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Sample records for large third-order optical

  1. Photodeposition of Thin Polydiacetylene Films from Solution that Exhibit Large Third-Order Optical Nonlinearities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paley, M. S.; Frazier, D. O.; Abdeldayem, H.; McManus, S. P.

    1994-01-01

    One promising class of organic compounds for applications in the field of nonlinear optics (NLO) are polydiacetylenes, which are of interest because they are highly conjugated polymers capable of exhibiting very large optical nonlinearities with fast response times. During the course of crystal growth studies in anticipation of a space experiment, we discovered a novel, simple method for the formation of polydiacetylene thin films by photodeposition from monomer solutions onto quartz or glass substrates. Characterization of these PDAMNA films is not trivial; they are not soluble in common organic solvents, which makes the standard solution-based methods of polymer analysis useless.

  2. Large third-order optical nonlinearity in Au:SiO{sub 2} composite films near the percolation threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, H.B.; Xiao, R.F.; Fu, J.S.; Yu, P.; Wong, G.K.; Sheng, P.

    1997-01-01

    Very large third-order optical nonlinearity, {chi}{sup (3)}{approximately}2.5{times}10{sup {minus}6} esu, measured by a degenerate four wave mixing method using a short pulse (70 picosecond) laser, has been found in the rapid-thermal annealed Au:SiO{sub 2} composite films at concentrations below the Au percolation threshold. The dependence of the {chi}{sup (3)} on Au concentration, p, follows a cubic power law. The maximum figure of merit, {chi}{sup (3)}/{alpha} (with {alpha} being the absorption coefficient) is about 10{sup {minus}11} esu cm. We explain this result as due to local field enhancement arising from the Mie resonance of the Au nanoclusters, with strong interaction between the nanoclusters further promoting the effect. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Large third-order optical nonlinearities in iron oxide thin films synthesized by reactive pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulenko, S. A.; Rudenko, V. I.; Liakhovetskyi, V. R.; Brodin, A. M.; Stefan, N.

    2016-10-01

    We report on a study of the third-order nonlinear optical properties of Fe2O3 thin films, grown by the method of laser deposition on silica (SiO2) substrates. The films were synthesized on substrates at different temperatures (293 K and 800 K) and under different oxygen pressures (0.1 Pa, 0.5 Pa, 1.0 Pa). The resulting films were amorphous, if grown on cold substrates (293 K), or polycrystalline otherwise. The third-order optical susceptibility χ(3) of the films was determined by the Z-scan method at the wavelengths of 1064 nm and 532 nm and the laser pulse width of 20 ns. Remarkably high χ(3) values on the order of 10-4 esu at 1064 nm are obtained. The results show that Fe2O3 thin films are promising nonlinear materials for contemporary optoelectronics.

  4. Third Order Nonlinear Optical Effects in Some Polybenzidines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chi Fai

    Third order nonlinear optical properties of organic compounds with pi electron delocalization are currently receiving much attention in view of potential applications in switching and optical information processing. Polymers of Benzidine were synthesized by hydrogen peroxide reaction catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase enzyme. The polymerization reaction was carried out at room temperature in a monophasic organic solvent with a small amount of water at pH 7.5. The technique of Degenerate Four Wave Mixing with picosecond and nanosecond pulses was employed to measure the third order susceptibility chi^{(3) } of polybenzidine. The observed values for chi^{(3)} are of order 10^{-9} to 10 ^{-8} esu. In order to understand the origin of these high values of chi^ {(3)}, we measured the real and imaginary components of chi^{(3)} . Investigation of total energy transmission as a function of incident intensity and fluence at 532 nm for picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses using a frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser indicates reverse saturable absorption. The experiments are carried out for the sample in solution in Dimethyl Sulfoxide and Methanol (DMSO:MeOH) 4:1 ratio. As we observe the nanosecond and picosecond curves to be superimposed for intensity dependence and not for fluence, we conclude that the third order nonlinearity is predominantly due to two photon absorption. Values for Im chi ^{(3)} determined by our experiments are of order 10^{-9} to 10^{-8} esu. We measure the real part of chi^{(3)} by optical Kerr gate technique. The value is about one order lower compared to the imaginary component. In view of the reverse saturable absorption characteristics observed for the samples, the material is a good candidate for applications in optical power limiting.

  5. Third order nonlinear optical properties of bismuth zinc borate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Shanmugavelu, B.; Ravi Kanth Kumar, V. V.; Kuladeep, R.; Narayana Rao, D.

    2013-12-28

    Third order nonlinear optical characterization of bismuth zinc borate glasses are reported here using different laser pulse durations. Bismuth zinc borate glasses with compositions xBi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30ZnO-(70-x) B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (where x = 30, 35, 40, and 45 mol. %) have been prepared by melt quenching method. These glasses were characterized by Raman, UV-Vis absorption, and Z scan measurements. Raman and UV-Vis spectroscopic results indicate that non-bridging oxygens increase with increase of bismuth content in the glass. Nonlinear absorption and refraction behavior in the nanosecond (ns), picosecond (ps), and femtosecond (fs) time domains were studied in detail. Strong reverse saturable absorption due to dominant two-photon absorption (TPA) was observed with both ps and fs excitations. In the case of ns pulse excitations, TPA and free-carrier absorption processes contribute for the nonlinear absorption. Two-photon absorption coefficient (β) and the absorption cross section due to free carriers (σ{sub e}) are estimated by theoretical fit of the open aperture Z-scan measurements and found to be dependent on the amount of bismuth oxide in the glass composition. In both ns and fs regimes the sign and magnitude of the third order nonlinearity are evaluated, and the optical limiting characteristics are also reported.

  6. The preparation of a new type of ferrocene-based compounds with large conjugated system containing symmetrical aromatic vinyl with Schiff base moieties and the study of their third-order nonlinear optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Weiguo; Jia, Jianhong; Gao, Jianrong; Han, Liang; Li, Yujin

    2016-09-01

    Herein we reported the preparation of a new type of ferrocene-based compounds with large conjugated system containing symmetrical aromatic vinyl and Schiff base moieties and the study of their third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties. Their third-order NLO properties were measured using femtosecond laser and degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) technique. The obtained χ(3), n2 and γ values of these molecules were found in the range of 0.998-1.429 × 10-12 esu,1.847-2.646 × 10-11 esu and 1.026-1.449 × 10-30 esu, respectively. The response time ranged from 43.65 fs to 61.71 fs. The results indicate that these compounds have potential nonlinear optical applications.

  7. β-Octakis(methylthio)porphycenes: synthesis, characterisation and third order nonlinear optical studies.

    PubMed

    Rana, Anup; Lee, Sangsu; Kim, Dongho; Panda, Pradeepta K

    2015-05-01

    A novel electron deficient β-octakis(methylthio)porphycene, along with its Zn(ii) and Ni(ii) derivatives, was synthesized for the first time. The macrocyclic structure exhibits core ruffling with a largely red shifted absorption band (∼750 nm) and also a large enhancement in the third order nonlinear optical response.

  8. Low-gravity electrodeposition and growth of polymer thin films with large third-order optical nonlinearities by electrochemical processes for devices: Thiophene-based polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penn, Benjamin G.; Riley, Clyde

    1993-01-01

    It has been proposed that NLO thin film properties may be improved by low-gravity processing. Strong candidates for NLO thin film applications are the polythiophenes. Polymeric thiophenes are attractive materials due to their ease of preparation, stability, and high X(exp 3). A simple and convenient method for preparation of polythiophenes is electrochemical oxidation. We will apply some of our experience and lessons learned in low-gravity metal, metal/cermet electrode position to improve the quality of polythiophene(s) thin films. In low gravity electrode position of Ni at a high rate on an Au substrate often results in the production of an x-ray non diffracting surface. Cobalt metal deposition does not give this result nor does Ni when deposited similarly on a glassy carbon substrate. Co/Ni alloy composition produced during electrode position is strongly dependent upon the amount of convection. Code position of neutral inert cermets with metals is influenced significantly by the presence of gravity and the size of the cermets. Tracks left in the 1-g surfaces by unsuccessful particle occlusion indicate suspension of the large particles is not the only reason for poor volume percentages of the larger particles in the deposits. All size particles are more homogeneously distributed in the deposits in low-gravity electrocodeposition than in 1-g. Low gravity gives larger volume percentages for the larger particles in the deposits, while 1-g gives larger volume percentages for the smaller particles. Intermediate size particles give mixed results. The experimental cells were constructed with flat electrode end plates such that 1-g bench reference electrode positions could be carried out at various orientations with respect to gravity. A series of bench studies using similar designed cells are suggested so that convection modification can be applied to electrochemical thin film preparation. Convection effects can then be coupled with other parameter variations in current

  9. Third-order nonlinear optical characterization of side-chain copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norwood, Robert A.; Sounik, James R.; Popolo, J.; Holcomb, Douglas P.

    1991-12-01

    Third order nonlinear optical properties of side-chain methacrylate copolymers incorporating 4-amino-4'-nitrostilbene, 4-oxy-4'nitrostilbene, and functionalized silicon phthalocyanine chromophores are measured by picosecond degenerate four wave mixing at 598 nm. The nonresonant stilbene system exhibits a pulse limited ultrafast response, while the resonant phthalocyanine system has a large excited state nonlinearity. Comparison of silicon phthalocyanine copolymers with solubilized guest/host systems dispersed in polymethylmethacrylate illustrate the importance of aggregation and phthalocyanine ring interaction in determining the linear optical properties and the magnitude and speed of the nonlinear optical response.

  10. Large femtosecond third-order optical nonlinearity of Bi{sub 3.15}Nd{sub 0.85}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} ferroelectric thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.; Zhong, X. L. E-mail: jbwang@xtu.edu.cn; Wang, J. B. E-mail: jbwang@xtu.edu.cn; Huang, J.; Song, H. J.; Tan, C. B.; Li, B.; Zhou, Y. C.; Cheng, G. H.; Liu, X.

    2014-11-10

    Both the linear and nonlinear optical properties of Bi{sub 3.15}Nd{sub 0.85}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} (BNT{sub 0.85}) ferroelectric thin films deposited on quartz substrates were investigated. The fundamental optical constants were determined as a function of light wavelength by optical transmittance measurements. By performing single-beam Z-scan experiments with femtosecond laser pulses at a wavelength of 800 nm, the two-photon absorption (TPA) coefficient β and third-order nonlinear refraction index γ were measured to be 1.15 × 10{sup 2 }cm/GW and −8.15 × 10{sup −3} cm{sup 2}/GW, respectively. The large TPA is attributed to an indirect transition process via the intermediate energy levels and the large refractive nonlinearity is the result of the electronic polarization and ferroelectric polarization arisen from the femtosecond midinfrared radiation. The results indicate that the BNT{sub 0.85} thin film is a promising candidate for applications in nonlinear photonic devices.

  11. Ablation and optical third-order nonlinearities in Ag nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Torres, Carlos; Peréa-López, Néstor; Reyes-Esqueda, Jorge Alejandro; Rodríguez-Fernández, Luis; Crespo-Sosa, Alejandro; Cheang-Wong, Juan Carlos; Oliver, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    The optical damage associated with high intensity laser excitation of silver nanoparticles (NPs) was studied. In order to investigate the mechanisms of optical nonlinearity of a nanocomposite and their relation with its ablation threshold, a high-purity silica sample implanted with Ag ions was exposed to different nanosecond and picosecond laser irradiations. The magnitude and sign of picosecond refractive and absorptive nonlinearities were measured near and far from the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the Ag NPs with a self-diffraction technique. Saturable optical absorption and electronic polarization related to self-focusing were identified. Linear absorption is the main process involved in nanosecond laser ablation, but non-linearities are important for ultrashort picosecond pulses when the absorptive process become significantly dependent on the irradiance. We estimated that near the resonance, picosecond intraband transitions allow an expanded distribution of energy among the NPs, in comparison to the energy distribution resulting in a case of far from resonance, when the most important absorption takes place in silica. We measured important differences in the ablation threshold and we estimated that the high selectiveness of the SPR of Ag NPs as well as their corresponding optical nonlinearities can be strongly significant for laser-induced controlled explosions, with potential applications for biomedical photothermal processes. PMID:21187944

  12. The Geometrical Optics PSF with Third Order Aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Uribe, Rufino; Campos-García, Manuel

    2008-04-01

    In this paper the calculation of the GPSF from the Geometrical Optics Irradiance Law (GOIL) is recalled, including some details not found in other references. Also it is explored an alternative solution based on the Irradiance Transport Equation (ITE). Some simulations of images of an extended object produced by an image forming instrument affected by spherical aberration are shown.

  13. Z-scan: A simple technique for determination of third-order optical nonlinearity

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Vijender; Aghamkar, Praveen

    2015-08-28

    Z-scan is a simple experimental technique to measure intensity dependent nonlinear susceptibilities of third-order nonlinear optical materials. This technique is used to measure the sign and magnitude of both real and imaginary part of the third order nonlinear susceptibility (χ{sup (3)}) of nonlinear optical materials. In this paper, we investigate third-order nonlinear optical properties of Ag-polymer composite film by using single beam z-scan technique with Q-switched, frequency doubled Nd: YAG laser (λ=532 nm) at 5 ns pulse. The values of nonlinear absorption coefficient (β), nonlinear refractive index (n{sub 2}) and third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility (χ{sup (3)}) of permethylazine were found to be 9.64 × 10{sup −7} cm/W, 8.55 × 10{sup −12} cm{sup 2}/W and 5.48 × 10{sup −10} esu, respectively.

  14. Third-Order Nonlinear Optical Properties and Optical Switching of Palladium (I) Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjunatha, K. B.; Dileep, R.; Vikas, M. Shelar; Umesh, G.; Satyanarayan, M. N.; Bhat, B. Ramachandra

    2011-10-01

    We report the third-order nonlinear optical, optical power limiting and optical switching study of palladium-N-(2-pyridyl)-N'- (5-amino salicylidene) hydrazine triphenylphosphine, using Z-scan technique and pump-probe technique. The measured nonlinear refractive index is n2 = -6.022×10-9 esu. The complex exhibits the reverse saturable absorption (RSA), the nonlinear absorption coefficient of β = 10.748×10-9 m/W. The good optical power limiting and optical switching behavior were observed in this complex. These suggest that this complex is a potential molecule for photonic applications.

  15. Third order nonlinear optical response exhibited by mono- and few-layers of WS2

    DOE PAGES

    Torres-Torres, Carlos; Perea-López, Néstor; Elías, Ana Laura; Gutiérrez, Humberto R.; Cullen, David A.; Berkdemir, Ayse; López-Urías, Florentino; Terrones, Humberto; Terrones, Mauricio

    2016-04-13

    In this work, strong third order nonlinear optical properties exhibited by WS2 layers are presented. Optical Kerr effect was identified as the dominant physical mechanism responsible for these third order optical nonlinearities. An extraordinary nonlinear refractive index together with an important contribution of a saturated absorptive response was observed to depend on the atomic layer stacking. Comparative experiments performed in mono- and few-layer samples of WS2 revealed that this material is potentially capable of modulating nonlinear optical processes by selective near resonant induced birefringence. In conclusion, we envision applications for developing all-optical bidimensional nonlinear optical devices.

  16. Third order nonlinear optical response exhibited by mono- and few-layers of WS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Torres, Carlos; Perea-López, Néstor; Elías, Ana Laura; Gutiérrez, Humberto R.; Cullen, David A.; Berkdemir, Ayse; López-Urías, Florentino; Terrones, Humberto; Terrones, Mauricio

    2016-06-01

    In this work, strong third order nonlinear optical properties exhibited by WS2 layers are presented. Optical Kerr effect was identified as the dominant physical mechanism responsible for these third order optical nonlinearities. An extraordinary nonlinear refractive index together with an important contribution of a saturated absorptive response was observed to depend on the atomic layer stacking. Comparative experiments performed in mono- and few-layer samples of WS2 revealed that this material is potentially capable of modulating nonlinear optical processes by selective near resonant induced birefringence. We envision applications for developing all-optical bidimensional nonlinear optical devices.

  17. Third-order nonlinear optical response of colloidal gold nanoparticles prepared by sputtering deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Hemerson P. S.; Wender, Heberton; Alencar, Márcio A. R. C.; Teixeira, Sergio R.; Dupont, Jairton; Hickmann, Jandir M.

    2013-11-01

    The nonlinear optical responses of gold nanoparticles dispersed in castor oil produced by sputtering deposition were investigated, using the thermally managed Z-scan technique. Particles with spherical shape and 2.6 nm of average diameter were obtained and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering. This colloid was highly stable, without the presence of chemical impurities, neither stabilizers. It was observed that this system presents a large refractive third-order nonlinear response and a negligible nonlinear absorption. Moreover, the evaluation of the all-optical switching figures of merit demonstrated that the colloidal nanoparticles prepared by sputtering deposition have a good potential for the development of ultrafast photonic devices.

  18. Third-order nonlinear optical response of colloidal gold nanoparticles prepared by sputtering deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, Hemerson P. S.; Alencar, Márcio A. R. C.; Hickmann, Jandir M.; Wender, Heberton; Teixeira, Sergio R.; Dupont, Jairton

    2013-11-14

    The nonlinear optical responses of gold nanoparticles dispersed in castor oil produced by sputtering deposition were investigated, using the thermally managed Z-scan technique. Particles with spherical shape and 2.6 nm of average diameter were obtained and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering. This colloid was highly stable, without the presence of chemical impurities, neither stabilizers. It was observed that this system presents a large refractive third-order nonlinear response and a negligible nonlinear absorption. Moreover, the evaluation of the all-optical switching figures of merit demonstrated that the colloidal nanoparticles prepared by sputtering deposition have a good potential for the development of ultrafast photonic devices.

  19. Third-order nonlinear optical response of Ag-CdSe/PVA hybrid nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, S. K.; Kaur, Ramneek; Kaur, Jaspreet; Sharma, Mamta

    2015-09-01

    Hybrid nanocomposites of II-VI semiconductor nanoparticles are gaining great interest in nonlinear optoelectronic devices. Present work includes the characterization of CdSe polymer nanocomposite prepared by chemical in situ technique. From X-ray diffraction, the hexagonal wurtzite structure of nanoparticles has been confirmed with spherical morphology from transmission electron microscopy. Ag-CdSe hybrid polymer nanocomposite has been prepared chemically at different Ag concentrations. The presence of Ag in hybrid nanocomposite has been confirmed with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The effect of varying Ag concentration on the linear and nonlinear optical properties of the nanocomposites has been studied. In linear optical parameters, the linear absorption coefficient, refractive index, extinction coefficient and optical conductivity have been calculated. The third-order nonlinear optical properties have been observed with open- and closed-aperture Z-scan technique. The large nonlinear refractive index ~10-5 cm2/W with self-focusing behaviour is due to the combined effect of quantum confinement and thermo-optical effects. The enhanced nonlinearity with increasing Ag content is due to the surface plasmon resonance, which enhances the local electric field near the nanoparticle surface. Thus, Ag-CdSe hybrid polymer nanocomposite has favourable nonlinear optical properties for various optoelectronic applications.

  20. Second-order cascading in third-order nonlinear optical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meredith, Gerald R.

    1982-12-01

    Because cascaded second-order processes make substantial qualitative and quanitative differences to the results of third-order nonlinear optical experiments, a formalism for their treatment is presented. The symmetry dictates concerning the occurrence and relationships of magnitudes of cascading are tabulated for the higher symmetry crystal classes. Angular momentum considerations are applied to the situations allowing circularly polarized light waves.

  1. Third order optical nonlinearity and optical limiting studies of propane hydrazides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naseema, K.; Manjunatha, K. B.; Sujith, K. V.; Umesh, G.; Kalluraya, Balakrishna; Rao, Vijayalakshmi

    2012-09-01

    Four hydrazones, 2-(4-isobutylphenyl)-N'-[phenylmethylene] propanehydrazide (P1), 2-(4-isobutylphenyl)-N'-[(4- tolyl)methylene] propane hydrazide (P2), 2-(4-isobutylphenyl)-N'-[1-(4- chlorophenyl)ethylidene] propanehydrazide (P3) and 2-(4-isobutylphenyl)-N'-[1-(4-Nitrrophenyl)ethylidene] propane hydrazide (P4) were synthesized and their third order nonlinear optical properties have been investigated using a single beam Z-scan technique with nanosecond laser pulses at 532 nm. The measurement on the compound-P1 is not reported as there is no detectable nonlinear response. Open aperture data of the other three compounds indicate two photon absorption at this wavelength. The nonlinear refractive index n2, nonlinear absorption coefficient β, magnitude of effective third order susceptibility χ(3), the second order hyperpolarizability γh and the coupling factor ρ have been estimated. The values obtained are comparable with the values obtained for 4-methoxy chalcone derivatives and dibenzylideneacetone derivatives. The experimentally determined values of β, n2, Re χ(3) and Im χ(3), γh and ρ of the compound-P4 are 1.42 cm/GW, -0.619 × 10-11 esu, -0.663 × 10-13 esu, 0.22 × 10-13 esu, 0.34 × 10-32 esu and 0.33 respectively. Further the compound-P4 exhibited the best optical power limiting behavior at 532 nm among the compounds studied. Our studies suggest that compounds P2, P3 and P4 are potential candidates for the optical device applications such as optical limiters and optical switches.

  2. Study on third-order nonlinear optical properties of 4-methylsulfanyl chalcone derivatives using picosecond pulses

    SciTech Connect

    D'silva, E.D.; Podagatlapalli, G. Krishna; Venugopal Rao, S.; Dharmaprakash, S.M.

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Photograph and schematic representation of Z-scan experimental setup used to investigate third order nonlinear properties of the chalcone materials. Highlights: ► Br and NO{sub 2} substituted chalcone derivatives were exposed to picosecond laser pulses. ► Third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties were investigated. ► Compounds show promising third-order and optical limiting properties. ► These materials found suitable for electrical and optical applications. -- Abstract: In this paper we present results from the experimental study of third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of three molecules of Br and NO{sub 2} substituted chalcone derivatives namely (2E)-1-(4-bromophenyl)-3-[4(methylsulfanyl)phenyl]prop-2-en-1-one (4Br4MSP), (2E)-1-(3-bromophenyl)-3-[4-(methylsulfanyl) phenyl]prop-2-en-1-one (3Br4MSP) and (2E)-3[4(methylsulfanyl) phenyl]-1-(4-nitrophenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (4N4MSP). The NLO properties have been investigated by Z-scan technique using 2 ps laser pulses at 800 nm. The nonlinear refractive indices, nonlinear absorption coefficient, and the magnitude of third-order susceptibility have been determined. The values obtained are of the order of 10{sup −7} cm{sup 2}/GW, 10{sup −3} cm/GW and 10{sup −14} esu respectively. The molecular second hyperpolarizability for the chalcone derivatives is of the order of 10{sup −32} esu. The coupling factor, excited state cross section, ground state cross section etc. were determined. The optical limiting (OL) property was studied. The results suggest that the nonlinear properties investigated for present chalcones are comparable with some of the reported chalcone derivatives and can be desirable for NLO applications.

  3. Third-order nonlinear optical properties of undoped polyaniline solutions and films probed at 532 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Maciel, Glauco S.; Bezerra, Arandi G.; Rakov, Nikifor; de Araujo, Cid B.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.; de Azevedo, Walter M.

    2001-08-01

    The third-order nonlinear optical properties of polyaniline (PANI) solutions and films were investigated at 532 nm by use of Z-scan, power limiting, and optical Kerr gate techniques. The polymers studied were the undoped partially oxidized (emeraldine base) and fully reduced (leucoemeraldine base) forms of PANI. Our results demonstrate that the leucoemeraldine base is more suitable for use in devices such as all-optical switches and optical power limiters operating at 532 nm. The worse performance of the emeraldine base is due to the presence of defects inside the bandgap of the polymer. {copyright} 2001 Optical Society of America

  4. The third-order optical nonlinearities of Ge-Ga-Sb(In)-S chalcogenide glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Haitao; Chen, Hongyan; Hou, Chaoqi; Lin, Aoxiang; Zhu, Yonggang; Lu, Shoudi; Gu, Shaoxuan; Lu, Min; Peng, Bo

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} It is firstly demonstrated that the nonlinear refractive index n{sub 2} is dependent on the covalency of bonds in chalcogenide glass. {yields} Homopolar metallic bonds in chalcogenide glass have positive contribution to large nonlinear refractive index n{sub 2} also. {yields} The 80GeS{sub 2}.20Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} glass would be expected to be used in the all-optical switches working at 1330 nm and 1550 nm telecommunication wavelengths. -- Abstract: The third-order optical nonlinearities of 80GeS{sub 2}.(20 - x)Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3}.xY{sub 2}S{sub 3} (x = 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and Y = Sb or In) chalcogenide glasses were investigated utilizing the Z-scan method at the wavelength of 800 nm and their linear optical properties and structure were also studied. By analyzing the compositional dependences and possible influencing factors including the linear refractive index, the concentration of lone electron pairs, the optical bandgap and the amount of weak covalent/homopolar bonds, it indicates that the electronic contribution in weak heteropolar covalent and homopolar metallic bonds is responsible for large nonlinear refractive index n{sub 2} in the chalcogenide glasses. These chalcogenide glasses have characteristics of environmentally friendship, wide transparency in the visible region, high nonlinear refractive index n{sub 2} and low nonlinear absorption coefficient {beta}, and would be expected to be used in the all-optical switches working at 1330 nm and 1550 nm telecommunication wavelengths.

  5. Substituent Dependence of Third-Order Optical Nonlinearity in Chalcone Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiran, Anthony John; Satheesh Rai, Nooji; Chandrasekharan, Keloth; Kalluraya, Balakrishna; Rotermund, Fabian

    2008-08-01

    The third-order nonlinear optical properties of derivatives of dibenzylideneacetone were investigated using the single beam z-scan technique at 532 nm. A strong dependence of third-order optical nonlinearity on electron donor and acceptor type of substituents was observed. An enhancement in χ(3)-value of one order of magnitude was achieved upon the substitution of strong electron donors compared to that of the molecule substituted with an electron acceptor. The magnitude of nonlinear refractive index of these chalcones is as high as of 10-11 esu. Their nonlinear optical coefficients are larger than those of widely used thiophene oligomers and trans-1-[p-(p-dimethylaminobenzyl-azo)-benzyl]-2-(N-methyl-4-pyridinium)-ethene iodide (DABA-PEI) organic compounds.

  6. Study on metal nanoparticles induced third-order optical nonlinearity in phenylhydrazone derivatives with DFWM technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sudheesh, P.; Chandrasekharan, K.; Rao, D. Mallikharjuna

    2014-01-28

    The third-order nonlinear optical properties of newly synthesized phenylhydrazone derivatives and the influence of noble metal nanoparticles (Ag and Au) on their nonlinear optical responses were investigated by employing Degenerate Four wave Mixing (DFWM) technique with a 7 nanosecond, 10Hz Nd: YAG laser pulses at 532nm. Metal nanoparticles were prepared by laser ablation and the particle formation was confirmed using UV-Visible spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The nonlinear optical susceptibility were measured and found to be of the order 10{sup −13}esu. The results are encouraging and conclude that the materials are promising candidate for future optical device applications.

  7. Third-order optical intensity correlation measurements of pseudo-thermal light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi-Hao; Wu, Wei; Meng, Shao-Ying; Li, Ming-Fei

    2014-09-01

    Third-order Hanbrury Brown—Twiss and double-slit interference experiments with a pseudo-thermal light are performed by recording intensities in single, double and triple optical paths, respectively. The experimental results verifies the theoretical prediction that the indispensable condition for achieving a interference pattern or ghost image in Nth-order intensity correlation measurements is the synchronous detection of the same light field by each reference detector, no matter the intensities recorded in one, or two, or N optical paths. It is shown that, when the reference detectors are scanned in the opposite directions, the visibility and resolution of the third-order spatial correlation function of thermal light is much better than that scanned in the same direction, but it is no use for obtaining the Nth-order interference pattern or ghost image in the thermal Nth-order interference or ghost imaging.

  8. Third-order optical nonlinearity of conjugated poly(4,4-disubstituted-1,6-heptadiyne)s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Soo Young; Cho, Hyun-Nam; Kim, Nakjoong; Park, Jong-Wook; Jin, Sung-Ho; Choi, Sam-Kwon; Wada, Tatsuo; Sasabe, Hiroyuki

    1994-07-01

    Large third-order optical nonlinearity was found with the soluble conjugated polymers (substituted polyacetylenes) synthesized by the ring-forming metathesis polymerization of 4,4-disubstituted-1,6-heptadiynes. These polymers were of quite high molecular weight (˜105) and were highly soluble in common organic solvents. The linear optical property and the third-order optical nonlinearity of these polymers were investigated in terms of the chemical structure of the 4,4-disubstituents using the polymer films of around 100-nm thickness fabricated by the spin coating of tetrahydrofuran solutions. The π-π* transition of the conjugated π-electron main chain was characterized as the strong absorption peak at around 540 nm of the electronic spectra, where the optical density of the transition was found to be largely dependent on the molar volume of the substituents. The near-resonant values of the third-order nonlinear optical coefficient, χ(3)(-3ω;ω,ω,ω) were found to be 2.6 to 6.5×10-11 esu, which also were controlled by the molar volume of the substituent group.

  9. Evaluation of third order nonlinear optical parameters of CdS/PVA nanocomposite

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Mamta; Tripathi, S. K. E-mail: surya-tr@yahoo.com

    2015-06-24

    CdS nanoparticles dispersed in PVA are prepared by Chemical method at room temperature. The nonlinear optical parameters such as nonlinear absorption (β), nonlinear refractive index (n{sub 2}) and nonlinear susceptibility (χ{sup 3}) are calculated for this sample by using Z-scan technique. CdS/PVA samples show the two photon absorption mechanism. The third order nonlinear susceptibility is calculated from n{sub 2} and β and is found to be of the order of 10{sup −7} – 10{sup −8} m{sup 2}/V{sup 2}. The larger value of third order nonlinear susceptibility is due to dielectric and quantum confinement effect.

  10. Studies on third-order nonlinear optical properties of chalcone derivatives in polymer host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shettigar, Seetharam; Umesh, G.; Chandrasekharan, K.; Sarojini, B. K.; Narayana, B.

    2008-04-01

    In this paper we present the experimental study of the third-order nonlinear optical properties of two chalcone derivatives, viz., 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-(4-butyloxyphenyl)-prop-2-en-1-one and 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-(4-propyloxyphenyl)-prop-2-en-1-one in PMMA host, with the prospective of reaching a compromise between good processability and high nonlinear optical properties. The nonlinear optical properties have been investigated by Z-scan technique using 7 ns laser pulses at 532 nm. The nonlinear refractive index, nonlinear absorption coefficient, magnitude of third-order susceptibility and the coupling factor have been determined. The values obtained are of the order of 10 -14 cm 2/W, 1 cm/GW, 10 -13 esu and 0.2, respectively. The molecular second hyperpolarizability for the chalcone derivatives in polymer is of the order of 10 -31 esu. Different guest/host concentrations have also been studied. The results suggest that the nonlinear properties of the chalcones have been improved when they are used as dopants in polymer matrix. The nonlinear parameters obtained are comparable with the reported values of II-VI compound semiconductors. Hence, these chalcons are a promising class of nonlinear optical dopant materials for optical device applications.

  11. Second and third order nonlinear optical properties of conjugated molecules and polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Joseph W.; Stiegman, Albert E.; Marder, Seth R.; Coulter, Daniel R.; Beratan, David N.; Brinza, David E.

    1988-01-01

    Second- and third-order nonlinear optical properties of some newly synthesized organic molecules and polymers are reported. Powder second-harmonic-generation efficiencies of up to 200 times urea have been realized for asymmetric donor-acceptor acetylenes. Third harmonic generation chi(3)s have been determined for a series of small conjugated molecules in solution. THG chi(3)s have also been determined for a series of soluble conjugated copolymers prepared using ring-opening metathesis polymerization. The results are discussed in terms of relevant molecular and/or macroscopic structural features of these conjugated organic materials.

  12. The third-order nonlinear optical properties of unsymmetrical trimethine cyanine dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xuemei; Yang, Junyi; Fang, Yu; Zhou, Feng; Song, Yinglin

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate the nonlinear optical properties of unsymmetrical trimethine cyanine dyes(ethyl-4-(3-(3-ethylbenzo[d]xazole-2(3H)-ylidene)prop-1-en-1-yl)quinolin-1-iumiodidebenzo[d]xa zole group) by conducting Z-scan technique at 532 nm and time-resolved pump probe with phase object (POPP). Pronounced reverse saturable absorption (RSA) and positive refraction are observed. Moreover, the relevant third-order NLO photo-physical parameters of unsymmetrical trimethine cyanine dyes determined unambiguously.

  13. Ultrafast control of third-order optical nonlinearities in fishnet metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shorokhov, Alexander S.; Okhlopkov, Kirill I.; Reinhold, Jörg; Helgert, Christian; Shcherbakov, Maxim R.; Pertsch, Thomas; Fedyanin, Andrey A.

    2016-06-01

    Nonlinear photonic nanostructures that allow efficient all-optical switching are considered to be a prospective platform for novel building blocks in photonics. We performed time-resolved measurements of the photoinduced transient third-order nonlinear optical response of a fishnet metamaterial. The mutual influence of two non-collinear pulses exciting the magnetic resonance of the metamaterial was probed by detecting the third-harmonic radiation as a function of the time delay between pulses. Subpicosecond-scale dynamics of the metamaterial’s χ(3) was observed; the all-optical χ(3) modulation depth was found to be approximately 70% at a pump fluence of only 20 μJ/cm2.

  14. Ultrafast control of third-order optical nonlinearities in fishnet metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Shorokhov, Alexander S.; Okhlopkov, Kirill I.; Reinhold, Jörg; Helgert, Christian; Shcherbakov, Maxim R.; Pertsch, Thomas; Fedyanin, Andrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear photonic nanostructures that allow efficient all-optical switching are considered to be a prospective platform for novel building blocks in photonics. We performed time-resolved measurements of the photoinduced transient third-order nonlinear optical response of a fishnet metamaterial. The mutual influence of two non-collinear pulses exciting the magnetic resonance of the metamaterial was probed by detecting the third-harmonic radiation as a function of the time delay between pulses. Subpicosecond-scale dynamics of the metamaterial’s χ(3) was observed; the all-optical χ(3) modulation depth was found to be approximately 70% at a pump fluence of only 20 μJ/cm2. PMID:27335268

  15. Highly efficient third-order optical nonlinearities and their frequency dependence in donor-substituted cyanoethynylethene molecules.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Joshua C.; Biaggio, Ivan; Michinobu, Tsuyoshi; Diederich, François

    2006-03-01

    We report on a new class of organic molecules with record efficiency for application in third-order nonlinear optics (NLO). The third-order polarizability, γ, of several donor-substituted cyanoethynylethene molecules was determined at the off-resonant wavelength of 1.5 microns using four-wave mixing. The nonlinearities were found to be extraordinarily large relative to the small molecular masses and were found to be within 50 times Kuzyk's fundamental limit, with 53x10-48 m^5V-2 as the highest γ value. Select molecules were further investigated at wavelengths on and surrounding their two-photon (TP) absorption peaks, revealing large TP cross sections and the resonant influence on the real and imaginary parts of γ. Several members of this molecular family can be vapor-deposited and are likely candidates for third-order NLO devices. When considering their small mass, the specific γ (γ per molecular mass) for this family (off resonance, at 1.5μm) is up to 6.5x10-23 m^5V-2Kg-1, approximately one order of magnitude larger than previously known large γ molecules. M. G. Kuzyk, Opt. Lett. 25, 1218 (2000) J. C. May et al, Opt. Lett. 30, 3057 (2005)

  16. Growth and characterization of a third order nonlinear optical single crystal: Ethylenediamine-4-nitrophenolate monohydrate

    SciTech Connect

    Dhanalakshmi, B.; Ponnusamy, S.; Muthamizhchelvan, C.; Subhashini, V.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • EDA4NPH crystal possesses negative nonlinear refractive index. • The crystal exhibits high third-order NLO susceptibility. • Wide transparency of the crystal makes it suitable for NLO applications. • Dielectric studies substantiate the suitability for electro-optic applications. • The crystal possesses suitable mechanical strength for device fabrication. - Abstract: Bulk crystals of the charge-transfer complex, ethylenediamine-4-nitrophenolate monohydrate, were grown by slow solvent evaporation method from aqueous solution at room temperature. The X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the crystal belongs to centrosymmetric space group C2/c of monoclinic system. The functional groups in the complex were identified using FTIR, FTRaman and FTNMR analyses. The Z-scan measurements revealed the negative nonlinear refractive index of the crystal. The nonlinear absorption coefficient and third order nonlinear optical susceptibility calculated from the measurements were −3.5823 × 10{sup −3} cm/W and 2.3762 × 10{sup −6} esu respectively. The crystal was shown to be highly transparent above 366 nm by UV–vis spectroscopy and a yellow fluorescence was observed from PL spectrum. The TG–DTA and DSC analyses showed that the crystal is thermally stable up to 117.4 °C. The crystals were characterized by dielectric, etching and microhardness studies.

  17. Phase-dependent ultrafast third-order optical nonlinearities in metallophthalocyanine thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Samir; Anil Kumar, K. V.; Dharmaprakash, S. M.; Das, Ritwick

    2016-09-01

    We present a comprehensive study on the impact of phase transformations of metallophthalocyanine thin films on their third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties. The metallophthalocyanine thin films are prepared by thermally evaporating the commercially available Copper(II)2,9,16,23-Tetra-tert-butyl-29H,31H-phthalocyanine (CuPc) and Zinc(II) 2,9,16,23-Tetra-tert-butyl-29H,31H-phthalocyanine (ZnPc) powder on glass substrate. Thermal annealing causes a phase transformation which has a distinct signature in powder X-ray diffraction and UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy. The NLO characteristics which include nonlinear refractive index n2, as well as nonlinear absorption coefficient (βeff), were measured by using a single beam Z-scan technique. An ultrashort pulsed fiber laser emitting femtosecond pulses (Δτ ≈ 250 fs) at 1064 nm central wavelength is used as a source for the Z-scan experiment. The βeff values in as prepared thin films were ascertained to be smaller as compared to the annealed one due to the smaller value of saturation intensity (Is) which, in turn, is a consequence of ground-state bleaching in the thermally unstable amorphous state of the molecule. Interestingly, the nonlinear refractive indices bear opposite sign for CuPc and ZnPc. The variations in the third-order nonlinearity in CuPc and ZnPc are discussed in terms of molecular packing and geometries of metallophthalocyanine molecules.

  18. Reverse saturable absorption studies in polymerized indole - Effect of polymerization in the phenomenal enhancement of third order optical nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayakrishnan, K.; Joseph, Antony; Bhattathiripad, Jayakrishnan; Ramesan, M. T.; Chandrasekharan, K.; Siji Narendran, N. K.

    2016-04-01

    We report our results on the identification of large order enhancement in nonlinear optical coefficients of polymerized indole and its comparative study with reference to its monomer counterpart. Indole monomer shows virtually little third order effects whereas its polymerized version exhibits phenomenal increase in its third order nonlinear optical parameters such as nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption. Open aperture Z-scan trace of polyindole done with Q-switched Nd:YAG laser source (532 nm, 7 ns), shows β value as high as 89 cm/GW at a beam energy of 0.83 GW/cm2. Closed aperture Z-scan done at identical energies reveals nonlinear refractive index of the order of -3.55 × 10-17 m2/W. Band gap measurement of polyindole was done with UV-Vis absorption spectra and compared with that of Indole. FTIR spectra of the monomer and polymerized versions were recorded and relevant bond formations were confirmed from the characteristic peaks. Photo luminescent spectra were investigated to know the emission features of both molecules. Beam energy (I0) versus nonlinear absorption coefficient (β) plot indicates reverse saturable type of absorption behaviour in polyindole molecules. Degenerate Four Wave Mixing (DFWM) plot of polyindole reveals quite a cubic dependence between probe and phase conjugate signal and the resulting χ(3) is comparable with Z-scan results. Optical limiting efficiency of polyindole is comparable with certain derivatives of porphyrins, phthalocyanines and graphene oxides.

  19. Third order nonlinear optical properties and optical limiting behavior of alkali metal complexes of p-nitrophenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thangaraj, M.; Vinitha, G.; Sabari Girisun, T. C.; Anandan, P.; Ravi, G.

    2015-10-01

    Optical nonlinearity of metal complexes of p-nitrophenolate (M=Li, Na and K) in ethanol is studied by using a continuous wave (cw) diode pumped Nd:YAG laser (532 nm, 50 mW). The predominant mechanism of observed nonlinearity is thermal in origin. The nonlinear refractive index and the nonlinear absorption coefficient of the samples were found to be in the order of 10-8 cm2/W and 10-3 cm/W respectively. Magnitude of third-order optical parameters varies according to the choice of alkali metal chosen for metal complex formation of p-nitrophenolate. The third-order nonlinear susceptibility was found to be in the order of 10-6 esu. The observed saturable absorption and the self-defocusing effect were used to demonstrate the optical limiting action at 532 nm by using the same cw laser beam.

  20. Third-order nonlinear optical properties of sulfur-rich compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Breitzer, J.G.; Dlott, D.D.; Iwaki, L.K.; Kirkpatrick, S.M.; Rauchfuss, T.B.

    1999-09-02

    The molecular third-order optical nonlinearity {gamma}{sub R} (second hyperpolarizability or nonlinear refractive index) was measured for a series of sulfur-rich molecules: sulfur (S{sub 8}), carbon-sulfur compounds, and metal thiolate clusters. Z-scan techniques (pulse width 27 ps, wavelength 527 nm) were used to measure these properties in solution by comparing the solution to the pure solvent. The authors approach is an efficient way to evaluate a number of different compounds and to quickly direct synthetic strategies for improved nonlinear and linear optical properties. The optical nonlinearities were evaluated in terms of figures of merit {vert{underscore}bar}W{vert{underscore}bar}/I{sub 0} and [T]{sup {minus}1}, where {vert{underscore}bar}W{vert{underscore}bar}/I{sub 0} is the ratio of nonlinear refraction to linear absorption and [T]{sup {minus}1} is the ratio of nonlinear refraction to nonlinear absorption. Among the carbon-sulfur compounds, C{sub 6}S{sub 8}O{sub 2} had the largest figures of merit: {vert{underscore}bar}W{vert{underscore}bar}/I{sub 0} = 4.3 x 10{sup {minus}13} m{sup 2} W{sup {minus}1} and [T]{sup {minus}1} > 5. The metal thiolate cluster with the largest second hyperpolarizability was [Zn{sub 10}S{sub 4}(SPh){sub 16}]{sup 4{minus}} ({gamma}{sub R} = {minus}7.8 x 10{sup {minus}56} C m{sup 4} V{sup {minus}3}, {minus}6.3 x 10{sup {minus}31} esu). This cluster exhibited no measurable linear or nonlinear absorption, so the figures of merit were effectively infinite. Previous work on the second hyperpolarizability of sulfur-rich compounds examined species that were hampered by substantial linear absorption coefficients. The present work shows that high figures of merit can be achieved without significant linear or nonlinear absorption.

  1. Ethylenediaminium di(4-nitrophenolate): a third order NLO material for optical limiting applications.

    PubMed

    Thangaraj, M; Ravi, G; Sabari Girisun, T C; Vinitha, G; Loganathan, A

    2015-03-01

    Single crystals of ethylenediaminium di(4-nitrophenolate) [EDA4NP] were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique using ethanol as solvent at constant temperature. It crystallizes in monoclinic centrosymmetric space group C2/c with cell dimension a=11.326Ǻ, b=7.264Ǻ, c=20.036Ǻ; β=93.55°. Fourier Transform Infra Red (FT-IR) spectrum was recorded to identify various functional groups present in EDA4NP. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectral studies were performed to confirm the functional groups. Thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis showed that the compound melts at 142.9°C. The material possesses a wide optical transparency window in the visible and near IR region (500-1200nm). The nonlinear refractive index, nonlinear absorption coefficient and third-order nonlinear susceptibility of EDA4NP were estimated to be n2=5.46×10(-8)cm(2)W(-1), β=0.65×10(-3)cmW(-1) and χ((3))=2.96×10(-6)esu respectively. The limiting behavior observed with the sample is attributed mainly to nonlinear refraction. PMID:25498811

  2. Ethylenediaminium di(4-nitrophenolate): a third order NLO material for optical limiting applications.

    PubMed

    Thangaraj, M; Ravi, G; Sabari Girisun, T C; Vinitha, G; Loganathan, A

    2015-03-01

    Single crystals of ethylenediaminium di(4-nitrophenolate) [EDA4NP] were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique using ethanol as solvent at constant temperature. It crystallizes in monoclinic centrosymmetric space group C2/c with cell dimension a=11.326Ǻ, b=7.264Ǻ, c=20.036Ǻ; β=93.55°. Fourier Transform Infra Red (FT-IR) spectrum was recorded to identify various functional groups present in EDA4NP. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectral studies were performed to confirm the functional groups. Thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis showed that the compound melts at 142.9°C. The material possesses a wide optical transparency window in the visible and near IR region (500-1200nm). The nonlinear refractive index, nonlinear absorption coefficient and third-order nonlinear susceptibility of EDA4NP were estimated to be n2=5.46×10(-8)cm(2)W(-1), β=0.65×10(-3)cmW(-1) and χ((3))=2.96×10(-6)esu respectively. The limiting behavior observed with the sample is attributed mainly to nonlinear refraction.

  3. Synthesis of "cactus" top-decorated aligned carbon nanotubes and their third-order nonlinear optical properties.

    PubMed

    Li, P H; Qu, Y L; Xu, X J; Zhu, Y W; Yu, T; Chin, K C; Mi, J; Gao, X Y; Lim, C T; Shen, Z X; Wee, A T S; Ji, W; Sow, C H

    2006-04-01

    We report a new morphology of "cactus" top-decorated aligned carbon nanotubes grown by the PECVD method using pure C2H2 gas. Unlike most previous reports, no additional carrier gas is used for pretreatment. Carbon nanotubes can still grow and maintain the tubular structure underneath the "cactus" tops. It is proposed that the H atoms produced by the dissociation of C2H2 activate the catalyst nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the top "cactus" morphology is composed of a large quantity of small nanosheets. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals the amorphous carbon nature of these "cactus" structures. The formation of these "cactus" structures is possibly due to covalent absorption and reconstruction of carbon atoms on the broken graphite layers of nanotubes produced by the strong ion bombardment under plasma. The third-order optical nonlinearities and nonlinear dynamics are also investigated. The third-order nonlinear susceptibility magnitude /chi(3)/ is found to be 2.2 x 10(-11) esu, and the relaxation process takes place in about 1.8 ps. PMID:16736755

  4. Third-order nonlinear optical response of indigo carmine under 633 nm excitation for nonlinear optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramodini, S.; Poornesh, P.

    2014-11-01

    We report thermally induced third-order nonlinearity and optical limiting behaviour of Indigo Carmine dye. z-Scan technique was used to determine the sign and magnitude of absorptive and refractive nonlinearities. Continuous wave (CW) He-Ne laser operating at 633 nm was used as source of excitation. In open aperture z-scan experiments, samples exhibited reverse saturable absorption (RSA) process. For closed aperture z-scan experiments, samples revealed self-defocusing property. The presence of donor and acceptor groups in the structure increases the conjugation length and in turn increases the optical nonlinearity. Induced self-diffraction rings pattern was recorded for the samples and it is attributed to refractive index change and thermal lensing. Also, optical limiting and clamping studies were carried out for various input power. Optical clamping of about ~1 mW was observed. This endorses that the dye under investigation is a positive candidate for opto-electronic and photonic applications.

  5. Third-order nonlinear optical properties of methylammonium lead halide perovskite films

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Justin C.; Li, Zhen; Ndione, Paul F.; Zhu, Kai

    2016-01-01

    We report third-order nonlinear coefficient values and decay time kinetics vs. halide composition (CH3NH3PbBr3 and CH3NH3PbBr2I), temperature, and excitation wavelength. The maximum values of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility X(3) (-1.6 x 10-6 esu) are similar to or larger than many common third-order materials. The source of the nonlinearity is shown to be primarily excitonic in the tribromide film by virtue of its strong enhancement near the exciton resonance. Nonresonant excitation reduces the nonlinearity significantly, as does increasing the temperature. Substitution of one I for one Br also reduces the nonlinearity by at least one order of magnitude, presumably due to the lack of strong exciton resonance in the substituted form. The thin films are stable, highly homogenous (lacking significant light scattering), and simple and inexpensive to fabricate, making them potentially useful in a variety of optoelectronic applications in which wavelength selectivity is important.

  6. Linear Optical and Third-Order Nonlinear Optical Properties of Some Fluorenyl- and Triarylamine-Containing Tetracyanobutadiene Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Pokladek, Ziemowit; Ripoche, Nicolas; Betou, Marie; Trolez, Yann; Mongin, Olivier; Olesiak-Banska, Joanna; Matczyszyn, Katarzyna; Samoc, Marek; Humphrey, Mark G; Blanchard-Desce, Mireille; Paul, Frédéric

    2016-07-11

    The synthesis and characterization of four new tetracyanobutadiene (TCBD) derivatives (1-3 and 2') incorporating 2- or 2,7-fluorenyl and diphenylamino moieties are reported. The electroactivity of 1-3 and 2' was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), while the linear optical and (third-order) nonlinear optical (NLO) properties were investigated by electronic spectroscopy and Z-scan studies, respectively. All experimental investigations were rationalized by DFT computations, providing an insight into the electronic structure of these derivatives and on their application potential. We show that these derivatives are nonluminescent in solution at ambient temperatures, but become fluorescent in solvent glasses. This finding constitutes an unprecedented observation for TCBD derivatives. Also, we show by Z-scan studies that these derivatives behave as two-photon absorbers in the near-IR range (800-1050 nm). These third-order NLO properties are discussed and compared with those of their alkynyl precursors (4-6), which have been investigated by two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF). PMID:27297358

  7. Solvent effect on the third order optical nonlinearity and optical limiting ability of betanin natural dye extracted from red beet root

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thankappan, Aparna; Thomas, Sheenu; Nampoori, V. P. N.

    2013-10-01

    We report on the solvent effect on the third order optical nonlinearity of betanin natural dye extracted from red beet root and their third order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties have been studied using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm. The third order nonlinearity of these samples are dominated by nonlinear absorption, which leads to strong optical limiting and their strength is influenced by the solvent used, suggesting that betanin natural dyes are promising candidate for the development of photonic nonlinear optic devices.

  8. Soliton's eigenvalue based analysis on the generation mechanism of rogue wave phenomenon in optical fibers exhibiting weak third order dispersion.

    PubMed

    Weerasekara, Gihan; Tokunaga, Akihiro; Terauchi, Hiroki; Eberhard, Marc; Maruta, Akihiro

    2015-01-12

    One of the extraordinary aspects of nonlinear wave evolution which has been observed as the spontaneous occurrence of astonishing and statistically extraordinary amplitude wave is called rogue wave. We show that the eigenvalues of the associated equation of nonlinear Schrödinger equation are almost constant in the vicinity of rogue wave and we validate that optical rogue waves are formed by the collision between quasi-solitons in anomalous dispersion fiber exhibiting weak third order dispersion.

  9. Investigation of third-order nonlinear optical properties of NNDC-doped PMMA thin films by Z-scan technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jingwei; Wang, Xinqiang; Ren, Quan; Patil, P. S.; Li, Tingbin; Yang, Hongliang; Zhang, Jingnan; Li, Guochao; Zhu, Luyi

    2011-11-01

    A novel chalcone derivative, (2 E)-1-(2,4-di- chloro-5-fluorophenyl)-3-[4-dimethylamino)phenyl]prop-2-en-1-one, abbreviated as NNDC, was prepared and characterized by elemental analyses, infrared (IR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectrum, and thermal analyses. The NNDC-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thin films with five different doping concentrations by weight were prepared by using a spin-coating method. Their linear optical properties were investigated by using a prism coupling measuring system. The third-order nonlinear optical properties of NNDC in 1,2-dichloroethane (NNDC/1,2-dichloroethane) solution and NNDC-doped PMMA (NNDC/PMMA) films were investigated by using the laser Z-scan technique with 20 ps pulses at 532 nm. A self-focusing effect was observed from the Z-scan curves for solution and thin films and the nonlinear refractive index of the film increases with the increase of the doping concentration. In addition, nonlinear absorption was negligible for all samples. The magnitude of third-order nonlinear refraction index n 2 and the third-order nonlinear susceptibility χ (3) for thin films were 10-15 m2/W and 10-9 esu, respectively, which are about three orders larger than that of NNDC/1,2-dichloroethane solution. Some necessary analyses were presented. The results show that this material is a promising candidate for application in the nonlinear optical devices at 532 nm.

  10. Electron Correlation Theory and Experimental Measurements of the Third-Order Nonlinear Optical Properties of Conjugated Linear Chains.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heflin, James Randolph, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Comprehensive theoretical and experimental studies of the magnitude, sign, dispersion, and length dependence of the third order molecular susceptibility gamma _{ijkl}(-omega_4 ;omega_1, omega_2, omega_3 ) demonstrate that the microscopic origin of the nonresonant third order nonlinear optical properties of conjugated linear chains is determined by the effects of electron correlation due to electron-electron repulsion. Multiple -excited configuration interaction calculations of gamma_{ijkl}(-omega _4;omega_1, omega_2, omega _3) for the archetypal class of quasi-one dimensional conjugated structures known as polyenes reveal for the first time the principal role of strongly correlated, energetically high-lying, two photon ^1 A_{rm g} virtual states in the largest of the two dominant, competing virtual excitation processes that determine gamma _{ijkl}(-omega_4 ;omega_1,omega _2,omega_3). It is also found in studies of the effects of conformation on gamma_{ijkl}( -omega_4;omega _1,omega_2, omega_3) that the origin of the third order optical properties remains basically the same for the all-trans and cis-transoid polyenes, and the results for the two conformations are unified by a common power law dependence of the dominant tensor component gamma_{xxxx}(- omega_4;omega_1 ,omega_2,omega _3) on the physical end-to-end length L of the chain with an exponent of 3.5. Calculations for a noncentrosymmetric conjugated chain demonstrate that virtual excitation processes involving diagonal transition moments that are forbidden in centrosymmetric structures lead to a more than an order of magnitude enhancement in gamma_{xxxx}(-omega _4;omega_1, omega_2,omega _3) compared to the analog centrosymmetric structure. Experimental measurements of the dispersion in the isotropically averaged dc-induced second harmonic susceptibility and third harmonic susceptibility in two important polyene structures confirm the

  11. Third order nonlinear optical effects in a new chalcone derivative embedded in a polymer host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shetty, T. Chandra Shekhara; Raghavendra, S.; Dharmaprakaskh, S. M.

    2015-06-01

    A new organic nonlinear optical (NLO) material from the chalcone family: (2E)-1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-[4-(methylsulfanyl)phenyl]prop-2-en-1-one (DPMS) is crystallised in DMF solution. The functional groups in DPMS are identified by FTIR spectra. The thermal stability is studied using TGA/DTA. The polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) film doped with DPMS was prepared. Direct and indirect band gap energy of DPMS doped PMMA is determined using U. V. Visible spectra. The nonlinear absorption coefficient and optical power limiting of the film was studied using Z-scan technique. The film exhibits a self focussing effect at a wavelength of 532nm. The results of optical limiting studies, shows that the film possesses reverse saturable absorption due to excited state absorption. The nonlinear optical properties of DPMS have been retained in the presence of a polymer material.

  12. Investigation on second and third order nonlinear optical, phase matching and birefringence properties of γ-glycine single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peramaiyan, G.; Pandi, P.; Jayaramakrishnan, V.; Das, Subhasis; Mohan Kumar, R.

    2012-12-01

    Optical quality γ-glycine single crystal of dimension 9 × 9 × 8 mm3 has been grown by slow cooling method in the presence of lithium nitrate. The third order nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficient of the grown crystal were measured by Z-scan studies. The dispersion of birefringence behaviour was studied by modified channelled spectrum method. The relative second harmonic generation efficiency of grown crystal was measured by Kurtz and Perry technique and phase matching angle was also measured using Nd:YAG laser.

  13. Third order optical nonlinearities characteristics of Disperse Red1 organic dye molecules inside of polymeric nanocapsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifimehr, Mohammad Reza; Ayoubi, Kazem; Mohajerani, Ezeddin

    2015-11-01

    Measuring nonlinear optical response of a specific material in a mixture, not only leads to investigate the behavior of a particular component in various circumstances, but also can be a way to select suitable combination and optimum concentration of additives and therefore obtaining the maximum nonlinear optical signals. In this work, by using dual-arm Z-scan technique, the nonlinear refractive index of Disperse Red1 (DR1) organic dye molecules inside the core of prepared polymeric nanocapsules was measured among various materials which prepared nanocapsules were made of them. Then the measured value was compared with nonlinear refractive index of DR1 solved in dichloromethane.

  14. Measurements of p Ka of organic molecules using third-order nonlinear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Araujo, R. E.; Gomes, A. S. L.; de Araújo, Cid B.

    2000-11-01

    We report the use of the Z-scan method, which is a nonlinear optical technique, as a general method to determine a chemical parameter, the p Ka, which characterizes the equilibrium constant in acid-base reactions. The measurements were performed with picosecond pulses at 532 nm in aqueous solution of methyl orange, C 14H 14N 3O 3S -. The experimental results agree well with a phenomenological description of the molecule nonlinearity as well as with the results predicted using the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation.

  15. General dispersion formulas for molecular third-order nonlinear optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, David M.

    1989-03-01

    For the electronic optical hyperpolarizabilities for molecules γω∥=γZZZZ(-ωσ;ω1, ω2,ω3) and γω⊥=γZXXZ(-ωσ;ω1, ω2,ω3), where Z and X are laboratory axes and ωσ=ω1+ω2+ω3, it is demonstrated that the following relationships exist: (1) γω∥/γ0∥ =1+Aω2L+ṡṡṡ, where ω2L=ω2σ+ ω21+ω22+ω23 and A is frequency independent; (2) γω⊥/γ0⊥=1+Bω2L+ ṡṡṡ, where B=p+qa and p and q are frequency independent and a=(ωσω3-ω1ω2)/ω2L ; (3) (1)/(3) (γω∥/γω⊥)=1+Cω2L +ṡṡṡ, where C=r(1-6a) and r is frequency independent. In particular, for the four nonlinear optical processes: Kerr (K), degenerate four-wave mixing (D), electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation (E), and third-harmonic generation (T), the ratios (in the same order) are for B, 1:(1+k/2):(1+k/3):(1+k/6) (where k is frequency independent) and for C, 1:(-2):(-1):0.

  16. Growth and characterization of a single crystal of Urea Adipic acid (UAA) - A third order nonlinear optical material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanthi, A.; Krishnan, C.; Selvarajan, P.

    2014-03-01

    An organic single crystal of Urea Adipic acid (UAA) was successfully grown in methanol solvent by slow solvent evaporation technique at room temperature (30 °C). The structure of grown crystal was elucidated from the X-ray diffraction study and it belongs to monoclinic system with centrosymmetric space group P21/c. The optical transmission spectrum of UAA has been recorded and its theoretical calculations were carried out to determine the linear optical constants such as linear absorption coefficient, extinction coefficient, refractive index and reflectance etc. The third-order nonlinearities of UAA crystal have been investigated by Z-scan method. The values of nonlinear refractive index (n2), the absorption coefficient (β) and third-order nonlinear susceptibility (χ(3)) are found to be the order of 0.96 × 10-10 cm2/W, 1.248 × 10-4 cm/W and 6.44 × 10-8 esu respectively. Fourier Transform Infra Red and Raman spectroscopy studies reveal the intermolecular interactions present in the UAA sample. The dielectric and mechanical measurements of the title compound are also reported.

  17. Effect of acid/base on the third-order optical nonlinearity of polypyrrole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Aijian; Zhao, Wei; Yu, Wang

    2015-11-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy) and its acid/base composites (PPy·H2SO4, PPy·HCl and PPy·NH3·H2O) were successfully synthesized and were characterized respectively by using fourier transform infrared, ultraviolet/visible absorption, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopic techniques. The nonlinear optical properties of PPy and its acid/base composites were investigated using nanosecond Z-scan measurements at 532 nm. At the identical linear transmittance, the saturable absorption of pure PPy was changed to reverse saturable absorption by doping with acid (HCl and H2SO4) and base (NH3·H2O). The possible mechanisms for the different nonlinear properties were also discussed.

  18. General dispersion formulae for atomic third-order non-linear optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, David M.

    1988-12-01

    Dispersion formulae for the parallel and perpendicular optical hyperpolarizabilities γ ∥ω=γ xxxx(—ω σ;ω 1,ω 2ω 3) and γ ·ω =γ xzzx(—ω σ;ω 1,ω 2,ω 3), where ω σ=ω 1+ω 2+ω 3, are (for atoms): γ ∥ω/γ ∥0=1+ Aω L2+ O(ω 4),γ ·ω/γ ·0=1+ Bω L2+ O(ω 4), 1/3γ ∥ω/γ ·ω=1+ Cω L2+ O(ω 4), where A is independent of the process, B is proportional to 1+ az where z is independent of the process and a=(ω σω 3—ω 1ω 2)/ω L2, C is proportional to 1-6 a, and ω L2=ω σ2+ω 12+ω 22+ω 32. The coefficients A, B and C are related by C= A— B. These results are more general than those previously reported and asymptotically exact for low frequencies.

  19. Third Order Optical Nonlinearity of Colloidal Metal Nanoclusters Formed by MeV Ion Implantation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarkisov, S. S.; Williams, E.; Curley, M.; Ila, D.; Venkateswarlu, P.; Poker, D. B.; Hensley, D. K.

    1997-01-01

    We report the results of characterization of nonlinear refractive index of the composite material produced by MeV Ag ion implantation of LiNbO(sub 3) crystal (z-cut). The material after implantation exhibited a linear optical absorption spectrum with the surface plasmon peak near 430 nm attributed to the colloidal silver nanoclusters. Heat treatment of the material at 500 deg C caused a shift of the absorption peak to 550 nm. The nonlinear refractive index of the sample after heat treatment was measured in the region of the absorption peak with the Z-scan technique using a tunable picosecond laser source (4.5 ps pulse width).The experimental data were compared against the reference sample made of MeV Cu implanted silica with the absorption peak in the same region. The nonlinear index of the Ag implanted LiNbO(sub 3) sample produced at five times less fluence is on average two times greater than that of the reference.

  20. Third order nonlinear optical properties of stacked bacteriochlorophylls in bacterial photosynthetic light-harvesting proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.X.; Laible, P.D.; Spano, F.C.; Manas, E.S.

    1997-09-01

    Enhancement of the nonresonant second order molecular hyperpolarizabilities {gamma} were observed in stacked macrocyclic molecular systems, previously in a {micro}-oxo silicon phthalocyanine (SiPcO) monomer, dimer and trimer series, and now in bacteriochlorophyll a (BChla) arrays of light harvesting (LH) proteins. Compared to monomeric BChla in a tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution, the <{gamma}> for each macrocycle was enhanced in naturally occurring stacked macrocyclic molecular systems in the bacterial photosynthetic LH proteins where BChla`s are arranged in tilted face-to-face arrays. In addition, the {gamma} enhancement is more significant in B875 of LH1 than in B850 in LH2. Theoretical modeling of the nonresonant {gamma} enhancement using simplified molecular orbitals for model SiPcO indicated that the energy level of the two photon state is crucial to the {gamma} enhancement when a two photon process is involved, whereas the charge transfer between the monomers is largely responsible when one photon near resonant process is involved. The calculated results can be extended to {gamma} enhancement in B875 and B850 arrays, suggesting that BChla in B875 are more strongly coupled than in B850. In addition, a 50--160 fold increase in <{gamma}> for the S{sub 1} excited state of relative to S{sub 0} of bacteriochlorophyll in vivo was observed which provides an alternative method for probing excited state dynamics and a potential application for molecular switching.

  1. Application of Near-IR Absorption Porphyrin Dyes Derived from Click Chemistry as Third-Order Nonlinear Optical Materials.

    PubMed

    Mi, Yongsheng; Liang, Pengxia; Yang, Zhou; Wang, Dong; Cao, Hui; He, Wanli; Yang, Huai; Yu, Lian

    2016-02-01

    Recently, third-order nonlinear properties of porphyrins and porphyrin polymers and coordination compounds have been extensively studied in relation to their use in photomedicine and molecular photonics. A new functionalized porphyrin dye containing electron-rich alkynes was synthesized and further modified by formal [2+2] click reactions with click reagents tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) and 7, 7, 8, 8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ). The photophysical properties of these porphyrin dyes, as well as the click reaction, were studied by UV/Vis spectroscopy. In particular, third-order nonlinear optical properties of the dyes, which showed typical d-π-A structures, were characterized by Z-scan techniques. In addition, the self-assembly properties were investigated through the phase-exchange method, and highly organized morphologies were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of the click post-functionalization on the properties of the porphyrins were studied, and these functionalized porphyrin dyes represent an interesting set of candidates for optoelectronic device components.

  2. Theoretical study on the third-order nonlinear optical properties and structural characterization of 3-Acetyl-6-Bromocoumarin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Adailton N.; Almeida, Leonardo R.; Anjos, Murilo M.; Oliveira, Guilherme R.; Napolitano, Hamilton B.; Valverde, Clodoaldo; Baseia, Basílio

    2016-06-01

    Coumarin derivatives exist widely in nature and show a wide range of biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-cancer. The structure of C11H7BrO3 has been redetermined using 3330 measured reflections with 1666 unique [Rint = 0.0088] with final indices R1 = 0.0128 [I > 2σ(I)] and wR2 = 0.0347 (all data). The bromocoumarin molecule is almost planar and has three planar dimers stabilized by interaction of type Csbnd H⋯Br and Csbnd H⋯O, which form parallel layers connected via several π-π interactions [centroid-centroid distances = 3.958(1) Å]. To provide a view of the non-linear optical behavior of third order of the crystal bromocoumarin in both cases static and dynamic, we calculate the linear polarizability (α) and the second hyperpolarizability (γ) using a new supermolecule approach combined with an iterative electrostatic scheme where the neighboring molecules are represented by point charges. The results of calculations of the HOMO and LUMO energies show the occurrence of charge transfer inside the molecule. The computational results of the second (static and dynamics) hyperpolarizabilities show the molecule exhibiting second hyperpolarizability with values different of zero, which implies a third order microscopic behavior.

  3. Third-order-accurate numerical methods for efficient, large time-step solutions of mixed linear and nonlinear problems

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.W.

    1995-02-01

    There is an increasing need for more accurate numerical methods for large-scale nonlinear magneto-fluid turbulence calculations. These methods should not only increase the current state of the art in terms of accuracy, but should also continue to optimize other desired properties such as simplicity, minimized computation, minimized memory requirements, and robust stability. This includes the ability to stably solve stiff problems with long time-steps. This work discusses a general methodology for deriving higher-order numerical methods. It also discusses how the selection of various choices can affect the desired properties. The explicit discussion focuses on third-order Runge-Kutta methods, including general solutions and five examples. The study investigates the linear numerical analysis of these methods, including their accuracy, general stability, and stiff stability. Additional appendices discuss linear multistep methods, discuss directions for further work, and exhibit numerical analysis results for some other commonly used lower-order methods.

  4. Third-order spontaneous parametric down-conversion in thin optical fibers as a photon-triplet source

    SciTech Connect

    Corona, Maria; Garay-Palmett, Karina; U'Ren, Alfred B.

    2011-09-15

    We study the third-order spontaneous parametric down-conversion (TOSPDC) process, as a means to generate entangled photon triplets. Specifically, we consider thin optical fibers as the nonlinear medium to be used as the basis for TOSPDC in configurations where phase matching is attained through the use of more than one fiber transverse modes. Our analysis in this paper, which follows from our earlier paper [Opt. Lett. 36, 190-192 (2011)], aims to supply experimentalists with the details required in order to design a TOSPDC photon-triplet source. Specifically, our analysis focuses on the photon triplet state, on the rate of emission, and on the TOSPDC phase-matching characteristics for the cases of frequency-degenerate and frequency nondegenerate TOSPDC.

  5. Crystal structure, growth and characterizations of a novel organic third-order nonlinear optical crystal: guanidinium cinnamate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhavamurthy, M.; Raja, R.; Syed Suresh Babu, K.; Mohan, R.

    2016-08-01

    Guanidinium cinnamate (GUCN), a single crystal, was grown by slow evaporation technique. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction study revealed that GUCN crystal belongs to monoclinic crystal system with the space group P21/c. Thermal studies revealed that the GUCN is thermally stable up to 238 °C. The optical transmittance studies were carried out for the crystal, and the lower cutoff wavelength of the grown crystal was observed at 322 nm. The luminescent study showed that the GUCN crystal has high degree of luminescence. Third-order nonlinear refractive index n2, nonlinear absorption coefficient β and susceptibility χ(3) parameters were estimated by Z-scan technique. The four independent tensor coefficients ɛ11, ɛ22, ɛ33 and ɛ13 of dielectric permittivities for monoclinic GUCN were calculated. The mechanical properties of the grown crystals were studied using Vickers micro-hardness tester at different planes.

  6. Study on the third-order nonlinear optical properties of bis(tetrabutylammonium)bis(1,3-dithiole-2-thione-4,5-dithiolato)cadium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hongliang; Wang, Xinqiang; Ren, Quan; Zhang, Guanghui; Sun, Xiangbing; Feng, Lin; Wang, Shufeng; Wang, Zhenwei

    2005-12-01

    A dmit2- salt: bis(tetrabutylammonium)bis(1,3-dithiole-2-thione-4,5-dithiolato) cadium (BCDT) was synthesized. The Optical Kerr Effect (OKE) signal of its acetone solution was measured by femtosecond optical Kerr gate technique. Using CS2 OKE signal as reference signal measured under identical conditions, the third-order optical nonlinear susceptibility, χ(3), of the sample solution was obtained to be about 1.08 × 10-13 esu at the concentration of 3.4 × 10-4 M. The second-order hyperpolarizability for BCDT molecular was estimated to be as large as 1.9 × 10-31 esu. Its response time was about 239 fs, which is believed to be the contribution from the delocalized electrons.

  7. Hydro-Geomorphologic Effects Of Large Wood Jams On A Third-Order Stream (Tierra Del Fuego, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, L.; Andreoli, A.; Comiti, F.; Lenzi, M. A.; Iturraspe, R.; Burns, S.; Novillo, M. G.

    2007-05-01

    Dead wood pieces, especially when organized in jams, play an important geomorphic role in streams because of the effects on flow hydraulics, pool formation and sediments storage. The increase of stream morphological diversity and complexity also exerts also an important ecological role. This work reports on geomorphic role of large wood pieces and jams in a third order mountain stream located in the Southern Tierra del Fuego (Argentina), and draining an old-growth nothofagus forested basin not influenced by the beavers damming activity. Even if the in-stream number of wood pieces (length > 1m; diameter > 0.1 m) is comparable to what observed in other climatic areas, the slow growth of the nothofagus forest causes a lower wood abundance in terms of volumetric load. Since the relatively small dimensions of the surveyed large wood pieces, almost the 70% of them demonstrated to have been fluvial transported and the also wood jams reflect the apparent dynamic of wood in the channel. Wood jams exert a significant influence on the channel morphology, representing almost the half of the drop caused by steps and being responsible for the creation of 30% of the pools. The LW-forced pool volume is strongly and positively correlated to the height of the LW jam, and a significant inverse relationship between pool spacing and wood density within is evident if only the LW-forced pools are considered. The geomorphic influence of LW jams is also exerted by a considerable sediment storing capacity.

  8. Synthesis, growth and characterization of new organic crystal: 2-Aminopyridinium p-Toluenesulfonate for third order nonlinear optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bincy, I. P.; Gopalakrishnan, R.

    2014-09-01

    2-Aminopyridinium p-Toluenesulfonate (2APPTS), an organic NLO crystal, was grown for the first time by the slow evaporation solution technique. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that 2APPTS belongs to monoclinic crystal system with centrosymmetric space group P21/n. The determined lattice parameters are a=8.580(7) Å, b=6.419(5) Å, c=23.277(18) Å, β=100.016(3)° and volume=1262.58(3) Å3. Powder XRD study reveals the crystalline nature of the grown sample. FT-IR and FT-Raman studies were carried out to identify the functional groups present in 2APPTS. FT-NMR spectral study confirms the number of protons and carbon present in the molecular structure of the title compound. Thermal behavior and stability of 2APPTS were investigated by thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analyses (DTA). Transparency of the title crystal in UV-vis-NIR region was analyzed and the optical band gap energy was found to be 3.6 eV. The mechanical properties of the grown crystals have been analyzed by the Vickers microhardness method. The etching studies reveal the growth pattern and dislocations present in the grown 2APPTS crystal. The negative third order nonlinear optical parameters like refractive index (n2), absorption coefficient (β) and susceptibility (χ(3)) were estimated by Z-scan studies.

  9. Investigation on third-order optical nonlinearities of newly synthesized stilbazolium derivative crystal by Z-scan technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil, K.; Kalainathan, S.; Kumar, A. Ruban

    2015-06-01

    New stilbazolium derivatives chromophores with donor-π-acceptor structure: 2-[2-(4-Diethylamino-phenyl)-vinyl]-1-methyl-pyridinium naphthalene-2-sulfonate (DESNS) have been synthesized via Knoevenagel condensations reaction. Luminescence property of the grown crystal indicates that the DESNS is an excellent orange and red light emitting material. The chemical etching studies made on the surface of DESNS and to assess the perfection of the grown crystals, which reveals that formation of layer growth pattern. Both the values of dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the crystal were calculated by varying the frequencies at ambient temperature. The effective third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility χ(3) of the grown crystal have been investigated by Z-scan technique using He-Ne laser at 632.8nm, which is found to be χ(3) = 3.509× 10-4esu. The negative sign of the nonlinear refractive index n2 = 5.1242×10-12 m2/W indicates that title material exhibits self-defocusing optical nonlinearity.

  10. Fabricating third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of impurity doped quantum dots in the presence of Gaussian white noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, Jayanta; Saha, Surajit; Pal, Suvajit; Ghosh, Manas

    2016-03-01

    We perform a meticulous analysis of profiles of third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility (TONOS) of impurity doped quantum dots (QDs) in the presence and absence of noise. We have invoked Gaussian white noise in the present study and noise has been introduced to the system additively and multiplicatively. The QD is doped with a Gaussian impurity. A magnetic field applied perpendicularly serves as a confinement source and the doped system has been exposed to a static external electric field. The TONOS profiles have been monitored against a continuous variation of incident photon energy when several important parameters such as electric field strength, magnetic field strength, confinement energy, dopant location, Al concentration, dopant potential, relaxation time, anisotropy, and noise strength assume different values. Moreover, the influence of mode of introduction of noise (additive/multiplicative) on the TONOS profiles has also been addressed. The said profiles are found to be consisting of interesting observations such as shift of TONOS peak position and maximization/minimization of TONOS peak intensity. The presence of noise alters the features of TONOS profiles and sometimes enhances the TONOS peak intensity from that of noise-free state. Furthermore, the mode of application of noise also often tailors the TONOS profiles in diverse fashions. The observations accentuate the possibility of tuning the TONOS of doped QD systems in the presence of noise.

  11. Diradical Character Tuning for the Third-Order Nonlinear Optical Properties of Quinoidal Oligothiophenes by Introducing Thiophene-S,S-dioxide Rings.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Ryohei; Ochi, Shoki; Izumi, Shioh; Makino, Akihiro; Nagami, Takanori; Fujiyoshi, Jun-ya; Matsushita, Naoyuki; Saito, Michika; Nakano, Masayoshi

    2016-01-22

    To create a design guideline for efficient third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) molecules, the chain-length (n) dependences of the diradical character y and the longitudinal second hyperpolarizability γ of quinoidal oligothiophenes (QTs), from monomers to octamers, involving thiophene-S,S-dioxide rings are investigated by using the density functional theory method. It turns out that the diradical character of the modified QTs is reduced as compared to those of the pristine QTs. By introducing an appropriate number of oxidized rings into the QT framework, intermediate y values can be achieved even in the systems with large values of n, in which the pristine QTs are predicted to have pure diradical character. Such intermediate diradical oligomers are shown to exhibit enhanced γ values as compared to the pristine QTs with the same value for n. From the calculation results, the introduction of the optimal number of thiophene-S,S-dioxide rings is predicted to be an efficient chemical modification for optimizing the third-order NLO properties of open-shell QTs through tuning the diradical characters. PMID:26670676

  12. JOSA COMMUNICATIONS: Stabilization of soliton trains in optical fibers in the presence of third-order dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzunov, I. M.; Gölles, M.; Lederer, F.

    1995-06-01

    We analyze the propagation of soliton trains with small initial separation in the presence of third-order dispersion. We show that both the amplitudes and the positions can be stabilized, provided that phase modulation is applied and adjacent pulses are initially out of phase.

  13. A cobalt (II) complex with 6-methylpicolinate: Synthesis, characterization, second- and third-order nonlinear optical properties, and DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altürk, Sümeyye; Avcı, Davut; Tamer, Ömer; Atalay, Yusuf; Şahin, Onur

    2016-11-01

    A cobalt(II) complex of 6-methylpicolinic acid, [Co(6-Mepic)2(H2O)2]·2H2O, was prepared and fully determined by single crystal X-ray crystal structure analysis as well as FT-IR, FT-Raman. UV-vis spectra were recorded within different solvents, to illustrate electronic transitions and molecular charge transfer within complex 1. The coordination sphere of complex 1 is a distorted octahedron according to single crystal X-ray results. Moreover, DFT (density functional theory) calculations with HSEH1PBE/6-311 G(d,p) level were carried out to back up the experimental results, and form base for future work in advanced level. Hyperconjugative interactions, intramolecular charge transfer (ICT), molecular stability and bond strength were researched by the using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. X-ray and NBO analysis results demonsrate that O-H···O hydrogen bonds between the water molecules and carboxylate oxygen atoms form a 2D supramolecular network, and also adjacent 2D networks connected by C-H···π and π···π interactions to form a 3D supramolecular network. Additionally, the second- and third-order nonlinear optical parameters of complex 1 were computed at DFT/HSEH1PBE/6-311 G(d,p) level. The refractive index (n) was calculated by using the Lorentz-Lorenz equation in order to investigate polarization behavior of complex 1 in different solvent polarities. The first-order static hyperpolarizability (β) value is found to be lower than pNA value because of the inversion symmetry around Co (II). But the second-order static hyperpolarizability (γ) value is 2.45 times greater than pNA value (15×10-30 esu). According to these results, Co(II) complex can be considered as a candidate to NLO material. Lastly molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), frontier molecular orbital energies and related molecular parameters for complex 1 were evaluated.

  14. Synthesis and the third-order non-linear optical properties of new azobenzene-containing side-chain polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Najun; Lu, Jianmei; Xu, Qingfeng; Wang, Lihua

    2006-09-01

    A new series of aromatic azobenzol compounds containing vinyl have been designed as monomers. The azobenzene-containing side-chain polymers containing azo NLO chromophore in each side chain have been synthesized via free radical polymerization. FT-IR, elemental analysis and 1H NMR were performed to characterize the azo monomers. The molecular weight of the polymers and their distribution were determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The third-order NLO coefficient of azo monomers and their polymers were measured by degenerated four wave mixing (DFWM) technique. As a result, the enhancement of the molecular conjugation and the increase of the NLO chromophore concentration in the molecular chain contribute much to heightening the third-order NLO effect. The electronic effect of substituent on the azobenzol group and the push-pull electronic structure contributes much to enhancing the NLO property.

  15. Third-order nonlinear optical investigations of meso-tetrakis(2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-N,N-dimethyl-4-anilinyl)porphyrin and its metal complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siji Narendran, N. K.; Soman, Rahul; Arunkumar, Chellaiah; Chandrasekharan, K.

    2015-02-01

    We report here the experimental investigation on third-order nonlinear optical parameters of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-N,N-dimethyl-4-anilinyl)porphyrin and its various metal complexes, using Z-scan technique at 532 nm. The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities (χ(3)) were of the order 10-12 esu and are compared through degenerate four wave mixing (DFWM). The operating mechanism is reverse saturable absorption (RSA) as the effective excited-state absorption cross-section was found higher than ground state absorption cross-section as well as the magnitude of nonlinear absorption coefficient was found decreasing with on-axis input intensity. The compounds found to exhibit good optical limiting at 532 nm, 7 ns excitation steering applications in laser safety.

  16. Effect of Zn addition on non-resonant third-order optical nonlinearity of the Cu-doped germano-silicate optical glass fiber.

    PubMed

    Ju, Seongmin; Watekar, Pramod R; Jeong, Seongmook; Kim, Youngwoong; Han, Won-Taek

    2012-01-01

    Cu/Zn-codoped germano-silicate optical glass fiber was manufactured by using the modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) process and solution doping process. To investigate the reduction effect of Zn addition on Cu metal formation in the core of the Cu/Zn-codoped germano-silicate optical glass fiber, the optical absorption property and the non-resonant third-order optical nonlinearity were measured. Absorption peaks at 435 nm and 469 nm in the Cu/Zn-codoped germano-silicate optical glass fiber were contributed to Cu metal particles and ZnO semiconductor particles, respectively. The effective non-resonant optical nonlinearity, gamma, of the Cu/Zn-codoped germano-silicate optical glass fiber was measured to be 1.5097 W(-1) x km(-1) by using the continuous-wave self-phase modulation method. The gamma of the Cu/Zn-codoped germano-silicate optical glass fiber was about four times larger than that of the reference germano-silicate optical glass fiber without any dopants. The increase of the effective non-resonant optical nonlinearity, gamma, of the Cu/Zn-codoped germano-silicate optical glass fiber, can be attributed to the enhanced nonlinear polarization due to incorporated ZnO semiconductor particles and Cu metal ions in the glass network. The Cu/Zn-codoped germano-silicate optical glass fiber showed high nonlinearity and low transmission loss at the optical communication wavelength, which makes it suitable for high-speed-high-capacity optical communication systems.

  17. Crystalline perfection, third-order nonlinear optical properties and optical limiting studies of 3, 4-Dimethoxy -4‧-methoxychalcone single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, P. S.; Maidur, Shivaraj R.; Rao, S. Venugopal; Dharmaprakash, S. M.

    2016-07-01

    Transparent good quality single crystals of organic nonlinear optical material, 3, 4-Dimethoxy -4‧-methoxychalcone (DMMC) were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique in acetone at ambient temperature. The lattice parameters were estimated from powder X-ray diffraction. The crystalline perfection has been evaluated by high resolution X-ray diffractometry (HRXRD). The UV-vis-NIR absorption spectrum reveals that the crystal is transparent between 440 nm and 900 nm for optical applications. The fluorescence spectrum shows a peak at about 482 nm and indicates that the crystal has a blue fluorescence emission. The third order nonlinear optical properties of solution of DMMC in N, N-Dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent has been investigated using Z-scan technique with femtosecond (fs) Ti:sapphire laser pulses at 800 nm wavelength. The calculated values of nonlinear refractive index, nonlinear absorption coefficient, and the magnitude of third-order susceptibility are of the order of - 7.7×10-14cm2/W, 1.7×10-9 cm/W and 6.7×10-12 e.s.u. respectively. The two photon absorption (2PA) cross section and molecular second-order hyperpolarizability values obtained is of the order of 10-49 cm4 s/photon/molecule and 2.8×10-31 e.s.u. respectively. The crystal shows optical-limiting (OL) effects for femtosecond laser pulses at 800 nm. The results suggest that the nonlinear properties investigated for DMMC are comparable with some of the reported chalcone derivatives and can be desirable for nonlinear optical applications.

  18. Studies on the growth, spectral, structural, electrical, optical and mechanical properties of Uronium 3-carboxy-4-hydroxybenzenesulfonate single crystal for third-order nonlinear optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silambarasan, A.; Krishna Kumar, M.; Thirunavukkarasu, A.; Md Zahid, I.; Mohan Kumar, R.; Umarani, P. R.

    2015-05-01

    Organic Uronium 3-carboxy-4-hydroxybenzenesulfonate (UCHBS) nonlinear optical single crystal was grown by solution growth technique. The solubility and nucleation studies were performed for UCHBS at different temperatures 30, 35, 40, 45, 50 and 55 °C. The crystal structure of UCHBS was elucidated from single crystal X-ray diffraction study. High resolution X-ray diffraction technique was employed to study the perfection and internal defects of UCHBS crystal. Infrared and Raman spectra were recorded to analyze the vibrational behavior of chemical bonds and its functional groups. The physico-chemical changes, stability and decomposition stages of the UCHBS compound were established by TG-DTA studies. The dielectric phenomenon of UCHBS crystal was studied at different temperatures with respect to frequency. Linear optical properties of transmittance, cut-off wavelength, band gap of UCHBS were found from UV-visible spectral studies. Third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility, nonlinear refractive index, nonlinear optical absorption coefficient values were measured by Z-scan technique. The mechanical properties of UCHBS crystal was studied by using Vicker's microhardness test. The growth features of UCHBS crystal were analyzed from etching studies.

  19. Third order optical non-linear (Z-scan), birefringence, photoluminescence, mechanical and etching studies on melaminium levulinate monohydrate (MLM) single crystal for optical device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, N.; Anbalagan, G.

    2016-10-01

    Z-scan studies on the grown crystal was investigated by diode-pumped Nd; YAG laser. Nonlinear refractive index (n2) and third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility (χ3) values of MLM were found to be -1.0 × 10-8 cm2/W and 1.36 × 10-6 esu respectively. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis depicted that the crystal belongs to monoclinic system with space group P21/c. Birefringence study revealed the optical dispersion behavior of MLM crystal. Linear refractive index on (10-1) plane was measured by prism coupling technique and was estimated to be 1.4705. Hardness study was carried out along three different planes which exhibit hardness anisotropy of 41.11%. Meyer's index values of the grown crystal for the (10-1), (010) and (111) planes were found to be 2.39, 2.61 and 2.04 respectively. Etching studies on the prominent (10-1) growth plane was explained by two dimensional layer growth mechanisms. Photoluminescence study was performed on MLM crystal to explore its efficacy towards optical device fabrications.

  20. Control of optical bistability and third-order nonlinearity via tunneling induced quantum interference in triangular quantum dot molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Si-Cong Tong, Cun-Zhu Zhang, Jin-Long; Shan, Xiao-Nan; Fu, Xi-Hong; Zeng, Yu-Gang; Qin, Li; Ning, Yong-Qiang; Wan, Ren-Gang

    2015-06-15

    The optical bistability of a triangular quantum dot molecules embedded inside a unidirectional ring cavity is studied. The type, the threshold and the hysteresis loop of the optical bistability curves can be modified by the tunneling parameters, as well as the probe laser field. The linear and nonlinear susceptibilities of the medium are also studied to interpret the corresponding results. The physical interpretation is that the tunneling can induce the quantum interference, which modifies the linear and the nonlinear response of the medium. As a consequence, the characteristics of the optical bistability are changed. The scheme proposed here can be utilized for optimizing and controlling the optical switching process.

  1. Study on third order nonlinear optical properties of a metal organic complex-Monothiourea-cadmium Sulphate Dihydrate single crystals grown in silica gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivanandan, T.; Kalainathan, S.

    2015-04-01

    The third order nonlinear optical properties of Monothiourea-cadmium Sulphate Dihydrate crystal were measured using a He-Ne laser (λ=632.8 nm) by a Z-scan technique. The magnitude of nonlinear refractive index (n2) and nonlinear absorption coefficient was found to be 4.4769×10-11 m2/W and 1.233×10-2 m/W respectively. The third order non-linear optical susceptibility χ(3) was found to be in the order of 3.6533×10-2 esu. The negative sign of non-linear refractive index shows the self-defocusing nature of the gel grown crystal. The second-order molecular hyperpolarizability γ of the grown crystal is 1.2822×10-33 esu. Laser damage threshold was measured by using an Nd: YAG laser (1064 nm). Photoconductivity studies of the gel grown crystal revealed that the crystal possesses positive photoconducting nature. The results obtained from Z-scan, laser damage threshold and photoconducting studies reveal that the crystal can be a possible candidate material for photonics device, optical switches, and optical power limiting application.

  2. Growth, spectral, optical, thermal, surface analysis and third order nonlinear optical properties of an organic single crystal: 1-(2-Methyl-6-nitro-4-phenyl-3-quinolyl) ethanone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nirosha, M.; Kalainathan, S.; Sarveswari, S.; Vijayakumar, V.; Srikanth, A.

    2015-02-01

    Single crystal of 1-(2-Methyl-6-nitro-4-phenyl-3-quinolyl) ethanone was grown using slow evaporation solution growth technique. Single crystal X-ray diffraction study reveals the lattice parameters of the grown crystal. The modes of vibration of different molecular groups present in 2M6NQE were identified by FTIR spectral analysis. Its optical behavior was examined through UV-vis-NIR absorption and PL emission spectrum. They signify that the crystal has transparency in the region between 383 and 1100 nm. The PL spectrum of the title compound shows green emission in the crystal. From the thermal analysis, 2M6NQE has found to be thermally stable up to 263 °C, and the melting point of the material is 170 °C. The estimations of third order non-linear optical properties like non-linear absorption coefficient (β), non-linear refractive index (n2) and susceptibility [χ(3)] were calculated using Z-scan technique. It has observed that, crystal exhibits reverse saturation absorption and self-defocusing performance. Etching study was carried out for the grown crystal using different solvents.

  3. Evaluation of suitability of AMT single crystal for optical limiting applications by performing structural, dielectric, mechanical, optical and third order nonlinearity characterization studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elavarasu, N.; Sathya, P.; Pugazhendhi, S.; Vijayan, N.; Maurya, K. K.; Gopalakrishnan, R.

    2016-10-01

    Ammonium D,L-Tartrate (AMT) single crystal for optical and photonic device application was analyzed with different characterization studies. The AMT crystal was grown by low cost conventional solution growth technique. The unit cell parameters were obtained from single crystal XRD analysis and the crystal system is confirmed to be orthorhombic with noncentrosymmetric space group P212121. The crystalline perfection evaluated by high resolution X-ray diffractometry (HRXRD) enumerates the quality of the crystal is good. The optical transparency window of AMT crystal has 78% transmittance from 234 nm to 1100 nm region and has lower cut-off wavelength of 234 nm was analyzed by UV-visible spectral studies. The hardness number (Hv), yield strength (σy) and elastic stiffness constant (C11) were evaluated from the hardness data using Vickers hardness tester. Dielectric study indicates the moderate dielectric constant and low dielectric loss of AMT crystal which are required properties to develop optoelectronic devices. The laser damage threshold value of AMT is 0.238 GW/cm2 and photoconductivity study reveals the positive photoconductivity nature of the AMT crystal. The particle size dependent SHG studies were performed using Nd:YAG laser. The SHG efficiency of AMT is found to be 1.3 times greater than the standard KDP crystal. Third order nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) of AMT was assessed using an open aperture and closed aperture Z-scan technique and the value is 6.71×10-6 esu. AMT crystal is found to exhibit good optical power limiting. The present work indicates that AMT is a potential material for optoelectronic and nonlinear optical devices.

  4. Influence of position-dependent effective mass on third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of impurity doped quantum dots in the presence of Gaussian white noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Surajit; Pal, Suvajit; Ganguly, Jayanta; Ghosh, Manas

    2016-03-01

    We inspect the influence of position-dependent effective mass (PDEM) on the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility (TONOS) of impurity doped quantum dots (QDs) in the presence and absence of noise. The TONOS profiles have been followed as a function of incident photon energy for different values of PDEM. Using PDEM the said profile considerably deviates from that of fixed effective mass (FEM). However, a switch from one mode of application of noise to another primarily alters the TONOS peak intensity. The observations highlight the possibility of tuning the TONOS profiles of doped QD systems exploiting noise and PDEM.

  5. Investigation of electric field effect on the third order nonlinear optical properties of Fe3O4 nanoparticles-doped nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghani, Z.; Saievar Iranizad, E.; Nadafan, M.

    2015-01-01

    Third order nonlinearity of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) doped in nematic liquid crystals (NLCs) was evaluated due to laser induced self-phase modulation. The influence of electric field on the nonlinear optical responses of the NLCs doped with Fe3O4 NPs was considered in different voltages. The measurements were performed for two commonly initial alignments (homogeneous and homeotropic) with different small compositional percentages of magnetic NPs. The experimental results show that the homogenous- aligned cell was considerably affected on the applied electric field while the nonlinearity of homeotropic-aligned NLCs with the Fe3O4 NPs did not approximately change in the presence of electric field.

  6. Multifunctional Bi2ZnOB2O6 single crystals for second and third order nonlinear optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iliopoulos, K.; Kasprowicz, D.; Majchrowski, A.; Michalski, E.; Gindre, D.; Sahraoui, B.

    2013-12-01

    Bi2ZnOB2O6 nonlinear optical single crystals were grown by means of the Kyropoulos method from stoichiometric melt. The second and third harmonic generation (SHG/THG) of Bi2ZnOB2O6 crystals were investigated by the SHG/THG Maker fringes technique. Moreover, SHG microscopy studies were carried out providing two-dimensional SHG images as a function of the incident laser polarization. The high nonlinear optical efficiency combined with the possibility to grow high quality crystals make Bi2ZnOB2O6 an excellent candidate for photonic applications.

  7. Twisted Thiophene-Based Chromophores with Enhanced Intramolecular Charge Transfer for Cooperative Amplification of Third-Order Optical Nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Teran, Natasha B; He, Guang S; Baev, Alexander; Shi, Yanrong; Swihart, Mark T; Prasad, Paras N; Marks, Tobin J; Reynolds, John R

    2016-06-01

    Exploiting synergistic cooperation between multiple sources of optical nonlinearity, we report the design, synthesis, and nonlinear optical properties of a series of electron-rich thiophene-containing donor-acceptor chromophores with condensed π-systems and sterically regulated inter-aryl twist angles. These structures couple two key mechanisms underlying optical nonlinearity, namely, (i) intramolecular charge transfer, greatly enhanced by increased electron density and reduced aromaticity at chromophore thiophene rings and (ii) a twisted chromophore geometry, producing a manifold of close-lying excited states and dipole moment changes between ground and excited states that are nearly twice that of untwisted systems. Spectroscopic, electrochemical, and nonlinear Z-scan measurements, combined with quantum chemical calculations, illuminate relationships between molecular structure and mechanisms of enhancement of the nonlinear refractive index. Experiment and calculations together reveal ground-state structures that are strongly responsive to the solvent polarity, leading to substantial negative solvatochromism (Δλ ≈ 10(2) nm) and prevailing zwitterionic/aromatic structures in the solid state and in polar solvents. Ground-to-excited-state energy gaps below 2.0 eV are obtained in condensed π-systems, with lower energy gaps for twisted versus untwisted systems. The real part of the second hyperpolarizability in the twisted structures is much greater than the imaginary part, with the highest twist angle chromophore giving |Re(γ)/Im(γ)| ≈ 100, making such chromophores very promising for all-optical-switching applications. PMID:27232098

  8. Synthesis, Z-Scan and Degenerate Four Wave Mixing characterization of certain novel thiocoumarin derivatives for third order nonlinear optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayakrishnan, K.; Joseph, Antony; Mathew, K. Paulson; Siji, T. B.; Chandrasekharan, K.; Narendran, N. K. Siji; Jaseela, M. A.; Muraleedharan, K.

    2016-08-01

    The third order nonlinear optical features of certain novel thiocoumarin derivatives have been studied. Single beam Z-scan study on these compounds reveals that the compounds exhibit self defocusing effect upon irradiation with 532 nm, 7 ns pulses of Nd:YAG laser. Nonlinear absorption coefficient, nonlinear refractive index and second-order molecular hyperpolarizability values were estimated. The optical power limiting properties of the compounds are found to be attributable to both two-photon and excited state absorption. Some of the samples show nonlinear absorption coefficient (βeff) as high as 24.5 cm/GW. UV-Visible and photoluminescence outputs of these compounds reveal remarkable absorptive and emissive properties. This article also reports extraordinary growth of third order optical nonlinearity in pure coumarin upon certain donor substitutions in lieu of hydrogen. Degenerate Four Wave Mixing (DFWM) signals of the compounds were analyzed to verify the Z-scan results. Electrostatic Surface Potential (ESP) mapping and structure optimization techniques have been employed to interpret the structure-property relationship of each molecule.

  9. Simultaneous even- and third-order distortion suppression in a microwave photonic link based on orthogonal polarization modulation, balanced detection, and optical sideband filtering.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiuyou; Chen, Xiang; Yao, Jianping

    2016-06-27

    A microwave photonic link (MPL) with simultaneous suppression of the even-order and third-order distortions using a polarization modulator (PolM), an optical bandpass filter (OBPF), and a balanced photodetector (BPD) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The even-order distortions are suppressed by utilizing orthogonal polarization modulation based on the PolM and balanced differential detection based on the BPD. The third-order distortions (IMD3) are suppressed by optimizing the spectral response of the OBPF with an optimal power ratio between the optical carrier and the sidebands of the phase-modulated signals from the PolM. Since the suppression of the IMD3 is achieved when the MPL is optimized for even-order distortion suppression, the proposed MPL can operate with simultaneous suppression of the even-order and third-order distortions. The proposed MPL is analyzed theoretically and is verified by an experiment. For a two-tone RF signal of f1 = 10 GHz and f2 = 19.95 GHz, the spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR2) is enhanced by 23.4 dB for the second harmonic (2f1), and 29.1 and 27.6 dB for the second intermodulation (f2-f1 and f1 + f2), as compared with a conventional MPL. For a two-tone RF signal of f1 = 9.95 GHz and f2 = 10 GHz, the SFDR3 is increased by 13.1 dB as compared with a conventional MPL. PMID:27410633

  10. Studies on the growth aspects, structural, thermal, dielectric and third order nonlinear optical properties of solution grown 4-methylpyridinium p-nitrophenolate single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, S. Reena; Kalaiyarasi, S.; Zahid, I. MD.; Kumar, R. Mohan

    2016-11-01

    An ionic organic optical crystal of 4-methylpyridinium p-nitrophenolate was grown from methanol by slow evaporation method at ambient temperature. Powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction studies revealed the crystal system and its crystalline perfection. The rocking curve recorded from HRXRD study confirmed the crystal quality. FTIR spectral analysis confirmed the functional groups present in the title compound. UV-visible spectral study revealed the optical window and band gap of grown crystal. The thermal, electrical and surface laser damage threshold properties of harvested crystal were examined by using TGA/DTA, LCR/Impedance Analyzer and Nd:YAG laser system respectively. The third order nonlinear optical property of grown crystal was elucidated by Z-scan technique.

  11. Synthesis, spectral and third-order nonlinear optical properties of terpyridine Zn(II) complexes based on carbazole derivative with polyether group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Ming; Liu, Yanqiu; Wang, Hui; Luo, Junshan; Li, Dandan; Zhang, Shengyi; Li, Shengli; Wu, Jieying; Tian, Yupeng

    2015-01-01

    Four novel Zn(II) terpyridine complexes (ZnLCl2, ZnLBr2, ZnLI2, ZnL(SCN)2) based on carbazole derivative group were designed, synthesized and fully characterized. Their photophysical properties including absorption and one-photon excited fluorescence, two-photon absorption (TPA) and optical power limiting (OPL) were further investigated systematically and interpreted on the basis of theoretical calculations (TD-DFT). The influences of different solvents on the absorption and One-Photon Excited Fluorescence (OPEF) spectral behavior, quantum yields and the lifetime of the chromophores have been investigated in detail. The third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties were investigated by open/closed aperture Z-scan measurements using femtosecond pulse laser in the range from 680 to 1080 nm. These results revealed that ZnLCl2 and ZnLBr2 exhibited strong two-photon absorption and ZnLCl2 showed superior optical power limiting property.

  12. Growth, optical, thermal, mechanical and dielectric studies of sodium succinate hexahydrate (β phase) single crystal: A promising third order NLO material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mageshwari, P. S. Latha; Priya, R.; Krishnan, S.; Joseph, V.; Das, S. Jerome

    2016-11-01

    A third order nonlinear optical (NLO)single crystals of sodium succinate hexahydrate (SSH) (β phase) has been grown by a slow evaporation growth technique using aqueous solution at ambient temperature. The lattice parameters and morphology of SSH were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. SSH crystallizes in centrosymmetric monoclinic system with space group P 21 / c and the crystalline purity was analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction analysis. The UV-vis-NIR spectrum reveals that the crystal is transparent in the entire visible region. The recorded FT-IR spectrum verified the presence of various functional groups in the material. NMR analysis of the grown crystal confirms the structural elucidation and detects the major and minor functional groups present in the title compound. ICP-OES analysis proved the presence of sodium in SSH. TG-DTA/DSCanalysis was used to investigate the thermal stability of the material. The dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss of SSH were carried out as a function of frequency for different temperatures and the results were discussed. The mechanical stability was evaluated from Vicker's microhardness test. The third order nonlinear optical properties of SSH has been investigated employing Z-scan technique with He-Ne laser operating at 632.8 nm wavelength.

  13. Determination of third-order optical absorptive nonlinearity of ZnO nanoparticles by Z-scan technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreeja, R.; Reshmi, R.; Manu, George; Jayaraj, M. K.

    2008-09-01

    A sensitive single-beam technique for measuring the nonlinear absorption coefficient of ZnO nanoparticles is reported here. The transmittance T(z) of the sample is measured by open aperture Z-scan technique as the sample is moved along the propagation path(z) of a focused Gaussian laser beam. The ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by wet chemical method, by mixing zinc acetate dehydrate and NaOH in ethanol is a clear transparent colloidal solution. The average size of ZnO nanoparticles is 6nm as confirmed by TEM analysis. Two-photon absorption of colloidal solutions of ZnO nanoparticles in ethanol is investigated by the Z-scan method using the nanosecond pulses from the second harmonics of Nd:YAG laser (532nm). The value of β for ZnO dispersed in ethanol extracted from the Z-scan data are 2.1cm/GW. ZnO nanoparticles of various sizes were embedded in PVA matrix on glass substrate and size dependence on β value was analyzed. The high value of two photon absorption coefficient (β) demonstrate that ZnO nanoparticle is a potential material for optical limiting applications.

  14. Studies on the growth, structural, spectral and third-order nonlinear optical properties of Ammonium 3-carboxy-4-hydroxy benzenesulfonate monohydrate single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silambarasan, A.; Krishna Kumar, M.; Thirunavukkarasu, A.; Mohan Kumar, R.; Umarani, P. R.

    2015-01-01

    An organic nonlinear optical bulk single crystal, Ammonium 3-carboxy-4-hydroxy benzenesulfonate monohydrate (ACHBS) was successfully grown by solution growth technique. Single crystal X-ray diffraction study confirms that, the grown crystal belongs to P21/c space group. Powder X-ray diffraction and high resolution X-ray diffraction analyses revealed the crystallinity of the grown crystal. Infrared spectral analysis showed the vibrational behavior of chemical bonds and its functional groups. The thermal stability and decomposition stages of the grown crystal were studied by TG-DTA analysis. UV-Visible transmittance studies showed the transparency region and cut-off wavelength of the grown crystal. The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of the grown crystal was estimated by Z-scan technique using Hesbnd Ne laser source. The mechanical property of the grown crystal was studied by using Vicker's microhardness test.

  15. Investigation of third order nonlinear optical properties of undoped and indium doped zinc oxide (InZnO) thin films by nanosecond Z-scan technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Htwe, Zin Maung; Zhang, Yun-Dong; Yao, Cheng-Bao; Li, Hui; Li, Han-Yang; Yuan, Ping

    2016-02-01

    We report the investigation of third order nonlinear optical properties of undoped zinc oxide and indium doped zinc oxide thin films using nanosecond (6 ns, 18 μJ at 532 nm) Z-scan technique. Undoped (ZnO) and indium doped zinc oxide (InZnO) thin films were synthesized on quart silica substrate by using radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique. The structural and characterization of deposited thin films were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). In XRD results show different behaviors as amorphous oxide semiconductor and polycrystalline oxide semiconductor for ZnO and InZnO thin films respectively. Elemental compositions of thin films were analyzed by energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Surface morphology of ZnO and InZnO films were measured by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which show uniform and regular surface with small grain size distribution. Linear optical transmission and reflection thin films were analyzed by UV-VIS spectrometer. The UV-VIS results reveal that the optical transmittances of deposited thin films were increased after doping indium. The third order nonlinear optical properties of ZnO and InZnO thin films were carried out using nanosecond (6 ns) laser Z-scan technique at 532 nm wavelength. In open aperture case, both ZnO and InZnO thin films are show reverse saturable absorption (RSA) behaviors. For close-aperture Z-scan, the transmittance curve of ZnO thin film occurs as valley-peak (positive nonlinear refraction) characteristic, which indicates self-focusing behavior.

  16. Size-, electric-field-, and frequency-dependent third-order nonlinear optical properties of hydrogenated silicon nanoclusters

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haipeng; Xu, Hu; Shen, Xiaopeng; Han, Kui; Bi, Zetong; Xu, Runfeng

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the electronic properties and second hyperpolarizabilities of hydrogenated silicon nanoclusters (H-SiNCs) by using the density functional theory method. The effects of cluster size, external electric field and incident frequency on the second hyperpolarizability were also examined, respectively. We found that small H-SiNCs exhibit large second hyperpolarizability. With the increase of the number of silicon atoms in H-SiNCs, the frontier molecular orbital energy gap decreases, attributed to the enhancement of the second hyperpolarizability. Interestingly, we also found the electric-field-induced gigantic enhancement of the second hyperpolarizability for H-SiNCs due to the change of electron density distributions. In addition, our results demonstrate a significant dependence on the frequency of incident light. PMID:27305957

  17. Size-, electric-field-, and frequency-dependent third-order nonlinear optical properties of hydrogenated silicon nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haipeng; Xu, Hu; Shen, Xiaopeng; Han, Kui; Bi, Zetong; Xu, Runfeng

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the electronic properties and second hyperpolarizabilities of hydrogenated silicon nanoclusters (H-SiNCs) by using the density functional theory method. The effects of cluster size, external electric field and incident frequency on the second hyperpolarizability were also examined, respectively. We found that small H-SiNCs exhibit large second hyperpolarizability. With the increase of the number of silicon atoms in H-SiNCs, the frontier molecular orbital energy gap decreases, attributed to the enhancement of the second hyperpolarizability. Interestingly, we also found the electric-field-induced gigantic enhancement of the second hyperpolarizability for H-SiNCs due to the change of electron density distributions. In addition, our results demonstrate a significant dependence on the frequency of incident light.

  18. Sol–gel synthesis of silver nanocrystals embedded in sodium borosilicate monolithic transparent glass with giant third-order optical nonlinearities

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, Lang; Xiang, Weidong; Zhao, Xiuli; Liang, Xiaojuan; Yang, Xinyu; Liu, Haitao; Chen, Zhaoping; Xie, Cuiping; Ma, Xin; Zhang, Chenglong; Ma, Li; Zhao, Jialong

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • We prepared Ag-doped sodium borosilicate monolithic glass. • The influence of temperature on the SPR absorption peak intensity was studied. • Nonlinear optical properties of the glass were investigated. • A mechanism for the formation of Ag quantum dots glass was proposed. - Abstract: We report the preparation of uniform spherical shape silver nanocrystals doped sodium borosilicate monolithic transparent glass by sol–gel method. The characterization of the resulting Ag nanocrystals was accomplished by using X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectrum. Surface plasma resonance absorption peaks of the silver nanocrystals glass at about 406 nm have been obtained from ultraviolet–visible absorption spectrometer and their intensity is changed with different heat treatment temperatures. We have investigated the nonlinear optical properties of silver quantum dots doped glass using Z-scan technique. Third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility χ{sup (3)} of the glass was estimated to be 1.01 × 10{sup −11} esu. In particular, a mechanism for the formation of Ag quantum dots glass is proposed. This work will significantly promote the obtained material applications in optical devices.

  19. Second- and third-order nonlinear optical and quantum chemical studies on 2-amino-4-picolinium-nitrophenolate-nitrophenol: A phasematchable organic single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirupugalmani, K.; Karthick, S.; Shanmugam, G.; Kannan, V.; Sridhar, B.; Nehru, K.; Brahadeeswaran, S.

    2015-11-01

    The title compound, 2-amino-4-picolinium-nitrophenolate-nitrophenol (2A4PNN), has been synthesized and optical quality single crystals of 2A4PNN were grown by solution growth technique. The crystal structure was solved by single crystal X-ray diffraction method. The 2A4PNN molecule was found to possess intermolecular herringbone structure and to crystallize in orthorhombic crystal system with a noncentrosymmetric space group of Pna21 (Point group mm2). The functional groups of 2A4PNN were confirmed through FT-IR and Raman vibrational spectroscopic studies and NMR spectrum was recorded to study its molecular structure. The UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectra were recorded to explore its optical transmittance and emission properties respectively. The SHG efficiency and phasematchability were investigated through Kurtz and Perry powder technique using sieved/graded powders derived from polycrystals of 2A4PNN. The laser damage threshold studies of 2A4PNN single crystal were performed on (1 0 0) plane using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). The third-order optical properties of 2A4PNN single crystal were measured by Z-scan technique. In addition, the quantum chemical studies were performed on the isolated 2A4PNN molecule using density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G (d, p) basis set.

  20. Four Dibutylamino Substituents Are Better Than Eight in Modulating the Electronic Structure and Third-Order Nonlinear-Optical Properties of Phthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuxiang; Cao, Wei; Wang, Chiming; Qi, Dongdong; Wang, Kang; Jiang, Jianzhuang

    2016-03-21

    2(3),9(10),16(17),23(24)-Tetrakis(dibutylamino)phthalocyanine compounds M{Pc[N(C4H9)2]4} (1-5; M = 2H, Mg, Ni, Cu, Zn) were prepared and characterized by a range of spectroscopic methods in addition to elemental analysis. Electrochemical and electronic absorption spectroscopic studies revealed the more effective conjugation of the nitrogen lone pair of electrons in the dibutylamino side chains with the central phthalocyanine π system in M{Pc[N(C4H9)2]4} than in M{Pc[N(C4H9)2]8}, which, in turn, results in superior third-order nonlinear-optical (NLO) properties of H2{Pc[N(C4H9)2]4} (1) over H2{Pc[N(C4H9)2]8}, as revealed by the obviously larger effective imaginary third-order molecular hyperpolarizability (Im{χ((3))}) of 6.5 × 10(-11) esu for the former species than for the latter one with a value of 3.4 × 10(-11) esu. This is well rationalized on the basis of both structural and theoretical calculation results. The present result seems to represent the first effort toward directly connecting the peripheral functional substituents, electronic structures, and NLO functionality together for phthalocyanine molecular materials, which will be helpful for the development of functional phthalocyanine materials via molecular design and synthesis even through only tuning of the peripheral functional groups.

  1. Four Dibutylamino Substituents Are Better Than Eight in Modulating the Electronic Structure and Third-Order Nonlinear-Optical Properties of Phthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuxiang; Cao, Wei; Wang, Chiming; Qi, Dongdong; Wang, Kang; Jiang, Jianzhuang

    2016-03-21

    2(3),9(10),16(17),23(24)-Tetrakis(dibutylamino)phthalocyanine compounds M{Pc[N(C4H9)2]4} (1-5; M = 2H, Mg, Ni, Cu, Zn) were prepared and characterized by a range of spectroscopic methods in addition to elemental analysis. Electrochemical and electronic absorption spectroscopic studies revealed the more effective conjugation of the nitrogen lone pair of electrons in the dibutylamino side chains with the central phthalocyanine π system in M{Pc[N(C4H9)2]4} than in M{Pc[N(C4H9)2]8}, which, in turn, results in superior third-order nonlinear-optical (NLO) properties of H2{Pc[N(C4H9)2]4} (1) over H2{Pc[N(C4H9)2]8}, as revealed by the obviously larger effective imaginary third-order molecular hyperpolarizability (Im{χ((3))}) of 6.5 × 10(-11) esu for the former species than for the latter one with a value of 3.4 × 10(-11) esu. This is well rationalized on the basis of both structural and theoretical calculation results. The present result seems to represent the first effort toward directly connecting the peripheral functional substituents, electronic structures, and NLO functionality together for phthalocyanine molecular materials, which will be helpful for the development of functional phthalocyanine materials via molecular design and synthesis even through only tuning of the peripheral functional groups. PMID:26931202

  2. Study of Third-Order Optical Nonlinearities of Se-Sn (Bi,Te) Quaternary Chalcogenide Thin Films Using Ti: Sapphire Laser in Femtosecond Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Preeti; Sharma, Ambika

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the present research work is to study the nonlinear optical properties of quaternary Se-Sn (Bi,Te) chalcogenide thin films. A Z-scan technique utilizing 800 nm femtosecond laser source has been used for the determination of the nonlinear refractive index (n 2), two-photon absorption coefficient (β 2) and third-order susceptibility (χ (3)). In the measurement of n 2, an aperture is placed in the far field before the detector (closed aperture), while for the measurement of β 2, entire transmitted light is collected by the detector without an aperture (open aperture). Self-focusing has been observed in closed aperture transmission spectra. The appearance of the peak after the valley in this spectrum reflects the positive nonlinear refractive index. The calculated value of n 2 of the studied thin films varies from 1.06 × 10-12 cm2/W to 0.88 × 10-12 cm2/W. The compound-dependent behavior of n 2 is explained in this paper. We have also compared the experimental values of n 2 with the theoretically determined values, other compounds of chalcogenide glass and pure silica. The n 2 of the investigated thin films is found to be 3200 times higher than pure silica. The results of the open aperture Z-scan revealed that the value of β 2 of the studied compound is in the order of 10-8 cm/W. The behavior of two-photon absorption is described by means of the optical band gap (E g) of the studied compound. The variation in the figure-of-merit from 0.32 to 1.4 with varying Sn content is also reported in this paper. The higher value of nonlinearity makes this material advantageous for optical fibers, waveguides and optical limiting devices.

  3. Assessment on third order non linearity and other optical analyses of L-Asparagine Monohydrate single crystal: An efficient candidate for harmonic conversions.

    PubMed

    Thukral, Kanika; Vijayan, N; Haranath, D; Jayaramakrishnan, V; Philip, J; Sreekanth, P; Bhagavannaryana, G

    2015-12-01

    Single crystal of l-Asparagine Monohydrate, an organic material has been successfully grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique at ambient condition. The lattice parameters and its strain of the grown crystal have been evaluated from powder X-ray diffraction and found that it belongs to orthorhombic crystal system. The polarizability has been measured by using the Clausius-Mossotti relation. The crystalline perfection of grown single crystal has been examined by high resolution X-ray diffraction and its imperfection in the diffraction plane was clearly visible by recording topographical image of the plane. From the high resolution XRD, it confirms that the crystal contained high crystalline perfection. The optical behavior was analyzed by photoluminescence and birefringence methods. In the photoluminescence, a broad peak has been observed at 475 nm which suggest that it emits blue light. The decay tendency of the material has also been observed by calculating decay constant. The optical homogeneity has been determined by the dispersion pattern of the material. The two photon absorption coefficient was further calculated by Z-scan, which gives the information about the third order non linear optical behavior of the material. The value of two-photon absorption coefficient is 4.25 × 10(-12)m/W. The thermal parameters like thermal effusivity, thermal diffusivity, specific heat and thermal conductivity was obtained by using photopyroelectric technique. The ferroelectric behavior of the grown specimen was analyzed from PE (polarization VS electric field) loop. The loop suggests that the material was a nearly equivalent to ideal capacitor. PMID:26148830

  4. Synthesis, characterization and theoretical investigations of the structure, electronic properties and third-order nonlinearity optics (NLO) of M(DPIP)₂.

    PubMed

    Li, Kang; Tang, Guodong; Kou, ShanShan; Culnane, Lance F; Zhang, Yu; Song, Yinglin; Li, Rongqing; Wei, Changmei

    2015-03-15

    Three complexes of M(DPIP)2 (M=Cu, Co, Zn as 1, 2, 3) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-Vis, thermogravimetry, and X-ray diffraction. Their nonlinear optical properties were measured by the Z-scan technique and yielded a normalized transmittance of about 70% for complex 1 (45 μJ pulse), and 93% for complex 3 (68 μJ pulse at the focus point). The nonlinear absorption coefficient, β, is 1.4×10(-11) m/W for 1 and 5.6×10(-13) m/W for 3, and the third-order nonlinear refraction index, n2, is 1.0×10(-18) m(2)/W for 3. Complex 1 shows self-defocusing property, while complex 3 exhibits self-focusing property. The thermogravimetric results show that the frame structure of compounds 1-3 begin to collapse at 400, 250 and 280°C, respectively, which suggests that they elicit excellent thermal stability. This research aims to provide better understanding of these compounds, and offer preliminary explanations for the significant differences between compounds 1-3, in order to potentially help in the designing of future novel materials with NLO properties.

  5. Third order nonlinear optical studies of 1-(4-chloro phenyl)-3-(4-dimethylamino phenyl) prop-2-en-1-one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janardhana, K.; Ravindrachary, V.; Rajesh Kumar, P. C.; Yogisha; Ismayil

    2013-04-01

    A chalcone, 1-(4-chloro phenyl)-3-(4-dimethylamino phenyl) prop-2-en-1-one, abbreviated as CDAC was synthesized by the Claisen-Schmidt condensation method and single crystals were grown by the slow evaporation technique at ambient temperature. The structural confirmation was done using 1H-NMR, FT-IR, powder XRD and single crystal XRD studies. The crystal crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with a=33.082(3) Å, b=14.4722(13) Å, c=6.0799(5) Å, α=90°, β=92.030(4)°, γ=90° and Z=8. The high temperature DSC shows a phase transition at temperature 141.53 °C that corresponds to the melting point of the crystal. This is confirmed in DTA study which shows an endothermic dip corresponding to this melting point. The optical studies were made with UV-visible and Z-scan techniques. The nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction coefficients of the sample were obtained by performing the Z-scan experimental measurements. The real and imaginary parts of third-order bulk susceptibility χ(3) were evaluated. The coefficient of nonlinear refraction (γ) of the compound is found to be negative as revealed by the signature of closed aperture data.

  6. A Third-Order Item Response Theory Model for Modeling the Effects of Domains and Subdomains in Large-Scale Educational Assessment Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rijmen, Frank; Jeon, Minjeong; von Davier, Matthias; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    Second-order item response theory models have been used for assessments consisting of several domains, such as content areas. We extend the second-order model to a third-order model for assessments that include subdomains nested in domains. Using a graphical model framework, it is shown how the model does not suffer from the curse of…

  7. Enhancement of the third-order nonlinear optical properties in open-shell singlet transition-metal dinuclear systems: effects of the group, of the period, and of the charge of the metal atom.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Hitoshi; Inoue, Yudai; Yamada, Taishi; Ito, Soichi; Shigeta, Yasuteru; Kishi, Ryohei; Champagne, Benoît; Nakano, Masayoshi

    2012-06-01

    Metal-metal multiply bonded complexes in their singlet state have been predicted to form a novel class of "σ-dominant" third-order nonlinear optical compounds based on the results of dichromium(II) and dimolybdenum(II) systems (H. Fukui et al. J. Phys. Chem. Lett.2011, 2, 2063) whose second hyperpolarizabilities (γ) are enhanced by the contribution of the dσ electrons with an intermediate diradical character. In this study, using the spin-unrestricted coupled-cluster method with singles and doubles as well as with perturbative triples, we investigate the dependences of γ on the group and on the period of the transition metals as well as on their atomic charges in several open-shell singlet dimetallic systems. A significant enhancement of γ is observed in those dimetallic systems composed of (i) transition metals with a small group number, (ii) transition metals with a large periodic number, and (iii) transition metals with a small positive charge. From the decomposition of the γ values into the contributions of dσ, dπ, and dδ electrons, the γ enhancements are shown to originate from the dσ contribution, because it corresponds to the intermediate diradical character region. Furthermore, the amplitude of dσ contribution turns out to be related to the size of the d(z(2)) atomic orbital of the transition metal, which accounts for the dependence of γ on the group, on the period, and on the charge of the metal atoms. These dependences provide a guideline for an effective molecular design of highly efficient third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) systems based on the metal-metal bonded systems.

  8. Syntheses, Spectroscopic, Electrochemical, and Third-Order Nonlinear Optical Studies of a Hybrid Tris{ruthenium(alkynyl)/(2-phenylpyridine)}iridium Complex.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huajian; Simpson, Peter V; Barlow, Adam; Moxey, Graeme J; Morshedi, Mahbod; Roy, Nivya; Philip, Reji; Zhang, Chi; Cifuentes, Marie P; Humphrey, Mark G

    2015-08-10

    The synthesis of fac-[Ir{N,C1′-(2,2′-NC5H4C6H3-5′-C≡C-1-C6H2-3,5-Et2-4-C≡CC6H4-4-C≡CH)}3] (10), which bears pendant ethynyl groups, and its reaction with [RuCl(dppe)2]PF6 to afford the heterobimetallic complex fac-[Ir{N,C1′-(2,2′-NC5H4C6H3-5′-C≡C-1-C6H2-3,5-Et2-4-C≡CC6H4-4-C≡C-trans-[RuCl(dppe)2])}3] (11) is described. Complex 10 is available from the two-step formation of iodo-functionalized fac-tris[2-(4-iodophenyl)pyridine]iridium(III) (6), followed by ligand-centered palladium-catalyzed coupling and desilylation reactions. Structural studies of tetrakis[2-(4-iodophenyl)pyridine-N,C1′](μ-dichloro)diiridium 5, 6, fac-[Ir{N,C1′-(2,2′-NC5H4C6H3-5′-C≡C-1-C6H2-3,5-Et2-4-C≡CH)}3] (8), and 10 confirm ligand-centered derivatization of the tris(2-phenylpyridine)iridium unit. Electrochemical studies reveal two (5) or one (6–10) Ir-centered oxidations for which the potential is sensitive to functionalization at the phenylpyridine groups but relatively insensitive to more remote derivatization. Compound 11 undergoes sequential Ru-centered and Ir-centered oxidation, with the potential of the latter significantly more positive than that of Ir(N,C′-NC5H4-2-C6H4-2)3. Ligand-centered π–π* transitions characteristic of the Ir(N,C′-NC5H4-2-C6H4-2)3 unit red-shift and gain in intensity following the iodo and alkynyl incorporation. Spectroelectrochemical studies of 6, 7, 9, and 11 reveal the appearance in each case of new low-energy LMCT bands following formal IrIII/IV oxidation preceded, in the case of 11, by the appearance of a low-energy LMCT band associated with the formal RuII/III oxidation process. Emission maxima of 6–10 reveal a red-shift upon alkynyl group introduction and arylalkynyl π-system lengthening; this process is quenched upon incorporation of the ligated ruthenium moiety on proceeding to 11. Third-order nonlinear optical studies of 11 were undertaken at the benchmark wavelengths of 800 nm (fs pulses) and 532

  9. Enhanced third-order nonlinear optical properties determined in thin films using the Z-scan technique: bis(μ-4,4'-oxydibenzoato)bis[(4'-phenyl-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine)cobalt(II)].

    PubMed

    Liu, Runqiang; Zhao, Ning; Liu, Ping; An, Caixia; Lian, Zhaoxun

    2016-05-01

    π-Conjugated organic materials exhibit high and tunable nonlinear optical (NLO) properties, and fast response times. 4'-Phenyl-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine (PTP) is an important N-heterocyclic ligand involving π-conjugated systems, however, studies concerning the third-order NLO properties of terpyridine transition metal complexes are limited. The title binuclear terpyridine Co(II) complex, bis(μ-4,4'-oxydibenzoato)-κ(3)O,O':O'';κ(3)O'':O,O'-bis[(4'-phenyl-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine-κ(3)N,N',N'')cobalt(II)], [Co2(C14H8O5)2(C21H15N3)2], (1), has been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. In the crystal structure, each Co(II) cation is surrounded by three N atoms of a PTP ligand and three O atoms, two from a bidentate and one from a symmetry-related monodentate 4,4'-oxydibenzoate (ODA(2-)) ligand, completing a distorted octahedral coordination geometry. Neighbouring [Co(PTP)](2+) units are bridged by ODA(2-) ligands to form a ring-like structure. The third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of (1) and PTP were determined in thin films using the Z-scan technique. The title compound shows a strong third-order NLO saturable absorption (SA), while PTP exhibits a third-order NLO reverse saturable absorption (RSA). The absorptive coefficient β of (1) is -37.3 × 10(-7) m W(-1), which is larger than that (8.96 × 10(-7) m W(-1)) of PTP. The third-order NLO susceptibility χ((3)) values are calculated as 6.01 × 10(-8) e.s.u. for (1) and 1.44 × 10(-8) e.s.u. for PTP. PMID:27146576

  10. Polythiophene derivative functionalized with disperse red 1 chromophore: Its third-order nonlinear optical properties through Z-scan technique under continuous and femtosecond irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Garza-Rubí, R. M. A.; Güizado-Rodríguez, M.; Mayorga-Cruz, D.; Basurto-Pensado, M. A.; Guerrero-Álvarez, J. A.; Ramos-Ortiz, G.; Rodríguez, M.; Maldonado, J. L.

    2015-08-01

    A copolymer of 3-hexylthiophene and thiophene functionalized with disperse red 1, poly(3-HT-co-TDR1), was synthesized. Chemical structure, molecular weight distribution, optical and thermal properties of this copolymer were characterized by NMR, FT-IR, UV-vis, GPC and DSC-TGA. An optical nonlinear analysis by Z-scan method was also performed for both continuous wave (CW) and pulsed laser pumping. In the CW regime the nonlinearities were evaluated in solid films, and a negative nonlinear refractive index in the range 2.7-4.1 × 10-4 cm2/W was obtained. These values are notoriously high and allowed to observe self-defocusing effects at very low laser intensities: below 1 mW. Further, nonlinear self-phase modulation patterns, during laser irradiation, were also observed. In the pulsed excitation the nonlinear response was evaluated in solution resulting in large two-photon absorption cross section of 5725 GM for the whole copolymer chain and with a value of 232 GM per repeated monomeric unit.

  11. Synthesis, growth, thermal and optical studies on third order nonlinear optical material (E)-2-{3-[2-(4-chlorophenyl) vinyl]-5,5-dimethylcyclo-hex-2-en-1-ylidene}malononitrile for optoelectronic application.

    PubMed

    Bharath, D; Kalainathan, S

    2014-01-01

    A new polyene like organic molecule (E)-2-{3-[2-(4-chlorophenyl) vinyl]-5,5-dimethylcyclo-hex-2-en-1-ylidene}malononitrile (Cl1) was synthesized by knoevenagel condensation method. The Cl1 Single crystals were successfully grown by the slow evaporation method at a constant temperature 35°C. Single crystal XRD confirms the Cl1 molecule belongs to monoclinic crystal system and space group P21/C with a=10.114, b=11.127, c=14.929 and V=1668.9 and Z=4. The grown Cl1 crystals were subjected to FTIR and 13C NMR studies to confirm the synthesized compound. The linear optical property of Cl1 crystal has been studied using UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy in the wavelength range 190 nm-1100 nm. The thermal properties of Cl1 crystal were studied by using TG and DTA analysis. The refractive index of Cl1 crystal has measured using Abbe's refractometer and found to be 1.648. The third order nonlinear optical property of Cl1 crystal has been investigated using Z-scan technique with HeNe laser. Photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of Cl1 crystal was carried out using xenon lamp, which shows high intense emission peak at wavelength 614 nm. Laser optical damage threshold (LDT) of Cl1 crystal has studied using Nd-YAG laser (10 Hz, 420 mJ, 1064 nm). PMID:24177866

  12. Structure-property relation and third order nonlinear optical absorption study of a new organic crystal: 1-(3,4-Dimethoxyphenyl)-3-(2-fluorophenyl) prop-2-en-1-one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chidan Kumar, C. S.; Raghavendra, S.; Chia, Tze Shyang; Chandraju, Siddegowda; Dharmaprakash, S. M.; Fun, Hoong-Kun; Quah, Ching Kheng

    2015-11-01

    A new third order centrosymmetric organic crystal: 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-(2-fluorophenyl) prop-2-en-1-one (2FRDP) belonging to chalcone family has been synthesized and characterized by FTIR, CHNS and UV-Visible spectroscopy. Single crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that compound crystallizes in C2/c monoclinic space group. The X-ray powder diffraction of the crystal was carried out and hkl values are indexed for the diffraction pattern using mercury software. UV-Visible spectrum showed that 2FRDP is transparent in the entire visible region. The thermal stability of the grown 2FRDP crystal was analyzed by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The dielectric study revealed that, 2FRDP possesses low dielectric constant and dielectric loss at high frequency. The third order nonlinear optical absorption and the optical limiting experiment were carried out using open aperture Z-scan data using an Nd:YAG laser operating at the wavelength 532 nm.

  13. Achromatic phase matching at third orders of dispersion

    DOEpatents

    Richman, Bruce

    2003-10-21

    Achromatic phase-matching (APM) is used for efficiently multiplying the frequency of broad bandwidth light by using a nonlinear optical medium comprising a second-harmonic generation (SHG) crystal and stationary optical elements whose configuration, properties, and arrangement have been optimized to match the angular dispersion characteristics of the SHG crystal to at least the third order. These elements include prisms and diffraction gratings for directing an input light beam onto the SHG crystal such that each ray wavelength is aligned to match the phase-matching angle for the crystal at each wavelength of light to at least the third order and such that every ray wavelength overlap within the crystal.

  14. Photographic evidence for the third-order rainbow.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, Michael; Schmidt, Elmar; Haussmann, Alexander

    2011-10-01

    The first likely photographic observation of the tertiary rainbow caused by sunlight in the open air is reported and analyzed. Whereas primary and secondary rainbows are rather common and easily seen phenomena in atmospheric optics, the tertiary rainbow appears in the sunward side of the sky and is thus largely masked by forward scattered light. Up to now, only a few visual reports and no reliable photographs of the tertiary rainbow are known. Evidence of a third-order rainbow has been obtained by using image processing techniques on a digital photograph that contains no obvious indication of such a rainbow. To rule out any misinterpretation of artifacts, we carefully calibrated the image in order to compare the observed bow's angular position and dispersion with those predicted by theory. PMID:22016237

  15. Approaching the complete basis set limit of CCSD(T) for large systems by the third-order incremental dual-basis set zero-buffer F12 method

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jun Dolg, Michael

    2014-01-28

    The third-order incremental dual-basis set zero-buffer approach was combined with CCSD(T)-F12x (x = a, b) theory to develop a new approach, i.e., the inc3-db-B0-CCSD(T)-F12 method, which can be applied as a black-box procedure to efficiently obtain the near complete basis set (CBS) limit of the CCSD(T) energies also for large systems. We tested this method for several cases of different chemical nature: four complexes taken from the standard benchmark sets S66 and X40, the energy difference between isomers of water hexamer and the rotation barrier of biphenyl. The results show that our method has an error relative to the best estimation of CBS energy of only 0.2 kcal/mol or less. By parallelization, our method can accomplish the CCSD(T)-F12 calculations of about 60 correlated electrons and 800 basis functions in only several days, which by standard implementation are impossible for ordinary hardware. We conclude that the inc3-db-B0-CCSD(T)-F12a/AVTZ method, which is of CCSD(T)/AV5Z quality, is close to the limit of accuracy that one can achieve for large systems currently.

  16. Transmission Measurement of the Third-Order Susceptibility of Gold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David D.; Yoon, Youngkwon; Boyd, Robert W.; Crooks, Richard M.; George, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Gold nanoparticle composites are known to display large optical nonlinearities. In order to assess the validity of generalized effective medium theories (EMT's) for describing the linear and nonlinear optical properties of metal nanoparticle composites, knowledge of the linear and nonlinear susceptibilities of the constituent materials is a prerequisite. In this study the inherent nonlinearity of the metal is measured directly (rather than deduced from a suitable EMT) using a very thin gold film. Specifically, we have used the z-scan technique at a wavelength near the transmission window of bulk gold to measure the third-order susceptibility of a continuous thin gold film deposited on a quartz substrate surface-modified with a self-assembled monolayer to promote adhesion and uniformity without affecting the optical properties. We compare our results with predictions which ascribe the nonlinear response to a Fermi-smearing mechanism. Further, we note that the sign of the nonlinear susceptibility is reversed from that of gold nanoparticle composites.

  17. Nonlinear Optical Properties of X(C6H5)4 (X = B(-), C, N(+), P(+)): A New Class of Molecules with a Negative Third-Order Polarizability.

    PubMed

    Gieseking, Rebecca L; Ensley, Trenton R; Hu, Honghua; Hagan, David J; Risko, Chad; Van Stryland, Eric W; Brédas, Jean-Luc

    2015-08-01

    Organic π-conjugated materials have been widely used for a variety of nonlinear optical (NLO) applications. Molecules with negative real components Re(γ) of the third-order polarizability, which leads to nonlinear refraction in macroscopic systems, have important benefits for several NLO applications. However, few organic systems studied to date have negative Re(γ) in the long wavelength limit, and all inorganic materials show positive nonlinear refraction in this limit. Here, we introduce a new class of molecules of the form X(C6H5)4, where X = B(-), C, N(+), and P(+), that have negative Re(γ). The molecular mechanism for the NLO properties in these systems is very different from those in typical linear conjugated systems: These systems have a band of excited states involving single-electron excitations within the π-system, several of which have significant coupling to the ground state. Thus, Re(γ) cannot be understood in terms of a simplified essential-state model and must be analyzed in the context of the full sum-over-states expression. Although Re(γ) is significantly smaller than that of other commonly studied NLO chromophores, the introduction of a new molecular architecture offering the potential for a negative Re(γ) introduces new avenues of molecular design for NLO applications.

  18. Synthesis, crystal structure and third-order non-linear optical properties of a two-dimensional coordination network [Cd(AcO)2(L)2(H2O)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhao-Xia; Pan, Wei-Cheng; Hong, Peng-Zhi; Li, Ke-Chang; Li, Yong

    2015-02-01

    A novel two-dimensional (2-D) Cd(II) coordination network [Cd(AcO)2(L)2(H2O)] 1 (AcO = acetate, L = 4-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl) benzoic acid ethyl ester) has been synthesized by low-temperature solid-state reaction and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analyses, IR spectra and UV-visible spectra. The molecules of the complex are interconnected into layers by O-H⋯O and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds in which participate AcO-, L and H2O ligands. The intermolecular hydrogen-bonds interactions are the most significant factors controlling the novel supramolecular sheet fashion packing of the title compound in the crystal state. The third-order non-linear optical (NLO) properties of the title compound 1 were also investigated and they exhibit the reverse saturable absorption and self-defocusing performance with modulus of the hyperpolarizability (γ) 2.30 × 10-30 esu for 1 in a 2.15 × 10-4 mol dm-3 DMF solution.

  19. Novel third-order Lovelock wormhole solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Lobo, Francisco S. N.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we consider wormhole geometries in third-order Lovelock gravity and investigate the possibility that these solutions satisfy the energy conditions. In this framework, by applying a specific equation of state, we obtain exact wormhole solutions, and by imposing suitable values for the parameters of the theory, we find that these geometries satisfy the weak energy condition in the vicinity of the throat, due to the presence of higher-order curvature terms. Finally, we trace out a numerical analysis, by assuming a specific redshift function, and find asymptotically flat solutions that satisfy the weak energy condition throughout the spacetime.

  20. Second molecular hyperpolarizability of 2,2'-diamino-7,7'-dinitro-9,9'- spirobifluorene: An experimental study on third-order nonlinear optical properties of a spiroconjugated dimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, So Yeon; Lee, Minyung; Boo, Bong Hyun

    1998-08-01

    Nonlinear optical properties of a fixed molecular dimer, 2,2'-diamino-7,7'-dinitro9,9'-spirobifluorene (ANSF), have been investigated in solution by the degenerate four-wave mixing technique. It has been observed that the orientationally averaged second molecular hyperpolarizability of ANSF in THF is enhanced ten times in comparison with its monomer unit, 2-amino-7-nitrofluorene. Since electronic coupling between monomer units in ANSF is negligible owing to symmetry, we attribute the large enhancement to the orientational effect of the two constituting dipoles with possible involvement of vibronic coupling and spiroconjugation.

  1. Role of intensity fluctuations in third-order correlation double-slit interference of thermal light.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi-Hao; Chen, Wen; Meng, Shao-Ying; Wu, Wei; Wu, Ling-An; Zhai, Guang-Jie

    2013-07-01

    A third-order double-slit interference experiment with a pseudothermal light source in the high-intensity limit has been performed by actually recording the intensities in three optical paths. It is shown that not only can the visibility be dramatically enhanced compared to the second-order case as previously theoretically predicted and shown experimentally, but also that the higher visibility is a consequence of the contribution of third-order correlation interaction terms, which is equal to the sum of all contributions from second-order correlation. It is interesting that, when the two reference detectors are scanned in opposite directions, negative values for the third-order correlation term of the intensity fluctuations may appear. The phenomenon can be completely explained by the theory of classical statistical optics and is the first concrete demonstration of the influence of the third-order correlation terms.

  2. Thermodynamic instability of black holes of third order Lovelock gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Dehghani, M. H.; Pourhasan, R.

    2009-03-15

    In this paper, we compute the mass and the temperature of the uncharged black holes of third order Lovelock gravity as well as the entropy using the first law of thermodynamics. We perform a stability analysis by studying the curves of the temperature versus the mass parameter, and find that an intermediate thermodynamically unstable phase exists for black holes with a hyperbolic horizon. This unstable phase for the uncharged topological black holes of third order Lovelock gravity does not exist in lower order Lovelock gravity. We also perform a stability analysis for a spherical, seven-dimensional black hole of Lovelock gravity and find that, while these kinds of black holes for small values of Lovelock coefficients have an intermediate unstable phase, they are stable for large values of Lovelock coefficients. We also find that an intermediate unstable phase exists for these black holes in higher dimensions. This analysis shows that the thermodynamic stability of black holes with curved horizons is not a robust feature of all the generalized theories of gravity.

  3. Ghost imaging with thermal light by third-order correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Bai Yanfeng; Han Shensheng

    2007-10-15

    Ghost imaging with classical incoherent light by third-order correlation is investigated. We discuss the similarities and the differences between ghost imaging by third-order correlation and by second-order correlation, and analyze the effect from each correlation part of the third-order correlation function on the imaging process. It is shown that the third-order correlated imaging includes richer correlated imaging effects than the second-order correlated one, while the imaging information originates mainly from the correlation of the intensity fluctuations between the test detector and each reference detector, as does ghost imaging by second-order correlation.

  4. Magnetic field induced third order susceptibility of third order harmonic generation in a ZnMgSe strained quantum well

    SciTech Connect

    Mark, J. Abraham Hudson Peter, A. John

    2014-04-24

    Third order susceptibility of third order harmonic generation is investigated in a Zn{sub 0.1}Mg{sub 0.9}Se/Zn{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}Se/Zn{sub 0.1}Mg{sub 0.9}Se quantum well in the presence of magnetic field strength. The confinement potential is considered as the addition of energy offsets of the conduction band (or valence band) and the strain-induced potential in our calculations. The material dependent effective mass is followed throughout the computation because it has a high influence on the electron energy levels in low dimensional semiconductor systems.

  5. Constructing higher-order hydrodynamics: The third order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grozdanov, Sašo; Kaplis, Nikolaos

    2016-03-01

    Hydrodynamics can be formulated as the gradient expansion of conserved currents in terms of the fundamental fields describing the near-equilibrium fluid flow. In the relativistic case, the Navier-Stokes equations follow from the conservation of the stress-energy tensor to first order in derivatives. In this paper, we go beyond the presently understood second-order hydrodynamics and discuss the systematization of obtaining the hydrodynamic expansion to an arbitrarily high order. As an example of the algorithm that we present, we fully classify the gradient expansion at third order for neutral fluids in four dimensions, thus finding the most general next-to-leading-order corrections to the relativistic Navier-Stokes equations in curved space-time. In doing so, we list 20 new transport coefficient candidates in the conformal case and 68 in the nonconformal case. As we do not consider any constraints that could potentially arise from the local entropy current analysis, this is the maximal possible set of neutral third-order transport coefficients. To investigate the physical implications of these new transport coefficients, we obtain the third-order corrections to the linear dispersion relations that describe the propagation of diffusion and sound waves in relativistic fluids. We also compute the corrections to the scalar (spin-2) two-point correlation function of the third-order stress-energy tensor. Furthermore, as an example of a nonlinear hydrodynamic flow, we calculate the third-order corrections to the energy density of a boost-invariant Bjorken flow. Finally, we apply our field theoretic results to the N =4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills fluid at infinite 't Hooft coupling and an infinite number of colors to find the values of five new linear combinations of the conformal transport coefficients.

  6. Observation of surface plasmon resonance of silver particles and enhanced third-order optical nonlinearities in AgCl doped Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} ternary glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tiefeng; Chen, Feifei; Shen, Xiang; Dai, Shixun; Nie, Qiuhua; Wang, Xunsi

    2010-10-15

    Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} ternary glasses embedded with Ag nanoparticles were prepared by introducing AgCl into the bismuthate glasses using conventional melt quenching method and characterized by several experimental techniques. Scanning electron microscopic studies indicated the formation of Ag contained nanoclusters which crack and become regular with increase of AgCl content in these composites. Optical absorption spectra of the nanocomposites showed the presence of absorption band of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) due to Ag nanoparticles at {approx}600 nm. Z-scan measurement with femtosecond laser was used to investigate third-order optical nonlinearities of the nanocomposites. The results show that the nonlinear refraction {gamma} was dramatically increased up to 30 times by the appearance of Ag nanoparticles when excited within its SPR region, while nonlinear absorption due to two-photon absorption exhibited opposite tendency or even saturated behavior. The calculation of figure of merit suggests that the Ag particle embedded Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} glass composites are promising candidates for optoelectronic devices.

  7. Microstrain-level measurement of third-order elastic constants applying dynamic acousto-elastic testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud, Guillaume; Talmant, Maryline; Marrelec, Guillaume

    2016-10-01

    The nonlinear elasticity of solids at the microstrain level has been recently studied by applying dynamic acousto-elastic testing. It is the analog of conventional quasi-static acousto-elastic experiments but the strain-dependence (or stress-dependence) of ultrasonic wave-speed is measured with an applied strain ranging from 10-7 to 10-5 and produced by a stationary elastic wave. In conventional quasi-static acousto-elastic experiments, the strain is applied in a quasi-static manner; it exceeds 10-4 and can reach 10-2. In this work, we apply dynamic acousto-elastic testing to measure the third-order elastic constants of two isotropic materials: polymethyl methacrylate and dry Berea sandstone. The peak amplitude of the dynamic applied strain is 8 × 10-6. The method is shown to be particularly suitable for materials exhibiting large elastic nonlinearity like sandstones, since the measurement is performed in the domain of validity of the third-order hyperelastic model. In contrast, conventional quasi-static acousto-elastic experiments in such materials are often performed outside the domain of validity of the third-order hyperelastic model and the stress-dependence of the ultrasonic wave-speed must be extrapolated at zero stress, leading to approximate values of the third-order elastic constants. The uncertainty of the evaluation of the third-order elastic constants is assessed by repeating multiple times the measurements and with Monte-Carlo simulations. The obtained values of the Murnaghan third-order elastic constants are l = -73 GPa ± 9%, m = -34 GPa ± 9%, and n = -61 GPa ± 10% for polymethyl methacrylate, and l = -17 000 GPa ± 20%, m = -11 000 GPa ± 10%, and n = -30 000 GPa ± 20% for dry Berea sandstone.

  8. Third order response to a multifrequency photon field in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combescot, M.; Betbeder-Matibet, O.

    2009-03-01

    This paper contains a detailed calculation of the photoinduced current density at third order in the coupling between a semiconductor and a multifrequency photon field, starting from its standard textbook expression which reads in terms of a triple commutator. Due to a major intrinsic problem linked to this triple commutator, such a derivation has been made possible quite recently only, thanks to the tools developed in the composite-boson many-body theory we have recently constructed. The photoinduced current density is shown to ultimately read in a compact form, in terms of the “Pauli scatterings” and “Coulomb scatterings” for exciton-exciton interactions introduced in this theory. Representation of this third order response in Shiva diagrams, which visualize interactions between excitons, is also given to better grasp the physics of the various contributions.

  9. Third-order solution of an artificial-satellite theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinoshita, H.

    1978-01-01

    A third-order solution is developed for the motions of artificial satellites moving in the gravitational field of the earth, whose potential includes the second-, third-, and fourth-order zonal harmonics. Third-order periodic perturbations with fourth-order secular perturbations are derived by Hori's perturbations method. All quantities are expanded into power series of the eccentricity, but the solution is obtained so as to be closed with respect to the inclination. A comparison with the results of numerical integration of the equations of motion indicates that the solution can predict the position of a close-earth satellite with a small eccentricity with an accuracy of better than 1 cm over 1 month.

  10. Third-order solution of an artificial-satellite theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinoshita, H.

    1977-01-01

    A third-order solution was developed for the motions of artificial satellites moving in the gravitational field of the earth, whose potential includes the second-, third-, and fourth-order zonal harmonics. Third-order periodic perturbations with fourth-order secular perturbations were derived by the Hori perturbation method. All quantities were expanded into power series of the eccentricity, but the solution was obtained so as to be closed with respect to the inclination. A comparison with the results of numerical integration of the equations of motion indicates that the solution can predict the position of a close-earth, small-eccentricity satellite with an accuracy of better than one cm over a period of one month.

  11. Simultaneous second- and third- order spectral phase control of Ti:sapphire laser pulses using achromatic doublet prisms.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Alexander; Fuerbach, Alexander

    2016-03-20

    The standard technique commonly utilized to introduce large amounts of negative group delay dispersion (GDD) into the beam path of ultrashort laser pulses with low insertion losses is the use of a pair of prisms in a double pass configuration. However, one disadvantage of this approach is the unavoidable introduction of additional high-order spectral phase errors, most notably third-order dispersion (TOD) due to the characteristics of the refractive index of available optical materials. In this paper we provide an overview of the dispersive properties of more than 100 common types of optical glasses, used either as a bulk stretcher or in a prism compressor configuration. In addition, we present a novel method that enables independent control of GDD and TOD in a prism-only setup. The performance of different prism combinations is analyzed numerically, and design guidelines are given. PMID:27140563

  12. Simultaneous second- and third- order spectral phase control of Ti:sapphire laser pulses using achromatic doublet prisms.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Alexander; Fuerbach, Alexander

    2016-03-20

    The standard technique commonly utilized to introduce large amounts of negative group delay dispersion (GDD) into the beam path of ultrashort laser pulses with low insertion losses is the use of a pair of prisms in a double pass configuration. However, one disadvantage of this approach is the unavoidable introduction of additional high-order spectral phase errors, most notably third-order dispersion (TOD) due to the characteristics of the refractive index of available optical materials. In this paper we provide an overview of the dispersive properties of more than 100 common types of optical glasses, used either as a bulk stretcher or in a prism compressor configuration. In addition, we present a novel method that enables independent control of GDD and TOD in a prism-only setup. The performance of different prism combinations is analyzed numerically, and design guidelines are given.

  13. Large optics inspection, tilting, and washing stand

    DOEpatents

    Ayers, Marion Jay; Ayers, Shannon Lee

    2010-08-24

    A large optics stand provides a risk free means of safely tilting large optics with ease and a method of safely tilting large optics with ease. The optics are supported in the horizontal position by pads. In the vertical plane the optics are supported by saddles that evenly distribute the optics weight over a large area.

  14. Large optics inspection, tilting, and washing stand

    DOEpatents

    Ayers, Marion Jay; Ayers, Shannon Lee

    2012-10-09

    A large optics stand provides a risk free means of safely tilting large optics with ease and a method of safely tilting large optics with ease. The optics are supported in the horizontal position by pads. In the vertical plane the optics are supported by saddles that evenly distribute the optics weight over a large area.

  15. Global attractors for a third order in time nonlinear dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caixeta, Arthur H.; Lasiecka, Irena; Cavalcanti, Valéria N. D.

    2016-07-01

    Long time behavior of a third order (in time) nonlinear PDE equation is considered. This type of equations arises in the context of nonlinear acoustics [12,20,22,24] where modeling accounts for a finite speed of propagation paradox, the latter results in hyperbolic nature of the dynamics. It will be proved that the underlying PDE generates a well-posed dynamical system which admits a global and finite dimensional attractor. The main difficulty associated with the problem studied is the lack of Lyapunov function along with the lack of compactness of trajectories, which fact prevents applicability of standard tools in the area of dynamical systems.

  16. Multifield cosmological perturbations at third order and the ekpyrotic trispectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Lehners, Jean-Luc; Renaux-Petel, Sebastien

    2009-09-15

    Using the covariant formalism, we derive the equations of motion for adiabatic and entropy perturbations at third order in perturbation theory for cosmological models involving two scalar fields. We use these equations to calculate the trispectrum of ekpyrotic and cyclic models in which the density perturbations are generated via the entropic mechanism. In these models, the conversion of entropy into curvature perturbations occurs just before the big bang, either during the ekpyrotic phase or during the subsequent kinetic energy dominated phase. In both cases, we find that the nonlinearity parameters f{sub NL} and g{sub NL} combine to leave a very distinct observational imprint.

  17. Asymptotically flat radiating solutions in third order Lovelock gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Dehghani, M. H.; Farhangkhah, N.

    2008-09-15

    In this paper, we present an exact spherically symmetric solution of third order Lovelock gravity in n dimensions which describes the gravitational collapse of a null dust fluid. This solution is asymptotically (anti-)de Sitter or flat depending on the choice of the cosmological constant. Using the asymptotically flat solution for n{>=}7 with a power-law form of the mass as a function of the null coordinate, we present a model for a gravitational collapse in which a null dust fluid radially injects into an initially flat and empty region. It is found that a naked singularity is inevitably formed whose strength is different for the n=7 and n{>=}8 cases. In the n=7 case, the limiting focusing condition for the strength of curvature singularity is satisfied. But for n{>=}8, the strength of curvature singularity depends on the rate of increase of mass of the spacetime. These considerations show that the third order Lovelock term weakens the strength of the curvature singularity.

  18. Magnetic branes in third order Lovelock-Born-Infeld gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Dehghani, M. H.; Bostani, N.; Hendi, S. H.

    2008-09-15

    Considering both the nonlinear invariant terms constructed by the electromagnetic field and the Riemann tensor in gravity action, we obtain a new class of (n+1)-dimensional magnetic brane solutions in third order Lovelock-Born-Infeld gravity. This class of solutions yields a spacetime with a longitudinal nonlinear magnetic field generated by a static source. These solutions have no curvature singularity and no horizons but have a conic geometry with a deficit angle {delta}. We find that, as the Born-Infeld parameter decreases, which is a measure of the increase of the nonlinearity of the electromagnetic field, the deficit angle increases. We generalize this class of solutions to the case of spinning magnetic solutions and find that, when one or more rotation parameters are nonzero, the brane has a net electric charge which is proportional to the magnitude of the rotation parameters. Finally, we use the counterterm method in third order Lovelock gravity and compute the conserved quantities of these spacetimes. We found that the conserved quantities do not depend on the Born-Infeld parameter, which is evident from the fact that the effects of the nonlinearity of the electromagnetic fields on the boundary at infinity are wiped away. We also find that the properties of our solution, such as deficit angle, are independent of Lovelock coefficients.

  19. Measuring the growth of matter fluctuations with third-order galaxy correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, K.; Bel, J.; Gaztañaga, E.; Crocce, M.; Fosalba, P.; Castander, F. J.

    2015-02-01

    Measurements of the linear growth factor D at different redshifts z are key to distinguish among cosmological models. One can estimate the derivative dD(z)/dln (1 + z) from redshift space measurements of the 3D anisotropic galaxy two-point correlation ξ(z), but the degeneracy of its transverse (or projected) component with galaxy bias b, i.e. ξ⊥(z) ∝ D2(z)b2(z), introduces large errors in the growth measurement. Here, we present a comparison between two methods which breaks this degeneracy by combining second- and third-order statistics. One uses the shape of the reduced three-point correlation and the other a combination of third-order one- and two-point cumulants. These methods use the fact that, for Gaussian initial conditions and scales larger than 20 h-1 Mpc, the reduced third-order matter correlations are independent of redshift (and therefore of the growth factor), while the third-order galaxy correlations depend on b. We use matter and halo catalogues from the MICE-GC simulation to test how well we can recover b(z) and therefore D(z) with these methods in 3D real space. We also present a new approach, which enables us to measure D directly from the redshift evolution of the second- and third-order galaxy correlations without the need of modelling matter correlations. For haloes with masses lower than 1014 h-1 M⊙, we find 10 per cent deviations between the different estimates of D, which are comparable to current observational errors. At higher masses, we find larger differences that can probably be attributed to the breakdown of the bias model and non-Poissonian shot noise.

  20. Two-mirror telescope design with third-order coma insensitive to decenter misalignment.

    PubMed

    Scaduto, Lucimara Cristina Nakata; Sasian, Jose; Stefani, Mario Antonio; Neto, Jarbas Caiado de Castro

    2013-03-25

    Misalignments always occur in real optical systems. These misalignments do not generate new aberration forms, but they change the aberration field dependence. Two-mirror telescopes have been used in several applications. We analyze a two-mirror telescope configuration that has negligible sensitivity to decenter misalignments. By applying the wave aberration theory for plane-symmetric optical systems it is shown that the asphericity in the secondary mirror, if properly chosen, can compensate for any decenter perturbation allowing third-order coma unchanged across the field of view. For any two-mirror system it is possible to find a configuration in which decenter misalignments do not generate field-uniform coma.

  1. Third order LPF type compensator for flexible rotor suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsushita, Osami; Takahashi, Naohiko; Takagi, Michiyuki

    1994-01-01

    The tuning job of the compensator for levitating flexible rotors supported by active magnetic bearings (AMB) concerns providing a good damping effect to the critical speed modes while avoiding the spillover problem on the instability of higher bending modes. In this paper, an idea for design of the control law of the compensator based on utilizing a third order low pass filter (LPF) is proposed to essentially enable elimination of the spillover instability. According to the proposed design method, good damping effects for the critical speeds are obtained by the usual phase lead/lag function. Stabilization for all of higher bending modes is completed by the additional function of the 3rd order LPF due to its phase lag approaching about -270 degrees in the high frequency domain. This idea is made clear by experiments and simulations.

  2. Einstein-Weyl spaces and third-order differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tod, K. P.

    2000-08-01

    The three-dimensional null-surface formalism of Tanimoto [M. Tanimoto, "On the null surface formalism," Report No. gr-qc/9703003 (1997)] and Forni et al. [Forni et al., "Null surfaces formation in 3D," J. Math Phys. (submitted)] are extended to describe Einstein-Weyl spaces, following Cartan [E. Cartan, "Les espaces généralisées et l'integration de certaines classes d'equations différentielles," C. R. Acad. Sci. 206, 1425-1429 (1938); "La geometria de las ecuaciones diferenciales de tercer order," Rev. Mat. Hispano-Am. 4, 1-31 (1941)]. In the resulting formalism, Einstein-Weyl spaces are obtained from a particular class of third-order differential equations. Some examples of the construction which include some new Einstein-Weyl spaces are given.

  3. Third-order NLO properties of solution grown methyl- p-hydroxy benzoate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikandan, S.; Sabari Girisun, T. C.; Mohandoss, R.; Dhanuskodi, S.; Manivannan, S.

    2014-09-01

    The third-order nonlinear optical properties of solution-grown methyl- p-hydroxy benzoate (MHB) single crystals were studied by Z-scan technique using a He-Ne (632.8 nm, 30 mW) laser. From the closed aperture Z-scan data, the valley followed by peak on the normalized transmittance indicates the sign of the nonlinear refractive index is positive and shows a self focusing nature. From the open aperture Z-scan curve, it is found that the nonlinear absorption is due to saturation. The order of magnitude of third order susceptibility was estimated to be 10-6 esu. UV-Vis-NIR spectrum of MHB single crystal reveals a very low cutoff wavelength (310 nm) and transparency in the entire visible region. Also the material has direct allowed transition and it possesses a band gap of 3.7 eV. The dissipation factor is low and SHG efficiency is high. The higher magnitudes of second and third order NLO parameters make the material suitable for photonic applications like frequency conversion and eye/sensor protection.

  4. Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S

    2008-06-27

    The use of adaptive optics was originally conceived by astronomers seeking to correct the blurring of images made with large telescopes due to the effects of atmospheric turbulence. The basic idea is to use a device, a wave front corrector, to adjust the phase of light passing through an optical system, based on some measurement of the spatial variation of the phase transverse to the light propagation direction, using a wave front sensor. Although the original concept was intended for application to astronomical imaging, the technique can be more generally applied. For instance, adaptive optics systems have been used for several decades to correct for aberrations in high-power laser systems. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the world's largest laser system, the National Ignition Facility, uses adaptive optics to correct for aberrations in each of the 192 beams, all of which must be precisely focused on a millimeter scale target in order to perform nuclear physics experiments.

  5. Third-order symplectic integration method with inverse time dispersion transform for long-term simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yingjie; Zhang, Jinhai; Yao, Zhenxing

    2016-06-01

    The symplectic integration method is popular in high-accuracy numerical simulations when discretizing temporal derivatives; however, it still suffers from time-dispersion error when the temporal interval is coarse, especially for long-term simulations and large-scale models. We employ the inverse time dispersion transform (ITDT) to the third-order symplectic integration method to reduce the time-dispersion error. First, we adopt the pseudospectral algorithm for the spatial discretization and the third-order symplectic integration method for the temporal discretization. Then, we apply the ITDT to eliminate time-dispersion error from the synthetic data. As a post-processing method, the ITDT can be easily cascaded in traditional numerical simulations. We implement the ITDT in one typical exiting third-order symplectic scheme and compare its performances with the performances of the conventional second-order scheme and the rapid expansion method. Theoretical analyses and numerical experiments show that the ITDT can significantly reduce the time-dispersion error, especially for long travel times. The implementation of the ITDT requires some additional computations on correcting the time-dispersion error, but it allows us to use the maximum temporal interval under stability conditions; thus, its final computational efficiency would be higher than that of the traditional symplectic integration method for long-term simulations. With the aid of the ITDT, we can obtain much more accurate simulation results but with a lower computational cost.

  6. Non-local bias contribution to third-order galaxy correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bel, J.; Hoffmann, K.; Gaztañaga, E.

    2015-10-01

    We study halo clustering bias with second- and third-order statistics of halo and matter density fields in the Marenostrum Institut de Ciències de l'Espai (MICE) Grand Challenge simulation. We verify that two-point correlations deliver reliable estimates of the linear bias parameters at large scales, while estimations from the variance can be significantly affected by non-linear and possibly non-local contributions to the bias function. Combining three-point auto- and cross-correlations we find, for the first time in configuration space, evidence for the presence of such non-local contributions. These contributions are consistent with predicted second-order non-local effects on the bias functions originating from the dark matter tidal field. Samples of massive haloes show indications of bias (local or non-local) beyond second order. Ignoring non-local bias causes 20-30 and 5-10 per cent overestimation of the linear bias from three-point auto- and cross-correlations, respectively. We study two third-order bias estimators that are not affected by second-order non-local contributions. One is a combination of three-point auto- and cross-correlations. The other is a combination of third-order one- and two-point cumulants. Both methods deliver accurate estimations of the linear bias. Ignoring non-local bias causes higher values of the second-order bias from three-point correlations. Our results demonstrate that third-order statistics can be employed for breaking the growth-bias degeneracy.

  7. Effective third-order susceptibility of silicon-nanocrystal-doped silica.

    PubMed

    Rukhlenko, Ivan D; Zhu, Weiren; Premaratne, Malin; Agrawal, Govind P

    2012-11-19

    We derive approximate analytic expressions for the effective susceptibility tensor of a nonlinear composite, consisting of silicon nanocrystals embedded in fused silica. Two types of composites are considered: by assuming that (i) the crystallographic axes of different crystallites are the same, or (ii) crystallites are oriented randomly. In the first case, the tensor properties of the effective third-order susceptibility are shown to coincide with those of the bulk silicon. In the second case, however, the tensor properties of the susceptibility of the composite material are found to be quite different due to drastic modification of light interaction with optical phonons inside the composite. The newly derived expressions should be useful for modeling nonlinear optical phenomena in silica fibers and waveguides doped with silicon nanocrystals.

  8. Computation of turbulent pipe and duct flow using third order upwind scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawamura, T.

    1986-01-01

    The fully developed turbulence in a circular pipe and in a square duct is simulated directly without using turbulence models in the Navier-Stokes equations. The utilized method employs a third-order upwind scheme for the approximation to the nonlinear term and the second-order Adams-Bashforth method for the time derivative in the Navier-Stokes equation. The computational results appear to capture the large-scale turbulent structures at least qualitatively. The significance of the artificial viscosity inherent in the present scheme is discussed.

  9. Quantum theory of the third-order nonlinear electrodynamic effects of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    The linear energy dispersion of graphene electrons leads to a strongly nonlinear electromagnetic response of this material. We develop a general quantum theory of the third-order nonlinear local dynamic conductivity of graphene σα β γ δ(ω1,ω2,ω3) , which describes its nonlinear response to a uniform electromagnetic field. The derived analytical formulas describe a large number of different nonlinear phenomena such as the third-harmonic generation, the four-wave mixing, the saturable absorption, the second-harmonic generation stimulated by a dc electric current, etc., which may be used in different terahertz and optoelectronic devices.

  10. The third-order Lagrange equation for mechanical systems of variable mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shan-Jun; Ge, Wei-Guo; Huang, Pei-Tian

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, based on the third-order D'Alembert-Lagrange principle for mechanical systems of variable mass, the third-order Lagrange equations of mechanical systems of variable mass are obtained. From the equations the motion of mechanical systems of variable mass can be studied. In addition, the equations may enrich the theory of third-order differential equation.

  11. Interplay between Graph Topology and Correlations of Third Order in Spiking Neuronal Networks

    PubMed Central

    Jovanović, Stojan

    2016-01-01

    The study of processes evolving on networks has recently become a very popular research field, not only because of the rich mathematical theory that underpins it, but also because of its many possible applications, a number of them in the field of biology. Indeed, molecular signaling pathways, gene regulation, predator-prey interactions and the communication between neurons in the brain can be seen as examples of networks with complex dynamics. The properties of such dynamics depend largely on the topology of the underlying network graph. In this work, we want to answer the following question: Knowing network connectivity, what can be said about the level of third-order correlations that will characterize the network dynamics? We consider a linear point process as a model for pulse-coded, or spiking activity in a neuronal network. Using recent results from theory of such processes, we study third-order correlations between spike trains in such a system and explain which features of the network graph (i.e. which topological motifs) are responsible for their emergence. Comparing two different models of network topology—random networks of Erdős-Rényi type and networks with highly interconnected hubs—we find that, in random networks, the average measure of third-order correlations does not depend on the local connectivity properties, but rather on global parameters, such as the connection probability. This, however, ceases to be the case in networks with a geometric out-degree distribution, where topological specificities have a strong impact on average correlations. PMID:27271768

  12. Interplay between Graph Topology and Correlations of Third Order in Spiking Neuronal Networks.

    PubMed

    Jovanović, Stojan; Rotter, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    The study of processes evolving on networks has recently become a very popular research field, not only because of the rich mathematical theory that underpins it, but also because of its many possible applications, a number of them in the field of biology. Indeed, molecular signaling pathways, gene regulation, predator-prey interactions and the communication between neurons in the brain can be seen as examples of networks with complex dynamics. The properties of such dynamics depend largely on the topology of the underlying network graph. In this work, we want to answer the following question: Knowing network connectivity, what can be said about the level of third-order correlations that will characterize the network dynamics? We consider a linear point process as a model for pulse-coded, or spiking activity in a neuronal network. Using recent results from theory of such processes, we study third-order correlations between spike trains in such a system and explain which features of the network graph (i.e. which topological motifs) are responsible for their emergence. Comparing two different models of network topology-random networks of Erdős-Rényi type and networks with highly interconnected hubs-we find that, in random networks, the average measure of third-order correlations does not depend on the local connectivity properties, but rather on global parameters, such as the connection probability. This, however, ceases to be the case in networks with a geometric out-degree distribution, where topological specificities have a strong impact on average correlations.

  13. Perception of second- and third-order orientation signals and their interactions

    PubMed Central

    Victor, Jonathan D.; Thengone, Daniel J.; Conte, Mary M.

    2013-01-01

    Orientation signals, which are crucial to many aspects of visual function, are more complex and varied in the natural world than in the stimuli typically used for laboratory investigation. Gratings and lines have a single orientation, but in natural stimuli, local features have multiple orientations, and multiple orientations can occur even at the same location. Moreover, orientation cues can arise not only from pairwise spatial correlations, but from higher-order ones as well. To investigate these orientation cues and how they interact, we examined segmentation performance for visual textures in which the strengths of different kinds of orientation cues were varied independently, while controlling potential confounds such as differences in luminance statistics. Second-order cues (the kind present in gratings) at different orientations are largely processed independently: There is no cancellation of positive and negative signals at orientations that differ by 45°. Third-order orientation cues are readily detected and interact only minimally with second-order cues. However, they combine across orientations in a different way: Positive and negative signals largely cancel if the orientations differ by 90°. Two additional elements are superimposed on this picture. First, corners play a special role. When second-order orientation cues combine to produce corners, they provide a stronger signal for texture segregation than can be accounted for by their individual effects. Second, while the object versus background distinction does not influence processing of second-order orientation cues, this distinction influences the processing of third-order orientation cues. PMID:23532909

  14. Third-order photonic-crystal distributed-feedback quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. C.; Liu, F. Q.; Wang, L. J.; Zhao, L. H.; Liu, W. F.; Liu, J. Q.; Li, L.; Wang, Z. G.

    2012-10-01

    We demonstrate room-temperature operation of broad-area edge-emitting photonic-crystal distributed-feedback quantum cascade lasers at λ ∼ 4.6 μm. The lasers use a weak-index perturbed third-order photonic-crystal lattice to control the optical mode in the wafer plane. Utilizing this coupling mechanism, the near-diffraction-limited beam quality with a far-field profile normal to the facet can be obtained. Single-mode operation with a signal-to-noise ratio of about 20 dB is achieved in the temperature range of 85-290 K. The single-facet output power is above 1 W for a 55 μm × 2.5 mm laser bar at 85 K in pulsed mode.

  15. Efficient Third-Order Distributed Feedback Laser with Enhanced Beam Pattern

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Qing (Inventor); Lee, Alan Wei Min (Inventor); Kao, Tsung-Yu (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A third-order distributed feedback laser has an active medium disposed on a substrate as a linear array of segments having a series of periodically spaced interstices therebetween and a first conductive layer disposed on a surface of the active medium on each of the segments and along a strip from each of the segments to a conductive electrical contact pad for application of current along a path including the active medium. Upon application of a current through the active medium, the active medium functions as an optical waveguide, and there is established an alternating electric field, at a THz frequency, both in the active medium and emerging from the interstices. Spacing of adjacent segments is approximately half of a wavelength of the THz frequency in free space or an odd integral multiple thereof, so that the linear array has a coherence length greater than the length of the linear array.

  16. Large core fiber optic cleaver

    DOEpatents

    Halpin, J.M.

    1996-03-26

    The present invention relates to a device and method for cleaving optical fibers which yields cleaved optical fiber ends possessing high damage threshold surfaces. The device can be used to cleave optical fibers with core diameters greater than 400 {micro}m. 30 figs.

  17. Large core fiber optic cleaver

    DOEpatents

    Halpin, John M.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device and method for cleaving optical fibers which yields cleaved optical fiber ends possessing high damage threshold surfaces. The device can be used to cleave optical fibers with core diameters greater than 400 .mu.m.

  18. A digital-to-analog conversion circuit using third-order polynomial interpolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dotson, W. P., Jr.; Wilson, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    Zero- and third-order digital-to-analog conversion techniques are described, and the theoretical error performances are compared. The design equations and procedures for constructing a third-order digital-to-analog converter by using analog design elements are presented. Both a zero- and a third-order digital-to-analog converter were built, and the performances are compared with various signal inputs.

  19. Performance optimization of RoF systems using 120° hybrid coupler for OSSB signal against third order intermodulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Parvin; Sharma, Sanjay Kumar; Singla, Shelly

    2016-10-01

    The performance of radio over fiber (RoF) system with dual drive Mach Zehender modulator has been optimized against third order intermodulation distortion by using 120° hybrid coupler in transmission system. Signal to Noise Distortion ratio (SNDR) has been evaluated and a performance comparison is also drawn for the systems based on 90° and 120° hybrid coupler in both noise and intermodulation distortion dominant environment. The SNDR is efficiently improved by employing 120° hybrid coupler in noise dominant and intermodulation distortion dominant environment. An improvement of 4.86 dB is obtained in the maximum SNDR with 120° hybrid coupler is obtained over at 20 km optical fiber length compared with a 90° hybrid coupler based system. A significant reduction of third order intermodulation power at receiver has also been observed with 120° hybrid coupler.

  20. Stylus profilometry of large optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wills-Moren, William J.; Leadbeater, Peter B.

    1990-11-01

    This paper indicates the emerging requirements for profilometry instruments for use in the fabrication and characterization of modern optical systems. Important design principles are covered, together with some of the problems which can be experienced. Examples of a number of systems recently developed are given - both stand-alone systems and those which operate in situ to the machining process.

  1. A microstructure- and surface energy-dependent third-order shear deformation beam model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, X.-L.; Zhang, G. Y.

    2015-08-01

    A new non-classical third-order shear deformation model is developed for Reddy-Levinson beams using a variational formulation based on Hamilton's principle. A modified couple stress theory and a surface elasticity theory are employed. The equations of motion and complete boundary conditions for the beam are obtained simultaneously. The new model contains a material length scale parameter to account for the microstructure effect and three surface elastic constants to describe the surface energy effect. Also, Poisson's effect is incorporated in the new beam model. The current non-classical model recovers the classical elasticity-based third-order shear deformation beam model as a special case when the microstructure, surface energy and Poisson's effects are all suppressed. In addition, the newly developed beam model includes the models considering the microstructure dependence or the surface energy effect alone as limiting cases and reduces to two existing models for Bernoulli-Euler and Timoshenko beams incorporating the microstructure and surface energy effects. To illustrate the new model, the static bending and free vibration problems of a simply supported beam loaded by a concentrated force are analytically solved by directly applying the general formulas derived. For the static bending problem, the numerical results reveal that both the deflection and rotation of the simply supported beam predicted by the current model are smaller than those predicted by the classical model. Also, it is observed that the differences in the deflection and rotation predicted by the two beam models are very large when the beam thickness is sufficiently small, but they are diminishing with the increase in the beam thickness. For the free vibration problem, it is found that the natural frequency predicted by the new model is higher than that predicted by the classical beam model, and the difference is significant for very thin beams. These predicted trends of the size effect at the

  2. Time Correlation Function Modeling of Third-Order Sum Frequency Vibrational Spectroscopy of a Charged Surface/Water Interface.

    PubMed

    Green, Anthony J; Space, Brian

    2015-07-23

    Sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy (SFVS), a second-order optical process, is interface-specific in the dipole approximation [Perry, A.; Neipert, C.; Moore, P.; Space, B. Chem. Rev. 2006, 106, 1234-1258; Richmond, G. L. Chem. Rev. 2002, 102, 2693-2724; Byrnes, S. J.; Geissler, P. L.; Shen, Y. R. Chem. Phys. Lett. 2011, 516, 115-124]. At charged interfaces, the experimentally detected signal is a combination of enhanced second-order and static-field-induced third-order contributions due to the existence of a static field. Evidence of the importance/relative magnitude of this third-order contribution is seen in the literature [Ong, S.; Zhao, X.; Eisenthal, K. B. Chem. Phys. Lett. 1992, 191, 327-335; Zhao, X.; Ong, S.; Eisenthal, K. B. Chem. Phys. Lett. 1993, 202, 513-520; Shen, Y. R. Appl. Phys. B: Laser Opt. 1999, 68, 295-300], but a molecularly detailed approach to separately calculating the second- and third-order contributions is difficult to construct. Recent work presented a novel molecular dynamics (MD)-based theory that provides a direct means to calculate the third-order contributions to SFVS spectra at charged interfaces [Neipert, C.; Space, B. J. Chem. Phys. 2006, 125, 224706], and a hyperpolarizability model for water was developed as a prerequisite to practical implementation [Neipert, C.; Space, B. Comput. Lett. 2007, 3, 431-440]. Here, these methods are applied to a highly abstracted/idealized silica/water interface, and the results are compared to experimental data for water at a fused quartz surface. The results suggest that such spectra have some quite general spectral features.

  3. Controlling the growth of porphyrin based nanostructures for tuning third-order NLO properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Chen, Yanli; Jiang, Jianzhuang

    2014-01-01

    A series of porphyrin nanospindles with controlled long axis length distributions of 330, 550, 800 nm, and 4 μm have been successfully fabricated via hierarchical self-assembly of cationic porphyrin (H₆TPyP)(4+) with the help of anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS) due to the effective electrostatic interaction. These newly fabricated nanostructures are characterized by TEM and SEM techniques, powder X-ray diffraction analysis, electronic absorption spectroscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The Z-scan technique with a laser duration of 5 ns at the wavelength of 532 nm reveals unreported size-dependent third-order NLO switching properties: the nonlinear absorption changes from saturation absorption to reversed saturation absorption and the nonlinear refraction from self-defocus to self-focus due to the change of the dominant scattering effect, from Rayleigh scattering for nanostructures with a smaller size than the wavelength of laser light, to Mie scattering for nanostructures with a larger size than the laser wavelength. This result is useful for the development of organic nanostructures with desired NLO properties, in particular the optical limiting properties.

  4. Large optics for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Baisden, P.

    2015-01-12

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser with its 192 independent laser beams is not only the world’s largest laser, it is also the largest optical system ever built. With its 192 independent laser beams, the NIF requires a total of 7648 large-aperture (meter-sized) optics. One of the many challenges in designing and building NIF has been to carry out the research and development on optical materials, optics design, and optics manufacturing and metrology technologies needed to achieve NIF’s high output energies and precision beam quality. This paper describes the multiyear, multi-supplier, development effort that was undertaken to develop the advanced optical materials, coatings, fabrication technologies, and associated process improvements necessary to manufacture the wide range of NIF optics. The optics include neodymium-doped phosphate glass laser amplifiers; fused silica lenses, windows, and phase plates; mirrors and polarizers with multi-layer, high-reflectivity dielectric coatings deposited on BK7 substrates; and potassium di-hydrogen phosphate crystal optics for fast optical switches, frequency conversion, and polarization rotation. Also included is a discussion of optical specifications and custom metrology and quality-assurance tools designed, built, and fielded at supplier sites to verify compliance with the stringent NIF specifications. In addition, a brief description of the ongoing program to improve the operational lifetime (i.e., damage resistance) of optics exposed to high fluence in the 351-nm (3ω) is provided.

  5. The actual scaling of a nominally third-order Reynolds stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krommes, J. A.; Hammett, G. W.

    2014-05-01

    It is shown that a particular higher-order Reynolds stress arising from a term in the third-order gyrokinetic Hamiltonian is smaller than it nominally appears to be. However, it does not follow that all third-order terms are unimportant. The discussion is relevant to the ongoing debate about the importance of higher-order terms in the gyrokinetic theory of momentum transport.

  6. Second- and third-order elastic coefficients in polycrystalline aluminum alloy AMg6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, A. D.; Kokshaiskii, A. I.; Korobov, A. I.; Prokhorov, V. M.

    2015-11-01

    All independent second- and third-order elastic coefficients were measured in the isotropic polycrystalline aluminum alloy AMg6 (Al-Mg-Mn system) using the Ritec RAM-5000 SNAP SYSTEM ultrasonic automated complex operating in the pulsed mode. The third-order elastic coefficients were determined using the Thurston-Bragger method from the experimentally measured velocity of shear and longitudinal elastic waves in AMg6 alloy as a function of uniaxial compression.

  7. Third-order many-body perturbation theory calculations for the beryllium and magnesium isoelectronic sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, H. C.; Johnson, W. R.; Blundell, S. A.; Safronova, M. S.

    2006-08-01

    Third-order relativistic many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) is applied to obtain energies of ions with two valence electrons in the no virtual-pair approximation (NVPA). A total of 302 third-order Goldstone diagrams are organized into 12 one-body and 23 two-body terms. Only third-order two-body terms and diagrams are presented in this paper, owing to the fact that the one-body terms are identical to the previously studied third-order terms in monovalent ions. Dominant classes of diagrams are identified. The model potential is the Dirac-Hartree-Fock potential VN-2 , and B -spline basis functions in a cavity of finite radius are employed in the numerical calculations. The Breit interaction is taken into account through the second order of perturbation theory, and the lowest-order Lamb shift is also evaluated. Sample calculations are performed for berylliumlike ions with Z=4-7 , and for the magnesiumlike ion PIV . The third-order excitation energies are in excellent agreement with measurement with an accuracy at 0.2% level for the cases considered. Comparisons are made with second-order MBPT results, and with other calculations. The third-order energy correction is shown to be significant, improving the previous second-order calculations by an order of magnitude.

  8. World atlas of large optical telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meszaros, S. P.

    1979-01-01

    By 1980 there will be approximately 100 large optical telescopes in the world with mirror or lens diameters of one meter (39 inches) and larger. This atlas gives information on these telescopes and shows their locations on continent-sized maps. Observatory locations considered suitable for the construction of future large telescopes are also shown.

  9. Third-order thermodynamic perturbation theory for effective potentials that model complex fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shiqi; Solana, J. R.

    2008-08-01

    We have performed Monte Carlo simulations to obtain the thermodynamic properties of fluids with two kinds of hard-core plus attractive-tail or oscillatory potentials. One of them is the square-well potential with small well width. The other is a model potential with oscillatory and decaying tail. Both model potentials are suitable for modeling the effective potential arising in complex fluids and fluid mixtures with extremely-large-size asymmetry, as is the case of the solvent-induced depletion interactions in colloidal dispersions. For the former potential, the compressibility factor, the excess energy, the constant-volume excess heat capacity, and the chemical potential have been obtained. For the second model potential only the first two of these quantities have been obtained. The simulations cover the whole density range for the fluid phase and several temperatures. These simulation data have been used to test the performance of a third-order thermodynamic perturbation theory (TPT) recently developed by one of us [S. Zhou, Phys. Rev. E 74, 031119 (2006)] as compared with the well-known second-order TPT based on the macroscopic compressibility approximation due to Barker and Henderson. It is found that the first of these theories provides much better accuracy than the second one for all thermodynamic properties analyzed for the two effective potential models.

  10. Simulations of the stratocumulus-topped boundary layer with a third-order closure model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moeng, C. H.; Randall, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    A third order closure model is proposed by Andre et al. (1982), in which the time rate of change terms, the relaxation and rapid effects for the pressure related terms, and the clipping approximation are included along with the quasi-normal closure, to study turbulence in a cloudy layer which is cooled radiatively from above. A spurious oscillation which is strongest near the inversion occurs. An analysis of the problem shows that the oscillation arises from the mean gradient and buoyancy terms of the triple moment equations; these terms are largest near the cloud top. The oscillation is physical, rather than computational. In nature the oscillation is effectively damped, by a mechanism which apparently is not included in our model. In the stably stratified layer just above the mixed layer top, turbulence can excite gravity waves, whose energy is radiated away. Because the closure assumption for the pressure terms does not take into account the transport of wave energy, the model generates spurious oscillations. Damping of the oscillations is possible by introducing diffusion terms into the triple moment equations. With a large enough choice for the diffusion coefficient, the oscillation is effectively eliminated. The results are quite sensitive to the ad hoc eddy coefficient.

  11. Third-Order Development of Shape, Gravity, and Moment of Inertia of Ceres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rambaux, N.; Chambat, F.; Castillo, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Ceres is the target of the space mission Dawn. It is a protoplanet that is left over from the formation of the solar System about 4.6 billion years ago and its study could improve our knowledge of the early solar system. Quantifying these properties under the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium forms the basis for interpreting shape and gravity data in terms of interior structure and infer deviations from hydrostaticity that can bring information on the thermal and chemical history of the planet. Here, we investigate the hydrostatic shape and gravitational potential coefficients of Ceres that is large enough to have undergone internal differentiation and chemical stratification. The Dawn spacecraft is expected to obtained a high-resolution shape data, with an accuracy better than 200 m/pixel. In order to reach an accuracy of few tens of meters for this 9 hours self-gravitating body, the shape models developed up to first order are not enough because they attain an accuracy of 1.8 km. Therefore, we numerically integrate Clairaut's equations of rotational equilibrium expanded up to third order in a small parameter m, the geodetic parameter, to reach an accuracy of 25 meters. The following geodetical quantities under the hydrostatic hypothesis are derived: flattening and other shape parameters, gravitational potential coefficients, and moments of inertia. This type of modeling will be instrumental to the estimation of non-hydrostatic contributions to Ceres' shape to be measured by Dawn.

  12. Investigation of the third-order nonlinear property of Ge-Se-Te glasses at mid-infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lihong; Chen, Feifei; Xu, Yinsheng; Huang, Yicong; Liu, Shuo; Zhao, Zheming; Wang, Xunsi; Zhang, Peiqing; Dai, Shixun; Zhang, Xianghua

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a series of Ge20Te x Se(80- x) ( x = 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 60, 70) chalcogenide glasses were prepared using conventional melt-quenching technique. Through absorption spectra analysis, the optical Tauc gaps were derived in detail along the increase in the Te content which can be supported by structural changing of glass network shown by Raman spectra. The third-order optical nonlinearity of the glasses at mid-infrared wavelength of 3.1 μm was investigated by traditional Z-scan method. The nonlinear refractive index of the glasses increased with the increase in the Te content, typically the measured nonlinear refractive index of Ge20Se50Te30 glass increased to 8.2 ± 1.2 × 10-18 m2/W. The relationship between the nonlinear refractive index and the optical band gap was analyzed.

  13. Solving nonlinear system of third-order boundary value problems using block method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    See, Phang Pei; Majid, Zanariah Abdul; Suleiman, Mohamed; Ismail, Fudziah Bt; Othman, Khairil Iskandar

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we propose an algorithm of two-point block method to solve the nonlinear system of third-order boundary value problems directly. The proposed method is presented in a simple form of Adams type and two approximate solutions will be obtained simultaneously with the block method using variable step size strategy. The method will be implemented with the multiple shooting technique via the three-step iterative method to generate the missing initial value. Most of the existence method will reduce the third-order boundary value problems to a system of first order equations where the systems of six equations need to be solved. The method we proposed in this paper will solve the third-order boundary value problems directly. Two numerical examples are given to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  14. Instability of black strings in the third-order Lovelock theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomini, Alex; Henríquez-Báez, Carla; Lagos, Marcela; Oliva, Julio; Vera, Aldo

    2016-05-01

    We show that homogeneous black strings of third-order Lovelock theory are unstable under s-wave perturbations. This analysis is done in dimension D =9 , which is the lowest dimension that allows the existence of homogeneous black strings in a theory that contains only the third-order Lovelock term in the Lagrangian. As is the case in general relativity, the instability is produced by long wavelength perturbations and it stands for the perturbative counterpart of a thermal instability. We also provide a comparative analysis of the instabilities of black strings at a fixed radius in general relativity, Gauss-Bonnet, and third-order Lovelock theories. We show that the minimum critical wavelength that triggers the instability grows with the power of the curvature defined in the Lagrangian. The maximum exponential growth during the time of the perturbation is the largest in general relativity and it decreases with the number of curvatures involved in the Lagrangian.

  15. Third-order terahertz response of gapped, nearly-metallic armchair graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yichao; Andersen, David R.

    2016-11-01

    We use time dependent perturbation theory to study the terahertz nonlinear response of gapped intrinsic and extrinsic nearly-metallic armchair graphene nanoribbons of finite length under an applied electric field. Generally, the nonlinear conductances exhibit contributions due to single-photon, two-photon, and three-photon processes. The interference between each of these processes results in remarkably complex behavior for the third-order conductances, including quantum dot signatures that should be measurable with a relatively simple experimental configuration. Notably, we observe sharp resonances in the isotropic third-order response due to the Van Hove singularities in the density of states at one-, two-, and three-photon resonances. However, these resonances are absent in the anisotropic third-order response; a result of the overall symmetry of the system.

  16. Third-order terahertz response of gapped, nearly-metallic armchair graphene nanoribbons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yichao; Andersen, David R

    2016-11-30

    We use time dependent perturbation theory to study the terahertz nonlinear response of gapped intrinsic and extrinsic nearly-metallic armchair graphene nanoribbons of finite length under an applied electric field. Generally, the nonlinear conductances exhibit contributions due to single-photon, two-photon, and three-photon processes. The interference between each of these processes results in remarkably complex behavior for the third-order conductances, including quantum dot signatures that should be measurable with a relatively simple experimental configuration. Notably, we observe sharp resonances in the isotropic third-order response due to the Van Hove singularities in the density of states at one-, two-, and three-photon resonances. However, these resonances are absent in the anisotropic third-order response; a result of the overall symmetry of the system. PMID:27633050

  17. Development of large aperture composite adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kmetik, Viliam; Vitovec, Bohumil; Jiran, Lukas; Nemcova, Sarka; Zicha, Josef; Inneman, Adolf; Mikulickova, Lenka; Pavlica, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Large aperture composite adaptive optics for laser applications is investigated in cooperation of Institute of Plasma Physic, Department of Instrumentation and Control Engineering FME CTU and 5M Ltd. We are exploring opportunity of a large-size high-power-laser deformable-mirror production using a lightweight bimorph actuated structure with a composite core. In order to produce a sufficiently large operational free aperture we are developing new technologies for production of flexible core, bimorph actuator and deformable mirror reflector. Full simulation of a deformable-mirrors structure was prepared and validated by complex testing. A deformable mirror actuation and a response of a complicated structure are investigated for an accurate control of the adaptive optics. An original adaptive optics control system and a bimorph deformable mirror driver were developed. Tests of material samples, components and sub-assemblies were completed. A subscale 120 mm bimorph deformable mirror prototype was designed, fabricated and thoroughly tested. A large-size 300 mm composite-core bimorph deformable mirror was simulated and optimized, fabrication of a prototype is carried on. A measurement and testing facility is modified to accommodate large sizes optics.

  18. Multipartitioning Møller-Plesset perturbation theory: Size-extensivity at third order and symmetry conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolik, Zoltán; Szabados, Ágnes

    Multipartitioning multireference many-body perturbation theory (Zaitevskii and Malrieu, Chem. Phys. Lett. 1995, 233, 597) is investigated with regard to symmetry and size-extensivity. We show that the spin-adapted formulation suffers from spatial symmetry breaking and propose a general symmetry-conserving zero-order Hamiltonian. We analyze size-extensivity of various partitionings at the third order and find that extensivity holds if one-particle quantities in the zero-order Hamiltonian are properly chosen. In particular, third order of the spin-adapted and general symmetry-adapted theory prove to be extensive.

  19. Enhanced Spontaneous Emission at Third-Order Dirac Exceptional Points in Inverse-Designed Photonic Crystals.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zin; Pick, Adi; Lončar, Marko; Rodriguez, Alejandro W

    2016-09-01

    We formulate and exploit a computational inverse-design method based on topology optimization to demonstrate photonic crystal structures supporting complex spectral degeneracies. In particular, we discover photonic crystals exhibiting third-order Dirac points formed by the accidental degeneracy of monopolar, dipolar, and quadrupolar modes. We show that, under suitable conditions, these modes can coalesce and form a third-order exceptional point, leading to strong modifications in the spontaneous emission (SE) of emitters, related to the local density of states. We find that SE can be enhanced by a factor of 8 in passive structures, with larger enhancements ∼sqrt[n^{3}] possible at exceptional points of higher order n.

  20. A note on the nonlocal boundary value problem for a third order partial differential equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belakroum, Kheireddine; Ashyralyev, Allaberen; Guezane-Lakoud, Assia

    2016-08-01

    The nonlocal boundary-value problem for a third order partial differential equation d/3u (t ) d t3 +A d/u (t ) d t =f (t ), 0 third order partial differential equations are obtained.

  1. Cascaded second-order contribution to the third-order nonlinear susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolleck, Christian

    2004-05-01

    Cascading of second-order nonlinear effects leads to an effective third-order nonlinearity. In addition to the macroscopic electric field at the intermediate frequencies another term has to be taken into account which is due to the locality of the intermediate polarization sources. Combining the correction terms at the three intermediate frequencies gives rise to a third-order susceptibility tensor, which exhibits the same symmetry properties as an intrinsic susceptibility. This particularly applies to the contributions from the rectified and the second-harmonic fields to the degenerate susceptibility.

  2. Enhanced Spontaneous Emission at Third-Order Dirac Exceptional Points in Inverse-Designed Photonic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zin; Pick, Adi; Lončar, Marko; Rodriguez, Alejandro W.

    2016-09-01

    We formulate and exploit a computational inverse-design method based on topology optimization to demonstrate photonic crystal structures supporting complex spectral degeneracies. In particular, we discover photonic crystals exhibiting third-order Dirac points formed by the accidental degeneracy of monopolar, dipolar, and quadrupolar modes. We show that, under suitable conditions, these modes can coalesce and form a third-order exceptional point, leading to strong modifications in the spontaneous emission (SE) of emitters, related to the local density of states. We find that SE can be enhanced by a factor of 8 in passive structures, with larger enhancements ˜√{n3} possible at exceptional points of higher order n .

  3. Plasma surface figuring of large optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jourdain, R.; Castelli, M.; Morantz, P.; Shore, P.

    2012-04-01

    Fast figuring of large optical components is well known as a highly challenging manufacturing issue. Different manufacturing technologies including: magnetorheological finishing, loose abrasive polishing, ion beam figuring are presently employed. Yet, these technologies are slow and lead to expensive optics. This explains why plasma-based processes operating at atmospheric pressure have been researched as a cost effective means for figure correction of metre scale optical surfaces. In this paper, fast figure correction of a large optical surface is reported using the Reactive Atom Plasma (RAP) process. Achievements are shown following the scaling-up of the RAP figuring process to a 400 mm diameter area of a substrate made of Corning ULE®. The pre-processing spherical surface is characterized by a 3 metres radius of curvature, 2.3 μm PVr (373nm RMS), and 1.2 nm Sq nanometre roughness. The nanometre scale correction figuring system used for this research work is named the HELIOS 1200, and it is equipped with a unique plasma torch which is driven by a dedicated tool path algorithm. Topography map measurements were carried out using a vertical work station instrumented by a Zygo DynaFiz interferometer. Figuring results, together with the processing times, convergence levels and number of iterations, are reported. The results illustrate the significant potential and advantage of plasma processing for figuring correction of large silicon based optical components.

  4. Simultaneous two and three photon resonant enhancement of third-order NLO susceptibility in an azo-dye functionalized polymer film.

    PubMed

    Jerca, Florica Adriana; Jerca, Valentin Victor; Kajzar, Francois; Manea, Ana Maria; Rau, Ileana; Vuluga, Dumitru Mircea

    2013-05-21

    We report the observation of simultaneous two and three photon resonances, enhancing the third-order NLO susceptibility in a thin film of an azo-dye polymer. The possibility of 2-3 orders of magnitude increase in χ((3)) susceptibility is sustained by quantum mechanical calculations. This improves the applications of azo-polymers in all optical signal processing as well as in nonlinear optical imaging.

  5. Higher-dimensional thin-shell wormholes in third-order Lovelock gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Zangeneh, Mahdi Kord; Lobo, Francisco S. N.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we explore asymptotically flat charged thin-shell wormholes of third order Lovelock gravity in higher dimensions, taking into account the cut-and-paste technique. Using the generalized junction conditions, we determine the energy-momentum tensor of these solutions on the shell, and explore the issue of the energy conditions and the amount of normal matter that supports these thin-shell wormholes. Our analysis shows that for negative second-order and positive third-order Lovelock coefficients, there are thin-shell wormhole solutions that respect the weak energy condition. In this case, the amount of normal matter increases as the third-order Lovelock coefficient decreases. We also find novel solutions which possess specific regions where the energy conditions are satisfied for the case of a positive second-order and negative third-order Lovelock coefficients. Finally, a linear stability analysis in higher dimensions around the static solutions is carried out. Considering a specific cold equation of state, we find a wide range of stability regions.

  6. Effects of focusing on third-order nonlinear processes in isotropic media. [laser beam interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorklund, G. C.

    1975-01-01

    Third-order nonlinear processes in isotropic media have been successfully used for tripling the efficiency of high-power laser radiation for the production of tunable and fixed-frequency coherent vacuum UV radiation and for up-conversion of IR radiation. The effects of focusing on two processes of this type are studied theoretically and experimentally.

  7. Third-order Middle Miocene-Early Pliocene depositional sequences in the prograding delta complex of the Pannonian Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vakarcs, G.; Vail, P.R.; Tari, G.; Pogácsás, Gy.; Mattick, R.E.; Szabo, A.

    1994-01-01

    Few studies exist in the geologic literature that show the distribution of seismic facies and depositional sequences within a lacustrine basin. The Pannonian Basin of Central Europe offers a unique opportunity to evaluate the influence of the eustatic signal on lacustrine deposition. Seismic stratigraphie and sedimentological studies indicate that the Middle Miocene-Early Pliocene infill of the transtensional Pannonian Basin was formed by large delta systems. Systematic sequence stratigraphie analysis of 6000 km of reflection seismic data and more than 100 hydrocarbon exploration wells in Hungary allowed the identification of twelve third-order sequence boundaries in the late Neogene sedimentary fill. This number of depositional sequences corresponds to that of the published global eustatic curve for this time period. Furthermore, based on magnetostratigraphic and radiometric data, the ages of these depositional sequences can be tentatively correlated with the global eustatic curve. The Pannonian Basin became isolated from the world sea at the Sarmatian/Pannonian (11.5 Ma) boundary and formed a large lake. The stratal patterns and sedimentary facies of individual systems tracts within the lacustrine sequences display the same characteristics as marine depositional sequences. The relatively low rate of thermal subsidence and the high rate of sediment supply resulted in a good sequence resolution. Within the third-order sequences higher-order sequences can be recognized with an average duration of about 0.1-0.5 Ma. ?? 1994.

  8. Large extinction ratio optical electrowetting shutter.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Ryan D; Underwood, Kenneth; Terrab, Soraya; Watson, Alexander M; Bright, Victor M; Gopinath, Juliet T

    2016-05-01

    A large extinction ratio optical shutter has been demonstrated using electrowetting liquids. The device is based on switching between a liquid-liquid interface curvature that produces total internal reflection and one that does not. The interface radius of curvature can be tuned continuously from 9 mm at 0 V to -45 mm at 26 V. Extinction ratios from 55.8 to 66.5 dB were measured. The device shows promise for ultracold chip-scale atomic clocks.

  9. Third-order thermo-mechanical properties for packs of Platonic solids using statistical micromechanics

    PubMed Central

    Gillman, A.; Amadio, G.; Matouš, K.; Jackson, T. L.

    2015-01-01

    Obtaining an accurate higher order statistical description of heterogeneous materials and using this information to predict effective material behaviour with high fidelity has remained an outstanding problem for many years. In a recent letter, Gillman & Matouš (2014 Phys. Lett. A 378, 3070–3073. ()) accurately evaluated the three-point microstructural parameter that arises in third-order theories and predicted with high accuracy the effective thermal conductivity of highly packed material systems. Expanding this work here, we predict for the first time effective thermo-mechanical properties of granular Platonic solid packs using third-order statistical micromechanics. Systems of impenetrable and penetrable spheres are considered to verify adaptive methods for computing n-point probability functions directly from three-dimensional microstructures, and excellent agreement is shown with simulation. Moreover, a significant shape effect is discovered for the effective thermal conductivity of highly packed composites, whereas a moderate shape effect is exhibited for the elastic constants. PMID:27547103

  10. Enhanced Spontaneous Emission at Third-Order Dirac Exceptional Points in Inverse-Designed Photonic Crystals.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zin; Pick, Adi; Lončar, Marko; Rodriguez, Alejandro W

    2016-09-01

    We formulate and exploit a computational inverse-design method based on topology optimization to demonstrate photonic crystal structures supporting complex spectral degeneracies. In particular, we discover photonic crystals exhibiting third-order Dirac points formed by the accidental degeneracy of monopolar, dipolar, and quadrupolar modes. We show that, under suitable conditions, these modes can coalesce and form a third-order exceptional point, leading to strong modifications in the spontaneous emission (SE) of emitters, related to the local density of states. We find that SE can be enhanced by a factor of 8 in passive structures, with larger enhancements ∼sqrt[n^{3}] possible at exceptional points of higher order n. PMID:27636493

  11. A third-order multistep time discretization for a Chebyshev tau spectral method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vreman, A. W.; Kuerten, J. G. M.

    2016-01-01

    A time discretization scheme based on the third-order backward difference formula has been embedded into a Chebyshev tau spectral method for the Navier-Stokes equations. The time discretization is a variant of the second-order backward scheme proposed by Krasnov et al. (2008) [3]. High-resolution direct numerical simulations of turbulent incompressible channel flow have been performed to compare the backward scheme to the Runge-Kutta scheme proposed by Spalart et al. (1991) [2]. It is shown that the Runge-Kutta scheme leads to a poor convergence of some third-order spatial derivatives in the direct vicinity of the wall, derivatives that represent the diffusion of wall-tangential vorticity. The convergence at the wall is shown to be significantly improved if the backward scheme is applied.

  12. Thermodynamics of asymptotically flat charged black holes in third order Lovelock gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Dehghani, M.H.; Shamirzaie, M.

    2005-12-15

    We present a new class of asymptotically flat charge static solutions in third order Lovelock gravity. These solutions present black hole solutions with two inner and outer event horizons, extreme black holes, or naked singularities provided the parameters of the solutions are chosen suitable. We find that the uncharged asymptotically flat solutions can present black holes with two inner and outer horizons. This kind of solution does not exist in Einstein or Gauss-Bonnet gravity, and it is a special effect in third order Lovelock gravity. We compute temperature, entropy, charge, electric potential, and mass of the black hole solutions, and find that these quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. We also perform a stability analysis by computing the determinant of the Hessian matrix of the mass with respect to its thermodynamic variables in both the canonical and the grand-canonical ensembles, and show that there exists only an intermediate stable phase.

  13. Maxwell's second- and third-order equations of transfer for non-Maxwellian gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baganoff, D.

    1992-01-01

    Condensed algebraic forms for Maxwell's second- and third-order equations of transfer are developed for the case of molecules described by either elastic hard spheres, inverse-power potentials, or by Bird's variable hard-sphere model. These hardly reduced, yet exact, equations provide a new point of origin, when using the moment method, in seeking approximate solutions in the kinetic theory of gases for molecular models that are physically more realistic than that provided by the Maxwell model. An important by-product of the analysis when using these second- and third-order relations is that a clear mathematical connection develops between Bird's variable hard-sphere model and that for the inverse-power potential.

  14. The determination of third order linear models from a seventh order nonlinear jet engine model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalonde, Rick J.; Hartley, Tom T.; De Abreu-Garcia, J. Alex

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented that demonstrate how good reduced-order models can be obtained directly by recursive parameter identification using input/output (I/O) data of high-order nonlinear systems. Three different methods of obtaining a third-order linear model from a seventh-order nonlinear turbojet engine model are compared. The first method is to obtain a linear model from the original model and then reduce the linear model by standard reduction techniques such as residualization and balancing. The second method is to identify directly a third-order linear model by recursive least-squares parameter estimation using I/O data of the original model. The third method is to obtain a reduced-order model from the original model and then linearize the reduced model. Frequency responses are used as the performance measure to evaluate the reduced models. The reduced-order models along with their Bode plots are presented for comparison purposes.

  15. Modeling and simulation of continuous wave velocity radar based on third-order DPLL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, Yan; Zhu, Chen; Hong, Ma

    2015-02-01

    Second-order digital phase-locked-loop (DPLL) is widely used in traditional Continuous wave (CW) velocity radar with poor performance in high dynamic conditions. Using the third-order DPLL can improve the performance. Firstly, the echo signal model of CW radar is given. Secondly, theoretical derivations of the tracking performance in different velocity conditions are given. Finally, simulation model of CW radar is established based on Simulink tool. Tracking performance of the two kinds of DPLL in different acceleration and jerk conditions is studied by this model. The results show that third-order PLL has better performance in high dynamic conditions. This model provides a platform for further research of CW radar.

  16. Axion as a cold dark matter candidate: analysis to third order perturbation for classical axion

    SciTech Connect

    Noh, Hyerim; Hwang, Jai-chan; Park, Chan-Gyung E-mail: jchan@knu.ac.kr

    2015-12-01

    We investigate aspects of axion as a coherently oscillating massive classical scalar field by analyzing third order perturbations in Einstein's gravity in the axion-comoving gauge. The axion fluid has its characteristic pressure term leading to an axion Jeans scale which is cosmologically negligible for a canonical axion mass. Our classically derived axion pressure term in Einstein's gravity is identical to the one derived in the non-relativistic quantum mechanical context in the literature. We present the general relativistic continuity and Euler equations for an axion fluid valid up to third order perturbation. Equations for axion are exactly the same as that of a zero-pressure fluid in Einstein's gravity except for an axion pressure term in the Euler equation. Our analysis includes the cosmological constant.

  17. The third order correction on Hawking radiation and entropy conservation during black hole evaporation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Hao-Peng; Liu, Wen-Biao

    2016-08-01

    Using Parikh-Wilczek tunneling framework, we calculate the tunneling rate from a Schwarzschild black hole under the third order WKB approximation, and then obtain the expressions for emission spectrum and black hole entropy to the third order correction. The entropy contains four terms including the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, the logarithmic term, the inverse area term, and the square of inverse area term. In addition, we analyse the correlation between sequential emissions under this approximation. It is shown that the entropy is conserved during the process of black hole evaporation, which consists with the request of quantum mechanics and implies the information is conserved during this process. We also compare the above result with that of pure thermal spectrum case, and find that the non-thermal correction played an important role.

  18. Divertor with a third-order null of the poloidal field

    SciTech Connect

    Ryutov, D. D.; Umansky, M. V.

    2013-09-15

    A concept and preliminary feasibility analysis of a divertor with the third-order poloidal field null is presented. The third-order null is the point where not only the field itself but also its first and second spatial derivatives are zero. In this case, the separatrix near the null-point has eight branches, and the number of strike-points increases from 2 (as in the standard divertor) to six. It is shown that this magnetic configuration can be created by a proper adjustment of the currents in a set of three divertor coils. If the currents are somewhat different from the required values, the configuration becomes that of three closely spaced first-order nulls. Analytic approach, suitable for a quick orientation in the problem, is used. Potential advantages and disadvantages of this configuration are briefly discussed.

  19. Nonlocal third-order shear deformation plate theory with application to bending and vibration of plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghababaei, Ramin; Reddy, J. N.

    2009-09-01

    The third-order shear deformation plate theory of Reddy [A simple higher-order theory for laminated composite plates, J. Appl. Mech. 51 (1984) 745-752] is reformulated using the nonlocal linear elasticity theory of Eringen. This theory has ability to capture the both small scale effects and quadratic variation of shear strain and consequently shear stress through the plate thickness. Analytical solutions of bending and free vibration of a simply supported rectangular plate are presented using this theory to illustrate the effect of nonlocal theory on deflection and natural frequency of the plates. Finally, the relations between nonlocal third-order, first-order and classical theories are discussed by numerical results.

  20. Transformation properties and third-order aberrations of thin dynamic χ(2) holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloglyadov, E. V.; Stasel'ko, D. I.

    2016-07-01

    The results of a theoretical study of the transformation properties of thin dynamic χ(2) holograms for all frequency mixing versions are generalized, and a general pattern of transformations of reconstructed images (recorded and read at different frequencies) is developed. The principles of ray geometric construction of reconstructed images are determined. The theory of thin dynamic χ(2) holograms is extended to the range of third-order aberrations.

  1. Third-order accurate entropy-stable schemes for initial-boundary-value conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svärd, Magnus

    2012-08-01

    We consider initial-boundary-value conservation laws with the objective to obtain high-order approximations. We study two different approaches to obtain third-order accuracy, local entropy stability and a global bound on the entropy. The results are applicable to, for example the Euler equations of gas dynamics, for which we present numerical results demonstrating the robustness and accuracy of the scheme.

  2. Third-order 2N-storage Runge-Kutta schemes with error control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Mark H.; Kennedy, Christopher A.

    1994-01-01

    A family of four-stage third-order explicit Runge-Kutta schemes is derived that requires only two storage locations and has desirable stability characteristics. Error control is achieved by embedding a second-order scheme within the four-stage procedure. Certain schemes are identified that are as efficient and accurate as conventional embedded schemes of comparable order and require fewer storage locations.

  3. Stationary axisymmetric solutions involving a third order equation irreducible to Painlevé transcendents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gariel, J.; Marcilhacy, G.; Santos, N. O.

    2008-02-01

    We extend the method of separation of variables, studied by Léauté and Marcilhacy [Ann. Inst. Henri Poincare, Sect. A 331, 363 (1979)], to obtain transcendent solutions of the field equations for stationary axisymmetric systems. These solutions depend on transcendent functions satisfying a third order differential equation. For some solutions this equation satisfies the necessary conditions, but not sufficient, to have fixed critical points.

  4. Dynamic properties and third order diffusion coefficients of ions in electrostatic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutselos, Andreas D.

    1997-05-01

    Velocity correlation functions and third order diffusion coefficients of ions moving in a buffer gas under the influence of an electrostatic field are determined via molecular dynamics simulation. For the closed shell system of K+ in Ar using a universal interaction model potential, the general form of the third order correlation functions is found to be monotonically decaying in time except in the cases of <ΔvZ(0)ΔvX(t)2>, <ΔvZ(0)ΔvY(t)2>, and <ΔvZ(0)ΔvZ(t)2>, with Δv(t)=v(t) - and the field in the z direction. These functions acquire positive slope at short times showing enhancement of correlations between instantaneous vz components of the ions and their future kinetic energies or velocity measures. This feature is shown to quantify the dynamics of correlations between velocity components suggested in the past by Ong, Hogan, Lam and Viehland [Phys. Rev. A 45, 3997 (1992)] in order to explain the form of an ion velocity distribution function calculated through a Monte Carlo simulation method. In addition, within a stochastic analysis which establishes a relation between velocity correlation functions and third order diffusion coefficients, only two independent components of the diffusion tensor, Q∥ and Q⊥, are predicted. We thereby calculate the Q⊥ component, which has not been determined so far, over a wide field range. The magnitudes of the resulting third order diffusion coefficients indicate that their contribution to the ion transport in usual drift-tube measurements should be very small.

  5. Chaotic attractors based on unstable dissipative systems via third-order differential equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos-Cantón, E.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present an approach how to yield 1D, 2D and 3D-grid multi-scroll chaotic systems in R3 based on unstable dissipative systems via third-order differential equation. This class of systems is constructed by a switching control law(SCL) changing the equilibrium point of an unstable dissipative system. The switching control law that governs the position of the equilibrium point varies according to the number of scrolls displayed in the attractor.

  6. Buckling analysis of functionally graded nanobeams based on a nonlocal third-order shear deformation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, O.; Jandaghian, A. A.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a general third-order beam theory that accounts for nanostructure-dependent size effects and two-constituent material variation through the nanobeam thickness, i.e., functionally graded material (FGM) beam is presented. The material properties of FG nanobeams are assumed to vary through the thickness according to the power law. A detailed derivation of the equations of motion based on Eringen nonlocal theory using Hamilton's principle is presented, and a closed-form solution is derived for buckling behavior of the new model with various boundary conditions. The nonlocal elasticity theory includes a material length scale parameter that can capture the size effect in a functionally graded material. The proposed model is efficient in predicting the shear effect in FG nanobeams by applying third-order shear deformation theory. The proposed approach is validated by comparing the obtained results with benchmark results available in the literature. In the following, a parametric study is conducted to investigate the influences of the length scale parameter, gradient index, and length-to-thickness ratio on the buckling of FG nanobeams and the improvement on nonlocal third-order shear deformation theory comparing with the classical (local) beam model has been shown. It is found out that length scale parameter is crucial in studying the stability behavior of the nanobeams.

  7. Compensation of nonlinear phase shifts with third-order dispersion in short-pulse fiber amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shian; Kuznetsova, Lyuba; Chong, Andy; Wise, Frank

    2005-06-27

    We show that nonlinear phase shifts and third-order dispersion can compensate each other in short-pulse fiber amplifiers. This compen-sation can be exploited in any implementation of chirped-pulse amplification, with stretching and compression accomplished with diffraction gratings, single-mode fiber, microstructure fiber, fiber Bragg gratings, etc. In particular, we consider chirped-pulse fiber amplifiers at wavelengths for which the fiber dispersion is normal. The nonlinear phase shift accumulated in the amplifier can be compensated by the third-order dispersion of the combination of a fiber stretcher and grating compressor. A numerical model is used to predict the compensation, and experimental results that exhibit the main features of the calculations are presented. In the presence of third-order dispersion, an optimal nonlinear phase shift reduces the pulse duration, and enhances the peak power and pulse contrast compared to the pulse produced in linear propagation. Contrary to common belief, fiber stretchers can perform as well or better than grating stretchers in fiber amplifiers, while offering the major practical advantages of a waveguide medium.

  8. Large aperture adaptive optics for intense lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deneuville, François; Ropert, Laurent; Sauvageot, Paul; Theis, Sébastien

    2015-05-01

    ISP SYSTEM has developed a range of large aperture electro-mechanical deformable mirrors (DM) suitable for ultra short pulsed intense lasers. The design of the MD-AME deformable mirror is based on force application on numerous locations thanks to electromechanical actuators driven by stepper motors. DM design and assembly method have been adapted to large aperture beams and the performances were evaluated on a first application for a beam with a diameter of 250mm at 45° angle of incidence. A Strehl ratio above 0.9 was reached for this application. Simulations were correlated with measurements on optical bench and the design has been validated by calculation for very large aperture (up to Ø550mm). Optical aberrations up to Zernike order 5 can be corrected with a very low residual error as for actual MD-AME mirror. Amplitude can reach up to several hundreds of μm for low order corrections. Hysteresis is lower than 0.1% and linearity better than 99%. Contrary to piezo-electric actuators, the μ-AME actuators avoid print-through effects and they permit to keep the mirror shape stable even unpowered, providing a high resistance to electro-magnetic pulses. The MD-AME mirrors can be adapted to circular, square or elliptical beams and they are compatible with all dielectric or metallic coatings.

  9. Large extinction ratio optical electrowetting shutter.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Ryan D; Underwood, Kenneth; Terrab, Soraya; Watson, Alexander M; Bright, Victor M; Gopinath, Juliet T

    2016-05-01

    A large extinction ratio optical shutter has been demonstrated using electrowetting liquids. The device is based on switching between a liquid-liquid interface curvature that produces total internal reflection and one that does not. The interface radius of curvature can be tuned continuously from 9 mm at 0 V to -45 mm at 26 V. Extinction ratios from 55.8 to 66.5 dB were measured. The device shows promise for ultracold chip-scale atomic clocks. PMID:27137579

  10. Optical encryption for large-sized images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanpei, Takuho; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Kakue, Takashi; Endo, Yutaka; Hirayama, Ryuji; Hiyama, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Satoki; Nagahama, Yuki; Sano, Marie; Oikawa, Minoru; Sugie, Takashige; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2016-02-01

    We propose an optical encryption framework that can encrypt and decrypt large-sized images beyond the size of the encrypted image using our two methods: random phase-free method and scaled diffraction. In order to record the entire image information on the encrypted image, the large-sized images require the random phase to widely diffuse the object light over the encrypted image; however, the random phase gives rise to the speckle noise on the decrypted images, and it may be difficult to recognize the decrypted images. In order to reduce the speckle noise, we apply our random phase-free method to the framework. In addition, we employ scaled diffraction that calculates light propagation between planes with different sizes by changing the sampling rates.

  11. Soft X-Ray Microscopy at HZB: Zone Plate Development and Imaging Using the Third Order of Diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehbein, S.; Guttmann, P.; Werner, S.; Schneider, G.

    2011-09-01

    The Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) operates a transmission x-ray microscope (TXM) in the soft x-ray photon energy range with an energy resolution up to E/ΔE = 104 [1]. An approach to achieve ultrahigh spatial resolution with conventional, standard zone plate optics is to employ higher orders of diffraction of the zone plate objective [2]. In this paper, we demonstrate that 11-nm lines and spaces of a multilayer test structure are clearly resolved by the x-ray microscope using the third order of diffraction of a zone plate objective with 20-nm outermost zone width. The disadvantage of high-order imaging is an about one order of magnitude lower diffraction efficiency of the used zone plates employed in the third order compared to the first order of diffraction. In addition, the measured background signal in the TXM images is no longer negligible. Therefore, we worked on the fabrication of zone plates with sub-20-nm outermost zone width to increase the spatial resolution in the first order of diffraction. A new high-resolution 100-keV e-beam lithography system from VISTEC, which was recently installed at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, makes these developments possible. Initial results on zone plates with an outermost zone width down to 15 nm exposed with the new e-beam system are presented. Furthermore, the contrast transfer function of the transmission x-ray microscope operating in partial coherence mode is measured by using the first and third diffraction order of the zone plate objective.

  12. Soft X-Ray Microscopy at HZB: Zone Plate Development and Imaging Using the Third Order of Diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Rehbein, S.; Guttmann, P.; Werner, S.; Schneider, G.

    2011-09-09

    The Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) operates a transmission x-ray microscope (TXM) in the soft x-ray photon energy range with an energy resolution up to E/{Delta}E = 10{sup 4}. An approach to achieve ultrahigh spatial resolution with conventional, standard zone plate optics is to employ higher orders of diffraction of the zone plate objective. In this paper, we demonstrate that 11-nm lines and spaces of a multilayer test structure are clearly resolved by the x-ray microscope using the third order of diffraction of a zone plate objective with 20-nm outermost zone width. The disadvantage of high-order imaging is an about one order of magnitude lower diffraction efficiency of the used zone plates employed in the third order compared to the first order of diffraction. In addition, the measured background signal in the TXM images is no longer negligible. Therefore, we worked on the fabrication of zone plates with sub-20-nm outermost zone width to increase the spatial resolution in the first order of diffraction. A new high-resolution 100-keV e-beam lithography system from VISTEC, which was recently installed at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, makes these developments possible. Initial results on zone plates with an outermost zone width down to 15 nm exposed with the new e-beam system are presented. Furthermore, the contrast transfer function of the transmission x-ray microscope operating in partial coherence mode is measured by using the first and third diffraction order of the zone plate objective.

  13. Optical Design for Extremely Large Telescope Adaptive Optics Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, B J

    2003-11-26

    Designing an adaptive optics (AO) system for extremely large telescopes (ELT's) will present new optical engineering challenges. Several of these challenges are addressed in this work, including first-order design of multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) systems, pyramid wavefront sensors (PWFS's), and laser guide star (LGS) spot elongation. MCAO systems need to be designed in consideration of various constraints, including deformable mirror size and correction height. The y,{bar y} method of first-order optical design is a graphical technique that uses a plot with marginal and chief ray heights as coordinates; the optical system is represented as a segmented line. This method is shown to be a powerful tool in designing MCAO systems. From these analyses, important conclusions about configurations are derived. PWFS's, which offer an alternative to Shack-Hartmann (SH) wavefront sensors (WFS's), are envisioned as the workhorse of layer-oriented adaptive optics. Current approaches use a 4-faceted glass pyramid to create a WFS analogous to a quad-cell SH WFS. PWFS's and SH WFS's are compared and some newly-considered similarities and PWFS advantages are presented. Techniques to extend PWFS's are offered: First, PWFS's can be extended to more pixels in the image by tiling pyramids contiguously. Second, pyramids, which are difficult to manufacture, can be replaced by less expensive lenslet arrays. An approach is outlined to convert existing SH WFS's to PWFS's for easy evaluation of PWFS's. Also, a demonstration of PWFS's in sensing varying amounts of an aberration is presented. For ELT's, the finite altitude and finite thickness of LGS's means that the LGS will appear elongated from the viewpoint of subapertures not directly under the telescope. Two techniques for dealing with LGS spot elongation in SH WFS's are presented. One method assumes that the laser will be pulsed and uses a segmented micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) to track the LGS light subaperture by

  14. Second-order and third-order elastic properties of diamond: An ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerc, Daryl G.; Ledbetter, Hassel

    2005-10-01

    Diamond's second-order elastic properties, and several third-order properties associated with uniform deformation, were calculated using ab initio all-electron density-functional theory. The predicted second-order elastic properties and equilibrium lattice parameter, in units of GPa and nm, are c11=1043(5), c12=128(5), c44=534(17), bulk modulus B=433(5), shear modulus G=502(10), Poisson ratio μ=0.082(5), and a=0.35569(2), where the parenthetic number is the uncertainty. The second-order force constants, in units of GPa, are kI=3843(108), kII=2346(17), kIII=2847(35), and kIV=5635(45). Here, subscripts I IV denote four strains whose tensor elements are [ɛ, ɛ, ɛ, 0, 0, 0], [ɛ, ɛ, 0, 0, 0, 0], [ɛ, ɛ, -ɛ, 0, 0, 0], and [ɛ, ɛ, ɛ, ɛ, ɛ, ɛ], respectively, using 6-component notation in the format [ɛ1, ɛ2, ɛ3, ɛ4, ɛ5, ɛ6]. Predicted inelastic properties include the third-order force constant corresponding to uniform dilation gI=-55,000(3,500) GPa, the bulk-modulus pressure derivative ∂B/∂P=4.7(3), and the overall Gruneisen parameter γG=0.85(15). Both our second-order and third-order properties agree well with measured values obtained by ultrasonics and by Raman spectroscopy.

  15. Beyond pairs: definition and interpretation of third-order structure in spatial point patterns.

    PubMed

    Kaito, Chiho; Dieckmann, Ulf; Sasaki, Akira; Takasu, Fugo

    2015-05-01

    Spatial distributions of biological species are an important source of information for understanding local interactions at the scale of individuals. Technological advances have made it easier to measure these distributions as spatial point patterns, specifying the locations of individuals. Extensive attention has been devoted to analyzing the second-order structure of such point patterns by focusing on pairs of individuals, and it is well known that the local crowdedness of individuals can thus be quantified. Statistical measures such as a point pattern׳s pair correlation function or Ripley׳s K function show whether a given point pattern is clustered (excess of short-distance pairs) or overdispersed (shortage of short-distance pairs). These notions are naturally defined in comparison with control patterns exhibiting complete spatial randomness, i.e., an absence of any spatial structure. However, there is no rational reason why the analysis of point patterns should stop at the second order. In this paper, we focus on triplets of individuals in an attempt to quantify and interpret the third-order structure of a point pattern. We demonstrate that point patterns with "bandedness", in which individuals are primarily distributed within bands, can be detected by an excess of thinner triplets at a characteristic spatial scale linked to the band׳s width. In this context, we show how the generation of control patterns as a reference for gauging a test pattern׳s triplet frequencies is critical for defining and interpreting the third-order structure of point patterns. Since perfect information on a point pattern׳s second-order structure typically suffices for its unique reconstruction (up to translation, rotation, and reflection), we conjecture that it is essential to minimally coarse-grain such second-order information before using it to generate control patterns for identifying a point pattern׳s third-order structure. We recommend the further exploration of this

  16. Dynamical Tangles in Third-Order Oscillator with Single Jump Function

    PubMed Central

    Petržela, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    This contribution brings a deep and detailed study of the dynamical behavior associated with nonlinear oscillator described by a single third-order differential equation with scalar jump nonlinearity. The relative primitive geometry of the vector field allows making an exhaustive numerical analysis of its possible solutions, visualizations of the invariant manifolds, and basins of attraction as well as proving the existence of chaotic motion by using the concept of both Shilnikov theorems. The aim of this paper is also to complete, carry out and link the previous works on simple Newtonian dynamics, and answer the question how individual types of the phenomenon evolve with time via understandable notes. PMID:25544951

  17. On scaling properties of crossing the third-order resonance in particle accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.; Pang, X.; Jing, Y.; Luo, T.; Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2011-12-01

    We study effects of charged particle beams crossing a third-order resonance in an accelerator. The distortion of invariant torus during the resonance crossing is used to set 20% emittance growth or 2.5% of trap fraction as the critical resonance strength. We find a simple scaling law for the critical resonance strength vs the tune ramp rate and the initial emittance. The scaling law can be derived by solving Hamilton's equation of motion with stationary phase condition. Such scaling law can be used to evaluate the performance in high power accelerators, such as the FFAG and cyclotron.

  18. X-ray third-order nonlinear dynamical diffraction in a crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Balyan, M. K.

    2015-12-15

    The dynamic diffraction of an X-ray wave in a crystal with a third-order nonlinear response to external field strength has been theoretically investigated. General equations for the wave propagation in crystal and nonlinear Takagi equations for both ideal and deformed crystals are derived. Integrals of motion are determined for the nonlinear problem of dynamic diffraction. The results of the numerical calculations of reflectivity in the symmetric Laue geometry for an incident plane wave and the intensity distributions on the output crystal surface for a point source are reported as an example.

  19. Third-order TRANSPORT: A computer program for designing charged particle beam transport systems

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, D.C.; Brown, K.L.; Rothacker, F.

    1995-05-01

    TRANSPORT has been in existence in various evolutionary versions since 1963. The present version of TRANSPORT is a first-, second-, and third-order matrix multiplication computer program intended for the design of static-magnetic beam transport systems. This report discusses the following topics on TRANSPORT: Mathematical formulation of TRANSPORT; input format for TRANSPORT; summaries of TRANSPORT elements; preliminary specifications; description of the beam; physical elements; other transformations; assembling beam lines; operations; variation of parameters for fitting; and available constraints -- the FIT command.

  20. Third-order transport properties of ion-swarms from mobility and diffusion coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutselos, Andreas D.

    2005-08-01

    A method is presented for the calculation of third order transport properties of ions drifting in gases under the action of an electrostatic field with the use of mobility and ion-diffusion coefficients. The approach is based on a three-temperature treatment of the Boltzmann equation for the ion transport and follows the development of generalized Einstein relations (GER), between diffusion coefficients and mobility. The whole procedure is tested by comparison with numerical and molecular dynamics simulation results for three available alkali ion-noble gas systems. Extension to systems involving internal degrees of freedom and inelastic collisions is shown to follow the development of molecular GER.

  1. Solitonic dynamics and excitations of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with third-order dispersion in non-Hermitian PT-symmetric potentials

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yong; Yan, Zhenya

    2016-01-01

    Solitons are of the important significant in many fields of nonlinear science such as nonlinear optics, Bose-Einstein condensates, plamas physics, biology, fluid mechanics, and etc. The stable solitons have been captured not only theoretically and experimentally in both linear and nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equations in the presence of non-Hermitian potentials since the concept of the parity-time -symmetry was introduced in 1998. In this paper, we present novel bright solitons of the NLS equation with third-order dispersion in some complex -symmetric potentials (e.g., physically relevant -symmetric Scarff-II-like and harmonic-Gaussian potentials). We find stable nonlinear modes even if the respective linear -symmetric phases are broken. Moreover, we also use the adiabatic changes of the control parameters to excite the initial modes related to exact solitons to reach stable nonlinear modes. The elastic interactions of two solitons are exhibited in the third-order NLS equation with -symmetric potentials. Our results predict the dynamical phenomena of soliton equations in the presence of third-order dispersion and -symmetric potentials arising in nonlinear fiber optics and other physically relevant fields. PMID:27002543

  2. Re-tracing the Path to Third Order Knowledge: How Did We Get Here and Can We Move On?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dowd, Mina

    2001-01-01

    Argues that policy-oriented educational research produced a new kind of knowledge: third order knowledge. Defines third-order knowledge as knowledge of and for experts whose purpose is the legislation and regulation of everyday lives. Proposes that expert knowledge motivates a critical analysis contextualized in a historical study of…

  3. Regenerator performance in a Vuilleumier refrigerator compared with a third-order numerical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, P. E.; Radebaugh, Ray; Gary, John

    1991-01-01

    A three-stage Vuilleumier refrigerator was used to measure the performance of various third stage regenerators. The refrigerator operates between 2.5 and 5.0 Hz and, depending on the material used in the third stage regenerator, achieves temperatures of 8 to 20 K at the cold end of the third stage. This paper presents a comparison of regenerator performance for four regenerator materials: 229 micron diameter spheres of Pb(+)5 pct Sb, 229 micron diameter spheres of brass, 216 micron irregularly-shaped GdRh powder, and a mixture of 229 microns and 762 microns diameter spheres of Pb(+5) pct Sb. The experimental results are compared with a first-order model that neglects the void volume within the regenerator and with a third-order model that considers the effect of pressure oscillations in the regenerator void volume. Experimental results indicate that regenerator losses are dominated by the pressure oscillation in the void volume rather than the mass flow through the temperature gradient in the regenerator. These results are consistent with the third-order numerical model. This model shows that the heat capacity of the gas in the void space as well as the heat capacity of the matrix influences the regenerator performance.

  4. Spacetimes with longitudinal and angular magnetic fields in third order Lovelock gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Dehghani, M. H.; Bostani, N.

    2007-04-15

    We obtain two new classes of magnetic solutions in third order Lovelock gravity. The first class of solutions yields an (n+1)-dimensional spacetime with a longitudinal magnetic field generated by a static source. We generalize this class of solutions to the case of spinning magnetic strings with one or more rotation parameters. These solutions have no curvature singularity and no horizons, but have a conic geometry. For the spinning string, when one or more rotation parameters are nonzero, the string has a net electric charge which is proportional to the magnitude of the rotation parameters, while the static string has no net electric charge. The second class of solutions yields a spacetime with an angular magnetic field. These solutions have no curvature singularity, no horizon, and no conical singularity. Although the second class of solutions may be made electrically charged by a boost transformation, the transformed solutions do not present new spacetimes. Finally, we use the counterterm method in third order Lovelock gravity and compute the conserved quantities of these spacetimes.

  5. Thermodynamics of rotating charged black branes in third order lovelock gravity and the counterterm method

    SciTech Connect

    Dehghani, M.H.; Mann, R.B.

    2006-05-15

    We generalize the quasilocal definition of the stress-energy tensor of Einstein gravity to the case of third order Lovelock gravity, by introducing the surface terms that make the action well-defined. We also introduce the boundary counterterm that removes the divergences of the action and the conserved quantities of the solutions of third order Lovelock gravity with zero curvature boundary at constant t and r. Then, we compute the charged rotating solutions of this theory in n+1 dimensions with a complete set of allowed rotation parameters. These charged rotating solutions present black hole solutions with two inner and outer event horizons, extreme black holes or naked singularities provided the parameters of the solutions are suitably chosen. We compute temperature, entropy, charge, electric potential, mass and angular momenta of the black hole solutions, and find that these quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. We find a Smarr-type formula and perform a stability analysis by computing the heat capacity and the determinant of Hessian matrix of mass with respect to its thermodynamic variables in both the canonical and the grand-canonical ensembles, and show that the system is thermally stable. This is commensurate with the fact that there is no Hawking-Page phase transition for black objects with zero curvature horizon.

  6. Direct Measurement of Large, Diffuse, Optical Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saif, Babak N.; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Feinberg, Lee; Wyant, J. C.; Atkinson, C.

    2004-01-01

    Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry (DSPI) is a well-established method for the measurement of diffuse objects in experimental mechanics. DSPIs are phase shifting interferometers. Three or four bucket temporal phase shifting algorithms are commonly used to provide phase shifting. These algorithms are sensitive to vibrations and can not be used to measure large optical structures far away from the interferometer. In this research a simultaneous phase shifted interferometer, PhaseCam product of 4D Technology Corporation in Tucson Arizona, is modified to be a Simultaneous phase shifted Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometer (SDSPI). Repeatability, dynamic range, and accuracy of the SDSPI are characterized by measuring a 5 cm x 5 cm carbon fiber coupon.

  7. Third-order perturbation theory for van der Waals interaction coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Tang Liyan; Shi Tingyun; Yan Zongchao; Mitroy, J.

    2011-11-15

    The third-order expression for the dispersion interaction between two atoms is written as a sum over lists of transition matrix elements. Particular attention is given to the C{sub 9}/R{sup 9} interaction which occurs in the homonuclear case when one atom is in an S state and the other is in a P state. Numerical values of the C{sub 9} coefficient are given for the homonuclear alkali-metal dimers. The size of the C{sub 9}:C{sub 3} dispersion coefficient ratio increases for the heavier alkali-metal atoms. The C{sub 11} and C{sub 13} coefficients between two helium atoms and lithium atoms in their ground states are also given.

  8. Effects of upstream-biased third-order space correction terms on multidimensional Crowley advection schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlesinger, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The impact of upstream-biased corrections for third-order spatial truncation error on the stability and phase error of the two-dimensional Crowley combined advective scheme with the cross-space term included is analyzed, putting primary emphasis on phase error reduction. The various versions of the Crowley scheme are formally defined, and their stability and phase error characteristics are intercompared using a linear Fourier component analysis patterned after Fromm (1968, 1969). The performances of the schemes under prototype simulation conditions are tested using time-dependent numerical experiments which advect an initially cone-shaped passive scalar distribution in each of three steady nondivergent flows. One such flow is solid rotation, while the other two are diagonal uniform flow and a strongly deformational vortex.

  9. A fluctuation method to calculate the third order elastic constants in crystalline solids

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zimu; Qu, Jianmin

    2015-05-28

    This paper derives exact expressions of the isothermal third order elastic constants (TOE) in crystalline solids in terms of the kinetic and potential energies of the system. These expressions reveal that the TOE constants consist of a Born component and a relaxation component. The Born component is simply the third derivative of the system's potential energy with respect to the deformation, while the relaxation component is related to the non-uniform rearrangements of the atoms when the system is subject to a macroscopic deformation. Further, based on the general expressions derived here, a direct (fluctuation) method of computing the isothermal TOE constants is developed. Numerical examples of using this fluctuation method are given to compute the TOE constants of single crystal iron.

  10. Second- and third-order upwind difference schemes for hyperbolic conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, J. Y.

    1984-01-01

    Second- and third-order two time-level five-point explicit upwind-difference schemes are described for the numerical solution of hyperbolic systems of conservation laws and applied to the Euler equations of inviscid gas dynamics. Nonliner smoothing techniques are used to make the schemes total variation diminishing. In the method both hyperbolicity and conservation properties of the hyperbolic conservation laws are combined in a very natural way by introducing a normalized Jacobian matrix of the hyperbolic system. Entropy satisfying shock transition operators which are consistent with the upwind differencing are locally introduced when transonic shock transition is detected. Schemes thus constructed are suitable for shockcapturing calculations. The stability and the global order of accuracy of the proposed schemes are examined. Numerical experiments for the inviscid Burgers equation and the compressible Euler equations in one and two space dimensions involving various situations of aerodynamic interest are included and compared.

  11. Problems in simulating the stratocumulus-topped boundary layer with a third-order closure model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moeng, C.-H.; Randall, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The Andre et al. (1976, 1978) third-order closure model, in which the time rate of change terms, the relaxation and rapid effects for pressure-related terms, and the clipping approximation are used along with the quasi-normal closure, is invoked in the study of turbulence in a cloudy layer that is radiatively cooled from above. A spurious oscillation whose greatest amplitude lies near the inversion is shown by analysis to arise from the mean gradient and buoyancy terms of the triple-moment equations. An attempt is made to damp the oscillation through the introduction of diffusion terms into the triple-moment equations. The results obtained are noted to be sensitive to the ad hoc eddy coefficient applied in the third-moment equations.

  12. Design constraints for third-order PLL nodes in master-slave clock distribution networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, A. M.; Rigon, A. G.; Ferreira, A. A.; Piqueira, José R. C.

    2010-09-01

    Clock signal distribution in telecommunication commercial systems usually adopts a master-slave architecture, with a precise time basis generator as a master and phase-locked loops (PLLs) as slaves. In the majority of the networks, second-order PLLs are adopted due to their simplicity and stability. Nevertheless, in some applications better transient responses are necessary and, consequently, greater order PLLs need to be used, in spite of the possibility of bifurcations and chaotic attractors. Here a master-slave network with third-order PLLs is analyzed and conditions for the stability of the synchronous state are derived, providing design constraints for the node parameters, in order to guarantee stability and reachability of the synchronous state for the whole network. Numerical simulations are carried out in order to confirm the analytical results.

  13. Spherically Symmetric Gravitational Collapse of a Dust Cloud in Third-Order Lovelock Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Kang; Yang, Zhan-Ying; Zou, De-Cheng; Yue, Rui-Hong

    We investigate the spherically symmetric gravitational collapse of an incoherent dust cloud by considering a LTB-type spacetime in third-order Lovelock Gravity without cosmological constant, and give three families of LTB-like solutions which separately corresponding to hyperbolic, parabolic and elliptic. Notice that the contribution of high-order curvature corrections have a profound influence on the nature of the singularity, and the global structure of spacetime changes drastically from the analogous general relativistic case. Interestingly, the presence of high order Lovelock terms leads to the formation of massive, naked and timelike singularities in the 7D spacetime, which is disallowed in general relativity. Moveover, we point out that the naked singularities in the 7D case may be gravitational weak therefore may not be a serious threat to the cosmic censorship hypothesis, while the naked singularities in the D ≥ 8 inhomogeneous collapse violate the cosmic censorship hypothesis seriously.

  14. Third order wave equation in Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau theory: Massive case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markov, Yu. A.; Markova, M. A.; Bondarenko, A. I.

    2015-11-01

    Within the framework of the Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau (DKP) formalism a more consistent approach to the derivation of the third order wave equation obtained earlier by M. Nowakowski [1] on the basis of heuristic considerations is suggested. For this purpose an additional algebraic object, the so-called q -commutator (q is a primitive cubic root of unity) and a new set of matrices ημ instead of the original matrices βμ of the DKP algebra are introduced. It is shown that in terms of these ημ matrices we have succeeded in reducing a procedure of the construction of cubic root of the third order wave operator to a few simple algebraic transformations and to a certain operation of the passage to the limit z →q , where z is some complex deformation parameter entering into the definition of the η -matrices. A corresponding generalization of the result obtained to the case of the interaction with an external electromagnetic field introduced through the minimal coupling scheme is carried out and a comparison with M. Nowakowski's result is performed. A detailed analysis of the general structure for a solution of the first order differential equation for the wave function ψ (x ;z ) is performed and it is shown that the solution is singular in the z →q limit. The application to the problem of construction within the DKP approach of the path integral representation in parasuperspace for the propagator of a massive vector particle in a background gauge field is discussed.

  15. Regional Recovery of the Disturbing Gravitational Potential from Satellite Observations of First-, Second- and Third-order Radial Derivatives of the Disturbing Gravitational Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, P.; Pitonak, M.; Sprlak, M.

    2015-12-01

    Recently realized gravity-dedicated satellite missions allow for measuring values of scalar, vectorial (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment - GRACE) and second-order tensorial (Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer - GOCE) parameters of the Earth's gravitational potential. Theoretical aspects related to using moving sensors for measuring elements of a third-order gravitational tensor are currently under investigation, e.g. the gravity-dedicated satellite mission OPTIMA (OPTical Interferometry for global Mass change detection from space) should measure third-order derivatives of the Earth's gravitational potential. This contribution investigates regional recovery of the disturbing gravitational potential on the Earth's surface from satellite observations of first-, second- and third-order radial derivatives of the disturbing gravitational potential. Synthetic measurements along a satellite orbit at the altitude of 250 km are synthetized from the global gravitational model EGM2008 and polluted by the Gaussian noise. The process of downward continuation is stabilized by the Tikhonov regularization. Estimated values of the disturbing gravitational potential are compared with the same quantity synthesized directly from EGM2008. Finally, this contribution also discusses merging a regional solution into a global field as a patchwork.

  16. Possibilities of the regional gravity field recovery from first-, second- and third-order radial derivatives of the disturbing gravitational potential measured on moving platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitonak, Martin; Sprlak, Michal; Novak, Pavel; Tenzer, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Recently realized gravity-dedicated satellite missions allow for measuring values of scalar, vectorial (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment - GRACE) and second-order tensorial (Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer - GOCE) parameters of the Earth's gravitational potential. Theoretical aspects related to using moving sensors for measuring elements of the third-order gravitational tensor are currently under investigation, e.g., the gravity field-dedicated satellite mission OPTIMA (OPTical Interferometry for global Mass change detection from space) should measure third-order derivatives of the Earth's gravitational potential. This contribution investigates regional recovery of the disturbing gravitational potential on the Earth's surface from satellite and aerial observations of the first-, second- and third-order radial derivatives of the disturbing gravitational potential. Synthetic measurements along a satellite orbit at the altitude of 250 km and along an aircraft track at the altitude of 10 km are synthetized from the global gravitational model EGM2008 and polluted by the Gaussian noise. The process of downward continuation is stabilized by the Tikhonov regularization. Estimated values of the disturbing gravitational potential are compared with the same quantity synthesized directly from EGM2008.

  17. Azimuthal-Angle Dependence of Charged-Pion-Interferometry Measurements with Respect to Second- and Third-Order Event Planes in Au +Au Collisions at √sNN =200 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Alexander, J.; Aoki, K.; Aramaki, Y.; Atomssa, E. T.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Barish, K. N.; Bassalleck, B.; Basye, A. T.; Bathe, S.; Baublis, V.; Baumann, C.; Bazilevsky, A.; Belikov, S.; Belmont, R.; Bennett, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Bickley, A. A.; Bok, J. S.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Bunce, G.; Butsyk, S.; Camacho, C. M.; Campbell, S.; Chen, C.-H.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choudhury, R. K.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, P.; Chvala, O.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cole, B. A.; Connors, M.; Constantin, P.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Dahms, T.; Dairaku, S.; Danchev, I.; Das, K.; Datta, A.; David, G.; Denisov, A.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dietzsch, O.; Dion, A.; Donadelli, M.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Dutta, D.; Edwards, S.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Ellinghaus, F.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Esumi, S.; Fadem, B.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Fraenkel, Z.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fujiwara, K.; Fukao, Y.; Fusayasu, T.; Garishvili, I.; Glenn, A.; Gong, H.; Gonin, M.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gunji, T.; Gustafsson, H.-Å.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamblen, J.; Han, R.; Hanks, J.; Hartouni, E. P.; Haslum, E.; Hayano, R.; He, X.; Heffner, M.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Hill, J. C.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzmann, W.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hornback, D.; Huang, S.; Ichihara, T.; Ichimiya, R.; Ide, J.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Inaba, M.; Isenhower, D.; Ishihara, M.; Isobe, T.; Issah, M.; Isupov, A.; Ivanischev, D.; Jacak, B. V.; Jia, J.; Jin, J.; Johnson, B. M.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kajihara, F.; Kametani, S.; Kamihara, N.; Kamin, J.; Kang, J. H.; Kapustinsky, J.; Karatsu, K.; Kawall, D.; Kawashima, M.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Kempel, T.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kijima, K. M.; Kim, B. I.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.; Kim, E.-J.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y.-J.; Kinney, E.; Kiriluk, K.; Kiss, Á.; Kistenev, E.; Kochenda, L.; Komkov, B.; Konno, M.; Koster, J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kozlov, A.; Král, A.; Kravitz, A.; Kunde, G. J.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G. S.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, J.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Leitch, M. J.; Leite, M. A. L.; Leitner, E.; Lenzi, B.; Li, X.; Liebing, P.; Linden Levy, L. A.; Liška, T.; Litvinenko, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, M. X.; Love, B.; Luechtenborg, R.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Malakhov, A.; Malik, M. D.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Mao, Y.; Masui, H.; Matathias, F.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; Means, N.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Mikeš, P.; Miki, K.; Milov, A.; Mishra, M.; Mitchell, J. T.; Mohanty, A. K.; Morino, Y.; Morreale, A.; Morrison, D. P.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Murata, J.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagle, J. L.; Naglis, M.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Newby, J.; Nguyen, M.; Niida, T.; Nouicer, R.; Nyanin, A. S.; O'Brien, E.; Oda, S. X.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Oka, M.; Okada, K.; Onuki, Y.; Oskarsson, A.; Ouchida, M.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, I. H.; Park, J.; Park, S. K.; Park, W. J.; Pate, S. F.; Pei, H.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, H.; Peresedov, V.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pisani, R. P.; Proissl, M.; Purschke, M. L.; Purwar, A. K.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Roach, D.; Roche, G.; Rolnick, S. D.; Rosati, M.; Rosen, C. A.; Rosendahl, S. S. E.; Rosnet, P.; Rukoyatkin, P.; Ružička, P.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sakashita, K.; Samsonov, V.; Sano, S.; Sato, T.; Sawada, S.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Semenov, A. Yu.; Seto, R.; Sharma, D.; Shein, I.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Sim, K. S.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Slunečka, M.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Sourikova, I. V.; Sparks, N. A.; Stankus, P. W.; Stenlund, E.; Stoll, S. P.; Sugitate, T.; Sukhanov, A.; Sziklai, J.; Takagui, E. M.; Taketani, A.; Tanabe, R.; Tanaka, Y.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tarján, P.; Themann, H.; Thomas, T. L.; Todoroki, T.; Togawa, M.; Toia, A.; Tomášek, L.; Torii, H.; Towell, R. S.; Tserruya, I.; Tsuchimoto, Y.; Vale, C.; Valle, H.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vazquez-Zambrano, E.; Veicht, A.; Velkovska, J.; Vértesi, R.; Vinogradov, A. A.; Virius, M.; Vrba, V.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Wang, X. R.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Wei, F.; Wei, R.; Wessels, J.; White, S. N.; Winter, D.; Wood, J. P.; Woody, C. L.; Wright, R. M.; Wysocki, M.; Xie, W.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yamaura, K.; Yang, R.; Yanovich, A.; Ying, J.; Yokkaichi, S.; You, Z.; Young, G. R.; Younus, I.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zhang, C.; Zhou, S.; Zolin, L.; Phenix Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    Charged-pion-interferometry measurements were made with respect to the second- and third-order event plane for Au +Au collisions at √sNN =200 GeV. A strong azimuthal-angle dependence of the extracted Gaussian-source radii was observed with respect to both the second- and third-order event planes. The results for the second-order dependence indicate that the initial eccentricity is reduced during the medium evolution, which is consistent with previous results. In contrast, the results for the third-order dependence indicate that the initial triangular shape is significantly reduced and potentially reversed by the end of the medium evolution, and that the third-order oscillations are largely dominated by the dynamical effects from triangular flow.

  18. Azimuthal-angle dependence of charged-pion-interferometry measurements with respect to second- and third-order event planes in Au+Au collisions at √[S(NN)]=200  GeV.

    PubMed

    Adare, A; Afanasiev, S; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Al-Bataineh, H; Alexander, J; Aoki, K; Aramaki, Y; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Barish, K N; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Belmont, R; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Bickley, A A; Bok, J S; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Butsyk, S; Camacho, C M; Campbell, S; Chen, C-H; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cole, B A; Connors, M; Constantin, P; Csanád, M; Csörgő, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Danchev, I; Das, K; Datta, A; David, G; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Edwards, S; Efremenko, Y V; Ellinghaus, F; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fusayasu, T; Garishvili, I; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gonin, M; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Gunji, T; Gustafsson, H-Å; Haggerty, J S; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Han, R; Hanks, J; Hartouni, E P; Haslum, E; Hayano, R; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Hill, J C; Hohlmann, M; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hornback, D; Huang, S; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Ide, J; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Isobe, T; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Ivanischev, D; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jin, J; Johnson, B M; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kajihara, F; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kamin, J; Kang, J H; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kawall, D; Kawashima, M; Kazantsev, A V; Kempel, T; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kim, B I; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, E; Kim, E-J; Kim, S H; Kim, Y-J; Kinney, E; Kiriluk, K; Kiss, A; Kistenev, E; Kochenda, L; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Král, A; Kravitz, A; Kunde, G J; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Leitner, E; Lenzi, B; Li, X; Liebing, P; Linden Levy, L A; Liška, T; Litvinenko, A; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Love, B; Luechtenborg, R; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; Means, N; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mignerey, A C; Mikeš, P; Miki, K; Milov, A; Mishra, M; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Moukhanova, T V; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Niida, T; Nouicer, R; Nyanin, A S; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Oka, M; Okada, K; Onuki, Y; Oskarsson, A; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, I H; Park, J; Park, S K; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Peng, J-C; Pereira, H; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Qu, H; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Rosen, C A; Rosendahl, S S E; Rosnet, P; Rukoyatkin, P; Ružička, P; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakashita, K; Samsonov, V; Sano, S; Sato, T; Sawada, S; Sedgwick, K; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Semenov, A Yu; Seto, R; Sharma, D; Shein, I; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Sim, K S; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Slunečka, M; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Sparks, N A; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sukhanov, A; Sziklai, J; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tanabe, R; Tanaka, Y; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarafdar, S; Taranenko, A; Tarján, P; Themann, H; Thomas, T L; Todoroki, T; Togawa, M; Toia, A; Tomášek, L; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Vale, C; Valle, H; van Hecke, H W; Vazquez-Zambrano, E; Veicht, A; Velkovska, J; Vértesi, R; Vinogradov, A A; Virius, M; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, Y; Wei, F; Wei, R; Wessels, J; White, S N; Winter, D; Wood, J P; Woody, C L; Wright, R M; Wysocki, M; Xie, W; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yamaura, K; Yang, R; Yanovich, A; Ying, J; Yokkaichi, S; You, Z; Young, G R; Younus, I; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zhang, C; Zhou, S; Zolin, L

    2014-06-01

    Charged-pion-interferometry measurements were made with respect to the second- and third-order event plane for Au+Au collisions at sqrt[s_{NN}]=200  GeV. A strong azimuthal-angle dependence of the extracted Gaussian-source radii was observed with respect to both the second- and third-order event planes. The results for the second-order dependence indicate that the initial eccentricity is reduced during the medium evolution, which is consistent with previous results. In contrast, the results for the third-order dependence indicate that the initial triangular shape is significantly reduced and potentially reversed by the end of the medium evolution, and that the third-order oscillations are largely dominated by the dynamical effects from triangular flow.

  19. Third-order nonlinear and linear time-dependent dynamical diffraction of X-rays in crystals.

    PubMed

    Balyan, Minas K

    2016-07-01

    For the first time the third-order nonlinear time-dependent Takagi's equations of X-rays in crystals are obtained and investigated. The third-order nonlinear and linear time-dependent dynamical diffraction of X-rays spatially restricted in the diffraction plane pulses in crystals is investigated theoretically. A method of solving the linear and the third-order nonlinear time-dependent Takagi's equations is proposed. Based on this method, results of analytical and numerical calculations for both linear and nonlinear diffraction cases are presented and compared.

  20. Parallel optical memories for very large databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitkas, Pericles A.; Berra, P. B.

    1993-02-01

    The steady increase in volume of current and future databases dictates the development of massive secondary storage devices that allow parallel access and exhibit high I/O data rates. Optical memories, such as parallel optical disks and holograms, can satisfy these requirements because they combine high recording density and parallel one- or two-dimensional output. Several configurations for database storage involving different types of optical memory devices are investigated. All these approaches include some level of optical preprocessing in the form of data filtering in an attempt to reduce the amount of data per transaction that reach the electronic front-end.

  1. Decomposition of Polarimetric SAR Images Based on Second- and Third-order Statics Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, S.; Hensley, S.

    2012-12-01

    There are many papers concerning the research of the decomposition of polerimetric SAR imagery. Most of them are based on second-order statics analysis that Freeman and Durden [1] suggested for the reflection symmetry condition that implies that the co-polarization and cross-polarization correlations are close to zero. Since then a number of improvements and enhancements have been proposed to better understand the underlying backscattering mechanisms present in polarimetric SAR images. For example, Yamaguchi et al. [2] added the helix component into Freeman's model and developed a 4 component scattering model for the non-reflection symmetry condition. In addition, Arii et al. [3] developed an adaptive model-based decomposition method that could estimate both the mean orientation angle and a degree of randomness for the canopy scattering for each pixel in a SAR image without the reflection symmetry condition. This purpose of this research is to develop a new decomposition method based on second- and third-order statics analysis to estimate the surface, dihedral, volume and helix scattering components from polarimetric SAR images without the specific assumptions concerning the model for the volume scattering. In addition, we evaluate this method by using both simulation and real UAVSAR data and compare this method with other methods. We express the volume scattering component using the wire formula and formulate the relationship equation between backscattering echo and each component such as the surface, dihedral, volume and helix via linearization based on second- and third-order statics. In third-order statics, we calculate the correlation of the correlation coefficients for each polerimetric data and get one new relationship equation to estimate each polarization component such as HH, VV and VH for the volume. As a result, the equation for the helix component in this method is the same formula as one in Yamaguchi's method. However, the equation for the volume

  2. The Liquid-Water Oscillation in Modeling Boundary-Layer Cumuli with Third-Order Turbulence Closure Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, A.; Xu, K.-M.; Golaz, J.-C.

    2004-01-01

    A hierarchy of third-order turbulence closure models are used to simulate boundary-layer cumuli in this study. An unrealistically strong liquid-water oscillation (LWO) is found in the fully prognostic model, which predicts all third moments. The LWO propagates from cloud base to cloud top with a speed of 1 m/s. The period of the oscillation is about 1000 s. Liquid-water buoyancy terms in the third-moment equations contribute to the LWO. The LWO mainly affects the vertical profiles of cloud fraction, mean liquid-water mixing ratio and the fluxes of liquid-water potential temperature and total water, but has less impact on the vertical profiles of other second-moments and third-moments. In order to minimize the LWO, a moderate large diffusion coefficient and a large turbulent dissipation at its originating level are needed. However, this approach distorts the vertical distributions of cloud fraction and liquid-water mixing ratio. A better approach is to parameterize liquid-water buoyancy more reasonably. A minimally prognostic model, which diagnoses all third moments except for vertical velocity, is shown to produce better results, compared to a fully prognostic model.

  3. Spherical integral transforms of second-order gravitational tensor components onto third-order gravitational tensor components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šprlák, Michal; Novák, Pavel

    2016-10-01

    New spherical integral formulas between components of the second- and third-order gravitational tensors are formulated in this article. First, we review the nomenclature and basic properties of the second- and third-order gravitational tensors. Initial points of mathematical derivations, i.e., the second- and third-order differential operators defined in the spherical local North-oriented reference frame and the analytical solutions of the gradiometric boundary-value problem, are also summarized. Secondly, we apply the third-order differential operators to the analytical solutions of the gradiometric boundary-value problem which gives 30 new integral formulas transforming (1) vertical-vertical, (2) vertical-horizontal and (3) horizontal-horizontal second-order gravitational tensor components onto their third-order counterparts. Using spherical polar coordinates related sub-integral kernels can efficiently be decomposed into azimuthal and isotropic parts. Both spectral and closed forms of the isotropic kernels are provided and their limits are investigated. Thirdly, numerical experiments are performed to test the consistency of the new integral transforms and to investigate properties of the sub-integral kernels. The new mathematical apparatus is valid for any harmonic potential field and may be exploited, e.g., when gravitational/magnetic second- and third-order tensor components become available in the future. The new integral formulas also extend the well-known Meissl diagram and enrich the theoretical apparatus of geodesy.

  4. A third-order mode high frequency biosensor with atomic resolution.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hua-Lin; Yang, Yi; Chen, Xiao; Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Ye, Tian-Xiang; Guo, Cang-Ran; Yi, Li-Ting; Zhou, Chang-Jian; Liu, Jing; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2015-09-15

    An atomic resolution ultra-high sensitivity surface acoustic wave (SAW) biosensor for DNA sequences and cells detection is proposed. Interdigitated transducers (IDTs) fabricated on LiNbO3 substrate achieve a high quality factor (Q) of over 4000 at a frequency of 6.4 GHz (third-order harmonic mode) using an optimized design and process. The biosensor shows excellent linear responses to target DNA in the range from 1 μg/ml to 1 ng/ml with a high sensitivity of 6.7 × 10(-16)g/cm(2)/Hz, hence the difference of a single hybridized DNA base can also be distinguished. With such a high mass resolution, the biosensor is capable of quantitative detection of living cancer cells. The frequency responses of single mouse mammary adenocarcinoma (EMT6) cell and mouse fibroblast (3T3) cell are studied. The interferences in the experiments show insignificant influence on the frequency shift, which verifies the high selectivity of the biosensor. The biosensor is also able to repeat the sensing ability after rough cleaning, therefore cost reduction is achieved from the recycling process in practical applications. The detection limit is defined from the noise analysis of the device, atomic resolution is realized according to the calculation, thereby initiating a potential tool for high-precision medical diagnoses and phenomena observation at the atomic-level.

  5. Third-order transport coefficients for electron and positron swarms in gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonovic, Ilija; Dujko, Sasa; White, Ronald; Petrovic, Zoran

    2015-09-01

    A multi term solution of the Boltzmann equation has been used to calculate third-order transport coefficients of charged particle swarms in neutral gases under the influence of electric and magnetic fields. The hierarchy resulting from a spherical harmonic decomposition of the Boltzmann equation in the hydrodynamic regime is solved numerically by representing the speed dependence of the phase-space distribution function in terms of an expansion in Sonine polynomials about a Maxwellian velocity distribution at an internally determined temperature. A group projector technique is employed to determine the structure and symmetries along individual elements of the skewness tensor when both electric and magnetic fields are present. Results are given for electron and positron swarms for certain model and real gases over a range of electric and magnetic field strengths. The results of the Boltzmann equation analysis are compared with those obtained by a Monte Carlo simulation technique. Various aspects in the behavior of skewness tensor elements are investigated, including the existence of correlation with low-order transport coefficients, sensitivity to post-ionization energy partitioning and errors of two-term approximation for solving Boltzmann's equation.

  6. Exploiting multi-lead electrocardiogram correlations using robust third-order tensor decomposition.

    PubMed

    Padhy, Sibasankar; Dandapat, Samarendra

    2015-10-01

    In this Letter, a robust third-order tensor decomposition of multi-lead electrocardiogram (MECG) comprising of 12-leads is proposed to reduce the dimension of the storage data. An order-3 tensor structure is employed to represent the MECG data by rearranging the MECG information in three dimensions. The three-dimensions of the formed tensor represent the number of leads, beats and samples of some fixed ECG duration. Dimension reduction of such an arrangement exploits correlations present among the successive beats (intra-beat and inter-beat) and across the leads (inter-lead). The higher-order singular value decomposition is used to decompose the tensor data. In addition, multiscale analysis has been added for effective care of ECG information. It grossly segments the ECG characteristic waves (P-wave, QRS-complex, ST-segment and T-wave etc.) into different sub-bands. In the meantime, it separates high-frequency noise components into lower-order sub-bands which helps in removing noise from the original data. For evaluation purposes, we have used the publicly available PTB diagnostic database. The proposed method outperforms the existing algorithms where compression ratio is under 10 for MECG data. Results show that the original MECG data volume can be reduced by more than 45 times with acceptable diagnostic distortion level. PMID:26609416

  7. Stochastic, real-space, imaginary-time evaluation of third-order Feynman-Goldstone diagrams.

    PubMed

    Willow, Soohaeng Yoo; Hirata, So

    2014-01-14

    A new, alternative set of interpretation rules of Feynman-Goldstone diagrams for many-body perturbation theory is proposed, which translates diagrams into algebraic expressions suitable for direct Monte Carlo integrations. A vertex of a diagram is associated with a Coulomb interaction (rather than a two-electron integral) and an edge with the trace of a Green's function in real space and imaginary time. With these, 12 diagrams of third-order many-body perturbation (MP3) theory are converted into 20-dimensional integrals, which are then evaluated by a Monte Carlo method. It uses redundant walkers for convergence acceleration and a weight function for importance sampling in conjunction with the Metropolis algorithm. The resulting Monte Carlo MP3 method has low-rank polynomial size dependence of the operation cost, a negligible memory cost, and a naturally parallel computational kernel, while reproducing the correct correlation energies of small molecules within a few mEh after 10(6) Monte Carlo steps.

  8. Stochastic, real-space, imaginary-time evaluation of third-order Feynman–Goldstone diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Willow, Soohaeng Yoo; Hirata, So

    2014-01-14

    A new, alternative set of interpretation rules of Feynman–Goldstone diagrams for many-body perturbation theory is proposed, which translates diagrams into algebraic expressions suitable for direct Monte Carlo integrations. A vertex of a diagram is associated with a Coulomb interaction (rather than a two-electron integral) and an edge with the trace of a Green's function in real space and imaginary time. With these, 12 diagrams of third-order many-body perturbation (MP3) theory are converted into 20-dimensional integrals, which are then evaluated by a Monte Carlo method. It uses redundant walkers for convergence acceleration and a weight function for importance sampling in conjunction with the Metropolis algorithm. The resulting Monte Carlo MP3 method has low-rank polynomial size dependence of the operation cost, a negligible memory cost, and a naturally parallel computational kernel, while reproducing the correct correlation energies of small molecules within a few mE{sub h} after 10{sup 6} Monte Carlo steps.

  9. Stochastic, real-space, imaginary-time evaluation of third-order Feynman-Goldstone diagrams.

    PubMed

    Willow, Soohaeng Yoo; Hirata, So

    2014-01-14

    A new, alternative set of interpretation rules of Feynman-Goldstone diagrams for many-body perturbation theory is proposed, which translates diagrams into algebraic expressions suitable for direct Monte Carlo integrations. A vertex of a diagram is associated with a Coulomb interaction (rather than a two-electron integral) and an edge with the trace of a Green's function in real space and imaginary time. With these, 12 diagrams of third-order many-body perturbation (MP3) theory are converted into 20-dimensional integrals, which are then evaluated by a Monte Carlo method. It uses redundant walkers for convergence acceleration and a weight function for importance sampling in conjunction with the Metropolis algorithm. The resulting Monte Carlo MP3 method has low-rank polynomial size dependence of the operation cost, a negligible memory cost, and a naturally parallel computational kernel, while reproducing the correct correlation energies of small molecules within a few mEh after 10(6) Monte Carlo steps. PMID:24437869

  10. Large diameter germanium single crystals for infrared optics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gafni, G.; Azoulay, M.; Shiloh, C.; Noter, Y.; Saya, A.; Galron, H.; Roth, M.

    1989-09-01

    Large single crystals, up to 200 mm in diameter, of high optical quality germanium have been grown by the Czochralski technique. Postgrowth thermal treatment improves the optical homogeneity and reduces optical losses, as shown by measurements of refractive index gradients and modulation transfer function (MTF). A new approach for the piecewise combination of interferograms, as well as a polychromatic treatment of MTF, is presented.

  11. A fresh look at the photoelectron spectrum of bromobenzene: A third-order non-Dyson electron propagator study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, M.; Soshnikov, D. Yu.; Holland, D. M. P.; Powis, I.; Antonsson, E.; Patanen, M.; Nicolas, C.; Miron, C.; Wormit, M.; Dreuw, A.; Trofimov, A. B.

    2015-10-01

    The valence-shell ionization spectrum of bromobenzene, as a representative halogen substituted aromatic, was studied using the non-Dyson third-order algebraic-diagrammatic construction [nD-ADC(3)] approximation for the electron propagator. This method, also referred to as IP-ADC(3), was implemented as a part of the Q-Chem program and enables large-scale calculations of the ionization spectra, where the computational effort scales as n5 with respect to the number of molecular orbitals n. The IP-ADC(3) scheme is ideally suited for investigating low-lying ionization transitions, so fresh insight could be gained into the cationic state manifold of bromobenzene. In particular, the present IP-ADC(3) calculations with the cc-pVTZ basis reveal a whole class of low-lying low-intensity two-hole-one-particle (2h-1p) doublet and quartet states, which are relevant to various photoionization processes. The good qualitative agreement between the theoretical spectral profile for the valence-shell ionization transitions generated with the smaller cc-pVDZ basis set and the experimental photoelectron spectrum measured at a photon energy of 80 eV on the PLÉIADES beamline at the Soleil synchrotron radiation source allowed all the main features to be assigned. Some theoretical aspects of the ionization energy calculations concerning the use of various approximation schemes and basis sets are discussed.

  12. A fresh look at the photoelectron spectrum of bromobenzene: A third-order non-Dyson electron propagator study

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, M.; Wormit, M.; Dreuw, A.; Soshnikov, D. Yu.; Trofimov, A. B.; Holland, D. M. P.; Powis, I.; Antonsson, E.; Patanen, M.; Nicolas, C.; Miron, C.

    2015-10-14

    The valence-shell ionization spectrum of bromobenzene, as a representative halogen substituted aromatic, was studied using the non-Dyson third-order algebraic-diagrammatic construction [nD-ADC(3)] approximation for the electron propagator. This method, also referred to as IP-ADC(3), was implemented as a part of the Q-Chem program and enables large-scale calculations of the ionization spectra, where the computational effort scales as n{sup 5} with respect to the number of molecular orbitals n. The IP-ADC(3) scheme is ideally suited for investigating low-lying ionization transitions, so fresh insight could be gained into the cationic state manifold of bromobenzene. In particular, the present IP-ADC(3) calculations with the cc-pVTZ basis reveal a whole class of low-lying low-intensity two-hole-one-particle (2h-1p) doublet and quartet states, which are relevant to various photoionization processes. The good qualitative agreement between the theoretical spectral profile for the valence-shell ionization transitions generated with the smaller cc-pVDZ basis set and the experimental photoelectron spectrum measured at a photon energy of 80 eV on the PLÉIADES beamline at the Soleil synchrotron radiation source allowed all the main features to be assigned. Some theoretical aspects of the ionization energy calculations concerning the use of various approximation schemes and basis sets are discussed.

  13. Photoinduced processes and resonant third-order nonlinearity in poly (3-dodecylthiophene) studied by femtosecond time resolved degenerate four wave mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Yang; Prasad, Paras N.

    1990-08-01

    We have investigated the dynamics of resonant third-order optical nonlinearity of chemically prepared poly(3-dodecylthiophene) by the degenerate four wave mixing technique using 60 fs pulses at 620 nm. The measured effective value of χ(3) is 5.5×10-11 esu, sixfold smaller than that obtained with 400 fs pulses, emphasizing the pulse width dependence of effective χ(3) when the relaxation time of the photogenerated excitation responsible for the optical nonlinearity is comparable to the pulse width. Within the resolution of the optical pulse, the rise time of the nonlinear response is instantaneous and the dominant decay occurs within 200 fs, revealing that the short time, nonlinear response is derived from the initially photogenerated excitons. A detailed analysis of the total decay behavior is consistent with the polaron dynamics of the conformational deformation model proposed by Su, Schrieffer, and Heeger for a conjugated linear polymer with bond alternation.

  14. Horizontal Shear Wave Imaging of Large Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Quarry, M J

    2007-09-05

    When complete the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be the world's largest and most energetic laser and will be capable of achieving for the first time fusion ignition in the laboratory. Detecting optics features within the laser beamlines and sizing them at diameters of 0.1 mm to 10 mm allows timely decisions concerning refurbishment and will help with the routine operation of the system. Horizontally polarized shear waves at 10 MHz were shown to accurately detect, locate, and size features created by laser operations from 0.5 mm to 8 mm by placing sensors at the edge of the optic. The shear wave technique utilizes highly directed beams. The outer edge of an optic can be covered with shear wave transducers on four sides. Each transducer sends a pulse into the optic and any damage reflects the pulse back to the transmitter. The transducers are multiplexed, and the collected time waveforms are enveloped and replicated across the width of the element. Multiplying the data sets from four directions produces a map of reflected amplitude to the fourth power, which images the surface of the optic. Surface area can be measured directly from the image, and maximum depth was shown to be correlated to maximum amplitude of the reflected waveform.

  15. Materials for aerospace/large optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, W. W.

    1987-01-01

    The potential of carbon fiber composite technology mirrors for astronomical observations is briefly addressed. Technical developments needed to assure the performance of lacquer-coated optics are summarized. A 10-meter monolithic mirror and larger segmented mirrors could be made with this technology.

  16. Femtosecond third-order nonlinear spectra of lead-germanium oxide glasses containing silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    De Boni, Leonardo; Barbano, Emerson C; de Assumpção, Thiago A; Misoguti, Lino; Kassab, Luciana R P; Zilio, Sergio C

    2012-03-12

    This work reports on the spectral dependence of both nonlinear refraction and absorption in lead-germanium oxide glasses (PbO-GeO₂) containing silver nanoparticles. We have found that this material is suitable for all-optical switching at telecom wavelengths but at the visible range it behaves either as a saturable absorber or as an optical limiter.

  17. The future of large optical system verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Gary

    2005-08-01

    As optical systems grow in size, there becomes a point in which traditional system verification prior to launch will become impossible. This implies that observatory ground testing will not be completed. Our history does not support this premise and therefore results in an unacceptable programmatic risk. But, if the dream of building 20-30 meter systems is ever to become true, these realities must be accepted. To make this possible, new and better analytical tools and processes must be developed and certified on programs that can be tested on the ground. This change in paradigm does not eliminate critical testing; it just does it at different assembly levels and most likely adds alignment flexibility to correct optical errors after launch. This paper provides ideas on how the hardware, analysis tools, and testing may evolve to support these ambitious future programs.

  18. Third-order elastic constants, vibrational anharmonicity, and the Invar behavior of the Fe72Pt28 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, G. A.; Senin, H. B.; Sidek, H. A. A.; Pelzl, J.

    1993-12-01

    In the ferromagnetic state the alloy Fe72Pt28 shows strong Invar effects governed by magnetoelastic interactions, including a negative hydrostatic pressure dependence of the bulk modulus: it becomes easier to squeeze under pressure. This remarkable behavior has prompted study of its nonlinear acoustic properties by determining its third-order elastic stiffness tensor components (TOEC) from measurements of the influence of uniaxial stress on the velocities of ultrasonic waves between 230 and 370 K, covering the range in which Fe72Pt28 has a negative thermal expansion, a property central to the Invar behavior. To obtain complete sets of the TOEC from 230 K up to the Curie point (367 K), the results have been combined with data for the hydrostatic pressure dependences of ultrasonic wave velocities. The TOEC quantify the first-order anharmonic terms in the interatomic potential and hence the long-wavelength acoustic phonon anharmonicities which are central to the Invar properties of this alloy. The tensor components C111, C112, and C123 are anomalously positive, in accord with the negative values previously determined for the hydrostatic pressure derivatives (∂C11/∂P)T,P=0 and (∂BS/∂P)T,P=0. Thus, the large stress-induced longitudinal-acoustic-mode softening in the ferromagnetic phase is confirmed, reinforcing the suggestion that the vibrational anharmonicities of the longitudinal acoustic modes, which have large negative mode Grüneisen parameters, play an important part in causing the thermal expansion of Fe72Pt28 to be negative.

  19. Investigation of third order nonlinearity in propagation of cylindrical waves in homogeneous nonlinear media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjbar, Monireh; Bahari, Ali

    2016-09-01

    Four-wave mixing in propagation of cylindrical waves in a homogeneous nonlinear optical media has been investigated theoretically. An explicit analytical expression which contains all the main nonlinear optical effects, including third harmonic generation, sum and difference frequency generation has been obtained. A comparison between sum frequency efficiency for exact and approximation expression in a homogeneous nonlinear medium has been done. The effect of increasing the nonlinear optical coefficient (χeff(3)) and increasing the frequency difference between two adjacent waves (Δ ω) , on the efficiency of sum frequency generation in homogeneous media has been investigated.

  20. Third-order aberrations in GRIN crystalline lens: A new method based on axial and field rays

    PubMed Central

    Río, Arturo Díaz del; Gómez-Reino, Carlos; Flores-Arias, M. Teresa

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new procedure for calculating the third-order aberration of gradient-index (GRIN) lenses that combines an iterative numerical method with the Hamiltonian theory of aberrations in terms of two paraxial rays with boundary conditions on general curved end surfaces and, as a second algebraic step has been presented. Application of this new method to a GRIN human is analyzed in the framework of the bi-elliptical model. The different third-order aberrations are determined, except those that need for their calculation skew rays, because the study is made only for meridional rays. PMID:25444647

  1. Third-order aberrations in GRIN crystalline lens: a new method based on axial and field rays.

    PubMed

    Río, Arturo Díaz Del; Gómez-Reino, Carlos; Flores-Arias, M Teresa

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new procedure for calculating the third-order aberration of gradient-index (GRIN) lenses that combines an iterative numerical method with the Hamiltonian theory of aberrations in terms of two paraxial rays with boundary conditions on general curved end surfaces and, as a second algebraic step has been presented. Application of this new method to a GRIN human is analyzed in the framework of the bi-elliptical model. The different third-order aberrations are determined, except those that need for their calculation skew rays, because the study is made only for meridional rays. PMID:25444647

  2. Third-order aberrations in GRIN crystalline lens: a new method based on axial and field rays.

    PubMed

    Río, Arturo Díaz Del; Gómez-Reino, Carlos; Flores-Arias, M Teresa

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new procedure for calculating the third-order aberration of gradient-index (GRIN) lenses that combines an iterative numerical method with the Hamiltonian theory of aberrations in terms of two paraxial rays with boundary conditions on general curved end surfaces and, as a second algebraic step has been presented. Application of this new method to a GRIN human is analyzed in the framework of the bi-elliptical model. The different third-order aberrations are determined, except those that need for their calculation skew rays, because the study is made only for meridional rays.

  3. Extremely large telescopes' optical design and wavefront correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, Alexander Vladimirovich

    An overview of the state of art within optical design of large astronomical telescopes is given. Recent advances within the field are presented. The importance of new computer-controlled mirror-polishing methods is emphasized. Some important aspects of atmospheric optics are presented together with current compensation methods using adaptive optics, with or without laser guide stars. An overview of wavefront sensing, wavefront reconstruction and techniques for compensation is given. Methods for optical design of large, optical telescopes with fast primary mirrors are presented in a systematic way. Three different approaches are outlined and commented. They include an algebraic method, a method based on optimization through ray tracing and an analytical method based on Fermat's principle and the Abbe sine condition. Studies of optical designs for large telescopes with fast, spherical primary mirrors are examined and discussed. For two-mirror designs, an analytical method has been derived using aberration control based on Fermat's principle. Intrinsic apodization for design of extremely fast primary mirrors is analyzed. For four- mirror designs with spherical primary minors, a ray tracing approach has been chosen. A total of fifteen different four-mirror designs have been analyzed and discussed. For the 50 m optical telescope. Euro50, a two-mirror design was chosen. This optical design is presented in detail, together with the optical layout of an adaptive optical system that forms an integrated part of the telescope. An analysis of essential components of the Euro50 is given. Finally, an analytical approach is presented for control of two or more deformable mirrors for adaptive optics in extremely large telescopes for optical wavelengths. The same algorithms are used to evaluate and predict the performance of the adaptive optics for the Euro50.

  4. Large space telescope, phase A. Volume 3: Optical telescope assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development and characteristics of the optical telescope assembly for the Large Space Telescope are discussed. The systems considerations are based on mission-related parameters and optical equipment requirements. Information is included on: (1) structural design and analysis, (2) thermal design, (3) stabilization and control, (4) alignment, focus, and figure control, (5) electronic subsystem, and (6) scientific instrument design.

  5. Time-dependent density-functional tight-binding method with the third-order expansion of electron density.

    PubMed

    Nishimoto, Yoshio

    2015-09-01

    We develop a formalism for the calculation of excitation energies and excited state gradients for the self-consistent-charge density-functional tight-binding method with the third-order contributions of a Taylor series of the density functional theory energy with respect to the fluctuation of electron density (time-dependent density-functional tight-binding (TD-DFTB3)). The formulation of the excitation energy is based on the existing time-dependent density functional theory and the older TD-DFTB2 formulae. The analytical gradient is computed by solving Z-vector equations, and it requires one to calculate the third-order derivative of the total energy with respect to density matrix elements due to the inclusion of the third-order contributions. The comparison of adiabatic excitation energies for selected small and medium-size molecules using the TD-DFTB2 and TD-DFTB3 methods shows that the inclusion of the third-order contributions does not affect excitation energies significantly. A different set of parameters, which are optimized for DFTB3, slightly improves the prediction of adiabatic excitation energies statistically. The application of TD-DFTB for the prediction of absorption and fluorescence energies of cresyl violet demonstrates that TD-DFTB3 reproduced the experimental fluorescence energy quite well. PMID:26342360

  6. A third order of accuracy difference scheme for Dirichlet type overdermined problem with mixed boundary value conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashyralyyev, Charyyar; Dedeturk, Mutlu

    2016-08-01

    Approximation of Dirichlet type overdetermined multidimensional elliptic problem with Dirichlet-Neumann boundary conditions are discussed. A third order of accuracy difference scheme for its approximate solution is proposed. The stability, almost coercive stability and coercive stability inequalities for the solution of constructed difference scheme are established. Test example for a two-dimensional elliptic problem is presented.

  7. Time-dependent density-functional tight-binding method with the third-order expansion of electron density

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimoto, Yoshio

    2015-09-07

    We develop a formalism for the calculation of excitation energies and excited state gradients for the self-consistent-charge density-functional tight-binding method with the third-order contributions of a Taylor series of the density functional theory energy with respect to the fluctuation of electron density (time-dependent density-functional tight-binding (TD-DFTB3)). The formulation of the excitation energy is based on the existing time-dependent density functional theory and the older TD-DFTB2 formulae. The analytical gradient is computed by solving Z-vector equations, and it requires one to calculate the third-order derivative of the total energy with respect to density matrix elements due to the inclusion of the third-order contributions. The comparison of adiabatic excitation energies for selected small and medium-size molecules using the TD-DFTB2 and TD-DFTB3 methods shows that the inclusion of the third-order contributions does not affect excitation energies significantly. A different set of parameters, which are optimized for DFTB3, slightly improves the prediction of adiabatic excitation energies statistically. The application of TD-DFTB for the prediction of absorption and fluorescence energies of cresyl violet demonstrates that TD-DFTB3 reproduced the experimental fluorescence energy quite well.

  8. A Kramers-Moyal Approach to the Analysis of Third-Order Noise with Applications in Option Valuation

    PubMed Central

    Popescu, Dan M.; Lipan, Ovidiu

    2015-01-01

    We propose the use of the Kramers-Moyal expansion in the analysis of third-order noise. In particular, we show how the approach can be applied in the theoretical study of option valuation. Despite Pawula’s theorem, which states that a truncated model may exhibit poor statistical properties, we show that for a third-order Kramers-Moyal truncation model of an option’s and its underlier’s price, important properties emerge: (i) the option price can be written in a closed analytical form that involves the Airy function, (ii) the price is a positive function for positive skewness in the distribution, (iii) for negative skewness, the price becomes negative only for price values that are close to zero. Moreover, using third-order noise in option valuation reveals additional properties: (iv) the inconsistencies between two popular option pricing approaches (using a “delta-hedged” portfolio and using an option replicating portfolio) that are otherwise equivalent up to the second moment, (v) the ability to develop a measure R of how accurately an option can be replicated by a mixture of the underlying stocks and cash, (vi) further limitations of second-order models revealed by introducing third-order noise. PMID:25625856

  9. A third-order compact gas-kinetic scheme on unstructured meshes for compressible Navier-Stokes solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Liang; Xu, Kun

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, for the first time a third-order compact gas-kinetic scheme is proposed on unstructured meshes for the compressible viscous flow computations. The possibility to design such a third-order compact scheme is due to the high-order gas evolution model, where a time-dependent gas distribution function at cell interface not only provides the fluxes across a cell interface, but also presents a time accurate solution for flow variables at cell interface. As a result, both cell averaged and cell interface flow variables can be used for the initial data reconstruction at the beginning of next time step. A weighted least-square procedure has been used for the initial reconstruction. Therefore, a compact third-order gas-kinetic scheme with the involvement of neighboring cells only can be developed on unstructured meshes. In comparison with other conventional high-order schemes, the current method avoids the Gaussian point integration for numerical fluxes along a cell interface and the multi-stage Runge-Kutta method for temporal accuracy. The third-order compact scheme is numerically stable under CFL condition CFL ≈ 0.5. Due to its multidimensional gas-kinetic formulation and the coupling of inviscid and viscous terms, even with unstructured meshes, the boundary layer solution and vortex structure can be accurately captured by the current scheme. At the same time, the compact scheme can capture strong shocks as well.

  10. Linear system identification - The application of Lion's identification scheme to a third order system with noisy input-output measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, C. M., Jr.; Monopoli, R. V.

    1974-01-01

    A linear system identification technique developed by Lion is adapted for use on a third-order system with six unknown parameters and noisy input-output measurements. A digital computer is employed so that rapid identification takes place with only two state variable filters. Bias in the parameter estimates is partially eliminated by a signal-to-noise ratio testing procedure.

  11. Large stable aluminum optics for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukobratovich, Daniel; Schaefer, John P.

    2011-09-01

    Aluminum mirrors offer the advantages of lower cost, shorter fabrication time, more rugged mounting, and same material athermalization when compared to classical glass mirrors. In the past these advantages were offset by controversial dimensional stability and high surface scatter, limiting applications to IR systems. Raytheon developed processes to improve long term stability, and reduce surface scatter. Six 380 mm aperture aluminum mirrors made using these processes showed excellent stability, with figure changes of less than 0.01 wave RMS(1 wave = 633 nm) when cycled 10 times between -51 and +71 deg. C. The VQ process developed at ELCAN reduces surface scatter in bare aluminum mirrors to below 20 angstroms RMS, and has been used in thousands of production mirrors up to 300 mm aperture. These processes were employed in the fabrication of two lightweight single arch 600 mm aluminum mirrors. The two mirrors were produced in four months, with a mounted surface figure of 0.22 waves RMS and surface roughness of 20 angstroms. Mounted fundamental frequency was 218 Hz, and no figure distortion was observed at preload levels four times higher than design. Subsequently the mirrors performed well when subjected to severe environmental loadings in a Raytheon test system. This technology is being extended to ultra-lightweight sandwich mirrors, which are competitive with other material technologies used in advanced aerospace applications such as high-altitude UAV surveillance systems and satellite optics.

  12. Large Aperture Multiplexed Diffractive Lidar Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rallison, Richard D.; Schwemmer, Geary K. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    We have delivered only 2 or 3 UV Holographic Optical Elements (HOEs) thus far and have fallen short of the intended goal in size and in dual wavelength function. Looking back, it has been fortuitous that we even made anything work in the UV region. It was our good fortune to discover that the material we work with daily was adequate for use at 355 nm, if well rinsed during processing. If we had stuck to our original plan of etching in small pieces of fused silica, we would still be trying to make the first small section in our ion mill, which is not yet operational. The original plan was far too ambitious and would take another 2 years to complete beginning where we left off this time. In order to make a HOE for the IR as well as the UV we will likely have to learn to sensitize some film to the 1064 line and we have obtained sensitizer that is reported to work in that region already. That work would also take an additional year to complete.

  13. Large-aperture, high-damage-threshold optics for beamlet

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.H.; Atherton, L.J.; DeYoreo, J.J.

    1996-06-01

    Beamlet serves as a test bed for the proposed National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser design and components. Therefore, its optics are similar in size and quality to those proposed for the NIF. In general, the optics in the main laser cavity and transport section of Beamlet are larger and have higher damage thresholds than the optics manufactured for any of the previous laser systems. In addition, the quality of the Beamlet optical materials is higher, leading to better wavefront quality, higher optical transmission, and lower-intensity modulation of the output laser beam than, for example, that typically achieved on Nova. In this article, the authors discuss the properties and characteristics of the large-aperture optics used on Beamlet.

  14. Measurement of large strains in ropes using plastic optical fibers

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Jerry Gene; Smith, David Barton; Muhs, Jeffrey David

    2006-02-14

    A method for the direct measurement of large strains in ropes in situ using a plastic optical fiber, for example, perfluorocarbon or polymethyl methacrylate and Optical Time-Domain Reflectometer or other light time-of-flight measurement instrumentation. Protective sheaths and guides are incorporated to protect the plastic optical fiber. In one embodiment, a small rope is braided around the plastic optical fiber to impose lateral compressive forces to restrain the plastic optical fiber from slipping and thus experience the same strain as the rope. Methods are described for making reflective interfaces along the length of the plastic optical fiber and to provide the capability to measure strain within discrete segments of the rope. Interpretation of the data allows one to calculate the accumulated strain at any point in time and to determine if the rope has experienced local damage.

  15. High-temperature, continuous-wave operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers with metal-metal waveguides and third-order distributed feedback.

    PubMed

    Wienold, M; Röben, B; Schrottke, L; Sharma, R; Tahraoui, A; Biermann, K; Grahn, H T

    2014-02-10

    Currently, different competing waveguide and resonator concepts exist for terahertz quantum-cascade lasers (THz QCLs). We examine the continuous-wave (cw) performance of THz QCLs with single-plasmon (SP) and metal-metal (MM) waveguides fabricated from the same wafer. While SP QCLs are superior in terms of output power, the maximum operating temperature for MM QCLs is typically much higher. For SP QCLs, we observed cw operation up to 73 K as compared to 129 K for narrow (≤ 15 μm) MM QCLs. In the latter case, single-mode operation and a narrow beam profile were achieved by applying third-order distributed-feedback gratings and contact pads which are optically insulated from the intended resonators. We present a quantitative analytic model for the beam profile, which is based on experimentally accessible parameters.

  16. Role of the human lens gradient-index profile in the compensation of third-order ocular aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, José A.; Fernández-Dorado, José; Sorroche, Francisco

    2012-07-01

    The open question regarding the compensation of the ocular aberrations between the cornea and the lens is currently being investigated. We report additional insights considering the role of the lens gradient-index (GRIN) profile in third-order ocular aberrations, since this profile changes through life. Thus, we have calculated the contribution of that profile to the ocular aberrations with aging by applying the Seidel third-order theory of tilted and decentered elements, and by using a schematic-eye model. The results show the GRIN profile is needed to account for the decoupling of the aberrations between the cornea and the lens because the geometrical changes of the ocular surfaces with aging are not enough. Therefore, the current developments of aging human-eye models, as well as the experimental studies, cannot neglect the changes of the lens GRIN structure through life when modelling mechanisms of the compensation of ocular aberrations.

  17. Analysis and comparison of CVS-ADC approaches up to third order for the calculation of core-excited states

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, Jan Holzer, Andre; Wormit, Michael; Dreuw, Andreas

    2015-06-07

    The extended second order algebraic-diagrammatic construction (ADC(2)-x) scheme for the polarization operator in combination with core-valence separation (CVS) approximation is well known to be a powerful quantum chemical method for the calculation of core-excited states and the description of X-ray absorption spectra. For the first time, the implementation and results of the third order approach CVS-ADC(3) are reported. Therefore, the CVS approximation has been applied to the ADC(3) working equations and the resulting terms have been implemented efficiently in the adcman program. By treating the α and β spins separately from each other, the unrestricted variant CVS-UADC(3) for the treatment of open-shell systems has been implemented as well. The performance and accuracy of the CVS-ADC(3) method are demonstrated with respect to a set of small and middle-sized organic molecules. Therefore, the results obtained at the CVS-ADC(3) level are compared with CVS-ADC(2)-x values as well as experimental data by calculating complete basis set limits. The influence of basis sets is further investigated by employing a large set of different basis sets. Besides the accuracy of core-excitation energies and oscillator strengths, the importance of cartesian basis functions and the treatment of orbital relaxation effects are analyzed in this work as well as computational timings. It turns out that at the CVS-ADC(3) level, the results are not further improved compared to CVS-ADC(2)-x and experimental data, because the fortuitous error compensation inherent in the CVS-ADC(2)-x approach is broken. While CVS-ADC(3) overestimates the core excitation energies on average by 0.61% ± 0.31%, CVS-ADC(2)-x provides an averaged underestimation of −0.22% ± 0.12%. Eventually, the best agreement with experiments can be achieved using the CVS-ADC(2)-x method in combination with a diffuse cartesian basis set at least at the triple-ζ level.

  18. Large Optic Drying Station: Summary of Dryer Certification Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Barbee, T W; Ayers, S L; Ayers, M J

    2009-08-28

    The purpose of this document is to outline the methodology used to baseline and maintain the cleanliness status of the newly built and installed Large Optic Cleaning Station (LOCS). The station has currently been in use for eleven months; and after many cleaning studies and implementation of resulting improvements appears to be cleaning optics to a level that is acceptable for the fabrication of Nano-Laminates.

  19. Fiber-optic large area average temperature sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, L.L.; Forman, P.R.

    1994-05-01

    In many instances the desired temperature measurement is only the spatial average temperature over a large area; eg. ground truth calibration for satellite imaging system, or average temperature of a farm field. By making an accurate measurement of the optical length of a long fiber-optic cable, we can determine the absolute temperature averaged over its length and hence the temperature of the material in contact with it.

  20. Using Apatitic Conodont Oxygen Isotopic Values to Determine the Cause of Late Ordovician Third-Order Stratigraphic Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyra, T. A.; Maya, E.; Atudorei, V.; Stephen, L. A.

    2007-12-01

    Recent work suggests a link between third-order (~1-5 Myr) sea-level fluctuations and climate change, even in greenhouse periods. Upper Ordovician third-order transgressive-regressive sequences are pervasive in the stratigraphic record, can be correlated worldwide (i.e. North America, Baltica, China), and ambiguous in cause. We are evaluating climate's role in third-order sea-level change by analyzing the δ18O of conodont apatite, which is a proxy for both glacio-eustasy and paleotemperature. Conodont phosphatic oxygen is a more robust repository of primary oxygen isotope values than more extensively-studied calcareous fossils, which have been extensively studied. If sea-level change is climatically-driven (glacio-eustasy and thermo-eustasy), δ18O values will decrease with sea-level rise and increase with sea-level fall. We report preliminary results from Upper Ordovician sequences in the Monitor Range of central Nevada. The six stratigraphic sequences (30m-95m thick) preserve basinal-to-outer-shelf carbonates with the youngest sequence representing the Hirnantian glaciation. We collected conodont samples at a 2-10m resolution and also determined bulk carbonate δ13C for additional chemostratigraphy. With this information, we hope to determine if glacio-eustasy has a role within the five pre-Hirnantian sequences.

  1. Study of dispersion compensation effect of femtosecond laser amplifier using home-made third-order autocorrelator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Wenxia; Zhang, Nan; Zhu, Xiaonong

    2013-12-01

    Detailed experimental and theoretical analyses of the dispersion compensation effect in a femtosecond laser amplifier are presented. It is confirmed that the temporal structures in the vicinity of the central peak of the amplified laser pulse are primarily caused by the uncompensated third- and/or fourth-order dispersion. The specific detrimental roles played by the third- and fourth-order dispersions such as resulting in the formation of asymmetrical pulse shapes and satellite pulses are revealed and experimentally verified with third-order autocorrelation measurements. With the help of a third-order autocorrelator, it is more efficient and accurate to optimize the third- and fourth-order dispersion compensation when the roundtrip times of a laser pulse inside the regenerative amplifier changes. For practical applications, in order to achieve laser pulses with highest quality, namely with minimum pulse energy in their wings, it is imperative to optimize the dispersion-control parameters while monitoring the laser pulses with a third-order autocorrelator.

  2. Formation metrology and control for large separated optics space telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mettler, E.; Quadrelli, M.; Breckenridge, W.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present formation flying performance analysis initial results for a representative large space telescope composed of separated optical elements [Mett 02]. A virtual-structure construct (an equivalent rigid body) is created by unique metrology and control that combines both centralized and decentralized methods. The formation may be in orbit at GEO for super-resolution Earth observation, as in the case of Figure 1, or it may be in an Earth-trailing orbit for astrophysics, Figure 2. Extended applications are envisioned for exo-solar planet interferometric imaging by a formation of very large separated optics telescopes, Figure 3. Space telescopes, with such large apertures and f/10 to f/100 optics, are not feasible if connected by massive metering structures. Instead, the new virtual-structure paradigm of information and control connectivity between the formation elements provides the necessary spatial rigidity and alignment precision for the telescope.

  3. An approach to fabrication of large adaptive optics mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Eric; Rey, Justin; Blaszak, David; Cavaco, Jeffrey

    2014-07-01

    For more than two decades, Northrop Grumman Xinetics has been the principal supplier of small deformable mirrors that enable adaptive optical (AO) systems for the ground-based astronomical telescope community. With today's drive toward extremely large aperture systems, and the desire of telescope designers to include adaptive optics in the main optical path of the telescope, Xinetics has recognized the need for large active mirrors with the requisite bandwidth and actuator stoke. Presented in this paper is the proposed use of Northrop Grumman Xinetics' large, ultra-lightweight Silicon Carbide substrates with surface parallel actuation of sufficient spatial density and bandwidth to meet the requirements of tomorrow's AO systems, while reducing complexity and cost.

  4. ON THE OCCURRENCE OF THE THIRD-ORDER SCALING IN HIGH LATITUDE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Marino, R.; D'Amicis, R.; Bruno, R.; Sorriso-Valvo, L.; Carbone, V.; Veltri, P.

    2012-05-01

    The occurrence and nature of a nonlinear energy cascade within the intermediate scales of solar wind Alfvenic turbulence represents an important open issue. Using in situ measurements of fast, high latitude solar wind taken by the Ulysses spacecraft at solar minima, it is possible to show that a nonlinear energy cascade of imbalanced turbulence is only observed when the solar wind owns peculiar properties. These are the reduction of the local correlation between velocity and magnetic field (weak cross-helicity); the presence of large-scale velocity shears; and the steepening and extension down to low frequencies of the turbulent spectra. Our observations suggest the important role of both large-scale velocity and Alfvenicity of the field fluctuations for the validation of the Yaglom law in solar wind turbulence.

  5. Contrails of Small and Very Large Optical Depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atlas, David; Wang, Zhien

    2010-01-01

    This work deals with two kinds of contrails. The first comprises a large number of optically thin contrails near the tropopause. They are mapped geographically using a lidar to obtain their height and a camera to obtain azimuth and elevation. These high-resolution maps provide the local contrail geometry and the amount of optically clear atmosphere. The second kind is a single trail of unprecedentedly large optical thickness that occurs at a lower height. The latter was observed fortuitously when an aircraft moving along the wind direction passed over the lidar, thus providing measurements for more than 3 h and an equivalent distance of 620 km. It was also observed by Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) sensors. The lidar measured an optical depth of 2.3. The corresponding extinction coefficient of 0.023 per kilometer and ice water content of 0.063 grams per cubic meter are close to the maximum values found for midlatitude cirrus. The associated large radar reflectivity compares to that measured by ultrasensitive radar, thus providing support for the reality of the large optical depth.

  6. Dispersion of nonresonant third-order nonlinearities in GeSiSn ternary alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leonardis, Francesco; Troia, Benedetto; Soref, Richard A.; Passaro, Vittorio M. N.

    2016-09-01

    Silicon (Si), tin (Sn), and germanium (Ge) alloys have attracted research attention as direct band gap semiconductors with applications in electronics and optoelectronics. In particular, GeSn field effect transistors can exhibit very high performance in terms of power reduction and operating speed because of the high electron drift mobility, while the SiGeSn system can be constructed using CMOS-compatible techniques to realize lasers, LED, and photodetectors. The wide Si, Ge and Sn transparencies allow the use of binary and ternary alloys extended to mid-IR wavelengths, where nonlinearities can also be employed. However, neither theoretical or experimental predictions of nonlinear features in SiGeSn alloys are reported in the literature. For the first time, a rigorous and detailed physical investigation is presented to estimate the two photon absorption (TPA) coefficient and the Kerr refractive index for the SiGeSn alloy up to 12 μm. The TPA spectrum, the effective TPA wavelength cut-off, and the Kerr nonlinear refractive index have been determined as a function of alloy compositions. The promising results achieved can pave the way to the demonstration of on-chip nonlinear-based applications, including mid-IR spectrometer-on-a-chip, all-optical wavelength down/up-conversion, frequency comb generation, quantum-correlated photon-pair source generation and supercontinuum source creation, as well as Raman lasing.

  7. Dispersion of nonresonant third-order nonlinearities in GeSiSn ternary alloys

    PubMed Central

    De Leonardis, Francesco; Troia, Benedetto; Soref, Richard A.; Passaro, Vittorio M. N.

    2016-01-01

    Silicon (Si), tin (Sn), and germanium (Ge) alloys have attracted research attention as direct band gap semiconductors with applications in electronics and optoelectronics. In particular, GeSn field effect transistors can exhibit very high performance in terms of power reduction and operating speed because of the high electron drift mobility, while the SiGeSn system can be constructed using CMOS-compatible techniques to realize lasers, LED, and photodetectors. The wide Si, Ge and Sn transparencies allow the use of binary and ternary alloys extended to mid-IR wavelengths, where nonlinearities can also be employed. However, neither theoretical or experimental predictions of nonlinear features in SiGeSn alloys are reported in the literature. For the first time, a rigorous and detailed physical investigation is presented to estimate the two photon absorption (TPA) coefficient and the Kerr refractive index for the SiGeSn alloy up to 12 μm. The TPA spectrum, the effective TPA wavelength cut-off, and the Kerr nonlinear refractive index have been determined as a function of alloy compositions. The promising results achieved can pave the way to the demonstration of on-chip nonlinear-based applications, including mid-IR spectrometer-on-a-chip, all-optical wavelength down/up-conversion, frequency comb generation, quantum-correlated photon-pair source generation and supercontinuum source creation, as well as Raman lasing. PMID:27622979

  8. Dispersion of nonresonant third-order nonlinearities in GeSiSn ternary alloys.

    PubMed

    De Leonardis, Francesco; Troia, Benedetto; Soref, Richard A; Passaro, Vittorio M N

    2016-01-01

    Silicon (Si), tin (Sn), and germanium (Ge) alloys have attracted research attention as direct band gap semiconductors with applications in electronics and optoelectronics. In particular, GeSn field effect transistors can exhibit very high performance in terms of power reduction and operating speed because of the high electron drift mobility, while the SiGeSn system can be constructed using CMOS-compatible techniques to realize lasers, LED, and photodetectors. The wide Si, Ge and Sn transparencies allow the use of binary and ternary alloys extended to mid-IR wavelengths, where nonlinearities can also be employed. However, neither theoretical or experimental predictions of nonlinear features in SiGeSn alloys are reported in the literature. For the first time, a rigorous and detailed physical investigation is presented to estimate the two photon absorption (TPA) coefficient and the Kerr refractive index for the SiGeSn alloy up to 12 μm. The TPA spectrum, the effective TPA wavelength cut-off, and the Kerr nonlinear refractive index have been determined as a function of alloy compositions. The promising results achieved can pave the way to the demonstration of on-chip nonlinear-based applications, including mid-IR spectrometer-on-a-chip, all-optical wavelength down/up-conversion, frequency comb generation, quantum-correlated photon-pair source generation and supercontinuum source creation, as well as Raman lasing. PMID:27622979

  9. Prediction of nonlinear optical properties of large organic molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardelino, Beatriz H.

    1992-01-01

    The preparation of materials with large nonlinear responses usually requires involved synthetic processes. Thus, it is very advantageous for materials scientists to have a means of predicting nonlinear optical properties. The prediction of nonlinear optical properties has to be addressed first at the molecular level and then as bulk material. For relatively large molecules, two types of calculations may be used, which are the sum-over-states and the finite-field approach. The finite-field method was selected for this research, because this approach is better suited for larger molecules.

  10. Optical position measurement for a Large Gap Magnetic Suspension System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Sharon S.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Clemmons, James I.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the design of an optical position measurement system which is being built as part of the NASA Langley Large Gap Magnetic Suspension System (LGMSS). The LGMSS is a five degree-of-freedom, large-gap magnetic suspension system which is being built for Langley Research Center as part of the Advanced Controls Test Facility (ACTF). The LGMSS consists of a planar array of electromagnets which levitate and position a cylindrically shaped model containing a permanent magnet core. The optical position measurement system provides information on the location and orientation of the model to the LGMSS control system to stabilize levitation of the model.

  11. Third order turboalternator electrical stability models with applications to subsynchronous resonance studies

    SciTech Connect

    Dandeno, P.L.; Iravani, M.R.

    1995-03-01

    This paper deals primarily with the application of standstill frequency response (SSFR) models to subsynchronous resonance (SSR) studies involving large turbogenerators. It has been already recognized that models derived from SSFR testing intrinsically define the so-called sub-subtransient frequency domain as well as the transient and subtransient domains. The application of a variety of SSFR models has been described previously only for one machine. Another turbogenerator possessing markedly different damping characteristics is compared with the one referred to above. Comparisons are also made with an IEEE ``Benchmark`` model. Comments regarding the damping performance of each of these three machines in the SSR range are discussed as well as the effect of rotor and field to stator differential leakage fluxes. Proposals are made for consideration by the IEEE Power System Engineering and Electric Machinery Committees involved in benchmark SSR stability programs or in related generator modeling standards.

  12. Third-order nonlinear optical properties of colloidal Au nanorods systems: saturable and reverse-saturable absorption.

    PubMed

    García-Ramírez, E V; Almaguer-Valenzuela, S; Sánchez-Dena, O; Baldovino-Pantaleón, O; Reyes-Esqueda, J A

    2016-01-25

    In this work, we present a study of the nonlinear absorption properties from different gold nanorod (NR) systems in aqueous suspension. The NRs were obtained with the bottom-up protocol by the seed-mediated growth method (SMG), using Ag(+) ions at different concentrations, and CTAB as surfactant. By using this method, aspect ratios between 2 and 5 were obtained. The transverse surface plasmons (TSP) are located between 514 - 535 nm, while the longitudinal surface plasmons (LSP) are between 639 - 921 nm, for the different samples studied. The Z-scan technique was implemented for open (OA) and closed (CA) aperture at 532 and 1064 nm, with laser pulses of 26 ps, for vertical and horizontal polarizations, with respect to the incidence plane (horizontal). At 532 nm all samples showed saturable absorption (SA), while for samples with LSP near 1064 nm, such effect was observed only at low-energy pulse experimental conditions. In the high-energy pulse regime, an apparent reverse-saturable absorption (RSA) was observed for both wavelengths. However for 532 nm, it was possible to determine that this effect results from structural changes in the samples, which are manifested through the behavior of nonlinear absorption and refraction curves. These results were used to determine the irradiances to which NRs can be modified by photodegradation. PMID:26832569

  13. A new modular optical system for large format scene projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexay, Christopher C.; Palmer, Troy A.

    2006-05-01

    This work will present a new approach to large format projection optics suitable for HWIL testing. Aspects of the design's modular approach and its ability to accommodate widely varying spectral ranges, focal lengths, zoom capabilities and the ability to deliver multi-spectral scene data are presented.

  14. CCD AND PIN-CMOS DEVELOPMENTS FOR LARGE OPTICAL TELESCOPE.

    SciTech Connect

    RADEKA, V.

    2006-04-03

    Higher quantum efficiency in near-IR, narrower point spread function and higher readout speed than with conventional sensors have been receiving increased emphasis in the development of CCDs and silicon PIN-CMOS sensors for use in large optical telescopes. Some key aspects in the development of such devices are reviewed.

  15. Simulation of Shallow Cumuli and Their Transition to Deep Convective Clouds by Cloud-resolving Models with Different Third-order Turbulence Closures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Anning; Xu, Kuan-Man

    2006-01-01

    The abilities of cloud-resolving models (CRMs) with the double-Gaussian based and the single-Gaussian based third-order closures (TOCs) to simulate the shallow cumuli and their transition to deep convective clouds are compared in this study. The single-Gaussian based TOC is fully prognostic (FP), while the double-Gaussian based TOC is partially prognostic (PP). The latter only predicts three important third-order moments while the former predicts all the thirdorder moments. A shallow cumulus case is simulated by single-column versions of the FP and PP TOC models. The PP TOC improves the simulation of shallow cumulus greatly over the FP TOC by producing more realistic cloud structures. Large differences between the FP and PP TOC simulations appear in the cloud layer of the second- and third-order moments, which are related mainly to the underestimate of the cloud height in the FP TOC simulation. Sensitivity experiments and analysis of probability density functions (PDFs) used in the TOCs show that both the turbulence-scale condensation and higher-order moments are important to realistic simulations of the boundary-layer shallow cumuli. A shallow to deep convective cloud transition case is also simulated by the 2-D versions of the FP and PP TOC models. Both CRMs can capture the transition from the shallow cumuli to deep convective clouds. The PP simulations produce more and deeper shallow cumuli than the FP simulations, but the FP simulations produce larger and wider convective clouds than the PP simulations. The temporal evolutions of cloud and precipitation are closely related to the turbulent transport, the cold pool and the cloud-scale circulation. The large amount of turbulent mixing associated with the shallow cumuli slows down the increase of the convective available potential energy and inhibits the early transition to deep convective clouds in the PP simulation. When the deep convective clouds fully develop and the precipitation is produced, the cold pools

  16. Efficient split field FDTD analysis of third-order nonlinear materials in two-dimensionally periodic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francés, Jorge; Bleda, Sergio; Bej, Subhajit; Tervo, Jani; Navarro-Fuster, Víctor; Fenoll, Sandra; Martínez-Gaurdiola, Francisco J.; Neipp, Cristian

    2016-04-01

    In this work the split-field finite-difference time-domain method (SF-FDTD) has been extended for the analysis of two-dimensionally periodic structures with third-order nonlinear media. The accuracy of the method is verified by comparisons with the nonlinear Fourier Modal Method (FMM). Once the formalism has been validated, examples of one- and two-dimensional nonlinear gratings are analysed. Regarding the 2D case, the shifting in resonant waveguides is corroborated. Here, not only the scalar Kerr effect is considered, the tensorial nature of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility is also included. The consideration of nonlinear materials in this kind of devices permits to design tunable devices such as variable band filters. However, the third-order nonlinear susceptibility is usually small and high intensities are needed in order to trigger the nonlinear effect. Here, a one-dimensional CBG is analysed in both linear and nonlinear regime and the shifting of the resonance peaks in both TE and TM are achieved numerically. The application of a numerical method based on the finite- difference time-domain method permits to analyse this issue from the time domain, thus bistability curves are also computed by means of the numerical method. These curves show how the nonlinear effect modifies the properties of the structure as a function of variable input pump field. When taking the nonlinear behaviour into account, the estimation of the electric field components becomes more challenging. In this paper, we present a set of acceleration strategies based on parallel software and hardware solutions.

  17. A Large Aperture, High Energy Laser System for Optics and Optical Component Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Nostrand, M C; Weiland, T L; Luthi, R L; Vickers, J L; Sell, W D; Stanley, J A; Honig, J; Auerbach, J; Hackel, R P; Wegner, P J

    2003-11-01

    A large aperture, kJ-class, multi-wavelength Nd-glass laser system has been constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Lab which has unique capabilities for studying a wide variety of optical phenomena. The master-oscillator, power-amplifier (MOPA) configuration of this ''Optical Sciences Laser'' (OSL) produces 1053 nm radiation with shaped pulse lengths which are variable from 0.1-100 ns. The output can be frequency doubled or tripled with high conversion efficiency with a resultant 100 cm{sup 2} high quality output beam. This facility can accommodate prototype hardware for large-scale inertial confinement fusion lasers allowing for investigation of integrated system issues such as optical lifetime at high fluence, optics contamination, compatibility of non-optical materials, and laser diagnostics.

  18. Large optics fabrication and testing at the College of Optical Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burge, James H.

    2014-10-01

    The origin of the Optical Sciences Center (OSC) at the University of Arizona was closely tied to the need to expand the national capability for manufacturing large optics. This connection allowed OSC to grow quickly to become a truly unique place where new technologies are born and applied and where students have opportunities to apply academic lessons to real-world projects. In the decades that follow, OSC has grown to become a leader in many other optical disciplines, including photonics, imaging, optical engineering, and optical physics. But the core capability of optical fabrication and testing has remained as a unique University of Arizona asset. The last decade has seen explosive growth in development and implementation of new technologies for manufacturing and measuring large optics at the College of Optical Sciences. The classic polishing techniques have given way to advanced computer controlled machines and highly engineered laps. New measuring methods have enabled accurate metrology of steeply aspheric surfaces, concave and convex, symmetric and freeform. This paper discusses the history of optical fabrication and testing at University of Arizona and reviews some recent major projects and the technical developments that have enabled their success.

  19. Large optical 3D MEMS switches in access networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madamopoulos, Nicholas; Kaman, Volkan; Yuan, Shifu; Jerphagnon, Olivier; Helkey, Roger; Bowers, John E.

    2007-09-01

    Interest is high among residential customers and businesses for advanced, broadband services such as fast Internet access, electronic commerce, video-on-demand, digital broadcasting, teleconferencing and telemedicine. In order to satisfy such growing demand of end-customers, access technologies such as fiber-to-the-home/building (FTTH/B) are increasingly being deployed. Carriers can reduce maintenance costs, minimize technology obsolescence and introduce new services easily by reducing active elements in the fiber access network. However, having a passive optical network (PON) also introduces operational and maintenance challenges. Increased diagnostic monitoring capability of the network becomes a necessity as more and more fibers are provisioned to deliver services to the end-customers. This paper demonstrates the clear advantages that large 3D optical MEMS switches offer in solving these access network problems. The advantages in preventative maintenance, remote monitoring, test and diagnostic capability are highlighted. The low optical insertion loss for all switch optical connections of the switch enables the monitoring, grooming and serving of a large number of PON lines and customers. Furthermore, the 3D MEMS switch is transparent to optical wavelengths and data formats, thus making it easy to incorporate future upgrades, such higher bit rates or DWDM overlay to a PON.

  20. Coupling a small torsional oscillator to large optical angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, H.; Bhattacharya, M.

    2013-03-01

    We propose a new configuration for realizing torsional optomechanics: an optically trapped windmill-shaped dielectric interacting with Laguerre-Gaussian cavity modes containing both angular and radial nodes. In contrast to existing schemes, our method can couple mechanical oscillators smaller than the optical beam waist to the in-principle unlimited orbital angular momentum that can be carried by a single photon, and thus generate substantial optomechanical interactions. Combining the advantages of small mass, large coupling, and low clamping losses, our work conceptually opens the way for the observation of quantum effects in torsional optomechanics.

  1. Note: Computer controlled rotation mount for large diameter optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakonjac, Ana; Roberts, Kris O.; Deb, Amita B.; Kjærgaard, Niels

    2013-02-01

    We describe the construction of a motorized optical rotation mount with a 40 mm clear aperture. The device is used to remotely control the power of large diameter laser beams for a magneto-optical trap. A piezo-electric ultrasonic motor on a printed circuit board provides rotation with a precision better than 0.03° and allows for a very compact design. The rotation unit is controlled from a computer via serial communication, making integration into most software control platforms straightforward.

  2. Large nonlocal nonlinear optical response of castor oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Rogério F.; Alencar, Márcio A. R. C.; Meneghetti, Mario R.; Hickmann, Jandir M.

    2009-09-01

    The nonlocal nonlinearity of castor oil was investigated using the Z-scan technique in the CW regime at 514 nm and in femtosecond regime at 810 nm. Large negative nonlinear refractive indexes of thermal origin, thermo-optical coefficients and degree of nonlocality were obtained for both laser excitation wavelengths. The results indicate that the electronic part of the nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption were negligible. Our results suggest that castor oil is promising candidate as a nonlinear medium for several nonlocal optical applications, such as in spatial soliton propagation, as well as a dispersant agent in the measurement of absorptive properties of nanoparticles.

  3. Large light X-ray optics: basic ideas and concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Citterio, O.; Ghigo, M.; Mazzoleni, F.; Pareschi, G.; Aschenbach, B.; Braeuninger, H.; Friedrich, P.; Hasinger, G.; Parodi, G.

    2004-01-01

    One of the main guidelines for future X-ray astronomy projects like, e.g., XEUS (ESA) and Generation-X (NASA) is to utilize grazing-incidence focusing optics with extremely large telescopes (several tens of m 2 at 1 keV), with a dramatic increase in collecting area of about two order of magnitude compared to the current X-ray telescopes. In order to avoid the problem of the source's confusion limit at low fluxes, the angular resolution required for these optics should be superb (a few arcsec at most). The enormous mirror dimensions together with the high imaging performances give rise to a number of manufacturing problems. It is basically impossible to realize so large mirrors from closed Wolter I shells which benefit from high mechanical stiffness. Instead the mirrors need to be formed as rectangular segments and a series of them will be assembled in a petal. Taking into account the realistic load capabilities of space launchers, to be able to put in orbit so large mirror modules the mass/geometric-area ratio of the optics should be very small. Finally, with a so large optics mass it would be very difficult to provide the electric power for an optics thermal active control, able to maintain the mirrors at the usual temperature of 20 °C. Therefore, very likely, the optics will instead operate in extreme thermal conditions, with the mirror temperature oscillating between -30 and -40 °C, that tends to exclude the epoxy replication approach (the mismatch between the CTE of the substrate and that of the resin would cause prohibitively large deformations of the mirror surface profiles). From these considerations light weight materials with high thermal-mechanical properties such as glass or ceramics become attractive to realize the mirrors of future Xray telescopes. In this paper, we will discuss a segments manufacturing method based on Borofloat TM glass. A series of finite element analysis concerning different aspects of the production, testing and integration of

  4. Two novel bi-functional hybrid materials constructed from POMs and a Schiff base with excellent third-order NLO and catalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Hu, Gonghao; Miao, Hao; Mei, Hua; Zhou, Shuai; Xu, Yan

    2016-05-10

    The first polyoxometalates modified by a porphyrin-resembling planar Schiff base have been successfully designed and synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. The third-order NLO responses indicated that they are excellent third-order NLO materials. Their catalytic performances are also investigated.

  5. Two novel bi-functional hybrid materials constructed from POMs and a Schiff base with excellent third-order NLO and catalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Hu, Gonghao; Miao, Hao; Mei, Hua; Zhou, Shuai; Xu, Yan

    2016-05-10

    The first polyoxometalates modified by a porphyrin-resembling planar Schiff base have been successfully designed and synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. The third-order NLO responses indicated that they are excellent third-order NLO materials. Their catalytic performances are also investigated. PMID:27117492

  6. Calculated Third Order Rate Constants for Interpreting the Mechanisms of Hydrolyses of Chloroformates, Carboxylic Acid Halides, Sulfonyl Chlorides and Phosphorochloridates

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, T. William

    2015-01-01

    Hydrolyses of acid derivatives (e.g., carboxylic acid chlorides and fluorides, fluoro- and chloroformates, sulfonyl chlorides, phosphorochloridates, anhydrides) exhibit pseudo-first order kinetics. Reaction mechanisms vary from those involving a cationic intermediate (SN1) to concerted SN2 processes, and further to third order reactions, in which one solvent molecule acts as the attacking nucleophile and a second molecule acts as a general base catalyst. A unified framework is discussed, in which there are two reaction channels—an SN1-SN2 spectrum and an SN2-SN3 spectrum. Third order rate constants (k3) are calculated for solvolytic reactions in a wide range of compositions of acetone-water mixtures, and are shown to be either approximately constant or correlated with the Grunwald-Winstein Y parameter. These data and kinetic solvent isotope effects, provide the experimental evidence for the SN2-SN3 spectrum (e.g., for chloro- and fluoroformates, chloroacetyl chloride, p-nitrobenzoyl p-toluenesulfonate, sulfonyl chlorides). Deviations from linearity lead to U- or V-shaped plots, which assist in the identification of the point at which the reaction channel changes from SN2-SN3 to SN1-SN2 (e.g., for benzoyl chloride). PMID:26006228

  7. Measuring large optical transmission matrices of disordered media.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hyeonseung; Hillman, Timothy R; Choi, Wonshik; Lee, Ji Oon; Feld, Michael S; Dasari, Ramachandra R; Park, YongKeun

    2013-10-11

    We report a measurement of the large optical transmission matrix (TM) of a complex turbid medium. The TM is acquired using polarization-sensitive, full-field interferometric microscopy equipped with a rotating galvanometer mirror. It is represented with respect to input and output bases of optical modes, which correspond to plane wave components of the respective illumination and transmitted waves. The modes are sampled so finely in angular spectrum space that their number exceeds the total number of resolvable modes for the illuminated area of the sample. As such, we investigate the singular value spectrum of the TM in order to detect evidence of open transmission channels, predicted by random-matrix theory. Our results comport with theoretical expectations, given the experimental limitations of the system. We consider the impact of these limitations on the usefulness of transmission matrices in optical measurements.

  8. Measuring Large Optical Transmission Matrices of Disordered Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hyeonseung; Hillman, Timothy R.; Choi, Wonshik; Lee, Ji Oon; Feld, Michael S.; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Park, YongKeun

    2013-10-01

    We report a measurement of the large optical transmission matrix (TM) of a complex turbid medium. The TM is acquired using polarization-sensitive, full-field interferometric microscopy equipped with a rotating galvanometer mirror. It is represented with respect to input and output bases of optical modes, which correspond to plane wave components of the respective illumination and transmitted waves. The modes are sampled so finely in angular spectrum space that their number exceeds the total number of resolvable modes for the illuminated area of the sample. As such, we investigate the singular value spectrum of the TM in order to detect evidence of open transmission channels, predicted by random-matrix theory. Our results comport with theoretical expectations, given the experimental limitations of the system. We consider the impact of these limitations on the usefulness of transmission matrices in optical measurements.

  9. Measuring large optical transmission matrices of disordered media.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hyeonseung; Hillman, Timothy R; Choi, Wonshik; Lee, Ji Oon; Feld, Michael S; Dasari, Ramachandra R; Park, YongKeun

    2013-10-11

    We report a measurement of the large optical transmission matrix (TM) of a complex turbid medium. The TM is acquired using polarization-sensitive, full-field interferometric microscopy equipped with a rotating galvanometer mirror. It is represented with respect to input and output bases of optical modes, which correspond to plane wave components of the respective illumination and transmitted waves. The modes are sampled so finely in angular spectrum space that their number exceeds the total number of resolvable modes for the illuminated area of the sample. As such, we investigate the singular value spectrum of the TM in order to detect evidence of open transmission channels, predicted by random-matrix theory. Our results comport with theoretical expectations, given the experimental limitations of the system. We consider the impact of these limitations on the usefulness of transmission matrices in optical measurements. PMID:24160602

  10. Large Diffractive Optics for GEo-Based Earth Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R A

    2003-09-11

    The natural vantage point for performing Earth-centric operations from space is geosynchronous orbit (GEO); a platform there moves at the same rate as the Earth's surface, so appears to continually ''hover'' over a fixed site on the Earth. Unlike spacecraft in other orbits, which rapidly fly-over targets, a GEO-based platform remains in-position all the time. In order to insure continual access to sites using low earth orbit (LEO) platforms, one needs a large enough constellation ({approx} 50) of spacecraft so that one is always overhead; in contrast, a single GEO platform provides continuous coverage over sites throughout Euro-Asia. This permanent coverage comes, unfortunately, with a stiff price-tag; geosynchronous orbit is 36,000 km high, so space platforms there must operate at ranges roughly 100 times greater than ones located in LEO. For optical-based applications, this extreme range is difficult to deal with; for surveillance the price is a 100-fold loss of resolution, for laser weapons it is a 10,000-fold loss in flux-on-target. These huge performance penalties are almost always unacceptable, preventing us from successfully using GEO-based platforms. In practice, we are forced to either settle for brief, infrequent access to targets, or, if we demand continuous coverage, to invest in large, many-satellite, constellations. There is, fortunately, a way to use GEO-based optical platforms without incurring the huge, range-dependent, performance penalties; one must simply use bigger optics. As long as the aperture of a platform's optics increases as much as its operating range, then its performance (resolution and/or flux) does not suffer; the price for operating from GEO is simply 100-fold larger optics. This is, of course, a very stiff price; while meter-class optics may suffice for many low-earth-orbit applications, 100 meter apertures are needed in order to achieve similar performance from GEO. Since even the largest Earth-based telescope is only 10 meters

  11. Optical system design for lens with large relative aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kaisheng; Zhang, Zhi; Zhang, Zhaohui; Wang, Zefeng; Yan, Aqi; Fei, Jiaqi; Mei, Chao; Zhang, Gaopeng

    2015-10-01

    As the space remote sensing technology progresses, the developing trend of telescope is larger and larger aperture, higher and higher resolution. An Optical system with the relative aperture of 1:2 is introduced. The primary optical properties are: focal length of 120mm, F number of 2, field angle of 7.4°. It has the advantages of large high resolution, small size and excellent image quality. Several kinds of aberration curves and the MTF curve are given. Its imaging quality is nearly diffraction limited so that the spatial frequency is greater than 70lp/mm when its modulated transfer function (MTF) value of the optical system is equal to 0.8,and the optical system distortion is less than 1%. At last, the stray light is analyzed and the baffle of the telescope is designed. The solid model of the Optical system was constructed in Tracepro software, the point sources transmittance (PST) cure was given at different off-axis angle between 7.4°~80° the analysis result indicates that the PST values are less than 10-6 when off-axis angle are larger than soar critical angle. So the system is suitable for observation or photography of deep sky objects.

  12. Nonlinear optical conductivity of U (1 ) spin liquids with large spinon Fermi surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuan-Fei; Ng, Tai-Kai

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we study the nonlinear current response of U (1 ) spin liquids with large spinon Fermi surfaces under the perturbation of a time-dependent ac electric field E (t ) within the framework of an effective U (1 ) gauge theory. In particular, the third-order nonlinear current response to ac electric fields is derived. We show that as in the case of linear current response, an in-gap power-law (˜ωη ) response is found for the nonlinear current at low frequency. The nonlinear susceptibility may also induce through process of third harmonic generation propagating EM wave with frequency 3 ω inside the spin liquids.

  13. A high precision optical angle measuring instrument for large optical axis offsets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jing; Tan, Zuojun

    2014-09-01

    In many industrial activities such as manufacturing and inspection, optical axis offsets measurement is an essential process for keeping and improving the quality of products. The laser autocollimation method is improved to detect the large angular displacement with high precision by using a re-imaging technology. A large optical screen made of frosted glass is located at the focal position of the objective lens instead of the detector. A precision CCD imaging system was employed to measure the displacement of the light spot on the optical screen. The sub-pixel position of center of the light spot can be obtained accurately through the centroid and Gaussian fit methods. The actual test results show that the total systematic error of the optical angle measuring instrument in the mode of measuring the range 8°×8° does not exceed 0.16'.

  14. Optical delay control of large-spectral-bandwidth laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Ignesti, E.; Tognetti, M. V.; Buffa, R.; Cavalieri, S.; Fini, L.; Sali, E.; Eramo, R.

    2009-07-15

    In this Rapid Communication we report an experimental observation of temporal delay control of large-spectral-bandwidth multimode laser pulses by means of electromagnetically induced transparency. We achieved optically controllable retardation of laser pulses with an input spectral bandwidth of 3.3 GHz with limited temporal distortion and excellent values of the delay-bandwidth product. The experimental results compare favorably with a theoretical analysis.

  15. Third-order correlation function and ghost imaging of chaotic thermal light in the photon counting regime

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Yu; Simon, Jason; Liu Jianbin; Shih, Yanhua

    2010-04-15

    In a near-field three-photon correlation measurement, we observed the third-order temporal and spatial correlation functions of chaotic thermal light in the single-photon counting regime. In the study, we found that the probability of jointly detecting three randomly radiated photons from a chaotic thermal source by three individual detectors is 6 times greater if the photodetection events fall in the coherence time and coherence area of the radiation field than if they do not. From the viewpoint of quantum mechanics, the observed phenomenon is the result of three-photon interference. By making use of this property, we measured the three-photon thermal light lensless ghost image of a double spot and achieved higher visibility compared with the two-photon thermal light ghost image.

  16. Third order maximum-principle-satisfying direct discontinuous Galerkin methods for time dependent convection diffusion equations on unstructured triangular meshes

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Zheng; Huang, Hongying; Yan, Jue

    2015-12-21

    We develop 3rd order maximum-principle-satisfying direct discontinuous Galerkin methods [8], [9], [19] and [21] for convection diffusion equations on unstructured triangular mesh. We carefully calculate the normal derivative numerical flux across element edges and prove that, with proper choice of parameter pair (β0,β1) in the numerical flux formula, the quadratic polynomial solution satisfies strict maximum principle. The polynomial solution is bounded within the given range and third order accuracy is maintained. There is no geometric restriction on the meshes and obtuse triangles are allowed in the partition. As a result, a sequence of numerical examples are carried out to demonstratemore » the accuracy and capability of the maximum-principle-satisfying limiter.« less

  17. Discussion about generation mechanisms of third-order nonlinear signals in surface acoustic wave resonators based on simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Ryo; Suzuki, Takanao; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Kyoya, Haruki; Nako, Katsuhiro; Hashimoto, Ken-ya

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we discuss the generation mechanisms of third-order nonlinearity in surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices on the basis of simulation results, which are obtained by a proposed method for this discussion. First, eight nonlinear terms are introduced to the piezoelectric constitutive equations, and nonlinear stress and electric flux fields are estimated using linear strain and electric fields calculated by a linear analysis, i.e., the coupling of mode simulation. Then, their contributions are embedded as voltage and current sources, respectively, in an equivalent circuit model, and nonlinear signals appearing at external ports are estimated. It is shown that eight coefficients of the nonlinear terms can be determined from a series of experiments carried out at various driving and resulting frequencies. This is because the effect of each nonlinear term on the nonlinear signal outputs changes markedly with the conditions. When the coefficients are determined properly, the simulations agree well with some measurement results under various conditions.

  18. Evaluation of third-order elastic constants using laser-generated multi-type ultrasound for isotropic materials.

    PubMed

    Dong, Li-Ming; Lomonosov, Alexey M; Shen, Zhong-Hua; Li, Jia; Ni, Chen-Yin; Ni, Xiao-Wu

    2013-08-01

    Within the linear elasticity approximation the speed of a small-amplitude sound in conventional linear elasticity is determined only by the second order elastic (SOE) constants and the density of the medium. Subjecting the conveying solid to a static strain of a sufficient magnitude introduces the third-order elastic (TOE) constants in the equation of the sound speed. In this work we applied a homogeneous isotropic deformation caused by a thermal expansion of an aluminum alloy sample. Velocities of three acoustic modes: longitudinal, shear and Rayleigh waves were measured as functions of temperature within a range of 25-100 °C. Two TOE constants C111 and C112 were evaluated in an assumption that the third independent module C144 is far smaller than the former two. PMID:23522685

  19. Third order maximum-principle-satisfying direct discontinuous Galerkin methods for time dependent convection diffusion equations on unstructured triangular meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zheng; Huang, Hongying; Yan, Jue

    2015-12-21

    We develop 3rd order maximum-principle-satisfying direct discontinuous Galerkin methods [8], [9], [19] and [21] for convection diffusion equations on unstructured triangular mesh. We carefully calculate the normal derivative numerical flux across element edges and prove that, with proper choice of parameter pair (β01) in the numerical flux formula, the quadratic polynomial solution satisfies strict maximum principle. The polynomial solution is bounded within the given range and third order accuracy is maintained. There is no geometric restriction on the meshes and obtuse triangles are allowed in the partition. As a result, a sequence of numerical examples are carried out to demonstrate the accuracy and capability of the maximum-principle-satisfying limiter.

  20. A clock steering method: using a third-order type 3 DPLL equivalent to a Kalman filter with a delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yiwei; Gong, Hang; Zhu, Xiangwei; Ou, Gang

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we propose a new clock steering method, which uses a third-order type 3 digital phase locked loop (DPLL) which is equivalent to a Kalman filter with a delay. A general overview of the theoretical framework is described in detail including the transfer functions, the structure and control values, the specifications, and the approach to choosing a parameter. Simulations show that the performance of the time and frequency steering errors and the frequency stability are quite desirable. Comparing with traditional clock steering methods, it is easier to work with just one parameter. The DPLL method satisfies the requirements of generating a local representation of universal time coordinated and the system time of a global navigation satellite system.

  1. Nonlinear elastic response of strong solids: First-principles calculations of the third-order elastic constants of diamond

    DOE PAGES

    Hmiel, A.; Winey, J. M.; Gupta, Y. M.; Desjarlais, M. P.

    2016-05-23

    Accurate theoretical calculations of the nonlinear elastic response of strong solids (e.g., diamond) constitute a fundamental and important scientific need for understanding the response of such materials and for exploring the potential synthesis and design of novel solids. However, without corresponding experimental data, it is difficult to select between predictions from different theoretical methods. Recently the complete set of third-order elastic constants (TOECs) for diamond was determined experimentally, and the validity of various theoretical approaches to calculate the same may now be assessed. We report on the use of density functional theory (DFT) methods to calculate the six third-order elasticmore » constants of diamond. Two different approaches based on homogeneous deformations were used: (1) an energy-strain fitting approach using a prescribed set of deformations, and (2) a longitudinal stress-strain fitting approach using uniaxial compressive strains along the [100], [110], and [111] directions, together with calculated pressure derivatives of the second-order elastic constants. The latter approach provides a direct comparison to the experimental results. The TOECs calculated using the energy-strain approach differ significantly from the measured TOECs. In contrast, calculations using the longitudinal stress-uniaxial strain approach show good agreement with the measured TOECs and match the experimental values significantly better than the TOECs reported in previous theoretical studies. Lastly, our results on diamond have demonstrated that, with proper analysis procedures, first-principles calculations can indeed be used to accurately calculate the TOECs of strong solids.« less

  2. Using bifurcations in the determination of lock-in ranges for third-order phase-locked loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piqueira, José Roberto Castilho

    2009-05-01

    Transmission and switching in digital telecommunication networks require distribution of precise time signals among the nodes. Commercial systems usually adopt a master-slave (MS) clock distribution strategy building slave nodes with phase-locked loop (PLL) circuits. PLLs are responsible for synchronizing their local oscillations with signals from master nodes, providing reliable clocks in all nodes. The dynamics of a PLL is described by an ordinary nonlinear differential equation, with order one plus the order of its internal linear low-pass filter. Second-order loops are commonly used because their synchronous state is asymptotically stable and the lock-in range and design parameters are expressed by a linear equivalent system [Gardner FM. Phaselock techniques. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1979]. In spite of being simple and robust, second-order PLLs frequently present double-frequency terms in PD output and it is very difficult to adapt a first-order filter in order to cut off these components [Piqueira JRC, Monteiro LHA. Considering second-harmonic terms in the operation of the phase detector for second order phase-locked loop. IEEE Trans Circuits Syst I 2003;50(6):805-9; Piqueira JRC, Monteiro LHA. All-pole phase-locked loops: calculating lock-in range by using Evan's root-locus. Int J Control 2006;79(7):822-9]. Consequently, higher-order filters are used, resulting in nonlinear loops with order greater than 2. Such systems, due to high order and nonlinear terms, depending on parameters combinations, can present some undesirable behaviors, resulting from bifurcations, as error oscillation and chaos, decreasing synchronization ranges. In this work, we consider a second-order Sallen-Key loop filter [van Valkenburg ME. Analog filter design. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston; 1982] implying a third order PLL. The resulting lock-in range of the third-order PLL is determined by two bifurcation conditions: a saddle-node and a Hopf.

  3. Fast Optical Transillumination Tomography with Large-Size Projection Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hsuan-Ming; Xia, Jinjun; Haidekker, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Techniques such as optical coherence tomography and diffuse optical tomography have been shown to effectively image highly scattering samples such as tissue. An additional modality has received much less attention: Optical transillumination tomography (OT), a modality that promises very high acquisition speed for volumetric scans. With the motivation to image tissue-engineered blood vessels for possible biomechanical testing, we have developed a fast OT device using a collimated, non-coherent beam with a large diameter together with a large-size CMOS camera that has the ability to acquire 3D projections in a single revolution of the sample. In addition, we used accelerated iterative reconstruction techniques to improve image reconstruction speed, while at the same time obtaining better image quality than through filtered back projection. The device was tested using ink-filled PTFE tubes to determine geometric reconstruction accuracy and recovery of absorbance. Even in the presence of minor refractive index mismatch, the weighted error of the measured radius was less than 5% in all cases, and a high linear correlation of ink absorbance determined with a photospectrometer of R 2 =0.99 was found, although the OT device systematically underestimated absorbance. Reconstruction time was improved from several hours (standard arithmetic reconstruction) to 90 seconds per slice with our optimized algorithm. Composed of only a light source, two spatial filters, a sample bath, and a CMOS camera, this device was extremely simple and cost-efficient to build. PMID:18704687

  4. Fast figuring of large optics by reactive atom plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelli, Marco; Jourdain, Renaud; Morantz, Paul; Shore, Paul

    2012-09-01

    The next generation of ground-based astronomical observatories will require fabrication and maintenance of extremely large segmented mirrors tens of meters in diameter. At present, the large production of segments required by projects like E-ELT and TMT poses time frames and costs feasibility questions. This is principally due to a bottleneck stage in the optical fabrication chain: the final figuring step. State-of-the-art figure correction techniques, so far, have failed to meet the needs of the astronomical community for mass production of large, ultra-precise optical surfaces. In this context, Reactive Atom Plasma (RAP) is proposed as a candidate figuring process that combines nanometer level accuracy with high material removal rates. RAP is a form of plasma enhanced chemical etching at atmospheric pressure based on Inductively Coupled Plasma technology. The rapid figuring capability of the RAP process has already been proven on medium sized optical surfaces made of silicon based materials. In this paper, the figure correction of a 3 meters radius of curvature, 400 mm diameter spherical ULE mirror is presented. This work demonstrates the large scale figuring capability of the Reactive Atom Plasma process. The figuring is carried out by applying an in-house developed procedure that promotes rapid convergence. A 2.3 μm p-v initial figure error is removed within three iterations, for a total processing time of 2.5 hours. The same surface is then re-polished and the residual error corrected again down to λ/20 nm rms. These results highlight the possibility of figuring a metre-class mirror in about ten hours.

  5. Optical Distortion Evaluation in Large Area Windows using Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C.; Skow, Miles; Nurge, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    It is important that imagery seen through large area windows, such as those used on space vehicles, not be substantially distorted. Many approaches are described in the literature for measuring the distortion of an optical window, but most suffer from either poor resolution or processing difficulties. In this paper a new definition of distortion is presented, allowing accurate measurement using an optical interferometer. This new definition is shown to be equivalent to the definitions provided by the military and the standards organizations. In order to determine the advantages and disadvantages of this new approach the distortion of an acrylic window is measured using three different methods; image comparison, Moiré interferometry, and phase-shifting interferometry.

  6. Advances in optical materials for large aperture lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Stokowski, S.E.; Lowdermilk, W.H.; Marchi, F.T.; Swain, J.E.; Wallerstein, E.P.; Wirtenson, G.R.

    1981-12-15

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is using large aperture Nd: glass lasers to investigate the feasibility of inertial confinement fusion. In our experiments high power laser light is focussed onto a small (100 to 500 micron) target containing a deuterium-tritium fuel mixture. During the short (1 to 5 ns) laser pulse the fuel is compressed and heated, resulting in fusion reactions. The generation and control of the powerful laser pulses for these experiments is a challenging scientific and engineering task, which requires the development of new optical materials, fabrication techniques, and coatings. LLNL with the considerable cooperation and support from the optical industry, where most of the research and development and almost all the manufacturing is done, has successfully applied several new developments in these areas.

  7. Large dynamic range optical vector analyzer based on optical single-sideband modulation and Hilbert transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Min; Pan, Shilong; Zhao, Yongjiu

    2016-07-01

    A large dynamic range optical vector analyzer (OVA) based on optical single-sideband modulation is proposed and demonstrated. By dividing the optical signal after optical device under test into two paths, reversing the phase of one swept sideband using a Hilbert transformer in one path, and detecting the two signals from the two paths with a balanced photodetector, the measurement errors induced by the residual -1st-order sideband and the high-order sidebands can be eliminated and the dynamic range of the measurement is increased. In a proof-of-concept experiment, the stimulated Brillouin scattering and a fiber Bragg grating are measured by OVAs with and without the Hilbert transform and balanced photodetection. Results show that about 40-dB improvement in the measurement dynamic range is realized by the proposed OVA.

  8. Large scale quantum walks by means of optical fiber cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutari, J.; Feizpour, A.; Barz, S.; Di Franco, C.; Kim, M. S.; Kolthammer, W. S.; Walmsley, I. A.

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate a platform for implementing quantum walks that overcomes many of the barriers associated with photonic implementations. We use coupled fiber-optic cavities to implement time-bin encoded walks in an integrated system. We show that this platform can achieve very low losses combined with high-fidelity operations, enabling an unprecedented large number of steps in a passive system, as required for scenarios with multiple walkers. Furthermore the platform is reconfigurable, enabling variation of the coin, and readily extends to multidimensional lattices. We demonstrate variation of the coin bias experimentally for three different values.

  9. Optics in large-scale architectural projects: public aquariums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesar, John C.

    2002-09-01

    Submersed aquatic vegetation can survive to a depth of approximately 20% of surface water irradiance. Large displays featured in public aquariums are often open to the sky, but the building roof acts as an aperture and obscures much of the direct solar path. Side-walls within the tank often absorb more than they reflect or scatter and as a result plants and fish get little more than the diffuse solar component without supplemental illumination. The loss mechanisms are detailed and design suggestions are considered, including heliostats, lightpipes and tracked parabolic reflectors with fiber optics.

  10. Damage mechanisms avoided or managed for NIF large optics

    DOE PAGES

    Manes, K. R.; Spaeth, M. L.; Adams, J. J.; Bowers, M. W.; Bude, J. D.; Carr, C. W.; Conder, A. D.; DiNicola, J. M. G.; Dixit, S. N.; Feigenbaum, E.; et al

    2016-02-09

    After every other failure mode has been considered, in the end, the high-performance limit of all lasers is set by optical damage. The demands of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) pushed lasers designed as ICF drivers into this limit from their very earliest days. The first ICF lasers were small, and their pulses were short. Their goal was to provide as much power to the target as possible. Typically, they faced damage due to high intensity on their optics. As requests for higher laser energy, longer pulse lengths, and better symmetry appeared, new kinds of damage also emerged, some of themmore » anticipated and others unexpected. This paper will discuss the various types of damage to large optics that had to be considered, avoided to the extent possible, or otherwise managed as the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser was designed, fabricated, and brought into operation. Furthermore, it has been possible for NIF to meet its requirements because of the experience gained in previous ICF systems and because NIF designers have continued to be able to avoid or manage new damage situations as they have appeared.« less

  11. World Atlas of large optical telescopes (second edition)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meszaros, S. P.

    1986-01-01

    By early 1986 there will be over 120 large optical telescopes in the world engaged in astronomical research with mirror or lens diameters of one meter (39-inches) and larger. This atlas gives information on these telescopes and shows their observatory sites on continent sized maps. Also shown are observatory locations considered suitable for the construction of future large telescopes. Of the 126 major telescopes listed in this atlas, 101 are situated in the Northern Hemisphere and 25 are located in the Southern Hemisphere. The totals by regions are as follows: Europe (excluding the USSR), 30; Soviet Union, 9; Asia (excluding the USSR), 5; Africa, 9; Australia, 6; The Pacific, 4 (all on Hawaii); South America, 17; North America, 46 (the continental US has 38 of these). In all, the United States has 42 of the world's major telescopes on its territory (continental US plus Hawaii) making it by far the leading nation in astronomical instrumentation.

  12. Semi-kinematic mount of the FIREBALL large optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossin, C.; Grange, R.; Milliard, B.; Martin, L.; Moreaux, G.; Blanchard, P.; Deharveng, J.-M.; Evrard, J.; Martin, C.; McLean, R.; Schiminovich, D.

    2008-07-01

    In the context of the NASA CNES FIREBALL balloon borne experiment, we present the design of a semi-kinematic mount to hold the 1 meter class mirrors of this mission. To maintain these large optics in a reasonable mass and price budgets we choose thin ULE mirrors with a thickness over diameter ratio of 1/16. Such thin mirrors require a multi support mount to reduce self weight deflection. Classical multi support mount used for ground based telescope would not survive the level of shock observed in a balloon experiment either at parachute opening or landing. To firmly maintain these mirrors in several points without noticeably deforming them we investigated the design of a two stages semi-kinematic mount composed of 24 monopods. We present the detailed design of this innovative mirror mount, the finite element modeling with the deduced optical wavefront deformation. During the FIREBALL integration and flight campaign in July 2007 at CSBF, we confirmed the validity of the mechanical concept by obtaining an image quality well within the required specifications. Variants of this approach are potentially applicable to large thin mirrors on ground-based observatories.

  13. Large-Area Zone Plate Fabrication with Optical Lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Denbeaux, G.

    2011-09-09

    Zone plates as condenser optics for x-ray microscopes offer simple optical designs for both illumination and spectral resolution when used as a linear monochromator. However, due to the long write times for electron beam lithography, both the availability and the size of zone plates for condensers have been limited. Since the resolution provided by the linear monochromator scales almost linearly with the diameter of the zone plate, the full potential for zone plate monochromators as illumination systems for x-ray microscopes has not been achieved. For example, the 10-mm-diameter zone plate has demonstrated a spectral resolution of E/{Delta}E = 700[1], but with a 26-mm-diameter zone plate, the calculated spectral resolution is higher than E/{Delta}E = 3000. These large-area zone plates are possible to fabricate with the leading edge semiconductor lithography tools such as those available at the College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering at the University at Albany. One of the lithography tools available is the ASML TWINSCAN XT: 1950i with 37-nm resolution [2]. A single 300-mm wafer can contain more than 60 fields, each with a large area condenser, and the throughput of the tool can be more than one wafer every minute.

  14. Large-Area Zone Plate Fabrication with Optical Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denbeaux, G.

    2011-09-01

    Zone plates as condenser optics for x-ray microscopes offer simple optical designs for both illumination and spectral resolution when used as a linear monochromator. However, due to the long write times for electron beam lithography, both the availability and the size of zone plates for condensers have been limited. Since the resolution provided by the linear monochromator scales almost linearly with the diameter of the zone plate, the full potential for zone plate monochromators as illumination systems for x-ray microscopes has not been achieved. For example, the 10-mm-diameter zone plate has demonstrated a spectral resolution of E/ΔE = 700 [1], but with a 26-mm-diameter zone plate, the calculated spectral resolution is higher than E/ΔE = 3000. These large-area zone plates are possible to fabricate with the leading edge semiconductor lithography tools such as those available at the College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering at the University at Albany. One of the lithography tools available is the ASML TWINSCAN XT: 1950i with 37-nm resolution [2]. A single 300-mm wafer can contain more than 60 fields, each with a large area condenser, and the throughput of the tool can be more than one wafer every minute.

  15. IP over optical multicasting for large-scale video delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yaohui; Hu, Weisheng; Sun, Weiqiang; Guo, Wei

    2007-11-01

    In the IPTV systems, multicasting will play a crucial role in the delivery of high-quality video services, which can significantly improve bandwidth efficiency. However, the scalability and the signal quality of current IPTV can barely compete with the existing broadcast digital TV systems since it is difficult to implement large-scale multicasting with end-to-end guaranteed quality of service (QoS) in packet-switched IP network. China 3TNet project aimed to build a high performance broadband trial network to support large-scale concurrent streaming media and interactive multimedia services. The innovative idea of 3TNet is that an automatic switched optical networks (ASON) with the capability of dynamic point-to-multipoint (P2MP) connections replaces the conventional IP multicasting network in the transport core, while the edge remains an IP multicasting network. In this paper, we will introduce the network architecture and discuss challenges in such IP over Optical multicasting for video delivery.

  16. Application of third-order multivariate calibration algorithms to the determination of carbaryl, naphthol and propoxur by kinetic spectroscopic measurements.

    PubMed

    Santa-Cruz, Pablo; García-Reiriz, Alejandro

    2014-10-01

    In the present work a new application of third-order multivariate calibration algorithms is presented, in order to quantify carbaryl, naphthol and propoxur using kinetic spectroscopic data. The time evolution of fluorescence data matrices was measured, in order to follow the alkaline hydrolysis of the pesticides mentioned above. This experimental system has the additional complexity that one of the analytes is the reaction product of another analyte, and this fact generates linear dependency problems between concentration profiles. The data were analyzed by three different methods: parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), unfolded partial least-squares (U-PLS) and multi-dimensional partial least-squares (N-PLS); these last two methods were assisted with residual trilinearization (RTL) to model the presence of unexpected signals not included in the calibration step. The ability of the different algorithms to predict analyte concentrations was checked with validation samples. Samples with unexpected components, tiabendazole and carbendazim, were prepared and spiked water samples of a natural stream were used to check the recovered concentrations. The best results were obtained with U-PLS/RTL and N-PLS/RTL with an average of the limits of detection of 0.035 for carbaryl, 0.025 for naphthol and 0.090 for propoxur (mg L(-1)), because these two methods are more flexible regarding the structure of the data.

  17. Coupled third-order simplified spherical harmonics and diffusion equation-based fluorescence tomographic imaging of liver cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xueli; Sun, Fangfang; Yang, Defu; Liang, Jimin

    2015-09-01

    For fluorescence tomographic imaging of small animals, the liver is usually regarded as a low-scattering tissue and is surrounded by adipose, kidneys, and heart, all of which have a high scattering property. This leads to a breakdown of the diffusion equation (DE)-based reconstruction method as well as a heavy computational burden for the simplified spherical harmonics equation (SPN). Coupling the SPN and DE provides a perfect balance between the imaging accuracy and computational burden. The coupled third-order SPN and DE (CSDE)-based reconstruction method is developed for fluorescence tomographic imaging. This is achieved by doubly using the CSDE for the excitation and emission processes of the fluorescence propagation. At the same time, the finite-element method and hybrid multilevel regularization strategy are incorporated in inverse reconstruction. The CSDE-based reconstruction method is first demonstrated with a digital mouse-based liver cancer simulation, which reveals superior performance compared with the SPN and DE-based methods. It is more accurate than the DE-based method and has lesser computational burden than the SPN-based method. The feasibility of the proposed approach in applications of in vivo studies is also illustrated with a liver cancer mouse-based in situ experiment, revealing its potential application in whole-body imaging of small animals.

  18. Tensor hypercontraction density fitting. I. Quartic scaling second- and third-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohenstein, Edward G.; Parrish, Robert M.; Martínez, Todd J.

    2012-07-01

    Many approximations have been developed to help deal with the O(N4) growth of the electron repulsion integral (ERI) tensor, where N is the number of one-electron basis functions used to represent the electronic wavefunction. Of these, the density fitting (DF) approximation is currently the most widely used despite the fact that it is often incapable of altering the underlying scaling of computational effort with respect to molecular size. We present a method for exploiting sparsity in three-center overlap integrals through tensor decomposition to obtain a low-rank approximation to density fitting (tensor hypercontraction density fitting or THC-DF). This new approximation reduces the 4th-order ERI tensor to a product of five matrices, simultaneously reducing the storage requirement as well as increasing the flexibility to regroup terms and reduce scaling behavior. As an example, we demonstrate such a scaling reduction for second- and third-order perturbation theory (MP2 and MP3), showing that both can be carried out in O(N4) operations. This should be compared to the usual scaling behavior of O(N5) and O(N6) for MP2 and MP3, respectively. The THC-DF technique can also be applied to other methods in electronic structure theory, such as coupled-cluster and configuration interaction, promising significant gains in computational efficiency and storage reduction.

  19. Self-oscillations of a third order PLL in periodic and chaotic mode and its tracking in a slave PLL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, B. C.; Chakraborty, S.

    2014-03-01

    The dynamics of a third order phase locked loop (PLL) with a resonant low pass filter (LPF) has been studied numerically in the parameter space of the system. The range of stable synchronous operating zone of the PLL, expressed in terms of system and signal parameters, is estimated. The obtained results are in agreement with the analytically predicted results in the literature. The PLL dynamics in the unstable region is found to have a sequence of period doubling bifurcation and chaos. In the master-slave mode of operation of two 3rd order PLLs, the slave PLL can track the periodic as well as chaotic dynamics of the master PLL for a narrow range of effective frequency offset when other design parameters are within the stable zone as predicted for an isolated PLL. The synchronization of the master and slave PLLs in this condition is proved to be a generalized one using the auxiliary slave system approach. Experimental observations on prototype hardware circuits for an isolated PLL and for a master-slave PLL arrangement are also given.

  20. Role of negative-third order dispersion, intrapulse Raman scattering and self steepening effect on soliton intra-channel interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, Bhupeshwaran; Jawahar, A.; Sivasubramanian, A.; Chitra, K.

    2015-07-01

    Here, we demonstrate the combined influence of Intrapulse Raman Scattering (IRS), Self-Steepening (SS) and negative Third Order Dispersion (n-TOD) on soliton interaction. The peculiar particle nature of soliton results in interaction of in-phase adjacent pulses while helps in deviation of out-of phase pulses. We show how the interaction of the soliton can be avoided due to combined effect of IRS, SS and negative TOD as these effects apart from various nonlinear dynamics results in shifting of pulses. The interaction point of solitons in 160 Gbps system is found to be at 24.22Km for an initial relative spacing of qo=5.28 using Perturbation theory. This in-phase soliton pair tracing inside the fiber in noted using Split-Step Fourier Transform. Further, impact of interaction is realized in 160 Gbps telecommunication model which yielded Q=0 at Ip depicting perfect interaction resulting in bit error without influence while yielded fair Quality facto of 112.375, 124.59, 93.57, 75.12, 63.23 and 46.97 with influence for various TOD values of -0.03, -0.04, -0.05, -0.06, -0.07 and -0.09 ps3/Km and TR=4fs demonstrating no interaction.

  1. Coexistence of multiple attractors and crisis route to chaos in autonomous third order Duffing-Holmes type chaotic oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kengne, J.; Njitacke Tabekoueng, Z.; Fotsin, H. B.

    2016-07-01

    We perform a systematic analysis of a system consisting of an autonomous third order Duffing-Holmes type chaotic oscillator recently introduced by Tamasevicius et al. (2009). In this type of oscillators, the symmetrical characteristics of the nonlinear component necessary for generating chaotic oscillations is synthesized by using a pair of semiconductor diodes connected in anti-parallel. Based on the Shockley diode equation and a judicious choice of state variables, we derive a smooth mathematical model (involving hyperbolic sine and cosine functions) for a better description of both the regular and chaotic dynamics of the oscillator. The bifurcation analysis shows that chaos is achieved via the classical period-doubling and symmetry restoring crisis scenarios. More interestingly, some regions of the parameter space corresponding to the coexistence of multiple attractors (e.g. coexistence of four different attractors for the same values of system parameters) are discovered. This striking phenomenon is unique and has not yet been reported previously in an electrical circuit (the universal Chua's circuit included, in spite the immense amount of related research work), and thus represents a meaningful contribution to the understanding of the behavior of nonlinear dynamical systems in general. Some PSpice simulations of the nonlinear dynamics of the oscillator are carried out to verify the theoretical analysis.

  2. Holographic topography using acousto-optically generated large synthetic wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeywickrema, U.; Beamer, D.; Banerjee, P.; Poon, T.-C.

    2016-03-01

    Digital holography uses phase imaging in a variety of techniques to produce a three-dimensional phase resolved image that includes accurate depth information about the object of interest. Multi-wavelength digital holography is an accurate method for measuring the topography of surfaces. Typically, the object phases are reconstructed for two wavelengths separately and the phase corresponding to the synthetic wavelength (obtained from the two wavelengths) is obtained by calculating the phase difference. Then the surface map can be obtained using proper phase-unwrapping techniques. Usually these synthetic wavelengths are on the order of microns which can be used to resolve depths on the order of microns. In this work, two extremely close wavelengths generated by an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) are used to perform two-wavelength digital holography. Since the difference between the two wavelengths is on the order of picometers, a large synthetic wavelength (on the order of centimeters) can be obtained which can be used to determine the topography of macroscopic surface features. Also since the synthetic wavelength is large, an accurate surface map can be obtained without using a phase-unwrapping technique. A 514 nm Argon-ion laser is used as the optical source, and used with an AOM to generate the zeroth-order and frequency-shifted first-order diffracted orders which are used as the two wavelengths. Both beams are aligned through the same spatial filter assembly. Holograms are captured sequentially using a typical Mach-Zehnder interferometric setup by blocking one beam at a time. Limitations of the large synthetic wavelength are also discussed.

  3. Roles of drizzle in a one-dimensional third-order turbulence closure model of the nocturnal stratus-topped marine boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Shouping; Wang, Qing

    1994-01-01

    This study focuses on the effects of drizzle in a one-dimensional third-order turbulence closure model of the nocturnal stratus-topped marine boundary layer. When the simulated drizzle rate is relatively small (maximum approximately equal to 0.6 mm/day), steady-state solutions are obtained. The boundary layer stabilizes essentially because drizzle causes evaporative cooling of the subcloud layer. This stabilization considerably reduces the buoyancy flux and turbulence kinetic energy below the stratus cloud. Thus, drizzle tends to decouple the cloud from the subcloud layer in the model, as suggested by many observational studies. In addition, the evaporation of drizzle in the subcloud layer creates small scattered clouds, which are likely to represent cumulus clouds, below the solid stratus cloud in the model. The sensitivity experiments show that these scattered clouds help maintain a coupled boundary layer. When the drizzle rate is relatively large (maximum approximately equal to 0.9 mm/day), the response of the model becomes transient with bursts in turbulent fluxes. This phenomenon is related to the formation of the scattered cloud layer below the solid stratus cloud. It appears that the model is inadequate to represent the heat and moisture transport by strong updrafts covering a small fractional area in cumulus convection.

  4. Large-aperture active optical carbon fiber reinforced polymer mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungwirth, Matthew E. L.; Wilcox, Christopher C.; Wick, David V.; Baker, Michael S.; Hobart, Clinton G.; Milinazzo, Jared J.; Robichaud, Joseph; Romeo, Robert C.; Martin, Robert N.; Ballesta, Jerome; Lavergne, Emeric; Dereniak, Eustace L.

    2013-05-01

    An active reflective component can change its focal length by physically deforming its reflecting surface. Such elements exist at small apertures, but have yet to be fully realized at larger apertures. This paper presents the design and initial results of a large-aperture active mirror constructed of a composite material called carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP). The active CFRP mirror uses a novel actuation method to change radius of curvature, where actuators press against two annular rings placed on the mirror's back. This method enables the radius of curvature to increase from 2000mm to 2010mm. Closed-loop control maintains good optical performance of 1.05 waves peak-to-valley (with respect to a HeNe laser) when the active CFRP mirror is used in conjunction with a commercial deformable mirror.

  5. Theory of third-order spectroscopic methods to extract detailed molecular orientational dynamics for planar surfaces and other uniaxial systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nishida, Jun; Fayer, Michael D.

    2014-04-14

    Functionalized organic monolayers deposited on planar two-dimensional surfaces are important systems for studying ultrafast orientational motions and structures of interfacial molecules. Several studies have successfully observed the orientational relaxation of functionalized monolayers by fluorescence depolarization experiments and recently by polarization-resolved heterodyne detected vibrational transient grating (HDTG) experiments. In this article we provide a model-independent theory to extract orientational correlation functions unique to interfacial molecules and other uniaxial systems based on polarization-resolved resonant third-order spectroscopies, such as pump-probe spectroscopy, HDTG spectroscopy, and fluorescence depolarization experiment. It will be shown (in the small beam-crossing angle limit) that five measurements are necessary to completely characterize the monolayer's motions: I{sub ∥}(t) and I{sub ⊥}(t) with the incident beams normal to the surface, I{sub ∥}(t) and I{sub ⊥}(t) with a non-zero incident angle, and a time averaged linear dichroism measurement. Once these measurements are performed, two orientational correlation functions corresponding to in-plane and out-of-plane motions are obtained. The procedure is applicable not only for monolayers on flat surfaces, but any samples with uniaxial symmetry such as uniaxial liquid crystals and aligned planar bilayers. The theory is valid regardless of the nature of the actual molecular motions on interface. We then apply the general results to wobbling-in-a-cone model, in which molecular motions are restricted to a limited range of angles. Within the context of the model, the cone angle, the tilt of the cone relative to the surface normal, and the orientational diffusion constant can be determined. The results are extended to describe analysis of experiments where the beams are not crossing in the small angle limit.

  6. Time-dependent fifth-order bands in nominally third-order 2D IR vibrational echo spectra.

    PubMed

    Thielges, Megan C; Fayer, Michael D

    2011-09-01

    Progress in the field of 2D IR vibrational spectroscopy has been bolstered by the production of intense mid-IR laser pulses. As higher-energy pulses are employed, a concomitant increase occurs in the likelihood of fifth-order contributions to the 2D IR spectra. We report the appearance of fifth-order signals in 2D IR spectra of CO bound to the active site of the enzyme cytochrome P450(cam) with the substrate norcamphor. Two bands with novel time dependences, one on the diagonal and one off-diagonal, are not accounted for by normal third-order interactions. These bands are associated with a ν = 1-2 vibrational transition frequency. Both bands decay to 0 and then grow back in with opposite sign. The diagonal band is positive at short time, decays to 0, reappears with negative sign, before eventually decaying to 0. The off-diagonal band is negative at short time, decays to 0, reappears positive, and then decays to 0. The appearance and time dependence of these bands are characterized. Understanding these fifth-order bands is useful because they may be misidentified with time-dependent bands that arise from other processes, such as chemical exchange, vibrational coupling, or energy transfer. The presence and unusual time dependences of the fifth-order bands are reproduced with model calculations that account for the fact that vibrational relaxation from the ν = 2 to 1 level is approximately a factor of 2 faster than that from the ν = 1 to 0 level.

  7. Cascading nonlinearities in optical four-wave mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zgonik, M.; Günter, P.

    1996-03-01

    In a crystal without inversion symmetry there exist two-step indirect contributions to third-order nonlinear optical processes (cascading). Contributions to optical four-wave mixing occur through optical rectification and linear electro-optic effects. In contrast to cascading by second-harmonic generation, which has to satisfy strict phase-matching conditions, optical rectification is always allowed. In polar KNbO3 crystals we measured four-wave mixing in several geometries to evaluate the direct contribution of the third-order polarizabilities and the cascaded contribution. We present a theoretical model and show experimentally that the cascading effect is large and that contributing polarization gratings must be transversely polarized.

  8. Large Aperture Scanning Lidar Based on Holographic Optical Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.; Miller, David O.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Andrus, Ionio; Guerra, David V.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Lidar remote sensing instruments can make a significant contribution to satisfying many of the required measurements of atmospheric and surface parameters for future spaceborne platforms, including topographic altimeters, atmospheric profiles of, wind, humidity, temperature, trace molecules, aerosols, and clouds. It is highly desirable to have wide measurement swaths for rapid coverage rather than just the narrow ribbon of data that is obtained with a nadir only observation. For most applications global coverage is required, and for wind measurements scanning or pointing is required in order to retrieve the full 3-D wind vector from multiple line-of-sight Doppler measurements. Conventional lidar receivers make up a substantial portion of the instrument's size and weight. Wide angle scanning typically requires a large scanning mirror in front of the receiver telescope, or pointing the entire telescope and aft optics assembly, Either of these methods entails the use of large bearings, motors, gearing and their associated electronics. Spaceborne instruments also need reaction wheels to counter the torque applied to the spacecraft by these motions. NASA has developed simplified conical scanning telescopes using Holographic Optical Elements (HOEs) to reduce the size, mass, angular momentum, and cost of scanning lidar systems. NASA has developed two operating lidar systems based on 40 cm diameter HOEs. The first such system, named Prototype Holographic Atmospheric Scanner for Environmental Remote Sensing (PHASERS) was a joint development between NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the University of Maryland College Park. PHASERS is based on a reflection HOE for use at the doubled Nd:YAG laser wavelength of 532 nm and has recently undergone a number of design changes in a collaborative effort between GSFC and Saint Anselm College in New Hampshire. The next step was to develop IR transmission HOEs for use with the Nd:YAG fundamental in the Holographic Airborne

  9. Large Aperture Scanning Lidar Based on Holographic Optical Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.; Miller, David O.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Andrus, Ionio; Guerra, David V.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Lidar remote sensing instruments can make a significant contribution to satisfying many of the required measurements of atmospheric and surface parameters for future spaceborne platforms, including topographic altimeters, atmospheric profiles of, wind, humidity, temperature, trace molecules, aerosols, and clouds. It is highly desirable to have wide measurement swaths for rapid coverage rather than just the narrow ribbon of data that is obtained with a nadir only observation. For most applications global coverage is required, and for wind measurements scanning or pointing is required in order to retrieve the full 3-D wind vector from multiple line-of-sight Doppler measurements. Conventional lidar receivers make up a substantial portion of the instrument's size and weight. Wide angle scanning typically requires a large scanning mirror in front of the receiver telescope, or pointing the entire telescope and aft optics assembly, Either of these methods entails the use of large bearings, motors, gearing and their associated electronics. Spaceborne instruments also need reaction wheels to counter the torque applied to the spacecraft by these motions. NASA has developed simplified conical scanning telescopes using Holographic Optical Elements (HOEs) to reduce the size, mass, angular momentum, and cost of scanning lidar systems. NASA has developed two operating lidar systems based on 40 cm diameter HOEs. The first such system, named Prototype Holographic Atmospheric Scanner for Environmental Remote Sensing (PHASERS) was a joint development between NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the University of Maryland College Park. PHASERS is based on a reflection HOE for use at the doubled Nd:YAG laser wavelength of 532 nm and has recently undergone a number of design changes in a collaborative effort between GSFC and Saint Anselm College in New Hampshire. The next step was to develop IR transmission HOEs for use with the Nd:YAG fundamental in the Holographic Airborne

  10. Optical very large array (OVLA) prototype telescope: status report and perspective for large mosaic mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejonghe, Julien; Arnold, Luc; Lardiere, Olivier; Berger, Jean-Pierre; Cazale, C.; Dutertre, S.; Kohler, D.; Vernet, D.

    1998-08-01

    The OVLA will be a kilometric-size interferometric array of N equals 27 or more 1.5 m telescopes. It is expected to provide visible to infra-red snap-shot images, containing in densified pupil mode N(superscript 2) 10(superscript -4) arc-second wide resolved elements in yellow light. The prototype telescope is under construction at Observatoire de Haute Provence and will be connected in 2000 to the GI2T, Grand Interferometre a 2 Telescopes, thus upgraded to a GI3T. The prototype telescope has a spherical mount, well suited for multi- aperture interferometric work, and a thin active 1.5 m f/1.7 mirror weighting only 180 kg with the active cell. This meniscus-shaped mirror, made of low-cost ordinary window glass, is only 24 mm thick and supported by 32 actuators. We describe the telescope optical concept with emphasis on opto-mechanical aspects and the test results of the active optics system. We also discuss the application of this mirror concept to large mosaic mirrors of moderate cost.

  11. Third-order linearization for self-beating filtered microwave photonic systems using a dual parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Daniel; Gasulla, Ivana; Capmany, José; Fandiño, Javier S; Muñoz, Pascual; Alavi, Hossein

    2016-09-01

    We develop, analyze and apply a linearization technique based on dual parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator to self-beating microwave photonics systems. The approach enables broadband low-distortion transmission and reception at expense of a moderate electrical power penalty yielding a small optical power penalty (<1 dB). PMID:27607667

  12. Research of the application of low-precision large aperture nonimaging optics in free-space optical communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia; Yu, Xin

    2008-03-01

    A novel receiving antenna using low precision large aperture nonimaging optical apparatus in free-space optical (FSO) communication system has been proposed. The receiving optical antenna of FSO communication system is usually a conventional imaging optical system such as Newton system, Green system or Cassegrain system. It is ineffective to use a large aperture receiving antenna in FSO communication system because the precision imaging optical apparatus will be very expensive with aperture increase, so that, in order to reduce the difficulty of pointing and tracking between transmitter and receiver, the beam divergence has to be increased with the cost of lost part of the transmitted power. Since in the field of FSO communication system, the receiving optical antenna is used not to image but to concentrate optical signal as much as possible, the novel concept of using low precision large aperture nonimaging optical apparatus as receiving optical antenna to replace the conventional imaging optical system was proposed. Several nonimaging apparatus including spherical reflector, elliptical reflector, compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) and conical barrel concentrator are analyzed by ray tracing. Their gain and the transmission rate limitation due to wave-front aberrations are discussed, and their merit used in FSO communication system has been proved.

  13. Large Magellanic Cloud Microlensing Optical Depth with Imperfect Event Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, David P.

    2005-11-01

    I present a new analysis of the MACHO Project 5.7 yr Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) microlensing data set that incorporates the effects of contamination of the microlensing event sample by variable stars. Photometric monitoring of MACHO LMC microlensing event candidates by the EROS and OGLE groups has revealed that one of these events is likely to be a variable star, while additional data have confirmed that many of the other events are very likely to be microlensing. These additional data on the nature of the MACHO microlensing candidates are incorporated into a simple likelihood analysis to derive a probability distribution for the number of MACHO microlens candidates that are true microlensing events. This analysis shows that 10-12 of the 13 events that passed the MACHO selection criteria are likely to be microlensing events, with the other 1-3 being variable stars. This likelihood analysis is also used to show that the main conclusions of the MACHO LMC analysis are unchanged by the variable star contamination. The microlensing optical depth toward the LMC is τ=(1.0+/-0.3)×10-7. If this is due to microlensing by known stellar populations plus an additional population of lens objects in the Galactic halo, then the new halo population would account for 16% of the mass of a standard Galactic halo. The MACHO detection exceeds the expected background of two events expected from ordinary stars in standard models of the Milky Way and LMC at the 99.98% confidence level. The background prediction is increased to three events if maximal disk models are assumed for both the Milky Way and LMC, but this model fails to account for the full signal seen by MACHO at the 99.8% confidence level.

  14. Preparation of polymeric diacetylene thin films for nonlinear optical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, Donald O. (Inventor); Mcmanus, Samuel P. (Inventor); Paley, Mark S. (Inventor); Donovan, David N. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A method for producing polymeric diacetylene thin films having desirable nonlinear optical characteristics has been achieved by producing amorphous diacetylene polymeric films by simultaneous polymerization of diacetylene monomers in solution and deposition of polymerized diacetylenes on to the surface of a transparent substrate through which ultraviolet light has been transmitted. These amorphous polydiacetylene films produced by photo-deposition from solution possess very high optical quality and exhibit large third order nonlinear optical susceptibilities, such properties being suitable for nonlinear optical devices such as waveguides and integrated optics.

  15. Large-scale segmentation errors in optical gratings and their unique effect onto optical scattering spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heusinger, Martin; Flügel-Paul, Thomas; Zeitner, Uwe-Detlef

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we analyze the influence of large-scale segmentation errors in the morphology of high-performance optical gratings. It is thus assumed that the optical grating under consideration (typical lateral extends S are 10-1000 mm) can be spatially decomposed into a great many but unique sub-segments (≪ S; typical extends are 10-100 μm). Any violation of the perfect periodicity will result in the generation of stray light, especially Rowland ghosts, which radiate into a small angular region around the grating's diffraction orders. In this paper, we focus on three different kinds of segmentation errors. On the one hand, there are statistic as well as deterministic alignment errors between otherwise perfect sub-segments. On the other hand, we analyze the effect of chirping of geometrical parameters, i.e., the groove width, within every sub-segment. Most importantly, we find that the particular type of imperfection results in a unique characteristic of the according stray light spectrum which thus acts as a fingerprint. We come to this conclusion on three different ways. First, we rely on a simple theoretical model that is based on scalar diffraction theory. Second, we have performed rigorous numerical simulations for a high aspect ratio purely dielectric spectrometer grating (period = {667} nm). Third, the very same grating was then fabricated by e-beam lithography and its stray light spectrum was measured with a purposely designed optical setup. Eventually, all different routes to analyze the problem turn out to be in very good agreement, and we are confident that stray light measurements can be used as an important tool in the detection of fabrication imperfections.

  16. Large High Performance Optics for Spaceborne Missions: L-3 Brashear Experience and Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canzian, Blaise; Gardopee, George; Clarkson, Andrew; Hull, Tony; Borucki, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Brashear is a division of L-3 Communications, Integrated Optical Systems. Brashear is well known for the ground-based telescopes it has manufactured at its facilities and delivered to satisfied customers. Optics from meter-class up to 8.3 meters diameter have been fabricated in Brashear's facilities. Brashear has demonstrated capabilities for large spaceborne optics. We describe in this paper both legacy and new Brashear capabilities for high performance spaceborne optics.

  17. Ensemble effect of intrinsic defects and Mn ions on the enhancement of third order nonlinearity of ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanuskodi, Sivasubramanian; Rajeswari, Ponnusamy; Sreekanth, P.; Philip, Reji

    2015-07-01

    Mn doped ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by the chemical co-precipitation method and XRD confirms the hexagonal structure of nanoparticles with good crystallinity. From TEM analysis, the average crystallite size of the nanoparticles is evaluated as 7-13 nm. All the prepared nanoparticles exhibit reverse saturable absorption in open aperture Z-scan measurements. The experimental data best fits for two-photon absorption along with saturable absorption and the obtained β values are found to be in the range of 0.3-0.5 × 10-10 m W-1. The enhancement of β upon increasing Mn concentration is attributed to the increase of absorption due to defect states created by Mn doping. EPR and PL measurements provide evidence of the presence of zinc vacancy defects. The self-defocusing nonlinearity exhibited in Mn doped ZnO nanoparticles at 532 nm indicates the reverse saturable absorption (RSA) based optical limiting behavior.

  18. [60]Fullerene-porphyrin [n]pseudorotaxanes: self-assembly, photophysics and third-order NLO response.

    PubMed

    Đorđević, L; Marangoni, T; De Leo, F; Papagiannouli, I; Aloukos, P; Couris, S; Pavoni, E; Monti, F; Armaroli, N; Prato, M; Bonifazi, D

    2016-04-28

    By means of different spectroscopic techniques, we investigate a novel series of porphyrin derivatives (H2TPP), connected to dibenzo-24-crown-8 (DB24C8) moieties, which undergo self-assembly with different methano[60]fullerene units bearing dibenzylammonium (DBA) cations. The formation of both [2] and [3]pseudorotaxanes was proved by means of NMR, UV-Vis-NIR absorption and emission spectroscopies. With the support of molecular modelling studies, spectroscopic investigations showed the presence of a secondary interaction between the porphyrin and the C60 chromophores leading to the formation of different types of "face-to-face" assemblies. Remarkably, investigations of the non-linear optical response of these supramolecular systems showed that individual porphyrin and fullerene derivatives exhibit significantly lower second hyperpolarizability values when compared to their pseudorotaxanes functionalised counterparts. This proves that this class of supramolecular materials possesses relevant NLO response, which strongly depends on the structural arrangement of the chromophores in solution.

  19. [60]Fullerene-porphyrin [n]pseudorotaxanes: self-assembly, photophysics and third-order NLO response.

    PubMed

    Đorđević, L; Marangoni, T; De Leo, F; Papagiannouli, I; Aloukos, P; Couris, S; Pavoni, E; Monti, F; Armaroli, N; Prato, M; Bonifazi, D

    2016-04-28

    By means of different spectroscopic techniques, we investigate a novel series of porphyrin derivatives (H2TPP), connected to dibenzo-24-crown-8 (DB24C8) moieties, which undergo self-assembly with different methano[60]fullerene units bearing dibenzylammonium (DBA) cations. The formation of both [2] and [3]pseudorotaxanes was proved by means of NMR, UV-Vis-NIR absorption and emission spectroscopies. With the support of molecular modelling studies, spectroscopic investigations showed the presence of a secondary interaction between the porphyrin and the C60 chromophores leading to the formation of different types of "face-to-face" assemblies. Remarkably, investigations of the non-linear optical response of these supramolecular systems showed that individual porphyrin and fullerene derivatives exhibit significantly lower second hyperpolarizability values when compared to their pseudorotaxanes functionalised counterparts. This proves that this class of supramolecular materials possesses relevant NLO response, which strongly depends on the structural arrangement of the chromophores in solution. PMID:26890806

  20. A direct comparison between volume and surface tracking methods with a boundary-fitted coordinate transformation and third-order upwinding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharioudaki, Maria; Kouris, Charalampos; Dimakopoulos, Yannis; Tsamopoulos, John

    2007-12-01

    A Volume Tracking (VT) and a Front Tracking (FT) algorithm are implemented and compared for locating the interface between two immiscible, incompressible, Newtonian fluids in a tube with a periodically varying, circular cross-section. Initially, the fluids are stationary and stratified in an axisymmetric arrangement so that one is around the axis of the tube (core fluid) and the other one surrounds it (annular fluid). A constant pressure gradient sets them in motion. With both VT and FT, a boundary-fitted coordinate transformation is applied and appropriate modifications are made to adopt either method in this geometry. The surface tension force is approximated using the continuous surface force method. All terms appearing in the continuity and momentum equations are approximated using centered finite differences in space and one-sided forward finite differences in time. In each time step, the incompressibility condition is enforced by a transformed Poisson equation, which is linear in pressure. This equation is solved by either direct LU decomposition or a Multigrid iterative solver. When the two fluids have the same density, the former method is about 3.5 times faster, but when they do not, the Multigrid solver is as much as 10 times faster than the LU decomposition. When the interface does not break and the Reynolds number remains small, the accuracy and rates of convergence of VT and FT are comparable. The well-known failure of centered finite differences arises as the Reynolds number increases and leads to non-physical oscillations in the interface and failure of both methods to converge with mesh refinement. These problems are resolved and computations with Reynolds as large as 500 converged by approximating the convective terms in the momentum equations by third-order upwind differences using Lagrangian Polynomials. When the volume of the core fluid or the Weber number decrease, increasing the importance of interfacial tension and leading to breakup of the

  1. Figuring large optics at the sub-nanometer level: compensation for coating and gravity distortions.

    PubMed

    Gensemer, Stephen; Gross, Mark

    2015-11-30

    Large, precision optics can now be manufactured with surface figures specified at the sub-nanometer level. However, coatings and gravity deform large optics, and there are limits to what can be corrected by clever compensation. Instead, deformations caused by stress from optical mounts and deposited coatings must be incorporated into the optical design. We demonstrate compensation of coating stress on a 370mm substrate to λ/200 by a process of coating and annealing. We also model the same process and identify the leading effects that must be anticipated in fabrication of optics for future gravitational wave detectors and other applications of large, precisely figured optics, and identify the limitations inherent in using coatings to compensate for these deformations.

  2. Figuring large optics at the sub-nanometer level: compensation for coating and gravity distortions.

    PubMed

    Gensemer, Stephen; Gross, Mark

    2015-11-30

    Large, precision optics can now be manufactured with surface figures specified at the sub-nanometer level. However, coatings and gravity deform large optics, and there are limits to what can be corrected by clever compensation. Instead, deformations caused by stress from optical mounts and deposited coatings must be incorporated into the optical design. We demonstrate compensation of coating stress on a 370mm substrate to λ/200 by a process of coating and annealing. We also model the same process and identify the leading effects that must be anticipated in fabrication of optics for future gravitational wave detectors and other applications of large, precisely figured optics, and identify the limitations inherent in using coatings to compensate for these deformations. PMID:26698746

  3. Synthesis, growth, structural and HOMO and LUMO, MEP analysis of a new stilbazolium derivative crystal: A enhanced third-order NLO properties with a high laser-induced damage threshold for NLO applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil, K.; Kalainathan, S.; Hamada, F.; Yamada, M.; Aravindan, P. G.

    2015-08-01

    A new organic third-order nonlinear optical crystal from stilbazolium family 2-[2-(4-methoxy-phenyl) vinyl]-1-methyl-pyridinium tetrafluoroborate (4MSTB) has been synthesized and grown by slow evaporation method for the first time. The grown crystal structure was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, and it is revealed that the grown crystal crystallized in a triclinic crystal system with centrosymmetric space group P 1 bar . The HOMO and LUMO energies were calculated for the grown crystal explains charge transfer takes place within the molecule and confirms the suitability of the title crystal for NLO applications. The presence of various vibration modes of expected functional groups was identified by FT-IR analysis. The transmittance ability of the grown crystal was also analyzed by using UV-Vis-NIR spectral studies and shows that the crystal has no absorption of light in the entire Vis-NIR region. The thermal stability of the title crystal has been investigated by TGA/DTA studies and revealed that the material was thermally stable up to the melting point, 193 °C. The hardness number, Meyer index, yield strength, and elastic stiffness constant has been estimated for the grown 4MSTB crystal using Vickers microhardness tester. Photoluminescence excitation studies showed green emission radiation occurred at 517 nm. The dielectric properties of the grown crystal have been analyzed as a function of temperature over a wide range of frequency (50 Hz-5 MHz) by using LCR meter. The result of ac electrical conductivity of 4MSTB was found to be 5.25 × 10-5 (Ω m)-1. The laser damage threshold (LDT) energy for the grown crystal has been measured by using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser as a source in single-shot mode (1064 nm, 10 Hz, 420 mJ). The result of LDT indicates that grown title crystal has excellent resistance to laser radiation than those of known some inorganic NLO materials. The chemical etching studies were carried out to assess the perfection of

  4. Coupling a small torsional oscillator to large optical angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Hao; Bhattacharya, Mishkatul

    2013-05-01

    We propose a new optomechanical system to achieve torsional optomechanics. Our system is composed of a windmill-shaped dielectric optically trapped within a cavity interacting with Laguerre-Gaussian cavity modes with both angular and radial nodes. Compared to existing configurations, our proposal enables small mechanical oscillators to interact with the in-principle unlimited orbital angular momentum that can be carried by a single photon, and therefore allows the generation of scalable optomechanical coupling. Supported by Research Corporation for Science Advancement.

  5. Large optical nonlinearity of ITO nanorods for sub-picosecond all-optical modulation of the full-visible spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Peijun; Schaller, Richard D.; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Diroll, Benjamin T.; Ketterson, John B.; Chang, Robert P. H.

    2016-09-01

    Nonlinear optical responses of materials play a vital role for the development of active nanophotonic and plasmonic devices. Optical nonlinearity induced by intense optical excitation of mobile electrons in metallic nanostructures can provide large-amplitude, dynamic tuning of their electromagnetic response, which is potentially useful for all-optical processing of information and dynamic beam control. Here we report on the sub-picosecond optical nonlinearity of indium tin oxide nanorod arrays (ITO-NRAs) following intraband, on-plasmon-resonance optical pumping, which enables modulation of the full-visible spectrum with large absolute change of transmission, favourable spectral tunability and beam-steering capability. Furthermore, we observe a transient response in the microsecond regime associated with slow lattice cooling, which arises from the large aspect-ratio and low thermal conductivity of ITO-NRAs. Our results demonstrate that all-optical control of light can be achieved by using heavily doped wide-bandgap semiconductors in their transparent regime with speed faster than that of noble metals.

  6. Large optical nonlinearity of ITO nanorods for sub-picosecond all-optical modulation of the full-visible spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Peijun; Schaller, Richard D.; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Diroll, Benjamin T.; Ketterson, John B.; Chang, Robert P. H.

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear optical responses of materials play a vital role for the development of active nanophotonic and plasmonic devices. Optical nonlinearity induced by intense optical excitation of mobile electrons in metallic nanostructures can provide large-amplitude, dynamic tuning of their electromagnetic response, which is potentially useful for all-optical processing of information and dynamic beam control. Here we report on the sub-picosecond optical nonlinearity of indium tin oxide nanorod arrays (ITO-NRAs) following intraband, on-plasmon-resonance optical pumping, which enables modulation of the full-visible spectrum with large absolute change of transmission, favourable spectral tunability and beam-steering capability. Furthermore, we observe a transient response in the microsecond regime associated with slow lattice cooling, which arises from the large aspect-ratio and low thermal conductivity of ITO-NRAs. Our results demonstrate that all-optical control of light can be achieved by using heavily doped wide-bandgap semiconductors in their transparent regime with speed faster than that of noble metals. PMID:27682836

  7. Analysis of elastic micro optical components under large deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Kazunori; Shimoyama, Isao

    2003-01-01

    We describe a technique for analyzing the mechanical and optical properties of deformable optical elements that combines the finite element method, ray-tracing and birefringence measurement. We fabricated a pneumatically actuated microlens array on an elastic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film to assess the proposed analysis technique. The lenses are 120 mum in diameter and arranged on the top surface of a 200 mum thick base film. The lenses are displaced by pneumatic actuators at the bottom of the film. The measured mechanical-optical properties of the PDMS test materials showed a good match with the calculation. The paths and retardation of light beams transmitted in the microlens array under several actuating conditions were then analyzed. The lens displacement of 21.8 mum was measured at an applied pressure of -45 kPa. At the same pressure, a ray-trace analysis showed that the actuator changed the visual axis of each lens by 5°, while the retardation was estimated to be within the order of 5 × 10-3 nm.

  8. Optical materials for astronomy from SCHOTT: the quality of large components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedamzik, Ralf; Hengst, Joachim; Elsmann, Frank; Lemke, Christian; Döhring, Thorsten; Hartmann, Peter

    2008-07-01

    The new generation of survey telescopes and future giant observatories such as E-ELT or TMT do not only require very fast or very large mirrors, but also high sophisticated instruments with the need of large optical materials in outstanding quality. The huge variety of modern optical materials from SCHOTT covers almost all areas of specification needs of optical designers. Even if many interesting optical materials are restricted in size and/or quality, there is a variety of optical materials that can be produced in large sizes, with excellent optical homogeneity, and a low level of stress birefringence. Some actual examples are high homogeneous N-BK7 blanks with a diameter of up to 1000 mm, CaF2 blanks as large as 300 mm which are useable for IR applications, Fused Silica (LITHOSIL®) with dimensions up to 700 mm which are used for visible applications, and other optical glasses like FK5, LLF1 and F2 in large formats. In this presentation the latest inspection results of large optical materials will be presented, showing the advances in production and measurement technology.

  9. Field localization and enhancement of phase-locked second- and third-order harmonic generation in absorbing semiconductor cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Roppo, V.; Cojocaru, C.; Trull, J.; Vilaseca, R.; Raineri, F.; Halioua, Y.; Raj, R.; Sagnes, I.; D'Aguanno, G.; Scalora, M.

    2009-10-15

    We predict and experimentally observe the enhancement by three orders of magnitude of phase mismatched second and third harmonic generation in a GaAs cavity at 650 and 433 nm, respectively, well above the absorption edge. Phase locking between the pump and the harmonics changes the effective dispersion of the medium and inhibits absorption. Despite hostile conditions the harmonics resonate inside the cavity and become amplified leading to relatively large conversion efficiencies. Field localization thus plays a pivotal role despite the presence of absorption, and ushers in a new class of semiconductor-based devices in the visible and uv ranges.

  10. Nonlinear optical effects on the surface of acridine yellow-doped lead-tin fluorophosphate glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, K. X.; Bryant, William; Venkateswarlu, Putcha

    1991-01-01

    The second- and third-order nonlinear optical properties of acridine yellow-doped lead-tin fluorophosphate (LTF) glass have been directly studied by measurement of surface enhanced second harmonic generation and third harmonic generation. The three photon excitation fluorescence is also observed. Based on these results, the large nonlinearities of the acridine LTF system which is a new nonlinear optical material are experimentally demonstrated.

  11. Four [Tp*W(μ3-S)3Cu3(μ3-Br)]-based clusters: synthesis, structural characterization and third-order NLO properties.

    PubMed

    Lü, Xue; Chen, Xi; Ren, Zhi-Gang; Lang, Jian-Ping; Liu, Dong; Sun, Zhen-Rong

    2011-08-21

    Treatment of [Et(4)N][Tp*W(μ(3)-S)(3)(CuBr)(3)] (Tp* = hydridotris(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)borate) (1) with an excess of α-methylpyridine (α-MePy) and NH(4)PF(6) in CH(2)Cl(2) afforded a cationic cluster [Tp*W(μ(3)-S)(3)Cu(3)(α-MePy)(3)(μ(3)-Br)](PF(6)) (2) while the reaction of 1 with an excess of 1,4-pyrazine (1,4-pyz) and NH(4)PF(6) in MeCN-CH(2)Cl(2) at 65 °C produced a polymeric cluster [Tp*W(μ(3)-S)(3)Cu(3)(1,4-pyz)((1,4-pyz)(0.5))(2)(μ(3)-Br)][Tp*W(μ(3)-S)(3)(CuBr)(3)] (3). Reactions of 1 with melamine (MA) in 1:1 or 1:2 gave rise to another polymeric cluster [{Tp*W(μ(3)-S)(3)Cu(3)Br(μ(3)-Br)}(2)(MA)(2)] (4) and a neutral cluster [Tp*W(μ(3)-S)(3)Cu(3)Br(μ(3)-Br)(MA)(2)] (5), respectively. Compounds 2-5 were characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectra, UV-vis spectra, (1)H NMR, electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectra and X-ray crystallography. The cation of 2 has a cubane-like [Tp*W(μ(3)-S)(3)Cu(3)(μ(3)-Br)] structure with each α-MePy ligand coordinated at one Cu(i) center. For 3, each [Tp*W(μ(3)-S)(3)Cu(3)(μ(3)-Br)] core is interconnected by 1,4-pyz bridges to form a 1D cationic zigzag chain with the [Tp*W(μ(3)-S)(3)(CuBr)(3)](-) anions arranged along its two sides. For 4, each [Tp*W(μ(3)-S)(3)Cu(3)(μ(3)-Br)] core is interlinked by MA bridges to afford a 1D spiral chain. 5 adopts a cubane-like [Tp*W(μ(3)-S)(3)Cu(3)(μ(3)-Br)] structure in which one terminal Br and two MA ligands are coordinated at three Cu centers. The third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of 1-5 in DMF were investigated by femtosecond degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) technique with a 80 fs pulse width at 800 nm. Compounds 1-5 exhibit good NLO responses, and 3 and 4 possess the largest second-order hyperpolarizability γ values among the known W/Cu/S clusters bearing the [Tp*WS(3)] unit.

  12. In-situ monitoring of surface post-processing in large aperture fused silica optics with Optical Coherence Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Guss, G M; Bass, I l; Hackel, R P; Mailhiot, C; Demos, S G

    2008-02-08

    Optical Coherence Tomography is explored as a method to image laser-damage sites located on the surface of large aperture fused silica optics during post-processing via CO{sub 2} laser ablation. The signal analysis for image acquisition was adapted to meet the sensitivity requirements for this application. A long-working distance geometry was employed to allow imaging through the opposite surface of the 5-cm thick optic. The experimental results demonstrate the potential of OCT for remote monitoring of transparent material processing applications.

  13. Radius of Curvature Measurement of Large Optics Using Interferometry and Laser Tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagopian, John; Connelly, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The determination of radius of curvature (ROC) of optics typically uses either a phase measuring interferometer on an adjustable stage to determine the position of the ROC and the optics surface under test. Alternatively, a spherometer or a profilometer are used for this measurement. The difficulty of this approach is that for large optics, translation of the interferometer or optic under test is problematic because of the distance of translation required and the mass of the optic. Profilometry and spherometry are alternative techniques that can work, but require a profilometer or a measurement of subapertures of the optic. The proposed approach allows a measurement of the optic figure simultaneous with the full aperture radius of curvature.

  14. Large Format Multifunction 2-Terabyte Optical Disk Storage System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, David R.; Brucker, Charles F.; Gage, Edward C.; Hatwar, T. K.; Simmons, George O.

    1996-01-01

    The Kodak Digital Science OD System 2000E automated disk library (ADL) base module and write-once drive are being developed as the next generation commercial product to the currently available System 2000 ADL. Under government sponsorship with the Air Force's Rome Laboratory, Kodak is developing magneto-optic (M-O) subsystems compatible with the Kodak Digital Science ODW25 drive architecture, which will result in a multifunction (MF) drive capable of reading and writing 25 gigabyte (GB) WORM media and 15 GB erasable media. In an OD system 2000 E ADL configuration with 4 MF drives and 100 total disks with a 50% ration of WORM and M-O media, 2.0 terabytes (TB) of versatile near line mass storage is available.

  15. Large-area multiplexed sensing using MEMS and fiber optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Michael B.; Clark, Richard L., Jr.; Bell, Clifton R.; Russler, Patrick M.

    2000-06-01

    Micro-electro-mechanical (MEMS) technology offers the ability to implement local and independent sensing and actuation functions through the coordinated response of discrete micro-electro-mechanical 'basis function' elements. The small size of micromechanical components coupled with the ability to reduce costs using volume manufacturing techniques opens up significant potential not only in military applications such as flight and engine monitoring and control, but in autonomous vehicle control, smart munitions, airborne reconnaissance, LADAR, missile guidance, and even in intelligent transportation systems and automotive guidance applications. In this program, Luna Innovations is developing a flexible, programmable interface which can be integrated direction with different types of MEMS sensors, and then used to multiplex many sensors ona single optical fiber to provide a unique combination of functions that will allow larger quantities of sensory input with better resolution than ever before possible.

  16. Improved Optical Design for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST)

    SciTech Connect

    Seppala, L

    2002-09-24

    This paper presents an improved optical design for the LSST, an fll.25 three-mirror telescope covering 3.0 degrees full field angle, with 6.9 m effective aperture diameter. The telescope operates at five wavelength bands spanning 386.5 nm to 1040 nm (B, V, R, I and Z). For all bands, 80% of the polychromatic diffracted energy is collected within 0.20 arc-seconds diameter. The reflective telescope uses an 8.4 m f/1.06 concave primary, a 3.4 m convex secondary and a 5.2 m concave tertiary in a Paul geometry. The system length is 9.2 m. A refractive corrector near the detector uses three fused silica lenses, rather than the two lenses of previous designs. Earlier designs required that one element be a vacuum barrier, but now the detector sits in an inert gas at ambient pressure. The last lens is the gas barrier. Small adjustments lead to optimal correction at each band. The filters have different axial thicknesses. The primary and tertiary mirrors are repositioned for each wavelength band. The new optical design incorporates features to simplify manufacturing. They include a flat detector, a far less aspheric convex secondary (10 {micro}m from best fit sphere) and reduced aspheric departures on the lenses and tertiary mirror. Five aspheric surfaces, on all three mirrors and on two lenses, are used. The primary is nearly parabolic. The telescope is fully baffled so that no specularly reflected light from any field angle, inside or outside of the full field angle of 3.0 degrees, can reach the detector.

  17. Molecular Static Third-Order Polarizabilities of Carbon-Cage Fullerenes and their Correlation with Three Geometric Parameters: Group Order, Aromaticity, and Size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Craig E.; Cardelino, Beatriz H.; Frazier, Donald O.; Niles, Julian; Wang, Xian-Qiang

    1997-01-01

    Calculations were performed on the valence contribution to the static molecular third-order polarizabilities (gamma) of thirty carbon-cage fullerenes (C60, C70, five isomers of C78, and twenty-three isomers of C84). The molecular structures were obtained from B3LYP/STO-3G calculations. The values of the tensor elements and an associated numerical uncertainty were obtained using the finite-field approach and polynomial expansions of orders four to eighteen of polarization versus static electric field data. The latter information was obtained from semiempirical calculations using the AM1 hamiltonian.

  18. Optical Vortices with Large Orbital Momentum: Generation and Interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy A.; Matsko, Andrey B.; Grudinin, Ivan; Savchenkova, Ekaterina A.; Strekalov, Dmitry; Maleki, Lute

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate a method for generation of beams of light with large angular momenta. The method utilizes whispering gallery mode resonators that transform a plane electromagnetic wave into high order Bessel beams. Interference pattern among the beams as well as shadow pictures induced by the beams are observed and studied.

  19. Optical gas sensing responses in transparent conducting oxides with large free carrier density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohodnicki, P. R.; Andio, M.; Wang, C.

    2014-07-01

    Inherent advantages of optical-based sensing devices motivate a need for materials with useful optical responses that can be utilized as thin film functional sensor layers. Transparent conducting metal oxides with large electrical conductivities as typified by Al-doped ZnO (AZO) display attractive properties for high temperature optical gas sensing through strong optical transduction of responses conventionally monitored through changes in measured electrical resistivity. An enhanced optical sensing response in the near-infrared and ultraviolet/visible wavelength ranges is demonstrated experimentally and linked with characteristic modifications to the dielectric constant due to a relatively high concentration of free charge carriers. The impact of light scattering on the magnitude and wavelength dependence of the sensing response is also discussed highlighting the potential for tuning the optical sensing response by controlling the surface roughness of a continuous film or the average particle size of a nanoparticle-based film. The physics underpinning the optical sensing response for AZO films on planar substrates yields significant insight into the measured sensing response for optical fiber-based evanescent wave absorption spectroscopy sensors employing an AZO sensing layer. The physics of optical gas sensing discussed here provides a pathway towards development of sensing materials for extreme temperature optical gas sensing applications. As one example, preliminary results are presented for a Nb-doped TiO2 film with sufficient stability and relatively large sensing responses at sensing temperatures greater than 500 °C.

  20. Dynamics of optical pulses in waveguides with a large self-steepening parameter

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuravlev, V M; Zolotovskii, I O; Korobko, D A; Fotiadi, A A

    2013-11-30

    We study the dynamics of a high-energy laser pulse in dispersive optical media with large values of self-steepening. We consider the formation of soliton-like peaks at the front of the envelope in such media with anomalous dispersion. We show the possibility of realisation of a medium based on a photonic crystal waveguide with a very large absolute value of the self-steepening parameter in a certain frequency range. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  1. Fast scanner with position monitor for large optical delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costantino, S.; Libertun, A. R.; Do Campo, P.; Torga, J. R.; Martínez, O. E.

    2001-11-01

    We present a new fast scan system that employs a stepper motor used in a single step oscillating mode and a position monitor device based on a diode laser. The setup used generates delays as large as 105 ps at 10 Hz, with 100% duty cycle. We also introduce a reliable device based on the shadow of a moving cutter with a laser diode as the light source to avoid power fluctuations problems.

  2. Large Field, High Resolution Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Assayag, Osnath; Antoine, Martine; Sigal-Zafrani, Brigitte; Riben, Michael; Harms, Fabrice; Burcheri, Adriano; Grieve, Kate; Dalimier, Eugénie; Le Conte de Poly, Bertrand; Boccara, Claude

    2014-01-01

    We present a benchmark pilot study in which high-resolution Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography (FF-OCT) was used to image human breast tissue and is evaluated to assess its ability to aid the pathologist’s management of intra-operative diagnoses. FF-OCT imaging safety was investigated and agreement between FF-OCT and routinely prepared histopathological images was evaluated. The compact setup used for this study provides 1 µm3 resolution and 200 µm imaging depth, and a 2.25 cm2 specimen is scanned in about 7 minutes. 75 breast specimens were imaged from 22 patients (21 women, 1 man) with a mean age of 58 (range: 25-83). Pathologists blind diagnosed normal/benign or malignant tissue based on FF-OCT images alone, diagnosis from histopathology followed for comparison. The contrast in the FF-OCT images is generated by intrinsic tissue scattering properties, meaning that no tissue staining or preparation is required. Major architectural features and tissue structures of benign breast tissue, including adipocytes, fibrous stroma, lobules and ducts were characterized. Subsequently, features resulting from pathological modification were characterized and a diagnosis decision tree was developed. Using FF-OCT images, two breast pathologists were able to distinguish normal/benign tissue from lesional with a sensitivity of 94% and 90%, and specificity of 75% and 79% respectively. PMID:24000981

  3. Bone tissue phantoms for optical flowmeters at large interoptode spacing generated by 3D-stereolithography

    PubMed Central

    Binzoni, Tiziano; Torricelli, Alessandro; Giust, Remo; Sanguinetti, Bruno; Bernhard, Paul; Spinelli, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    A bone tissue phantom prototype allowing to test, in general, optical flowmeters at large interoptode spacings, such as laser-Doppler flowmetry or diffuse correlation spectroscopy, has been developed by 3D-stereolithography technique. It has been demonstrated that complex tissue vascular systems of any geometrical shape can be conceived. Absorption coefficient, reduced scattering coefficient and refractive index of the optical phantom have been measured to ensure that the optical parameters reasonably reproduce real human bone tissue in vivo. An experimental demonstration of a possible use of the optical phantom, utilizing a laser-Doppler flowmeter, is also presented. PMID:25136496

  4. Bone tissue phantoms for optical flowmeters at large interoptode spacing generated by 3D-stereolithography.

    PubMed

    Binzoni, Tiziano; Torricelli, Alessandro; Giust, Remo; Sanguinetti, Bruno; Bernhard, Paul; Spinelli, Lorenzo

    2014-08-01

    A bone tissue phantom prototype allowing to test, in general, optical flowmeters at large interoptode spacings, such as laser-Doppler flowmetry or diffuse correlation spectroscopy, has been developed by 3D-stereolithography technique. It has been demonstrated that complex tissue vascular systems of any geometrical shape can be conceived. Absorption coefficient, reduced scattering coefficient and refractive index of the optical phantom have been measured to ensure that the optical parameters reasonably reproduce real human bone tissue in vivo. An experimental demonstration of a possible use of the optical phantom, utilizing a laser-Doppler flowmeter, is also presented.

  5. Bone tissue phantoms for optical flowmeters at large interoptode spacing generated by 3D-stereolithography.

    PubMed

    Binzoni, Tiziano; Torricelli, Alessandro; Giust, Remo; Sanguinetti, Bruno; Bernhard, Paul; Spinelli, Lorenzo

    2014-08-01

    A bone tissue phantom prototype allowing to test, in general, optical flowmeters at large interoptode spacings, such as laser-Doppler flowmetry or diffuse correlation spectroscopy, has been developed by 3D-stereolithography technique. It has been demonstrated that complex tissue vascular systems of any geometrical shape can be conceived. Absorption coefficient, reduced scattering coefficient and refractive index of the optical phantom have been measured to ensure that the optical parameters reasonably reproduce real human bone tissue in vivo. An experimental demonstration of a possible use of the optical phantom, utilizing a laser-Doppler flowmeter, is also presented. PMID:25136496

  6. Diffractive optics in large sizes: computer-generated holograms (CGH) based on Bayfol HX photopolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruder, Friedrich-Karl; Fäcke, Thomas; Hagen, Rainer; Hönel, Dennis; Kleinschmidt, Tim Patrick; Orselli, Enrico; Rewitz, Christian; Rölle, Thomas; Walze, Günther

    2015-03-01

    Volume Holographic Optical Elements (vHOE) offer angular and spectral Bragg selectivity that can be tuned by film thickness and holographic recording conditions. With the option to integrate complex optical function in a very thin plastic layer formerly heavy refractive optics can be made thin and lightweight especially for large area applications like liquid crystal displays, projection screens or photovoltaic. Additionally their Bragg selectivity enables the integration of several completely separated optical functions in the same film. The new instant developing photopolymer film (Bayfol® HX) paves the way towards new cost effective diffractive large optics, due to its easy holographic recording and environmental stability. A major bottleneck for large area applications has been the master hologram recording which traditionally needs expensive, large high precision optical equipment and high power laser with long coherence length. Further the recording setup needs to be rearranged for a change in optical design. In this paper we describe an alternative method for large area holographic master recording, using standard optics and low power lasers in combination with an x, y-translation stage. In this setup small sub-holograms generated by a phase only spatial light modulator (SLM) are recorded next to each other to generate a large size vHOE. The setup is flexible to generate various types of HOEs without the need of a change in the mechanical and optical construction by convenient SLM programming. One Application example and parameter studies for printed vHOEs based on Bayfol® HX Photopolymer will be given.

  7. Fast catadioptric optics with large field of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, N.; Doucet, M.; Desnoyers, N.; Le Noc, L.; Bergeron, A.

    2009-08-01

    High resolution is in demand for the new applications based on the use of infrared technology. For observation task, high resolution provides more information either under the form of better resolving power or larger field-of-view. Various solutions can be envisioned to achieve high resolution imaging. In this paper, a combination of high resolution detector and microscanning system is proposed. This strategy results in higher resolution and reduced aliasing. A catadioptric configuration is preferred when a microscan is required to increase the spatial sampling frequency. Among the catadioptric configurations, the Schmidt-Cassegrain has wide angle capability due to its aspherical entrance window. However, when the system is used in harsh environment, this compensator window may have to be replaced often. In this case, a flat window would be preferred because it can be removed or easily replaced at reasonable cost. The reduction of the aberrations to an acceptable level without compensator window requires that the mirrors of the telescope be aspherized. In this paper, we present a modified Cassegrain telescope with two aspherical mirrors and one field lens. Due to the large obscuration of the secondary mirror, the effective F/1.05 necessitates a larger working F-number of 0.75. The spectral band ranges from 7.0 to 14.0 microns and the focal length is 50mm. The system is designed for the ULIS UL04171 microbolometer detector with 640 x 480 pixels and 25 microns pixel pitch. With this sensor, the total field of view of the system is 22.6 degrees, which is very large for a catadioptric system. A microscan increases the system maximal spatial sampling frequency from 20 to 40 cycles per millimeter. Despite of the compactness, there is enough room between the field lens and the detector to insert a shutter. A baffle extending ahead of the device is needed in this large field of view design to avoid undesired rays reaching the detector.

  8. Optical and electrical performance of commercially manufactured large GEM foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posik, M.; Surrow, B.

    2015-12-01

    With interest in large area GEM foils increasing and CERN being the only main distributor, keeping up with the demand for GEM foils will be difficult. Thus the commercialization of GEMs is being established by Tech-Etch of Plymouth, MA, USA using single-mask techniques. We report here on the first of a two step quality verification of the commercially produced 10×10 cm2 and 40×40 cm2 GEM foils, which includes characterizing their electrical and geometrical properties. We have found that the Tech-Etch foils display excellent electrical properties, as well as uniform and consistent hole diameters comparable to established foils produced by CERN.

  9. Examination of the four-fifths law for longitudinal third-order moments in incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in a periodic box.

    PubMed

    Yoshimatsu, Katsunori

    2012-06-01

    The four-fifths law for third-order longitudinal moments is examined, using direct numerical simulation (DNS) data on three-dimensional (3D) forced incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence without a uniformly imposed magnetic field in a periodic box. The magnetic Prandtl number is set to one, and the number of grid points is 512(3). A generalized Kármán-Howarth-Kolmogorov equation for second-order velocity moments in isotropic MHD turbulence is extended to anisotropic MHD turbulence by means of a spherical average over the direction of r. Here, r is a separation vector. The viscous, forcing, anisotropic and nonstationary terms in the generalized equation are quantified. It is found that the influence of the anisotropic terms on the four-fifths law is negligible at small scales, compared to that of the viscous term. However, the influence of the directional anisotropy, which is measured by the departure of the third-order moments in a particular direction of r from the spherically averaged ones, on the four-fifths law is suggested to be substantial, at least in the case studied here.

  10. Polished Panel Optical Receiver for Simultaneous RF/Optical Telemetry with Large DSN Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, Victor A.; Hoppe, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    The polished panel optical receiver concept described here makes use of aluminum panels on the main reflector of the Deep Space Network's (DSN's) 34-meter antennas at optical wavelengths by polishing and coating their surface to efficiently reflect near-infrared wavelengths in the 1,064 1,550-nanometer range. Achievable surface smoothness is not a limiting factor for aluminum panels, and initial field experiments indicate that the surface quality of microwave aluminum panels is sufficient to concentrate the light into small, but not diffraction-limited, spots at their primary focus. Preliminary analysis of data from high-quality microwave panels has shown that the light can be concentrated into 200 400 microradian cones, resulting in spot diameters of 2-4 mm at the 10-meter primary focus F(0) shown in the figure, or 2-4 cm spots at F(1) after magnification by the subreflector, which results in an effective focal length of about 100 meters. Three distinct implementation options are possible, with theoretically identical tracking and communications performance: Option 1: The communications assembly could be placed directly behind the subreflector at F(0), but this placement would require replacing the existing all-aluminum subreflector with a new design that transmits optical wavelengths but reflects RF, thus transmitting the optical signal to the primary focus of the parabolic polished aluminum panels at F(0), as shown in the figure. Option 2: Alternately, the optical communications assembly could be located near the first available focal-spot F(1) following reflection by the subreflector (which would have to be polished), next to the input to the beam waveguide on the main reflector as shown in the figure. Option 3: Finally, the optical communications assembly could be placed inside the pedestal room, and separated from the RF signal after the ellipsoid and before the signal reached the microwave receiver via an RF/optical dichroic near F(3).

  11. Optical design trade-offs of the multi conjugate adaptive optics relay for the European Extremely Large Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombini, Matteo; Diolaiti, Emiliano; De Rosa, Adriano

    2014-08-01

    The scope of this paper is to describe some possible design concepts of the post optical relay inside the multi conjugate adaptive optics module for the European Extremely Large Telescope. The module is planned to be placed at the Nasmyth focus of the telescope. The optical relay must re-image the telescope focal plane with diffraction limited performance and low geometric distortion, for a field of view of 75" and for a wavelength range between 0.8 and 2.4μm. A technical annular field of view with inner diameter of 75" and outer diameter of 160" to search 3 for natural guide stars is also required. Wavefront sensing is performed by means of 6 laser guide stars arranged on a circle of at least 120" diameter while wavefront correction is performed by two deformable mirrors inside the relay, in addition to the telescope adaptive mirror. The final optical design will be a trade-off among adaptive optics performance, optical interface requirements, mechanical interface requirements and technological feasibility of key hardware components. The size of the deformable mirrors and the image quality of the layer conjugates are important design drivers, related to the design of the collimating optics after the input focal plane and to the deformable mirrors tilt respect to the chief ray. The optical interface at the output focal plane must be acceptable for the client instruments, in terms of field curvature, focal ratio and exit pupil position. The number of optical surfaces inside the relay has to be as small as possible to limit thermal background. Splitting of the laser guide star channel from the science light channel may be achieved either in wavelength, by means of a dichroic placed close to a pupil image, or in field, by means of an perforated dichroic placed at an intermediate focal plane. The laser guide star beams have to be focused with acceptable optical performance on a fixed image plane compensating the effects of the sodium layer range variation with Zenith

  12. Silver nanoparticles: Large scale solvothermal synthesis and optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Wani, Irshad A.; Khatoon, Sarvari; Ganguly, Aparna; Ahmed, Jahangeer; Ganguli, Ashok K.; Ahmad, Tokeer

    2010-08-15

    Silver nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by a simple and modified solvothermal method at large scale using ethanol as the refluxing solvent and NaBH{sub 4} as reducing agent. The nanopowder was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), UV-visible and BET surface area studies. XRD studies reveal the monophasic nature of these highly crystalline silver nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopic studies show the monodisperse and highly uniform nanoparticles of silver of the particle size of 5 nm, however, the size is found to be 7 nm using dynamic light scattering which is in good agreement with the TEM and X-ray line broadening studies. The surface area was found to be 34.5 m{sup 2}/g. UV-visible studies show the absorption band at {approx}425 nm due to surface plasmon resonance. The percentage yield of silver nanoparticles was found to be as high as 98.5%.

  13. Telecentric large-field lenses using Fresnel optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Norbert; Schoenheit, Thomas

    2002-02-01

    The practical application of Fresnel lenses in imaging systems is very much disputed. However, in large field, object side, telecentric lenses, conditions are such that the advantages of lightness, cheap production, and short construction length dominate the disadvantages. These disadvantages concern the reduced image quality. Starting from any paraxial relations, we present analytic equations which are useful in estimating the changes in the aberration balance, when a well compensated glass lens front group is replaced by a Fresnel lens singlet. The comparison of a pair of telecentric lenses with the same basic parameters, built with a glass lens front group and with a Fresnel singlet front group, confirms these equations. The reduced image quality, using a Fresnel singlet as front group in an object side telecentric lens, is caused by noncompensated lateral chromatic aberration, increased distortion values, higher stray light levels and reduced resolving power. For inspection purposes, the distortion is often not so important. If the work pieces are illuminated with monochromatic light, then chromatic aberrations become unimportant. Therefore, for machine vision inspection purposes, the object side telecentric ray path can be straightforwardly achieved using a Fresnel lens front group. This is an alternative to the well known, but expensive, glass front lens solutions.

  14. Computer program for optical systems ray tracing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, T. J.; Konn, H.

    1967-01-01

    Program traces rays of light through optical systems consisting of up to 65 different optical surfaces and computes the aberrations. For design purposes, paraxial tracings with astigmation and third order tracings are provided.

  15. Large Space Optics: From Hubble to JWST and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2008-01-01

    If necessity truly is the mother of invention, then advances in lightweight space mirror technology have been driven by launch vehicle mass and volume constraints. In the late 1970 s, at the start of Hubble development, the state of the art in ground based telescopes was 3 to 4 meter monolithic primary mirrors with masses of 6000 to 10,000 kg - clearly too massive for the planned space shuttle 25,000 kg capability to LEO. Necessity led Hubble to a different solution. Launch vehicle mass constraints (and cost) resulted in the development of a 2.4 meter lightweight eggcrate mirror. At 810 kg (180 kg/m2), this mirror was approximately 7.4% of HST s total 11,110 kg mass. And, the total observatory structure at 4.3 m x 13.2 m fit snuggly inside the space shuttle 4.6 m x 18.3 m payload bay. In the early 1990 s, at the start of JWST development, the state of the art in ground based telescopes was 8 meter class monolithic primary mirrors (16,000 to 23,000 kg) and 10 meter segmented mirrors (14,400 kg). Unfortunately, launch vehicles were still constrained to 4.5 meter payloads and 25,000 kg to LEO or 6,600 kg to L2. Furthermore, science now demanded a space telescope with 6 to 8 meter aperture operating at L2. Mirror technology was identified as a critical capability necessary to enable the next generation of large aperture space telescopes. Specific telescope architectures were explored via three independent design concept studies conducted during the summer of 1996 (1). These studies identified two significant architectural constraints: segmentation and areal density. Because the launch vehicle fairing payload dynamic envelop diameter is approximately 4.5 meters, the only way to launch an 8 meter class mirror is to segment it, fold it and deploy it on orbit - resulting in actuation and control requirements. And, because of launch vehicle mass limits, the primary mirror allocation was only 1000 kg - resulting in a maximum areal density of 20 kg/m2. At the inception of

  16. Accurate adiabatic singlet-triplet gaps in atoms and molecules employing the third-order spin-flip algebraic diagrammatic construction scheme for the polarization propagator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefrancois, Daniel; Rehn, Dirk R.; Dreuw, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    For the calculation of adiabatic singlet-triplet gaps (STG) in diradicaloid systems the spin-flip (SF) variant of the algebraic diagrammatic construction (ADC) scheme for the polarization propagator in third order perturbation theory (SF-ADC(3)) has been applied. Due to the methodology of the SF approach the singlet and triplet states are treated on an equal footing since they are part of the same determinant subspace. This leads to a systematically more accurate description of, e.g., diradicaloid systems than with the corresponding non-SF single-reference methods. Furthermore, using analytical excited state gradients at ADC(3) level, geometry optimizations of the singlet and triplet states were performed leading to a fully consistent description of the systems, leading to only small errors in the calculated STGs ranging between 0.6 and 2.4 kcal/mol with respect to experimental references.

  17. Thermodynamics of third-order Lovelock-AdS black holes in the presence of Born-Infeld type nonlinear electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendi, S. H.; Dehghani, A.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we obtain topological black hole solutions of third-order Lovelock gravity coupled with two classes of Born-Infeld-type nonlinear electrodynamics with anti-de Sitter asymptotic structure. We investigate geometric and thermodynamics properties of the solutions and obtain conserved quantities of the black holes. We examine the first law of thermodynamics and find that the conserved and thermodynamic quantities of the black hole solutions satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. Finally, we calculate the heat capacity and determinant of the Hessian matrix to evaluate thermal stability in both canonical and grand canonical ensembles. Moreover, we consider the extended phase space thermodynamics to obtain a generalized first law of thermodynamics as well as the extended Smarr formula.

  18. Accurate adiabatic singlet-triplet gaps in atoms and molecules employing the third-order spin-flip algebraic diagrammatic construction scheme for the polarization propagator.

    PubMed

    Lefrancois, Daniel; Rehn, Dirk R; Dreuw, Andreas

    2016-08-28

    For the calculation of adiabatic singlet-triplet gaps (STG) in diradicaloid systems the spin-flip (SF) variant of the algebraic diagrammatic construction (ADC) scheme for the polarization propagator in third order perturbation theory (SF-ADC(3)) has been applied. Due to the methodology of the SF approach the singlet and triplet states are treated on an equal footing since they are part of the same determinant subspace. This leads to a systematically more accurate description of, e.g., diradicaloid systems than with the corresponding non-SF single-reference methods. Furthermore, using analytical excited state gradients at ADC(3) level, geometry optimizations of the singlet and triplet states were performed leading to a fully consistent description of the systems, leading to only small errors in the calculated STGs ranging between 0.6 and 2.4 kcal/mol with respect to experimental references. PMID:27586899

  19. HYBRID BRIDGMAN ANVIL DESIGN: AN OPTICAL WINDOW FOR IN-SITU SPECTROSCOPY IN LARGE VOLUME PRESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Lipp, M J; Evans, W J; Yoo, C S

    2005-07-29

    The absence of in-situ optical probes for large volume presses often limits their application to high-pressure materials research. In this paper, we present a unique anvil/optical window-design for use in large volume presses, which consists of an inverted diamond anvil seated in a Bridgman type anvil. A small cylindrical aperture through the Bridgman anvil ending at the back of diamond anvil allows optical access to the sample chamber and permits direct optical spectroscopy measurements, such as ruby fluorescence (in-situ pressure) or Raman spectroscopy. This performance of this anvil-design has been demonstrated by loading KBr to a pressure of 14.5 GPa.

  20. Stray light analysis of large aperture optical telescope using TracePro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Cheng-ming; Zhao, Fei; Zhang, Ze

    2014-11-01

    In order to verify the effect of stray light elimination design, the detailed stray light analysis of one modified large aperture optical telescope using TracePro is described in this paper. Firstly, the sources of stray light in optical telescope and the influence of stray light on optical telescope are introduced. Then, the principle of stray light analysis using TracePro is presented. The solid model, surface properties and light paths of the modified large aperture optical telescope are determined. Ray splitting and importance sampling are adopted to ensure the calculation accuracy and reduce the time consumption. The Point Source Normalized Irradiance Transmittance (PSNIT) curve of the system is plotted. It shows the PSNITs are less than 10-12 when off-axis angles are larger than 30°, which satisfies the requirement of the system. Finally, the several special fields of stray light control are discussed.

  1. Testing of Large Diameter Fresnel Optics for Space Based Observations of Extensive Air Showers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H.; Christl, Mark J.; Young, Roy M.

    2011-01-01

    The JEM-EUSO mission will detect extensive air showers produced by extreme energy cosmic rays. It operates from the ISS looking down on Earth's night time atmosphere to detect the nitrogen fluorescence and Cherenkov produce by the charged particles in the EAS. The JEM-EUSO science objectives require a large field of view, sensitivity to energies below 50 EeV, and must fit within available ISS resources. The JEM-EUSO optic module uses three large diameter, thin plastic lenses with Fresnel surfaces to meet the instrument requirements. A bread-board model of the optic has been manufactured and has undergone preliminary tests. We report the results of optical performance tests and evaluate the present capability to manufacture these optical elements.

  2. Construction of Giant-Spin Hamiltonians from Many-Spin Hamiltonians by Third-Order Perturbation Theory and Application to an Fe3 Cr Single-Molecule Magnet.

    PubMed

    Tabrizi, Shadan Ghassemi; Arbuznikov, Alexei V; Kaupp, Martin

    2016-05-10

    A general giant-spin Hamiltonian (GSH) describing an effective spin multiplet of an exchange-coupled metal cluster with dominant Heisenberg interactions was derived from a many-spin Hamiltonian (MSH) by treating anisotropic interactions at the third order of perturbation theory. Going beyond the existing second-order perturbation treatment allows irreducible tensor operators of rank six (or corresponding Stevens operator equivalents) in the GSH to be obtained. Such terms were found to be of crucial importance for the fitting of high-field EPR spectra of a number of single-molecule magnets (SMMs). Also, recent magnetization measurements on trigonal and tetragonal SMMs have found the inclusion of such high-rank axial and transverse terms to be necessary to account for experimental data in terms of giant-spin models. While mixing of spin multiplets by local zero-field splitting interactions was identified as the major origin of these contributions to the GSH, a direct and efficient microscopic explanation had been lacking. The third-order approach developed in this work is used to illustrate the mapping of an MSH onto a GSH for an S=6 trigonal Fe3 Cr complex that was recently investigated by high-field EPR spectroscopy. Comparisons between MSH and GSH consider the simulation of EPR data with both Hamiltonians, as well as locations of diabolical points (conical intersections) in magnetic-field space. The results question the ability of present high-field EPR techniques to determine high-rank zero-field splitting terms uniquely, and lead to a revision of the experimental GSH parameters of the Fe3 Cr SMM. Indeed, a bidirectional mapping between MSH and GSH effectively constrains the number of free parameters in the GSH. This notion may in the future facilitate spectral fitting for highly symmetric SMMs. PMID:27062248

  3. Construction of Giant-Spin Hamiltonians from Many-Spin Hamiltonians by Third-Order Perturbation Theory and Application to an Fe3 Cr Single-Molecule Magnet.

    PubMed

    Tabrizi, Shadan Ghassemi; Arbuznikov, Alexei V; Kaupp, Martin

    2016-05-10

    A general giant-spin Hamiltonian (GSH) describing an effective spin multiplet of an exchange-coupled metal cluster with dominant Heisenberg interactions was derived from a many-spin Hamiltonian (MSH) by treating anisotropic interactions at the third order of perturbation theory. Going beyond the existing second-order perturbation treatment allows irreducible tensor operators of rank six (or corresponding Stevens operator equivalents) in the GSH to be obtained. Such terms were found to be of crucial importance for the fitting of high-field EPR spectra of a number of single-molecule magnets (SMMs). Also, recent magnetization measurements on trigonal and tetragonal SMMs have found the inclusion of such high-rank axial and transverse terms to be necessary to account for experimental data in terms of giant-spin models. While mixing of spin multiplets by local zero-field splitting interactions was identified as the major origin of these contributions to the GSH, a direct and efficient microscopic explanation had been lacking. The third-order approach developed in this work is used to illustrate the mapping of an MSH onto a GSH for an S=6 trigonal Fe3 Cr complex that was recently investigated by high-field EPR spectroscopy. Comparisons between MSH and GSH consider the simulation of EPR data with both Hamiltonians, as well as locations of diabolical points (conical intersections) in magnetic-field space. The results question the ability of present high-field EPR techniques to determine high-rank zero-field splitting terms uniquely, and lead to a revision of the experimental GSH parameters of the Fe3 Cr SMM. Indeed, a bidirectional mapping between MSH and GSH effectively constrains the number of free parameters in the GSH. This notion may in the future facilitate spectral fitting for highly symmetric SMMs.

  4. Large Volume, Optical and Opto-Mechanical Metrology Techniques for ISIM on JWST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadjimichael, Theo

    2015-01-01

    The final, flight build of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element of the James Webb Space Telescope is the culmination of years of work across many disciplines and partners. This paper covers the large volume, ambient, optical and opto-mechanical metrology techniques used to verify the mechanical integration of the flight instruments in ISIM, including optical pupil alignment. We present an overview of ISIM's integration and test program, which is in progress, with an emphasis on alignment and optical performance verification. This work is performed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, in close collaboration with the European Space Agency, the Canadian Space Agency, and the Mid-Infrared Instrument European Consortium.

  5. Enhanced performance of largeoptics using UV and IR lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Rahul R.; Bruere, Justin R.; Peterson, John; Halpin, John M.; Borden, Michael; Hackel, Richard P.

    2004-06-01

    We have developed techniques using small-beam raster scanning to laser-condition fused silica optics to increase their damage threshold. Further, we showed that CO2 lasers could be used to mitigate and stabilize damage sites while still on the order of a few tens of microns in size, thereby greatly increasing the lifetime of an optic. We recently activated the Phoenix pre-production facility to condition and mitigate optics as large as 43 cm x 43 cm. Several full-scale optics have been processed in Phoenix. The optics were first photographed using a damage mapping system to identify scratches, digs, or other potential sites for initiation of laser damage. We then condition the optic, raster scanning with the excimer laser. The first scan is performed at a low fluence. A damage map is then acquired and any new damage sites or any sites that have grown in size are mitigated using the CO2 laser. The process is repeated at successively higher fluences until a factor of 1.7 above the nominal operating fluence is reached. After conditioning, optics were tested in a large beam 3ω laser and showed no damage at fluences of 8 J/cm2 average.

  6. Anomalous nonlinear absorption in epsilon-near-zero materials: optical limiting and all-optical control.

    PubMed

    Vincenti, M A; de Ceglia, D; Scalora, Michael

    2016-08-01

    We investigate nonlinear absorption in films of epsilon-near-zero materials. The combination of large local electric fields at the fundamental frequency and material losses at the harmonic frequencies induce unusual intensity-dependent phenomena. We predict that the second-order nonlinearity of a low-damping, epsilon-near-zero slab produces an optical limiting effect that mimics a two-photon absorption process. Anomalous absorption profiles that depend on low permittivity values at the pump frequency are also predicted for third-order nonlinearities. These findings suggest new opportunities for all-optical light control and novel ways to design reconfigurable and tunable nonlinear devices.

  7. Linearly chirped microwave waveform generation with large time-bandwidth product by optically injected semiconductor laser.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Pei; Zhang, Fangzheng; Guo, Qingshui; Pan, Shilong

    2016-08-01

    A scheme for photonic generation of linearly chirped microwave waveforms (LCMWs) with a large time-bandwidth product (TBWP) is proposed and demonstrated based on an optically injected semiconductor laser. In the proposed system, the optically injected semiconductor laser is operated in period-one (P1) oscillation state. After optical-to-electrical conversion, a microwave signal can be generated with its frequency determined by the injection strength. By properly controlling the injection strength, an LCMW with a large TBWP can be generated. The proposed system has a simple and compact structure. Besides, the center frequency, bandwidth, as well as the temporal duration of the generated LCMWs can be easily adjusted. An experiment is carried out. LCMWs with TBWPs as large as 1.2x105 (bandwidth 12 GHz; temporal duration 10 μs) are successfully generated. The flexibility for tuning the center frequency, bandwidth and temporal duration is also demonstrated. PMID:27505809

  8. Application of hot-pressed silicon carbide to large high-precision optical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, C. James; Ezis, Andris

    1995-10-01

    A new grade of silicon carbide has been developed with properties that make it very attractive for a variety of applications in precision optical structures. Its microstructural homogeneity makes it capable of accepting an optical finish with subnanometer surface roughness. Its strength and fracture toughness, on a bulk scale, exceed all previous silicon carbide materials. This hot-pressed silicon carbide can be produced in single blocks up to 50 cm square and up to 20 cm thick. Two bonding techniques have been developed for fusing large segments of hot pressed silicon carbide together into a large monolith for constructing large optical structures without using a metallic braze. Bonding structure and bonding strength are discussed.

  9. Large elasto-optic effect and reversible electrochromism in multiferroic BiFeO3

    PubMed Central

    Sando, D.; Yang, Yurong; Bousquet, E.; Carrétéro, C.; Garcia, V.; Fusil, S.; Dolfi, D.; Barthélémy, A.; Ghosez, Ph.; Bellaiche, L.; Bibes, M.

    2016-01-01

    The control of optical fields is usually achieved through the electro-optic or acousto-optic effect in single-crystal ferroelectric or polar compounds such as LiNbO3 or quartz. In recent years, tremendous progress has been made in ferroelectric oxide thin film technology—a field which is now a strong driving force in areas such as electronics, spintronics and photovoltaics. Here, we apply epitaxial strain engineering to tune the optical response of BiFeO3 thin films, and find a very large variation of the optical index with strain, corresponding to an effective elasto-optic coefficient larger than that of quartz. We observe a concomitant strain-driven variation in light absorption—reminiscent of piezochromism—which we show can be manipulated by an electric field. This constitutes an electrochromic effect that is reversible, remanent and not driven by defects. These findings broaden the potential of multiferroics towards photonics and thin film acousto-optic devices, and suggest exciting device opportunities arising from the coupling of ferroic, piezoelectric and optical responses. PMID:26923332

  10. Large elasto-optic effect and reversible electrochromism in multiferroic BiFeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sando, D.; Yang, Yurong; Bousquet, E.; Carrétéro, C.; Garcia, V.; Fusil, S.; Dolfi, D.; Barthélémy, A.; Ghosez, Ph.; Bellaiche, L.; Bibes, M.

    2016-02-01

    The control of optical fields is usually achieved through the electro-optic or acousto-optic effect in single-crystal ferroelectric or polar compounds such as LiNbO3 or quartz. In recent years, tremendous progress has been made in ferroelectric oxide thin film technology--a field which is now a strong driving force in areas such as electronics, spintronics and photovoltaics. Here, we apply epitaxial strain engineering to tune the optical response of BiFeO3 thin films, and find a very large variation of the optical index with strain, corresponding to an effective elasto-optic coefficient larger than that of quartz. We observe a concomitant strain-driven variation in light absorption--reminiscent of piezochromism--which we show can be manipulated by an electric field. This constitutes an electrochromic effect that is reversible, remanent and not driven by defects. These findings broaden the potential of multiferroics towards photonics and thin film acousto-optic devices, and suggest exciting device opportunities arising from the coupling of ferroic, piezoelectric and optical responses.

  11. Large elasto-optic effect and reversible electrochromism in multiferroic BiFeO3.

    PubMed

    Sando, D; Yang, Yurong; Bousquet, E; Carrétéro, C; Garcia, V; Fusil, S; Dolfi, D; Barthélémy, A; Ghosez, Ph; Bellaiche, L; Bibes, M

    2016-01-01

    The control of optical fields is usually achieved through the electro-optic or acousto-optic effect in single-crystal ferroelectric or polar compounds such as LiNbO3 or quartz. In recent years, tremendous progress has been made in ferroelectric oxide thin film technology-a field which is now a strong driving force in areas such as electronics, spintronics and photovoltaics. Here, we apply epitaxial strain engineering to tune the optical response of BiFeO3 thin films, and find a very large variation of the optical index with strain, corresponding to an effective elasto-optic coefficient larger than that of quartz. We observe a concomitant strain-driven variation in light absorption--reminiscent of piezochromism--which we show can be manipulated by an electric field. This constitutes an electrochromic effect that is reversible, remanent and not driven by defects. These findings broaden the potential of multiferroics towards photonics and thin film acousto-optic devices, and suggest exciting device opportunities arising from the coupling of ferroic, piezoelectric and optical responses. PMID:26923332

  12. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of gold nanoparticle-Eu oxide composite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henari, F. Z.; Dakhel, A. A.

    2008-08-01

    In this work, nanogold particles incorporated onto europium oxide films at levels of 4% and 7% were fabricated by a vacuum evaporation technique on glass and silicon substrates held at 200 °C. Samples were investigated by x-ray diffraction and linear and nonlinear optical absorption. The linear optical absorption data were measured in the UV-visible-near infrared spectral regions and from these data the energy gap and the surface plasmon resonance were determined. The third order nonlinear optical properties of the nanogold particles incorporated onto europium oxide films were measured using the Z-scan technique. Nonlinear absorption and refraction were performed using a continuous wave laser at 633 nm. A large value of third order nonlinearities was obtained with the samples.

  13. Calibration and optimization of computer-controlled optical surfacing for large optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae Wook; Martin, Hubert M.; Burge, James H.

    2011-09-01

    Precision optical surfaces can be efficiently manufactured using a computer-controlled optical surfacing (CCOS) process. Most CCOS processes are based on control of the dwell time of a tool on the workpiece, according to the desired removal and the tool influence function (TIF), which is the material wear function of the tool. Several major topics were investigated to improve current CCOS processes and provide new solutions for the next generation of CCOS processes. A rigid conformal (RC) lap using a visco-elastic non-Newtonian medium was invented. It conforms to the aspheric surface shape, yet maintains stiffness on short time scales to provide natural smoothing. The smoothing removes mid- to high-frequency errors while controlled dwell time removes low-frequency errors. A parametric smoothing model was also introduced to predict the smoothing effects. A parametric edge TIF model to represent measured edge TIFs was developed and demonstrated. This model covers the removal behavior as the tool overhangs the edge of the workpiece. These new tools and models were applied in a new process optimization technique called nonsequential optimization. The non-sequential approach performs a comprehensive optimization of dwell time using multiple TIFs (multiple tools) simultaneously. An overview of these newly implemented CCOS features** is presented along with some actual CCOS results.

  14. Design and analysis of large-core single-mode windmill single crystal sapphire optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yujie; Hill, Cary; Liu, Bo; Yu, Zhihao; Xuan, Haifeng; Homa, Daniel; Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary

    2016-06-01

    We present a large-core single-mode "windmill" single crystal sapphire optical fiber (SCSF) design, which exhibits single-mode operation by stripping off the higher-order modes (HOMs) while maintaining the fundamental mode. The "windmill" SCSF design was analyzed using the finite element analysis method, in which all the HOMs are leaky. The numerical simulation results show single-mode operation in the spectral range from 0.4 to 2 μm in the windmill SCSF, with an effective core diameter as large as 14 μm. Such fiber is expected to improve the performance of many of the current sapphire fiber optic sensor structures.

  15. Eyeglass Large Aperture, Lightweight Space Optics FY2000 - FY2002 LDRD Strategic Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R

    2003-02-10

    A series of studies by the Air Force, the National Reconnaissance Office and NASA have identified the critical role played by large optics in fulfilling many of the space related missions of these agencies. Whether it is the Next Generation Space Telescope for NASA, high resolution imaging systems for NRO, or beam weaponry for the Air Force, the diameter of the primary optic is central to achieving high resolution (imaging) or a small spot size on target (lethality). While the detailed requirements differ for each application (high resolution imaging over the visible and near-infrared for earth observation, high damage threshold but single-wavelength operation for directed energy), the challenges of a large, lightweight primary optic which is space compatible and operates with high efficiency are the same. The advantage of such large optics to national surveillance applications is that it permits these observations to be carried-out with much greater effectiveness than with smaller optics. For laser weapons, the advantage is that it permits more tightly focused beams which can be leveraged into either greater effective range, reduced laser power, and/or smaller on-target spot-sizes; weapon systems can be made either much more effective or much less expensive. This application requires only single-wavelength capability, but places an emphasis upon robust, rapidly targetable optics. The advantages of large aperture optics to astronomy are that it increases the sensitivity and resolution with which we can view the universe. This can be utilized either for general purpose astronomy, allowing us to examine greater numbers of objects in more detail and at greater range, or it can enable the direct detection and detailed examination of extra-solar planets. This application requires large apertures (for both light-gathering and resolution reasons), with broad-band spectral capability, but does not emphasize either large fields-of-view or pointing agility. Despite

  16. Design and fabrication of a large area freestanding compressive stress SiO2 optical window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Toan, Nguyen; Sangu, Suguru; Ono, Takahito

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports the design and fabrication of a 7.2 mm  ×  9.6 mm freestanding compressive stress SiO2 optical window without buckling. An application of the SiO2 optical window with and without liquid penetration has been demonstrated for an optical modulator and its optical characteristic is evaluated by using an image sensor. Two methods for SiO2 optical window fabrication have been presented. The first method is a combination of silicon etching and a thermal oxidation process. Silicon capillaries fabricated by deep reactive ion etching (deep RIE) are completely oxidized to form the SiO2 capillaries. The large compressive stress of the oxide causes buckling of the optical window, which is reduced by optimizing the design of the device structure. A magnetron-type RIE, which is investigated for deep SiO2 etching, is the second method. This method achieves deep SiO2 etching together with smooth surfaces, vertical shapes and a high aspect ratio. Additionally, in order to avoid a wrinkling optical window, the idea of a Peano curve structure has been proposed to achieve a freestanding compressive stress SiO2 optical window. A 7.2 mm  ×  9.6 mm optical window area without buckling integrated with an image sensor for an optical modulator has been successfully fabricated. The qualitative and quantitative evaluations have been performed in cases with and without liquid penetration.

  17. Towards predicting the laser damage threshold of large-area optics

    SciTech Connect

    Hue, J.; Genin, F.Y.; Maricle, S.M.; Kozlowski, M.R.

    1996-10-01

    As the size of optics increases, such as in the optical coatings being developed for the National Ignition Facility in US and the Laser MegaJoules in France, the difficulty also increases in measuring and defining their laser damage threshold. Measuring the threshold on small witness samples ({le}cm) rather than full aperture optic (=m) is advantageous, and in this article, the threshold of large-area components is addressed in two ways. First, a model based on the R-on-l threshold distribution is shown to predict the threshold of a large optic with a high degree of confidence. The average R-on-l threshold provides a reliable, accurate value to evaluate coatings. An automated damage test bench has been developed at CEA. Secondly, the damage threshold has to be defined according to final use of the component. LLNL has defined a functional damage threshold to set limits on maximum damage size. An empirical power law dependence of average damage size on peak fluence was found; this can be used to predict the damage behavior of large-aperture optics exhibiting the same damage morphology.

  18. Sub-nanometer interferometry and precision turning for large optical fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Klingmann, J L; Sommargren, G E

    1999-04-01

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), we have the unique combination of precision turning and metrology capabilities critical to the fabrication of large optical elements. We have developed a self-referenced interferometer to measure errors in aspheric optics to sub- nanometer accuracy over 200-millimeter apertures, a dynamic range of 5{approximately}10. We have utilized diamond turning to figure optics for X-ray to IR wavelengths and, with fast-tool-servo technology, can move optical segments from off-axis to on-axis. With part capacities to 2.3-meters diameter and the metrology described above, segments of very large, ultra-lightweight mirrors can potentially be figured to final requirements. precision of diamond-turning will carryover although the surface finish may be degraded. Finally, the most critical component of a fabrication process is the metrology that enables an accurate part. Well characterized machines are very repeatable and part accuracy must come from proper metrology. A self- referencing interferometer has been developed that can measure accurately to sub-nanometer values. As with traditional interferometers, measurements are fast and post- processed data provides useful feedback to the user. The simplicity of the device allows it to be used on large optics and systems.

  19. Micro-precision control/structure interaction technology for large optical space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sirlin, Samuel W.; Laskin, Robert A.

    1993-01-01

    The CSI program at JPL is chartered to develop the structures and control technology needed for sub-micron level stabilization of future optical space systems. The extreme dimensional stability required for such systems derives from the need to maintain the alignment and figure of critical optical elements to a small fraction (typically 1/20th to 1/50th) of the wavelength of detected radiation. The wavelength is about 0.5 micron for visible light and 0.1 micron for ultra-violet light. This lambda/50 requirement is common to a broad class of optical systems including filled aperture telescopes (with monolithic or segmented primary mirrors), sparse aperture telescopes, and optical interferometers. The challenge for CSI arises when such systems become large, with spatially distributed optical elements mounted on a lightweight, flexible structure. In order to better understand the requirements for micro-precision CSI technology, a representative future optical system was identified and developed as an analytical testbed for CSI concepts and approaches. An optical interferometer was selected as a stressing example of the relevant mission class. The system that emerged was termed the Focus Mission Interferometer (FMI). This paper will describe the multi-layer control architecture used to address the FMI's nanometer level stabilization requirements. In addition the paper will discuss on-going and planned experimental work aimed at demonstrating that multi-layer CSI can work in practice in the relevant performance regime.

  20. Mapping and inspection of damage and artifacts in large-scale optics

    SciTech Connect

    Rainer, F.

    1997-12-22

    We have developed tools for accurately and economically mapping and inspecting damage and artifacts in the bulk as well as on the surface of meter-sized optics intended for use on large-scale lasers such as Beamlet and NIF. Optics are illuminated by white light through the optic edge or externally at grazing incidence using linear fiber- optics arrays. The mega-pixel camera records a digital map of the entire optic with precise addresses of highlighted artifacts. From these coordinated, artifacts are located and digitally recorded with resolution of less than 5 microns using a long-working-distance microscope. Total internal reflection of edge illumination efficiency couples light into the entire optic to inspect for bulk artifacts, such as bubbles, inclusions, edge-cladding flaws and laser- induced damage as well as surface scratches and pits which propagate into the substrate. Surface contamination such as dust, fingerprints, coating flaws, and cleaning flaws are highlighted by external grazing illumination. The procedures permit accurate recording of the evolution of damage after many laser shots as well as correlation of damage from one optic to the next in a laser chain.

  1. Development of laser guide stars and adaptive optics for large astronomical telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Max, C.E.; Avicola, K.; Bissinger, H.; Brase, J.M.; Gavel, D.T.; Friedman, H.; Morris, J.R.; Olivier, S.S.; Rapp, D.; Salmon, J.T.; Waltjen, K.

    1992-06-29

    We describe a feasibility experiment to demonstrate high-order adaptive optics using a sodium-layer laser guide star. We use the copper-vapor-pumped dye lasers developed for LLNL`s atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation program to create the laser guide star. Closed-loop adaptive corrections will be accomplished using a 69-subaperture adaptive optics system on a one-meter telescope at LLNL. The laser bream is projected upwards from a beam director approximately 5 meters away from the main telescope, and is expected to form a spot 1-2 meters in diameter at the atmospheric sodium layer (95 km altitude). We describe the overall system architecture and adaptive optics components, and analyze the expected performance. Our long-term goal is to develop sodium-layer laser guide stars and adaptive optics for large astronomical telescopes. We discuss preliminary design trade-offs for the Keck Telescope at Mauna Kea.

  2. Development of laser guide stars and adaptive optics for large astronomical telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Max, C.E.; Avicola, K.; Bissinger, H.; Brase, J.M.; Gavel, D.T.; Friedman, H.; Morris, J.R.; Olivier, S.S.; Rapp, D.; Salmon, J.T.; Waltjen, K.

    1992-06-29

    We describe a feasibility experiment to demonstrate high-order adaptive optics using a sodium-layer laser guide star. We use the copper-vapor-pumped dye lasers developed for LLNL's atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation program to create the laser guide star. Closed-loop adaptive corrections will be accomplished using a 69-subaperture adaptive optics system on a one-meter telescope at LLNL. The laser bream is projected upwards from a beam director approximately 5 meters away from the main telescope, and is expected to form a spot 1-2 meters in diameter at the atmospheric sodium layer (95 km altitude). We describe the overall system architecture and adaptive optics components, and analyze the expected performance. Our long-term goal is to develop sodium-layer laser guide stars and adaptive optics for large astronomical telescopes. We discuss preliminary design trade-offs for the Keck Telescope at Mauna Kea.

  3. Monte Carlo modelling of multiconjugate adaptive optics performance on the European Extremely Large Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basden, A. G.

    2015-11-01

    The performance of a wide-field adaptive optics system depends on input design parameters. Here we investigate the performance of a multiconjugate adaptive optics system design for the European Extremely Large Telescope, using an end-to-end Monte Carlo adaptive optics simulation tool, DASP (Durham adaptive optics simulation platform). We consider parameters such as the number of laser guide stars, sodium layer depth, wavefront sensor pixel scale, number of deformable mirrors (DMs), mirror conjugation and actuator pitch. We provide potential areas where costs savings can be made, and investigate trade-offs between performance and cost. We conclude that a six-laser guide star system using three DMs seems to be a sweet spot for performance and cost compromise.

  4. Optics and Nonlinear Buckling Mechanics in Large-Area, Highly Stretchable Arrays of Plasmonic Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Gao, Li; Zhang, Yihui; Zhang, Hui; Doshay, Sage; Xie, Xu; Luo, Hongying; Shah, Deesha; Shi, Yan; Xu, Siyi; Fang, Hui; Fan, Jonathan A; Nordlander, Peter; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2015-06-23

    Large-scale, dense arrays of plasmonic nanodisks on low-modulus, high-elongation elastomeric substrates represent a class of tunable optical systems, with reversible ability to shift key optical resonances over a range of nearly 600 nm at near-infrared wavelengths. At the most extreme levels of mechanical deformation (strains >100%), nonlinear buckling processes transform initially planar arrays into three-dimensional configurations, in which the nanodisks rotate out of the plane to form linear arrays with "wavy" geometries. Analytical, finite-element, and finite-difference time-domain models capture not only the physics of these buckling processes, including all of the observed modes, but also the quantitative effects of these deformations on the plasmonic responses. The results have relevance to mechanically tunable optical systems, particularly to soft optical sensors that integrate on or in the human body.

  5. Superradiance in a Large and Dilute Cloud of Cold Atoms in the Linear-Optics Regime.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Michelle O; Krešić, Ivor; Kaiser, Robin; Guerin, William

    2016-08-12

    Superradiance has been extensively studied in the 1970s and 1980s in the regime of superfluorescence, where a large number of atoms are initially excited. Cooperative scattering in the linear-optics regime, or "single-photon superradiance," has been investigated much more recently, and superradiant decay has also been predicted, even for a spherical sample of large extent and low density, where the distance between atoms is much larger than the wavelength. Here, we demonstrate this effect experimentally by directly measuring the decay rate of the off-axis fluorescence of a large and dilute cloud of cold rubidium atoms after the sudden switch off of a low-intensity laser driving the atomic transition. We show that, at large detuning, the decay rate increases with the on-resonance optical depth. In contrast to forward scattering, the superradiant decay of off-axis fluorescence is suppressed near resonance due to attenuation and multiple-scattering effects.

  6. Superradiance in a Large and Dilute Cloud of Cold Atoms in the Linear-Optics Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, Michelle O.; Krešić, Ivor; Kaiser, Robin; Guerin, William

    2016-08-01

    Superradiance has been extensively studied in the 1970s and 1980s in the regime of superfluorescence, where a large number of atoms are initially excited. Cooperative scattering in the linear-optics regime, or "single-photon superradiance," has been investigated much more recently, and superradiant decay has also been predicted, even for a spherical sample of large extent and low density, where the distance between atoms is much larger than the wavelength. Here, we demonstrate this effect experimentally by directly measuring the decay rate of the off-axis fluorescence of a large and dilute cloud of cold rubidium atoms after the sudden switch off of a low-intensity laser driving the atomic transition. We show that, at large detuning, the decay rate increases with the on-resonance optical depth. In contrast to forward scattering, the superradiant decay of off-axis fluorescence is suppressed near resonance due to attenuation and multiple-scattering effects.

  7. Superradiance in a Large and Dilute Cloud of Cold Atoms in the Linear-Optics Regime.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Michelle O; Krešić, Ivor; Kaiser, Robin; Guerin, William

    2016-08-12

    Superradiance has been extensively studied in the 1970s and 1980s in the regime of superfluorescence, where a large number of atoms are initially excited. Cooperative scattering in the linear-optics regime, or "single-photon superradiance," has been investigated much more recently, and superradiant decay has also been predicted, even for a spherical sample of large extent and low density, where the distance between atoms is much larger than the wavelength. Here, we demonstrate this effect experimentally by directly measuring the decay rate of the off-axis fluorescence of a large and dilute cloud of cold rubidium atoms after the sudden switch off of a low-intensity laser driving the atomic transition. We show that, at large detuning, the decay rate increases with the on-resonance optical depth. In contrast to forward scattering, the superradiant decay of off-axis fluorescence is suppressed near resonance due to attenuation and multiple-scattering effects. PMID:27563957

  8. MicroFinish Topographer: surface finish metrology for large and small optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, Robert E.

    2011-09-01

    The MicroFinish Topographer (MFT) is the result of an interest in directly measuring the surface roughness of large optics without the need for using replicas that may degrade the measurement data and that contaminate the surface. Once the MFT proved itself on large optics it was immediately suggested that a similar device should be designed for small optics. All this really took was turning the original MFT upside down and placing small specimens on a holder. This one device tests samples from 10 mm diameter to 10 m with phase measuring interferometry that does not need vibration isolation. Further, the MFT form factor makes it ideal for use in doing on-machine surface finish metrology.

  9. Modeling optical properties of silicon clusters by first principles: From a few atoms to large nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Nurbawono, Argo; Liu, Shuanglong; Zhang, Chun

    2015-04-21

    Time dependent density functional tight binding (TDDFTB) method is implemented with sparse matrix techniques and improved parallelization algorithms. The method is employed to calculate the optical properties of various Si nanocrystals (NCs). The calculated light absorption spectra of small Si NCs from TDDFTB were found to be comparable with many body perturbation methods utilizing planewave basis sets. For large Si NCs (more than a thousand atoms) that are beyond the reach of conventional approaches, the TDDFTB method is able to produce reasonable results that are consistent with prior experiments. We also employed the method to study the effects of surface chemistry on the optical properties of large Si NCs. We learned that the optical properties of Si NCs can be manipulated with small molecule passivations such as methyl, hydroxyl, amino, and fluorine. In general, the shifts and profiles in the absorption spectra can be tuned with suitably chosen passivants.

  10. Coarse-fine vertical scanning based optical profiler for structured surface measurement with large step height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yi; Liu, Xiaojun; Lei, Zili; Li, Qian; Yang, Xiao; Chen, Liangzhou; Lu, Wenlong

    2015-02-01

    White light interference (WLI) optical profiler had been used widely for structured surface measurement. To achieve high measuring accuracy, piezoelectric ceramic (PZT) was usually used as the vertical scanning unit, which was normally less than 100um and only for small range structured surface measurement. With the development of advanced manufacturing technology, precision structured surfaces with large step height were appearing. To satisfy the measurement requirements of this kind of precision structured surfaces, WLI optical profiler with large range had to be developed. In this paper, an optical profiler was proposed, in which a coarse-fine vertical scanning system was adopted to expand its measurement range to 10mm while its resolution still at nanometer level.

  11. Large aperture solar optical telescope and instruments for the SOLAR-C mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suematsu, Y.; Katsukawa, Y.; Hara, H.; Kano, R.; Shimizu, T.; Ichimoto, K.

    2014-08-01

    A large aperture solar optical telescope and its instruments for the SOLAR-C mission are under study to provide the critical physical parameters in the lower solar atmosphere and to resolve the mechanism of magnetic dynamic events happening there and in the upper atmosphere as well. For the precise magnetic field measurements and high angular resolution in wide wavelength region, covering FOV of 3 arcmin x3 arcmin, an entrance aperture of 1.4 m Gregorian telescope is proposed. Filtergraphs are designed to realize high resolution imaging and pseudo 2D spectro-polarimetry in several magnetic sensitive lines of both photosphere and chromosphere. A full stokes polarimetry is carried out at three magnetic sensitive lines with a four-slit spectrograph of 2D image scanning mechanism. We present a progress in optical and structural design of SOLAR-C large aperture optical telescope and its observing instruments which fulfill science requirements.

  12. Alignment and integration of large optical systems based on advanced metrology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliverti, M.; Riva, M.; Moschetti, M.; Pariani, G.; Genoni, M.; Zerbi, F. M.

    Optical alignment is a key activity in opto-mechanical system Integration. Traditional techniques require adjustable mounting, driven by optical references that allows the tuning of the optics position along all 6 Degree of Freedom. Nevertheless, the required flexibility imposes reduced stiffness and consequently less stability of the system. The Observatory of Brera (OAB) started few years ago a research activity focused onto the overcoming of this limits exploiting the high metrology performances of Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMM) with the main objectives of relax the manufacturing tolerances and maximize mounting stiffness. Through the T-REX grants, OAB acquired all the instrumentation needed for that activity furthermore considering the ESPRESSO project training and testing also oriented to large scale instrumentation like the E-ELT one. We will present in this paper the definition of the VLTs convergence point and the feasibility study of large mirrors alignment done by mechanical measurements methods. skip=8pt

  13. Ultrafast gain recovery and large nonlinear optical response in submonolayer quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingnau, Benjamin; Lüdge, Kathy; Herzog, Bastian; Kolarczik, Mirco; Kaptan, Yücel; Woggon, Ulrike; Owschimikow, Nina

    2016-07-01

    Submonolayer quantum dots combine the zero-dimensional charge-carrier confinement of self-assembled quantum dots with the large density of states of a quantum well. Electroluminescence and pump-probe experiments on a submonolayer-based optical amplifier show that the system exhibits a high gain of 90 cm-1 and an ultrafast gain recovery. We propose a rate equation system describing the microscopic carrier dynamics which quantitatively reproduces the observed behavior and provides deeper theoretical understanding of the material system. In contrast to Stranski-Krastanov quantum dots, the fast gain recovery is enhanced by a strong interdot coupling. Optically inactive submonolayer states form an efficient carrier reservoir and give rise to a large nonlinear optical response.

  14. Four-plate piezoelectric actuator driving a large-diameter special optical fiber for nonlinear optical microendoscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Li, Zhi; Liang, Xiaobao; Fu, Ling

    2016-08-22

    In nonlinear optical microendoscope (NOME), a fiber with excellent optical characteristics and a miniature scanning mechanism at the distal end are two key components. Double-clad fibers (DCFs) and double-clad photonic crystal fibers (DCPCFs) have shown great optical characteristics but limited vibration amplitude due to large diameter. Besides reducing the damping of fiber cantilever, optimizing the structural of the actuator for lower energy dissipation also contributes to better driving capability. This paper presented an optimized actuator for driving a particular fiber cantilever in the view point of energy. Firstly, deformation energy of a bending fiber cantilever operating in resonant mode is investigated. Secondly, strain and stress analyses revealed that the four-plate actuator achieved lower energy dissipation. Then, finite-element simulations showed that the large-diameter fiber yielded an adequate vibration amplitude driven by a four-plate actuator, which was confirmed by experiments of our home-made four-plate actuator prototypes. Additionally, a NOME based on a DCPCF with a diameter of 350 μm driven by four-plate piezoelectric actuator has been developed. The NOME can excite and collect intrinsic second-harmonic and two-photon fluorescence signals with the excitation power of 10-30 mW and an adequate field of view of 200 μm, which suggest great potential applications in neuroscience and clinical diagnoses. PMID:27557270

  15. The laser interferometer system for the large optics diamond turning machine

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, E D; Donaldson, R R; Patterson, S R

    1999-06-29

    The purpose of this report is to describe the Laser Interferometer System designed for the Large Optics Diamond Turning Machine (LODTM). To better understand the laser interferometer system, it is useful to begin with an overview of the LODTM metrology system.

  16. Systematic design and analysis of laser-guide-star adaptive-optics systems for large telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Gavel, D.T.; Morris, J.R.; Vernon, R.G.

    1994-02-01

    The authors discuss the design of laser-guided adaptive-optics systems for the large, 8-10-m-class telescopes. Through proper choice of system components and optimized system design, the laser power that is needed at the astronomical site can be kept to a minimum. 37 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. A High-Resolution Demodulation Algorithm for FBG-FP Static-Strain Sensors Based on the Hilbert Transform and Cross Third-Order Cumulant

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wenzhu; Zhen, Tengkun; Zhang, Wentao; Zhang, Fusheng; Li, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Static strain can be detected by measuring a cross-correlation of reflection spectra from two fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). However, the static-strain measurement resolution is limited by the dominant Gaussian noise source when using this traditional method. This paper presents a novel static-strain demodulation algorithm for FBG-based Fabry-Perot interferometers (FBG-FPs). The Hilbert transform is proposed for changing the Gaussian distribution of the two FBG-FPs’ reflection spectra, and a cross third-order cumulant is used to use the results of the Hilbert transform and get a group of noise-vanished signals which can be used to accurately calculate the wavelength difference of the two FBG-FPs. The benefit by these processes is that Gaussian noise in the spectra can be suppressed completely in theory and a higher resolution can be reached. In order to verify the precision and flexibility of this algorithm, a detailed theory model and a simulation analysis are given, and an experiment is implemented. As a result, a static-strain resolution of 0.9 nε under laboratory environment condition is achieved, showing a higher resolution than the traditional cross-correlation method. PMID:25923938

  18. Molecular Static Third-Order Polarizabilities of Carbon-Cage Fullerene and Their Correlation with Three Geometric Properties: Symmetry, Aromaticity, and Size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, C. E.; Cardelino, B. H.; Frazier, D. O.; Niles, J.; Wang, X.-Q.

    1998-01-01

    The static third-order polarizabilities (gamma) of C60, C70, five isomers of C78 and two isomers of C84 were analyzed in terms of three properties, from a geometric point of view: symmetry, aromaticity and size. The polarizability values were based on the finite field approximation using a semiempirical Hamiltonian (AM1) and applied to molecular structures obtained from density functional theory calculations. Symmetry was characterized by the molecular group order. The selection of 6-member rings as aromatic was determined from an analysis of bond lengths. Maximum interatomic distance and surface area were the parameters considered with respect to size. Based on triple linear regression analysis, it was found that the static linear polarizability (alpha) and gamma in these molecules respond differently to geometrical properties: alpha depends almost exclusively on surface area while gamma is affected by a combination of number of aromatic rings, length and group order, in decreasing importance. In the case of alpha, valence electron contributions provide the same information as all-electron estimates. For gamma, the best correlation coefficients are obtained when all-electron estimates are used and when the dependent parameter is ln(gamma) instead of gamma.

  19. Toward Realistic Simulation of low-Level Clouds Using a Multiscale Modeling Framework With a Third-Order Turbulence Closure in its Cloud-Resolving Model Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Kuan-Man; Cheng, Anning

    2010-01-01

    This study presents preliminary results from a multiscale modeling framework (MMF) with an advanced third-order turbulence closure in its cloud-resolving model (CRM) component. In the original MMF, the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM3.5) is used as the host general circulation model (GCM), and the System for Atmospheric Modeling with a first-order turbulence closure is used as the CRM for representing cloud processes in each grid box of the GCM. The results of annual and seasonal means and diurnal variability are compared between the modified and original MMFs and the CAM3.5. The global distributions of low-level cloud amounts and precipitation and the amounts of low-level clouds in the subtropics and middle-level clouds in mid-latitude storm track regions in the modified MMF show substantial improvement relative to the original MMF when both are compared to observations. Some improvements can also be seen in the diurnal variability of precipitation.

  20. Speeding up spin-component-scaled third-order pertubation theory with the chain of spheres approximation: the COSX-SCS-MP3 method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izsák, Róbert; Neese, Frank

    2013-07-01

    The 'chain of spheres' approximation, developed earlier for the efficient evaluation of the self-consistent field exchange term, is introduced here into the evaluation of the external exchange term of higher order correlation methods. Its performance is studied in the specific case of the spin-component-scaled third-order Møller--Plesset perturbation (SCS-MP3) theory. The results indicate that the approximation performs excellently in terms of both computer time and achievable accuracy. Significant speedups over a conventional method are obtained for larger systems and basis sets. Owing to this development, SCS-MP3 calculations on molecules of the size of penicillin (42 atoms) with a polarised triple-zeta basis set can be performed in ∼3 hours using 16 cores of an Intel Xeon E7-8837 processor with a 2.67 GHz clock speed, which represents a speedup by a factor of 8-9 compared to the previously most efficient algorithm. Thus, the increased accuracy offered by SCS-MP3 can now be explored for at least medium-sized molecules.

  1. Design, synthesis and excellent third-order NLO properties of two new polyoxometalates constructed from Keggin polyanions bonded by a solvent molecule.

    PubMed

    Miao, Hao; Dong, Yayu; Chen, Ziwang; He, Xingxiang; Hu, Gonghao; Xu, Yan

    2016-08-01

    Two new monosubstituted Keggin structural polyoxometalates [H5PMo11O39Zn(C5H5N)]·(C5H5N)5·H2O (1) and [H5PW11O39Co(C5H5N)]·(C5H5N)2·(C6H8N)2·1.5CH3OH (2) have been successfully synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. Structural analysis indicates that the polyoxoanion of compound 1 is a solvent molecule-bonded zinc-monosubstituted Keggin structural cluster, [PMo11O39Zn(C5H5N)](5-), while the polyoxoanion of compound 2 is a cobalt-monosubstituted phosphotungstate polyanion bonded with one pendant pyridine molecule. Both 1 and 2 show 3D supramolecular interpenetrating structures constructed of inorganic polyanion layers and organic layers. Very interestingly, compounds 1 and 2 exhibit excellent third-order NLO properties, and the TPA cross section σ of 1 and 2 is 2571.3 GM and 2876.3 GM, respectively.

  2. Mechanical buckling of a functionally graded cylindrical shell with axial and circumferential stiffeners using the third-order shear deformation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahani, Hossein; Azarafza, Reza; Barati, Farzan

    2014-09-01

    This paper deals with an analytical approach of the buckling behavior of a functionally graded circular cylindrical shell under axial pressure with external axial and circumferential stiffeners. The shell properties are assumed to vary continuously through the thickness direction. Fundamental relations and equilibrium and stability equations are derived using the third-order shear deformation theory. The resulting equations are employed to obtain the closed-form solution for the critical buckling loads. A simply supported boundary condition is considered for both edges of the shell. The comparison of the results of this study with those in the literature validates the present analysis. The effects of material composition (volume fraction exponent), of the number of stiffeners and of shell geometry parameters on the characteristics of the critical buckling load are described. The analytical results are compared and validated using the finite-element method. The results show that the inhomogeneity parameter, the geometry of the shell and the number of stiffeners considerably affect the critical buckling loads.

  3. Design, synthesis and excellent third-order NLO properties of two new polyoxometalates constructed from Keggin polyanions bonded by a solvent molecule.

    PubMed

    Miao, Hao; Dong, Yayu; Chen, Ziwang; He, Xingxiang; Hu, Gonghao; Xu, Yan

    2016-08-01

    Two new monosubstituted Keggin structural polyoxometalates [H5PMo11O39Zn(C5H5N)]·(C5H5N)5·H2O (1) and [H5PW11O39Co(C5H5N)]·(C5H5N)2·(C6H8N)2·1.5CH3OH (2) have been successfully synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. Structural analysis indicates that the polyoxoanion of compound 1 is a solvent molecule-bonded zinc-monosubstituted Keggin structural cluster, [PMo11O39Zn(C5H5N)](5-), while the polyoxoanion of compound 2 is a cobalt-monosubstituted phosphotungstate polyanion bonded with one pendant pyridine molecule. Both 1 and 2 show 3D supramolecular interpenetrating structures constructed of inorganic polyanion layers and organic layers. Very interestingly, compounds 1 and 2 exhibit excellent third-order NLO properties, and the TPA cross section σ of 1 and 2 is 2571.3 GM and 2876.3 GM, respectively. PMID:27453327

  4. A High-Resolution Demodulation Algorithm for FBG-FP Static-Strain Sensors Based on the Hilbert Transform and Cross Third-Order Cumulant.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenzhu; Zhen, Tengkun; Zhang, Wentao; Zhang, Fusheng; Li, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Static strain can be detected by measuring a cross-correlation of reflection spectra from two fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). However, the static-strain measurement resolution is limited by the dominant Gaussian noise source when using this traditional method. This paper presents a novel static-strain demodulation algorithm for FBG-based Fabry-Perot interferometers (FBG-FPs). The Hilbert transform is proposed for changing the Gaussian distribution of the two FBG-FPs' reflection spectra, and a cross third-order cumulant is used to use the results of the Hilbert transform and get a group of noise-vanished signals which can be used to accurately calculate the wavelength difference of the two FBG-FPs. The benefit by these processes is that Gaussian noise in the spectra can be suppressed completely in theory and a higher resolution can be reached. In order to verify the precision and flexibility of this algorithm, a detailed theory model and a simulation analysis are given, and an experiment is implemented. As a result, a static-strain resolution of 0.9 nε under laboratory environment condition is achieved, showing a higher resolution than the traditional cross-correlation method. PMID:25923938

  5. Scattering of a Gaussian beam by a large perfectly conducting cylinder with application to optical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Judd Steven

    1999-10-01

    Optical proximity sensing is often used in industry and the commercial realm to provide a system with information it may use in some decision making process. The applications for optical proximity sensing have changed and expanded over the years, and has presented a continually increased demand for higher accuracy. In order to satisfy this demand, new optical techniques have been established which have provided more precise proximity data than ever before, e.g. Atomic Force Microscopy and Photothermal Detection. To accommodate the increase in sensing precision, the precision of the mathematical models used to predict the behavior of the optical scheme must also increase. The particular interest pursued in this dissertation involves the detection of the change in the position of a beam due to some phenomena, e.g. Photothermal Deflection or Atomic Force Microscopy. The deflection of the beam in these cases may be on the order of microradians, and too small to detect with ordinary means. To remedy this, a reflecting cylinder is strategically positioned to reflect the incident deflected beam and, by the cylinder geometry, the reflected beam from the cylinder shows an increased deflection angle compared to the incident beam. If the optical scheme has been designed successfully, the resulting deflection of the reflected beam will be large enough to be detected by a sensor. In order to predict the optical behavior of an incident deflected beam reflected from a cylinder, three mathematical methods, Geometrical Optics, Physical Optics, and an Exact Formulation rigorously based on Maxwell's equations are employed. From these methods, a Geometrical Optics solution, two Physical Optics solutions, and an Exact solution are obtained and compared to demonstrate the accuracy of these mathematical models to predict the electric field behavior of a beam reflected from a cylinder. In all cases a Gaussian, well focused beam is used. The near, transitional, and far zones are considered

  6. Optical characterization of a miniaturized large field of view motion sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moens, Els; Ottevaere, Heidi; Meuret, Youri; Thienpont, Hugo

    2012-06-01

    In this paper we discuss the geometrical and optical characterization of a miniaturized very wide field-of-view (FOV) motion sensor inspired by the working principle of insect facet eyes. The goal of the sensor is to detect movement in the environment and to specify where in the surroundings these changes took place. Based on the measurements of the sensor, certain actions can be taken such as sounding an alarm in security applications or turning on the light in domotic applications. The advantage of miniaturizing these sensors is that they are low-cost, compact and more esthetical compared to current motion detectors. The sensor was designed to have a very large FOV of 125° and an angular resolution of 1° or better. The micro-optics is built up of two stacked polymer plates consisting each out of a five by five lens array. In between there is a plate of absorbing material with a five by five array of baffles to create 25 optically isolated channels that each image part of the total FOV of 125° onto the detector. To geometrically characterize the lens arrays and verify the designed specifications, we made use of a coordinate measuring machine. The optical performance of the designed micro-optical system was analyzed by sending white light beams with different angles of incidence with respect to the sample through the sensor, comparing the position of the light spots visible on the detector and determining optical quality parameters such as MTF and distortion.

  7. Initial Technology Assessment for the Large UV-Optical-Infrared (LUVOIR) Mission Concept Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Feinberg, Lee D.; France, Kevin; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Redding, David; Schiminovich, David

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Divisions 30-Year Roadmap prioritized a future large-aperture space telescope operating in the ultra-violet-optical-infrared wavelength regime. The Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy envisioned a similar observatory, the High Definition Space Telescope. And a multi-institution group also studied the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope. In all three cases, a broad science case is outlined, combining general astrophysics with the search for bio-signatures via direct-imaging and spectroscopic characterization of habitable exo-planets. We present an initial technology assessment that enables such an observatory that is currently being studied for the 2020 Decadal Survey by the Large UV-Optical Infrared (LUVOIR) surveyor Science and Technology Definition Team. We present here the technology prioritization for the 2016 technology cycle and define the required technology capabilities and current state-of-the-art performance. Current, planned, and recommended technology development efforts are also reported.

  8. Initial technology assessment for the Large-Aperture UV-Optical-Infrared (LUVOIR) mission concept study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Feinberg, Lee; France, Kevin; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Redding, David; Schiminovich, David

    2016-07-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Division's 30-Year Roadmap prioritized a future large-aperture space telescope operating in the ultra-violet/optical/infrared wavelength regime. The Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy envisioned a similar observatory, the High Definition Space Telescope. And a multi-institution group also studied the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope. In all three cases, a broad science case is outlined, combining general astrophysics with the search for biosignatures via direct-imaging and spectroscopic characterization of habitable exoplanets. We present an initial technology assessment that enables such an observatory that is currently being studied for the 2020 Decadal Survey by the Large UV/Optical/Infrared (LUVOIR) surveyor Science and Technology Definition Team. We present here the technology prioritization for the 2016 technology cycle and define the required technology capabilities and current state-of-the-art performance. Current, planned, and recommended technology development efforts are also reported.

  9. Initial Technology Assessment for the Large-Aperture UV-Optical-Infrared (LUVOIR) Mission Concept Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Feinberg, Lee; France, Kevin; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Redding, David; Schiminovich, David

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Division's 30-Year Roadmap prioritized a future large-aperture space telescope operating in the ultra-violet/optical/infrared wavelength regime. The Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy envisioned a similar observatory, the High Definition Space Telescope. And a multi-institution group also studied the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope. In all three cases, a broad science case is outlined, combining general astrophysics with the search for biosignatures via direct-imaging and spectroscopic characterization of habitable exoplanets. We present an initial technology assessment that enables such an observatory that is currently being studied for the 2020 Decadal Survey by the Large UV/Optical/Infrared (LUVOIR) surveyor Science and Technology Definition Team. We present here the technology prioritization for the 2016 technology cycle and define the required technology capabilities and current state-of-the-art performance. Current, planned, and recommended technology development efforts are also reported.

  10. First beta-beating measurement and optics analysis for the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Tomas, R.; Calaga, R.; Aiba, M.; Fartoukh, S.; Franchi, A.; Giovannozzi, M.; Kain, V.; Lamont, M.; Vanbavinckhove, G.; Wenninger, J.; Zimmermann, F.; Morita, A.

    2009-08-13

    Proton beams were successfully steered through the entire ring of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) on September the 10th of 2008. A reasonable lifetime was achieved for the counterclockwise beam, namely beam 2, after the radiofrequency capture of the particle bunch was established. This provided the unique opportunity of acquiring turn-by-turn betatron oscillations for a maximum of 90 turns right at injection. Transverse coupling was not corrected and chromaticity was estimated to be large. Despite this largely constrained scenario, reliable optics measurements have been accomplished. These measurements together with the application of new algorithms for the reconstruction of optics errors have led to the identification of a dominant error source.

  11. Impurity-free quantum well intermixing for large optical cavity high-power laser diode structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahraman, Abdullah; Gür, Emre; Aydınlı, Atilla

    2016-08-01

    We report on the correlation of atomic concentration profiles of diffusing species with the blueshift of the quantum well luminescence from both as-grown and impurity free quantum wells intermixed on actual large optical cavity high power laser diode structures. Because it is critical to suppress catastrophic optical mirror damage, sputtered SiO2 and thermally evaporated SrF2 were used both to enhance and suppress quantum well intermixing, respectively, in these (Al)GaAs large optical cavity structures. A luminescence blueshift of 55 nm (130 meV) was obtained for samples with 400 nm thick sputtered SiO2. These layers were used to generate point defects by annealing the samples at 950 °C for 3 min. The ensuing Ga diffusion observed as a shifting front towards the surface at the interface of the GaAs cap and AlGaAs cladding, as well as Al diffusion into the GaAs cap layer, correlates well with the observed luminescence blue shift, as determined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Although this technique is well-known, the correlation between the photoluminescence peak blue shift and diffusion of Ga and Al during impurity free quantum well intermixing on actual large optical cavity laser diode structures was demonstrated with both x ray photoelectron and photoluminescence spectroscopy, for the first time.

  12. Simulated optic flow and extrastriate cortex. II. Responses to bar versus large-field stimuli.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, K; Kim, J N; Sherk, H

    1997-02-01

    In the preceding paper we described the responses of cells in the cat's lateral suprasylvian visual area (LS) to large-field optic flow and texture movies. To assess response properties such as direction selectivity, cells were also tested with moving bar stimuli. We expected that there would be good agreement between response properties elicited with optic flow movies and those revealed with bar stimuli. We first asked how well bar response properties predicted responsiveness to optic flow movies. There was no correlation between responsiveness to movies and the degree of end-stopping, length summation, or preference for bars that accelerated and expanded. We then considered only the 322 cells that responded to both bars and optic flow or texture movies and asked how well the strength of their response to movies could be predicted from the direction-tuning curves generated with bar stimuli. One-third of these cells responded much more strongly to movies than could be predicted from their direction-tuning curves. Generally, such cells were rather well tuned for the direction of bar motion and preferred a direction substantially different from what they saw in optic flow movies. Optic flow movies shown in the forward direction were the most effective variety of movie for two-thirds of these cells. To see whether this outcome stemmed from differential direction tuning for bars and large multielement displays, in a second series of experiments we compared direction tuning for bars and large-field texture movies. Many cells showed substantially different direction tuning for the two kinds of stimulus: almost 1/3 of 409 cells had tuning curves that overlapped each other by < 50%. But only a small number of cells (< 10%) responded much better to texture movies than to bars in the predominant direction of image motion in optic flow movies. This result, like that reported in the preceding paper, suggests that cells in LS respond differently to optic flow than to texture

  13. A hybrid fiber-optic sensor system for condition monitoring of large scale wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae-gil; Kim, Hyunjin; Sampath, Umesh; Song, Minho

    2015-07-01

    A hybrid fiber-optic sensor system which combines fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors and a Michelson interferometer is suggested for condition monitoring uses of large scale wind turbine blades. The system uses single broadband light source to address both sensors, which simplifies the optical setup and enhances the cost-effectiveness of condition monitoring system. An athermal-packaged FBG is used to supply quasi-coherent light for the Michelson interferometer demodulation. For the feasibility test, different profiles of test strain, temperature and vibration have been applied to test structures, and successfully reconstructed with the proposed sensor system.

  14. Large temporal window contrast measurement using optical parametric amplification and low-sensitivity detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Rahul C; Johnson, Randall P; Shimada, Tsutomu; Hegelich, Bjorn M

    2008-01-01

    To address few-shot pulse contrast measurement, we present a correlator coupling the high gain of an optical parametric amplification scheme with large pulse tilt. This combination enables a low sensitivity charge coupled device (CCD) to observe features in the pulse intensity within a 50 ps single-shot window with inter-window dynamic range > 10{sup 7} and < 0.5 mJ input energy. Partitioning of the single window with optical densities to boost the CCD dynamic range is considered.

  15. An improved low-optical-power variable focus lens with a large aperture.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihui; Oku, Hiromasa; Ishikawa, Masatoshi

    2014-08-11

    We report an improved method of fabricating a variable focus lens in which an in-plane pretension force is applied to a membrane. This method realized a lens with a large optical aperture and high performance in a low-optical-power region. The method was verified by comparing membranes in a simulation using the finite element method. A prototype with a 26 mm-diameter aperture was fabricated, and the wavefront behavior was measured by using a Shack-Hartmann sensor. Thanks to the in-plane pretension force, the lens achieved an infinite focal length with a wavefront error of 105.1 nm root mean square.

  16. Mounting, alignment and integration of large optics in China's high power laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Xiong, Zhao; Yuan, Xiaodong

    2016-05-01

    SG-III, a high-power laser facility of China, is constructed to produce 0.18MJ energy for physical experiments under controlled laboratory conditions. Each laser beam requires the ability to align to a millimeter-sized target with a precision of 30 μm (RMS) and the single-beam energy will be up to 3.75 KJ. Arrayed along each beam-path, hundreds of optics must be positioned to stringent tolerances. Therefore, this paper introduces the approaches used by engineers to overcome the technical challenges on precise mounting, alignment and integration of large optics in china's high power laser facility.

  17. Optical system design of multi-spectral and large format color CCD aerial photogrammetric camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Yixian; Sun, Tianxiang; Gao, Xiaodong; Liang, Wei

    2007-12-01

    Multi-spectrum and high spatial resolution is the vital problem for optical design of aerial photogrammetric camera all the time. It is difficult to obtain an outstanding optical system with high modulation transfer function (MTF) as a result of wide band. At the same time, for acquiring high qualified image, chromatic distortion in optical system must be expected to be controlled below 0.5 pixels; it is a trouble thing because of wide field and multi-spectrum. In this paper, MTF and band of the system are analyzed. A Russar type photogrammetric objective is chosen as the basic optical structure. A novel optical system is presented to solve the problem. The new optical photogrammetric system, which consists of panchromatic optical system and chromatic optical system, is designed. The panchromatic optical system, which can obtain panchromatic image, makes up of a 9k×9k large format CCD and high-accuracy photographic objective len, its focal length is 69.83mm, field angle is 60°×60°, the size of CCD pixels is 8.75um×8.75um, spectral scope is from 0.43um to 0.74um, modulation transfer function is all above 0.4 in whole field when spatial frequency is at 60lp/mm, distortion is less than 0.007%. In a chromatic optical system, three 2k×2k array CCDs combine individually three same photographic objectives, the high resolution chromatic image is acquired by the synthesis of red, green, blue image data information delivered by three CCD sensors. For the chromatic system, their focal length is 24.83mm and they have the same spectral range of 0.39um to 0.74um. A difference is that they are coated in different film on their protect glass. The pixel number is 2048 × 2048; its MTF exceeds 0.4 in full field when spatial frequency is 30lp/mm. The advantages of digital aerial photogrammetric camera comparison with traditional film camera are described. It is considered that the two development trends on digital aerial photogrammetric camera are high-spectral resolution and

  18. Laser damage threshold and nonlinear optical properties of large aperture elements of YCOB crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yanqing; Wu, Anhua; Gao, Pan; Tu, Xiaoniu; Liang, Xiaoyan; Hou, Jing; Yang, Liming; Wang, Tao; Qian, Liejia; Shi, Erwei

    2012-01-01

    Large size of YCa4O(BO3)3(YCOB) crystals were grown both by Czochralski and Bridgman methods. Large size elements as large as 60 mm clear aperture were cut and polished with surface flatness of 1/5 wavelength. Optical homogeneity of YCOB crystal was found in the order of 10-6. Laser damage thresholds of several YCOB crystal elements were tested using different laser facilities with different pulse widths or wavelengths, with thresholds varied from 0.8 GW/cm2 to more than 1 TW/cm2. One SHG and two optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) experiments were executed to characterize the nonlinear optical properties of YCOB crystals and the quality of the crystals. The results shown that YCOB had good performance in OPCPA application, especially with low content of parameter florescence. Combined with good NLO performance and possibility to grow large size crystals, YCOB crystal was a good choice for high power OPCPA applications.

  19. Laser damage threshold and nonlinear optical properties of large aperture elements of YCOB crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yanqing; Wu, Anhua; Gao, Pan; Tu, Xiaoniu; Liang, Xiaoyan; Hou, Jing; Yang, Liming; Wang, Tao; Qian, Liejia; Shi, Erwei

    2011-11-01

    Large size of YCa4O(BO3)3(YCOB) crystals were grown both by Czochralski and Bridgman methods. Large size elements as large as 60 mm clear aperture were cut and polished with surface flatness of 1/5 wavelength. Optical homogeneity of YCOB crystal was found in the order of 10-6. Laser damage thresholds of several YCOB crystal elements were tested using different laser facilities with different pulse widths or wavelengths, with thresholds varied from 0.8 GW/cm2 to more than 1 TW/cm2. One SHG and two optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) experiments were executed to characterize the nonlinear optical properties of YCOB crystals and the quality of the crystals. The results shown that YCOB had good performance in OPCPA application, especially with low content of parameter florescence. Combined with good NLO performance and possibility to grow large size crystals, YCOB crystal was a good choice for high power OPCPA applications.

  20. Measurement of super large radius optics in the detection of gravitational waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Cheng; Han, Sen; Wu, Quanying; Liang, Binming; Hou, Changlun

    2015-10-01

    The existence of Gravitational Wave (GW) is one of the greatest predictions of Einstein's relative theory. It has played an important part in the radiation theory, black hole theory, space explore and so on. The GW detection has been an important aspect of modern physics. With the research proceeding further, there are still a lot of challenges existing in the interferometer which is the key instrument in GW detection especially the measurement of the super large radius optics. To solve this problem, one solution , Fizeau interference, for measuring the super large radius has been presented. We change the tradition that curved surface must be measured with a standard curved surface. We use a flat mirror as a reference flat and it can lower both the cost and the test requirement a lot. We select a concave mirror with the radius of 1600mm as a sample. After the precision measurement and analysis, the experimental results show that the relative error of radius is better than 3%, and it can fully meet the requirements of the measurement of super large radius optics. When calculating each pixel with standard cylinder, the edges are not sharp because of diffraction or some other reasons, we detect the edge and calculate the diameter of the cylinder automatically, and it can improve the precision a lot. In general, this method is simple, fast, non-traumatic, and highly precision, it can also provide us a new though in the measurement of super large radius optics.

  1. The optical very large array and its moon-based version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labeyrie, Antoine

    1992-01-01

    An Optical Very Large Array (OVLA) is currently in early prototyping stages for ground-based sites, such as Mauna Kea and perhaps the VLT site in Chile. Its concept is also suited for a moon-based interferometer. With a ring of bi-dimensionally mobile telescopes, there is maximal flexibility in the aperture pattern, and no need for delay lines. A circular configuration of many free-flying telescopes, TRIO, is also considered for space interferometers. Finally, the principle of gaseous mirrors may become applicable for moon-based optical arrays. Fifteen years after the first coherent linkage of two optical telescopes, the design of an ambitious imaging array, the OVLA, is now well advanced. Two 1.5 m telescopes have been built and now provide astronomical results. Elements of the OVLA are under construction. Although primarily conceived for ground-based sites, the OVLA structure appears to meet the essential requirements for operation on the Moon.

  2. Large polarization-dependent exciton optical Stark effect in lead iodide perovskites.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ye; Yang, Mengjin; Zhu, Kai; Johnson, Justin C; Berry, Joseph J; van de Lagemaat, Jao; Beard, Matthew C

    2016-01-01

    A strong interaction of a semiconductor with a below-bandgap laser pulse causes a blue-shift of the bandgap transition energy, known as the optical Stark effect. The energy shift persists only during the pulse duration with an instantaneous response time. The optical Stark effect has practical relevance for applications, including quantum information processing and communication, and passively mode-locked femtosecond lasers. Here we demonstrate that solution-processable lead-halide perovskites exhibit a large optical Stark effect that is easily resolved at room temperature resulting from the sharp excitonic feature near the bandedge. We also demonstrate that a polarized pump pulse selectively shifts one spin state producing a spin splitting of the degenerate excitonic states. Such selective spin manipulation is an important prerequisite for spintronic applications. Our result implies that such hybrid semiconductors may have great potential for optoelectronic applications beyond photovoltaics. PMID:27577007

  3. Correlation Analysis of Optical and Radio Light Curves for a Large Sample of Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, S. D.; Smith, A. G.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.

    1995-08-01

    The Rosemary Hill Observatory has accumulated internally consistent light curves extending over as much as 26 years for a large sample of active galactic nuclei. Forty-six of these optical records have been compared with similar radio records from the University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory and the Algonquin Radio Observatory. For 18 objects, pairs of records were sufficiently long and unconfused to allow reliable application of the Discrete Correlation Function analysis; this group included 8 BL Lacertids, 8 quasars, and 2 Seyfert galaxies. Nine of the 18 sources showed positive radio-optical correlations, with the radio events lagging the optical by intervals ranging from 0 to 14 months. Consistent with the relativistic beaming model of the BL Lacertids, the group displaying correlations was dominated by this type of object.

  4. Large polarization-dependent exciton optical Stark effect in lead iodide perovskites

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Ye; Yang, Mengjin; Zhu, Kai; Johnson, Justin C.; Berry, Joseph J.; van de Lagemaat, Jao; Beard, Matthew C.

    2016-08-31

    A strong interaction of a semiconductor with a below-bandgap laser pulse causes a blue-shift of the bandgap transition energy, known as the optical Stark effect. The energy shift persists only during the pulse duration with an instantaneous response time. The optical Stark effect has practical relevance for applications, including quantum information processing and communication, and passively mode-locked femtosecond lasers. Here we demonstrate that solution-processable lead-halide perovskites exhibit a large optical Stark effect that is easily resolved at room temperature resulting from the sharp excitonic feature near the bandedge. We also demonstrate that a polarized pump pulse selectively shifts one spinmore » state producing a spin splitting of the degenerate excitonic states. Such selective spin manipulation is an important prerequisite for spintronic applications. Lastly, our result implies that such hybrid semiconductors may have great potential for optoelectronic applications beyond photovoltaics.« less

  5. Large polarization-dependent exciton optical Stark effect in lead iodide perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ye; Yang, Mengjin; Zhu, Kai; Johnson, Justin C.; Berry, Joseph J.; van de Lagemaat, Jao; Beard, Matthew C.

    2016-08-01

    A strong interaction of a semiconductor with a below-bandgap laser pulse causes a blue-shift of the bandgap transition energy, known as the optical Stark effect. The energy shift persists only during the pulse duration with an instantaneous response time. The optical Stark effect has practical relevance for applications, including quantum information processing and communication, and passively mode-locked femtosecond lasers. Here we demonstrate that solution-processable lead-halide perovskites exhibit a large optical Stark effect that is easily resolved at room temperature resulting from the sharp excitonic feature near the bandedge. We also demonstrate that a polarized pump pulse selectively shifts one spin state producing a spin splitting of the degenerate excitonic states. Such selective spin manipulation is an important prerequisite for spintronic applications. Our result implies that such hybrid semiconductors may have great potential for optoelectronic applications beyond photovoltaics.

  6. Optical position measurement for a large gap magnetic suspension system: Design and performance analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Sharon S.; Clemmons, James I., Jr.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Duncan, Walter C.

    1994-01-01

    An optical measurement system (OMS) has been designed and tested for a large gap magnetic suspension system (LGMSS). The LGMSS will be used to study control laws for magnetic suspension systems for vibration isolation and pointing applications. The LGMSS features six degrees of freedom and consists of a planar array of electromagnets that levitate and position a cylindrical element containing a permanent magnet core. The OMS provides information on the location and orientation of the element to the LGMSS control system to stabilize suspension. The hardware design of this optical sensing system and the tracking algorithms are presented. The results of analyses and experiments are presented that define the accuracy limits of the optical sensing system and that quantify the errors in position estimation.

  7. Large polarization-dependent exciton optical Stark effect in lead iodide perovskites

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ye; Yang, Mengjin; Zhu, Kai; Johnson, Justin C.; Berry, Joseph J.; van de Lagemaat, Jao; Beard, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    A strong interaction of a semiconductor with a below-bandgap laser pulse causes a blue-shift of the bandgap transition energy, known as the optical Stark effect. The energy shift persists only during the pulse duration with an instantaneous response time. The optical Stark effect has practical relevance for applications, including quantum information processing and communication, and passively mode-locked femtosecond lasers. Here we demonstrate that solution-processable lead-halide perovskites exhibit a large optical Stark effect that is easily resolved at room temperature resulting from the sharp excitonic feature near the bandedge. We also demonstrate that a polarized pump pulse selectively shifts one spin state producing a spin splitting of the degenerate excitonic states. Such selective spin manipulation is an important prerequisite for spintronic applications. Our result implies that such hybrid semiconductors may have great potential for optoelectronic applications beyond photovoltaics. PMID:27577007

  8. Prediction of nonlinear optical properties of organic materials. General theoretical considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardelino, B.; Moore, C.; Zutaut, S.

    1993-01-01

    The prediction of nonlinear optical properties of organic materials is geared to assist materials scientists in the selection of good candidate molecules. A brief summary of the quantum mechanical methods used for estimating hyperpolarizabilities will be presented. The advantages and limitations of each technique will be discussed. Particular attention will be given to the finite-field method for calculating first and second order hyperpolarizabilities, since this method is better suited for large molecules. Corrections for dynamic fields and bulk effects will be discussed in detail, focusing on solvent effects, conformational isomerization, core effects, dispersion, and hydrogen bonding. Several results will be compared with data obtained from third-harmonic-generation (THG) and dc-induced second harmonic generation (EFISH) measurements. These comparisons will demonstrate the qualitative ability of the method to predict the relative strengths of hyperpolarizabilities of a class of compounds. The future application of molecular mechanics, as well as other techniques, in the study of bulk properties and solid state defects will be addressed. The relationship between large values for nonlinear optical properties and large conjugation lengths is well known, and is particularly important for third-order processes. For this reason, the materials with the largest observed nonresonant third-order properties are conjugated polymers. An example of this type of polymer is polydiacetylene. One of the problems in dealing with polydiacetylene is that substituents which may enhance its nonlinear properties may ultimately prevent it from polymerizing. A model which attempts to predict the likelihood of solid-state polymerization is considered, along with the implications of the assumptions that are used. Calculations of the third-order optical properties and their relationship to first-order properties and energy gaps will be discussed. The relationship between monomeric and

  9. Third-order Douglas-Kroll Relativistic Coupled-Cluster Theory through Connected Single, Double, Triple, and Quadruple Substitutions: Applications to Diatomic and Triatomic Hydrides

    SciTech Connect

    Hirata, So; Yanai, Takeshi; De Jong, Wibe A.; Nakajima, Takahito; Hirao, Kimihiko

    2004-02-15

    Coupled-cluster methods including through and up to the connected single, double, triple, and quadruple substitutions (CCSD, CCSDT, and CCSDTQ) have been automatically derived and implemented for sequential and parallel executions for use in conjunction with a one-component third-order Douglas-Kroll (DK3) approximation for relativistic corrections. A combination of the converging electron-correlation methods, the accurate relativistic reference wave functions, and the use of systematic basis sets tailored to the relativistic approximation has been shown to predict the experimental singlet-triplet separations within 0.02 eV (0.5 kcal/mol) for five triatomic hydrides (CH2, NH2+, SiH2, PH2+, and AsH2+), the experimental bond lengths within 0.002 angstroms, rotational constants within 0.02 cm-1, vibration-rotation constants within 0.01 cm-1, centrifugal distortion constants within 2 %, harmonic vibration frequencies within 9 cm-1 (0.4 %), anharmonic vibrational constants within 2 cm-1, and dissociation energies within 0.03 eV (0.8 kcal/mol) for twenty diatomic hydrides (BH, CH, NH, OH, FH, AlH, SiH, PH, SH, ClH, GaH, GeH, AsH, SeH, BrH, InH, SnH, SbH, TeH, and IH) containing main-group elements across the second through fifth periods of the periodic table. In these calculations, spin-orbit effects on dissociation energies, which were assumed to be additive, were estimated from the measured spin-orbit coupling constants of atoms and diatomic molecules, and an electronic energy in the complete-basis-set, complete-electron-correlation limit has been extrapolated by the formula which was in turn based on the exponential-Gaussian extrapolation formula of the basis set dependence.

  10. Optical Verification of Microbubble Response to Acoustic Radiation Force in Large Vessels with In Vivo Results

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shiying; Wang, Claudia Y.; Unnikrishnan, Sunil; Klibanov, Alexander L.; Hossack, John A.; Mauldin, F. William

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To optically verify the dynamic behaviors of adherent microbubbles in large blood vessel environments in response to a new ultrasound technique using modulated acoustic radiation force. Materials and Methods Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) flow channels coated with streptavidin were used in targeted groups to mimic large blood vessels. The custom modulated acoustic radiation force beam sequence was programmed on a Verasonics research scanner. In vitro experiments were performed by injecting a biotinylated lipid-perfluorobutane microbubble dispersion through flow channels. The dynamic response of adherent microbubbles was detected acoustically and simultaneously visualized using a video camera connected to a microscope. In vivo verification was performed in a large abdominal blood vessel of a murine model for inflammation with injection of biotinylated microbubbles conjugated with P-selectin antibody. Results Aggregates of adherent microbubbles were observed optically under the influence of acoustic radiation force. Large microbubble aggregates were observed solely in control groups without targeted adhesion. Additionally, the dispersion of microbubble aggregates were demonstrated to lead to a transient acoustic signal enhancement in control groups (a new phenomenon we refer to as “control peak”). In agreement with in vitro results, the “control peak” phenomenon was observed in vivo in a murine model. Conclusions This study provides the first optical observation of microbubble binding dynamics in large blood vessel environments with application of a modulated acoustic radiation force beam sequence. With targeted adhesion, secondary radiation forces were unable to produce large aggregates of adherent microbubbles. Additionally, the new phenomenon called “control peak” was observed both in vitro and in vivo in a murine model for the first time. The findings in this study provide us with a better understanding of microbubble behaviors in large blood

  11. Sub-surface damage issues for effective fabrication of large optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonnellier, X.; Shore, P.; Morantz, P.; Baldwin, A.; Walker, D.; Yu, G.; Evans, R.

    2008-07-01

    A new ultra precision large optics grinding machine, BoX® has been developed at Cranfield University. BoX® is located at the UK's Ultra Precision Surfaces laboratory at the OpTIC Technium. This machine offers a rapid and economic solution for grinding large off-axis aspherical and free-form optical components. This paper presents an analysis of subsurface damage assessments of optical ground materials produced using diamond resin bonded grinding wheels. The specific materials used, Zerodur® and ULE® are currently under study for making extremely large telescope (ELT) segmented mirrors such as in the E-ELT project. The grinding experiments have been conducted on the BoX® grinding machine using wheels with grits sizes of 76 μm, 46 μm and 25 μm. Grinding process data was collected using a Kistler dynamometer platform. The highest material removal rate (187.5 mm3/s) used ensures that a 1 metre diameter optic can be ground in less than 10 hours. The surface roughness and surface profile were measured using a Form Talysurf. The subsurface damage was revealed using a sub aperture polishing process in combination with an etching technique. These results are compared with the targeted form accuracy of 1 μm p-v over a 1 metre part, surface roughness of 50-150 nm RMS and subsurface damage in the range of 2-5 μm. This process stage was validated on a 400 mm ULE® blank and a 1 metre hexagonal Zerodur® part.

  12. Pulse power requirements for large aperture optical switches based on plasma electrode Pockels cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, M.A.; Taylor, J.

    1992-06-01

    We discuss very large-aperture optical switches (greater than 30 {times} 30 cm) as an enabling technology for inertial confinement fusion drivers based on multipass laser amplifiers. Large-scale laser fusion drivers such as the Nova laser have been based on single-pass amplifier designs in part because of the unavailability of a suitable large-aperture switch. We are developing an optical switch based on a Pockels cell employing plasma-electrodes. A plasma-electrode Pockels cell (PEPC) is a longitudinal-mode Pockels cell in which a plasma discharge is formed on each side of an electro-optic crystal (typically KDP or deuterated KDP, often designated KD*P). The plasmas formed on either side of the crystal act as transparent electrodes for a switching-pulse and are intended to allow uniform charging of the entire crystal. The switching-pulse is a nominally rectangular high-voltage pulse equal to the half-wave voltage V{sub x} ( 8 kV for KD*P or 17 kV for KDP) and is applied across the crystal via the plasma-electrodes. When the crystal is charged to V{sub x}, the polarization of an incoming, linearly polarized, laser beam is rotated by 90{degree}. When used in conjunction with an appropriate, passive polarizer, an optical switch is thus realized. A switch with a clear aperture of 37 {times} 37 cm is now in construction for the Beamlet laser which will serve as a test bed for this switch as well as other technologies required for an advanced NOVA laser design. In this paper, we discuss the unique power electronics requirements of PEPC optical switches.

  13. Pulse power requirements for large aperture optical switches based on plasma electrode Pockels cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, M.A.; Taylor, J.

    1992-06-01

    We discuss very large-aperture optical switches (greater than 30 [times] 30 cm) as an enabling technology for inertial confinement fusion drivers based on multipass laser amplifiers. Large-scale laser fusion drivers such as the Nova laser have been based on single-pass amplifier designs in part because of the unavailability of a suitable large-aperture switch. We are developing an optical switch based on a Pockels cell employing plasma-electrodes. A plasma-electrode Pockels cell (PEPC) is a longitudinal-mode Pockels cell in which a plasma discharge is formed on each side of an electro-optic crystal (typically KDP or deuterated KDP, often designated KD*P). The plasmas formed on either side of the crystal act as transparent electrodes for a switching-pulse and are intended to allow uniform charging of the entire crystal. The switching-pulse is a nominally rectangular high-voltage pulse equal to the half-wave voltage V[sub x] ( 8 kV for KD*P or 17 kV for KDP) and is applied across the crystal via the plasma-electrodes. When the crystal is charged to V[sub x], the polarization of an incoming, linearly polarized, laser beam is rotated by 90[degree]. When used in conjunction with an appropriate, passive polarizer, an optical switch is thus realized. A switch with a clear aperture of 37 [times] 37 cm is now in construction for the Beamlet laser which will serve as a test bed for this switch as well as other technologies required for an advanced NOVA laser design. In this paper, we discuss the unique power electronics requirements of PEPC optical switches.

  14. Experimental demonstration of large capacity WSDM optical access network with multicore fibers and advanced modulation formats.

    PubMed

    Li, Borui; Feng, Zhenhua; Tang, Ming; Xu, Zhilin; Fu, Songnian; Wu, Qiong; Deng, Lei; Tong, Weijun; Liu, Shuang; Shum, Perry Ping

    2015-05-01

    Towards the next generation optical access network supporting large capacity data transmission to enormous number of users covering a wider area, we proposed a hybrid wavelength-space division multiplexing (WSDM) optical access network architecture utilizing multicore fibers with advanced modulation formats. As a proof of concept, we experimentally demonstrated a WSDM optical access network with duplex transmission using our developed and fabricated multicore (7-core) fibers with 58.7km distance. As a cost-effective modulation scheme for access network, the optical OFDM-QPSK signal has been intensity modulated on the downstream transmission in the optical line terminal (OLT) and it was directly detected in the optical network unit (ONU) after MCF transmission. 10 wavelengths with 25GHz channel spacing from an optical comb generator are employed and each wavelength is loaded with 5Gb/s OFDM-QPSK signal. After amplification, power splitting, and fan-in multiplexer, 10-wavelength downstream signal was injected into six outer layer cores simultaneously and the aggregation downstream capacity reaches 300 Gb/s. -16 dBm sensitivity has been achieved for 3.8 × 10-3 bit error ratio (BER) with 7% Forward Error Correction (FEC) limit for all wavelengths in every core. Upstream signal from ONU side has also been generated and the bidirectional transmission in the same core causes negligible performance degradation to the downstream signal. As a universal platform for wired/wireless data access, our proposed architecture provides additional dimension for high speed mobile signal transmission and we hence demonstrated an upstream delivery of 20Gb/s per wavelength with QPSK modulation formats using the inner core of MCF emulating a mobile backhaul service. The IQ modulated data was coherently detected in the OLT side. -19 dBm sensitivity has been achieved under the FEC limit and more than 18 dB power budget is guaranteed.

  15. Large Optical Gain AlInN-Delta-GaN Quantum Well for Deep Ultraviolet Emitters

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chee-Keong; Sun, Wei; Borovac, Damir; Tansu, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    The optical gain and spontaneous emission characteristics of low In-content AlInN-delta-GaN quantum wells (QWs) are analyzed for deep ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diodes (LEDs) and lasers. Our analysis shows a large increase in the dominant transverse electric (TE) polarized spontaneous emission rate and optical gain. The remarkable enhancements in TE-polarized optical gain and spontaneous emission characteristics are attributed to the dominant conduction (C)-heavy hole (HH) transitions achieved by the AlInN-delta-GaN QW structure, which could lead to its potential application as the active region material for high performance deep UV emitters. In addition, our findings show that further optimizations of the delta-GaN layer in the active region are required to realize the high performance AlInN-based LEDs and lasers with the desired emission wavelength. This work illuminates the high potential of the low In-content AlInN-delta-GaN QW structure to achieve large dominant TE-polarized spontaneous emission rates and optical gains for high performance AlN-based UV devices. PMID:26961170

  16. Advanced optical sensing and processing technologies for the distributed control of large flexible spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, G. M.; Fraser, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to examine state-of-the-art optical sensing and processing technology applied to control the motion of flexible spacecraft. Proposed large flexible space systems, such an optical telescopes and antennas, will require control over vast surfaces. Most likely distributed control will be necessary involving many sensors to accurately measure the surface. A similarly large number of actuators must act upon the system. The used technical approach included reviewing proposed NASA missions to assess system needs and requirements. A candidate mission was chosen as a baseline study spacecraft for comparison of conventional and optical control components. Control system requirements of the baseline system were used for designing both a control system containing current off-the-shelf components and a system utilizing electro-optical devices for sensing and processing. State-of-the-art surveys of conventional sensor, actuator, and processor technologies were performed. A technology development plan is presented that presents a logical, effective way to develop and integrate advancing technologies.

  17. Large Optical Gain AlInN-Delta-GaN Quantum Well for Deep Ultraviolet Emitters.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chee-Keong; Sun, Wei; Borovac, Damir; Tansu, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    The optical gain and spontaneous emission characteristics of low In-content AlInN-delta-GaN quantum wells (QWs) are analyzed for deep ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diodes (LEDs) and lasers. Our analysis shows a large increase in the dominant transverse electric (TE) polarized spontaneous emission rate and optical gain. The remarkable enhancements in TE-polarized optical gain and spontaneous emission characteristics are attributed to the dominant conduction (C)-heavy hole (HH) transitions achieved by the AlInN-delta-GaN QW structure, which could lead to its potential application as the active region material for high performance deep UV emitters. In addition, our findings show that further optimizations of the delta-GaN layer in the active region are required to realize the high performance AlInN-based LEDs and lasers with the desired emission wavelength. This work illuminates the high potential of the low In-content AlInN-delta-GaN QW structure to achieve large dominant TE-polarized spontaneous emission rates and optical gains for high performance AlN-based UV devices.

  18. Acoustic performance of a large-aperture, seabed, fiber-optic hydrophone array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranch, G. A.; Crickmore, R.; Kirkendall, C. K.; Bautista, A.; Daley, K.; Motley, S.; Salzano, J.; Latchem, J.; Nash, P. J.

    2004-06-01

    A large-aperture, seabed mounted, fiber-optic hydrophone array has been constructed and characterized. The system is designed for use as a large area surveillance array for deployment in shallow water regions. The underwater portion comprises two arrays of 48 hydrophones separated by a 3 km fiber-optic link, which are connected to a shore station by 40 km of single-mode optical fiber. The hydrophone is based on a fiber-optic Michelson interferometer and the acoustic transduction mechanism is a fiber-wrapped mandrel design. No electrical power is required in the underwater portion. The performance of the system is described, characterized during laboratory measurements and during a recent sea trial. Specifically, measurements of the acoustic resolution, array shape, beam patterns, array gain, and target tracking capability of this array. The system demonstrates self-noise levels up to 20 dB (typically 10 dB) lower than the ambient acoustic noise experienced in the sea trial and array gains close to the theoretical maximum. The system telemetry and electronics have been designed to be expandable to accommodate several hundred hydrophones.

  19. Large-Optics white light interferometer for laser wavefront test: apparatus and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Zhu; Liu, Liren; Wang, Lijuan; Liu, De'an

    2008-08-01

    There is transmitting optics of 250mm aperture with about 8 microradians in SILEX system. This is often large aperture and diffraction-limited laser beam in the laser communications. Large-Optics white light interferometer using double-shearing structure has been submitted to analysis the laser wavefront before. Six optical plates of 490 millimeters apertures are manufactured now one of which is also aperture-divided so that the precision of measured wave front is higher than the full aperture design. It is suitable for measurement of minimum diffraction-limited laser wave front and any wavelength. The interference is happened between equal optical path of the reflection and the other. The plates are the basic structures which are precisely parallel or perpendicular needed for either two plates. There are several tools equipped with the interferometer including white light test source and collimators and so on to confirm the precision of several seconds angle. The apparatus and application is explained in detail in this paper. The adjustment is important for the realization of white light test.

  20. Parametric hierarchical matrix approach for the wideband optical response of large-scale molecular aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari-Oghol-Beig, Davood; Rostami, Masoud; Chernobrovkina, Ekaterina; Saikin, Semion K.; Valleau, Stéphanie; Mosallaei, Hossein; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2013-10-01

    Fast and efficient calculations of optical responses using electromagnetic models require computational acceleration and compression techniques. A hierarchical matrix approach is adopted for this purpose. In order to model large-scale molecular structures, these methods should be applied over wide frequency spectra. Here, we introduce a novel parametric hierarchical matrix method that allows one for a rapid construction of a wideband system representation and enables an efficient wideband solution. We apply the developed method to the modeling of the optical response of bacteriochlorophyll tubular aggregates as found in green photosynthetic bacteria. We show that the parametric method can provide one with the frequency and time-domain solutions for structures of the size of 100 000 molecules, which is comparable to the size of the whole antenna complex in a bacterium. The absorption spectrum is calculated and the significance of electrodynamic retardation effects for relatively large structures, i.e., with respect to the wavelength of light, is briefly studied.

  1. Design and analysis of large-core single-mode windmill single crystal sapphire optical fiber

    DOE PAGES

    Cheng, Yujie; Hill, Cary; Liu, Bo; Yu, Zhihao; Xuan, Haifeng; Homa, Daniel; Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary

    2016-06-01

    We present a large-core single-mode “windmill” single crystal sapphire optical fiber (SCSF) design, which exhibits single-mode operation by stripping off the higher-order modes (HOMs) while maintaining the fundamental mode. The “windmill” SCSF design was analyzed using the finite element analysis method, in which all the HOMs are leaky. The numerical simulation results show single-mode operation in the spectral range from 0.4 to 2 μm in the windmill SCSF, with an effective core diameter as large as 14 μm. Such fiber is expected to improve the performance of many of the current sapphire fiber optic sensor structures.

  2. Scanning reflection and transmission photometer for large high power laser optics

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, N.L.; Robinson, W.L.; Wirtenson, G.R.; Wallerstein, E.P.

    1981-12-11

    The Nova OTR (overall transmittance/reflectance) photometer operates at 1.064 nm, 528 nm, or 351 nm in order to closely simulate 1st, 2nd and 3rd harmonic frequencies of the Nova fusion laser. The optic is scanned on a large XY carriage while reflectance or transmittance data is taken on-the-fly. The system is controlled by an LSI 11/23 computer which processes the data and prints out the results in hard copy form, or stores data on a memory disk. The detectors are temperature controlled to within +- 0.01/sup 0/C which aids in achieving of an absolute accuracy of +- 0.1 to +- 0.5% of full scale, depending on the operating point. The photometer is capable of scanning a large optic (1 meter in diameter) in 20 to 30 minutes.

  3. Inflight optical measurement of antenna surfaces. [triangulation to measure deformations of large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neiswander, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    A technology base was developed for a wide variety of applications oriented sensors to meet requirements for the fabrication, assembly, test, surface figure monitoring, and ultimately surface figure active control of large space antennas. An optical sensor technique is described which establishes an ideal centerline at each beam during fabrication or later during assembly. Deviations from the centerline, either in lateral deformation or in twist, are measured to produce limit warnings or to evoke active control at the building machine.

  4. Rapid Adaptive Optical Recovery of Optimal Resolution over LargeVolumes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Milkie, Dan; Saxena, Ankur; Engerer, Peter; Misgeld, Thomas; Bronner, Marianne E.; Mumm, Jeff; Betzig, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Using a de-scanned, laser-induced guide star and direct wavefront sensing, we demonstrate adaptive correction of complex optical aberrations at high numerical aperture and a 14 ms update rate. This permits us to compensate for the rapid spatial variation in aberration often encountered in biological specimens, and recover diffraction-limited imaging over large (> 240 μm)3 volumes. We applied this to image fine neuronal processes and subcellular dynamics within the zebrafish brain. PMID:24727653

  5. Compact optical gimbal as a conformal beam director for large field-of-regard lasercom applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesner, Jessica E.; Hinrichs, Keith M.; Narkewich, Lawrence E.; Stephens, Timothy

    2015-03-01

    Laser communication offers advantages over traditional RF communication, including reduced size, weight, and power, higher data rates, and resistance to jamming. However, existing beam directors used for large field-of-regard lasercom terminals have limitations. Traditional gimbals require either domes or large conformal windows to achieve large fields of regard. Risley prism-based beam directors have temperature- and wavelength-dependent pointing necessitating tight temperature control and pointing correction techniques. Other methods, like liquid crystal optical phased array beam directors, have low transmittance and low technology readiness levels (TRLs). This paper presents a detailed design and preliminary performance results of a prototype Compact Optical Gimbal (COG) beam director that provides a 2 inch beam over a +/- 65o field-of-regard through a small (~12 inch) flat window. The COG differs from the traditional gimbal in that it includes three-axis steering with off-axis elevation and dither control, and a folded refractive afocal telescope incorporated into the body of the gimbal to minimize size. The COG's optical system does not have the pointing challenges characteristic of Risley prisms, and it utilizes high TRL components, including many commercial off-theshelf parts, to simplify implementation. The compact size and performance support a variety of beam steering applications and platforms.

  6. Fabrication of large diffractive optical elements in thick film on a concave lens surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yongjun; Lu, Zhenwu; Li, Fengyou

    2003-05-01

    We demonstrate experimentally the technique of fabricating large diffractive optical elements (DOEs) in thick film on a concave lens surface (mirrors) with precise alignment by using the strategy of double exposure. We adopt the method of double exposure to overcome the difficulty of processing thick photoresist on a large curved substrate. A uniform thick film with arbitrary thickness on a concave lens can be obtained with this technique. We fabricate a large concentric circular grating with a 10-im period on a concave lens surface in film with a thickness of 2.0 im after development. It is believed that this technique can also be used to fabricate larger DOEs in thicker film on the concave or convex lens surface with precise alignment. There are other potential applications of this technique, such as fabrication of micro-optoelectromechanical systems (MOEMS) or microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and fabrication of microlens arrays on a large concave lens surface or convex lens surface with precise alignment.

  7. Large-scale IP router using a high-speed optical switch element [Invited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermott, Tom; Brewer, Tony

    2003-07-01

    The system design and architectural considerations for a large, high-performance IP packet router that uses a nonblocking optical switching fabric are presented. The objective of the router is to provide fully network-compatible routing of IP, multiprotocol label switching (MPLS), and Ethernet packets in a router with a very large number of high speed ports while maintaining the low-delay, low-jitter, low-packet-loss, and line-rate throughput characteristics of today's small port-count routers over a large scale. Such a large router is useful for the core of a packetized transport network capable of supporting various classes of real-time and best-effort service in a reliable and efficient manner.

  8. Nonlinear optical properties and optical power limiting effect of Giemsa dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saidi, Imad Al-Deen Hussein A.; Abdulkareem, Saif Al-Deen

    2016-08-01

    The nonlinear optical properties of Giemsa dye in chloroform solution for different concentrations and dye mixed with poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) as a dye-doped polymer film were investigated using continuous wave (CW) low power solid-state laser (SSL) operating at wavelength of 532 nm as an excitation source. Using the single beam z-scan technique, the nonlinear refractive index (n2), the nonlinear absorption coefficient (β), and the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility (χ(3)) of Giemsa dye were measured. The measurements reveal that both n2 and β are dependent on the dye concentration. The obtained results indicate that the Giemsa dye exhibits positive nonlinear saturable absorption (SA) and negative refraction nonlinearity, manifestation of self-defocusing effect. Optical power limiting characteristics of the Giemsa dye at different concentrations in solution and polymer film were studied. The observed large third-order optical nonlinearity of Giemsa dye confirms that Giemsa dye is a promising nonlinear material for the optical power limiting and photonic devices applications.

  9. Horizon: A Proposal for Large Aperture, Active Optics in Geosynchronous Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesters, Dennis; Jenstrom, Del

    2000-01-01

    In 1999, NASA's New Millennium Program called for proposals to validate new technology in high-earth orbit for the Earth Observing-3 (NMP EO3) mission to fly in 2003. In response, we proposed to test a large aperture, active optics telescope in geosynchronous orbit. This would flight-qualify new technologies for both Earth and Space science: 1) a future instrument with LANDSAT image resolution and radiometric quality watching continuously from geosynchronous station, and 2) the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) for deep space imaging. Six enabling technologies were to be flight-qualified: 1) a 3-meter, lightweight segmented primary mirror, 2) mirror actuators and mechanisms, 3) a deformable mirror, 4) coarse phasing techniques, 5) phase retrieval for wavefront control during stellar viewing, and 6) phase diversity for wavefront control during Earth viewing. Three enhancing technologies were to be flight- validated: 1) mirror deployment and latching mechanisms, 2) an advanced microcontroller, and 3) GPS at GEO. In particular, two wavefront sensing algorithms, phase retrieval by JPL and phase diversity by ERIM International, were to sense optical system alignment and focus errors, and to correct them using high-precision mirror mechanisms. Active corrections based on Earth scenes are challenging because phase diversity images must be collected from extended, dynamically changing scenes. In addition, an Earth-facing telescope in GEO orbit is subject to a powerful diurnal thermal and radiometric cycle not experienced by deep-space astronomy. The Horizon proposal was a bare-bones design for a lightweight large-aperture, active optical system that is a practical blend of science requirements, emerging technologies, budget constraints, launch vehicle considerations, orbital mechanics, optical hardware, phase-determination algorithms, communication strategy, computational burdens, and first-rate cooperation among earth and space scientists, engineers and managers

  10. Depth-correction algorithm that improves optical quantification of large breast lesions imaged by diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoli, Behnoosh; Zhu, Quing

    2011-05-01

    Optical quantification of large lesions imaged with diffuse optical tomography in reflection geometry is depth dependence due to the exponential decay of photon density waves. We introduce a depth-correction method that incorporates the target depth information provided by coregistered ultrasound. It is based on balancing the weight matrix, using the maximum singular values of the target layers in depth without changing the forward model. The performance of the method is evaluated using phantom targets and 10 clinical cases of larger malignant and benign lesions. The results for the homogenous targets demonstrate that the location error of the reconstructed maximum absorption coefficient is reduced to the range of the reconstruction mesh size for phantom targets. Furthermore, the uniformity of absorption distribution inside the lesions improve about two times and the median of the absorption increases from 60 to 85% of its maximum compared to no depth correction. In addition, nonhomogenous phantoms are characterized more accurately. Clinical examples show a similar trend as the phantom results and demonstrate the utility of the correction method for improving lesion quantification.

  11. Optical phase curves of exoplanets at small and large phase angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Muñoz, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    Phase curves and secondary eclipses provide key information on exoplanet atmospheres. Indeed, recent work on close-in giant planets observed by Kepler has shown that it is possible to constrain various reflecting, dynamical and thermal properties of their atmospheres from the analysis of the planets' phase curves. This presentation discusses new diagnostic possibilities for the characterization of exoplanet atmospheres with optical phase curves. These possibilities benefit from the fact that at optical wavelengths the signal from the planet is either partly or mostly determined by scattering of starlight within its atmosphere, which entails that the structure of the planet's phase curve mimics to some extent the optical properties of the atmospheric medium. In particular, we will show how cloud properties such as the particle size or the atmospheric scale height might be constrained through observations at small (i.e. near transit) and large (i.e. near occultation) phase angles. We will emphasize how the interpretation of optical phase curves differs from the interpretation of phase curves obtained at longer wavelengths. The conclusions are relevant to the study of Kepler planets, but also to the investigation of phase curves to be delivered by upcoming space missions such as CHEOPS, JWST, PLATO and TESS.

  12. An optical spectrum of a large isolated gas-phase PAH cation: C78H26+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen, Junfeng; Mulas, Giacomo; Bonnamy, Anthony; Joblin, Christine

    2016-03-01

    A gas-phase optical spectrum of a large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) cation - C78H26+ - in the 410 -610 nm range is presented. This large all-benzenoid PAH should be large enough to be stable with respect to photodissociation in the harsh conditions prevailing in the interstellar medium (ISM). The spectrum is obtained via multi-photon dissociation (MPD) spectroscopy of cationic C78H26 stored in the Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FT-ICR) cell of the PIRENEA setup using the radiation from a mid-band optical parametric oscillator (OPO) laser. The experimental spectrum shows two main absorption peaks at 431 nm and 516 nm, in good agreement with a theoretical spectrum computed via time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). DFT calculations indicate that the equilibrium geometry, with the absolute minimum energy, is of lowered, nonplanar C2 symmetry instead of the more symmetric planar D2h symmetry that is usually the minimum for similar PAHs of smaller size. This kind of slightly broken symmetry could produce some of the fine structure observed in some diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). It can also favor the folding of C78H26+ fragments and ultimately the formation of fullerenes. This study opens up the possibility to identify the most promising candidates for DIBs amongst large cationic PAHs.

  13. An optical spectrum of a large isolated gas-phase PAH cation: C78H26+

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Junfeng; Mulas, Giacomo; Bonnamy, Anthony; Joblin, Christine

    2016-01-01

    A gas-phase optical spectrum of a large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) cation - C78H26+- in the 410-610 nm range is presented. This large all-benzenoid PAH should be large enough to be stable with respect to photodissociation in the harsh conditions prevailing in the interstellar medium (ISM). The spectrum is obtained via multi-photon dissociation (MPD) spectroscopy of cationic C78H26 stored in the Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FT-ICR) cell using the radiation from a mid-band optical parametric oscillator (OPO) laser. The experimental spectrum shows two main absorption peaks at 431 nm and 516 nm, in good agreement with a theoretical spectrum computed via time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). DFT calculations indicate that the equilibrium geometry, with the absolute minimum energy, is of lowered, nonplanar C2 symmetry instead of the more symmetric planar D2h symmetry that is usually the minimum for similar PAHs of smaller size. This kind of slightly broken symmetry could produce some of the fine structure observed in some diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). It can also favor the folding of C78H26+ fragments and ultimately the formation of fullerenes. This study opens up the possibility to identify the most promising candidates for DIBs amongst large cationic PAHs. PMID:26942230

  14. Large-core photonic microcells for coherent optics and laser metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, N. V.; Grogan, M. D. W.; Wang, Y. Y.; Murphy, D. F.; Birks, T. A.; Benabid, F.

    2011-03-01

    A photonic microcell (PMC) is a length of gas-filled hollow core-photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) which is hermetically sealed at both ends by splicing to standard single mode fiber. We describe advances in the fabrication technique of PMCs which enable large core Kagome-lattice HC-PCFs to be integrated into PMC form. The modified fabrication technique uses fiber-tapering to accommodate the large dimensions of the fiber and enables low loss splices with single mode fiber by reducing mode field mismatch. Splice losses as low as 0.6 dB are achieved between 1-cell defect Kagome HC-PCF and single mode fiber. Relative to the previously reported PMCs, which were based on photonic bandgap HC-PCF, the present Kagome HC-PCF based PMC provides broad optical transmission, surface mode-free guidance and larger core at the cost of slightly increased fiber attenuation (~0.2 dB/m). Therefore, the integration of this fiber into PMC form opens up new applications for PMC-based devices. The advantage of the large core dimensions and surface mode free guidance for quantum optics in gas-filled HC-PCF are demonstrated by generation of narrow sub-Doppler features in an acetylenefilled large core PMC.

  15. Broadband optical properties of large-area monolayer CVD molybdenum disulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Birdwell, A. Glen; Amani, Matin; Burke, Robert A.; Ling, Xi; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Liang, Xuelei; Peng, Lianmao; Richter, Curt A.; Kong, Jing; Gundlach, David J.; Nguyen, N. V.

    2014-11-01

    Recently emerging large-area single-layer MoS2 grown by chemical vapor deposition has triggered great interest due to its exciting potential for applications in advanced electronic and optoelectronic devices. Unlike gapless graphene, MoS2 has an intrinsic band gap in the visible which crosses over from an indirect to a direct gap when reduced to a single atomic layer. In this paper, we report a comprehensive study of fundamental optical properties of MoS2 revealed by optical spectroscopy of Raman, photoluminescence, and vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopic ellipsometry. A band gap of 1.42 eV is determined by the absorption threshold of bulk MoS2 that shifts to 1.83 eV in monolayer MoS2. We extracted the high precision dielectric function up to 9.0 eV, which leads to the identification of many unique interband transitions at high symmetry points in the MoS2 momentum space. The positions of the so-called A and B excitons in single layers are found to shift upwards in energy compared with those of the bulk form and have smaller separation because of the decreased interactions between the layers. A very strong optical critical point predicted to correspond to a quasiparticle gap is observed at 2.86 eV, which is attributed to optical transitions along the parallel bands between the M and Γ points in the reduced Brillouin zone. The absence of the bulk MoS2 spin-orbit interaction peak at ˜3.0 eV in monolayer MoS2 is, as predicted, the consequence of the coalescence of nearby excitons. A higher energy optical transition at 3.98 eV, commonly occurring in bulk semiconductors, is associated with a combination of several critical points. Additionally, extending into the vacuum ultraviolet energy spectrum are a series of newly observed oscillations representing optical transitions from valence bands to higher conduction bands of the monolayer MoS2 complex band structure. These optical transitions herein reported enhance our understanding of monolayer MoS2 as well as of two

  16. DISCOVERY OF FAST, LARGE-AMPLITUDE OPTICAL VARIABILITY OF V648 Car (=SS73-17)

    SciTech Connect

    Angeloni, R.; Di Mille, F.; Ferreira Lopes, C. E.

    2012-09-01

    We report on the discovery of large-amplitude flickering from V648 Car (= SS73-17), a poorly studied object listed among the very few hard X-ray-emitting symbiotic stars. We performed millimagnitude precision optical photometry with the Swope Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, and found that V648 Car shows large U-band variability over timescales of minutes. To our knowledge, it exhibits some of the largest flickering of a symbiotic star ever reported. Our finding supports the hypothesis that symbiotic white dwarfs producing hard X-rays are predominantly powered by accretion, rather than quasi-steady nuclear burning, and have masses close to the Chandrasekhar limit. No significant periodicity is evident from the flickering light curve. The All Sky Automated Survey long-term V light curve suggests the presence of a tidally distorted giant accreting via Roche lobe overflow, and a binary period of {approx}520 days. On the basis of the outstanding physical properties of V648 Car as hinted at by its fast and long-term optical variability, as well as by its nature as a hard X-ray emitter, we therefore call for simultaneous follow-up observations in different bands, ideally combined with time-resolved optical spectroscopy.

  17. Imprinting continuously varying topographical structure onto large-aperture optical surfaces using magnetorheological finishing

    SciTech Connect

    Menapace, J A; Davis, P J; Dixit, S; Campbell, J H; Golini, D; Hachkowski, M R; Nelson, A

    2007-03-07

    Over the past four years we have advanced Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) techniques and tools to imprint complex continuously varying topographical structures onto large-aperture (430 x 430 mm) optical surfaces. These optics, known as continuous phase plates (CPPs), are important for high-power laser applications requiring precise manipulation and control of beam-shape, energy distribution, and wavefront profile. MRF's unique deterministic-sub-aperture polishing characteristics make it possible to imprint complex topographical information onto optical surfaces at spatial scale-lengths approaching 1 mm and surface peak-to-valleys as high as 22 {micro}m. During this discussion, we will present the evolution of the MRF imprinting technology and the MRF tools designed to manufacture large-aperture 430 x 430 mm CPPs. Our results will show how the MRF removal function impacts and limits imprint fidelity and what must be done to arrive at a high-quality surface. We also present several examples of this imprinting technology for fabrication of phase correction plates and CPPs for use in high-power laser applications.

  18. Long term reliability and machine operation diagnosis with fiber optic sensors at large turbine generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosselmann, T.; Strack, S.; Villnow, M.; Weidner, J. R.; Willsch, M.

    2013-05-01

    The increasing quantity of renewable energy in electric power generation leads to a higher flexibility in the operation of conventional power plants. The turbo generator has to face the influence of frequent start-stop-operation on thermal movement and vibration of the stator end windings. Large indirect cooled turbo generators have been equipped with FBG strain and temperature sensors to monitor the influence of peak load operation. Fiber optic accelerometers measure the vibration of the end windings at several turbine generators since many years of operation. The long term reliability of fiber optic vibration, temperature and strain sensors has been successfully proved during years of online operation. The analysis of these data in correlation to significant operation parameter lead to important diagnostic information.

  19. Influence of large signal modulation on photonic UWB generation based on electro-optic modulator.

    PubMed

    Gu, Rong; Pan, Shilong; Chen, Xiangfei; Pan, Minghai; Ben, De

    2011-07-01

    Various schemes based on electro-optic modulators have been reported to generate ultra-wideband (UWB) signals in the optical domain, but the availability of these methods always relies on small signal modulation. In this paper, the influence of large signal modulation on two typical schemes, representing two major categories of external-modulator-based photonic UWB generation schemes, is analytically and numerically studied. While the quasi single-sideband UWB (QSSB-UWB) pulse can maintain its shape, the Gaussian UWB (GUWB) generation scheme suffers serious modulation distortion when the phase modulation index is greater than π/6. The modulation distortion would have negative impact on the receiver sensitivity when the signal is sent to a correlation receiver.

  20. Operation of the adaptive optics system at the Large Binocular Telescope Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Douglas L.; Guerra, Juan Carlos; Boutsia, Konstantina; Fini, Luca; Argomedo, Javier; Biddick, Chris; Agapito, Guido; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Briguglio, Runa; Brusa, Guido; Busoni, Lorenzo; Esposito, Simone; Hill, John; Kulesa, Craig; McCarthy, Don; Pinna, Enrico; Puglisi, Alfio T.; Quiros-Pacheco, Fernando; Riccardi, Armando; Xompero, Marco

    2012-07-01

    The Adaptive Optics System at the Large Binocular Telescope Observatory consists of two Adaptive Secondary (ASM) mirrors and two Pyramid Wavefront sensors. The first ASM/Pyramid pair has been commissioned and is being used for science operation using the NIR camera PISCES on the right side of the binocular telescope. The left side ASM/Pyramid system is currently being commissioned, with completion scheduled for the Fall of 2012. We will discuss the operation of the first Adaptive Optics System at the LBT Observatory including interactions of the AO system with the telescope and its TCS, observational modes, user interfaces, observational scripting language, time requirement for closed loop and offsets and observing efficiency.