Science.gov

Sample records for large-aperture membrane active

  1. Large-Aperture Membrane Active Phased-Array Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karasik, Boris; McGrath, William; Leduc, Henry

    2009-01-01

    Large-aperture phased-array microwave antennas supported by membranes are being developed for use in spaceborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar systems. There may also be terrestrial uses for such antennas supported on stationary membranes, large balloons, and blimps. These antennas are expected to have areal mass densities of about 2 kg/sq m, satisfying a need for lightweight alternatives to conventional rigid phased-array antennas, which have typical areal mass densities between 8 and 15 kg/sq m. The differences in areal mass densities translate to substantial differences in total mass in contemplated applications involving aperture areas as large as 400 sq m. A membrane phased-array antenna includes patch antenna elements in a repeating pattern. All previously reported membrane antennas were passive antennas; this is the first active membrane antenna that includes transmitting/receiving (T/R) electronic circuits as integral parts. Other integral parts of the antenna include a network of radio-frequency (RF) feed lines (more specifically, a corporate feed network) and of bias and control lines, all in the form of flexible copper strip conductors on flexible polymeric membranes. Each unit cell of a prototype antenna (see Figure 1) contains a patch antenna element and a compact T/R module that is compatible with flexible membrane circuitry. There are two membrane layers separated by a 12.7-mm air gap. Each membrane layer is made from a commercially available flexible circuit material that, as supplied, comprises a 127-micron-thick polyimide dielectric layer clad on both sides with 17.5-micron-thick copper layers. The copper layers are patterned into RF, bias, and control conductors. The T/R module is located on the back side of the ground plane and is RF-coupled to the patch element via a slot. The T/R module is a hybrid multilayer module assembled and packaged independently and attached to the membrane array. At the time of reporting the information for

  2. Fabrication of large-aperture, high efficiency, Fresnel diffractive membrane optic for space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian; Li, Mengjuan; Yin, Ganghua; Jiao, Jianchao; Liu, Zhengkun; Xu, Xiangdong; Fu, Shaojun

    2016-10-01

    Diffractive optical system can be a favorable choice for large-aperture space telescope to reduce the mass and size of image system. To meet the demand of large-aperture, high efficiency, lightweight diffractive optic for high resolution remote sensing, a 200 mm diameter, 20 μmthick, 4-level diffractive membrane fabricated is shown to have over 62% diffraction efficiency into the +1 order, with 0.051 efficiency RMS. Over 66% diffraction efficiency is achieved for a 100 mm aperture membrane, with 0.023 efficiency RMS. The membrane thickness uniformity control is discussed and 8 nm wave front error RMS is achieved in 100 mm diameter.

  3. Structural-optical integrated analysis on the large aperture mirror with active mounting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhiyuan; Zhu, Jianqiang; Liu, Zhigang

    2016-11-01

    Deformation of the large aperture mirror caused by the external environment load seriously affects the optical performance of the optical system, and there is a limit to develop the shape quality of large aperture mirror with traditional mounting method. It is effective way to reduce the optical mirror distortion with active support method, and the structural-optical integrated method is the effective means to assess the merits of the mounting for large aperture mirror. Firstly, we proposes a new support scheme that uses specific boundary constraints on the large lens edges and imposes flexible torque to resist deformation induced by gravity to improve surface quantity of large aperture mirror. We calculate distortion of the large aperture mirror at the edges of the flexible torque respectively with the finite element method; secondly, we extract distortion value within clear aperture of the mirror with MATLAB, solve the corresponding Zernike polynomial coefficients; lastly, we obtain the peak-valley value (PV) and root mean square value (RMS) with optical-structural integrated analysis . The results for the 690x400x100mm mirror show that PV and RMS values within the clear aperture with 0.4MPa torques than the case without applying a flexible torque reduces 82.7% and 72.9% respectively. The active mounting on the edge of the large aperture mirror can greatly improve the surface quality of the large aperture mirror.

  4. Development of large aperture projection scatterometry for catalyst loading evaluation in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocker, Michael T.; Barnes, Bryan M.; Sohn, Martin; Stanfield, Eric; Silver, Richard M.

    2017-10-01

    Widespread commercialization of proton exchange membrane fuel cells remains curbed by various manufacturing and infrastructure challenges. One such technical barrier identified by the U. S. Department of Energy is the need for high-speed, in-line process control of platinum-based catalyst layers in the membrane electrode assembly of the fuel cell. Using multiple reflectivity-based optical methods, such as optical scatterometry and large aperture projection scatterometry, we demonstrate in-line-capable catalyst loading measurements of carbon-supported Pt nanoparticle and Pt-alloy nanostructured thin film catalyst coated membranes. Large aperture projection scatterometry is a new high-throughput approach developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology specifically for fuel cell manufacturing metrology. Angle- and wavelength-resolved measurements of these fuel cell soft goods validate the ability of reflectivity-based measurements to produce industrially relevant sensitivities to changes in Pt and Pt-alloy loading. The successful application of these optical methods to fuel cell manufacturing metrology directly addresses the shortage of high-throughput process control approaches needed to facilitate performance improvements and manufacturing cost-reductions required to make fuel cells commercially viable.

  5. Large aperture deformable mirror with a transferred single-crystal silicon membrane actuated using large-stroke PZT Unimorph Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hishinumat, Yoshikazu; Yang, Eui - Hyeok (EH)

    2005-01-01

    We have demonstrated a large aperture (50 mm x 50 mm) continuous membrane deformable mirror (DM) with a large-stroke piezoelectric unimorph actuator array. The DM consists of a continuous, large aperture, silicon membrane 'transferred' in its entirety onto a 20 x 20 piezoelectric unimorph actuator array. A PZT unimorph actuator, 2.5 mm in diameter with optimized PZT/Si thickness and design showed a deflection of 5.7 [m at 20V. An assembled DM showed an operating frequency bandwidth of 30 kHz and influence function of approximately 30%.

  6. Large aperture deformable mirror with a transferred single-crystal silicon membrane actuated using large-stroke PZT Unimorph Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hishinumat, Yoshikazu; Yang, Eui - Hyeok (EH)

    2005-01-01

    We have demonstrated a large aperture (50 mm x 50 mm) continuous membrane deformable mirror (DM) with a large-stroke piezoelectric unimorph actuator array. The DM consists of a continuous, large aperture, silicon membrane 'transferred' in its entirety onto a 20 x 20 piezoelectric unimorph actuator array. A PZT unimorph actuator, 2.5 mm in diameter with optimized PZT/Si thickness and design showed a deflection of 5.7 [m at 20V. An assembled DM showed an operating frequency bandwidth of 30 kHz and influence function of approximately 30%.

  7. Horizon: A Proposal for Large Aperture, Active Optics in Geosynchronous Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesters, Dennis; Jenstrom, Del

    2000-01-01

    In 1999, NASA's New Millennium Program called for proposals to validate new technology in high-earth orbit for the Earth Observing-3 (NMP EO3) mission to fly in 2003. In response, we proposed to test a large aperture, active optics telescope in geosynchronous orbit. This would flight-qualify new technologies for both Earth and Space science: 1) a future instrument with LANDSAT image resolution and radiometric quality watching continuously from geosynchronous station, and 2) the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) for deep space imaging. Six enabling technologies were to be flight-qualified: 1) a 3-meter, lightweight segmented primary mirror, 2) mirror actuators and mechanisms, 3) a deformable mirror, 4) coarse phasing techniques, 5) phase retrieval for wavefront control during stellar viewing, and 6) phase diversity for wavefront control during Earth viewing. Three enhancing technologies were to be flight- validated: 1) mirror deployment and latching mechanisms, 2) an advanced microcontroller, and 3) GPS at GEO. In particular, two wavefront sensing algorithms, phase retrieval by JPL and phase diversity by ERIM International, were to sense optical system alignment and focus errors, and to correct them using high-precision mirror mechanisms. Active corrections based on Earth scenes are challenging because phase diversity images must be collected from extended, dynamically changing scenes. In addition, an Earth-facing telescope in GEO orbit is subject to a powerful diurnal thermal and radiometric cycle not experienced by deep-space astronomy. The Horizon proposal was a bare-bones design for a lightweight large-aperture, active optical system that is a practical blend of science requirements, emerging technologies, budget constraints, launch vehicle considerations, orbital mechanics, optical hardware, phase-determination algorithms, communication strategy, computational burdens, and first-rate cooperation among earth and space scientists, engineers and managers

  8. Development and testing of an actively controlled large-aperture Cassegrain Telescope for spacecraft deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boone, Bradley G.; Bruzzi, Jonathan R.; Kluga, Bernard E.; Rogala, Eric W.; Hale, R. D.; Chen, Peter C.

    2004-10-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is planning future deep space missions requiring space-based imaging reconnaissance of planets and recovery of imagery from these missions via optical communications. Both applications have similar requirements that can be met by a common aperture. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in collaboration with commercial and academic partners is developing a new approach to deploying and controlling large aperture (meter-class) optical telescopes on spacecraft that can be rapidly launched and deployed. The deployment mechanism uses flexible longeron struts to deploy the secondary. The active control system uses a fiber-coupled laser array near the focal plane that reflects four collimated laser beams off of the periphery of the secondary to four equally-disposed quad cell sensors at the periphery of the primary to correct secondary-to-primary misalignments and enable motion compensation. We describe a compensation technique that uses tip/tilt and piston actuators for quasi-static bias correction and dynamic motion compensation. We also describe preliminary optical tests using a commercial Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope in lieu of an ultra-lightweight composite Cassegrain, which is under development by Composite Mirror Applications, Inc. Finite element and ray trace modeling results for a 40 cm composite telescope design will also be described.

  9. Laboratory demonstration of a primary active mirror for space with the LATT: large aperture telescope technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briguglio, Runa; Biasi, Roberto; Gallieni, Daniele; Vettore, Christian; d'Amato, Francesco; Xompero, Marco; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Lisi, Franco; Riccardi, Armando; Patauner, Christian; Lazzarini, Paolo; Tintori, Matteo; Duò, Fabrizio; Pucci, Mauro; Zuccaro Marchi, Alessandro; Maresi, Luca

    2016-07-01

    The LATT project is an ESA contract under TRP programme to demonstrate the scalability of the technology from ground-based adaptive mirrors to space active primary mirrors. A prototype spherical mirror based on a 40 cm diameter 1 mm thin glass shell with 19 contactless, voice-coil actuators and co-located position sensors have been manufactured and integrated into a final unit with an areal density lower than 20 kg/m2. Laboratory tests demonstrated the controllability with very low power budget and the survival of the fragile glass shell exposed to launch accelerations, thanks to an electrostatic locking mechanism; such achievements pushes the technology readiness level toward 5. With this prototype, the LATT project explored the feasibility of using an active and lightweight primary for space telescopes. The concept is attractive for large segmented telescopes, with surface active control to shape and co-phase them once in flight. In this paper we will describe the findings of the technological advances and the results of the environmental and optical tests.

  10. Large aperture diffractive space telescope

    DOEpatents

    Hyde, Roderick A.

    2001-01-01

    A large (10's of meters) aperture space telescope including two separate spacecraft--an optical primary objective lens functioning as a magnifying glass and an optical secondary functioning as an eyepiece. The spacecraft are spaced up to several kilometers apart with the eyepiece directly behind the magnifying glass "aiming" at an intended target with their relative orientation determining the optical axis of the telescope and hence the targets being observed. The objective lens includes a very large-aperture, very-thin-membrane, diffractive lens, e.g., a Fresnel lens, which intercepts incoming light over its full aperture and focuses it towards the eyepiece. The eyepiece has a much smaller, meter-scale aperture and is designed to move along the focal surface of the objective lens, gathering up the incoming light and converting it to high quality images. The positions of the two space craft are controlled both to maintain a good optical focus and to point at desired targets which may be either earth bound or celestial.

  11. the Large Aperture GRB Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Bertou, Xavier

    2009-04-30

    The Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO) aims at the detection of high energy photons from Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) using the single particle technique (SPT) in ground based water Cherenkov detectors (WCD). To reach a reasonable sensitivity, high altitude mountain sites have been selected in Mexico (Sierra Negra, 4550 m a.s.l.), Bolivia (Chacaltaya, 5300 m a.s.l.) and Venezuela (Merida, 4765 m a.s.l.). We report on the project progresses and the first operation at high altitude, search for bursts in 6 months of preliminary data, as well as search for signal at ground level when satellites report a burst.

  12. Large Aperture Scintillometer Intercomparison Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleissl, J.; Gomez, J.; Hong, S.-H.; Hendrickx, J. M. H.; Rahn, T.; Defoor, W. L.

    2008-07-01

    Two field studies with six large aperture scintillometers (LASs) were performed using horizontal and slant paths. The accuracy of this novel and increasingly popular technique for measuring sensible heat fluxes was quantified by comparing measurements from different instruments over nearly identical transects. Random errors in LAS measurements were small, since correlation coefficients between adjacent measurements were greater than 0.995. However, for an ideal set-up differences in linear regression slopes of up to 21% were observed with typical inter-instrument differences of 6%. Differences of 10% are typical in more realistic measurement scenarios over homogeneous natural vegetation and different transect heights and locations. Inaccuracies in the optics, which affect the effective aperture diameter, are the most likely explanation for the observed differences.

  13. Large aperture Fresnel telescopes/011

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R.A., LLNL

    1998-07-16

    At Livermore we`ve spent the last two years examining an alternative approach towards very large aperture (VLA) telescopes, one based upon transmissive Fresnel lenses rather than on mirrors. Fresnel lenses are attractive for VLA telescopes because they are launchable (lightweight, packagable, and deployable) and because they virtually eliminate the traditional, very tight, surface shape requirements faced by reflecting telescopes. Their (potentially severe) optical drawback, a very narrow spectral bandwidth, can be eliminated by use of a second (much smaller) chromatically-correcting Fresnel element. This enables Fresnel VLA telescopes to provide either single band ({Delta}{lambda}/{lambda} {approximately} 0.1), multiple band, or continuous spectral coverage. Building and fielding such large Fresnel lenses will present a significant challenge, but one which appears, with effort, to be solvable.

  14. Very Large Aperture Diffractive Space Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, Roderick Allen

    1998-04-20

    A very large (10's of meters) aperture space telescope including two separate spacecraft--an optical primary functioning as a magnifying glass and an optical secondary functioning as an eyepiece. The spacecraft are spaced up to several kilometers apart with the eyepiece directly behind the magnifying glass ''aiming'' at an intended target with their relative orientation determining the optical axis of the telescope and hence the targets being observed. The magnifying glass includes a very large-aperture, very-thin-membrane, diffractive lens, e.g., a Fresnel lens, which intercepts incoming light over its full aperture and focuses it towards the eyepiece. The eyepiece has a much smaller, meter-scale aperture and is designed to move along the focal surface of the magnifying glass, gathering up the incoming light and converting it to high quality images. The positions of the two space craft are controlled both to maintain a good optical focus and to point at desired targets.

  15. A review of large aperture Schlieren photography technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Song-bo; Xie, Yong-jun; Chen, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Schlieren photography is a visual process to display the flow of fluids of varying density. It is widely used in wind tunnel tests to photograph the flow of air around objects. To achieve schlieren images with high sensitivity and high resolution, and satisfy the requirements of the large-scale wind tunnel tests, it is urgent to develop schlieren photographers with large aperture primary mirrors. However, the application of large aperture primary mirrors may bring many challenges in the design of the schlieren system. First, the surface figure of large aperture primary mirrors is difficult to control so that the support structure may need more strategical design. Second, because the schlieren system works under some severe environments of the wind tunnel test including the air disturbance, wind-induced ground vibration and high ambient pressure, it has to withstand serious instability risks to ensure a good schlieren image quality. In this work, the current status of the development in the large aperture schlieren systems is reviewed. Several advanced methods, for example, active damping control technique, focal spot monitoring technique, 18-points whilffletree support technique, etc.., are introduced to deal with the challenges of the large aperture schlieren system. This work aims at improving the technical development of large aperture schlieren photographer, which may contribute to the acquisition of the high sensitive and high resolution schlieren images and the improvement of the testing capability in wind tunnel experiments.

  16. Eyeglass. 1. Very large aperture diffractive telescopes.

    PubMed

    Hyde, R A

    1999-07-01

    The Eyeglass is a very large aperture (25-100-m) space telescope consisting of two distinct spacecraft, separated in space by several kilometers. A diffractive lens provides the telescope s large aperture, and a separate, much smaller, space telescope serves as its mobile eyepiece. Use of a transmissive diffractive lens solves two basic problems associated with very large aperture space telescopes; it is inherently launchable (lightweight, packagable, and deployable) it and virtually eliminates the traditional, very tight surface shape tolerances faced by reflecting apertures. The potential drawback to use of a diffractive primary (very narrow spectral bandwidth) is eliminated by corrective optics in the telescope s eyepiece; the Eyeglass can provide diffraction-limited imaging with either single-band (Deltalambda/lambda approximately 0.1), multiband, or continuous spectral coverage.

  17. Eyeglass. 1. Very large aperture diffractive telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R.A.

    1999-07-01

    The Eyeglass is a very large aperture (25{endash}100-m) space telescope consisting of two distinct spacecraft, separated in space by several kilometers. A diffractive lens provides the telescope{close_quote}s large aperture, and a separate, much smaller, space telescope serves as its mobile eyepiece. Use of a transmissive diffractive lens solves two basic problems associated with very large aperture space telescopes; it is inherently launchable (lightweight, packagable, and deployable) it and virtually eliminates the traditional, very tight surface shape tolerances faced by reflecting apertures. The potential drawback to use of a diffractive primary (very narrow spectral bandwidth) is eliminated by corrective optics in the telescope{close_quote}s eyepiece; the Eyeglass can provide diffraction-limited imaging with either single-band ({Delta}{lambda}/{lambda}{approximately}0.1), multiband, or continuous spectral coverage. {copyright} 1999 Optical Society of America

  18. Large aperture adaptive optics for intense lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deneuville, François; Ropert, Laurent; Sauvageot, Paul; Theis, Sébastien

    2015-05-01

    ISP SYSTEM has developed a range of large aperture electro-mechanical deformable mirrors (DM) suitable for ultra short pulsed intense lasers. The design of the MD-AME deformable mirror is based on force application on numerous locations thanks to electromechanical actuators driven by stepper motors. DM design and assembly method have been adapted to large aperture beams and the performances were evaluated on a first application for a beam with a diameter of 250mm at 45° angle of incidence. A Strehl ratio above 0.9 was reached for this application. Simulations were correlated with measurements on optical bench and the design has been validated by calculation for very large aperture (up to Ø550mm). Optical aberrations up to Zernike order 5 can be corrected with a very low residual error as for actual MD-AME mirror. Amplitude can reach up to several hundreds of μm for low order corrections. Hysteresis is lower than 0.1% and linearity better than 99%. Contrary to piezo-electric actuators, the μ-AME actuators avoid print-through effects and they permit to keep the mirror shape stable even unpowered, providing a high resistance to electro-magnetic pulses. The MD-AME mirrors can be adapted to circular, square or elliptical beams and they are compatible with all dielectric or metallic coatings.

  19. Large Aperture, Scanning, L-Band SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moussessian, Alina; Del Castillo, Linda; Bach, Vinh; Grando, Maurio; Quijano, Ubaldo; Smith, Phil; Zawadzki, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We have developed the first L-band membrane-based active phased array. The antenna is a 16x16 element patch array with dimensions of 2.3mx2.6m. The array uses membrane-compatible Transmit/Receive (T/R) modules for electronic beam steering. We will discuss the antenna design, the fabrication of this large array, the T/R module development, the signal distribution approach and the measured results of the array.

  20. Large Aperture, Scanning, L-Band SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moussessian, Alina; DelCastillo, Linda; Bach, Vinh; Grando, Maurio; Quijano, Ubaldo; Smith, Phil; Zawadzki, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We have developed the first L-band membrane-based active phased array. The antenna is a 16x16 element patch array with dimensions of 2.3mx2.6m. The array uses membrane-compatible Transmit/Receive (T/R) modules for electronic beam steering. We will discuss the antenna design, the fabrication of this large array, the T/R module development, the signal distribution approach and the measured results of the array

  1. Large Aperture, Scanning, L-Band SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moussessian, Alina; Del Castillo, Linda; Bach, Vinh; Grando, Maurio; Quijano, Ubaldo; Smith, Phil; Zawadzki, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We have developed the first L-band membrane-based active phased array. The antenna is a 16x16 element patch array with dimensions of 2.3mx2.6m. The array uses membrane-compatible Transmit/Receive (T/R) modules for electronic beam steering. We will discuss the antenna design, the fabrication of this large array, the T/R module development, the signal distribution approach and the measured results of the array.

  2. Large Aperture, Scanning, L-Band SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moussessian, Alina; DelCastillo, Linda; Bach, Vinh; Grando, Maurio; Quijano, Ubaldo; Smith, Phil; Zawadzki, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We have developed the first L-band membrane-based active phased array. The antenna is a 16x16 element patch array with dimensions of 2.3mx2.6m. The array uses membrane-compatible Transmit/Receive (T/R) modules for electronic beam steering. We will discuss the antenna design, the fabrication of this large array, the T/R module development, the signal distribution approach and the measured results of the array

  3. Design of large aperture focal plane shutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jia-wen; Ma, Wen-li; Huang, Jin-long

    2012-09-01

    To satisfy the requirement of large telescope, a large aperture focal plane shutter with aperture size of φ200mm was researched and designed to realize, which could be started and stopped in a relative short time with precise position, and also the blades could open and close at the same time at any orientation. Timing-belts and stepper motors were adopted as the drive mechanism. Velocity and position of the stepper motors were controlled by the PWM pulse generated by DSP. Exponential curve is applied to control the velocity of the stepper motors to make the shutter start and stop in a short time. The closing/open time of shutter is 0.2s, which meets the performance requirements of large telescope properly.

  4. Saturation of the Large Aperture Scintillometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohsiek, W.; Meijninger, W. M. L.; Debruin, H. A. R.; Beyrich, F.

    2006-10-01

    The saturation aspects of a large aperture (0.3 m) scintillometer operating over a 10-km path were investigated. Measurements were made over mainly forested, hilly terrain with typical maximum sensible heat fluxes of 300-400 W m -2, and over flat terrain with mainly grass, and typical maximum heat fluxes of 100-150 W m-2. Scintillometer-based fluxes were compared with eddy-correlation observations. Two different schemes for calculating the reduction of scintillation caused by saturation were applied: one based on the work of Hill and Clifford, the other based on Frehlich and Ochs. Without saturation correction, the scintillation fluxes were lower than the eddy-correlation fluxes; the saturation correction according to Frehlich and Ochs increased the scintillometer fluxes to an unrealistic level. Correcting the fluxes after the theory of the Hill and Clifford gave satisfying results

  5. Low-cost Large Aperture Telescopes for Optical Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid

    2006-01-01

    Low-cost, large-aperture optical receivers are required to form an affordable optical ground receiver network for laser communications. Among the ground receiver station's multiple subsystems, here, we only discuss the ongoing research activities aimed at reducing the cost of the large-size optics on the receiver. Experimental results of two different approaches for fabricating low-cost mirrors of wavefront quality on the order of 100-200X the diffraction limit are described. Laboratory-level effort are underway to improve the surface figure to better than 20X the diffraction limit.

  6. Low-cost Large Aperture Telescopes for Optical Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid

    2006-01-01

    Low-cost, large-aperture optical receivers are required to form an affordable optical ground receiver network for laser communications. Among the ground receiver station's multiple subsystems, here, we only discuss the ongoing research activities aimed at reducing the cost of the large-size optics on the receiver. Experimental results of two different approaches for fabricating low-cost mirrors of wavefront quality on the order of 100-200X the diffraction limit are described. Laboratory-level effort are underway to improve the surface figure to better than 20X the diffraction limit.

  7. Design of large aperture, low mass vacuum windows

    SciTech Connect

    Leonhardt, W.J.; Mapes, M.

    1993-07-01

    Large vacuum vessels are employed downstream of fixed targets in High Energy Physics experiments to provide a long path for particles to traverse without interacting with air molecules. These vessels generally have a large aperture opening known as a vacuum window which employs a thin membrane to preserve the vacuum environment yet allows the particles to pass through with a minimal effect on them. Several large windows have been built using a composite of Kevlar/Mylar including circular windows to a diameter of 96.5 cm and rectangular windows up to 193 cm x 86 cm. This paper describes the design, fabrication, testing and operating experience with these windows and relates the actual performance to theoretical predictions.

  8. Design of large aperture, low mass vacuum windows

    SciTech Connect

    Leonhardt, W.J.; Mapes, M.

    1993-01-01

    Large vacuum vessels are employed downstream of fixed targets in High Energy Physics experiments to provide a long path for particles to traverse without interacting with air molecules. These vessels generally have a large aperture opening known as a vacuum window which employs a thin membrane to preserve the vacuum environment yet allows the particles to pass through with a minimal effect on them. Several large windows have been built using a composite of Kevlar/Mylar including circular windows to a diameter of 96.5 cm and rectangular windows up to 193 cm x 86 cm. This paper describes the design, fabrication, testing and operating experience with these windows and relates the actual performance to theoretical predictions.

  9. Very large aperture optics for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwath, T. G.; Smith, J. P.; Johnson, M. T.

    1994-09-01

    A new type of space optics technology is presented which promises the realization of very large apertures (tens of meters), while packagable into lightweight, small volume containers compatible with conventional launch vehicles. This technology makes use of thin foils of circular shape which are uniformly mass loaded around the perimeter. Once unfurled and set into rapid rotation about the transversal axis, the foil is stretched into a perfectly flat plane by the centrifugal forces acting on the peripheral masses. The simplest applications of this novel technology are optically flat reflectors, using metallized foils of Mylar, Kevlar, or Kapton. Other more complex optical components can be realized by use of binary optics techniques, such as depositing holograms by selective local microscale removal of the reflective surface. Electrostatic techniques, in conjunction with an auxiliary foil, under local, distributed real-time control of the optical parameters, allow implementation of functions like beam steering and focal length adjustments. Gas pressurization allows stronger curvatures and thus smaller focal ratios for non-imaging applications. Limits on aperture are imposed primarily by manufacturing capabilities. Applications of such large optics in space are numerous. They range from military, such as space based lasers, to the civilian ones of power beaming, solar energy collection, and astronomy. This paper examines this simple and innovative concept in detail, discusses deployment and attitude control issues and presents approaches for realization.

  10. Development of large aperture composite adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kmetik, Viliam; Vitovec, Bohumil; Jiran, Lukas; Nemcova, Sarka; Zicha, Josef; Inneman, Adolf; Mikulickova, Lenka; Pavlica, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Large aperture composite adaptive optics for laser applications is investigated in cooperation of Institute of Plasma Physic, Department of Instrumentation and Control Engineering FME CTU and 5M Ltd. We are exploring opportunity of a large-size high-power-laser deformable-mirror production using a lightweight bimorph actuated structure with a composite core. In order to produce a sufficiently large operational free aperture we are developing new technologies for production of flexible core, bimorph actuator and deformable mirror reflector. Full simulation of a deformable-mirrors structure was prepared and validated by complex testing. A deformable mirror actuation and a response of a complicated structure are investigated for an accurate control of the adaptive optics. An original adaptive optics control system and a bimorph deformable mirror driver were developed. Tests of material samples, components and sub-assemblies were completed. A subscale 120 mm bimorph deformable mirror prototype was designed, fabricated and thoroughly tested. A large-size 300 mm composite-core bimorph deformable mirror was simulated and optimized, fabrication of a prototype is carried on. A measurement and testing facility is modified to accommodate large sizes optics.

  11. Design of precise assembly equipment of large aperture optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Guoqing; Xu, Xu; Xiong, Zhao; Yan, Han; Qin, Tinghai; Zhou, Hai; Yuan, Xiaodong

    2017-05-01

    High-energy solid-state laser is an important way to achieve laser fusion research. Laser fusion facility includes thousands of various types of large aperture optics. These large aperture optics should be assembled with high precision and high efficiency. Currently, however, the assembly of large aperture optics is by man's hand which is in low level of efficiency and labor-intensive. Here, according to the characteristics of the assembly of large aperture optics, we designed three kinds of grasping devices. Using Finite Element Method, we simulated the impact of the grasping device on the PV value and the RMS value of the large aperture optics. The structural strength of the grasping device's key part was analyzed. An experiment was performed to illustrate the reliability and precision of the grasping device. We anticipate that the grasping device would complete the assembly of large aperture optics precisely and efficiently.

  12. Ultrasonic material characterization using large-aperture PVDF receivers.

    PubMed

    Adamowski, J C; Buiochi, F; Higuti, R T

    2010-02-01

    This work describes the use of a large-aperture PVDF receiver in the measurement of liquid density and composite material elastic constants. The density measurement of several liquids is obtained with accuracy of 0.2% using a conventional NDE emitter transducer and a 70-mm-diameter, 52-microm P(VDF-TrFE) membrane with gold electrodes. The determination of the elastic constants is based on the phase velocity measurement. Diffraction can lead to errors around 1% in velocity measurement when using alternatively the conventional pair of ultrasonic transducers (1-MHz frequency and 19-mm-diameter) operating in through-transmission mode, separated by a distance of 100 mm. This effect is negligible when using a pair of 10-MHz, 19-mm-diameter transducers. Nevertheless, the dispersion at 10 MHz can result in errors of about 0.5%, when measuring the velocity in composite materials. The use of an 80-mm diameter, 52-microm-thick PVDF membrane receiver practically eliminates the diffraction effects in phase velocity measurement. The elastic constants of a carbon fiber reinforced polymer were determined and compared with the values obtained by a tensile test.

  13. A Future Large-Aperture UVOIR Space Observatory: Study Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postman, Marc; Thronson, Harley A.; Feinberg, Lee; Redding, David; Stahl, H. Philip

    2015-01-01

    The scientific drivers for very high angular resolution coupled with very high sensitivity and wavefront stability in the UV and optical wavelength regime have been well established. These include characterization of exoplanets in the habitable zones of solar type stars, probing the physical properties of the circumgalactic medium around z < 2 galaxies, and resolving stellar populations across a broad range of galactic environments. The 2010 NRC Decadal Survey and the 2013 NASA Science Mission Directorate 30-Year Roadmap identified a large-aperture UVOIR observatory as a priority future space mission. Our joint NASA GSFC/JPL/MSFC/STScI team has extended several earlier studies of the technology and engineering requirements needed to design and build a single filled aperture 10-meter class space-based telescope that can enable these ambitious scientific observations. We present here an overview of our new technical work including a brief summary of the reference science drivers as well as in-depth investigations of the viable telescope architectures, the requirements on thermal control and active wavefront control systems, and the range of possible launch configurations.

  14. Eyeglass: A Very Large Aperture Diffractive Space Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R; Dixit, S; Weisberg, A; Rushford, M

    2002-07-29

    Eyeglass is a very large aperture (25-100 meter) space telescope consisting of two distinct spacecraft, separated in space by several kilometers. A diffractive lens provides the telescope's large aperture, and a separate, much smaller, space telescope serves as its mobile eyepiece. Use of a transmissive diffractive lens solves two basic problems associated with very large aperture space telescopes; it is inherently fieldable (lightweight and flat, hence packagable and deployable) and virtually eliminates the traditional, very tight, surface shape tolerances faced by reflecting apertures. The potential drawback to use of a diffractive primary (very narrow spectral bandwidth) is eliminated by corrective optics in the telescope's eyepiece. The Eyeglass can provide diffraction-limited imaging with either single-band, multiband, or continuous spectral coverage. Broadband diffractive telescopes have been built at LLNL and have demonstrated diffraction-limited performance over a 40% spectral bandwidth (0.48-0.72 {micro}m). As one approach to package a large aperture for launch, a foldable lens has been built and demonstrated. A 75 cm aperture diffractive lens was constructed from 6 panels of 1 m thick silica; it achieved diffraction-limited performance both before and after folding. This multiple panel, folding lens, approach is currently being scaled-up at LLNL. We are building a 5 meter aperture foldable lens, involving 72 panels of 700 {micro}m thick glass sheets, diffractively patterned to operate as coherent f/50 lens.

  15. Fabrication and applications of large aperture diffractive optics

    SciTech Connect

    Dixit, S; Britten, J B; Hyde, R; Rushford, M; Summers, L; Toeppen, J

    2002-02-19

    Large aperture diffractive optics are needed in high power laser applications to protect against laser damage during operation and in space applications to increase the light gathering power and consequently the signal to noise. We describe the facilities we have built for fabricating meter scale diffractive optics and discuss several examples of these.

  16. Large Aperture, Narrow-Band Detectors for Optical Communication Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The patent application provides a sensitive detector means for the reception and detection of optical communication signals which are accompanied by...onto a detector. A provision of a large aperture narrow-band detector for optical communication systems is made for receiving and detecting optical ... communication with self-filtering to selectively detect the information while discriminating or rejecting background radiation.

  17. Mission definition for a large-aperture microwave radiometer spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keafer, L. S., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    An Earth-observation measurements mission is defined for a large-aperture microwave radiometer spacecraft. This mission is defined without regard to any particular spacecraft design concept. Space data application needs, the measurement selection rationale, and broad spacecraft design requirements and constraints are described. The effects of orbital parameters and image quality requirements on the spacecraft and mission performance are discussed. Over the land the primary measurand is soil moisture; over the coastal zones and the oceans important measurands are salinity, surface temperature, surface winds, oil spill dimensions and ice boundaries; and specific measurement requirements have been selected for each. Near-all-weather operation and good spatial resolution are assured by operating at low microwave frequencies using an extremely large aperture antenna in a low-Earth-orbit contiguous mapping mode.

  18. Comparison of large aperture telescopes with parabolic and spherical primaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korsch, D.

    1986-01-01

    Quasi-Cassegrain-type four-mirror telescopes are compared to conventional two-mirror Cassegrain telescopes for use as high performance, very large aperture space telescopes. Spherical and parabolic primaries with continuous as well as segmented surfaces are considered. Imaging characteristics and misalignment sensitivities serve as the principal criteria of comparison. The evaluation shows that parabolic primaries yield superior wide-field performance, whereas spherical primaries hold distinct advantages regarding manufacturability and regarding certain alignment aspects in the case of segmentation.

  19. Zinc selenide-based large aperture photo-controlled deformable mirror.

    PubMed

    Quintavalla, Martino; Bonora, Stefano; Natali, Dario; Bianco, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Realization of large aperture deformable mirrors with a large density of actuators is important in many applications, and photo-controlled deformable mirrors (PCDMs) represent an innovation. Herein we show that PCDMs are scalable realizing a 2-inch aperture device based on a polycrystalline zinc selenide (ZnSe) as the photoconductive substrate and a thin polymeric reflective membrane. ZnSe is electrically characterized and analyzed through a model that we previously introduced. The PCDM is then optically tested, demonstrating its capabilities in adaptive optics.

  20. Large-aperture interferometer using local reference beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howes, W. L.

    1982-01-01

    A large-aperture interferometer was devised by adding a local-reference-beam-generating optical system to a schlieren system. Two versions of the interferometer are demonstrated, one employing 12.7 cm (5 in.) diameter schlieren optics, the other employing 30.48 cm (12 in.) diameter parabolic mirrors in an off-axis system. In the latter configuration a cylindrical lens is introduced near the light source to correct for astigmatism. A zone plate is a satisfactory decollimating element in the reference-beam arm of the interferometer. Attempts to increase the flux and uniformity of irradiance in the reference beam by using a diffuser are discussed.

  1. Metrology measurements for large-aperture VPH gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jessica R.; Gers, Luke; Heijmans, Jeroen

    2013-09-01

    The High Efficiency and Resolution Multi Element Spectrograph (HERMES) for the Australian Astronomical Observatory (AAO) uses four large aperture, high angle of incidence volume phase holographic gratings (VPHG) for high resolution `Galactic archaeology' spectroscopy. The large clear aperture, the high diffraction efficiency, the line frequency homogeneity, and mosaic alignment made manufacturing and testing challenging. We developed new metrology systems at the AAO to verify the performance of these VPH gratings. The measured diffraction efficiencies and line frequency of the VPH gratings received so far meet the vendor's provided data. The wavefront quality for the Blue VPH grating is good but the Green and Red VPH gratings need to be post polishing.

  2. Extracting spatial information from large aperture exposures of diffuse sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, J. T.; Moos, H. W.

    1981-01-01

    The spatial properties of large aperture exposures of diffuse emission can be used both to investigate spatial variations in the emission and to filter out camera noise in exposures of weak emission sources. Spatial imaging can be accomplished both parallel and perpendicular to dispersion with a resolution of 5-6 arc sec, and a narrow median filter running perpendicular to dispersion across a diffuse image selectively filters out point source features, such as reseaux marks and fast particle hits. Spatial information derived from observations of solar system objects is presented.

  3. Operational aspects of the Main Injector large aperture quadrupole (WQB)

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, W.; Bartelson, L.; Brown, B.; Capista, D.; Crisp, J.; DiMarco, J.; Fitzgerald, J.; Glass, H.; Harding, D.; Johnson, D.; Kashikhin, V.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    A two-year Large Aperture Quadrupole (WQB) Project was completed in the summer of 2006 at Fermilab. [1] Nine WQBs were designed, fabricated and bench-tested by the Technical Division. Seven of them were installed in the Main Injector and the other two for spares. They perform well. The aperture increase meets the design goal and the perturbation to the lattice is minimal. The machine acceptance in the injection and extraction regions is increased from 40{pi} to 60{pi} mm-mrad. This paper gives a brief report of the operation and performance of these magnets. Details can be found in Ref [2].

  4. Silicon Powder Filters for Large-Aperture Cryogenic Receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boone, Fletcher; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Bennett, C. L.; Marriage, T.; Xu, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Upcoming experiments probing for the existence of B-mode polarization in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) will require large arrays of background-limited detectors. This will necessitate the use of cryogenic receivers with large-aperture vacuum windows and correspondingly large low-pass infrared-blocking filters to minimize thermal load. Large-diameter filters composed of absorptive dielectrics are difficult to conductively cool adequately, and thus tend to heat up and re-radiate towards the focal plane. Reflective metal-mesh filters are challenging to manufacture at such large apertures and with feature sizes small enough to effectively block 300K thermal radiation. In order to overcome these difficulties, we have developed a novel type of thermal filter that scatters, rather than reflects or absorbs, unwanted infrared radiation. Comprised of ultra-pure silicon powder distributed within a polymethylpentene (PMP) substrate, these filters are not absorptive in the infrared while being transparent to microwaves, and are comparatively straightforward to produce. By adjusting the size of the silicon particles, the frequency cut-off of these low-pass filters is fully tunable. Small scale (70mm diameter, 3mm thickness) prototypes have exhibited <10% transmission throughout the infrared spectrum and <1% transmission at the peak of the 300K blackbody spectrum, while maintaining an estimated 97% transmission in the microwave regime.

  5. Joint of back-support in large aperture transport mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X. J.; Wu, W. K.; Liu, C. C.; Wang, B. X.; Zhu, M. Z.; Que, X. H.

    2016-10-01

    The wavefront distortion can directly influence on the optics quality of laser beam in ICF laser facility. The gravity is one of the major factors that cause the wavefront distortion. The back-support technology of the large aperture transport mirror has been developed to lessen the wavefront distortion caused by gravity. In the back-support technology, a joint structure between the mirror and the metal back-support has been developed. The requirement of joint is that the firm connection is realized with less wavefront distortion introduced. The adhesive structure and expanding mandrel structure have been analyzed and tested. The back-support of transport mirror in target area use the expanding mandrel for the reasons of the technics and fundamental frequency. The choice of material, the calculation force of clamp, the test of tensile, and the wavefront distortion analysis of transport mirror have been developed. The results show that the expanding mandrel can be used for the back-support of the large aperture transport mirror.

  6. Self-Referencing Hartmann Test for Large-Aperture Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korechoff, Robert P.; Oseas, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    A method is proposed for end-to-end, full aperture testing of large-aperture telescopes using an innovative variation of a Hartmann mask. This technique is practical for telescopes with primary mirrors tens of meters in diameter and of any design. Furthermore, it is applicable to the entire optical band (near IR, visible, ultraviolet), relatively insensitive to environmental perturbations, and is suitable for ambient laboratory as well as thermal-vacuum environments. The only restriction is that the telescope optical axis must be parallel to the local gravity vector during testing. The standard Hartmann test utilizes an array of pencil beams that are cut out of a well-corrected wavefront using a mask. The pencil beam array is expanded to fill the full aperture of the telescope. The detector plane of the telescope is translated back and forth along the optical axis in the vicinity of the nominal focal plane, and the centroid of each pencil beam image is recorded. Standard analytical techniques are then used to reconstruct the telescope wavefront from the centroid data. The expansion of the array of pencil beams is usually accomplished by double passing the beams through the telescope under test. However, this requires a well-corrected, autocollimation flat, the diameter or which is approximately equal to that of the telescope aperture. Thus, the standard Hartmann method does not scale well because of the difficulty and expense of building and mounting a well-corrected, large aperture flat. The innovation in the testing method proposed here is to replace the large aperture, well-corrected, monolithic autocollimation flat with an array of small-aperture mirrors. In addition to eliminating the need for a large optic, the surface figure requirement for the small mirrors is relaxed compared to that required of the large autocollimation flat. The key point that allows this method to work is that the small mirrors need to operate as a monolithic flat only with regard to

  7. A Future Large-Aperture UVOIR Space Observatory: Reference Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley; Rioux, Norman; Feinberg, Lee; Stahl, H. Philip; Redding, Dave; Jones, Andrew; Sturm, James; Collins, Christine; Liu, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Our joint NASA GSFC/JPL/MSFC/STScI study team has used community-provided science goals to derive mission needs, requirements, and candidate mission architectures for a future large-aperture, non-cryogenic UVOIR space observatory. We describe the feasibility assessment of system thermal and dynamic stability for supporting coronagraphy. The observatory is in a Sun-Earth L2 orbit providing a stable thermal environment and excellent field of regard. Reference designs include a 36-segment 9.2 m aperture telescope that stows within a five meter diameter launch vehicle fairing. Performance needs developed under the study are traceable to a variety of reference designs including options for a monolithic primary mirror.

  8. Large-aperture, high-damage-threshold optics for beamlet

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.H.; Atherton, L.J.; DeYoreo, J.J.

    1996-06-01

    Beamlet serves as a test bed for the proposed National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser design and components. Therefore, its optics are similar in size and quality to those proposed for the NIF. In general, the optics in the main laser cavity and transport section of Beamlet are larger and have higher damage thresholds than the optics manufactured for any of the previous laser systems. In addition, the quality of the Beamlet optical materials is higher, leading to better wavefront quality, higher optical transmission, and lower-intensity modulation of the output laser beam than, for example, that typically achieved on Nova. In this article, the authors discuss the properties and characteristics of the large-aperture optics used on Beamlet.

  9. A future large-aperture UVOIR space observatory: reference designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rioux, Norman; Thronson, Harley; Feinberg, Lee; Stahl, H. Philip; Redding, Dave; Jones, Andrew; Sturm, James; Collins, Christine; Liu, Alice

    2015-09-01

    Our joint NASA GSFC/JPL/MSFC/STScI study team has used community-provided science goals to derive mission needs, requirements, and candidate mission architectures for a future large-aperture, non-cryogenic UVOIR space observatory. We describe the feasibility assessment of system thermal and dynamic stability for supporting coronagraphy. The observatory is in a Sun-Earth L2 orbit providing a stable thermal environment and excellent field of regard. Reference designs include a 36-segment 9.2 m aperture telescope that stows within a five meter diameter launch vehicle fairing. Performance needs developed under the study are traceable to a variety of reference designs including options for a monolithic primary mirror.

  10. Bridgman growth of large-aperture yttrium calcium oxyborate crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Anhua; Jiang, Linwen; Qian, Guoxing; Zheng, Yanqing; Xu, Jun; Shi, Erwei

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: ► YCOB is a novel non-linear optical crystal possessing good thermal, mechanical and nonlinear optical properties. ► Large size crystal growth is key technology question for YCOB crystal. ► YCOB crystals 3 in. in diameter were grown with modified vertical Bridgman method. ► It is a more effective growth method to obtain large size and high quality YCOB crystal. -- Abstract: Large-aperture yttrium calcium oxyborate YCa{sub 4}O(BO{sub 3}){sub 3} (YCOB) crystals with 3 in. in diameter were grown with modified vertical Bridgman method, and the large crystal plate (63 mm × 68 mm × 20 mm) was harvested for high-average power frequency conversion system. The crack, facet growth and spiral growth can be effectively controlled in the as-grown crystal, and Bridgman method displays more effective in obtain large size and high quality YCOB crystal plate than Czochralski technique.

  11. Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture (PAMELA) Optics Adjustment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Scientists at Marshall's Adaptive Optics Lab demonstrate the Wave Front Sensor alignment using the Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture (PAMELA) optics adjustment. The primary objective of the PAMELA project is to develop methods for aligning and controlling adaptive optics segmented mirror systems. These systems can be used to acquire or project light energy. The Next Generation Space Telescope is an example of an energy acquisition system that will employ segmented mirrors. Light projection systems can also be used for power beaming and orbital debris removal. All segmented optical systems must be adjusted to provide maximum performance. PAMELA is an on going project that NASA is utilizing to investigate various methods for maximizing system performance.

  12. Development of a large aperture Nb3Sn racetrack quadrupolemagnet

    SciTech Connect

    Ferracin, Paolo; Bartlett, Scott E.; Caspi, Shlomo; Dietderich,Daniel R.; Gourlay, Steven A.; Hannaford, Charles R.; Hafalia, AurelioR.; Lietzke, Alan F.; Mattafirri, Sara; McInturff, Alfred D.; Nyman,Mark; Sabbi, Gianluca

    2005-04-14

    The U.S. LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP), a collaboration between BNL, FNAL, LBNL, and SLAC, has among its major objectives the development of advanced magnet technology for an LHC luminosity upgrade. The LBNL Superconducting Magnet Group supports this program with a broad effort involving design studies, Nb{sub 3}Sn conductor development, mechanical models, and basic prototypes. This paper describes the development of a large aperture Nb{sub 3}Sn racetrack quadrupole magnet using four racetrack coils from the LBNL Subscale Magnet (SM) Program. The magnet provides a gradient of 95 T/m in a 110 mm bore, with a peak field in the conductor of 11.2 T. The coils are prestressed by a mechanical structure based on a pre-tensioned aluminum shell, and axially supported with aluminum rods. The mechanical behavior has been monitored with strain gauges and the magnetic field has been measured. Results of the test are reported and analyzed.

  13. Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture (PAMELA) Optics Adjustment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Scientists at Marshall's Adaptive Optics Lab demonstrate the Wave Front Sensor alignment using the Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture (PAMELA) optics adjustment. The primary objective of the PAMELA project is to develop methods for aligning and controlling adaptive optics segmented mirror systems. These systems can be used to acquire or project light energy. The Next Generation Space Telescope is an example of an energy acquisition system that will employ segmented mirrors. Light projection systems can also be used for power beaming and orbital debris removal. All segmented optical systems must be adjusted to provide maximum performance. PAMELA is an on going project that NASA is utilizing to investigate various methods for maximizing system performance.

  14. Large-aperture, high-damage-threshold optics for beamlet

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.H.; Atherton, L.J.; DeYoreo, J.J.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Maney, R.T.; Montesanti, R.C.; Sheehan, L.M.; Barker, C.E.

    1995-02-23

    Beamlet serves as a test bed for the proposed NIF laser design and components. Therefore, its optics are similar in size and quality to those proposed for the NIF. In general, the optics in the main laser cavity and transport section of Beamlet are larger and have higher damage thresholds than the optics manufactured for any of our previous laser systems. In addition, the quality of the Beamlet optical materials is higher, leading to better wavefront quality, higher optical transmission, and lower-intensity modulation of the output laser beam than, for example, that typically achieved on Nova. In this article, we discuss the properties and characteristics of the large-aperture optics used on Beamlet.

  15. Large-aperture interferometer with local reference beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howes, W. L.

    1984-01-01

    A large-aperture interferometer was devised by adding a local-reference-beam-generating optical system to a schlieren system. Two versions of the interferometer are demonstrated, one employing 12.7 cm (5 in.) diameter schlieren optics, the other employing 30.48 cm (12 in.) diameter parabolic mirrors in an off-axis system. In the latter configuration a cylindrical lens is introduced near the light source to correct for astigmatism. A zone plate is a satisfactory decollimating element in the reference-beam arm of the interferometer. Attempts to increase the flux and uniformity of irradiance in the reference beam by using a diffuser are discussed. Previously announced in STAR as N83-13979

  16. Factors affecting the performance of large-aperture microphone arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, Harvey F.; Patterson, William R.; Sachar, Joshua

    2002-05-01

    Large arrays of microphones have been proposed and studied as a possible means of acquiring data in offices, conference rooms, and auditoria without requiring close-talking microphones. When such an array essentially surrounds all possible sources, it is said to have a large aperture. Large-aperture arrays have attractive properties of spatial resolution and signal-to-noise enhancement. This paper presents a careful comparison of theoretical and measured performance for an array of 256 microphones using simple delay-and-sum beamforming. This is the largest currently functional, all digital-signal-processing array that we know of. The array is wall-mounted in the moderately adverse environment of a general-purpose laboratory (8 m×8 m×3 m). The room has a T60 reverberation time of 550 ms. Reverberation effects in this room severely impact the array's performance. However, the width of the main lobe remains comparable to that of a simplified prediction. Broadband spatial resolution shows a single central peak with 10 dB gain about 0.4 m in diameter at the -3 dB level. Away from that peak, the response is approximately flat over most of the room. Optimal weighting for signal-to-noise enhancement degrades the spatial resolution minimally. Experimentally, we verify that signal-to-noise gain is less than proportional to the square root of the number of microphones probably due to the partial correlation of the noise between channels, to variation of signal intensity with polar angle about the source, and to imperfect correlation of the signal over the array caused by reverberations. We show measurements of the relative importance of each effect in our environment.

  17. The modular design of large-aperture zoom system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kai; Jiang, Kai; Yan, Peipei; Shan, Qiu-sha; Duan, Jing; Li, Gang

    2016-10-01

    According to the large aperture, long focal length zoom system design, the structure of the optical system based on the modular concept is proposed. The structure is constituted of an afocal compression telescope and a zoom system. The parts of each other are individually designed. The aberrations of them are independently. Because of this, the alignment of the system and the difficulty of test are greatly reduced. It is easily replaced by changing the zoom system parts, which can achieve other different focal length and ratio. Using afocal compression telescope greatly reduces the radial aperture of the zoom group, simplifies the system structure and reduces the cost. Meanwhile, the variable stop is placed in the vicinity of the primary mirror. It is instead of the zoom system used in floating variable stop. In addition, the problem about large aperture zoom system pupil matching is solved perfectly. In this article, four methods of pupil matching are given and the advantages and disadvantages of them are analyzed. Using this optical structure, a zoom system is designed, which is working in the visible wavelength band with variable focal length between 900mm and 4500mm, 500mm maximum aperture. The axial dimension of the system is less than 650mm. The maximum diameter of zoom system parts is less than 40 mm. Moreover, the distances of the zoom group and compensating group are all less than 60 mm. Besides, the motion curves of each other are given in the article. The Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) values of the system are greater than 0.3 at 48lp/mm across different focal length and field pointing on the axis. The design results show that the imaging quality is excellent, the structure is compact, and the alignment and test are easy. The imaging requirements of zoom system are all satisfied.

  18. Factors affecting the performance of large-aperture microphone arrays.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Harvey F; Patterson, William R; Sachar, Joshua

    2002-05-01

    Large arrays of microphones have been proposed and studied as a possible means of acquiring data in offices, conference rooms, and auditoria without requiring close-talking microphones. When such an array essentially surrounds all possible sources, it is said to have a large aperture. Large-aperture arrays have attractive properties of spatial resolution and signal-to-noise enhancement. This paper presents a careful comparison of theoretical and measured performance for an array of 256 microphones using simple delay-and-sum beamforming. This is the largest currently functional, all digital-signal-processing array that we know of. The array is wall-mounted in the moderately adverse environment of a general-purpose laboratory (8 m x 8 m x 3 m). The room has a T60 reverberation time of 550 ms. Reverberation effects in this room severely impact the array's performance. However, the width of the main lobe remains comparable to that of a simplified prediction. Broadband spatial resolution shows a single central peak with 10 dB gain about 0.4 m in diameter at the -3 dB level. Away from that peak, the response is approximately flat over most of the room. Optimal weighting for signal-to-noise enhancement degrades the spatial resolution minimally. Experimentally, we verify that signal-to-noise gain is less than proportional to the square root of the number of microphones probably due to the partial correlation of the noise between channels, to variation of signal intensity with polar angle about the source, and to imperfect correlation of the signal over the array caused by reverberations. We show measurements of the relative importance of each effect in our environment.

  19. A feasibility study into the screening and imaging of hand luggage for threat items at 35 GHz using an active large aperture (1.6 m) security screening imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowring, Nicholas J.; O'Reilly, Dean; Salmon, Neil A.; Andrews, David A.; Rezgui, Nacer-Ddine; Harmer, Stuart W.

    2013-10-01

    The feasibility of screening hand luggage for concealed threat items such as Person-Borne Improvised Explosive Devices (PBIED's) both metallic and non-metallic, together with handguns and at millimetre wavelengths is investigated. Previous studies by the authors and others indicate that hand baggage material and fabric is much more transmissive and has less scattering at lower millimetre wave frequencies and the ability to use K-band active imaging with high spatial resolution presents an opportunity to image and hence recognise concealed threats. For this feasibility study, a 1.6 m aperture, 35 GHz security screening imaging system with a spatial resolution of 2.5 cm and a depth of field of around 5 cm is employed, using spatially incoherent illuminating panels to enhance image contrast. In this study, realistic scenarios using backpacks containing a realistic range of threat and non-threat items are scanned, both carried and standalone. This range of items contains large vessels suitable for containing simulated home-made PBIED's and handguns. The comprehensive list of non-threat items includes laptops, bottles, clothing and power supplies. For this study, the range at which imaging data at standoff distances can be acquired is confined to that of the particular system in use, although parameters such as illumination and integration time are optimised. However, techniques for extrapolating towards effective standoff distances using aperture synthesis imagers are discussed. The transmission loss through fabrics and clothing that may form, or be contained in baggage, are reported over range of frequencies ranging from 26 to 110 GHz.

  20. Future large-aperture UVOIR space observatory: reference designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rioux, Norman; Thronson, Harley; Feinberg, Lee; Stahl, H. Phillip; Redding, Dave; Jones, Andrew; Sturm, James; Collins, Christine; Liu, Alice; Bolcar, Matthew

    2016-10-01

    Our joint NASA GSFC/JPL/MSFC and STScI study team has used community-developed science goals to derive mission needs, design parameters, notional instruments, and candidate mission architectures for a future large-aperture, noncryogenic UVOIR space observatory. We describe the feasibility assessment of system dynamic stability that supports coronagraphy. The observatory is in a Sun-Earth L2 orbit, which provides a stable thermal environment and excellent field of regard. Reference designs include a 36-segment 9.2-m aperture telescope that stows within a 5-m diameter launch vehicle fairing. This paper presents results from the latest cycle of integrated modeling through January 2016. The latest findings support the feasibility of secondary mirror support struts with a thickness on the order of an inch. Thin struts were found not to have a significant negative effect on wavefront error stability. Struts with a width as small as 1 in. may benefit some coronagraph designs by allowing more optical throughput.

  1. Low mass large aperture vacuum window development at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Keppel, C.

    1995-04-01

    Large aperture low mass vacuum windows are being developed for the HMS (High Momentum Spectrometer) and SOS (Short Orbit Spectrometer) spectrometers in Hall C at CEBAF. Because multiple scattering degrades the performance of a spectrometer it is important that the volume be evacuated and that the entrance and exit windows be as low mass as possible. The material used for such windows must be thin and light enough so as to have minimum effect of the beam, and at the same time, be thick and strong enough to operate reliably and safely. To achieve these goals, composite vacuum windows have been constructed of a thin sheet of Mylar with a reinforcing fabric. Reinforcing fabrics such as Kevlar and Spectra are available with tensile strengths significantly greater than that of Mylar. A thin layer of Myler remains necessary since the fabrics cannot achieve any sort of vacuum seal. The design, fabrication, testing, and operating experience with such composite windows for the Hall C spectrometers will be discussed.

  2. Error analysis of large aperture static interference imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fan; Zhang, Guo

    2015-12-01

    Large Aperture Static Interference Imaging Spectrometer is a new type of spectrometer with light structure, high spectral linearity, high luminous flux and wide spectral range, etc ,which overcomes the contradiction between high flux and high stability so that enables important values in science studies and applications. However, there're different error laws in imaging process of LASIS due to its different imaging style from traditional imaging spectrometers, correspondingly, its data processing is complicated. In order to improve accuracy of spectrum detection and serve for quantitative analysis and monitoring of topographical surface feature, the error law of LASIS imaging is supposed to be learned. In this paper, the LASIS errors are classified as interferogram error, radiometric correction error and spectral inversion error, and each type of error is analyzed and studied. Finally, a case study of Yaogan-14 is proposed, in which the interferogram error of LASIS by time and space combined modulation is mainly experimented and analyzed, as well as the errors from process of radiometric correction and spectral inversion.

  3. BLAST: The Balloon-Borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devlin, Mark; Ade, Peter; Bock, Jamie; Dicker, Simon; Griffin, Matt; Gunderson, Josh; Halpern, Mark; Hargrave, Peter; Hughes, David; Klein, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    BLAST is the Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Sub-millimeter Telescope. It will fly from a Long Duration Balloon (LDB) platform from Antarctica. The telescope design incorporates a 2 m primary mirror with large-format bolometer arrays operating at 250, 350 and 500 microns. By providing the first sensitive large-area (10 sq. deg.) sub-mm surveys at these wavelengths, BLAST will address some of the most important galactic and cosmological questions regarding the formation and evolution of stars, galaxies and clusters. Galactic and extragalactic BLAST surveys will: (1) identify large numbers of high-redshift galaxies; (2) measure photometric redshifts, rest-frame FIR luminosities and star formation rates thereby constraining the evolutionary history of the galaxies that produce the FIR and sub-mm background; (3) measure cold pre-stellar sources associated with the earliest stages of star and planet formation; (4) make high-resolution maps of diffuse galactic emission over a wide range of galactic latitudes. In addition to achieving the above scientific goals, the exciting legacy of the BLAST LDB experiment will be a catalogue of 3000-5000 extragalactic sub-mm sources and a 100 sq. deg. sub-mm galactic plane survey. Multi-frequency follow-up observations from SIRTF, ASTRO-F, and Herschel, together with spectroscopic observations and sub-arcsecond imaging from ALMA are essential to understand the physical nature of the BLAST sources.

  4. Fabrication of large aperture SiC brazing mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ang; Wang, Peipei; Dong, Huiwen; Wang, Peng

    2016-10-01

    The SiC brazing mirror is the mirror whose blank is made by assembling together smaller SiC pieces with brazing technique. Using such kinds of joining techniques, people can manufacture large and complex SiC assemblies. The key technologies of fabricating and testing SiC brazing flat mirror especially for large aperture were studied. The SiC brazing flat mirror was ground by smart ultrasonic-milling machine, and then it was lapped by the lapping smart robot and measured by Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM). After the PV of the surface below 4um, we did classic coarse polishing to the surface and studied the shape of the polishing tool which directly effects removal amount distribution. Finally, it was figured by the polishing smart robot and measured by Fizeau interferometer. We also studied the influence of machining path and removal functions of smart robots on the manufacturing results and discussed the use of abrasive in this process. At last, an example for fabricating and measuring a similar SiC brazing flat mirror with the aperture of 600 mm made by Shanghai Institute of Ceramics was given. The mirror blank consists of 6 SiC sectors and the surface was finally processed to a result of the Peak-to-Valley (PV) 150nm and Root Mean Square (RMS) 12nm.

  5. A low-cost large-aperture optical receiver for remote sensing and imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanes, Stephen A.

    2003-03-01

    An inexpensive large aperture (10 m class) receiver for optical wavelength imaging and remote sensing applications is discussed. The design was developed for active (laser illumination) imaging of remote objects using pupil plane measurement techniques, where relatively low optical quality collecting elements can be used. The approach is also well suited for conventional imaging at lower resolutions when light collection capability is of primary importance. The approach relies on a large aperture heliostat consisting of an array of flat mirror segments, like those used in solar collector systems, to collect light from the region of interest. The heliostat segments are tilted in a manner to concentrate the light, by making the light from all segments overlap at a common point, resulting in a region of higher intensity about the size of a segment at the heliostat "focus". A smaller secondary collector, consisting of a concave mirror located at the overlap point, further concentrates the light and forms a pupil image of the heliostat. Additional optics near the pupil image collimate the light for efficient transmission though a narrow band interference filter used to reduce sky background, and focus the light onto a PMT, or other sensor, for detection. Several design approaches for the collimating optics are discussed as well as system performance and limitations.

  6. BLAST: A balloon-borne, large-aperture, submillimetre telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiebe, Donald Victor

    BLAST is a balloon-borne large-aperture, submillimetre telescope, which makes large area (1--200 square degree) surveys of Galactic and extragalactic targets. Since BLAST observes in the stratosphere, it is able to make broad-band observations between 200 mum and 550 mum which are difficult or impossible to perform from the ground. BLAST has been designed to probe star formation both in the local Galaxy and in the high redshift (z = 1--4) universe. Because BLAST is flown on an unmanned stratospheric balloon platform, it has been designed to be able to operate autonomously, without needing operator intervention to perform its scientific goals. This thesis includes an overview of the design of the BLAST platform, with emphasis on the command and control systems used to operate the telescope. BLAST has been flown on two long-duration balloon flights. The first of these, from Esrange, Sweden in June of 2005, acquired ˜70 hours of primarily Galactic data. During the second flight, from Willy Field, Antarctica in December of 2006, BLAST acquired ˜225 hours of both Galactic and extragalactic data. Operational performance of the platform during these two flights is reviewed, with the goal of providing insight on how future flights can be improved. Reduction of the data acquired by these large-format bolometer arrays is a challenging procedure, and techniques developed for BLAST data reduction are reviewed. The ultimate goal of this reduction is the generation of high quality astronomical maps which can be used for subsequent portions of data analysis. This thesis treats, in detail, the iterative, maximum likelihood map maker developed for BLAST. Results of simulations performed on the map maker to characterise its ability to reconstruct astronomical signals are presented. Finally, astronomical maps produced by this map maker using real data acquired by BLAST are presented, with a discussion on non-physical map pathologies resulting from the data reduction pipeline and

  7. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope: BLAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truch, Matthew D. P.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bock, J. J.; Chapin, E. L.; Chung, J.; Devlin, M. J.; Dicker, S.; Griffin, M.; Gundersen, J. O.; Halpern, M.; Hargrave, P. C.; Hughes, D. H.; Klein, J.; MacTavish, C. J.; Marsden, G.; Martin, P. G.; Martin, T. G.; Mauskopf, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Olmi, L.; Pascale, E.; Patanchon, G.; Rex, M.; Scott, D.; Semisch, C.; Thomas, N. E.; Tucker, C.; Tucker, G. S.; Viero, M. P.; Wiebe, D. V.

    2009-01-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) is a suborbital surveying experiment designed to study the evolutionary history and processes of star formation in local galaxies (including the Milky Way) and galaxies at cosmological distances. The BLAST continuum camera, which consists of 270 detectors distributed between three arrays, observes simultaneously in broadband (30%) spectral windows at 250, 350, and 500 microns. The optical design is based on a 2 m diameter telescope, providing a diffraction-limited resolution of 30" at 250 microns. The gondola pointing system enables raster mapping of arbitrary geometry, with a repeatable positional accuracy of 30"; postflight pointing reconstruction to <5" rms is achieved. The onboard telescope control software permits autonomous execution of a preselected set of maps, with the option of manual override. On this poster, we describe the primary characteristics and measured in-flight performance of BLAST. BLAST performed a test flight in 2003 and has since made two scientifically productive long-duration balloon flights: a 100 hour flight from ESRANGE (Kiruna), Sweden to Victoria Island, northern Canada in 2005 June; and a 250 hour, circumpolar flight from McMurdo Station, Antarctica in 2006 December. The BLAST collaboration acknowledges the support of NASA through grants NAG5-12785, NAG5-13301, and NNGO-6GI11G, the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Canada's Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC), the Canada Foundation for Innovation, the Ontario Innovation Trust, the Puerto Rico Space Grant Consortium, the Fondo Institucional para la Investigacion of the University of Puerto Rico, and the National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs.

  8. NST: Thermal Modeling for a Large Aperture Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulter, Roy

    2011-05-01

    Late in the 1990s the Dutch Open Telescope demonstrated that internal seeing in open, large aperture solar telescopes can be controlled by flushing air across the primary mirror and other telescope structures exposed to sunlight. In that system natural wind provides a uniform air temperature throughout the imaging volume, while efficiently sweeping heated air away from the optics and mechanical structure. Big Bear Solar Observatory's New Solar Telescope (NST) was designed to realize that same performance in an enclosed system by using both natural wind through the dome and forced air circulation around the primary mirror to provide the uniform air temperatures required within the telescope volume. The NST is housed in a conventional, ventilated dome with a circular opening, in place of the standard dome slit, that allows sunlight to fall only on an aperture stop and the primary mirror. The primary mirror is housed deep inside a cylindrical cell with only minimal openings in the side at the level of the mirror. To date, the forced air and cooling systems designed for the NST primary mirror have not been implemented, yet the telescope regularly produces solar images indicative of the absence of mirror seeing. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of the NST primary mirror system along with measurements of air flows within the dome, around the telescope structure, and internal to the mirror cell are used to explain the origin of this seemingly incongruent result. The CFD analysis is also extended to hypothetical systems of various scales. We will discuss the results of these investigations.

  9. Hybrid Electrostatic/Flextensional Mirror for Lightweight, Large-Aperture, and Cryogenic Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patrick, Brian; Moore, James; Hackenberger, Wesley; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2013-01-01

    A lightweight, cryogenically capable, scalable, deformable mirror has been developed for space telescopes. This innovation makes use of polymer-based membrane mirror technology to enable large-aperture mirrors that can be easily launched and deployed. The key component of this innovation is a lightweight, large-stroke, cryogenic actuator array that combines the high degree of mirror figure control needed with a large actuator influence function. The latter aspect of the innovation allows membrane mirror figure correction with a relatively low actuator density, preserving the lightweight attributes of the system. The principal components of this technology are lightweight, low-profile, high-stroke, cryogenic-capable piezoelectric actuators based on PMN-PT (piezoelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate) single-crystal configured in a flextensional actuator format; high-quality, low-thermal-expansion polymer membrane mirror materials developed by NeXolve; and electrostatic coupling between the membrane mirror and the piezoelectric actuator assembly to minimize problems such as actuator print-through.

  10. Experimental instrumentation system for the Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture (PAMELA) test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boykin, William H., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Adaptive optics are used in telescopes for both viewing objects with minimum distortion and for transmitting laser beams with minimum beam divergence and dance. In order to test concepts on a smaller scale, NASA MSFC is in the process of setting up an adaptive optics test facility with precision (fraction of wavelengths) measurement equipment. The initial system under test is the adaptive optical telescope called PAMELA (Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture). Goals of this test are: assessment of test hardware specifications for PAMELA application and the determination of the sensitivities of instruments for measuring PAMELA (and other adaptive optical telescopes) imperfections; evaluation of the PAMELA system integration effort and test progress and recommended actions to enhance these activities; and development of concepts and prototypes of experimental apparatuses for PAMELA.

  11. Large aperture laser beam alignment system based on far field sampling technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. C.; Liu, D. Z.; Ouyang, X. P.; Kang, J.; Xie, X. L.; Zhou, J.; Gong, L.; Zhu, B. Q.

    2016-11-01

    Laser beam alignment is very important for high-power laser facility. Long laser path and large-aperture lens for alignment are generally used, while the proposed alignment system with a wedge by far-field sampling technique reduces both space and cost requirements. General alignment system for large-aperture laser beam is long in distance and large in volum because of taking near-field sampling technique. With the development of laser fusion facilities, the space for alignment system is limited. A new alignment system for large-aperture laser beam is designed to save space and reduce operating costs. The new alignment for large-aperture laser beam with a wedge is based on far-field sampling technique. The wedge is placed behind the spatial filter to reflect some laser beam as signal light for alignment. Therefore, laser beam diameter in alignment system is small, which can save space for the laser facility. Comparing to general alignment system for large-aperture laser beam, large-aperture lenses for near-field and far-field sampling, long distance laser path are unnecessary for proposed alignment system, which saves cost and space greatly. This alignment system for large-aperture laser beam has been demonstrated well on the Muliti-PW Facility which uses the 7th beam of the SG-Ⅱ Facility as pump source. The experimental results indicate that the average near-field alignment error is less than 1% of reference, and the average far-filed alignment error is less than 5% of spatial filter pinhole diameter, which meet the alignment system requirements for laser beam of Multi-PW Facility.

  12. Application of Large Aperture Emats to Weld Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maclauchlan, D. T.; Clark, S. P.; Hancock, J. W.

    2008-02-01

    One of the most significant developments in EMAT operation is the incorporation of phased array techniques. Phased array EMATs enable electronic beam steering and focusing while operating with temporally short pulses for good range resolution. Using phased array EMAT operation, multiple high powered pulsers are combined in the generation of the ultrasonic wave and multiple elements are combined in the reception of the ultrasonic wave, for improved sensitivity. EMATs make it practical to operate with shear horizontal (SH) waves and scan over a metal part's surface. An EMAT generated line force at the surface launches shear horizontal waves with uniform amplitude for beam angles from -90° to 90°. Shear horizontal waves also reflect without mode conversion from surfaces that are parallel to the polarization of the shear wave displacements. The combination of these advantages makes phased array EMATs well suited for weld inspection. Recently, BWXT Services has developed a 32 active channel EMAT phased array system for operation up to 5 MHz. In addition, each element can be constructed with several sub-elements, alternating in polarity, to effectively multiply the number of active elements for a restricted range of beam angles. For example by using elements comprised of 4 sub elements, a 128 active element aperture designed for operation with a nominal 60° beam angle provides good beam steering and focusing performance for 45° to 70° beam angles. The large active apertures allow the use of highly focused beams for good defect detection and high resolution imaging of weld defects. Application of this system to weld inspections has verified that good defect detection and imaging is possible. In addition, operation with SH waves has proven to provide improved detection of lack of fusion at the cap and root of the weld for certain weld geometries. The system has also been used to demonstrate the inspection of submerged metal arc welds while welding.

  13. APPLICATION OF LARGE APERTURE EMATS TO WELD INSPECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Maclauchlan, D. T.; Clark, S. P.; Hancock, J. W.

    2008-02-28

    One of the most significant developments in EMAT operation is the incorporation of phased array techniques. Phased array EMATs enable electronic beam steering and focusing while operating with temporally short pulses for good range resolution. Using phased array EMAT operation, multiple high powered pulsers are combined in the generation of the ultrasonic wave and multiple elements are combined in the reception of the ultrasonic wave, for improved sensitivity. EMATs make it practical to operate with shear horizontal (SH) waves and scan over a metal part's surface. An EMAT generated line force at the surface launches shear horizontal waves with uniform amplitude for beam angles from -90 deg. to 90 deg. Shear horizontal waves also reflect without mode conversion from surfaces that are parallel to the polarization of the shear wave displacements. The combination of these advantages makes phased array EMATs well suited for weld inspection. Recently, BWXT Services has developed a 32 active channel EMAT phased array system for operation up to 5 MHz. In addition, each element can be constructed with several sub-elements, alternating in polarity, to effectively multiply the number of active elements for a restricted range of beam angles. For example by using elements comprised of 4 sub elements, a 128 active element aperture designed for operation with a nominal 60 deg. beam angle provides good beam steering and focusing performance for 45 deg. to 70 deg. beam angles. The large active apertures allow the use of highly focused beams for good defect detection and high resolution imaging of weld defects. Application of this system to weld inspections has verified that good defect detection and imaging is possible. In addition, operation with SH waves has proven to provide improved detection of lack of fusion at the cap and root of the weld for certain weld geometries. The system has also been used to demonstrate the inspection of submerged metal arc welds while welding.

  14. Structural Feasibility Analysis of a Robotically Assembled Very Large Aperture Optical Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkie, William Keats; Williams, R. Brett; Agnes, Gregory S.; Wilcox, Brian H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a feasibility study of robotically constructing a very large aperture optical space telescope on-orbit. Since the largest engineering challenges are likely to reside in the design and assembly of the 150-m diameter primary reflector, this preliminary study focuses on this component. The same technology developed for construction of the primary would then be readily used for the smaller optical structures (secondary, tertiary, etc.). A reasonable set of ground and on-orbit loading scenarios are compiled from the literature and used to define the structural performance requirements and size the primary reflector. A surface precision analysis shows that active adjustment of the primary structure is required in order to meet stringent optical surface requirements. Two potential actuation strategies are discussed along with potential actuation devices at the current state of the art. The finding of this research effort indicate that successful technology development combined with further analysis will likely enable such a telescope to be built in the future.

  15. Structural Feasibility Analysis of a Robotically Assembled Very Large Aperture Optical Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkie, William Keats; Williams, R. Brett; Agnes, Gregory S.; Wilcox, Brian H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a feasibility study of robotically constructing a very large aperture optical space telescope on-orbit. Since the largest engineering challenges are likely to reside in the design and assembly of the 150-m diameter primary reflector, this preliminary study focuses on this component. The same technology developed for construction of the primary would then be readily used for the smaller optical structures (secondary, tertiary, etc.). A reasonable set of ground and on-orbit loading scenarios are compiled from the literature and used to define the structural performance requirements and size the primary reflector. A surface precision analysis shows that active adjustment of the primary structure is required in order to meet stringent optical surface requirements. Two potential actuation strategies are discussed along with potential actuation devices at the current state of the art. The finding of this research effort indicate that successful technology development combined with further analysis will likely enable such a telescope to be built in the future.

  16. Technology gap assessment for a future large-aperture ultraviolet-optical-infrared space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Crooke, Julie; Feinberg, Lee; Quijada, Manuel; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Redding, David; Rioux, Norman; Shaklan, Stuart; Stahl, H. Philip; Stahle, Carl M.; Thronson, Harley

    2016-10-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) team identified five key technology areas to enable candidate architectures for a future large-aperture ultraviolet/optical/infrared (LUVOIR) space observatory envisioned by the NASA Astrophysics 30-year roadmap, "Enduring Quests, Daring Visions." The science goals of ATLAST address a broad range of astrophysical questions from early galaxy and star formation to the processes that contributed to the formation of life on Earth, combining general astrophysics with direct-imaging and spectroscopy of habitable exoplanets. The key technology areas are internal coronagraphs, starshades (or external occulters), ultra-stable large-aperture telescope systems, detectors, and mirror coatings. For each technology area, we define best estimates of required capabilities, current state-of-the-art performance, and current technology readiness level (TRL), thus identifying the current technology gap. We also report on current, planned, or recommended efforts to develop each technology to TRL 5.

  17. MICRONERVA: A Novel Approach to Large Aperture Astronomical Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Ryan; Plavchan, Peter; Geneser, Claire; Giddens, Frank; Spangler, Sophia

    2016-06-01

    MICRONERVA (MICRO Novel Exoplanet Radial Velocity Array) is a project to measure precise spectroscopic radial velocities. The cost of telescopes are a strong function of diameter, and light gathering power as opposed to angular resolution is the fundamental driver for telescope design for many spectroscopic science applications. By sacrificing angular resolution, many multiple smaller fiber-fed telescopes can be combined to synthesize the light gathering power of a larger diameter telescope at a lower effective cost. For our MICRONERVA prototype, based upon the larger MINERVA project, we will attempt to demonstrate that an array of four 8-inch CPC Celestron telescopes can be automated with sufficient active guiding precision for robust nightly robotic operations. The light from each telescope is coupled into single mode fibers, which are conveniently matched to the point spread function of 8-inch telescopes, which can be diffraction limited at red wavelengths in typical seeing at good observing sites. Additionally, the output from an array of single mode fibers provides stable output illumination of a spectrograph, which is a critical requirement of future precise radial velocity instrumentation. All of the hardware from the system is automated using Python programs and ASCOM and MaxIm DL software drivers. We will present an overview of the current status of the project and plans for future work. The detection of exoplanets using the techniques of MICRONERVA could potentially enable cost reductions for many types of spectroscopic research.

  18. Study on fine annealing process of the large-aperture K9 glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gang, Wang; Bin, Liu Yi; Zheng, Li Li; Hui, Zhang; Lei, Xie; Min, Qiu Fu; Ping, Ma; Yao, Yan Ding

    2016-10-01

    Study on fine annealing process of the large-aperture K9 glasses was carried out in the report. The process parameters of glass placed way, fan speed and design of the cavity for keeping temperature uniformity were attained. By the fine annealing experiment, the stress distribution was improved evidently. The stress changed from Irregular distribution to consistency symmetric distribution and the stress max was reduced. The surface profile accuracy of the large-aperture K9 glasses was controlled steadily during CNC polishing.

  19. Off-axis multipass amplifier as a large aperture driver stage for fusion lasers.

    PubMed

    Murray, J E; Downs, D C; Hunt, J T; Hermes, G L; Warren, W E

    1981-03-01

    A multipass amplifier configuration is described which has potential as a large aperture, high gain driver stage for fusion laser systems. We avoid the present limitations of large aperture switches by using an off-angle geometry that does not require an optical switch. The saturated gain characteristics of this multipass amplifier are optimized numerically. Three potential problems are investigated experimentally, self-lasing, output beam quality, and amplified spontaneous emission output. The results indicate comparable cost for comparable performance to a linear chain, with some operational advantage for the multipass driver stage.

  20. Surface accuracy analysis and mathematical modeling of deployable large aperture elastic antenna reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Michael J.

    One class of deployable large aperture antenna consists of thin light-weight parabolic reflectors. A reflector of this type is a deployable structure that consists of an inflatable elastic membrane that is supported about its perimeter by a set of elastic tendons and is subjected to a constant hydrostatic pressure. A design may not hold the parabolic shape to within a desired tolerance due to an elastic deformation of the surface, particularly near the rim. We can compute the equilibrium configuration of the reflector system using an optimization-based solution procedure that calculates the total system energy and determines a configuration of minimum energy. Analysis of the equilibrium configuration reveals the behavior of the reflector shape under various loading conditions. The pressure, film strain energy, tendon strain energy, and gravitational energy are all considered in this analysis. The surface accuracy of the antenna reflector is measured by an RMS calculation while the reflector phase error component of the efficiency is determined by computing the power density at boresight. Our error computation methods are tailored for the faceted surface of our model and they are more accurate for this particular problem than the commonly applied Ruze Equation. Previous analytical work on parabolic antennas focused on axisymmetric geometries and loads. Symmetric equilibria are not assumed in our analysis. In addition, this dissertation contains two principle original findings: (1) the typical supporting tendon system tends to flatten a parabolic reflector near its edge. We find that surface accuracy can be significantly improved by fixing the edge of the inflated reflector to a rigid structure; (2) for large membranes assembled from flat sheets of thin material, we demonstrate that the surface accuracy of the resulting inflated membrane reflector can be improved by altering the cutting pattern of the flat components. Our findings demonstrate that the proper choice

  1. Sub-aperture stitching test of a cylindrical mirror with large aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Shuai; Chen, Shanyong; Shi, Feng; Lu, Jinfeng

    2016-09-01

    Cylindrical mirrors are key optics of high-end equipment of national defense and scientific research such as high energy laser weapons, synchrotron radiation system, etc. However, its surface error test technology develops slowly. As a result, its optical processing quality can not meet the requirements, and the developing of the associated equipment is hindered. Computer Generated-Hologram (CGH) is commonly utilized as null for testing cylindrical optics. However, since the fabrication process of CGH with large aperture is not sophisticated yet, the null test of cylindrical optics with large aperture is limited by the aperture of the CGH. Hence CGH null test combined with sub-aperture stitching method is proposed to break the limit of the aperture of CGH for testing cylindrical optics, and the design of CGH for testing cylindrical surfaces is analyzed. Besides, the misalignment aberration of cylindrical surfaces is different from that of the rotational symmetric surfaces since the special shape of cylindrical surfaces, and the existing stitching algorithm of rotational symmetric surfaces can not meet the requirements of stitching cylindrical surfaces. We therefore analyze the misalignment aberrations of cylindrical surfaces, and study the stitching algorithm for measuring cylindrical optics with large aperture. Finally we test a cylindrical mirror with large aperture to verify the validity of the proposed method.

  2. Study on methods for measuring laser energy of large-aperture beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Gao, Haoran; Jia, Jing; Hu, Shaoyun; Fan, Hongying

    2014-12-01

    A experimental method measuring laser energy and energy distributing of large-aperture beam is presented. The experimental equipment is established. The energy and energy distribution of beam, the beam size is Φ100mm and Φ360mm, are measured. The result show measuring error for laser energy is less than 8%. The energy distribution is basically consistent.

  3. Imaging the midcontinent rift beneath Lake Superior using large aperture seismic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trehu, Anne M.; Morel-a-l'Huissier, Patrick; Meyer, R.; Hajnal, Z.; Karl, J.; Mereu, R. F.; Sexton, J.; Shay, J.; Chan, W. K.; Epili, D.; Jefferson, T.; Shih, X. R.; Wendling, S.; Milkereit, B.; Green, A.; Hutchinson, Deborah R.

    1991-01-01

    We present a detailed velocity model across the 1.1 billion year old Midcontinent Rift System (MRS) in central Lake Superior. The model was derived primarily from onshore-offshore large-aperture seismic and gravity data. High velocities obtained within a highly reflective half-graben that was imaged on coincident seismic reflection data demonstrate the dominantly mafic composition of the graben fill and constrain its total thickness to be at least 30km. Strong wide-angle reflections are observed from the lower crust and Moho, indicating that the crust is thickest (55–60km) beneath the axis of the graben. The total crustal thickness decreases rapidly to about 40 km beneath the south shore of the lake and decreases more gradually to the north. Above the Moho is a high-velocity lower crust interpreted to result from syn-rift basaltic intrusion into and/or underplating beneath the Archean lower crust. The lower crust is thickest beneath the axis of the main rift half-graben. A second region of thick lower crust is found approximately 100km north of the axis of the rift beneath a smaller half graben that is interpreted to reflect an earlier stage of rifting. The crustal model presented here resembles recent models of some passive continental margins and is in marked contrast to many models of both active and extinct Phanerozoic continental rift zones. It demonstrates that the Moho is a dynamic feature, since the pre-rift Moho is probably within or above the high-velocity lower crust, whereas the post-rift Moho is defined as the base of this layer. In the absence of major tectonic activity, however, the Moho is very stable, since the large, abrupt variations in crustal thickness beneath the MRS have been preserved for at least a billion years.

  4. ATLAST-9.2: A Deployable Large Aperture UVOIR Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oegerle, William R.; Feinberg, L.; Purves, L.; Hyde, T.; Thronson, H.; Townsend, J.; Postman, M.; Bolcar, M.; Budinoff, J.; Dean, B.; Clampin, N.; Ebbets, D.; Gong, Q.; Gull, T.; Howard, J.; Jones, A.; Lyon, R.; Pasquale, B.; Perrygo, C.; Smith, S.; Thompson, P.; Woodgate, B.

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a study of a deployable version of the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) that could be launched on an Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV). ATLAST is a concept for a next-generation UVOIR observatory to follow HST and JWST. The observatory retains significant heritage from JWST, thereby taking advantage of technologies and engineering already developed for that mission. At the same time, we have identified several design changes to the JWST architecture, some of which are required due to the demanding wavefront error requirements at visible wavelengths. The optical telescope assembly has a segmented 9.2-meter aperture and consists of 36 hexagonal glass mirrors, each of which is I.3l5m in size (flat-to-flat). The telescope can be folded to fit in the 6.5m fairing on the planned upgrade to the Delta-IV heavy launch vehicle. Near-real time wavefront sensing and control is performed on-board the telescope using stars in the field of view to deliver diffraction limited imaging performance at 500nm wavelength. The optical design of the telescope provides an 8x20 arcmin FOV in which 4-5 instruments can be accommodated, plus fine guidance and wavefront sensors. Unlike JWST, the OTA sits at the end of a multi-gimbaled arm, allowing pitch and roll motion, and is isolated from the sunshield and spacecraft bus by an active isolation system. Our design permits servicing in order to extend the life of the observatory.

  5. Thermal Analysis of the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) 8 Meter Primary Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornsby, Linda; Stahl, H. Philip; Hopkins, Randall C.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) preliminary design concept consists of an 8 meter diameter monolithic primary mirror enclosed in an insulated, optical tube with stray light baffles and a sunshade. ATLAST will be placed in orbit about the Sun-Earth L2 and will experience constant exposure to the sun. The insulation on the optical tube and sunshade serve to cold bias the telescope which helps to minimize thermal gradients. The primary mirror will be maintained at 280K with an active thermal control system. The geometric model of the primary mirror, optical tube, sun baffles, and sunshade was developed using Thermal Desktop(R) SINDA/FLUINT(R) was used for the thermal analysis and the radiation environment was analyzed using RADCAD(R). A XX node model was executed in order to characterize the static performance and thermal stability of the mirror during maneuvers. This is important because long exposure observations, such as extra-solar terrestrial planet finding and characterization, require a very stable observatory wave front. Steady state thermal analyses served to predict mirror temperatures for several different sun angles. Transient analyses were performed in order to predict thermal time constant of the primary mirror for a 20 degree slew or 30 degree roll maneuver. This paper describes the thermal model and provides details of the geometry, thermo-optical properties, and the environment which influences the thermal performance. All assumptions that were used in the analysis are also documented. Parametric analyses are summarized for design parameters including primary mirror coatings and sunshade configuration. Estimates of mirror heater power requirements are reported. The thermal model demonstrates results for the primary mirror heated from the back side and edges using a heater system with multiple independently controlled zones.

  6. Thermal Analysis of the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) 8 Meter Primary Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornsby, Linda; Stahl, H. Philip; Hopkins, Randall C.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) preliminary design concept consists of an 8 meter diameter monolithic primary mirror enclosed in an insulated, optical tube with stray light baffles and a sunshade. ATLAST will be placed in orbit about the Sun-Earth L2 and will experience constant exposure to the sun. The insulation on the optical tube and sunshade serve to cold bias the telescope which helps to minimize thermal gradients. The primary mirror will be maintained at 280K with an active thermal control system. The geometric model of the primary mirror, optical tube, sun baffles, and sunshade was developed using Thermal Desktop(R) SINDA/FLUINT(R) was used for the thermal analysis and the radiation environment was analyzed using RADCAD(R). A XX node model was executed in order to characterize the static performance and thermal stability of the mirror during maneuvers. This is important because long exposure observations, such as extra-solar terrestrial planet finding and characterization, require a very stable observatory wave front. Steady state thermal analyses served to predict mirror temperatures for several different sun angles. Transient analyses were performed in order to predict thermal time constant of the primary mirror for a 20 degree slew or 30 degree roll maneuver. This paper describes the thermal model and provides details of the geometry, thermo-optical properties, and the environment which influences the thermal performance. All assumptions that were used in the analysis are also documented. Parametric analyses are summarized for design parameters including primary mirror coatings and sunshade configuration. Estimates of mirror heater power requirements are reported. The thermal model demonstrates results for the primary mirror heated from the back side and edges using a heater system with multiple independently controlled zones.

  7. Thermal analysis of the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) 8-meter primary mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornsby, Linda; Hopkins, Randall C.; Stahl, H. Philip

    2010-07-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) preliminary design concept consists of an 8 meter diameter monolithic primary mirror enclosed in an insulated, optical tube with stray light baffles and a sunshade. ATLAST will be placed in orbit about the Sun-Earth L2 point and will experience constant exposure to the sun. The insulation on the optical tube and sunshade serve to cold bias the telescope which helps to minimize thermal gradients. The objective is to maintain the primary mirror at 280K with an active thermal control system. The geometric model of the primary mirror, optical tube, sun baffles, and sunshade was developed using Thermal Desktop®1. A detailed model of the primary mirror was required in order to characterize the static performance and thermal stability of the mirror during maneuvers. This is important because long exposure observations, such as extra-solar terrestrial planet finding and characterization, require a very stable observatory wave front. Steady state thermal analyses served to predict mirror temperatures for several different sun angles. Transient analyses were performed in order to predict thermal time constant of the primary mirror for a 20 degree slew and a 30 degree roll maneuver. This paper describes the thermal model and provides details of the geometry, thermo-optical properties, and the solar environment that influences the thermal performance. All assumptions that were used in the analysis are also documented. Estimates of mirror heater power requirements are reported. The thermal model is used to predict gradients across and through the primary mirror using an idealized boundary temperature on the back and sides of the mirror of 280 K.

  8. ATLAST-9.2: A Deployable Large Aperture UVOIR Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oegerle, William R.; Feinberg, L.; Purves, L.; Hyde, T.; Thronson, H.; Townsend, J.; Postman, M.; Bolcar, M.; Budinoff, J.; Dean, B.; hide

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a study of a deployable version of the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) that could be launched on an Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV). ATLAST is a concept for a next-generation UVOIR observatory to follow HST and JWST. The observatory retains significant heritage from JWST, thereby taking advantage of technologies and engineering already developed for that mission. At the same time, we have identified several design changes to the JWST architecture, some of which are required due to the demanding wavefront error requirements at visible wavelengths. The optical telescope assembly has a segmented 9.2-meter aperture and consists of 36 hexagonal glass mirrors, each of which is I.3l5m in size (flat-to-flat). The telescope can be folded to fit in the 6.5m fairing on the planned upgrade to the Delta-IV heavy launch vehicle. Near-real time wavefront sensing and control is performed on-board the telescope using stars in the field of view to deliver diffraction limited imaging performance at 500nm wavelength. The optical design of the telescope provides an 8x20 arcmin FOV in which 4-5 instruments can be accommodated, plus fine guidance and wavefront sensors. Unlike JWST, the OTA sits at the end of a multi-gimbaled arm, allowing pitch and roll motion, and is isolated from the sunshield and spacecraft bus by an active isolation system. Our design permits servicing in order to extend the life of the observatory.

  9. Active membrane phased array radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moussessian, Alina; Del Castillo, Linda; Huang, John; Sadowy, Greg; Hoffman, James; Smith, Phil; Hatake, Toshiro; Derksen, Chuck; Lopez, Bernardo; Caro, Ed

    2005-01-01

    We have developed the first membrane-based active phased array in L-band (1.26GHz). The array uses membrane compatible Transmit/Receive (T/R) modules (membrane T/R) for each antenna element. We use phase shifters within each T/R module for electronic beam steering. We will discuss the T/R module design and integration with the membrane, We will also present transmit and receive beam-steering results for the array.

  10. Active membrane phased array radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moussessian, Alina; Del Castillo, Linda; Huang, John; Sadowy, Greg; Hoffman, James; Smith, Phil; Hatake, Toshiro; Derksen, Chuck; Lopez, Bernardo; Caro, Ed

    2005-01-01

    We have developed the first membrane-based active phased array in L-band (1.26GHz). The array uses membrane compatible Transmit/Receive (T/R) modules (membrane T/R) for each antenna element. We use phase shifters within each T/R module for electronic beam steering. We will discuss the T/R module design and integration with the membrane, We will also present transmit and receive beam-steering results for the array.

  11. Optomechanical analysis of the flexure mounting configuration of large-aperture laser transport mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zheng; Quan, Xusong; Wang, Hui; Liu, Tianye; Xiong, Zhao; Yuan, Xiaodong; Rong, Yiming

    2017-02-01

    Motivated by the demand to minimize the mount-induced wavefront aberration of the large-aperture laser transport mirror, a low-stress flexure mounting configuration is proposed. Specific optomechanical analyses, including theoretical modeling, numerical analysis and field experiment, are presented. The mechanical properties of the flexure support were studied specifically. Besides, the relation between the mounting forces and the root-mean-square of the gradients (GRMS) value of the mirror surface is studied. Then, the appropriate value of the bolt preload is set to 500N, with which the GRMS value is just 5.35 nm/cm. The results indicate that the flexure mounting configuration is indeed a feasible and promising method to solve the mount-induced distortion problem of large-aperture optics.

  12. Initial Technology Assessment for the Large-Aperture UV-Optical-Infrared (LUVOIR) Mission Concept Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Feinberg, Lee; France, Kevin; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Redding, David; Schiminovich, David

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Division's 30-Year Roadmap prioritized a future large-aperture space telescope operating in the ultra-violet/optical/infrared wavelength regime. The Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy envisioned a similar observatory, the High Definition Space Telescope. And a multi-institution group also studied the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope. In all three cases, a broad science case is outlined, combining general astrophysics with the search for biosignatures via direct-imaging and spectroscopic characterization of habitable exoplanets. We present an initial technology assessment that enables such an observatory that is currently being studied for the 2020 Decadal Survey by the Large UV/Optical/Infrared (LUVOIR) surveyor Science and Technology Definition Team. We present here the technology prioritization for the 2016 technology cycle and define the required technology capabilities and current state-of-the-art performance. Current, planned, and recommended technology development efforts are also reported.

  13. Initial technology assessment for the Large-Aperture UV-Optical-Infrared (LUVOIR) mission concept study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Feinberg, Lee; France, Kevin; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Redding, David; Schiminovich, David

    2016-07-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Division's 30-Year Roadmap prioritized a future large-aperture space telescope operating in the ultra-violet/optical/infrared wavelength regime. The Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy envisioned a similar observatory, the High Definition Space Telescope. And a multi-institution group also studied the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope. In all three cases, a broad science case is outlined, combining general astrophysics with the search for biosignatures via direct-imaging and spectroscopic characterization of habitable exoplanets. We present an initial technology assessment that enables such an observatory that is currently being studied for the 2020 Decadal Survey by the Large UV/Optical/Infrared (LUVOIR) surveyor Science and Technology Definition Team. We present here the technology prioritization for the 2016 technology cycle and define the required technology capabilities and current state-of-the-art performance. Current, planned, and recommended technology development efforts are also reported.

  14. Research and validation of key measurement technologies of large aperture optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Renhui; Chen, Lei; Jiang, Chao; Cao, Hui; Zhang, Huiqin; Zhou, Binbin; Song, Le

    2015-07-01

    A lot of optical components with large aperture are employed in high-power solid-state laser driver. These optical components are with high requirement on the surface shape, optical homogeneity and stress distribution. In order to test these parameters, different types of interferometers, surface profilers and stress meters from different manufacturers are needed. But the problem is the products from different manufacturers may provide different test results. To solve the problem, the research and verification of the key measurement technologies of large aperture optical components are carried out in this paper. The absolute flatness and optical homogeneity measurement methods are analyzed. And the test results of different interferometric software are compared. The test results from different surface profilers and stress meters are also compared. The consistency and reliability of different test software are obtained with the comparing results, which will guide users to select a suitable product.

  15. The development of large-aperture test system of infrared camera and visible CCD camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingwen; Geng, Anbing; Wang, Bo; Wang, Haitao; Wu, Yanying

    2015-10-01

    Infrared camera and CCD camera dual-band imaging system is used in many equipment and application widely. If it is tested using the traditional infrared camera test system and visible CCD test system, 2 times of installation and alignment are needed in the test procedure. The large-aperture test system of infrared camera and visible CCD camera uses the common large-aperture reflection collimator, target wheel, frame-grabber, computer which reduces the cost and the time of installation and alignment. Multiple-frame averaging algorithm is used to reduce the influence of random noise. Athermal optical design is adopted to reduce the change of focal length location change of collimator when the environmental temperature is changing, and the image quality of the collimator of large field of view and test accuracy are also improved. Its performance is the same as that of the exotic congener and is much cheaper. It will have a good market.

  16. The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST): Science Drivers and Technology Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Postman, Marc; Brown, Tom; Sembach, Kenneth; Giavalisco, Mauro; Traub, Wesley; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Calzetti, Daniela; Oegerle, William; Rich, R. Michael; Stahl, H. Phillip; hide

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) is a concept for an 8-meter to 16-meter UVOIR space observatory for launch in the 2025-2030 era. ATLAST will allow astronomers to answer fundamental questions at the forefront of modern astrophysics, including "Is there life elsewhere in the Galaxy?" We present a range of science drivers and the resulting performance requirements for ATLAST (8 to 16 milliarcsecond angular resolution, diffraction limited imaging at 0.5 m wavelength, minimum collecting area of 45 square meters, high sensitivity to light wavelengths from 0.1 m to 2.4 m, high stability in wavefront sensing and control). We also discuss the priorities for technology development needed to enable the construction of ATLAST for a cost that is comparable to current generation observatory-class space missions. Keywords: Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST); ultraviolet/optical space telescopes; astrophysics; astrobiology; technology development.

  17. Parasitic suppression in large aperture disk lasers employing liquid edge claddings.

    PubMed

    Guch, S

    1976-06-01

    A liquid edge cladding system for parasitic suppression in large aperture, high gain disk laser amplifiers has been developed and tested. A near-saturated aqueous solution of Znl(2) was employed for index-matching. Adequate fluorescence absorption was demonstrated using either dissolved NiCl(2) or chrome black oxide coating applied to the disk holder. Application of liquid cladding to a 20-cm aperture disk laser amplifier increased energy storage capability by approximately 20% over conventional solder glass claddings.

  18. A Large-Aperture Acoustic Array to Observe Oceanic Density Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-01

    Subtitle) ._,,, , , : A ^ARGE-APERTURb ^ COUSTIC ARRAY TO ^OBSERVE OCEANIC DENSITY STRUCTURE t 7. AUTHORfj; G. Thomas/Kaye READ INSTRUCTIONS...o CO (M MARINE PHYSICAL LABORATORY of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography San Diego, California 92132 A LARGE APERTURE ACOUSTIC ARRAY TO...Contracts Contract Effective Date: Contract Expiration Date; Amount of Contract: Layered Inhomogeneities N00014-69- A -0200-6038 \\ 1 April 1972 Jiß

  19. Mechanical analysis and measurement of wheel-rail contact system in large aperture radio telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Z. P.; Kong, D. Q.; Li, C. G.; Zhu, N. J.; Shi, H. L.

    2016-07-01

    The azimuth rotation part of a large aperture radio telescope usually takes one wheel-rail system; therefore, wheel-rail pointing errors and wheel-rail wear are very important to antenna point accuracy. First, this paper discusses the wheelrail contact theory and some specific characteristics of wheel-rail system in large aperture radio telescope. Second, one 3D model of wheel-rail contact system is built according to the parameters of 50m antenna in China, and the model is analyzed by one whole body in MSC.Patran/Nastran. Third, we use the multi-body dynamic method to build the model of wheel-rail and simulate it in RecurDyn software. Comparing the simulation results, we find that the coupling of rigidbody and soft-body is much more precise than one whole body in describing the contact deformation. And the results also explain the crevice's influence on the mechanical properties of wheel-rail contact system. Finally, some experiments and measurements of 50m antenna are made, by which we get some useful tips for large aperture radio telescope. The test results show that the multi-body dynamic method is much more suitable to the mechanical analysis in wheel-rail contact system.

  20. Large-aperture space optical system testing based on the scanning Hartmann.

    PubMed

    Wei, Haisong; Yan, Feng; Chen, Xindong; Zhang, Hao; Cheng, Qiang; Xue, Donglin; Zeng, Xuefeng; Zhang, Xuejun

    2017-03-10

    Based on the Hartmann testing principle, this paper proposes a novel image quality testing technology which applies to a large-aperture space optical system. Compared with the traditional testing method through a large-aperture collimator, the scanning Hartmann testing technology has great advantages due to its simple structure, low cost, and ability to perform wavefront measurement of an optical system. The basic testing principle of the scanning Hartmann testing technology, data processing method, and simulation process are presented in this paper. Certain simulation results are also given to verify the feasibility of this technology. Furthermore, a measuring system is developed to conduct a wavefront measurement experiment for a 200 mm aperture optical system. The small deviation (6.3%) of root mean square (RMS) between experimental results and interferometric results indicates that the testing system can measure low-order aberration correctly, which means that the scanning Hartmann testing technology has the ability to test the imaging quality of a large-aperture space optical system.

  1. Partial feedback unstable resonator on small scale supersonic large aperture chemical laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongyan; Wang, Rui; Li, Lei

    2015-05-01

    There is always a challenge on large aperture medium power laser's resonator design, stable resonator would supports significant higher order transverse modes, folded and telescope stable resonator are too complex and not preferred by engineers, unstable resonator need rather large round trip gain to compensate its high geometric out-coupling, which is difficult for this kind of laser since its gain length is limited due to the power level and large aperture. Partial feedback unstable resonator had been proposed to tackle this difficulty since the early days of laser development, however, the debates of its effect never stopped even with those distinguished optical resonator scientists such as Siegman, Anan'ev, and Weber. Recently integrated partial feedback unstable resonator design had been successfully demonstrated on a medium size chemical oxygen iodine laser. In this paper, we carry this resonator configuration on a small scale discharge driven supersonic nozzle array Hydrogen Fluoride chemical laser, a typical large aperture short gain length device. With magnification equals 4/3, we successfully get ten Watts level ring beam output.

  2. Low-stress mounting configuration design for large aperture laser transport mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zheng; Quan, Xusong; Yao, Chao; Wang, Hui

    2016-10-01

    TM1-6S1 large aperture laser transport mirror is a crucial optical unit of high power solid-state laser in the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) facility. This article focuses on the low-stress and precise mounting method of large-aperture mirror. Based on the engineering practice of SG-III, the state-of-the-art and key problems of current mounting configuration are clarified firstly. Subsequently, a brand new low-stress mounting configuration with flexure supports is proposed. Opto-mechanical model of the mirror under mounting force is built up with elastic mechanics theory. Further, numerical methods and field tests are employed to verify the favorable load uniform capacity and load adjust capacity of flexure supports. With FEM, the relation between the mounting force from new configuration and the mirror surface distortion (wavefront error) is clarified. The novel mounting method of large aperture optics could be not only used on this laser transport mirror, but also on the other transmission optics and large crystals in ICF facilities.

  3. Enzymatically active ultrathin pepsin membranes.

    PubMed

    Raaijmakers, Michiel J T; Schmidt, Thomas; Barth, Monika; Tutus, Murat; Benes, Nieck E; Wessling, Matthias

    2015-05-11

    Enzymatically active proteins enable efficient and specific cleavage reactions of peptide bonds. Covalent coupling of the enzymes permits immobilization, which in turn reduces autolysis-induced deactivation. Ultrathin pepsin membranes were prepared by facile interfacial polycondensation of pepsin and trimesoyl chloride. The pepsin membrane allows for simultaneous enzymatic conversion and selective removal of digestion products. The large water fluxes through the membrane expedite the transport of large molecules through the pepsin layers. The presented method enables the large-scale production of ultrathin, cross-linked, enzymatically active membranes.

  4. Tracking marine mammals and ships with small and large-aperture hydrophone arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassmann, Martin

    Techniques for passive acoustic tracking in all three spatial dimensions of marine mammals and ships were developed for long-term acoustic datasets recorded continuously over months using custom-designed arrays of underwater microphones (hydrophones) with spacing ranging from meters to kilometers. From the three-dimensional tracks, the acoustical properties of toothed whales and ships, such as sound intensity and directionality, were estimated as they are needed for the passive acoustic abundance estimation of toothed whales and for a quantitative description of the contribution of ships to the underwater soundscape. In addition, the tracks of the toothed whales reveal their underwater movements and demonstrate the potential of the developed tracking techniques to investigate their natural behavior and responses to sound generated by human activity, such as from ships or military SONAR. To track the periodically emitted echolocation sounds of toothed whales in an acoustically refractive environment in the upper ocean, a propagation-model based technique was developed for a hydrophone array consisting of one vertical and two L-shaped subarrays deployed from the floating instrument platform R/P FLIP. The technique is illustrated by tracking a group of five shallow-diving killer whales showing coordinated behavior. The challenge of tracking the highly directional echolocation sounds of deep-diving (< 1 km) toothed whales, in particular Cuvier's beaked whales, was addressed by embedding volumetric small-aperture (≈ 1 m element spacing) arrays into a large-aperture (≈ 1 km element spacing) seafloor array to reduce the minimum number of required receivers from five to two. The capabilities of this technique are illustrated by tracking several groups of up to three individuals over time periods from 10 min to 33 min within an area of 20 km2 in the Southern California Bight. To track and measure the underwater radiated sound of ships, a frequency domain beamformer was

  5. A Large Aperture Lidar Observatory for Exploring the Interaction of Our Atmosphere with Space (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thayer, J. P.; Gardner, C. S.; Swenson, G. R.

    2013-12-01

    The mesopause region has been the subject of intensive study during the past decade because it is recognized as a critical region connecting our sensible atmosphere to the near-space environment. Processes in this region include a host of wave dynamics, heat and constituent transport, turbulence, polar mesospheric cloud formation, and the influx of meteoric material. Moreover, the neutral gas properties above the mesopause from 100 - 200 km altitude are poorly characterized and are influenced by additional processes that include solar EUV absorption / ionization, eddy to molecular diffusion, neutral wind dynamo action, and geomagnetic activity. Thus, this altitude region is a complex confluence of space and atmosphere processes that ultimately determine its properties. Fundamentally these processes are operating in any planetary atmosphere and must be understood in order to advance understanding of habitability and sustainability of a planetary system. While observational and modeling capabilities are evolving, progress in characterizing neutral properties and related processes in the mesopause region and above has been inhibited because they cannot be observed in sufficient detail and at high enough altitudes with existing instrumentation. This is especially true of the neutral atmosphere from 50 - 1000 km, where observations of its properties, dynamics and thermal structure are either sparse or nonexistent. A Large-Aperture Lidar Observatory (LALO) would enable significant progress by providing critical measurements of atmospheric constituents and parameters at greatly enhanced resolution and at much higher altitudes than is possible today. A large telescope in combination with modern high-power lasers, would enable observations of the neutral atmosphere to 1000 km altitude with a sensitivity and resolution approximately 1000 times better than can be achieved with the most powerful lidar systems in operation today. There are no technology barriers to realizing

  6. An Engineering Design Reference Mission for a Future Large-Aperture UVOIR Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Clampin, Mark; Crooke, Julie A.; Redding, David; Rioux, Norman; Stahl, H. Philip

    2016-01-01

    From the 2010 NRC Decadal Survey and the NASA Thirty-Year Roadmap, Enduring Quests, Daring Visions, to the recent AURA report, From Cosmic Birth to Living Earths, multiple community assessments have recommended development of a large-aperture UVOIR space observatory capable of achieving a broad range of compelling scientific goals. Of these priority science goals, the most technically challenging is the search for spectroscopic biomarkers in the atmospheres of exoplanets in the solar neighborhood. Here we present an engineering design reference mission (EDRM) for the Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST), which was conceived from the start as capable of breakthrough science paired with an emphasis on cost control and cost effectiveness. An EDRM allows the engineering design trade space to be explored in depth to determine what are the most demanding requirements and where there are opportunities for margin against requirements. Our joint NASA GSFC/JPL/MSFC/STScI study team has used community-provided science goals to derive mission needs, requirements, and candidate mission architectures for a future large-aperture, non-cryogenic UVOIR space observatory. The ATLAST observatory is designed to operate at a Sun-Earth L2 orbit, which provides a stable thermal environment and excellent field of regard. Our reference designs have emphasized a serviceable 36-segment 9.2 m aperture telescope that stows within a five-meter diameter launch vehicle fairing. As part of our cost-management effort, this particular reference mission builds upon the engineering design for JWST. Moreover, it is scalable to a variety of launch vehicle fairings. Performance needs developed under the study are traceable to a variety of additional reference designs, including options for a monolithic primary mirror.

  7. Spacecraft Conceptual Design for the 8-Meter Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, Randall C.; Capizzo, Peter; Fincher, Sharon; Hornsby, Linda S.; Jones, David

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office at Marshall Space Flight Center completed a brief spacecraft design study for the 8-meter monolithic Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST-8m). This spacecraft concept provides all power, communication, telemetry, avionics, guidance and control, and thermal control for the observatory, and inserts the observatory into a halo orbit about the second Sun-Earth Lagrange point. The multidisciplinary design team created a simple spacecraft design that enables component and science instrument servicing, employs articulating solar panels for help with momentum management, and provides precise pointing control while at the same time fast slewing for the observatory.

  8. Engineering Specification for Large-aperture UVO Space Telescopes Derived from Science Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Arnold, William; Bevan, Ryan M.; Smith, W. Scott.; Kirk, Charles S.; Postman, Mark

    2013-01-01

    An advanced large aperture UV/optical UVO space telescope is required for the next generation of astrophysics and exoplanet science. The science requirements of proposed exoplanet and astrophysics missions were used to determine the encircled energy, point spread function stability and thermal environment requirements. These requirements then determine the optical wavefront specification for potential telescope assemblies which can fit inside current and planned launch vehicles. The optical wavefront specification becomes the top level of the error budget that is split into various sources that control the structural, thermal and optical design.

  9. A very large aperture spectrometer for low light optical emission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baude, R.; Escarguel, A.; David, P.

    2017-02-01

    In low light experiments such as low temperature plasma or astronomical spectroscopy usual tools such as Czerny Turner based spectrometer (CTS) may have a limited efficiency due to the fact that a large entrance slit implies a large broadening of the instruments profile. To overcome the brightness issue of spectrometer, the so-called Bowen Chamber spectrometer (BCS) was designed to accept a large aperture slit, without significant deterioration of the spectrum. The BSC characteristics are presented and a close comparison with a CTS spectrometer is detailed. A simple geometrical model have been developed to still improve the BSC specifications.

  10. Development of an efficient large-aperture high damage-threshold sol-gel diffraction grating.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, Carol S.; Rambo, Patrick K.; Schwarz, Jens; Dunphy, Darren Robert; Branson, Eric D.; Smith, Ian Craig; Johnson, William Arthur; Reed, Scott T.; Cook, Adam W.

    2005-03-01

    In order to develop the next generation of high peak intensity lasers, new grating technology providing higher damage thresholds and large apertures is required. The current assumption is that this technical innovation will be multilayer dielectric gratings, wherein the uppermost layer of a thin film mirror is etched to create the desired binary phase grating. A variant of this is explored with the upper grating layer being a lower density gelatin-based volume phase grating in either sol-gel or dichromated gelatin. One key benefit is the elimination of the etching step.

  11. Large aperture interferometer with phase-conjugate self-reference beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howes, W. L.

    1986-01-01

    A large aperture self-referencing interferometer consisting of a Twyman-Green interferometer using a self-pumped phase conjugator in series with test section optics is described and experimentally demonstrated. This interferometer provides twice the fringe shift of a Mach-Zehnder (M-Z) interferometer for a given optical phase change induced within the test section. It also provides greater irradiance in the reference beam than does a similar series setup utilizing a M-Z interferometer incorporating a local reference beam. Whereas the ordinary interferometer records instantaneous conditions, the new one records overage conditions if a BaTiO3 crystal is used as the phase conjugator.

  12. End-to-End Assessment of a Large Aperture Segmented Ultraviolet Optical Infrared (UVOIR) Telescope Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee; Bolcar, Matt; Liu, Alice; Guyon, Olivier; Stark,Chris; Arenberg, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Key challenges of a future large aperture, segmented Ultraviolet Optical Infrared (UVOIR) Telescope capable of performing a spectroscopic survey of hundreds of Exoplanets will be sufficient stability to achieve 10-10 contrast measurements and sufficient throughput and sensitivity for high yield Exo-Earth spectroscopic detection. Our team has collectively assessed an optimized end to end architecture including a high throughput coronagraph capable of working with a segmented telescope, a cost-effective and heritage based stable segmented telescope, a control architecture that minimizes the amount of new technologies, and an Exo-Earth yield assessment to evaluate potential performance.

  13. Path-Average Rainfall Estimation From Optical Extinction Measurements Using a Large- Aperture Scintillometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uijlenhoet, R.; Cohard, J.; Gosset, M.

    2008-12-01

    We employ a Scintec BLS900 near infrared (880 nm) large aperture boundary layer scintillometer as path average rain gauge. The instrument was installed over a path of 2.4 km in Benin as part of the AMMA CATCH (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis) intensive observation period during 2006 and 2007. Measurements of the one minute average and variance of the received signal intensity from two transmitter disks of 462 LEDs each, operating at a pulse repetition rate of 5 Hz (i.e. 300 samples per minute), were collected for a few rainfall events that occurred during the dry season and several events during the wet season. Using estimates of the signal base level just before the start of the rain events, the optical extinction coefficient was estimated from the path integrated signal attenuation for each minute. The corresponding one minute path average rain rates were computed using a power law relation between the optical extinction coefficient and rain rate obtained from measurements of raindrop size spectra with an optical spectropluviometer. The estimated rain rates are compared to measurements from nearby rain gauges. Our results demonstrate the potential of optical extinction measurements from large aperture boundary layer scintillometers to obtain estimates of rainfall variability at high temporal resolution for hydrologically relevant spatial scales.

  14. Designs for a large-aperture telescope to map the CMB 10× faster.

    PubMed

    Niemack, Michael D

    2016-03-01

    Current large-aperture cosmic microwave background (CMB) telescopes have nearly maximized the number of detectors that can be illuminated while maintaining diffraction-limited image quality. The polarization-sensitive detector arrays being deployed in these telescopes in the next few years will have roughly 10⁴ detectors. Increasing the mapping speed of future instruments by at least an order of magnitude is important to enable precise probes of the inflationary paradigm in the first fraction of a second after the big bang and provide strong constraints on cosmological parameters. The CMB community has begun planning a next generation "Stage IV" CMB project that will be comprised of multiple telescopes with between 10⁵-10⁶ detectors to pursue these goals. This paper introduces the new crossed Dragone telescope and receiver optics designs that increase the usable diffraction-limited field-of-view, and therefore the mapping speed, by an order of magnitude compared to the upcoming generation of large-aperture instruments. Polarization systematics and engineering considerations are presented, including a preliminary receiver model to demonstrate that these designs will enable high efficiency illumination of >10⁵ detectors in a next generation CMB telescope.

  15. Eyeglass Large Aperture, Lightweight Space Optics FY2000 - FY2002 LDRD Strategic Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R

    2003-02-10

    A series of studies by the Air Force, the National Reconnaissance Office and NASA have identified the critical role played by large optics in fulfilling many of the space related missions of these agencies. Whether it is the Next Generation Space Telescope for NASA, high resolution imaging systems for NRO, or beam weaponry for the Air Force, the diameter of the primary optic is central to achieving high resolution (imaging) or a small spot size on target (lethality). While the detailed requirements differ for each application (high resolution imaging over the visible and near-infrared for earth observation, high damage threshold but single-wavelength operation for directed energy), the challenges of a large, lightweight primary optic which is space compatible and operates with high efficiency are the same. The advantage of such large optics to national surveillance applications is that it permits these observations to be carried-out with much greater effectiveness than with smaller optics. For laser weapons, the advantage is that it permits more tightly focused beams which can be leveraged into either greater effective range, reduced laser power, and/or smaller on-target spot-sizes; weapon systems can be made either much more effective or much less expensive. This application requires only single-wavelength capability, but places an emphasis upon robust, rapidly targetable optics. The advantages of large aperture optics to astronomy are that it increases the sensitivity and resolution with which we can view the universe. This can be utilized either for general purpose astronomy, allowing us to examine greater numbers of objects in more detail and at greater range, or it can enable the direct detection and detailed examination of extra-solar planets. This application requires large apertures (for both light-gathering and resolution reasons), with broad-band spectral capability, but does not emphasize either large fields-of-view or pointing agility. Despite

  16. Research on new-style flexure supports method for large-aperture transport mirror mounting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Xusong; Zhang, Zheng; Xiong, Zhao; Wang, Hui; Yuan, Xiaodong; Liu, Changchun

    2016-10-01

    In high-power solid-state laser facility (SG-III), focusing laser beams into the target center with precision better than 50 microns (RMS) is dependent on the stringent specifications of thousands of large-aperture transport mirror units and is a huge challenge on the surface aberration control of mirrors. The current mirror's mounting techniques with screw fastening loads has several engineering conundrums - low control precision for loads (higher scatter even +/-30%), and low assembly-rectification efficiency ( 100 screws). To improve the current screw-fastening method, a new-style flexure supports method, which has a wonderful performance on uniform control of the external loads and only uses 30 screws, is proposed to mount the mirror (size: 610mm×440mm×85mm). With theoretical modeling and FEM analysis, the impacts of mounting loads on mirror's surface aberrations are analyzed and discussed in detail, and the flexure supports system is designed. Finally, with experimental research and case studies, the proposed flexure supports method shows a powerful performance on even control precision of external loads with scatter even less than +/-10%, which is a promising mounting process to replace the threaded fasteners mounting the large-aperture optics. These improvements can lay a foundation for mounting process consistency, robustness, and assembly-rectification efficiency of large optical component.

  17. Recent Enhancements of the Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture (PAMELA) Telescope Testbed at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakoczy, John; Montgomery, Edward E.; Lindner, Jeff

    2000-01-01

    Recent incremental upgrades to the Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture (PAMELA) telescope testbed have enabled the demonstration of phasing (with a monochromatic source) of clusters of primary mirror segments down to the diffraction limit. PAMELA upgrades include an improved Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, passive viscoelastic damping treatments for the voice-coil actuators, mechanical improvement of mirror surface figures, and optical bench baffling. This report summarizes the recent PAMELA upgrades, discusses the lessons learned, and presents a status of this unique testbed for wavefront sensing and control. The Marshall Space Flight Center acquired the Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture (PAMELA) telescope in 1993 after Kaman Aerospace was unable to complete integration and testing under the limited SDIO and DARPA funding. The PAMELA is a 36-segment, half-meter aperture, adaptive telescope which utilizes a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, inductive coil edge sensors, voice coil actuators, imaging CCD cameras and interferometry for figure alignment, wavefront sensing and control. MSFC originally obtained the PAMELA to supplement its research in the interactions of control systems with flexible structures. In August 1994, complete tip, tilt and piston control was successfully demonstrated using the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and the inductive edge sensors.

  18. Recent Enhancements of the Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture (PAMELA) Telescope Testbed at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakoczy, John; Burdine, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Recent incremental upgrades to the Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture (PAMELA) telescope testbed have enabled the demonstration of phasing (with a monochromatic source) of clusters of primary mirror segments down to the diffraction limit. PAMELA upgrades include in improved Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, passive viscoelastic damping treatments for the voice-coil actuators, mechanical improvement of mirror surface figures, and optical bench baffling. This report summarizes the recent PAMELA upgrades, discusses the lessons learned, and presents a status of this unique testbed for wavefront sensing and control. The Marshall Space Flight Center acquired the Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture (PAMELA) telescope in 1993 after Kaman Aerospace was unable to complete integration and testing under the limited SDIO and DARPA funding. The PAMELA is a 36-segment, half-meter aperture, adaptive telescope which utilizes a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, inductive coil edge sensors, voice coil actuators, imaging CCD cameras and interferometry for figure alignment, wavefront sensing and control. MSFC originally obtained the PAMELA to supplement its research in the interactions of control systems with flexible structures. In August 1994, complete tip, tilt and piston control was successfully demonstrated using the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and the inductive edge sensors.

  19. Imprinting continuously varying topographical structure onto large-aperture optical surfaces using magnetorheological finishing

    SciTech Connect

    Menapace, J A; Davis, P J; Dixit, S; Campbell, J H; Golini, D; Hachkowski, M R; Nelson, A

    2007-03-07

    Over the past four years we have advanced Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) techniques and tools to imprint complex continuously varying topographical structures onto large-aperture (430 x 430 mm) optical surfaces. These optics, known as continuous phase plates (CPPs), are important for high-power laser applications requiring precise manipulation and control of beam-shape, energy distribution, and wavefront profile. MRF's unique deterministic-sub-aperture polishing characteristics make it possible to imprint complex topographical information onto optical surfaces at spatial scale-lengths approaching 1 mm and surface peak-to-valleys as high as 22 {micro}m. During this discussion, we will present the evolution of the MRF imprinting technology and the MRF tools designed to manufacture large-aperture 430 x 430 mm CPPs. Our results will show how the MRF removal function impacts and limits imprint fidelity and what must be done to arrive at a high-quality surface. We also present several examples of this imprinting technology for fabrication of phase correction plates and CPPs for use in high-power laser applications.

  20. Large-aperture laser differential confocal ultra-long focal length measurement and its system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weiqian; Li, Zhigang; Qiu, Lirong; Ren, Huan; Shao, Rongjun

    2015-06-29

    A new laser differential confocal ultra-long focal length measurement (LDCFM) method is proposed with the capability to self-calibrate the reference lens (RL) focal length and the axial space between the test lens and RL. Using the property that the focus of laser differential confocal ultra-long focal length measurement system (LDCFS) precisely corresponds to the null point of the differential confocal axial intensity curve, the proposed LDCFM measures the RL focal length f(R)' by precisely identifying the positions of the focus and last surface of RL, measures the axial space d(0) between RL and test ultra-long focal length lens (UFL) by identifying the last surface of RL and the vertex of UFL last surface, and measures the variation l in focus position of LDCFS with and without test UFL, and then calculates the UFL focal length f(T)' by the above measured f(R)', d(0) and l. In addition, a LDCFS based on the proposed method is developed for a large aperture lens. The experimental results indicate that the relative uncertainty is less than 0.01% for the test UFL, which has an aperture of 610 mm and focal length of 31,000 mm. LDCFM provides a novel approach for the high-precision focal-length measurement of large-aperture UFL.

  1. Study on supporting force sensing and control during large aperture space mirror test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Long; Hu, Wenqi; Zheng, Liehua; Hao, Peiming

    2016-10-01

    During the machining of large aperture lightweight space mirror, the mirror figure consistency between ground test and space mission is a problem. In order to effectively control the supporting deformation effect on test results in gravity environment, in view of a 1.2-m space mirror with back blind holes, a supporting method for optical axis horizontal test is proposed, with this method, mirror under test is positioned by three center hole surfaces and supported by six external hole surfaces. The effect of deformation caused by different supporting force value, area and position is analyzed by finite element method, the simulation results show that this supporting method can control the mirror supporting deformation within PV0.035λ rms0.005λ. The actual supporting system uses soft expansion mandrel to control the mirror position and pneumatic lever to realize the floating support. In order to ensure that the support force can evenly distribute on the contact surface, a pressure mapping system is adopted to measure the interface pressure between the mirror blind holes and the soft supporting pads for the first time. This method can meet the test requirements of rms=1/40λ mirror and provides a technical support for high precision test of large aperture space mirror with back blind holes.

  2. Research on the support structure of the primary mirror of large-aperture telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Jingxu

    2007-12-01

    Large-aperture telescope can be used in surveying battlefield, researching landform, searching object, real-time monitoring, imaging, detecting and identifying spatial targets and so on. A large-aperture telescope for achieving high resolution power is designed to monitor spatial target and image in real time. Real-time monitoring plays an important role in military conflicts. The orbit parameter of object, quantity, geometrical shape parameter and so on can be obtained by detect spatial target. With the development of optical technology, people require larger aperture in optics-electronic (O-E) system. By increasing optical aperture, the ability of collecting light and resolution power in the system can be enhanced. But the support structure of the primary mirror of large-aperture telescope will be a very difficult problem. With the increase of primary mirror aperture, the weight of the primary mirror will become larger than before. The root mean square (rms) of the primary mirror is affected by many factors, such as deadweight, deformation of heat, environment and so on. Due to the primary mirror of telescope is an important component of telescope system. By reducing the weight of primary mirror, precision of the system is ensured. During the designing phase, one can consider the supporting project of the primary mirror synthetically and analyze it roundly according to technical requirement of optical system and the effect factors. The final structural design can be reasonable. In an astronomical telescope, the surface of reflector is an important part for collecting dark radiation of celestial bodies. Its surface shape will have an effect on collecting efficiency of telescope radiant energy directly. So the rms must be very high. Optical system of large aperture, small wavelength and small focus can receive maximal light intensity. For ground-based optical astronomical telescope, the design proposed in the paper can satisfy the requirement of the possible

  3. Active microrheology of smectic membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhiyuan; Ferguson, Kyle; Sechrest, Yancey; Munsat, Tobin; Park, Cheol Soo; Glaser, Matthew A.; Maclennan, Joseph E.; Clark, Noel A.; Kuriabova, Tatiana; Powers, Thomas R.

    2017-02-01

    Thin fluid membranes embedded in a bulk fluid of different viscosity are of fundamental interest as experimental realizations of quasi-two-dimensional fluids and as models of biological membranes. We have probed the hydrodynamics of thin fluid membranes by active microrheology using small tracer particles to observe the highly anisotropic flow fields generated around a rigid oscillating post inserted into a freely suspended smectic liquid crystal film that is surrounded by air. In general, at distances more than a few Saffman lengths from the meniscus around the post, the measured velocities are larger than the flow computed by modeling a moving disklike inclusion of finite extent by superposing Levine-MacKintosh response functions for pointlike inclusions in a viscous membrane. The observed discrepancy is attributed to additional coupling of the film with the air below the film that is displaced directly by the shaft of the moving post.

  4. Active microrheology of smectic membranes.

    PubMed

    Qi, Zhiyuan; Ferguson, Kyle; Sechrest, Yancey; Munsat, Tobin; Park, Cheol Soo; Glaser, Matthew A; Maclennan, Joseph E; Clark, Noel A; Kuriabova, Tatiana; Powers, Thomas R

    2017-02-01

    Thin fluid membranes embedded in a bulk fluid of different viscosity are of fundamental interest as experimental realizations of quasi-two-dimensional fluids and as models of biological membranes. We have probed the hydrodynamics of thin fluid membranes by active microrheology using small tracer particles to observe the highly anisotropic flow fields generated around a rigid oscillating post inserted into a freely suspended smectic liquid crystal film that is surrounded by air. In general, at distances more than a few Saffman lengths from the meniscus around the post, the measured velocities are larger than the flow computed by modeling a moving disklike inclusion of finite extent by superposing Levine-MacKintosh response functions for pointlike inclusions in a viscous membrane. The observed discrepancy is attributed to additional coupling of the film with the air below the film that is displaced directly by the shaft of the moving post.

  5. Modeling Electrically Active Viscoelastic Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sitikantha; Brownell, William E.; Spector, Alexander A.

    2012-01-01

    The membrane protein prestin is native to the cochlear outer hair cell that is crucial to the ear's amplification and frequency selectivity throughout the whole acoustic frequency range. The outer hair cell exhibits interrelated dimensional changes, force generation, and electric charge transfer. Cells transfected with prestin acquire unique active properties similar to those in the native cell that have also been useful in understanding the process. Here we propose a model describing the major electromechanical features of such active membranes. The model derived from thermodynamic principles is in the form of integral relationships between the history of voltage and membrane resultants as independent variables and the charge density and strains as dependent variables. The proposed model is applied to the analysis of an active force produced by the outer hair cell in response to a harmonic electric field. Our analysis reveals the mechanism of the outer hair cell active (isometric) force having an almost constant amplitude and phase up to 80 kHz. We found that the frequency-invariance of the force is a result of interplay between the electrical filtering associated with prestin and power law viscoelasticity of the surrounding membrane. Paradoxically, the membrane viscoelasticity boosts the force balancing the electrical filtering effect. We also consider various modes of electromechanical coupling in membrane with prestin associated with mechanical perturbations in the cell. We consider pressure or strains applied step-wise or at a constant rate and compute the time course of the resulting electric charge. The results obtained here are important for the analysis of electromechanical properties of membranes, cells, and biological materials as well as for a better understanding of the mechanism of hearing and the role of the protein prestin in this mechanism. PMID:22701528

  6. ATLAST-9.2m: a Large-Aperture Deployable Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oergerle, William; Feinberg, Lee D.; Purves, Lloyd R.; Hyde, T. Tupper; Thronson, Harley A.; Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Postman, Marc; Bolear, Matthew R.; Budinoff, Jason G.; Dean, Bruce H.; Clampin, Mark C.; Ebbets, Dennis C.; Gong, Qian; Gull, Theodore R.; Howard, Joseph M.; Jones, Andrew L.; Lyon, Richard G.; Pasquale, Bert A.; Perrygo, Charles; Smith, Jeffrey S.; Thompson, Patrick L.; Woodgate, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    We present results of a study of a deployable version of the Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST), designed to operate in a Sun-Earth L2 orbit. The primary mirror of the segmented 9.2-meter aperture has 36 hexagonal 1.315 m (flat to flat) glass mirrors. The architecture and folding of the telescope is similar to JWST, allowing it to fit into the 6.5 m fairing of a modest upgrade to the Delta-IV Heavy version of the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV). We discuss the overall observatory design, optical design, instruments, stray light, wavefront sensing and control, pointing and thermal control, and in-space servicing options.

  7. Diffractive imaging analysis of large-aperture segmented telescope based on partial Fourier transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Bing; Qin, Shun; Hu, Xinqi

    2013-09-01

    Large-aperture segmented primary mirror will be widely used in next-generation space-based and ground-based telescopes. The effects of intersegment gaps, obstructions, position and figure errors of segments, which are all involved in the pupil plane, on the image quality metric should be analyzed using diffractive imaging theory. Traditional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method is very time-consuming and costs a lot of memory especially in dealing with large pupil-sampling matrix. A Partial Fourier Transform (PFT) method is first proposed to substantially speed up the computation and reduce memory usage for diffractive imaging analysis. Diffraction effects of a 6-meter segmented mirror including 18 hexagonal segments are simulated and analyzed using PFT method. The influence of intersegment gaps and position errors of segments on Strehl ratio is quantitatively analyzed by computing the Point Spread Function (PSF). By comparing simulation results with theoretical results, the correctness and feasibility of PFT method is confirmed.

  8. A conceptual design of a large aperture microwave radiometer geostationary platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garn, Paul A.; Garrison, James L.; Jasinski, Rachel

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual design of a Large Aperture Microwave Radiometer (LAMR) Platform has been developed and technology areas essential to the design and on-orbit viability of the platform have been defined. Those technologies that must be developed to the requirement stated here for the LAMR mission to be viable include: advanced radiation resistant solar cells, integrated complex structures, large segmented reflector panels, sub 3 kg/m(exp 2) areal density large antennas, and electric propulsion systems. Technology areas that require further development to enhance the capabilities of the LAMR platform (but are not essential for viability) include: electrical power storage, on-orbit assembly, and on-orbit systems checkout and correction.

  9. End-to-End Assessment of a Large Aperture Segmented Ultraviolet Optical Infrared (UVOIR) Telescope Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee; Rioux, Norman; Bolcar, Matthew; Liu, Alice; Guyon, Oliver; Stark, Chris; Arenberg, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Key challenges of a future large aperture, segmented Ultraviolet Optical Infrared (UVOIR) Telescope capable of performing a spectroscopic survey of hundreds of Exoplanets will be sufficient stability to achieve 10^-10 contrast measurements and sufficient throughput and sensitivity for high yield Exo-Earth spectroscopic detection. Our team has collectively assessed an optimized end to end architecture including a high throughput coronagraph capable of working with a segmented telescope, a cost-effective and heritage based stable segmented telescope, a control architecture that minimizes the amount of new technologies, and an Exo-Earth yield assessment to evaluate potential performance. These efforts are combined through integrated modeling, coronagraph evaluations, and Exo-Earth yield calculations to assess the potential performance of the selected architecture. In addition, we discusses the scalability of this architecture to larger apertures and the technological tall poles to enabling it.

  10. Large-aperture chirped volume Bragg grating based fiber CPA system.

    PubMed

    Liao, Kai-Hsiu; Cheng, Ming-Yuan; Flecher, Emilie; Smirnov, Vadim I; Glebov, Leonid B; Galvanauskas, Almantas

    2007-04-16

    A fiber chirped pulse amplification system at 1558 nm was demonstrated using a large-aperture volume Bragg grating stretcher and compressor made of Photo-Thermal-Refractive (PTR) glass. Such PTR glass based gratings represent a new type of pulse stretching and compressing devices which are compact, monolithic and optically efficient. Furthermore, since PTR glass technology enables volume gratings with transverse apertures which are large, homogeneous and scalable, it also enables high pulse energies and powers far exceeding those achievable with other existing compact pulse-compression technologies. Additionally, reciprocity of chirped gratings with respect to stretching and compression also enables to address a long-standing problem in CPA system design of stretcher-compressor dispersion mismatch.

  11. Large-aperture chirped volume Bragg grating based fiber CPA system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Kai-Hsiu; Cheng, Ming-Yuan; Flecher, Emilie; Smirnov, Vadim I.; Glebov, Leonid B.; Galvanauskas, Almantas

    2007-04-01

    A fiber chirped pulse amplification system at 1558nm was demonstrated using a large-aperture volume Bragg grating stretcher and compressor made of Photo-Thermal-Refractive (PTR) glass. Such PTR glass based gratings represent a new type of pulse stretching and compressing devices which are compact, monolithic and optically efficient. Furthermore, since PTR glass technology enables volume gratings with transverse apertures which are large, homogeneous and scalable, it also enables high pulse energies and powers far exceeding those achievable with other existing compact pulse-compression technologies. Additionally, reciprocity of chirped gratings with respect to stretching and compression also enables to address a long-standing problem in CPA system design of stretcher-compressor dispersion mismatch.

  12. Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope: Science Drivers and Technology Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Postman, Marc; Brown, Tom; Sembach, Kenneth; Glavallsco, Mauro; Traub, Wesley; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Calzetti, Daniela; Oegerle, William; Rich, R. Michael; Stahl, H. Philip; Tumlinson, Jason; Mountain, Matt; Soummer, Remi; Hyde, Tupper

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) is a concept for an 8- to 16-m ultraviolet optical near Infrared space observatory for launch in the 2025 to 2030 era. ATLAST will allow astronomers to answer fundamental questions at the forefront of modern astrophysics, including: Is there life elsewhere in the Galaxy? We present a range of science drivers and the resulting performance requirements for ATLAST (8- to 16-marcsec angular resolution, diffraction limited imaging at 0.5 micron wavelength, minimum collecting area of 45 sq m, high sensitivity to light wavelengths from 0.1 to 2.4 micron, high stability in wavefront sensing and control). We also discuss the priorities for technology development needed to enable the construction of ATLAST for a cost that is comparable to that of current generation observatory-class space missions.

  13. Interference data correction methods for lunar observation with a large-aperture static imaging spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Geng; Wang, Shuang; Li, Libo; Hu, Xiuqing; Hu, Bingliang

    2016-11-01

    The lunar spectrum has been used in radiometric calibration and sensor stability monitoring for spaceborne optical sensors. A ground-based large-aperture static image spectrometer (LASIS) can be used to acquire the lunar spectral image for lunar radiance model improvement when the moon orbits over its viewing field. The lunar orbiting behavior is not consistent with the desired scanning speed and direction of LASIS. To correctly extract interferograms from the obtained data, a translation correction method based on image correlation is proposed. This method registers the frames to a reference frame to reduce accumulative errors. Furthermore, we propose a circle-matching-based approach to achieve even higher accuracy during observation of the full moon. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our approaches, experiments are run on true lunar observation data. The results show that the proposed approaches outperform the state-of-the-art methods.

  14. Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope: Science Drivers and Technology Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Postman, Marc; Brown, Tom; Sembach, Kenneth; Glavallsco, Mauro; Traub, Wesley; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Calzetti, Daniela; Oegerle, William; Rich, R. Michael; Stahl, H. Philip; hide

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) is a concept for an 8- to 16-m ultraviolet optical near Infrared space observatory for launch in the 2025 to 2030 era. ATLAST will allow astronomers to answer fundamental questions at the forefront of modern astrophysics, including: Is there life elsewhere in the Galaxy? We present a range of science drivers and the resulting performance requirements for ATLAST (8- to 16-marcsec angular resolution, diffraction limited imaging at 0.5 micron wavelength, minimum collecting area of 45 sq m, high sensitivity to light wavelengths from 0.1 to 2.4 micron, high stability in wavefront sensing and control). We also discuss the priorities for technology development needed to enable the construction of ATLAST for a cost that is comparable to that of current generation observatory-class space missions.

  15. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimetre Telescope (BLAST) and BLASTPol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascale, Enzo; Pascale

    2013-01-01

    Balloon observations from Antarctica have proven an effective and efficient way to address open Cosmological questions as well as problems in Galactic astronomy. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimetre Telescope (BLAST) is a sub-orbital mapping experiment which uses 270 bolometric detectors to image the sky in three wavebands centred at 250, 350 and 500 μm with a 1.8 m telescope. In the years before Herschel launched, BLAST provided data of unprecedented angular and spectral coverage in frequency bands close to the peak of dust emission in star forming regions in our Galaxy, and in galaxies at cosmological distances. More recently, BLASTPol was obtained by reconfiguring the BLAST focal plane as a submillimetric polarimeter to study the role that Galactic magnetic fields have in regulating the processes of star-formation. The first and successful BLASTPol flight from Antarctica in 2010 is followed by a second flight, currently scheduled for the end of 2012.

  16. Thermal control analysis of a primary mirror for large-aperture telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yufeng; Wang, Jihong; Ren, Ge; Xie, Zongliang; He, Bi

    2017-07-01

    Extraneous thermal loads on the primary mirror of a large-aperture telescope directly influence the optical performance of the telescope through temperature gradients within the mirror and thermal boundary layer at the face sheet. In this paper, we propose a new thermal control system consisting of a flushing and sucking system for eliminating the excessive heat of a primary mirror. First, a 2.8 m-aperture lightweighted primary mirror is fabricated. Second, a thermo-optic analysis using finite element analysis is conducted in natural and forced convection. Finally, the optical performance denoted by Zernike polynomials with and without our proposed thermal control system is evaluated and examined. The comparative results reveal that the image quality of the primary mirror in forced convection is significantly enhanced with obvious reduction of optical surface distortion, thereby demonstrating the effectiveness of our proposed thermal control system.

  17. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) 2005: Calibration and Targeted Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truch, Matthew; BLAST Collaboration

    2007-12-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) operated successfully during a 100-hour flight from northern Sweden in June 2005 (BLAST05). As part of the calibration and pointing procedures, several compact sources were mapped, including solar system, Galactic, and extragalactic targets, specifically Pallas, CRL 2688, LDN 1014, IRAS 20126+4104, IRAS 21078+5211, IRAS 21307+5049, IRAS 22134+5834, IRAS 23011+6126, K3-50, W 75N, Mrk 231, NGC 4565, and Arp 220 (this last source being our primary calibrator). The BLAST observations of each compact source are described, flux densities and spectral energy distributions are reported, and these are compared with previous measurements at other wavelengths. BLAST was particularly useful for constraining the slope of the submillimeter continuum.

  18. THE BALLOON-BORNE LARGE APERTURE SUBMILLIMETER TELESCOPE (BLAST) 2006: CALIBRATION AND FLIGHT PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Truch, Matthew D. P.; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Klein, Jeff; Ade, Peter A. R.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Pascale, Enzo; Bock, James J.; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hughes, David H.; Martin, Peter G.; Netterfield, C. Barth; Olmi, Luca; Patanchon, Guillaume

    2009-12-20

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) operated successfully during a 250 hr flight over Antarctica in 2006 December (BLAST06). As part of the calibration and pointing procedures, the red hypergiant star VY CMa was observed and used as the primary calibrator. Details of the overall BLAST06 calibration procedure are discussed. The 1sigma uncertainty on the absolute calibration is accurate to 9.5%, 8.7%, and 9.2% at the 250, 350, and 500 mum bands, respectively. The errors are highly correlated between bands resulting in much lower errors for the derived shape of the 250-500 mum continuum. The overall pointing error is < 5'' rms for the 36'', 42'', and 60'' beams. The performance of optics and pointing systems is discussed.

  19. End-to-end assessment of a large aperture segmented ultraviolet optical infrared (UVOIR) telescope architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinberg, Lee; Rioux, Norman; Bolcar, Matthew; Liu, Alice; Guyon, Olivier; Stark, Chris; Arenberg, Jon

    2016-07-01

    Key challenges of a future large aperture, segmented Ultraviolet Optical Infrared (UVOIR) Telescope capable of performing a spectroscopic survey of hundreds of Exoplanets will be sufficient stability to achieve 10^-10 contrast measurements and sufficient throughput and sensitivity for high yield exo-earth spectroscopic detection. Our team has collectively assessed an optimized end to end architecture including a high throughput coronagraph capable of working with a segmented telescope, a cost-effective and heritage based stable segmented telescope, a control architecture that minimizes the amount of new technologies, and an exo-earth yield assessment to evaluate potential performance. These efforts are combined through integrated modeling, coronagraph evaluations, and exo-earth yield calculations to assess the potential performance of the selected architecture. In addition, we discusses the scalability of this architecture to larger apertures and the technological tall poles to enabling these missions.

  20. Partially filled aperture interferometric telescopes: achieving large aperture and coronagraphic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretto, Gil; Kuhn, Jeff R.; Berdyugina, Svetlana V.; Langlois, Maud; Tallon, Michel; Thiébaut, Eric; Halliday, David

    2016-08-01

    The exponential growth in exoplanet studies and science cases requiring high contrast observations is a powerful reason for developing very large optical systems optimized for narrow-field science. Concepts which cross the boundary between fixed aperture telescopes and interferometers, combined with technologies that decrease the system moving mass, can violate the cost and mass scaling laws that make conventional large-aperture telescopes relatively expensive. Here we describe concepts of large, filled-aperture (Colossus) and partially filled aperture (ParFAIT) interferometric optical/IR telescope systems which break this scaling relation. These systems are dedicated to high dynamic range science such as detecting life and even civilizations on Earth-like planets.

  1. A Large Aperture, High Energy Laser System for Optics and Optical Component Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Nostrand, M C; Weiland, T L; Luthi, R L; Vickers, J L; Sell, W D; Stanley, J A; Honig, J; Auerbach, J; Hackel, R P; Wegner, P J

    2003-11-01

    A large aperture, kJ-class, multi-wavelength Nd-glass laser system has been constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Lab which has unique capabilities for studying a wide variety of optical phenomena. The master-oscillator, power-amplifier (MOPA) configuration of this ''Optical Sciences Laser'' (OSL) produces 1053 nm radiation with shaped pulse lengths which are variable from 0.1-100 ns. The output can be frequency doubled or tripled with high conversion efficiency with a resultant 100 cm{sup 2} high quality output beam. This facility can accommodate prototype hardware for large-scale inertial confinement fusion lasers allowing for investigation of integrated system issues such as optical lifetime at high fluence, optics contamination, compatibility of non-optical materials, and laser diagnostics.

  2. Large Aperture "Photon Bucket" Optical Receiver Performance in High Background Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, Victor A.; Hoppe, D.

    2011-01-01

    The potential development of large aperture groundbased "photon bucket" optical receivers for deep space communications, with acceptable performance even when pointing close to the sun, is receiving considerable attention. Sunlight scattered by the atmosphere becomes significant at micron wavelengths when pointing to a few degrees from the sun, even with the narrowest bandwidth optical filters. In addition, high quality optical apertures in the 10-30 meter range are costly and difficult to build with accurate surfaces to ensure narrow fields-of-view (FOV). One approach currently under consideration is to polish the aluminum reflector panels of large 34-meter microwave antennas to high reflectance, and accept the relatively large FOV generated by state-of-the-art polished aluminum panels with rms surface accuracies on the order of a few microns, corresponding to several-hundred micro-radian FOV, hence generating centimeter-diameter focused spots at the Cassegrain focus of 34-meter antennas. Assuming pulse-position modulation (PPM) and Poisson-distributed photon-counting detection, a "polished panel" photon-bucket receiver with large FOV will collect hundreds of background photons per PPM slot, along with comparable signal photons due to its large aperture. It is demonstrated that communications performance in terms of PPM symbol-error probability in high-background high-signal environments depends more strongly on signal than on background photons, implying that large increases in background energy can be compensated by a disproportionally small increase in signal energy. This surprising result suggests that large optical apertures with relatively poor surface quality may nevertheless provide acceptable performance for deep-space optical communications, potentially enabling the construction of cost-effective hybrid RF/optical receivers in the future.

  3. Path-average rainfall estimation from optical extinction measurements using a large-aperture scintillometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uijlenhoet, Remko; Cohard, Jean-Martial; Gosset, Marielle

    2010-05-01

    The potential of a near infrared large-aperture boundary layer scintillometer as path-average rain gauge is investigated. The instrument was installed over a 2.4 km path in Benin as part of the AMMA Enhanced Observation Period during 2006 and 2007. Measurements of the one-minute average received signal intensity were collected for 6 rainfall events during the dry season and 16 events during the wet season. Using estimates of the signal base level just before the onset of the rain events, the optical extinction coeffcient is estimated from the path-integrated attenuation for each minute. The corresponding path-average rain rates are computed using a power-law relation between the optical extinction coeffcient and rain rate obtained from measurements of raindrop size distributions with an optical spectropluviometer. Comparisons of five-minute rainfall estimates with measurements from two nearby rain gauges show that the temporal dynamics are generally captured well by the scintillometer. However, the instrument has a tendency to underestimate rain rates and event total rain amounts with respect to the gauges. It is shown that this underestimation can be explained partly by systematic differences between the actual and the employed mean power-law relation between rain rate and specific attenuation, partly by unresolved spatial and temporal rainfall variations along the scintillometer path. Occasionally, the signal may even be lost completely. It is demonstrated that if these effects are properly accounted for, by employing appropriate relations between rain rate and specific attenuation and by adapting the path length to the local rainfall climatology, scintillometer-based rainfall estimates can be within 20% of those estimated using rain gauges. These results demonstrate the potential of large-aperture scintillometers to estimate path-average rain rates at hydrologically relevant scales.

  4. Focal aberrations of large-aperture HOPG von-Hàmos x-ray spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zastrau, U.; Brown, C. R. D.; Döppner, T.; Glenzer, S. H.; Gregori, G.; Lee, H. J.; Marschner, H.; Toleikis, S.; Wehrhan, O.; Förster, E.

    2012-09-01

    Focal aberrations of large-aperture highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) crystals in von-Hàmos geometry are investigated by experimental and computational methods. A mosaic HOPG crystal film of 100 μm thickness diffracts 8 keV x-rays. This thickness is smaller than the absorption depth of the symmetric 004-reflection, which amounts to 257 μm. Cylindrically bent crystals with 110mm radius of curvature and up to 100 mm collection width produce a X-shaped halo around the focus. This feature vanishes when the collection aperture is reduced, but axial spectral profiles show that the resolution is not affected. X-ray topography reveals significant inhomogeneous crystallite domains of 2±1mm diameter along the entire crystal. Rocking curves shift by about ±20arcmin between domains, while their full width at half-maximum varies between 30 and 50 arcmin. These inhomogeneities are not imprinted at the focal spot, since the monochromatically reflecting area of the crystal is large compared to inhomogeneities. Ray-tracing calculations using a Monte-Carlo-based algorithm developed for mosaic crystals reproduce the X-shaped halo in the focal plane, stemming from the mosaic defocussing in the non-dispersive direction in combination with large apertures. The best achievable resolution is found by analyzing a diversity of rocking curve widths, source sizes and crystal thicknesses for 8 keV x-rays to be ΔE/E ~ 10-4. Finally a general analytic expression for the shape of the aberration is derived.

  5. Pulse power requirements for large aperture optical switches based on plasma electrode Pockels cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, M.A.; Taylor, J.

    1992-06-01

    We discuss very large-aperture optical switches (greater than 30 [times] 30 cm) as an enabling technology for inertial confinement fusion drivers based on multipass laser amplifiers. Large-scale laser fusion drivers such as the Nova laser have been based on single-pass amplifier designs in part because of the unavailability of a suitable large-aperture switch. We are developing an optical switch based on a Pockels cell employing plasma-electrodes. A plasma-electrode Pockels cell (PEPC) is a longitudinal-mode Pockels cell in which a plasma discharge is formed on each side of an electro-optic crystal (typically KDP or deuterated KDP, often designated KD*P). The plasmas formed on either side of the crystal act as transparent electrodes for a switching-pulse and are intended to allow uniform charging of the entire crystal. The switching-pulse is a nominally rectangular high-voltage pulse equal to the half-wave voltage V[sub x] ( 8 kV for KD*P or 17 kV for KDP) and is applied across the crystal via the plasma-electrodes. When the crystal is charged to V[sub x], the polarization of an incoming, linearly polarized, laser beam is rotated by 90[degree]. When used in conjunction with an appropriate, passive polarizer, an optical switch is thus realized. A switch with a clear aperture of 37 [times] 37 cm is now in construction for the Beamlet laser which will serve as a test bed for this switch as well as other technologies required for an advanced NOVA laser design. In this paper, we discuss the unique power electronics requirements of PEPC optical switches.

  6. Pulse power requirements for large aperture optical switches based on plasma electrode Pockels cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, M.A.; Taylor, J.

    1992-06-01

    We discuss very large-aperture optical switches (greater than 30 {times} 30 cm) as an enabling technology for inertial confinement fusion drivers based on multipass laser amplifiers. Large-scale laser fusion drivers such as the Nova laser have been based on single-pass amplifier designs in part because of the unavailability of a suitable large-aperture switch. We are developing an optical switch based on a Pockels cell employing plasma-electrodes. A plasma-electrode Pockels cell (PEPC) is a longitudinal-mode Pockels cell in which a plasma discharge is formed on each side of an electro-optic crystal (typically KDP or deuterated KDP, often designated KD*P). The plasmas formed on either side of the crystal act as transparent electrodes for a switching-pulse and are intended to allow uniform charging of the entire crystal. The switching-pulse is a nominally rectangular high-voltage pulse equal to the half-wave voltage V{sub x} ( 8 kV for KD*P or 17 kV for KDP) and is applied across the crystal via the plasma-electrodes. When the crystal is charged to V{sub x}, the polarization of an incoming, linearly polarized, laser beam is rotated by 90{degree}. When used in conjunction with an appropriate, passive polarizer, an optical switch is thus realized. A switch with a clear aperture of 37 {times} 37 cm is now in construction for the Beamlet laser which will serve as a test bed for this switch as well as other technologies required for an advanced NOVA laser design. In this paper, we discuss the unique power electronics requirements of PEPC optical switches.

  7. Large Aperture "Photon Bucket" Optical Receiver Performance in High Background Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, Victor A.; Hoppe, D.

    2011-01-01

    The potential development of large aperture groundbased "photon bucket" optical receivers for deep space communications, with acceptable performance even when pointing close to the sun, is receiving considerable attention. Sunlight scattered by the atmosphere becomes significant at micron wavelengths when pointing to a few degrees from the sun, even with the narrowest bandwidth optical filters. In addition, high quality optical apertures in the 10-30 meter range are costly and difficult to build with accurate surfaces to ensure narrow fields-of-view (FOV). One approach currently under consideration is to polish the aluminum reflector panels of large 34-meter microwave antennas to high reflectance, and accept the relatively large FOV generated by state-of-the-art polished aluminum panels with rms surface accuracies on the order of a few microns, corresponding to several-hundred micro-radian FOV, hence generating centimeter-diameter focused spots at the Cassegrain focus of 34-meter antennas. Assuming pulse-position modulation (PPM) and Poisson-distributed photon-counting detection, a "polished panel" photon-bucket receiver with large FOV will collect hundreds of background photons per PPM slot, along with comparable signal photons due to its large aperture. It is demonstrated that communications performance in terms of PPM symbol-error probability in high-background high-signal environments depends more strongly on signal than on background photons, implying that large increases in background energy can be compensated by a disproportionally small increase in signal energy. This surprising result suggests that large optical apertures with relatively poor surface quality may nevertheless provide acceptable performance for deep-space optical communications, potentially enabling the construction of cost-effective hybrid RF/optical receivers in the future.

  8. Development of atmospheric pressure plasma processing machine tool for large aperture optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xing; Wu, Yangong; Zhang, Peng; Xin, Qiang; Wang, Bo

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, major projects, such as National Ignition Facility and Laser Mégajoule, have generated great demands for large aperture optics with high surface accuracy and low Subsurface Damage (SSD) at the mean time. In order to remove SSD and improve surface quality, optics is fabricated by sub-aperture polishing. However, the efficiency of the sub-aperture polishing has been a bottleneck step for the optics manufacturing. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Processing (APPP) as an alternate method offers high potential for speeding up the polishing process. This technique is based on chemical etching, hence there is no physical contact and no damage is induced. In this paper, a fast polishing machine tool is presented which is designed for fast polishing of the large aperture optics using APPP. This machine tool employs 3PRS-XY hybrid structure as its framework. There is a platform in the 3PRS parallel module to support the plasma generating system. And the large work piece is placed on the XY stage. In order to realize the complex motion trajectory for polishing the freeform optics, five axis of the tool operate simultaneously. To overcome the complexity of inverse kinematics calculation, a dedicated motion control system is also designed for speeding up the motion response. For high removal rate, the individual influence of several key processing parameters is investigated. And under specific production condition, this machine tool offers a high material over 30mm3/min for fused silica substrates. This results shows that APPP machine tool has a strong potential for fast polishing large optics without introducing SSD.

  9. Topology optimization-based lightweight primary mirror design of a large-aperture space telescope.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shutian; Hu, Rui; Li, Quhao; Zhou, Ping; Dong, Zhigang; Kang, Renke

    2014-12-10

    For the large-aperture space telescope, the lightweight primary mirror design with a high-quality optical surface is a critical and challenging issue. This work presents a topology optimization-based design procedure for a lightweight primary mirror and a new mirror configuration of a large-aperture space telescope is obtained through the presented design procedure. Inspired by the topology optimization method considering cast constraints, an optimization model for the configuration design of the mirror back is proposed, through which the distribution and the heights of the stiffeners on the mirror back can be optimized simultaneously. For the purpose of minimizing the optical surface deviation due to self-weight and polishing pressure loadings, the objective function is selected as to maximize the mirror structural stiffness, which can be achieved by minimizing the structural compliance. The total mass of the primary mirror is assigned as the constraint. In the application example, results of the optimized design topology for two kinds of mass constraints are presented. Executing the design procedure for specific requirements and postprocessing the topology obtained of the structure, a new mirror configuration with tree-like stiffeners and a multiple-arch back in double directions is proposed. A verification model is constructed to evaluate the design results and the finite element method is used to calculate the displacement of the mirror surface. Then the RMS deviation can be obtained after fitting the deformed surface by Zernike polynomials. The proposed mirror is compared with two classical mirrors in the optical performance, and the comparison results demonstrate the superiority of the new mirror configuration.

  10. A method on error analysis for large-aperture optical telescope control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yanrui; Wang, Qiang; Yan, Fabao; Liu, Xiang; Huang, Yongmei

    2016-10-01

    For large-aperture optical telescope, compared with the performance of azimuth in the control system, arc second-level jitters exist in elevation under different speeds' working mode, especially low-speed working mode in the process of its acquisition, tracking and pointing. The jitters are closely related to the working speed of the elevation, resulting in the reduction of accuracy and low-speed stability of the telescope. By collecting a large number of measured data to the elevation, we do analysis on jitters in the time domain, frequency domain and space domain respectively. And the relation between jitter points and the leading speed of elevation and the corresponding space angle is concluded that the jitters perform as periodic disturbance in space domain and the period of the corresponding space angle of the jitter points is 79.1″ approximately. Then we did simulation, analysis and comparison to the influence of the disturbance sources, like PWM power level output disturbance, torque (acceleration) disturbance, speed feedback disturbance and position feedback disturbance on the elevation to find that the space periodic disturbance still exist in the elevation performance. It leads us to infer that the problems maybe exist in angle measurement unit. The telescope employs a 24-bit photoelectric encoder and we can calculate the encoder grating angular resolution as 79.1016'', which is as the corresponding angle value in the whole encoder system of one period of the subdivision signal. The value is approximately equal to the space frequency of the jitters. Therefore, the working elevation of the telescope is affected by subdivision errors and the period of the subdivision error is identical to the period of encoder grating angular. Through comprehensive consideration and mathematical analysis, that DC subdivision error of subdivision error sources causes the jitters is determined, which is verified in the practical engineering. The method that analyze error

  11. 8 Meter Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST-8m)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2010-01-01

    ATLAST-8m (Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope) is a proposed 8-meter monolithic UV/optical/NIR space observatory (wavelength range 110 to 2500 nm) to be placed in orbit at Sun-Earth L2 by NASA's planned Ares V heavy lift vehicle. Given its very high angular resolution (15 mas @ 500 nm), sensitivity and performance stability, ATLAST-8m is capable of achieving breakthroughs in a broad range of astrophysics including: Is there life elsewhere in the Galaxy? An 8-meter UVOIR observatory has the performance required to detect habitability (H2O, atmospheric column density) and biosignatures (O2, O3, CH4) in terrestrial exoplanet atmospheres, to reveal the underlying physics that drives star formation, and to trace the complex interactions between dark matter, galaxies, and intergalactic medium. The ATLAST Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study developed a detailed point design for an 8-m monolithic observatory including optical design; structural design/analysis including primary mirror support structure, sun shade and secondary mirror support structure; thermal analysis; spacecraft including structure, propulsion, GN&C, avionics, power systems and reaction wheels; mass and power budgets; and system cost. The results of which were submitted by invitation to NRC's 2010 Astronomy & Astrophysics Decadal Survey.

  12. The Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) Technology Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahle, Carl; Balasubramanian, K.; Bolcar, M.; Clampin, M.; Feinberg, L.; Hartman, K.; Mosier, C.; Quijada, M.; Rauscher, B.; Redding, D.; Shaklan, S.; Stahl, P.; Thronson, H.

    2014-01-01

    We present the key technologies and capabilities that will enable a future, large-aperture ultravioletopticalinfrared (UVOIR) space observatory. These include starlight suppression systems, vibration isolation and control systems, lightweight mirror segments, detector systems, and mirror coatings. These capabilities will provide major advances over current and near-future observatories for sensitivity, angular resolution, and starlight suppression. The goals adopted in our study for the starlight suppression system are 10-10 contrast with an inner working angle of 40 milliarcsec and broad bandpass. We estimate that a vibration and isolation control system that achieves a total system vibration isolation of 140 dB for a vibration-isolated mass of 5000 kg is required to achieve the high wavefront error stability needed for exoplanet coronagraphy. Technology challenges for lightweight mirror segments include diffraction-limited optical quality and high wavefront error stability as well as low cost, low mass, and rapid fabrication. Key challenges for the detector systems include visible-blind, high quantum efficiency UV arrays, photon counting visible and NIR arrays for coronagraphic spectroscopy and starlight wavefront sensing and control, and detectors with deep full wells with low persistence and radiation tolerance to enable transit imaging and spectroscopy at all wavelengths. Finally, mirror coatings with high reflectivity ( 90), high uniformity ( 1) and low polarization ( 1) that are scalable to large diameter mirror substrates will be essential for ensuring that both high throughput UV observations and high contrast observations can be performed by the same observatory.

  13. A Future Large-Aperture UVOIR Space Observatory: Key Technologies and Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolcar, Matthew Ryan; Stahle, Carl M.; Balasubramaniam, Kunjithapatham; Clampin, Mark; Feinberg, Lee D.; Mosier, Gary E.; Quijada, Manuel A.; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Redding, David C.; Rioux, Norman M.; hide

    2015-01-01

    We present the key technologies and capabilities that will enable a future, large-aperture ultravioletopticalinfrared (UVOIR) space observatory. These include starlight suppression systems, vibration isolation and control systems, lightweight mirror segments, detector systems, and mirror coatings. These capabilities will provide major advances over current and near-future observatories for sensitivity, angular resolution, and starlight suppression. The goals adopted in our study for the starlight suppression system are 10-10 contrast with an inner working angle of 20 milliarcsec and broad bandpass. We estimate that a vibration and isolation control system that achieves a total system vibration isolation of 140 dB for a vibration-isolated mass of 5000 kg is required to achieve the high wavefront error stability needed for exoplanet coronagraphy. Technology challenges for lightweight mirror segments include diffraction-limited optical quality and high wavefront error stability as well as low cost, low mass, and rapid fabrication. Key challenges for the detector systems include visible-blind, high quantum efficiency UV arrays, photon counting visible and NIR arrays for coronagraphic spectroscopy and starlight wavefront sensing and control, and detectors with deep full wells with low persistence and radiation tolerance to enable transit imaging and spectroscopy at all wavelengths. Finally, mirror coatings with high reflectivity ( 90), high uniformity ( 1) and low polarization ( 1) that are scalable to large diameter mirror substrates will be essential for ensuring that both high throughput UV observations and high contrast observations can be performed by the same observatory.

  14. Large-Aperture Wide-Bandwidth Anti-Reflection-Coated Silicon Lenses for Millimeter Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Datta, R.; Munson, C. D.; Niemack, M. D.; McMahon, J. J.; Britton, J.; Wollack, E. J.; Beall, J.; Devlin, M. J.; Fowler, J.; Gallardo, P.; Hubmayr, J.; Irwin, K.; Newburgh, L.; Nibarger, J. P.; Page, L.; Quijada, M. A.; Schmitt, B. L.; Staggs, S. T.; Thornton, R.; Zhang, L.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing scale of cryogenic detector arrays for sub-millimeter and millimeter wavelength astrophysics has led to the need for large aperture, high index of refraction, low loss, cryogenic refracting optics. Silicon with n = 3.4, low loss, and relatively high thermal conductivity is a nearly optimal material for these purposes, but requires an antireflection (AR) coating with broad bandwidth, low loss, low reflectance, and a matched coffecient of thermal expansion. We present an AR coating for curved silicon optics comprised of subwavelength features cut into the lens surface with a custom three axis silicon dicing saw. These features constitute a metamaterial that behaves as a simple dielectric coating. We have fabricated and coated silicon lenses as large as 33.4 cm in diameter with coatings optimized for use between 125-165 GHz. Our design reduces average reflections to a few tenths of a percent for angles of incidence up to 30 deg. with low cross-polarization. We describe the design, tolerance, manufacture, and measurements of these coatings and present measurements of the optical properties of silicon at millimeter wavelengths at cryogenic and room temperatures. This coating and lens fabrication approach is applicable from centimeter to sub-millimeter wavelengths and can be used to fabricate coatings with greater than octave bandwidth.

  15. Large-aperture Wide-bandwidth Antireflection-coated Silicon Lenses for Millimeter Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Datta, R.; Munson, C. D.; Niemack, M. D.; McMahon, J. J.; Britton, J.; Wollack, Edward J.; Beall, J.; Devlin, M. J.; Fowler, J.; Gallardo, P.; Hubmayr, J.; Irwin, K.; Newburgh, L.; Nibarger, J. P.; Page, L.; Quijada, Manuel A.; Schmitt, B. L.; Staggs, S. T.; Thornton, R.; Zhang, L.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing scale of cryogenic detector arrays for submillimeter and millimeter wavelength astrophysics has led to the need for large aperture, high index of refraction, low loss, cryogenic refracting optics. Silicon with n 3.4, low loss, and high thermal conductivity is a nearly optimal material for these purposes but requires an antireflection (AR) coating with broad bandwidth, low loss, low reflectance, and a matched coefficient of thermal expansion. We present an AR coating for curved silicon optics comprised of subwavelength features cut into the lens surface with a custom three-axis silicon dicing saw. These features constitute a metamaterial that behaves as a simple dielectric coating.We have fabricated silicon lenses as large as 33.4 cm in diameter with micromachined layers optimized for use between 125 and 165 GHz. Our design reduces average reflections to a few tenths of a percent for angles of incidence up to 30deg with low cross polarization.We describe the design, tolerance, manufacture, and measurements of these coatings and present measurements of the optical properties of silicon at millimeter wavelengths at cryogenic and room temperatures. This coating and lens fabrication approach is applicable from centimeter to submillimeter wavelengths and can be used to fabricate coatings with greater than octave bandwidth.

  16. Time-gated ballistic imaging using a large aperture switching beam.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Florian; Reddemann, Manuel A; Palmer, Johannes; Kneer, Reinhold

    2014-03-24

    Ballistic imaging commonly denotes the formation of line-of-sight shadowgraphs through turbid media by suppression of multiply scattered photons. The technique relies on a femtosecond laser acting as light source for the images and as switch for an optical Kerr gate that separates ballistic photons from multiply scattered ones. The achievable image resolution is one major limitation for the investigation of small objects. In this study, practical influences on the optical Kerr gate and image quality are discussed theoretically and experimentally applying a switching beam with large aperture (D = 19 mm). It is shown how switching pulse energy and synchronization of switching and imaging pulse in the Kerr cell influence the gate's transmission. Image quality of ballistic imaging and standard shadowgraphy is evaluated and compared, showing that the present ballistic imaging setup is advantageous for optical densities in the range of 8 < OD < 13. Owing to the spatial transmission characteristics of the optical Kerr gate, a rectangular aperture stop is formed, which leads to different resolution limits for vertical and horizontal structures in the object. Furthermore, it is reported how to convert the ballistic imaging setup into a schlieren-type system with an optical schlieren edge.

  17. Improving 351-nm Damage Performance of Large-Aperture Fused Silica and DKDP Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, A K; Hackel, L; Wegner, P; Parham, T; Hrubesh, L; Penetrante, B; Whitman, P; Demos, S; Menapace, J; Runkel, M; Fluss, M; Feit, M; Key, M; Biesiada, T

    2002-01-07

    A program to identify and eliminate the causes of UV laser-induced damage and growth in fused silica and DKDP has developed methods to extend optics lifetimes for large-aperture, high-peak-power, UV lasers such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Issues included polish-related surface damage initiation and growth on fused silica and DKDP, bulk inclusions in fused silica, pinpoint bulk damage in DKDP, and UV-induced surface degradation in fused silica and DKDP in a vacuum. Approaches included an understanding of the mechanism of the damage, incremental improvements to existing fabrication technology, and feasibility studies of non-traditional fabrication technologies. Status and success of these various approaches are reviewed. Improvements were made in reducing surface damage initiation and eliminating growth for fused silica by improved polishing and post-processing steps, and improved analytical techniques are providing insights into mechanisms of DKDP damage. The NIF final optics hardware has been designed to enable easy retrieval, surface-damage mitigation, and recycling of optics.

  18. Development of Large-Aperture, Light-Weight Fresnel Lenses for Gossamer Space Telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Sham, D; Hyde, R; Weisberg, A; Early, J; Rushford, M; Britten, J

    2002-04-29

    In order to examine more distant astronomical objects, with higher resolution, future space telescopes require objectives with significantly larger aperture than presently available. NASA has identified a progression in size from the 2.4m aperture objective currently used in the HUBBLE space telescope[l,2], to 25m and greater in order to observe, e.g., extra-solar planets. Since weight is a crucial factor for any object sent into space, the relative weight of large optics over a given area must be reduced[3]. The areal mass density of the primary mirror for the Hubble space telescope is {approx}200 kg/m{sup 2}. This is expected to be reduced to around 15 kg/m{sup 2} for the successor to Hubble--the next generation space telescope (NGST)[4]. For future very large aperture telescopes needed for extra-solar planet detection, the areal mass density must be reduced even further. For example, the areal mass density goal for the Gossamer space telescopes is < 1 kg/m{sup 2}. The production of lightweight focusing optics at >10m size is also an enabling technology for many other applications such as Earth observation, power beaming, and optical communications.

  19. Distribution-dependent total exoplanet yield for a large aperture space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Evan; Schiminovich, David

    2017-01-01

    A major scientific goal for future large aperture space telescopes is the discovery and characterization of habitable earth-like planets around FGK+M stars out to 10-20 pc. Using the design and observing plan for such a mission, we calculated the total exoplanet yield of a direct imaging survey, with detections including but not limited to potential earth analogs. In light of uncertainty of exoplanet occurrence rates, we used several of the best available exoplanetary distribution functions and assumed architectures to produce a Monte Carlo simulation of nearby planetary systems and observational parameters, and assessed detectability across the sample. Our calculations show a range of yields depending on the assumed distribution functions. We also compare our predictions to those of other detection methods in order to identify areas of parameter space (e.g. radius, period) uniquely constrained by direct imaging. In general, our calculations suggest that a higher completeness can be achieved with direct imaging, which will allow for calculation of a more accurate occurrence rate in local space.

  20. Metrological characterization of a large aperture Fizeau for x-ray mirrors measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannoni, Maurizio; Freijo Martín, Idoia

    2015-06-01

    The European XFEL is a large facility under construction in Hamburg, Germany. It will provide a transversally fully coherent x-ray radiation with outstanding characteristics: high repetition rate (up to 2700 pulses with a 0.6 milliseconds long pulse train at 10Hz), short wavelength (down to 0.05 nm), short pulse (in the femtoseconds scale) and high average brilliance (1.61025 photons / s / mm2 / mrad2/ 0.1% bandwidth). Due to the very short wavelength and very high pulse energy, all the mirrors need to have high quality surface, to be very long, and at the same time to implement an effective cooling system. Matching these tight specifications and assessing them with high precision optical measurements is very challenging. In order to measure the mirrors and to characterize their interaction with the mechanical mounts, we equipped a Metrology Laboratory with a Large Aperture Fizeau. The system is a classical 100 mm diameter commercial Fizeau, with an additional expander providing a 300 mm diameter. Despite the commercial nature of the system, special care has been done in the polishing of the reference flats and in the expander quality. In this report, we show the preparation of the instrument, the calibration and the performance characterization, together with some preliminary results. We also describe the approach that we want to follow for the x-rays mirrors measurements. The final goal will be to characterize very long mirrors, almost 1 meter long, with nanometer accuracy.

  1. Large-aperture broadband sapphire windows for common aperture, target acquisition, tracking, and surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askinazi, Joel

    1997-06-01

    State of the art optical sensing systems performing target acquisition/tracking and surveillance functions are being designed to incorporate a number of sensors into one package. These include visual and MWIR cameras, FLIRs, and laser range finders. These combined systems are being configured to view through a common aperture window. Typical window diameters are to eleven inches, but some surveillance applications have windows approaching twenty inches in diameter. These sensor windows typically operate in hostile environments including very high pressure differentials, large thermal gradients, and severe rain and sand abrasion. EMI/EMC protection and de-icing capabilities are also commonly required. For airborne applications and to minimize thermal gradients, thinner, lightweight, high strength windows are also necessary. Sapphire is an ideal window material to satisfy these requirements due to its high strength, UV-MWIR bandpass, minimal optical scatter, excellent index of refraction homogeneity and very high scratch/impact resistance. Associated optical fabrication, grid lithography and optical coating processes have been developed at Hughes Danbury for sapphire windows. This paper addresses the development of a family of large aperture, broadband sapphire windows which also provide EMI/EMC protection and de-icing capabilities. The resulting design configuration and performance characteristics are also addressed. Future technology development requirements are also discussed.

  2. High resolution beamforming on large aperture vertical line arrays: Processing synthetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Jean-Marie Q.; Hodgkiss, William S.

    1990-09-01

    This technical memorandum studies the beamforming of large aperture line arrays deployed vertically in the water column. The work concentrates on the use of high resolution techniques. Two processing strategies are envisioned: (1) full aperture coherent processing which offers in theory the best processing gain; and (2) subaperture processing which consists in extracting subapertures from the array and recombining the angular spectra estimated from these subarrays. The conventional beamformer, the minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) processor, the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm and the minimum norm method are used in this study. To validate the various processing techniques, the ATLAS normal mode program is used to generate synthetic data which constitute a realistic signals environment. A deep-water, range-independent sound velocity profile environment, characteristic of the North-East Pacific, is being studied for two different 128 sensor arrays: a very long one cut for 30 Hz and operating at 20 Hz; and a shorter one cut for 107 Hz and operating at 100 Hz. The simulated sound source is 5 m deep. The full aperture and subaperture processing are being implemented with curved and plane wavefront replica vectors. The beamforming results are examined and compared to the ray-theory results produced by the generic sonar model.

  3. Large aperture fast neutron imaging detector with 10-ns time resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arikawa, Y.; Matsubara, S.; Abe, Y.; Kato, Y.; Kishimoto, H.; Yogo, A.; Nishimura, H.; Nakai, M.; Shiraga, H.; Fujioka, S.; Azechi, H.; Otake, Y.; Mima, K.; Honda, Y.

    2017-02-01

    Fast neutrons, which are neutrons with energies greater than 1 MeV, are expected to be a source of nondestructive inspection for a large-size infrastructure such as a bridge girder because of their mean free path exceeding the meter. A neutron-imaging device with 10-ns time resolution can discriminate pulsed neutrons from X-rays via time of flight. For this purpose, we require a fast-response neutron imager with large aperture and high image resolution. A neutron-imaging device with time resolution of 10 ns and aperture size of 40 cm × 60 cm was developed. It was filled with fast response liquid scintillator [1] in an aluminum honeycomb plate, which converts neutrons to optical light images. The scintillation light images were relayed using an optical lens and detected using a fast response image intensified CCD. The detector was tested at an electron linear accelerator (LINAC) facility in Osaka University. A short X-ray pulse (30 ps pulse duration) was generated using LINAC, and X-ray radiograph images were obtained with a 10- ns exposure time duration. The radiograph images were well attenuated within 10-ns from the X-ray injection. A high energy X-ray image and a neutron radiograph image of a 30-cm thick concrete block with iron blocks located behind it were successfully observed. This promising technique could facilitate nondestructive inspection of large concrete constructions.

  4. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) 2005: Calibration and Targeted Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truch, M. D. P.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bock, J. J.; Chapin, E. L.; Devlin, M. J.; Dicker, S.; Griffin, M.; Gundersen, J. O.; Halpern, M.; Hargrave, P. C.; Hughes, D. H.; Klein, J.; Marsden, G.; Martin, P. G.; Mauskopf, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Olmi, L.; Pascale, E.; Patanchon, G.; Rex, M.; Scott, D.; Semisch, C.; Tucker, C.; Tucker, G. S.; Viero, M. P.; Wiebe, D. V.

    2008-07-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) operated successfully during a 100 hr flight from northern Sweden in 2005 June (BLAST05). As part of the calibration and pointing procedures, several compact sources were mapped, including solar system, Galactic, and extragalactic targets, specifically Pallas, CRL 2688, LDN 1014, IRAS 20126+4104, IRAS 21078+5211, IRAS 21307+5049, IRAS 22134+5834, IRAS 23011+6126, K3-50, W75N, and Mrk 231. One additional source, Arp 220, was observed and used as our primary calibrator. Details of the overall BLAST05 calibration procedure are discussed here. The BLAST observations of each compact source are described, flux densities and spectral energy distributions are reported, and these are compared with previous measurements at other wavelengths. The 250, 350, and 500 μm BLAST data can provide useful constraints to the amplitude and slope of the submillimeter continuum, which in turn may be useful for the improved calibration of other submillimeter instruments.

  5. The measurement and analysis of wavefront structure from large aperture ICF optics

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, C.R.; Lawson, J.K.

    1995-05-30

    This paper discusses the techniques, developed over the past year, for high spatial resolution measurement and analysis of the transmitted and/or reflected wavefront of large aperture ICF optical components. Parts up to 400 mm {times} 750 mm have been measured and include: laser slabs, windows, KDP crystals and lenses. The measurements were performed using state-of-the-art commercial phase shifting interferometers at a wavelength of 633 {mu}m. Both 1 and 2-D Fourier analysis have been used to characterize the wavefront; specifically the Power Spectral Density, (PSD), function was calculated. The PSDs of several precision optical components will be shown. The PSD(V) is proportional to the (amplitude){sup 2} of components of the Fourier frequency spectrum. The PSD describes the scattered intensity and direction as a function of scattering angle in the wavefront. The capability of commercial software is limited to 1-D Fourier analysis only. We are developing our own 2-D analysis capability in support of work to revise specifications for NIF optics. 2-D analysis uses the entire wavefront phase map to construct 2D PSD functions. We have been able to increase the signal-to-noise relative to 1-D and can observe very subtle wavefront structure.

  6. Study on the method to test large-aperture hyperboloid convex mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiaohui; Dong, Huiwen; Guo, Wen; Wang, Huijun

    2014-08-01

    There are numerous reflecting optical system designs that call for large-aperture convex surfaces, such as secondary mirror in on-axis three mirror anastigmatic (TMA). Several methods to test high accuracy hyperboloid convex surfaces are introduced separately in this paper. A kind of arrangement is chosen to test a surface with diameter of 420mm, radius of 1371mm, and conic K -2.1229. The CGH compensator for testing is designed, which is made up of illumination lens and hologram test plate with designed residual wavefront aberration less than 0.001λ (RMS). The second transmitted method that is equipped with a technical flat surface coating by Ag film in the bottom of surface mirror under test, which form an auto-collimation optical system to eliminate the aberration. The Hindle-Simpson test that requires a larger meniscus lens to compensate the optical aberration, and the designed result of optical test system is less than 0.0016λ. Contrasting the CGH compensator and the second transmitted method, the Hindle-Simpson testing method has the advantage of it is easily to manufacture and adjust; meanwhile the test result is stable and has been less affected by the environment. It has been found that the method is rational and reliable, and it can fulfill the requirement of manufacturing and testing process for hyperboloid convex mirrors.

  7. Assessing inter-sensor variability and sensible heat flux derivation accuracy for a large aperture scintillometer.

    PubMed

    Rambikur, Evan H; Chávez, José L

    2014-01-27

    The accuracy in determining sensible heat flux (H) of three Kipp and Zonen large aperture scintillometers (LAS) was evaluated with reference to an eddy covariance (EC) system over relatively flat and uniform grassland near Timpas (CO, USA). Other tests have revealed inherent variability between Kipp and Zonen LAS units and bias to overestimate H. Average H fluxes were compared between LAS units and between LAS and EC. Despite good correlation, inter-LAS biases in H were found between 6% and 13% in terms of the linear regression slope. Physical misalignment was observed to result in increased scatter and bias between H solutions of a well-aligned and poorly-aligned LAS unit. Comparison of LAS and EC H showed little bias for one LAS unit, while the other two units overestimated EC H by more than 10%. A detector alignment issue may have caused the inter-LAS variability, supported by the observation in this study of differing power requirements between LAS units. It is possible that the LAS physical misalignment may have caused edge-of-beam signal noise as well as vulnerability to signal noise from wind-induced vibrations, both having an impact on the solution of H. In addition, there were some uncertainties in the solutions of H from the LAS and EC instruments, including lack of energy balance closure with the EC unit. However, the results obtained do not show clear evidence of inherent bias for the Kipp and Zonen LAS to overestimate H as found in other studies.

  8. A novel method of calculating far-field patterns of large aperture antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, M. C.

    1986-01-01

    A method is described for calculation of the radiation pattern of large aperture antennas. A piece-wise linear approximation of the aperture field using overlapping pyramidal basis functions allows the radiation pattern of an aperture antenna to be calculated as though it were a two-dimensional array. The calculation of radiation pattern data versus theta and phi, suitable for 3-D or contour plot algorithms, is achieved by locating the array in the yz-plane and performing a summation over the aperture field data sampled on a square grid. A FORTRAN subroutine is provided for performing radiation pattern calculations. Numerical results are included to demonstrate the accuracy and convergence of the method. These numerical results indicate that typical accuracies of + or - 0.1 dB for Directivity, + or - dB for the 1st Sidelobe Level, and + - 2dB for the 2nd Sidelobe Level can be obtained with an aperture grid of 45x45 points and requires approximately 0.02 seconds CPU time per far-field data point on a VAX 11/750 with a floating point accelerator.

  9. Switch-zoom optical system design of large aperture ground-based photoelectric detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Peipei; Liu, Kai; Duan, Jing; Jiang, Kai; Shan, Qiusha

    2016-10-01

    Binary optics can be used to increase optical performances, decrease size and weight, and decrease systems costs in numerous applications. By means of hybrid diffractive-refractive, a switch-zoom optical system of catadioptric large aperture ground-based photoelectric detection is designed. The characteristic of the system is that it is a compact optical system without moving parts which can get two focal lengths. And the quality of image approaches the diffraction limited. Ritchey-Chrétien (R-C) mirror and a field lens are common for long-focus system and short-focus system. Two refract groups transmitting optical system are used for zooming. In order to satisfy the demand of energy regulation, it is designed afocal beam between field lens and later refract optical system. Filter and variable density plate are placed in it to guarantee the imaging quality. The focal length is 3750mm and F number is 7.5 for the long-focus system, and the focal length is 1850mm and F number is 3.75 for the short-focus system. Former part and later lens of the system are both perfect imaging. They can be fabricated and detected independently. So the design demand can be satisfied better and the imaging quality can be improved.

  10. A conceptual design for a Cassegrain-mounted high-resolution optical spectrograph for large-aperture telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froning, Cynthia S.; Osterman, Steven; Burgh, Eric; Beasley, Matthew; Scowen, Paul; Veach, Todd; Jordan, Steven; Ebbets, Dennis; Lieber, Michael; deCino, James; Castilho, Bruno Vaz; Gneiding, Clemens; César de Oliveira, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    We present a conceptual design for a high-resolution optical spectrograph appropriate for mounting at Cassegrain on a large aperture telescope. The design is based on our work for the Gemini High Resolution Optical Spectrograph (CUGHOS) project. Our design places the spectrograph at Cassegrain focus to maximize throughput and blue wavelength coverage, delivering R=40,000 resolving power over a continuous 320-1050 nm waveband with throughputs twice those of current instruments. The optical design uses a two-arm, cross-dispersed echelle format with each arm optimized to maximize efficiency. A fixed image slicer is used to minimize optics sizes. The principal challenge for the instrument design is to minimize flexure and degradation of the optical image. To ensure image stability, our opto-mechanical design combines a cost-effective, passively stable bench employing a honeycomb aluminum structure with active flexure control. The active flexure compensation consists of hexapod mounts for each focal plane with full 6-axis range of motion capability to correct for focus and beam displacement. We verified instrument performance using an integrated model that couples the optical and mechanical design to image performance. The full end-to-end modeling of the system under gravitational, thermal, and vibrational perturbations shows that deflections of the optical beam at the focal plane are <29 μm per exposure under the worst case scenario (<10 μm for most orientations), with final correction to 5 μm or better using open-loop active control to meet the stability requirement. The design elements and high fidelity modeling process are generally applicable to instruments requiring high stability under a varying gravity vector.

  11. Analysis of temporal contrast degradation due to wave front deviation in large aperture ultra-short pulse focusing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ping; Xie, Xinglong; Zhu, Jianqiang; Zhu, Haidong; Yang, Qingwei; Kang, Jun; Guo, Ailin; Gao, Qi

    2014-11-01

    In extremely intense laser system used for plasma physics experiments, temporal contrast is an important property of the ultra-short pulse. In this paper, we theoretically study the temporal contrast degradation due to wave front deviation in large aperture ultra-short pulse focusing system. Two-step focusing fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm with the coordinate transform based on Fresnel approximation in space domain and Fourier integral transform method in time domain were used to simulate the focusing process spatially and temporally, in which the spatial distribution of ultra-short pulse temporal contrast characteristics at the focal spot is related to the wave front in large aperture off-axis parabolic mirror focusing optical system. Firstly, temporal contrast degradation due to wave front noise with higher spatial frequency is analyzed and appropriate evaluation parameter for large aperture ultra-short pulse focusing system is put forward from the perspective of temporal contrast. Secondly, the influence of wave front distortion with lower spatial frequency on temporal contrast is revealed comparing different degradation characteristics of various aberrations. At last, a method by controlling and optimizing the wave front to prevent temporal contrast degradation in large aperture ultra-short laser system is proposed, which is of great significance for high temporal contrast petawatt laser facilities.

  12. The next generation balloon-borne large aperture submillimeter telescope (BLAST-TNG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dober, Bradley Jerald

    Large areas of astrophysics, such as precision cosmology, have benefited greatly from large maps and datasets, yielded by telescopes of ever-increasing number and ability. However, due to the unique challenges posed by submillimeter polarimetry, the study of molecular cloud dynamics and star formation remain stunted. Previously, polarimetry data was limited to a few vectors on only the brightest areas of molecular clouds. This made drawing statistically-driven conclusions a daunting task. However, the successful flight of the Balloon-born Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) generated maps with thousands of independent polarization measurements of molecular clouds, and ushered in a new era of empirical modeling of molecular cloud dynamics. Now that the potential benefits from large-scale maps of magnetic fields in molecular clouds had been identified, a successor that would truly unlock the secrets must be born. The Next Generation Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST-TNG), the successor to BLASTPol, has the ability to make larger and more detailed maps of magnetic fields in molecular clouds. It will push the field of star formation into a statistics-driven, empirical realm. With these large, detailed datasets, astronomers will be able to find new relationships between the dust dynamics and the magnetic fields. The field will surge to a new level of understanding. One of the key enabling technologies of BLAST-TNG is its three arrays of polarization-sensitive Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs). MKIDs are superconducting RLC circuits with a resonant frequency that shifts proportionally to the amount of incident radiation. The key feature of MKIDs is that thousands of detectors, each with their own unique resonant frequency, can be coupled to the same readout line. This technology will be able to drive the production of large-scale monolithic arrays, containing tens or hundreds of thousands of detectors

  13. BLAST-TNG: A Next Generation Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fissel, Laura M.; Ade, Peter; Angilè, Francesco E.; Campbell Ashton, Peter; Austermann, Jason Edward; Billings, Tashalee; Che, George; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Cunningham, Maria R.; Davis, Kristina; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon; Dober, Bradley; Fukui, Yasuo; Galitzki, Nicholas; gao, jiansong; Gordon, Sam; Groppi, Christopher E.; Hillbrand, Seth; Hilton, Gene; Hubmayr, Hannes; Irwin, Kent; Jones, Paul; Klein, Jeffrey; li, dale; Li, Zhi-Yun; lourie, nathan; Lowe, Ian; Mani, Hamdi; Martin, Peter G.; Mauskopf, Philip; McKenney, Christopher; Nati, Federico; Novak, Giles; Pascale, Enzo; pisano, giampaolo; Pereira Santos, Fábio; Scott, Douglas; Sinclair, Adrian; Diego Diego Soler, Juan; tucker, carole; Underhill, Matthew; Vissers, Michael; Williams, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of polarized thermal dust emission can be used to map magnetic fields in the interstellar medium. Recently, BLASTPol, the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry, has published the most detailed map ever made of a giant molecular cloud forming high-mass stars. I will present an overview of The Next Generation BLAST polarimeter (BLAST-TNG), the successor telescope to BLASTPol, which maps linearly polarized dust emission at 250, 350 and 500 μm. BLAST-TNG utilizes a 2.5-meter carbon-fiber primary mirror that illuminates focal plane arrays containing over 3,000 microwave kinetic inductance detectors. This new polarimeter has an order of magnitude increase in mapping speed and resolution compared to BLASTPol and we expect to make over 500,000 measurements of magnetic field orientation per flight. BLAST-TNG will have the sensitivity to map entire molecular cloud complexes as well as regions of diffuse high Galactic latitude dust. It also has the resolution (FWHM = 25’’ at 250 μm) necessary to trace magnetic fields in prestellar cores and dense filaments. BLAST-TNG will thus provide a crucial link between the low resolution Planck all-sky maps and the detailed but narrow field of view polarimetry capabilities of ALMA. For our first Antarctic flight in December 2017 we are putting out a call for shared-risk proposals to fill 25% of the available science time. In addition, BLAST-TNG data will be publicly released within a year of the publication of our first look papers, leaving a large legacy data set for the study of the role played by magnetic fields in the star formation process and the properties of interstellar dust.

  14. OASIS 1.0: Very Large-Aperture High-Power Lidar for Exploring Geospace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, X.; Smith, J. A.; Chen, C.; Zhao, J.; Yu, Z.; Gardner, C. S.

    2015-12-01

    A new initiative, namely OASIS (the Observatory for Atmosphere Space Interaction Studies), has called for a very large-aperture high-power (VLAHP) lidar as its first step forward to acquire the unprecedented measurement capabilities for exploring the space-atmosphere interaction region (SAIR). Currently, there exists a serious observational gap of the Earth's neutral atmosphere above 100 km. Information on neutral winds and temperatures and on the plasma-neutral coupling in the SAIR, especially between 100 and 200 km, is either sparse or nonexistent. Fully exploring the SAIR requires measurements of the neutral atmosphere to complement radar observations of the plasma. Lidar measurements of neutral winds, temperatures and species can enable these explorations. Many of these topics will be addressed with the VLAHP lidar. Discoveries of thermospheric neutral Fe, Na and K layers up to nearly 200 km at McMurdo, Antarctica and other locations on Earth, have opened a new door to observing the neutral thermosphere with ground-based instruments. These neutral metal layers provide the tracers for resonance Doppler lidars to directly measure the neutral temperatures and winds in the thermosphere, thus enabling the VLAHP lidar dream! Because the thermospheric densities of these metal atoms are many times smaller than the layer peak densities near 90 km, high power-aperture product lidars, like the VLAHP lidar, are required to derive scientifically useful measurements. Furthermore, several key technical challenges for VLAHP lidar have been largely resolved in the last a few years through the successful development of Fe and Na Doppler lidars at Boulder. By combining Rayleigh and Raman with resonance lidar techniques and strategically operating the VLAHP lidar next to incoherent scatter radar and other complementary instruments, the VLAHP lidar will enable new cutting-edge exploration of the geospace. These new concepts and progresses will be introduced in this paper.

  15. Advances in deployable structures and surfaces for large apertures in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago-Prowald, J.; Baier, H.

    2013-12-01

    Large apertures in space have applications for telecommunications, Earth observation and scientific missions. This paper reviews advances in mechanical architectures and technologies for large deployable apertures for space antennas and telescopes. Two complementary approaches are described to address this challenge: the deployment of structures based on quasi-rigid members and highly flexible structures. Regarding the first approach, deployable articulated structures are classified in terms of their kinematics as 3D or planar linkages in multiple variants, resulting in different architectures of radial, peripheral or modular constructions. A dedicated discussion on the number of degrees of freedom and constraints addresses the deployment reliability and thermo-elastic stability of large elastic structures in the presence of thermal gradients. This aspect has been identified as a design driver for new developments of peripheral ring and modular structures. Meanwhile, other design drivers are maintained, such as the optimization of mass and stiffness, overall accuracy and stability, and pragmatic aspects including controlled industrial development and a commitment to operators' needs. Furthermore, reflecting surface technologies and concepts are addressed with a view to the future, presenting advances in technical solutions for increasing apertures and reducing areal mass densities to affordable levels for future missions. Highly flexible materials capable of producing ultra-stable shells are described with reference to the state of the art and new developments. These concepts may enable large deployable surfaces for antennas and telescopes, as well as innovative optical concepts such as photon sieves. Shape adjustment and shape control of these surfaces are described in terms of available technologies and future needs, particularly for the reconfiguration of telecommunications antennas. In summary, the two complementary approaches described and reviewed cover the

  16. Large-aperture high-resolution X-ray collimator for the Solar Maximum Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nobles, R. A.; Acton, L. W.; Joki, E. G.; Leibacher, J. W.; Peterson, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    A description is presented of a flight-qualified large-aperture 12 x 12-arcsec angular resolution multigrid X-ray collimator developed for the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) flat crystal spectrometer. This collimator, designed for the 1.4-22.4-A wavelength range, utilizes an optical bench/metering structure to align and support prealigned grid subassemblies. The optical bench is a lightweight, rigid, and stable aluminum honeycomb structure. The grids are of a compound and bimetallic design, having 63.5-micron square holes on an 88.9-micron spacing in 8-micron thick gold, which is in turn supported by a 76-micron thick Invar grid having 600-micron square holes on a 739-micron spacing. The small apertures in the gold provide the 12-arcsec collimation with the Invar grids providing wide angle off-axis blocking out to an approximately 35 arcmin view angle. The collimator has seven individual channels, four of a 5.1- x 10-cm area and three of a 1.3- x 10-cm area. Laboratory measurements gave an average angular resolution of 12.5 arcsec FWHM with 0.259 transmission for the large-area channels and 12.0 arcsec and 0.200 transmission for the small-area channels. A thermal filter composed of two layers of approximately 1000-A thick aluminum prevents solar heating of the front collimator grids by absorbing longer wavelength radiation while passing most of the X radiation in the band of interest.

  17. Tethered Formation Configurations: Meeting the Scientific Objectives of Large Aperture and Interferometric Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Rodger E.; Quinn, David A.; Brodeur, Stephen J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    With the success of the Hubble Space Telescope, it has become apparent that new frontiers of science and discovery are made every time an improvement in imaging resolution is made. For the HST working primarily in the visible and near-visible spectrum, this meant designing, building, and launching a primary mirror approximately three meters in diameter. Conventional thinking tells us that accomplishing a comparable improvement in resolution at longer wavelengths for Earth and Space Science applications requires a corresponding increase in the size of the primary mirror. For wavelengths in the sub-millimeter range, a very large telescope with an effective aperture in excess of one kilometer in diameter would be needed to obtain high quality angular resolution. Realistically a single aperture this large is practically impossible. Fortunately such large apertures can be constructed synthetically. Possibly as few as three 34 meter diameter mirrors flying in precision formation could be used to collect light at these longer wavelengths permitting not only very large virtual aperture science to be carried out, but high-resolution interferometry as well. To ensure the longest possible mission duration, a system of tethered spacecraft will be needed to mitigate the need for a great deal of propellant. A spin-stabilized, tethered formation will likely meet these requirements. Several configurations have been proposed which possibly meet the needs of the Space Science community. This paper discusses two of them, weighing the relative pros and cons of each concept. The ultimate goal being to settle on a configuration which combines the best features of structure, tethers, and formation flying to meet the ambitious requirements necessary to make future large synthetic aperture and interferometric science missions successful.

  18. Tethered Formation Configurations: Meeting the Scientific Objectives of Large Aperture and Interferometric Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Rodger E.; Quinn, David A.

    2004-01-01

    With the success of the Hubble Space Telescope, it has become apparent that new frontiers of science and discovery are made every time an improvement in imaging resolution is made. For the HST working primarily in the visible and near-visible spectrum, this meant designing, building and launching a primary mirror approximately three meters in diameter. Conventional thinking tells us that accomplishing a comparable improvement in resolution at longer wavelengths for Earth and Space Science applications requires a corresponding increase in the size of the primary mirror. For wavelengths in the sub-millimeter range, a very large telescope with an effective aperture in excess of one kilometer in diameter would be needed to obtain high quality angular resolution. Realistically a single aperture this large is practically impossible. Fortunately such large apertures can be constructed synthetically. Possibly as few as three 3 - 4 meter diameter mirrors flying in precision formation could be used to collect light at these longer wavelengths permitting not only very large virtual aperture science to be carried out, but high-resolution interferometry as well. To ensure the longest possible mission duration, a system of tethered spacecraft will be needed to mitigate the need for a great deal of propellant. A spin-stabilized, tethered formation will likely meet these requirements. Several configurations have been proposed which possibly meet the needs of the Space Science community. This paper discusses two of them, weighing the relative pros and cons of each concept. The ultimate goal being to settle on a configuration which combines the best features of structure, tethers and formation flying to meet the ambitious requirements necessary to make future large synthetic aperture and interferometric science missions successful.

  19. Thermal performance assessment of a large aperture concentrating collector in an industrial application in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Clare; Pino, Alan; Cardemil, José Miguel; Escobar, Rodrigo

    2017-06-01

    The application of solar thermal energy to meet the heat demands of the food and beverage processing industry in Chile has huge potential. This paper presents an assessment of the first large aperture trough collector installed in Latin America. The collector preheats water for a boiler in a juice-concentrating factory, 100 km north of Santiago. An analysis of the system for a day in November indicates the system was not able to utilize the heat generated, resulting in rapid de- and refocusing of the collector and problems with sensor calibration. An analysis of a day in March indicates the tracking algorithm has not correctly aligned the collector with the sun's position. An investigation into the design document reveals that the meteorological data underestimates the actual irradiation values by 40%, resulting in an oversized system given the actual conditions. To increase the energy gain in the system it is proposed to increase the working pressure from the current value of 1.5bar to up to 5bar, which could increase the system utilization from 41% to 65% and reduce the dumped energy to near zero. The simulation results with actual weather data and a fixed inlet temperature indicate the annual solar fraction could increase from the design value of 8.1% to 31.8% with a working pressure of 5 bar. The plant presents multiple opportunities for improvement not only to the performance of the plant but also in the design and installation of solar thermal systems in Chile in the future.

  20. Large-aperture, tapered fiber-coupled, 10-kHz particle-image velocimetry.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Paul S; Roy, Sukesh; Jiang, Naibo; Gord, James R

    2013-02-11

    We demonstrate the design and implementation of a fiber-optic beam-delivery system using a large-aperture, tapered step-index fiber for high-speed particle-image velocimetry (PIV) in turbulent combustion flows. The tapered fiber in conjunction with a diffractive-optical-element (DOE) fiber-optic coupler significantly increases the damage threshold of the fiber, enabling fiber-optic beam delivery of sufficient nanosecond, 532-nm, laser pulse energy for high-speed PIV measurements. The fiber successfully transmits 1-kHz and 10-kHz laser pulses with energies of 5.3 mJ and 2 mJ, respectively, for more than 25 min without any indication of damage. It is experimentally demonstrated that the tapered fiber possesses the high coupling efficiency (~80%) and moderate beam quality for PIV. Additionally, the nearly uniform output-beam profile exiting the fiber is ideal for PIV applications. Comparative PIV measurements are made using a conventionally (bulk-optic) delivered light sheet, and a similar order of measurement accuracy is obtained with and without fiber coupling. Effective use of fiber-coupled, 10-kHz PIV is demonstrated for instantaneous 2D velocity-field measurements in turbulent reacting flows. Proof-of-concept measurements show significant promise for the performance of fiber-coupled, high-speed PIV using a tapered optical fiber in harsh laser-diagnostic environments such as those encountered in gas-turbine test beds and the cylinder of a combustion engine.

  1. Construction and Characterization of a Large Aperture Blackbody for Infrared Radiometer Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chul-Woung; Yoo, Yong Shim; Kim, Bong-Hak; Chun, Sejong; Park, Seung-Nam

    2011-08-01

    A large aperture blackbody (LABB) with a diameter of 1 m has been successfully constructed for calibrating radiation thermometers and infrared radiometers with a wide field of view in the temperature range between 10 °C and 90 °C. The blackbody is a 1 m long cylindro-conical cavity with a diameter of 1.1 m. Its conical bottom has an apex angle of 120°. To achieve good temperature stability and uniformity, the cavity is integrated to a water-bath to which the pressurized water is supplied from a reservoir. To reduce the convection heat loss from the cavity to the ambient, the cavity is purged of the dried air that passes through a coiled tube immersed in the reservoir. For an uncertainty evaluation of the LABB, its temperature stability was measured by using a reference radiation thermometer (RRT) and a platinum resistance thermometer (PRT), and its radiance temperature distributions on the aperture plane were measured by using a thermal camera. Measuring the spectral emissivity of the coating material, the effective emissivity of the blackbody was calculated to be 0.9955 from 1 μm to 15 μm. The expanded uncertainty of the radiance temperature scale was evaluated based on the PRT readings, which vary from 0.3 °C to 0.5 °C ( k = 2) in the temperature range. The temperature scale is validated by comparing with the RRT of which the temperature scale is realized by a multiple fixed-point calibration.

  2. How Membrane-Active Peptides Get into Lipid Membranes.

    PubMed

    Sani, Marc-Antoine; Separovic, Frances

    2016-06-21

    The structure-function relationship for a family of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from the skin of Australian tree frogs is discussed and compared with that of peptide toxins from bee and Australian scorpion venoms. Although these membrane-active peptides induce a similar cellular fate by disrupting the lipid bilayer integrity, their lytic activity is achieved via different modes of action, which are investigated in relation to amino acid sequence, secondary structure, and membrane lipid composition. In order to better understand what structural features govern the interaction between peptides and lipid membranes, cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), which translocate through the membrane without compromising its integrity, are also discussed. AMPs possess membrane lytic activities that are naturally designed to target the cellular membrane of pathogens or competitors. They are extremely diverse in amino acid composition and often show specificity against a particular strain of microbe. Since our antibiotic arsenal is declining precariously in the face of the rise in multiantibiotic resistance, AMPs increasingly are seen as a promising alternative. In an effort to understand their molecular mechanism, biophysical studies of a myriad of AMPs have been reported, yet no unifying mechanism has emerged, rendering difficult the rational design of drug leads. Similarly, a wide variety of cytotoxic peptides are found in venoms, the best known being melittin, yet again, predicting their activity based on a particular amino acid composition or secondary structure remains elusive. A common feature of these membrane-active peptides is their preference for the lipid environment. Indeed, they are mainly unstructured in solution and, in the presence of lipid membranes, quickly adsorb onto the surface, change their secondary structure, eventually insert into the hydrophobic core of the membrane bilayer, and finally disrupt the bilayer integrity. These steps define the molecular

  3. Fluid transport by active elastic membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Arthur A.; Lauga, Eric

    2011-09-01

    A flexible membrane deforming its shape in time can self-propel in a viscous fluid. Alternatively, if the membrane is anchored, its deformation will lead to fluid transport. Past work in this area focused on situations where the deformation kinematics of the membrane were prescribed. Here we consider models where the deformation of the membrane is not prescribed, but instead the membrane is internally forced. Both the time-varying membrane shape and the resulting fluid motion result then from a balance between prescribed internal active stresses, internal passive resistance, and external viscous stresses. We introduce two specific models for such active internal forcing: one where a distribution of active bending moments is prescribed, and one where active inclusions exert normal stresses on the membrane by pumping fluid through it. In each case, we asymptotically calculate the membrane shape and the fluid transport velocities for small forcing amplitudes, and recover our results using scaling analysis.

  4. Determining suitability of Large Aperture Scintillometer for validating remote sensing based evapotranspiration maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, G.; Gowda, P. H.; Howell, T. A.; Basu, S.; Colaizzi, P. D.; Marek, T.

    2013-12-01

    Scintillation method is a relatively new technique for measuring the sensible heat and water fluxes over land surfaces. Path integrating capabilities of scintillometer over heterogeneous landscapes make it a potential tool for comparing the energy fluxes derived from remote sensing based energy balance algorithms. For this reason, scintillometer-derived evapotranspiration (ET) fluxes are being used to evaluate remote sensing based energy balance algorithms for their ability to estimate ET fluxes. However, LAS' (Large Aperture Scintillometer) ability to derive ET fluxes is not thoroughly tested. The objective of this study was to evaluate LAS- and Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS)-derived fluxes against lysimetric data to determine LAS' suitability for validating remote sensing based evapotranspiration (ET) maps. The study was conducted during the Bushland Evapotranspiration and Agricultural Remote sensing EXperiment - 2008 (BEAREX-08) at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory (CPRL), Bushland, Texas. SEBS was coded in a GIS environment to retrieve ET fluxes from the high resolution imageries acquired using airborne multispectral sensors. The CPRL has four large weighing lysimeters (3 m long x 3 m wide x 2.4 m deep), each located in the middle of approximately 5 ha fields, arranged in a block pattern. The two lysimeter fields located on the east (NE and SE) were managed under irrigated conditions, and the other two lysimeters on the west (NW and SW) were under dryland management. Each lysimeter field was equipped with an automated weather station that provided measurements for net radiation (Rn), Ts, soil heat flux (Go), Ta, relative humidity, and wind speed. During BEAREX08, the NE and SE fields were planted to cotton on May 21, and the NW and SW dryland lysimeters fields were planted to cotton on June 5. One LAS each was deployed across two large dryland lysimeter fields (NW and SW) and two large irrigated lysimeter fields (NE and SE). The

  5. Origins of High-frequency Scattered Waves Near PKKP From Large Aperture Seismic Array Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earle, P. S.; Vidale, J. E.

    2001-05-01

    Observations of high--frequency ( ~1 Hz) teleseismic scattered waves provide constraints for modelling fine--scale ( ~10 km) core--mantle boundary (CMB) topography and fine--scale mantle heterogeneity. The majority of previous modelling relied on precursors to PKPdf, but here we present an underutilized data set that will aid future research into Earth's fine--scale structure: scattered waves in the vicinity of PKKP. The data set consists of slant stacks generated from Large Aperture Seismic Array (LASA) data from 36 earthquakes and 6 explosions in the range 30o to 129o. Although precursors to PKKP have been studied, we examine stacks in a larger time--distance window and find that waves previously associated with scattering along the PKKP raypath actually originate from near surface scattering of PKP to P (PKP.P). In addition to these near surface contributions, three types of waves scattered at the CMB or in the overlying mantle explain the observed slownesses and onset times, including: forward scattering of PKKP between its P and KKP legs (P.KKP and PKK.P), back scattering of PKKP between its PK and KP legs (PK.KP), and similarly back scattering of SKKP energy between its SK and KP legs (SK.KP). The LASA stacks show where and when these waves are detected and where they are contaminated by the surface--scattered P.PKP. In addition, the stacks image the scattered waves' amplitude and slowness variations with time. P.KKP waves are observed near 128o (just beyond the PKKP ``b'' caustic) and last ~100 s. Close to 113o, SK.KP waves rise above the noise ~100 s before onset time of the main SKKP arrival. Observations of PK.KP span 30o to 100o. However, at distances greater than 50o they suffer from P.PKP contamination. At distances less than 50o PK.KP last for ~300 s. This is ~150 s longer than the maximum ray-theoretical prediction for waves scattered at the CMB, indicating possible contributions from the overlying mantle.

  6. Imaging with Concave Large-Aperture Therapeutic Ultrasound Arrays Using Conventional Synthetic-Aperture Beamforming

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Yayun; Ebbini, Emad S.

    2009-01-01

    Several dual-mode ultrasound array (DMUA) systems are being investigated for potential use in image-guided surgery. In therapeutic mode, DMUAs generate pulsed or continuous-wave (CW) high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) beams capable of generating localized therapeutic effects within the focal volume. In imaging mode, pulse-echo data can be collected from the DMUA elements to obtain B-mode images or other forms of feedback on the state of the target tissue before, during, and after the application of the therapeutic HIFU beam. Therapeutic and technological constraints give rise to special characteristics of therapeutic arrays. Specifically, DMUAs have concave apertures with low f-number values and are typically coarsely sampled using directive elements. These characteristics necessitate pre- and post-beamforming signal processing of echo data to improve the spatial and contrast resolution and maximize the image uniformity within the imaging field of view (IxFOV). We have recently developed and experimentally validated beamforming algorithms for concave large-aperture DMUAs with directive elements. Experimental validation was performed using a 1 MHz, 64-element, concave spherical aperture with 100 mm radius of curvature. The aperture was sampled in the lateral direction using elongated elements 1−λ×33.3‒ with 1.333‒−λ center-to-center spacing (λ is the wavelength). This resulted in f-number values of 0.8 and 2 in the azimuth and elevation directions, respectively. In this paper, we present a new DMUA design approach based on different sampling of the shared concave aperture to improve image quality while maintaining therapeutic performance. A pulse-wave (PW) simulation model using a modified version of the Field II program is used in this study. The model is used in generating pulse-echo data for synthetic-aperture (SA) beamforming for forming images of a variety of targets, e.g., wire arrays and speckle-generating cyst phantoms. To provide

  7. Research on 2x1 plasma electrode electro-optical switch with large aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiong Jun; Zheng, Kui Xing; Feng, B.; Wu, D. S.; Lu, J. P.; Tian, X. L.; Jin, F.; Sui, Zhan; Wei, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Xiaomin

    2005-01-01

    In conceptual design of the prototype for SG-III facility, a full aperture electro-optical switch was placed between the cavity mirror and the main amplifier to isolate the reflected beams. The beam on the cavity mirror is 240mm×240mm square. Pockells cells of conversional design with coaxial ring electrodes can not scale to such large square aperture. In the 1980s, a plasma electrode Pockels cell (PEPC) concept was invented at LLNL. It uses transparent plasma electrode formed through gas discharge as the electrodes to apply the voltage across switching crystal to rotate the polarization of a transmitted laser beam. And it can be scaled to large aperture with thin crystal. So the switch which would be used in SG-III is based on this technology. The technical integration line as a prototype of SG-III laser is actually a 4×2 beam bundle. And the full aperture optical switch is mechanically designed four apertures as a removable unit, and electrically two 2×1 PEPC putting together. So we built a 2×1 PEPC to develop the technology first. The 2×1 PEPC is a sandwich structure made of an insulating mid plane between a pair of plasma chambers. The frame of both plasma chambers are machining in duralumin. Each chamber is installed with a planar magnetic cathode and four segments spherical anodes made from stainless steel. The cathode and anode are insulated from the housing with a special shell made from plastic, and plasma is insulated from the housing by an 80-μm-thick anodic coating on the duralumin. The two plasma chambers are separated by a mid plane of glass frame with two square holes. The two holes are filled by two electro-optical crystals with a 240-mm square aperture. With the optimized operating pressure and the electrical parameters, a very good homogeneity and low resistivity plasma electrode is obtained. Finally we tested its switching performance to simulate the case that it will be used in the SG-III prototype facility. It works with a quarter wave

  8. Measurement and analysis of wavefront structure from large-aperture ICF optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, C. Robert; Lawson, Janice K.

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses the techniques, developed over the past year, for high spatial resolution measurement and analysis of the transmitted and/or reflected wavefront of large aperture ICF optical components. Parts up to 400 mm by 750 mm have been measured and include: laser slabs, windows, KDP crystals and lenses. The measurements were performed using state-of- the-art commercial phase shifting interferometers at a wavelength of 633 micrometer. Both 1 and 2-D Fourier analysis have been used to characterize the wavefront; specifically the power spectral density (PSD) function was calculated. The PSDs of several precision optical components are shown. The PSD(nu) is proportional to the (amplitude)2 of components of the Fourier frequency spectrum. The PSD describes the scattered intensity and direction as a function of scattering angle in the wavefront. The capability of commercial software is limited to 1-D Fourier analysis only. We are developing our own 2-D analysis capability in support of work to revise specifications for NIF optics. Two-dimensional analysis uses the entire wavefront phase map to construct 2-D PSD functions. We have been able to increase the signal-to-noise relative to 1-D and can observe very subtle wavefront structure. The physics of the NIF laser design dictate partitioning the wavefront into three regimes of spatial wavelength (or spatial frequency). We discuss the data in terms of the following three scale length regimes: (1) short scale, or 'micro roughness,' having scale lengths less than 120 micrometer; (2) mid-spatial scale, with scale lengths from 0.12 to 33 mm; and (3) long scale, or conventional 'optical figure/curvature,' having scale lengths greater than 33 mm. Regular repetitive wavefront structure has been observed in all three regimes, ranging from 10 micrometer to 100 mm in scale length. The magnitude of these structures are typically from lambda/100 to lambda/20. Structure has been detected in optical materials and on the

  9. The research progress of large-aperture fused silica for high power laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Zhufeng; Wang, Yufen; Xiang, Zaikui; Rao, Chuandong

    2016-03-01

    Because of its excellent optical performance, the fused silica is widely used in laser industry. In addition, the fused silica can withstand high power laser, due to its pure component, and the performance is most outstanding within all types of glasses. So fused silica can be used for optical lens in high power laser field. From the manufacturing process stand point, the fused silica can be categorized to four types: type Ⅰ, type Ⅱ, type Ⅲ, and type Ⅳ. The fused silica of type Ⅰand type Ⅱ is made through melting silica sand in graphite furnace or oxyhydrogen flame. There are many defects in these types of fused silica, for example, the air bubbles, inclusions and metallic impurity. The other two types are made by synthetic reaction of SiCl4 with water in oxyhydrogen or plasma flame. Both type Ⅲ and Ⅳ have excellent performance in transmittance and internal quality. However, type Ⅳof fused silica has disadvantage in small aperture and overall high manufacturing cost. Take the transmittance and internal quality into consideration, the type Ⅲ fused silica is the most suitable for large-aperture lens, and can withstand high power laser. The systemic studies of manufacturing process were done to improve the performance of type Ⅲ fused silica in various areas, for instance, the optical homogeneity, the stress birefringence, the absorption coefficient and the damage threshold. There are four steps in manufacturing process of type Ⅲ fused silica, ingot production, reshaping, annealing and cold-working. The critical factors of ingot production, like the flame of burner and the structure of furnace, were deeply studied in this paper to improve the performance of fused silica. On the basis of the above research, the performance and quality of the fused silica measured up to advanced world levels. For instance, the result of optical homogeneity can be controlled to 2~5 ppm, the stress birefringence is better than 4 nm/cm, the absorption coefficient

  10. Large-aperture high-resolution x-ray collimator for the Solar Maximum Mission.

    PubMed

    Nobles, R A; Acton, L W; Joki, E G; Leibacher, J W; Peterson, R C

    1980-09-01

    A description is presented of a flight-qualified large-aperture 12 x 12-sec of arc angular resolution multigrid x-ray collimator developed for the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) flat crystal spectrometer. This collimator, designed for the 1.4-22.4-A wavelength range, utilizes an optical bench/metering structure to align and support prealigned grid subassemblies. One advantage of this scheme is to provide ready access to the grid subassemblies for inspection and/or servicing. The optical bench is a lightweight, rigid, and stable aluminum honeycomb structure. Aluminum is a viable material choice in this application because of the good thermal control expected in the SMM instrument package. The grids are of a compound and bimetallic design, having 63.5-microm square holes on an 88.9-microm spacing in 8-microm thick gold, which is in turn supported by a 76-microm thick Invar grid having 600-microm square holes on a 739-microm spacing. The small apertures in the gold provide the 12-sec of arc collimation with the Invar grids providing wide angle off-axis blocking out to an ~35-min of arc view angle. The collimator has seven individual channels, four of a 5.1- x 10-cm area and three of a 1.3- x 10-cm area. Laboratory measurements gave an average angular resolution of 12.5-sec of arc FWHM with 0.259 transmission for the large area channels and 12.0 sec of arc and 0.200 transmission for the small area channels. A hypothetical perfectly aligned collimator would have 12.5-sec of arc resolution and 0.300 transmission. A thermal filter composed of two layers of ~1000-A thick aluminum prevents solar heating of the front collimator grids by absorbing longer wavelength radiation while passing most of the x radiation in the band of interest. The filter was flight qualified by passing a protoflight acoustic test environment of 147-dB total sound level, 20-microN/M(2) reference, for 1-min duration.

  11. Imaging with concave large-aperture therapeutic ultrasound arrays using conventional synthetic-aperture beamforming.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yayun; Ebbini, Emad S

    2008-08-01

    Several dual-mode ultrasound array (DMUA) systems are being investigated for potential use in image- guided surgery. In therapeutic mode, DMUAs generate pulsed or continuous-wave (CW) high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) beams capable of generating localized therapeutic effects within the focal volume. In imaging mode, pulse-echo data can be collected from the DMUA elements to obtain B-mode images or other forms of feedback on the state of the target tissue before, during, and after the application of the therapeutic HIFU beam. Therapeutic and technological constraints give rise to special characteristics of therapeutic arrays. Specifically, DMUAs have concave apertures with low f-number values and are typically coarsely sampled using directive elements. These characteristics necessitate pre- and post-beamforming signal processing of echo data to improve the spatial and contrast resolution and maximize the image uniformity within the imaging field of view (IxFOV). We have recently developed and experimentally validated beamforming algorithms for concave large-aperture DMUAs with directive elements. Experimental validation was performed using a 1 MHz, 64-element, concave spherical aperture with 100 mm radius of curvature. The aperture was sampled in the lateral direction using elongated elements 1-lambda x 33.3-lambda with 1.333-lambda center-to-center spacing (lambda is the wavelength). This resulted in f-number values of 0.8 and 2 in the azimuth and elevation directions, respectively. In this paper, we present a new DMUA design approach based on different sampling of the shared concave aperture to improve image quality while maintaining therapeutic performance. A pulse-wave (PW) simulation model using a modified version of the Field II program is used in this study. The model is used in generating pulse-echo data for synthetic-aperture (SA) beamforming for forming images of a variety of targets, e.g., wire arrays and speckle-generating cyst phantoms. To

  12. Developing Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) Technology for the Manufacture of Large-Aperture Optics in Megajoule Class Laser Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Menapace, J A

    2010-10-27

    Over the last eight years we have been developing advanced MRF tools and techniques to manufacture meter-scale optics for use in Megajoule class laser systems. These systems call for optics having unique characteristics that can complicate their fabrication using conventional polishing methods. First, exposure to the high-power nanosecond and sub-nanosecond pulsed laser environment in the infrared (>27 J/cm{sup 2} at 1053 nm), visible (>18 J/cm{sup 2} at 527 nm), and ultraviolet (>10 J/cm{sup 2} at 351 nm) demands ultra-precise control of optical figure and finish to avoid intensity modulation and scatter that can result in damage to the optics chain or system hardware. Second, the optics must be super-polished and virtually free of surface and subsurface flaws that can limit optic lifetime through laser-induced damage initiation and growth at the flaw sites, particularly at 351 nm. Lastly, ultra-precise optics for beam conditioning are required to control laser beam quality. These optics contain customized surface topographical structures that cannot be made using traditional fabrication processes. In this review, we will present the development and implementation of large-aperture MRF tools and techniques specifically designed to meet the demanding optical performance challenges required in large-aperture high-power laser systems. In particular, we will discuss the advances made by using MRF technology to expose and remove surface and subsurface flaws in optics during final polishing to yield optics with improve laser damage resistance, the novel application of MRF deterministic polishing to imprint complex topographical information and wavefront correction patterns onto optical surfaces, and our efforts to advance the technology to manufacture large-aperture damage resistant optics.

  13. A New Type of X-ray Condenser Lenses with Large Apertures Fabricated by Rolling of Structured Films

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, M.; Reznikova, E.; Nazmov, V.; Grund, T.; Last, A.

    2010-04-06

    In order to meet the demand for X-ray lenses with large apertures and, hence, photon flux, a new type of X-ray lenses has been developed: Rolled prismatic X-ray lenses feature a vast number of refracting surfaces to increase transparency and aperture, respectively. Prototypes of such lenses have been fabricated by molding and rolling of a structured polyimide film. In this work, rolled prismatic X-ray lenses are pictured, and results of first tests performed at the ANKA storage ring in Karlsruhe are presented.

  14. In-situ monitoring of surface post-processing in large aperture fused silica optics with Optical Coherence Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Guss, G M; Bass, I l; Hackel, R P; Mailhiot, C; Demos, S G

    2008-02-08

    Optical Coherence Tomography is explored as a method to image laser-damage sites located on the surface of large aperture fused silica optics during post-processing via CO{sub 2} laser ablation. The signal analysis for image acquisition was adapted to meet the sensitivity requirements for this application. A long-working distance geometry was employed to allow imaging through the opposite surface of the 5-cm thick optic. The experimental results demonstrate the potential of OCT for remote monitoring of transparent material processing applications.

  15. Visible light high-resolution imaging system for large aperture telescope by liquid crystal adaptive optics with phase diversity technique.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zihao; Yang, Chengliang; Zhang, Peiguang; Zhang, Xingyun; Cao, Zhaoliang; Mu, Quanquan; Sun, Qiang; Xuan, Li

    2017-08-30

    There are more than eight large aperture telescopes (larger than eight meters) equipped with adaptive optics system in the world until now. Due to the limitations such as the difficulties of increasing actuator number of deformable mirror, most of them work in the infrared waveband. A novel two-step high-resolution optical imaging approach is proposed by applying phase diversity (PD) technique to the open-loop liquid crystal adaptive optics system (LC AOS) for visible light high-resolution adaptive imaging. Considering the traditional PD is not suitable for LC AOS, the novel PD strategy is proposed which can reduce the wavefront estimating error caused by non-modulated light generated by liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LC SLM) and make the residual distortions after open-loop correction to be smaller. Moreover, the LC SLM can introduce any aberration which realizes the free selection of phase diversity. The estimating errors are greatly reduced in both simulations and experiments. The resolution of the reconstructed image is greatly improved on both subjective visual effect and the highest discernible space resolution. Such technique can be widely used in large aperture telescopes for astronomical observations such as terrestrial planets, quasars and also can be used in other applications related to wavefront correction.

  16. Algorithms for finely adjusting etch depths to improve the diffraction efficiency uniformity of large-aperture BSG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lixiang; Qiu, Keqiang; Liu, Ying; Fu, Shaojun

    2015-03-01

    Beam sampling gratings (BSGs) employed in high-power laser systems usually have large aperture so that the adequate uniformity of diffraction efficiency is difficult to obtain. We proposed a deterministic method using controllable non-uniform etch to improve the efficiency uniformity of large-aperture BSGs. During the ion beam etching (IBE) process, etch depths are finely adjusted by the dynamic leaf. The motion trajectory of the dynamic leaf is calculated using the fine adjustment algorithm. Simulations are conducted on the basis of a typical example. The simulation predictions show that the cumulative error is 0.067 nm and about 99.1% of depth differences are in the range of the required etch depth tolerance, which suggests that the diffraction efficiency uniformity of BSG is expected to be effectively improved and thus can meet the requirement of a RMS of 5%. As a cost-effective solution, it also has a broad prospect in many optical fabrication fields, especially for the fabrication of large optics.

  17. Large-aperture laser beam scanner for inter-satellite laser communications ground test: assembly and test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jianfeng; Yang, Lei; Liu, Liren; Shen, Qiande; Xu, Nan

    2006-08-01

    Inter-satellite laser communications attracted more and more attentions due to its excellent performances compared with the RF communications. But the test and verification of the communication terminals are very difficult because of the accuracy and aperture requirement. Large-aperture laser beam scanner was introduced to simulate the relative movement between satellites in the process of ground test for terminals. The scanner includes two same circular wedge prisms, which can scan an arbitrary position in a cone zone. The motivation of the assembly is to guarantee the accuracy of the scanner. Since the large-aperture and high-precision of the scanner, the assembly and test become a very troublesome problem. The test includes: (1) confirm the principal section of the wedge prisms; (2) test the optical quality of the wedge prisms; (3) confirm the scan range of the scanner; (5) test the scan accuracy of the scanner. The test results indicate the assembly process is reasonable. The scan range and accuracy can satisfy the requirement of the ground test of the inter-satellite laser communications terminals.

  18. Electro-Mechanical Simulation of a Large Aperture MOEMS Fabry-Perot Tunable Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Jonathan L.; Barclay, Richard B.; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Mott, D. Brent; Satyapal, Shobita; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We are developing a micro-machined electrostatically actuated Fabry-Perot tunable filter with a large clear aperture for application in high through-put wide-field imaging spectroscopy and lidar systems. In the first phase of this effort, we are developing key components based on coupled electro-mechanical simulations. In particular, the movable etalon plate design leverages high coating stresses to yield a flat surface in drum-head tension over a large diameter (12.5 mm). In this approach, the cylindrical silicon movable plate is back etched, resulting in an optically coated membrane that is suspended from a thick silicon support ring. Understanding the interaction between the support ring, suspended membrane, and coating is critical to developing surfaces that are flat to within stringent etalon requirements. In this work, we present the simulations used to develop the movable plate, spring suspension system, and electrostatic actuation mechanism. We also present results from tests of fabricated proof of concept components.

  19. Active Nuclear Import of Membrane Proteins Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Laba, Justyna K.; Steen, Anton; Popken, Petra; Chernova, Alina; Poolman, Bert; Veenhoff, Liesbeth M.

    2015-01-01

    It is poorly understood how membrane proteins destined for the inner nuclear membrane pass the crowded environment of the Nuclear Pore Complex (NPC). For the Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins Src1/Heh1 and Heh2, a transport mechanism was proposed where the transmembrane domains diffuse through the membrane while the extralumenal domains encoding a nuclear localization signal (NLS) and intrinsically disordered linker (L) are accompanied by transport factors and travel through the NPC. Here, we validate the proposed mechanism and explore and discuss alternative interpretations of the data. First, to disprove an interpretation where the membrane proteins become membrane embedded only after nuclear import, we present biochemical and localization data to support that the previously used, as well as newly designed reporter proteins are membrane-embedded irrespective of the presence of the sorting signals, the specific transmembrane domain (multipass or tail anchored), independent of GET, and also under conditions that the proteins are trapped in the NPC. Second, using the recently established size limit for passive diffusion of membrane proteins in yeast, and using an improved assay, we confirm active import of polytopic membrane protein with extralumenal soluble domains larger than those that can pass by diffusion on similar timescales. This reinforces that NLS-L dependent active transport is distinct from passive diffusion. Thirdly, we revisit the proposed route through the center of the NPC and conclude that the previously used trapping assay is, unfortunately, poorly suited to address the route through the NPC, and the route thus remains unresolved. Apart from the uncertainty about the route through the NPC, the data confirm active, transport factor dependent, nuclear transport of membrane-embedded mono- and polytopic membrane proteins in baker’s yeast. PMID:26473931

  20. Comparison of Turbulent Sensible Heat Flux Determined by Large-Aperture Scintillometer and Eddy Covariance over Urban and Suburban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, He; Zhang, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Field observations of the atmospheric boundary layer were made over urban and suburban areas in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Sensible heat fluxes were obtained by eddy-covariance (EC) systems and large-aperture scintillometers (LASs). The results indicated that (1) the sensible heat flux obtained by LAS was less noisy and slightly larger than that obtained by EC over both urban and suburban surfaces; (2) the values of were higher when the correlation coefficient of vertical wind speed and temperature () was smaller. Lower values of were due to low-frequency trends. The urban values of were smaller than suburban values at low values; (3) the sensible heat flux determined by LAS was improved by use of the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory of the temperature structure parameter over urban and suburban areas, and the improvement is more significant over urban surface areas.

  1. Mg-doped congruent LiTaO3 crystal for large-aperture quasi-phase matching device.

    PubMed

    Ishizuki, Hideki; Taira, Takunori

    2008-10-13

    Mg-doped congruent composition LiTaO(3) (MgLT) crystal, which can be grown by a conventional Czochralski method, has improved properties such as transparent range, thermal conductivity, and coercive field compared to conventional undoped congruent LiTaO(3). In this paper, various properties of MgLT including Mg-doping dependence are characterized, and also compared to that of undoped congruent LiTaO(3), LiNbO(3), and Mg-doped congruent LiNbO(3), as a material of high power quasi-phase matching (QPM) device. Up to 3-mm-thick periodically poled MgLT crystal is shown to demonstrate the possibility of large-aperture QPM-MgLT devices. Subsequently, optical parametric oscillation experiments by using periodically poled MgLT are demonstrated to discuss an efficient QPM condition.

  2. Design studies of large aperture, high-resolution Earth science microwave radiometers compatible with small launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, Lyle C.; Bailey, M. C.; Harrington, Richard F.; Kendall, Bruce M.; Campbell, Thomas G.

    1994-01-01

    High-spatial-resolution microwave radiometer sensing from space with reasonable swath widths and revisit times favors large aperture systems. However, with traditional precision antenna design, the size and weight requirements for such systems are in conflict with the need to emphasize small launch vehicles. This paper describes tradeoffs between the science requirements, basic operational parameters, and expected sensor performance for selected satellite radiometer concepts utilizing novel lightweight compactly packaged real apertures. Antenna, feed, and radiometer subsystem design and calibration are presented. Preliminary results show that novel lightweight real aperture coupled with state-of-the-art radiometer designs are compatible with small launch systems, and hold promise for high-resolution earth science measurements of sea ice, precipitation, soil moisture, sea surface temperature, and ocean wind speeds.

  3. Research on precision grinding processing and compensation finishing experiment for mid-large- aperture square aspheric optical element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Fengming; Li, Zhanguo; Wang, Dasen; Zhang, Guangping; Guo, Chengjun; Pei, Ning; Li, Yupeng

    2014-08-01

    This paper analyzes dot-line envelope grinding principle, which is applicable to mid-large- aperture square aspheric optical element, determines the mathematical process control model based on X/Y/C three-axis aspheric grinding machine, We develop the appropriate high-precision aspheric grinding manufacturing and measurement systems software, using the plane grinding wheel to do the grinding experiments and the repeated compensation processing experiment. The experiments show that: high-precision aspheric grinding manufacturing and measurement systems software can be realized axisymmetric aspheric high-precision machining control and measurement; using compensation processing of the X/Y/C three-axis aspheric grinding machine which can effectively improve the precision PV value, surface error from the initial processing of the PV value :12 μm to the compensation processing of the PV value :3 μm .

  4. The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST): Science Drivers, Technology Developments, and Synergies with Other Future Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Postman, Marc; Brown, Tom; Sembach, Kenneth; Giavalisco, Mauro; Traub, Wesley; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Calzetti, Daniela; Oegerle, William; Rich, R. Michael; Stahl, H. Philip; hide

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) is a concept for an 8-meter to 16-meter UVOIR space observatory for launch in the 2025-2030 era. ATLAST will allow astronomers to answer fundamental questions at the forefront of modern astrophysics, including "Is there life elsewhere in the Galaxy?" We present a range of science drivers that define the main performance requirements for ATLAST (8 to 16 milliarcsec angular resolution, diffraction limited imaging at 0.5 m wavelength, minimum collecting area of 45 square meters, high sensitivity to light wavelengths from 0.1 m to 2.4 m, high stability in wavefront sensing and control). We will also discuss the synergy between ATLAST and other anticipated future facilities (e.g., TMT, EELT, ALMA) and the priorities for technology development that will enable the construction for a cost that is comparable to current generation observatory-class space missions.

  5. Large-aperture MOEMS Fabry-Perot interferometer for miniaturized spectral imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rissanen, Anna; Langner, Andreas; Viherkanto, Kai; Mannila, Rami

    2015-02-01

    VTT's optical MEMS Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPIs) are tunable optical filters, which enable miniaturization of spectral imagers into small, mass producible hand-held sensors with versatile optical measurement capabilities. FPI technology has also created a basis for various hyperspectral imaging instruments, ranging from nanosatellites, environmental sensing and precision agriculture with UAVs to instruments for skin cancer detection. Until now, these application demonstrations have been mostly realized with piezo-actuated FPIs fabricated by non-monolithical assembly method, suitable for achieving very large optical apertures and with capacity to small-to-medium volumes; however large-volume production of MEMS manufacturing supports the potential for emerging spectral imaging applications also in large-volume applications, such as in consumer/mobile products. Previously reported optical apertures of MEMS FPIs in the visible range have been up to 2 mm in size; this paper presents the design, successful fabrication and characterization of MEMS FPIs for central wavelengths of λ = 500 nm and λ = 650 nm with optical apertures up to 4 mm in diameter. The mirror membranes of the FPI structures consist of ALD (atomic layer deposited) TiO2-Al2O3 λ/4- thin film Bragg reflectors, with the air gap formed by sacrificial polymer etching in O2 plasma. The entire fabrication process is conducted below 150 °C, which makes it possible to monolithically integrate the filter structures on other ICdevices such as detectors. The realized MEMS devices are aimed for nanosatellite space application as breadboard hyperspectral imager demonstrators.

  6. New technologies for the actuation and controls of large aperture lightweight quality mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lih, S. S.; Yang, E. H.; Gullapalli, S. N.; Flood, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a set of candidate components: MEMS based large stroke (>100 microns) ultra lightweight (0.01 gm) discrete inch worm actuator technology, and a distributed actuator technology, in the context of a novel lightweight active flexure-hinged substrate concept that uses the nanolaminate face sheet.

  7. New technologies for the actuation and controls of large aperture lightweight quality mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lih, S. S.; Yang, E. H.; Gullapalli, S. N.; Flood, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a set of candidate components: MEMS based large stroke (>100 microns) ultra lightweight (0.01 gm) discrete inch worm actuator technology, and a distributed actuator technology, in the context of a novel lightweight active flexure-hinged substrate concept that uses the nanolaminate face sheet.

  8. Active membrane fluctuations with proton pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szmelter, Adam; Chen, Kejia; Granick, Steve

    2014-03-01

    We investigate nonequilibrium membrane fluctuations in giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) by reconstituting the light-activated proton pump, bacteriorhodopsin (BR). Once activated, BR is known to form oligomers in model membranes, with an unknown effect on fluctuation amplitude. By using the UV-crosslinkable lipid, 1,2-bis(10,12-tricosadiynoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, we localize BR and prevent light-induced oligomerization. This system allows us to selectively switch on and off active fluctuations and to turn off diffusion (oligomerization) using green and UV light, respectively. We compare active membrane fluctuations with trapped and freely diffusing BR using an interferometric technique with sub nanometer and microsecond resolution. Remarkable dependence is found on whether BR is localized or freely diffusing.

  9. Development of the Large Aperture Reflector/Boom Assembly for the SMAP Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mobrem, Mehran; Keay, Edward; Marks, Geoff; Slimko, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) mission is to measure and monitor global soil moisture dynamics and freeze/thaw states. The rotating Reflector and Boom Assembly (RBA) on SMAP presents significant design and development challenges. The payload configuration utilizes a common Radiometer and Radar feedhorn and a 6-meter deployable mesh reflector all spinning at 14.6 rpm. The evolution of the RBA system solution, development of the mass properties management approach and RBA dynamics are discussed.

  10. Quantitative comparison of terahertz emission from (100) InAs surfaces and a GaAs large-aperture photoconductive switch at high fluences.

    PubMed

    Reid, Matthew; Fedosejevs, Robert

    2005-01-01

    InAs has previously been reported to be an efficient emitter of terahertz radiation at low excitation fluences by use of femtosecond laser pulses. The scaling and saturation of terahertz emission from a (100) InAs surface as a function of excitation fluence is measured and quantitatively compared with the emission from a GaAs large-aperture photoconductive switch. We find that, although the instantaneous peak radiated terahertz field from (100) InAs exceeds the peak radiated signals from a GaAs large-aperture photoconductive switch biased at 1.6 kV/cm, the pulse duration is shorter. For the InAs source the total energy radiated is less than can be obtained from a GaAs large-aperture photoconductive switch.

  11. Active membrane cholesterol as a physiological effector.

    PubMed

    Lange, Yvonne; Steck, Theodore L

    2016-09-01

    Sterols associate preferentially with plasma membrane sphingolipids and saturated phospholipids to form stoichiometric complexes. Cholesterol in molar excess of the capacity of these polar bilayer lipids has a high accessibility and fugacity; we call this fraction active cholesterol. This review first considers how active cholesterol serves as an upstream regulator of cellular sterol homeostasis. The mechanism appears to utilize the redistribution of active cholesterol down its diffusional gradient to the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, where it binds multiple effectors and directs their feedback activity. We have also reviewed a broad literature in search of a role for active cholesterol (as opposed to bulk cholesterol or lipid domains such as rafts) in the activity of diverse membrane proteins. Several systems provide such evidence, implicating, in particular, caveolin-1, various kinds of ABC-type cholesterol transporters, solute transporters, receptors and ion channels. We suggest that this larger role for active cholesterol warrants close attention and can be tested easily.

  12. Microstrip patch antenna panel for large aperture L-band phased array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, Neil; Amaro, Luis; Oakes, Eric; Hodges, Richard; Spitz, Suzanne; Rosen, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a large, lightweight antenna panel for an active phased array operating at L-band. The panel was developed under a JPL program of technology development for space based radar. It utilizes dual-stacked patch elements that are interconnected with corporate feed manifold of striplines. This paper focuses on the electromagnetic design and performance of the radiating elements, with emphasis on scan performance, and also addresses mechanical and thermal aspects of the panel. The element in the array environment has a bandwidth of more than 80MHz centered at 1260MHz and is fed so that it can radiate orthogonal linear polarizations. The envisioned phased array, with a nominal aperture of 50m x 2m, is designed to scan +/-45 degrees in azimuth and +/-20 degrees in elevation. The panel of radiating elements has a mass density of 3.9 kg/m2, which represents approximately 50% of the target 8kg/m2 total panel mass density that includes T/R modules and feed manifolds.

  13. T/R module development for large aperture L-band phased array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, Neil; Andricos, Constantine; Kumley, Kendra; Berkun, Andrew; Hodges, Richard; Spitz, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a transmit / receive (T/R) module for a large L-band space based radar active phased array being developed at JPL. Electrical performance and construction techniques are described, with emphasis on the former. The T/R modules have a bandwidth of more than 80 MHz centered at 1260MHz and support dual, switched polarizations. Phase and amplitude are controlled by a 6-bit phase shifter and a 6-bit attenuator, respectively. The transmitter power amplifier generates 2.4 W into a nominal 50 ohm load with 36% overall efficiency. The receiver noise figure is 4.4 dB including all front-end losses. The module weighs 32 g and has a footprint of 8 cm x 4.5 cm. Fourteen of these T/R modules were fabricated at the JPL Pick-and-Place Facility and were tested using a computer-controlled measurement facility developed at JPL. Calibrated performance of this set of T/R modules is presented and shows good agreement with design predictions.

  14. Activated Membrane Patches Guide Chemotactic Cell Motility

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Inbal; Skoge, Monica L.; Charest, Pascale G.; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Firtel, Richard A.; Loomis, William F.; Levine, Herbert; Rappel, Wouter-Jan

    2011-01-01

    Many eukaryotic cells are able to crawl on surfaces and guide their motility based on environmental cues. These cues are interpreted by signaling systems which couple to cell mechanics; indeed membrane protrusions in crawling cells are often accompanied by activated membrane patches, which are localized areas of increased concentration of one or more signaling components. To determine how these patches are related to cell motion, we examine the spatial localization of RasGTP in chemotaxing Dictyostelium discoideum cells under conditions where the vertical extent of the cell was restricted. Quantitative analyses of the data reveal a high degree of spatial correlation between patches of activated Ras and membrane protrusions. Based on these findings, we formulate a model for amoeboid cell motion that consists of two coupled modules. The first module utilizes a recently developed two-component reaction diffusion model that generates transient and localized areas of elevated concentration of one of the components along the membrane. The activated patches determine the location of membrane protrusions (and overall cell motion) that are computed in the second module, which also takes into account the cortical tension and the availability of protrusion resources. We show that our model is able to produce realistic amoeboid-like motion and that our numerical results are consistent with experimentally observed pseudopod dynamics. Specifically, we show that the commonly observed splitting of pseudopods can result directly from the dynamics of the signaling patches. PMID:21738453

  15. Large Aperture Acoustic Array

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    1730 GMT. Several propagation models, encompassing normal mode, parabolic equation, fast field and eigenray approaches, were compared using the array... eigenray ) was chosen as the prediction vehicle due to its robust simplicity in this application where the amplitude is controlled by two dominant paths...to the program as a slant range assuming a homogeneous medium with a sound speed of 1500 in/s. This is not normally the case, and for the Septeller

  16. LUPUS I observations from the 2010 flight of the Balloon-borne large aperture submillimeter telescope for polarimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Tristan G.; Chapman, Nicholas L.; Novak, Giles; Ade, Peter A. R.; Hargrave, Peter C.; Nutter, David; Angilè, Francesco E.; Devlin, Mark J.; Klein, Jeffrey; Benton, Steven J.; Fissel, Laura M.; Gandilo, Natalie N.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Chapin, Edward L.; Fukui, Yasuo; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Korotkov, Andrei L.; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Mroczkowski, Tony K.; Olmi, Luca; and others

    2014-04-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) was created by adding polarimetric capability to the BLAST experiment that was flown in 2003, 2005, and 2006. BLASTPol inherited BLAST's 1.8 m primary and its Herschel/SPIRE heritage focal plane that allows simultaneous observation at 250, 350, and 500 μm. We flew BLASTPol in 2010 and again in 2012. Both were long duration Antarctic flights. Here we present polarimetry of the nearby filamentary dark cloud Lupus I obtained during the 2010 flight. Despite limitations imposed by the effects of a damaged optical component, we were able to clearly detect submillimeter polarization on degree scales. We compare the resulting BLASTPol magnetic field map with a similar map made via optical polarimetry. (The optical data were published in 1998 by J. Rizzo and collaborators.) The two maps partially overlap and are reasonably consistent with one another. We compare these magnetic field maps to the orientations of filaments in Lupus I, and we find that the dominant filament in the cloud is approximately perpendicular to the large-scale field, while secondary filaments appear to run parallel to the magnetic fields in their vicinities. This is similar to what is observed in Serpens South via near-IR polarimetry, and consistent with what is seen in MHD simulations by F. Nakamura and Z. Li.

  17. Multi-Scale Sensible Heat Fluxes in the Suburban Environment from Large-Aperture Scintillometry and Eddy Covariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, H. C.; Evans, J. G.; Grimmond, C. S. B.

    2014-07-01

    Sensible heat fluxes () are determined using scintillometry and eddy covariance over a suburban area. Two large-aperture scintillometers provide spatially integrated fluxes across path lengths of 2.8 and 5.5 km over Swindon, UK. The shorter scintillometer path spans newly built residential areas and has an approximate source area of 2-4 , whilst the long path extends from the rural outskirts to the town centre and has a source area of around 5-10 . These large-scale heat fluxes are compared with local-scale eddy-covariance measurements. Clear seasonal trends are revealed by the long duration of this dataset and variability in monthly is related to the meteorological conditions. At shorter time scales the response of to solar radiation often gives rise to close agreement between the measurements, but during times of rapidly changing cloud cover spatial differences in the net radiation () coincide with greater differences between heat fluxes. For clear days lags , thus the ratio of to increases throughout the day. In summer the observed energy partitioning is related to the vegetation fraction through use of a footprint model. The results demonstrate the value of scintillometry for integrating surface heterogeneity and offer improved understanding of the influence of anthropogenic materials on surface-atmosphere interactions.

  18. DM/LCWFC based adaptive optics system for large aperture telescopes imaging from visible to infrared waveband.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fei; Cao, Zhaoliang; Wang, Yukun; Zhang, Caihua; Zhang, Xingyun; Liu, Yong; Mu, Quanquan; Xuan, Li

    2016-11-28

    Almost all the deformable mirror (DM) based adaptive optics systems (AOSs) used on large aperture telescopes work at the infrared waveband due to the limitation of the number of actuators. To extend the imaging waveband to the visible, we propose a DM and Liquid crystal wavefront corrector (DM/LCWFC) combination AOS. The LCWFC is used to correct the high frequency aberration corresponding to the visible waveband and the aberrations of the infrared are corrected by the DM. The calculated results show that, to a 10 m telescope, DM/LCWFC AOS which contains a 1538 actuators DM and a 404 × 404 pixels LCWFC is equivalent to a DM based AOS with 4057 actuators. It indicates that the DM/LCWFC AOS is possible to work from visible to infrared for larger aperture telescopes. The simulations and laboratory experiment are performed for a 2 m telescope. The experimental results show that, after correction, near diffraction limited resolution USAF target images are obtained at the wavebands of 0.7-0.9 μm, 0.9-1.5 μm and 1.5-1.7 μm respectively. Therefore, the DM/LCWFC AOS may be used to extend imaging waveband of larger aperture telescope to the visible. It is very appropriate for the observation of spatial objects and the scientific research in astronomy.

  19. Cavity-excited Huygens' metasurface antennas for near-unity aperture illumination efficiency from arbitrarily large apertures

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Ariel; Wong, Joseph P. S.; Eleftheriades, George V.

    2016-01-01

    One of the long-standing problems in antenna engineering is the realization of highly directive beams using low-profile devices. In this paper, we provide a solution to this problem by means of Huygens' metasurfaces (HMSs), based on the equivalence principle. This principle states that a given excitation can be transformed to a desirable aperture field by inducing suitable electric and (equivalent) magnetic surface currents. Building on this concept, we propose and demonstrate cavity-excited HMS antennas, where the single-source-fed cavity is designed to optimize aperture illumination, while the HMS facilitates the current distribution that ensures phase purity of aperture fields. The HMS breaks the coupling between the excitation and radiation spectra typical to standard partially reflecting surfaces, allowing tailoring of the aperture properties to produce a desirable radiation pattern, without incurring edge-taper losses. The proposed low-profile design yields near-unity aperture illumination efficiencies from arbitrarily large apertures, offering new capabilities for microwave, terahertz and optical radiators. PMID:26790605

  20. Lupus I Observations from the 2010 Flight of the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Tristan G.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Angilè, Francesco E.; Benton, Steven J.; Chapin, Edward L.; Chapman, Nicholas L.; Devlin, Mark J.; Fissel, Laura M.; Fukui, Yasuo; Gandilo, Natalie N.; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hargrave, Peter C.; Klein, Jeffrey; Korotkov, Andrei L.; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Mroczkowski, Tony K.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Novak, Giles; Nutter, David; Olmi, Luca; Pascale, Enzo; Poidevin, Frédérick; Savini, Giorgio; Scott, Douglas; Shariff, Jamil A.; Soler, Juan Diego; Tachihara, Kengo; Thomas, Nicholas E.; Truch, Matthew D. P.; Tucker, Carole E.; Tucker, Gregory S.; Ward-Thompson, Derek

    2014-04-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) was created by adding polarimetric capability to the BLAST experiment that was flown in 2003, 2005, and 2006. BLASTPol inherited BLAST's 1.8 m primary and its Herschel/SPIRE heritage focal plane that allows simultaneous observation at 250, 350, and 500 μm. We flew BLASTPol in 2010 and again in 2012. Both were long duration Antarctic flights. Here we present polarimetry of the nearby filamentary dark cloud Lupus I obtained during the 2010 flight. Despite limitations imposed by the effects of a damaged optical component, we were able to clearly detect submillimeter polarization on degree scales. We compare the resulting BLASTPol magnetic field map with a similar map made via optical polarimetry. (The optical data were published in 1998 by J. Rizzo and collaborators.) The two maps partially overlap and are reasonably consistent with one another. We compare these magnetic field maps to the orientations of filaments in Lupus I, and we find that the dominant filament in the cloud is approximately perpendicular to the large-scale field, while secondary filaments appear to run parallel to the magnetic fields in their vicinities. This is similar to what is observed in Serpens South via near-IR polarimetry, and consistent with what is seen in MHD simulations by F. Nakamura and Z. Li.

  1. Spaceborne Microwave Instrument for High Resolution Remote Sensing of the Earth's Surface Using a Large-Aperture Mesh Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, E.; Wilson, W.; Yueh, S.; Freeland, R.; Helms, R.; Edelstein, W.; Sadowy, G.; Farra, D.; West, R.; Oxnevad, K.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes a two-year study of a large-aperture, lightweight, deployable mesh antenna system for radiometer and radar remote sensing of the Earth from space. The study focused specifically on an instrument to measure ocean salinity and Soil moisture. Measurements of ocean salinity and soil moisture are of critical . importance in improving knowledge and prediction of key ocean and land surface processes, but are not currently obtainable from space. A mission using this instrument would be the first demonstration of deployable mesh antenna technology for remote sensing and could lead to potential applications in other remote sensing disciplines that require high spatial resolution measurements. The study concept features a rotating 6-m-diameter deployable mesh antenna, with radiometer and radar sensors, to measure microwave emission and backscatter from the Earth's surface. The sensors operate at L and S bands, with multiple polarizations and a constant look angle, scanning across a wide swath. The study included detailed analyses of science requirements, reflector and feedhorn design and performance, microwave emissivity measurements of mesh samples, design and test of lightweight radar electronic., launch vehicle accommodations, rotational dynamics simulations, and an analysis of attitude control issues associated with the antenna and spacecraft, The goal of the study was to advance the technology readiness of the overall concept to a level appropriate for an Earth science emission.

  2. Seasonal variability of turbulent fluxes over a vegetated subtropical coastal wetland measured by large aperture scintillometry and eddy covariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyot, Adrien; Gray, Michael; Riesenkamp, Michiel; Lockington, David; McGowan, Hamish

    2016-04-01

    Subtropical coastal wetlands are particularly susceptible to the impacts of climate variability: their recharge rates strongly depend on rainfall, and the occurrence of prolonged droughts or wet periods have direct consequences for wetland health and bio-diversity. There is therefore a need to close the water budget of these ecosystems and this requires the quantification of rates of evaporation/evapotranspiration. However, few studies have documented land-atmosphere exchanges over wetlands for which water level varies considerably during a typical annual cycle. Here, we present a year of turbulent flux observations over a wetland on the subtropical coast of eastern Australia. Large Aperture Scintillometry and Eddy Covariance are used to derive sensible heat fluxes. Latent heat fluxes are also derived through an energy balance for both instruments' observations and also directly through Eddy Covariance. Careful sensitivity analysis of the instrumental footprints, seasonal variations of land surface parameters such as roughness length and displacement height are examined and subsequent uncertainties in the derived turbulent fluxes are discussed. Finally we show how these observations can also help better understand hydrological processes at the catchment scale.

  3. Cavity-excited Huygens' metasurface antennas for near-unity aperture illumination efficiency from arbitrarily large apertures.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Ariel; Wong, Joseph P S; Eleftheriades, George V

    2016-01-21

    One of the long-standing problems in antenna engineering is the realization of highly directive beams using low-profile devices. In this paper, we provide a solution to this problem by means of Huygens' metasurfaces (HMSs), based on the equivalence principle. This principle states that a given excitation can be transformed to a desirable aperture field by inducing suitable electric and (equivalent) magnetic surface currents. Building on this concept, we propose and demonstrate cavity-excited HMS antennas, where the single-source-fed cavity is designed to optimize aperture illumination, while the HMS facilitates the current distribution that ensures phase purity of aperture fields. The HMS breaks the coupling between the excitation and radiation spectra typical to standard partially reflecting surfaces, allowing tailoring of the aperture properties to produce a desirable radiation pattern, without incurring edge-taper losses. The proposed low-profile design yields near-unity aperture illumination efficiencies from arbitrarily large apertures, offering new capabilities for microwave, terahertz and optical radiators.

  4. Monitoring sensible heat flux over urban areas in a high-altitude city using Large Aperture Scintillometer and Eddy Covariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Junping; Timmermans, Wim J.; Ma, Yaoming; Su, Bob; Pema, Tsering

    2017-04-01

    Urbanization leads to modifications of surface energy balance which governs the momentum, heat and mass transfer between urban canopy layer and the atmosphere, thus impacts dynamic processes in the urban ABL and ultimately influence the local, regional and even global climate. It is essential to obtain accurate urban ABL observations to enhance our understanding of land-atmosphere interaction process over the urban area and help to improve the prediction ability of numerical model. However, up to now, there are rarely observations in high latitude cities. In one of the highest cities in the world, Lhasa, Eddy Covariance (EC) measurements have been ongoing since 10 August 2016 and a Large Aperture Scintillometer (LAS) started to work on 12 November 2016, in addition to a UHI network which has been running since 2012. Taking advantage of these observations, this poster will estimate and analyze the surface energy balance in the winter of 2016 in Lhasa, with an emphasis on sensible heat flux. An analytical footprint model and the radiative surface temperature retrieved from Landsat 8 will be employed to compare EC and LAS measurements.

  5. A fundamental mode Nd:GdVO4 laser pumped by a large aperture 808 nm VCSEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Y. Q.; Ma, J. L.; Yan, C. L.; Liu, G. J.; Ma, X. H.; Gong, J. F.; Feng, Y.; Wei, Z. P.; Wang, Y. X.; Zhao, Y. J.

    2013-05-01

    A fundamental mode Nd:GdVO4 laser pumped by a vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) is experimentally demonstrated. The VCSEL has a circular output-beam which makes it easier for it to be directly coupled to a Nd:GdVO4 microcrystal. In our research, a large aperture 808 nm VCSEL, with a multi-ring-shaped aperture (MRSA) and an almost Gaussian-shaped far-field profile, is used as the pumping source. Experimental results for the Nd:GdVO4 laser pumped by the VCSEL are presented. The maximum output peak power of 0.754 W is obtained under a pump peak power of 1.3 W, and the corresponding opto-optic conversion efficiency is 58.1%. The average slope efficiency is 65.8% from the threshold pump power of 0.2 W to the pump power of 1.3 W. The laser beam quality factors are measured to be {M}x2=1.2 0 and {M}y2=1.1 5.

  6. Membrane activity of biomimetic facially amphiphilic antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Arnt, Lachelle; Rennie, Jason R; Linser, Sebastian; Willumeit, Regine; Tew, Gregory N

    2006-03-02

    Membranes are a central feature of all biological systems, and their ability to control many cellular processes is critically important. As a result, a better understanding of how molecules bind to and select between biological membranes is an active area of research. Antimicrobial host defense peptides are known to be membrane-active and, in many cases, exhibit discrimination between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The design of synthetic molecules that capture the biological activity of these natural peptides has been shown. In this report, the interaction between our biomimetic structures and different biological membranes is reported using both model vesicle and in vitro bacterial cell experiments. Compound 1 induces 12% leakage at 20 microg/mL against phosphatidylglycerol (PG)-phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) vesicles vs only 3% leakage at 200 microg/mL against phosphatidyl-L-serine (PS)-phosphatidylcholine (PC) vesicles. Similarly, a 40% reduction in fluorescence is measured in lipid movement experiments for PG-PE compared to 10% for PS-PC at 600 s. A 30 degrees C increase in the phase transition of stearoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylserine is observed in the presence of 1. These results show that lipid composition is more important for selectivity than overall net charge. Additionally, the overall concentration of a given lipid is another important factor. An effort is made to connect model vesicle studies with in vitro data and naturally occurring lipid compositions.

  7. MRF Applications: On the Road to Making Large-Aperture Ultraviolet Laser Resistant Continuous Phase Plates for High-Power Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Menapace, J A; Davis, P J; Steele, W A; Hachkowski, M R; Nelson, A; Xin, K

    2006-10-26

    Over the past two years we have developed MRF tools and procedures to manufacture large-aperture (430 X 430 mm) continuous phase plates (CPPs) that are capable of operating in the infrared portion (1053 nm) of high-power laser systems. This is accomplished by polishing prescribed patterns of continuously varying topographical features onto finished plano optics using MRF imprinting techniques. We have been successful in making, testing, and using large-aperture CPPs whose topography possesses spatial periods as low as 4 mm and surface peak-to-valleys as high as 8.6 {micro}m. Combining this application of MRF technology with advanced MRF finishing techniques that focus on ultraviolet laser damage resistance makes it potentially feasible to manufacture large-aperture CPPs that can operate in the ultraviolet (351 nm) without sustaining laser-induced damage. In this paper, we will discuss the CPP manufacturing process and the results of 351-nm/3-nsec equivalent laser performance experiments conducted on large-aperture CPPs manufactured using advanced MRF protocols.

  8. Estimation of turbulent sensible heat and momentum fluxes over a heterogeneous urban area using a large aperture scintillometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jun-Ho; Kim, Bo-Young

    2015-08-01

    The accurate determination of surface-layer turbulent fluxes over urban areas is critical to understanding urban boundary layer (UBL) evolution. In this study, a remote-sensing technique using a large aperture scintillometer (LAS) was investigated to estimate surface-layer turbulent fluxes over a highly heterogeneous urban area. The LAS system, with an optical path length of 2.1 km, was deployed in an urban area characterized by a complicated land-use mix (residential houses, water body, bare ground, etc.). The turbulent sensible heat ( Q H) and momentum fluxes (τ) were estimated from the scintillation measurements obtained from the LAS system during the cold season. Three-dimensional LAS footprint modeling was introduced to identify the source areas ("footprint") of the estimated turbulent fluxes. The analysis results showed that the LAS-derived turbulent fluxes for the highly heterogeneous urban area revealed reasonable temporal variation during daytime on clear days, in comparison to the land-surface process-resolving numerical modeling. A series of sensitivity tests indicated that the overall uncertainty in the LAS-derived daytime Q H was within 20%-30% in terms of the influence of input parameters and the nondimensional similarity function for the temperature structure function parameter, while the estimation errors in τ were less sensitive to the factors of influence, except aerodynamic roughness length. The 3D LAS footprint modeling characterized the source areas of the LAS-derived turbulent fluxes in the heterogeneous urban area, revealing that the representative spatial scales of the LAS system deployed with the 2.1 km optical path distance ranged from 0.2 to 2 km2 (a "micro- a scale"), depending on local meteorological conditions.

  9. Assessment of large aperture scintillometry for large-area surface energy fluxes over an irrigated cropland in north India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danodia, Abhishek; Sehgal, V. K.; Patel, N. R.; Dhakar, R.; Mukherjee, J.; Saha, S. K.; Kumar, A. Senthil

    2017-07-01

    Amount of available net energy and its partitioning into sensible, latent and soil heat fluxes over an agricultural landscape are critical to improve estimation of evapotranspiration and modelling parse (ecosystem modelling, hydrological and meteorological modelling). Scintillometry is a peculiar and robust methodology to provide structure parameter of refractive index and energy balance. Scintillometer has proven for assessment of sensible and latent heat flux, which is based on the principle of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. Scintillometer has been installed in the agricultural experimental farm of ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, with a spatial covering path length of 990 m of irrigated and cultivable agricultural landscape. This paper discusses the patterns of energy flux as diurnal and seasonal basis at scintillometer path which was mainly covered by maize in Kharif and wheat in Rabi season during a crop growing seasons of 2014-2015. The biophysical parameters (leaf area, soil moisture, crop height) were recorded at a temporal resolution of fortnight basis along the path length at usual sampling distance. The Bowen ratio value for both Kharif and Rabi season was 0.76 and 0.88, respectively by scintillometer. Leaf area index had a significantly positive correlation with latent heat flux (R2 =0.80) while a significantly negative correlation with sensible heat flux (R2{=}-0.79). Soil moisture had a significant negative correlation with sensible heat flux (R2{=}-0.68). The average evapotranspiration from crop land was 1.58 mm d^{-1} and total evapotranspiration was 543 mm over the 12 months study period. This study defines that large aperture scintillometer is robust instrument which can evaluate energy flux over a large area with a long term series time domain. Moreover, further studied should be conducted to use in crop simulation modelling, developing of new model with calibration and validation of remote sensing energy balance

  10. Estimating Evapotranspiration over Heterogeneously Vegetated Surfaces using Large Aperture Scintillometer, LiDAR, and Airborne Multispectral Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geli, H. M.; Neale, C. M.; Pack, R. T.; Watts, D. R.; Osterberg, J.

    2011-12-01

    Estimates of evapotranspiration (ET) over heterogeneous areas is challenging especially in water-limited sparsely vegetated environments. New techniques such as airborne full-waveform LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) and high resolution multispectral and thermal imagery can provide enough detail of sparse canopies to improve energy balance model estimations as well as footprint analysis of scintillometer data. The objectives of this study were to estimate ET over such areas and develop methodologies for the use of these airborne data technologies. Because of the associated heterogeneity, this study was conducted over the Cibola National wildlife refuge, southern California on an area dominated with tamarisk (salt cedar) forest (90%) interspersed with arrowweed and bare soil (10%). A set of two large aperture scintillometers (LASs) were deployed over the area to provide estimates of sensible heat flux (HLAS). The LASs were distributed over the area in a way that allowed capturing different surface spatial heterogeneity. Bowen ratio systems were used to provide hydrometeorological variables and surface energy balance fluxes (SEBF) (i.e. Rn, G, H, and LE) measurements. Scintillometer-based estimates of HLAS were improved by considering the effect of the corresponding 3D footprint and the associated displacement height (d) and the roughness length (z0) following Geli et al. (2011). The LiDAR data were acquired using the LASSI Lidar developed at Utah State University (USU). The data was used to obtain 1-m spatial resolution DEM's and vegetation canopy height to improve the HLAS estimates. The BR measurements of Rn and G were combined with LAS estimates, HLAS, to provide estimates of LELASas a residual of the energy balance equation. A thermal remote sensing model namely the two source energy balance (TSEB) of Norman et al. (1995) was applied to provide spatial estimates of SEBF. Four airborne images at 1-4 meter spatial resolution acquired using the USU airborne

  11. Large-Aperture [O I] 6300 A Photometry of Comet Hale-Bopp: Implications for the Photochemistry of OH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgenthaler, Jeffrey P.; Harris, Walter M.; Scherb, Frank; Anderson, Christopher M.; Oliversen, Ronald J.; Doane, Nathaniel E.; Combi, Michael R.; Marconi, Maximus L.; Smyth, William H.

    2001-01-01

    Large-aperture photometric observations of comet Hale-Bopp (C/1995 O1) in the forbidden red line of neutral oxygen ([O I] 6300 angstroms) with the 150 mm dual-etalon Fabry-Perot spectrometer that comprises the Wisconsin H-alpha Mapper and a 50 mm dual-etalon Fabry-Perot spectrometer at the McMath-Pierce main telescope from 1997 late February to mid April yield a total metastable O((sup 1)D) production rate of (2.3-5.9) x 10(exp 30)/s. Applying the standard H2O and OH photodissociation branching ratios, we derive a water production rate, Q(H2O), of (2.6-6.1) x 10(exp 31)/s, which disagrees with Q(H2O = 1x10(exp 31)/s determined by independent H2O, OH, and H measurements. Furthermore, our own [O I] 6300 observations of the inner coma (< 30,000 km) using the 3.5 m Wisconsin-Indiana-Yale-NOAO telescope Hydra and Densepak multi-object spectrographs yield Q(H2O) = 1 x 10(exp 31)/s. Using our [O I] 6300 data, which cover spatial scales ranging from 2,000 to 1x10(exp 6) km, and a complementary set of wide-field ground-based OH images, we can constrain the sources of the apparent excess O((sup 1)D) emission to the outer coma, where photodissociation of OH is assumed to be the dominant O((sup 1)D) production mechanism. From production rates of other oxygen-bearing volatiles (e.g., CO and CO2), we can account for at most 30% of the observed excess O((sup 1)D) emission. Since even less O((sup 1)D) should be coming from other sources (e.g., electron excitation of neutral O and distributed nonnuclear sources of H2O), we hypothesize that the bulk of the excess O((sup 1)D) is likely coming from photodissociating OH. Using the experimental OH photo-dissociation cross section of Nee and Lee at Ly-alpha as a guide in modifying the theoretical OH cross sections of van Dishoeck and Dalgarno, we can account for approximately 60% of the observed O((sup 1)D) excess without requiring major modifications to the other OH branching ratios or the total OH photodissociation lifetime.

  12. Architectural study of active membrane antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moussessian, A.; DiDomenico, L.; Edelstein, W.

    2002-01-01

    One method to dramatically reduce the weight, volume and associated cost of space-based SyntheticAperture Radars (SAR) is to replace the conventional rigid manifold antenna architecture with a flexible thin-film membrane. This has been successfully demonstrated as a passive array. To further reduce the cost and weight and provide 2D scanning required by space-based applications we also need to integrate the Transmit/Receive (TR) function into the inflatable antenna elements. This paper explores the constraints that must be placed on the active electronics of a flexible antenna array as well as some of the preliminary work in this area.

  13. Membrane filtration characteristics in membrane-coupled activated sludge system: The effect of floc structure on membrane fouling

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, I.S.; Lee, C.H.; Ahn, K.H.

    1999-06-01

    The membrane-coupled activated sludge (MCAS) process has many advantages over the conventional activated sludge system, but the inherent membrane fouling problem still remains to be solved. However, it is not yet advanced enough to understand the reliable fouling mechanism. The strength of the MCAS process lies in the almost complete removal of suspended solids from the activated sludge broth. But it has made one overlook the effect of sludge morphology and physiology on membrane flux which is one of the key factors in deciding the economical feasibility of the MCAS system. The aim of this study was to investigate membrane filtration characteristics in the MCAS process, especially to correlate floc structures of the activated sludge with membrane fouling. A series of ultrafiltrations with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic membranes using the stirred batch cell system was performed to assess flux behavior according to the floc structures of the activated sludges (normal, pin-point, and bulking activated sludge). The order of fouling tendency was found to be normal sludge < pinpoint sludge, bulking sludge. Also, all the membranes behaved in the same way. The cake layer resistance (R{sub c}) made up most of the total resistance (R{sub t}), but the fouling resistance (R{sub f}) was negligible in any floc structure. The key factors controlling the R{sub c} were the shape and size of the activated sludge flocs and the porosity of the cake layer accumulated on the membrane surface. The hydrophobic membrane showed a greater fouling tendency than the hydrophilic membrane regardless of the microbial floc structures. The difference in fouling tendency between the two membranes was attributed to the hydrophobic interactions between the membrane and floc surfaces.

  14. Cable theory in neurons with active, linearized membranes.

    PubMed

    Koch, C

    1984-01-01

    This investigation aims at exploring some of the functional consequences of single neurons containing active, voltage dependent channels for information processing. Assuming that the voltage change in the dendritic tree of these neurons does not exceed a few millivolts, it is possible to linearize the non-linear channel conductance. The membrane can then be described in terms of resistances, capacitances and inductances, as for instance in the small-signal analysis of the squid giant axon. Depending on the channel kinetics and the associated ionic battery the linearization yields two basic types of membrane: a membrane modeled by a collection of resistances and capacitances and membranes containing in addition to these components inductances. Under certain specified conditions the latter type of membrane gives rise to a membrane impedance that displays a prominent maximum at some nonzero resonant frequency fmax. We call this type of membrane quasi-active, setting it apart from the usual passive membrane. We study the linearized behaviour of active channels giving rise to quasi-active membranes in extended neuronal structures and consider several instances where such membranes may subserve neuronal function: 1. The resonant frequency of a quasi-active membrane increases with increasing density of active channels. This might be one of the biophysical mechanisms generating the large range over which hair cells in the vertebrate cochlea display frequency tuning. 2. The voltage recorded from a cable with a quasi-active membrane can be proportional to the temporal derivative of the injected current. 3. We modeled a highly branched dendritic tree (delta-ganglion cell of the cat retina) using a quasi-active membrane. The voltage attenuation from a given synaptic site to the soma decreases with increasing frequency up to the resonant frequency, in sharp contrast to the behaviour of passive membranes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  15. Lipase immobilized catalytically active membrane for synthesis of lauryl stearate in a pervaporation membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weidong; Qing, Weihua; Ren, Zhongqi; Li, Wei; Chen, Jiangrong

    2014-11-01

    A composite catalytically active membrane immobilized with Candida rugosa lipase has been prepared by immersion phase inversion technique for enzymatic synthesis of lauryl stearate in a pervaporation membrane reactor. SEM images showed that a "sandwich-like" membrane structure with a porous lipase-PVA catalytic layer uniformly coated on a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/polyethersulfone (PES) bilayer was obtained. Optimum conditions for lipase immobilization in the catalytic layer were determined. The membrane was proved to exhibit superior thermal stability, pH stability and reusability than free lipase under similar conditions. In the case of pervaporation coupled synthesis of lauryl stearate, benefited from in-situ water removal by the membrane, a conversion enhancement of approximately 40% was achieved in comparison to the equilibrium conversion obtained in batch reactors. In addition to conversion enhancement, it was also found that excess water removal by the catalytically active membrane appears to improve activity of the lipase immobilized.

  16. Technology development for the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) as a candidate large UV-Optical-Infrared (LUVOIR) surveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Clampin, Mark; Crooke, Julie; Feinberg, Lee; Postman, Marc; Quijada, Manuel; Rauscher, Bernard; Redding, David; Rioux, Norman; Shaklan, Stuart; Stahl, H. Philip; Stahle, Carl; Thronson, Harley

    2015-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) team has identified five key technologies to enable candidate architectures for the future large-aperture ultraviolet/optical/infrared (LUVOIR) space observatory envisioned by the NASA Astrophysics 30-year roadmap, Enduring Quests, Daring Visions. The science goals of ATLAST address a broad range of astrophysical questions from early galaxy and star formation to the processes that contributed to the formation of life on Earth, combining general astrophysics with direct-imaging and spectroscopy of habitable exoplanets. The key technologies are: internal coronagraphs, starshades (or external occulters), ultra-stable large-aperture telescopes, detectors, and mirror coatings. Selected technology performance goals include: 1x10-10 raw contrast at an inner working angle of 35 milli-arcseconds, wavefront error stability on the order of 10 pm RMS per wavefront control step, autonomous on-board sensing and control, and zero-read-noise single-photon detectors spanning the exoplanet science bandpass between 400 nm and 1.8 μm. Development of these technologies will provide significant advances over current and planned observatories in terms of sensitivity, angular resolution, stability, and high-contrast imaging. The science goals of ATLAST are presented and flowed down to top-level telescope and instrument performance requirements in the context of a reference architecture: a 10-meter-class, segmented aperture telescope operating at room temperature (~290 K) at the sun-Earth Lagrange-2 point. For each technology area, we define best estimates of required capabilities, current state-of-the-art performance, and current Technology Readiness Level (TRL) - thus identifying the current technology gap. We report on current, planned, or recommended efforts to develop each technology to TRL 5.

  17. Technology Development for the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) as a Candidate Large UV-Optical-Infrared (LUVOIR) Surveyor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatha; Clampin, Mark; Crooke, Julie; Feinberg, Lee; Postman, Marc; Quijada, Manuel; Rauscher, Bernard; Redding, David; Rioux, Norman; hide

    2015-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) team has identified five key technologies to enable candidate architectures for the future large-aperture ultraviolet/optical/infrared (LUVOIR) space observatory envisioned by the NASA Astrophysics 30-year roadmap, Enduring Quests, Daring Visions. The science goals of ATLAST address a broad range of astrophysical questions from early galaxy and star formation to the processes that contributed to the formation of life on Earth, combining general astrophysics with direct-imaging and spectroscopy of habitable exoplanets. The key technologies are: internal coronagraphs, starshades (or external occulters), ultra-stable large-aperture telescopes, detectors, and mirror coatings. Selected technology performance goals include: 1x10?10 raw contrast at an inner working angle of 35 milli-arcseconds, wavefront error stability on the order of 10 pm RMS per wavefront control step, autonomous on-board sensing & control, and zero-read-noise single-photon detectors spanning the exoplanet science bandpass between 400 nm and 1.8 µm. Development of these technologies will provide significant advances over current and planned observatories in terms of sensitivity, angular resolution, stability, and high-contrast imaging. The science goals of ATLAST are presented and flowed down to top-level telescope and instrument performance requirements in the context of a reference architecture: a 10-meter-class, segmented aperture telescope operating at room temperature (290 K) at the sun-Earth Lagrange-2 point. For each technology area, we define best estimates of required capabilities, current state-of-the-art performance, and current Technology Readiness Level (TRL) - thus identifying the current technology gap. We report on current, planned, or recommended efforts to develop each technology to TRL 5.

  18. The evolution of endothermy: role for membranes and molecular activity.

    PubMed

    Else, Paul L; Turner, N; Hulbert, A J

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of the comparative approach and three models of metabolism (endothermic and ectothermic vertebrates, body mass, and mammalian development), we suggest that a few common cellular processes, linked either directly or indirectly to membranes, consume the majority of energy used by most organisms; that membranes act as pacemakers of metabolism through changes in lipid composition, altering membrane characteristics and the working environment of membrane proteins--specifically, that changes in the membrane environment similarly affect the molecular activities (specific rates of activity) of membrane-bound proteins; and that polyunsaturation of membranes increases whereas monounsaturation decreases the activity of membrane proteins. Experiments designed to test this theory using the sodium pump support this supposition. Potential mechanisms considered include fluidity, electrical fields, and related surface area requirements of lipids. In considering the evolution of endothermy in mammals, for example, if the first mammals were small, possibly nocturnal and active organisms, all these factors would favour increased polyunsaturation of membranes. Such changes (from monounsaturated to polyunsaturated membranes) would allow membranes to set the pace of metabolism in the evolution of endothermy.

  19. Plane-polar Fresnel and far-field computations using the Fresnel-Wilcox and Jacobi-Bessel expansions. [for large aperture antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahmat-Samii, Y.; Galindo-Israel, V.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that the computation of the Fresnel fields for large aperture antennas is significant for many applications. The present investigation is concerned with an approach for the effective utilization of the coefficients of the Jacobi-Bessel series for the far-field to obtain an analytically continuous representation of the antenna field which is valid from the Fresnel region into the far field. Attention is given to exact formulations and closed form solutions, Fresnel and Fresnel small angle approximations, aspects of field expansion, the accuracy of the Fresnel and Fresnel small angle approximations, and the Jacobi-Bessel expansion applied to the Fresnel small angle approximation.

  20. Comparison of CNES spherical and NASA hemispherical large aperture integrating sources. I - Using a laboratory transfer spectroradiometer. II - Using the SPOT-2 satellite instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guenther, B.; Mclean, J.; Leroy, M.; Henry, P.

    1990-01-01

    CNES spherical and NASA hemispherical large aperture calibration sources are examined using a laboratory transfer spectroradiometer and SPOT-2 instruments. The sources, collected at Matra in France during October 1987, are compared in terms of absolute calibration, linearity, and uniformity. The laboratory transfer spectroradiometer data reveal that the calibration results correspond to within about 7 percent absolute accuracy level and the linearity of the CNES source with lamp level is good. It is observed using the satellite data that both sources have an excellent uniformity over a 4 deg field of view.

  1. Plane-polar Fresnel and far-field computations using the Fresnel-Wilcox and Jacobi-Bessel expansions. [for large aperture antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahmat-Samii, Y.; Galindo-Israel, V.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that the computation of the Fresnel fields for large aperture antennas is significant for many applications. The present investigation is concerned with an approach for the effective utilization of the coefficients of the Jacobi-Bessel series for the far-field to obtain an analytically continuous representation of the antenna field which is valid from the Fresnel region into the far field. Attention is given to exact formulations and closed form solutions, Fresnel and Fresnel small angle approximations, aspects of field expansion, the accuracy of the Fresnel and Fresnel small angle approximations, and the Jacobi-Bessel expansion applied to the Fresnel small angle approximation.

  2. An amino acid composition criterion for membrane active antimicrobials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Nathan; Lai, Ghee Hwee; Mishra, Abhijit; Bong, Dennis; McCray, Paul, Jr.; Selsted, Michael; Ouellette, Andre; Wong, Gerard

    2011-03-01

    Membrane active antimicrobials (AMPs) are short amphipathic peptides with broad spectrum anti microbial activity. While it is believed that their hydrophobic and cationic moieties are responsible for membrane-based mechanisms of action, membrane disruption by AMPs is manifested in a diversity of outcomes, such as pore formation, blebbing, and budding. This complication, along with others, have made a detailed, molecular understanding of AMPs difficult. We use synchrotron small angle xray scattering to investigate the interaction of model bacterial and eukaryotic cell membranes with archetypes from beta-sheet AMPs (e.g. defensins) and alpha-helical AMPs (e.g. magainins). The relationship between membrane composition and peptide induced changes in membrane curvature and topology is examined. By comparing the membrane rearrangement and phase behavior induced by these different peptides we will discuss the importance of amino acid composition on AMP design.

  3. Magnetically Activated Self-Cleaning Membranes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    available nanofiltration membranes were modified by growing polymer brushes from the surface of the membrane. Two different polymerization methods have been...dimethylaminopyridine DMF: n,n-dimethylformamide EDC: 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide HEMA: 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate NF: Nanofiltration NHS... nanofiltration , oily wastewaters, rejection, superparamagnetic nanoparticles Acknowledgements The financial support of the Strategic Environmental Research

  4. Influence of membrane lipid composition on flavonoid-membrane interactions: Implications on their biological activity.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Stalin; Krishnaswamy, Sridharan; Devashya, Venkappayya; Sethuraman, Swaminathan; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari

    2015-04-01

    The membrane interactions and localization of flavonoids play a vital role in altering membrane-mediated cell signaling cascades as well as influence the pharmacological activities such as anti-tumour, anti-microbial and anti-oxidant properties of flavonoids. Various techniques have been used to investigate the membrane interaction of flavonoids. These include partition coefficient, fluorescence anisotropy, differential scanning calorimetry, NMR spectroscopy, electrophysiological methods and molecular dynamics simulations. Each technique will provide specific information about either alteration of membrane fluidity or localization of flavonoids within the lipid bilayer. Apart from the diverse techniques employed, the concentrations of flavonoids and lipid membrane composition employed in various studies reported in literature also are different and together these variables contribute to diverse findings that sometimes contradict each other. This review highlights different techniques employed to investigate the membrane interaction of flavonoids with special emphasis on erythrocyte model membrane systems and their significance in understanding the nature and extent of flavonoid-membrane interactions. We also attempt to correlate the membrane localization and alteration in membrane fluidity with the biological activities of flavonoids such as anti-oxidant, anti-cancer and anti-microbial properties.

  5. Research on the technique of large-aperture off-axis parabolic surface processing using tri-station machine and its applicability.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Luo, Xiao; Hu, Haixiang; Zhang, Xuejun

    2015-09-01

    In order to process large-aperture aspherical mirrors, we designed and constructed a tri-station machine processing center with a three station device, which bears vectored feed motion of up to 10 axes. Based on this processing center, an aspherical mirror-processing model is proposed, in which each station implements traversal processing of large-aperture aspherical mirrors using only two axes, while the stations are switchable, thus lowering cost and enhancing processing efficiency. The applicability of the tri-station machine is also analyzed. At the same time, a simple and efficient zero-calibration method for processing is proposed. To validate the processing model, using our processing center, we processed an off-axis parabolic SiC mirror with an aperture diameter of 1450 mm. The experimental results indicate that, with a one-step iterative process, the peak to valley (PV) and root mean square (RMS) of the mirror converged from 3.441 and 0.5203 μm to 2.637 and 0.2962 μm, respectively, where the RMS reduced by 43%. The validity and high accuracy of the model are thereby demonstrated.

  6. The Structural Basis of Cholesterol Activity in Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Brett N.; Bielska, Agata; Lee, Tiffany; Daily, Michael D.; Covey, Douglas F.; Schlesinger, Paul H.; Baker, Nathan A.; Ory, Daniel S.

    2013-10-15

    Although the majority of free cellular cholesterol is present in the plasma membrane, cholesterol homeostasis is principally regulated through sterol-sensing proteins that reside in the cholesterol-poor endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In response to acute cholesterol loading or depletion, there is rapid equilibration between the ER and plasma membrane cholesterol pools, suggesting a biophysical model in which the availability of plasma membrane cholesterol for trafficking to internal membranes modulates ER membrane behavior. Previous studies have predominantly examined cholesterol availability in terms of binding to extramembrane acceptors, but have provided limited insight into the structural changes underlying cholesterol activation. In this study, we use both molecular dynamics simulations and experimental membrane systems to examine the behavior of cholesterol in membrane bilayers. We find that cholesterol depth within the bilayer provides a reasonable structural metric for cholesterol availability and that this is correlated with cholesterol-acceptor binding. Further, the distribution of cholesterol availability in our simulations is continuous rather than divided into distinct available and unavailable pools. This data provide support for a revised cholesterol activation model in which activation is driven not by saturation of membrane-cholesterol interactions but rather by bulk membrane remodeling that reduces membrane-cholesterol affinity.

  7. Towards general design rules for membrane active antimicrobials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Lori; Schmidt, Nathan; Mishra, Abhijit; Gordon, Vernita; Wong, Gerard

    2010-03-01

    Membrane active antimicrobials are short amphipathic peptides that selectively disrupt and lyse bacterial cell membranes. While it is believed that the combination of peptide hydrophobicity and cationic charge is essential for function, the detailed molecular mechanism of selective membrane permeation remains unclear. We use synchrotron small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) to investigate the interaction of model bacterial and eukaryotic cell membranes with archetypes from each of the three defensin subfamilies found in mammals. The relationship between membrane composition and peptide induced changes in membrane curvature and topology is examined. By comparing the membrane rearrangement and corresponding phase behavior induced by these different peptides we will discuss the importance of amino acid composition and placement on antimicrobial peptide design.

  8. Development of active-transport membrane devices

    SciTech Connect

    Laciak, D.V.

    1994-07-01

    This report introduces the concept of Air Products` AT membranes for the separation of NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} from process gas streams and presents results from the first year fabrication concept development studies.

  9. Relationship between peptide membrane curvature generation and bactericidal activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Nathan; Lee, Michelle; Kuo, David; Ouellette, Andre; Wong, Gerard

    2013-03-01

    Many amphipathic peptides and amphipathic domains in proteins can restructure biological membranes. Two examples are host defense antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) which disrupt and destabilize the cell membranes of microbes, and apolipoproteins which help stabilize nanoscale lipid aggregates. We use complementary x-ray and bacterial cell assays to elucidate the molecular length scale membrane deformations generated by amphipathic peptides with different structural motifs and relate these deformations to their activities on bacteria. Small angle x-ray scattering is used to study the interactions of model membranes with prototypical AMPs and consensus peptides from the amphipathic domains in apolipoproteins. By characterizing the nanoscale curvature deformations induced by these two distinct classes of membrane restructuring peptides we will discuss the role of amino acid composition on curvature generation. Bactericidal assays are used to access the in vivo activities of different amphipathic peptide motifs in order to understand the relationships between cell viability and membrane curvature generation.

  10. Active membrane having uniform physico-chemically functionalized ion channels

    DOEpatents

    Gerald, II, Rex E; Ruscic, Katarina J; Sears, Devin N; Smith, Luis J; Klingler, Robert J; Rathke, Jerome W

    2012-09-24

    The present invention relates to a physicochemically-active porous membrane for electrochemical cells that purports dual functions: an electronic insulator (separator) and a unidirectional ion-transporter (electrolyte). The electrochemical cell membrane is activated for the transport of ions by contiguous ion coordination sites on the interior two-dimensional surfaces of the trans-membrane unidirectional pores. One dimension of the pore surface has a macroscopic length (1 nm-1000 .mu.m) and is directed parallel to the direction of an electric field, which is produced between the cathode and the anode electrodes of an electrochemical cell. The membrane material is designed to have physicochemical interaction with ions. Control of the extent of the interactions between the ions and the interior pore walls of the membrane and other materials, chemicals, or structures contained within the pores provides adjustability of the ionic conductivity of the membrane.

  11. Membrane stretching triggers mechanosensitive Ca2+ channel activation in Chara.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Toshiyuki; Takahashi, Naoya; Kikuyama, Munehiro

    2009-03-01

    In order to confirm that mechanosensitive Ca(2+) channels are activated by membrane stretching, we stretched or compressed the plasma membrane of Chara by applying osmotic shrinkage or swelling of the cell by varying the osmotic potential of the bathing medium. Aequorin studies revealed that treatments causing membrane stretching induced a transient but large increase in cytoplasmic concentration of Ca(2+) (Delta[Ca(2+)](c)). However, the observed Delta[Ca(2+)](c) decreased during the treatments, resulting in membrane compression. A second experiment was carried out to study the relationship between changes in membrane potential (DeltaE(m)) and stretching or compression of the plasma membrane. Significant DeltaE(m) values, often accompanied by an action potential, were observed during the initial exchange of the bathing medium from a hypotonic medium to a hypertonic one (plasmolysis). DeltaE(m) appears to be triggered by a partial stretching of the membrane as it was peeled from the cell wall. After plasmolysis, other exchanges from hypertonic to hypotonic media, with their accompanying membrane stretching, always induced large DeltaE(m) values and were often accompanied by an action potential. By contrast, action potentials were scarcely observed during other exchanges from hypotonic to hypertonic solutions (=membrane compression). Thus, we concluded that activation of the mechanosensitive channels is triggered by membrane stretching in Chara.

  12. Mechanical properties that influence antimicrobial peptide activity in lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Marín-Medina, Nathaly; Ramírez, Diego Alejandro; Trier, Steve; Leidy, Chad

    2016-12-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are small amphiphilic proteins found in animals and plants as essential components of the innate immune system and whose function is to control bacterial infectious activity. In order to accomplish their function, antimicrobial peptides use different mechanisms of action which have been deeply studied in view of their potential exploitation to treat antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections. One of the main mechanisms of action of these peptides is the disruption of the bacterial membrane through pore formation, which, in some cases, takes place via a monomer to oligomer cooperative transition. Previous studies have shown that lipid composition, and the presence of exogenous components, such as cholesterol in model membranes or carotenoids in bacteria, can affect the potency of distinct antimicrobial peptides. At the same time, considering the membrane as a two-dimensional material, it has been shown that membrane composition defines its mechanical properties which might be relevant in many membrane-related processes. Nevertheless, the correlation between the mechanical properties of the membrane and antimicrobial peptide potency has not been considered according to the importance it deserves. The relevance of these mechanical properties in membrane deformation due to peptide insertion is reviewed here for different types of pores in order to elucidate if indeed membrane composition affects antimicrobial peptide activity by modulation of the mechanical properties of the membrane. This would also provide a better understanding of the mechanisms used by bacteria to overcome antimicrobial peptide activity.

  13. Sar1 GTPase Activity Is Regulated by Membrane Curvature.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Michael G; Mela, Ioanna; Wang, Lei; Henderson, Robert M; Chapman, Edwin R; Edwardson, J Michael; Audhya, Anjon

    2016-01-15

    The majority of biosynthetic secretory proteins initiate their journey through the endomembrane system from specific subdomains of the endoplasmic reticulum. At these locations, coated transport carriers are generated, with the Sar1 GTPase playing a critical role in membrane bending, recruitment of coat components, and nascent vesicle formation. How these events are appropriately coordinated remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that Sar1 acts as the curvature-sensing component of the COPII coat complex and highlight the ability of Sar1 to bind more avidly to membranes of high curvature. Additionally, using an atomic force microscopy-based approach, we further show that the intrinsic GTPase activity of Sar1 is necessary for remodeling lipid bilayers. Consistent with this idea, Sar1-mediated membrane remodeling is dramatically accelerated in the presence of its guanine nucleotide-activating protein (GAP), Sec23-Sec24, and blocked upon addition of guanosine-5'-[(β,γ)-imido]triphosphate, a poorly hydrolysable analog of GTP. Our results also indicate that Sar1 GTPase activity is stimulated by membranes that exhibit elevated curvature, potentially enabling Sar1 membrane scission activity to be spatially restricted to highly bent membranes that are characteristic of a bud neck. Taken together, our data support a stepwise model in which the amino-terminal amphipathic helix of GTP-bound Sar1 stably penetrates the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, promoting local membrane deformation. As membrane bending increases, Sar1 membrane binding is elevated, ultimately culminating in GTP hydrolysis, which may destabilize the bilayer sufficiently to facilitate membrane fission. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. The ExaVolt Antenna: A large-aperture, balloon-embedded antenna for ultra-high energy particle detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorham, P. W.; Baginski, F. E.; Allison, P.; Liewer, K. M.; Miki, C.; Hill, B.; Varner, G. S.

    2011-12-01

    We describe the scientific motivation, experimental basis, design methodology, and simulated performance of the ExaVolt Antenna (EVA) mission, and planned ultra-high energy (UHE) particle observatory under development for NASA's suborbital super-pressure balloon program in Antarctica. EVA will improve over ANITA's integrated totals - the current state-of-the-art in UHE suborbital payloads - by 1-2 orders of magnitude in a single flight. The design is based on a novel application of toroidal reflector optics which utilizes a super-pressure balloon surface, along with a feed-array mounted on an inner membrane, to create an ultra-large radio antenna system with a synoptic view of the Antarctic ice sheet below it. Radio impulses arise via the Askaryan effect when UHE neutrinos interact within the ice, or via geosynchrotron emission when UHE cosmic rays interact in the atmosphere above the continent. EVA's instantaneous antenna aperture is estimated to be several hundred m 2 for detection of these events within a 150-600 MHz band. For standard cosmogenic UHE neutrino models, EVA should detect of order 30 events per flight in the EeV energy regime. For UHE cosmic rays, of order 15,000 geosynchrotron events would be detected in total, several hundred above 10 EeV, and of order 60 above the GZK cutoff energy.

  15. Effect of activated sludge properties and membrane operation conditions on fouling characteristics in membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyeok; Zhang, Kai; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Oerther, Daniel B; Sorial, George A

    2006-06-01

    Biofouling control is considered to be a major challenge in operating membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for the treatment of wastewater. This study examined the impact of biological, chemical, and physical properties of activated sludge on membrane filtration performance in laboratory-scale MBRs. Sludges with different microbial communities were produced using pseudo-continuous stirred-tank reactors and pseudo-plug flow reactors treating a synthetic paper mill wastewater. Various filtration resistances were used to investigate membrane fouling characteristics, and molecular biology tools targeting 16S ribosomal DNA gene sequences were used to identify predominant bacterial populations in the sludges or attached to the fouled membranes. Filtration experiments using axenic cultures of Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, and Gordonia amarae were also performed to better understand the initiation and development of biofouling. The results showed that the tendency of membranes to biofoul depended upon membrane operating conditions as well as the properties of the activated sludge in the MBR systems. Specific bacterial populations, which were not dominant in the activated sludges, were selectively accumulated on the membrane surface leading to the development of irreversible biofouling.

  16. Full-band error control and crack-free surface fabrication techniques for ultra-precision fly cutting of large-aperture KDP crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, F. H.; Wang, S. F.; An, C. H.; Wang, J.; Xu, Q.

    2017-06-01

    Large-aperture potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals are widely used in the laser path of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) systems. The most common method of manufacturing half-meter KDP crystals is ultra-precision fly cutting. When processing KDP crystals by ultra-precision fly cutting, the dynamic characteristics of the fly cutting machine and fluctuations in the fly cutting environment are translated into surface errors at different spatial frequency bands. These machining errors should be suppressed effectively to guarantee that KDP crystals meet the full-band machining accuracy specified in the evaluation index. In this study, the anisotropic machinability of KDP crystals and the causes of typical surface errors in ultra-precision fly cutting of the material are investigated. The structures of the fly cutting machine and existing processing parameters are optimized to improve the machined surface quality. The findings are theoretically and practically important in the development of high-energy laser systems in China.

  17. Development and Testing of a Power Trough System Using a Structurally-Efficient, High-Performance, Large-Aperture Concentrator with Thin Glass Reflector and Focal Point Rotation

    SciTech Connect

    May, E. K.; Forristall, R.

    2005-11-01

    Industrial Solar Technology has assembled a team of experts to develop a large-aperture parabolic trough for the electric power market that moves beyond cost and operating limitations of 1980's designs based on sagged glass reflectors. IST's structurally efficient space frame design will require nearly 50% less material per square meter than a Solel LS-2 concentrator and the new trough will rotate around the focal point. This feature eliminates flexhoses that increase pump power, installation and maintenance costs. IST aims to deliver a concentrator module costing less than $100 per square meter that can produce temperatures up to 400 C. The IST concentrator is ideally suited for application of front surface film reflectors and ensures that US corporations will manufacture major components, except for the high temperature receivers.

  18. Research on sub-surface damage and its stress deformation in the process of large aperture and high diameter-to-thickness ratio TMT M3MP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hai-xiang; Qi, Erhui; Cole, Glen; Hu, Hai-fei; Luo, Xiao; Zhang, Xue-jun

    2016-10-01

    Large flat mirrors play important roles in large aperture telescopes. However, they also introduce unpredictable problems. The surface errors created during manufacturing, testing, and supporting are all combined during measurement, thus making understanding difficult for diagnosis and treatment. Examining a high diameter-to-thickness ratio flat mirror, TMT M3MP, and its unexpected deformation during processing, we proposed a strain model of subsurface damage to explain the observed phenomenon. We designed a set of experiment, and checked the validity of our diagnosis. On that basis, we theoretical predicted the trend of this strain and its scale effect on Zerodur®, and checked the validity on another piece experimentally. This work guided the grinding-polishing process of M3MP, and will be used as reference for M3M processing as well.

  19. Large-aperture germanium detector package for picosecond photon counting in the 0.5-1.6-microm range.

    PubMed

    Prochazka, I; Hamal, K; Greene, B; Kunimori, H

    1996-09-01

    We report the design, construction, and parameters of a detector package based on a germanium avalanche photodiode operated in the Geiger mode cooled to 77 K. The new design of the active quenching circuit, proper diode structure, and cryogenic cooling setup permitted us to increase the detector's active area to 0.1-mm diameter while maintaining an acceptable dark-count rate, timing resolution, and photon-counting sensitivity at 1.54 microm. The active-area size and the compact design of the detector package permitted its application in satellite laser ranging at 0.532- and 1.543-microm wavelengths, yielding subcentimeter ranging precision.

  20. A common landscape for membrane-active peptides

    PubMed Central

    Last, Nicholas B; Schlamadinger, Diana E; Miranker, Andrew D

    2013-01-01

    Three families of membrane-active peptides are commonly found in nature and are classified according to their initial apparent activity. Antimicrobial peptides are ancient components of the innate immune system and typically act by disruption of microbial membranes leading to cell death. Amyloid peptides contribute to the pathology of diverse diseases from Alzheimer's to type II diabetes. Preamyloid states of these peptides can act as toxins by binding to and permeabilizing cellular membranes. Cell-penetrating peptides are natural or engineered short sequences that can spontaneously translocate across a membrane. Despite these differences in classification, many similarities in sequence, structure, and activity suggest that peptides from all three classes act through a small, common set of physical principles. Namely, these peptides alter the Brownian properties of phospholipid bilayers, enhancing the sampling of intrinsic fluctuations that include membrane defects. A complete energy landscape for such systems can be described by the innate membrane properties, differential partition, and the associated kinetics of peptides dividing between surface and defect regions of the bilayer. The goal of this review is to argue that the activities of these membrane-active families of peptides simply represent different facets of what is a shared energy landscape. PMID:23649542

  1. An Extended Membrane System with Active Membranes to Solve Automatic Fuzzy Clustering Problems.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hong; Wang, Jun; Shi, Peng; Pérez-Jiménez, Mario J; Riscos-Núñez, Agustín

    2016-05-01

    This paper focuses on automatic fuzzy clustering problem and proposes a novel automatic fuzzy clustering method that employs an extended membrane system with active membranes that has been designed as its computing framework. The extended membrane system has a dynamic membrane structure; since membranes can evolve, it is particularly suitable for processing the automatic fuzzy clustering problem. A modification of a differential evolution (DE) mechanism was developed as evolution rules for objects according to membrane structure and object communication mechanisms. Under the control of both the object's evolution-communication mechanism and the membrane evolution mechanism, the extended membrane system can effectively determine the most appropriate number of clusters as well as the corresponding optimal cluster centers. The proposed method was evaluated over 13 benchmark problems and was compared with four state-of-the-art automatic clustering methods, two recently developed clustering methods and six classification techniques. The comparison results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method in terms of effectiveness and robustness.

  2. Structural Model of Active Bax at the Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Bleicken, Stephanie; Jeschke, Gunnar; Stegmueller, Carolin; Salvador-Gallego, Raquel; García-Sáez, Ana J.; Bordignon, Enrica

    2016-01-01

    Bax plays a central role in the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Upon activation, cytosolic Bax monomers oligomerize on the surface of mitochondria and change conformation concertedly to punch holes into the outer membrane. The subsequent release of cytochrome c initiates cell death. However, the structure of membrane-inserted Bax and its mechanism of action remain largely unknown. Here, we propose a 3D model of active Bax at the membrane based on double electron-electron resonance (DEER) spectroscopy in liposomes and isolated mitochondria. We show that active Bax is organized at the membrane as assemblies of dimers. In addition to a stable dimerization domain, each monomer contains a more flexible piercing domain involved in interdimer interactions and pore formation. The most important structural change during Bax activation is the opening of the hairpin formed by helices 5 and 6, which adopts a clamp-like conformation central to the mechanism of mitochondrial permeabilization. PMID:25458844

  3. Characterization of the activation of small GTPases by their GEFs on membranes using artificial membrane tethering.

    PubMed

    Peurois, François; Veyron, Simon; Ferrandez, Yann; Ladid, Ilham; Benabdi, Sarah; Zeghouf, Mahel; Peyroche, Gérald; Cherfils, Jacqueline

    2017-03-23

    Active, GTP-bound small GTPases need to be attached to membranes by post-translational lipid modifications in order to process and propagate information in cells. However, generating and manipulating lipidated GTPases has remained difficult, which has limited our quantitative understanding of their activation by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and their termination by GTPase-activating proteins. Here, we replaced the lipid modification by a histidine tag in 11 full-length, human small GTPases belonging to the Arf, Rho and Rab families, which allowed to tether them to nickel-lipid-containing membranes and characterize the kinetics of their activation by GEFs. Remarkably, this strategy uncovered large effects of membranes on the efficiency and/or specificity in all systems studied. Notably, it recapitulated the release of autoinhibition of Arf1, Arf3, Arf4, Arf5 and Arf6 GTPases by membranes and revealed that all isoforms are efficiently activated by two GEFs with different regulatory regimes, ARNO and Brag2. It demonstrated that membranes stimulate the GEF activity of Trio toward RhoG by ∼30 fold and Rac1 by ∼10 fold, and uncovered a previously unknown broader specificity toward RhoA and Cdc42 that was undetectable in solution. Finally, it demonstrated that the exceptional affinity of the bacterial RabGEF DrrA for the phosphoinositide PI(4)P delimits the activation of Rab1 to the immediate vicinity of the membrane-bound GEF. Our study thus validates the histidine-tag strategy as a potent and simple means to mimic small GTPase lipidation, which opens a variety of applications to uncover regulations brought about by membranes. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  4. Active rehabilitation in a pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patient.

    PubMed

    Zebuhr, Carleen; Sinha, Amit; Skillman, Heather; Buckvold, Shannon

    2014-05-01

    Decreased intensive care unit (ICU) mortality has led to an increase in ICU morbidity. ICU-induced immobilization plays a major role in this morbidity. Recently, ICU mobility has been shown to be safe and effective in adolescent and adult patients. We report the successful rehabilitation of an 8-year-old boy with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. A child who is critically ill may safely perform active rehabilitation while on venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The gains achieved through active rehabilitation and optimal nutrition can facilitate recovery from severe acute respiratory distress syndrome in select pediatric patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

  5. Research on the Problem of High-Precision Deployment for Large-Aperture Space-Based Science Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lake, Mark S.; Peterson, Lee D.; Hachkowski, M. Roman; Hinkle, Jason D.; Hardaway, Lisa R.

    1998-01-01

    The present paper summarizes results from an ongoing research program conducted jointly by the University of Colorado and NASA Langley Research Center since 1994. This program has resulted in general guidelines for the design of high-precision deployment mechanisms, and tests of prototype deployable structures incorporating these mechanisms have shown microdynamically stable behavior (i.e., dimensional stability to parts per million). These advancements have resulted from the identification of numerous heretofore unknown microdynamic and micromechanical response phenomena, and the development of new test techniques and instrumentation systems to interrogate these phenomena. In addition, recent tests have begun to interrogate nanomechanical response of materials and joints and have been used to develop an understanding of nonlinear nanodynamic behavior in microdynamically stable structures. The ultimate goal of these efforts is to enable nano-precision active control of micro-precision deployable structures (i.e., active control to a resolution of parts per billion).

  6. Nervous factors influencing the membrane activity of intestinal smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Kuriyama, H.; Osa, T.; Toida, N.

    1967-01-01

    The effects of various chemical agents on the spontaneous membrane activities and those electrically elicited in the smooth muscles of small intestine were investigated. 1. The effects of various chemicals on the spontaneously active membrane might be summarized as follows. (a) Cholinergic agents; atropine slightly hyperpolarized the membrane and reduced the amplitude of slow potential changes even in aged preparations. Prostigmine depolarized the membrane, and enhanced the amplitude and prolonged the duration of the slow potential changes. Atropine prevented the actions of prostigmine on the membrane. (b) Ba2+ depolarized the membrane, and enhanced the amplitude and prolonged the duration of the slow potential changes. The spike frequency was initially increased, then reduced. Atropine and tetrodotoxin partially prevented the action of Ba2+ on the membrane activities. 2. Effects of chemical agents on the membrane activity elicited by electrical stimulation might be summarized as follows. (a) Short pulse stimulation (0·5-1 msec) generated the spike as a direct response of the muscle cell membrane, then it was followed by slow depolarization, delayed hyperpolarization, i.e. the `inhibitory potential', and post-inhibitory rebound successively. (b) The slow depolarization and the post-inhibitory rebound were reduced in amplitude by treatment with atropine, and enhanced by treatments with prostigmine and Ba2+. Tetrodotoxin blocked all activities except the spike. 3. When repetitive stimulation (20 c/s) was applied to the membrane, the membrane hyperpolarized; then, after 3-5 sec, it gradually depolarized even if the stimulation was continued, and triggered spikes. The hyperpolarization always preceded depolarization. The duration and the amplitude of the delayed depolarization was proportionally increased by the increased intensity and duration of stimulation. Atropine and tetrodotoxin blocked the generation of the post-inhibitory rebound. 4. Effects of repetitive

  7. Redistribution of Cholesterol in Model Lipid Membranes in Response to the Membrane-Active Peptide Alamethicin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, William; Qian, Shuo

    2013-03-01

    The cellular membrane is a heterogeneous, dynamic mixture of molecules and macromolecules that self-assemble into a tightly-regulated functional unit that provides a semipermeable barrier between the cell and its environment. Among the many compositional differences between mammalian and bacterial cell membranes that impact its physical properties, one key difference is cholesterol content, which is more prevalent in mammals. Cholesterol is an amphiphile that associates with membranes and serves to maintain its fluidity and permeability. Membrane-active peptides, such as the alpha-helical peptide alamethicin, interact with membranes in a concentration- and composition-dependent manner to form transmembrane pores that are responsible for the lytic action of the peptide. Through the use of small-angle neutron scattering and deuterium labeling, it was possible to observe a redistribution of the lipid and cholesterol in unilamellar vesicles in response to the presence of alamethicin at a peptide-to-lipid ratio of 1/200. The results demonstrate that the membrane remodeling powers of alamethicin reach beyond the membrane thinning effect to altering the localization of specific components in the bilayer, complementing the accepted two-state mechanism of pore formation. Research was supported by U. S. DOE-OBER (CSMB; FWP ERKP291) and the U. S. DOE-BES Scientific User Facilities Division (ORNL's SNS and HFIR).

  8. Diode-pumped large-aperture Nd:YAG slab amplifier for high energy nanosecond pulse laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Guangyan; Chen, Yanzhong; He, Jianguo; Lang, Ye; Lin, Weiran; Tang, Xiongxin; Zhang, Hongbo; Kang, Zhijun; Fan, Zhongwei

    2017-10-01

    A high gain, low thermal-induced wavefront distortion, laser diode-pumped Nd: YAG slab amplifier is demonstrated with its active media dimensions of 7 mm ×35 mm ×138.2 mm. Under the 200 Hz, 1440 W pulse pumping condition while no seed light to amplify, the thermal induced wavefront aberration of a He-Ne probe passing through the gain meUdium is 0.165 λ@633 nm (RMS). The amplifier shows stable aberration character with two major low-order terms, defocus and 0° astigmatism. The fluorescence distribution, stored energy, and small-signal gain of the amplifier are measured and have a good agreement with the calculated results. In the amplifier, the fluorescence is uniformly distributed and the maximum stored energy of 3.2 J can be achieved with a plane-concave cavity at 200 Hz pump repetition frequency. For a repetition frequency of 200 Hz, 25 μJ injection polarized seed-light and 1440 W pump power, the small signal gain reaches 9.45. The amplifier has been successfully employed in a 200 Hz, 5 J, MOPA system with 1.7 times diffraction limited output.

  9. HI-CLASS on AEOS: a large-aperture laser radar for space surveillance/situational awareness investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, Mark A.; Dryden, Gordon L.; Pohle, Richard H.; Ayers, Kirstie; Carreras, Richard A.; Crawford, Linda L.; Taft, Russell

    2001-12-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory/Directed Energy Directorate (AFRL/DE) via the ALVA (Applications of Lidars for Vehicles with Analysis) program installed in late 2000 a wideband, 12 J 15 Hz CO2 laser radar (ladar) on the 3.67 meter aperture AEOS (Advanced Electro-Optics System) telescope. This system is part of the Maui Space Surveillance System (MSSS), on the summit of Haleakala, Maui, HI. This ladar adopts the technology successfully demonstrated by the first generation HI-CLASS (High Performance CO2) Ladar Surveillance Sensor) operating on the nearby 0.6 meter aperture Laser Beam Director (LBD) and developed under the Field Ladar Demonstration program, jointly sponsored by AFRL/DE and the Army's Space and Missile Defense Command. The moderate power (approximately 180 watts) HI-CLASS/AEOS system generates multiple, coherent waveforms for precision satellite tracking and characterization of space objects for 1 m2 targets at ranges out to 10,000 km. This system also will be used to track space objects smaller than30 cm at ranges to 2,000 km. A third application of this system is to provide data for developing satellite identification, characterization, health and status techniques. This paper will discuss the operating characteristics and innovative features of the new system. The paper will also review recent results in support of AF needs, demonstrations, experiments, as well as planned activities that directly support applications in the DoD, scientific, and commercial arenas.

  10. Ammonia-Activated Mesoporous Carbon Membranes for Gas Separations

    SciTech Connect

    Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Lee, Jeseung; Wang, Xiqing; Dai, Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Porous carbon membranes, which generally show improved chemical and thermal stability compared to polymer membranes, have been used in gas separations for many years. In this work, we show that the post-synthesis ammonia treatment of porous carbon at elevated temperature can improve the permeance and selectivity of these membranes for the separation of carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons from permanent gases. Hierarchically structured porous carbon membranes were exposed to ammonia gas at temperatures ranging from 850 C to 950 C for up to 10 min and the N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and C{sub 3}H{sub 6} permeances were measured for these different membranes. Higher treatment temperatures and longer exposure times resulted in higher gas permeance values. In addition, CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} and C{sub 3}H{sub 6}/N{sub 2} selectivities increased by a factor of 2 as the treatment temperature and time increased up to a temperature and time of 900 C, 10 min. Higher temperatures showed increased permeance but decreased selectivity indicating excess pore activation. Nitrogen adsorption measurements show that the ammonia treatment increased the porosity of the membrane while elemental analysis revealed the presence of nitrogen-containing surface functionalities in the treated carbon membranes. Thus, ammonia treatment at high temperature provides a controlled method to introduce both added microporosity and surface functionality to enhance gas separations performance of porous carbon membranes.

  11. Bilayer Membrane Modulation of Membrane Type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) Structure and Proteolytic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Cerofolini, Linda; Amar, Sabrina; Lauer, Janelle L.; Martelli, Tommaso; Fragai, Marco; Luchinat, Claudio; Fields, Gregg B.

    2016-01-01

    Cell surface proteolysis is an integral yet poorly understood physiological process. The present study has examined how the pericellular collagenase membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) and membrane-mimicking environments interplay in substrate binding and processing. NMR derived structural models indicate that MT1-MMP transiently associates with bicelles and cells through distinct residues in blades III and IV of its hemopexin-like domain, while binding of collagen-like triple-helices occurs within blades I and II of this domain. Examination of simultaneous membrane interaction and triple-helix binding revealed a possible regulation of proteolysis due to steric effects of the membrane. At bicelle concentrations of 1%, enzymatic activity towards triple-helices was increased 1.5-fold. A single mutation in the putative membrane interaction region of MT1-MMP (Ser466Pro) resulted in lower enzyme activation by bicelles. An initial structural framework has thus been developed to define the role(s) of cell membranes in modulating proteolysis. PMID:27405411

  12. Modulation of hyaluronan synthase activity in cellular membrane fractions.

    PubMed

    Vigetti, Davide; Genasetti, Anna; Karousou, Evgenia; Viola, Manuela; Clerici, Moira; Bartolini, Barbara; Moretto, Paola; De Luca, Giancarlo; Hascall, Vincent C; Passi, Alberto

    2009-10-30

    Hyaluronan (HA), the only non-sulfated glycosaminoglycan, is involved in morphogenesis, wound healing, inflammation, angiogenesis, and cancer. In mammals, HA is synthesized by three homologous HA synthases, HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3, that polymerize the HA chain using UDP-glucuronic acid and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine as precursors. Since the amount of HA is critical in several pathophysiological conditions, we developed a non-radioactive assay for measuring the activity of HA synthases (HASs) in eukaryotic cells and addressed the question of HAS activity during intracellular protein trafficking. We prepared three cellular fractions: plasma membrane, cytosol (containing membrane proteins mainly from the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi), and nuclei. After incubation with UDP-sugar precursors, newly synthesized HA was quantified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of fluorophore-labeled saccharides and high performance liquid chromatography. This new method measured HAS activity not only in the plasma membrane fraction but also in the cytosolic membranes. This new technique was used to evaluate the effects of 4-methylumbeliferone, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, interleukin 1beta, platelet-derived growth factor BB, and tunicamycin on HAS activities. We found that HAS activity can be modulated by post-translational modification, such as phosphorylation and N-glycosylation. Interestingly, we detected a significant increase in HAS activity in the cytosolic membrane fraction after tunicamycin treatment. Since this compound is known to induce HA cable structures, this result links HAS activity alteration with the capability of the cell to promote HA cable formation.

  13. The influence of membrane lipid structure on plasma membrane Ca2+ -ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Tang, Daxin; Dean, William L; Borchman, Douglas; Paterson, Christopher A

    2006-03-01

    Lipid composition and Ca(2+)-ATPase activity both change with age and disease in many tissues. We explored relationships between lipid composition/structure and plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA) activity. PMCA was purified from human erythrocytes and was reconstituted into liposomes prepared from human ocular lens membrane lipids and synthetic lipids. Lens lipids were used in this study as a model for naturally ordered lipids, but the influence of lens lipids on PMCA function is especially relevant to the lens since calcium homeostasis is vital to lens clarity. Compared to fiber cell lipids, epithelial lipids exhibited an ordered to disordered phase transition temperature that was 12 degrees C lower. Reconstitution of PMCA into lipids was essential for maximal activity. PMCA activity was two to three times higher when the surrounding phosphatidylcholine molecules contained acyl chains that were ordered (stiff) compared to disordered (fluid) acyl chains. In a completely ordered lipid hydrocarbon chain environment, PMCA associates more strongly with the acidic lipid phosphatidylserine in comparison to phosphatidylcholine. PMCA associates much more strongly with phosphatidylcholine containing disordered hydrocarbon chains than ordered hydrocarbon chains. PMCA activity is influenced by membrane lipid composition and structure. The naturally high degree of lipid order in plasma membranes such as those found in the human lens may serve to support PMCA activity. The absence of PMCA activity in the cortical region of human lenses is apparently not due to a different lipid environment. Changes in lipid composition such as those observed with age or disease could potentially influence PMCA function.

  14. Ovalbumin with Glycated Carboxyl Groups Shows Membrane-Damaging Activity

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ching-Chia; Shi, Yi-Jun; Chen, Ying-Jung; Chang, Long-Sen

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether glycated ovalbumin (OVA) showed novel activity at the lipid-water interface. Mannosylated OVA (Man-OVA) was prepared by modification of the carboxyl groups with p-aminophenyl α-dextro (d)-mannopyranoside. An increase in the number of modified carboxyl groups increased the membrane-damaging activity of Man-OVA on cell membrane-mimicking vesicles, whereas OVA did not induce membrane permeability in the tested phospholipid vesicles. The glycation of carboxyl groups caused a notable change in the gross conformation of OVA. Moreover, owing to their spatial positions, the Trp residues in Man-OVA were more exposed, unlike those in OVA. Fluorescence quenching studies suggested that the Trp residues in Man-OVA were located on the interface binds with the lipid vesicles, and their microenvironment was abundant in positively charged residues. Although OVA and Man-OVA showed a similar binding affinity for lipid vesicles, the lipid-interacting feature of Man-OVA was distinct from that of OVA. Chemical modification studies revealed that Lys and Arg residues, but not Trp residues, played a crucial role in the membrane-damaging activity of Man-OVA. Taken together, our data suggest that glycation of carboxyl groups causes changes in the structural properties and membrane-interacting features of OVA, generating OVA with membrane-perturbing activities at the lipid-water interface. PMID:28264493

  15. Modeling and vibration control of an active membrane mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggiero, Eric J.; Inman, Daniel J.

    2009-09-01

    The future of space satellite technology lies in ultra-large mirrors and radar apertures for significant improvements in imaging and communication bandwidths. The availability of optical-quality membranes drives a parallel effort for structural models that can capture the dominant dynamics of large, ultra-flexible satellite payloads. Unfortunately, the inherent flexibility of membrane mirrors wreaks havoc with the payload's on-orbit stability and maneuverability. One possible means of controlling these undesirable dynamics is by embedding active piezoelectric ceramics near the boundary of the membrane mirror. In doing so, active feedback control can be used to eliminate detrimental vibration, perform static shape control, and evaluate the health of the structure. The overall motivation of the present work is to design a control system using distributed bimorph actuators to eliminate any detrimental vibration of the membrane mirror. As a basis for this study, a piezoceramic wafer was attached in a bimorph configuration near the boundary of a tensioned rectangular membrane sample. A finite element model of the system was developed to capture the relevant system dynamics from 0 to 300 Hz. The finite element model was compared against experimental results, and fair agreement found. Using the validated finite element models, structural control using linear quadratic regulator control techniques was then used to numerically demonstrate effective vibration control. Typical results show that less than 12 V of actuation voltage is required to eliminate detrimental vibration of the membrane samples in less than 15 ms. The functional gains of the active system are also derived and presented. These spatially descriptive control terms dictate favorable regions within the membrane domain for placing sensors and can be used as a design guideline for structural control applications. The results of the present work demonstrate that thin plate theory is an appropriate modeling

  16. Montana Large Aperture Seismic Array

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-10-28

    described by Matk ins (1976) provide an efficient means of data playout for event anal- ysis and for event data retention at the LDC. For the one—year...Controls (C2) 0 Controls (C3) 0 Operation Decode 2 Interrupts 0 Gen . Purpose Register Stack 2 Console (El) 0 Console (E2) 2 High Speed Multiplexer I...Since our signal gen - erator ’s (203A) maximum output of 3OVp-p will not check the LP seismometers at the high end of their amplitude range, a driver

  17. Improved Large Aperture Collector Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    O'Rourke, Deven; Farr, Adrian

    2015-12-01

    The parabolic trough is the most established CSP technology and carries a long history of design experimentation dating back to the 1970’s. This has led to relatively standardized collector architectures, a maturing global supply chain, and a fairly uniform cost reduction strategy. Abengoa has deployed more than 1,500MWe of CSP troughs across several countries and has built and tested full-scale prototypes of many R&D concepts. The latest trough R&D efforts involved efforts to internalize non-CSP industry experience including a preliminary DFMA principles review done with Boothroyd Dewhurst, a construction literature review by the Arizona State University School of Construction Management, and two more focused manufacturing engineering subcontracts done by Ricardo Inc. and the nonprofit Edison Welding Institute. The first two studies highlighted strong opportunities in lowering part count, standardizing components and fasteners, developing modular designs to support prefabrication and automation, and devising simple, error-proof manual assembly methods. These principles have delivered major new cost savings in otherwise “mature” products in analogous industries like automotive, truck trailer manufacture, metal building fabrication, and shipbuilding. For this reason, they were core in the design development of the SpaceTube® collector, and arguably key to its early successes. The latter two studies were applied specifically to the first-generation SpaceTube® design and were important in setting the direction of the present SolarMat project. These studies developed a methodology to analyze the costs of manufacture and assembly, and identify new tooling concepts for more efficient manufacture. Among the main opportunities identified in these studies were the automated mirror arm manufacturing concept and the need for a less infrastructure-intensive assembly line, both of which now form central pillars of the SolarMat project strategy. These new designs will be supported by new technology in the area of quality control inspection, in which state of the art photogrammetry and laser CMM inspection methods will be used to qualify parts and assemblies, and in which the recently-developed Absorber Reflection Method will enable in-line quality control inspection of modules produced by the new high-rate production line.

  18. Large Aperture Electrostatic Dust Detector

    SciTech Connect

    C.H. Skinner, R. Hensley, and A.L Roquemore

    2007-10-09

    Diagnosis and management of dust inventories generated in next-step magnetic fusion devices is necessary for their safe operation. A novel electrostatic dust detector, based on a fine grid of interlocking circuit traces biased to 30 or 50 ν has been developed for the detection of dust particles on remote surfaces in air and vacuum environments. Impinging dust particles create a temporary short circuit and the resulting current pulse is recorded by counting electronics. Up to 90% of the particles are ejected from the grid or vaporized suggesting the device may be useful for controlling dust inventories. We report measurements of the sensitivity of a large area (5x5 cm) detector to microgram quantities of dust particles and review its applications to contemporary tokamaks and ITER.

  19. Large aperture at low cost three-dimensional time-of-flight range sensor using scanning micromirrors and synchronous detector switching.

    PubMed

    Bogatscher, Siegwart; Streck, Andreas; Fox, Maik; Meinzer, Sebastian; Heussner, Nico; Stork, Wilhelm

    2014-03-10

    In this article the problem of achieving fast scanning of a time-of-flight range sensor with a large optical receiver aperture at low system cost is targeted. The presented approach to solve this problem consists of a micromirror-based transmitter unit and a receiver unit consisting of a large aperture lens system with a small field of view and a detector array. A concept, which is called synchronous detector switching, is applied to the detector array. Thereby electronic steering of the small receiver field of view is possible. The overall approach is compared to alternative approaches, and the underlying concept of synchronous detector switching is demonstrated experimentally in an implementation of a three-dimensional time-of-flight range sensor. It is theoretically shown that the presented concept is potentially cheaper than the alternative approaches for applications with a field of view of less than 60×60°. After a discussion of the strengths and limitations of the approach, its effect on broader scientific issues is outlined.

  20. Membrane Thinning and Thickening Induced by Membrane-Active Amphipathic Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Grage, Stephan L.; Afonin, Sergii; Kara, Sezgin; Buth, Gernot; Ulrich, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    Membrane thinning has been discussed as a fundamental mechanism by which antimicrobial peptides can perturb cellular membranes. To understand which factors play a role in this process, we compared several amphipathic peptides with different structures, sizes and functions in their influence on the lipid bilayer thickness. PGLa and magainin 2 from X. laevis were studied as typical representatives of antimicrobial cationic amphipathic α-helices. A 1:1 mixture of these peptides, which is known to possess synergistically enhanced activity, allowed us to evaluate whether and how this synergistic interaction correlates with changes in membrane thickness. Other systems investigated here include the α-helical stress-response peptide TisB from E. coli (which forms membrane-spanning dimers), as well as gramicidin S from A. migulanus (a natural antibiotic), and BP100 (designer-made antimicrobial and cell penetrating peptide). The latter two are very short, with a circular β-pleated and a compact α-helical structure, respectively. Solid-state 2H-NMR and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) on oriented phospholipid bilayers were used as complementary techniques to access the hydrophobic thickness as well as the bilayer-bilayer repeat distance including the water layer in between. This way, we found that magainin 2, gramicidin S, and BP100 induced membrane thinning, as expected for amphiphilic peptides residing in the polar/apolar interface of the bilayer. PGLa, on the other hand, decreased the hydrophobic thickness only at very high peptide:lipid ratios, and did not change the bilayer-bilayer repeat distance. TisB even caused an increase in the hydrophobic thickness and repeat distance. When reconstituted as a mixture, PGLa and magainin 2 showed a moderate thinning effect which was less than that of magainin 2 alone, hence their synergistically enhanced activity does not seem to correlate with a modulation of membrane thickness. Overall, the absence of a

  1. Cell volume and membrane stretch independently control K+ channel activity.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Sofia; Willumsen, Niels J; Olsen, Hervør L; Morera, Francisco J; Latorre, Ramón; Klaerke, Dan A

    2009-05-15

    A number of potassium channels including members of the KCNQ family and the Ca(2+) activated IK and SK, but not BK, are strongly and reversibly regulated by small changes in cell volume. It has been argued that this general regulation is mediated through sensitivity to changes in membrane stretch. To test this hypothesis we have studied the regulation of KCNQ1 and BK channels after expression in Xenopus oocytes. Results from cell-attached patch clamp studies (approximately 50 microm(2) macropatches) in oocytes expressing BK channels demonstrate that the macroscopic volume-insensitive BK current increases with increasing negative hydrostatic pressure (suction) applied to the pipette. Thus, at a pipette pressure of -5.0 +/- 0.1 mmHg the increase amounted to 381 +/- 146% (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 6, P < 0.025). In contrast, in oocytes expressing the strongly volume-sensitive KCNQ1 channel, the current was not affected by membrane stretch. The results indicate that (1) activation of BK channels by local membrane stretch is not mimicked by membrane stress induced by cell swelling, and (2) activation of KCNQ1 channels by cell volume increase is not mediated by local tension in the cell membrane. We conclude that stretch and volume sensitivity can be considered two independent regulatory mechanisms.

  2. Cell volume and membrane stretch independently control K+ channel activity

    PubMed Central

    Hammami, Sofia; Willumsen, Niels J; Olsen, Hervør L; Morera, Francisco J; Latorre, Ramón; Klaerke, Dan A

    2009-01-01

    A number of potassium channels including members of the KCNQ family and the Ca2+ activated IK and SK, but not BK, are strongly and reversibly regulated by small changes in cell volume. It has been argued that this general regulation is mediated through sensitivity to changes in membrane stretch. To test this hypothesis we have studied the regulation of KCNQ1 and BK channels after expression in Xenopus oocytes. Results from cell-attached patch clamp studies (∼50 μm2 macropatches) in oocytes expressing BK channels demonstrate that the macroscopic volume-insensitive BK current increases with increasing negative hydrostatic pressure (suction) applied to the pipette. Thus, at a pipette pressure of −5.0 ± 0.1 mmHg the increase amounted to 381 ± 146% (mean ±s.e.m., n= 6, P < 0.025). In contrast, in oocytes expressing the strongly volume-sensitive KCNQ1 channel, the current was not affected by membrane stretch. The results indicate that (1) activation of BK channels by local membrane stretch is not mimicked by membrane stress induced by cell swelling, and (2) activation of KCNQ1 channels by cell volume increase is not mediated by local tension in the cell membrane. We conclude that stretch and volume sensitivity can be considered two independent regulatory mechanisms. PMID:19289549

  3. Membrane solubilization by a hydrophobic polyelectrolyte: surface activity and membrane binding.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, J L; Barton, S W; Tirrell, D A

    1994-01-01

    We have previously observed that the hydrophobic polyelectrolyte poly(2-ethylacrylic acid) solubilizes lipid membranes in a pH-dependent manner, and we have exploited this phenomenon to prepare lipid vesicles that release their contents in response to pH, light, or glucose (Thomas, J. L., and D. A. Tirrell. Acc. Chem. Res. 25:336-342, 1992). The physical basis for the interaction between poly(2-ethylacrylic acid) and lipid membranes has been explored using surface tensiometry and fluorimetry. Varying the polymer concentration results in changes in surface activity and membrane binding that correlate with shifts in the critical pH for membrane solubilization. Furthermore, the binding affinity is reduced as the amount of bound polymer increases. These results are consistent with a hydrophobically driven micellization process, similar to those observed with apolipoproteins, melittin, and other amphiphilic alpha-helix-based polypeptides. The absence of specific secondary structure in the synthetic polymer suggests that amphiphilicity, rather than structure, is the most important factor in membrane micellization by macromolecules. PMID:7811920

  4. Biocompatibility of cellulosic and synthetic membranes assessed by leukocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Maria Rosa; Galán, Ana Maria; Cases, Aleix; Lopez-Pedret, Jose; Pereira, Arturo; Tonda, Raul; Bozzo, Jordi; Escolar, Gines; Ordinas, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    The contact of blood with artificial surfaces may activate blood leukocytes and platelets and initiate the leukocyte inflammatory response. We have investigated the effect of a hemodialysis (HD) with a cellulosic- and a synthetic-based membrane on circulating leukocyte activation. Samples were obtained from patients with ESRD at baseline, and at 15 and 120 min of a hemodialysis session from both the arterial and venous lines. Leukocyte respiratory burst was analyzed by luminol chemiluminescence. Actin polymerization, expression of CD11b, and heterotypic aggregation were studied by flow cytometry, leukocyte labeling with NBD phallacidin and monoclonal antibodies, respectively. HD with a cellulosic membrane induced a transient fall in neutrophil (1.2 +/- 0.5 x 10(9) vs. 3.6 +/- 0.6 x 10(9) cells/l; p < 0.05) and monocyte counts (0.2 +/- 0.1 x 10(9) vs. 0.7 +/- 0.1 x 10(9) cells/l; p < 0.05). There was also an increase in respiratory burst in the venous line during a HD with a cellulosic membrane, at 15 and 120 min (100 +/- 41 and 143.2 +/- 45.3 vs. 23.8 +/- 15.7; p < 0.05). Polymerized actin, expressed as fluorescence arbitrary units, was increased in baseline samples from uremic patients versus control subjects (327.8 +/- 60.8 for a cellulosic membrane, p < 0.005, and 205 +/- 26.5 for a synthetic one, p < 0.05 vs. 97.8 +/- 27.6 in controls). The percentage of CD11b+ cells increased in samples during a HD with a cellulosic membrane at the venous line at 15 and 120 min (9.6 +/- 4.5 and 18.4 +/- 7.1% vs. 3.3 +/- 1.9%; p < 0.05%). Changes in heterotypic aggregation during HD did not reach statistical significance, but levels were higher in patients treated with a cellulosic membrane at all points than in patients dialyzed with a synthetic one. There is evidence of a priming state of leukocytes from uremic patients, which is more evident in patients dialyzed with a cellulosic membrane. Cellulosic membranes also induce greater leukocyte activation than synthetic membranes

  5. Continuous series of catchment-averaged sensible heat flux from a Large Aperture Scintillometer: efficient estimation of stability conditions and importance of fluxes under stable conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lathauwer, E.; Samain, B.; Defloor, W.; Pauwels, V. R.

    2011-12-01

    A Large Aperture Scintillometer (LAS) observes the intensity of the atmospheric turbulence across large distances, which is related to the path averaged sensible heat flux, H. This sensible heat flux can then easily be inverted into evapotranspiration rates using the surface energy balance. In this prestentation, two problems in the derivation of continuous series of H from LAS-data are investigated and the importance of nighttime H -fluxes is assessed. Firstly, as a LAS is unable to determine the sign of H, the transition from unstable to stable conditions is evaluated in order to make continuous H-series. Therefore, different algorithms to judge the atmospheric stability for a LAS installed over a distance of 9.5km have been tested. The algorithm based on the diurnal cycle of the refractive index structure parameter, CN2, has been found to be very suitable and operationally the most appropriate. A second issue is the humidity correction for LAS-data, which is performed by using the Bowen ratio (β). As β is taken from ground-based measurements with data gaps, the number of resulting H -values is reduced. Not including this humidity correction results in a marginal error in H, but increases the completeness of the resulting H -series. Applying these conclusions to the two-year time series of the LAS, results in an almost continuous H -time series. As the majority of the time steps has been found to be under stable conditions, there is a clear impact of Hstable on H24h, the 24h average of H. For stable conditions, Hstable -values are mostly negative, and hence lower than the H = 0 assumption as is mostly adopted. For months where stable conditions prevail (Winter), H24h is overestimated using this assumption, and calculation of Hstable is recommended.

  6. Continuous series of catchment-averaged sensible heat flux from a Large Aperture Scintillometer: efficient estimation of stability conditions and importance of fluxes under stable conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samain, B.; Defloor, W.; Pauwels, V. R. N.

    2012-04-01

    A Large Aperture Scintillometer (LAS) observes the intensity of the atmospheric turbulence across large distances, which is related to the path averaged sensible heat flux, H. Two problems in the derivation of continuous series of H from LAS-data are investigated and the importance of nighttime H -fluxes is assessed. Firstly, as a LAS is unable to determine the sign of H, the transition from unstable to stable conditions is evaluated in order to make continuous H -series. Therefore, different algorithms to judge the atmospheric stability for a LAS installed over a distance of 9.5 km have been tested. The diurnal cycle of the refractive index structure parameter, CN2, results in the best suitable, operational algorithm. A second issue is the humidity correction for LAS-data, which is performed by using the Bowen ratio (β). As β is taken from ground-based measurements with data gaps, the number of resulting H -values is reduced. Not including this humidity correction results in a marginal error in H, but increases the completeness of the resulting H -series. Applying these conclusions to the two-year time series of the LAS, results in an almost continuous H -time series. As the majority of the time steps has been found to be under stable conditions, there is a clear impact of Hstable on H24h ,the 24h average of H. For stable conditions, Hstable -values are mostly negative, and hence lower than the H = 0 W/m2 assumption as is mostly adopted. For months where stable conditions prevail (Winter), H24h is overestimated using this assumption, and calculation of Hstable is recommended.

  7. Large aperture Fizeau interferometer commissioning and preliminary measurements of a long x-ray mirror at European X-ray Free Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Vannoni, M. Freijo Martín, I.

    2016-05-15

    The European XFEL (X-ray Free Electron Laser) is a large facility under construction in Hamburg, Germany. It will provide a transversally fully coherent x-ray radiation with outstanding characteristics: high repetition rate (up to 2700 pulses with a 0.6 ms long pulse train at 10 Hz), short wavelength (down to 0.05 nm), short pulse (in the femtoseconds scale), and high average brilliance (1.6 ⋅ 10{sup 25} (photons s{sup −1} mm{sup −2} mrad{sup −2})/0.1% bandwidth). The beam has very high pulse energy; therefore, it has to be spread out on a relatively long mirror (about 1 m). Due to the very short wavelength, the mirrors need to have a high quality surface on their entire length, and this is considered very challenging even with the most advanced polishing methods. In order to measure the mirrors and to characterize their interaction with the mechanical mount, we equipped a metrology laboratory with a large aperture Fizeau interferometer. The system is a classical 100 mm diameter commercial Fizeau, with an additional expander providing a 300 mm diameter beam. Despite the commercial nature of the system, special care has been taken in the polishing of the reference flats and in the expander quality. We report the first commissioning of the instrument, its calibration, and performance characterization, together with some preliminary results with the measurement of a 950 mm silicon substrate. The intended application is to characterize the final XFEL mirrors with nanometer accuracy.

  8. OpTIIX: An ISS-Based Testbed Paving the Roadmap Toward a Next Generation Large Aperture UV/Optical Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Etemad, Shar; Seery, Bernard D.; Thronson, Harley; Burdick, Gary M.; Coulter, Dan; Goullioud, Renaud; Green, Joseph J.; Liu, Fengchuan; Ess, Kim; Postman, Marc; Sparks, Williams

    2012-01-01

    The next generation large aperture UV/Optical space telescope will need a diameter substantially larger than even that of JWST in order to address some of the most compelling unanswered scientific quests. These quests include understanding the earliest phases of the Universe and detecting life on exo-planets by studying spectra of their atmospheres. Such 8-16 meter telescopes face severe challenges in terms of cost and complexity and are unlikely to be affordable unless a new paradigm is adopted for their design and construction. The conventional approach is to use monolithic or preassembled segmented mirrors requiring complicated and risky deployments and relying on future heavy-lift vehicles, large fairings and complex geometry. The new paradigm is to launch component modules on relatively small vehicles and then perform in-orbit robotic assembly of those modules. The Optical Testbed and Integration on ISS eXperiment (OpTIIX) is designed to demonstrate, at low cost by leveraging the infrastructure provided by ISS, telescope assembly technologies and end-to-end optical system technologies. The use of ISS as a testbed permits the concentration of resources on reducing the technical risks associated with robotically integrating the components. These include laser metrology and wavefront sensing and control (WFS&C) systems, an imaging instrument, lightweight, low-cost deformable primary mirror segments and the secondary mirror. These elements are then aligned to a diffraction-limited optical system in space. The capability to assemble the optical system and remove and replace components via the existing ISS robotic systems like the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM), or by the ISS flight crew, allows for future experimentation, as well as repair.

  9. Influence of Mean Rooftop-Level Estimation Method on Sensible Heat Flux Retrieved from a Large-Aperture Scintillometer Over a City Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieliński, Mariusz; Fortuniak, Krzysztof; Pawlak, Włodzimierz; Siedlecki, Mariusz

    2017-08-01

    The sensible heat flux ( H) is determined using large-aperture scintillometer (LAS) measurements over a city centre for eight different computation scenarios. The scenarios are based on different approaches of the mean rooftop-level (zH) estimation for the LAS path. Here, zH is determined separately for wind directions perpendicular (two zones) and parallel (one zone) to the optical beam to reflect the variation in topography and building height on both sides of the LAS path. Two methods of zH estimation are analyzed: (1) average building profiles; (2) weighted-average building height within a 250 m radius from points located every 50 m along the optical beam, or the centre of a certain zone (in the case of a wind direction perpendicular to the path). The sensible heat flux is computed separately using the friction velocity determined with the eddy-covariance method and the iterative procedure. The sensitivity of the sensible heat flux and the extent of the scintillometer source area to different computation scenarios are analyzed. Differences reaching up to 7% between heat fluxes computed with different scenarios were found. The mean rooftop-level estimation method has a smaller influence on the sensible heat flux (-4 to 5%) than the area used for the zH computation (-5 to 7%). For the source-area extent, the discrepancies between respective scenarios reached a similar magnitude. The results demonstrate the value of the approach in which zH is estimated separately for wind directions parallel and perpendicular to the LAS optical beam.

  10. Source locations of teleseismic P, SV, and SH waves observed in microseisms recorded by a large aperture seismic array in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qiaoxia; Koper, Keith D.; Burlacu, Relu; Ni, Sidao; Wang, Fuyun; Zou, Changqiao; Wei, Yunhao; Gal, Martin; Reading, Anya M.

    2016-09-01

    Transversely polarized seismic waves are routinely observed in ambient seismic energy across a wide range of periods, however their origin is poorly understood because the corresponding source regions are either undefined or weakly constrained, and nearly all models of microseism generation incorporate a vertically oriented single force as the excitation mechanism. To better understand the origin of transversely polarized energy in the ambient seismic wavefield we make the first systematic attempt to locate the source regions of teleseismic SH waves observed in microseismic (2.5-20 s) noise. We focus on body waves instead of surface waves because the source regions can be constrained in both azimuth and distance using conventional array techniques. To locate microseismic sources of SH waves (as well as SV and P waves) we continuously backproject the vertical, radial, and transverse components of the ambient seismic wavefield recorded by a large-aperture array deployed in China during 2013-2014. As expected, persistent P wave sources are observed in the North Atlantic, North Pacific, and Indian Oceans, mainly at periods of 2.5-10 s, in regions with the strong ocean wave interactions needed to produce secondary microseisms. SV waves are commonly observed to originate from locations indistinguishable from the P wave sources, but with smaller signal-to-noise ratios. We also observe SH waves with about half or less the signal-to-noise ratio of SV waves. SH source regions are definitively located in deep water portions of the Pacific, away from the sloping continental shelves that are thought to be important for the generation of microseismic Love waves, but nearby regions that routinely generate teleseismic P waves. The excitation mechanism for the observed SH waves may therefore be related to the interaction of P waves with small-wavelength bathymetric features, such as seamounts and basins, through some sort of scattering process.

  11. Simulation of P systems with active membranes on CUDA.

    PubMed

    Cecilia, José M; García, José M; Guerrero, Ginés D; Martínez-del-Amor, Miguel A; Pérez-Hurtado, Ignacio; Pérez-Jiménez, Mario J

    2010-05-01

    P systems or Membrane Systems provide a high-level computational modelling framework that combines the structure and dynamic aspects of biological systems in a relevant and understandable way. They are inherently parallel and non-deterministic computing devices. In this article, we discuss the motivation, design principles and key of the implementation of a simulator for the class of recognizer P systems with active membranes running on a (GPU). We compare our parallel simulator for GPUs to the simulator developed for a single central processing unit (CPU), showing that GPUs are better suited than CPUs to simulate P systems due to their highly parallel nature.

  12. Steady-state compartmentalization of lipid membranes by active proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Sabra, M C; Mouritsen, O G

    1998-01-01

    Using a simple microscopic model of lipid-protein interactions, based on the hydrophobic matching principle, we study some generic aspects of lipid-membrane compartmentalization controlled by a dispersion of active integral membrane proteins. The activity of the proteins is simulated by conformational excitations governed by an external drive, and the deexcitation is controlled by interaction of the protein with its lipid surroundings. In response to the flux of energy into the proteins from the environment and the subsequent dissipation of energy into the lipid bilayer, the lipid-protein assembly reorganizes into a steady-state structure with a typical length scale determined by the strength of the external drive. In the specific case of a mixed dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine-distearoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer in the gel-fluid coexistence region, it is shown explicitly by computer simulation that the activity of an integral membrane protein can lead to a compartmentalization of the lipid-bilayer membrane. The compartmentalization is related to the dynamical process of phase separation and lipid domain formation. PMID:9533687

  13. DETRIMENTAL EFFECTS OF ACTIVE INTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE PEELING DURING EPIRETINAL MEMBRANE SURGERY: Microperimetric Analysis.

    PubMed

    Deltour, Jean-Baptiste; Grimbert, Pierre; Masse, Helene; Lebreton, Olivier; Weber, Michel

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the microperimetric consequences of active internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling during idiopathic epimacular membrane (IEMM) surgery. This retrospective monocentric study included 32 eyes of 31 consecutive patients who underwent IEMM surgery. Internal limiting membrane integrity was assessed by ILM Blue staining after IEMM removal: peeling was spontaneous (Group S) or active (Group A). Preprocedure and postprocedure (1 and 6 months) examinations were performed using visual acuity determination, spectral domain optical coherence tomography and microperimetry. Twenty-two eyes had an "active ILM peeling" and 10 a "spontaneous ILM peeling." Both groups had comparable and significant improvements in visual acuity 6 months after surgery (+1.82 lines [+9 letters] [Group A] and +1.51 lines [+8 letters] [Group S], P < 0.01) associated with a significant reduction in optical coherence tomography central thickness (-99.9 μm [Group A], P < 0.01 and -62.2 μm [Group S], P = 0.05). Six months after surgery, the microperimetry showed more numerous and deeper microscotomas in the Group A than in the Group S (change in the number of microscotomas: 2.09 vs. -0.10, P = 0.06; change in deficit severity score: 13.18 dB vs. -2 dB, P < 0.01 for Group A and S, respectively). The number of microscotomas and also severity were increased in 63.6% of Group A patients and in only 20% of Group S patients. Microscotomas were most frequently located in IEMM and/or ILM areas. Internal limiting membrane peeling has progressively become generalized in IEMM surgery to reduce recurrences. This additional procedure does not change the postoperative visual acuity but increases the development of deeper microscotomas. The real impact on the quality of vision remains unclear. Active ILM peeling in IEMM surgery may be responsible for visual impairment related to its microtraumatic effects.

  14. Alkaline ribonuclease and phosphodiesterase activity in rat liver plasma membranes

    PubMed Central

    Prospero, Terence D.; Burge, Malcolm L. E.; Norris, Kenneth A.; Hinton, Richard H.; Reid, Eric

    1973-01-01

    The ribonuclease and phosphodiesterase activities of rat liver plasma membranes, purified from the crude nuclear fraction by centrifugation in an A-XII zonal rotor and flotation, were examined and compared. The plasma membrane is responsible for between 65 and 90% of the phosphodiesterase activity of the cell and between 25 and 30% of the particulate ribonuclease activity measured at pH8.7 in the presence of 7.5mm-MgCl2. Both enzymes were most active between pH8.5 and 8.9. Close to the pH optimum, both enzymes were more active in Tris buffer than in Bicine or glycine buffer. Both plasma-membrane phosphodiesterase and ribonuclease were strongly activated by Mg2+, there being at least a 12-fold difference between the activity in the presence of Mg2+ and of EDTA. There is, however, a difference in the response of the enzymes to Mg2+ and EDTA in that the phosphodiesterase is fully activated by 1.0mm-MgCl2 and fully inhibited by 1.0mm-EDTA, whereas the ribonuclease requires 7.5mm-MgCl2 for full activation and 5mm-EDTA for full inhibition. Density-gradient centrifugation has indicated that on solubilization in Triton X-100 most of the ribonuclease activity is released into a small fragment of the same size as that containing the phosphodiesterase activity. The relationship between the two activities is discussed in view of these results. PMID:4353377

  15. Ion channel activity in lobster skeletal muscle membrane.

    PubMed

    Worden, M K; Rahamimoff, R; Kravitz, E A

    1993-09-01

    Ion channel activity in the sarcolemmal membrane of muscle fibers is critical for regulating the excitability, and therefore the contractility, of muscle. To begin the characterization of the biophysical properties of the sarcolemmal membrane of lobster exoskeletal muscle fibers, recordings were made from excised patches of membrane from enzymatically induced muscle fiber blebs. Blebs formed as evaginations of the muscle sarcolemmal membrane and were sufficiently free of extracellular debris to allow the formation of gigaohm seals. Under simple experimental conditions using bi-ionic symmetrical recording solutions and maintained holding potentials, a variety of single channel types with conductances in the range 32-380 pS were detected. Two of these ion channel species are described in detail, both are cation channels selective for potassium. They can be distinguished from each other on the basis of their single-channel conductance and gating properties. The results suggest that current flows through a large number of ion channels that open spontaneously in bleb membranes in the absence of exogenous metabolites or hormones.

  16. Electrical resonance of Amphotericin B channel activity in lipidic membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Récamier, Karla S.; Ortega-Blake, Iván; Parmananda, P.

    2017-05-01

    In our previous work [J. Membrane Biol. 237, 31 (2010)], we showed the dependence of the time average conductance of Nystatin channels as a function of the applied potential. Specifically, it was observed that greater potential induced enhanced channel activity. This indicates that the supramolecular structure could be stabilized by a large field, possibly by giving a preferential orientation to the monomers. In the present work, we entertain the notion that the process of pore formation in the lipidic membranes has an underlying deterministic component. To verify this hypothesis, experiments were performed under potentio-dynamic conditions, i.e., a square train of pulses of different frequencies (0.05-2 Hz) were applied to a 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine membrane having 30 mol. % cholesterol and the presence of 35 μM Amphotericin B. An emergence of a resonant frequency, in the present experiments, is tantamount to observing fingerprints of determinism in the activity of these channels in lipidic membranes.

  17. Investigation of membrane active properties and antiradical activity of gossypol and its derivatives

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    New asymmetrical derivatives of gossypol were synthesized. The antioxidant activity of gossypol and these derivatives was studied. The interaction of these compounds with modeled lipid membranes was also studied. It was found that the antioxidant effects and ability to interact with membranes was...

  18. Membrane-Active Properties and Antiradical Activity of Gossypol and Its Derivatives

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    New asymmetrical derivatives of gossypol were synthesized. The antioxidant activity of gossypol and these derivatives was studied. The interaction of these compounds with modeled lipid membranes was also studied. It was found that the antioxidant effects and ability to interact with membranes was...

  19. Endocrine Activity of Extraembryonic Membranes Extends beyond Placental Amniotes

    PubMed Central

    Albergotti, Lori C.; Hamlin, Heather J.; McCoy, Michael W.; Guillette,, Louis J.

    2009-01-01

    Background During development, all amniotes (mammals, reptiles, and birds) form extraembryonic membranes, which regulate gas and water exchange, remove metabolic wastes, provide shock absorption, and transfer maternally derived nutrients. In viviparous (live-bearing) amniotes, both extraembryonic membranes and maternal uterine tissues contribute to the placenta, an endocrine organ that synthesizes, transports, and metabolizes hormones essential for development. Historically, endocrine properties of the placenta have been viewed as an innovation of placental amniotes. However, an endocrine role of extraembryonic membranes has not been investigated in oviparous (egg-laying) amniotes despite similarities in their basic structure, function, and shared evolutionary ancestry. In this study, we ask whether the oviparous chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of chicken (Gallus gallus) has the capability to synthesize and receive signaling of progesterone, a major placental steroid hormone. Methodology/Principal Findings We quantified mRNA expression of key steroidogenic enzymes involved in progesterone synthesis and found that 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, which converts pregnenolone to progesterone exhibited a 464 fold increase in the CAM from day 8 to day 18 of embryonic development (F5, 68 = 89.282, p<0.0001). To further investigate progesterone synthesis, we performed explant culture and found that the CAM synthesizes progesterone in vitro in the presence of a steroid precursor. Finally, we quantified mRNA expression and performed protein immunolocalization of the progesterone receptor in the CAM. Conclusions/Significance Collectively, our data indicate that the chick CAM is steroidogenic and has the capability to both synthesize progesterone and receive progesterone signaling. These findings represent a paradigm shift in evolutionary reproductive biology by suggesting that endocrine activity of extraembryonic membranes is not a novel characteristic of placental

  20. Membrane effects of dihydropyrimidine analogues with larvicidal activity.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Borzone, Mariela E; Mariani, Maria E; Miguel, Virginia; Gleiser, Raquel M; Odhav, Bharti; Venugopala, Katharigatta N; García, Daniel A

    2017-02-01

    Two recently synthesized dihydropyrimidines (DHPMs) analogues have demonstrated larvicide and repellent activity against Anopheles arabiensis. DHPMs high lipophilicity suggests that these compounds may interact directly with the membrane and modify their biophysical properties. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the interaction of both compounds with artificial membranes. Changes on the properties of DPPC films were studied using Langmuir monolayers. The presence of DHPMs in the subphase modified the interfacial characteristics of DPPC compression isotherms, causing the expansion of the monolayer, inducing the disappearance of DPPC phase transition and increasing the molecular packing of the film. Moreover, both compounds showed ability to penetrate into the lipid monolayers at molecular pressures comparable to those in biological membranes. The effects of both DHPMs on the molecular organization of DPPC liposomes were measured by fluorescence anisotropy. The results indicate that their presence between lipid molecules would induce an increasing intermolecular interaction, diminishing the bilayer fluidity mainly at the polar region. Finally, we performed free diffusion MD simulations and obtained spatially resolved free energy profiles of DHPMs partition into a DPPC bilayer through Potential of Mean Force (PMF) calculations. In agreement with the experimental assays, PMF profiles and MD simulations showed that DHPMs are able to partition into DPPC bilayers, penetrating into the membrane and stablishing hydrogen bonds with the carbonyl moiety. Our results suggest that DHPMs bioactivity could involve their interaction with the lipid molecules that modulate the supramolecular organization of the biological membranes and consequently the membrane proteins functionality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Solubilized placental membrane protein inhibits insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Strout, H.V. Jr.; Slater, E.E.

    1987-05-01

    Regulation of insulin receptor (IR) tyrosine kinase (TK) activity may be important in modulating insulin action. Utilizing an assay which measures IR phosphorylation of angiotensin II (AII), the authors investigated whether fractions of TX-100 solubilized human placental membranes inhibited IR dependent AII phosphorylation. Autophosphorylated IR was incubated with membrane fractions before the addition of AII, and kinase inhibition measured by the loss of TSP incorporated in AII. An inhibitory activity was detected which was dose, time, and temperature dependent. The inhibitor was purified 200-fold by sequential chromatography on wheat germ agglutinin, DEAE, and hydroxyapatite. This inhibitory activity was found to correlate with an 80 KD protein which was electroeluted from preparative slab gels and rabbit antiserum raised. Incubation of membrane fractions with antiserum before the IRTK assay immunoprecipitated the inhibitor. Protein immunoblots of crude or purified fractions revealed only the 80 KD protein. Since IR autophosphorylation is crucial to IRTK activity, the authors investigated the state of IR autophosphorylation after treatment with inhibitor; no change was detected by phosphoamino acid analysis.

  2. An analysis on the influence of spatial scales on sensible heat fluxes in the north Tibetan Plateau based on Eddy covariance and large aperture scintillometer data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Genhou; Hu, Zeyong; Sun, Fanglin; Wang, Jiemin; Xie, Zhipeng; Lin, Yun; Huang, Fangfang

    2017-08-01

    The influence of spatial scales on surface fluxes is an interesting but not fully investigated question. This paper presents an analysis on the influence of spatial scales on surface fluxes in the north Tibetan Plateau based on eddy covariance (EC) and large aperture scintillometer (LAS) data at site Nagqu/BJ, combined with the land surface temperature (LST) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS). The analysis shows that sensible heat fluxes calculated with LAS data (H_LAS) agree reasonably well with sensible heat fluxes calculated with EC data (H_EC) in the rain and dry seasons. The difference in their footprints due to the wind direction is an important reason for the differences in H_EC and H_LAS. The H_LAS are statistically more consistent with H_EC when their footprints overlap than when their footprints do not. A detailed analysis on H_EC and H_LAS changes with net radiation and wind direction in rain and dry season indicates that the spatial heterogeneity in net radiation created by clouds contributes greatly to the differences in H_EC and H_LAS in short-term variations. A significant relationship between the difference in footprint-weighted averages of LST and difference in H_EC and H_LAS suggests that the spatial heterogeneity in LST at two spatial scales is a reason for the differences in H_EC and H_LAS and that LST has a positive correlation with the differences in H_EC and H_LAS. A significant relationship between the footprint-weighted averages of NDVI and the ratio of sensible heat fluxes at two spatial scales to net radiation (H/Rn) in the rain season supports the analysis that the spatial heterogeneity in canopy at two spatial scales is another reason for differences in H_EC and H_LAS and that canopy has a negative correlation with (H/Rn). An analysis on the influence of the difference in aerodynamic roughness lengths at two spatial scales on sensible heat fluxes shows that the

  3. Active transport of calcium in Neurospora plasma membrane vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Stroobant, P; Scarborough, G A

    1979-01-01

    Functionally inverted plasma membrane vesicles isolated from the eukaryotic microorganism Neurospora crassa catalyze Mg2+/ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake. Inhibitors induced efflux studies and isotope-exchange experiments indicate that the Ca2+ is accumulated inside the vesicles against a concentration gradient of about 40-fold, and that the majority of the transported Ca2+ is present essentially in free solution. Comparisons of Mg2+/ATP-driven 45Ca2+ uptake and [14C]SCN-uptake with respect to the Mg2+/ATP concentration dependence, the effects of inhibitors, and the nucleotide and divalent cation specificities indicate that the energy for Ca2+ accumulation is derived from ATP hydrolysis catalyzed by the electrogenic plasma membrane ATPase. Energized Ca2+ uptake is stimulated by the permeant anion SCN- to a degree that varies reciprocally with the ability of this anion to dissipate the membrane potential, and is inhibited by K+ in the presence of nigericin. All of these data point to the conclusion that the active transport of Ca2+ across the Neurospora plasma membrane takes place via a Ca2+/H+ antiporter, which functions to pump Ca2+ out of the intact cell. PMID:40223

  4. Mechanism for Active Membrane Fusion Triggering by Morbillivirus Attachment Protein

    PubMed Central

    Ader, Nadine; Brindley, Melinda; Avila, Mislay; Örvell, Claes; Horvat, Branka; Hiltensperger, Georg; Schneider-Schaulies, Jürgen; Vandevelde, Marc; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Plemper, Richard K.

    2013-01-01

    The paramyxovirus entry machinery consists of two glycoproteins that tightly cooperate to achieve membrane fusion for cell entry: the tetrameric attachment protein (HN, H, or G, depending on the paramyxovirus genus) and the trimeric fusion protein (F). Here, we explore whether receptor-induced conformational changes within morbillivirus H proteins promote membrane fusion by a mechanism requiring the active destabilization of prefusion F or by the dissociation of prefusion F from intracellularly preformed glycoprotein complexes. To properly probe F conformations, we identified anti-F monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that recognize conformation-dependent epitopes. Through heat treatment as a surrogate for H-mediated F triggering, we demonstrate with these MAbs that the morbillivirus F trimer contains a sufficiently high inherent activation energy barrier to maintain the metastable prefusion state even in the absence of H. This notion was further validated by exploring the conformational states of destabilized F mutants and stabilized soluble F variants combined with the use of a membrane fusion inhibitor (3g). Taken together, our findings reveal that the morbillivirus H protein must lower the activation energy barrier of metastable prefusion F for fusion triggering. PMID:23077316

  5. Mechanism for active membrane fusion triggering by morbillivirus attachment protein.

    PubMed

    Ader, Nadine; Brindley, Melinda; Avila, Mislay; Örvell, Claes; Horvat, Branka; Hiltensperger, Georg; Schneider-Schaulies, Jürgen; Vandevelde, Marc; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Plemper, Richard K; Plattet, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The paramyxovirus entry machinery consists of two glycoproteins that tightly cooperate to achieve membrane fusion for cell entry: the tetrameric attachment protein (HN, H, or G, depending on the paramyxovirus genus) and the trimeric fusion protein (F). Here, we explore whether receptor-induced conformational changes within morbillivirus H proteins promote membrane fusion by a mechanism requiring the active destabilization of prefusion F or by the dissociation of prefusion F from intracellularly preformed glycoprotein complexes. To properly probe F conformations, we identified anti-F monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that recognize conformation-dependent epitopes. Through heat treatment as a surrogate for H-mediated F triggering, we demonstrate with these MAbs that the morbillivirus F trimer contains a sufficiently high inherent activation energy barrier to maintain the metastable prefusion state even in the absence of H. This notion was further validated by exploring the conformational states of destabilized F mutants and stabilized soluble F variants combined with the use of a membrane fusion inhibitor (3g). Taken together, our findings reveal that the morbillivirus H protein must lower the activation energy barrier of metastable prefusion F for fusion triggering.

  6. Photosynthesis Activates Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase via Sugar Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Masaki; Inoue, Shin-Ichiro; Kuwata, Keiko; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2016-05-01

    Plant plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase acts as a primary transporter via proton pumping and regulates diverse physiological responses by controlling secondary solute transport, pH homeostasis, and membrane potential. Phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine and the subsequent binding of 14-3-3 proteins in the carboxyl terminus of the enzyme are required for H(+)-ATPase activation. We showed previously that photosynthesis induces phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine in the nonvascular bryophyte Marchantia polymorpha However, (1) whether this response is conserved in vascular plants and (2) the process by which photosynthesis regulates H(+)-ATPase phosphorylation at the plasma membrane remain unresolved issues. Here, we report that photosynthesis induced the phosphorylation and activation of H(+)-ATPase in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves via sugar accumulation. Light reversibly phosphorylated leaf H(+)-ATPase, and this process was inhibited by pharmacological and genetic suppression of photosynthesis. Immunohistochemical and biochemical analyses indicated that light-induced phosphorylation of H(+)-ATPase occurred autonomously in mesophyll cells. We also show that the phosphorylation status of H(+)-ATPase and photosynthetic sugar accumulation in leaves were positively correlated and that sugar treatment promoted phosphorylation. Furthermore, light-induced phosphorylation of H(+)-ATPase was strongly suppressed in a double mutant defective in ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and triose phosphate/phosphate translocator (adg1-1 tpt-2); these mutations strongly inhibited endogenous sugar accumulation. Overall, we show that photosynthesis activated H(+)-ATPase via sugar production in the mesophyll cells of vascular plants. Our work provides new insight into signaling from chloroplasts to the plasma membrane ion transport mechanism. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Solubilization of active (H+ + K+)-ATPase from gastric membrane.

    PubMed

    Soumarmon, A; Grelac, F; Lewin, M J

    1983-08-10

    (H+ + K+)-ATPase-enriched membranes were prepared from hog gastric mucosa by sucrose gradient centrifugation. These membranes contained Mg2+-ATPase and p-nitrophenylphosphatase activities (68 +/- 9 mumol Pi and 2.9 +/- 0.6 mumol p-nitrophenol/mg protein per h) which were insensitive to ouabain and markedly stimulated by 20 mM KCl (respectively, 2.2- and 14.8-fold). Furthermore, the membranes autophosphorylated in the absence of K+ (up to 0.69 +/- 0.09 nmol Pi incorporated/mg protein) and dephosphorylated by 85% in the presence of this ion. Membrane proteins were extracted by 1-2% (w/v) n-octylglucoside into a soluble form, i.e., which did not sediment in a 100 000 X g X 1 h centrifugation. This soluble form precipitated upon further dilution in detergent-free buffer. Extracted ATPase represented 32% (soluble form) and 68% (precipitated) of native enzyme and it displayed the same characteristic properties in terms of K+-stimulated ATPase and p-nitrophenylphosphatase activities and K+-sensitive phosphorylation: Mg2+-ATPase (mumol Pi/mg protein per h) 32 +/- 9 (basal) and 86 +/- 20 (K+-stimulated); Mg2+-p-nitrophenylphosphatase (mumol p-nitrophenol/mg protein per h) 2.6 +/- 0.5 (basal) and 22.2 +/- 3.2 (K+-stimulated); Mg2+-phosphorylation (nmol Pi/mg protein) 0.214 +/- 0.041 (basal) and 0.057 +/- 0.004 (in the presence of K+). In glycerol gradient centrifugation, extracted enzyme equilibrated as a single peak corresponding to an apparent 390 000 molecular weight. These findings provide the first evidence for the solubilization of (H+ + K+)-ATPase in a still active structure.

  8. Calcium Modulation of Plant Plasma Membrane-Bound Atpase Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, C.

    1983-01-01

    The kinetic properties of barley enzyme are discussed and compared with those of other plants. Possibilities for calcium transport in the plasma membrane by proton pump and ATPase-dependent calcium pumps are explored. Topics covered include the ph phase of the enzyme; high affinity of barley for calcium; temperature dependence, activation enthalpy, and the types of ATPase catalytic sites. Attention is given to lipids which are both screened and bound by calcium. Studies show that barley has a calmodulin activated ATPase that is found in the presence of magnesium and calcium.

  9. Calcium Modulation of Plant Plasma Membrane-Bound Atpase Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, C.

    1983-01-01

    The kinetic properties of barley enzyme are discussed and compared with those of other plants. Possibilities for calcium transport in the plasma membrane by proton pump and ATPase-dependent calcium pumps are explored. Topics covered include the ph phase of the enzyme; high affinity of barley for calcium; temperature dependence, activation enthalpy, and the types of ATPase catalytic sites. Attention is given to lipids which are both screened and bound by calcium. Studies show that barley has a calmodulin activated ATPase that is found in the presence of magnesium and calcium.

  10. Cyclohexane triones, novel membrane-active antibacterial agents.

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, W J; Broadhurst, A V; Hall, M J; Andrews, K J; Barber, W E; Wong-Kai-In, P

    1988-01-01

    The cyclohexane triones are a novel group of synthetic antibacterial agents that are active against gram-positive bacteria, Haemophilus influenzae, and Mycobacterium smegmatis. In general, these compounds behaved in a manner similar to that of hexachlorophene, inhibiting the transport of low-molecular-weight hydrophilic substances into bacteria. Unlike cationic detergents, such as chlorhexidine, they did not cause disruption of the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane over a short time period. The most potent antibacterial cyclohexane trione studied had a reduced ability to inhibit solute transport in comparison with certain less active analogs. Cyclohexane triones may express more than a single type of antibacterial effect. PMID:3137860

  11. Antiviral activity of squalamine: Role of electrostatic membrane binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckerman, Bernard; Qu, Wei; Mishra, Abhijit; Zasloff, Michael; Wong, Gerard; Luijten, Erik

    2012-02-01

    Recent workootnotetextM. Zasloff et al., Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 108, 15978 (2011). has demonstrated that squalamine, a molecule found in the liver of sharks, exhibits broad-spectrum antiviral properties. It has been proposed that this activity results from the charge-density matching of squalamine and phospholipid membranes, causing squalamine to bind to membranes and displace proteins such as Rac1 that are crucial for the viral replication cycle. Here we investigate this hypothesis by numerical simulation of a coarse-grained model for the competition between Rac1 and squalamine in binding affinity to a flat lipid bilayer. We perform free-energy calculations to test the ability of squalamine to condense stacked bilayer systems and thereby displace bulkier Rac1 molecules. We directly compare our findings to small-angle x-ray scattering results for the same setup.

  12. Flagellar tip activation stimulated by membrane adhesions in Chlamydomonas gametes

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    Membrane adhesions between the flagella of mating-type "plus" and "minus" gametes of Chlamydomonas reinhardi are shown to stimulate a rapid change in the ultrastructure of the flagellar tips, designated as flagellar tip activation (FTA). A dense substance, termed fibrous tip material (FTM), accumulates between the flagellar membrane and the nine single A microtubules of the tip. The A microtubules then elongate, growing into the distal region of the tip, increasing tip length by 30%. This study describes FTA kinetics during normal and mutant matings, presents experiments designed to probe its role in the mating reaction, and offers the following conclusions: (a) FTA is elicited by agents that cross-link flagellar membrane components (including natural sexual agglutinins, antiflagellar antisera, and concanavalin A) but not by flagellar adherence to polylysine-coated films. (b) FTA is reversed by flagellar disadhesion. (c) Gametes can undergo repeated cycles of FTA during successive rounds of adhesion/disadhesion. (d) FTA, flagellar tipping, and sexual signaling are simultaneously blocked by colchicine and by vinblastine, suggesting that tubulinlike molecules, perhaps exposed at the membrane surface, are involved in all three responses. (e) FTA is not blocked by short exposure to chymotrypsin, by cytochalasins B and D, nor by concanavalin A, even though all block cell fusion; the response is therefore autonomous and experimentally dissociable from later stages in the mating reaction. (f) Under no experimental conditions is mating-structure activation observed to occur unless FTA also occurs. This study concludes that FTA is a necessary event in the sexual signaling sequence, and presents a testable working model for its mechanism. PMID:7358792

  13. Modulation of Erythrocyte Plasma Membrane Redox System Activity by Curcumin

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Prabhakar; Kesharwani, Rajesh Kumar; Misra, Krishna; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Plasma membrane redox system (PMRS) is an electron transport chain system ubiquitously present throughout all cell types. It transfers electron from intracellular substrates to extracellular acceptors for regulation of redox status. Curcumin, isolated from Curcuma longa, has modulatory effects on cellular physiology due to its membrane interaction ability and antioxidant potential. The present study investigates the effect of curcumin on PMRS activity of erythrocytes isolated from Wistar rats in vitro and in vivo and validated through an in silico docking simulation study using Molegro Virtual Docker (MVD). Effects of curcumin were also evaluated on level of glutathione (GSH) and the oxidant potential of plasma measured in terms of plasma ferric equivalent oxidative potentials (PFEOP). Results show that curcumin significantly (p < 0.01) downregulated the PMRS activity in a dose-dependent manner. Molecular docking results suggest that curcumin interacts with amino acids at the active site cavity of cytochrome b5 reductase, a key constituent of PMRS. Curcumin also increased the GSH level in erythrocytes and plasma while simultaneously decreasing the oxidant potential (PFEOP) of plasma. Altered PMRS activity and redox status are associated with the pathophysiology of several health complications including aging and diabetes; hence, the above finding may explain part of the role of curcumin in health beneficial effects. PMID:26904287

  14. LysoPC acyltransferase/PC transacylase activities in plant plasma membrane and plasma membrane-associated endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Karin E; Kjellberg, J Magnus; Tjellström, Henrik; Sandelius, Anna Stina

    2007-11-28

    The phospholipids of the plant plasma membrane are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The majority of these lipids reach the plasma membrane independently of the secretory vesicular pathway. Phospholipid delivery to the mitochondria and chloroplasts of plant cells also bypasses the secretory pathway and here it has been proposed that lysophospholipids are transported at contact sites between specific regions of the ER and the respective organelle, followed by lysophospholipid acylation in the target organelle. To test the hypothesis that a corresponding mechanism operates to transport phospholipids to the plasma membrane outside the secretory pathway, we investigated whether lysolipid acylation occurs also in the plant plasma membrane and whether this membrane, like the chloroplasts and mitochondria, is in close contact with the ER. The plant plasma membrane readily incorporated the acyl chain of acyl-CoA into phospholipids. Oleic acid was preferred over palmitic acid as substrate and acyl incorporation occurred predominantly into phosphatidylcholine (PC). Phospholipase A2 stimulated the reaction, as did exogenous lysoPC when administered in above critical micellar concentrations. AgNO3 was inhibitory. The lysophospholipid acylation reaction was higher in a membrane fraction that could be washed off the isolated plasma membranes after repeated freezing and thawing cycles in a medium with lowered pH. This fraction exhibited several ER-like characteristics. When plasma membranes isolated from transgenic Arabidopsis expressing green fluorescent protein in the ER lumen were observed by confocal microscopy, membranes of ER origin were associated with the isolated plasma membranes. We conclude that a lysoPC acylation activity is associated with plant plasma membranes and cannot exclude a PC transacylase activity. It is highly plausible that the enzyme(s) resides in a fraction of the ER, closely associated with the plasma membrane, or in both. We suggest that

  15. LysoPC acyltransferase/PC transacylase activities in plant plasma membrane and plasma membrane-associated endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Karin E; Kjellberg, J Magnus; Tjellström, Henrik; Sandelius, Anna Stina

    2007-01-01

    Background The phospholipids of the plant plasma membrane are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The majority of these lipids reach the plasma membrane independently of the secretory vesicular pathway. Phospholipid delivery to the mitochondria and chloroplasts of plant cells also bypasses the secretory pathway and here it has been proposed that lysophospholipids are transported at contact sites between specific regions of the ER and the respective organelle, followed by lysophospholipid acylation in the target organelle. To test the hypothesis that a corresponding mechanism operates to transport phospholipids to the plasma membrane outside the secretory pathway, we investigated whether lysolipid acylation occurs also in the plant plasma membrane and whether this membrane, like the chloroplasts and mitochondria, is in close contact with the ER. Results The plant plasma membrane readily incorporated the acyl chain of acyl-CoA into phospholipids. Oleic acid was preferred over palmitic acid as substrate and acyl incorporation occurred predominantly into phosphatidylcholine (PC). Phospholipase A2 stimulated the reaction, as did exogenous lysoPC when administered in above critical micellar concentrations. AgNO3 was inhibitory. The lysophospholipid acylation reaction was higher in a membrane fraction that could be washed off the isolated plasma membranes after repeated freezing and thawing cycles in a medium with lowered pH. This fraction exhibited several ER-like characteristics. When plasma membranes isolated from transgenic Arabidopsis expressing green fluorescent protein in the ER lumen were observed by confocal microscopy, membranes of ER origin were associated with the isolated plasma membranes. Conclusion We conclude that a lysoPC acylation activity is associated with plant plasma membranes and cannot exclude a PC transacylase activity. It is highly plausible that the enzyme(s) resides in a fraction of the ER, closely associated with the plasma membrane

  16. PDGF receptors are activated in human epiretinal membranes.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jing; Lei, Hetian; Samad, Arif; Basavanthappa, Sreenivasa; Maberley, David; Matsubara, Joanne; Kazlauskas, Andrius

    2009-03-01

    Previous investigators reported that epiretinal membranes isolated from patients with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) express various platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) family members and PDGF receptors (PDGFRs) (Cui, J.Z., Chiu, A., Maberley, D., Ma, P., Samad, A., Matsubara, J.A., 2007. Stage specificity of novel growth factor expression during development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Eye 21, 200-208; Robbins, S.G., Mixon, R.N., Wilson, D.J., Hart, C.E., Robertson, J.E., Westra, I., Planck, S.R., Rosenbaum, J.T., 1994. Platelet-derived growth factor ligands and receptors immunolocalized in proliferative retinal diseases. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35(10), 3649-3663). Co-expression of ligand and receptor raises the possibility of an autocrine loop, which could be of importance in the pathogenesis of PVR. To begin to address this issue we determined whether the PDGFRs in epiretinal membranes isolated from PVR patient donors were activated. Indeed, immunohistochemical staining (using pan- and phospho-PDGFR antibodies) revealed that both PDGFR subunits were activated. Quantification of these data demonstrated that a greater percentage of cells expressed the PDGFR alpha subunit as compared with the beta subunit (44 +/- 13% versus 32 +/- 6.5%). Staining with phospho-PDGFR antibodies indicated that 36 +/- 10% of the PDGFR alpha subunits were activated, whereas only 16 +/- 5.5% of the PDGFR beta subunits were activated. Thus, a 2.25 fold greater percentage of the PDGFR alpha subunits was activated. Co-staining with diagnostic cell-type antibodies indicated that both retinal pigment epithelial and glial cells expressed activated PDGFR alpha subunits. These findings support the recent discovery that PDGF-C is the major vitreal isoform because PDGF-C is 3 times more likely to activate a PDGFR alpha subunit as compared with a PDGFR beta subunit. We conclude that PDGFRs are activated in epiretinal membranes of patients with PVR, and that the profile of

  17. Membrane lipids regulate ganglioside GM2 catabolism and GM2 activator protein activity[S

    PubMed Central

    Anheuser, Susi; Breiden, Bernadette; Schwarzmann, Günter; Sandhoff, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    Ganglioside GM2 is the major lysosomal storage compound of Tay-Sachs disease. It also accumulates in Niemann-Pick disease types A and B with primary storage of SM and with cholesterol in type C. Reconstitution of GM2 catabolism with β-hexosaminidase A and GM2 activator protein (GM2AP) at uncharged liposomal surfaces carrying GM2 as substrate generated only a physiologically irrelevant catabolic rate, even at pH 4.2. However, incorporation of anionic phospholipids into the GM2 carrying liposomes stimulated GM2 hydrolysis more than 10-fold, while the incorporation of plasma membrane stabilizing lipids (SM and cholesterol) generated a strong inhibition of GM2 hydrolysis, even in the presence of anionic phospholipids. Mobilization of membrane lipids by GM2AP was also inhibited in the presence of cholesterol or SM, as revealed by surface plasmon resonance studies. These lipids also reduced the interliposomal transfer rate of 2-NBD-GM1 by GM2AP, as observed in assays using Förster resonance energy transfer. Our data raise major concerns about the usage of recombinant His-tagged GM2AP compared with untagged protein. The former binds more strongly to anionic GM2-carrying liposomal surfaces, increases GM2 hydrolysis, and accelerates intermembrane transfer of 2-NBD-GM1, but does not mobilize membrane lipids. PMID:26175473

  18. Induction of petite yeast mutants by membrane-active agents.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, J; Longo, E; Benítez, T

    1988-12-01

    Ethanol proved to be a strong mutagenic agent of Saccharomyces mitochondrial DNA. Other active membrane solvents, such as tert-butanol, isopropanol, and sodium dodecyl sulfate, also turned out to be powerful petite mutation [rho-] inducers. Mutants defective in ergosterol synthesis (erg mutants) showed an extremely high frequency of spontaneous petite cells, suggesting that mitochondrial membrane alterations that were caused either by changes in its composition, as in the erg mutants, or by the effects of organic solvents resulted in an increase in the proportion of petite mutants. Wine yeast strains were generally more tolerant to the mutagenic effects of alcohols on mitochondrial DNA and more sensitive to the effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate than laboratory strains. However, resistance to petite mutation formation in laboratory strains was increased by mitochondrial transfer from alcohol-tolerant wine yeasts. Hence, the stability of the [rho+] mitochondrial DNA in either the presence or absence of solvents depends in part on the nature of the mitochondrial DNA itself. The low frequency of petite mutants found in wine yeast-laboratory yeast hybrids and the fact that the high frequency of petite mutants of a particular wine spore segregated meiotically indicated that many nuclear genes also play an important role in the mitochondrial genome in both the presence and absence of membrane solvents.

  19. Induction of petite yeast mutants by membrane-active agents.

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, J; Longo, E; Benítez, T

    1988-01-01

    Ethanol proved to be a strong mutagenic agent of Saccharomyces mitochondrial DNA. Other active membrane solvents, such as tert-butanol, isopropanol, and sodium dodecyl sulfate, also turned out to be powerful petite mutation [rho-] inducers. Mutants defective in ergosterol synthesis (erg mutants) showed an extremely high frequency of spontaneous petite cells, suggesting that mitochondrial membrane alterations that were caused either by changes in its composition, as in the erg mutants, or by the effects of organic solvents resulted in an increase in the proportion of petite mutants. Wine yeast strains were generally more tolerant to the mutagenic effects of alcohols on mitochondrial DNA and more sensitive to the effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate than laboratory strains. However, resistance to petite mutation formation in laboratory strains was increased by mitochondrial transfer from alcohol-tolerant wine yeasts. Hence, the stability of the [rho+] mitochondrial DNA in either the presence or absence of solvents depends in part on the nature of the mitochondrial DNA itself. The low frequency of petite mutants found in wine yeast-laboratory yeast hybrids and the fact that the high frequency of petite mutants of a particular wine spore segregated meiotically indicated that many nuclear genes also play an important role in the mitochondrial genome in both the presence and absence of membrane solvents. PMID:3066293

  20. An activation-collision mechanism for cholesterol transfer between membranes.

    PubMed

    Steck, T L; Kezdy, F J; Lange, Y

    1988-09-15

    We report the results of experiments which show that cholesterol transfer between membranes cannot proceed by aqueous diffusion, as widely held, but must involve a more complex mechanism. (a) The rate of transfer of [3H]cholesterol from red blood cells was found to vary inversely with the size of the acceptor particle (ghosts, vesicles of ghosts, liposomes, and plasma lipoproteins). (b) The transfer of [3H]cholesterol from red blood cells to ghosts was accelerated by the presence of plasma, even though the plasma competed with the ghosts as an acceptor. (c) The rate of transfer of [3H]cholesterol from red blood cells to ghosts decreased to zero with increasing dilution but was not simply second-order. (d) The cholesterol in retinal rod disc membranes is not at equilibrium with plasma lipoproteins in that disc cholesterol increased when the homogenates were incubated in vitro with plasma. (e) The kinetics of cholesterol transfer cannot be limited by unstirred layer effects since the transfer of lysolecithin in the same system was faster than that of cholesterol by 3 orders of magnitude. The simplest model compatible with all the data suggests a two-step pathway involving a first-order followed by a second-order process. The first step could be a unimolecular activation event, perhaps the movement of the sterol in the donor particle to a more exposed (hydrated) position. In the second step, the activated sterol would be transferred during transient collisions between donor and acceptor particles. When collision is not rate-limiting, the overall process would appear to be simply first-order, hence kinetically indistinguishable from the aqueous diffusion mechanism. The activation-collision model thus not only rationalizes our data but is also consistent with the simpler kinetics previously reported for the transfer of both membrane phospholipids and sterols.

  1. Optically active polyelectrolyte multilayers as membranes for chiral separations.

    PubMed

    Rmaile, Hassan H; Schlenoff, Joseph B

    2003-06-04

    Ultrathin films of chiral polyelectrolyte complex, prepared by the multilayering process, exhibit selectivity in the membrane separations of optically active compounds, such as l- and d-ascorbic acid. The flux through these polyelectrolyte multilayers, PEMUs, is exceptionally high and may be controlled by the concentration of salt present in the permeating solutions. Both in-situ ATR-FTIR and chiral capillary electrochromatography indicate that flux selectivity is mainly kinetically controlled, stemming from a difference in diffusion rates of various enantiomers through PEMUs, rather than a difference in partitioning.

  2. Neuronal activity-dependent membrane traffic at the neuromuscular junction

    PubMed Central

    Miana-Mena, Francisco Javier; Roux, Sylvie; Benichou, Jean-Claude; Osta, Rosario; Brûlet, Philippe

    2002-01-01

    During development and also in adulthood, synaptic connections are modulated by neuronal activity. To follow such modifications in vivo, new genetic tools are designed. The nontoxic C-terminal fragment of tetanus toxin (TTC) fused to a reporter gene such as LacZ retains the retrograde and transsynaptic transport abilities of the holotoxin itself. In this work, the hybrid protein is injected intramuscularly to analyze in vivo the mechanisms of intracellular and transneuronal traffics at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Traffic on both sides of the synapse are strongly dependent on presynaptic neural cell activity. In muscle, a directional membrane traffic concentrates β-galactosidase-TTC hybrid protein into the NMJ postsynaptic side. In neurons, the probe is sorted across the cell to dendrites and subsequently to an interconnected neuron. Such fusion protein, sensitive to presynaptic neuronal activity, would be extremely useful to analyze morphological changes and plasticity at the NMJ. PMID:11880654

  3. Hydrodynamic collective effects of active proteins in biological membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyano, Yuki; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Mikhailov, Alexander S.

    2016-08-01

    Lipid bilayers forming biological membranes are known to behave as viscous two-dimensional fluids on submicrometer scales; usually they contain a large number of active protein inclusions. Recently, it was shown [A. S. Mikhailov and R. Kapral, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, E3639 (2015), 10.1073/pnas.1506825112] that such active proteins should induce nonthermal fluctuating lipid flows leading to diffusion enhancement and chemotaxislike drift for passive inclusions in biomembranes. Here, a detailed analytical and numerical investigation of such effects is performed. The attention is focused on the situations when proteins are concentrated within lipid rafts. We demonstrate that passive particles tend to become attracted by active rafts and are accumulated inside them.

  4. Influence of decavanadate on rat synaptic plasma membrane ATPases activity.

    PubMed

    Krstić, Danijela; Colović, Mirjana; Bosnjaković-Pavlović, Nada; Spasojević-De Bire, Anne; Vasić, Vesna

    2009-09-01

    The in vitro influence of decameric vanadate species on Na+/K+-ATPase, plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA)-calcium pump and ecto-ATPase activity, using rat synaptic plasma membrane (SPM) as model system was investigated, whereas the commercial porcine cerebral cortex Na+/K+-ATPase served as a reference. The thermal behaviour of the synthesized decavanadate (V10) has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis, while the type of polyvanadate anion was identified using the IR spectroscopy. The concentration-dependent responses to V10 of all enzymes were obtained. The half-maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the enzyme activity was achieved at (4.74 +/- 1.15) x 10(-7) mol/l for SPM Na+/K+-ATPase, (1.30 +/- 0.10) x 10(-6) mol/l for commercial Na+/K+-ATPase and (3.13 +/- 1.70) x 10(-8) mol/l for Ca2+-ATPase, while ecto-ATPase is significantly less sensitive toward V10 (IC50 = (1.05 +/- 0.10) x 10(-4) mol/l) than investigated P-type ATPases. Kinetic analysis showed that V10 inhibited Na+/K+-ATPase by reducing the maximum enzymatic velocity and apparent affinity for ATP (increasing K(m) value), implying a mixed mode of interaction between V10 and P-type ATPases.

  5. Large deformations of reconfigurable active membranes: a finite element model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Seyul; Goulbourne, N. C.

    2010-04-01

    element model. The active membrane is being investigated to simulate the deformation response of the plagiopatagium of bat wing skins for a micro-aerial vehicle.

  6. Effects of hydrostatic pressure on lipid bilayer membranes. I. Influence on membrane thickness and activation volumes of lipophilic ion transport.

    PubMed Central

    Benz, R; Conti, F

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of membrane capacitance, Cm, were performed on lipid bilayers of different lipidic composition (diphytanoyl phosphatidylcholine PPhPC, dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine DOPE, glycerylmonooleate GMO) and containing n-decane as solvent. In the same membranes, the absorption of the lipophilic ions dipicrylamine (DPA-) and tetraphenylborate (TPhB-), and the kinetics of their translocation between the two membrane faces have been studied. The data were obtained from charge pulse relaxation measurements. Upon increasing pressure the specific capacity Cm increased in a fully reversible and reproducible way reflecting a thinning of the membrane that is attributed to extrusion of n-decane from the black membrane area. High pressure decreased the rate constant, ki, for lipophilic ion translocation. After correcting for changes in the height of the energy barrier for translocation due to membrane thinning the pressure dependence of ki yields an apparent activation volume for translocation of approximately 14 cm3/mol both for DPA- and TPhB-. Changes in lipophilic ion absorption following a step of pressure developed with a rather slow time course due to diffusion limitations in solution. The stationary concentration of membrane absorbed lipophilic ions increased with pressure according to an apparent volume of absorption of about -10 cm3/mol. The relevance of the results for the interpretation of the effects of pressure on nerve membrane physiology is discussed. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:3730509

  7. Cassava root membrane proteome reveals activities during storage root maturation.

    PubMed

    Naconsie, Maliwan; Lertpanyasampatha, Manassawe; Viboonjun, Unchera; Netrphan, Supatcharee; Kuwano, Masayoshi; Ogasawara, Naotake; Narangajavana, Jarunya

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important crops of Thailand. Its storage roots are used as food, feed, starch production, and be the important source for biofuel and biodegradable plastic production. Despite the importance of cassava storage roots, little is known about the mechanisms involved in their formation. This present study has focused on comparison of the expression profiles of cassava root proteome at various developmental stages using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS. Based on an anatomical study using Toluidine Blue, the secondary growth was confirmed to be essential during the development of cassava storage root. To investigate biochemical processes occurring during storage root maturation, soluble and membrane proteins were isolated from storage roots harvested from 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month-old cassava plants. The proteins with differential expression pattern were analysed and identified to be associated with 8 functional groups: protein folding and degradation, energy, metabolism, secondary metabolism, stress response, transport facilitation, cytoskeleton, and unclassified function. The expression profiling of membrane proteins revealed the proteins involved in protein folding and degradation, energy, and cell structure were highly expressed during early stages of development. Integration of these data along with the information available in genome and transcriptome databases is critical to expand knowledge obtained solely from the field of proteomics. Possible role of identified proteins were discussed in relation with the activities during storage root maturation in cassava.

  8. Effect of lipid peroxidation on membrane-bound Ca2+-ATPase activity of the intestinal brush-border membranes.

    PubMed

    Ohta, A; Mohri, T; Ohyashiki, T

    1989-09-04

    We have studied lipid peroxidation and Ca2+-ATPase activity of the porcine intestinal brush-border membranes using a oxygen-radical-generating system consisting of dithiothreitol (DTT)/Fe2+ and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH). The rates of lipid peroxidation were measured by formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBAR) and conjugated diene. Incubation of the membranes with DTT/Fe2+ in the absence and presence of t-BuOOH resulted in a slight (about 20%) and a marked (about 50%) inhibition of Ca2+-ATPase activity, respectively. The degree of inhibition was dependent on the hydroperoxide concentration. Addition of thiourea effectively protected Ca2+-ATPase activity but catalase and superoxide dismutase showed a slight and no effect on protection of the ATPase activity, respectively. Results of kinetic studies on the ATPase activity with varying ATP and Ca2+ concentrations revealed that the decrease in the enzyme activity by treatment with these oxidizing agents is mainly due to decrease of the Vmax value. Modification of SH groups in the membrane proteins by thiol group reagents such as N-ethylmaleimide, monoiodoacetate and monoiodacetamide did not induce the inhibition of Ca2+-ATPase activity. From these results, it is suggested that inhibition of the ATPase activity of the membranes by treatment with DTT/Fe2+ in the presence and absence of t-BuOOH is dependent on lipid peroxidation and that oxidative modification of SH groups may not be directly involved to the loss of the ATPase activity. In addition, results of the fluorescence anisotropy measurements of pyrene-labeled membranes suggested that change in the Ca2+-ATPase activity is partly related to a decrease in the membrane lipid fluidity.

  9. Fusicoccin Binding to Its Plasma Membrane Receptor and the Activation of the Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    De Michelis, Maria Ida; Pugliarello, Maria Chiara; Rasi-Caldogno, Franca

    1989-01-01

    The characteristics of fusicoccin binding were investigated in microsomes from 24-h-old radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seedlings. The time course of fusicoccin binding depended on fusicoccin concentration: equilibrium was reached much faster at 10 nanomolar fusicoccin than at 0.3 nanomolar fusicoccin. Scatchard analysis of equilibrium binding as a function of fusicoccin concentration indicated a single class of receptor sites with a Kd of 1.8 nanomolar and a site density of 6.3 picomoles per milligram protein. Similar values (Kd 1.7 nanomolar and site density 7 picomoles per milligram protein) were obtained from the analysis of the dependence of equilibrium binding on membrane concentration at fixed fusicoccin concentrations. Fusicoccin binding comigrated with the plasma membrane H+-ATPase in an equilibrium sucrose density gradient: both activities formed a sharp peak (1.18 grams per milliliter) clearly distinct from that of markers of other membranes which all peaked at lower densities. The saturation profiles of fusicoccin binding and of fusicoccin-induced activation of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase, measured under identical conditions, were similar, supporting the view that fusicoccin-induced activation of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase is mediated by fusicoccin binding to its plasma membrane receptor. PMID:16666723

  10. Red wine activates plasma membrane redox system in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Tedesco, Idolo; Moccia, Stefania; Volpe, Silvestro; Alfieri, Giovanna; Strollo, Daniela; Bilotto, Stefania; Spagnuolo, Carmela; Di Renzo, Massimo; Aquino, Rita P; Russo, Gian Luigi

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we report that polyphenols present in red wine obtained by a controlled microvinification process are able to protect human erythrocytes from oxidative stress and to activate Plasma Membrane Redox System (PMRS). Human plasma obtained from healthy subjects was incubated in the presence of whole red wine at a concentration corresponding to 9.13-73 μg/ml gallic acid equivalents to verify the capacity to protect against hypochlorous acid (HOCl)-induced plasma oxidation and to minimize chloramine formation. Red wine reduced hemolysis and chloramine formation induced by HOCl of 40 and 35%, respectively. PMRS present on human erythrocytes transfers electrons from intracellular molecules to extracellular electron acceptors. We demonstrated that whole red wine activated PMRS activity in human erythrocytes isolated from donors in a dose-dependent manner with a maximum at about 70-100 μg/ml gallic acid equivalents. We also showed that red wine increased glutathione (GSH) levels and erythrocytic antioxidant capacity, measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) quenching assay. Furthermore, we reported that GSH played a crucial role in regulating PMRS activity in erythrocytes. In fact, the effect of iodoacetamide, an alkylating agent that induces depletion of intracellular GSH, was completely counteracted by red wine. Bioactive compounds present in red wine, such as gallic acid, resveratrol, catechin, and quercetin were unable to activate PMRS when tested at the concentrations normally present in aged red wines. On the contrary, the increase of PMRS activity was associated with the anthocyanin fraction, suggesting the capacity of this class of compounds to positively modulate PMRS enzymatic activity.

  11. Outer membrane vesicle: a macromolecule with multifunctional activity.

    PubMed

    Moshiri, Arfa; Dashtbani-Roozbehani, Abolfazl; Najar Peerayeh, Shahin; Siadat, Seyed Davar

    2012-07-01

    Nowadays adjuvants are extensively used as immuno-stimulatory and immuno-modulatory compounds as components of subunit and combination vaccine formulations. The adjuvants of microbial origin are more frequently used among currently used licensed or experimental adjuvants. The outer membrane vesicle (OMV) of Neisseria meningitidis is among the newly studied components of microbial origin, which could be applied as an adjuvant. Although the potency of OMV as a carrier (conjugated to a hapten) is now proven, the adjuvant properties of OMV have particular significance as a potential target for protective immunity. Since it has immune-stimulatory activity, OMV has been utilized in vaccine development. This commentary reviews the different applications of OMV as potential adjuvant in the field of vaccine development.

  12. Functional, photochemically active, and chemically asymmetric membranes by interfacial polymerization of derivatized multifunctional prepolymers

    DOEpatents

    Lonsdale, Harold K.; Wamser, Carl C.

    1990-01-01

    The preparation of a novel class of thin film membranes by interfacial polymerization is disclosed, said membranes incorporating as part of their polymeric structure the functionality of monomeric or oligomeric precursors. Specific embodiments include porphyrin and phthalocyanine derivatives that are photochemically or electrochemically active, as well as chemically asymmetric membranes.

  13. Functional, photochemically active, and chemically asymmetric membranes by interfacial polymerization of derivatized multifunctional prepolymers

    DOEpatents

    Lonsdale, H.K.; Wamser, C.C.

    1990-04-17

    The preparation of a novel class of thin film membranes by interfacial polymerization is disclosed, said membranes incorporating as part of their polymeric structure the functionality of monomeric or oligomeric precursors. Specific embodiments include porphyrin and phthalocyanine derivatives that are photochemically or electrochemically active, as well as chemically asymmetric membranes.

  14. Conformal Nitrogen-Doped TiO2 Photocatalytic Coatings for Sunlight-Activated Membranes

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Anna; Libera, Joseph A.; Waldman, Ruben Z.; ...

    2017-01-24

    Photocatalytic degradation of organic contaminants is enticing for addressing challenging, nontraditional water sources. A novel nitrogen-doping method is utilized to grow conformal titania coatings with visible-light activity on porous membranes. Here, the resulting membranes exhibit effective degradation of model organic species in simulated sunlight while at the same time requiring substantially lower transmembrane pressure than undoped membranes.

  15. Phosphatidic acid phosphatase and phospholipdase A activities in plasma membranes from fusing muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Kent, C; Vagelos, P R

    1976-06-17

    Plasma membrane from fusing embryonic muscle cells were assayed for phospholipase A activity to determine if this enzyme plays a role in cell fusion. The membranes were assayed under a variety of conditions with phosphatidylcholine as the substrate and no phospholipase A activity was found. The plasma membranes did contain a phosphatidic acid phosphatase which was optimally active in the presence of Triton X-100 and glycerol. The enzyme activity was constant from pH 5.2 to 7.0, and did not require divalent cations. Over 97% of the phosphatidic acid phosphatase activity was in the particulate fraction. The subcellular distribution of the phosphatidic acid phosphatase was the same as the distributions of the plasma membrane markers, (Na+ + k+)-ATPase and the acetylcholine receptor, which indicates that this phosphatase is located exclusively in the plasma membranes. There was no detectable difference in the phosphatidic acid phosphatase activities of plasma membranes from fusing and non-fusing cells.

  16. The DART Cylindrical, Infrared, 1 Meter Membrane Reflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Rhonda M.; Agnes, Greg S.; Barber, Dan; Dooley, Jennifer; Dragovan, Mark; Hatheway, Al E.; Marcin, Marty

    2004-01-01

    The Dual Anamorphic Reflector Telescopes (DART) is an architecture for large aperture space telescopes that enables the use of membranes. A membrane can be readily shaped in one direction of curvature using a combination of boundary control and tensioning, yielding a cylindrical reflector. Two cylindrical reflectors (orthogonal and confocal) comprise the 'primary mirror' of the telescope system. The aperture is completely unobstructed and ideal for infrared and high contrast observations.

  17. The DART Cylindrical, Infrared, 1 Meter Membrane Reflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Rhonda M.; Agnes, Greg S.; Barber, Dan; Dooley, Jennifer; Dragovan, Mark; Hatheway, Al E.; Marcin, Marty

    2004-01-01

    The Dual Anamorphic Reflector Telescopes (DART) is an architecture for large aperture space telescopes that enables the use of membranes. A membrane can be readily shaped in one direction of curvature using a combination of boundary control and tensioning, yielding a cylindrical reflector. Two cylindrical reflectors (orthogonal and confocal) comprise the 'primary mirror' of the telescope system. The aperture is completely unobstructed and ideal for infrared and high contrast observations.

  18. Activation of TRPV1 channels inhibits mechanosensitive Piezo channel activity by depleting membrane phosphoinositides.

    PubMed

    Borbiro, Istvan; Badheka, Doreen; Rohacs, Tibor

    2015-02-10

    Capsaicin is an activator of the heat-sensitive TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1) ion channels and has been used as a local analgesic. We found that activation of TRPV1 channels with capsaicin either in dorsal root ganglion neurons or in a heterologous expression system inhibited the mechanosensitive Piezo1 and Piezo2 channels by depleting phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] and its precursor phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PI(4)P] from the plasma membrane through Ca(2+)-induced phospholipase Cδ (PLCδ) activation. Experiments with chemically inducible phosphoinositide phosphatases and receptor-induced activation of PLCβ indicated that inhibition of Piezo channels required depletion of both PI(4)P and PI(4,5)P2. The mechanically activated current amplitudes decreased substantially in the excised inside-out configuration, where the membrane patch containing Piezo1 channels is removed from the cell. PI(4,5)P2 and PI(4)P applied to these excised patches inhibited this decrease. Thus, we concluded that Piezo channel activity requires the presence of phosphoinositides, and the combined depletion of PI(4,5)P2 and PI(4)P reduces channel activity. In addition to revealing a role for distinct membrane lipids in mechanosensitive ion channel regulation, these data suggest that inhibition of Piezo2 channels may contribute to the analgesic effect of capsaicin. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Activation of TRPV1 channels inhibits mechanosensitive Piezo channel activity by depleting membrane phosphoinositides

    PubMed Central

    Borbiro, Istvan; Badheka, Doreen; Rohacs, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    Capsaicin is an activator of the heat-sensitive TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1) ion channels and has been used as a local analgesic. We found that activation of TRPV1 channels with capsaicin either in dorsal root ganglion neurons or in a heterologous expression system inhibited the mechanosensitive Piezo1 and Piezo2 channels by depleting phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] and its precursor PI(4)P from the plasma membrane through Ca2+-induced phospholipase Cδ (PLCδ) activation. Experiments with chemically inducible phosphoinositide phosphatases and receptor-induced activation of PLCβ indicated that inhibition of Piezo channels required depletion of both PI(4)P and PI(4,5)P2. The mechanically activated current amplitudes decreased substantially in the excised inside-out configuration, where the membrane patch containing Piezo1 channels is removed from the cell. PI(4,5)P2 and PI(4)P applied to these excised patches inhibited this decrease. Thus, we concluded that Piezo channel activity requires the presence of phosphoinositides, and the combined depletion of PI(4,5)P2 or PI(4)P reduces channel activity. In addition to revealing a role for distinct membrane lipids in mechanosensitive ion channel regulation, these data suggest that inhibition of Piezo2 channels may contribute to the analgesic effect of capsaicin. PMID:25670203

  20. Pneumolysin activates macrophage lysosomal membrane permeabilization and executes apoptosis by distinct mechanisms without membrane pore formation.

    PubMed

    Bewley, Martin A; Naughton, Michael; Preston, Julie; Mitchell, Andrea; Holmes, Ashleigh; Marriott, Helen M; Read, Robert C; Mitchell, Timothy J; Whyte, Moira K B; Dockrell, David H

    2014-10-07

    Intracellular killing of Streptococcus pneumoniae is complemented by induction of macrophage apoptosis. Here, we show that the toxin pneumolysin (PLY) contributes both to lysosomal/phagolysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP), an upstream event programing susceptibility to apoptosis, and to apoptosis execution via a mitochondrial pathway, through distinct mechanisms. PLY is necessary but not sufficient for the maximal induction of LMP and apoptosis. PLY's ability to induce both LMP and apoptosis is independent of its ability to form cytolytic pores and requires only the first three domains of PLY. LMP involves TLR (Toll-like receptor) but not NLRP3/ASC (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain [Nod]-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing protein 3/apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain) signaling and is part of a PLY-dependent but phagocytosis-independent host response that includes the production of cytokines, including interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β). LMP involves progressive and selective permeability to 40-kDa but not to 250-kDa fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled dextran, as PLY accumulates in the cytoplasm. In contrast, the PLY-dependent execution of apoptosis requires phagocytosis and is part of a host response to intracellular bacteria that also includes NO generation. In cells challenged with PLY-deficient bacteria, reconstitution of LMP using the lysomotrophic detergent LeuLeuOMe favored cell necrosis whereas PLY reconstituted apoptosis. The results suggest that PLY contributes to macrophage activation and cytokine production but also engages LMP. Following bacterial phagocytosis, PLY triggers apoptosis and prevents macrophage necrosis as a component of a broad-based antimicrobial strategy. This illustrates how a key virulence factor can become the focus of a multilayered and coordinated innate response by macrophages, optimizing pathogen clearance and limiting inflammation. Importance: Streptococcus

  1. LPS-Induced Macrophage Activation and Plasma Membrane Fluidity Changes are Inhibited Under Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    de la Haba, Carlos; Morros, Antoni; Martínez, Paz; Palacio, José R

    2016-12-01

    Macrophage activation is essential for a correct and efficient response of innate immunity. During oxidative stress membrane receptors and/or membrane lipid dynamics can be altered, leading to dysfunctional cell responses. Our aim is to analyze membrane fluidity modifications and cell function under oxidative stress in LPS-activated macrophages. Membrane fluidity of individual living THP-1 macrophages was evaluated by the technique two-photon microscopy. LPS-activated macrophage function was determined by TNFα secretion. It was shown that LPS activation causes fluidification of macrophage plasma membrane and production of TNFα. However, oxidative stress induces rigidification of macrophage plasma membrane and inhibition of cell activation, which is evidenced by a decrease of TNFα secretion. Thus, under oxidative conditions macrophage proinflammatory response might develop in an inefficient manner.

  2. Carbonic anhydrase activity in Arabidopsis thaliana thylakoid membrane and fragments enriched with PSI or PSII.

    PubMed

    Ignatova, Lyudmila K; Rudenko, Natalia N; Mudrik, Vilen A; Fedorchuk, Tat'yana P; Ivanov, Boris N

    2011-12-01

    The procedure of isolating the thylakoids and the thylakoid membrane fragments enriched with either photosystem I or photosystem II (PSI- and PSII-membranes) from Arabidopsis thaliana leaves was developed. It differed from the one used with pea and spinach in durations of detergent treatment and centrifugation, and in concentrations of detergent and Mg(2+) in the media. Both the thylakoid and the fragments preserved carbonic anhydrase (CA) activities. Using nondenaturing electrophoresis followed by detection of CA activity in the gel stained with bromo thymol blue, one low molecular mass carrier of CA activity was found in the PSI-membranes, and two carriers, a low molecular mass one and a high molecular mass one, were found in the PSII-membranes. The proteins in the PSII-membranes differed in their sensitivity to acetazolamide (AA), a specific CA inhibitor. AA at 5 × 10(-7) M inhibited the CA activity of the high molecular mass protein but stimulated the activity of the low molecular mass carrier in the PSII-membranes. At the same concentration, AA moderately inhibited, by 30%, the CA activity of PSI-membranes. CA activity of the PSII-membranes was almost completely suppressed by the lipophilic CA inhibitor, ethoxyzolamide at 10(-9) M, whereas CA activity of the PSI-membranes was inhibited by this inhibitor even at 5 × 10(-7) M just the same as for AA. The observed distribution of CA activity in the thylakoid membranes from A. thaliana was close to the one found in the membranes of pea, evidencing the general pattern of CA activity in the thylakoid membranes of C3-plants.

  3. Efficient Multiple Object Tracking Using Mutually Repulsive Active Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yi; Coen, Philip; Sun, Mingzhai; Shaevitz, Joshua W.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of social and group behavior in interacting organisms require high-throughput analysis of the motion of a large number of individual subjects. Computer vision techniques offer solutions to specific tracking problems, and allow automated and efficient tracking with minimal human intervention. In this work, we adopt the open active contour model to track the trajectories of moving objects at high density. We add repulsive interactions between open contours to the original model, treat the trajectories as an extrusion in the temporal dimension, and show applications to two tracking problems. The walking behavior of Drosophila is studied at different population density and gender composition. We demonstrate that individual male flies have distinct walking signatures, and that the social interaction between flies in a mixed gender arena is gender specific. We also apply our model to studies of trajectories of gliding Myxococcus xanthus bacteria at high density. We examine the individual gliding behavioral statistics in terms of the gliding speed distribution. Using these two examples at very distinctive spatial scales, we illustrate the use of our algorithm on tracking both short rigid bodies (Drosophila) and long flexible objects (Myxococcus xanthus). Our repulsive active membrane model reaches error rates better than per fly per second for Drosophila tracking and comparable results for Myxococcus xanthus. PMID:23799046

  4. Enzymatically active high-flux selectively gas-permeable membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Ying-Bing; Cecchi, Joseph L.; Rempe, Susan; FU, Yaqin; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2016-01-26

    An ultra-thin, catalyzed liquid transport medium-based membrane structure fabricated with a porous supporting substrate may be used for separating an object species such as a carbon dioxide object species. Carbon dioxide flux through this membrane structures may be several orders of magnitude higher than traditional polymer membranes with a high selectivity to carbon dioxide. Other gases such as molecular oxygen, molecular hydrogen, and other species including non-gaseous species, for example ionic materials, may be separated using variations to the membrane discussed.

  5. Activation of a heat-stable cytolytic protein associated with the surface membrane of Naegleria fowleri.

    PubMed Central

    Lowrey, D M; McLaughlin, J

    1985-01-01

    Surface membrane-enriched fractions of Naegleria fowleri obtained after isopycnic centrifugation experiments contain a potent cytolytic activity as determined by hemolysis and 51Cr release assays. This surface membrane cytolysin was unaffected by a treatment at 75 degrees C for 30 min and accounted for 70 to 90% of cytolysis by whole-cell lysates of amoebae. This heat resistance as well as intimate membrane association distinguished the surface membrane cytolytic activity from a second heat-labile cytolytic activity which appears to be latent within lysosomes. The surface membrane cytolysin was found to be specifically activated by diluted samples of lysosomal fractions. The possible role of this surface membrane cytotoxin in the pathogenicity of N. fowleri is discussed. PMID:4055029

  6. Large-aperture fast multilevel Fresnel zone lenses in glass and ultrathin polymer films for visible and near-infrared imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Britten, Jerald A; Dixit, Shamusundar N; DeBruyckere, Michael; Steadfast, Daniel; Hackett, James; Farmer, Brandon; Poe, Garrett; Patrick, Brian; Atcheson, Paul D; Domber, Jeanette L; Seltzer, Aaron

    2014-04-10

    The ability to fabricate 4-level diffractive structures with 1 µm critical dimensions has been demonstrated for the creation of fast (∼f/3.1 at 633 nm) Fresnel zone lenses (FZLs) with >60% diffraction efficiency into the -1 focusing order and nearly complete suppression of 0 and +1 orders. This is done using tooling capable of producing optics with 800 mm apertures. A 4-level grating fabricated in glass at 300 mm aperture is shown to have <15  nm rms holographic phase error. Glass FZLs have also been used as mandrels for casting zero-thermal-expansion, 20 µm thick polymer films created with the 4-level structure as a route to mass replication of efficient diffractive membranes for ultralight segmented space-based telescope applications.

  7. Membrane-associated forms of peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase activity in rat pituitary. Tissue specificity.

    PubMed

    May, V; Cullen, E I; Braas, K M; Eipper, B A

    1988-06-05

    Membrane-associated peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) activity was investigated in rat anterior and neurointermediate pituitary tissues and in pituitary AtT-20/D-16v and GH3 cell lines. A substantial fraction of total pituitary PAM activity was found to be membrane-associated. Triton X-100, N-octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and Zwittergent were effective in solubilizing PAM activity from crude pituitary membranes. The distribution of enzyme activity between soluble and membrane-associated forms was tissue-specific. In the anterior pituitary lobe and pituitary cell lines, 40-60% of total PAM activity was membrane-associated while only 10% of the alpha-amidating activity in the neurointermediate lobe was membrane-associated. Soluble and membrane-associated forms of PAM shared nearly identical characteristics with respect to copper and ascorbate requirements, pH optima, and Km values. Upon subcellular fractionation of anterior and neurointermediate pituitary lobe homogenates on Percoll gradients, 12-18% of total PAM activity was found in the rough endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi fractions and 42-60% was localized to secretory granule fractions. For both tissues, membrane-associated PAM activity was enriched in the rough endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi pool, whereas most of the secretory granule-associated enzyme activity was soluble.

  8. Detergent disruption of bacterial inner membranes and recovery of protein translocation activity

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, K.; Wickner, W.T. )

    1989-11-01

    Isolation of the integral membrane components of protein translocation requires methods for fractionation and functional reconstitution. The authors treated inner-membrane vesicles of Escherichia coli with mixtures of octyl {beta}-D-glucoside, phospholipids, and an integral membrane carrier protein under conditions that extract most of the membrane proteins into micellar solution. Upon dialysis, proteoliposomes were reconstituted that supported translocation of radiochemically pure ({sup 35}S)pro-OmpA (the precursor of outer membrane protein A). Translocation into these proteoliposomes required ATP hydrolysis and membrane proteins, indicating that the reaction is that of the inner membrane. The suspension of membranes in detergent was separated into supernatant and pellet fractions by ultracentrifugation. After reconstitution, translocation activity was observed in both fractions, but processing by leader peptidase of translocated pro-OmpA to OmpA was not detectable in the reconstituted pellet fraction. Processing activity was restored by addition of pure leader peptidase as long as this enzyme was added before detergent removal, indicating that the translocation activity is not associated with detergent-resistant membrane vesicles. These results show that protein translocation activity can be recovered from detergent-disrupted membrane vesicles, providing a first step towards the goal of isolating the solubilized components.

  9. Salt stress in a membrane bioreactor: dynamics of sludge properties, membrane fouling and remediation through powdered activated carbon dosing.

    PubMed

    De Temmerman, L; Maere, T; Temmink, H; Zwijnenburg, A; Nopens, I

    2014-10-15

    Membrane bioreactors are a well-established technology for wastewater treatment. However, their efficiency is adversely impacted by membrane fouling, primarily inciting very conservative operations of installations that makes them less appealing from an economic perspective. This fouling propensity of the activated sludge is closely related to system disturbances. Therefore, improved insight into the impact of fouling is crucial towards increased membrane performance. In this work, the disturbance of a salt shock was investigated with respect to sludge composition and filterability in two parallel lab-scale membrane bioreactors. Several key sludge parameters (soluble microbial products, sludge-bound extracellular polymeric substances, supramicron particle size distributions (PSD), submicron particle concentrations) were intensively monitored prior to, during, and after a disturbance to investigate its impact as well as the potential governing mechanism. Upon salt addition, the supramicron PSD immediately shifted to smaller floc sizes, and the total fouling rate increased. Following a certain delay, an increase in submicron particles, supernatant proteins, and polysaccharides was observed as well as an increase in the irreversible membrane fouling rate. Recovery from the disturbance was evidenced with a simultaneous decrease in the above mentioned quantities. A similar experiment introducing powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition used for remediation resulted in either no or less significant changes in the above mentioned quantities, signifying its potential as a mitigation strategy.

  10. Circulating polymerase chain reaction chips utilizing multiple-membrane activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chih-Hao; Chen, Yi-Yu; Liao, Chia-Sheng; Hsieh, Tsung-Min; Luo, Ching-Hsing; Wu, Jiunn-Jong; Lee, Huei-Huang; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2007-02-01

    This paper reports a new micromachined, circulating, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chip for nucleic acid amplification. The PCR chip is comprised of a microthermal control module and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based microfluidic control module. The microthermal control modules are formed with three individual heating and temperature-sensing sections, each modulating a specific set temperature for denaturation, annealing and extension processes, respectively. Micro-pneumatic valves and multiple-membrane activations are used to form the microfluidic control module to transport sample fluids through three reaction regions. Compared with other PCR chips, the new chip is more compact in size, requires less time for heating and cooling processes, and has the capability to randomly adjust time ratios and cycle numbers depending on the PCR process. Experimental results showed that detection genes for two pathogens, Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes, 777 bps) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae, 273 bps), can be successfully amplified using the new circulating PCR chip. The minimum number of thermal cycles to amplify the DNA-based S. pyogenes for slab gel electrophoresis is 20 cycles with an initial concentration of 42.5 pg µl-1. Experimental data also revealed that a high reproducibility up to 98% could be achieved if the initial template concentration of the S. pyogenes was higher than 4 pg µl-1. The preliminary results of the current paper were presented at the 19th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE MEMS 2006), Istanbul, Turkey, 22-26 January, 2006.

  11. Myomaker: A membrane activator of myoblast fusion and muscle formation

    PubMed Central

    Millay, Douglas P.; O’Rourke, Jason R.; Sutherland, Lillian B.; Bezprozvannaya, Svetlana; Shelton, John M.; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Olson, Eric N.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Fusion of myoblasts is essential for the formation of multi-nucleated muscle fibers. However, the identity of myogenic proteins that directly govern this fusion process has remained elusive. Here, we discovered a muscle-specific membrane protein, named Myomaker, that controls myoblast fusion. Myomaker is expressed on the cell surface of myoblasts during fusion and is down-regulated thereafter. Over-expression of Myomaker in myoblasts dramatically enhances fusion and genetic disruption of Myomaker in mice causes perinatal death due to an absence of multi-nucleated muscle fibers. Remarkably, forced expression of Myomaker in fibroblasts promotes fusion with myoblasts, demonstrating the direct participation of this protein in the fusion process. Pharmacologic perturbation of the actin cytoskeleton abolishes the activity of Myomaker, consistent with prior studies implicating actin dynamics in myoblast fusion. These findings reveal a long-sought myogenic fusion protein both necessary and sufficient for mammalian myoblast fusion and provide new insights into the molecular underpinnings of muscle formation. PMID:23868259

  12. Oxygen activation at the plasma membrane: relation between superoxide and hydroxyl radical production by isolated membranes.

    PubMed

    Heyno, Eiri; Mary, Véronique; Schopfer, Peter; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja

    2011-07-01

    Production of reactive oxygen species (hydroxyl radicals, superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide) was studied using EPR spin-trapping techniques and specific dyes in isolated plasma membranes from the growing and the non-growing zones of hypocotyls and roots of etiolated soybean seedlings as well as coleoptiles and roots of etiolated maize seedlings. NAD(P)H mediated the production of superoxide in all plasma membrane samples. Hydroxyl radicals were only produced by the membranes of the hypocotyl growing zone when a Fenton catalyst (FeEDTA) was present. By contrast, in membranes from other parts of the seedlings a low rate of spontaneous hydroxyl radical formation was observed due to the presence of small amounts of tightly bound peroxidase. It is concluded that apoplastic hydroxyl radical generation depends fully, or for the most part, on peroxidase localized in the cell wall. In soybean plasma membranes from the growing zone of the hypocotyl pharmacological tests showed that the superoxide production could potentially be attributed to the action of at least two enzymes, an NADPH oxidase and, in the presence of menadione, a quinone reductase.

  13. [The effect of limiting neuronal energy metabolism on the level of impulse activity and membrane potentials].

    PubMed

    Voronova, N V; Chumachenko, A A

    1989-01-01

    The changes of the membrane potential and the frequency of impulse activity of the crayfish stretch receptor neuron have been studied under condition of energy supply deficiency. The energetic metabolism inhibitors have been found not to exert a significant effect on the membrane potential. The activity of the glycolysis process and the Krebs cycle have different effect on the sensitivity of the generating mechanism.

  14. Effect of membranes with various hydrophobic/hydrophilic properties on lipase immobilized activity and stability.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guan-Jie; Kuo, Chia-Hung; Chen, Chih-I; Yu, Chung-Cheng; Shieh, Chwen-Jen; Liu, Yung-Chuan

    2012-02-01

    In this study, three membranes: regenerated cellulose (RC), glass fiber (GF) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), were grafted with 1,4-diaminobutane (DA) and activated with glutaraldehyde (GA) for lipase covalent immobilization. The efficiencies of lipases immobilized on these membranes with different hydrophobic/hydrophilic properties were compared. The lipase immobilized on hydrophobic PVDF-DA-GA membrane exhibited more than an 11-fold increase in activity compared to its immobilization on a hydrophilic RC-DA-GA membrane. The relationship between surface hydrophobicity and immobilized efficiencies was investigated using hydrophobic/hydrophilic GF membranes which were prepared by grafting a different ratio of n-butylamine/1,4-diaminobutane (BA/DA). The immobilized lipase activity on the GF membrane increased with the increased BA/DA ratio. This means that lipase activity was exhibited more on the hydrophobic surface. Moreover, the modified PVDF-DA membrane was grafted with GA, epichlorohydrin (EPI) and cyanuric chloride (CC), respectively. The lipase immobilized on the PVDF-DA-EPI membrane displayed the highest specific activity compared to other membranes. This immobilized lipase exhibited more significant stability on pH, thermal, reuse, and storage than did the free enzyme. The results exhibited that the EPI modified PVDF is a promising support for lipase immobilization. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Active versus Passive Hard Disks against a Membrane: Mechanical Pressure and Instability.

    PubMed

    Junot, G; Briand, G; Ledesma-Alonso, R; Dauchot, O

    2017-07-14

    We experimentally study the mechanical pressure exerted by a set of respectively passive isotropic and self-propelled polar disks onto two different flexible unidimensional membranes. In the case of the isotropic disks, the mechanical pressure, inferred from the shape of the membrane, is identical for both membranes and follows the equilibrium equation of state for hard disks. On the contrary, for the self-propelled disks, the mechanical pressure strongly depends on the membrane in use and thus is not a state variable. When self-propelled disks are present on both sides of the membrane, we observe an instability of the membrane akin to the one predicted theoretically for active Brownian particles against a soft wall. In that case, the integrated mechanical pressure difference across the membrane cannot be computed from the sole knowledge of the packing fractions on both sides, further evidence of the absence of an equation of state.

  16. Active versus Passive Hard Disks against a Membrane: Mechanical Pressure and Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junot, G.; Briand, G.; Ledesma-Alonso, R.; Dauchot, O.

    2017-07-01

    We experimentally study the mechanical pressure exerted by a set of respectively passive isotropic and self-propelled polar disks onto two different flexible unidimensional membranes. In the case of the isotropic disks, the mechanical pressure, inferred from the shape of the membrane, is identical for both membranes and follows the equilibrium equation of state for hard disks. On the contrary, for the self-propelled disks, the mechanical pressure strongly depends on the membrane in use and thus is not a state variable. When self-propelled disks are present on both sides of the membrane, we observe an instability of the membrane akin to the one predicted theoretically for active Brownian particles against a soft wall. In that case, the integrated mechanical pressure difference across the membrane cannot be computed from the sole knowledge of the packing fractions on both sides, further evidence of the absence of an equation of state.

  17. Electrospun nanofiber membranes for electrically activated shape memory nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fenghua; Zhang, Zhichun; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2014-06-01

    A novel shape memory nanocomposite system, consisting of a thermoplastic Nafion polymer and ultrathin electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbonization nanofiber membranes, is successfully synthesized. PAN-based carbonization nanofiber networks that offer responses to deformations are considered to be an excellent actuation source. Significant improvement in the electrical conductivity of carbon nanofiber membranes is found by adjusting the applied voltage power in the electrospinning PAN process varying from 7.85 to 12.30 S cm-1. The porous structure of the carbon nanofiber membranes provides a large specific surface area and interfacial contact area when combined with the polymer matrix. Shape memory Nafion nanocomposites filled with interpenetrating non-woven electrospun PAN carbonization membranes can be actuated by applying 14 V electrical voltage within 5 s. The results, as demonstrated through morphology, electrical and thermal measurements and a shape recovery test, suggest a valuable route to producing soft nanocomposites.

  18. Multiscale Mathematics for Nano-Particle-Endowed Active Membranes and Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-03

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0284 Multiscale Mathematics for Nano-Particle-Endowed Active Membranes and Films Qi Wang SOUTH CAROLINA RESEARCH FOUNDATION...01-05-2012 to 30-04-2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Multiscale Mathematics for Nano-Particle-Endowed Active Membranes and Films 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...systematic investigation on active liquid crystal flows and flowing polymer nano-composites including studies of nonlinear phenomenon in active magnetic

  19. Palmitoylation is required for membrane association of activated but not inactive invertebrate visual Gqalpha.

    PubMed

    Go, Lynle; Mitchell, Jane

    2003-08-01

    The invertebrate visual G protein, iGqalpha plays a central role in invertebrate phototransduction by relaying signals from rhodopsin to phospholipase C leading to membrane depolarization. Previous studies have shown reversible association of iGqalpha with rhabdomeric membranes regulated by light. To address the mechanism of membrane association we cloned iGqalpha from a Loligo pealei photoreceptor cDNA library and expressed it in HEK293T cells. Mutations were introduced to eliminate putative sites for palmitoylation at cysteines in positions 3 and 4. Membrane and soluble fractions were prepared from cells where iGqalpha was either activated or maintained in the GDP-bound form, followed by identification of iGqalpha through immunoblot analysis. The wild-type iGqalpha was entirely membrane-bound and shown to be post-translationally modified by palmitoylation. The mutant iGqalpha (C3,4A) was not palmitoylated yet it was found to be membrane-associated in the inactive state, however, approximately half of the protein became soluble when activated. These results suggest that palmitoylation is not required for membrane association of iGqalpha in the inactive state but is important in maintaining the stable membrane association of activated iGqalpha-GTP. The mechanism by which iGqalpha moves away from the membrane into the cytosol in response to prolonged light-stimulation in the native squid eye appears, therefore, to involve both activation and depalmitoylation processes.

  20. Quantification of Lysosomal Membrane Permeabilization by Cytosolic Cathepsin and β-N-Acetyl-Glucosaminidase Activity Measurements.

    PubMed

    Jäättelä, Marja; Nylandsted, Jesper

    2015-11-02

    Programmed cell death involving lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) is an alternative cell death pathway induced under various cellular conditions and by numerous cytotoxic stimuli. The method presented here to quantify LMP takes advantage of the detergent digitonin, which creates pores in cellular membranes by replacing cholesterol. The difference in cholesterol content between the plasma membrane (high) and lysosomal membrane (low) allows titration of digitonin to a concentration that permeabilizes the plasma membrane but leaves lysosomal membranes intact. The extent of LMP is determined by measuring the cytosolic activity of lysosomal hydrolases (e.g., cysteine cathepsins) and/or β-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase in the digitonin-extracted cytoplasm and comparing it to the total cellular enzyme activity. Digitonin extraction of the cytosol can be combined with precipitation of protein and/or western blot analysis for detection of lysosomal proteins (e.g., cathepsins).

  1. Thylakoid Membrane Maturation and PSII Activation Are Linked in Greening Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Barthel, Sandra; Bernát, Gábor; Seidel, Tobias; Rupprecht, Eva; Kahmann, Uwe; Schneider, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Thylakoid membranes are typical and essential features of both chloroplasts and cyanobacteria. While they are crucial for phototrophic growth of cyanobacterial cells, biogenesis of thylakoid membranes is not well understood yet. Dark-grown Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 cells contain only rudimentary thylakoid membranes but still a relatively high amount of phycobilisomes, inactive photosystem II and active photosystem I centers. After shifting dark-grown Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 cells into the light, “greening” of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 cells, i.e. thylakoid membrane formation and recovery of photosynthetic electron transport reactions, was monitored. Complete restoration of a typical thylakoid membrane system was observed within 24 hours after an initial lag phase of 6 to 8 hours. Furthermore, activation of photosystem II complexes and restoration of a functional photosynthetic electron transport chain appears to be linked to the biogenesis of organized thylakoid membrane pairs. PMID:23922268

  2. Thylakoid membrane maturation and PSII activation are linked in greening Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 cells.

    PubMed

    Barthel, Sandra; Bernát, Gábor; Seidel, Tobias; Rupprecht, Eva; Kahmann, Uwe; Schneider, Dirk

    2013-10-01

    Thylakoid membranes are typical and essential features of both chloroplasts and cyanobacteria. While they are crucial for phototrophic growth of cyanobacterial cells, biogenesis of thylakoid membranes is not well understood yet. Dark-grown Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 cells contain only rudimentary thylakoid membranes but still a relatively high amount of phycobilisomes, inactive photosystem II and active photosystem I centers. After shifting dark-grown Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 cells into the light, "greening" of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 cells, i.e. thylakoid membrane formation and recovery of photosynthetic electron transport reactions, was monitored. Complete restoration of a typical thylakoid membrane system was observed within 24 hours after an initial lag phase of 6 to 8 hours. Furthermore, activation of photosystem II complexes and restoration of a functional photosynthetic electron transport chain appears to be linked to the biogenesis of organized thylakoid membrane pairs.

  3. Alteration of membrane phospholipid methylation by adenosine analogs does not affect T lymphocyte activation

    SciTech Connect

    Gormand, F.; Pacheco, Y. ); Fonlupt, P. ); Revillard, J.P. )

    1990-01-01

    Membrane phospholipid methylation has been described during activation of various immune cells. Moreover recent data indicated modulation of immune cells functions by adenosine. As S-adenosyl-methionine and S-adenosyl-homocysteine are adenosine analogs and modulators of transmethylation reactions, the effects of SAH and SAM were investigated on membrane phospholipid methylation and lymphocyte activation. SAM was shown to induce the membrane phospholipid methylation as assessed by the {sup 3}Hmethyl-incorporation in membrane extract. This effect was inhibited by SAH. In contrast SAM and SAH did not affect the phytohemagglutinin-induced proliferative response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. SAH neither modified the early internalization of membrane CD3 antigens nor did it prevent the late expression of HLA-DR antigens on lymphocytes activated by phytohemagglutinin. These results indicate that in vitro alteration of phospholipid methylation does not affect subsequent steps of human T lymphocyte activation and proliferation.

  4. Visualization of Src activity at different compartments of the plasma membrane by FRET imaging

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Jihye; Lu, Shaoying; Ouyang, Mingxing; Huang, He; Zhang, Jin; Frame, Margaret C.; Wang, Yingxiao

    2009-01-01

    Summary Membrane compartments function as segregated signaling platforms for different cellular functions. It is not clear how Src is regulated at different membrane compartments. To visualize local Src activity in live cells, a FRET-based Src biosensor was targeted in or outside of lipid rafts at the plasma membrane, via acylation or prenylation modifications on targeting tags either directly fused to the biosensor or coupled to the biosensor through an inducible heterodimerization system. In response to growth factors and pervanadate, the induction of Src activity in rafts was slower and weaker, dependent on actin and possibly its mediated transportation of Src from perinuclear regions to the plasma membrane. In contrast, the induction of Src activity in non-rafts was faster and stronger, dependent on microtubules. Hence, the Src activity is differentially regulated via cytoskeleton at different membrane compartments. PMID:19171305

  5. Influence of the lipid membrane environment on structure and activity of the outer membrane protein Ail from Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yi; Fujimoto, L Miya; Yao, Yong; Plano, Gregory V; Marassi, Francesca M

    2015-02-01

    The surrounding environment has significant consequences for the structural and functional properties of membrane proteins. While native structure and function can be reconstituted in lipid bilayer membranes, the detergents used for protein solubilization are not always compatible with biological activity and, hence, not always appropriate for direct detection of ligand binding by NMR spectroscopy. Here we describe how the sample environment affects the activity of the outer membrane protein Ail (attachment invasion locus) from Yersinia pestis. Although Ail adopts the correct β-barrel fold in micelles, the high detergent concentrations required for NMR structural studies are not compatible with the ligand binding functionality of the protein. We also describe preparations of Ail embedded in phospholipid bilayer nanodiscs, optimized for NMR studies and ligand binding activity assays. Ail in nanodiscs is capable of binding its human ligand fibronectin and also yields high quality NMR spectra that reflect the proper fold. Binding activity assays, developed to be performed directly with the NMR samples, show that ligand binding involves the extracellular loops of Ail. The data show that even when detergent micelles support the protein fold, detergents can interfere with activity in subtle ways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of the lipid membrane environment on structure and activity of the outer membrane protein Ail from Yersinia pestis

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yi; Fujimoto, L. Miya; Yao, Yong; Plano, Gregory V.; Marassi, Francesca M.

    2014-01-01

    The surrounding environment has significant consequences for the structural and functional properties of membrane proteins. While native structure and function can be reconstituted in lipid bilayer membranes, the detergents used for protein solubilization are not always compatible with biological activity and, hence, not always appropriate for direct detection of ligand binding by NMR spectroscopy. Here we describe how the sample environment affects the activity of the outer membrane protein Ail (attachment invasion locus) from Yersinia pestis. Although Ail adopts the correct β-barrel fold in micelles, the high detergent concentrations required for NMR structural studies are not compatible with the ligand binding functionality of the protein. We also describe preparations of Ail embedded in phospholipid bilayer nanodiscs, optimized for NMR studies and ligand binding activity assays. Ail in nanodiscs is capable of binding its human ligand fibronectin and also yields high quality NMR spectra that reflect the proper fold. Binding activity assays, developed to be performed directly with the NMR samples, show that ligand binding involves the extracellular loops of Ail. The data show that even when detergent micelles support the protein fold, detergents can interfere with activity in subtle ways. PMID:25433311

  7. Actomyosin dynamics drive local membrane component organization in an in vitro active composite layer

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Kabir; Iljazi, Elda; Bhat, Abrar; Bieling, Peter; Mullins, R. Dyche; Rao, Madan; Mayor, Satyajit

    2016-01-01

    The surface of a living cell provides a platform for receptor signaling, protein sorting, transport, and endocytosis, whose regulation requires the local control of membrane organization. Previous work has revealed a role for dynamic actomyosin in membrane protein and lipid organization, suggesting that the cell surface behaves as an active composite composed of a fluid bilayer and a thin film of active actomyosin. We reconstitute an analogous system in vitro that consists of a fluid lipid bilayer coupled via membrane-associated actin-binding proteins to dynamic actin filaments and myosin motors. Upon complete consumption of ATP, this system settles into distinct phases of actin organization, namely bundled filaments, linked apolar asters, and a lattice of polar asters. These depend on actin concentration, filament length, and actin/myosin ratio. During formation of the polar aster phase, advection of the self-organizing actomyosin network drives transient clustering of actin-associated membrane components. Regeneration of ATP supports a constitutively remodeling actomyosin state, which in turn drives active fluctuations of coupled membrane components, resembling those observed at the cell surface. In a multicomponent membrane bilayer, this remodeling actomyosin layer contributes to changes in the extent and dynamics of phase-segregating domains. These results show how local membrane composition can be driven by active processes arising from actomyosin, highlighting the fundamental basis of the active composite model of the cell surface, and indicate its relevance to the study of membrane organization. PMID:26929326

  8. Actomyosin dynamics drive local membrane component organization in an in vitro active composite layer.

    PubMed

    Köster, Darius Vasco; Husain, Kabir; Iljazi, Elda; Bhat, Abrar; Bieling, Peter; Mullins, R Dyche; Rao, Madan; Mayor, Satyajit

    2016-03-22

    The surface of a living cell provides a platform for receptor signaling, protein sorting, transport, and endocytosis, whose regulation requires the local control of membrane organization. Previous work has revealed a role for dynamic actomyosin in membrane protein and lipid organization, suggesting that the cell surface behaves as an active composite composed of a fluid bilayer and a thin film of active actomyosin. We reconstitute an analogous system in vitro that consists of a fluid lipid bilayer coupled via membrane-associated actin-binding proteins to dynamic actin filaments and myosin motors. Upon complete consumption of ATP, this system settles into distinct phases of actin organization, namely bundled filaments, linked apolar asters, and a lattice of polar asters. These depend on actin concentration, filament length, and actin/myosin ratio. During formation of the polar aster phase, advection of the self-organizing actomyosin network drives transient clustering of actin-associated membrane components. Regeneration of ATP supports a constitutively remodeling actomyosin state, which in turn drives active fluctuations of coupled membrane components, resembling those observed at the cell surface. In a multicomponent membrane bilayer, this remodeling actomyosin layer contributes to changes in the extent and dynamics of phase-segregating domains. These results show how local membrane composition can be driven by active processes arising from actomyosin, highlighting the fundamental basis of the active composite model of the cell surface, and indicate its relevance to the study of membrane organization.

  9. Membrane ruffles capture C3bi-opsonized particles in activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Patel, Prerna C; Harrison, Rene E

    2008-11-01

    A widespread belief in phagocyte biology is that FcgammaR-mediated phagocytosis utilizes membrane pseudopods, whereas Mac-1-mediated phagocytosis does not involve elaborate plasma membrane extensions. Here we report that dynamic membrane ruffles in activated macrophages promote binding of C3bi-opsonized particles. We identify these ruffles as components of the macropinocytosis machinery in both PMA- and LPS-stimulated macrophages. C3bi-particle capture is facilitated by enrichment of high-affinity Mac-1 and the integrin-regulating protein talin in membrane ruffles. Membrane ruffle formation and C3bi-particle binding are cytoskeleton dependent events, having a strong requirement for F-actin and microtubules (MTs). MT disruption blunts ruffle formation and PMA- and LPS-induced up-regulation of surface Mac-1 expression. Furthermore, the MT motor, kinesin participates in ruffle formation implicating a requirement for intracellular membrane delivery to active membrane regions during Mac-1-mediated phagocytosis. We observed colocalization of Rab11-positive vesicles with CLIP-170, a MT plus-end binding protein, at sites of particle adherence using TIRF imaging. Rab11 has been implicated in recycling endosome dynamics and mutant Rab11 expression inhibits both membrane ruffle formation and C3bi-sRBC adherence to macrophages. Collectively these findings represent a novel membrane ruffle "capture" mechanism for C3bi-particle binding during Mac-1-mediated phagocytosis. Importantly, this work also demonstrates a strong functional link between integrin activation, macropinocytosis and phagocytosis in macrophages.

  10. Comparison of microbial communities of activated sludge and membrane biofilm in 10 full-scale membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Jo, Sung Jun; Kwon, Hyeokpil; Jeong, So-Yeon; Lee, Chung-Hak; Kim, Tae Gwan

    2016-09-15

    Operation of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for wastewater treatment is hampered by the membrane biofouling resulting from microbial activities. However, the knowledge of the microbial ecology of both biofilm and activated sludge in MBRs has not been sufficient. In this study, we scrutinized microbial communities of biofilm and activated sludge from 10 full-scale MBR plants. Overall, Flavobacterium, Dechloromonas and Nitrospira were abundant in order of abundance in biofilm, whereas Dechloromonas, Flavobacterium and Haliscomenobacter in activated sludge. Community structure was analyzed in either biofilm or activated sludge. Among MBRs, as expected, not only diversity of microbial community but also its composition was different from one another (p < 0.05). Between the biofilm and activated sludge, community composition made significant difference, but its diversity measures (i.e., alpha diversity, e.g., richness, diversity and evenness) did not (p > 0.05). Effects of ten environmental factors on community change were investigated using Spearman correlation. MLSS, HRT, F/M ratio and SADm explained the variation of microbial composition in the biofilm, whereas only MLSS did in the activated sludge. Microbial networks were constructed with the 10 environmental factors. The network results revealed that there were different topological characteristics between the biofilm and activated sludge networks, in which each of the 4 factors had different associations with microbial nodes. These results indicated that the different microbial associations were responsible for the variation of community composition between the biofilm and activated sludge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The influence of hemodialysis membrane permeability on serum paraoxonase-1 activity and oxidative status parameters.

    PubMed

    Horoz, Mehmet; Kiykim, Ahmet A; Cimen, Burak; Erdem, Abdullah

    2011-10-01

    We aimed to measure oxidative stress parameters and paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) enzyme activities in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients and to investigate whether HD membrane permeability has any influence on those measures. Forty-seven HD patients and 24 controls were enrolled. At the first step of the study, all HD patients had undergone HD treatment via "low-flux" membranes for 4 weeks. At the second step of the study, the membranes were switched to "high-flux" membranes and HD treatments were also performed via "high-flux" membranes for 4 weeks. Blood samples were withdrawn after completion of 4 weeks treatment for each membrane. Total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS), and paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were measured in blood samples of the patients and the controls. TOS and oxidative stress index (OSI) of both membranes were higher than controls (all, P < 0.05), while TAS and paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were lower (all P < 0.05). Paraoxonase (P < 0.05, r = -0.437 and P < 0.05, r = -0.453, respectively) and arylesterase (P < 0.05, r = -0.333 and P < 0.05, r = -0.371, respectively) activities of "low-flux" and "high-flux" membranes were inversely correlated with OSI. There were no significant differences between "low-flux" and "high-flux" membranes in regard to oxidative stress parameters or PON-1 enzyme activities (all, P > 0.05). HD patients have increased oxidative stress and decreased serum PON-1 activities inversely correlated with oxidative stress. Membrane permeability seems to have no influence on oxidative stress parameters and PON-1 enzyme activities. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2011, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Saturated fatty acids induce c-Src clustering within membrane subdomains leading to JNK activation

    PubMed Central

    Holzer, Ryan G.; Park, Eek-Joong; Li, Ning; Tran, Helen; Chen, Monica; Choi, Crystal; Solinas, Giovanni; Karin, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Saturated fatty acids (FA) exert adverse health effects and are more likely to cause insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes than unsaturated FA, some of which exert protective and beneficial effects. Saturated FA, but not unsaturated FA, activate Jun N terminal kinase (JNK), which has been linked to obesity and insulin resistance in mice and men. However, it is unknown how saturated and unsaturated FA are discriminated. We now demonstrate that saturated FA activate JNK and induce insulin resistance by altering the membrane distribution of c-Src, causing it to partition into intracellular membrane subdomains where it may become activated. Conversely, unsaturated FA with known beneficial effects on glucose metabolism prevent c-Src membrane partitioning and activation, which are dependent on its myristoylation, and block JNK activation. Consumption of a diabetogenic high fat diet causes the partitioning and activation of c-Src within detergent insoluble membrane subdomains of adipocytes. PMID:21962514

  13. Membrane bound GSK-3 activates Wnt signaling through disheveled and arrow.

    PubMed

    Mannava, Anirudh G; Tolwinski, Nicholas S

    2015-01-01

    Wnt ligands and their downstream pathway components coordinate many developmental and cellular processes. In adults, they regulate tissue homeostasis through regulation of stem cells. Mechanistically, signal transduction through this pathway is complicated by pathway components having both positive and negative roles in signal propagation. Here we examine the positive role of GSK-3/Zw3 in promoting signal transduction at the plasma membrane. We find that targeting GSK-3 to the plasma membrane activates signaling in Drosophila embryos. This activation requires the presence of the co-receptor Arrow-LRP5/6 and the pathway activating protein Disheveled. Our results provide genetic evidence for evolutionarily conserved, separable roles for GSK-3 at the membrane and in the cytosol, and are consistent with a model where the complex cycles from cytosol to membrane in order to promote signaling at the membrane and to prevent it in the cytosol.

  14. Influence of activating hormones on human platelet membrane Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Resink, T.J.; Dimitrov, D.; Stucki, S.; Buehler, F.R.

    1986-07-16

    Intact platelets were pretreated with hormones and thereafter membranes were prepared and Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase activity determined. Thrombin decreased the V/sub max/ of Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase after pretreatment of intact platelets. Platelet activating factor, vasopressin and ADP also decreased Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase activity. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) or A23187 or ionomycin alone had no effect, while the simultaneous pretreatment with TPA and Ca/sup 2 +/-ionophore decreased Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase activity. cAMP elevating agents prostaglandin E/sub 1/ (PGE/sub 1/) and forskolin had no influence per se on Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase, but antagonized the inhibitory effect of thrombin. The data suggest a close connection between phosphoinositide metabolism and the Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase system.

  15. Functional, photochemically active, and chemically asymmetric membranes by interfacial polymerization of derivatized multifunctional prepolymers

    DOEpatents

    Lonsdale, Harold K.; Wamser, Carl C.

    1988-01-01

    The preparation of a novel class of thin film membranes by interfacial polymerization is disclosed, said membanes incorporating as part of their polymeric structure the functionality of monomeric or oligomeric precursors. Specific embodiments include porphyrin and phthalocyanime derivatives that are photochemically or electrochemically active, as well as chemically asymmetric membranes.

  16. One-way membrane trafficking of SOS in receptor-triggered Ras activation

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Sune M.; Tu, Hsiung-Lin; Jun, Jesse E.; Alvarez, Steven; Triplet, Meredith G.; Iwig, Jeffrey S.; Yadav, Kamlesh K.; Bar-Sagi, Dafna; Roose, Jeroen P.; Groves, Jay T.

    2016-01-01

    SOS is a key activator of the small GTPase Ras. In cells, SOS-Ras signaling is thought to be initiated predominantly by membrane-recruitment of SOS via the adaptor Grb2 and balanced by rapidly reversible Grb2:SOS binding kinetics. However, SOS has multiple protein and lipid interactions that provide linkage to the membrane. In reconstituted membrane experiments, these Grb2-independent interactions are sufficient to retain SOS on the membrane for many minutes, during which a single SOS molecule can processively activate thousands of Ras molecules. These observations raise questions concerning how receptors maintain control of SOS in cells and how membrane-recruited SOS is ultimately released. We addressed these questions in quantitative reconstituted SOS-deficient chicken B cell signaling systems combined with single molecule measurements in supported membranes. These studies reveal an essentially one-way trafficking process in which membrane-recruited SOS remains trapped on the membrane and continuously activates Ras until it is actively removed via endocytosis. PMID:27501536

  17. Effect of Modified Phospholipid Bilayers on the Electrochemical Activity of a Membrane-Spanning Conjugated Oligoelectrolyte.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Justin P; Bazan, Guillermo C; Sumner, James J

    2015-10-27

    The incorporation and electrochemical activity of a conjugated oligoelectrolyte (COE) in model phospholipid bilayers have been characterized using cyclic voltammetry and UV-vis absorption measurements. Several other modifiers were also incorporated into the phospholipid membranes to alter properties such as charge and alkyl chain disorder. Using potassium ferricyanide to measure charge transport, it was observed that bilayers that contained cholic acid, a negatively charged additive that also promotes alkyl chain disorder, had higher COE uptake and charge permeability than unmodified bilayers. In contrast, when the positively charged choline was incorporated, charge permeability decreased and COE uptake was similar to that of unmodified bilayers. The incorporation of cholesterol at low concentrations within the phospholipid membranes was shown to enhance the COE's effectiveness at increasing membrane charge permeability without increasing the COE concentration in the bilayer. Higher concentrations of cholesterol reduce membrane fluidity and membrane charge permeability. Collectively, these results demonstrate that changes in phospholipid membrane charge permeability upon COE incorporation depend not only on the concentration in the membrane but also on interactions with the phospholipid bilayer and other additives present in the membranes. This approach of manipulating the properties of phospholipid membranes to understand COE interactions is applicable to understanding the behavior of a wide range of molecules that impart useful properties to phospholipid membranes.

  18. Redistribution of cholesterol in oligodendrocyte membrane sheets after activation of distinct signal transduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Lintner, R N; Dyer, C A

    2000-05-15

    Cultured oligodendrocytes produce extensive membrane sheets that contain an internal lacy network of vein-like structures composed of microtubules, actin filaments, and 2'3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphohydrolase (CNPase). These cytoplasmic vein-like structures surround domains of myelin basic protein (MBP). Using the antibiotic filipin, that binds to cholesterol, the relationship between plasma membrane cholesterol and cytoskeleton in membrane sheets was examined. Our results show that cholesterol was relatively uniformly distributed within the plasma membranes of prefixed control oligodendrocyte membrane sheets. When live cultures were extracted with Triton X-100, however, a subpopulation of cholesterol molecules remained colocalized with cytoskeleton in the membrane sheets. Activation of two well-characterized signaling pathways that differentially affect microtubule and actin filament stability in membrane sheets resulted in an apparent massive lateral movement of cholesterol molecules away from membrane regions overlying internal MBP domains to membrane tracts directly overlying cytoplasmic cytoskeletal veins. Depolymerization of microtubules by colchicine resulted in redistribution of cholesterol directly over actin filaments, whereas depolymerization of actin filaments by cytochalasin B resulted in redistribution of cholesterol directly over CNPase/microtubular veins. These data suggest that cholesterol forms an association with cytoskeletal components or proteins associated with cytoskeleton. These data also suggest that cholesterol, via interactions with cytoskeleton, plays a role in signaling pathways in oligodendrocyte membrane sheets. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Improved PVDF membrane performance by doping extracellular polymeric substances of activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yan-Fang; Huang, Bao-Cheng; Qian, Chen; Wang, Long-Fei; Yu, Han-Qing

    2017-04-15

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane has been widely applied in water and wastewater treatment because of its high mechanical strength, thermal stability and chemical resistance. However, the hydrophobic nature of PVDF membrane makes it readily fouled, substantially reducing water flux and overall membrane rejection ability. In this work, an in-situ blending modifier, i.e., extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from activated sludge, was used to enhance the anti-fouling ability of PVDF membrane. Results indicate that the pure water flux of the membrane and its anti-fouling performance were substantially improved by blending 8% EPS into the membrane. By introducing EPS, the membrane hydrophilicity was increased and the cross section morphology was changed when it interacted with polyvinl pyrrolidone, resulting in the formation of large cavities below the finger-like pores. In addition, the fraction of pores with a size of 100-500 nm increased, which was also beneficial to improving membrane performance. Surface thermodynamic calculations indicate the EPS-functionalized membrane had a higher cohesion free energy, implying its good pollutant rejection and anti-fouling ability. This work provides a simple, efficient and cost-effective method to improve membrane performance and also extends the applications of EPS.

  20. Enhancement of RNA Polymerase Activity by a Factor Released by Auxin from Plasma Membrane*

    PubMed Central

    Hardin, James W.; Cherry, Joe H.; Morré, D. James; Lembi, Carole A.

    1972-01-01

    Using recently developed techniques for solubilization of RNA polymerase from soybean chromatin and isolation of plasma membrane fractions from plants we can show the presence of a transcriptional factor specifically released from the membranes by auxin, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. The nonauxin, 3,5-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, does not release the factor, but subsequent exposure of the membranes to auxin results in its release. Factor activity could not be demonstrated in fractions devoid of plasma membranes. The presence of a regulatory factor for RNA polymerase associated with plant plasma membrane and specifically released by auxin provides a mechanism whereby both rapid growth responses and delayed nuclear changes could be derived from a common auxin receptor site associated with plasma membrane. Images PMID:4508307

  1. Lgl1 activation of rab10 promotes axonal membrane trafficking underlying neuronal polarization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tong; Liu, Yang; Xu, Xiao-Hui; Deng, Cai-Yun; Wu, Kong-Yan; Zhu, Ji; Fu, Xiu-Qing; He, Miao; Luo, Zhen-Ge

    2011-09-13

    Directed membrane trafficking is believed to be crucial for axon development during neuronal morphogenesis. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we report a role of Lgl1, the mammalian homolog of Drosophila tumor suppressor Lethal giant larvae, in controlling membrane trafficking underlying axonal growth. We find that Lgl1 is associated with plasmalemmal precursor vesicles and enriched in developing axons. Lgl1 upregulation promoted axonal growth, whereas downregulation attenuated it as well as directional membrane insertion. Interestingly, Lgl1 interacted with and activated Rab10, a small GTPase that mediates membrane protein trafficking, by releasing GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI) from Rab10. Furthermore, Rab10 lies downstream of Lgl1 in axon development and directional membrane insertion. Finally, both Lgl1 and Rab10 are required for neocortical neuronal polarization in vivo. Thus, the Lgl1 regulation of Rab10 stimulates the trafficking of membrane precursor vesicles, whose fusion with the plasmalemma is crucial for axonal growth.

  2. Fc gamma-receptor activity of isolated human placental syncytiotrophoblast plasma membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, P J; Johnson, P M

    1981-01-01

    Fc gamma-receptor activity of isolated human placental syncytiotrophoblast microvillous plasma membrane (StMPM) vesicle preparations has been determined in an immunoradiometric assay using Sepharose-immobilized protein A to separate free 125I-labelled human IgG from membrane-bound 125I-IgG. This receptor assay has been optimalized in terms of buffer pH and molarity, and used to demonstrate that prior 60 min washing of isolated membranes in 3 M KCl to remove extrinsic membrane-bound protein substantially increases the membrane-binding capacity for IgG. Inhibition studies have determined the syncytiotrophoblast Fc gamma-receptor equilibrium constant for association (Ka) as 4.0 x 10(7) M-1 at 37 degrees and the number of available Fc gamma-receptor sites as 1.5 x 10(14) per mg membrane protein. PMID:7461733

  3. Membrane lipids regulate ganglioside GM2 catabolism and GM2 activator protein activity.

    PubMed

    Anheuser, Susi; Breiden, Bernadette; Schwarzmann, Günter; Sandhoff, Konrad

    2015-09-01

    Ganglioside GM2 is the major lysosomal storage compound of Tay-Sachs disease. It also accumulates in Niemann-Pick disease types A and B with primary storage of SM and with cholesterol in type C. Reconstitution of GM2 catabolism with β-hexosaminidase A and GM2 activator protein (GM2AP) at uncharged liposomal surfaces carrying GM2 as substrate generated only a physiologically irrelevant catabolic rate, even at pH 4.2. However, incorporation of anionic phospholipids into the GM2 carrying liposomes stimulated GM2 hydrolysis more than 10-fold, while the incorporation of plasma membrane stabilizing lipids (SM and cholesterol) generated a strong inhibition of GM2 hydrolysis, even in the presence of anionic phospholipids. Mobilization of membrane lipids by GM2AP was also inhibited in the presence of cholesterol or SM, as revealed by surface plasmon resonance studies. These lipids also reduced the interliposomal transfer rate of 2-NBD-GM1 by GM2AP, as observed in assays using Förster resonance energy transfer. Our data raise major concerns about the usage of recombinant His-tagged GM2AP compared with untagged protein. The former binds more strongly to anionic GM2-carrying liposomal surfaces, increases GM2 hydrolysis, and accelerates intermembrane transfer of 2-NBD-GM1, but does not mobilize membrane lipids.

  4. Neomycin inhibits the phosphatidylinositol monophosphate and phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate stimulation of plasma membrane ATPase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Qiuyun; Boss, W.F. )

    1991-05-01

    The inositol phospholipids, phosphatidylinositol monophosphate (PIP) and phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP{sub 2}), have been shown to increase the vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity of plant plasma membranes. In this paper, the authors show the effect of various concentrations of phosphatidyinositol, PIP, and PIP{sub 2} on the plasma membrane vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity. PIP and PIP{sub 2} at concentrations at 10 nanomoles per 30 microgram membrane protein per milliliter of reaction mixture caused a twofold and 1.8-fold increase in the ATPase activity, respectively. The effect of these negatively charged phospholipids on the ATPase activity was inhibited by adding the positively charged aminoglycoside, neomycin. Neomycin did not affect the endogenous plasma membrane ATPase activity in the absence of exogenous lipids.

  5. Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using a Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey, PSInSAR and Kinematic Structural Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Teplow, William J.; Warren, Ian

    2015-08-12

    The DOE cost-share program applied innovative and cutting edge seismic surveying and processing, permanent scatter interferometry-synthetic aperture radar (PSInSAR) and structural kinematics to the exploration problem of locating and mapping largeaperture fractures (LAFs) for the purpose of targeting geothermal production wells. The San Emidio geothermal resource area, which is under lease to USG, contains production wells that have encountered and currently produce from LAFs in the southern half of the resource area (Figure 2). The USG lease block, incorporating the northern extension of the San Emidio geothermal resource, extends 3 miles north of the operating wellfield. The northern lease block was known to contain shallow thermal waters but was previously unexplored by deep drilling. Results of the Phase 1 exploration program are described in detail in the Phase 1 Final Report (Teplow et al., 2011). The DOE cost shared program was completed as planned on September 30, 2014. This report summarizes results from all of Phase 1 and 2 activities.

  6. Photodynamic activity of substituted zinc trisulfophthalocyanines: role of plasma membrane damage.

    PubMed

    Cauchon, Nicole; Nader, Moni; Bkaily, Ghassan; van Lier, Johan E; Hunting, Darel

    2006-01-01

    We recently reported that variations in cellular phototoxicity among a series of alkynyl-substituted zinc trisulfophthalocyanines (ZnPcS3Cn) correlates with their hydrophobicity, with the most amphiphilic derivatives showing the highest cell uptake and phototoxicity. In this study we address the role of the plasma membrane in the photodynamic response as it relates to the overall hydrophobicity of the photosensitizer. The membrane tracker dye 1-[4(trimethylamino)phenyl]-6-phenylhexa-1,3,5-triene (TMA-DPH), which is incorporated into plasma membranes by endocytosis, was used to establish plasma membrane uptake by EMT-6 cells of the ZnPcS3C, by colocalization, and TMA-DPH membrane uptake rates after photodynamic therapy were used to quantify membrane damage. TMA-DPH colocalization patterns show plasma membrane uptake of the photosensitizers after short 1 h incubation periods. TMA-DPH plasma membrane uptake rates after illumination of the photosensitizer-treated cells show a parabolic relationship with photosensitizer hydrophobicity that correlates well with the phototoxicity of the ZnPcS3C,. After a 1 h incubation period, overall phototoxicity correlates closely with the postillumination rate of TMA-DPH incorporation into the cell membrane, suggesting a major role of plasma membrane damage in the overall PDT effect. In contrast, after a 24 h incubation, phototoxicity shows a stronger but imperfect correlation with total cellular photosensitizer uptake rather than TMA-DPH membrane uptake, suggesting a partial shift in the cellular damage responsible for photosensitization from the plasma membrane to intracellular targets. We conclude that plasma membrane localization of the amphiphilic ZnPcS3C6-C9 is a major factor in their overall photodynamic activity.

  7. Membrane cholesterol selectively modulates the activity of the human ABCG2 multidrug transporter.

    PubMed

    Telbisz, Agnes; Müller, Marianna; Ozvegy-Laczka, Csilla; Homolya, László; Szente, Lajos; Váradi, András; Sarkadi, Balázs

    2007-11-01

    The human ABCG2 multidrug transporter provides protection against numerous toxic compounds and causes multidrug resistance in cancer. Here we examined the effects of changes in membrane cholesterol on the function of this protein. Human ABCG2 was expressed in mammalian and in Sf9 insect cells, and membrane cholesterol depletion or enrichment was achieved by preincubation with beta cyclodextrin or its cholesterol-loaded form. We found that mild cholesterol depletion of intact mammalian cells inhibited ABCG2-dependent dye and drug extrusion in a reversible fashion, while the membrane localization of the transporter protein was unchanged. Cholesterol enrichment of cholesterol-poor Sf9 cell membrane vesicles greatly increased ABCG2-driven substrate uptake, substrate-stimulated ATPase activity, as well as the formation of a catalytic cycle intermediate (nucleotide trapping). Interestingly, modulation of membrane cholesterol did not significantly affect the function of the R482G or R482T substrate mutant ABCG2 variants, or that of the MDR1 transporter. The selective, major effect of membrane cholesterol on the wild-type ABCG2 suggests a regulation of the activity of this multidrug transporter during processing or in membrane micro-domain interactions. The experimental recognition of physiological and pharmacological substrates of ABCG2, as well as the fight against cancer multidrug resistance may be facilitated by demonstrating the key role of membrane cholesterol in this transport activity.

  8. A Dynamic Model of Membrane-Bound Phospholipase Cβ2 Activation by Gβγ Subunits

    PubMed Central

    Han, Daniel S.; Golebiewska, Urszula; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Weinstein, Harel

    2011-01-01

    Phospholipase C (PLC) β2, a well studied member of the family of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) into secondary messengers, can be activated by the Gβγ subunits of heterotrimeric G-proteins in a manner that depends on the presence and composition of the associated phospholipid membrane surface. The N-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of PLCβ2 mediates both the response to Gβγ and membrane binding, but how these interactions are coupled to yield an activated catalytic core remains unknown. Here we propose a mechanism based on molecular models of truncated PLCβ2 in its activated form complexed with Gβγ and in the catalytically inactive/membrane-bound form, obtained with the application of protein-protein docking algorithms and coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. These models were probed experimentally, and the inferences were confirmed by results from a combination of molecular biology and fluorescence assays. Results from the dynamic simulations of the molecular models and their interactions with various lipid bilayers identify the determinants of PLCβ2-PH domain specificity for Gβγ and lipid membranes and suggest a mechanism for the previously reported dependence of Gβγ activation on the associated membrane composition. Together, these findings explain the roles of the different activators in terms of their effect on the orientations of the PH and catalytic core domains relative to the lipid membranes. PMID:21693623

  9. Immobilization and activity assay of cytochrome P450 on patterned lipid membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, Yoshihiro; Morigaki, Kenichi . E-mail: morigaki-kenichi@aist.go.jp; Tatsu, Yoshiro; Yumoto, Noboru; Imaishi, Hiromasa . E-mail: himaish@kobe-u.ac.jp

    2007-04-20

    We report on a methodology for immobilizing cytochrome P450 on the surface of micropatterned lipid bilayer membranes and measuring the enzymatic activity. The patterned bilayer comprised a matrix of polymeric lipid bilayers and embedded fluid lipid bilayers. The polymeric lipid bilayer domains act as a barrier to confine fluid lipid bilayers in defined areas and as a framework to stabilize embedded membranes. The fluid bilayer domains, on the other hand, can contain lipid compositions that facilitate the fusion between lipid membranes, and are intended to be used as the binding agent of microsomes containing rat CYP1A1. By optimizing the membrane compositions of the fluid bilayers, we could selectively immobilize microsomal membranes on these domains. The enzymatic activity was significantly higher on lipid bilayer substrates compared with direct adsorption on glass. Furthermore, competitive assay experiment between two fluorogenic substrates demonstrated the feasibility of bioassays based on immobilized P450s.

  10. Machine learning-enabled discovery and design of membrane-active peptides.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ernest Y; Wong, Gerard C L; Ferguson, Andrew L

    2017-07-08

    Antimicrobial peptides are a class of membrane-active peptides that form a critical component of innate host immunity and possess a diversity of sequence and structure. Machine learning approaches have been profitably employed to efficiently screen sequence space and guide experiment towards promising candidates with high putative activity. In this mini-review, we provide an introduction to antimicrobial peptides and summarize recent advances in machine learning-enabled antimicrobial peptide discovery and design with a focus on a recent work Lee et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2016;113(48):13588-13593. This study reports the development of a support vector machine classifier to aid in the design of membrane active peptides. We use this model to discover membrane activity as a multiplexed function in diverse peptide families and provide interpretable understanding of the physicochemical properties and mechanisms governing membrane activity. Experimental validation of the classifier reveals it to have learned membrane activity as a unifying signature of antimicrobial peptides with diverse modes of action. Some of the discriminating rules by which it performs classification are in line with existing "human learned" understanding, but it also unveils new previously unknown determinants and multidimensional couplings governing membrane activity. Integrating machine learning with targeted experimentation can guide both antimicrobial peptide discovery and design and new understanding of the properties and mechanisms underpinning their modes of action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Modification of trout sperm membranes associated with activation and cryopreservation. Implications for fertilizing potential

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Abstract We investigated the effects of two trout sperm activation solutions on sperm physiology and membrane organization prior to and following cryopreservation using flow cytometry and investigated their impact on in vitro fertility. Cryopreservation caused greater phospholipid disorder (high pl...

  12. Light activates rotations of bacteriorhodopsin in the purple membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Ahl, P.L.; Cone, R.A.

    1984-06-01

    To investigate how a photoactivated chromophore drives the proton pump mechanism of bacteriorhodopsin, the authors have observed how the chromophore rotates during the photocycle. To do this, they examined the dichroism induced in aqueous suspensions of purple membrane fragments by flashes of linearly polarized light. It was found that the flash stimulates both the photocycling chromophores and their noncycling neighbors to undergo large (> 10/sup 0/-20/sup 0/) rotations within the membrane during the photocycle, and that these two chromophore populations undergo distinctly different sequences of rotations. All these rotations could be eliminated by glutaraldehyde fixation as well as by embedding unfixed fragments in polyacrylamide or agarose gels. Thus, in these immbolizing preparations the chromophore can photocycle without rotating inside a bacteriorhodopsin monomer by more than our detection limit of 2/sup 0/-5/sup 0/. The large rotations observed in aqueous suspensions of purple membranes were probably due to rotations of entire protein monomers. The process by which a photocycyling monomer causes its noncycling neighbors to rotate may help explain the highly cooperative behavior bacteriorhodopsin exhibits when it is aggregated into crystalline arrays of trimers.

  13. Polymorphonuclear leukocyte membrane fluidity before and after activation in subjects with insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Caimi, G; Sinagra, D; Canino, B; Scarpitta, A M; Montana, M; Bonaventura, V; Lo Presti, R

    2000-03-01

    The aim of this research was the evaluation of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) membrane fluidity in subjects with insulin resistance. Insulin sensitivity, in fact, may be influenced by plasma membrane fluidity. We enrolled 19 subjects with insulin resistance previously demonstrated during an euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. PMN membrane fluidity was studied by labeling intact cells with the fluorescent probe 1-[4-(trimethylamino)phenyl]-6-phenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene and calculating the fluorescence polarization degree. The measurement was made before and after incubation of PMNs with two activating agents: 4-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP). The baseline data showed a reduction of PMN membrane fluidity in subjects with insulin resistance. After PMN activation with PMA and fMLP, no significant variation in membrane fluidity was present in PMNs from normals, while in those from subjects with insulin resistance a slight decrease in PMN membrane fluidity was found only after activation with fMLP. The behavior of PMN membrane fluidity, before and after activation, distinguishes insulin-resistant subjects from normal controls, although the effect cannot be directly correlated with the degree of insulin resistance.

  14. cBid, Bax and Bcl-xL exhibit opposite membrane remodeling activities

    PubMed Central

    Bleicken, S; Hofhaus, G; Ugarte-Uribe, B; Schröder, R; García-Sáez, A J

    2016-01-01

    The proteins of the Bcl-2 family have a crucial role in mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization during apoptosis and in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics. Current models consider that Bax forms toroidal pores at mitochondria that are responsible for the release of cytochrome c, whereas Bcl-xL inhibits pore formation. However, how Bcl-2 proteins regulate mitochondrial fission and fusion remains poorly understood. By using a systematic analysis at the single vesicle level, we found that cBid, Bax and Bcl-xL are able to remodel membranes in different ways. cBid and Bax induced a reduction in vesicle size likely related to membrane tethering, budding and fission, besides membrane permeabilization. Moreover, they are preferentially located at highly curved membranes. In contrast, Bcl-xL not only counterbalanced pore formation but also membrane budding and fission. Our findings support a mechanism of action by which cBid and Bax induce or stabilize highly curved membranes including non-lamellar structures. This molecular activity reduces the energy for membrane remodeling, which is a necessary step in toroidal pore formation, as well as membrane fission and fusion, and provides a common mechanism that links the two main functions of Bcl-2 proteins. PMID:26913610

  15. The Effects of Altered Membrane Cholesterol Levels on Sodium Pump Activity in Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Metabolic dysfunctions characteristic of overt hypothyroidism (OH) start at the early stage of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). Na+/K+-ATPase (the sodium pump) is a transmembrane enzyme that plays a vital role in cellular activities in combination with membrane lipids. We evaluated the effects of early changes in thyroid hormone and membrane cholesterol on sodium pump activity in SCH and OH patients. Methods In 32 SCH patients, 35 OH patients, and 34 euthyroid patients, sodium pump activity and cholesterol levels in red blood cell membranes were measured. Serum thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Differences in their mean values were analysed using post hoc analysis of variance. We assessed the dependence of the sodium pump on other metabolites by multiple regression analysis. Results Sodium pump activity and membrane cholesterol were lower in both hypothyroid groups than in control group, OH group exhibiting lower values than SCH group. In SCH group, sodium pump activity showed a significant direct dependence on membrane cholesterol with an inverse relationship with serum TSH levels. In OH group, sodium pump activity depended directly on membrane cholesterol and serum T4 levels. No dependence on serum cholesterol was observed in either case. Conclusion Despite the presence of elevated serum cholesterol in hypothyroidism, membrane cholesterol contributed significantly to maintain sodium pump activity in the cells. A critical reduction in membrane cholesterol levels heralds compromised enzyme activity, even in the early stage of hypothyroidism, and this can be predicted by elevated TSH levels alone, without any evident clinical manifestations. PMID:28256112

  16. A membrane cytoskeleton from Dictyostelium discoideum. I. Identification and partial characterization of an actin-binding activity

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum plasma membranes isolated by each of three procedures bind F-actin. The interactions between these membranes and actin are examined by a novel application of falling ball viscometry. Treating the membranes as multivalent actin-binding particles analogous to divalent actin-gelation factors, we observe large increases in viscosity (actin cross-linking) when membranes of depleted actin and myosin are incubated with rabbit skeletal muscle F-actin. Pre- extraction of peripheral membrane proteins with chaotropes or the inclusion of Triton X-100 during the assay does not appreciably diminish this actin cross-linking activity. Lipid vesicles, heat- denatured membranes, proteolyzed membranes, or membranes containing endogenous actin show minimal actin cross-linking activity. Heat- denatured, but not proteolyzed, membranes regain activity when assayed in the presence of Triton X-100. Thus, integral membrane proteins appear to be responsible for some or all of the actin cross-linking activity of D. discoideum membranes. In the absence of MgATP, Triton X- 100 extraction of isolated D. discoideum membranes results in a Triton- insoluble residue composed of actin, myosin, and associated membrane proteins. The inclusion of MgATP before and during Triton extraction greatly diminishes the amount of protein in the Triton-insoluble residue without appreciably altering its composition. Our results suggest the existence of a protein complex stabilized by actin and/or myosin (membrane cytoskeleton) associated with the D. discoideum plasma membrane. PMID:6894148

  17. A modular approach toward extremely large apertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, A. A., Jr.

    1981-02-01

    Modular antenna construction can provide a significant increase in reflector aperture size over deployable reflectors. The modular approach allows reflective mesh surfaces to be supported by a minimum of structure. The kinematics of the selected deployable design approach were validated by the subscale demonstration model. Further design refinements on the module structural/joints and design optimization on intermodule joints are needed.

  18. Large Aperture Systems: 2000-2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This custom bibliography from the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program lists a sampling of records found in the NASA Aeronautics and Space Database. The scope of this topic includes technologies for next generation astronomical telescopes and detectors. This area of focus is one of the enabling technologies as defined by NASA s Report of the President s Commission on Implementation of United States Space Exploration Policy, published in June 2004.

  19. Large aperture compound lenses made of lithium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremer, J. T.; Piestrup, M. A.; Beguiristain, H. R.; Gary, C. K.; Pantell, R. H.

    2003-04-01

    We have measured the intensity profile and transmission of x rays focused by a series of biconcave parabolic unit lenses fabricated in lithium. For specified focal length and photon energy lithium compound refractive lenses (CRL) have a larger transmission, aperture size, and gain compared to aluminum, kapton, and beryllium CRLs. The lithium compound refractive lens was composed of 335 biconcave, parabolic unit lenses each with an on-axis radius of curvature of 0.95 mm. Two-dimensional focusing was obtained at 8.0 keV with a focal length of 95 cm. The effective aperture of the CRL was measured to be 1030 μm with on-axis (peak) transmissions of 27% and an on-axis intensity gain of 18.9.

  20. Large Aperture Multiplexed Diffractive Lidar Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rallison, Richard D.; Schwemmer, Geary K. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    We have delivered only 2 or 3 UV Holographic Optical Elements (HOEs) thus far and have fallen short of the intended goal in size and in dual wavelength function. Looking back, it has been fortuitous that we even made anything work in the UV region. It was our good fortune to discover that the material we work with daily was adequate for use at 355 nm, if well rinsed during processing. If we had stuck to our original plan of etching in small pieces of fused silica, we would still be trying to make the first small section in our ion mill, which is not yet operational. The original plan was far too ambitious and would take another 2 years to complete beginning where we left off this time. In order to make a HOE for the IR as well as the UV we will likely have to learn to sensitize some film to the 1064 line and we have obtained sensitizer that is reported to work in that region already. That work would also take an additional year to complete.

  1. Millimeter Wave Applications of Large Aperture Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    unit step impulse ................. 89 5-8 Truss/tower model. Joints identification numbers ............... 91 5-9 z-displacement (m) histories for the...tip joint 801 displacements for 1 cycle steady-state response to harmonic excitation (15 N at 10 Hz) ................ 101 6-1 Elliptic torus 30 x 60 m...freedom (DOF) -o a reasonable level, the large platform was modelled with axial members whereby only three DOF’s are present nat each joint . Although

  2. Large aperture ac interferometer for optical testing.

    PubMed

    Moore, D T; Murray, R; Neves, F B

    1978-12-15

    A 20-cm clear aperture modified Twyman-Green interferometer is described. The system measures phase with an AC technique called phase-lock interferometry while scanning the aperture with a dual galvanometer scanning system. Position information and phase are stored in a minicomputer with disk storage. This information is manipulated with associated software, and the wavefront deformation due to a test component is graphically displayed in perspective and contour on a CRT terminal.

  3. Separation of a toluene/ethanol mixture by pervaporation using active carbon-filled polymeric membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Duval, J.M. ); Folkers, B.; Mulder, M.H.V.; Smolders, C.A. ); Desgrandchamps, G. )

    1994-02-01

    In order to improve the separation properties of dense polymeric membranes toward a toluene/ethanol mixture, various active carbons and two types of zeolites were introduced into a thin polymeric film in order to form a heterogeneous membrane composed of solid particles surrounded by a polymer phase. Active carbons show a high adsorption selectivity for an aromatic compound over ethanol in the low concentration range of the aromatic component. Sorption and pervaporation experiments were carried out with a toluene/ethanol mixture, and they showed no improvement in selectivity and a decrease in flux for membranes filled with active carbons. For zeolite-filled membranes, both selectivity and flux decreased. A permeability model derived for heterogeneous systems was used. It confirmed that the carbon particles have a closed porous structure, allowing no transport from one side to the other, and that the zeolites have an ethanol selective permeation behavior. 21 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Line active molecules promote inhomogeneous structures in membranes: theory, simulations and experiments.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Benoit; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Brewster, Robert C; Safran, Samuel A

    2014-06-01

    We review recent theoretical efforts that predict how line-active molecules can promote lateral heterogeneities (or domains) in model membranes. This fundamental understanding may be relevant to membrane composition in living cells, where it is thought that small domains, called lipid rafts, are necessary for the cells to be functional. The theoretical work reviewed here ranges in scale from coarse grained continuum models to nearly atomistic models. The effect of line active molecules on domain sizes and shapes in the phase separated regime or on fluctuation length scales and lifetimes in the single phase, mixed regime, of the membrane is discussed. Recent experimental studies on model membranes that include line active molecules are also presented together with some comparisons with the theoretical predictions.

  5. Membrane-active peptides: binding, translocation, and flux in lipid vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Paulo F.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, new and improved methods have been developed to measure translocation of membrane-active peptides (antimicrobial, cytolytic, and amphipathic cell-penetrating peptides) across lipid bilayer membranes. The hypothesis that translocation of membrane-active peptides across a lipid bilayer is determined by the Gibbs energy of insertion of the peptide into the bilayer is re-examined in the light of new experimental tests. The original hypothesis and its motivation are first revisited, examining some specific predictions it generated and the results of initial tests. Translocation is understood as requiring two previous steps: binding and insertion in the membrane. The problem of peptide binding to membranes, its prediction, measurement, and calculation are addressed. Particular attention is given to understanding the reason for the need for amphipathic structures in the function of membrane-active peptides. Insertion into the membrane is then examined. Hydrophobicity scales are compared, and their influence on calculations is discussed. The relation between translocation and graded or all-or-none peptide-induced flux from or into lipid vesicles is also considered. Finally, the most recent work on translocation is examined, both experimental and from molecular dynamics simulations. PMID:24769436

  6. Membrane-related effects underlying the biological activity of the anthraquinones emodin and barbaloin.

    PubMed

    Alves, Daiane S; Pérez-Fons, Laura; Estepa, Amparo; Micol, Vicente

    2004-08-01

    Commercial plant extracts containing anthraquinones are being increasingly used for cosmetics, food and pharmaceuticals due to their wide therapeutic and pharmacological properties. In this work, the interaction with model membranes of two representative 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinones, barbaloin (Aloe) and emodin (Rheum, Polygonum), has been studied in order to explain their effects in biological membranes. Emodin showed a higher affinity for phospholipid membranes than barbaloin did, and was more effective in weakening hydrophobic interactions between hydrocarbon chains in phospholipid bilayers. Whereas emodin induced the formation of hexagonal-H(II) phase, barbaloin stabilized lamellar structures. Barbaloin promoted the formation of gel-fluid intermediate structures in phosphatidylglycerol membranes at physiological pH and ionic strength values. It is proposed that emodin's chromophore group is located at the upper half of the membrane, whereas barbaloin's one is in a deeper position but having its glucopyranosyl moiety near the phospholipid/water interface. Moreover, membrane disruption by emodin or barbaloin showed specificity for the two major phospholipids present in bacterial membranes, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. In order to relate their strong effects on membranes to their biological activity, the capacity of these compounds to inhibit the infectivity of the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia rhabdovirus (VHSV), a negative RNA enveloped virus, or the growth of Escherichia coli was tested. Anthraquinone-loaded liposomes showed a strong antimicrobial activity whereas these compounds in their free form did not. Both anthraquinones showed antiviral activity but only emodin was a virucidal agent. In conclusion, a molecular mechanism based on the effect of these compounds on the structure of biological membranes is proposed to account for their multiple biological activities. Anthraquinone-loaded liposomes may suppose an alternative for

  7. LH-RH binding to purified pituitary plasma membranes: absence of adenylate cyclase activation.

    PubMed

    Clayton, R N; Shakespear, R A; Marshall, J C

    1978-06-01

    Purified bovine pituitary plasma membranes possess two specific LH-RH binding sites. The high affinity site (2.5 X 10(9) l/mol) has low capacity (9 X 10(-15) mol/mg membrane protein) while the low affinity site 6.1 X 10(5) l/mol) has a much higher capacity (1.1 X 10(-10) mol/mg). Specific LH-RH binding to plasma membranes is increased 8.5-fold during purification from homogenate whilst adenylate cyclase activity is enriched 7--8-fold. Distribution of specific LH-RH binding to sucrose density gradient interface fractions parallels that of adenylate cyclase activity. Mg2+ and Ca2+ inhibit specific [125I]LH-RH binding at micromolar concentrations. Synthetic LH-RH, up to 250 microgram/ml, failed to stimulate adenylase cyclase activity of the purified bovine membranes. Using a crude 10,800 g rat pituitary membrane preparation, LH-RH similarly failed to activate adenylate cyclase even in the presence of guanyl nucleotides. These data confirm the presence of LH-RH receptor sites on pituitary plasma membranes and suggest that LH-RH-induced gonadotrophin release may be mediated by mechanisms other than activation of adenylate cyclase.

  8. CHOLESTEROL HOMEOSTASIS AND THE ESCAPE TENDENCY (ACTIVITY) OF PLASMA MEMBRANE CHOLESTEROL

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Yvonne; Steck, Theodore L.

    2008-01-01

    We review evidence that sterols can form stoichiometric complexes with certain bilayer phospholipids, and sphingomyelin in particular. These complexes appear to be the basis for the formation of condensed and ordered liquid phases, (micro)domains and/or rafts in both artificial and biological membranes. The sterol content of a membrane can exceed the complexing capacity of its phospholipids. The excess, uncomplexed membrane sterol molecules have a relatively high escape tendency, also referred to as fugacity or chemical activity (and, here, simply activity). Cholesterol is also activated when certain membrane intercalating amphipaths displace it from the phospholipid complexes. Active cholesterol projects from the bilayer and is therefore highly susceptible to attack by cholesterol oxidase. Similarly, active cholesterol rapidly exits the plasma membrane to extracellular acceptors such as cyclodextrin and high-density lipoproteins. For the same reason, the pool of cholesterol in the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) increases sharply when cell surface cholesterol is incremented above the physiological set-point; i.e., equivalence with the complexing phospholipids. As a result, the escape tendency of the excess cholesterol not only returns the plasma membrane bilayer to its set point but also serves as a feedback signal to intracellular homeostatic elements to down-regulate cholesterol accretion. PMID:18423408

  9. Propagating cell-membrane waves driven by curved activators of actin polymerization.

    PubMed

    Peleg, Barak; Disanza, Andrea; Scita, Giorgio; Gov, Nir

    2011-04-21

    Cells exhibit propagating membrane waves which involve the actin cytoskeleton. One type of such membranal waves are Circular Dorsal Ruffles (CDR) which are related to endocytosis and receptor internalization. Experimentally, CDRs have been associated with membrane bound activators of actin polymerization of concave shape. We present experimental evidence for the localization of convex membrane proteins in these structures, and their insensitivity to inhibition of myosin II contractility in immortalized mouse embryo fibroblasts cell cultures. These observations lead us to propose a theoretical model which explains the formation of these waves due to the interplay between complexes that contain activators of actin polymerization and membrane-bound curved proteins of both types of curvature (concave and convex). Our model predicts that the activity of both types of curved proteins is essential for sustaining propagating waves, which are abolished when one type of curved activator is removed. Within this model waves are initiated when the level of actin polymerization induced by the curved activators is higher than some threshold value, which allows the cell to control CDR formation. We demonstrate that the model can explain many features of CDRs, and give several testable predictions. This work demonstrates the importance of curved membrane proteins in organizing the actin cytoskeleton and cell shape.

  10. Propagating Cell-Membrane Waves Driven by Curved Activators of Actin Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Peleg, Barak; Disanza, Andrea; Scita, Giorgio; Gov, Nir

    2011-01-01

    Cells exhibit propagating membrane waves which involve the actin cytoskeleton. One type of such membranal waves are Circular Dorsal Ruffles (CDR) which are related to endocytosis and receptor internalization. Experimentally, CDRs have been associated with membrane bound activators of actin polymerization of concave shape. We present experimental evidence for the localization of convex membrane proteins in these structures, and their insensitivity to inhibition of myosin II contractility in immortalized mouse embryo fibroblasts cell cultures. These observations lead us to propose a theoretical model which explains the formation of these waves due to the interplay between complexes that contain activators of actin polymerization and membrane-bound curved proteins of both types of curvature (concave and convex). Our model predicts that the activity of both types of curved proteins is essential for sustaining propagating waves, which are abolished when one type of curved activator is removed. Within this model waves are initiated when the level of actin polymerization induced by the curved activators is higher than some threshold value, which allows the cell to control CDR formation. We demonstrate that the model can explain many features of CDRs, and give several testable predictions. This work demonstrates the importance of curved membrane proteins in organizing the actin cytoskeleton and cell shape. PMID:21533032

  11. Sodium pump molecular activity and membrane lipid composition in two disparate ectotherms, and comparison with endotherms.

    PubMed

    Turner, Nigel; Hulbert, A J; Else, Paul L

    2005-02-01

    Previous research has shown that the lower sodium pump molecular activity observed in tissues of ectotherms compared to endotherms, is largely related to the lower levels of polyunsaturates and higher levels of monounsaturates found in the cell membranes of ectotherms. Marine-based ectotherms, however, have very polyunsaturated membranes, and in the current study, we measured molecular activity and membrane lipid composition in tissues of two disparate ectothermic species, the octopus (Octopus vulgaris) and the bearded dragon lizard (Pogona vitticeps), to determine whether the high level of membrane polyunsaturation generally observed in marine-based ectotherms is associated with an increased sodium pump molecular activity relative to other ectotherms. Phospholipids from all tissues of the octopus were highly polyunsaturated and contained high concentrations of the omega-3 polyunsaturate, docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 (n-3)). In contrast, phospholipids from bearded dragon tissues contained higher proportions of monounsaturates and lower proportions of polyunsaturates. Sodium pump molecular activity was only moderately elevated in tissues of the octopus compared to the bearded dragon, despite the much greater level of polyunsaturation in octopus membranes. When the current data were combined with data for the ectothermic cane toad, a significant (P = 0.003) correlation was observed between sodium pump molecular activity and the content of 22:6 (n-3) in the surrounding membrane. These results are discussed in relation to recent work which shows a similar relationship in endotherms.

  12. Ral mediates activity-dependent growth of postsynaptic membranes via recruitment of the exocyst

    PubMed Central

    Teodoro, Rita O; Pekkurnaz, Gulçin; Nasser, Abdullah; Higashi-Kovtun, Misao E; Balakireva, Maria; McLachlan, Ian G; Camonis, Jacques; Schwarz, Thomas L

    2013-01-01

    Remodelling neuronal connections by synaptic activity requires membrane trafficking. We present evidence for a signalling pathway by which synaptic activity and its consequent Ca2+ influx activate the small GTPase Ral and thereby recruit exocyst proteins to postsynaptic zones. In accord with the ability of the exocyst to direct delivery of post-Golgi vesicles, constitutively active Ral expressed in Drosophila muscle causes the exocyst to be concentrated in the region surrounding synaptic boutons and consequently enlarges the membrane folds of the postsynaptic plasma membrane (the subsynaptic reticulum, SSR). SSR growth requires Ral and the exocyst component Sec5 and Ral-induced enlargement of these membrane folds does not occur in sec5−/− muscles. Chronic changes in synaptic activity influence the plastic growth of this membrane in a manner consistent with activity-dependent activation of Ral. Thus, Ral regulation of the exocyst represents a control point for postsynaptic plasticity. This pathway may also function in mammals as expression of activated RalA in hippocampal neurons increases dendritic spine density in an exocyst-dependent manner and increases Sec5 in spines. PMID:23812009

  13. The bile acid-sensitive ion channel (BASIC) is activated by alterations of its membrane environment.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Axel; Lenzig, Pia; Oslender-Bujotzek, Adrienne; Kusch, Jana; Lucas, Susana Dias; Gründer, Stefan; Wiemuth, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    The bile acid-sensitive ion channel (BASIC) is a member of the DEG/ENaC family of ion channels. Channels of this family are characterized by a common structure, their physiological functions and modes of activation, however, are diverse. Rat BASIC is expressed in brain, liver and intestinal tract and activated by bile acids. The physiological function of BASIC and its mechanism of bile acid activation remain a puzzle. Here we addressed the question whether amphiphilic bile acids activate BASIC by directly binding to the channel or indirectly by altering the properties of the surrounding membrane. We show that membrane-active substances other than bile acids also affect the activity of BASIC and that activation by bile acids and other membrane-active substances is non-additive, suggesting that BASIC is sensitive for changes in its membrane environment. Furthermore based on results from chimeras between BASIC and ASIC1a, we show that the extracellular and the transmembrane domains are important for membrane sensitivity.

  14. The Bile Acid-Sensitive Ion Channel (BASIC) Is Activated by Alterations of Its Membrane Environment

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Axel; Lenzig, Pia; Oslender-Bujotzek, Adrienne; Kusch, Jana; Dias Lucas, Susana; Gründer, Stefan; Wiemuth, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    The bile acid-sensitive ion channel (BASIC) is a member of the DEG/ENaC family of ion channels. Channels of this family are characterized by a common structure, their physiological functions and modes of activation, however, are diverse. Rat BASIC is expressed in brain, liver and intestinal tract and activated by bile acids. The physiological function of BASIC and its mechanism of bile acid activation remain a puzzle. Here we addressed the question whether amphiphilic bile acids activate BASIC by directly binding to the channel or indirectly by altering the properties of the surrounding membrane. We show that membrane-active substances other than bile acids also affect the activity of BASIC and that activation by bile acids and other membrane-active substances is non-additive, suggesting that BASIC is sensitive for changes in its membrane environment. Furthermore based on results from chimeras between BASIC and ASIC1a, we show that the extracellular and the transmembrane domains are important for membrane sensitivity. PMID:25360526

  15. Role of LRAT on the retinoid isomerase activity and membrane association of Rpe65.

    PubMed

    Jin, Minghao; Yuan, Quan; Li, Songhua; Travis, Gabriel H

    2007-07-20

    Absorption of a photon by a vertebrate opsin pigment induces 11-cis to all-trans isomerization of its retinaldehyde chromophore. Restoration of light sensitivity to the bleached opsin requires chemical re-isomerization of the chromophore via an enzyme pathway called the visual cycle. The retinoid isomerase in this pathway is Rpe65, a membrane-associated protein in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) with no predicted membrane-spanning segments. It has been suggested that Rpe65 is S-palmitoylated by lecithin:retinol acyl transferase (LRAT) on Cys(231), Cys(329), and Cys(330), and that this palmitoylation is required for isomerase activity and the association of Rpe65 with membranes. Here we show that the affinity of Rpe65 for membranes is similar in wild-type and lrat(-/-) mice. The isomerase activity of Rpe65 is also similar in both strains when all-trans-retinyl palmitate is used as substrate. With all-trans-retinol substrate, isomerase activity is present in wild-type but undetectable in RPE homogenates from lrat(-/-) mice. Substitution of Cys(231), Cys(329), and Cys(330) with Ser or Ala did not affect the affinity of Rpe65 for membranes. Further, these Cys residues are not palmitoylated in Rpe65 by mass spectrometric analysis. Global inhibition of protein palmitoylation by 2-bromopalmitate did not affect the solubility or isomerase activity of Rpe65. Finally, we show that soluble and membrane-associated Rpe65 possesses similar isomerase specific activities. These results indicate that LRAT is not required for isomerase activity beyond synthesis of retinyl-ester substrate, and that the association of Rpe65 with membranes is neither dependent upon LRAT nor the result of S-palmitoylation. The affinity of Rpe65 for membranes is probably an intrinsic feature of this protein.

  16. Investigation of the pore structure and morphology of cellulose acetate membranes using small-angle neutron scattering. 1: Cellulose acetate active layer membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, S.; Krause, S. ); Wignall, G.D. . Solid State Div.); Hammouda, B. . Center for High Resolution Neutron Scattering)

    1994-11-07

    The structure of ultrathin cellulose acetate membranes, known as active layer membranes, has been investigated using small-angle neutron scattering. These membranes are known to have structural and functional similarity to the surface or skin layer in commercial reverse-osmosis (RO) membranes and hence are useful model systems for understanding the structure of the RO membrane skin layer. Active layer membranes were studied after swelling them with either D[sub 2]O or CD[sub 3]OD. The results in both cases clearly indicated the presence of very small (10--20 [angstrom]) porous structures in the membrane. The presence of such pores has been a subject of long-standing controversy in this area. The data were analyzed using a modified Debye-Bueche analysis and the resultant membrane structure was seen to agree well with structural information from electron microscopic studies. Finally, a possible explanation for the differences in scattering observed between the D[sub 2]O swollen membranes and the CD[sub 3]OD swollen membranes has been presented.

  17. Membrane Active Antimicrobial Peptides: Translating Mechanistic Insights to Design

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianguo; Koh, Jun-Jie; Liu, Shouping; Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani; Verma, Chandra S.; Beuerman, Roger W.

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising next generation antibiotics that hold great potential for combating bacterial resistance. AMPs can be both bacteriostatic and bactericidal, induce rapid killing and display a lower propensity to develop resistance than do conventional antibiotics. Despite significant progress in the past 30 years, no peptide antibiotic has reached the clinic yet. Poor understanding of the action mechanisms and lack of rational design principles have been the two major obstacles that have slowed progress. Technological developments are now enabling multidisciplinary approaches including molecular dynamics simulations combined with biophysics and microbiology toward providing valuable insights into the interactions of AMPs with membranes at atomic level. This has led to increasingly robust models of the mechanisms of action of AMPs and has begun to contribute meaningfully toward the discovery of new AMPs. This review discusses the detailed action mechanisms that have been put forward, with detailed atomistic insights into how the AMPs interact with bacterial membranes. The review further discusses how this knowledge is exploited toward developing design principles for novel AMPs. Finally, the current status, associated challenges, and future directions for the development of AMP therapeutics are discussed. PMID:28261050

  18. Membrane Active Antimicrobial Peptides: Translating Mechanistic Insights to Design.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianguo; Koh, Jun-Jie; Liu, Shouping; Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani; Verma, Chandra S; Beuerman, Roger W

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising next generation antibiotics that hold great potential for combating bacterial resistance. AMPs can be both bacteriostatic and bactericidal, induce rapid killing and display a lower propensity to develop resistance than do conventional antibiotics. Despite significant progress in the past 30 years, no peptide antibiotic has reached the clinic yet. Poor understanding of the action mechanisms and lack of rational design principles have been the two major obstacles that have slowed progress. Technological developments are now enabling multidisciplinary approaches including molecular dynamics simulations combined with biophysics and microbiology toward providing valuable insights into the interactions of AMPs with membranes at atomic level. This has led to increasingly robust models of the mechanisms of action of AMPs and has begun to contribute meaningfully toward the discovery of new AMPs. This review discusses the detailed action mechanisms that have been put forward, with detailed atomistic insights into how the AMPs interact with bacterial membranes. The review further discusses how this knowledge is exploited toward developing design principles for novel AMPs. Finally, the current status, associated challenges, and future directions for the development of AMP therapeutics are discussed.

  19. The effect of aspartame metabolites on human erythrocyte membrane acetylcholinesterase activity.

    PubMed

    Tsakiris, Stylianos; Giannoulia-Karantana, Aglaia; Simintzi, Irene; Schulpis, Kleopatra H

    2006-01-01

    Studies have implicated aspartame (ASP) with neurological problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in human erythrocyte membranes after incubation with the sum of ASP metabolites, phenylalanine (Phe), methanol (met) and aspartic acid (aspt), or with each one separately. Erythrocyte membranes were obtained from 12 healthy individuals and were incubated with ASP hydrolysis products for 1 h at 37 degrees C. AChE was measured spectrophotometrically. Incubation of membranes with ASP metabolites corresponding with 34 mg/kg, 150 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg of ASP consumption resulted in an enzyme activity reduction by -33%, -41%, and -57%, respectively. Met concentrations 0.14 mM, 0.60 mM, and 0.80 mM decreased the enzyme activity by -20%, -32% or -40%, respectively. Aspt concentrations 2.80 mM, 7.60 mM or 10.0 mM inhibited membrane AChE activity by -20%, -35%, and -47%, respectively. Phe concentrations 0.14 mM, 0.35 mM or 0.50mM reduced the enzyme activity by -11%, -33%, and -35%, respectively. Aspt or Phe concentrations 0.82 mM or 0.07 mM, respectively, did not alter the membrane AChE activity. It is concluded that low concentrations of ASP metabolites had no effect on the membrane enzyme activity, whereas high or toxic concentrations partially or remarkably decreased the membrane AChE activity, respectively. Additionally, neurological symptoms, including learning and memory processes, may be related to the high or toxic concentrations of the sweetener metabolites.

  20. The higher level of complexity of K-Ras4B activation at the membrane

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hyunbum; Banerjee, Avik; Chavan, Tanmay S.; Lu, Shaoyong; Zhang, Jian; Gaponenko, Vadim; Nussinov, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Is nucleotide exchange sufficient to activate K-Ras4B? To signal, oncogenic rat sarcoma (Ras) anchors in the membrane and recruits effectors by exposing its effector lobe. With the use of NMR and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we observed that in solution, farnesylated guanosine 5′-diphosphate (GDP)-bound K-Ras4B is predominantly autoinhibited by its hypervariable region (HVR), whereas the GTP-bound state favors an activated, HVR-released state. On the anionic membrane, the catalytic domain adopts multiple orientations, including parallel (∼180°) and perpendicular (∼90°) alignments of the allosteric helices, with respect to the membrane surface direction. In the autoinhibited state, the HVR is sandwiched between the effector lobe and the membrane; in the active state, with membrane-anchored farnesyl and unrestrained HVR, the catalytic domain fluctuates reinlessly, exposing its effector-binding site. Dimerization and clustering can reduce the fluctuations. This achieves preorganized, productive conformations. Notably, we also observe HVR-autoinhibited K-Ras4B-GTP states, with GDP-bound-like orientations of the helices. Thus, we propose that the GDP/GTP exchange may not be sufficient for activation; instead, our results suggest that the GDP/GTP exchange, HVR sequestration, farnesyl insertion, and orientation/localization of the catalytic domain at the membrane conjointly determine the active or inactive state of K-Ras4B. Importantly, K-Ras4B-GTP can exist in active and inactive states; on its own, GTP binding may not compel K-Ras4B activation.—Jang, H., Banerjee, A., Chavan, T. S, Lu, S., Zhang, J., Gaponenko, V., Nussinov, R. The higher level of complexity of K-Ras4B activation at the membrane. PMID:26718888

  1. Membrane permeability and the loss of germination factor from Neurospora crassa at low water activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlang, G.; Horowitz, N. H.

    1974-01-01

    Neurospora crassa conidia incubating in buffer at low water activities release a germination-essential component as well as 260-nm absorbing and ninhydrin-positive materials, regardless of whether an electrolyte or nonelectrolyte is used to reduce water activity. Chloroform and antibiotics known to increase cell-membrane permeability have a similar effect. This suggests that membrane damage occurs in media of low water activity and that an increase in permeability is responsible for the release of cellular components. The damage caused in media of low water activity is nonlethal in most cases, and the conidia recover when transferred to nutrient medium.

  2. Membrane permeability and the loss of germination factor from Neurospora crassa at low water activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlang, G.; Horowitz, N. H.

    1974-01-01

    Neurospora crassa conidia incubating in buffer at low water activities release a germination-essential component as well as 260-nm absorbing and ninhydrin-positive materials, regardless of whether an electrolyte or nonelectrolyte is used to reduce water activity. Chloroform and antibiotics known to increase cell-membrane permeability have a similar effect. This suggests that membrane damage occurs in media of low water activity and that an increase in permeability is responsible for the release of cellular components. The damage caused in media of low water activity is nonlethal in most cases, and the conidia recover when transferred to nutrient medium.

  3. Powder Activated Carbon Pretreatment of a Microfiltration Membrane for the Treatment of Surface Water.

    PubMed

    Song, Yali; Dong, Bingzhi; Gao, Naiyun; Ma, Xiaoyan

    2015-09-10

    This study focused on the effect of powder activated carbon (PAC) adsorption on microfiltration (MF) membrane performance. The results showed that PAC pretreatment offered high organic matter removal rates for both dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UV254) during 10-200 mg/L PAC dosage. The removal efficiencies of organic matter by MF membrane filtration decreased with the increase of organic matter removal rate by PAC adsorption. PAC mainly removed organic matter of about 3 kDa molecular weight (MW). MF membrane maintained more than 5 kDa MW organic matter on the membrane after PAC adsorption. The results of membrane filtration indicated that PAC pretreatment slightly promoted membrane flux, regardless of PAC dosage. It seems that the organic matter fouling membrane was concentrated in more than 3 kDa MW. PAC removed markedly less than 3 kDa MW organic matter and had less effect on more than 3 kDa organic matter. Thus, PAC cannot reduce membrane fouling.

  4. Characterization of antibacterial polyethersulfone membranes using the Respiration Activity Monitoring System (RAMOS).

    PubMed

    Kochan, Jozef; Scheidle, Marco; van Erkel, Joost; Bikel, Matías; Büchs, Jochen; Wong, John Erik; Melin, Thomas; Wessling, Matthias

    2012-10-15

    Membranes with antibacterial properties were developed using surface modification of polyethersulfone ultrafiltration membranes. Three different modification strategies using polyelectrolyte layer-by-layer (LbL) technique are described. The first strategy relying on the intrinsic antibacterial properties of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) and poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) exhibits only little antibacterial effects. The other two strategies contain silver in both ionic (Ag(+)) and metallic (Ag(0)) form. Ag(+) embedded into negatively charged poly(sodium 4-styrene sulfonate) (PSS) layers totally inhibits bacterial growth. Ag(0) nanoparticles were introduced to the membrane surface by LbL deposition of chitosan- and poly(methacrylic acid) - sodium salt (PMA)-capped silver nanoparticles and subsequent UV or heat treatment. Antibacterial properties of the modified membranes were quantified by a new method based on the Respiration Activity Monitoring System (RAMOS), whereby the oxygen transfer rates (OTR) of E. coli K12 cultures on the membranes were monitored online. As opposed to colony forming counting method RAMOS yields more quantitative and reliable data on the antibacterial effect of membrane modification. Ag-imprinted polyelectrolyte film composed of chitosan (Ag(0))/PMA(Ag(0))/chitosan(Ag(0)) was found to be the most promising among the tested membranes. Further investigation revealed that the concentration and equal distribution of silver in the membrane surface plays an important role in bacterial growth inhibition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Powder Activated Carbon Pretreatment of a Microfiltration Membrane for the Treatment of Surface Water

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yali; Dong, Bingzhi; Gao, Naiyun; Ma, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on the effect of powder activated carbon (PAC) adsorption on microfiltration (MF) membrane performance. The results showed that PAC pretreatment offered high organic matter removal rates for both dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UV254) during 10–200 mg/L PAC dosage. The removal efficiencies of organic matter by MF membrane filtration decreased with the increase of organic matter removal rate by PAC adsorption. PAC mainly removed organic matter of about 3 kDa molecular weight (MW). MF membrane maintained more than 5 kDa MW organic matter on the membrane after PAC adsorption. The results of membrane filtration indicated that PAC pretreatment slightly promoted membrane flux, regardless of PAC dosage. It seems that the organic matter fouling membrane was concentrated in more than 3 kDa MW. PAC removed markedly less than 3 kDa MW organic matter and had less effect on more than 3 kDa organic matter. Thus, PAC cannot reduce membrane fouling. PMID:26378552

  6. Localization of a Mg2+-activated ATPase in the plasma membrane of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Meirelles, M N; De Souza, W

    1984-02-01

    The Wachstein and Meisel incubation medium was used to detect ATPase activity in epimastigote, spheromastigote (amastigote), and bloodstream trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. Reaction product, indicative of enzyme activity, was associated with the plasma membrane covering the cell body and the flagellum of the parasite. No reaction product was found in the portion of the plasma membrane lining the flagellar pocket. The plasma membrane-associated ATPase activity was not inhibited by ouabain or oligomycin, was detected in incubation medium without K+, was inhibited by prolonged glutaraldehyde fixation, and its activity was diminished when Mg2+ was omitted from the incubation medium. The Ernst medium was used to detect Na+-K+-ATPase activity in T. cruzi. No reaction product indicative of the presence of this enzyme was detected. Reaction product indicative of 5'-nucleotidase was not detected in T. cruzi. Acid phosphatase activity was detected in lysosomes. Those results indicate that a Mg2+-activated ATPase is present in the plasma membrane of T. cruzi and that it can be used as an enzyme marker, provided that the mitochondrial and flagellar ATPases are inhibited, to assess the purity of plasma membrane fractions isolated from this parasite.

  7. ESR study on the antioxidant activity of TAK-218 in biological model membranes.

    PubMed

    Murakami, M; Fukatsu, K; Ohkawa, S; Kasahara, F; Sugawara, T

    2000-06-01

    TAK-218 has a 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-5-amine (coumaran) structure which resembles alpha-tocopherol, and is a promising candidate as an agent for central nervous system (CNS) trauma and ischemia. The radical scavenging activity of TAK-218 was studied using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. TAK-218 exhibited a more potent scavenging activity towards the hydroxyl radical than did the well-known hydroxyl radical scavengers, mannitol and dimethylsulfoxide. Towards the superoxide radical, TAK-218 showed equal potency to glutathione. TAK-218 reacted rapidly with stable radicals, such as galvinoxyl and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH), and gave the quinone as a two-electron oxidized product in analogy with alpha-tocopherol. To exhibit an excellent antioxidative activity in living systems, the compounds should not only have the intrinsic radical scavenging activity but also good distribution in the biological lipid-bilayer membrane. To examine the antioxidant activity of TAK-218, the inhibition of lipid peroxidation by alpha-tocopherol and TAK-218 in liposomal membranes was studied using an ESR spin-label technique. Both alpha-tocopherol and TAK-218 completely inhibited lipid peroxidation by radicals generated in an aqueous layer using a water-soluble radical initiator, 2,2'-azobis-(2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride (AAPH). At a high incubation temperature (45 degrees C), alpha-tocopherol scavenged radicals more effectively than TAK-218 on the surface of the membrane, while TAK-218 scavenged radicals more effectively in the interior of the membrane. The difference between TAK-218 and alpha-tocopherol for radical scavenging in the membrane system derives from the different distribution pattern of these compounds. TAK-218 can penetrate the membrane freely and can scavenge the radical in the membrane interior. Furthermore, TAK-218 was shown to inhibit lipid peroxidation initiated by a lipid soluble radical initiator, 2,2'-azobis-(2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile

  8. Regulation of membrane associated protein kinase C activity by guanine nucleotide in rabbit peritoneal neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.K.; Devanney, J.F.

    1986-03-05

    Addition of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) (0.1 ..mu..g/ml) or guanosine-5'-0-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTP..gamma..S) (10..mu..M) to the membrane fraction from rabbit peritoneal neutrophils results in an increase of phosphorylation of several membrane proteins. To test whether membrane associated protein kinase C is involved in the activation, histone is added to the membrane as a substrate for protein kinase C. Phosphorylation of histone is determined by counting the gel pieces containing histone IIIS after separation from other membrane components by SDS-gel electrophoresis. In the presence of CaC12 (20 ..mu..M), GTP..gamma..S (10 ..mu..M) or PMA (0.1 ..mu..g/ml) stimulates the phosphorylation of histone IIIS (40% to 70% increase). To achieve this effect calcium is required for GTP..gamma..S but not for PMA. The effect of GTP..gamma..S but not PMA is inhibited in membranes obtained from cells pretreated with pertussis toxin. Membrane protein kinase C is solubilized with Triton X-100 (1%) and then applied to a DEAE-52 cellulose column chromatography. Two peaks of protein kinase C activity are observed. Peak one is eluted at 40 mM NaCl, peak two is eluted at 140 mM NaCl. The activity of peak one is stimulated with phosphatidylserine (PS) and PMA but not with PS and calcium. The activity of peak two is stimulated with either PS and PMA or PS and calcium. The results suggest that GTP binding protein is involved in the activation of membrane associated protein kinase C and the kinase may exist in two forms, calcium sensitive and calcium insensitive.

  9. Controlled Proteolysis Activates the Plasma Membrane Ca2+ Pump of Higher Plants (A Comparison with the Effect of Calmodulin in Plasma Membrane from Radish Seedlings).

    PubMed Central

    Rasi-Caldogno, F.; Carnelli, A.; De Michelis, M. I.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of calmodulin and of controlled trypsin treatments on the activity of the Ca2+ pump were investigated in plasma membrane purified from radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seedlings. Treatment of the plasma membrane with ethylenediaminetetra-acetate (EDTA), which removed about two-thirds of the plasma membrane-associated calmodulin, markedly increased the stimulation of the Ca2+ pump by calmodulin. In EDTA-treated plasma membrane, stimulation by calmodulin of the Ca2+ pump activity was maximal at low free Ca2+ (2-5 [mu]M) and decreased with the increase of free Ca2+ concentration. The Ca2+ pump activity was stimulated also by a controlled treatment of the plasma membrane with trypsin: the effect of trypsin treatment depended on the concentration of both trypsin and plasma membrane proteins and on the duration of incubation. Stimulation of the Ca2+ pump activity by trypsin treatment of the plasma membrane was similar to that induced by calmodulin both in extent and in dependence on the free Ca2+ concentration in the assay medium. Moreover, the Ca2+ pump of trypsin-treated plasma membrane was insensitive to further stimulation by calmodulin, suggesting that limited proteolysis preferentially cleaves a regulatory domain of the enzyme that is involved in its activation by calmodulin. PMID:12231945

  10. Structural basis for activation, assembly and membrane binding of ESCRT-III Snf7 filaments.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shaogeng; Henne, W Mike; Borbat, Peter P; Buchkovich, Nicholas J; Freed, Jack H; Mao, Yuxin; Fromme, J Christopher; Emr, Scott D

    2015-12-15

    The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs) constitute hetero-oligomeric machines that catalyze multiple topologically similar membrane-remodeling processes. Although ESCRT-III subunits polymerize into spirals, how individual ESCRT-III subunits are activated and assembled together into a membrane-deforming filament remains unknown. Here, we determine X-ray crystal structures of the most abundant ESCRT-III subunit Snf7 in its active conformation. Using pulsed dipolar electron spin resonance spectroscopy (PDS), we show that Snf7 activation requires a prominent conformational rearrangement to expose protein-membrane and protein-protein interfaces. This promotes the assembly of Snf7 arrays with ~30 Å periodicity into a membrane-sculpting filament. Using a combination of biochemical and genetic approaches, both in vitro and in vivo, we demonstrate that mutations on these protein interfaces halt Snf7 assembly and block ESCRT function. The architecture of the activated and membrane-bound Snf7 polymer provides crucial insights into the spatially unique ESCRT-III-mediated membrane remodeling.

  11. Membrane-active Antimicrobial Peptides as Template Structures for Novel Antibiotic Agents.

    PubMed

    Lohner, Karl

    2017-01-01

    The increase of pathogens being resistant to antibiotics represents a global health problem and therefore it is a pressing need to develop antibiotics with novel mechanisms of action. Host defense peptides, which have direct antimicrobial activity (also termed antimicrobial peptides) or immune modulating activity, are valuable template structures for the development of such compounds. Antimicrobial peptides exhibit remarkably different structures as well as biological activity profiles with multiple targets. A large fraction of these peptides interfere physically with the cell membrane of bacteria (focus of this review), but can also translocate into the cytosol, where they interact with nucleic acids, ribosomes and proteins. Several potential interaction sites have to be considered on the route of the peptides from the environment to the cytoplasmic membrane. Translocation of peptides through the cell wall may not be impaired by the thick but relatively porous peptidoglycan layer. However, interaction with lipopolysaccharides of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and (lipo)teichoic acids of Gram-positive bacteria may reduce the effective concentration at the cytoplasmic membrane, where supposedly the killing event takes place. On a molecular level several mechanisms are discussed, which are important for the rational design of improved antimicrobial compounds: toroidal pore formation, carpet model (coverage of membrane surface by peptides), interfacial activity, void formation, clustering of lipids and effects of membrane curvature. In summary, many of these models just represent special cases that can be interrelated to each other and depend on both the nature of lipids and peptides.

  12. Activation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide (eNOS) Occurs through Different Membrane Domains in Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Jason; Magenau, Astrid; Rodriguez, Macarena; Rentero, Carles; Royo, Teresa; Enrich, Carlos; Thomas, Shane R.; Grewal, Thomas; Gaus, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cells respond to a large range of stimuli including circulating lipoproteins, growth factors and changes in haemodynamic mechanical forces to regulate the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and maintain blood pressure. While many signalling pathways have been mapped, the identities of membrane domains through which these signals are transmitted are less well characterized. Here, we manipulated bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) with cholesterol and the oxysterol 7-ketocholesterol (7KC). Using a range of microscopy techniques including confocal, 2-photon, super-resolution and electron microscopy, we found that sterol enrichment had differential effects on eNOS and caveolin-1 (Cav1) colocalisation, membrane order of the plasma membrane, caveolae numbers and Cav1 clustering. We found a correlation between cholesterol-induced condensation of the plasma membrane and enhanced high density lipoprotein (HDL)-induced eNOS activity and phosphorylation suggesting that cholesterol domains, but not individual caveolae, mediate HDL stimulation of eNOS. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced and shear stress-induced eNOS activity was relatively independent of membrane order and may be predominantly controlled by the number of caveolae on the cell surface. Taken together, our data suggest that signals that activate and phosphorylate eNOS are transmitted through distinct membrane domains in endothelial cells. PMID:26977592

  13. Activation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide (eNOS) Occurs through Different Membrane Domains in Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Tran, Jason; Magenau, Astrid; Rodriguez, Macarena; Rentero, Carles; Royo, Teresa; Enrich, Carlos; Thomas, Shane R; Grewal, Thomas; Gaus, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cells respond to a large range of stimuli including circulating lipoproteins, growth factors and changes in haemodynamic mechanical forces to regulate the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and maintain blood pressure. While many signalling pathways have been mapped, the identities of membrane domains through which these signals are transmitted are less well characterized. Here, we manipulated bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) with cholesterol and the oxysterol 7-ketocholesterol (7KC). Using a range of microscopy techniques including confocal, 2-photon, super-resolution and electron microscopy, we found that sterol enrichment had differential effects on eNOS and caveolin-1 (Cav1) colocalisation, membrane order of the plasma membrane, caveolae numbers and Cav1 clustering. We found a correlation between cholesterol-induced condensation of the plasma membrane and enhanced high density lipoprotein (HDL)-induced eNOS activity and phosphorylation suggesting that cholesterol domains, but not individual caveolae, mediate HDL stimulation of eNOS. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced and shear stress-induced eNOS activity was relatively independent of membrane order and may be predominantly controlled by the number of caveolae on the cell surface. Taken together, our data suggest that signals that activate and phosphorylate eNOS are transmitted through distinct membrane domains in endothelial cells.

  14. Structural basis for activation, assembly and membrane binding of ESCRT-III Snf7 filaments

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shaogeng; Henne, W Mike; Borbat, Peter P; Buchkovich, Nicholas J; Freed, Jack H; Mao, Yuxin; Fromme, J Christopher; Emr, Scott D

    2015-01-01

    The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs) constitute hetero-oligomeric machines that catalyze multiple topologically similar membrane-remodeling processes. Although ESCRT-III subunits polymerize into spirals, how individual ESCRT-III subunits are activated and assembled together into a membrane-deforming filament remains unknown. Here, we determine X-ray crystal structures of the most abundant ESCRT-III subunit Snf7 in its active conformation. Using pulsed dipolar electron spin resonance spectroscopy (PDS), we show that Snf7 activation requires a prominent conformational rearrangement to expose protein-membrane and protein-protein interfaces. This promotes the assembly of Snf7 arrays with ~30 Å periodicity into a membrane-sculpting filament. Using a combination of biochemical and genetic approaches, both in vitro and in vivo, we demonstrate that mutations on these protein interfaces halt Snf7 assembly and block ESCRT function. The architecture of the activated and membrane-bound Snf7 polymer provides crucial insights into the spatially unique ESCRT-III-mediated membrane remodeling. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12548.001 PMID:26670543

  15. Membrane-Targeting DCAP Analogues with Broad-Spectrum Antibiotic Activity against Pathogenic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Katherine A; Heinrich, Victoria A; Hershfield, Jeremy R; Demons, Samandra T; Weibel, Douglas B

    2015-04-09

    We performed a structure-activity relationship study of 2-((3-(3,6-dichloro-9H-carbazol-9-yl)-2-hydroxypropyl)amino)-2-(hydroxymethyl)propane-1,3-diol (DCAP), which is an antibacterial agent that disrupts the membrane potential and permeability of bacteria. The stereochemistry of DCAP had no effect on the biological activity of DCAP. The aromaticity and electronegativity of the chlorine-substituted carbazole was required for activity, suggesting that its planar and dipolar characteristics orient DCAP in membranes. Increasing the hydrophobicity of the tail region of DCAP enhanced its antibiotic activity. Two DCAP analogues displayed promising antibacterial activity against the BSL-3 pathogens Bacillus anthracis and Francisella tularensis. Codosing DCAP analogues with ampicillin or kanamycin increased their potency. These studies demonstrate that DCAP and its analogues may be a promising scaffold for developing chemotherapeutic agents that bind to bacterial membranes and kill strains of slow-growing or dormant bacteria that cause persistent infections.

  16. Calcium-mediated fusion to produce ultra large osmotically active mitochondrial inner membranes of controlled protein density.

    PubMed

    Chazotte, B; Wu, E S; Höchli, M; Hackenbrock, C R

    1985-08-08

    We have developed a new membrane fusion method which produces ultra large, spherical mitochondrial inner membranes attached to microscope slides. The fused inner membranes measured up to 200 microns in diameter. The technique fuses native inner membranes as well as inner membranes in which the protein density has been varied by enriching with exogenous phospholipid. The fusion process is accomplished through the use of calcium, low pH and elevated temperature. Characterization of the fused membranes was carried out using phase, fluorescence, and freeze-fracture electron microscopy. These ultra large, fused inner membranes were found to model the inner membranes from which they were formed. The fused inner membranes were found to be osmotically active and are large enough for measuring the lateral diffusion of membrane components by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and are large enough for microelectrode impalement.

  17. Structural aspects of the antioxidant activity of lutein in a model of photoreceptor membranes

    PubMed Central

    Wisniewska-Becker, Anna; Nawrocki, Grzegorz; Duda, Mariusz; Subczynski, Witold K.

    2014-01-01

    It was shown that in membranes containing raft domains, the macular xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin are not distributed uniformly, but are excluded from saturated raft domains and about ten times more concentrated in unsaturated bulk lipids. The selective accumulation of lutein and zeaxanthin in direct proximity to unsaturated lipids, which are especially susceptible to lipid peroxidation, could be very important as far as their antioxidant activity is concerned. Therefore, the protective role of lutein against lipid peroxidation was investigated in membranes made of raft-forming mixtures and in models of photoreceptor outer segment membranes and compared with their antioxidant activity in homogeneous membranes composed of unsaturated lipids. Lipid peroxidation was induced by photosensitized reactions using rose Bengal and monitored by an MDA-TBA test, an iodometric assay, and oxygen consumption (using EPR spectroscopy and the mHCTPO spin label as an oxygen probe). The results show that lutein protects unsaturated lipids more effectively in membranes made of raft-forming mixtures than in homogeneous membranes. This suggests that the selective accumulation of macular xanthophylls in the most vulnerable regions of photoreceptor membranes may play an important role in enhancing their antioxidant properties and ability to prevent age-related macular diseases (such as age-related macular degeneration [AMD]). PMID:22428148

  18. Membrane anchoring of diacylglycerol lactones substituted with rigid hydrophobic acyl domains correlates with biological activities.

    PubMed

    Raifman, Or; Kolusheva, Sofiya; Comin, Maria J; Kedei, Noemi; Lewin, Nancy E; Blumberg, Peter M; Marquez, Victor E; Jelinek, Raz

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic diacylglycerol lactones (DAG lactones) are effective modulators of critical cellular signaling pathways downstream of the lipophilic second messenger diacylglycerol that activate a host of protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes as well as other non-kinase proteins that share with PKC similar C1 membrane-targeting domains. A fundamental determinant of the biological activity of these amphiphilic molecules is the nature of their interactions with cellular membranes. This study characterizes the membrane interactions and bilayer anchoring of a series of DAG lactones in which the hydrophobic moiety is a 'molecular rod', namely a rigid 4-[2-(R-phenyl)ethynyl]benzoate moiety in the acyl position. Use of assays employing chromatic biomimetic vesicles and biophysical techniques revealed that the mode of membrane anchoring of the DAG lactone derivatives was markedly affected by the presence of the hydrophobic diphenyl rod and by the size of the functional unit at the terminus of the rod. Two primary mechanisms of interaction were observed: surface binding of the DAG lactones at the lipid/water interface and deep insertion of the ligands into the alkyl core of the lipid bilayer. These membrane-insertion properties could explain the different patterns of the PKC translocation from the cytosol to membranes that is induced by the molecular-rod DAG lactones. This investigation emphasizes that the side residues of DAG lactones, rather than simply conferring hydrophobicity, profoundly influence membrane interactions, and thus may further contribute to the diversity of biological actions of these synthetic biomimetic ligands.

  19. Compartmentalized system with membrane-bound glycerol kinase. Activity and product distribution versus asymmetrical substrate supply.

    PubMed Central

    Girard, A; Merchie, B; Maïsterrena, B

    1991-01-01

    An artificial-membrane-bound glycerokinase chosen as a membrane-bound two-substrate-enzyme model has been used to separate two unequal compartments of a specially designed diffusion cell. An interesting feature is the asymmetry of compartments and the existence of a diffusion layer adjacent to only one face of the enzymic membrane. In such a situation the apparent enzyme activity and the product distribution in the system have been studied versus all the possibilities of combination of ATP and glycerol supply. Our approach has lead us to differentiate two different roles played by a diffusion layer adjacent to a permeable enzymic membrane. Depending on the spatial origin of the enzymic substrates (i.e. from which compartment they derive), the diffusion layer can play either the role of a passive additional resistance to that of the membrane or the role of a third compartment in which the reaction product can partially accumulate before splitting on both parts of the membrane. Our results mainly demonstrate that a membrane-bound enzyme activity and the resulting product distribution occurring in a compartmentalized system may be regulated by the cumulative effect due to the asymmetry in volumes of the compartments, the presence of a diffusion layer and the different possibilities of substrate supply. With the topography studied, which is close to that reported for many 'in vivo' situations, the product may be diffused lead to vectorial metabolism processes. PMID:2012608

  20. Enhancing the performance of nanofiltration membranes by modifying the active layer with aramide dendrimers.

    PubMed

    de Jubera, Ana M Saenz; Gao, Yuan; Moore, Jeffrey S; Cahill, David G; Mariñas, Benito J

    2012-09-04

    The fully aromatic polyamide active layer of a commercial nanofiltration membrane was modified with three generations (G1, G2, and G3) of aramide dendrimers, all with oligoethylene glycol chains on their peripheries. Permeation experiments revealed that the rejection of Rhodamine WT, used as a surrogate for organic contaminants, improved 1-2 orders of magnitude for membranes modified with G2 and G3 dendrimers at loadings of 0.7-3.5 μg/cm(2) (dendrimer layer thicknesses of ~1-6 nm) compared to the performance of unmodified membranes. In contrast, the corresponding water permeability of dendrimer-modified membranes decreased by only ~30%. Although an enhancement in the rejection of H(3)AsO(3), NaCl, and BaCl(2) was also observed for dendritic membranes, the effect was less pronounced than that for rhodamine WT. Characterization of membranes modified with 3.5 μg/cm(2) dendrimers G2 and G3 by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry with the aid of heavy ion probes (Ag(+) and Ba(2+)) revealed that accessibility of the larger Ba(2+) probe to carboxylate groups on the active layer decreased for the membranes modified with dendrimers.

  1. Progression of NMR studies of membrane-active peptides from lipid bilayers to live cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sani, M.-A.; Separovic, F.

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the structure of membrane-active peptides faces many challenges associated with the development of appropriate model membrane systems as the peptide structure depends strongly on the lipid environment. This perspective provides a brief overview of the approach taken to study antimicrobial and amyloid peptides in phospholipid bilayers using oriented bilayers and magic angle spinning techniques. In particular, Boltzmann statistics REDOR and maximum entropy analysis of spinning side bands are used to analyse systems where multiple states of peptide or lipid molecules may co-exist. We propose that in future, rather than model membranes, structural studies in whole cells are feasible.

  2. Non-selective voltage-activated cation channel in the human red blood cell membrane.

    PubMed

    Kaestner, L; Bollensdorff, C; Bernhardt, I

    1999-02-04

    Using the patch-clamp technique, a non-selective voltage-activated Na+ and K+ channel in the human red blood cell membrane was found. The channel operates only at positive membrane potentials from about +30 mV (inside positive) onwards. For sodium and potassium ions, similar conductances of about 21 pS were determined. Together with the recently described K+(Na+)/H+ exchanger, this channel is responsible for the increase of residual K+ and Na+ fluxes across the human red blood cell membrane when the cells are suspended in low ionic strength medium.

  3. Vaccinia extracellular virions enter cells by macropinocytosis and acid-activated membrane rupture

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Florian Ingo; Bleck, Christopher Karl Ernst; Helenius, Ari; Mercer, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV), the model poxvirus, produces two types of infectious particles: mature virions (MVs) and extracellular virions (EVs). EV particles possess two membranes and therefore require an unusual cellular entry mechanism. By a combination of fluorescence and electron microscopy as well as flow cytometry, we investigated the cellular processes that EVs required to infect HeLa cells. We found that EV particles were endocytosed, and that internalization and infection depended on actin rearrangements, activity of Na+/H+ exchangers, and signalling events typical for the macropinocytic mechanism of endocytosis. To promote their internalization, EVs were capable of actively triggering macropinocytosis. EV infection also required vacuolar acidification, and acid exposure in endocytic vacuoles was needed to disrupt the outer EV membrane. Once exposed, the underlying MV-like particle presumably fused its single membrane with the limiting vacuolar membrane. Release of the viral core into the host cell cytosol allowed for productive infection. PMID:21792173

  4. Controlled release and antibacterial activity of tetracycline hydrochloride-loaded bacterial cellulose composite membranes.

    PubMed

    Shao, Wei; Liu, Hui; Wang, Shuxia; Wu, Jimin; Huang, Min; Min, Huihua; Liu, Xiufeng

    2016-07-10

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) is widely used in biomedical applications. In this study, we prepared an antibiotic drug tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH)-loaded bacterial cellulose (BC) composite membranes, and evaluated the drug release, antibacterial activity and biocompatibility. The structure and morphology of the fabricated BC-TCH composite membranes were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The TCH release results show that the incorporation of BC matrix to load TCH is able to control the release. In vitro antibacterial assay demonstrate that the developed BC-TCH composites displayed excellent antibacterial activity solely associated with the loaded TCH drug. More importantly, the BC-TCH composite membranes display good biocompatibility. These characteristics of BC-TCH composite membranes indicate that they may successfully serve as wound dressings and other medical biomaterials.

  5. Biologically Inspired Photocatalytically Active Membranes for Water Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinsinger, Nichola M.

    There is an alarming increase of a variety of new chemicals that are now being discharged into the wastewater system causing increased concern for public health and safety because many are not removed by typical wastewater treatment practices. Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) is a heterogeneous photocatalytic material that rapidly and completely mineralizing organics without harmful byproducts. TiO2 is synthesized by various methods, which lack the necessary control of crystal size, phase, and morphological features that yield optimized semiconductor materials. Mineralizing organisms demonstrate how nature can produce elegant structures at room temperature through controlled organic-mineral interactions. Here, we utilize biologically-inspired scaffolds to template the nucleation and growth of inorganic materials such as TiO2, which aid in controlling the size and phase of these particles and ultimately, their properties. Nanosized rutile and anatase particles were synthesized under solution conditions at relatively low temperatures and mild pH conditions. The effects of reaction conditions on phase and grain size were investigated and discussed from coordination chemistry and coarsening mechanisms. Photocatalytic characterization of TiO2 phase mixtures was performed to investigate their synergistic effect. The suspension conditions of these catalytic nanomaterials were modulated to optimize the degradation rate of organic analytes. Through the addition of an organic scaffold during the synthesis reaction, a mechanically robust (elastic) composite material containing TiO2 nanoparticles was produced. This composite was subsequently heat-treated to produce a porous, high surface area TiO2 nanoparticulate membrane. Processing conditions were investigated to characterize the growth and phase transformation of TiO2, which ultimately impacts photocatalytic performance. These bulk porous TiO2 structures can be fabricated and tailored to act as stand-alone photocatalytic membranes

  6. Luminol electrochemiluminescence for the analysis of active cholesterol at the plasma membrane in single mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Guangzhong; Zhou, Junyu; Tian, Chunxiu; Jiang, Dechen; Fang, Danjun; Chen, Hongyuan

    2013-04-16

    A luminol electrochemiluminescence assay was reported to analyze active cholesterol at the plasma membrane in single mammalian cells. The cellular membrane cholesterol was activated by the exposure of the cells to low ionic strength buffer or the inhibition of intracellular acyl-coA/cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT). The active membrane cholesterol was reacted with cholesterol oxidase in the solution to generate a peak concentration of hydrogen peroxide on the electrode surface, which induced a measurable luminol electrochemiluminescence. Further treatment of the active cells with mevastatin decreased the active membrane cholesterol resulting in a drop in luminance. No change in the intracellular calcium was observed in the presence of luminol and voltage, which indicated that our analysis process might not interrupt the intracellular cholesterol trafficking. Single cell analysis was performed by placing a pinhole below the electrode so that only one cell was exposed to the photomultiplier tube (PMT). Twelve single cells were analyzed individually, and a large deviation on luminance ratio observed exhibited the cell heterogeneity on the active membrane cholesterol. The smaller deviation on ACAT/HMGCoA inhibited cells than ACAT inhibited cells suggested different inhibition efficiency for sandoz 58035 and mevastatin. The new information obtained from single cell analysis might provide a new insight on the study of intracellular cholesterol trafficking.

  7. Trichoplaxin - a new membrane-active antimicrobial peptide from placozoan cDNA.

    PubMed

    Simunić, Juraj; Petrov, Dražen; Bouceba, Tahar; Kamech, Nédia; Benincasa, Monica; Juretić, Davor

    2014-05-01

    A method based on the use of signal peptide sequences from antimicrobial peptide (AMP) precursors was used to mine a placozoa expressed sequence tag database and identified a potential antimicrobial peptide from Trichoplax adhaerens. This peptide, with predicted sequence FFGRLKSVWSAVKHGWKAAKSR is the first AMP from a placozoan species, and was named trichoplaxin. It was chemically synthesized and its structural properties, biological activities and membrane selectivity were investigated. It adopts an α-helical structure in contact with membrane-like environments and is active against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial species (including MRSA), as well as yeasts from the Candida genus. The cytotoxic activity, as assessed by the haemolytic activity against rat erythrocytes, U937 cell permeabilization to propidium iodide and MCF7 cell mitochondrial activity, is significantly lower than the antimicrobial activity. In tests with membrane models, trichoplaxin shows high affinity for anionic prokaryote-like membranes with good fit in kinetic studies. Conversely, there is a low affinity for neutral eukaryote-like membranes and absence of a dose dependent response. With high selectivity for bacterial cells and no homologous sequence in the UniProt, trichoplaxin is a new potential lead compound for development of broad-spectrum antibacterial drugs.

  8. Determination of contact phase activation by the measurement of the activity of supernatant and membrane surface-adsorbed factor XII (FXII): its relevance as a useful parameter for the in vitro assessment of haemodialysis membranes.

    PubMed

    Matata, B M; Courtney, J M; Sundaram, S; Wark, S; Bowry, S K; Vienken, J; Lowe, G D

    1996-05-01

    We investigated hemodialysis membrane biocompatibility with respect to contact phase activation by determination of FXII-like activity (FXIIA) on the membrane surface and in the supernatant phase, during plasma contact with various hemodialysis membranes using an in vitro incubation test cell. The results were compared to the influence of these membranes on the activation of purified FXII. A time course for the generation of activated FXII using purified FXII solution at physiologic concentrations on two similar negatively charged polymers was performed. The membranes assessed were regenerated cellulose (Cuprophan; Akzo Faser AG, Germany), modified cellulosic (Hemophan; Akzo Faser AG), acrylonitrile-sodium methallyl copolymer-based membrane AN69S (Hospal, France), and SPAN, a new polyacrylonitrile-based copolymer (akzo Nobel AG). The plasma FXIIA at the membranes surface was significantly different between the membranes, while the supernatant phase FXIIA exhibited no significant differences. In contrast, activation of purified FXII in a plasma-free system with respect to supernatant activity indicated significant differences between the materials. A similar finding for the membrane-bound factor XIIA was also observed when purified factor XII was used. The membrane-bound FXIIA values observed in the plasma system containing heparin were significantly greater than in citrated plasma. This demonstrated the strong influence of heparin and the interaction of other plasma components to the membrane surface on the activation of contact phase of coagulation.

  9. Specificity and mechanism of action of alpha-helical membrane-active peptides interacting with model and biological membranes by single-molecule force spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shiyu; Zhao, Guangxu; Huang, Yibing; Cai, Mingjun; Shan, Yuping; Wang, Hongda; Chen, Yuxin

    2016-07-01

    In this study, to systematically investigate the targeting specificity of membrane-active peptides on different types of cell membranes, we evaluated the effects of peptides on different large unilamellar vesicles mimicking prokaryotic, normal eukaryotic, and cancer cell membranes by single-molecule force spectroscopy and spectrum technology. We revealed that cationic membrane-active peptides can exclusively target negatively charged prokaryotic and cancer cell model membranes rather than normal eukaryotic cell model membranes. Using Acholeplasma laidlawii, 3T3-L1, and HeLa cells to represent prokaryotic cells, normal eukaryotic cells, and cancer cells in atomic force microscopy experiments, respectively, we further studied that the single-molecule targeting interaction between peptides and biological membranes. Antimicrobial and anticancer activities of peptides exhibited strong correlations with the interaction probability determined by single-molecule force spectroscopy, which illustrates strong correlations of peptide biological activities and peptide hydrophobicity and charge. Peptide specificity significantly depends on the lipid compositions of different cell membranes, which validates the de novo design of peptide therapeutics against bacteria and cancers.

  10. Specificity and mechanism of action of alpha-helical membrane-active peptides interacting with model and biological membranes by single-molecule force spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shiyu; Zhao, Guangxu; Huang, Yibing; Cai, Mingjun; Shan, Yuping; Wang, Hongda; Chen, Yuxin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, to systematically investigate the targeting specificity of membrane-active peptides on different types of cell membranes, we evaluated the effects of peptides on different large unilamellar vesicles mimicking prokaryotic, normal eukaryotic, and cancer cell membranes by single-molecule force spectroscopy and spectrum technology. We revealed that cationic membrane-active peptides can exclusively target negatively charged prokaryotic and cancer cell model membranes rather than normal eukaryotic cell model membranes. Using Acholeplasma laidlawii, 3T3-L1, and HeLa cells to represent prokaryotic cells, normal eukaryotic cells, and cancer cells in atomic force microscopy experiments, respectively, we further studied that the single-molecule targeting interaction between peptides and biological membranes. Antimicrobial and anticancer activities of peptides exhibited strong correlations with the interaction probability determined by single-molecule force spectroscopy, which illustrates strong correlations of peptide biological activities and peptide hydrophobicity and charge. Peptide specificity significantly depends on the lipid compositions of different cell membranes, which validates the de novo design of peptide therapeutics against bacteria and cancers. PMID:27363513

  11. Improved antibacterial activity of nanofiltration polysulfone membranes modified with silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Patricia Fernanda; de Faria, Andreia Fonseca; Oliveira, Silvana Ruella; Arruda, Marco Aurélio Zezzi; Gonçalves, Maria do Carmo

    2015-09-15

    Polysulfone membranes (PSf) containing silver nanoparticles were prepared by the wet phase-inversion process. Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were dispersed into the polymer matrix using two different methodologies. In the first one, the AgNP were synthesized and further dispersed into the polymer solution (ex situ process). In the second method, the formation of the AgNP was performed in situ. The AgNP crystalline structure in the PSf membranes was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Field emission scanning electron microscopy images showed that the addition of AgNP in PSf membranes caused no significant changes to the finger-like morphology. When the ex situ methodology was applied, 45 nm average size AgNP were uniformly distributed in the internal pores of the membranes. However, when the AgNP were formed through the in situ process, the AgNP were uniformly and preferentially distributed on the top and bottom surfaces of the membrane. In the last case, the AgNP showed cubic morphology when present in the bottom and top surfaces, however, when inside the membrane their morphology was spherical. The cubic-like nanoparticles displayed a 38 nm average edge length. The silver ion released from the membrane during water filtration was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, which showed a silver leaching of approximately 2 μg L(-1). The nanocomposite membranes prepared by the in situ method exhibited a better antibacterial activity, in comparison to those prepared by ex situ, and also a decrease in 90% Escherichia coli adhered cells compared to the pristine PSf membranes. In conclusion, the in situ procedure can be considered a feasible, simple, and reproducible methodology to prepare anti-biofouling polysulfone membranes containing AgNP.

  12. Plitidepsin cellular binding and Rac1/JNK pathway activation depend on membrane cholesterol content.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Yajaira; González-Santiago, Laura; Zarich, Natasha; Dávalos, Alberto; Aranda, Juan F; Alonso, Miguel A; Lasunción, Miguel A; Rojas, José María; Muñoz, Alberto

    2006-11-01

    Plitidepsin (aplidin) is a marine cyclic depsipeptide in phase II clinical development against several neoplasias. Plitidepsin is a potent inducer of apoptosis through the sustained activation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). We have reported that this activation depends on the early induction of oxidative stress, activation of Rac1 small GTPase, and the later down-regulation of MKP-1 phosphatase. Using Scatchard and saturation binding analyses, we have found that (14)C-labeled plitidepsin binds to a moderately high-affinity receptor (K(d) of 44.8 +/- 3.1 and 35.5 +/- 4.8 nM, respectively) in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Two minutes after addition to cells, half of the drug was membrane-bound and was subsequently found in the cytosolic fraction. At 4 degrees C, plitidepsin cellular binding was around 10-fold lower than at 37 degrees C but sufficed to induce cell death, suggesting that this process is triggered from the membrane. Depletion of plasma membrane cholesterol by short treatment with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin diminished plitidepsin binding and Rac1 and JNK activation. Rac1 is targeted to the plasma membrane by plitidepsin as shown by subcellular fractioning and immunofluorescence analysis followed by confocal microscopy. Methyl-beta-cyclodextrin blocked this effect. A subline of HeLa cells (HeLa-R), partially resistant to plitidepsin, showed similar affinity (K(d) of 79.5 +/- 2.5 versus 37.7 +/- 8.2 nM) but 7.5-fold lower binding capacity than wild-type HeLa cells. Moreover, HeLa-R cells had lower total (71%) and membrane (67%) cholesterol content and membrane-bound Rac1, and showed no Rac1 activation upon plitidepsin treatment. In conclusion, cellular plitidepsin uptake and induction of apoptosis via activation of the Rac1-JNK pathway is membrane-cholesterol dependent.

  13. Membrane targeting peptides toward antileishmanial activity: Design, structural determination and mechanism of interaction.

    PubMed

    Martins, Danubia Batista; Vieira, Maira Ramos; Fadel, Valmir; Santana, Viviane Aparecida Camargo; Guerra, Mirian Elisa Rodrigues; Lima, Marta Lopes; Tempone, Andre G; Dos Santos Cabrera, Marcia Perez

    2017-08-02

    Leishmaniasis threatens poor areas population worldwide, requiring new drugs less prone to resistance development. Antimicrobial peptides with antileishmanial activity are considered among fulfilling alternatives, but not much is known about the mode of action of membrane-targeting peptides, considering promastigote and infected macrophage membranes. In a previous work, structural features of very active known peptides were prospected using molecular dynamics simulations. Combining sequences of these peptides, analogs were designed. The structure of analog DecP-11 was validated by NMR. In vitro bioassays determined the peptide cytotoxicity toward mammalian cells, IC50 values on promastigotes and amastigotes, and membranolytic activity compared to Decoralin, one of the parent peptides. With biophysical methods, the mechanism of interaction with membrane mimetic systems was investigated. The designed peptide exhibits potent cytolytic and membrane permeabilizing activities, and decreased antileishmanial activity compared to the parent peptide. Interactions with lipid bilayers mimicking those of promastigotes, infected macrophage and mammalian cells showed that these peptides strongly bind to vesicles with intense lytic activity at low concentrations. Additionally, circular dichroism and light scattering experiments showed changes in the secondary structure of peptides and in vesicle size, depending on vesicles compositions. Altogether they suggest that DecP-11 antileishmanial activity is impaired by the aggregation and that aminophospholipids are probably involved. DecP-11 potent cytolytic and membranolytic activities with lack of selectivity toward promastigote model membranes warrant further structural studies to improve selectivity. Strong interactions of peptides with aminophospholipids, abundant in parasite membranes, potentially lead to aggregated forms impairing activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Chitosan-based thin active layer membrane for forward osmosis desalination.

    PubMed

    Shakeri, Alireza; Salehi, Hasan; Rastgar, Masoud

    2017-10-15

    A novel hydrophilic chitosan-based thin active layer membrane was elaborately fabricated through a facile method and its performance was studied in forward osmosis (FO) desalination process. Chitosan (CS) was interfacially polymerized with trimesoyl chloride (TMC) monomer on the surface of sulfonated polyethersulfone-polyethersulfone (SPES-PES) support layer. Two different procedures were employed to incorporate CS into the membrane thin active layer structure. The solutions containing different CS concentrations (from 0.5 to 2.0wt.%) were firstly loaded on the support layer surface, treated in the presence and absence of NaOH solution. The novel CS based membranes were then prepared via addition of TMC solution with appropriate concentration. Compared to commercial thin film composite (TFC) membrane, the modified membrane with an optimal CS concentration demonstrated remarkably higher hydrophilicity and water permeation. The results indicated that the NaOH treatment and higher CS concentration led to form a dense thin active layer, improving membrane performance in salt rejection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Biological Activity of Blackcurrant Extracts (Ribes nigrum L.) in Relation to Erythrocyte Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Cyboran, Sylwia; Żyłka, Romuald; Oszmiański, Jan; Kleszczyńska, Halina

    2014-01-01

    Compounds contained in fruits and leaves of blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) are known as agents acting preventively and therapeutically on the organism. The HPLC analysis showed they are rich in polyphenol anthocyanins in fruits and flavonoids in leaves, that have antioxidant activity and are beneficial for health. The aim of the research was to determine the effect of blackcurrant fruit and leaf extracts on the physical properties of the erythrocyte membranes and assess their antioxidant properties. The effect of the extracts on osmotic resistance, shape of erythrocytes and hemolytic and antioxidant activity of the extracts were examined with spectrophotometric methods. The FTIR investigation showed that extracts modify the erythrocyte membrane and protect it against free radicals induced by UV radiation. The results show that the extracts do not induce hemolysis and even protect erythrocytes against the harmful action of UVC radiation, while slightly strengthening the membrane and inducing echinocytes. The compounds contained in the extracts do not penetrate into the hydrophobic region, but bind to the membrane surface inducing small changes in the packing arrangement of the polar head groups of membrane lipids. The extracts have a high antioxidant activity. Their presence on the surface of the erythrocyte membrane entails protection against free radicals. PMID:24527456

  16. Multiple sequence elements facilitate Chp Rho GTPase subcellular location, membrane association, and transforming activity.

    PubMed

    Chenette, Emily J; Mitin, Natalia Y; Der, Channing J

    2006-07-01

    Cdc42 homologous protein (Chp) is a member of the Rho family of small GTPases and shares significant sequence and functional similarity with Cdc42. However, unlike classical Rho GTPases, we recently found that Chp depends on palmitoylation, rather than prenylation, for association with cellular membranes. Because palmitoylation alone is typically not sufficient to promote membrane association, we evaluated the possibility that other carboxy-terminal residues facilitate Chp subcellular association with membranes. We found that Chp membrane association and transforming activity was dependent on the integrity of a stretch of basic amino acids in the carboxy terminus of Chp and that the basic amino acids were not simply part of a palmitoyl acyltransferase recognition motif. We also determined that the 11 carboxy-terminal residues alone were sufficient to promote Chp plasma and endomembrane association. Interestingly, stimulation with tumor necrosis factor-alpha activated only endomembrane-associated Chp. Finally, we found that Chp membrane association was not disrupted by Rho guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitory proteins, which are negative regulators of Cdc42 membrane association and biological activity. In summary, the unique carboxy-terminal sequence elements that promote Chp subcellular location and function expand the complexity of mechanisms by which the cellular functions of Rho GTPases are regulated.

  17. Multiple Sequence Elements Facilitate Chp Rho GTPase Subcellular Location, Membrane Association, and Transforming Activity

    PubMed Central

    Chenette, Emily J.; Mitin, Natalia Y.

    2006-01-01

    Cdc42 homologous protein (Chp) is a member of the Rho family of small GTPases and shares significant sequence and functional similarity with Cdc42. However, unlike classical Rho GTPases, we recently found that Chp depends on palmitoylation, rather than prenylation, for association with cellular membranes. Because palmitoylation alone is typically not sufficient to promote membrane association, we evaluated the possibility that other carboxy-terminal residues facilitate Chp subcellular association with membranes. We found that Chp membrane association and transforming activity was dependent on the integrity of a stretch of basic amino acids in the carboxy terminus of Chp and that the basic amino acids were not simply part of a palmitoyl acyltransferase recognition motif. We also determined that the 11 carboxy-terminal residues alone were sufficient to promote Chp plasma and endomembrane association. Interestingly, stimulation with tumor necrosis factor-α activated only endomembrane-associated Chp. Finally, we found that Chp membrane association was not disrupted by Rho guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitory proteins, which are negative regulators of Cdc42 membrane association and biological activity. In summary, the unique carboxy-terminal sequence elements that promote Chp subcellular location and function expand the complexity of mechanisms by which the cellular functions of Rho GTPases are regulated. PMID:16641371

  18. The reversibility of active sulphate transport in membrane vesicles of Paracoccus denitrificans.

    PubMed Central

    Burnell, J N; John, P; Whatley, F R

    1975-01-01

    An uncoupler-sensitive active transport of sulphate into membrane vesicles prepared from the plasma membrane of Paracoccus denitrificans (previously Micrococcus denitrificans) can be driven by respiration or by a trans-membrane pH gradient (alkaline inside) generated by the addition either of KCL ( in the presence of nigericin) or of NH4CL. Valinomycin does not substitute for nigericin. Respiration-driven transport is observed in right-side-out vesicles but not in inside-out vesicles, whereas transport driven by the addition of KCL (in the presence of nigericin) or of NH4CL is observed in both types of membrane vesicle. The active transport of sulphate into these vesicles is shown to be carrier-mediated by its sensitivity to thiol-group reagents. It is proposed that the sulphate carrier in the plasma membrane of P. denitrificans operates by a mechanism of electroneutral proton symport, and is capable of actively transporting sulphate in either direction across the plasma membrane, but that in whole cells respiration-driven proton expulsion drives the accumulative uptake of sulphate. PMID:1212205

  19. The reversibility of active sulphate transport in membrane vesicles of Paracoccus denitrificans.

    PubMed

    Burnell, J N; John, P; Whatley, F R

    1975-09-01

    An uncoupler-sensitive active transport of sulphate into membrane vesicles prepared from the plasma membrane of Paracoccus denitrificans (previously Micrococcus denitrificans) can be driven by respiration or by a trans-membrane pH gradient (alkaline inside) generated by the addition either of KCL ( in the presence of nigericin) or of NH4CL. Valinomycin does not substitute for nigericin. Respiration-driven transport is observed in right-side-out vesicles but not in inside-out vesicles, whereas transport driven by the addition of KCL (in the presence of nigericin) or of NH4CL is observed in both types of membrane vesicle. The active transport of sulphate into these vesicles is shown to be carrier-mediated by its sensitivity to thiol-group reagents. It is proposed that the sulphate carrier in the plasma membrane of P. denitrificans operates by a mechanism of electroneutral proton symport, and is capable of actively transporting sulphate in either direction across the plasma membrane, but that in whole cells respiration-driven proton expulsion drives the accumulative uptake of sulphate.

  20. One-dimensional potential of mean force underestimates activation barrier for transport across flexible lipid membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopelevich, Dmitry I.

    2013-10-01

    Transport of a fullerene-like nanoparticle across a lipid bilayer is investigated by coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Potentials of mean force (PMF) acting on the nanoparticle in a flexible bilayer suspended in water and a bilayer restrained to a flat surface are computed by constrained MD simulations. The rate of the nanoparticle transport into the bilayer interior is predicted using one-dimensional Langevin models based on these PMFs. The predictions are compared with the transport rates obtained from a series of direct (unconstrained) MD simulations of the solute transport into the flexible bilayer. It is observed that the PMF acting on the solute in the flexible membrane underestimates the transport rate by more than an order of magnitude while the PMF acting on the solute in the restrained membrane yields an accurate estimate of the activation energy for transport into the flexible membrane. This paradox is explained by a coexistence of metastable membrane configurations for a range of the solute positions inside and near the flexible membrane. This leads to a significant reduction of the contribution of the transition state to the mean force acting on the solute. Restraining the membrane shape ensures that there is only one stable membrane configuration corresponding to each solute position and thus the transition state is adequately represented in the PMF. This mechanism is quite general and thus this phenomenon is expected to occur in a wide range of interfacial systems. A simple model for the free energy landscape of the coupled solute-membrane system is proposed and validated. This model explicitly accounts for effects of the membrane deformations on the solute transport and yields an accurate prediction of the activation energy for the solute transport.

  1. One-dimensional potential of mean force underestimates activation barrier for transport across flexible lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Kopelevich, Dmitry I

    2013-10-07

    Transport of a fullerene-like nanoparticle across a lipid bilayer is investigated by coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Potentials of mean force (PMF) acting on the nanoparticle in a flexible bilayer suspended in water and a bilayer restrained to a flat surface are computed by constrained MD simulations. The rate of the nanoparticle transport into the bilayer interior is predicted using one-dimensional Langevin models based on these PMFs. The predictions are compared with the transport rates obtained from a series of direct (unconstrained) MD simulations of the solute transport into the flexible bilayer. It is observed that the PMF acting on the solute in the flexible membrane underestimates the transport rate by more than an order of magnitude while the PMF acting on the solute in the restrained membrane yields an accurate estimate of the activation energy for transport into the flexible membrane. This paradox is explained by a coexistence of metastable membrane configurations for a range of the solute positions inside and near the flexible membrane. This leads to a significant reduction of the contribution of the transition state to the mean force acting on the solute. Restraining the membrane shape ensures that there is only one stable membrane configuration corresponding to each solute position and thus the transition state is adequately represented in the PMF. This mechanism is quite general and thus this phenomenon is expected to occur in a wide range of interfacial systems. A simple model for the free energy landscape of the coupled solute-membrane system is proposed and validated. This model explicitly accounts for effects of the membrane deformations on the solute transport and yields an accurate prediction of the activation energy for the solute transport.

  2. Tuning Liposome Membrane Permeability by Competitive Peptide Dimerization and Partitioning-Folding Interactions Regulated by Proteolytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seng Koon; Sandén, Camilla; Selegård, Robert; Liedberg, Bo; Aili, Daniel

    2016-02-19

    Membrane active peptides are of large interest for development of drug delivery vehicles and therapeutics for treatment of multiple drug resistant infections. Lack of specificity can be detrimental and finding routes to tune specificity and activity of membrane active peptides is vital for improving their therapeutic efficacy and minimize harmful side effects. We describe a de novo designed membrane active peptide that partition into lipid membranes only when specifically and covalently anchored to the membrane, resulting in pore-formation. Dimerization with a complementary peptide efficiently inhibits formation of pores. The effect can be regulated by proteolytic digestion of the inhibitory peptide by the matrix metalloproteinase MMP-7, an enzyme upregulated in many malignant tumors. This system thus provides a precise and specific route for tuning the permeability of lipid membranes and a novel strategy for development of recognition based membrane active peptides and indirect enzymatically controlled release of liposomal cargo.

  3. Tuning Liposome Membrane Permeability by Competitive Peptide Dimerization and Partitioning-Folding Interactions Regulated by Proteolytic Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Seng Koon; Sandén, Camilla; Selegård, Robert; Liedberg, Bo; Aili, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Membrane active peptides are of large interest for development of drug delivery vehicles and therapeutics for treatment of multiple drug resistant infections. Lack of specificity can be detrimental and finding routes to tune specificity and activity of membrane active peptides is vital for improving their therapeutic efficacy and minimize harmful side effects. We describe a de novo designed membrane active peptide that partition into lipid membranes only when specifically and covalently anchored to the membrane, resulting in pore-formation. Dimerization with a complementary peptide efficiently inhibits formation of pores. The effect can be regulated by proteolytic digestion of the inhibitory peptide by the matrix metalloproteinase MMP-7, an enzyme upregulated in many malignant tumors. This system thus provides a precise and specific route for tuning the permeability of lipid membranes and a novel strategy for development of recognition based membrane active peptides and indirect enzymatically controlled release of liposomal cargo.

  4. Suppression of Rac1 activity at the apical membrane of MDCK cells is essential for cyst structure maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Yagi, Shunsuke; Matsuda, Michiyuki; Kiyokawa, Etsuko

    2012-01-01

    Using MDCK cells that constitutively express a Förster resonance energy transfer biosensor, we found that Rac1 activity is homogenous at the entire plasma membrane in early stages of cystogenesis, whereas in later stages Rac1 activity is higher at the lateral membrane than at the apical plasma membrane. If Rac1 is activated at the apical membrane in later stages, however, the monolayer cells move into the luminal space. In these cells, tight junctions are disrupted, accompanied by mislocalization of polarization markers and disorientation of cell division. These observations indicate that Rac1 suppression at the apical membrane is essential for the maintenance of cyst structure. PMID:22261715

  5. Effects of high temperature and noise on erythrocyte membrane ATPase activity in pilots during flight.

    PubMed

    Qin, S Z; Yu, Q F; Ma, G X; Hao, W W; Li, M G; Zhao, H

    1999-12-01

    Objective. To determine the effect of heat and noise on erythrocyte membrane ATPase activities in pilots during flying. Method. Twenty-four pilots performing bombing for 3 h (45-53 degrees C, 122-97 dB in the cabin) served as the subjects. 21 ground personnel served as control (27 degrees C in the room). Blood samples were taken from both groups before flying (6:00 a.m.), and immediately (12:00 a.m.) and 8 h (8:00 p.m.) after flying. Na(+)-K+ ATPase, and Ca2(+)-Mg2+ ATPase activities in erythrocyte membrane were determined with colorimetry. Result. The Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity in erythrocyte membrane at 6:00 a.m. in pilots was higher than that in control group at the same time (P<0.01). The Ca2(+)-Mg2+ ATPase activities in erythrocyte membrane at 12:00 a.m. and 8:00 p.m. in pilots were significantly higher, compared with those in control group at the same time (P<0.01). Conclusion. The ATPase values obtained in our study were all within normal range, and the daytime variation of both groups are the same. Exposure of human body to heat and noise for long time may be harmful, the higher ATPase activity is, the more catabolism of ATP will be. ATP exhaustion will lead to Ca2+ overload in erythrocyte thus stiffen the red cell membrane.

  6. Electrochemiluminescence imaging for parallel single-cell analysis of active membrane cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Junyu; Ma, Guangzhong; Chen, Yun; Fang, Danjun; Jiang, Dechen; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2015-08-18

    Luminol electrochemiluminescence (ECL) imaging was developed for the parallel measurement of active membrane cholesterol at single living cells, thus establishing a novel electrochemical detection technique for single cells with high analysis throughput and low detection limit. In our strategy, the luminescence generated from luminol and hydrogen peroxide upon the potential was recorded in one image so that hydrogen peroxide at the surface of multiple cells could be simultaneously analyzed. Compared with the classic microelectrode array for the parallel single-cell analysis, the plat electrode only was needed in our ECL imaging, avoiding the complexity of electrode fabrication. The optimized ECL imaging system showed that hydrogen peroxide as low as 10 μM was visible and the efflux of hydrogen peroxide from cells could be determined. Coupled with the reaction between active membrane cholesterol and cholesterol oxidase to generate hydrogen peroxide, active membrane cholesterol at cells on the electrode was analyzed at single-cell level. The luminescence intensity was correlated with the amount of active membrane cholesterol, validating our system for single-cell cholesterol analysis. The relative high standard deviation on the luminescence suggested high cellular heterogeneities on hydrogen peroxide efflux and active membrane cholesterol, which exhibited the significance of single-cell analysis. This success in ECL imaging for single-cell analysis opens a new field in the parallel measurement of surface molecules at single cells.

  7. Sphingomyelinase D activity in model membranes: structural effects of in situ generation of ceramide-1-phosphate.

    PubMed

    Stock, Roberto P; Brewer, Jonathan; Wagner, Kerstin; Ramos-Cerrillo, Blanca; Duelund, Lars; Jernshøj, Kit Drescher; Olsen, Lars Folke; Bagatolli, Luis A

    2012-01-01

    The toxicity of Loxosceles spider venom has been attributed to a rare enzyme, sphingomyelinase D, which transforms sphingomyelin to ceramide-1-phosphate. The bases of its inflammatory and dermonecrotic activity, however, remain unclear. In this work the effects of ceramide-1-phosphate on model membranes were studied both by in situ generation of this lipid using a recombinant sphingomyelinase D from the spider Loxosceles laeta and by pre-mixing it with sphingomyelin and cholesterol. The systems of choice were large unilamellar vesicles for bulk studies (enzyme kinetics, fluorescence spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering) and giant unilamellar vesicles for fluorescence microscopy examination using a variety of fluorescent probes. The influence of membrane lateral structure on the kinetics of enzyme activity and the consequences of enzyme activity on the structure of target membranes containing sphingomyelin were examined. The findings indicate that: 1) ceramide-1-phosphate (particularly lauroyl ceramide-1-phosphate) can be incorporated into sphingomyelin bilayers in a concentration-dependent manner and generates coexistence of liquid disordered/solid ordered domains, 2) the activity of sphingomyelinase D is clearly influenced by the supramolecular organization of its substrate in membranes and, 3) in situ ceramide-1-phosphate generation by enzymatic activity profoundly alters the lateral structure and morphology of the target membranes.

  8. Single-Molecule Imaging Reveals the Activation Dynamics of Intracellular Protein Smad3 on Cell Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nan; Yang, Yong; He, Kangmin; Zhang, Fayun; Zhao, Libo; Zhou, Wei; Yuan, Jinghe; Liang, Wei; Fang, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    Smad3 is an intracellular protein that plays a key role in propagating transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signals from cell membrane to nucleus. However whether the transient process of Smad3 activation occurs on cell membrane and how it is regulated remains elusive. Using advanced live-cell single-molecule fluorescence microscopy to image and track fluorescent protein-labeled Smad3, we observed and quantified, for the first time, the dynamics of individual Smad3 molecules docking to and activation on the cell membrane. It was found that Smad3 docked to cell membrane in both unstimulated and stimulated cells, but with different diffusion rates and dissociation kinetics. The change in its membrane docking dynamics can be used to study the activation of Smad3. Our results reveal that Smad3 binds with type I TGF-β receptor (TRI) even in unstimulated cells. Its activation is regulated by TRI phosphorylation but independent of receptor endocytosis. This study offers new information on TGF-β/Smad signaling, as well as a new approach to investigate the activation of intracellular signaling proteins for a better understanding of their functions in signal transduction. PMID:27641076

  9. Sphingomyelinase D Activity in Model Membranes: Structural Effects of in situ Generation of Ceramide-1-Phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Stock, Roberto P.; Brewer, Jonathan; Wagner, Kerstin; Ramos-Cerrillo, Blanca; Duelund, Lars; Jernshøj, Kit Drescher; Olsen, Lars Folke; Bagatolli, Luis A.

    2012-01-01

    The toxicity of Loxosceles spider venom has been attributed to a rare enzyme, sphingomyelinase D, which transforms sphingomyelin to ceramide-1-phosphate. The bases of its inflammatory and dermonecrotic activity, however, remain unclear. In this work the effects of ceramide-1-phosphate on model membranes were studied both by in situ generation of this lipid using a recombinant sphingomyelinase D from the spider Loxosceles laeta and by pre-mixing it with sphingomyelin and cholesterol. The systems of choice were large unilamellar vesicles for bulk studies (enzyme kinetics, fluorescence spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering) and giant unilamellar vesicles for fluorescence microscopy examination using a variety of fluorescent probes. The influence of membrane lateral structure on the kinetics of enzyme activity and the consequences of enzyme activity on the structure of target membranes containing sphingomyelin were examined. The findings indicate that: 1) ceramide-1-phosphate (particularly lauroyl ceramide-1-phosphate) can be incorporated into sphingomyelin bilayers in a concentration-dependent manner and generates coexistence of liquid disordered/solid ordered domains, 2) the activity of sphingomyelinase D is clearly influenced by the supramolecular organization of its substrate in membranes and, 3) in situ ceramide-1-phosphate generation by enzymatic activity profoundly alters the lateral structure and morphology of the target membranes. PMID:22558302

  10. Membrane-active metabolites produced by soil actinomycetes using chromatic phospholipid/polydiacetylene vesicles.

    PubMed

    Mehravar, Maryam; Sardari, Soroush; Owlia, Parviz

    2011-12-01

    Increased resistance of pathogens toward existing antibiotics has compelled the research efforts to introduce new antimicrobial substances. Drugs with new and less resistant-prone targets to antimicrobial activity have a high priority for drug development activities. Cell membrane seems to be a potential target for new antibiotic agent development to overcome resistance. In this study, A total number of 67 actinomycetes were isolated from the soil samples collected from desert, farming and mineral parts of Iran. We used a chromatic sensor as a membrane model that was set up for the target of antimicrobial metabolites of actinomycetes isolated from the soil. The sensors particles were composed of phospholipid and polymerized polydiacetylene (PDA) lipids. These polymers exhibited color change following interaction with membrane-active metabolites. The color change was due to structural disorder in the lipids following their interaction with membrane-active metabolites. The resultant color change was recorded by fluorescent microscope and easily recognizable by naked eye as well. Sixteen strains were isolated which produced antimicrobial metabolites and were effective against test microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae ). A total number of 3 out of 16 strains produced membrane-active metabolites. These 3 strains were identified using 16s rRNA as Streptomyces sp and submitted to GenBank (accession no. JN180853; JN180854; JN180855).

  11. Single-Molecule Imaging Reveals the Activation Dynamics of Intracellular Protein Smad3 on Cell Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Nan; Yang, Yong; He, Kangmin; Zhang, Fayun; Zhao, Libo; Zhou, Wei; Yuan, Jinghe; Liang, Wei; Fang, Xiaohong

    2016-09-01

    Smad3 is an intracellular protein that plays a key role in propagating transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signals from cell membrane to nucleus. However whether the transient process of Smad3 activation occurs on cell membrane and how it is regulated remains elusive. Using advanced live-cell single-molecule fluorescence microscopy to image and track fluorescent protein-labeled Smad3, we observed and quantified, for the first time, the dynamics of individual Smad3 molecules docking to and activation on the cell membrane. It was found that Smad3 docked to cell membrane in both unstimulated and stimulated cells, but with different diffusion rates and dissociation kinetics. The change in its membrane docking dynamics can be used to study the activation of Smad3. Our results reveal that Smad3 binds with type I TGF-β receptor (TRI) even in unstimulated cells. Its activation is regulated by TRI phosphorylation but independent of receptor endocytosis. This study offers new information on TGF-β/Smad signaling, as well as a new approach to investigate the activation of intracellular signaling proteins for a better understanding of their functions in signal transduction.

  12. The decay of the ATPase activity of light plus thiol-activated thylakoid membranes in the dark.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Richard E

    2006-02-01

    Oxidized ATP synthase of spinach thylakoid membranes catalyzes high rates of ATP synthesis in the light, but very low rates of ATP hydrolysis in the dark. Reduction of the disulfide bond in the gamma subunit of the ATP synthase in the light enhances the rate of Mg2+-ATP hydrolysis in the dark. The light plus thiol-activated state decays in a few minutes in the dark after illumination in Tris buffer, but not when Tricine was used in place of Tris. In this paper, it is shown that Tris in the assay mixture is an inhibitor of the light plus thiol-activated ATPase activity of thylakoids, but only after the activated membranes had incubated in the dark. Aminopropanediols and diethanolamine, also selectively inhibited ATPase activity of activated membranes after storage in the dark, whereas NH4Cl and imidazole inhibit the ATPase activity of activated thylakoids almost equally whether they are added directly after the illumination or several minutes later. The fluorescence of 9-amino-6-chloro-2-methoxyacridine (ACMA) is quenched by the establishment of proton gradients by ATP-dependent proton uptake. Addition of ATP to activated membranes results in rapid quenching of ACMA fluorescence. If the activated membranes were incubated in the dark prior to ATP addition, a lag in the ATP-dependent ACMA fluorescence quenching as well as a similar lag in the rate ATP hydrolysis were seen. It is concluded that ADP rebinds to CF1 in the dark following illumination and inhibits the activity of the ATP synthase. Reactivation of the ATP synthase in the dark can occur by the slow generation of proton gradients by ATP hydrolysis in the dark. This reactivation takes place in Tricine buffer, but not in Tris because of its uncoupling action. Whether ADP binding plays a role in the regulation of the activity of the ATP synthase in situ remains to be established.

  13. Intracellular Na+ and K+ activities and membrane conductances in the collecting tubule of Amphiuma

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    Membrane potentials and conductances, and intracellular ionic activities were studied in isolated perfused collecting tubules of K+- adapted Amphiuma. Intracellular Na+ (aNai) and K+ (aKi) activities were measured, using liquid ion-exchanger double-barreled microelectrodes. Apical and basolateral membrane conductances were estimated by cable analysis. The effects of inhibition of the apical conductance by amiloride (10(-5) M) and of inhibition of the basolateral Na-K pump by either a low K+ (0.1 mM) bath or by ouabain (10(-4) M) were studied. Under control conditions, aNai was 8.4 +/- 1.9 mM and aKi 56 +/- 3 mM. With luminal amiloride, aNai decreased to 2.2 +/- 0.4 mM and aKi increased to 66 +/- 3 mM. Ouabain produced an increase of aNai to 44 +/- 4 mM, and a decrease of aKi to 22 +/- 6, and similar changes were observed when the tubule was exposed to a low K+ bath solution. During pump inhibition, there was a progressive decrease of the K+-selective basolateral membrane conductance and of the Na+ permeability of the apical membrane. A similar inhibition of both membrane conductances was observed after pump inhibition by low K+ solution. Upon reintroduction of K+, a basolateral membrane hyperpolarization of -23 +/- 4 mV was observed, indicating an immediate reactivation of the electrogenic Na-K pump. However, the recovery of the membrane conductances occurred over a slower time course. These data imply that both membrane conductances are regulated according to the intracellular ionic composition, but that the basolateral K+ conductance is not directly linked to the pump activity. PMID:3235975

  14. Short-Term Exposure to Membrane-Active Antibiotics Inhibits Cryptosporidium parvum Infection in Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Giacometti, Andrea; Cirioni, Oscar; Del Prete, Maria Simona; Barchiesi, Francesco; Scalise, Giorgio

    2000-01-01

    A cell culture system and double fluorogenic staining were used to study the susceptibility of Cryptosporidium parvum to membrane-active antibiotics. Buforin II and magainin II exerted a cytotoxic effect on sporozoites but did not consistently affect oocyst viability. Lasalocid and nigericin demonstrated less activity against sporozoites but reduced the infectivity of oocysts. PMID:11083662

  15. Cognition Is Cool: Can Hemispheric Activation Be Assessed by Tympanic Membrane Thermometry?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherbuin, Nicolas; Brinkman, Cobie

    2004-01-01

    Hemispheric activation during cognitive tasks using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can be difficult to interpret, uncomfortable, and is not widely available. This study investigated whether tympanic membrane thermometry could be used as a broad measure of hemispheric activation. Infrared probes measured ear temperature continuously…

  16. Cognition Is Cool: Can Hemispheric Activation Be Assessed by Tympanic Membrane Thermometry?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherbuin, Nicolas; Brinkman, Cobie

    2004-01-01

    Hemispheric activation during cognitive tasks using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can be difficult to interpret, uncomfortable, and is not widely available. This study investigated whether tympanic membrane thermometry could be used as a broad measure of hemispheric activation. Infrared probes measured ear temperature continuously…

  17. Pro-apoptotic cBid and Bax exhibit distinct membrane remodeling activities: An AFM study.

    PubMed

    Unsay, Joseph D; Cosentino, Katia; Sporbeck, Katharina; García-Sáez, Ana J

    2017-01-01

    Bcl-2 proteins are key regulators of the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) permeabilization that mediates apoptosis. During apoptosis, Bid is cleaved (cBid) and translocates to the MOM, where it activates Bax. Bax then oligomerizes and induces MOM permeabilization. However, little is known about how these proteins affect membrane organization aside from pore formation. In previous studies, we have shown that both cBid and Bax are able to remodel membranes and stabilize curvature. Here, we dissected the independent effects of Bax and cBid on supported lipid structures mimicking the mitochondrial composition by means of atomic force spectroscopy. We show that cBid did not permeabilize the membrane but lowered the membrane breakthrough force. On the other hand, Bax effects were dependent on its oligomeric state. Monomeric Bax did not affect the membrane properties. In contrast, oligomeric Bax lowered the breakthrough force of the membrane, which in the context of pore formation, implies a lowering of the line tension at the edge of the pore. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Preparation of amino-functionalized regenerated cellulose membranes with high catalytic activity.