-structure interactions, to form the basis of deriving sectional loads and stresses within the substructure. The method is applied to a case study to illustrate the implementation and relevance. It is found that the flexible mode is significantly excited in an extreme event, indicating an increase in predicted substructure internal loads.

  7. Aerodynamics of the Large-Volume, Flow-Through Detector System. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, H.; Saric, W.; Laananen, D.; Martinez, C.; Carrillo, R.; Myers, J.; Clevenger, D.

    1996-03-01

    The Large-Volume Flow-Through Detector System (LVFTDS) was designed to monitor alpha radiation from Pu, U, and Am in mixed-waste incinerator offgases; however, it can be adapted to other important monitoring uses that span a number of potential markets, including site remediation, indoor air quality, radon testing, and mine shaft monitoring. Goal of this effort was to provide mechanical design information for installation of LVFTDS in an incinerator, with emphasis on ability to withstand the high temperatures and high flow rates expected. The work was successfully carried out in three stages: calculation of pressure drop through the system, materials testing to determine surrogate materials for wind-tunnel testing, and wind-tunnel testing of an actual configuration.

  8. Effects of Pre-Existing Target Structure on the Formation of Large Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnouin-Jha, O. S.; Cintala, M. J.; Crawford, D. A.

    2003-01-01

    The shapes of large-scale craters and the mechanics responsible for melt generation are influenced by broad and small-scale structures present in a target prior to impact. For example, well-developed systems of fractures often create craters that appear square in outline, good examples being Meteor Crater, AZ and the square craters of 433 Eros. Pre-broken target material also affects melt generation. Kieffer has shown how the shock wave generated in Coconino sandstone at Meteor crater created reverberations which, in combination with the natural target heterogeneity present, created peaks and troughs in pressure and compressed density as individual grains collided to produce a range of shock mineralogies and melts within neighboring samples. In this study, we further explore how pre-existing target structure influences various aspects of the cratering process. We combine experimental and numerical techniques to explore the connection between the scales of the impact generated shock wave and the pre-existing target structure. We focus on the propagation of shock waves in coarse, granular media, emphasizing its consequences on excavation, crater growth, ejecta production, cratering efficiency, melt generation, and crater shape. As a baseline, we present a first series of results for idealized targets where the particles are all identical in size and possess the same shock impedance. We will also present a few results, whereby we increase the complexities of the target properties by varying the grain size, strength, impedance and frictional properties. In addition, we investigate the origin and implications of reverberations that are created by the presence of physical and chemical heterogeneity in a target.

  9. Uncertainties in target volume delineation in radiotherapy – are they relevant and what can we do about them?

    PubMed Central

    Segedin, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Modern radiotherapy techniques enable delivery of high doses to the target volume without escalating dose to organs at risk, offering the possibility of better local control while preserving good quality of life. Uncertainties in target volume delineation have been demonstrated for most tumour sites, and various studies indicate that inconsistencies in target volume delineation may be larger than errors in all other steps of the treatment planning and delivery process. The aim of this paper is to summarize the degree of delineation uncertainties for different tumour sites reported in the literature and review the effect of strategies to minimize them. Conclusions Our review confirmed that interobserver variability in target volume contouring represents the largest uncertainty in the process for most tumour sites, potentially resulting in a systematic error in dose delivery, which could influence local control in individual patients. For most tumour sites the optimal combination of imaging modalities for target delineation still needs to be determined. Strict use of delineation guidelines and protocols is advisable both in every day clinical practice and in clinical studies to diminish interobserver variability. Continuing medical education of radiation oncologists cannot be overemphasized, intensive formal training on interpretation of sectional imaging should be included in the program for radiation oncology residents. PMID:27679540

  10. Studies on plasma production in a large volume system using multiple compact ECR plasma sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarey, R. D.; Ganguli, A.; Sahu, D.; Narayanan, R.; Arora, N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a scheme for large volume plasma production using multiple highly portable compact ECR plasma sources (CEPS) (Ganguli et al 2016 Plasma Source Sci. Technol. 25 025026). The large volume plasma system (LVPS) described in the paper is a scalable, cylindrical vessel of diameter  ≈1 m, consisting of source and spacer sections with multiple CEPS mounted symmetrically on the periphery of the source sections. Scaling is achieved by altering the number of source sections/the number of sources in a source section or changing the number of spacer sections for adjusting the spacing between the source sections. A series of plasma characterization experiments using argon gas were conducted on the LVPS under different configurations of CEPS, source and spacer sections, for an operating pressure in the range 0.5-20 mTorr, and a microwave power level in the range 400-500 W per source. Using Langmuir probes (LP), it was possible to show that the plasma density (~1  -  2  ×  1011 cm-3) remains fairly uniform inside the system and decreases marginally close to the chamber wall, and this uniformity increases with an increase in the number of sources. It was seen that a warm electron population (60-80 eV) is always present and is about 0.1% of the bulk plasma density. The mechanism of plasma production is discussed in light of the results obtained for a single CEPS (Ganguli et al 2016 Plasma Source Sci. Technol. 25 025026).

  11. Rapid concentration of Bacillus and Clostridium spores from large volumes of milk, using continuous flow centrifugation.

    PubMed

    Agoston, Réka; Soni, Kamlesh A; McElhany, Katherine; Cepeda, Martha L; Zuckerman, Udi; Tzipori, Saul; Mohácsi-Farkas, Csilla; Pillai, Suresh D

    2009-03-01

    Deliberate or accidental contamination of foods such as milk, soft drinks, and drinking water with infectious agents or toxins is a major concern to health authorities. There is a critical need to develop technologies that can rapidly and efficiently separate and concentrate biothreat agents from food matrices. A key limitation of current centrifugation and filtration technologies is that they are batch processes with extensive hands-on involvement and processing times. The objective of our studies was to evaluate the continuous flow centrifugation (CFC) technique for the rapid separation and concentration of bacterial spores from large volumes of milk. We determined the effectiveness of the CFC technology for concentrating approximately 10(3) bacterial spores in 3.7 liters (1 gal) of whole milk and skim milk, using Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus atrophaeus, and Clostridium sporogenes spores as surrogates for biothreat agents. The spores in the concentrated samples were enumerated by using standard plating techniques. Three independent experiments were performed at 10,000 rpm and 0.7 liters/min flow rate. The mean B. subtilis spore recoveries were 71.3 and 56.5% in skim and whole milk, respectively, and those for B. atrophaeus were 55 and 59.3% in skim and whole milk, respectively. In contrast, mean C. sporogenes spore recoveries were 88.2 and 78.6% in skim and whole milk, respectively. The successful use of CFC to concentrate these bacterial spores from 3.7 liters of milk in 10 min shows promise for rapidly concentrating other spores from large volumes of milk.

  12. Anatomic Landmarks Versus Fiducials for Volume-Staged Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Large Arteriovenous Malformations

    SciTech Connect

    Petti, Paula L. . E-mail: ppetti@radonc.ucsf.edu; Coleman, Joy; McDermott, Michael; Smith, Vernon; Larson, David A.

    2007-04-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to compare the accuracy of using internal anatomic landmarks instead of surgically implanted fiducials in the image registration process for volume-staged gamma knife (GK) radiosurgery for large arteriovenous malformations. Methods and Materials: We studied 9 patients who had undergone 10 staged GK sessions for large arteriovenous malformations. Each patient had fiducials surgically implanted in the outer table of the skull at the first GK treatment. These markers were imaged on orthogonal radiographs, which were scanned into the GK planning system. For the same patients, 8-10 pairs of internal landmarks were retrospectively identified on the three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance imaging studies that had been obtained for treatment. The coordinate transformation between the stereotactic frame space for subsequent treatment sessions was then determined by point matching, using four surgically embedded fiducials and then using four pairs of internal anatomic landmarks. In both cases, the transformation was ascertained by minimizing the chi-square difference between the actual and the transformed coordinates. Both transformations were then evaluated using the remaining four to six pairs of internal landmarks as the test points. Results: Averaged over all treatment sessions, the root mean square discrepancy between the coordinates of the transformed and actual test points was 1.2 {+-} 0.2 mm using internal landmarks and 1.7 {+-} 0.4 mm using the surgically implanted fiducials. Conclusion: The results of this study have shown that using internal landmarks to determine the coordinate transformation between subsequent magnetic resonance imaging scans for volume-staged GK arteriovenous malformation treatment sessions is as accurate as using surgically implanted fiducials and avoids an invasive procedure.

  13. Large Volume Coagulation Utilizing Multiple Cavitation Clouds Generated by Array Transducer Driven by 32 Channel Drive Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Kotaro; Asai, Ayumu; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2013-07-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment is a noninvasive treatment, in which focused ultrasound is generated outside the body and coagulates a diseased tissue. The advantage of this method is minimal physical and mental stress to the patient, and the disadvantage is the long treatment time caused by the smallness of the therapeutic volume by a single exposure. To improve the efficiency and shorten the treatment time, we are focusing attention on utilizing cavitation bubbles. The generated microbubbles can convert the acoustic energy into heat with a high efficiency. In this study, using the class D amplifiers, which we have developed, to drive the array transducer, we demonstrate a new method to coagulate a large volume by a single HIFU exposure through generating cavitation bubbles distributing in a large volume and vibrating all of them. As a result, the coagulated volume by the proposed method was 1.71 times as large as that of the conventional method.

  14. Targeted therapies used sequentially in metastatic renal cell cancer: overall results from a large experience.

    PubMed

    Procopio, Giuseppe; Verzoni, Elena; Iacovelli, Roberto; Guadalupi, Valentina; Gelsomino, Francesco; Buzzoni, Roberto

    2011-11-01

    Targeted therapies have improved survival in patients with metastatic renal cell cancer (RCC); however, expert opinion on the optimal therapeutic strategy is divided. This retrospective study evaluates different sequential schemes of targeted therapies in 310 patients with advanced/metastatic RCC who received different systemic agents - sorafenib, sunitinib, bevacizumab, everolimus, temsirolimus and axitinib - alone or in different sequences, until disease progression or intolerable toxicity (median follow-up: 37 months). The median overall survival (OS) was 22 months and the 5-year OS was 23.4%; differential therapeutic schemes were not associated with differences in OS. A worse performance status, no nephrectomy and a poor-risk classification according to the Motzer criteria was associated with a shorter OS. These findings support the use of targeted therapies in the treatment of RCC, even in a large unselected population from a single institution, and suggest that treatment should be tailored to meet individual circumstances and needs.

  15. Large-volume hot spots in gold spiky nanoparticle dimers for high-performance surface-enhanced spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Anran; Li, Shuzhou

    2014-11-07

    Hot spots with a large electric field enhancement usually come in small volumes, limiting their applications in surface-enhanced spectroscopy. Using a finite-difference time-domain method, we demonstrate that spiky nanoparticle dimers (SNPD) can provide hot spots with both large electric field enhancement and large volumes because of the pronounced lightning rod effect of spiky nanoparticles. We find that the strongest electric fields lie in the gap region when SNPD is in a tip-to-tip (T-T) configuration. The enhancement of electric fields (|E|(2)/|E0|(2)) in T-T SNPD with a 2 nm gap can be as large as 1.21 × 10(6). And the hot spot volume in T-T SNPD is almost 7 times and 5 times larger than those in the spike dimer and sphere dimer with the same gap size of 2 nm, respectively. The hot spot volume in SNPD can be further improved by manipulating the arrangements of spiky nanoparticles, where crossed T-T SNPD provides the largest hot spot volume, which is 1.5 times that of T-T SNPD. Our results provide a strategy to obtain hot spots with both intense electric fields and large volume by adding a bulky core at one end of the spindly building block in dimers.

  16. Anatomic Boundaries of the Clinical Target Volume (Prostate Bed) After Radical Prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Wiltshire, Kirsty L.; Brock, Kristy K.; Haider, Masoom A.; Zwahlen, Daniel; Kong, Vickie; Chan, Elisa; Moseley, Joanne; Bayley, Andrew; Catton, Charles; Chung, Peter W.M.; Gospodarowicz, Mary; Milosevic, Michael; Kneebone, Andrew; Warde, Padraig; Menard, Cynthia

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: We sought to derive and validate an interdisciplinary consensus definition for the anatomic boundaries of the postoperative clinical target volume (CTV, prostate bed). Methods and Materials: Thirty one patients who had planned for radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy were enrolled and underwent computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) simulation prior to radiotherapy. Through an iterative process of consultation and discussion, an interdisciplinary consensus definition was derived based on a review of published data, patterns of local failure, surgical practice, and radiologic anatomy. In validation, we analyzed the distribution of surgical clips in reference to the consensus CTV and measured spatial uncertainties in delineating the CTV and vesicourethral anastomosis. Clinical radiotherapy plans were retrospectively evaluated against the consensus CTV (prostate bed). Results: Anatomic boundaries of the consensus CTV (prostate bed) are described. Surgical clips (n = 339) were well distributed throughout the CTV. The vesicourethral anastomosis was accurately localized using central sagittal computed tomography reconstruction, with a mean {+-} standard deviation uncertainty of 1.8 {+-} 2.5 mm. Delineation uncertainties were small for both MRI and computed tomography (mean reproducibility, 0-3.8 mm; standard deviation, 1.0-2.3); they were most pronounced in the anteroposterior and superoinferior dimensions and at the superior/posterior-most aspect of the CTV. Retrospectively, the mean {+-} standard deviation CTV (prostate bed) percentage of volume receiving 100% of prescribed dose was only 77% {+-} 26%. Conclusions: We propose anatomic boundaries for the CTV (prostate bed) and present evidence supporting its validity. In the absence of gross recurrence, the role of MRI in delineating the CTV remains to be confirmed. The CTV is larger than historically practiced at our institution and should be encompassed by a microscopic tumoricidal dose.

  17. Impact Factors for Microinvasion in Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma: A Possible System for Defining Clinical Target Volume

    SciTech Connect

    Bi Aihong; Zeng Zhaochong; Ji Yuan; Zeng Haiying; Xu Chen; Tang Zhaoyou; Fan Jia; Zhou Jian; Zeng Mengsu; Tan Yunshan

    2010-12-01

    Purpose: To quantify microscopic invasion of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHC) into nontumor tissue and define the gross tumor volume (GTV)-to-clinical target volume (CTV) expansion necessary for radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: One-hundred IHC patients undergoing radical resection from January 2004 to July 2008 were enrolled in this study. Pathologic and clinical data including maximum tumor diameter, tumor boundary type, TNM stage, histologic grade, tumor markers, and liver enzymes were reviewed. The distance of microinvasion from the tumor boundary was measured by microscopy. The contraction coefficient for tumor measurements in radiographs and slide-mounted tissue was calculated. SPSS15.0 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Sixty-five patients (65%) exhibited tumor microinvasions. Microinvasions ranged from 0.4-8 mm, with 96% of patients having a microinvasion distance {<=}6 mm measured on slide. The radiograph-to-slide contraction coefficient was 82.1%. The degree of microinvasion was correlated with tumor boundary type, TNM stage, histologic grade, and serum levels of carbohydrate antigen 19-9, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, {gamma}-glutamyltransferase and alkaline phosphatase. To define CTV accurately, we devised a scoring system based on combination of these factors. According to this system, a score {<=}1.5 is associated with 96.1% sensitivity in detecting patients with a microextension {<=}4.9 mm in radiographs, whereas a score {>=}2 has a 95.1% sensitivity in detecting microextension {<=}7.9 mm measured on radiograph. Conclusions: Patients with a score {<=}1.5 and {>=}2 require a radiographic GTV-to-CTV expansions of 4.9 and 7.9 mm, respectively, to encompass >95% of microinvasions.

  18. Differences in Effective Target Volume Between Various Techniques of Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Shaitelman, Simona F.; Vicini, Frank A.; Grills, Inga S.; Martinez, Alvaro A.; Yan Di; Kim, Leonard H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Different cavity expansions are used to define the clinical target volume (CTV) for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) delivered via balloon brachytherapy (1 cm) vs. three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) (1.5 cm). Previous studies have argued that the CTVs generated by these different margins are effectively equivalent. In this study, we use deformable registration to assess the effective CTV treated by balloon brachytherapy on clinically representative 3D-CRT planning images. Methods and Materials: Ten patients previously treated with the MammoSite were studied. Each patient had two computed tomography (CT) scans, one acquired before and one after balloon implantation. In-house deformable registration software was used to deform the MammoSite CTV onto the balloonless CT set. The deformed CTV was validated using anatomical landmarks common to both CT scans. Results: The effective CTV treated by the MammoSite was on average 7% {+-} 10% larger and 38% {+-} 4% smaller than 3D-CRT CTVs created using uniform expansions of 1 and 1.5 cm, respectively. The average effective CTV margin was 1.0 cm, the same as the actual MammoSite CTV margin. However, the effective CTV margin was nonuniform and could range from 5 to 15 mm in any given direction. Effective margins <1 cm were attributable to poor cavity-balloon conformance. Balloon size relative to the cavity did not significantly correlate with the effective margin. Conclusion: In this study, the 1.0-cm MammoSite CTV margin treated an effective volume that was significantly smaller than the 3D-CRT CTV based on a 1.5-cm margin.

  19. Determination of 235U enrichment with a large volume CZT detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortreau, Patricia; Berndt, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    Room-temperature CdZnTe and CdTe detectors have been routinely used in the field of Nuclear Safeguards for many years [Ivanov et al., Development of large volume hemispheric CdZnTe detectors for use in safeguards applications, ESARDA European Safeguards Research and Development Association, Le Corum, Montpellier, France, 1997, p. 447; Czock and Arlt, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 458 (2001) 175; Arlt et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 428 (1999) 127; Lebrun et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 448 (2000) 598; Aparo et al., Development and implementation of compact gamma spectrometers for spent fuel measurements, in: Proceedings, 21st Annual ESARDA, 1999; Arlt and Rudsquist, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 380 (1996) 455; Khusainov et al., High resolution pin type CdTe detectors for the verification of nuclear material, in: Proceedings, 17th Annual ESARDA European Safeguards Research and Development Association, 1995; Mortreau and Berndt, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 458 (2001) 183; Ruhter et al., UCRL-JC-130548, 1998; Abbas et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 405 (1998) 153; Ruhter and Gunnink, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 353 (1994) 716]. Due to their performance and small size, they are ideal detectors for hand-held applications such as verification of spent and fresh fuel, U/Pu attribute tests as well as for the determination of 235U enrichment. The hemispherical CdZnTe type produced by RITEC (Riga, Latvia) [Ivanov et al., 1997] is the most widely used detector in the field of inspection. With volumes ranging from 2 to 1500 mm 3, their spectral performance is such that the use of electronic processing to correct the pulse shape is not required. This paper reports on the work carried out with a large volume (15×15×7.5 mm 3) and high efficiency hemispherical CdZnTe detector for the determination of 235U enrichment. The measurements were made with certified uranium samples whose enrichment ranging from 0.31% to 92.42%, cover the whole range of in-field measurement conditions. The interposed

  20. 3D modeling of large targets and clutter utilizing Ka band monopulse SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Jerry A.; Barr, Doug; Shurtz, Ric; Channell, Rob

    2006-05-01

    The U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Command at Redstone Arsenal, Alabama have developed a dual mode, Ka Band Radar and IIR system for the purpose of data collection and tracker algorithm development. The system is comprised of modified MMW and IIR sensors and is mounted in a stabilized ball on a UH-1 helicopter operated by Redstone Technical Test Center. Several missile programs under development require MMW signatures of multiple target and clutter scenes. Traditionally these target signatures have been successfully collected using static radars and targets mounted on a turntable to produce models from ISAR images; clutter scenes have been homogeneously characterized using information on various classes of clutter. However, current and future radar systems require models of many targets too large for turntables, as well as high resolution 3D scattering characteristics of urban and other non-homogenous clutter scenes. In partnership with industry independent research and development (IRAD) activities the U.S. Army RDEC has developed a technique for generating 3D target and clutter models using SAR imaging in the MMW spectrum. The purpose of this presentation is to provide an overview of funded projects and resulting data products with an emphasis on MMW data reduction and analysis, especially the unique 3D modeling capabilities of the monopulse radar flying SAR profiles. Also, a discussion of lessons learned and planned improvements will be presented.

  1. Microdroplet-based PCR enrichment for large-scale targeted sequencing.

    PubMed

    Tewhey, Ryan; Warner, Jason B; Nakano, Masakazu; Libby, Brian; Medkova, Martina; David, Patricia H; Kotsopoulos, Steve K; Samuels, Michael L; Hutchison, J Brian; Larson, Jonathan W; Topol, Eric J; Weiner, Michael P; Harismendy, Olivier; Olson, Jeff; Link, Darren R; Frazer, Kelly A

    2009-11-01

    Targeted enrichment of specific loci of the human genome is a promising approach to enable sequencing-based studies of genetic variation in large populations. Here we describe an enrichment approach based on microdroplet PCR, which enables 1.5 million amplifications in parallel. We sequenced six samples enriched by microdroplet or traditional singleplex PCR using primers targeting 435 exons of 47 genes. Both methods generated similarly high-quality data: 84% of the uniquely mapping reads fell within the targeted sequences; coverage was uniform across approximately 90% of targeted bases; sequence variants were called with >99% accuracy; and reproducibility between samples was high (r(2) = 0.9). We scaled the microdroplet PCR to 3,976 amplicons totaling 1.49 Mb of sequence, sequenced the resulting sample with both Illumina GAII and Roche 454, and obtained data with equally high specificity and sensitivity. Our results demonstrate that microdroplet technology is well suited for processing DNA for massively parallel enrichment of specific subsets of the human genome for targeted sequencing.

  2. WE-D-17A-04: Magnetically Focused Proton Irradiation of Small Volume Targets

    SciTech Connect

    McAuley, G; Slater, J; Wroe, A

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To explore the advantages of magnetic focusing for small volume proton irradiations and the potential clinical benefits for radiosurgery targets. The primary goal is to create narrow elongated proton beams of elliptical cross section with superior dose delivery characteristics compared to current delivery modalities (eg, collimated beams). In addition, more general beam shapes are also under investigation. Methods: Two prototype magnets consisting of 24 segments of samarium-cobalt (Sm2Co17) permanent magnetic material adhered into hollow cylinders were manufactured for testing. A single focusing magnet was placed on a positioning track on our Gantry 1 treatment table and 15 mm diameter proton beams with energies and modulation relevant to clinical radiosurgery applications (127 to 186 MeV, and 0 to 30 mm modulation) were delivered to a terminal water tank. Beam dose distributions were measured using a PTW diode detector and Gafchromic EBT2 film. Longitudinal and transverse dose profiles were analyzed and compared to data from Monte Carlo simulations analogous to the experimental setup. Results: The narrow elongated focused beam spots showed high elliptical symmetry indicating high magnet quality. In addition, when compared to unfocused beams, peak-to-entrance depth dose ratios were 11 to 14% larger (depending on presence or extent of modulation), and minor axis penumbras were 11 to 20% smaller (again depending on modulation) for focused beams. These results suggest that the use of rare earth magnet assemblies is practical and could improve dose-sparing of normal tissue and organs at risk while delivering enhanced dose to small proton radiosurgery targets. Conclusion: Quadrapole rare earth magnetic assemblies are a promising and inexpensive method to counteract particle out scatter that tends to degrade the peak to entrance performance of small field proton beams. Knowledge gained from current experiments will inform the design of a prototype treatment

  3. Sphaeropsidin A shows promising activity against drug-resistant cancer cells by targeting regulatory volume increase

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Véronique; Chantôme, Aurélie; Lefranc, Florence; Cimmino, Alessio; Miklos, Walter; Paulitschke, Verena; Mohr, Thomas; Maddau, Lucia; Kornienko, Alexander; Berger, Walter; Vandier, Christophe; Evidente, Antonio; Delpire, Eric; Kiss, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Despite the recent advances in the treatment of tumors with intrinsic chemotherapy resistance, such as melanoma and renal cancers, their prognosis remains poor and new chemical agents with promising activity against these cancers are urgently needed. Sphaeropsidin A, a fungal metabolite whose anticancer potential had previously received little attention, was isolated from Diplodia cupressi and found to display specific anticancer activity in vitro against melanoma and kidney cancer subpanels in the National Cancer Institute (NCI) 60-cell line screen. The NCI data revealed a mean LC50 of ca. 10 μM and a cellular sensitivity profile that did not match that of any other agent in the 765,000 compound database. Subsequent mechanistic studies in melanoma and other multidrug-resistant in vitro cancer models showed that sphaeropsidin A can overcome apoptosis as well as multidrug resistance by inducing a marked and rapid cellular shrinkage related to the loss of intracellular Cl− and the decreased HCO3− concentration in the culture supernatant. These changes in ion homeostasis and the absence of effects on the plasma membrane potential were attributed to the sphaeropsidin A-induced impairment of regulatory volume increase (RVI). Preliminary results also indicate that depending on the type of cancer, the sphaeropsidin A effects on RVI could be related to Na–K–2Cl electroneutral cotransporter or Cl−/HCO3− anion exchanger(s) targeting. This study underscores the modulation of ion-transporter activity as a promising therapeutic strategy to combat drug-resistant cancers and identifies the fungal metabolite, sphaeropsidin A, as a lead to develop anticancer agents targeting RVI in cancer cells. PMID:25868554

  4. Major risk from rapid, large-volume landslides in Europe (EU Project RUNOUT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilburn, Christopher R. J.; Pasuto, Alessandro

    2003-08-01

    Project RUNOUT has investigated methods for reducing the risk from large-volume landslides in Europe, especially those involving rapid rates of emplacement. Using field data from five test sites (Bad Goisern and Köfels in Austria, Tessina and Vajont in Italy, and the Barranco de Tirajana in Gran Canaria, Spain), the studies have developed (1) techniques for applying geomorphological investigations and optical remote sensing to map landslides and their evolution; (2) analytical, numerical, and cellular automata models for the emplacement of sturzstroms and debris flows; (3) a brittle-failure model for forecasting catastrophic slope failure; (4) new strategies for integrating large-area Global Positioning System (GPS) arrays with local geodetic monitoring networks; (5) methods for raising public awareness of landslide hazards; and (6) Geographic Information System (GIS)-based databases for the test areas. The results highlight the importance of multidisciplinary studies of landslide hazards, combining subjects as diverse as geology and geomorphology, remote sensing, geodesy, fluid dynamics, and social profiling. They have also identified key goals for an improved understanding of the physical processes that govern landslide collapse and runout, as well as for designing strategies for raising public awareness of landslide hazards and for implementing appropriate land management policies for reducing landslide risk.

  5. Large-volume ultralow background germanium-germanium coincidence/anticoincidence gamma-ray spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Brodzinski, R.L.; Brown, D.P.; Evans, J.C. Jr.; Hensley, W.K.; Reeves, J.H.; Wogman, N.A.; Avignone, F.T. III; Miley, H.S.; Moore, R.S.

    1984-03-01

    A large volume (approx. 1440 cm/sup 3/), multicrystal, high resolution intrinsic germanium gamma-ray spectrometer has been designed based on 3 generations of experiments. The background from construction materials used in standard commercial configurations has been reduced by at least two orders of magnitude. Data taken with a 132 cm/sup 3/ prototype detector, installed in the Homestake Gold Mine, are presented. The first application of the full scale detector will be an ultrasensitive search for neutrinoless and two-neutrino double beta decay of /sup 76/Ge. The size and geometrical configuration of the crystals is chosen to optimize detection of double decay to the first excited state of /sup 76/Se with subsequent emission of a 559 keV gamma ray. The detector will be sufficiently sensitive for measuring the neutrinoless double beta decay to the ground state to establish a minimum half life of 1.4.10/sup 24/ y. Application of the large spectrometer system to the analysis of low level environmental and biological samples is discussed.

  6. The ADVANCE project: Formal evaluation of the targeted deployment. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The Advanced Driver and Vehicle Advisory Navigation ConcEpt (ADVANCE) was an invehicle advanced traveler information system (ATIS) that operated in the northwest suburbs of Chicago, Illinois. It was designed to provide origin-destination shortest-time route guidance to a vehicle based on (a) an on-board static (fixed) data base of average network link travel times by time of day, combined as available and appropriate with (b) dynamic (real-time) information on traffic conditions provided by radio frequency (RF) communications to and from a traffic information center (TIC). Originally conceived in 1990 as a major project that would have installed 3,000 to 5,000 route guidance units in privately owned vehicles throughout the test area, ADVANCE was restructured in 1995 as a {open_quotes}targeted deployment,{close_quotes} in which approximately 80 vehicles were to be equipped with the guidance units - Mobile Navigation Assistants (MNAs) - to be in full communication with the TIC while driving the ADVANCE test area road system. Volume one consists of the evaluation managers overview report, and several appendices containing test results.

  7. Clinical target volume delineation including elective nodal irradiation in preoperative and definitive radiotherapy of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Radiotherapy (RT) is widely used in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Currently, recommendation has been given for the delineation of the clinical target volume (CTV) in adjuvant RT. Based on recently reviewed pathologic data, the aim of this study is to propose criteria for the CTV definition and delineation including elective nodal irradiation (ENI) in the preoperative and definitive treatment of pancreatic cancer. Methods The anatomical structures of interest, as well as the abdominal vasculature were identified on intravenous contrast-enhanced CT scans of two different patients with pancreatic cancer of the head and the body. To delineate the lymph node area, a margin of 10 mm was added to the arteries. Results We proposed a set of guidelines for elective treatment of high-risk nodal areas and CTV delineation. Reference CT images were provided. Conclusions The proposed guidelines could be used for preoperative or definitive RT for carcinoma of the head and body of the pancreas. Further clinical investigations are needed to validate the defined CTVs. PMID:22691275

  8. The Coordination of Program Planning and Evaluation Systems for Occupational Education. Volume 2: A Targeting System for Occupational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riverside Research Inst., New York, NY.

    The second volume of the final report deals with the targeting system--one of a hierarchy of systems required to support the effective delivery of superior occupational education. It determines that program objectives match student training in occupations, that the best choice of occupations in which to train students has been made, and that the…

  9. Impact of Node Negative Target Volume Delineation on Contralateral Parotid Gland Dose Sparing Using IMRT in Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Magnuson, William J; Urban, Erich; Bayliss, R Adam; Harari, Paul M

    2015-06-01

    There is considerable practice variation in treatment of the node negative (N0) contralateral neck in patients with head and neck cancer. In this study, we examined the impact of N0 neck target delineation volume on radiation dose to the contralateral parotid gland. Following institutional review board approval, 12 patients with head and neck cancer were studied. All had indications for treatment of the N0 neck, such as midline base of tongue or soft palate extension or advanced ipsilateral nodal disease. The N0 neck volumes were created using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group head and neck contouring atlas. The physician-drawn N0 neck clinical target volume (CTV) was expanded by 25% to 200% to generate volume variation, followed by a 3-mm planning target volume (PTV) expansion. Surrounding organs at risk were contoured and complete intensity-modulated radiation therapy plans were generated for each N0 volume expansion. The median N0 target volume drawn by the radiation oncologist measured 93 cm(3) (range 71-145). Volumetric expansion of the N0 CTV by 25% to 200% increased the resultant mean dose to the contralateral parotid gland by 1.4 to 8.5 Gray (Gy). For example, a 4.1-mm increase in the N0 neck CTV translated to a 2.0-Gy dose increase to the parotid, 7.4 mm to a 4.5 Gy dose increase, and 12.5 mm to an 8.5 Gy dose increase, respectively. The treatment volume designated for the N0 neck has profound impact on resultant dose to the contralateral parotid gland. Variations of up to 15 mm are routine across physicians in target contouring, reflecting individual preference and training expertise. Depending on the availability of immobilization and image guidance techniques, experts commonly recommend 3 to 10 mm margin expansions to generate the PTV. Careful attention to the original volume of the N0 neck CTV, as well as expansion margins, is important in achieving effective contralateral gland sparing to reduce the resultant xerostomia and dysguesia that may ensue

  10. Comparative evaluation of target volumes defined by deformable and rigid registration of diagnostic PET/CT to planning CT in primary esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanluan; Li, Jianbin; Zhang, Peng; Shao, Qian; Xu, Min; Li, Yankang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: To evaluate the geometrical differences of target volumes propagated by deformable image registration (DIR) and rigid image registration (RIR) to assist target volume delineation between diagnostic Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and planning CT for primary esophageal cancer (EC). Methods: Twenty-five patients with EC sequentially underwent a diagnostic 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET/CT scan and planning CT simulation. Only 19 patients with maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) ≥ 2.0 of the primary volume were available. Gross tumor volumes (GTVs) were delineated using CT and PET display settings. The PET/CT images were then registered with planning CT using MIM software. Subsequently, the PET and CT contours were propagated by RIR and DIR to planning CT. The properties of these volumes were compared. Results: When GTVCT delineated on CT of PET/CT after both RIR and DIR was compared with GTV contoured on planning CT, significant improvements using DIR were observed in the volume, displacements of the center of mass (COM) in the 3-dimensional (3D) direction, and Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) (P = 0.003; 0.006; 0.014). Although similar improvements were not observed for the same comparison using DIR for propagated PET contours from diagnostic PET/CT to planning CT (P > 0.05), for DSC and displacements of COM in the 3D direction of PET contours, the DIR resulted in the improved volume of a large percentage of patients (73.7%; 68.45%; 63.2%) compared with RIR. For diagnostic CT-based contours or PET contours at SUV2.5 propagated by DIR with planning CT, the DSC and displacements of COM in 3D directions in the distal segment were significantly improved compared to the upper and middle segments (P > 0.05). Conclusion: We observed a trend that deformable registration might improve the overlap for gross target volumes from diagnostic PET/CT to planning CT. The distal EC might benefit more from DIR

  11. Use of volume-targeted non-invasive bilevel positive airway pressure ventilation in a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis*,**

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Abad, Montserrat; Brown, John Edward

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease in which most patients die of respiratory failure. Although volume-targeted non-invasive bilevel positive airway pressure (BPAP) ventilation has been studied in patients with chronic respiratory failure of various etiologies, its use in ALS has not been reported. We present the case of a 66-year-old woman with ALS and respiratory failure treated with volume-targeted BPAP ventilation for 15 weeks. Weekly data downloads showed that disease progression was associated with increased respiratory muscle weakness, decreased spontaneous breathing, and increased use of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation, whereas tidal volume and minute ventilation remained relatively constant. PMID:25210968

  12. The oligocene Lund Tuff, Great Basin, USA: A very large volume monotonous intermediate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maughan, L.L.; Christiansen, E.H.; Best, M.G.; Gromme, C.S.; Deino, A.L.; Tingey, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    Unusual monotonous intermediate ignimbrites consist of phenocryst-rich dacite that occurs as very large volume (> 1000 km3) deposits that lack systematic compositional zonation, comagmatic rhyolite precursors, and underlying plinian beds. They are distinct from countless, usually smaller volume, zoned rhyolite-dacite-andesite deposits that are conventionally believed to have erupted from magma chambers in which thermal and compositional gradients were established because of sidewall crystallization and associated convective fractionation. Despite their great volume, or because of it, monotonous intermediates have received little attention. Documentation of the stratigraphy, composition, and geologic setting of the Lund Tuff - one of four monotonous intermediate tuffs in the middle-Tertiary Great Basin ignimbrite province - provides insight into its unusual origin and, by implication, the origin of other similar monotonous intermediates. The Lund Tuff is a single cooling unit with normal magnetic polarity whose volume likely exceeded 3000 km3. It was emplaced 29.02 ?? 0.04 Ma in and around the coeval White Rock caldera which has an unextended north-south diameter of about 50 km. The tuff is monotonous in that its phenocryst assemblage is virtually uniform throughout the deposit: plagioclase > quartz ??? hornblende > biotite > Fe-Ti oxides ??? sanidine > titanite, zircon, and apatite. However, ratios of phenocrysts vary by as much as an order of magnitude in a manner consistent with progressive crystallization in the pre-eruption chamber. A significant range in whole-rock chemical composition (e.g., 63-71 wt% SiO2) is poorly correlated with phenocryst abundance. These compositional attributes cannot have been caused wholly by winnowing of glass from phenocrysts during eruption, as has been suggested for the monotonous intermediate Fish Canyon Tuff. Pumice fragments are also crystal-rich, and chemically and mineralogically indistinguishable from bulk tuff. We

  13. Hematopoietic progenitor cell large volume leukapheresis (LVL) on the Fenwal Amicus blood separator.

    PubMed

    Burgstaler, Edwin A; Pineda, Alvaro A; Winters, Jeffrey L

    2004-01-01

    A technique for large volume leukapheresis (LVL) for hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) collection using the Fenwal Amicus is presented. It was compared to standard collections (STD) with regard to CD34+ cell yields and cross-cellular content. Optimal cycle volumes and machine settings were evaluated for LVL procedures. A total of 68 patients underwent 80 HPC collection procedures. Because of differences in CD34+ cell yields associated with peripheral white blood cell counts (WBC), the comparison was divided into groups of 20 with WBC < or =35 x 10(9)/L (< or =35 K) and those >35 x 10(9)/L (>35 K). Baseline CD34+ cell counts (peripheral count when patient started HPC collection) were used (median 18-23 cells/microl). Significantly more whole blood (corrected for anticoagulant) was processed with LVL (LVL 20 l vs. STD 13.5 l). For < or =35 K, median CD34+ x 10(6), WBC x 10(9), RBC ml, Plt x 10(11) yields/collection were 183, 21.2, 14, 0.8, respectively, for STD vs. 307, 22.1, 11, 1.0, respectively, for LVL. For >35 K, median CD34+ x 10(6), WBC x 10(9), RBC ml, Plt x 10(11) yields/collection were 189, 32.7, 15, 1.4, respectively, for STD vs. 69, 40.8, 21, 1.3, respectively, for LVL. We have described a method of LVL using the Amicus that, in patients with pre-procedure WBC < or =35 x 10(9)/L, collects more CD34+ cells than a standard procedure with acceptable cross-cellular content. This method is not recommended when pre-procedure WBC counts are >35 x 10(9)/L.

  14. Characteristics of Movement-Induced Dose Reduction in Target Volume: A Comparison Between Photon and Proton Beam Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Myonggeun; Shin, Dongho; Kwak, Jungwon; Park, Soah; Lim, Young Kyung; Kim, Dongwook; Park, Sung Yong Lee, Se Byeong; Shin, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Tae Hyun; Cho, Kwan Ho

    2009-10-01

    We compared the main characteristics of movement-induced dose reduction during photon and proton beam treatment, based on an analysis of dose-volume histograms. To simulate target movement, a target contour was delineated in a scanned phantom and displaced by 3 to 20 mm. Although the dose reductions to the target in the 2 treatment systems were similar for transverse (perpendicular to beam direction) target motion, they were completely different for longitudinal (parallel to beam direction) target motion. While both modalities showed a relationship between the degree of target shift and the reduction in dose coverage, dose reduction showed a strong directional dependence in proton beam treatment. Clinical simulation of target movement for a prostate cancer patient showed that, although coverage and conformity indices for a 6-mm lateral movement of the prostate were reduced by 9% and 16%, respectively, for proton beam treatment, they were reduced by only 1% and 7%, respectively, for photon treatment. This difference was greater for a 15-mm target movement in the lateral direction, which lowered the coverage and conformity indices by 34% and 54%, respectively, for proton beam treatment, but changed little during photon treatment. In addition, we found that the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) and homogeneity index show similar characteristics during target movement. These results suggest that movement-induced dose reduction differs significantly between photon and proton beam treatment. Attention should be paid to the target margin in proton beam treatment due to the distinct characteristics of heavy ion beams.

  15. Storage and eruption of large volumes of rhyolite lava: Example from Solfatara Plateau, Yellowstone Caldera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Befus, K.; Gardner, J. E.; Zinke, R.

    2010-12-01

    The cataclysmic volcanic history of Yellowstone caldera has been extensively documented in both popular media and scholarly journals. High-silica magmas should erupt explosively because of their high viscosity and volatile content; however, numerous passively-erupted, large-volume rhyolite lava flows have also erupted from Yellowstone caldera. We use petrologic observations of one such flow, the Solfatara Plateau obsidian lava, to provide insights into the eruptive dynamics and pre-eruptive magmatic conditions of large-volume rhyolite lava. Solfatara Plateau, a 7 km3 high-silica rhyolite lava that extends 4-15 km from vent, erupted 103±8 ka within the Yellowstone caldera1. Quartz and sanidine are the dominant phenocrysts, with crystal contents of 5-10% throughout. FTIR analyses of glass inclusions in quartz and sanidine phenocrysts indicate that pre-eruptive dissolved volatile contents were up to 3.0 wt. % H2O and 250 ppm CO2. Myrmekite blebs partially envelop quartz and sanidine phenocrysts in all samples from along the margins of the flow (up to 3 km from flow front). Sanidines in samples from near vent are unzoned at Or49±2. Those at the flow front have similar cores, but rims are more sodic (Or44±6). Alkali feldspars in myrmekite range from Or27 to Or50. Petrologic observations, such as heavily embayed quartz phenocrysts and dissolution of myrmekite indicate disequilibrium within the system, likely as a result of significant heating that caused portions of the magma body to go from near-solidus to near-liquidus conditions prior to erupting. When it did erupt, volatile loss during eruptive ascent led to undercooling and significant microlite crystallization of Fe-Ti oxide and clinopyroxene microlites. Fe-Ti microlites occur as roughly equidimensional crystals, 1-10 µm across, as well as high-aspect-ratio needles, 3-60 µm long. Clinopyroxene microlites occur primarily as individual prismatic crystals, but also occur as linked, curved chains or as overgrowths

  16. Physiological and Psychological Changes Following Liposuction of Large Volumes of Fat in Overweight and Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Geliebter, Allan; Krawitz, Emily; Ungredda, Tatiana; Peresechenski, Ella; Giese, Sharon Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background Liposuction can remove a substantial amount of body fat. We investigated the effects of liposuction of large volumes of fat on anthropometrics, body composition (BIA), metabolic hormones, and psychological measures in overweight/obese women. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine both physiological and psychological changes following liposuction of large volumes of fat in humans. Method Nine premenopausal healthy overweight/obese women (age = 35.9 ± 7.1 SD, weight = 84.4 kg ± 13.6, BMI = 29.9 kg/m2 ± 2.9) underwent liposuction, removing 3.92 kg ± 1.04 SD of fat. Following an overnight fast, height, weight, waist, and hip circumferences were measured at baseline (one week pre-surgery) and post-surgery (wk 1,4,12). Blood samples were drawn for fasting concentrations of glucose, insulin, leptin, and ghrelin. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) Examination Self-Report (BDDE-SR), and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZDS) were administered. Results Body weight, BMI, waist circumference, and body fat consistently decreased over time (p < .05). Glucose did not change significantly, but insulin decreased from wk 1 to wk 12 (p < .05). Leptin decreased from baseline to wk 1 (p = .01); ghrelin increased but not significantly. Changes in body fat and waist circumference (baseline to wk 1) correlated positively with changes in insulin during that period, and correlated inversely with changes in ghrelin (p < .05). BSQ scores decreased significantly over time (p = .004), but scores for BDDE-SR (p = .10) and ZDS (p = .24) did not change significantly. Conclusion Liposuction led to significant decreases in body weight and fat, waist circumference, and leptin levels. Changes in body fat and waist circumference correlated with concurrent changes in the adipose-related hormones, insulin and ghrelin (baseline to wk 1), and body shape perception improved. Thus, besides the obvious cosmetic effects, liposuction led to several

  17. Large-angle production of charged pions with incident pion beams on nuclear targets

    SciTech Connect

    Apollonio, M.; Chimenti, P.; Giannini, G.; Artamonov, A.; Giani, S.; Gilardoni, S.; Gorbunov, P.; Grant, A.; Grossheim, A.; Ivanchenko, A.; Ivanchenko, V.; Kayis-Topaksu, A.; Panman, J.; Papadopoulos, I.; Tcherniaev, E.; Tsukerman, I.; Wiebusch, C.; Zucchelli, P.; Bagulya, A.; Grichine, V.

    2009-12-15

    Measurements of the double-differential {pi}{sup {+-}} production cross section in the range of momentum 100{<=}p{<=}800 MeV/c and angle 0.35{<=}{theta}{<=}2.15 rad using {pi}{sup {+-}} beams incident on beryllium, aluminum, carbon, copper, tin, tantalum, and lead targets are presented. The data were taken with the large-acceptance hadron production (HARP) detector in the T9 beam line of the CERN Proton Synchrotron. The secondary pions were produced by beams in a momentum range from 3 to 12.9GeV/c hitting a solid target with a thickness of 5% of a nuclear interaction length. The tracking and identification of the produced particles was performed using a small-radius cylindrical time projection chamber placed inside a solenoidal magnet. Incident particles were identified by an elaborate system of beam detectors. Results are obtained for the double-differential cross sections d{sup 2}{sigma}/dp d{theta} at six incident-beam momenta. Data at 3,5,8, and 12GeV/c are available for all targets, while additional data at 8.9 and 12.9GeV/c were taken in positive particle beams on Be and Al targets, respectively. The measurements are compared with several generators of GEANT4 and the MARS Monte Carlo simulation.

  18. A simple method for the production of large volume 3D macroporous hydrogels for advanced biotechnological, medical and environmental applications

    PubMed Central

    Savina, Irina N.; Ingavle, Ganesh C.; Cundy, Andrew B.; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V.

    2016-01-01

    The development of bulk, three-dimensional (3D), macroporous polymers with high permeability, large surface area and large volume is highly desirable for a range of applications in the biomedical, biotechnological and environmental areas. The experimental techniques currently used are limited to the production of small size and volume cryogel material. In this work we propose a novel, versatile, simple and reproducible method for the synthesis of large volume porous polymer hydrogels by cryogelation. By controlling the freezing process of the reagent/polymer solution, large-scale 3D macroporous gels with wide interconnected pores (up to 200 μm in diameter) and large accessible surface area have been synthesized. For the first time, macroporous gels (of up to 400 ml bulk volume) with controlled porous structure were manufactured, with potential for scale up to much larger gel dimensions. This method can be used for production of novel 3D multi-component macroporous composite materials with a uniform distribution of embedded particles. The proposed method provides better control of freezing conditions and thus overcomes existing drawbacks limiting production of large gel-based devices and matrices. The proposed method could serve as a new design concept for functional 3D macroporous gels and composites preparation for biomedical, biotechnological and environmental applications. PMID:26883390

  19. A simple method for the production of large volume 3D macroporous hydrogels for advanced biotechnological, medical and environmental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savina, Irina N.; Ingavle, Ganesh C.; Cundy, Andrew B.; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V.

    2016-02-01

    The development of bulk, three-dimensional (3D), macroporous polymers with high permeability, large surface area and large volume is highly desirable for a range of applications in the biomedical, biotechnological and environmental areas. The experimental techniques currently used are limited to the production of small size and volume cryogel material. In this work we propose a novel, versatile, simple and reproducible method for the synthesis of large volume porous polymer hydrogels by cryogelation. By controlling the freezing process of the reagent/polymer solution, large-scale 3D macroporous gels with wide interconnected pores (up to 200 μm in diameter) and large accessible surface area have been synthesized. For the first time, macroporous gels (of up to 400 ml bulk volume) with controlled porous structure were manufactured, with potential for scale up to much larger gel dimensions. This method can be used for production of novel 3D multi-component macroporous composite materials with a uniform distribution of embedded particles. The proposed method provides better control of freezing conditions and thus overcomes existing drawbacks limiting production of large gel-based devices and matrices. The proposed method could serve as a new design concept for functional 3D macroporous gels and composites preparation for biomedical, biotechnological and environmental applications.

  20. Photoperiod is associated with hippocampal volume in a large community sample.

    PubMed

    Miller, Megan A; Leckie, Regina L; Donofry, Shannon D; Gianaros, Peter J; Erickson, Kirk I; Manuck, Stephen B; Roecklein, Kathryn A

    2015-04-01

    Although animal research has demonstrated seasonal changes in hippocampal volume, reflecting seasonal neuroplasticity, seasonal differences in human hippocampal volume have yet to be documented. Hippocampal volume has also been linked to depressed mood, a seasonally varying phenotype. Therefore, we hypothesized that seasonal differences in day-length (i.e., photoperiod) would predict differences in hippocampal volume, and that this association would be linked to low mood. Healthy participants aged 30-54 (M=43; SD=7.32) from the University of Pittsburgh Adult Health and Behavior II project (n=404; 53% female) were scanned in a 3T MRI scanner. Hippocampal volumes were determined using an automated segmentation algorithm using FreeSurfer. A mediation model tested whether hippocampal volume mediated the relationship between photoperiod and mood. Secondary analyses included seasonally fluctuating variables (i.e., sleep and physical activity) which have been shown to influence hippocampal volume. Shorter photoperiods were significantly associated with higher BDI scores (R(2)=0.01, β=-0.12, P=0.02) and smaller hippocampal volumes (R(2)=0.40, β=0.08, P=0.04). However, due to the lack of an association between hippocampal volume and Beck Depression Inventory scores in the current sample, the mediation hypothesis was not supported. This study is the first to demonstrate an association between season and hippocampal volume. These data offer preliminary evidence that human hippocampal plasticity could be associated with photoperiod and indicates a need for longitudinal studies.

  1. Annealing as grown large volume CZT single crystals increased spectral resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Longxia Li

    2008-03-19

    The spectroscopic performance of current large-volume Cadmium 10% Zinc Telluride, Cd{sub 0.9}Zn{sub 0.1}Te, (CZT) detectors is impaired by cumulative effect of tellurium precipitates (secondary phases) presented in CZT single-crystal grown by low-pressure Bridgman techniques(1). This statistical effect may limit the energy resolution of large-volume CZT detectors (typically 2-5% at 662 keV for 12-mm thick devices). The stochastic nature of the interaction prevents the use of any electronic or digital charge correction techniques without a significant reduction in the detector efficiency. This volume constraint hampers the utility of CZT since the detectors are inefficient at detecting photons >1MeV and/or in low fluency situations. During the project, seven runs CZT ingots have been grown, in these ingots the indium dopant concentrations have been changed in the range between 0.5ppm to 6ppm. The I-R mapping imaging method has been employed to study the Te-precipitates. The Teprecipitates in as-grown CZT wafers, and after annealing wafers have been systematically studied by using I-R mapping system (home installed, resolution of 1.5 {micro}m). We employed our I-R standard annealing CZT (Zn=4%) procedure or two-steps annealing into radiation CZT (Zn=10%), we achieved the 'non'-Te precipitates (size < 1 {micro}m) CZT n+-type with resistivity > 10{sup 9-10} {Omega}-cm. We believe that the Te-precipitates are the p-type defects, its reducing number causes the CZT became n+-type, therefore we varied or reduced the indium dapant concentration during the growth and changed the Te-precipitates size and density by using different Cd-temperature and different annealing procedures. We have made the comparisons among Te-precipitates size, density and Indium dopant concentrations, and we found that the CZT with smaller size of Te-precipitates is suitable for radiation uses but non-Te precipitates is impossible to be used in the radiation detectors, because the CZT would became

  2. Radiometric Dating of Large Volume Flank Collapses in The Lesser Antilles Arc.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quidelleur, X.; Samper, A.; Boudon, G.; Le Friant, A.; Komorowski, J.

    2004-12-01

    It is now admitted that flank collapses, probably triggered by magmatic inflation and/or gravitational collapses, is a recurrent process of the evolution of the Lesser Antilles Arc volcanoes. Large magnitude debris avalanche deposits have been identified offshore, in the Grenada basin (Deplus et al., 2001; Le Friant et al., 2001). The widest extensions have been observed off the coast of Dominica and St Lucia, with associated volumes up to 20 km3. Another large-scale event, with marine evidences probably covered by sediments and latter flank collapses, has been inferred onland from morphological evidences and characteristic deposits of the Carbets structure in Martinique. We present radiometric dating of these three major events using the K-Ar Cassignol-Gillot technique performed on selected groundmass. Both volcanic formations preceding flank collapses (remnants of the horseshoe shaped structures or basal lava flows) and following landslides (lava domes) have been dated. In the Qualibou depression of St. Lucia, the former structure has been dated at 1096+-16 ka and the collapse constrained by dome emplacement prior to 97+-2 ka (Petit Piton). In Dominica, several structures have been associated with repetitive flank collapse events inferred from marine data (Le Friant et al., 2002). The Plat-Pays event probably occurred after 96+-2 ka. Inside the inherited depression, Scotts Head, which is interpreted as a proximal pluri-kilometric megabloc from the Soufriere avalanche, has been dated at 14+-1 ka, providing an older bound for this event. In Martinique Island, three different domes within the Carbets structure have been dated at 335+-5 ka. Assuming a rapid magma emplacement following pressure release due to deloading, this constrains the age of this high magnitude event. Finally, these results obtained from three of the most voluminous flank collapses provide constraints to estimate the recurrence of these events, which represent one of the major hazards associated

  3. Radiometric dating of three large volume flank collapses in the Lesser Antilles Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samper, A.; Quidelleur, X.; Boudon, G.; Le Friant, A.; Komorowski, J. C.

    2008-10-01

    It is now recognised that flank collapses are a recurrent process in the evolution of the Lesser Antilles Arc volcanoes. Large magnitude debris-avalanche deposits have been identified off the coast of Dominica, Martinique and St. Lucia, with associated volumes up to 20 km 3 [Deplus, C., Le Friant, A., Boudon, G., Komorowski, J.-C., Villemant, B., Harford, C., Ségoufin, J., Cheminée, J.-L., 2001. Submarine evidence for large-scale debris avalanches in the Lesser Antilles Arc. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 192: 145-157.]. We present new radiometric dating of three major events using the K-Ar Cassignol-Gillot technique. In the Qualibou depression of St. Lucia, a collapse has been constrained by dome emplacement prior to 95 ± 2 ka. In Dominica, where repetitive flank collapse events have occurred [Le Friant, A., Boudon, G., Komorowski, J.-C., Deplus, C., 2002. L'île de la Dominique, à l'origine des avalanches de débris les plus volumineuses de l'arc des Petites Antilles. C.R. Geoscience, 334: 235-243], the Plat Pays event probably occurred after 96 ± 2 ka. Inside the depression caused by this event, Scotts Head, which is interpreted as a proximal megabloc from the subsequent Soufriere avalanche event has been dated at 14 ± 1 ka, providing an older bound for this event. On Martinique three different domes within the Carbets structure dated at 337 ± 5 ka constrain the age of this high magnitude event. Finally, these results obtained from three of the most voluminous flank collapses provide constraints to estimate the recurrence of these events, which represent one of the major hazards associated with volcanoes of the Lesser Antilles Arc.

  4. Curling probe measurement of a large-volume pulsed plasma with surface magnetic confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, A.; Tashiro, H.; Sakakibara, W.; Nakamura, K.; Sugai, H.

    2016-12-01

    A curling probe (CP) based on microwave resonance is applied to the measurement of electron density in a pulsed DC glow discharge under surface magnetic confinement (SMC) provided by a number of permanent magnets on a chamber wall. Owing to the SMC effects, a 1 m scale large-volume plasma is generated by a relatively low voltage (~1 kV) at low pressure (~1 Pa) in various gases (Ar, CH4, and C2H2). Temporal variation of the electron density is measured for pulse frequency f  =  0.5-25 kHz for various discharge-on times (T ON) with a high resolution time (~0.2 µs), using the on-point mode. In general, the electron density starts to increase at time t  =  0 after turn-on of the discharge voltage, reaches peak density at t  =  T ON, and then decreases after turn-off. The peak electron density is observed to increase with the pulse frequency f for constant T ON owing to the residual plasma. This dependence is successfully formulated using a semi-empirical model. The spatio-temporal evolution of the cathode sheath in the pulsed discharge is revealed by a 1 m long movable CP. The measured thickness of the high-voltage cathode fall in a steady state coincides with the value of the so-called Child-Langmuir sheath.

  5. High-Dimensional Function Approximation With Neural Networks for Large Volumes of Data.

    PubMed

    Andras, Peter

    2017-01-25

    Approximation of high-dimensional functions is a challenge for neural networks due to the curse of dimensionality. Often the data for which the approximated function is defined resides on a low-dimensional manifold and in principle the approximation of the function over this manifold should improve the approximation performance. It has been show that projecting the data manifold into a lower dimensional space, followed by the neural network approximation of the function over this space, provides a more precise approximation of the function than the approximation of the function with neural networks in the original data space. However, if the data volume is very large, the projection into the low-dimensional space has to be based on a limited sample of the data. Here, we investigate the nature of the approximation error of neural networks trained over the projection space. We show that such neural networks should have better approximation performance than neural networks trained on high-dimensional data even if the projection is based on a relatively sparse sample of the data manifold. We also find that it is preferable to use a uniformly distributed sparse sample of the data for the purpose of the generation of the low-dimensional projection. We illustrate these results considering the practical neural network approximation of a set of functions defined on high-dimensional data including real world data as well.

  6. Development testing of large volume water sprays for warm fog dispersal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, V. W.; Anderson, B. J.; Burns, R. A.; Lala, G. G.; Meyer, M. B.; Beard, K. V.

    1986-01-01

    A new brute-force method of warm fog dispersal is described. The method uses large volume recycled water sprays to create curtains of falling drops through which the fog is processed by the ambient wind and spray induced air flow. Fog droplets are removed by coalescence/rainout. The efficiency of the technique depends upon the drop size spectra in the spray, the height to which the spray can be projected, the efficiency with which fog laden air is processed through the curtain of spray, and the rate at which new fog may be formed due to temperature differences between the air and spray water. Results of a field test program, implemented to develop the data base necessary to assess the proposed method, are presented. Analytical calculations based upon the field test results indicate that this proposed method of warm fog dispersal is feasible. Even more convincingly, the technique was successfully demonstrated in the one natural fog event which occurred during the test program. Energy requirements for this technique are an order of magnitude less than those to operate a thermokinetic system. An important side benefit is the considerable emergency fire extinguishing capability it provides along the runway.

  7. Multi-stage polymer systems for the autonomic regeneration of large damage volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santa Cruz, Windy Ann

    Recovery of catastrophic damage requires a robust chemistry capable of addressing the complex challenges encountered by autonomic regeneration. Although self-healing polymers have the potential to increase material lifetimes and safety, these systems have been limited to recovery of internal microcracks and surface damage. Current technologies thereby fail to address the restoration of large, open damage volumes. A regenerative chemistry was developed by incorporating a gel scaffold within liquid healing agents. The healing system undergoes two stages, sol-gel and gel-polymer. Stage 1, rapid formation of a crosslinked gel, creates a synthetic support for the healing agents as they deposit across the damage region. Stage 2 comprises the polymerization of monomer using a room temperature redox initiation system to recover the mechanical properties of the substrate. The two stages are chemically compatible and only react when a specific reaction trigger is introduced -- an acid catalyst for gelation and initiator-promoter for polymerization. Cure kinetics, chemical and mechanical properties can be tuned by employing different monomer systems. The versatile gelation chemistry gels over 20 vinyl monomers to yield both thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers. The healing efficacy of the two-stage system was studied in thin, vascularized epoxy sheets. By splitting the chemistry into two low viscosity fluids, we demonstrated regeneration of gaps up to 9 mm in diameter. The combination of microvascular networks and a new healing chemistry demonstrates an innovative healing system that significantly exceeds the performance of traditional methods.

  8. Detecting Boosted Dark Matter from the Sun with Large Volume Neutrino Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Joshua; Cui, Yanou; Zhao, Yue; /Stanford U., ITP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2015-04-02

    We study novel scenarios where thermal dark matter (DM) can be efficiently captured in the Sun and annihilate into boosted dark matter. In models with semi-annihilating DM, where DM has a non-minimal stabilization symmetry, or in models with a multi-component DM sector, annihilations of DM can give rise to stable dark sector particles with moderate Lorentz boosts. We investigate both of these possibilities, presenting concrete models as proofs of concept. Both scenarios can yield viable thermal relic DM with masses O(1)-O(100) GeV. Taking advantage of the energetic proton recoils that arise when the boosted DM scatters off matter, we propose a detection strategy which uses large volume terrestrial detectors, such as those designed to detect neutrinos or proton decays. In particular, we propose a search for proton tracks pointing towards the Sun. We focus on signals at Cherenkov-radiation-based detectors such as Super-Kamiokande (SK) and its upgrade Hyper-Kamiokande (HK). We find that with spin-dependent scattering as the dominant DM-nucleus interaction at low energies, boosted DM can leave detectable signals at SK or HK, with sensitivity comparable to DM direct detection experiments while being consistent with current constraints. Our study provides a new search path for DM sectors with non-minimal structure.

  9. Detecting boosted dark matter from the Sun with large volume neutrino detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Joshua; Cui, Yanou; Zhao, Yue E-mail: ycui@perimeterinstitute.ca

    2015-02-01

    We study novel scenarios where thermal dark matter (DM) can be efficiently captured in the Sun and annihilate into boosted dark matter. In models with semi-annihilating DM, where DM has a non-minimal stabilization symmetry, or in models with a multi-component DM sector, annihilations of DM can give rise to stable dark sector particles with moderate Lorentz boosts. We investigate both of these possibilities, presenting concrete models as proofs of concept. Both scenarios can yield viable thermal relic DM with masses O(1)-O(100) GeV. Taking advantage of the energetic proton recoils that arise when the boosted DM scatters off matter, we propose a detection strategy which uses large volume terrestrial detectors, such as those designed to detect neutrinos or proton decays. In particular, we propose a search for proton tracks pointing towards the Sun. We focus on signals at Cherenkov-radiation-based detectors such as Super-Kamiokande (SK) and its upgrade Hyper-Kamiokande (HK). We find that with spin-dependent scattering as the dominant DM-nucleus interaction at low energies, boosted DM can leave detectable signals at SK or HK, with sensitivity comparable to DM direct detection experiments while being consistent with current constraints. Our study provides a new search path for DM sectors with non-minimal structure.

  10. Configuration Analysis of the ERS Points in Large-Volume Metrology System.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhangjun; Yu, Cijun; Li, Jiangxiong; Ke, Yinglin

    2015-09-22

    In aircraft assembly, multiple laser trackers are used simultaneously to measure large-scale aircraft components. To combine the independent measurements, the transformation matrices between the laser trackers' coordinate systems and the assembly coordinate system are calculated, by measuring the enhanced referring system (ERS) points. This article aims to understand the influence of the configuration of the ERS points that affect the transformation matrix errors, and then optimize the deployment of the ERS points to reduce the transformation matrix errors. To optimize the deployment of the ERS points, an explicit model is derived to estimate the transformation matrix errors. The estimation model is verified by the experiment implemented in the factory floor. Based on the proposed model, a group of sensitivity coefficients are derived to evaluate the quality of the configuration of the ERS points, and then several typical configurations of the ERS points are analyzed in detail with the sensitivity coefficients. Finally general guidance is established to instruct the deployment of the ERS points in the aspects of the layout, the volume size and the number of the ERS points, as well as the position and orientation of the assembly coordinate system.

  11. Curling probe measurement of large-volume pulsed plasma confined by surface magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Anil; Sakakibara, Wataru; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Keiji; Sugai, Hideo; Chubu University Team; DOWA Thermotech Collaboration

    2015-09-01

    Curling probe (CP) has recently been developed which enables the local electron density measurement even in plasma for non-conducting film CVD. The electron density is obtained from a shift of resonance frequency of spiral antenna in discharge ON and OFF monitored by a network analyzer (NWA). In case of a pulsed glow discharge, synchronization of discharge pulse with frequency sweep of NWA must be established. In this paper, we report time and space-resolved CP measurement of electron density in a large volume plasma (80 cm diameter, 110 cm length) confined by surface magnetic field (multipole cusp field ~0.03 T). For plasma-aided modification of metal surface, the plasma is produced by 1 kV glow discharge at pulse frequency of 0.3 - 25 kHz with various duty ratio in gas (Ar, N2, C2H2) at pressure ~ 1 Pa. A radially movable CP revealed a remarkable effect of surface magnetic confinement: detach of plasma from the vessel wall and a fairly uniform plasma in the central region. In afterglow phase, the electron density was observed to decrease much faster in C2H2 discharge than in Ar discharge.

  12. A new large-volume metal reference standard for radioactive waste management

    PubMed Central

    Tzika, F.; Hult, M.; Stroh, H.; Marissens, G.; Arnold, D.; Burda, O.; Kovář, P.; Suran, J.; Listkowska, A.; Tyminski, Z.

    2016-01-01

    A new large-volume metal reference standard has been developed. The intended use is for calibration of free-release radioactivity measurement systems and is made up of cast iron tubes placed inside a box of the size of a Euro-pallet (80 × 120 cm). The tubes contain certified activity concentrations of 60Co (0.290±0.006 Bq g−1) and 110mAg (3.05±0.09 Bq g−1) (reference date: 30 September 2013). They were produced using centrifugal casting from a smelt into which 60Co was first added and then one piece of neutron irradiated silver wire was progressively diluted. The iron castings were machined to the desirable dimensions. The final material consists of 12 iron tubes of 20 cm outer diameter, 17.6 cm inner diameter, 40 cm length/height and 245.9 kg total mass. This paper describes the reference standard and the process of determining the reference activity values. PMID:25977349

  13. A new large-volume metal reference standard for radioactive waste management.

    PubMed

    Tzika, F; Hult, M; Stroh, H; Marissens, G; Arnold, D; Burda, O; Kovář, P; Suran, J; Listkowska, A; Tyminski, Z

    2016-03-01

    A new large-volume metal reference standard has been developed. The intended use is for calibration of free-release radioactivity measurement systems and is made up of cast iron tubes placed inside a box of the size of a Euro-pallet (80 × 120 cm). The tubes contain certified activity concentrations of (60)Co (0.290 ± 0.006 Bq g(-1)) and (110m)Ag (3.05 ± 0.09 Bq g(-1)) (reference date: 30 September 2013). They were produced using centrifugal casting from a smelt into which (60)Co was first added and then one piece of neutron irradiated silver wire was progressively diluted. The iron castings were machined to the desirable dimensions. The final material consists of 12 iron tubes of 20 cm outer diameter, 17.6 cm inner diameter, 40 cm length/height and 245.9 kg total mass. This paper describes the reference standard and the process of determining the reference activity values.

  14. Twinning in vapour-grown, large volume Cd1-xZnxTe crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, B. K.; Mullins, J. T.; Pym, A. T. G.; Maneuski, D.

    2016-08-01

    The onset of twinning from (2 bar 1 bar 1 bar) to (1 bar 3 bar 3 bar) in large volume Cd1-xZnxTe crystals, grown by vapour transport on (2 bar 1 bar 1 bar) , often referred to as (211)B, oriented GaAs seeds, has been investigated using X-ray diffraction imaging (X-ray topography). Twinning is not associated with strains at the GaAs/CdTe interface as the initial growth was always in (2 bar 1 bar 1 bar) orientation. Nor is twinning related to lattice strains associated with injection of Zn subsequent to initial nucleation and growth of pure CdTe as in both cases twinning occurred after growth of several mm length of Cd1-xZnxTe. While in both cases examined, there was a region of disturbed growth prior to the twinning transition, in neither crystal does this strain appear to have nucleated the twinning process. In both cases, un-twinned material remained after twinning was observed, the scale of the resulting twin boundaries being sub-micron. Simultaneous twinning across the whole sample surface was observed in one sample, whereas in the other, twinning was nucleated at different points and times in the growth.

  15. A uniform laminar air plasma plume with large volume excited by an alternating current voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuechen; Bao, Wenting; Chu, Jingdi; Zhang, Panpan; Jia, Pengying

    2015-12-01

    Using a plasma jet composed of two needle electrodes, a laminar plasma plume with large volume is generated in air through an alternating current voltage excitation. Based on high-speed photography, a train of filaments is observed to propagate periodically away from their birth place along the gas flow. The laminar plume is in fact a temporal superposition of the arched filament train. The filament consists of a negative glow near the real time cathode, a positive column near the real time anode, and a Faraday dark space between them. It has been found that the propagation velocity of the filament increases with increasing the gas flow rate. Furthermore, the filament lifetime tends to follow a normal distribution (Gaussian distribution). The most probable lifetime decreases with increasing the gas flow rate or decreasing the averaged peak voltage. Results also indicate that the real time peak current decreases and the real time peak voltage increases with the propagation of the filament along the gas flow. The voltage-current curve indicates that, in every discharge cycle, the filament evolves from a Townsend discharge to a glow one and then the discharge quenches. Characteristic regions including a negative glow, a Faraday dark space, and a positive column can be discerned from the discharge filament. Furthermore, the plasma parameters such as the electron density, the vibrational temperature and the gas temperature are investigated based on the optical spectrum emitted from the laminar plume.

  16. Peak distortions arising from large-volume injections in supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yun; Li, Geng; Rajendran, Arvind

    2015-05-01

    Preparative separations in supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) involve the injection of large volumes of the solute. In SFC, the mobile phase is typically high pressure CO2+modifier and the solute to be injected is usually dissolved in the modifier. Two-types of injection methods, modifier-stream and mixed-stream, are common in commercial preparative SFC systems. In modifier-stream injection, the injection is made in the modifier stream which is later mixed with the CO2 stream, while in the mixed-stream injection, the injection is made in a mixed CO2+modifier stream. In this work a systematic experimental and modelling study of the two techniques is reported using single-enantiomers of flurbiprofen on Chiralpak AD-H with CO2+methanol as the mobile phase. While modifier-stream injection shows non-distorted peaks, mixed-stream injection results in severe peak-distortion. By comparing the modelling and experimental results, it is shown that the modifier "plug" introduced in the mixed-stream injection is the primary cause of the peak distortions. The experimental results also point to the possible existence of viscous fingering which contributes to further peak distortion.

  17. Development of a large mosaic volume phase holographic (VPH) grating for APOGEE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arns, James; Wilson, John C.; Skrutskie, Mike; Smee, Steve; Barkhouser, Robert; Eisenstein, Daniel; Gunn, Jim; Hearty, Fred; Harding, Al; Maseman, Paul; Holtzman, Jon; Schiavon, Ricardo; Gillespie, Bruce; Majewski, Steven

    2010-07-01

    Volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings are increasingly being used as diffractive elements in astronomical instruments due to their potential for very high peak diffraction efficiencies and the possibility of a compact instrument design when the gratings are used in transmission. Historically, VPH grating (VPHG) sizes have been limited by the size of manufacturer's holographic recording optics. We report on the design, specification and fabrication of a large, 290 mm × 475 mm elliptically-shaped, mosaic VPHG for the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) spectrograph. This high-resolution near-infrared multi-object spectrograph is in construction for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS III). The 1008.6 lines/mm VPHG was designed for optimized performance over a wavelength range from 1.5 to 1.7 μm. A step-and-repeat exposure method was chosen to fabricate a three-segment mosaic on a 305 mm × 508 mm monolithic fused-silica substrate. Specification considerations imposed on the VPHG to assure the mosaic construction will satisfy the end use requirements are discussed. Production issues and test results of the mosaic VPHG are discussed.

  18. Exploring the limiting timing resolution for large volume CZT detectors with waveform analysis

    PubMed Central

    Meng, L.J.; He, Z.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a study for exploring the limiting timing resolution that can be achieved with a large volume 3-D position sensitive CZT detector. The interaction timing information was obtained by fitting the measured cathode waveforms to pre-defined waveform models. We compared the results from using several different waveform models. Timing resolutions, of ~9.5 ns for 511 keV full-energy events and ~11.6 ns for all detected events with energy deposition above 250 keV, were achieved with a detailed modeling of the cathode waveform as a function of interaction location and energy deposition. This detailed modeling also allowed us to derive a theoretical lower bound for the error on estimated interaction timing. Both experimental results and theoretical predications matched well, which indicated that the best timing resolution achievable in the 1 cm3 CZT detector tested is ~10 ns. It is also showed that the correlation between sampled amplitudes in cathode waveforms is an important limiting factor for the achievable timing resolution. PMID:28260808

  19. On `light' fermions and proton stability in `big divisor' D3/ D7 large volume compactifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Aalok; Shukla, Pramod

    2011-06-01

    Building on our earlier work (Misra and Shukla, Nucl. Phys. B 827:112, 2010; Phys. Lett. B 685:347-352, 2010), we show the possibility of generating "light" fermion mass scales of MeV-GeV range (possibly related to the first two generations of quarks/leptons) as well as eV (possibly related to first two generations of neutrinos) in type IIB string theory compactified on Swiss-Cheese orientifolds in the presence of a mobile space-time filling D3-brane restricted to (in principle) stacks of fluxed D7-branes wrapping the "big" divisor Σ B . This part of the paper is an expanded version of the latter half of Sect. 3 of a published short invited review (Misra, Mod. Phys. Lett. A 26:1, 2011) written by one of the authors [AM]. Further, we also show that there are no SUSY GUT-type dimension-five operators corresponding to proton decay, and we estimate the proton lifetime from a SUSY GUT-type four-fermion dimension-six operator to be 1061 years. Based on GLSM calculations in (Misra and Shukla, Nucl. Phys. B 827:112, 2010) for obtaining the geometric Kähler potential for the "big divisor," using further the Donaldson's algorithm, we also briefly discuss in the first of the two appendices the metric for the Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau used, which we obtain and which becomes Ricci flat in the large-volume limit.

  20. Defining the Clinical Target Volume for Bladder Cancer Radiotherapy Treatment Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, Peter; Anjarwalla, Salim; Gilbert, Hugh; Kinder, Richard

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: There are currently no data for the expansion margin required to define the clinical target volume (CTV) around bladder tumors. This information is particularly relevant when perivesical soft tissue changes are seen on the planning scan. While this appearance may reflect extravesical extension (EVE), it may also be an artifact of previous transurethral resection (TUR). Methods and Materials: Eighty patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer who had undergone radical cystectomy were studied. All patients underwent preoperative TUR and staging computed tomography (CT) scans. The presence and extent of tumor growth beyond the outer bladder wall was measured radiologically and histopathologically. Results: Forty one (51%) patients had histologically confirmed tumor extension into perivesical fat. The median and mean extensions beyond the outer bladder wall were 1.7 and 3.1 mm, respectively. Thirty five (44%) patients had EVE, as seen on CT scans. The sensitivity and specificity of CT scans for EVE were 56% and 79%, respectively. False-positive results were infrequent and not affected by either the timing or the amount of tissue resected at TUR. CT scans consistently tended to overestimate the extent of EVE. Tumor size and the presence of either lymphovascular invasion or squamoid differentiation predict a greater extent of EVE. Conclusions: In patients with radiological evidence of extravesical disease, the CTV should comprise the outer bladder wall plus a 10-mm margin. In patients with no evidence of extravesical disease on CT scans, the CTV should be restricted to the outer bladder wall plus a 6-mm margin. These recommendations would encompass microscopic disease extension in 90% of cases.

  1. Risks and benefits of reducing target volume margins in breast tangent radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Basaula, Deepak; Quinn, Alexandra; Walker, Amy; Batumalai, Vikneswary; Kumar, Shivani; Delaney, Geoff P; Holloway, Lois

    2017-02-27

    This study investigates the potential benefits of planning target volume (PTV) margin reduction for whole breast radiotherapy in relation to dose received by organs at risk (OARs), as well as reductions in radiation-induced secondary cancer risk. Such benefits were compared to the increased radiation-induced secondary cancer risk attributed from increased ionizing radiation imaging doses. Ten retrospective patients' computed tomography datasets were considered. Three computerized treatment plans with varied PTV margins (0, 5 and 10 mm) were created for each patient complying with the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 1005 protocol requirements. The BEIR VII lifetime attributable risk (LAR) model was used to estimate secondary cancer risk to OARs. The LAR was assessed for all treatment plans considering (a) doses from PTV margin variation and (b) doses from two (daily and weekly) kilovoltage cone beam computed tomography (kV CBCT) imaging protocols during the course of treatment. We found PTV margins from largest to smallest resulted in a mean OAR relative dose reduction of 31% (heart), 28% (lung) and 23% (contralateral breast) and the risk of radiation-induced secondary cancer by a relative 23% (contralateral breast) and 22% (contralateral lung). Daily image-guidance using kV CBCT increased the risk of radiation induced secondary cancer to the contralateral breast and contralateral lung by a relative 1.6-1.9% and 1.9-2.5% respectively. Despite the additional dose from kV CBCT for the two considered imaging protocols, smaller PTV margins would still result in an overall reduction in secondary cancer risk.

  2. RTOG Sarcoma Radiation Oncologists Reach Consensus on Gross Tumor Volume and Clinical Target Volume on Computed Tomographic Images for Preoperative Radiotherapy of Primary Soft Tissue Sarcoma of Extremity in Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Dian; Bosch, Walter; Roberge, David; Finkelstein, Steven E.; Petersen, Ivy; Haddock, Michael; Chen, Yen-Lin E.; Saito, Naoyuki G.; Kirsch, David G.; Hitchcock, Ying J.; Wolfson, Aaron H.; DeLaney, Thomas F.

    2011-11-15

    Objective: To develop a Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) atlas delineating gross tumor volume (GTV) and clinical target volume (CTV) to be used for preoperative radiotherapy of primary extremity soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Methods and Materials: A consensus meeting was held during the RTOG meeting in January 2010 to reach agreement about GTV and CTV delineation on computed tomography (CT) images for preoperative radiotherapy of high-grade large extremity STS. Data were presented to address the local extension of STS. Extensive discussion ensued to develop optimal criteria for GTV and CTV delineation on CT images. Results: A consensus was reached on appropriate CT-based GTV and CTV. The GTV is gross tumor defined by T1 contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images. Fusion of magnetic resonance and images is recommended to delineate the GTV. The CTV for high-grade large STS typically includes the GTV plus 3-cm margins in the longitudinal directions. If this causes the field to extend beyond the compartment, the field can be shortened to include the end of a compartment. The radial margin from the lesion should be 1.5 cm, including any portion of the tumor not confined by an intact fascial barrier, bone, or skin surface. Conclusion: The consensus on GTV and CTV for preoperative radiotherapy of high-grade large extremity STS is available as web-based images and in a descriptive format through the RTOG. This is expected to improve target volume consistency and allow for rigorous evaluation of the benefits and risks of such treatment.

  3. Volume-dependent collection of peripheral blood progenitor cells during large-volume leukapheresis for patients with solid tumours and haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Cassens, U; Ostkamp-Ostermann, P; van der Werf, N; Garritsen, H; Ostermann, H; Sibrowski, W

    1999-12-01

    We investigated the efficacy of peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) collection during large-volume leukapheresis (LVL) in patients with solid tumours and haematological malignancies (n = 18). The time- and volume-dependent harvest of leucocytes (WBC), mononuclear cells (MNC), CD34+ cells and colony-forming cells (CFU-GM) during LVL was analysed in six sequentially filled collection bags processing four times the patient's blood volumes. The amounts of leucocytes (WBC) and the purity of mononuclear cells (MNC%) did not show any significant changes during LVL. The percentage of CD34+ cells remained constant for the first three bags but consecutively decreased from initially 1.71% CD34+ cells in the beginning of LVL to finally 1.34% CD34+ cells (P = 0.02). The mean numbers of colony-forming cells (CFU-GM) decreased from 74 microL-1 to 59 microL-1 during LVL (P = 0.16). Furthermore, the comparison of volume-dependent PBPC collection for patients with high, medium and low total yields of CD34+ cells showed similar kinetics on different levels for the three groups. We concluded that - relative to the initial total amount of PBPC harvested - comparable numbers of progenitor cells can be collected during all stages of LVL with a slight decreasing trend processing four times the patient's blood volumes.

  4. The effect of irregular breathing patterns on internal target volumes in four-dimensional CT and cone-beam CT images in the context of stereotactic lung radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, N.; Kron, T.; Roxby, P.; Franich, R.; Dunn, L.; Aarons, Y.; Chesson, B.; Siva, S.; Duplan, D.; Ball, D.

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: Stereotactic lung radiotherapy is complicated by tumor motion from patient respiration. Four-dimensional CT (4DCT) imaging is a motion compensation method used in treatment planning to generate a maximum intensity projection (MIP) internal target volume (ITV). Image guided radiotherapy during treatment may involve acquiring a volumetric cone-beam CT (CBCT) image and visually aligning the tumor to the planning 4DCT MIP ITV contour. Moving targets imaged with CBCT can appear blurred and currently there are no studies reporting on the effect that irregular breathing patterns have on CBCT volumes and their alignment to 4DCT MIP ITV contours. The objective of this work was therefore to image a phantom moving with irregular breathing patterns to determine whether any configurations resulted in errors in volume contouring or alignment. Methods: A Perspex thorax phantom was used to simulate a patient. Three wooden 'lung' inserts with embedded Perspex 'lesions' were moved up to 4 cm with computer-generated motion patterns, and up to 1 cm with patient-specific breathing patterns. The phantom was imaged on 4DCT and CBCT with the same acquisition settings used for stereotactic lung patients in the clinic and the volumes on all phantom images were contoured. This project assessed the volumes for qualitative and quantitative changes including volume, length of the volume, and errors in alignment between CBCT volumes and 4DCT MIP ITV contours. Results: When motion was introduced 4DCT and CBCT volumes were reduced by up to 20% and 30% and shortened by up to 7 and 11 mm, respectively, indicating that volume was being under-represented at the extremes of motion. Banding artifacts were present in 4DCT MIP images, while CBCT volumes were largely reduced in contrast. When variable amplitudes from patient traces were used and CBCT ITVs were compared to 4DCT MIP ITVs there was a distinct trend in reduced ITV with increasing amplitude that was not seen when compared to true ITVs

  5. Variation in the Definition of Clinical Target Volumes for Pelvic Nodal Conformal Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, Colleen A.F. Michalski, Jeff; El-Naqa, Issam; Kuban, Deborah; Lee, W. Robert; Rosenthal, Seth A.; Zietman, Anthony; Sandler, Howard; Shipley, William; Ritter, Mark; Valicenti, Richard; Catton, Charles; Roach, Mack; Pisansky, Thomas M.; Seider, Michael

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: We conducted a comparative study of clinical target volume (CTV) definition of pelvic lymph nodes by multiple genitourinary (GU) radiation oncologists looking at the levels of discrepancies amongst this group. Methods and Materials: Pelvic computed tomography (CT) scans from 2 men were distributed to 14 Radiation Therapy Oncology Group GU radiation oncologists with instructions to define CTVs for the iliac and presacral lymph nodes. The CT data with contours were then returned for analysis. In addition, a questionnaire was completed that described the physicians' method for target volume definition. Results: Significant variation in the definition of the iliac and presacral CTVs was seen among the physicians. The minimum, maximum, mean (SD) iliac volumes (mL) were 81.8, 876.6, 337.6 {+-} 203 for case 1 and 60.3, 627.7, 251.8 {+-} 159.3 for case 2. The volume of 100% agreement was 30.6 and 17.4 for case 1 and 2 and the volume of the union of all contours was 1,012.0 and 807.4 for case 1 and 2, respectively. The overall agreement was judged to be moderate in both cases (kappa = 0.53 (p < 0.0001) and kappa = 0.48 (p < 0.0001). There was no volume of 100% agreement for either of the two presacral volumes. These variations were confirmed in the responses to the associated questionnaire. Conclusions: Significant disagreement exists in the definition of the CTV for pelvic nodal radiation therapy among GU radiation oncology specialists. A consensus needs to be developed so as to accurately assess the merit and safety of such treatment.

  6. Application of ultradisperse magnetic adsorbents for removal of small concentrations of pollutants from large volumes of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.; Kuznetsov, Anatoli; Kuznetsov, Oleg

    2016-07-01

    with the adsorbed toluidine blue were removed from the solution by magnetic separation. The sorbent was proven to have high sorption capacity and rapid adsorption kinetics for toluidine blue. These experiments demonstrated the validity of the method, where a small concentration of a pollutant was successfully collected from a large volume of water. By varying the ratio of the sorbent/pollutant, it is possible to optimize the sorbent use and the time required to adsorb all pollutant present in the treated water. A variety of magnetically controlled sorbents can be designed and used in this method, from broad-spectrum adsorbing sorbents to sorbents specifically targeting a particular pollutant. These sorbents can be used either individually or as mixtures of sorbents with different properties, depending on the desired purification goals. Simplicity and scalability of this method allow a variety of ecological applications, as well as industrial ones, from process water purification to wastewater treatment.

  7. Influence of bone volume fraction and architecture on computed large-deformation failure mechanisms in human trabecular bone.

    PubMed

    Bevill, Grant; Eswaran, Senthil K; Gupta, Atul; Papadopoulos, Panayiotis; Keaveny, Tony M

    2006-12-01

    Large-deformation bending and buckling have long been proposed as failure mechanisms by which the strength of trabecular bone can be affected disproportionately to changes in bone density, and thus may represent an important aspect of bone quality. We sought here to quantify the contribution of large-deformation failure mechanisms on strength, to determine the dependence of these effects on bone volume fraction and architecture, and to confirm that the inclusion of large-deformation effects in high-resolution finite element models improves predictions of strength versus experiment. Micro-CT-based finite element models having uniform hard tissue material properties were created from 54 cores of human trabecular bone taken from four anatomic sites (age = 70+/-11; 24 male, 27 female donors), which were subsequently biomechanically tested to failure. Strength predictions were made from the models first including, then excluding, large-deformation failure mechanisms, both for compressive and tensile load cases. As expected, strength predictions versus experimental data for the large-deformation finite element models were significantly improved (p < 0.001) relative to the small deformation models in both tension and compression. Below a volume fraction of about 0.20, large-deformation failure mechanisms decreased trabecular strength from 5-80% for compressive loading, while effects were negligible above this volume fraction. Step-wise nonlinear multiple regression revealed that structure model index (SMI) and volume fraction (BV/TV) were significant predictors of these reductions in strength (R2 = 0.83, p < 0.03). Even so, some low-density specimens having nearly identical volume fraction and SMI exhibited up to fivefold differences in strength reduction. We conclude that within very low-density bone, the potentially important biomechanical effect of large-deformation failure mechanisms on trabecular bone strength is highly heterogeneous and is not well explained by

  8. Rationally designed BCL6 inhibitors target activated B cell diffuse large B cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Cardenas, Mariano G.; Yu, Wenbo; Beguelin, Wendy; Teater, Matthew R.; Geng, Huimin; Goldstein, Rebecca L.; Oswald, Erin; Hatzi, Katerina; Yang, Shao-Ning; Cohen, Joanna; Shaknovich, Rita; Vanommeslaeghe, Kenno; Cheng, Huimin; Liang, Dongdong; Cho, Hyo Je; Tam, Wayne; Du, Wei; Leonard, John P.; Elemento, Olivier; Cierpicki, Tomasz; Xue, Fengtian; MacKerell, Alexander D.; Melnick, Ari M.

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) arise from proliferating B cells transiting different stages of the germinal center reaction. In activated B cell DLBCLs (ABC-DLBCLs), a class of DLBCLs that respond poorly to current therapies, chromosomal translocations and amplification lead to constitutive expression of the B cell lymphoma 6 (BCL6) oncogene. The role of BCL6 in maintaining these lymphomas has not been investigated. Here, we designed small-molecule inhibitors that display higher affinity for BCL6 than its endogenous corepressor ligands to evaluate their therapeutic efficacy for targeting ABC-DLBCL. We used an in silico drug design functional-group mapping approach called SILCS to create a specific BCL6 inhibitor called FX1 that has 10-fold greater potency than endogenous corepressors and binds an essential region of the BCL6 lateral groove. FX1 disrupted formation of the BCL6 repression complex, reactivated BCL6 target genes, and mimicked the phenotype of mice engineered to express BCL6 with corepressor binding site mutations. Low doses of FX1 induced regression of established tumors in mice bearing DLBCL xenografts. Furthermore, FX1 suppressed ABC-DLBCL cells in vitro and in vivo, as well as primary human ABC-DLBCL specimens ex vivo. These findings indicate that ABC-DLBCL is a BCL6-dependent disease that can be targeted by rationally designed inhibitors that exceed the binding affinity of natural BCL6 ligands. PMID:27482887

  9. Rationally designed BCL6 inhibitors target activated B cell diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, Mariano G; Yu, Wenbo; Beguelin, Wendy; Teater, Matthew R; Geng, Huimin; Goldstein, Rebecca L; Oswald, Erin; Hatzi, Katerina; Yang, Shao-Ning; Cohen, Joanna; Shaknovich, Rita; Vanommeslaeghe, Kenno; Cheng, Huimin; Liang, Dongdong; Cho, Hyo Je; Abbott, Joshua; Tam, Wayne; Du, Wei; Leonard, John P; Elemento, Olivier; Cerchietti, Leandro; Cierpicki, Tomasz; Xue, Fengtian; MacKerell, Alexander D; Melnick, Ari M

    2016-09-01

    Diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) arise from proliferating B cells transiting different stages of the germinal center reaction. In activated B cell DLBCLs (ABC-DLBCLs), a class of DLBCLs that respond poorly to current therapies, chromosomal translocations and amplification lead to constitutive expression of the B cell lymphoma 6 (BCL6) oncogene. The role of BCL6 in maintaining these lymphomas has not been investigated. Here, we designed small-molecule inhibitors that display higher affinity for BCL6 than its endogenous corepressor ligands to evaluate their therapeutic efficacy for targeting ABC-DLBCL. We used an in silico drug design functional-group mapping approach called SILCS to create a specific BCL6 inhibitor called FX1 that has 10-fold greater potency than endogenous corepressors and binds an essential region of the BCL6 lateral groove. FX1 disrupted formation of the BCL6 repression complex, reactivated BCL6 target genes, and mimicked the phenotype of mice engineered to express BCL6 with corepressor binding site mutations. Low doses of FX1 induced regression of established tumors in mice bearing DLBCL xenografts. Furthermore, FX1 suppressed ABC-DLBCL cells in vitro and in vivo, as well as primary human ABC-DLBCL specimens ex vivo. These findings indicate that ABC-DLBCL is a BCL6-dependent disease that can be targeted by rationally designed inhibitors that exceed the binding affinity of natural BCL6 ligands.

  10. Alpha-particle radiotherapy: For large solid tumors diffusion trumps targeting.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Charles; Sempkowski, Michelle; Holleran, Timothy; Linz, Thomas; Bertalan, Thomas; Josefsson, Anders; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Morgenstern, Alfred; Sofou, Stavroula

    2017-06-01

    Diffusion limitations on the penetration of nanocarriers in solid tumors hamper their therapeutic use when labeled with α-particle emitters. This is mostly due to the α-particles' relatively short range (≤100 μm) resulting in partial tumor irradiation and limited killing. To utilize the high therapeutic potential of α-particles against solid tumors, we designed non-targeted, non-internalizing nanometer-sized tunable carriers (pH-tunable liposomes) that are triggered to release, within the slightly acidic tumor interstitium, highly-diffusive forms of the encapsulated α-particle generator Actinium-225 ((225)Ac) resulting in more homogeneous distributions of the α-particle emitters, improving uniformity in tumor irradiation and increasing killing efficacies. On large multicellular spheroids (400 μm-in-diameter), used as surrogates of the avascular areas of solid tumors, interstitially-releasing liposomes resulted in best growth control independent of HER2 expression followed in performance by (a) the HER2-targeting radiolabeled antibody or (b) the non-responsive liposomes. In an orthotopic human HER2-negative mouse model, interstitially-releasing (225)Ac-loaded liposomes resulted in the longest overall and median survival. This study demonstrates the therapeutic potential of a general strategy to bypass the diffusion-limited transport of radionuclide carriers in solid tumors enabling interstitial release from non-internalizing nanocarriers of highly-diffusing and deeper tumor-penetrating molecular forms of α-particle emitters, independent of cell-targeting.

  11. Discovery of Manassantin A Protein Targets Using Large-Scale Protein Folding and Stability Measurements.

    PubMed

    Geer Wallace, M Ariel; Kwon, Do-Yeon; Weitzel, Douglas H; Lee, Chen-Ting; Stephenson, Tesia N; Chi, Jen-Tsan; Mook, Robert A; Dewhirst, Mark W; Hong, Jiyong; Fitzgerald, Michael C

    2016-08-05

    Manassantin A is a natural product that has been shown to have anticancer activity in cell-based assays, but has a largely unknown mode-of-action. Described here is the use of two different energetics-based approaches to identify protein targets of manassantin A. Using the stability of proteins from rates of oxidation technique with an isobaric mass tagging strategy (iTRAQ-SPROX) and the pulse proteolysis technique with a stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture strategy (SILAC-PP), over 1000 proteins in a MDA-MB-231 cell lysate grown under hypoxic conditions were assayed for manassantin A interactions (both direct and indirect). A total of 28 protein hits were identified with manassantin A-induced thermodynamic stability changes. Two of the protein hits (filamin A and elongation factor 1α) were identified using both experimental approaches. The remaining 26 hit proteins were only assayed in either the iTRAQ-SPROX or the SILAC-PP experiment. The 28 potential protein targets of manassantin A identified here provide new experimental avenues along which to explore the molecular basis of manassantin A's mode of action. The current work also represents the first application iTRAQ-SPROX and SILAC-PP to the large-scale analysis of protein-ligand binding interactions involving a potential anticancer drug with an unknown mode-of-action.

  12. Expediting SRM assay development for large-scale targeted proteomics experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Chaochao; Shi, Tujin; Brown, Joseph N.; ...

    2014-08-22

    Due to their high sensitivity and specificity, targeted proteomics measurements, e.g. selected reaction monitoring (SRM), are becoming increasingly popular for biological and translational applications. Selection of optimal transitions and optimization of collision energy (CE) are important assay development steps for achieving sensitive detection and accurate quantification; however, these steps can be labor-intensive, especially for large-scale applications. Herein, we explored several options for accelerating SRM assay development evaluated in the context of a relatively large set of 215 synthetic peptide targets. We first showed that HCD fragmentation is very similar to CID in triple quadrupole (QQQ) instrumentation, and by selection ofmore » top six y fragment ions from HCD spectra, >86% of top transitions optimized from direct infusion on QQQ instrument are covered. We also demonstrated that the CE calculated by existing prediction tools was less accurate for +3 precursors, and a significant increase in intensity for transitions could be obtained using a new CE prediction equation constructed from the present experimental data. Overall, our study illustrates the feasibility of expediting the development of larger numbers of high-sensitivity SRM assays through automation of transitions selection and accurate prediction of optimal CE to improve both SRM throughput and measurement quality.« less

  13. Expediting SRM assay development for large-scale targeted proteomics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Chaochao; Shi, Tujin; Brown, Joseph N.; He, Jintang; Gao, Yuqian; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Shukla, Anil K.; Moore, Ronald J.; Camp, David G.; Rodland, Karin D.; Qian, Weijun; Liu, Tao; Smith, Richard D.

    2014-08-22

    Due to their high sensitivity and specificity, targeted proteomics measurements, e.g. selected reaction monitoring (SRM), are becoming increasingly popular for biological and translational applications. Selection of optimal transitions and optimization of collision energy (CE) are important assay development steps for achieving sensitive detection and accurate quantification; however, these steps can be labor-intensive, especially for large-scale applications. Herein, we explored several options for accelerating SRM assay development evaluated in the context of a relatively large set of 215 synthetic peptide targets. We first showed that HCD fragmentation is very similar to CID in triple quadrupole (QQQ) instrumentation, and by selection of top six y fragment ions from HCD spectra, >86% of top transitions optimized from direct infusion on QQQ instrument are covered. We also demonstrated that the CE calculated by existing prediction tools was less accurate for +3 precursors, and a significant increase in intensity for transitions could be obtained using a new CE prediction equation constructed from the present experimental data. Overall, our study illustrates the feasibility of expediting the development of larger numbers of high-sensitivity SRM assays through automation of transitions selection and accurate prediction of optimal CE to improve both SRM throughput and measurement quality.

  14. Hepatic Arterial Embolization and Chemoembolization in the Management of Patients with Large-Volume Liver Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Kamat, Paresh P.; Gupta, Sanjay Ensor, Joe E.; Murthy, Ravi; Ahrar, Kamran; Madoff, David C.; Wallace, Michael J.; Hicks, Marshall E.

    2008-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the role of hepatic arterial embolization (HAE) and chemoembolization (HACE) in patients with large-volume liver metastases. Patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors, melanomas, or gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) with >75% liver involvement who underwent HAE or HACE were included in the study. Radiologic response, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and postprocedure complications were assessed. Sixty patients underwent 123 treatment sessions. Of the 48 patients for whom follow-up imaging was available, partial response was seen in 12 (25%) patients, minimal response in 6 (12%), stable disease in 22 (46%), and progressive disease in 8 (17%). Median OS and PFS were 9.3 and 4.9 months, respectively. Treatment resulted in radiologic response or disease stabilization in 82% and symptomatic response in 65% of patients with neuroendocrine tumors. Patients with neuroendocrine tumors had higher response rates (44% vs. 27% and 0%; p = 0.31) and longer PFS (9.2 vs. 2.0 and 2.3 months; p < 0.0001) and OS (17.9 vs. 2.4 and 2.3 months; p < 0.0001) compared to patients with melanomas and GISTs. Major complications occurred in 21 patients after 23 (19%) of the 123 sessions. Nine of the 12 patients who developed major complications resulting in death had additional risk factors-carcinoid heart disease, sepsis, rapidly worsening performance status, or anasarca. In conclusion, in patients with neuroendocrine tumors with >75% liver involvement, HAE/HACE resulted in symptom palliation and radiologic response or disease stabilization in the majority of patients. Patients with hepatic metastases from melanomas and GISTs, however, did not show any appreciable benefit from this procedure. Patients with massive liver tumor burden, who have additional risk factors, should not be subjected to HAE/HACE because of the high risk of procedure-related mortality.

  15. A pomegranate-inspired nanoscale design for large-volume-change lithium battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nian; Lu, Zhenda; Zhao, Jie; McDowell, Matthew T; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Zhao, Wenting; Cui, Yi

    2014-03-01

    Silicon is an attractive material for anodes in energy storage devices, because it has ten times the theoretical capacity of its state-of-the-art carbonaceous counterpart. Silicon anodes can be used both in traditional lithium-ion batteries and in more recent Li-O2 and Li-S batteries as a replacement for the dendrite-forming lithium metal anodes. The main challenges associated with silicon anodes are structural degradation and instability of the solid-electrolyte interphase caused by the large volume change (∼300%) during cycling, the occurrence of side reactions with the electrolyte, and the low volumetric capacity when the material size is reduced to a nanometre scale. Here, we propose a hierarchical structured silicon anode that tackles all three of these problems. Our design is inspired by the structure of a pomegranate, where single silicon nanoparticles are encapsulated by a conductive carbon layer that leaves enough room for expansion and contraction following lithiation and delithiation. An ensemble of these hybrid nanoparticles is then encapsulated by a thicker carbon layer in micrometre-size pouches to act as an electrolyte barrier. As a result of this hierarchical arrangement, the solid-electrolyte interphase remains stable and spatially confined, resulting in superior cyclability (97% capacity retention after 1,000 cycles). In addition, the microstructures lower the electrode-electrolyte contact area, resulting in high Coulombic efficiency (99.87%) and volumetric capacity (1,270 mAh cm(-3)), and the cycling remains stable even when the areal capacity is increased to the level of commercial lithium-ion batteries (3.7 mAh cm(-2)).

  16. High Pressure Research in the Large-Volume Press at the Advanced Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Shen, G.

    2013-05-01

    We present an overview of current status of high-pressure research using large-volume presses (LVP) at both GSECARS (Sector 13) and HPCAT (Sector 16) at the third-generation synchrotron facility of the Advanced Photon Source (APS), Argonne National Laboratory. These combined facilities provide a wide range of research capabilities for the high pressure community. The 230 ton Paris-Edinburgh device (jointly developed by HPCAT and GSECARS, with partial support from COMPRES) at the bending magnet (BM) beamline 16-BM-B has been used primarily for studies on liquids and glasses. We use the multi-angle energy-dispersive diffraction technique to probe structures of non-crystalline materials, and ultrasonic and falling sphere techniques to measure elasticity and viscosity of these materials. These capabilities allow us to examine the close link between structure and physical properties of non-crystalline metarials. The 1000 ton system at the insertion device (ID) beamline 13-ID-D is used extensively for acoustic velocity measurement for solids and melts. The newly developed DDIA-30 module, when used in a double-stage apparatus with sintered diamond anvils, can generate pressures in excess of 40 GPa routinely. DDIA-30 can also be used as a deformation device for larger samples or higher pressure experiments. The 250 ton system at beamline 13-BM-D as just been upgraded and can accommodate a variety of LVP techniques. Among them the D-DIA and the high-pressure x-ray tomography microscope (HPXTM) are at high demand. The D-DIA has been used for deformation at mantle conditions in both ductile and brittle regime, with acoustic emission detection. The HPXTM has been used to study volumetric properties of glasses and melts as well as 3D microstructure imaging under pressure. Latest scientific results will be highlighted.

  17. Large-Scale Targeted Proteomics Using Internal Standard Triggered-Parallel Reaction Monitoring (IS-PRM).

    PubMed

    Gallien, Sebastien; Kim, Sang Yoon; Domon, Bruno

    2015-06-01

    Targeted high-resolution and accurate mass analyses performed on fast sequencing mass spectrometers have opened new avenues for quantitative proteomics. More specifically, parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) implemented on quadrupole-orbitrap instruments exhibits exquisite selectivity to discriminate interferences from analytes. Furthermore, the instrument trapping capability enhances the sensitivity of the measurements. The PRM technique, applied to the analysis of limited peptide sets (typically 50 peptides or less) in a complex matrix, resulted in an improved detection and quantification performance as compared with the reference method of selected reaction monitoring performed on triple quadrupole instruments. However, the implementation of PRM for the analysis of large peptide numbers requires the adjustment of mass spectrometry acquisition parameters, which affects dramatically the quality of the generated data, and thus the overall output of an experiment. A newly designed data acquisition scheme enabled the analysis of moderate-to-large peptide numbers while retaining a high performance level. This new method, called internal standard triggered-parallel reaction monitoring (IS-PRM), relies on added internal standards and the on-the-fly adjustment of acquisition parameters to drive in real-time measurement of endogenous peptides. The acquisition time management was designed to maximize the effective time devoted to measure the analytes in a time-scheduled targeted experiment. The data acquisition scheme alternates between two PRM modes: a fast low-resolution "watch mode" and a "quantitative mode" using optimized parameters ensuring data quality. The IS-PRM method exhibited a highly effective use of the instrument time. Applied to the analysis of large peptide sets (up to 600) in complex samples, the method showed an unprecedented combination of scale and analytical performance, with limits of quantification in the low amol range. The successful analysis of

  18. Large-Scale Targeted Proteomics Using Internal Standard Triggered-Parallel Reaction Monitoring (IS-PRM)*

    PubMed Central

    Gallien, Sebastien; Kim, Sang Yoon; Domon, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Targeted high-resolution and accurate mass analyses performed on fast sequencing mass spectrometers have opened new avenues for quantitative proteomics. More specifically, parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) implemented on quadrupole-orbitrap instruments exhibits exquisite selectivity to discriminate interferences from analytes. Furthermore, the instrument trapping capability enhances the sensitivity of the measurements. The PRM technique, applied to the analysis of limited peptide sets (typically 50 peptides or less) in a complex matrix, resulted in an improved detection and quantification performance as compared with the reference method of selected reaction monitoring performed on triple quadrupole instruments. However, the implementation of PRM for the analysis of large peptide numbers requires the adjustment of mass spectrometry acquisition parameters, which affects dramatically the quality of the generated data, and thus the overall output of an experiment. A newly designed data acquisition scheme enabled the analysis of moderate-to-large peptide numbers while retaining a high performance level. This new method, called internal standard triggered-parallel reaction monitoring (IS-PRM), relies on added internal standards and the on-the-fly adjustment of acquisition parameters to drive in real-time measurement of endogenous peptides. The acquisition time management was designed to maximize the effective time devoted to measure the analytes in a time-scheduled targeted experiment. The data acquisition scheme alternates between two PRM modes: a fast low-resolution “watch mode” and a “quantitative mode” using optimized parameters ensuring data quality. The IS-PRM method exhibited a highly effective use of the instrument time. Applied to the analysis of large peptide sets (up to 600) in complex samples, the method showed an unprecedented combination of scale and analytical performance, with limits of quantification in the low amol range. The successful

  19. Toroidal transducer with two large focal zones for increasing the coagulated volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincenot, J.; Melodelima, D.; Kocot, A.; Chavrier, F.; Chapelon, J. Y.

    2012-11-01

    Toroidal HIFU transducers have been shown to generate large conical ablations (7 cm3 in 40 seconds). The focal zone is composed of a first ring-shaped focal zone and an overlap of ultrasound beams behind this first focus. A HIFU device has been developed on this principle to treat liver metastases during an open procedure. Although these large lesions contribute to reduce treatment time, it is still needed to juxtapose 4 to 9 single HIFU lesions to treat liver metastasis (2 cm in diameter) with safety margins. In this work, a different toroidal geometry was used. With this transducer, the overlap area is located between the probe and the focal ring. The objective was to use this transducer with electronic focusing in order to create a spherical shape lesion with sufficient volume for the destruction of a metastasis of 2 cm in diameter without any mechanical displacement. The operating frequency of the toroidal transducer was 2.5 MHz. The radius of curvature was 70 mm with a diameter of 67 mm. The focal ring had a radius of 15 mm. The overlap zone extent between 35 to 55 mm from the emitting surface. An ultrasound-imaging probe (working at 7.5 MHz) was placed in a central circular opening of 26 mm in the HIFU transducer and was aligned with the focal plane. The transducer was divided into 32 rings of 78 mm2. Using a 32 channels amplifier with a phase resolution of 1.4 degrees, it was possible to change the diameter (0 to 15 mm) and depth (45 to 85 mm) of the focus circle to maximize dimensions of the lesion. Tests were conducted in vitro, in bovine liver samples. This toroidal geometry and the use of electronic beam steering allow the creation of roughly spherical lesions (diameter of 47 mm, depth of 35 mm). This treatment was obtained in 6 minutes and 10 seconds without any mechanical displacement of the transducer. The lesions obtained were homogeneous and no untreated area was observed. In conclusion, these results indicate that the treatment of a liver

  20. Human-computer interaction in radiotherapy target volume delineation: a prospective, multi-institutional comparison of user input devices.

    PubMed

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was the prospective comparison of objective and subjective effects of target volume region of interest (ROI) delineation using mouse-keyboard and pen-tablet user input devices (UIDs). The study was designed as a prospective test/retest sequence, with Wilcoxon signed rank test for matched-pair comparison. Twenty-one physician-observers contoured target volume ROIs on four standardized cases (representative of brain, prostate, lung, and head and neck malignancies) twice: once using QWERTY keyboard/scroll-wheel mouse UID and once with pen-tablet UID (DTX2100, Wacom Technology Corporation, Vancouver, WA, USA). Active task time, ROI manipulation task data, and subjective survey data were collected. One hundred twenty-nine target volume ROI sets were collected, with 62 paired pen-tablet/mouse-keyboard sessions. Active contouring time was reduced using the pen-tablet UID, with mean ± SD active contouring time of 26 ± 23 min, compared with 32 ± 25 with the mouse (p ≤ 0.01). Subjective estimation of time spent was also reduced from 31 ± 26 with mouse to 27 ± 22 min with the pen (p = 0.02). Task analysis showed ROI correction task reduction (p = 0.045) and decreased panning and scrolling tasks (p < 0.01) with the pen-tablet; drawing, window/level changes, and zoom commands were unchanged (p = n.s.) Volumetric analysis demonstrated no detectable differences in ROI volume nor intra- or inter-observer volumetric coverage. Fifty-two of 62 (84%) users preferred the tablet for each contouring task; 5 of 62 (8%) denoted no preference, and 5 of 62 (8%) chose the mouse interface. The pen-tablet UID reduced active contouring time and reduced correction of ROIs, without substantially altering ROI volume/coverage.

  1. ANALYSIS OF LOW-LEVEL PESTICIDES FROM HIGH-ELEVATION LAKE WATERS BY LARGE VOLUME INJECTION GCMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the method development for the determination of ultra-low level pesticides from high-elevation lake waters by large-volume injection programmable temperature vaporizer (LVI-PTV) GC/MS. This analytical method is developed as a subtask of a larger study, backgr...

  2. Effect of filtration rates on hollow fiber ultrafilter concentration of viruses and protozoans from large volumes of water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aims: To describe the ability of tangential flow hollow-fiber ultrafiltration to recover viruses from large volumes of water when run either at high filtration rates or lower filtration rates and recover Cryptosporidium parvum at high filtration rates. Methods and Results: Wate...

  3. 21 CFR 201.323 - Aluminum in large and small volume parenterals used in total parenteral nutrition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... used in total parenteral nutrition. 201.323 Section 201.323 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... parenteral nutrition. (a) The aluminum content of large volume parenteral (LVP) drug products used in total parenteral nutrition (TPN) therapy must not exceed 25 micrograms per liter (µg/L). (b) The package insert...

  4. 21 CFR 201.323 - Aluminum in large and small volume parenterals used in total parenteral nutrition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... used in total parenteral nutrition. 201.323 Section 201.323 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... parenteral nutrition. (a) The aluminum content of large volume parenteral (LVP) drug products used in total parenteral nutrition (TPN) therapy must not exceed 25 micrograms per liter (µg/L). (b) The package insert...

  5. 21 CFR 201.323 - Aluminum in large and small volume parenterals used in total parenteral nutrition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... used in total parenteral nutrition. 201.323 Section 201.323 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... parenteral nutrition. (a) The aluminum content of large volume parenteral (LVP) drug products used in total parenteral nutrition (TPN) therapy must not exceed 25 micrograms per liter (µg/L). (b) The package insert...

  6. 21 CFR 201.323 - Aluminum in large and small volume parenterals used in total parenteral nutrition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... used in total parenteral nutrition. 201.323 Section 201.323 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... parenteral nutrition. (a) The aluminum content of large volume parenteral (LVP) drug products used in total parenteral nutrition (TPN) therapy must not exceed 25 micrograms per liter (µg/L). (b) The package insert...

  7. 21 CFR 201.323 - Aluminum in large and small volume parenterals used in total parenteral nutrition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... used in total parenteral nutrition. 201.323 Section 201.323 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... parenteral nutrition. (a) The aluminum content of large volume parenteral (LVP) drug products used in total parenteral nutrition (TPN) therapy must not exceed 25 micrograms per liter (µg/L). (b) The package insert...

  8. A New Suggestion for the Radiation Target Volume After a Subtotal Gastrectomy in Patients With Stomach Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Nam, Heerim; Lim, Do Hoon Kim, Sung; Kang, Won Ki; Sohn, Tae Sung; Noh, Jae Hyung; Kim, Yong Il; Park, Chan Hyung; Park, Chul Keun; Ahn, Yong Chan; Huh, Seung Jae

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: To compare treatment results between the use of two different radiation fields including and excluding remnant stomach and suggest new target volumes excluding remnant stomach after subtotal gastrectomy (STG) in patients with stomach cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 291 patients treated with adjuvant chemoradiotherapy after STG and D2 dissection at the Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea. Eighty-three patients registered from 1995 to 1997 underwent irradiation according to the INT 0116 protocol that recommended the inclusion of remnant stomach within the target volume (Group A). After this period, we excluded remnant stomach from the target volume for 208 patients (Group B). Median follow-up was 67 months. Results: Treatment failure developed in 93 patients (32.0%). Local and regional recurrence rates for Group A vs. Group B were 10.8% vs. 5.3% (p = not significant) and 9.6% vs. 6.3% (p = not significant), and recurrence rates for remnant stomach were 7.2% vs. 1.4% (p = 0.018), respectively. Overall and disease-free survival rates were not different between the two groups. Grade 3 or 4 vomiting and diarrhea developed more frequently in Group A than Group B (4.8% vs. 1.4% and 6.0% vs. 1.9%, respectively; p = 0.012; p < 0.001). Conclusion: Exclusion of remnant stomach from the radiation field had no effect on failure rates or survival, and a low complication rate occurred in patients treated excluding remnant stomach. We suggest that remnant stomach be excluded from the radiation target volume for patients with stomach cancer who undergo STG and D2 dissection.

  9. Recurrence pattern of squamous cell carcinoma in the midthoracic esophagus: implications for the clinical target volume design of postoperative radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoli; Luo, Yijun; Li, Minghuan; Yan, Hongjiang; Sun, Mingping; Fan, Tingyong

    2016-01-01

    Background Postoperative radiotherapy has shown positive efficacy in lowering the recurrence rate and improving the survival rate for patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, controversies still exist about the postoperative prophylactic radiation target volume. This study was designed to analyze the patterns of recurrence and to provide a reference for determination of the postoperative radiotherapy target volume for patients with midthoracic ESCC. Patients and methods A total of 338 patients with recurrent or metastatic midthoracic ESCC after radical surgery were retrospectively examined. The patterns of recurrence including locoregional and distant metastasis were analyzed for these patients. Results The rates of lymph node (LN) metastasis were 28.4% supraclavicular, 77.2% upper mediastinal, 32.0% middle mediastinal, 50.0% lower mediastinal, and 19.5% abdominal LNs. In subgroup analyses, the rate of abdominal LN metastasis was significantly higher in patients with histological node-positive than that in patients with histological node-negative (P=0.033). Further analysis in patients with histological node-positive demonstrated that patients with three or more positive nodes are more prone to abdominal LN metastasis, compared with patients with one or two positive nodes (χ2=4.367, P=0.037). The length of tumor and histological differentiation were also the high-risk factors for abdominal LN metastasis. Conclusion For midthoracic ESCC with histological node-negative, or one or two positive nodes, the supraclavicular and stations 2, 4, 5, and 7 LNs should be delineated as clinical target volume of postoperative prophylactic irradiation, and upper abdominal LNs should be excluded. While for midthoracic ESCC with three or more positive nodes, upper abdominal LNs should also be included. The length of tumor and histological differentiation should be considered comprehensively to design the clinical target volume for radiotherapy. PMID

  10. {sup 11}C-methionine PET improves the target volume delineation of meningiomas treated with stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Grosu, Anca-Ligia . E-mail: anca-ligia.grosu@lrz.tum.de; Weber, Wolfgang A.; Astner, Sabrina T.; Adam, Markus; Krause, Bernd J.; Schwaiger, Markus; Molls, Michael; Nieder, Carsten

    2006-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of {sup 11}C-methionine positron emission tomography (MET-PET) in target volume delineation for meningiomas and to determine the interobserver variability. Methods and Materials: Two independent observers performed treatment planning in 10 patients according to a prospective written protocol. In the first step, they used coregistered computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In the second step, MET-PET was added to CT/MRI (image fusion based on mutual information). Results: The correlation between gross tumor volume (GTVs) delineated by the two observers based on CT/MRI was r = 0.855 (Spearman's correlation coefficient, p = 0.002) and r = 0.988 (p = 0.000) when MET-PET/CT/MRI were used. The number of patients with agreement in more then 80% of the outlined volume increased with the availability of MET-PET from 1 in 10 to 5 in 10. The median volume of intersection between the regions delineated by two observers increased significantly from 69% (from the composite volume) to 79%, by the addition of MET-PET (p = 0.005). The information of MET-PET was useful to delineate GTV in the area of cavernous sinus, orbit, and base of the skull. Conclusions: The hypothesis-generating findings of potential normal tissue sparing and reduced interobserver variability provide arguments for invasive studies of the correlation between MET-PET images and histologic tumor extension and for prospective trials of target volume delineation with CT/MRI/MET-PET image fusion.

  11. Using injectable hydrogel markers to assess resimulation for boost target volume definition in a patient undergoing whole-breast radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Henal; Goyal, Sharad; Kim, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Several publications have recommended that patients undergoing whole-breast radiotherapy be resimulated for boost planning. The rationale for this is that the seroma may be smaller when compared with the initial simulation. However, the decision remains whether to use the earlier or later images to define an appropriate boost target volume. A patient undergoing whole-breast radiotherapy had new, injectable, temporary hydrogel fiducial markers placed 1 to 3 cm from the seroma at the time of initial simulation. The patient was resimulated 4.5 weeks later for conformal photon boost planning. Computed tomography (CT) scans acquired at the beginning and the end of whole-breast radiotherapy showed that shrinkage of the lumpectomy cavity was not matched by a corresponding reduction in the surrounding tissue volume, as demarcated by hydrogel markers. This observation called into question the usual interpretation of cavity shrinkage for boost target definition. For this patient, it was decided to define the boost target volume on the initial planning CT instead of the new CT.

  12. Large volume leukapheresis is efficient and safe even in small children up to 15 kg body weight

    PubMed Central

    Bojanic, Ines; Mazic, Sanja; Rajic, Ljubica; Jakovljevic, Gordana; Stepan, Jasminka; Cepulic, Branka Golubic

    2017-01-01

    Background The collection of peripheral blood stem cells, although now a routine procedure, is still a challenge in low body weight children because of specific technical and clinical issues. For paediatric patients it is crucial to obtain an adequate number of CD34+ cells with the minimum number of procedures: this can be done using large volume leukapheresis (LVL). Materials and methods We analysed the efficacy and safety of 54 autologous LVL performed in 50 children (33 [66%] males and 17 [34%] females), median age 2 years (range, 1–5) and median body weight 12 kg (range, 6–15). The procedures were performed with a COBE Spectra previously primed with red blood cells; ACD-A solution and heparin were used as anticoagulants. Results The target CD34+ cell dose (≥5×10/kg body weight) were collected with one LVL in 46 (92%) patients, while four (8%) patients needed another procedure. All our LVL were well tolerated. Side effects were observed in five (9.2%) patients and one procedure had to be discontinued because of catheter-related haemorrhage. The platelet count decreased significantly (p<0.001) after each procedure but without bleeding or need for transfusion support. Discussion Our experience confirms that LVL is efficient and safe even in small children, if the procedure is adjusted considering the weight and age of child. The most important factors are good venous access, adequate preparation of the child’s electrolyte status, and surroundings in which the small child as well as parents feel comfortable, and can tolerate the procedure better. Although a median platelet loss of 50% can be expected, LVL is safe and reduces the overall number of procedures required. It can be recommended for peripheral blood stem cell collection even in small body weight children with malignant diseases, particularly those who mobilise low numbers of CD34+ cells. PMID:27136428

  13. Trace analysis of isothiazolinones in water samples by large-volume direct injection liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Speksnijder, P; van Ravestijn, J; de Voogt, P

    2010-08-06

    Isothiazolinones are used as preservatives, biocides and disinfectants in a variety of industrial and domestic applications. Some of the isothiazolinones are difficult to isolate from water due their high polarity. A sensitive and selective analytical method was developed and optimized for the determination of sub-microg/L levels of three isothiazolinones in water samples. Three isothiazolinones are described in this paper: 2-methyl-3-isothiazolinone, 5-chloro-2-methyl-3-isothiazolinone and 4,5-dichloro-2-methyl-3-isothiazolinone. The analytical method involves a robust large-volume direct on-column loop injection of 2 mL on an Aqua ODS HPLC column and tandem MS detection (HPLC-MS/MS). After filtration, samples are directly injected without further pretreatment. Detection limits of the individual target compounds were between 0.03 and 0.1 microg/L employing Multi-Reaction Monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry. Based on the constant ratio of two selected product-ions together with the retention time, the identification is very selective and quantification is reliable. The method was successfully applied to real samples of membrane flushings, drinking water, surface waters and waste water. Additional investigations showed the instability of the isothiazolinones in river- and waste water. Preservation of river water and waste water samples with sodium azide (NaN(3)) promotes the stability of the isothiazolines in solution. In membrane flushings, waste water, surface waters and drinking water, levels of the three isothiazolinones were all below the limit of detection. In effluents of households containing washings from normal shampoo use, isothiazolinones could be detected.

  14. PBPC collection techniques: standard versus large volume leukapheresis (LVL) in donors and in patients.

    PubMed

    Gasová, Zdenka; Marinov, Iuri; Vodvárková, Sárka; Böhmová, Martina; Bhuyian-Ludvíková, Zdenka

    2005-04-01

    Transplantations of autologous and allogeneic peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) are able to assure a complete hematopoietic and immunologic reconstitution in patients. PBPC are collected by leukapheresis technique after prior mobilization therapy, but procedures and results remain still highly variable and are poorly characterized. An optimum regimen for PBPC collections has not yet been recommended, but 2-3 total blood volumes (TBV) of the donor or patient are regarded as a standard. Another promising technique is large volume leukapheresis (LVL) with processing of 3-6 TBV of donor or patient. The aim of this paper is to find the most efficient and safe collection technique for an individual donor or patient and, consequently minimize the number of procedures required. Finding the optimal collection procedure would be helpful while considering which method would be preferred in an individual donor or patient with respect to the result of mobilization, health state and required yield of CD 34+ cells for transplantation. We evaluated the results in a total of 134 standard and LVL procedures, which were performed in 21 well mobilized donors (Group I), in 65 well mobilized patients (Group II), and in 14 weakly mobilized patients (Group III) with hemato-oncological diseases. A precollection concentration of CD 34+ cells in peripheral blood higher than 20 x 10(3)/mL was considered to be the criterion for efficient mobilization. Such levels of concentration indicating the start of PBPC collections could be easily reached in Group I of donors and Group II of well mobilized patients. Heavily pretreated patients at advanced stages of disease (Group III) did not respond to mobilization sufficiently and had a concentration of CD 34+ cells lower than 20x10(3)/mL. LVL technique made it possible to obtain higher numbers of CD 34+ cells than in the standard collection in well mobilized donors (Group I), well mobilized patients (Group II), and even in weakly mobilized

  15. Large-scale chemical similarity networks for target profiling of compounds identified in cell-based chemical screens.

    PubMed

    Lo, Yu-Chen; Senese, Silvia; Li, Chien-Ming; Hu, Qiyang; Huang, Yong; Damoiseaux, Robert; Torres, Jorge Z

    2015-03-01

    Target identification is one of the most critical steps following cell-based phenotypic chemical screens aimed at identifying compounds with potential uses in cell biology and for developing novel disease therapies. Current in silico target identification methods, including chemical similarity database searches, are limited to single or sequential ligand analysis that have limited capabilities for accurate deconvolution of a large number of compounds with diverse chemical structures. Here, we present CSNAP (Chemical Similarity Network Analysis Pulldown), a new computational target identification method that utilizes chemical similarity networks for large-scale chemotype (consensus chemical pattern) recognition and drug target profiling. Our benchmark study showed that CSNAP can achieve an overall higher accuracy (>80%) of target prediction with respect to representative chemotypes in large (>200) compound sets, in comparison to the SEA approach (60-70%). Additionally, CSNAP is capable of integrating with biological knowledge-based databases (Uniprot, GO) and high-throughput biology platforms (proteomic, genetic, etc) for system-wise drug target validation. To demonstrate the utility of the CSNAP approach, we combined CSNAP's target prediction with experimental ligand evaluation to identify the major mitotic targets of hit compounds from a cell-based chemical screen and we highlight novel compounds targeting microtubules, an important cancer therapeutic target. The CSNAP method is freely available and can be accessed from the CSNAP web server (http://services.mbi.ucla.edu/CSNAP/).

  16. Development of deployable structures for large space platform systems. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, R. L.; Nelson, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Candidate deployable linear platform system concepts suitable for development to technology readiness by 1986 are reviewed. The systems concepts were based on trades of alternate deployable/retractable structure concepts, integration of utilities, and interface approaches for docking and assembly of payloads and subsystems. The deployable volume studies involved generation of concepts for deployable volumes which could be used as unpressurized or pressurized hangars, habitats and interconnecting tunnels. Concept generation emphasized using flexible materials and deployable truss structure technology.

  17. Associations between IQ, total and regional brain volumes, and demography in a large normative sample of healthy children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lange, Nicholas; Froimowitz, Michael P; Bigler, Erin D; Lainhart, Janet E

    2010-01-01

    In the course of efforts to establish quantitative norms for healthy brain development by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (Brain Development Cooperative Group, 2006), previously unreported associations of parental education and temporal and frontal lobe volumes with full scale IQ and its verbal and performance subscales were discovered. Our findings were derived from the largest, most representative MRI sample to date of healthy children and adolescents, ages 4 years 10 months to 18 years 4 months. We first find that parental education has a strong association with IQ in children that is not mediated by total or regional brain volumes. Second, we find that our observed correlations between temporal gray matter, temporal white matter and frontal white matter volumes with full scale IQ, between 0.14 to 0.27 in children and adolescents, are due in large part to their correlations with performance IQ and not verbal IQ. The volumes of other lobar gray and white matter, subcortical gray matter (thalamus, caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus), cerebellum, and brainstem do not contribute significantly to IQ variation. Third, we find that head circumference is an insufficient index of cerebral volume in typically developing older children and adolescents. The relations between total and regional brain volumes and IQ can best be discerned when additional variables known to be associated with IQ, especially parental education and other demographic measures, are considered concurrently.

  18. Associations Between IQ, Total and Regional Brain Volumes and Demography in a Large Normative Sample of Healthy Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Nicholas; Froimowitz, Michael P.; Bigler, Erin D.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2010-01-01

    In the course of efforts to establish quantitative MRI-based norms for healthy brain development (Brain Development Cooperative Group, 2006), previously unreported associations of parental education and temporal and frontal lobe volumes with full scale IQ and its verbal and performance subscales were discovered. Our findings were derived from the largest, most representative MRI sample to date of healthy children and adolescents, ages 4 years 10 months to 18 years 4 months. We first find that parental education has a strong association with IQ in children that is not mediated by total or regional brain volumes. Second, we find that our observed associations between temporal gray matter, temporal white matter and frontal white matter volumes with full scale IQ, between 0.14 to 0.27 in children and adolescents, are due in large part to their correlations with performance IQ and not verbal IQ. The volumes of other lobar gray and white matter, subcortical gray matter (thalamus, caudate nucleus, putamen and globus pallidus), cerebellum and brainstem do not contribute significantly to IQ variation. Third, we find that head circumference is an insufficient index of cerebral volume in typically developing older children and adolescents. The relations between total and regional brain volumes and IQ can best be discerned when additional variables known to be associated with IQ, especially parental education and other demographic measures, are considered concurrently. PMID:20446134

  19. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) 2005: Calibration and Targeted Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truch, Matthew; BLAST Collaboration

    2007-12-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) operated successfully during a 100-hour flight from northern Sweden in June 2005 (BLAST05). As part of the calibration and pointing procedures, several compact sources were mapped, including solar system, Galactic, and extragalactic targets, specifically Pallas, CRL 2688, LDN 1014, IRAS 20126+4104, IRAS 21078+5211, IRAS 21307+5049, IRAS 22134+5834, IRAS 23011+6126, K3-50, W 75N, Mrk 231, NGC 4565, and Arp 220 (this last source being our primary calibrator). The BLAST observations of each compact source are described, flux densities and spectral energy distributions are reported, and these are compared with previous measurements at other wavelengths. BLAST was particularly useful for constraining the slope of the submillimeter continuum.

  20. Targeting Non-proteolytic Protein Ubiquitination for the Treatment of Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yibin; Kelly, Priscilla; Shaffer, Arthur L; Schmitz, Roland; Yoo, Hee Min; Liu, Xinyue; Huang, Da Wei; Webster, Daniel; Young, Ryan M; Nakagawa, Masao; Ceribelli, Michele; Wright, George W; Yang, Yandan; Zhao, Hong; Yu, Xin; Xu, Weihong; Chan, Wing C; Jaffe, Elaine S; Gascoyne, Randy D; Campo, Elias; Rosenwald, Andreas; Ott, German; Delabie, Jan; Rimsza, Lisa; Staudt, Louis M

    2016-04-11

    Chronic active B cell receptor (BCR) signaling, a hallmark of the activated B cell-like (ABC) subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), engages the CARD11-MALT1-BCL10 (CBM) adapter complex to activate IκB kinase (IKK) and the classical NF-κB pathway. Here we show that the CBM complex includes the E3 ubiquitin ligases cIAP1 and cIAP2, which are essential mediators of BCR-dependent NF-κB activity in ABC DLBCL. cIAP1/2 attach K63-linked polyubiquitin chains on themselves and on BCL10, resulting in the recruitment of IKK and the linear ubiquitin chain ligase LUBAC, which is essential for IKK activation. SMAC mimetics target cIAP1/2 for destruction, and consequently suppress NF-κB and selectively kill BCR-dependent ABC DLBCL lines, supporting their clinical evaluation in patients with ABC DLBCL.

  1. Metabolic Signatures Uncover Distinct Targets in Molecular Subsets of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Caro, Pilar; Kishan, Amar U.; Norberg, Erik; Stanley, Illana; Chapuy, Bjoern; Ficarro, Scott B.; Polak, Klaudia; Tondera, Daniel; Gounarides, John; Yin, Hong; Zhou, Feng; Green, Michael R.; Chen, Linfeng; Monti, Stefano; Marto, Jarrod A.; Shipp, Margaret A.; Danial, Nika N.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Molecular signatures have identified several subsets of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) and rational targets within the B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling axis. The OxPhos-DLBCL subset, which harbors the signature of genes involved in mitochondrial metabolism, is insensitive to inhibition of BCR survival signaling, but is functionally undefined. We show that compared with BCR-DLBCLs, OxPhos-DLBCLs display enhanced mitochondrial energy transduction, greater incorporation of nutrient-derived carbons into the TCA cycle and increased glutathione levels. Importantly, perturbation of the fatty acid oxidation program and glutathione synthesis proved selectively toxic to this tumor subset. Our analysis provides evidence for distinct metabolic fingerprints and associated survival mechanisms in DLBCL and may have therapeutic implications. PMID:23079663

  2. Validation of a 4D-PET Maximum Intensity Projection for Delineation of an Internal Target Volume

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, Jason; Kron, Tomas; Schneider-Kolsky, Michal; Dunn, Leon; Thompson, Mick; Siva, Shankar; Aarons, Yolanda; Binns, David; Hicks, Rodney J.

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: The delineation of internal target volumes (ITVs) in radiation therapy of lung tumors is currently performed by use of either free-breathing (FB) {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography-computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) or 4-dimensional (4D)-CT maximum intensity projection (MIP). In this report we validate the use of 4D-PET-MIP for the delineation of target volumes in both a phantom and in patients. Methods and Materials: A phantom with 3 hollow spheres was prepared surrounded by air then water. The spheres and water background were filled with a mixture of {sup 18}F and radiographic contrast medium. A 4D-PET/CT scan was performed of the phantom while moving in 4 different breathing patterns using a programmable motion device. Nine patients with an FDG-avid lung tumor who underwent FB and 4D-PET/CT and >5 mm of tumor motion were included for analysis. The 3 spheres and patient lesions were contoured by 2 contouring methods (40% of maximum and PET edge) on the FB-PET, FB-CT, 4D-PET, 4D-PET-MIP, and 4D-CT-MIP. The concordance between the different contoured volumes was calculated using a Dice coefficient (DC). The difference in lung tumor volumes between FB-PET and 4D-PET volumes was also measured. Results: The average DC in the phantom using 40% and PET edge, respectively, was lowest for FB-PET/CT (DCAir = 0.72/0.67, DCBackground 0.63/0.62) and highest for 4D-PET/CT-MIP (DCAir = 0.84/0.83, DCBackground = 0.78/0.73). The average DC in the 9 patients using 40% and PET edge, respectively, was also lowest for FB-PET/CT (DC = 0.45/0.44) and highest for 4D-PET/CT-MIP (DC = 0.72/0.73). In the 9 lesions, the target volumes of the FB-PET using 40% and PET edge, respectively, were on average 40% and 45% smaller than the 4D-PET-MIP. Conclusion: A 4D-PET-MIP produces volumes with the highest concordance with 4D-CT-MIP across multiple breathing patterns and lesion sizes in both a phantom and among patients. Freebreathing PET/CT consistently

  3. Targeted therapy for Hodgkin lymphoma and systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma: focus on brentuximab vedotin

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xueyan; Soma, Lorinda A; Fromm, Jonathan R

    2014-01-01

    Despite the relative success of chemotherapy for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), novel therapeutic agents are needed for refractory or relapsed patients. Targeted immunotherapy has emerged as a novel treatment option for these patients. Although unconjugated anti-cluster of differentiation (CD)30 antibodies showed minimal antitumor activity in early clinical trials, development of antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs) appears promising. Brentuximab vedotin is an ADC composed of an anti-CD30 antibody linked to a potent microtubule-disrupting agent monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE). It has the ability to target CD30-positive tumor cells and, once bound to CD30, brentuximab vedotin is internalized and MMAE is released to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In two Phase II trials, objective response was reported in 75% and 86% of patients with refractory or relapsed HL and systemic ALCL, respectively, with an acceptable toxicity profile. Based on these studies, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted accelerated approval of brentuximab vedotin in August 2011 for the treatment of refractory and relapsed HL and ALCL. We review the key characteristics of brentuximab vedotin, clinical data supporting its therapeutic efficacy, and current ongoing trials to explore its utility in other CD30-positive malignancies. PMID:24379682

  4. First shock tuning and backscatter measurements for large case-to-capsule ratio beryllium targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loomis, Eric; Yi, Austin; Kline, John; Kyrala, George; Simakov, Andrei; Wilson, Doug; Ralph, Joe; Dewald, Eduard; Strozzi, David; Celliers, Peter; Millot, Marius; Tommasini, Riccardo

    2016-10-01

    The current under performance of target implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) has necessitated scaling back from high convergence ratio to access regimes of reduced physics uncertainties. These regimes, we expect, are more predictable by existing radiation hydrodynamics codes giving us a better starting point for isolating key physics questions. One key question is the lack of predictable in-flight and hot spot shape due to a complex hohlraum radiation environment. To achieve more predictable, shape tunable implosions we have designed and fielded a large 4.2 case-to-capsule ratio (CCR) target at the NIF using 6.72 mm diameter Au hohlraums and 1.6 mm diameter Cu-doped Be capsules. Simulations show that at these dimensions during a 10 ns 3-shock laser pulse reaching 270 eV hohlraum temperatures, the interaction between hohlraum and capsule plasma, which at lower CCR lead to beam propagation impedance by artificial plasma stagnation, are reduced. In this talk we will present measurements of early time drive symmetry using two-axis line-imaging velocimetry (VISAR) and streaked radiography measuring velocity of the imploding shell and their comparisons to post-shot calculations using the code HYDRA (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory).

  5. SU-E-J-78: Internal Target Volume Delineation for Lung Tumors in Patients Treated with Robotic Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Descovich, M; Pinnaduwage, D; Kirby, N; Gottschalk, A; Yom, S; Pouliot, J; Braunstein, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To compare different approaches for Internal Target Volume (ITV) delineation for patients treated with fiducial-free robotic radiosurgery for primary and metastatic lung tumors. Methods: Ten patients undergoing Lung-Optimized Treatment (LOT) for robotic radiosurgery were imaged with inhale and exhale breath-hold CT scans and 8-phase 4DCT scan. We evaluated the differences in internal target volume (ITV) delineated using three approaches: 1) maximum intensity projection (MIP) images reconstructed from 4DCT scan (ITV-MIP); 2) linear interpolation of Gross Tumor Volumes (GTV) segmented on inhale and exhale breath-hold scans (ITV-BH); 3) linear interpolation of GTV segmented on inhale and exhale phases of 4DCT scan (ITV-2Phase). All contours were independently generated by the same radiation oncologist using lung window settings. Patients had ITV-MIP volumes ranging from 1.5 to 146.9 cc (mean 36.8 cc) located in various parts of the lung. Volume overlap and matching index (MI) were calculated and compared. The MI between two volumes was defined as the ratio of their intersection to their union. MI of 1 indicates the volumes are identical; MI of 0 indicates that there is no overlap. Results: The three approaches generated very different results. The average (SD) MI for ITV-MIP and ITV-BH was 0.52 (0.24); for ITV-MIP and ITV-2Phase it was 0.69 (0.13); and for ITV-BH and ITV-2Phase was 0.57 (0.21), (ANOVA, p=0.16). Relative to the ITV-MIP, the percentage of volume overlap was 72% (26%) and 90% (7%) for ITV-BH and ITV-2Phase, respectively (t-test, p=0.05). Conclusion: Differences between ITV-BH and ITV-MIP are due to inconsistent lung filling at breath-hold and nonlinear tumor motion. Therefore, methods to check breath-hold scanning against regular patient breathing patterns should be developed. Whenever possible, ITV-BH generated by the LOT workflow should be verified by 4DCT data.

  6. Assessment of a novel device for onsite integrative large-volume solid phase extraction of water samples to enable a comprehensive chemical and effect-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Tobias; Ahel, Marijan; Ahlheim, Jörg; Aït-Aïssa, Selim; Brion, François; Di Paolo, Carolina; Froment, Jean; Hidasi, Anita O; Hollender, Juliane; Hollert, Henner; Hu, Meng; Kloß, Anett; Koprivica, Sanja; Krauss, Martin; Muz, Melis; Oswald, Peter; Petre, Margit; Schollée, Jennifer E; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Shao, Ying; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Sonavane, Manoj; Suter, Marc J-F; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Tousova, Zuzana; Walz, Karl-Heinz; Brack, Werner

    2017-03-01

    The implementation of targeted and nontargeted chemical screening analysis in combination with in vitro and organism-level bioassays is a prerequisite for a more holistic monitoring of water quality in the future. For chemical analysis, little or no sample enrichment is often sufficient, while bioanalysis often requires larger sample volumes at a certain enrichment factor for conducting comprehensive bioassays on different endpoints or further effect-directed analysis (EDA). To avoid logistic and technical issues related to the storage and transport of large volumes of water, sampling would benefit greatly from onsite extraction. This study presents a novel onsite large volume solid phase extraction (LVSPE) device tailored to fulfill the requirements for the successful effect-based and chemical screening of water resources and complies with available international standards for automated sampling devices. Laboratory recovery experiments using 251 organic compounds in the log D range from -3.6 to 9.4 (at pH7.0) spiked into pristine water resulted in acceptable recoveries and from 60 to 123% for 159 out of 251 substances. Within a European-wide demonstration program, the LVSPE was able to enrich compounds in concentration ranges over three orders of magnitude (1ngL(-1) to 2400ngL(-1)). It was possible to discriminate responsive samples from samples with no or only low effects in a set of six different bioassays (i.e. acetylcholinesterase and algal growth inhibition, androgenicity, estrogenicity, fish embryo toxicity, glucocorticoid activity). The LVSPE thus proved applicable for onsite extraction of sufficient amounts of water to investigate water quality thoroughly by means of chemical analysis and effect-based tools without the common limitations due to small sample volumes.

  7. Large-aperture broadband sapphire windows for common aperture, target acquisition, tracking, and surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askinazi, Joel

    1997-06-01

    State of the art optical sensing systems performing target acquisition/tracking and surveillance functions are being designed to incorporate a number of sensors into one package. These include visual and MWIR cameras, FLIRs, and laser range finders. These combined systems are being configured to view through a common aperture window. Typical window diameters are to eleven inches, but some surveillance applications have windows approaching twenty inches in diameter. These sensor windows typically operate in hostile environments including very high pressure differentials, large thermal gradients, and severe rain and sand abrasion. EMI/EMC protection and de-icing capabilities are also commonly required. For airborne applications and to minimize thermal gradients, thinner, lightweight, high strength windows are also necessary. Sapphire is an ideal window material to satisfy these requirements due to its high strength, UV-MWIR bandpass, minimal optical scatter, excellent index of refraction homogeneity and very high scratch/impact resistance. Associated optical fabrication, grid lithography and optical coating processes have been developed at Hughes Danbury for sapphire windows. This paper addresses the development of a family of large aperture, broadband sapphire windows which also provide EMI/EMC protection and de-icing capabilities. The resulting design configuration and performance characteristics are also addressed. Future technology development requirements are also discussed.

  8. Nonthermal ablation of deep brain targets: A simulation study on a large animal model

    PubMed Central

    Top, Can Barış; White, P. Jason; McDannold, Nathan J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Thermal ablation with transcranial MRI-guided focused ultrasound (FUS) is currently limited to central brain targets because of heating and other beam effects caused by the presence of the skull. Recently, it was shown that it is possible to ablate tissues without depositing thermal energy by driving intravenously administered microbubbles to inertial cavitation using low-duty-cycle burst sonications. A recent study demonstrated that this ablation method could ablate tissue volumes near the skull base in nonhuman primates without thermally damaging the nearby bone. However, blood–brain disruption was observed in the prefocal region, and in some cases, this region contained small areas of tissue damage. The objective of this study was to analyze the experimental model with simulations and to interpret the cause of these effects. Methods: The authors simulated prior experiments where nonthermal ablation was performed in the brain in anesthetized rhesus macaques using a 220 kHz clinical prototype transcranial MRI-guided FUS system. Low-duty-cycle sonications were applied at deep brain targets with the ultrasound contrast agent Definity. For simulations, a 3D pseudospectral finite difference time domain tool was used. The effects of shear mode conversion, focal steering, skull aberrations, nonlinear propagation, and the presence of skull base on the pressure field were investigated using acoustic and elastic wave propagation models. Results: The simulation results were in agreement with the experimental findings in the prefocal region. In the postfocal region, however, side lobes were predicted by the simulations, but no effects were evident in the experiments. The main beam was not affected by the different simulated scenarios except for a shift of about 1 mm in peak position due to skull aberrations. However, the authors observed differences in the volume, amplitude, and distribution of the side lobes. In the experiments, a single element passive

  9. Detection of triazole deicing additives in soil samples from airports with low, mid, and large volume aircraft deicing activities.

    PubMed

    McNeill, K S; Cancilla, D A

    2009-03-01

    Soil samples from three USA airports representing low, mid, and large volume users of aircraft deicing fluids (ADAFs) were analyzed by LC/MS/MS for the presence of triazoles, a class of corrosion inhibitors historically used in ADAFs. Triazoles, specifically the 4-methyl-1H-benzotriazole and the 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole, were detected in a majority of samples and ranged from 2.35 to 424.19 microg/kg. Previous studies have focused primarily on ground and surface water impacts of larger volume ADAF users. The detection of triazoles in soils at low volume ADAF use airports suggests that deicing activities may have a broader environmental impact than previously considered.

  10. Determination of Internal Target Volume From a Single Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Scan in Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chang Guoping; Chang Tingting; Pan Tinsu; Clark, John W.; Mawlawi, Osama R.

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: The use of four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) to determine the tumor internal target volume (ITV) is usually characterized by high patient radiation exposure. The objective of this study was to propose and evaluate an approach that relies on a single static positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scan to determine the ITV, thereby eliminating the need for 4D-CT and thus reduce patient radiation dose. Methods and Materials: The proposed approach is based on the concept that the observed PET image is the result of a joint convolution of an ideal PET image (free from motion and partial volume effect) with a motion-blurring kernel (MBK) and partial volume effect. In this regard, the MBK and tumor ITV are then estimated from the deconvolution of this joint model. To test this technique, phantom and patient studies were performed using different sphere/tumor sizes and motion trajectories. In all studies, a 4D-CT and a PET/CT image of the sphere/tumor were acquired. The ITV from the proposed technique was then compared to the maximum intensity projection (MIP) volume of the 4D-CT images. A Dice coefficient of the two volumes was calculated to represent the similarity between the two ITVs. Results: The average ITVs of the proposed technique were 97.2% {+-} 0.3% and 81.0% {+-} 16.7% similar to the MIP volume in the phantom and patient studies, respectively. The average dice coefficients were 0.87 {+-} 0.05 and 0.73 {+-} 0.16, respectively, for the two studies. Conclusion: Using the proposed approach, a single static PET/CT scan has the potential to replace a 4D-CT to determine the tumor ITV. This approach has the added advantage of reducing patient radiation exposure and determining the tumor MBK compared to 4D-CT/MIP-CT.

  11. Development of deployable structures for large space platforms. Volume 2: Design development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, H. S.

    1983-01-01

    Design evolution, test article design, test article mass properties, and structural analysis of deployable platform systems are discussed. Orbit transfer vehicle (OTV) hangar development, OTV hangar concept selection, and manned module development are discussed. Deployable platform systems requirements, material data base, technology development needs, concept selection and deployable volume enclosures are also discussed.

  12. COMPARISON OF TWO DIFFERENT SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION/LARGE VOLUME INJECTION PROCEDURES FOR METHOD 8270

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two solid phase (SPE) and one traditional continuous liquid-liquid extraction method are compared for analysis of Method 8270 SVOCs. Productivity parameters include data quality, sample volume, analysis time and solvent waste.

    One SPE system, unique in the U.S., uses aut...

  13. Threshold segmentation for PET target volume delineation in radiation treatment planning: the role of target-to-background ratio and target size.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, M; Matheoud, R; Secco, C; Loi, G; Krengli, M; Inglese, E

    2008-04-01

    A multivariable approach was adopted to study the dependence of the percentage threshold [TH(%)] used to define the boundaries of 18F-FDG positive tissue on emission scan duration (ESD) and activity at the start of acquisition (Aacq) for different target sizes and target-to-background (T/B) ratios. An anthropomorphic model, at least for counting rate characteristics, was used to study this dependence in conditions resembling the ones that can be encountered in the clinical studies. An annular ring of water bags of 3 cm thickness was fitted over an International Electro-technical Commission (IEC) phantom in order to obtain counting rates similar to those found in average patients. The scatter fraction of the modified IEC phantom was similar to the mean scatter fraction measured on patients, with a similar scanner. A supplemental set of microhollow spheres was positioned inside the phantom. The NEMA NU 2-2001 scatter phantom was positioned at the end of the IEC phantom to approximate the clinical situation of having activity that extends beyond the scanner field of view. The phantoms were filled with a solution of water and 18F (12 kBq/mL) and the spheres with various T/B ratios of 22.5, 10.3, and 3.6. Sequential imaging was performed to acquire PET images with varying background activity concentrations of about 12, 9, 6.4, 5.3, and 3.1 kBq/mL. The ESD was set to 60, 120, 180, and 240 s/bed. Data were fitted using two distinct multiple linear regression models for sphere ID < or = 10 mm and sphere ID > 10 mm. The fittings of both models were good with an R2 of 0.86 in both cases. Neither ESD nor Aacq resulted as significant predictors of the TH(%). For sphere ID < or =10 mm the target size was the most significant predictor of the TH(%), followed by the T/B ratio, while for sphere ID > 10 mm the explanatory power of the target size and T/B ratio were reversed, the T/B ratio being now the most important predictor of the TH(%). Both the target size and T/B ratio play a

  14. Target Volume Delineation in Dynamic Positron Emission Tomography Based on Time Activity Curve Differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teymurazyan, Artur

    Tumor volume delineation plays a critical role in radiation treatment planning and simulation, since inaccurately defined treatment volumes may lead to the overdosing of normal surrounding structures and potentially missing the cancerous tissue. However, the imaging modality almost exclusively used to determine tumor volumes, X-ray Computed Tomography (CT), does not readily exhibit a distinction between cancerous and normal tissue. It has been shown that CT data augmented with PET can improve radiation treatment plans by providing functional information not available otherwise. Presently, static PET scans account for the majority of procedures performed in clinical practice. In the radiation therapy (RT) setting, these scans are visually inspected by a radiation oncologist for the purpose of tumor volume delineation. This approach, however, often results in significant interobserver variability when comparing contours drawn by different experts on the same PET/CT data sets. For this reason, a search for more objective contouring approaches is underway. The major drawback of conventional tumor delineation in static PET images is the fact that two neighboring voxels of the same intensity can exhibit markedly different overall dynamics. Therefore, equal intensity voxels in a static analysis of a PET image may be falsely classified as belonging to the same tissue. Dynamic PET allows the evaluation of image data in the temporal domain, which often describes specific biochemical properties of the imaged tissues. Analysis of dynamic PET data can be used to improve classification of the imaged volume into cancerous and normal tissue. In this thesis we present a novel tumor volume delineation approach (Single Seed Region Growing algorithm in 4D (dynamic) PET or SSRG/4D-PET) in dynamic PET based on TAC (Time Activity Curve) differences. A partially-supervised approach is pursued in order to allow an expert reader to utilize the information available from other imaging

  15. Large-Scale Screening of a Targeted Enterococcus faecalis Mutant Library Identifies Envelope Fitness Factors

    PubMed Central

    Rigottier-Gois, Lionel; Alberti, Adriana; Houel, Armel; Taly, Jean-François; Palcy, Philippe; Manson, Janet; Pinto, Daniela; Matos, Renata C.; Carrilero, Laura; Montero, Natalia; Tariq, Muhammad; Karsens, Harma; Repp, Christian; Kropec, Andrea; Budin-Verneuil, Aurélie; Benachour, Abdellah; Sauvageot, Nicolas; Bizzini, Alain; Gilmore, Michael S.; Bessières, Philippe; Kok, Jan; Huebner, Johannes; Lopes, Fatima; Gonzalez-Zorn, Bruno; Hartke, Axel; Serror, Pascale

    2011-01-01

    Spread of antibiotic resistance among bacteria responsible for nosocomial and community-acquired infections urges for novel therapeutic or prophylactic targets and for innovative pathogen-specific antibacterial compounds. Major challenges are posed by opportunistic pathogens belonging to the low GC% Gram-positive bacteria. Among those, Enterococcus faecalis is a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections associated with life-threatening issues and increased hospital costs. To better understand the molecular properties of enterococci that may be required for virulence, and that may explain the emergence of these bacteria in nosocomial infections, we performed the first large-scale functional analysis of E. faecalis V583, the first vancomycin-resistant isolate from a human bloodstream infection. E. faecalis V583 is within the high-risk clonal complex 2 group, which comprises mostly isolates derived from hospital infections worldwide. We conducted broad-range screenings of candidate genes likely involved in host adaptation (e.g., colonization and/or virulence). For this purpose, a library was constructed of targeted insertion mutations in 177 genes encoding putative surface or stress-response factors. Individual mutants were subsequently tested for their i) resistance to oxidative stress, ii) antibiotic resistance, iii) resistance to opsonophagocytosis, iv) adherence to the human colon carcinoma Caco-2 epithelial cells and v) virulence in a surrogate insect model. Our results identified a number of factors that are involved in the interaction between enterococci and their host environments. Their predicted functions highlight the importance of cell envelope glycopolymers in E. faecalis host adaptation. This study provides a valuable genetic database for understanding the steps leading E. faecalis to opportunistic virulence. PMID:22194979

  16. Fabrics, Facies And Flow Through A Large-Volume Ignimbrite: Pampa De Oxaya, Chile.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platzman, Ellen; Cooper, Frances

    2016-04-01

    Large volume pyroclastic currents form during some of the most destructive volcanic eruptions on the planet, yet because they are underrepresented in the geological record they remain poorly understood. The Miocene Oxaya ignimbrites, exposed along the western Andean slopes in northern Chile, form one of the largest ignimbrite provinces on earth. We use anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) in conjunction with rock magnetic measurements to investigate flow behavior and depositional processes in one of the largest members of the Oxaya succession, the Cardones ignimbrite. Despite its prominence the location of the source caldera remains unknown and fundamental processes remain poorly constrained. During 2012 nearly 8km (7,773m) of core was recovered from the early Miocene ignimbrites in 11 holes at elevations ranging from 2336m to 3805m along the Andean escarpment east of Arica, Chile. The drill cores are remarkable in that they penetrate through the entirety of the ignimbrite sequence and into the basement below. Samples for this study were collected from a > 1 km long core drilled at an altitude 3692m. The core sampled 981 m of Cardones ignimbrite and 15 m of underlying sediments and volcaniclastics before penetrating 148 m of basement. Detailed measurements of the variation in bulk magnetic properties including natural remanent magnetization (NRM), susceptibility, ARM, and IRM, were used to monitor changes in concentration, composition and grainsize of the magnetic components though the ignimbrite. AMS in conjunction with detailed rock magnetic measurements were used to constrain flow processes. The data reveal a well-defined flow direction and systematic variations in flow processes with depth. Low field bulk magnetic susceptibility averages 3.2x10-3 SI. Rock magnetic studies and petrographic examination indicate that magnetite is likely to be the dominant magnetic phase although paramagnetic mineral phases also contribute to the magnetic fabric. The degree

  17. Teaching Large Classes: Tools and Strategies. Survival Skills for Scholars, Volume 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbone, Elisa

    This book deals with the challenges of teaching large classes at institutions of higher learning, and addresses such issues as how instruction can be personalized and made more interactive with large numbers of students. The material for the book arose out of a "large classes project" at the University of Maryland, where the subject was…

  18. A clip-based protocol for breast boost radiotherapy provides clear target visualisation and demonstrates significant volume reduction over time

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Lorraine; Cox, Jennifer; Morgia, Marita; Atyeo, John; Lamoury, Gillian

    2015-09-15

    The clinical target volume (CTV) for early stage breast cancer is difficult to clearly identify on planning computed tomography (CT) scans. Surgical clips inserted around the tumour bed should help to identify the CTV, particularly if the seroma has been reabsorbed, and enable tracking of CTV changes over time. A surgical clip-based CTV delineation protocol was introduced. CTV visibility and its post-operative shrinkage pattern were assessed. The subjects were 27 early stage breast cancer patients receiving post-operative radiotherapy alone and 15 receiving post-operative chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. The radiotherapy alone (RT/alone) group received a CT scan at median 25 days post-operatively (CT1rt) and another at 40 Gy, median 68 days (CT2rt). The chemotherapy/RT group (chemo/RT) received a CT scan at median 18 days post-operatively (CT1ch), a planning CT scan at median 126 days (CT2ch), and another at 40 Gy (CT3ch). There was no significant difference (P = 0.08) between the initial mean CTV for each cohort. The RT/alone cohort showed significant CTV volume reduction of 38.4% (P = 0.01) at 40 Gy. The Chemo/RT cohort had significantly reduced volumes between CT1ch: median 54 cm{sup 3} (4–118) and CT2ch: median 16 cm{sup 3}, (2–99), (P = 0.01), but no significant volume reduction thereafter. Surgical clips enable localisation of the post-surgical seroma for radiotherapy targeting. Most seroma shrinkage occurs early, enabling CT treatment planning to take place at 7 weeks, which is within the 9 weeks recommended to limit disease recurrence.

  19. Design and Analysis of A Beacon-Less Routing Protocol for Large Volume Content Dissemination in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks.

    PubMed

    Hu, Miao; Zhong, Zhangdui; Ni, Minming; Baiocchi, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    Large volume content dissemination is pursued by the growing number of high quality applications for Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks(VANETs), e.g., the live road surveillance service and the video-based overtaking assistant service. For the highly dynamical vehicular network topology, beacon-less routing protocols have been proven to be efficient in achieving a balance between the system performance and the control overhead. However, to the authors' best knowledge, the routing design for large volume content has not been well considered in the previous work, which will introduce new challenges, e.g., the enhanced connectivity requirement for a radio link. In this paper, a link Lifetime-aware Beacon-less Routing Protocol (LBRP) is designed for large volume content delivery in VANETs. Each vehicle makes the forwarding decision based on the message header information and its current state, including the speed and position information. A semi-Markov process analytical model is proposed to evaluate the expected delay in constructing one routing path for LBRP. Simulations show that the proposed LBRP scheme outperforms the traditional dissemination protocols in providing a low end-to-end delay. The analytical model is shown to exhibit a good match on the delay estimation with Monte Carlo simulations, as well.

  20. Design and Analysis of A Beacon-Less Routing Protocol for Large Volume Content Dissemination in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Miao; Zhong, Zhangdui; Ni, Minming; Baiocchi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Large volume content dissemination is pursued by the growing number of high quality applications for Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks(VANETs), e.g., the live road surveillance service and the video-based overtaking assistant service. For the highly dynamical vehicular network topology, beacon-less routing protocols have been proven to be efficient in achieving a balance between the system performance and the control overhead. However, to the authors’ best knowledge, the routing design for large volume content has not been well considered in the previous work, which will introduce new challenges, e.g., the enhanced connectivity requirement for a radio link. In this paper, a link Lifetime-aware Beacon-less Routing Protocol (LBRP) is designed for large volume content delivery in VANETs. Each vehicle makes the forwarding decision based on the message header information and its current state, including the speed and position information. A semi-Markov process analytical model is proposed to evaluate the expected delay in constructing one routing path for LBRP. Simulations show that the proposed LBRP scheme outperforms the traditional dissemination protocols in providing a low end-to-end delay. The analytical model is shown to exhibit a good match on the delay estimation with Monte Carlo simulations, as well. PMID:27809285

  1. Genetic influences on schizophrenia and subcortical brain volumes: large-scale proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Franke, Barbara; Stein, Jason L; Ripke, Stephan; Anttila, Verneri; Hibar, Derrek P; van Hulzen, Kimm J E; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Smoller, Jordan W; Nichols, Thomas E; Neale, Michael C; McIntosh, Andrew M; Lee, Phil; McMahon, Francis J; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mattheisen, Manuel; Andreassen, Ole A; Gruber, Oliver; Sachdev, Perminder S; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Saykin, Andrew J; Ehrlich, Stefan; Mather, Karen A; Turner, Jessica A; Schwarz, Emanuel; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Yao, Yin; Ho, Yvonne Y W; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J; O'Donovan, Michael C; Thompson, Paul M; Neale, Benjamin M; Medland, Sarah E; Sullivan, Patrick F

    2016-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric illness with high heritability. Brain structure and function differ, on average, between people with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. As common genetic associations are emerging for both schizophrenia and brain imaging phenotypes, we can now use genome-wide data to investigate genetic overlap. Here we integrated results from common variant studies of schizophrenia (33,636 cases, 43,008 controls) and volumes of several (mainly subcortical) brain structures (11,840 subjects). We did not find evidence of genetic overlap between schizophrenia risk and subcortical volume measures either at the level of common variant genetic architecture or for single genetic markers. These results provide a proof of concept (albeit based on a limited set of structural brain measures) and define a roadmap for future studies investigating the genetic covariance between structural or functional brain phenotypes and risk for psychiatric disorders.

  2. The Life of William Thomson, Baron Kelvin of Largs 2 Volume Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Silvanus Phillips

    2011-05-01

    Volume 1: Preface; 1. Childhood, and upbringing at Glasgow; 2. Cambridge; 3. Post-graduate studies at Paris and Peterhouse; 4. The Glasgow Chair; 5. The young professor; 6. Thermodynamics; 7. The laboratory; 8. The Atlantic telegraph: failure; 9. Strenuous years; 10. The epoch-making treatise; 11. The Atlantic telegraph: success; 12. Labour and sorrow; 13. The geological controversy; 14. Later telegraphic work: the siphon recorder. Volume 2: 15. The 'Lalla Rookh', the British Association, and the 'Hooper'; 16. In the Seventies; 17. Navigation - the compass and the sounding machine; 18. Gyrostatics and wave motion; 19. In the Eighties; 20. The Baltimore lectures; 21. Gathering up the threads; 22. The peerage; 23. The jubilee. Retirement; 24. The great comprehensive theory; 25. Views and opinions; 26. The closing years; Appendices; Index.

  3. Small, medium, large or supersize? The development and evaluation of interventions targeted at portion size.

    PubMed

    Vermeer, W M; Steenhuis, I H M; Poelman, M P

    2014-07-01

    In the past decades, portion sizes of high-caloric foods and drinks have increased and can be considered an important environmental obesogenic factor. This paper describes a research project in which the feasibility and effectiveness of environmental interventions targeted at portion size was evaluated. The studies that we conducted revealed that portion size labeling, offering a larger variety of portion sizes, and proportional pricing (that is, a comparable price per unit regardless of the size) were considered feasible to implement according to both consumers and point-of-purchase representatives. Studies into the effectiveness of these interventions demonstrated that the impact of portion size labeling on the (intended) consumption of soft drinks was, at most, modest. Furthermore, the introduction of smaller portion sizes of hot meals in worksite cafeterias in addition to the existing size stimulated a moderate number of consumers to replace their large meals by a small meal. Elaborating on these findings, we advocate further research into communication and marketing strategies related to portion size interventions; the development of environmental portion size interventions as well as educational interventions that improve people's ability to deal with a 'super-sized' environment; the implementation of regulation with respect to portion size labeling, and the use of nudges to stimulate consumers to select healthier portion sizes.

  4. Efficacy of CAR T-cell therapy in large tumors relies upon stromal targeting by IFNγ.

    PubMed

    Textor, Ana; Listopad, Joanna J; Wührmann, Lara Le; Perez, Cynthia; Kruschinski, Anna; Chmielewski, Markus; Abken, Hinrich; Blankenstein, Thomas; Charo, Jehad

    2014-12-01

    Adoptive T-cell therapy using chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells (CAR-T therapy) has shown dramatic efficacy in patients with circulating lymphoma. However, eradication of solid tumors with CAR-T therapy has not been reported yet to be efficacious. In solid tumors, stroma destruction, due to MHC-restricted cross-presentation of tumor antigens to T cells, may be essential. However, CAR-Ts recognize antigens in an MHC-independent manner on cancer cells but not stroma cells. In this report, we show how CAR-Ts can be engineered to eradicate large established tumors with provision of a suitable CD28 costimulatory signal. In an HER2-dependent tumor model, tumor rejection by HER2-specific CAR-Ts was associated with sustained influx and proliferation of the adoptively transferred T cells. Interestingly, tumor rejection did not involve natural killer cells but was associated instead with a marked increase in the level of M1 macrophages and a requirement for IFNγ receptor expression on tumor stroma cells. Our results argue that CAR-T therapy is capable of eradicating solid tumors through a combination of antigen-independent stroma destruction and antigen-specific tumor cell targeting.

  5. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) 2005: Calibration and Targeted Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truch, M. D. P.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bock, J. J.; Chapin, E. L.; Devlin, M. J.; Dicker, S.; Griffin, M.; Gundersen, J. O.; Halpern, M.; Hargrave, P. C.; Hughes, D. H.; Klein, J.; Marsden, G.; Martin, P. G.; Mauskopf, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Olmi, L.; Pascale, E.; Patanchon, G.; Rex, M.; Scott, D.; Semisch, C.; Tucker, C.; Tucker, G. S.; Viero, M. P.; Wiebe, D. V.

    2008-07-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) operated successfully during a 100 hr flight from northern Sweden in 2005 June (BLAST05). As part of the calibration and pointing procedures, several compact sources were mapped, including solar system, Galactic, and extragalactic targets, specifically Pallas, CRL 2688, LDN 1014, IRAS 20126+4104, IRAS 21078+5211, IRAS 21307+5049, IRAS 22134+5834, IRAS 23011+6126, K3-50, W75N, and Mrk 231. One additional source, Arp 220, was observed and used as our primary calibrator. Details of the overall BLAST05 calibration procedure are discussed here. The BLAST observations of each compact source are described, flux densities and spectral energy distributions are reported, and these are compared with previous measurements at other wavelengths. The 250, 350, and 500 μm BLAST data can provide useful constraints to the amplitude and slope of the submillimeter continuum, which in turn may be useful for the improved calibration of other submillimeter instruments.

  6. Genomic islands of divergence in hybridizing Heliconius butterflies identified by large-scale targeted sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Nadeau, Nicola J.; Whibley, Annabel; Jones, Robert T.; Davey, John W.; Dasmahapatra, Kanchon K.; Baxter, Simon W.; Quail, Michael A.; Joron, Mathieu; ffrench-Constant, Richard H.; Blaxter, Mark L.; Mallet, James; Jiggins, Chris D.

    2012-01-01

    Heliconius butterflies represent a recent radiation of species, in which wing pattern divergence has been implicated in speciation. Several loci that control wing pattern phenotypes have been mapped and two were identified through sequencing. These same gene regions play a role in adaptation across the whole Heliconius radiation. Previous studies of population genetic patterns at these regions have sequenced small amplicons. Here, we use targeted next-generation sequence capture to survey patterns of divergence across these entire regions in divergent geographical races and species of Heliconius. This technique was successful both within and between species for obtaining high coverage of almost all coding regions and sufficient coverage of non-coding regions to perform population genetic analyses. We find major peaks of elevated population differentiation between races across hybrid zones, which indicate regions under strong divergent selection. These ‘islands’ of divergence appear to be more extensive between closely related species, but there is less clear evidence for such islands between more distantly related species at two further points along the ‘speciation continuum’. We also sequence fosmid clones across these regions in different Heliconius melpomene races. We find no major structural rearrangements but many relatively large (greater than 1 kb) insertion/deletion events (including gain/loss of transposable elements) that are variable between races. PMID:22201164

  7. Small, medium, large or supersize? The development and evaluation of interventions targeted at portion size

    PubMed Central

    Vermeer, W M; Steenhuis, I H M; Poelman, M P

    2014-01-01

    In the past decades, portion sizes of high-caloric foods and drinks have increased and can be considered an important environmental obesogenic factor. This paper describes a research project in which the feasibility and effectiveness of environmental interventions targeted at portion size was evaluated. The studies that we conducted revealed that portion size labeling, offering a larger variety of portion sizes, and proportional pricing (that is, a comparable price per unit regardless of the size) were considered feasible to implement according to both consumers and point-of-purchase representatives. Studies into the effectiveness of these interventions demonstrated that the impact of portion size labeling on the (intended) consumption of soft drinks was, at most, modest. Furthermore, the introduction of smaller portion sizes of hot meals in worksite cafeterias in addition to the existing size stimulated a moderate number of consumers to replace their large meals by a small meal. Elaborating on these findings, we advocate further research into communication and marketing strategies related to portion size interventions; the development of environmental portion size interventions as well as educational interventions that improve people's ability to deal with a ‘super-sized' environment; the implementation of regulation with respect to portion size labeling, and the use of nudges to stimulate consumers to select healthier portion sizes. PMID:25033959

  8. Gravitational search for cryptovolcanism on the Moon: Evidence for large volumes of early igneous activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sori, Michael M.; Zuber, Maria T.; Head, James W.; Kiefer, Walter S.

    2016-07-01

    We define lunar cryptovolcanism as volcanic deposits on the Moon hidden by overlying material. Notably, cryptovolcanism includes both cryptomaria (subsurface extrusive basaltic deposits that are obscured by overlying higher albedo basin and crater ejecta) and earlier candidate extrusives, such as the Mg-suite. Knowledge of the volume and extent of cryptovolcanism is necessary for a comprehensive understanding of lunar volcanic history, particularly in early (pre 3.8 Ga) epochs when abundant impact craters and basins obscured surface volcanic deposits by lateral emplacement of ejecta. We use Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) gravity and Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) topography data to construct maps of the Moon's positive Bouguer and isostatic gravity anomalies, and explore the possibility that these features are due to mass excesses associated with cryptovolcanism by cross-referencing the regions with geologic data such as dark halo craters. We model the potential cryptovolcanic deposits as buried high-density rectangular prisms at depth in the upper crust, and find a volume of candidate buried cryptovolcanism between 0.4 × 106 km3 and 4.8 × 106 km3, depending on assumptions about density and crustal compensation state. These candidate deposits correspond to a surface area of between 0.50 × 106 km2 and 1.14 × 106 km2, which would increase the amount of the lunar surface containing volcanic deposits from 16.6% to between 17.9% and 19.5%. The inferred volume of cryptovolcanism is comparable to the smallest estimates of the volume of visible mare basalts and up to ∼50% of the largest estimates; the high-resolution GRAIL and LOLA observations thus would collectively indicate that early (pre 3.8 Ga) lunar volcanism is an important element of lunar thermal evolution. Alternatively, the buried material could represent the presence of intrusive Mg-suite sills or plutons.

  9. Quantification and Minimization of Uncertainties of Internal Target Volume for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy of Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ge Hong; Cai Jing; Kelsey, Chris R.; Yin Fangfang

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To quantify uncertainties in delineating an internal target volume (ITV) and to understand how these uncertainties may be individually minimized for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Twenty patients with NSCLC who were undergoing SBRT were imaged with free-breathing 3-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) and 10-phase 4-dimensional CT (4DCT) for delineating gross tumor volume (GTV){sub 3D} and ITV{sub 10Phase} (ITV3). The maximum intensity projection (MIP) CT was also calculated from 10-phase 4DCT for contouring ITV{sub MIP} (ITV1). Then, ITV{sub COMB} (ITV2), ITV{sub 10Phase+GTV3D} (ITV4), and ITV{sub 10Phase+ITVCOMB} (ITV5) were generated by combining ITV{sub MIP} and GTV{sub 3D}, ITV{sub 10phase} and GTV{sub 3D}, and ITV{sub 10phase} and ITV{sub COMB}, respectively. All 6 volumes (GTV{sub 3D} and ITV1 to ITV5) were delineated in the same lung window by the same radiation oncologist. The percentage of volume difference (PVD) between any 2 different volumes was determined and was correlated to effective tumor diameter (ETD), tumor motion ranges, R{sub 3D}, and the amplitude variability of the recorded breathing signal (v) to assess their volume variations. Results: The mean (range) tumor motion (R{sub SI}, R{sub AP}, R{sub ML}, and R{sub 3D}) and breathing variability (v) were 7.6 mm (2-18 mm), 4.0 mm (2-8 mm), 3.3 mm (0-7.5 mm), 9.9 mm (4.1-18.7 mm), and 0.17 (0.07-0.37), respectively. The trend of volume variation was GTV{sub 3D} volumes were 11.1 {+-} 9.3 cc, 13.2 {+-} 10.5 cc, 14.9 {+-} 11.0 cc, 14.7 {+-} 11.4 cc, 15.9 {+-} 11.7 cc, and 16.4 {+-} 11.8 cc, respectively. All comparisons between the target volumes showed statistical significance (P{<=}.001), except for ITV2 and ITV3 (P=.594). The PVDs for all volume pairs correlated negatively with ETD (r{<=}-0.658, P{<=}.006) and positively with

  10. Large scale prop-fan structural design study. Volume 1: Initial concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billman, L. C.; Gruska, C. J.; Ladden, R. M.; Leishman, D. K.; Turnberg, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years, considerable attention has been directed toward improving aircraft fuel consumption. Studies have shown that the inherent efficiency advantage that turboprop propulsion systems have demonstrated at lower cruise speeds may now be extended to the higher speeds of today's turbofan and turbojet-powered aircraft. To achieve this goal, new propeller designs will require features such as thin, high speed airfoils and aerodynamic sweep, features currently found only in wing designs for high speed aircraft. This is Volume 1 of a 2 volume study to establish structural concepts for such advanced propeller blades, to define their structural properties, to identify any new design, analysis, or fabrication techniques which were required, and to determine the structural tradeoffs involved with several blade shapes selected primarily on the basis of aero/acoustic design considerations. The feasibility of fabricating and testing dynamically scaled models of these blades for aeroelastic testing was also established. The preliminary design of a blade suitable for flight use in a testbed advanced turboprop was conducted and is described in Volume 2.

  11. A novel reconstruction method based on changes in phase for subsurface large sloped dielectric target using GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lijun; Ouyang, Shan; Liao, Guisheng

    2016-11-01

    In ground-penetrating radar (GPR) subsurface target reconstruction, various techniques based on amplitude (or energy) information of echoes from metal target with small size can work well. However, for environmental and geological applications, the quantitative analysis of the target's geometric features, like location, shape and size, is exactly what we are concerned about. Amplitude-based reconstruction method faces challenges in these applications. A large sloped target under the surface may lead to abundant virtual image energy and cause position deviation. In addition, the echoes from the inner part of the penetrable dielectric target may be too weak to be detected. However, changes in phase may highlight the effects of echoes from the target on that from the surroundings, even if the effect is small due to the weak energy. In this paper, a novel method based on changes in phase is proposed to reconstruct subsurface large sloped dielectric target. To remove the virtual image, the main idea is based on the geometric relationship between the recorded signal plotted beneath the receiving antenna and the reflected signal emanated from the target position which is "ahead" or "behind" of the receiving antenna. Furthermore, the electromagnetic (EM) wave propagating through the penetrable target will change its velocity and result in advancing or lagging related to the geometric shape of the target. In this case, the weak echoes from the back surface of the target can be compensated according to the advancing or lagging. With the proposed method, the virtual image is eliminated and both front and back surface of the target are reconstructed. Results from the laboratory experiments demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

  12. Evaluation of atlas based auto-segmentation for head and neck target volume delineation in adaptive/replan IMRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speight, R.; Karakaya, E.; Prestwich, R.; Sen, M.; Lindsay, R.; Harding, R.; Sykes, J.

    2014-03-01

    IMRT for head and neck patients requires clinicians to delineate clinical target volumes (CTV) on a planning-CT (>2hrs/patient). When patients require a replan-CT, CTVs must be re-delineated. This work assesses the performance of atlas-based autosegmentation (ABAS), which uses deformable image registration between planning and replan-CTs to auto-segment CTVs on the replan-CT, based on the planning contours. Fifteen patients with planning-CT and replan-CTs were selected. One clinician delineated CTVs on the planning-CTs and up to three clinicians delineated CTVs on the replan-CTs. Replan-CT volumes were auto-segmented using ABAS using the manual CTVs from the planning-CT as an atlas. ABAS CTVs were edited manually to make them clinically acceptable. Clinicians were timed to estimate savings using ABAS. CTVs were compared using dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and mean distance to agreement (MDA). Mean inter-observer variability (DSC>0.79 and MDA<2.1mm) was found to be greater than intra-observer variability (DSC>0.91 and MDA<1.5mm). Comparing ABAS to manual CTVs gave DSC=0.86 and MDA=2.07mm. Once edited, ABAS volumes agreed more closely with the manual CTVs (DSC=0.87 and MDA=1.87mm). The mean clinician time required to produce CTVs reduced from 169min to 57min when using ABAS. ABAS segments volumes with accuracy close to inter-observer variability however the volumes require some editing before clinical use. Using ABAS reduces contouring time by a factor of three.

  13. Determination of Internal Target Volume for Radiation Treatment Planning of Esophageal Cancer by Using 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography (4DCT)

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiaojian; Lu, Haijun; Tai, An; Johnstone, Candice; Gore, Elizabeth; Li, X. Allen

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: To determine an efficient strategy for the generation of the internal target volume (ITV) for radiation treatment planning for esophageal cancer using 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT). Methods and Materials: 4DCT sets acquired for 20 patients with esophageal carcinoma were analyzed. Each of the 4DCT sets was binned into 10 respiratory phases. For each patient, the gross tumor volume (GTV) was delineated on the 4DCT set at each phase. Various strategies to derive ITV were explored, including the volume from the maximum intensity projection (MIP; ITV{sub M}IP), unions of the GTVs from selected multiple phases ITV2 (0% and 50% phases), ITV3 (ITV2 plus 80%), and ITV4 (ITV3 plus 60%), as well as the volumes expanded from ITV2 and ITV3 with a uniform margin. These ITVs were compared to ITV10 (the union of the GTVs for all 10 phases) and the differences were measured with the overlap ratio (OR) and relative volume ratio (RVR) relative to ITV10 (ITVx/ITV10). Results: For all patients studied, the average GTV from a single phase was 84.9% of ITV10. The average ORs were 91.2%, 91.3%, 94.5%, and 96.4% for ITV{sub M}IP, ITV2, ITV3, and ITV4, respectively. Low ORs were associated with irregular breathing patterns. ITV3s plus 1 mm uniform margins (ITV3+1) led to an average OR of 98.1% and an average RVR of 106.4%. Conclusions: The ITV generated directly from MIP underestimates the range of the respiration motion for esophageal cancer. The ITV generated from 3 phases (ITV3) may be used for regular breathers, whereas the ITV generated from 4 phases (ITV4) or ITV3 plus a 1-mm uniform margin may be applied for irregular breathers.

  14. Determination of Atto- to Femtogram Levels of Americium and Curium Isotopes in Large-Volume Urine Samples by Compact Accelerator Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiongxin; Christl, Marcus; Kramer-Tremblay, Sheila; Synal, Hans-Arno

    2016-03-01

    Ultralow level analysis of actinides in urine samples may be required for dose assessment in the event of internal exposures to these radionuclides at nuclear facilities and nuclear power plants. A new bioassay method for analysis of sub-femtogram levels of Am and Cm in large-volume urine samples was developed. Americium and curium were co-precipitated with hydrous titanium oxide from the urine matrix and purified by column chromatography separation. After target preparation using mixed titanium/iron oxides, the final sample was measured by compact accelerator mass spectrometry. Urine samples spiked with known quantities of Am and Cm isotopes in the range of attogram to femtogram levels were measured for method evaluation. The results are in good agreement with the expected values, demonstrating the feasibility of compact accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for the determination of minor actinides at the levels of attogram/liter in urine samples to meet stringent sensitivity requirements for internal dosimetry assessment.

  15. Very Large Data Volumes Analysis of Collaborative Systems with Finite Number of States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivan, Ion; Ciurea, Cristian; Pavel, Sorin

    2010-01-01

    The collaborative system with finite number of states is defined. A very large database is structured. Operations on large databases are identified. Repetitive procedures for collaborative systems operations are derived. The efficiency of such procedures is analyzed. (Contains 6 tables, 5 footnotes and 3 figures.)

  16. Systems definition study for shuttle demonstration flights of large space structures. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The development of large space structure technology is discussed, with emphasis on space fabricated structures which are automatically manufactured in space from sheet-strip materials and assembled on-orbit. Definition of a flight demonstration involving an Automated Beam Builder and the building and assembling of large structures is presented.

  17. Estimating the eruptive volume of a large pyroclastic body: the Otowi Member of the Bandelier Tuff, Valles caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Geoffrey W.; Wolff, John A.; Self, Stephen

    2016-02-01

    The 1.60 Ma caldera-forming eruption of the Otowi Member of the Bandelier Tuff produced Plinian and coignimbrite fall deposits, outflow and intracaldera ignimbrite, all of it deposited on land. We present a detailed approach to estimating and reconstructing the original volume of the eroded, partly buried large ignimbrite and distal ash-fall deposits. Dense rock equivalent (DRE) volume estimates for the eruption are 89 + 33/-10 km3 of outflow ignimbrite and 144 ± 72 km3 of intracaldera ignimbrite. Also, there was at least 65 km3 (DRE) of Plinian fall when extrapolated distally, and 107 + 40/-12 km3 of coignimbrite ash was "lost" from the outflow sheet to form an unknown proportion of the distal ash fall. The minimum total volume is 216 km3 and the maximum is 550 km3; hence, the eruption overlaps the low end of the super-eruption spectrum (VEI ˜8.0). Despite an abundance of geological data for the Otowi Member, the errors attached to these estimates do not allow us to constrain the proportions of intracaldera (IC), outflow (O), and distal ash (A) to better than a factor of three. We advocate caution in applying the IC/O/A = 1:1:1 relation of Mason et al. (2004) to scaling up mapped volumes of imperfectly preserved caldera-forming ignimbrites.

  18. Development of whole-building energy design targets for commercial buildings: Phase 1, Planning: Volume 2, Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Crawley, D.B.; Briggs, R.S.; Jones, J.W.; Seaton, W.W.; Kaufman, J.E.; Deringer, J.J.; Kennett, E.W.

    1987-08-01

    This is the second volume of the Phase 1 report and discusses the 10 tasks performed in Phase 1. The objective of this research is to develop a methodology for setting energy design targets to provide voluntary guidelines for the buildings industry. The whole-building energy targets project is being conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to encourage the construction of energy-efficient buildings by informing designers and owners about cost-effective goals for energy use in new commercial buildings. The outcome of this research will be a flexible methodology for setting such targets. The tasks are listed and discussed in this report as follows: Task 1 - Develop Detailed Project Goals and Objectives; Task 2 - Establish Buildings-Industry Liaison; Task 3 - Develop Approaches to the Energy Targets Model, Building Operations, and Climate; Task 4 - Develop an Approach for Treating Economic Considerations; Task 5 - Develop an Approach for Treating Energy Sources; Task 6 - Collect Energy-Use Data; Task 7 - Survey Energy Expert Opinion; Task 8 - Evaluation Procedure Specification and Integration; Task 9 - Phase 1 Report Development; and Task 10 - Phase 1 Review Planning.

  19. Construction of Large-Volume Tissue Mimics with 3D Functional Vascular Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Tae-Yun; Hong, Jung Min; Jung, Jin Woo; Kang, Hyun-Wook; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-01-01

    We used indirect stereolithography (SL) to form inner-layered fluidic networks in a porous scaffold by introducing a hydrogel barrier on the luminal surface, then seeded the networks separately with human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human lung fibroblasts to form a tissue mimic containing vascular networks. The artificial vascular networks provided channels for oxygen transport, thus reducing the hypoxic volume and preventing cell death. The endothelium of the vascular networks significantly retarded the occlusion of channels during whole-blood circulation. The tissue mimics have the potential to be used as an in vitro platform to examine the physiologic and pathologic phenomena through vascular architecture. PMID:27228079

  20. 3-D EM exploration of the hepatic microarchitecture – lessons learned from large-volume in situ serial sectioning

    PubMed Central

    Shami, Gerald John; Cheng, Delfine; Huynh, Minh; Vreuls, Celien; Wisse, Eddie; Braet, Filip

    2016-01-01

    To-date serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBF-SEM) dominates as the premier technique for generating three-dimensional (3-D) data of resin-embedded biological samples at an unprecedented depth volume. Given the infancy of the technique, limited literature is currently available regarding the applicability of SBF-SEM for the ultrastructural investigation of tissues. Herein, we provide a comprehensive and rigorous appraisal of five different SBF-SEM sample preparation protocols for the large-volume exploration of the hepatic microarchitecture at an unparalleled X, Y and Z resolution. In so doing, we qualitatively and quantitatively validate the use of a comprehensive SBF-SEM sample preparation protocol, based on the application of heavy metal fixatives, stains and mordanting agents. Employing the best-tested SBF-SEM approach, enabled us to assess large-volume morphometric data on murine parenchymal cells, sinusoids and bile canaliculi. Finally, we integrated the validated SBF-SEM protocol with a correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) approach. The combination of confocal scanning laser microscopy and SBF-SEM provided a novel way to picture subcellular detail. We appreciate that this multidimensional approach will aid the subsequent research of liver tissue under relevant experimental and disease conditions. PMID:27834401

  1. 3-D EM exploration of the hepatic microarchitecture - lessons learned from large-volume in situ serial sectioning.

    PubMed

    Shami, Gerald John; Cheng, Delfine; Huynh, Minh; Vreuls, Celien; Wisse, Eddie; Braet, Filip

    2016-11-11

    To-date serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBF-SEM) dominates as the premier technique for generating three-dimensional (3-D) data of resin-embedded biological samples at an unprecedented depth volume. Given the infancy of the technique, limited literature is currently available regarding the applicability of SBF-SEM for the ultrastructural investigation of tissues. Herein, we provide a comprehensive and rigorous appraisal of five different SBF-SEM sample preparation protocols for the large-volume exploration of the hepatic microarchitecture at an unparalleled X, Y and Z resolution. In so doing, we qualitatively and quantitatively validate the use of a comprehensive SBF-SEM sample preparation protocol, based on the application of heavy metal fixatives, stains and mordanting agents. Employing the best-tested SBF-SEM approach, enabled us to assess large-volume morphometric data on murine parenchymal cells, sinusoids and bile canaliculi. Finally, we integrated the validated SBF-SEM protocol with a correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) approach. The combination of confocal scanning laser microscopy and SBF-SEM provided a novel way to picture subcellular detail. We appreciate that this multidimensional approach will aid the subsequent research of liver tissue under relevant experimental and disease conditions.

  2. Prospective, randomized, sequential, crossover trial of large-volume vs. normal-volume leukapheresis procedures: effects on subpopulations of CD34(+) cells.

    PubMed

    Humpe, A; Riggert, J; Koch, S; Legler, T J; Munzel, U; Köhler, M

    2001-01-01

    Some data exist on the influence of leukapheresis volume on the number of harvested peripheral blood hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC), but less is known about the influence on the composition of HPC. We therefore performed a prospective, randomized crossover trial to evaluate the effect of large-volume (LVL) vs. normal-volume leukapheresis (NVL) on subpopulations of CD34(+) cells in the harvest product of 15 patients with breast cancer and 8 patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Patients were randomly assigned to start either with an LVL on day 1 followed by an NVL on day 2 or vice versa. The number of HPC, the extraction efficiency defined as difference between yield in the harvest and decrease in peripheral blood, and the relative proportion as well as the absolute numbers of CD34(+) cells coexpressing CD38, CD90, HLA-DR, CD117, CD7, CD19, CD41, or CD33 were evaluated. There was no significant difference with regard to the percentages of the subsets on comparison of LVL to NVL procedures. Only the absolute median number of CD34(+)HLA-DR(-) cells was significantly (P=0.02) higher in LVL harvests compared with the corresponding NVL components, which can be explained on the basis of the higher yield and the higher extraction efficiency in LVL compared with NVL. LVL results in a higher yield of CD34(+) cells and leads to an intra-apheresis recruitment of HPC but the relative composition of the harvested CD34(+) cells is not changed significantly. In addition, the amount of early, HLA-DR(-), hematopoietic HPC seems to be increased by an LVL.

  3. The optimization of intensity modulated radiotherapy in cases where the planning target volume extends into the build-up region.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T B; Hoole, A C F; Burnet, N G; Thomas, S J

    2009-04-21

    A common clinical problem in IMRT, especially when treating head and neck cases, is that the clinical target volume (CTV) stops short of the skin surface, whilst the margin for geometric uncertainties may take the planning target volume (PTV) to the skin surface or beyond. In these cases, optimization leads to over-dosing of the skin, unless the planner resorts to procedural tricks to avoid this, such as the use of pretend bolus or reduction of the PTV followed by adding 'flash' after optimization. This paper describes a method of avoiding the need for these tricks by using a multiple-isocentre CTV-based objective function. This enables plans to be produced that will give good coverage of the CTV for all the geometrical uncertainties that would have been covered by the PTV without causing the problem of over-dosing the skin. Eight isocentre shifts, equally distributed on the surface of a sphere with a radius equal to the CTV-PTV margin, are shown to be adequate for the optimization process. The resulting fluence maps are much simpler than those resulting from PTV optimization and will therefore be simpler to deliver. The method also permits better sparing of organs at risk such as the spinal cord.

  4. The optimization of intensity modulated radiotherapy in cases where the planning target volume extends into the build-up region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, T. B.; Hoole, A. C. F.; Burnet, N. G.; Thomas, S. J.

    2009-04-01

    A common clinical problem in IMRT, especially when treating head and neck cases, is that the clinical target volume (CTV) stops short of the skin surface, whilst the margin for geometric uncertainties may take the planning target volume (PTV) to the skin surface or beyond. In these cases, optimization leads to over-dosing of the skin, unless the planner resorts to procedural tricks to avoid this, such as the use of pretend bolus or reduction of the PTV followed by adding 'flash' after optimization. This paper describes a method of avoiding the need for these tricks by using a multiple-isocentre CTV-based objective function. This enables plans to be produced that will give good coverage of the CTV for all the geometrical uncertainties that would have been covered by the PTV without causing the problem of over-dosing the skin. Eight isocentre shifts, equally distributed on the surface of a sphere with a radius equal to the CTV-PTV margin, are shown to be adequate for the optimization process. The resulting fluence maps are much simpler than those resulting from PTV optimization and will therefore be simpler to deliver. The method also permits better sparing of organs at risk such as the spinal cord.

  5. Substantial Targeting Advantage Achieved by Pulmonary Administration of Colistin Methanesulfonate in a Large-Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Landersdorfer, Cornelia B; Nguyen, Tri-Hung; Lieu, Linh Thuy; Nguyen, Gary; Bischof, Robert J; Meeusen, Els N; Li, Jian; Nation, Roger L; McIntosh, Michelle P

    2017-01-01

    Colistin, administered as its inactive prodrug colistin methanesulfonate (CMS), is often used in multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pulmonary infections. The CMS and colistin pharmacokinetics in plasma and epithelial lining fluid (ELF) following intravenous and pulmonary dosing have not been evaluated in a large-animal model with pulmonary architecture similar to that of humans. Six merino sheep (34 to 43 kg body weight) received an intravenous or pulmonary dose of 4 to 8 mg/kg CMS (sodium) or 2 to 3 mg/kg colistin (sulfate) in a 4-way crossover study. Pulmonary dosing was achieved via jet nebulization through an endotracheal tube cuff. CMS and colistin were quantified in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). ELF concentrations were calculated via the urea method. CMS and colistin were comodeled in S-ADAPT. Following intravenous CMS or colistin administration, no concentrations were quantifiable in BALF samples. Elimination clearance was 1.97 liters/h (4% interindividual variability) for CMS (other than conversion to colistin) and 1.08 liters/h (25%) for colistin. On average, 18% of a CMS dose was converted to colistin. Following pulmonary delivery, colistin was not quantifiable in plasma and CMS was detected in only one sheep. Average ELF concentrations (standard deviations [SD]) of formed colistin were 400 (243), 384 (187), and 184 (190) mg/liter at 1, 4, and 24 h after pulmonary CMS administration. The population pharmacokinetic model described well CMS and colistin in plasma and ELF following intravenous and pulmonary administration. Pulmonary dosing provided high ELF and low plasma colistin concentrations, representing a substantial targeting advantage over intravenous administration. Predictions from the pharmacokinetic model indicate that sheep are an advantageous model for translational research.

  6. Large scale prop-fan structural design study. Volume 2: Preliminary design of SR-7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billman, L. C.; Gruska, C. J.; Ladden, R. M.; Leishman, D. K.; Turnberg, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years, considerable attention has been directed toward improving aircraft fuel consumption. Studies have shown that the inherent efficiency advantage that turboprop propulsion systems have demonstrated at lower cruise speeds may now be extended to the higher speeds of today's turbofan and turbojet-powered aircraft. To achieve this goal, new propeller designs will require features such as thin, high speed airfoils and aerodynamic sweep, features currently found only in wing designs for high speed aircraft. This is Volume 2 of a 2 volume study to establish structural concepts for such advanced propeller blades, to define their structural properties, to identify any new design, analysis, or fabrication techniques which were required, and to determine the structural tradeoffs involved with several blade shapes selected primarily on the basis of aero/acoustic design considerations. The feasibility of fabricating and testing dynamically scaled models of these blades for aeroelastic testing was also established. The preliminary design of a blade suitable for flight use in a testbed advanced turboprop was conducted and is described.

  7. Nuclear waste calorimeter for very large drums with 385 litres sample volume

    SciTech Connect

    Jossens, G.; Mathonat, C.; Bachelet, F.

    2015-03-15

    Calorimetry is a very precise and well adapted tool for the classification of drums containing nuclear waste material depending on their level of activities (low, medium, high). A new calorimeter has been developed by SETARAM Instrumentation and the CEA Valduc in France. This new calorimeter is designed for drums having a volume bigger than 100 liters. It guarantees high operator safety by optimizing drum handling and air circulation for cooling, and optimized software for direct measurement of the quantity of nuclear material. The LVC1380 calorimeter makes it possible to work over the range 10 to 3000 mW, which corresponds to approximately 0.03 to 10 g of tritium or 3 to 955 g of {sup 241}Pu in a volume up to 385 liters. This calorimeter is based on the heat flow measurement using Peltier elements which surround the drum in the 3 dimensions and therefore measure all the heat coming from the radioactive stuff whatever its position inside the drum. Calorimeter's insulating layers constitute a thermal barrier designed to filter disturbances until they represent less than 0.001 Celsius degrees and to eliminate long term disturbances associated, for example, with laboratory temperature variations between day and night. A calibration device based on Joule effect has also been designed. Measurement time has been optimized but remains long compared with other methods of measurement such as gamma spectrometry but its main asset is to have a good accuracy for low level activities.

  8. Performance of three large-volume infusion pumps with the monoplace hyperbaric chamber.

    PubMed

    Bell, James; Weaver, Lindell K; Deru, Kayla

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the Zyno Medical Z-800F, CME Body Guard 323 Color Vision, and Baxter Flo-Gard 6201 infusion pumps for monoplace chamber conditions. We adjusted pump occlusion pressure allowing infusion to 3 atmospheres absolute (atm abs). Baxter and Zyno pumps were connected to the chamber pass-through with rigid small-bore tubing. The CME infusion set was connected directly to the pass-through. We infused saline to a collection manifold inside a monoplace chamber at 1-100 mL/ hour under pressures ranging from 0.85-3.0 atm abs. We averaged results from three to five separate tests for each condition. At baseline, pumps performed within ±10% of expected (our measurement capability). However, clinical engineering verified performance within manufacturer specifications (±5% at atmospheric pressure). During a carbon monoxide hyperbaric protocol (3 atm abs/2 atm abs), measured flow with the Baxter, CME and Zyno pumps was ±5% of setting at 10 mL/hour (95%, 103%, 95%, respectively); at 1 mL/hour, average flow were 91%, 83%, 83%, respectively. During timed testing (volume recorded before decompression), pump accuracy was ±10% at 10 and 100 mL/hour. Tubing compliance compromised performance at lower flow rates, magnified by increased pressure. These pumps have potential for monoplace chamber use, although not supported by the manufacturers or FDA-cleared. At low flow rates, tubing compliance affects delivered volumes.

  9. A single-frequency ECR ion source with a large uniformly distributed resonant plasma volume

    SciTech Connect

    Alton, G.D.; Smithe, D.N.

    1995-12-01

    An innovative technique for increasing ion source intensity is described which, in principle, could lead to significant advances in ECR ion source technology for multiply charged ion beam formation. The advanced concept design uses a minimum-B magnetic mirror geometry which consists of a multi-cusp, magnetic field, to assist in confining the plasma radially, a flat central field for tuning to the ECR resonant condition, and specially tailored mirror fields in the end zones to confine the plasma in the axial direction. The magnetic field is designed to achieve an axially symmetric plasma {open_quotes}volume{close_quotes} with constant mod-B, which extends over the length of the central field region. This design, which strongly contrasts with the ECR {open_quotes}surfaces{close_quotes} characteristic of conventional ECR ion sources, results in dramatic increases in the absorption of RF power, thereby increasing the electron temperature and {open_quotes}hot{close_quotes} electron population within the ionization volume of the source.

  10. Physics of laser fusion. Volume II. Diagnostics of experiments on laser fusion targets at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlstrom, H.G.

    1982-01-01

    These notes present the experimental basis and status for laser fusion as developed at LLNL. There are two other volumes in this series: Vol. I, by C.E. Max, presents the theoretical laser-plasma interaction physics; Vol. III, by J.F. Holzrichter et al., presents the theory and design of high-power pulsed lasers. A fourth volume will present the theoretical implosion physics. The notes consist of six sections. The first, an introductory section, provides some of the history of inertial fusion and a simple explanation of the concepts involved. The second section presents an extensive discussion of diagnostic instrumentation used in the LLNL Laser Fusion Program. The third section is a presentation of laser facilities and capabilities at LLNL. The purpose here is to define capability, not to derive how it was obtained. The fourth and fifth sections present the experimental data on laser-plasma interaction and implosion physics. The last chapter is a short projection of the future.

  11. Proceedings of the Large Deployable Reflector Science and Technology Workshop. Volume 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leidich, C. A.; Pittman, B.

    1984-01-01

    A large ambient temperature, for infrared submillimeter telescope in space was discussed. The results of the scientific and technical activities were summarized. The scientific effort consisted of reviewing the science rationale for the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) and arriving at a concensus set of scientific requirements. The telescope requirements were then compared to the current and anticipated state of the various technologies involved, and the technological shortfalls identified.

  12. Large Deployable Reflector Science and Technology Workshop. Volume 3: Systems and Technology Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leidich, C. A. (Editor); Pittman, R. B. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    The results of five technology panels which convened to discuss the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) are presented. The proposed LDR is a large, ambient-temperature, far infrared/submillimeter telescope designed for space. Panel topics included optics, materials and structures, sensing and control, science instruments, and systems and missions. The telescope requirements, the estimated technology levels, and the areas in which the generic technology work has to be augmented are enumerated.

  13. Real-time target detection technology of large view-field infrared image based on multicore DSP parallel processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Gang; Liu, Songlin; Wang, Weihua; Chen, Zengping

    2013-10-01

    In order to implement real-time detection of hedgehopping target in large view-field infrared (LVIR) image, the paper proposes a fast algorithm flow to extract the target region of interest (ROI). The ground building region was rejected quickly and target ROI was segmented roughly through the background classification. Then the background image containing target ROI was matched with previous frame based on a mean removal normalized product correlation (MRNPC) similarity measure function. Finally, the target motion area was extracted by inter-frame difference in time domain. According to the proposed algorithm flow, this paper designs the high-speed real-time signal processing hardware platform based on FPGA + DSP, and also presents a new parallel processing strategy that called function-level and task-level, which could parallel process LVIR image by multi-core and multi-task. Experimental results show that the algorithm can extract low altitude aero target with complex background in large view effectively, and the new design hardware platform could implement real time processing of the IR image with 50000x288 pixels per second in large view-field infrared search system (LVIRSS).

  14. The importance of preoperative hemoglobin evaluation in large volume liposuction: lessons learned from our 15-year experience.

    PubMed

    Choudry, Umar H; Hyza, Petr; Lane, Jason; Petty, Paul

    2008-09-01

    Liposuction of >5 L of total aspirate at one setting is defined as large volume liposuction (LVL). A retrospective chart review was performed on all patients who underwent LVL from January 1990 to June 2005. Sixty-two patients underwent LVL. The mean volume of total aspirate was 8 L (5.0-11.7 L). There were a total of 6 patients who had complications. These included symptomatic postoperative anemia requiring blood transfusions on postoperative day 1 (n = 5), and an expanding hematoma requiring operative evacuation without transfusion (n = 1). Two of the patients who had blood transfusions had a history of gastric bypass and all of the patients were preoperatively anemic (<11.5 mg/dL). The mean follow up was 38 months. LVL is safe when performed in healthy patients under strict guidelines. Hemoglobin levels of all potential LVL patients should be checked preoperatively, and surgery should be withheld for levels <12 g/dL.

  15. Combinatorial support vector machines approach for virtual screening of selective multi-target serotonin reuptake inhibitors from large compound libraries.

    PubMed

    Shi, Z; Ma, X H; Qin, C; Jia, J; Jiang, Y Y; Tan, C Y; Chen, Y Z

    2012-02-01

    Selective multi-target serotonin reuptake inhibitors enhance antidepressant efficacy. Their discovery can be facilitated by multiple methods, including in silico ones. In this study, we developed and tested an in silico method, combinatorial support vector machines (COMBI-SVMs), for virtual screening (VS) multi-target serotonin reuptake inhibitors of seven target pairs (serotonin transporter paired with noradrenaline transporter, H(3) receptor, 5-HT(1A) receptor, 5-HT(1B) receptor, 5-HT(2C) receptor, melanocortin 4 receptor and neurokinin 1 receptor respectively) from large compound libraries. COMBI-SVMs trained with 917-1951 individual target inhibitors correctly identified 22-83.3% (majority >31.1%) of the 6-216 dual inhibitors collected from literature as independent testing sets. COMBI-SVMs showed moderate to good target selectivity in misclassifying as dual inhibitors 2.2-29.8% (majority <15.4%) of the individual target inhibitors of the same target pair and 0.58-7.1% of the other 6 targets outside the target pair. COMBI-SVMs showed low dual inhibitor false hit rates (0.006-0.056%, 0.042-0.21%, 0.2-4%) in screening 17 million PubChem compounds, 168,000 MDDR compounds, and 7-8181 MDDR compounds similar to the dual inhibitors. Compared with similarity searching, k-NN and PNN methods, COMBI-SVM produced comparable dual inhibitor yields, similar target selectivity, and lower false hit rate in screening 168,000 MDDR compounds. The annotated classes of many COMBI-SVMs identified MDDR virtual hits correlate with the reported effects of their predicted targets. COMBI-SVM is potentially useful for searching selective multi-target agents without explicit knowledge of these agents.

  16. Target Volume Delineation in Oropharyngeal Cancer: Impact of PET, MRI, and Physical Examination

    SciTech Connect

    Thiagarajan, Anuradha; Caria, Nicola; Schoeder, Heiko; Iyer, N. Gopalakrishna; Wolden, Suzanne; Wong, Richard J.; Sherman, Eric; Fury, Matthew G.; Lee, Nancy

    2012-05-01

    Introduction: Sole utilization of computed tomography (CT) scans in gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation for head-and-neck cancers is subject to inaccuracies. This study aims to evaluate contributions of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and physical examination (PE) to GTV delineation in oropharyngeal cancer (OPC). Methods: Forty-one patients with OPC were studied. All underwent contrast-enhanced CT simulation scans (CECTs) that were registered with pretreatment PETs and MRIs. For each patient, three sets of primary and nodal GTV were contoured. First, reference GTVs (GTVref) were contoured by the treating radiation oncologist (RO) using CT, MRI, PET, and PE findings. Additional GTVs were created using fused CT/PET scans (GTVctpet) and CT/MRI scans (GTVctmr) by two other ROs blinded to GTVref. To compare GTVs, concordance indices (CI) were calculated by dividing the respective overlap volumes by overall volumes. To evaluate the contribution of PE, composite GTVs derived from CT, MRI, and PET (GTVctpetmr) were compared with GTVref. Results: For primary tumors, GTVref was significantly larger than GTVctpet and GTVctmr (p < 0.001). Although no significant difference in size was noted between GTVctpet and GTVctmr (p = 0.39), there was poor concordance between them (CI = 0.62). In addition, although CI (ctpetmr vs. ref) was low, it was significantly higher than CI (ctpet vs. ref) and CI (ctmr vs. ref) (p < 0.001), suggesting that neither modality should be used alone. Qualitative analyses to explain the low CI (ctpetmr vs. ref) revealed underestimation of mucosal disease when GTV was contoured without knowledge of PE findings. Similar trends were observed for nodal GTVs. However, CI (ctpet vs. ref), CI (ctmr vs. ref), and CI (ctpetmr vs. ref) were high (>0.75), indicating that although the modalities were complementary, the added benefit was small in the context of CECTs. In addition, PE did not aid greatly in nodal GTV delineation

  17. Quantifying the Impact of Immediate Reconstruction in Postmastectomy Radiation: A Large, Dose-Volume Histogram-Based Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ohri, Nisha; Cordeiro, Peter G.; Keam, Jennifer; Ballangrud, Ase; Shi Weiji; Zhang Zhigang; Nerbun, Claire T.; Woch, Katherine M.; Stein, Nicholas F.; Zhou Ying; McCormick, Beryl; Powell, Simon N.; Ho, Alice Y.

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of immediate breast reconstruction on postmastectomy radiation (PMRT) using dose-volume histogram (DVH) data. Methods and Materials: Two hundred forty-seven women underwent PMRT at our center, 196 with implant reconstruction and 51 without reconstruction. Patients with reconstruction were treated with tangential photons, and patients without reconstruction were treated with en-face electron fields and customized bolus. Twenty percent of patients received internal mammary node (IMN) treatment. The DVH data were compared between groups. Ipsilateral lung parameters included V20 (% volume receiving 20 Gy), V40 (% volume receiving 40 Gy), mean dose, and maximum dose. Heart parameters included V25 (% volume receiving 25 Gy), mean dose, and maximum dose. IMN coverage was assessed when applicable. Chest wall coverage was assessed in patients with reconstruction. Propensity-matched analysis adjusted for potential confounders of laterality and IMN treatment. Results: Reconstruction was associated with lower lung V20, mean dose, and maximum dose compared with no reconstruction (all P<.0001). These associations persisted on propensity-matched analysis (all P<.0001). Heart doses were similar between groups (P=NS). Ninety percent of patients with reconstruction had excellent chest wall coverage (D95 >98%). IMN coverage was superior in patients with reconstruction (D95 >92.0 vs 75.7%, P<.001). IMN treatment significantly increased lung and heart parameters in patients with reconstruction (all P<.05) but minimally affected those without reconstruction (all P>.05). Among IMN-treated patients, only lower lung V20 in those without reconstruction persisted (P=.022), and mean and maximum heart doses were higher than in patients without reconstruction (P=.006, P=.015, respectively). Conclusions: Implant reconstruction does not compromise the technical quality of PMRT when the IMNs are untreated. Treatment technique, not reconstruction, is the primary

  18. Low temperature system for a large volume multi-anvil press

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Secco, Richard A.; Yong, Wenjun

    2016-12-01

    A new custom-designed system for a 3000 ton multi-anvil press has been developed to reach temperatures below room temperature at high pressures. The system was designed to remove heat selectively and conductively from the sample volume through six of the eight tungsten carbide (WC) cubes in direct contact with the octahedral pressure cell. The key components of the system include Cu cooling fins sandwiched between neighboring cube faces and the connected Cu heat exchange chamber through which liquid nitrogen flows. Currently, this system enables us to reach temperatures down to 220 K at pressures up to 8 GPa, but it can be easily modified to retain similar cooling capability at the highest pressure the press can reach (ca. 25 GPa).

  19. Neutron spectrometry with large volume, heavy-loaded superheated droplet detectors: a simple spin-off.

    PubMed

    Ramos, A R; Giuliani, F; Felizardo, M; Girard, T A; Morlat, T; Marques, J G; Oliveira, C; Limagne, D; Waysand, G; Fernandes, A C

    2005-01-01

    SIMPLE is a superheated droplet detector (SDD) experiment designed to search for the evidence of spin-dependent weakly interacting neutralino dark matter (WIMPs). SDDs, a type of emulsion detector, consist of a uniform suspension of superheated liquid droplets in a compliant material such as a polymeric or aqueous gel. We report on the first neutron spectrometry experiments with SIMPLE SDDs, a spin-off of the neutron detector calibrations performed at the Portuguese Research Reactor. SIMPLE SDDs differ from most SDDs available commercially as they have a 10 times higher loading factor, containing 10(3) times more freon than their commercial counterparts and a 100 times larger volume. We have analysed the response of SIMPLE SDDs to two quasi-monochromatic neutron beams of energies 54 and 144 keV obtained with passive filters. Results show that the characteristic peaks in the fluence distribution of both filters could be determined and their energy position obtained using a simple thermodynamic relation.

  20. Large Volume 18O-depleted Rhyolitic Volcanism: the Bruneau-Jarbidge Volcanic Field, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boroughs, S.; Wolff, J.; Bonnichsen, B.; Godchaux, M. M.; Larson, P. B.

    2003-12-01

    The Bruneau-Jarbidge (BJ) volcanic field is located in southern Idaho at the intersection of the western and eastern arms of the Snake River Plain. The BJ region is an oval structural basin of about 6000 km2, and is likely a system of nested caldera and collapse structures similar to, though larger than, the Yellowstone Volcanic Plateau. BJ rocks are high-temperature rhyolite tuffs, high-temperature rhyolite lavas, and volumetrically minor basalts. Exposed volumes of individual rhyolite units range up to greater than 500 km3. We have analyzed feldspar and, where present, quartz from 30 rhyolite units emplaced throughout the history of the BJ center. All, including the Cougar Point Tuff, are 18O depleted (δ 18OFSP = -1.3 to 3.7‰ ), while petrographically, temporally, and chemically similar lavas erupted along the nearby Owyhee Front have "normal" rhyolite magmatic δ 18O values of 7 - 9‰ . There is no evidence for significant modification of δ 18O values by post-eruptive alteration. No correlation exists between δ 18O and age, magmatic temperature, major element composition or trace element abundances among depleted BJ rhyolites. The BJ and WSRP rhyolites possess the geochemical characteristics (depressed Al, Ca, Eu, and Sr contents, high Ga/Al and K/Na) expected of liquids derived from shallow melting of calc-alkaline granitoids with residual plagioclase and orthopyroxene (Patino-Douce, Geology v.25 p.743-746, 1997). The classic Yellowstone low δ 18O rhyolites are post-caldera collapse lavas, but at BJ, both lavas and caldera-forming ignimbrites are strongly 18O-depleted. The total volume of low δ 18O rhyolite may be as high as 10,000 km3, requiring massive involvement of meteoric-hydrothermally altered crust in rhyolite petrogenesis. Regional hydrothermal modification of the crust under the thermal influence of the Yellowstone hotspot apparently preceded voluminous rhyolite generation at Bruneau-Jarbidge.

  1. A large volume striped bass egg incubation chamber: design and comparison with a traditional method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harper, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    I conducted a comparative study of a new jar design (experimental chamber) with a standard egg incubation vessel (McDonald jar). Experimental chambers measured 0.4 m in diameter by 1.3 m in height and had a volume of 200 L. McDonald hatching jars measured 16 cm in diameter by 45 cm in height and had a volume of 6 L. Post-hatch survival was estimated at 48, 96 and 144 h. Stocking rates resulted in an average egg density of 21.9 eggs ml-1 (range = 21.6 – 22.1) for McDonald jars and 10.9 eggs ml-1 (range = 7.0 – 16.8) for experimental chambers. I was unable to detect an effect of container type on survival to 48, 96 or 144 h. At 144 h striped bass fry survival averaged 37.3% for McDonald jars and 34.2% for experimental chambers. Survival among replicates was significantly different. Survival of striped bass significantly decreased between 96 and 144 h. Mean survival among replicates ranged from 12.4 to 57.3%. I was unable to detect an effect of initial stocking density on survival. Experimental jars allow for incubation of a larger number of eggs in a much smaller space. As hatchery production is often limited by space or water supply, experimental chambers offer an alternative to extending spawning activities, thereby reducing manpower and cost. However, the increase in the number of eggs per rearing container does increase the risk associated with catastrophic loss of a production unit. I conclude the experimental chamber is suitable for striped bass egg incubation.

  2. Under conditions of large geometric miss, tumor control probability can be higher for static gantry intensity-modulated radiation therapy compared to volume-modulated arc therapy for prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Balderson, Michael Brown, Derek; Johnson, Patricia; Kirkby, Charles

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to compare static gantry intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with volume-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in terms of tumor control probability (TCP) under scenarios involving large geometric misses, i.e., those beyond what are accounted for when margin expansion is determined. Using a planning approach typical for these treatments, a linear-quadratic–based model for TCP was used to compare mean TCP values for a population of patients who experiences a geometric miss (i.e., systematic and random shifts of the clinical target volume within the planning target dose distribution). A Monte Carlo approach was used to account for the different biological sensitivities of a population of patients. Interestingly, for errors consisting of coplanar systematic target volume offsets and three-dimensional random offsets, static gantry IMRT appears to offer an advantage over VMAT in that larger shift errors are tolerated for the same mean TCP. For example, under the conditions simulated, erroneous systematic shifts of 15 mm directly between or directly into static gantry IMRT fields result in mean TCP values between 96% and 98%, whereas the same errors on VMAT plans result in mean TCP values between 45% and 74%. Random geometric shifts of the target volume were characterized using normal distributions in each Cartesian dimension. When the standard deviations were doubled from those values assumed in the derivation of the treatment margins, our model showed a 7% drop in mean TCP for the static gantry IMRT plans but a 20% drop in TCP for the VMAT plans. Although adding a margin for error to a clinical target volume is perhaps the best approach to account for expected geometric misses, this work suggests that static gantry IMRT may offer a treatment that is more tolerant to geometric miss errors than VMAT.

  3. Under conditions of large geometric miss, tumor control probability can be higher for static gantry intensity-modulated radiation therapy compared to volume-modulated arc therapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Balderson, Michael; Brown, Derek; Johnson, Patricia; Kirkby, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to compare static gantry intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with volume-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in terms of tumor control probability (TCP) under scenarios involving large geometric misses, i.e., those beyond what are accounted for when margin expansion is determined. Using a planning approach typical for these treatments, a linear-quadratic-based model for TCP was used to compare mean TCP values for a population of patients who experiences a geometric miss (i.e., systematic and random shifts of the clinical target volume within the planning target dose distribution). A Monte Carlo approach was used to account for the different biological sensitivities of a population of patients. Interestingly, for errors consisting of coplanar systematic target volume offsets and three-dimensional random offsets, static gantry IMRT appears to offer an advantage over VMAT in that larger shift errors are tolerated for the same mean TCP. For example, under the conditions simulated, erroneous systematic shifts of 15mm directly between or directly into static gantry IMRT fields result in mean TCP values between 96% and 98%, whereas the same errors on VMAT plans result in mean TCP values between 45% and 74%. Random geometric shifts of the target volume were characterized using normal distributions in each Cartesian dimension. When the standard deviations were doubled from those values assumed in the derivation of the treatment margins, our model showed a 7% drop in mean TCP for the static gantry IMRT plans but a 20% drop in TCP for the VMAT plans. Although adding a margin for error to a clinical target volume is perhaps the best approach to account for expected geometric misses, this work suggests that static gantry IMRT may offer a treatment that is more tolerant to geometric miss errors than VMAT.

  4. Bar coded retroreflective target

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles S.

    2000-01-01

    This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

  5. Hypervelocity Impact (HVI). Volume 3; WLE Small-Scale Fiberglass Panel Flat Target C-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorman, Michael R.; Ziola, Steven M.

    2007-01-01

    During 2003 and 2004, the Johnson Space Center's White Sands Testing Facility in Las Cruces, New Mexico conducted hypervelocity impact tests on the space shuttle wing leading edge. Hypervelocity impact tests were conducted to determine if Micro-Meteoroid/Orbital Debris impacts could be reliably detected and located using simple passive ultrasonic methods. The objective of Target C-1 was to study hypervelocity impacts on the reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) panels of the Wing Leading Edge. Fiberglass was used in place of RCC in the initial tests. Impact damage was detected using lightweight, low power instrumentation capable of being used in flight.

  6. Hypervelocity Impact (HVI). Volume 4; WLE Small-Scale Fiberglass Panel Flat Target C-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorman, Michael R.; Ziola, Steven M.

    2007-01-01

    During 2003 and 2004, the Johnson Space Center's White Sands Testing Facility in Las Cruces, New Mexico conducted hypervelocity impact tests on the space shuttle wing leading edge. Hypervelocity impact tests were conducted to determine if Micro-Meteoroid/Orbital Debris impacts could be reliably detected and located using simple passive ultrasonic methods. The objective of Target C-2 was to study impacts through the reinforced carboncarbon (RCC) panels of the Wing Leading Edge. Fiberglass was used in place of RCC in the initial tests. Impact damage was detected using lightweight, low power instrumentation capable of being used in flight.

  7. Ultra-large scale AFM of lipid droplet arrays: investigating the ink transfer volume in dip pen nanolithography.

    PubMed

    Förste, Alexander; Pfirrmann, Marco; Sachs, Johannes; Gröger, Roland; Walheim, Stefan; Brinkmann, Falko; Hirtz, Michael; Fuchs, Harald; Schimmel, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    There are only few quantitative studies commenting on the writing process in dip-pen nanolithography with lipids. Lipids are important carrier ink molecules for the delivery of bio-functional patters in bio-nanotechnology. In order to better understand and control the writing process, more information on the transfer of lipid material from the tip to the substrate is needed. The dependence of the transferred ink volume on the dwell time of the tip on the substrate was investigated by topography measurements with an atomic force microscope (AFM) that is characterized by an ultra-large scan range of 800 × 800 μm(2). For this purpose arrays of dots of the phospholipid1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine were written onto planar glass substrates and the resulting pattern was imaged by large scan area AFM. Two writing regimes were identified, characterized of either a steady decline or a constant ink volume transfer per dot feature. For the steady state ink transfer, a linear relationship between the dwell time and the dot volume was determined, which is characterized by a flow rate of about 16 femtoliters per second. A dependence of the ink transport from the length of pauses before and in between writing the structures was observed and should be taken into account during pattern design when aiming at best writing homogeneity. The ultra-large scan range of the utilized AFM allowed for a simultaneous study of the entire preparation area of almost 1 mm(2), yielding good statistic results.

  8. Soft SUSY breaking parameters and RG running of squark and slepton masses in large volume Swiss Cheese compactifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Aalok; Shukla, Pramod

    2010-03-01

    We consider type IIB large volume compactifications involving orientifolds of the Swiss Cheese Calabi-Yau WCP[1,1,1,6,9] with a single mobile space-time filling D3-brane and stacks of D7-branes wrapping the “big” divisor ΣB (as opposed to the “small” divisor usually done in the literature thus far) as well as supporting D7-brane fluxes. After reviewing our proposal of [1] (Misra and Shukla, 2010) for resolving a long-standing tension between large volume cosmology and phenomenology pertaining to obtaining a 10 GeV gravitino in the inflationary era and a TeV gravitino in the present era, and summarizing our results of [1] (Misra and Shukla, 2010) on soft supersymmetry breaking terms and open-string moduli masses, we discuss the one-loop RG running of the squark and slepton masses in mSUGRA-like models (using the running of the gaugino masses) to the EW scale in the large volume limit. Phenomenological constraints and some of the calculated soft SUSY parameters identify the D7-brane Wilson line moduli as the first two generations/families of squarks and sleptons and the D3-brane (restricted to the big divisor) position moduli as the two Higgses for MSSM-like models at TeV scale. We also discuss how the obtained open-string/matter moduli make it easier to impose FCNC constraints, as well as RG flow of off-diagonal squark mass(-squared) matrix elements.

  9. RADON DIAGNOSTIC MEASUREMENT GUIDANCE FOR LARGE BUILDINGS - VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the development of radon diagnostic procedures and mitigation strategies applicable to a variety of large non-residential buildings commonly found in Florida. The investigations document and evaluate the nature of radon occurrence and entry mechanisms for rad...

  10. Systems definition study for shuttle demonstration flights of large space structures. Volume 3: Thermal analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    the development of large space structure technology is discussed. A detailed thermal analysis of a model space fabricated 1 meter beam is presented. Alternative thermal coatings are evaluated, and deflections, stresses, and stiffness variations resulting from flight orientations and solar conditions are predicted.

  11. Locally Targeted Cardiac Gene Delivery by AAV Microbubble Destruction in a Large Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Philipp; Huditz, Regina; Meinhardt, Eric; Rapti, Kleopatra; Geis, Nicolas; Most, Patrick; Katus, Hugo A; Müller, Oliver J; Bekeredjian, Raffi; Raake, Philip W

    2016-04-01

    Cardiac gene therapy is a promising approach for treating heart diseases. Although clinical studies are ongoing, effective and targeted transgene delivery is still a major obstacle. We sought to improve and direct transgene expression in myocardium by ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD). In pigs, adeno-associated virus-derived (AAV) vectors harboring the luciferase reporter gene were delivered via retroinfusion into the anterior interventricular coronary vein (AIV). AAV vectors were either loaded to lipid microbubbles before injection or injected unmodified. Upon injection of AAV/microbubble solution, UTMD was performed. After 4 weeks, reporter gene expression levels in the anterior wall (target area), in the posterior wall (control area), and in noncardiac organs were analyzed. Retroinfusion of AAV-luciferase vectors loaded to lipid microbubbles led to a significant increase in transgene expression, with an increase in UTMD targeted areas of the anterior wall. Moreover, off-target expression was reduced in comparison to control animals, receiving AAV-luciferase without microbubbles. Besides an increase in overall target area transgene expression, UTMD alters the spatial expression of the luciferase transgene, focusing expression to ultrasound-targeted left ventricular wall. These data suggest UTMD as a promising approach for directing AAV to specific cardiac segments.

  12. IMPLICATION FOR THE CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA RATE FROM 21 YEARS OF DATA OF THE LARGE VOLUME DETECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Agafonova, N. Y.; Ashikhmin, V. V.; Dadykin, V. L.; Dobrynina, E. A.; Enikeev, R. I.; Malgin, A. S.; Aglietta, M.; Badino, G.; Bertoni, R.; Fulgione, W.; Galeotti, P.; Gomez, F.; Antonioli, P.; Bari, G.; Garbini, M.; Giusti, P.; Bressan, E.; Bruno, G.; Ghia, P. L.; Kemp, E. E-mail: fulgione@to.infn.it; Collaboration: LVD Collaboration; and others

    2015-03-20

    The Large Volume Detector (LVD) has been continuously taking data since 1992 at the INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory. The LVD is sensitive to neutrino bursts from gravitational stellar collapses with full detection probability over the Galaxy. We have searched for neutrino bursts in LVD data taken over 7,335 days of operation. No evidence of neutrino signals has been found between 1992 June and 2013 December. The 90% C.L. upper limit on the rate of core collapse and failed supernova explosions out to distances of 25 kpc is found to be 0.114 yr{sup −1}.

  13. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) system concept and technology definition study. Volume 1: Executive summary, analyses and trades, and system concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnew, Donald L.; Jones, Peter A.

    1989-04-01

    A study was conducted to define reasonable and representative large deployable reflector (LDR) system concepts for the purpose of defining a technology development program aimed at providing the requisite technological capability necessary to start LDR development by the end of 1991. This volume includes the executive summary for the total study, a report of thirteen system analysis and trades tasks (optical configuration, aperture size, reflector material, segmented mirror, optical subsystem, thermal, pointing and control, transportation to orbit, structures, contamination control, orbital parameters, orbital environment, and spacecraft functions), and descriptions of three selected LDR system concepts. Supporting information is contained in appendices.

  14. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) system concept and technology definition study. Volume 1: Executive summary, analyses and trades, and system concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnew, Donald L.; Jones, Peter A.

    1989-01-01

    A study was conducted to define reasonable and representative large deployable reflector (LDR) system concepts for the purpose of defining a technology development program aimed at providing the requisite technological capability necessary to start LDR development by the end of 1991. This volume includes the executive summary for the total study, a report of thirteen system analysis and trades tasks (optical configuration, aperture size, reflector material, segmented mirror, optical subsystem, thermal, pointing and control, transportation to orbit, structures, contamination control, orbital parameters, orbital environment, and spacecraft functions), and descriptions of three selected LDR system concepts. Supporting information is contained in appendices.

  15. Determination of pesticides in seaweeds by pressurized liquid extraction and programmed temperature vaporization-based large volume injection-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    García-Rodríguez, D; Carro-Díaz, A M; Lorenzo-Ferreira, R A; Cela-Torrijos, R

    2010-04-23

    A rapid method for the simultaneous identification and quantification of pesticide residues in edible seaweed has been developed. Target analytes were three pyrethroid, a carbamate and two organophosphorus pesticides. The procedure consists of a pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with integrated clean-up, followed by gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Five PLE parameters were investigated using a screening design: temperature, static extraction time, number of cycles, percent of flush volume and quantitative composition of the n-hexane/ethyl acetate extraction solvent. The effect of the in-cell clean-up with Florisil and graphitized carbon black adsorbents was investigated using a Doehlert response surface design. Large volumes of sample extracts were injected using a programmed-temperature vaporizer (PTV-LVI) to improve both sensitivity and selectivity of measurements. Quantification was carried by the internal standard method with surrogate deuterated standards. The method showed excellent linearity (R2>0.999) and precision (relative standard deviation, RSD < or = 8%) for all compounds, with detection limits ranging from 0.3 pg g(-1) for chlorpyrifos-ethyl, to 3.0 pg g(-1) for carbaryl (23.1 pg g(-1) for deltamethrin). Recoveries in real seaweed samples were within the range 82-108%. The method was satisfactory validated for the analysis of wild and cultivated edible seaweeds. The presence of pyrethroid and organophosphorus pesticides in some of the samples was evidenced.

  16. Comparison and Consensus Guidelines for Delineation of Clinical Target Volume for CT- and MR-Based Brachytherapy in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, Akila N.; Gaffney, David K.; Beriwal, Sushil; Bhatia, Sudershan K.; Lee Burnett, Omer; D'Souza, David P.; Patil, Nikhilesh; Haddock, Michael G.; Jhingran, Anuja; Jones, Ellen L.; Kunos, Charles A.; Lee, Larissa J.; Mayr, Nina A.; Petersen, Ivy; Petric, Primoz; Portelance, Lorraine; Small, William; Strauss, Jonathan B.; and others

    2014-10-01

    Objective: To create and compare consensus clinical target volume (CTV) contours for computed tomography (CT) and 3-Tesla (3-T) magnetic resonance (MR) image-based cervical-cancer brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Twenty-three experts in gynecologic radiation oncology contoured the same 3 cervical cancer brachytherapy cases: 1 stage IIB near-complete response (CR) case with a tandem and ovoid, 1 stage IIB partial response (PR) case with tandem and ovoid with needles, and 1 stage IB2 CR case with a tandem and ring applicator. The CT contours were completed before the MRI contours. These were analyzed for consistency and clarity of target delineation using an expectation maximization algorithm for simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE), with κ statistics as a measure of agreement between participants. The conformity index was calculated for each of the 6 data sets. Dice coefficients were generated to compare the CT and MR contours of the same case. Results: For all 3 cases, the mean tumor volume was smaller on MR than on CT (P<.001). The κ and conformity index estimates were slightly higher for CT, indicating a higher level of agreement on CT. The Dice coefficients were 89% for the stage IB2 case with a CR, 74% for the stage IIB case with a PR, and 57% for the stage IIB case with a CR. Conclusion: In a comparison of MR-contoured with CT-contoured CTV volumes, the higher level of agreement on CT may be due to the more distinct contrast medium visible on the images at the time of brachytherapy. MR at the time of brachytherapy may be of greatest benefit in patients with large tumors with parametrial extension that have a partial or complete response to external beam. On the basis of these results, a 95% consensus volume was generated for CT and for MR. Online contouring atlases are available for instruction at (http://www.nrgoncology.org/Resources/ContouringAtlases/GYNCervicalBrachytherapy.aspx)

  17. Reirradiation of Large-Volume Recurrent Glioma With Pulsed Reduced-Dose-Rate Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Adkison, Jarrod B.; Tome, Wolfgang; Seo, Songwon; Richards, Gregory M.; Robins, H. Ian; Rassmussen, Karl; Welsh, James S.; Mahler, Peter A.; Howard, Steven P.

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: Pulsed reduced-dose-rate radiotherapy (PRDR) is a reirradiation technique that reduces the effective dose rate and increases the treatment time, allowing sublethal damage repair during irradiation. Patients and Methods: A total of 103 patients with recurrent glioma underwent reirradiation using PRDR (86 considered to have Grade 4 at PRDR). PRDR was delivered using a series of 0.2-Gy pulses at 3-min intervals, creating an apparent dose rate of 0.0667 Gy/min to a median dose of 50 Gy (range, 20-60) delivered in 1.8-2.0-Gy fractions. The mean treatment volume was 403.5 {+-} 189.4 cm{sup 3} according to T{sub 2}-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and a 2-cm margin. Results: For the initial or upgraded Grade 4 cohort (n = 86), the median interval from the first irradiation to PRDR was 14 months. Patients undergoing PRDR within 14 months of the first irradiation (n = 43) had a median survival of 21 weeks. Those treated {>=}14 months after radiotherapy had a median survival of 28 weeks (n = 43; p = 0.004 and HR = 1.82 with a 95% CI ranging from 1.25 to 3.10). These data compared favorably to historical data sets, because only 16% of the patients were treated at first relapse (with 46% treated at the second relapse, 32% at the third or fourth relapse, and 4% at the fourth or fifth relapse). The median survival since diagnosis and retreatment was 6.3 years and 11.4 months for low-grade, 4.1 years and 5.6 months for Grade 3, and 1.6 years and 5.1 months for Grade 4 tumors, respectively, according to the initial histologic findings. Multivariate analysis revealed age at the initial diagnosis, initial low-grade disease, and Karnofsky performance score of {>=}80 to be significant predictors of survival after initiation of PRDR. Conclusion: PRDR allowed for safe retreatment of larger volumes to high doses with palliative benefit.

  18. A possible aid in targeted insertion of large DNA elements by CRISPR/Cas in mouse zygotes.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Harumi; Harada, Takeshi; Nakao, Kazuki; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Inoue, Kenichi; Furuta, Yasuhide; Aiba, Atsu

    2016-02-01

    The CRISPR/Cas system has rapidly emerged recently as a new tool for genome engineering, and is expected to allow for controlled manipulation of specific genomic elements in a variety of species. A number of recent studies have reported the use of CRISPR/Cas for gene disruption (knockout) or targeted insertion of foreign DNA elements (knock-in). Despite the ease of simple gene knockout and small insertions or nucleotide substitutions in mouse zygotes by the CRISPR/Cas system, targeted insertion of large DNA elements remains an apparent challenge. Here the generation of knock-in mice with successful targeted insertion of large donor DNA elements ranged from 3.0 to 7.1 kb at the ROSA26 locus using the CRISPR/Cas system was achieved. Multiple independent knock-in founder mice were obtained by injection of hCas9 mRNA/sgRNA/donor vector mixtures into the cytoplasm of C57BL/6N zygotes when the injected zygotes were treated with an inhibitor of actin polymerization, cytochalasin. Successful germ line transmission of three of these knock-in alleles was also confirmed. The results suggested that treatment of zygotes with actin polymerization inhibitors following microinjection could be a viable method to facilitate targeted insertion of large DNA elements by the CRISPR/Cas system, enabling targeted knock-in readily attainable in zygotes.

  19. Linear and cyclic methylsiloxanes in air by concurrent solvent recondensation-large volume injection-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Companioni-Damas, E Y; Santos, F J; Galceran, M T

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, a simple and fast method for the analysis of linear and cyclic methylsiloxanes in ambient air based on active sampling combined with gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed. The retention efficiency of five sampling sorbents (activated coconut charcoal, Carbopack B, Cromosorb 102, Cromosorb 106 and Isolute ENV+) was evaluated and Isolute ENV+ was found to be the most effective. A volume of 2700 L of air can be sampled without significant losses of the most volatile methylsiloxanes. To improve the sensitivity of the GC-MS method, concurrent solvent recondensation - large volume injection (CSR-LVI), using volumes up to 30 µl of sample extract, is proposed and limits of quantification down to 0.03-0.45 ng m(-3), good linearity (r>0.999) and precision (RSD %<9%) were obtained. The developed method was applied to the analysis of ambient air. Concentrations of linear and cyclic methylsiloxanes in indoor air ranging from 3.9 to 319 ng m(-3) and between 48 and 292668 ng m(-3), were obtained, respectively, while levels from 6 to 22 ng m(-3) for linear and between 2.2 and 439 ng m(-3) for cyclic methylsiloxanes in outdoor air from Barcelona (Spain), were found.

  20. Particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons near power plants as determined by large volume injection--GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Evagelopoulos, V; Albanis, T A; Kodona, El; Zoras, S

    2010-06-01

    PM(10) and PM(2.5) samples were collected at two locations in the heavy industrialized prefecture of Kozani, in North-western Greece; in the open-cast mines of Klitos area and in the urban area of city of Kozani. The samples were collected by the use of low volume samplers, for a period of 1 year every 6 d. An analytical method has been adapted for determining 16 particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM(10) and PM(2.5). Samples were collected on poly-tetra-fluorinated-ethylene (PTFE) filters using low volume samplers, considered to be ideal for trapping various organic pollutants including PAHs. The extraction has been made in two stages. Firstly, by reflux and then by using ultrasound bath. Chromatographic analysis has been carried out by GC/MS with programmable temperature vaporizers (PTV) injector and large volume injection (LVI) technique. Mean daily concentrations of B[a]Py in PM(10)-bound particles were 0.57 ng m(-3) in Kozani and 0.58 ng m(-3) at Klitos, while in PM(2.5)-bound PAHs were 0.35 ng m(-3) and 0.30 ng m(-3) respectively. We were able to verify the sources of PAHs by the use of diagnostic ratios, which indicate oil or/and coal burning as the, possible, major PAHs pollutant source(s).

  1. Impacts of ultra-low volume resmethrin applications on non-target insects.

    PubMed

    Oberhauser, Karen S; Manweiler, Stephen A; Lelich, Rosemary; Blank, Meredith; Batalden, Rebecca V; de Anda, Alma

    2009-03-01

    We studied the impacts of exposure to ultra-low volume (ULV) applications of resmethrin (Scourge) on monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) larvae and adults. In a series of 3 experiments, we measured short- and long-term survival of monarch larvae and adults, and the impacts of consuming previously exposed host plants on monarch larvae. We measured efficacy during all experiments with caged sentinel mosquitoes, and during Experiments 1 and 2 with pretreatment, treatment, and posttreatment measurements of mosquito abundance in CO2 traps. Downwind monarch larval and adult mortality were higher than upwind or control mortality up to 120 m, but not 170 m, from the spray path. In 1 experiment, monarchs exposed to spray as larvae developed into smaller adults, suggesting sublethal impacts. Milkweed host plants sprayed 1, but not 2 or 4 days previously, resulted in increased monarch larval mortality. Sentinel mosquito mortality was generally high, and CO2 traps revealed substantially lower mosquito abundance immediately after the treatment (>90% reduction) but <20% reduction 24 h after treatment. Our results suggest that ULV resmethrin applications will impact lepidopteran larvae and adults that are directly exposed to the spray but that generalizations about other nontarget taxa will require additional research. The magnitude of population-level impacts on monarchs will depend on the proportion of the population that is exposed.

  2. The ADVANCE project: Formal evaluation of the targeted deployment. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    ADVANCE [Advanced Driver and Vehicle Advisory Navigation ConcEpt] was a public/private partnership conceived and developed by four founding parties. The founding parties include the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT), the University of Illinois at Chicago and Northwestern University operating together under the auspices of the Illinois Universities Transportation Research Consortium (IUTRC), and Motorola, Inc. The major responsibilities of each party are fully described in the Project agreement. Subsequently, these four were joined on the Steering Committee by the American Automobile Association (AAA). This unique blending of public sector, private sector and university interests, augmented by more than two dozen other private sector participants, provided a strong set of resources for ADVANCE. The ADVANCE test area covered over 300 square miles including portions of the City of Chicago and 40 northwest suburban communities. The Project encompasses the high growth areas adjacent to O`Hare International Airport, the Schaumbura/Hoffman Estates office and retail complexes, and the Lake-Cook Road development corridor. It also includes major sports and entertainment complexes such as the Arlington International Racecourse and the Rosemont Horizon. The population in the area is more than 750,000. This volume provides a summary of the insights and achievements made as a result of this field test, and selected appendices containing more detailed information.

  3. Large-area chromogenics: Materials and devices for transmittance control. Volume IS 4

    SciTech Connect

    Lampert, C.M.; Granqvist, C.G.

    1990-12-31

    Chromogenic materials can alter their optical properties in a persistent yet reversible manner when subjected to a change in external conditions such as irradiation intensity, temperature, or electric-field strength. In the future chromogenic materials may be used on large scale to regulate the throughput of radiant energy for windows in buildings and cars, so that comfortable lighting and temperature are maintained without excessive air conditioning. The purpose of this book is to give a broad coverage of large-area chromogenics and to discuss their applications. The book is divided into the following areas: applications; photochromic materials; thermochromic materials; inorganic electrochromic materials; inorganic electrochromic materials; organic electrochromic materials; conductors for ions and electrons in electrochromic devices; electrochromic devices; and liquid crystals materials and devices. Separate abstracts were prepared for 33 papers in this book.

  4. Large Deployable Reflector Science and Technology Workshop. Volume 2: Scientific Rationale and Technology Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, D. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    The scientific rationale for the large deployable reflector (LDR) and the overall technological requirements are discussed. The main scientific objectives include studies of the origins of planets, stars and galaxies, and of the ultimate fate of the universe. The envisioned studies require a telescope with a diameter of at least 20 m, diffraction-limited to wavelengths as short as 30-50 micron. In addition, light-bucket operation with 1 arcsec spatial resolution in the 2-4 microns wavelength region would be useful in studies of high-redshifted galaxies. Such a telescope would provide a large increase in spectroscopic sensitivity and spatial resolving power compared with existing or planned infrared telescopes.

  5. Large Dog Relinquishment to Two Municipal Facilities in New York City and Washington, D.C.: Identifying Targets for Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Emily; Slater, Margaret; Garrison, Laurie; Drain, Natasha; Dolan, Emily; Scarlett, Janet M.; Zawistowski, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary While the overall trend in euthanasia has been decreasing nationally, large dogs are at a higher risk of euthanasia than other-sized dogs in most animal shelters in the United States. We hypothesized that one way to increase the lives saved with regard to large dogs in shelters is to keep them home in the first place when possible. Our research is the first to collect data in New York City and Washington, D.C., identifying the process leading to the owner relinquishment of large dogs. We found that targets for interventions to decrease large dog relinquishment are likely different in each community. Abstract While the overall trend in euthanasia has been decreasing nationally, large dogs are at a higher risk of euthanasia than other sized dogs in most animal shelters in the United States. We hypothesized one way to increase the lives saved with respect to these large dogs is to keep them home when possible. In order to develop solutions to decrease relinquishment, a survey was developed to learn more about the reasons owners relinquish large dogs. The survey was administered to owners relinquishing their dogs at two large municipal facilities, one in New York City and one in Washington, D.C. There were 157 responses between the two facilities. We found both significant similarities and differences between respondents and their dogs from the two cities. We identified opportunities to potentially support future relinquishers and found that targets for interventions are likely different in each community. PMID:26480315

  6. Study of auxiliary propulsion requirements for large space systems, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W. W.; Machles, G. W.

    1983-01-01

    A range of single shuttle launched large space systems were identified and characterized including a NASTRAN and loading dynamics analysis. The disturbance environment, characterization of thrust level and APS mass requirements, and a study of APS/LSS interactions were analyzed. State-of-the-art capabilities for chemical and ion propulsion were compared with the generated propulsion requirements to assess the state-of-the-art limitations and benefits of enhancing current technology.

  7. Extraterrestrial processing and manufacturing of large space systems. Volume 3: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. H.; Smith, D. B. S.

    1979-01-01

    Facilities and equipment are defined for refining processes to commercial grade of lunar material that is delivered to a 'space manufacturing facility' in beneficiated, primary processed quality. The manufacturing facilities and the equipment for producing elements of large space systems from these materials and providing programmatic assessments of the concepts are also defined. In-space production processes of solar cells (by vapor deposition) and arrays, structures and joints, conduits, waveguides, RF equipment radiators, wire cables, converters, and others are described.

  8. Extraterrestrial processing and manufacturing of large space systems, volume 1, chapters 1-6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. H.; Smith, D. B. S.

    1979-01-01

    Space program scenarios for production of large space structures from lunar materials are defined. The concept of the space manufacturing facility (SMF) is presented. The manufacturing processes and equipment for the SMF are defined and the conceptual layouts are described for the production of solar cells and arrays, structures and joints, conduits, waveguides, RF equipment radiators, wire cables, and converters. A 'reference' SMF was designed and its operation requirements are described.

  9. Diffusion Maps and Geometric Harmonics for Automatic Target Recognition (ATR). Volume 2. Appendices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    visual stimuli could be considered similar if they excite a visual receptor in a very similar way. Discovering large-scale structures and extracting...spike train analysis to olfaction and the electroencephalogram (EEG). But perhaps more exciting is the possibility that emergent structure across levels...will open a theoretical door into cognitive neuroscience and memory organization. Matlab scripts for the computations involved in diffusion maps

  10. X-ray imaging of uniform large scale-length plasmas created from gas-filled targets on Nova

    SciTech Connect

    Kalantar, D.H.; MacGowan, B.J.; Bernat, T.P.

    1994-05-01

    We report on the production and characterization of large scale-length plasmas created by illuminating gas-filled thin-walled balloon-like targets using the Nova laser. The targets consisted of a 4--5000 {angstrom} skin surrounding 1 atm of neopentane which when ionized becomes a plasma with 10{sup 21} electrons/cm{sup 3}. Results are presented from x-ray imaging used to evaluate the uniformity of the plasma. The most uniform plasmas were produced by illuminating the target with large converging beams that overlapped to cover most of the surface of the gasbag. An alternate focus geometry using small beam spots resulted in a less uniform plasma with low density holes in it.

  11. No evidence of a threshold in traffic volume affecting road-kill mortality at a large spatio-temporal scale

    SciTech Connect

    Grilo, Clara; Ferreira, Flavio Zanchetta; Revilla, Eloy

    2015-11-15

    Previous studies have found that the relationship between wildlife road mortality and traffic volume follows a threshold effect on low traffic volume roads. We aimed at evaluating the response of several species to increasing traffic intensity on highways over a large geographic area and temporal period. We used data of four terrestrial vertebrate species with different biological and ecological features known by their high road-kill rates: the barn owl (Tyto alba), hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Additionally, we checked whether road-kill likelihood varies when traffic patterns depart from the average. We used annual average daily traffic (AADT) and road-kill records observed along 1000 km of highways in Portugal over seven consecutive years (2003–2009). We fitted candidate models using Generalized Linear Models with a binomial distribution through a sample unit of 1 km segments to describe the effect of traffic on the probability of finding at least one victim in each segment during the study. We also assigned for each road-kill record the traffic of that day and the AADT on that year to test for differences using Paired Student's t-test. Mortality risk declined significantly with traffic volume but varied among species: the probability of finding road-killed red foxes and rabbits occurs up to moderate traffic volumes (< 20,000 AADT) whereas barn owls and hedgehogs occurred up to higher traffic volumes (40,000 AADT). Perception of risk may explain differences in responses towards high traffic highway segments. Road-kill rates did not vary significantly when traffic intensity departed from the average. In summary, we did not find evidence of traffic thresholds for the analysed species and traffic intensities. We suggest mitigation measures to reduce mortality be applied in particular on low traffic roads (< 5000 AADT) while additional measures to reduce barrier effects should take into account

  12. SU-E-J-75: Importance of 4DCT for Target Volume Definition in Stereotactic Lung Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Goksel, E; Cone, D; Kucucuk, H; Senkesen, O; Yilmaz, M; Aslay, I; Tezcanli, E; Garipagaoglu, M; Sengoz, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: We aimed to investigate the importance of 4DCT for lung tumors treated with SBRT and whether maximum intensity projection (MIP) and free breathing (FB) images can compansate for tumor movement. Methods: Six patients with primary lung cancer and 2 patients with lung metastasis with a median age of 69.5 (42–86) were included. Patients were positioned supine on a vacuum bag. In addition to FB planning CT images, 4DCT images were obtained at 3 mm intervals using Varian RPM system with (Siemens Somatom Sensetion 64). MIP series were reconstructed using 4DCT images. PTV-FB and PTV-MIP (GTV+5mm) volumes were contoured using FB and MIP series, respectively. GTVs were defined on each of eight different breathing phase images and were merged to create the ITV. PTV-4D was generated with a 5 mm margin to ITV. PTV-MIP and PTV-4D contours were copied to FB CT series and treatment plans for PTV-MIP and PTV-FB were generated using RapidArc (2 partial arc) technique in Eclipse (version 11, AAA algorithm). The prescription dose was 5600cGy in 7 fractions. ITV volumes receiving prescription dose (%) and V95 for ITV were calculated for each treatment plan. Results: The mean PTV-4B, PTV-MIP and PTV-FB volumes were 23.2 cc, 15.4cc ve 11cc respectively. Median volume of ITV receiving the prescription dose was 34.6% (16.4–70 %) and median V95 dose for ITV was 1699cGy (232cGy-5117cGy) in the plan optimized for PTV-FB as the reference. When the plan was optimized for PTV-MIP, median ITV volume receiving the prescription dose was 67.15% (26–86%) and median V95 dose for ITV was 4231cGy (1735cGy-5290cGy). Conclusion: Images used in lung SBRT are critical for treatment quality; FB and MIP images did not compensate target movement, therefore 4DCT images should be obtained for all patients undergoing lung SBRT or the safety margins should be adjusted.

  13. Large-scale automatic extraction of side effects associated with targeted anticancer drugs from full-text oncological articles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rong; Wang, QuanQiu

    2015-06-01

    Targeted anticancer drugs such as imatinib, trastuzumab and erlotinib dramatically improved treatment outcomes in cancer patients, however, these innovative agents are often associated with unexpected side effects. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these side effects are not well understood. The availability of a comprehensive knowledge base of side effects associated with targeted anticancer drugs has the potential to illuminate complex pathways underlying toxicities induced by these innovative drugs. While side effect association knowledge for targeted drugs exists in multiple heterogeneous data sources, published full-text oncological articles represent an important source of pivotal, investigational, and even failed trials in a variety of patient populations. In this study, we present an automatic process to extract targeted anticancer drug-associated side effects (drug-SE pairs) from a large number of high profile full-text oncological articles. We downloaded 13,855 full-text articles from the Journal of Oncology (JCO) published between 1983 and 2013. We developed text classification, relationship extraction, signaling filtering, and signal prioritization algorithms to extract drug-SE pairs from downloaded articles. We extracted a total of 26,264 drug-SE pairs with an average precision of 0.405, a recall of 0.899, and an F1 score of 0.465. We show that side effect knowledge from JCO articles is largely complementary to that from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) drug labels. Through integrative correlation analysis, we show that targeted drug-associated side effects positively correlate with their gene targets and disease indications. In conclusion, this unique database that we built from a large number of high-profile oncological articles could facilitate the development of computational models to understand toxic effects associated with targeted anticancer drugs.

  14. Characteristics of surface-wave and volume-wave plasmas produced with internally mounted large-area planar microwave launcher

    SciTech Connect

    Nagatsu, Masaaki; Naito, Katsutoshi; Ogino, Akihisa; Ninomiya, Keigo; Nanko, Shohei

    2005-10-17

    We studied discharge characteristics of microwave plasmas excited with a large-area planar microwave launcher installed internally in a 600-mm-diam cylindrical vacuum chamber. With the microwave power less than roughly 400 W, we demonstrated the large volumetric volume-wave plasma (VWP) spread in the entire chamber at a pressure of 14-27 Pa in He. Above 400 W, the plasma discharge made a sudden transition to higher-density, uniform surface-wave plasma (SWP) having a spatial uniformity of {+-}3.5% over 300 mm in diameter. Electron energy probability functions in the downstream region were studied using Langmuir probe measurements with Druyvesteyn method in both the SWP and VWP discharges.

  15. Magnetostructural martensitic transformations with large volume changes and magneto-strains in all-d-metal Heusler alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Z. Y.; Liu, E. K.; Li, Y.; Han, X. L.; Du, Z. W.; Luo, H. Z.; Liu, G. D.; Xi, X. K.; Zhang, H. W.; Wang, W. H.; Wu, G. H.

    2016-08-01

    The all-d-metal Mn2-based Heusler ferromagnetic shape memory alloys Mn50Ni40-xCoxTi10 (x = 8 and 9.5) are realized. With a generic comparison between d-metal Ti and main-group elements in lowering the transformation temperature, the magnetostructural martensitic transformations are established by further introducing Co to produce local ferromagnetic Mn-Co-Mn configurations. A 5-fold modulation and (3, -2) stacking of [00 10] of martensite are determined by X-ray diffraction and HRTEM analysis. Based on the transformation, a large magneto-strain of 6900 ppm and a large volume change of -2.54% are observed in polycrystalline samples, which makes the all-d-metal magnetic martensitic alloys of interest for magnetic/pressure multi-field driven applications.

  16. Large-volume data delivery from low-Earth orbit to ground using efficient single-mode optical receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, B. S.; Schieler, C. M.; Boroson, D. M.

    2016-03-01

    Space systems operating in low-Earth orbit are often constrained by how much data can be delivered from space to ground. Traditional data delivery approaches are often limited by either large link losses associated with transmission via a geosynchronous relay satellite or short contact times and spectrum-constrained data rates associated with direct-to-Earth radio-frequency links. Direct-to-Earth optical communication links from low-Earth orbit based on fiber telecommunications technologies that can operate at high data rates (> 100 Gb/s per wavelength channel) can enable the delivery of extremely large volumes of data from space to ground. We analyze the performance of such systems and discuss the performance gains that are enabled by coupling the received signal to an efficient single-mode-fiber-based receiver, even in the presence of turbulence-induced losses.

  17. Pre-column dilution large volume injection ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of multi-class pesticides in cabbages.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Qisheng; Shen, Lingling; Liu, Jiaqi; Yu, Dianbao; Li, Siming; Yao, Jinting; Zhan, Song; Huang, Taohong; Hashi, Yuki; Kawano, Shin-ichi; Liu, Zhaofeng; Zhou, Ting

    2016-04-15

    Pre-column dilution large volume injection (PD-LVI), a novel sample injection technique for reverse phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), was developed in this study. The PD-LVI UHPLC-MS/MS system was designed by slightly modifying the commercial UHPLC-MS/MS equipment with a mixer chamber. During the procedure of PD-LVI, sample solution of 200μL was directly carried by the organic mobile phase to the mixer and diluted with the aqueous mobile phase. After the mixture was introduced to the UHPLC column in a mobile phase of acetonitrile-water (15/85, v/v), the target analytes were stacked on the head of the column until following separation. Using QuEChERS extraction, no additional steps such as solvent evaporation or residue redissolution were needed before injection. The features of PD-LVI UHPLC-MS/MS system were systematically investigated, including the injection volume, the mixer volume, the precondition time and the gradient elution. The efficiency of this approach was demonstrated by direct analysis of 24 pesticides in cabbages. Under the optimized conditions, low limits of detection (0.00074-0.8 ng/kg) were obtained. The recoveries were in the range of 63.3-109% with relative standard deviations less than 8.1%. Compared with common UHPLC-MS/MS technique, PD-LVI UHPLC-MS/MS showed significant advantages such as excellent sensitivity and reliability. The mechanism of PD-LVI was demonstrated to be based on the column-head stacking effect with pre-column dilution. Based on the results, PD-LVI as a simple and effective sample injection technique of reverse phase UHPLC-MS/MS for the analysis of trace analytes in complex samples showed a great promising prospect.

  18. Large-volume volcanic edifice failures in Central America and associated hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siebert, Lee; Alvarado, Guillermo E.; Vallance, James W.; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    Edifice-collapse phenomena have, to date, received relatively little attention in Central America, although ∼40 major collapse events (≥0.1 km3) from about two dozen volcanoes are known or inferred in this volcanic arc. Volcanoes subjected to gravitational failure are concentrated at the arc's western and eastern ends. Failures correlate positively with volcano elevation, substrate elevation, edifice height, volcano volume, and crustal thickness and inversely with slab descent angle. Collapse orientations are strongly influenced by the direction of slope of the underlying basement, and hence are predominately perpendicular to the arc (preferentially to the south) at its extremities and display more variable failure directions in the center of the arc.The frequency of collapse events in Central America is poorly constrained because of the lack of precise dating of deposits, but a collapse interval of ∼1000–2000 yr has been estimated during the Holocene. These high-impact events fortunately occur at low frequency, but the proximity of many Central American volcanoes to highly populated regions, including some of the region's largest cities, requires evaluation of their hazards. The primary risks are from extremely mobile debris avalanches and associated lahars, which in Central America have impacted now-populated areas up to ∼50 km from a source volcano. Lower probability risks associated with volcanic edifice collapse derive from laterally directed explosions and tsunamis. The principal hazards of the latter here result from potential impact of debris avalanches into natural or man-made lakes. Much work remains on identifying and describing debris-avalanche deposits in Central America. The identification of potential collapse sites and assessing and monitoring the stability of intact volcanoes is a major challenge for the next decade.

  19. Large-volume volcanic edifi ce failures in Central America and associated hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siebert, L.; Alvarado, Guillermo E.; Vallance, J.W.; Van Wyk de Vries, B.

    2006-01-01

    Edifi ce-collapse phenomena have, to date, received relatively little attention in Central America, although ??40 major collapse events (??0.1 km3) from about two dozen volcanoes are known or inferred in this volcanic arc. Volcanoes subjected to gravitational failure are concentrated at the arc's western and eastern ends. Failures correlate positively with volcano elevation, substrate elevation, edifi ce height, volcano volume, and crustal thickness and inversely with slab descent angle. Collapse orientations are strongly infl uenced by the direction of slope of the underlying basement, and hence are predominately perpendicular to the arc (preferentially to the south) at its extremities and display more variable failure directions in the center of the arc. The frequency of collapse events in Central America is poorly constrained because of the lack of precise dating of deposits, but a collapse interval of ??1000-2000 yr has been estimated during the Holocene. These high-impact events fortunately occur at low frequency, but the proximity of many Central American volcanoes to highly populated regions, including some of the region's largest cities, requires evaluation of their hazards. The primary risks are from extremely mobile debris avalanches and associated lahars, which in Central America have impacted now-populated areas up to ??50 km from a source volcano. Lower probability risks associated with volcanic edifi ce collapse derive from laterally directed explosions and tsunamis. The principal hazards of the latter here result from potential impact of debris avalanches into natural or man-made lakes. Much work remains on identifying and describing debris-avalanche deposits in Central America. The identifi cation of potential collapse sites and assessing and monitoring the stability of intact volcanoes is a major challenge for the next decade. ?? 2006 Geological Society of America.

  20. Are We Ready for Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography-based Target Volume Definition in Lymphoma Radiation Therapy?

    SciTech Connect

    Yeoh, Kheng-Wei; Mikhaeel, N. George

    2013-01-01

    Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) has become indispensable for the clinical management of lymphomas. With consistent evidence that it is more accurate than anatomic imaging in the staging and response assessment of many lymphoma subtypes, its utility continues to increase. There have therefore been efforts to incorporate PET/CT data into radiation therapy decision making and in the planning process. Further, there have also been studies investigating target volume definition for radiation therapy using PET/CT data. This article will critically review the literature and ongoing studies on the above topics, examining the value and methods of adding PET/CT data to the radiation therapy treatment algorithm. We will also discuss the various challenges and the areas where more evidence is required.

  1. Hierarchical storage of large volume of multidector CT data using distributed servers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratib, Osman; Rosset, Antoine; Heuberger, Joris; Bandon, David

    2006-03-01

    Multidector scanners and hybrid multimodality scanners have the ability to generate large number of high-resolution images resulting in very large data sets. In most cases, these datasets are generated for the sole purpose of generating secondary processed images and 3D rendered images as well as oblique and curved multiplanar reformatted images. It is therefore not essential to archive the original images after they have been processed. We have developed an architecture of distributed archive servers for temporary storage of large image datasets for 3D rendering and image processing without the need for long term storage in PACS archive. With the relatively low cost of storage devices it is possible to configure these servers to hold several months or even years of data, long enough for allowing subsequent re-processing if required by specific clinical situations. We tested the latest generation of RAID servers provided by Apple computers with a capacity of 5 TBytes. We implemented a peer-to-peer data access software based on our Open-Source image management software called OsiriX, allowing remote workstations to directly access DICOM image files located on the server through a new technology called "bonjour". This architecture offers a seamless integration of multiple servers and workstations without the need for central database or complex workflow management tools. It allows efficient access to image data from multiple workstation for image analysis and visualization without the need for image data transfer. It provides a convenient alternative to centralized PACS architecture while avoiding complex and time-consuming data transfer and storage.

  2. Study of stress-strain and volume change behavior of emplaced municipal solid waste using large-scale triaxial testing.

    PubMed

    Ramaiah, B J; Ramana, G V

    2017-01-27

    The article presents the stress-strain and volume change behavior, shear strength and stiffness parameters of landfilled municipal solid waste (MSW) collected from two dump sites located in Delhi, India. Over 30 drained triaxial compression (TXC) tests were conducted on reconstituted large-scale specimens of 150mm diameter to study the influence of fiber content, age, density and confining pressure on the shear strength of MSW. In addition, a few TXC tests were also conducted on 70mm diameter specimen to examine the effect of specimen size on the mobilized shear strength. It is observed that the fibrous materials such as textiles and plastics, and their percentage by weight have a significant effect on the stress-strain-volume change behavior, shear strength and stiffness of solid waste. The stress-strain-volume change behavior of MSW at Delhi is qualitatively in agreement with the behavior reported for MSW from different countries. Results of large-scale direct shear tests conducted on MSW with an identical composition used for TXC tests revealed the cross-anisotropic behavior as reported by previous researchers. Effective shear strength parameters of solid waste evaluated from this study is best characterized by ϕ'=39° and c'=0kPa for the limiting strain-based failure criteria of K0=0.3+5% axial strain and are in the range of the data reported for MSW from different countries. Data presented in this article is useful for the stress-deformation and stability analysis of the dump sites during their operation as well as closure plans.

  3. Systems definition study for shuttle demonstration flights of large space structures, Volume 2: Technical Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The development of large space structure (LSS) technology is discussed, with emphasis on space fabricated structures which are automatically manufactured in space from sheet-strip materials and assembled on-orbit. It is concluded that an LSS flight demonstration using an Automated Beam Builder and the orbiter as a construction base, could be performed in the 1983-1984 time period. The estimated cost is $24 million exclusive of shuttle launch costs. During the mission, a simple space platform could be constructed in-orbit to accommodate user requirements associated with earth viewing and materials exposure experiments needs.

  4. Large-volume sample stacking-capillary electrophoresis used for the determination of 3-nitrotyrosine in rat urine.

    PubMed

    Maeso, Nuria; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Barbas, Coral

    2004-09-25

    Large-volume sample stacking using the electroosmotic flow (EOF) pump technique has been investigated for the quantification of 3-nitrotyrosine in urine of diabetic rats. The best separation conditions for these highly complex samples were obtained using capillary electrophoresis (CE) in the reversed polarity mode (i.e., injecting at the cathode and detecting at the anode) using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in the running buffer. The optimum CE separation conditions were achieved using a phosphate buffer prepared with 0.15M phosphoric acid and 0.5 mM CTAB adjusted to pH 6.4 with sodium hydroxide. In such CE conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) was 1.77 microM for 3-nitrotyrosine with normal injection mode, meanwhile with the large-volume sample stacking technique a more than 20-fold improvement was observed (i.e., LOD = 0.08 microM was obtained) without noticeable loss of resolution. This value allowed the detection of 3-nitrotyrosine in urine from diabetic rats. To our knowledge, this work is one of the few applications showing the great possibilities of these stacking procedures to analyse biological samples by CE.

  5. Boron-doped diamond heater and its application to large-volume, high-pressure, and high-temperature experiments.

    PubMed

    Shatskiy, Anton; Yamazaki, Daisuke; Morard, Guillaume; Cooray, Titus; Matsuzaki, Takuya; Higo, Yuji; Funakoshi, Ken-ichi; Sumiya, Hitoshi; Ito, Eiji; Katsura, Tomoo

    2009-02-01

    A temperature of 3500 degrees C was generated using a diamond resistance heater in a large-volume Kawai-type high-pressure apparatus. Re and LaCrO(3) have conventionally been used for heaters in high-pressure studies but they cannot generate temperatures higher than 2900 degrees C and make in situ x-ray observations difficult due to their high x-ray absorption. Using a boron-doped diamond heater overcomes these problems and achieves stable temperature generation for pressure over 10 GPa. The heater starting material is a cold-compressed mixture of graphite with boron used to avoid the manufacturing difficulties due to the extreme hardness of diamond. The diamond heater was synthesized in situ from the boron-graphite mixture at temperature of 1600+/-100 degrees C and pressure of 20 GPa. By using the proposed technique, we have employed the diamond heater for high-temperature generation in a large-volume high-pressure apparatus. Achievement of temperatures above 3000 degrees C allows us to measure the melting points of the important constituents in earth's mantle (MgSiO(3), SiO(2), and Al(2)O(3)) and core (Fe and Ni) at extremely high pressures.

  6. Phase transfer membrane supported liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction combined with large volume sample injection capillary electrophoresis-ultraviolet detection for the speciation of inorganic and organic mercury.

    PubMed

    Li, Pingjing; Zhang, Xing; Hu, Bin

    2011-12-30

    In this paper, a novel sample pretreatment technique termed phase transfer based liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction (PT-LLLME) was proposed for the simultaneous extraction of inorganic and organic mercury species. In PT-LLLME, an intermediate solvent (acetonitrile) was added into the donor phase to improve the contacting between target mercury species and complexing reagent. Meanwhile, a membrane supported (MS)-LLLME unit was designed to realize the PT-LLLME procedure. By using nylon membrane as supporting carrier, larger than 50 μL of acceptor solution could be hung up. Following PT/MS-LLLME, the acceptor solutions were directly analyzed by large volume sample stacking capillary electrophoresis/ultraviolet detection (LVSS-CE/UV). Accordingly, a new method of PT/MS-LLLME combined with LVSS-CE/UV was developed for the simultaneous speciation of inorganic and organic mercury species. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of PT/MS-LLLME were investigated in details. Under the optimized conditions, enrichment factors (EFs) ranging from 160- to 478-fold were obtained for the extraction of target mercury species by PT/MS-LLLME. By combining PT/MS-LLLME with LVSS-CE/UV, EFs were magnified up to 12,138-fold and the limits of detection (at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3) were at sub ppb level. The established approach of PT/MS-LLLME-LVSS-CE/UV was successfully applied to simultaneous determination of inorganic and organic mercury species in biological samples and environmental water samples.

  7. Sci—Fri AM: Mountain — 06: Optimizing planning target volume in lung radiotherapy using deformable registration

    SciTech Connect

    Hoang, P; Wierzbicki, M

    2014-08-15

    A four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) image is acquired for all radically treated, lung cancer patients to define the internal target volume (ITV), which encompasses tumour motion due to breathing and subclinical disease. Patient set-up error and anatomical motion that is not due to breathing is addressed through an additional 1 cm margin around the ITV to obtain the planning target volume (PTV). The objective of this retrospective study is to find the minimum PTV margin that provides an acceptable probability of delivering the prescribed dose to the ITV. Acquisition of a kV cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) image at each fraction was used to shift the treatment couch to accurately align the spinal cord and carina. Our method utilized deformable image registration to automatically position the planning ITV on each CBCT. We evaluated the percentage of the ITV surface that fell within various PTVs for 79 fractions across 18 patients. Treatment success was defined as a situation where at least 99% of the ITV is covered by the PTV. Overall, this is to be achieved in at least 90% of the treatment fractions. The current approach with a 1cm PTV margin was successful ∼96% of the time. This analysis revealed that the current margin can be reduced to 0.8cm isotropic or 0.6×0.6×1 cm{sup 3} non-isotropic, which were successful 92 and 91 percent of the time respectively. Moreover, we have shown that these margins maintain accuracy, despite intrafractional variation, and maximize CBCT image guidance capabilities.

  8. Cranial location of level II lymph nodes in laryngeal cancer: Implications for elective nodal target volume delineation

    SciTech Connect

    Braam, Petra M. . E-mail: P.M.Braam@umcutrecht.nl; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P.J.; Terhaard, Chris

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: To analyze the cranial distribution of level II lymph nodes in patients with laryngeal cancer to optimize the elective radiation nodal target volume delineation. Methods and Materials: The most cranially located metastatic lymph node was delineated in 67 diagnostic CT data sets. The minimum distance from the base of the skull (BOS) to the lymph node was determined. Results: A total of 98 lymph nodes were delineated including 62 ipsilateral and 36 contralateral lymph nodes. The mean ipsilateral and contralateral distance from the top of the most cranial metastatic lymph node to the BOS was 36 mm (range, -9-120; standard deviation [SD], 17.9) and 35 mm (range, 14-78; SD 15.0), respectively. Only 5% and 12% of the ipsilateral and 3% and 9% of the contralateral metastatic lymph nodes were located within 15 mm and 20 mm below the BOS, respectively. No significant differences were found between patients with only ipsilateral metastatic lymph nodes and patients with bilateral metastatic lymph nodes. Between tumors that do cross the midline and those that do not, no significant difference was found in the distance of the most cranial lymph node to the BOS and the occurrence ipsilateral or contralateral. Conclusions: Setting the cranial border of the nodal target volume 1.5 cm below the base of the skull covers 95% of the lymph nodes and should be considered in elective nodal irradiation for laryngeal cancer. Bilateral neck irradiation is mandatory, including patients with unilateral laryngeal cancer, when elective irradiation is advised.

  9. Requirements for a mobile communications satellite system. Volume 3: Large space structures measurements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akle, W.

    1983-01-01

    This study report defines a set of tests and measurements required to characterize the performance of a Large Space System (LSS), and to scale this data to other LSS satellites. Requirements from the Mobile Communication Satellite (MSAT) configurations derived in the parent study were used. MSAT utilizes a large, mesh deployable antenna, and encompasses a significant range of LSS technology issues in the areas of structural/dynamics, control, and performance predictability. In this study, performance requirements were developed for the antenna. Special emphasis was placed on antenna surface accuracy, and pointing stability. Instrumentation and measurement systems, applicable to LSS, were selected from existing or on-going technology developments. Laser ranging and angulation systems, presently in breadboard status, form the backbone of the measurements. Following this, a set of ground, STS, and GEO-operational were investigated. A third scale (15 meter) antenna system as selected for ground characterization followed by STS flight technology development. This selection ensures analytical scaling from ground-to-orbit, and size scaling. Other benefits are cost and ability to perform reasonable ground tests. Detail costing of the various tests and measurement systems were derived and are included in the report.

  10. Volumetric leak detection in large underground storage tanks. Volume 2. Appendices a through e

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, J.W.; Wise, R.F.; Maresca, J.W.

    1991-08-01

    The program of experiments conducted at Griffiss Air Force Base was devised to expand the understanding of large underground storage tank behavior as it impacts the performance of volumetric leak detection testing. The report addresses three important questions about testing the larger underground storage tanks for leaks. First, can the EPA regulatory standards be met when volumetric methods are used to test tanks up to 190,000 L (50,000 gal) in capacity. Second, what is the precision required of the temperature and level sensors and what is the minimum duration of the data collection period in order for a volumetric system to accurately test larger tanks, particularly those that are partially filled. Third, what are the important features of a volumetric system that meets or exceeds the regulatory performance standards. The document presents the results of experiments conducted on 190,000-L (50,000-gal) underground storage tanks (USTs) to determine how to test large tanks for leaks with volumetric leak detection systems. The work reported in the document has applications to the UST release detection technical standards in CFR 280 Subpart D.

  11. Assessing the Feasibility of Large-Scale Countercyclical Public Job-Creation. Final Report, Volume II. Activities Suitable for Public Job-Creation and Their Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban Inst., Washington, DC.

    This second of a three-volume report of a study done to assess the feasibility of large-scale, countercyclical public job creation contains chapter 2 of the report on the methods and findings with respect to job-creating activities, their job-creation potential, and related characteristics. (Volume 1, comprised of the report's first chapter,…

  12. Assessing the Feasibility of Large-Scale Countercyclical Public Job-Creation. Final Report, Volume III. Selected Implications of Public Job-Creation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban Inst., Washington, DC.

    This last of a three-volume report of a study done to assess the feasibility of large-scale, countercyclical public job creation covers the findings regarding the priorities among projects, indirect employment effects, skill imbalances, and administrative issues; and summarizes the overall findings, conclusions, and recommendations. (Volume 1,…

  13. Critical joints in large composite primary aircraft structures. Volume 2: Technology demonstration test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunin, Bruce L.

    1985-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop the technology for critical structural joints in composite wing structure that meets all the design requirements of a 1990 commercial transport aircraft. The results of four large composite multirow bolted joint tests are presented. The tests were conducted to demonstrate the technology for critical joints in highly loaded composite structure and to verify the analytical methods that were developed throughout the program. The test consisted of a wing skin-stringer transition specimen representing a stringer runout and skin splice on the wing lower surface at the side of the fuselage attachment. All tests were static tension tests. The composite material was Toray T-300 fiber with Ciba-Geigy 914 resin in 10 mil tape form. The splice members were metallic, using combinations of aluminum and titanium. Discussions are given of the test article, instrumentation, test setup, test procedures, and test results for each of the four specimens. Some of the analytical predictions are also included.

  14. Critical joints in large composite primary aircraft structures. Volume 1: Technical summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunin, Bruce L.

    1985-01-01

    A program was conducted at Douglas Aircraft Company to develop the technology for critical joints in composite wing structure that meets all the design requirements of a 1990 commercial transport aircraft. In fulfilling this objective, analytical procedures for joint design and analysis were developed during Phase 1 of the program. Tests were conducted at the element level to supply the empirical data required for methods development. Large composite multirow joints were tested to verify the selected design concepts and for correlation with analysis predictions. The Phase 2 program included additional tests to provide joint design and analysis data, and culminated with several technology demonstration tests of a major joint area representative of a commercial transport wing. The technology demonstration program of Phase 2 is discussed. The analysis methodology development, structural test program, and correlation between test results and analytical strength predictions are reviewed.

  15. Study of electrical and chemical propulsion systems for auxiliary propulsion of large space systems, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W. W.

    1981-01-01

    The five major tasks of the program are reported. Task 1 is a literature search followed by selection and definition of seven generic spacecraft classes. Task 2 covers the determination and description of important disturbance effects. Task 3 applies the disturbances to the generic spacecraft and adds maneuver and stationkeeping functions to define total auxiliary propulsion systems requirements for control. The important auxiliary propulsion system characteristics are identified and sensitivities to control functions and large space system characteristics determined. In Task 4, these sensitivities are quantified and the optimum auxiliary propulsion system characteristics determined. Task 5 compares the desired characteristics with those available for both electrical and chemical auxiliary propulsion systems to identify the directions technology advances should take.

  16. Virus-mimetic polyplex particles for systemic and inflammation-specific targeted delivery of large genetic contents.

    PubMed

    Kang, S; Lu, K; Leelawattanachai, J; Hu, X; Park, S; Park, T; Min, I M; Jin, M M

    2013-11-01

    Systemic and target-specific delivery of large genetic contents has been difficult to achieve. Although viruses effortlessly deliver kilobase-long genome into cells, its clinical use has been hindered by serious safety concerns and the mismatch between native tropisms and desired targets. Nonviral vectors, in contrast, are limited by low gene transfer efficiency and inherent cytotoxicity. Here we devised virus-mimetic polyplex particles (VMPs) based on electrostatic self-assembly among polyanionic peptide (PAP), cationic polymer polyethyleneimine (PEI) and nucleic acids. We fused PAP to the engineered ligand-binding domain of integrin αLβ2 to target intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), an inducible marker of inflammation. Fully assembled VMPs packaged large genetic contents, bound specifically to target molecules, elicited receptor-mediated endocytosis and escaped endosomal pathway, resembling intracellular delivery processes of viruses. Unlike conventional PEI-mediated transfection, molecular interaction-dependent gene delivery of VMPs was unaffected by the presence of serum and achieved higher efficiency without toxicity. By targeting overexpressed ICAM-1, VMPs delivered genes specifically to inflamed endothelial cells and macrophages both in vitro and in vivo. Simplicity and versatility of the platform and inflammation-specific delivery may open up opportunities for multifaceted gene therapy that can be translated into the clinic and treat a broad range of debilitating immune and inflammatory diseases.

  17. Captured metagenomics: large-scale targeting of genes based on ‘sequence capture’ reveals functional diversity in soils

    PubMed Central

    Manoharan, Lokeshwaran; Kushwaha, Sandeep K.; Hedlund, Katarina; Ahrén, Dag

    2015-01-01

    Microbial enzyme diversity is a key to understand many ecosystem processes. Whole metagenome sequencing (WMG) obtains information on functional genes, but it is costly and inefficient due to large amount of sequencing that is required. In this study, we have applied a captured metagenomics technique for functional genes in soil microorganisms, as an alternative to WMG. Large-scale targeting of functional genes, coding for enzymes related to organic matter degradation, was applied to two agricultural soil communities through captured metagenomics. Captured metagenomics uses custom-designed, hybridization-based oligonucleotide probes that enrich functional genes of interest in metagenomic libraries where only probe-bound DNA fragments are sequenced. The captured metagenomes were highly enriched with targeted genes while maintaining their target diversity and their taxonomic distribution correlated well with the traditional ribosomal sequencing. The captured metagenomes were highly enriched with genes related to organic matter degradation; at least five times more than similar, publicly available soil WMG projects. This target enrichment technique also preserves the functional representation of the soils, thereby facilitating comparative metagenomics projects. Here, we present the first study that applies the captured metagenomics approach in large scale, and this novel method allows deep investigations of central ecosystem processes by studying functional gene abundances. PMID:26490729

  18. Defining the Optimal Planning Target Volume in Image-Guided Stereotactic Radiosurgery of Brain Metastases: Results of a Randomized Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, John P.; Wang, Zhiheng; Sampson, John H.; McSherry, Frances; Herndon, James E.; Allen, Karen J.; Duffy, Eileen; Hoang, Jenny K.; Chang, Zheng; Yoo, David S.; Kelsey, Chris R.; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To identify an optimal margin about the gross target volume (GTV) for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of brain metastases, minimizing toxicity and local recurrence. Methods and Materials: Adult patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases less than 4 cm in greatest dimension, no previous brain radiation therapy, and Karnofsky performance status (KPS) above 70 were eligible for this institutional review board–approved trial. Individual lesions were randomized to 1- or 3- mm uniform expansion of the GTV defined on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The resulting planning target volume (PTV) was treated to 24, 18, or 15 Gy marginal dose for maximum PTV diameters less than 2, 2 to 2.9, and 3 to 3.9 cm, respectively, using a linear accelerator–based image-guided system. The primary endpoint was local recurrence (LR). Secondary endpoints included neurocognition Mini-Mental State Examination, Trail Making Test Parts A and B, quality of life (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Brain), radionecrosis (RN), need for salvage radiation therapy, distant failure (DF) in the brain, and overall survival (OS). Results: Between February 2010 and November 2012, 49 patients with 80 brain metastases were treated. The median age was 61 years, the median KPS was 90, and the predominant histologies were non–small cell lung cancer (25 patients) and melanoma (8). Fifty-five, 19, and 6 lesions were treated to 24, 18, and 15 Gy, respectively. The PTV/GTV ratio, volume receiving 12 Gy or more, and minimum dose to PTV were significantly higher in the 3-mm group (all P<.01), and GTV was similar (P=.76). At a median follow-up time of 32.2 months, 11 patients were alive, with median OS 10.6 months. LR was observed in only 3 lesions (2 in the 1 mm group, P=.51), with 6.7% LR 12 months after SRS. Biopsy-proven RN alone was observed in 6 lesions (5 in the 3-mm group, P=.10). The 12-month DF rate was 45.7%. Three months after SRS, no significant change in

  19. Fabrication and testing of gas-filled targets for large-scale plasma experiments on nova

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, G.F.; Rivers, C.J.; Spragge, M.R.; Wallace, R.J.

    1996-06-01

    The proposed next-generation ICF facility, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is designed to produce energy gain from x-ray heated {open_quotes}indirect-drive{close_quotes} fuel capsules. For indirect-drive targets, laser light heats the inside of the Au hohlraum wall and produces x rays which in turn heat and implode the capsule to produce fusion conditions in the fuel. Unlike Nova targets, in NIF-scale targets laser light will propagate through several millimeters of gas, producing a plasma, before impinging upon the Au hohlraum wall. The purpose of the gas-produced plasma is to provide sufficient pressure to keep the radiating Au surface from expanding excessively into the hohlraum cavity. Excessive expansion of the Au wall interacts with the laser pulse and degrades the drive symmetry of the capsule implosion. The authors have begun an experimental campaign on the Nova laser to study the effect of hohlraum gas on both laser-plasma interaction and implosion symmetry. In their current NIF target design, the calculated plasma electron temperature is T{sub e} {approx} 3 keV and the electron density is N{sub e} {approx} 10{sup 21}cm{sup {minus}3}.

  20. Intensity targeted radial structure tensor analysis and its application for automated mediastinal lymph node detection from CT volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Hirohisa; Nimura, Yukitaka; Oda, Masahiro; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Iwano, Shingo; Honma, Hirotoshi; Takabatake, Hirotsugu; Mori, Masaki; Natori, Hiroshi; Mori, Kensaku

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a new blob-like enhancement filter based on Intensity Targeted Radial Structure Tensor (ITRST) analysis to improve mediastinal lymph node detection from chest CT volumes. Blob-like structure enhancement filter based on Radial Structure Tensor (RST) analysis can be utilized for initial detection of lymph node candidate regions. However, some of lymph nodes cannot be detected because RST analysis is influenced by neighboring regions whose intensity is very high or low, such as contrast-enhanced blood vessels and air. To overcome the problem, we propose ITRST analysis that integrate the prior knowledge on detection target intensity into RST analysis. Our lymph node detection method consists of two steps. First, candidate regions are obtained by ITRST analysis. Second, false positives (FPs) are removed by the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. We applied the proposed method to 47 cases. Among 19 lymph nodes whose short axis is no less than 10 mm, 100.0 % of them were detected with 247.7 FPs/case by ITRST analysis, while only 80.0 % were detected with 123.0 FPs/case by RST analysis. After the false positive (FP) reduction by SVM, ITRST analysis outperformed RST analysis in lymph node detection performance.

  1. High dose and compartmental target volume may improve patient outcome after radiotherapy for pelvic bone metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Taehyung; Cha, Hye Jung; Kim, Jun Won; Seong, Jinsil; Lee, Ik Jae

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Pelvic bone metastases are difficult to treat because of complex pelvic bone anatomy and the proximity of normal organs. The adequacy of radiation dose and field coverage was evaluated. Patients and methods We analyzed 146 cases of pelvic bone metastases from HCC treated with radiotherapy (RT). Bone metastases were confirmed using CT/MRI. Subjective pain response was assessed using the visual analogue scale, and treatment-related toxicity with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0. Local failure free survival (LFFS) and overall survival were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results The local control rate was 80.1% and the pain control rate was 68.5%. Compartmental target volume (CTV), encompassing the whole compartment of the involved bone, was found to be a significant factor (1-year LFFS, 78% vs. 50%; p=0.001). Sites of metastasis were categorized as either upper or lower pelvic bone; both categories showed improved local control with CTV. Metastatic lesions that received more than 50 Gy of EQD2 showed more partial response in pain after RT (58% vs. 79%; p=0.007). No patient showed toxicity higher than Grade IV. Conclusion Compartmental RT targeted to the involved bone was associated with improved local control and LFFS. High-dose radiation was associated with an improved treatment response. PMID:27259272

  2. Earth matter effects on supernova neutrinos in large-volume detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borriello, Enrico

    2013-04-01

    Neutrino oscillations in the Earth matter may introduce peculiar modulations in the supernova (SN) neutrino spectra. The detection of this effect has been proposed as diagnostic tool for the neutrino mass hierarchy. We perform an updated study on the observability of this effect at large next-generation underground detectors (i.e., 0.4 Mton water Cherenkov, 50 kton scintillation and 100 kton liquid Argon detectors) based on neutrino fluxes from state-of-the-art SN simulations and accounting for statistical fluctuations via Montecarlo simulations. Since the average energies predicted by recent simulations are lower than previously expected and a tendency towards the equalization of the neutrino fluxes appears during the SN cooling phase, the detection of the Earth matter effect will be more challenging than expected from previous studies. We find that none of the proposed detectors shall be able to detect the Earth modulation for the neutrino signal of a typical galactic SN at 10 kpc. It should be observable in a 100 kton liquid Argon detector for a SN at few kpc and all three detectors would clearly see the Earth signature for very close-by stars only (d˜200 pc).

  3. Study of auxiliary propulsion requirements for large space systems. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W. W.; Machles, G. W.

    1983-01-01

    An insight into auxiliary propulsion systems (APS) requirements for large space systems (LSS) launchable by a single shuttle is presented. In an effort to scope the APS requirements for LSS, a set of generic LSSs were defined. For each generic LSS class a specific structural configuration, representative of that most likely to serve the needs of the 1980's and 1990's was defined. The environmental disturbance forces and torques which would be acting on each specific structural configuration in LEO and GEO orbits were then determined. Auxiliary propulsion requirements were determined as a function of: generic class specific configuration, size and openness of structure, orbit, angle of orientation, correction frequency, duty cycle, number and location of thrusters and direction of thrusters and APS/LSS interactions. The results of this analysis were used to define the APS characteristics of: (1) number and distribution of thrusters, (2) thruster modulation, (3) thrust level, (4) mission energy requirements, (5) total APS mass component breakdown, and (6) state of the art adequacy/deficiency.

  4. Does Size Really Matter? Analysis of the Effect of Large Fibroids and Uterine Volumes on Complication Rates of Uterine Artery Embolisation

    SciTech Connect

    Parthipun, A. A. Taylor, J.; Manyonda, I.; Belli, A. M.

    2010-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a correlation between large uterine fibroid diameter, uterine volume, number of vials of embolic agent used and risk of complications from uterine artery embolisation (UAE). This was a prospective study involving 121 patients undergoing UAE embolisation for symptomatic uterine fibroids at a single institution. Patients were grouped according to diameter of largest fibroid and uterine volume. Results were also stratified according to the number of vials of embolic agent used and rate of complications. No statistical difference in complication rate was demonstrated between the two groups according to diameter of the largest fibroid (large fibroids were classified as {>=}10 cm; Fisher's exact test P = 1.00), and no statistical difference in complication rate was demonstrated according to uterine volume (large uterine volume was defined as {>=}750 cm{sup 3}; Fisher's exact test P = 0.70). 84 of the 121 patients had documentation of the number of vials used during the procedure. Patients were divided into two groups, with {>=}4 used defined as a large number of embolic agent. There was no statistical difference between these two groups and no associated increased risk of developing complications. This study showed no increased incidence of complications in women with large-diameter fibroids or uterine volumes as defined. In addition, there was no evidence of increased complications according to quantity of embolic material used. Therefore, UAE should be offered to women with large fibroids and uterine volumes.

  5. Cavitation-enhanced nonthermal ablation in deep brain targets: feasibility in a large animal model.

    PubMed

    Arvanitis, Costas D; Vykhodtseva, Natalia; Jolesz, Ferenc; Livingstone, Margaret; McDannold, Nathan

    2016-05-01

    OBJECT Transcranial MRI-guided focused ultrasound (TcMRgFUS) is an emerging noninvasive alternative to surgery and radiosurgery that is undergoing testing for tumor ablation and functional neurosurgery. The method is currently limited to central brain targets due to skull heating and other factors. An alternative ablative approach combines very low intensity ultrasound bursts and an intravenously administered microbubble agent to locally destroy the vasculature. The objective of this work was to investigate whether it is feasible to use this approach at deep brain targets near the skull base in nonhuman primates. METHODS In 4 rhesus macaques, targets near the skull base were ablated using a clinical TcMRgFUS system operating at 220 kHz. Low-duty-cycle ultrasound exposures (sonications) were applied for 5 minutes in conjunction with the ultrasound contrast agent Definity, which was administered as a bolus injection or continuous infusion. The acoustic power level was set to be near the inertial cavitation threshold, which was measured using passive monitoring of the acoustic emissions. The resulting tissue effects were investigated with MRI and with histological analysis performed 3 hours to 1 week after sonication. RESULTS Thirteen targets were sonicated in regions next to the optic tract in the 4 animals. Inertial cavitation, indicated by broadband acoustic emissions, occurred at acoustic pressure amplitudes ranging from 340 to 540 kPa. MRI analysis suggested that the lesions had a central region containing red blood cell extravasations that was surrounded by edema. Blood-brain barrier disruption was observed on contrast-enhanced MRI in the lesions and in a surrounding region corresponding to the prefocal area of the FUS system. In histology, lesions consisting of tissue undergoing ischemic necrosis were found in all regions that were sonicated above the inertial cavitation threshold. Tissue damage in prefocal areas was found in several cases, suggesting that in

  6. A dosimetric comparison of 3D-CRT, IMRT, and static tomotherapy with an SIB for large and small breast volumes

    SciTech Connect

    Michalski, Andrea; Atyeo, John; Cox, Jennifer; Rinks, Marianne; Morgia, Marita; Lamoury, Gillian

    2014-07-01

    Radiation therapy to the breast is a complex task, with many different techniques that can be employed to ensure adequate dose target coverage while minimizing doses to the organs at risk. This study compares the dose planning outcomes of 3 radiation treatment modalities, 3 dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and static tomotherapy, for left-sided whole-breast radiation treatment with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB). Overall, 20 patients with left-sided breast cancer were separated into 2 cohorts, small and large, based on breast volume. Dose plans were produced for each patient using 3D-CRT, IMRT, and static tomotherapy. All patients were prescribed a dose of 45 Gy in 20 fractions to the breast with an SIB of 56 Gy in 20 fractions to the tumor bed and normalized so that D{sub 98%} > 95% of the prescription dose. Dosimetric comparisons were made between the 3 modalities and the interaction of patient size. All 3 modalities offered adequate planning target volume (PTV) coverage with D{sub 98%} > 95% and D{sub 2%} < 107%. Static tomotherapy offered significantly improved (p = 0.006) dose homogeneity to the PTV{sub boost} {sub eval} (0.079 ± 0.011) and breast minus the SIB volume (Breast{sub SIB}) (p < 0.001, 0.15 ± 0.03) compared with the PTV{sub boost} {sub eval} (0.085 ± 0.008, 0.088 ± 0.12) and Breast{sub SIB} (0.22 ± 0.05, 0.23 ± 0.03) for IMRT and 3D-CRT, respectively. Static tomotherapy also offered statistically significant reductions (p < 0.001) in doses to the ipsilateral lung mean dose of 6.79 ± 2.11 Gy compared with 7.75 ± 2.54 Gy and 8.29 ± 2.76 Gy for IMRT and 3D-CRT, respectively, and significantly (p < 0.001) reduced heart doses (mean = 2.83 ± 1.26 Gy) compared to both IMRT and 3D-CRT (mean = 3.70 ± 1.44 Gy and 3.91 ± 1.58 Gy). Static tomotherapy is the dosimetrically superior modality for the whole breast with an SIB compared with IMRT and 3D-CRT. IMRT is superior to 3D

  7. Determination of acrylamide in drinking water by large-volume direct injection and ion-exclusion chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cavalli, S; Polesello, S; Saccani, G

    2004-06-11

    Acrylamide, a known neurotoxin and putative human carcinogen, has been included among the substances to be monitored in drinking water according to the European Union Directive 98/83 on potable water. This paper reports a new method based on the combination of ion-exclusion chromatographic separation and MS detection. Samples of drinking water have been directly injected in the microbore ICE-AS1 column and detected in the selected-ion monitoring mode by a single quadrupole system with electrospray ionization. Chromatographic conditions, such as eluent composition and flow rate, have been optimized by a central composite design experiment. Statistical analysis of data showed that the amount of acetonitrile fraction in the eluent mixture, composed by acetonitrile and formic acid solution, is the variable that most influences retention of the acrylamide peak. After optimization of MS detection parameters, this method has been validated for spiked drinking water samples. The effect of large-volume injection (up to 500 microl) has been also explored. Linearity was evaluated from 0.5 to 5 microg l(-1). Repeatability, expressed as R.S.D., was 16 and 12% at 0.5 and 1 microg l(-1) respectively. The limit of detection was 0.20 ppb with 500 microl injection volume.

  8. Large-volume excitation of air, argon, nitrogen and combustible mixtures by thermal jets produced by nanosecond spark discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanyan, Sergey; Hayashi, Jun; Salmon, Arthur; Stancu, Gabi D.; Laux, Christophe O.

    2017-04-01

    This work presents experimental observations of strong expanding thermal jets following the application of nanosecond spark discharges. These jets propagate in a toroidal shape perpendicular to the interelectrode axis, with high velocities of up to 30 m s‑1 and over distances of the order of a cm. Their propagation length is much larger than the thermal expansion region produced by the conventional millisecond sparks used in car engine ignition, thus greatly improving the volumetric excitation of gas mixtures. The shape and velocity of the jets is found to be fairly insensitive to the shape of the electrodes. In addition, their spatial extent is found to increase with the number of nanosecond sparks and with the discharge voltage, and to decrease slightly with the pressure between 1 and 7 atm at constant applied voltage. Finally, this thermal jet phenomenon is observed in experiments conducted with many types of gas mixtures, including air, nitrogen, argon, and combustible CH4/air mixtures. This makes nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges particularly attractive for aerodynamic flow control or plasma-assisted combustion because of their ability to excite large volumes of gas, typically about 100 times the volume of the discharge.

  9. Eruption and emplacement of flood basalt. An example from the large-volume Teepee Butte Member, Columbia River Basalt Group

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, S.P. ); Tolan, T.L. )

    1992-12-01

    Flows of the Teepee Butte Member, Grande Ronde Basalt, issued from a vent system in southeastern Washington, northeastern Oregon, and western Idaho. Three distinct basalt flows were erupted: the Limekiln Rapids flow, the Joseph Creek flow, and the Pruitt Draw flow. Together these mappable flows cover more than 52,000 km[sup 2] and have a volume exceeding 5,000 km[sup 3]. A portion of the vent system for the Joseph Creek flow is exposed in cross section in Joseph Canyon, Washington; it is one of the best preserved Columbia River Basalt Group vent complexes known. The vent complex is about 1 km in cross section, 30 m high, and composed of deposits characteristic of Hawaiian-type volcanism. The vent is asymmetrical; the eastern rampart consists of intercalated pyroclastic deposits and thin pahoehoe flows; the western rampart is composed wholly of pahoehoe flows. Flows of the Teepee Butte Member are compositionally homogeneous and were emplaced as sheet flows, each having several local flow units. Our study supports the importance of linear vent systems and the westward Palouse Slope, along with the large-volume lava flows, in controlling the distribution of Columbia River Basalt Group flows. Other factors, including the number of active fissure segments and topography, modified the shape of the flows and the number of flow units. 45 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Thermo-mechanical response of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) large volumes exposed to time-dependent environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraldi, M.; Esposito, L.; Perrella, G.; Cutolo, A.

    2014-02-01

    Low thermal conductivity and elevated absorbance of large bulky volumes of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) exposed to moderately aggressive environmental conditions may cooperate to determine critical mechanical conditions, kindling unexpected high thermal stresses values which lead the material to failure. From the engineering point of view, this can be explained as the result of two concomitant phenomena which activate a cascade of events: very sharp thermal gradients engendered by transient thermal processes induced by cyclic environmental conditions, combined with significant bulk heat generation due to the high thermal inertia of massive PMMA volumes, in turn aggravating the steepness of the thermal gradients, may in fact ingenerate severe stress regimes, potentially undermining the structural stability of the material. Moving from these considerations, the present study is aimed to investigate possible rupture of PMMA blocks experiencing heating processes as a consequence of their exposure to outdoor cyclic environmental conditions. The problem is approached by means of both rigorous analytical arguments and the Finite Element based numerical methods, finally exploiting the theoretical outcomes to formulate a hypothesis which might explain the still unclear phenomenon of the sudden breaking of the PMMA structure, named Huge Wine Glass and designed by the world famous Japanese architect Toyo Ito, which occurred in Pescara (Italy) in 2009.

  11. Development and sea trials of a subsea holographic camera for large volume in-situ recording of marine organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, John; Alexander, Stephen J.; Craig, Gary; Hendry, David C.; Hobson, Peter R.; Lampitt, R. S.; Marteau, J.-M.; Nareid, Helge; Nebrensky, J. J.; Player, Michael A.; Saw, Kevin; Tipping, Keith

    2002-06-01

    We describe the development, construction and sea testing of An underwater holographic camera (HoloCam) for in situ recording of marine organisms and particles in large volumes of sea water. HoloCam comprises a laser, power supply, holographic recording optics, and plate holders, a water- tight housing and a support frame. Added to this are control electronics such that the entire camera is remotely operable and controllable from ship or dock-side. Uniquely the camera can simultaneously record both in-line and off-axis holograms using a pulsed frequency double Nd:YAG laser. In- line holography is capable of producing images of organisms with a resolution of better than 10 micrometers . Off-axis holograms of aquatic systems of up to 50,000 cm3 volume, have been recorded. Following initial laboratory testing, the holo-camera was evaluated in an observation tank and ultimately was tested in Loch Etive, Scotland. In-line and off-axis holograms were recorded to a depth of 100 m. We will present result on the ste dives and evaluation of the camera performance.

  12. The thermal-mechanical analysis of targets for the high volume production of molybdenum-99 using a low-enriched uranium metal foil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Kyler Kriens

    Molybdenum-99 diagnostic imaging is the most commonly practiced procedure in nuclear medicine today with the majority molybdenum-99 produced with proliferation sensitive HEU. International and domestic efforts to develop non-HEU production techniques have taking the first steps toward establishing a new non-HEU molybdenum-99 based supply chain. The focus of the research presented in this work is on the analysis of a new high U-235 density LEU based molybdenum-99 production target. Converting directly to LEU using current manufacturing techniques greatly reduces the molybdenum-99 yield per target making high volume production uneconomical. The LEU based foil target analyzed in this research increases the yield per target making economic high volume production with LEU possible. The research analyzed the thermal-mechanical response of an LEU foil target during irradiation. Thermal-mechanical studies focused on deflections and stresses to assess the probability of target failure. Simpler analytical models were used to determine the proper shape of the target and to benchmark the numerical modeling software. Numerical studies using Abaqus focused on analyzing various heating and cooling conditions and assessing the effects of curvature on the target. Finally, experiments were performed to simulate low power heating and further benchmark the models. The results from all of these analyses indicate a LEU foil target could survive irradiation depending on the conditions seen during irradiation.

  13. A 5 kA pulsed power supply for inductive and plasma loads in large volume plasma device.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, P K; Singh, S K; Sanyasi, A K; Awasthi, L M; Mattoo, S K

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes 5 kA, 12 ms pulsed power supply for inductive load of Electron Energy Filter (EEF) in large volume plasma device. The power supply is based upon the principle of rapid sourcing of energy from the capacitor bank (2.8 F/200 V) by using a static switch, comprising of ten Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs). A suitable mechanism is developed to ensure equal sharing of current and uniform power distribution during the operation of these IGBTs. Safe commutation of power to the EEF is ensured by the proper optimization of its components and by the introduction of over voltage protection (>6 kV) using an indigenously designed snubber circuit. Various time sequences relevant to different actions of power supply, viz., pulse width control and repetition rate, are realized through optically isolated computer controlled interface.

  14. Determination of synthetic phenolic antioxidants in edible oils using microvial insert large volume injection gas-chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cacho, Juan Ignacio; Campillo, Natalia; Viñas, Pilar; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

    2016-06-01

    Three synthetic phenolic antioxidants, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ), were determined in different edible vegetable oil samples. The analyses were carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using microvial insert large volume injection (LVI). Several parameters affecting this sample introduction step, such as temperatures, times and gas flows, were optimised. Quantification was carried out by the matrix-matched calibration method using carvacrol as internal standard, providing quantification limits between 0.08 and 0.10 ng g(-1), depending on the compound. The three phenolic compounds were detected in several of the samples, BHT being the most frequently found. Recovery assays for oil samples spiked at two concentration levels, 2.5 and 10 ng g(-1), provided recoveries in the 86-115% range.

  15. Determination of multiclass pesticide residues in apple juice by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with large-volume injection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Yi-Bing; Wang, Xiu-Lin

    2006-10-01

    This study presents two GC-MS SIM methods, in combination with large-volume injection programmed-temperature vaporization (LVI-PTV) injection, for the determination of 141 pesticide residues in apple juice. The sample was extracted with ACN, and coextractives were removed with primary/secondary amine sorbent. ACN extract (20 microL) was injected into a PTV injection port in solvent vent mode, and the pesticides were determined by GC-MS using retention time locking software. Deuterium-labeled pesticides (surrogate standards) were used for analytical quality control. In the validation experiments, pesticides recoveries were found to be 70-121% with RSDs of 4.6-21% (n = 6).

  16. Yardea Dacite -large-volume, high-temperature felsic volcanism from the Middle Proterozoic of South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Creaser, R.A.; White, A.J.R. )

    1991-01-01

    The Yardea Dacite is a large-volume felsic volcanic unit from the Middle Proterozoic Gawler Range Volcanics of South Australia; it has been previously described as an ignimbrite. However, some samples contain no petrographic evidence for a pyroclastic origin, but have characteristics compatible with final crystallization from a nonfragmented magma. These samples may have erupted as lavas, but others are likely to be extremely densely welded ignimbrites, suggesting a compound nature for the unit. Geothermometry and phase equilibria indicate that the Yardea Dacite originated from a high-temperature ({approximately}1,000{degree}C) felsic magma with a low water content ({le}2%). The Yardea Dacite is not associated with a known caldera of the Valles type, and shares many characteristics of recently described Cenozoic felsic volcanic rocks from the western United States, interpreted as rheoignimbrites or as unusually extensive lavas.

  17. A 5 kA pulsed power supply for inductive and plasma loads in large volume plasma device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, P. K.; Singh, S. K.; Sanyasi, A. K.; Awasthi, L. M.; Mattoo, S. K.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes 5 kA, 12 ms pulsed power supply for inductive load of Electron Energy Filter (EEF) in large volume plasma device. The power supply is based upon the principle of rapid sourcing of energy from the capacitor bank (2.8 F/200 V) by using a static switch, comprising of ten Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs). A suitable mechanism is developed to ensure equal sharing of current and uniform power distribution during the operation of these IGBTs. Safe commutation of power to the EEF is ensured by the proper optimization of its components and by the introduction of over voltage protection (>6 kV) using an indigenously designed snubber circuit. Various time sequences relevant to different actions of power supply, viz., pulse width control and repetition rate, are realized through optically isolated computer controlled interface.

  18. Multiresidue determination of pesticides in agricultural products by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with large volume injection.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yukio; Kodama, Shuji; Matsunaga, Akinobu; Yamamoto, Atsushi

    2004-01-01

    A method is described for the rapid determination of pesticide residues in agricultural products. Pesticides were extracted from samples with acetonitrile. To remove pigments and fatty acids, an aliquot of the extract was cleaned up by a minicolumn that was packed both with graphitized carbon black and primary secondary amine. Analysis was performed by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry with programmable temperature vaporizer-based large volume injection using a liner packed with phenylmethylsilicone chemically bonded silica. The method was evaluated for 114 pesticides by spiking into tomato, spinach, Japanese pear, grape, and brown rice at various concentrations of each pesticide (0.02-0.4 microg/g). The method, which gave good recovery (>60%) for 108 pesticides, is characterized by high cleanup efficiency and short cleanup time, and is useful as a rapid screening analysis.

  19. Residual Tumor After Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation Outside the Radiation Therapy Target Volume: A New Prognostic Factor for Survival in Esophageal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Muijs, Christina; Smit, Justin; Karrenbeld, Arend; Beukema, Jannet; Mul, Veronique; Dam, Go van; Hospers, Geke; Kluin, Phillip; Langendijk, Johannes; Plukker, John

    2014-03-15

    Purpose/Objective(s): The aim of this study was to analyze the accuracy of gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation and clinical target volume (CTV) margins for neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (neo-CRT) in esophageal carcinoma at pathologic examination and to determine the impact on survival. Methods and Materials: The study population consisted of 63 esophageal cancer patients treated with neo-CRT. GTV and CTV borders were demarcated in situ during surgery on the esophagus, using anatomical reference points to provide accurate information regarding tumor location at pathologic evaluation. To identify prognostic factors for disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS), a Cox regression analysis was performed. Results: After resection, macroscopic residual tumor was found outside the GTV in 7 patients (11%). Microscopic residual tumor was located outside the CTV in 9 patients (14%). The median follow-up was 15.6 months. With multivariate analysis, only microscopic tumor outside the CTV (hazard ratio [HR], 4.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-15.36), and perineural growth (HR, 5.77; 95% CI, 1.27-26.13) were identified as independent prognostic factors for OS. The 1-year OS was 20% for patients with tumor outside the CTV and 86% for those without (P<.01). For DFS, microscopic tumor outside the CTV (HR, 5.92; 95% CI, 1.89-18.54) and ypN+ (HR, 3.36; 95% CI, 1.33-8.48) were identified as independent adverse prognostic factors. The 1-year DFS was 23% versus 77% for patients with or without tumor outside the CTV (P<.01). Conclusions: Microscopic tumor outside the CTV is associated with markedly worse OS after neo-CRT. This may either stress the importance of accurate tumor delineation or reflect aggressive tumor behavior requiring new adjuvant treatment modalities.

  20. Distance-to-Agreement Investigation of Tomotherapy's Bony Anatomy-Based Autoregistration and Planning Target Volume Contour-Based Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, Steve; Schultheiss, Timothy E.

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To compare Tomotherapy's megavoltage computed tomography bony anatomy autoregistration with the best achievable registration, assuming no deformation and perfect knowledge of planning target volume (PTV) location. Methods and Materials: Distance-to-agreement (DTA) of the PTV was determined by applying a rigid-body shift to the PTV region of interest of the prostate from its reference position, assuming no deformations. Planning target volume region of interest of the prostate was extracted from the patient archives. The reference position was set by the 6 degrees of freedom (dof)—x, y, z, roll, pitch, and yaw—optimization results from the previous study at this institution. The DTA and the compensating parameters were calculated by the shift of the PTV from the reference 6-dof to the 4-dof—x, y, z, and roll—optimization. In this study, the effectiveness of Tomotherapy's 4-dof bony anatomy–based autoregistration was compared with the idealized 4-dof PTV contour-based optimization. Results: The maximum DTA (maxDTA) of the bony anatomy-based autoregistration was 3.2 ± 1.9 mm, with the maximum value of 8.0 mm. The maxDTA of the contour-based optimization was 1.8 ± 1.3 mm, with the maximum value of 5.7 mm. Comparison of Pearson correlation of the compensating parameters between the 2 4-dof optimization algorithms shows that there is a small but statistically significant correlation in y and z (0.236 and 0.300, respectively), whereas there is very weak correlation in x and roll (0.062 and 0.025, respectively). Conclusions: We find that there is an average improvement of approximately 1 mm in terms of maxDTA on the PTV going from 4-dof bony anatomy-based autoregistration to the 4-dof contour-based optimization. Pearson correlation analysis of the 2 4-dof optimizations suggests that uncertainties due to deformation and inadequate resolution account for much of the compensating parameters, but pitch variation also makes a statistically significant

  1. 3D-segmentation of the 18F-choline PET signal for target volume definition in radiation therapy of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Ciernik, I Frank; Brown, Derek W; Schmid, Daniel; Hany, Thomas; Egli, Peter; Davis, J Bernard

    2007-02-01

    Volumetric assessment of PET signals becomes increasingly relevant for radiotherapy (RT) planning. Here, we investigate the utility of 18F-choline PET signals to serve as a structure for semi-automatic segmentation for forward treatment planning of prostate cancer. 18F-choline PET and CT scans of ten patients with histologically proven prostate cancer without extracapsular growth were acquired using a combined PET/CT scanner. Target volumes were manually delineated on CT images using standard software. Volumes were also obtained from 18F-choline PET images using an asymmetrical segmentation algorithm. PTVs were derived from CT 18F-choline PET based clinical target volumes (CTVs) by automatic expansion and comparative planning was performed. As a read-out for dose given to non-target structures, dose to the rectal wall was assessed. Planning target volumes (PTVs) derived from CT and 18F-choline PET yielded comparable results. Optimal matching of CT and 18F-choline PET derived volumes in the lateral and cranial-caudal directions was obtained using a background-subtracted signal thresholds of 23.0+/-2.6%. In antero-posterior direction, where adaptation compensating for rectal signal overflow was required, optimal matching was achieved with a threshold of 49.5+/-4.6%. 3D-conformal planning with CT or 18F-choline PET resulted in comparable doses to the rectal wall. Choline PET signals of the prostate provide adequate spatial information amendable to standardized asymmetrical region growing algorithms for PET-based target volume definition for external beam RT.

  2. Application of large volume injection GC-MS to analysis of organic compounds in the extracts and leachates of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Korenkova, Eva; Slobodnik, Jaroslav

    2006-07-01

    Organic solvent and water extracts of fly ash from a Milan (Italy) municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) were analyzed by large volume injection-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (LVI-GC-MS) with programmable temperature vaporizer (PTV). Using injection volumes of 10-100 {mu}l, typically over a hundred compounds were detected in organic solvent extracts and ca. 35% of them could be tentatively identified from their electron impact ionization mass spectra. A protocol for the determination of the maximum amount of a potential environmental pollutant available for leaching (availability test) was developed for four selected target compounds: pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), hexachlorobenzene (HxCB), o-terphenyl (o-TPH) and m-terphenyl (m-TPH). Key parameters, extraction time and liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S), were studied in more detail. Recoveries of PeCB, HxCB and o-TPH spiked into the fly ash samples at two concentration levels ranged from 38% to 53% for freshly spiked and from 14% to 40% for 40-day aged fly ash. Recoveries of m-TPH were 8% to 11% from freshly spiked and less than 3% from aged spiked fly ash. The native amounts in Milan MSWI fly ash, determined in an interlaboratory exercise using the developed protocol, were 31 ng/g PeCB, 34 ng/g HxCB, 72 ng/g o-TPH and 4.4 ng/g m-TPH. A separate methodology was developed for the determination of compounds extracted from fly ash by water (leaching test). Following 8-h sonication at L/S 20, the leached amounts of PeCB, HxCB and o-TPH were 1.1, 3.1 and 6.0 ng/g fly ash, respectively.

  3. Eradication of large tumors in mice by a tritherapy targeting the innate, adaptive, and regulatory components of the immune system.

    PubMed

    Berraondo, Pedro; Nouzé, Clémence; Préville, Xavier; Ladant, Daniel; Leclerc, Claude

    2007-09-15

    Targeting the human papillomavirus (HPV) E7 antigen to dendritic cells with the adenylate cyclase (CyaA) of Bordetella pertussis as a vaccine vector led to potent therapeutic immune responses against TC-1 tumors in a murine model of cervical carcinoma induced by HPV. However, as the time between tumor graft and vaccination increased, the antitumor efficacy of the CyaA-E7 vaccine gradually decreased. The vaccine had no effect if the tumor diameter was >8 mm. Analyses of regulatory cells recruited during TC-1 tumor growth revealed a high number of splenic MDSCs and a large percentage of regulatory T cells, particularly in the tumor. Administration of a tritherapy including CpG complexed with a cationic lipid, low-dose cyclophosphamide, and the CyaA-E7 vaccine completely overcame tumor-associated immunosuppression and eradicated large, established tumors in almost all treated animals. This strong antitumor response was followed by a large expansion of regulatory T cells in tumor, spleen, and tumor-draining lymph nodes and of splenic neutrophils. These findings indicate that immunotherapeutic strategies that simultaneously target innate, adaptive, and regulatory components of the immune system are effective in the eradication of large tumors.

  4. Changing the metabolic profile by large-volume liposuction: a clinical study conducted with 123 obese women.

    PubMed

    D'Andrea, Francesco; Grella, Roberto; Rizzo, Maria Rosaria; Grella, Elisa; Grella, Rodolfo; Nicoletti, Gianfranco; Barbieri, Michelangela; Paolisso, Giuseppe

    2005-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a metabolically active tissue. The hypertrophic fat cells of obese patients produce increased quantities of leptin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and are less sensitive to insulin. This study aimed to determine whether aspirating large amounts of these subcutaneous fat cells by large-volume liposuction (LVL), could change the metabolic profile in 123 obese women. All the patients had a main central body fat distribution (waist-hip ratio, 0.91+/-0.01) and a body mass index of 32.8 +/- 0.8 kg/m). They were studied for 90 days after LVL to determine their changes in insulin sensitivity, resting metabolic rate, serum adipocytokines, and inflammatory marker levels. During 3 months of follow-up evaluation, LVL resulted in a significantly improved insulin sensitivity, resting metabolic rate, serum adipocytokines, and inflammatory marker levels. Such parameters correlate with a decrease in fat mass and waist-hip ratio. Interestingly, no significant changes were seen between the first (21 days) and second (90 days) metabolic determinations after LVL. However, these findings, confirm other preliminary data published previously, and could change the actual role of LVL in the multidisciplinary treatment of obesity.

  5. Large Magnetoresistance and Volume Expansion Associated with Valence Transition in Eu(Rh1-xIrx)2Si2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsuda, Akihiro; Fujimoto, Takumi; Kishaba, Eigo; Hamano, Suguru; Kondo, Akihiro; Kindo, Koichi; Wada, Hirofumi

    2016-12-01

    We report lattice parameters as a function of temperature, magnetization curves, and magnetoresistance of polycrystalline samples of Eu(Rh1-xIrx)2Si2. The lattice parameters a and c for x = 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 jump at around the valence transition temperature Tv. For these samples, the high-temperature (larger a, c) and low-temperature (smaller a, c) phases, the volume fraction of which changes with temperature, coexist at around Tv, which means that the valence transition is of the first order. The magnetization curves of x = 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 at T = 4.2 K exhibit a metamagnetic transition with a large hysteresis, implying a first-order field-induced valence transition. The transition field Bv is proportional to Tv, Bv = αTv with α = 0.36 T/K. For x = 0.3, a large negative magnetoresistance associated with the field-induced valence transition is observed. The origin of the negative magnetoresistance is discussed.

  6. a Method to Achieve Large Volume, High Accuracy Photogrammetric Measurements Through the Use of AN Actively Deformable Sensor Mounting Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargeant, B.; Robson, S.; Szigeti, E.; Richardson, P.; El-Nounu, A.; Rafla, M.

    2016-06-01

    When using any optical measurement system one important factor to consider is the placement of the sensors in relation to the workpiece being measured. When making decisions on sensor placement compromises are necessary in selecting the best placement based on the shape and size of the object of interest and the desired resolution and accuracy. One such compromise is in the distance the sensors are placed from the measurement surface, where a smaller distance gives a higher spatial resolution and local accuracy and a greater distance reduces the number of measurements necessary to cover a large area reducing the build-up of errors between measurements and increasing global accuracy. This paper proposes a photogrammetric approach whereby a number of sensors on a continuously flexible mobile platform are used to obtain local measurements while the position of the sensors is determined by a 6DoF tracking solution and the results combined to give a single set of measurement data within a continuous global coordinate system. The ability of this approach to achieve both high accuracy measurement and give results over a large volume is then tested and areas of weakness to be improved upon are identified.

  7. A method to obtain correct standard uptake values in Pinnacle treatment planning system for target volume delineation

    PubMed Central

    Salehzahi, Farshid; Tse, Jason; Lee, Jonathan; Selvaraj, Jothybasu

    2016-01-01

    Standardized uptake value (SUV) is an advanced tool for quantitative tumor identification and metabolic target volume delineation (TVD) in diagnostic and therapeutic settings. It is thus important to establish a quality assured process to maintain the traceability of data correctly by positron emission tomography (PET) systems. Patient administration of 18fluoro-deoxy-glucose is increasingly delivered by automated infusion systems (AISs). Whenever AIS is used, its accuracy and traceability measurement need verification. In addition, it was observed that the unreproducible SUV displayed in PET and the treatment planning system (TPS) may cause grave concerns for radiation oncologists for TVD. This concern may complicate the correlation of TVD on PET and TPS and their clinical reporting. The SUV traceability was established from the PET system to AIS. Its accuracy was verified by cross-referencing to the reference dose calibrator traceable to a primary standard. The SUV values were converted in TPS using the in-house “clinical tool” to be identical as in PET, to allow radiation oncologists to use SUV confidently. The outcome of this study enables the clinical groups to rely on the correct SUV values displayed on the TPS and to improve the quality of care for patients in clinical procedures. PMID:28144116

  8. Optical system design of solar-blind UV target receiver with large FOV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Huo, Furong; Zheng, Liqin

    2014-11-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation of 200nm-300nm waveband from the sun is absorbed by atmosphere, which is often referred to the solar-blind region of the solar spectrum. Solar-blind characteristics of this waveband have important application value in forest-fire prevention, UV security communication, UV corona detection and other aspects. Especially in military fields such as missile warning, the application of solar-blind waveband has developed very rapidly, which is receiving more and more attention recently. In this paper, ZEMAX software is used to design an optical system of solar-blind UV target receiver with waveband 240nm-280nm, with which UV target signal can be detected. The optional materials are very few for UV optical systems to choose from, in which only CaF2 and JGS1 are commonly used. Various aberrations are not easy to be corrected. So it is very difficult to design a good UV system. Besides, doublet or triplet cannot be used in UV optical system considering possible cracking for different thermal expansion coefficients of different materials. So the doublet in initial structure is separated for this reason. During the optimization process, an aspheric surface is used to correct the aberrations. But this surface is removed before the design is finished to save production cost and enhance the precision of fabrication and test, which still keeps the image quality meeting the usage requirements. What we care for is the converging condition for different field of view from the far object on image plane. So this is an energy system. Spot diagram is taken as the evaluation criterion of image quality. The system is composed of 6 lenses with field of view (FOV) 31 degrees. In the final design results, the root mean square (RMS) radius for marginal FOV is less than 6.3 microns, while the value is only 4 microns for zero FOV. Point Spread Function and diffraction encircled energy diagram within the maximum FOV confirms the good performance of system further.

  9. Large-volume leukapheresis for peripheral blood progenitor cell collection in low body weight pediatric patients: a single center experience.

    PubMed

    Cecyn, Karin Zattar; Seber, Adriana; Ginani, Valéria Cortez; Gonçalves, Alexandra Vieira; Caram, Eliana Maria; Oguro, Tsutomu; Oliveira, Olga Maria Wanderley; Carvalho, Maria Mercês; Bordin, José Orlando

    2005-06-01

    Peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) have became the preferred source of stem cells for autologous transplantation because of easier accessibility, rapid engraftment, and lower tumor cell contamination. In pediatric patients is very important to optimize peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) harvesting to obtain a sufficient number of cells with a reduced number of leukapheresis. In this study we prospectively analyzed data on 43 large volume leukapheresis (LVL) from 20 consecutive low body weight pediatric patients with various malignancies. Patients' mean body weight was 16.6 kg (range, 8.9-32.0 kg), and the median age was 4 years (range, 1-10 y ears). Instead of saline, it was used irradiated and leukoreduced red blood cell (RBC) units to prime the machine in 15 patients weighting 25 kg or less. The median number of LVL was 2 (range, 1-4) and a mean of 5.2 patient's blood volume was processed per session lasting 165 min (range, 118-239). The mean number of CD34+ cells, one day before leukapheresis was 49 mm(-3) (range, 9-219). The PBPC collection yielded 24.7 x 10(8) total nucleated cells/kg (range, 6.2-74.0), 10.7 x 10(6) kg(-1) CD34+ cells (range, 3.6-53.7); 49.8 x 10(4) CFU-GM/kg (range, 6.4-198.1), and 65.6 x 10(4) BFU-E/kg (range, 7.6-198.1). The platelet count decreased significantly after each procedure 39.8 +/- 9.1 x 10(9) mm(-3) (range, 18.000-76.000) (p < 0.001). In conclusion, our data show that LVL for collection of PBPC in low weight pediatric patients is a safe and efficient procedure, but it may expose the patient to the risk of thrombocytopenia.

  10. Large Cohort Dose-Volume Response Analysis of Parotid Gland Function After Radiotherapy: Intensity-Modulated Versus Conventional Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Dijkema, Tim Terhaard, Chris H.J.; Roesink, Judith M.; Braam, Petra M.; Gils, Carla H. van; Moerland, Marinus A.; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P.J.

    2008-11-15

    Purpose: To compare parotid gland dose-volume response relationships in a large cohort of patients treated with intensity-modulated (IMRT) and conventional radiotherapy (CRT). Methods and materials: A total of 221 patients (64 treated with IMRT, 157 with CRT) with various head-and-neck malignancies were prospectively evaluated. The distribution of tumor subsites in both groups was unbalanced. Stimulated parotid flow rates were measured before and 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year after radiotherapy. Parotid gland dose-volume histograms were derived from computed tomography-based treatment planning. The normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model proposed by Lyman was fit to the data. A complication was defined as stimulated parotid flow ratio <25% of the pretreatment flow rate. The relative risk of complications was determined for IMRT vs. CRT and adjusted for the mean parotid gland dose using Poisson regression modeling. Results: One year after radiotherapy, NTCP curves for IMRT and CRT were comparable with a TD{sub 50} (uniform dose leading to a 50% complication probability) of 38 and 40 Gy, respectively. Until 6 months after RT, corrected for mean dose, different complication probabilities existed for IMRT vs. CRT. The relative risk of a complication for IMRT vs. CRT after 6 weeks was 1.42 (95% CI 1.21-1.67), after 6 months 1.41 (95% CI; 1.12-1.77), and at 1 year 1.21 (95% CI 0.87-1.68), after correcting for mean dose. Conclusions: One year after radiotherapy, no difference existed in the mean dose-based NTCP curves for IMRT and CRT. Early after radiotherapy (up to 6 months) mean dose based (Lyman) models failed to fully describe the effects of radiotherapy on the parotid glands.

  11. Large volume inside the cage leading incomplete interbody bone fusion and residual back pain after posterior lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Mikinobu; Kamiya, Mitsuhiro; Wakao, Norimitsu; Hirasawa, Atsuhiko; Kawanami, Katsuhisa; Osuka, Koji; Takayasu, Masakazu

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare intervertebral bone fusion and clinical outcomes in L4-5 posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) using the same posterior instrumentation with four combinations of one of three types of interbody cage with one of two bone grafts, iliac and local or only local. In 67 patients who underwent L4-5 PLIF, 19 patients had the Brantigan cage and iliac and local bone graft, 18 with the TELAMON C cage and iliac and local bone graft, 16 with the TELAMON C cage and local bone graft (TL), and 14 with the OIC PEEK cage and local bone graft. Clinical assessments were based on Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores and on the visual analogue scale (VAS). The bone fusion assessments were based on radiography and CT scans according to the Brantigan, Steffee, and Fraser criteria. More than 2 years after surgery, these assessments were made. In the results, the fusion outcome for the group receiving TL was significantly less than those for the other three groups. In TL, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the inside volume of the cage of ≥2.0 mL was the only significant factor for incomplete fusion. Moreover, the VAS (low back pain) score was significantly higher for TL than for the other three groups. In conclusions, we believe that the large volume inside the cage (≥2.0 mL) with local bone graft may lead incomplete interbody bone fusion and residual postsurgical low back pain after PLIF.

  12. An Effective Preoperative Three-Dimensional Radiotherapy Target Volume for Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcoma and the Effect of Margin Width on Local Control

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Bo Kyong; Chen, Yen-Lin E.; Kirsch, David G.; Goldberg, Saveli I.; Kobayashi, Wendy; Kung, Jong Hyun; Wolfgang, John A.; Doppke, Karen

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: There is little information on the appropriate three-dimensional (3D) preoperative radiotherapy (XRT) volume for extremity soft-tissue sarcomas (STS). We retrospectively analyzed the pattern of local failure (LF) to help elucidate optimal field design. Methods and Materials: We analyzed the 56 patients who underwent computed tomography-planned XRT for Stage I to III extremity STS between June 2000 and December 2006. Clinical target volume (CTV) included the T1 post-gadolinium-defined gross tumor volume with 1- to 1.5-cm radial and 3.5-cm longitudinal margins. Planning target volume expansion was 5 to 7 mm, and {>=}95% of dose was delivered to the planning target volume. Preoperative XRT was 44 to 50.4 Gy (median, 50). Postoperative boost of 10 to 20 Gy was given to 12 patients (6 with positive and 6 with close margins). Results: Follow-up ranged from 15 to 76 months (median, 41 months). The 5-year local control, freedom from distant metastasis, disease-free survival, and overall survival were 88.5%, 80.0%, 77.5% and 82.8%, respectively. Three patients (all with positive margin) experienced local failure (LF) as first relapse (2 isolated, 1 with distant failure), and 2 additional patients (all with margin<1 mm) had late LF after distant metastasis. The LFs were within the CTV in 3 patients and within and also extending beyond the CTV in 2 patients. Conclusions: These target volume definitions appear to be appropriate for most patients. No local recurrences were observed with surgical margins {>=}1 mm, and it appears that these may be adequate for patients with extremity STS treated with preoperative radiotherapy.

  13. Prospective Randomized Double-Blind Pilot Study of Site-Specific Consensus Atlas Implementation for Rectal Cancer Target Volume Delineation in the Cooperative Group Setting

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, Clifton D.; Nijkamp, Jasper; Duppen, Joop C.; Rasch, Coen R.N.; Thomas, Charles R.; Wang, Samuel J.; Okunieff, Paul; Jones, William E.; Baseman, Daniel; Patel, Shilpen; Demandante, Carlo G.N.; Harris, Anna M.; Smith, Benjamin D.; Katz, Alan W.; McGann, Camille

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: Variations in target volume delineation represent a significant hurdle in clinical trials involving conformal radiotherapy. We sought to determine the effect of a consensus guideline-based visual atlas on contouring the target volumes. Methods and Materials: A representative case was contoured (Scan 1) by 14 physician observers and a reference expert with and without target volume delineation instructions derived from a proposed rectal cancer clinical trial involving conformal radiotherapy. The gross tumor volume (GTV), and two clinical target volumes (CTVA, including the internal iliac, presacral, and perirectal nodes, and CTVB, which included the external iliac nodes) were contoured. The observers were randomly assigned to receipt (Group A) or nonreceipt (Group B) of a consensus guideline and atlas for anorectal cancers and then instructed to recontour the same case/images (Scan 2). Observer variation was analyzed volumetrically using the conformation number (CN, where CN = 1 equals total agreement). Results: Of 14 evaluable contour sets (1 expert and 7 Group A and 6 Group B observers), greater agreement was found for the GTV (mean CN, 0.75) than for the CTVs (mean CN, 0.46-0.65). Atlas exposure for Group A led to significantly increased interobserver agreement for CTVA (mean initial CN, 0.68, after atlas use, 0.76; p = .03) and increased agreement with the expert reference (initial mean CN, 0.58; after atlas use, 0.69; p = .02). For the GTV and CTVB, neither the interobserver nor the expert agreement was altered after atlas exposure. Conclusion: Consensus guideline atlas implementation resulted in a detectable difference in interobserver agreement and a greater approximation of expert volumes for the CTVA but not for the GTV or CTVB in the specified case. Visual atlas inclusion should be considered as a feature in future clinical trials incorporating conformal RT.

  14. Comparison of large-angle production of charged pions with incident protons on cylindrical long and short targets

    SciTech Connect

    Apollonio, M.; Chimenti, P.; Giannini, G.; Artamonov, A.; Giani, S.; Gilardoni, S.; Gorbunov, P.; Grant, A.; Grossheim, A.; Ivanchenko, A.; Ivanchenko, V.; Kayis-Topaksu, A.; Panman, J.; Papadopoulos, I.; Tcherniaev, E.; Tsukerman, I.; Wiebusch, C.; Zucchelli, P.; Bagulya, A.; Grichine, V.

    2009-12-15

    The HARP Collaboration has presented measurements of the double-differential {pi}{sup {+-}} production cross section in the range of momentum 100 MeV/c{<=}p{<=}800 MeV/c and angle 0.35 rad{<=}{theta}{<=}2.15 rad with proton beams hitting thin nuclear targets. In many applications the extrapolation to long targets is necessary. In this article the analysis of data taken with long (one interaction length) solid cylindrical targets made of carbon, tantalum, and lead is presented. The data were taken with the large-acceptance HARP detector in the T9 beam line of the CERN proton synchrotron. The secondary pions were produced by beams of protons with momenta of 5, 8, and 12GeV/c. The tracking and identification of the produced particles were performed using a small-radius cylindrical time projection chamber placed inside a solenoidal magnet. Incident protons were identified by an elaborate system of beam detectors. Results are obtained for the double-differential yields per target nucleon d{sup 2}{sigma}/dpd{theta}. The measurements are compared with predictions of the MARS and GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulations.

  15. SU-E-T-287: Dose Verification On the Variation of Target Volume and Organ at Risk in Preradiation Chemotherapy IMRT for Nasopharyngeal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X; Kong, L; Wang, J; Hu, W; Chen, Z

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To quantify the target volume and organ at risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients with preradiation chemotherapy based on CT scanned during intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and recalculate the dose distribution. Methods: Seven patients with NPC and preradiation chemotherapy, treated with IMRT (35 to 37 fractions) were reviewed. Repeat CT scanning was required to all of the patients during the radiotherapy, and the number of repeat CTs varies from 2 to 6. The plan CT and repeat CT were generated by different CT scanner. To ensure crespectively on the same IMPT plan. The real dose distribution was calculated by deformable registration and weighted method in Raystation (v 4.5.1). The fraction of each dose is based on radiotherapy record. The volumetric and dose differences among these images were calculated for nascIpharyngeal tumor and retro-pharyngeal lymph nodes (GTV-NX), neck lymph nodes(GTV-ND), and parotid glands. Results: The volume variation in GTV-NX from CT1 to CT2 was 1.15±3.79%, and in GTV-LN −0.23±4.93%. The volume variation in left parotid from CT1 to CT2 was −6.79±11.91%, and in right parotid −3.92±8.80%. In patient 2, the left parotid volume were decreased remarkably, as a Result, the V30 and V40 of it were increased as well. Conclusion: The target volume of patients with NPC varied lightly during IMRT. It shows that preradiation chemotherapy can control the target volume variation and perform a good dose repeatability. Also, the decreasing volume of parotid in some patient might increase the dose of it, which might course potential complications.

  16. Low resistance, large dimension entrance to the inner cavity of BK channels determined by changing side-chain volume

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Xiaowei

    2011-01-01

    Large-conductance Ca2+- and voltage-activated K+ (BK) channels have the largest conductance (250–300 pS) of all K+-selective channels. Yet, the contributions of the various parts of the ion conduction pathway to the conductance are not known. Here, we examine the contribution of the entrance to the inner cavity to the large conductance. Residues at E321/E324 on each of the four α subunits encircle the entrance to the inner cavity. To determine if 321/324 is accessible from the inner conduction pathway, we measured single-channel current amplitudes before and after exposure and wash of thiol reagents to the intracellular side of E321C and E324C channels. MPA− increased currents and MTSET+ decreased currents, with no difference between positions 321 and 324, indicating that side chains at 321/324 are accessible from the inner conduction pathway and have equivalent effects on conductance. For neutral amino acids, decreasing the size of the entrance to the inner cavity by substituting large side-chain amino acids at 321/324 decreased outward single-channel conductance, whereas increasing the size of the entrance with smaller side-chain substitutions had little effect. Reductions in outward conductance were negated by high [K+]i. Substitutions had little effect on inward conductance. Fitting plots of conductance versus side-chain volume with a model consisting of one variable and one fixed resistor in series indicated an effective diameter and length of the entrance to the inner cavity for wild-type channels of 17.7 and 5.6 Å, respectively, with the resistance of the entrance ∼7% of the total resistance of the conduction pathway. The estimated dimensions are consistent with the structure of MthK, an archaeal homologue to BK channels. Our observations suggest that BK channels have a low resistance, large entrance to the inner cavity, with the entrance being as large as necessary to not limit current, but not much larger. PMID:21576375

  17. pH-activated size reduction of large compound nanoparticles for in vivo nucleus-targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yanbin; Li, Chunyan; Li, Fuyou; Chen, Daoyong

    2016-04-01

    Nucleus-targeted drug delivery is a promising strategy for anticancer therapy, but in vivo nucleus-targeted drug delivery has been challenging. Limited by the channel size of the nucleopore, vehicles that enter the nucleus via the nucleopore actively should be small and decorated with nuclear localization signal (NLS). However, the small vehicle size may promote leakage of vehicles into normal tissues, and the positively-charged NLS can lead to strong non-specific interactions in vivo. In the present study, we demonstrate an in vivo nucleus-targeted drug delivery using large compound nanoparticles with detachable PEG shell. The nanoparticles are composed of PEG-benzoic imine-oligo-l-lysine/iridium(III) metallodrug complex and formed in a kinetically-controlled fashion. Under physiological conditions (pH 7.4), the nanoparticles are large (ca. 150 nm) and protected by an inert PEG shell. When internalized into intracellular acidic endo/lysosomes of cancer cells, the nanoparticles dissociate into smaller ones (ca. 40 nm) and the PEG chains detach due to the cleavage of the benzoic imine bond at low pH. The small nanoparticles, with exposure of the oligo-l-lysine after the detachment of the PEG shield, then translocate into the nucleus via the nucleopore due to the small size and nuclear localization ability of the oligo-l-lysine. Importantly, the small particles could significantly release the contained drug into the nucleus, leading to ca. 20-fold higher cytotoxicity compared to the native drug in vitro. Further in vivo application of the nucleus-targeting nano-system in a nude-mice model showed significant tumor inhibition and remarkable life-span elongation.

  18. The Use of Cryogenically Cooled 5A Molecular Sieves for Large Volume Reduction of Tritiated Hydrogen Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Antoniazzi, A.B.; Bartoszek, F.E.; Sherlock, A.M.

    2006-07-01

    A commercial hydrogen isotope separation system based on gas chromatography (AGC-ISS) has been built. The system operates in two modes: stripping and volume reduction. The purpose of the stripping mode is to reduce a large volume of tritiated hydrogen gas to a small volume of tritium rich hydrogen gas. The results here illustrate the effectiveness of the AGC-ISS in the stripping and volume reduction phases. Column readiness for hydrogen isotope separation is confirmed by room temperature air separation tests. Production runs were initially carried out using natural levels of deuterium (110-160 ppm) in high purity hydrogen. After completion of the deuterium/hydrogen runs the system began operations with tritiated hydrogen. The paper presents details of the AGC-ISS design and results of tritium tests. The heart of the AGC-ISS consists of two packed columns (9 m long, 3.8 cm OD) containing 5A molecular sieve material of 40/60 mesh size. Each column has 5 individually controlled heaters along the length of the column and is coiled around an inverted inner dewar. The coiled column and inner dewar are both contained within an outer dewar. In this arrangement liquid nitrogen, used to cryogenically cool the columns, flows into and out off the annular space defined by the two dewars, allowing for alternate heating and cooling cycles. Tritiated hydrogen feed is injected in batch quantities. The batch size is variable with the maximum quantity restricted by the tritium concentration in the exhausted hydrogen. The stripping operations can be carried out in full automated mode or in full manual mode. The average cycle time between injections is about 75 minutes. To date, the maximum throughput achieved is 10.5 m{sup 3}/day. A total of 37.8 m{sup 3} of tritiated hydrogen has been processed during commissioning. The system has demonstrated that venting of >99.95% of the feed gas is possible while retaining 99.98% of the tritium. At a maximum tritium concentration of {approx}7 GBq

  19. SU-E-J-192: Verification of 4D-MRI Internal Target Volume Using Cine MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Lafata, K; Czito, B; Palta, M; Bashir, M; Yin, F; Cai, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the accuracy of 4D-MRI in determining the Internal Target Volume (ITV) used in radiation oncology treatment planning of liver cancers. Cine MRI is used as the standard baseline in establishing the feasibility and accuracy of 4D-MRI tumor motion within the liver. Methods: IRB approval was obtained for this retrospective study. Analysis was performed on MR images from four patients receiving external beam radiation therapy for liver cancer at our institution. Eligible patients received both Cine and 4D-MRI scans before treatment. Cine images were acquired sagittally in real time at a slice bisecting the tumor, while 4D images were acquired volumetrically. Cine MR DICOM headers were manipulated such that each respiratory frame was assigned a unique slice location. This approach permitted the treatment planning system (Eclipse, Varian Medical Systems) to recognize a complete respiratory cycle as a “volume”, where the gross tumor was contoured temporally. Software was developed to calculate the union of all frame contours in the structure set, resulting in the corresponding plane of the ITV projecting through the middle of the tumor, defined as the Internal Target Area (ITA). This was repeated for 4D-MRI, at the corresponding slice location, allowing a direct comparison of ITAs obtained from each modality. Results: Four patients have been analyzed. ITAs contoured from 4D-MRI correlate with contours from Cine MRI. The mean error of 4D values relative to Cine values is 7.67 +/− 2.55 %. No single ITA contoured from 4D-MRI demonstrated more than 10.5 % error compared to its Cine MRI counterpart. Conclusion: Motion management is a significant aspect of treatment planning within dynamic environments such as the liver, where diaphragmatic and cardiac activity influence plan accuracy. This small pilot study suggests that 4D-MRI based ITA measurements agree with Cine MRI based measurements, an important step towards clinical implementation. NIH 1R21

  20. The New York Head-A precise standardized volume conductor model for EEG source localization and tES targeting.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu; Parra, Lucas C; Haufe, Stefan

    2016-10-15

    In source localization of electroencephalograpic (EEG) signals, as well as in targeted transcranial electric current stimulation (tES), a volume conductor model is required to describe the flow of electric currents in the head. Boundary element models (BEM) can be readily computed to represent major tissue compartments, but cannot encode detailed anatomical information within compartments. Finite element models (FEM) can capture more tissue types and intricate anatomical structures, but with the higher precision also comes the need for semi-automated segmentation, and a higher computational cost. In either case, adjusting to the individual human anatomy requires costly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and thus head modeling is often based on the anatomy of an 'arbitrary' individual (e.g. Colin27). Additionally, existing reference models for the human head often do not include the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF), and their field of view excludes portions of the head and neck-two factors that demonstrably affect current-flow patterns. Here we present a highly detailed FEM, which we call ICBM-NY, or "New York Head". It is based on the ICBM152 anatomical template (a non-linear average of the MRI of 152 adult human brains) defined in MNI coordinates, for which we extended the field of view to the neck and performed a detailed segmentation of six tissue types (scalp, skull, CSF, gray matter, white matter, air cavities) at 0.5mm(3) resolution. The model was solved for 231 electrode locations. To evaluate its performance, additional FEMs and BEMs were constructed for four individual subjects. Each of the four individual FEMs (regarded as the 'ground truth') is compared to its BEM counterpart, the ICBM-NY, a BEM of the ICBM anatomy, an 'individualized' BEM of the ICBM anatomy warped to the individual head surface, and FEMs of the other individuals. Performance is measured in terms of EEG source localization and tES targeting errors. Results show that the ICBM-NY outperforms

  1. Detection of s-triazine pesticides in natural waters by modified large-volume direct injection HPLC.

    PubMed

    Beale, David J; Kaserzon, Sarit L; Porter, Nichola A; Roddick, Felicity A; Carpenter, Peter D

    2010-07-15

    There is a need for simple and inexpensive methods to quantify potentially harmful persistent pesticides often found in our water-ways and water distribution systems. This paper presents a simple, relatively inexpensive method for the detection of a group of commonly used pesticides (atrazine, simazine and hexazinone) in natural waters using large-volume direct injection high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) utilizing a monolithic column and a single wavelength ultraviolet-visible light (UV-vis) detector. The best results for this system were obtained with a mobile phase made up of acetonitrile and water in a 30:70 ratio, a flow rate of 2.0 mL min(-1), and a detector wavelength of 230 nm. Using this method, we achieved retention times of less than three minutes, and detection limits of 5.7 microg L(-1) for atrazine, 4.7 microg L(-1) for simazine and 4.0 microg L(-1) for hexazinone. The performance of this method was validated with an inter-laboratory trial against a National Association of Testing Authorities (NATA) accredited liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method commonly used in commercial laboratories.

  2. Determination of organophosphorus pesticides by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry using a large-volume injection technique after magnetic extraction.

    PubMed

    Nedaei, Maryam; Salehpour, Ali-Reza; Mozaffari, Shahla; Yousefi, Seyedeh Mahboobeh; Yousefi, Seyed Reza

    2014-09-01

    A fast and efficient method was developed for the extraction and determination of organophosphorus pesticides in water samples. Organophosphorus pesticides were extracted by solid-phase extraction using magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes and determined by gas chromatography with ion-trap mass spectrometry. Parameters affecting the extraction were investigated. Under optimum conditions of the method, 10 mg magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes were added into 10 mL sample. After 2 min, adsorbent particles settled at the bottom of test tube with a magnet. After removing aqueous supernatant, the analytes were desorbed with acetonitrile. Then, 70 μL of acetonitrile phase was injected into the gas chromatography and mass spectrometry system that had an ion-trap analyzer. To achieve high sensitivity, the large-volume-injection technique was used with a programmed temperature vaporization inlet, and the ion-trap mass spectrometer was operated in single ion storage mode. Under the best conditions, the enrichment factors and extraction recoveries were in the range of 113-124 and 74-103%, respectively. The limits of detection were between 3 and 15 ng/L, and the relative standard deviations were < 10%. This method was successfully used for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in dam water, lagoon water, and river water samples with good reproducibility and recovery.

  3. A Large Volume Double Channel 1H-X RF Probe for Hyperpolarized Magnetic Resonance at 0.0475 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, Aaron M.; Shchepin, Roman V.; Wilkens, Ken; Waddell, Kevin W.; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.

    2012-01-01

    In this work we describe a large volume 340 mL 1H-X magnetic resonance (MR) probe for studies of hyperpolarized compounds at 0.0475 T. 1H/13C and 1H/15N probe configurations are demonstrated with the potential for extension to 1H/129Xe. The primary applications of this probe are preparation and quality assurance of 13C and 15N hyperpolarized contrast agents using PASADENA (parahydrogen and synthesis allow dramatically enhanced nuclear alignment) and other parahydrogen-based methods of hyperpolarization. The probe is efficient and permits 62 μs 13C excitation pulses at 5.3 Watts, making it suitable for portable operation. The sensitivity and detection limits of this probe, tuned to 13C, are compared with a commercial radio frequency (RF) coil operating at 4.7 T. We demonstrate that low field MR of hyperpolarized contrast agents could be as sensitive as conventional high field detection and outline potential improvements and optimization of the probe design for preclinical in vivo MRI. PASADENA application of this low-power probe is exemplified with 13C hyperpolarized 2-hydroxyethyl propionate-1-13C,2,3,3-d3. PMID:22706029

  4. Novel experimental design for high pressure-high temperature electrical resistance measurements in a "Paris-Edinburgh" large volume press.

    PubMed

    Matityahu, Shlomi; Emuna, Moran; Yahel, Eyal; Makov, Guy; Greenberg, Yaron

    2015-04-01

    We present a novel experimental design for high sensitivity measurements of the electrical resistance of samples at high pressures (0-6 GPa) and high temperatures (300-1000 K) in a "Paris-Edinburgh" type large volume press. Uniquely, the electrical measurements are carried out directly on a small sample, thus greatly increasing the sensitivity of the measurement. The sensitivity to even minor changes in electrical resistance can be used to clearly identify phase transitions in material samples. Electrical resistance measurements are relatively simple and rapid to execute and the efficacy of the present experimental design is demonstrated by measuring the electrical resistance of Pb, Sn, and Bi across a wide domain of temperature-pressure phase space and employing it to identify the loci of phase transitions. Based on these results, the phase diagrams of these elements are reconstructed to high accuracy and found to be in excellent agreement with previous studies. In particular, by mapping the locations of several well-studied reference points in the phase diagram of Sn and Bi, it is demonstrated that a standard calibration exists for the temperature and pressure, thus eliminating the need for direct or indirect temperature and pressure measurements. The present technique will allow simple and accurate mapping of phase diagrams under extreme conditions and may be of particular importance in advancing studies of liquid state anomalies.

  5. Novel experimental design for high pressure-high temperature electrical resistance measurements in a "Paris-Edinburgh" large volume press

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matityahu, Shlomi; Emuna, Moran; Yahel, Eyal; Makov, Guy; Greenberg, Yaron

    2015-04-01

    We present a novel experimental design for high sensitivity measurements of the electrical resistance of samples at high pressures (0-6 GPa) and high temperatures (300-1000 K) in a "Paris-Edinburgh" type large volume press. Uniquely, the electrical measurements are carried out directly on a small sample, thus greatly increasing the sensitivity of the measurement. The sensitivity to even minor changes in electrical resistance can be used to clearly identify phase transitions in material samples. Electrical resistance measurements are relatively simple and rapid to execute and the efficacy of the present experimental design is demonstrated by measuring the electrical resistance of Pb, Sn, and Bi across a wide domain of temperature-pressure phase space and employing it to identify the loci of phase transitions. Based on these results, the phase diagrams of these elements are reconstructed to high accuracy and found to be in excellent agreement with previous studies. In particular, by mapping the locations of several well-studied reference points in the phase diagram of Sn and Bi, it is demonstrated that a standard calibration exists for the temperature and pressure, thus eliminating the need for direct or indirect temperature and pressure measurements. The present technique will allow simple and accurate mapping of phase diagrams under extreme conditions and may be of particular importance in advancing studies of liquid state anomalies.

  6. Quantitative Determination of Fluorinated Alkyl Substances by Large-Volume-Injection LC/MS/MS—Characterization of Municipal Wastewaters

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Melissa M.; Barofsky, Douglas F.; Field, Jennifer A.

    2008-01-01

    A quantitative method was developed for the determination of fluorinated alkyl substances in municipal wastewater influents and effluents. The method consisted of centrifugation followed by large-volume injection (500 μL) of the supernatant onto a liquid chromatograph with a reverse-phase column and detection by electrospray ionization, and tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The fluorinated analytes studied include perfluoroalkyl sulfonates, fluorotelomer sulfonates, perfluorocarboxylates, and select fluorinated alkyl sulfonamides. Recoveries of the fluorinated analytes from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) raw influents and final effluent ranged from 77% – 96% and 80% – 99%, respectively. The lower limit of quantitation ranged from 0.5 to 3.0 ng/L depending on the analyte. The method was applied to flow-proportional composites of raw influent and final effluent collected over a 24 hr period from ten WWTPs nationwide. Fluorinated alkyl substances were observed in wastewater at all treatment plants and each plant exhibited unique distributions of fluorinated alkyl substances despite similarities in treatment processes. In nine out of the ten plants sampled, at least one class of fluorinated alkyl substances exhibited increased concentrations in the effluent as compared to the influent concentrations. In some instances, decreases in certain fluorinated analyte concentrations were observed and attributed to sorption to sludge. PMID:16433363

  7. Mapping Patterns of Ipsilateral Supraclavicular Nodal Metastases in Breast Cancer: Rethinking the Clinical Target Volume for High-risk Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Jing, Hao; Wang, Shu-Lian; Li, Jing; Xue, Mei; Xiong, Zu-Kun; Jin, Jing; Wang, Wei-Hu; Song, Yong-Wen; Liu, Yue-Ping; Ren, Hua; Fang, Hui; Yu, Zi-Hao; Liu, Xin-Fan; Li, Ye-Xiong

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: To map the location of metastatic supraclavicular (SCV) lymph nodes (LNMs) in breast cancer patients with SCV node involvement and determine whether and where the radiation therapy clinical target volume (CTV) of this region could be modified in high-risk subsets. Methods and Materials: Fifty-five patients with metastatic SCV LNMs were eligible for geographic mapping and atlas coverage analysis. All LNMs and their epicenters were registered proportionally by referencing the surrounding landmarks onto simulation computed tomography images of a standard patient. CTVs based on selected SCV atlases, including the one by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) were contoured. A modified SCV CTV was tried and shown to have better involved-node coverage and thus theoretically improved prophylaxis in this setting. Results: A total of 50 (91%) and 45 (81.8%) patients had LNMs in the medial and lateral SCV subregions, respectively. Also, 36 patients (65.5%) had LNMs located at the junction of the jugular-subclavian veins. All nodes were covered in only 25.5% to 41.8% of patients by different atlases. The RTOG atlas covered all nodes in 25.5% of patients. Stratified by the nodes in all the patients as a whole, 49.2% to 81.3% were covered, and the RTOG atlas covered 62.6%. The lateral and posterior borders were the most overlooked locations. Modification by extending the borders to natural anatomic barriers allowed the new CTV to cover all the nodes in 81.8% of patients and encompass 96.1% of all the nodes. Conclusions: According to the distribution of SCV LNMs, the extent of existing atlases might not be adequate for potential metastatic sites in certain groups of patients. The extension of the lateral and posterior CTV borders in high-risk or recurrent patients might be a reasonable approach for increasing coverage. However, additional data in more homogeneous populations with localized disease are needed before routine application.

  8. Comparison of Efficacy of Regional and Extensive Clinical Target Volumes in Postoperative Radiotherapy for Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Qiao Xueying; Wang Wei; Zhou Zhiguo; Gao Xianshu; Chang, Joe Y.

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: To compare and analyze the effect of different clinical target volumes (CTVs) on survival rate after postoperative radiotherapy (RT) for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Methods and Materials: We studied 102 patients who underwent postoperative RT after radical resection for esophageal SCC (T3/4 or N1). The radiation dose was {>=}50 Gy. In the extensive portal group (E group, 43 patients), the CTV encompassed the bilateral supraclavicular region, all mediastinal lymph nodes, the anastomosis site, and the left gastric and pericardial lymphatic. In the regional portal group (R group, 59 patients), the CTV was confined to tumor bed and the lymph nodes in the immediate region of the primary lesion. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were compared between the groups, and multivariate/univariate analysis for factors predicting survival was studied. Results: For the entire group, the 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates were 76.3%, 50.5%, and 42.9%, respectively (median survival, 30 months). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 76.5%, 52.1%, and 41.3%, respectively, in the E group and 76.2%, 49.2%, and 44.6%, respectively, in the R group (not significant). According to the multivariate analysis, N stage, number of lymph nodes with metastatic disease, and tumor length were the independent prognostic factors for survival. Conclusions: Using a regional portal in postoperative RT for esophageal SCC is not associated with compromised survival compared with extensive portal RT and therefore should be considered. N stage, number of affected lymph nodes, and tumor length predict poor survival.

  9. A comparative study of target volumes based on 18F-FDG PET-CT and ten phases of 4DCT for primary thoracic squamous esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanluan; Li, Jianbin; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Yingjie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the correlations in target volumes based on 18F-FDG PET/CT and four-dimensional CT (4DCT) to detect the feasibility of implementing PET in determining gross target volumes (GTV) for tumor motion for primary thoracic esophageal cancer (EC). Methods Thirty-three patients with EC sequentially underwent contrast-enhanced 3DCT, 4DCT, and 18F-FDG PET-CT thoracic simulation. The internal gross target volume (IGTV)10 was obtained by combining the GTV from ten phases of 4DCT. The GTVs based on PET/CT images were defined by setting of different standardized uptake value thresholds and visual contouring. The difference in volume ratio, conformity index (CI), and degree of inclusion (DI) between IGTV10 and GTVPET was compared. Results The images from 20 patients were suitable for further analysis. The optimal volume ratio of 0.95±0.32, 1.06±0.50, 1.07±0.49 was at standardized uptake value (SUV)2.5, SUV20%, or manual contouring. The mean CIs were from 0.33 to 0.54. The best CIs were at SUV2.0 (0.51±0.11), SUV2.5 (0.53±0.13), SUV20% (0.53±0.12), and manual contouring (0.54±0.14). The mean DIs of GTVPET in IGTV10 were from 0.60 to 0.90, and the mean DIs of IGTV10 in GTVPET ranged from 0.35 to 0.78. A negative correlation was found between the mean CI and different SUV (P=0.000). Conclusion None of the PET-based contours had both close spatial and volumetric approximation to the 4DCT IGTV10. Further evaluation and optimization of PET as a tool for target identification are required. PMID:28123302

  10. What Would Be the Effect of Referral to High-Volume Hospitals in a Largely Rural State?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Marcia M.; Jaana, Mirou; Wakefield, Douglas S.; Ohsfeldt, Robert L.; Schneider, John E.; Miller, Thomas; Lei, Yang

    2004-01-01

    Volume of certain surgical procedures has been linked to patient outcomes. The Leapfrog Group and others have recommended evidence-based referral using specific volume thresholds for nonemergent cases. The literature is limited on the effect of such referral on hospitals, especially in rural areas. To examine the impact of evidence-based referral…

  11. Determination of organic priority pollutants and emerging compounds in wastewater and snow samples using multiresidue protocols on the basis of microextraction by packed sorbents coupled to large volume injection gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Prieto, A; Schrader, S; Moeder, M

    2010-09-17

    This paper describes the development and validation of a new procedure for the simultaneous determination of 41 multi-class priority and emerging organic pollutants in water samples using microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) followed by large volume injection-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (LVI-GC-MS). Apart from method parameter optimization the influence of humic acids as matrix components on the extraction efficiency of MEPS procedure was also evaluated. The list of target compounds includes polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), phthalate esters (PEs), nonylphenols (NPs), bisphenol A (BPA) and selected steroid hormones. The performance of the new at-line microextraction-LVI-GC-MS protocol was compared to standard solid-phase extraction (SPE) and LVI-GC-MS analysis. LODs for 100 mL samples (SPE) ranged from 0.2 to 736 ng L(-1) were obtained. LODs for 800 microL of sample (MEPS) were between 0.2 and 266 ng L(-1). In the case of MEPS methodology even a sample volume of only 800 microL allowed to detect the target compounds. These results demonstrate the high sensitivity of both procedures which permitted to obtain good recoveries (>75%) for all cases. The precision of the methods, calculated as relative standard deviation (RSD) was below 21% for all compounds and both methodologies. Finally, the developed methods were applied to the determination of target analytes in various samples, including snow and wastewater.

  12. Flowing and growing: a microanalytical and isotopic investigation of a large volume rhyolite lava flow at Yellowstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severin, Z.; Bindeman, I. N.; Lackey, J.

    2013-12-01

    Why large-volume rhyolitic magmas with identical properties and volatile budgets erupt as both pyroclastic rocks forming calderas, and quiet lava flows, has remained a long standing question at Yellowstone and volcanic centers worldwide. We have investigated the youngest lava flow of Yellowstone - the Central Plateau member (0.2-0.07 Ma) in attempt to better understand the following aspects of a large-volume (≤54 km^3) lava flow: 1) how long it takes to erupt; 2) how chemically and isotopically homogenous it is; and 3) how syneruptive cooling affects isotopic and chemical composition. We also analyze the homogeneity of the 112 ka, 37 km^3, low-δ^18O Summit Lake lava flow, which formed by remelting of hydrothermally altered and buried materials. On the surface twenty samples were collected along a southwest-northeast transect from the flow vent to the lava flow edge. We examined these samples petrographically and chemically, employing whole rock geochemistry, the titanium content of quartz phenocrysts to calculate relative temperature of growth using the Ti-in-quartz thermometer (TitaniQ), and the δ^18O of volcanic glass. The Ti content of quartz is useful for inferring the temperature, pressure, and/or chemical conditions of quartz crystallization. We also used cathodoluminescence imaging (CL) on a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to distinguish quartz cores from overgrowths. Values of δ^18O are relatively homogeneous across the flow (4.60 × 0.59‰, n=20), showing no systematic variation with distance from the vent. Whole-rock major element composition is also homogenous across the flow (SiO2 = 75.08-77.03 wt.%). However, precise grid-counting reveals a general increase in the percent of phenocrysts (4.4-7.3%) and also the ratio of quartz to feldspar (40:60). CL shows that all quartz phenocrysts display a renewed growth as a dark ~200 μm-thick rims upon by bright cores. Among the quartz phenocrysts, Ti generally decreases from 139×39 ppm in bright cores

  13. Fast determination of 40 drugs in water using large volume direct injection liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Boix, Clara; Ibáñez, María; Sancho, Juan V; Rambla, Javier; Aranda, José L; Ballester, Salomé; Hernández, Félix

    2015-01-01

    This work describes a rapid analytical method based on direct sample injection of water samples for the simultaneous identification/quantification of 40 emerging compounds, including pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse. The water samples were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (UHPLC-MS/MS QqQ). Taking profit of the increasing sensitivity of nowadays tandem mass spectrometers, direct sample injection of large volumes has been an attractive alternative to pre-concentration steps. In this work, the developed methodology has been validated at three concentration levels (10, 100 and 1000 ng/L) in 10 different water samples of different types (5 effluent wastewater and 5 surface water samples). The majority of compounds could be satisfactory validated at these concentrations, showing good recoveries and precision. With only few exceptions, the limits of quantification (LOQs), estimated from the sample chromatogram at lowest spiked level tested, were below 3 ng/L. The method was applied to the analysis of 10 effluent wastewater and 10 surface water samples. Venlafaxine was the compound most frequently detected (80%) in surface water, followed by acetaminophen (70%). Regarding effluent wastewater, valsartan and 4-acetyl aminoantipyrine were detected in 9 out of 10 samples analyzed. These two compounds together with 4-formyl aminoantipyrine and naproxen showed the highest concentrations (>2000 ng/L). In these cases, a dilution step was required for a correct quantification. As an additional evaluation of the method performance, the same water samples were analyzed in another laboratory by a second analytical methodology, based on on-line solid-phase-extraction coupled to LC-MS/MS (QqQ).

  14. Large volume sample stacking in capillary zone electrophoresis for the monitoring of the degradation products of metribuzin in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Quesada-Molina, Carolina; García-Campaña, Ana M; Del Olmo-Iruela, Laura; Del Olmo, Monsalud

    2007-09-14

    A capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method with UV-vis detection has been developed for the simultaneous monitoring of the major degradation products of metribuzin, i.e. deaminometribuzin (DA), deaminodiketometribuzin (DADK) and diketometribuzin (DK). The dissociation acid constants have also been estimated by CE and no significant differences have been observed with the values obtained by applying other techniques. Optimum separation has been achieved in less than 9 min in 40 mM sodium tetraborate buffer, pH 9.5 by applying a voltage of 15kV at 25 degrees C and using p-aminobenzoic acid as internal standard. In order to increase sensitivity, large volume sample stacking (LVSS) with polarity switching has been applied as on-line pre-concentration methodology. Detection limits of 10, 10 and 20 ng/mL for DA, DADK and DK, respectively were obtained. The method has been applied to soil samples, after pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). Samples were extracted at high temperature (103 degrees C and 1500 psi) using methanol as extraction solvent and sodium sulphate as drying agent. This PLE procedure was followed by an off-line pre-concentration and sample clean-up procedure by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using a LiChrolut EN sorbent column. These last two procedures were also suitable for the direct treatment of groundwater samples before CE analysis. The combination of both off-line and on-line pre-concentration procedures provided a significant improvement in sensitivity. LVSS provided pre-concentration factors of 4, 36 and 28 for DK, DA and DADK, respectively and with SPE a pre-concentration of 500-fold for the case of water samples and of 2.5-fold in the case of soil samples was obtained. The method is suitable for the monitoring of these residues in environmental samples with high sensitivity, precision and satisfactory recoveries.

  15. Rain Characteristics and Large-Scale Environments of Precipitation Objects with Extreme Rain Volumes from TRMM Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Yaping; Lau, William K M.; Liu, Chuntao

    2013-01-01

    This study adopts a "precipitation object" approach by using 14 years of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Feature (PF) and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data to study rainfall structure and environmental factors associated with extreme heavy rain events. Characteristics of instantaneous extreme volumetric PFs are examined and compared to those of intermediate and small systems. It is found that instantaneous PFs exhibit a much wider scale range compared to the daily gridded precipitation accumulation range. The top 1% of the rainiest PFs contribute over 55% of total rainfall and have 2 orders of rain volume magnitude greater than those of the median PFs. We find a threshold near the top 10% beyond which the PFs grow exponentially into larger, deeper, and colder rain systems. NCEP reanalyses show that midlevel relative humidity and total precipitable water increase steadily with increasingly larger PFs, along with a rapid increase of 500 hPa upward vertical velocity beyond the top 10%. This provides the necessary moisture convergence to amplify and sustain the extreme events. The rapid increase in vertical motion is associated with the release of convective available potential energy (CAPE) in mature systems, as is evident in the increase in CAPE of PFs up to 10% and the subsequent dropoff. The study illustrates distinct stages in the development of an extreme rainfall event including: (1) a systematic buildup in large-scale temperature and moisture, (2) a rapid change in rain structure, (3) explosive growth of the PF size, and (4) a release of CAPE before the demise of the event.

  16. Large wood recruitment processes and transported volumes in Swiss mountain streams during the extreme flood of August 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steeb, Nicolas; Rickenmann, Dieter; Badoux, Alexandre; Rickli, Christian; Waldner, Peter

    2017-02-01

    The extreme flood event that occurred in August 2005 was the most costly (documented) natural hazard event in the history of Switzerland. The flood was accompanied by the mobilization of > 69,000 m3 of large wood (LW) throughout the affected area. As recognized afterward, wood played an important role in exacerbating the damages, mainly because of log jams at bridges and weirs. The present study aimed at assessing the risk posed by wood in various catchments by investigating the amount and spatial variability of recruited and transported LW. Data regarding LW quantities were obtained by field surveys, remote sensing techniques (LiDAR), and GIS analysis and was subsequently translated into a conceptual model of wood transport mass balance. Detailed wood budgets and transport diagrams were established for four study catchments of Swiss mountain streams, showing the spatial variability of LW recruitment and deposition. Despite some uncertainties with regard to parameter assumptions, the sum of reconstructed wood input and observed deposition volumes agree reasonably well. Mass wasting such as landslides and debris flows were the dominant recruitment processes in headwater streams. In contrast, LW recruitment from lateral bank erosion became significant in the lower part of mountain streams where the catchment reached a size of about 100 km2. According to our analysis, 88% of the reconstructed total wood input was fresh, i.e., coming from living trees that were recruited from adjacent areas during the event. This implies an average deadwood contribution of 12%, most of which was estimated to have been in-channel deadwood entrained during the flood event.

  17. Successful treatment of a LifeSite Hemodialysis Access System pocket infection with large-volume kanamycin solution irrigation.

    PubMed

    Ross, John R

    2003-07-01

    Bridge devices-dialysis catheters and subcutaneous access devices-play a critical role in increasing the placement of arteriovenous (AV) fistulas by providing hemodialysis vascular access while AV fistulas mature. The LifeSite Hemodialysis Access System (Vasca Inc, Tewskburg, MA), a fully implantable, subcutaneous dual valve access system, has been shown to have lower complication rates, higher blood flow rates, and better long-term device survival than conventional tunneled hemodialysis catheters, indicating it may better meet the requirements for optimally bridging to a fistula. This case study of a 48-year-old black man undergoing chronic hemodialysis for renal failure because of insulin-dependent diabetes describes a simple approach for resolving localized pocket infections associated with the LifeSite System by drip irrigation of the valves and tissue pockets with an antibiotic solution. Eight weeks after implantation of the LifeSite System, the patient exhibited symptoms of infection of the lateral LifeSite valve tissue pocket, which on culture was shown to be caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Flushing the LifeSite valve and tissue pocket with a large volume of kanamycin solution, in conjunction with intravenous vancomycin and routine irrigation of the valve with isopropyl alcohol, resolved the infection after 1 treatment. The LifeSite System successfully bridged the patient to a transposed basilic vein fistula created through a 2-stage surgical procedure. The LifeSite System provided uninterrupted access for hemodialysis over a period of 6 months while the fistula matured. The LifeSite System should allow surgeons to attempt fistula construction in more patients, including diabetics, access-challenged patients, and patients with small vessels, who may benefit from a nontraditional surgical approach toward fistula creation.

  18. Acoustic detection of cracks in the anvil of a large-volume cubic high-pressure apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Zhaoli Tian, Hao; Cheng, Xiaobin; Yang, Jun; Chen, Bin

    2015-12-15

    A large-volume cubic high-pressure apparatus with three pairs of tungsten carbide anvils is the most popular device for synthetic diamond production. Currently, the consumption of anvils is one of the important costs for the diamond production industry. If one of the anvils is fractured during the production process, the other five anvils in the apparatus may be endangered as a result of a sudden loss of pressure. It is of critical importance to detect and replace cracked anvils before they fracture for reduction of the cost of diamond production and safety. An acoustic detection method is studied in this paper. Two new features, nested power spectrum centroid and modified power spectrum variance, are proposed and combined with linear prediction coefficients to construct a feature vector. A support vector machine model is trained for classification. A sliding time window is proposed for decision-level information fusion. The experiments and analysis show that the recognition rate of anvil cracks is 95%, while the false-alarm rate is as low as 5.8 × 10{sup −4} during a time window; this false-alarm rate indicates that at most one false alarm occurs every 2 months at a confidence level of 90%. An instrument to monitor anvil cracking was designed based on a digital signal processor and has been running for more than eight months in a diamond production field. In this time, two anvil-crack incidents occurred and were detected by the instrument correctly. In addition, no false alarms occurred.

  19. Acoustic detection of cracks in the anvil of a large-volume cubic high-pressure apparatus.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhaoli; Chen, Bin; Tian, Hao; Cheng, Xiaobin; Yang, Jun

    2015-12-01

    A large-volume cubic high-pressure apparatus with three pairs of tungsten carbide anvils is the most popular device for synthetic diamond production. Currently, the consumption of anvils is one of the important costs for the diamond production industry. If one of the anvils is fractured during the production process, the other five anvils in the apparatus may be endangered as a result of a sudden loss of pressure. It is of critical importance to detect and replace cracked anvils before they fracture for reduction of the cost of diamond production and safety. An acoustic detection method is studied in this paper. Two new features, nested power spectrum centroid and modified power spectrum variance, are proposed and combined with linear prediction coefficients to construct a feature vector. A support vector machine model is trained for classification. A sliding time window is proposed for decision-level information fusion. The experiments and analysis show that the recognition rate of anvil cracks is 95%, while the false-alarm rate is as low as 5.8 × 10(-4) during a time window; this false-alarm rate indicates that at most one false alarm occurs every 2 months at a confidence level of 90%. An instrument to monitor anvil cracking was designed based on a digital signal processor and has been running for more than eight months in a diamond production field. In this time, two anvil-crack incidents occurred and were detected by the instrument correctly. In addition, no false alarms occurred.

  20. Acoustic detection of cracks in the anvil of a large-volume cubic high-pressure apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhaoli; Chen, Bin; Tian, Hao; Cheng, Xiaobin; Yang, Jun

    2015-12-01

    A large-volume cubic high-pressure apparatus with three pairs of tungsten carbide anvils is the most popular device for synthetic diamond production. Currently, the consumption of anvils is one of the important costs for the diamond production industry. If one of the anvils is fractured during the production process, the other five anvils in the apparatus may be endangered as a result of a sudden loss of pressure. It is of critical importance to detect and replace cracked anvils before they fracture for reduction of the cost of diamond production and safety. An acoustic detection method is studied in this paper. Two new features, nested power spectrum centroid and modified power spectrum variance, are proposed and combined with linear prediction coefficients to construct a feature vector. A support vector machine model is trained for classification. A sliding time window is proposed for decision-level information fusion. The experiments and analysis show that the recognition rate of anvil cracks is 95%, while the false-alarm rate is as low as 5.8 × 10-4 during a time window; this false-alarm rate indicates that at most one false alarm occurs every 2 months at a confidence level of 90%. An instrument to monitor anvil cracking was designed based on a digital signal processor and has been running for more than eight months in a diamond production field. In this time, two anvil-crack incidents occurred and were detected by the instrument correctly. In addition, no false alarms occurred.

  1. Characterizing Companions to Low-Mass Stars: A Large-Scale, Volume-Limited Survey of Local M-dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Patience, J.; De Rosa, R.; Rajan, A.

    2013-01-01

    M-dwarfs constitute the major fraction of stars within both the solar neighborhood and nearby star-forming regions. However, key M-dwarf companion characteristics - including multiplicity fraction, mass ratios, and separation distributions - are less certain for field stars, due to limited sample sizes and non-uniform selection criteria. Studies of star-forming regions often compare results to solar-type field stars due to the extensive population statistics available for G-dwarfs, but field M-dwarfs represent a more analogous population for comparison due to their prevalence. We present results on a stellar and substellar companion study covering separations from ~1 - 10,000 AU, based on a volume-limited survey of ~300 M-dwarfs within 15 pc. Our study constrains the frequency of binary companions and the shape of the companion separation and mass ratio distributions. Diffraction-limited, mid-to-near infrared archival data were obtained from the Very Large Telescope, Hubble Space Telescope, and Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, to detect nearby companions to M-dwarfs from ~1 to 100 AU. To supplement the high-resolution data, wide-field archival plates were searched for companions with separations of 100 to 10,000 AU. The all-sky survey data include multiple epochs, and follow up observations at higher resolution will allow us to confirm or reject the new companion candidates detected during our analysis. These multi-epoch observations provide confirmation of common proper motions, thereby minimizing background contamination and providing comprehensive statistics for M-star binaries. Preliminary analysis of an initial subset of the sample suggests a lower limit to the multiplicity of 23 ± 7% within the restricted separation range. Characterizations of the binary frequency for M-dwarfs provide crucial insights into the low-mass star formation environment, and hold additional implications for the frequency and evolutionary histories of their associated disks and

  2. Impact of 18FDG-PET/CT on biological target volume (BTV) definition for treatment planning for non-small cell lung cancer patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devic, Slobodan; Tomic, Nada; Faria, Sergio; Dean, Geoffrey; Lisbona, Robert; Parker, William; Kaufman, Chris; Podgorsak, Ervin B.

    2007-02-01

    This work represents our effort to test feasibility of FDG-based PET/CT on target volume delineation in radiotherapy treatment planning of NSCLC patients. Different methods have been developed to enable more precise target outlining using PET: Qualitative Visual Method, CTV=2.5 SUV units, linear SUV threshold function method, and CTV=40% Iso of Maximum Uptake Value. We are proposing reconstruction of three biological target volumes: necrotic BTV (same as PTV created by radiation oncologist using CT data), proliferating BTV (based on PET signal to background ratio 1:3) and hypoxic BTV (based on PET signal to background ratio of 1:19). Two IMRT plans were created and compared to the conventional treatment plan: "conservative" IMRT plan delivers 52.5 Gy to the necrotic BTV and 65 Gy to the hypoxic BTV; "radical" IMRT plan delivers 30 Gy to necrotic BTV, 52.5 Gy to proliferating BTV and 65 Gy to hypoxic BTV. Use of BTVs in IMRT plans is attractive because it increases dose to targets considered to need higher doses. It reduces considerably dose to heart and spinal cord, organs considered to limit dose escalation approaches in NSCLC treatment. "Conservative" IMRT approach can be understood as a PET/CT-based concomitant boost to the tumor expressing the highest FDG uptake. "Radical" plan implies deviation from the traditional uniform dose target coverage approach, with the intention of achieving better surrounding tissue sparing and ultimately allowing for dose escalation protocols relying on biologically based treatment planning.

  3. Advanced fractional crystallisation and homogenization of large-volume rhyolite before the Oraefajokull 1362 AD plinian eruption, SE Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selbekk, R. S.; Tronnes, R. G.

    2007-12-01

    In the 50 km wide Icelandic rift zones rhyolite magma is generated by partial melting of hydrated metabasaltic crust, subsiding under the weight of the growing volcanic pile. This mechanism of silicic melt formation is indicated by the basalt-rhyolite bimodality and rhyolite O-isotope composition. The low 18/16O-isotope ratios of rift zone rhyolites trace the high-latitude meteoric water component of the subsiding hydrated basalts [1]. The rhyolites of the volcanic flank zones (VFZ), however, have generally as heavy oxygen as the associated alkaline to transitional basalts and intermediate volcanics [2,3]. The minor volcanic loading of the older, thicker and stronger VFZ crust is insufficient for significant subsidence, and less pronounced basalt-rhyolite bimodality combined with other geochemical features support silicic melt generation by fractional crystallization. An extreme case in Icelandic, as well as global, perspective is the rhyolite magma of the plinian eruption from the large VFZ-volcano, Oraefajokull, in 1362 AD [4]. Glass, mineral and bulk tephra analyses show no chemical variation exceeding the analytical precision for the entire erupted volume of 2 km3 DRE. This applies even to the glass shards from distant locations in Greenland, Norway and Ireland. The total phenocryst content is 0.5-1 wt percent, with oligoclase (An14 Ab81 Or5.5), fayalite (Fa99.7 Fo0.3) and hedenbergite (Wo44.7 En2.6 Fs52.7) constituting 50- 80, 10-25 and 10-25 percent of the total phenocrysts, respectively. The extreme mineral compositions (especially pure fayalite and hedenbergite) resemble those of the granophyres in the Skaergaard and Bushveld complexes and differ from all other investigated rhyolites. The advanced fractionation and homogenisation to form the erupted 2 km3 DRE rhyolite is petrogenetically challenging, and a parental magma chamber of 20-40 km3 seems like a conservative estimate. The time-scale of the historic magma chamber evolution under Oraefajokull is

  4. Doses to radiation sensitive organs and structures located outside the radiotherapeutic target volume for four treatment situations

    SciTech Connect

    Foo, M.L.; McCullough, E.C.; Foote, R.L.; Pisansky, T.M.; Shaw, E.G. )

    1993-09-20

    This study documents dosage to radiation sensitive organs/structures located outside the radiotherapeutic target volume for four treatment situations: (a) head and neck, (b) brain (pituitary and temporal lobe), (c) breast and (d) pelvis. Clinically relevant treatment fields were simulated on a tissue-equivalent anthropomorphic phantom and subsequently irradiated with Cobalt-60 gamma rays, 6- and 18-MV x-ray beams. Thermoluminescent dosimeters and diodes were used to measure absorbed dose. The head and neck treatment resulted in significant doses of radiation to the lens and thyroid gland. The total treatment lens dose (300-400 cGy) could be cataractogenic while measured thyroid doses (1000-8000 cGy) have the potential of causing chemical hypothyroidism, thyroid neoplasms, Graves' disease and hyperparathyroidism. Total treatment retinal (400-700 cGy) and pituitary (460-1000 cGy) doses are below that considered capable of producing chronic disease. The pituitary treatment studied consisted of various size parallel opposed lateral and vertex fields (4 x 4 through 8 x 8 cm). The lens dose (40-200 cGy) with all field sizes is below those of clinical concern. Parotid doses (130-1200 cGy) and thyroid doses (350-600 cGy) are in a range where temporary xerostomia (parotid) and thyroid neoplasia development are a reasonable possibility. The retinal dose (4000 cGy) from the largest field size (8 x 8 cm[sup 2]) is in the range where retinopathy has been reported. The left temporal lobe treatment also used parallel opposed lateral and vertex fields (7 x 7 and 10 x 10 cm). Doses to the pituitary gland (5200-6200 cGy), both parotids (200-6900 cGy), left lens (200-300 cGy), and left retina (1700-4500 cGy) are capable of causing significant future clinical problems. Right-sided structures received insignificant doses. Secondary malignancies could result from the measured total treatment thyroid doses (670-980 cGy). 82 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Monte-Carlo model development for evaluation of current clinical target volume definition for heterogeneous and hypoxic glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Moghaddasi, L; Bezak, E; Harriss-Phillips, W

    2016-05-07

    Clinical target volume (CTV) determination may be complex and subjective. In this work a microscopic-scale tumour model was developed to evaluate current CTV practices in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) external radiotherapy. Previously, a Geant4 cell-based dosimetry model was developed to calculate the dose deposited in individual GBM cells. Microscopic extension probability (MEP) models were then developed using Matlab-2012a. The results of the cell-based dosimetry model and MEP models were combined to calculate survival fractions (SF) for CTV margins of 2.0 and 2.5 cm. In the current work, oxygenation and heterogeneous radiosensitivity profiles were incorporated into the GBM model. The genetic heterogeneity was modelled using a range of α/β values (linear-quadratic model parameters) associated with different GBM cell lines. These values were distributed among the cells randomly, taken from a Gaussian-weighted sample of α/β values. Cellular oxygen pressure was distributed randomly taken from a sample weighted to profiles obtained from literature. Three types of GBM models were analysed: homogeneous-normoxic, heterogeneous-normoxic, and heterogeneous-hypoxic. The SF in different regions of the tumour model and the effect of the CTV margin extension from 2.0-2.5 cm on SFs were investigated for three MEP models. The SF within the beam was increased by up to three and two orders of magnitude following incorporation of heterogeneous radiosensitivities and hypoxia, respectively, in the GBM model. However, the total SF was shown to be overdominated by the presence of tumour cells in the penumbra region and to a lesser extent by genetic heterogeneity and hypoxia. CTV extension by 0.5 cm reduced the SF by a maximum of 78.6  ±  3.3%, 78.5  ±  3.3%, and 77.7  ±  3.1% for homogeneous and heterogeneous-normoxic, and heterogeneous hypoxic GBMs, respectively. Monte-Carlo model was developed to quantitatively evaluate SF for genetically

  6. Monte-Carlo model development for evaluation of current clinical target volume definition for heterogeneous and hypoxic glioblastoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghaddasi, L.; Bezak, E.; Harriss-Phillips, W.

    2016-05-01

    Clinical target volume (CTV) determination may be complex and subjective. In this work a microscopic-scale tumour model was developed to evaluate current CTV practices in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) external radiotherapy. Previously, a Geant4 cell-based dosimetry model was developed to calculate the dose deposited in individual GBM cells. Microscopic extension probability (MEP) models were then developed using Matlab-2012a. The results of the cell-based dosimetry model and MEP models were combined to calculate survival fractions (SF) for CTV margins of 2.0 and 2.5 cm. In the current work, oxygenation and heterogeneous radiosensitivity profiles were incorporated into the GBM model. The genetic heterogeneity was modelled using a range of α/β values (linear-quadratic model parameters) associated with different GBM cell lines. These values were distributed among the cells randomly, taken from a Gaussian-weighted sample of α/β values. Cellular oxygen pressure was distributed randomly taken from a sample weighted to profiles obtained from literature. Three types of GBM models were analysed: homogeneous-normoxic, heterogeneous-normoxic, and heterogeneous-hypoxic. The SF in different regions of the tumour model and the effect of the CTV margin extension from 2.0-2.5 cm on SFs were investigated for three MEP models. The SF within the beam was increased by up to three and two orders of magnitude following incorporation of heterogeneous radiosensitivities and hypoxia, respectively, in the GBM model. However, the total SF was shown to be overdominated by the presence of tumour cells in the penumbra region and to a lesser extent by genetic heterogeneity and hypoxia. CTV extension by 0.5 cm reduced the SF by a maximum of 78.6  ±  3.3%, 78.5  ±  3.3%, and 77.7  ±  3.1% for homogeneous and heterogeneous-normoxic, and heterogeneous hypoxic GBMs, respectively. Monte-Carlo model was developed to quantitatively evaluate SF for genetically

  7. Will weight loss cause significant dosimetric changes of target volumes and organs at risk in nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy?

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chuanben; Fei, Zhaodong; Chen, Lisha;