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Sample records for large-area atomic layer

  1. Large-area thermoelectric high-aspect-ratio nanostructures by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruoho, Mikko; Juntunen, Taneli; Tittonen, Ilkka

    2016-09-01

    We report on the thermoelectric properties of large-area high-aspect-ratio nanostructures. We fabricate the structures by atomic layer deposition of conformal ZnO thin films on track-etched polycarbonate substrate. The resulting structure consists of ZnO tubules which continue through the full thickness of the substrate. The electrical and thermal properties of the structures are studied both in-plane and out-of-plane. They exhibit very low out-of-plane thermal conductivity down to 0.15 W m-1 K-1 while the in-plane sheet resistance of the films was found to be half that of the same film on glass substrate, allowing material-independent doubling of output power of any planar thin-film thermoelectric generator. The wall thickness of the fabricated nanotubes was varied within a range of up to 100 nm. The samples show polycrystalline nature with (002) preferred crystal orientation.

  2. Atomically flat Ge buffer layers and alternating shutter growth of CaGe2 for large area germanane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jinsong; Katoch, Jyoti; Ahmed, Adam; Pinchuk, Igor; Williams, Robert; McComb, David; Kawakami, Roland

    Germanane (GeH), which is converted from CaGe2 by soaking in HCl acid, has recently attracted interest because of its novel properties, such as large band gap (1.56eV), spin orbit coupling and predictions of high mobility (18000 cm2/Vs). Previously CaGe2 was successfully grown on Ge(111) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth. But there were cracks between µm-sized islands, which is not desirable for scientific study and application, and limits the material quality. By growing atomically flat Ge buffer layers and using alternating shutter MBE growth, we are able to grow crack-free, large area films of CaGe2 films. Reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) patterns of Ge buffer layer and CaGe2 indicates high quality two dimensional surfaces, which is further confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), showing atomically flat and uniform Ge buffer layer and CaGe2. The appearance of Laue oscillation in X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Kiessig fringes in X-ray reflectivity (XRR) proves the uniformity of CaGe2 film and the smoothness of the interface. The high quality of CaGe2 film makes it promising to explore novel properties of GeH. Funded by NSF MRSEC DMR-1420451.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of large-area and continuous MoS2 atomic layers by RF magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Sajjad; Shehzad, Muhammad Arslan; Vikraman, Dhanasekaran; Khan, Muhammad Farooq; Singh, Jai; Choi, Dong-Chul; Seo, Yongho; Eom, Jonghwa; Lee, Wan-Gyu; Jung, Jongwan

    2016-02-21

    In this article, we report layer-controlled, continuous and large-area molydenum sulfide (MoS2) growth onto a SiO2/Si substrate by RF sputtering combined with sulfurization. A two-step process was employed to synthesize MoS2 films. In the first step, an atomically thin MoO3 film was deposited by RF magnetron sputtering at 300 °C. Subsequently, the as-sputtered MoO3 film was further subjected to post-annealing and sulfurization processes at 650 °C for 1 hour. It was observed that the number of layers of MoS2 can be controlled by adjusting the sputtering time. The fabricated MoS2 transistors exhibited high mobility values of ∼21 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) (bilayer) and ∼25 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) (trilayer), on/off ratios in the range of ∼10(7) (bilayer) and 10(4)-10(5) (trilayer), respectively. We believe that our proposed paradigm can start a new method for the growth of MoS2 in future electronics and optoelectronics applications.

  4. Controlled growth of large-area anisotropic ReS2 atomic layer and its photodetector application.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaobo; Cui, Fangfang; Feng, Qingliang; Wang, Gang; Xu, Xiaosa; Wu, Juanxia; Mao, Nannan; Liang, Xing; Zhang, Zhongyue; Zhang, Jin; Xu, Hua

    2016-12-07

    As an anisotropic 2D layered material, rhenium disulfide (ReS2) has attracted much attention because of its unusual properties and promising applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices. However, the low lattice symmetry and interlayer decoupling of ReS2 make asymmetric growth and out-of-plane growth occur quite easily; therefore, thick flake, dendritic and flower-like structures of ReS2 have mostly been obtained previously. Here, we report on an approach based on space-confined epitaxial growth for the controlled synthesis of ReS2 films. Using this approach, large-area and high-quality ReS2 films with uniform monolayer thickness can grow on a mica substrate. Furthermore, the weak van der Waals interaction between the surface of mica and ReS2 clusters, which favors surface-confined growth while avoiding out-of-plane growth, is critical for growing ReS2 with uniform monolayer thickness. The morphological evolution of ReS2 with the growth temperature reveals that asymmetric growth can be suppressed at relatively low temperatures. A ReS2 field-effect transistor displayed a current on/off ratio of 10(6) and an electron mobility of up to 40 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), with outstanding photoresponsivity of 12 A W(-1). This work not only promotes the large-scale employment of ReS2 in high-performance optoelectronic devices, but also provides a means of controlling the unusual growth behavior of low-lattice-symmetry 2D layered materials.

  5. Tellurium-Assisted Epitaxial Growth of Large-Area, Highly Crystalline ReS2 Atomic Layers on Mica Substrate.

    PubMed

    Cui, Fangfang; Wang, Cong; Li, Xiaobo; Wang, Gang; Liu, Kaiqiang; Yang, Zhou; Feng, Qingliang; Liang, Xing; Zhang, Zhongyue; Liu, Shengzhong; Lei, Zhibin; Liu, Zonghuai; Xu, Hua; Zhang, Jin

    2016-07-01

    Anisotropic 2D layered material rhenium disulfide (ReS2 ) with high crystal quality and uniform monolayer thickness is synthesized by using tellurium-assisted epitaxial growth on mica substrate. Benefit from the lower eutectic temperature of rhenium-tellurium binary eutectic, ReS2 can grow from rhenium (melting point at 3180 °C) and sulfur precursors in the temperature range of 460-900 °C with high efficiency. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Atomic Layers: Tellurium-Assisted Epitaxial Growth of Large-Area, Highly Crystalline ReS2 Atomic Layers on Mica Substrate (Adv. Mater. 25/2016).

    PubMed

    Cui, Fangfang; Wang, Cong; Li, Xiaobo; Wang, Gang; Liu, Kaiqiang; Yang, Zhou; Feng, Qingliang; Liang, Xing; Zhang, Zhongyue; Liu, Shengzhong; Lei, Zhibin; Liu, Zonghuai; Xu, Hua; Zhang, Jin

    2016-07-01

    H. Xu, J. Zhang, and co-workers synthesize anisotropic 2D-layered rhenium disulfide with high crystal quality and uniform monolayer thickness. As described on page 5019, tellurium-assisted epitaxial growth on a mica substrate is chosen to generate such structures. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Large-area, laterally-grown epitaxial semiconductor layers

    DOEpatents

    Han, Jung; Song, Jie; Chen, Danti

    2017-07-18

    Structures and methods for confined lateral-guided growth of a large-area semiconductor layer on an insulating layer are described. The semiconductor layer may be formed by heteroepitaxial growth from a selective growth area in a vertically-confined, lateral-growth guiding structure. Lateral-growth guiding structures may be formed in arrays over a region of a substrate, so as to cover a majority of the substrate region with laterally-grown epitaxial semiconductor tiles. Quality regions of low-defect, stress-free GaN may be grown on silicon.

  8. Large area, Few Layer Graphene Films on Insulating Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Jing

    2009-03-01

    Graphene has exceptional electronic, thermal and mechanical properties. For the realization of graphene-related applications, it is necessary to develop reliable and low cost fabrication methods of graphene-based structures, ideally on any substrates. In this talk I will present our method of fabricating large area (˜cm^2) films of single- to few-layer graphene and transferring the films to arbitrary substrates. The graphene films are synthesized by ambient pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition, consist of regions of 1 to ˜10 graphene layers and have an average thickness of 2-3 nm. Despite their ultra-thin nature, the films thus produced are continuous over the entire area. Regions of single- or bi-layer graphene with lateral sizes of up to 25 μm were observed. High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) and electron diffraction revealed that they are crystalline over the entire area and their Raman features were compared to those of graphene derived from mechanical exfoliation of Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite (HOPG). Transistor devices made from these graphene show similar characteristics to ones made from graphitized SiC. Scanning tunneling microscopy imaging reveals interesting Mori'e patterns and helpful insights for the growth of the graphene films on the Ni substrate. The method presented in this work can potentially be scaled to industrial production of graphene films, for applications such as ultra-thin conductive and transparent electrodes, or devices and interconnect for integrated circuits.

  9. Ultrafast Nanofiltration through Large-Area Single-Layered Graphene Membranes.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yanzhe; Hu, Yongyou; Koehler, Stephan; Cai, Liheng; Wen, Junjie; Tan, Xiaojun; Xu, Weiwei L; Sheng, Qian; Hou, Xu; Xue, Jianming; Yu, Miao; Weitz, David

    2017-03-22

    Perforated single-layered graphene has demonstrated selectivity and flux that is orders of magnitude greater than state-of-the-art polymer membranes. However, only individual graphene sheets with sizes up to tens of micrometers have been successfully fabricated for pressurized permeation studies. Scaling-up and reinforcement of these atomic membranes with minimum cracks and pinholes remains a major hurdle for practical applications. We develop a large-area in situ, phase-inversion casting technique to create 63 cm(2) high-quality single-layered perforated graphene membranes for ultrafast nanofiltration that can operate at pressures up to 50 bar. This result demonstrates the feasibility of our technique for creating robust large-area, high quality, single-layered graphene and its potential use as a pressurized nanofiltration membrane.

  10. Fabricating Large-Area Sheets of Single-Layer Graphene by CVD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bronikowski, Michael; Manohara, Harish

    2008-01-01

    This innovation consists of a set of methodologies for preparing large area (greater than 1 cm(exp 2)) domains of single-atomic-layer graphite, also called graphene, in single (two-dimensional) crystal form. To fabricate a single graphene layer using chemical vapor deposition (CVD), the process begins with an atomically flat surface of an appropriate substrate and an appropriate precursor molecule containing carbon atoms attached to substituent atoms or groups. These molecules will be brought into contact with the substrate surface by being flowed over, or sprayed onto, the substrate, under CVD conditions of low pressure and elevated temperature. Upon contact with the surface, the precursor molecules will decompose. The substituent groups detach from the carbon atoms and form gas-phase species, leaving the unfunctionalized carbon atoms attached to the substrate surface. These carbon atoms will diffuse upon this surface and encounter and bond to other carbon atoms. If conditions are chosen carefully, the surface carbon atoms will arrange to form the lowest energy single-layer structure available, which is the graphene lattice that is sought. Another method for creating the graphene lattice includes metal-catalyzed CVD, in which the decomposition of the precursor molecules is initiated by the catalytic action of a catalytic metal upon the substrate surface. Another type of metal-catalyzed CVD has the entire substrate composed of catalytic metal, or other material, either as a bulk crystal or as a think layer of catalyst deposited upon another surface. In this case, the precursor molecules decompose directly upon contact with the substrate, releasing their atoms and forming the graphene sheet. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) can also be used. In this method, a substrate surface at low temperature is covered with exactly one monolayer of precursor molecules (which may be of more than one type). This is heated up so that the precursor molecules decompose and form one

  11. Large area hexagonal boron nitride monolayer as efficient atomically thick insulating coating against friction and oxidation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuemei; Yin, Jun; Zhou, Jianxin; Guo, Wanlin

    2014-03-14

    Coating is the most widely applied technology to improve surface properties of substrates, and nanotechnology has been playing an important role in enhancing the coating performance. However, the tunability of surface properties by a single atomic layer remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that a chemical vapor deposited hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) monolayer of large area and high quality can serve as a perfect coating to significantly improve friction, oxidation and electric resistance of the substrates. The exceptional low friction and insulation of h-BN monolayer coating facilitate the characterization of the h-BN film vividly by atomic force microscopy, showing the h-BN monolayer consists of domains with size within a few micrometers. This excellent coating performance together with the exceptional high thermal and chemical stability make the h-BN monolayer a promising coating material.

  12. Large-Area Atom Interferometry with Frequency-Swept Raman Adiabatic Passage.

    PubMed

    Kotru, Krish; Butts, David L; Kinast, Joseph M; Stoner, Richard E

    2015-09-04

    We demonstrate light-pulse atom interferometry with large-momentum-transfer atom optics based on stimulated Raman transitions and frequency-swept adiabatic rapid passage. Our atom optics have produced momentum splittings of up to 30 photon recoil momenta in an acceleration-sensitive interferometer for laser cooled atoms. We experimentally verify the enhancement of phase shift per unit acceleration and characterize interferometer contrast loss. By forgoing evaporative cooling and velocity selection, this method lowers the atom shot-noise-limited measurement uncertainty and enables large-area atom interferometry at higher data rates.

  13. Large-Area Atomic Oxygen Facility Used to Clean Fire-Damaged Artwork

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Steuber, Thomas J.; Sechkar, Edward A.

    2000-01-01

    In addition to completely destroying artwork, fires in museums and public buildings can soil a displayed artwork with so much accumulated soot that it can no longer be used for study or be enjoyed by the public. In situations where the surface has not undergone extensive charring or melting, restoration can be attempted. However, soot deposits can be very difficult to remove from some types of painted surfaces, particularly when the paint is fragile or flaking or when the top surface of the paint binder has been damaged. Restoration typically involves the use of organic solvents to clean the surface, but these solvents may cause the paint layers to swell or leach out. Also, immersion of the surface or swabbing during solvent cleaning may move or remove pigment through mechanical contact, especially if the fire damage extends into the paint binder. A noncontact technique of removing organic deposits from surfaces was developed out of NASA research on the effects of oxygen atoms on various materials. Atomic oxygen is present in the atmosphere surrounding the Earth at the altitudes where satellites typically orbit. It can react chemically with surface coatings or deposits that contain carbon. In the reaction, the carbon is converted to carbon monoxide and some carbon dioxide. Water vapor is also a byproduct of the reaction if the surface contains carbon-hydrogen bonds. To study this reaction, NASA developed Earth-based facilities to produce atomic oxygen for material exposure and testing. A vacuum facility designed and built by the Electro-Physics Branch of the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field to provide atomic oxygen over a large area for studying reactions in low Earth orbit has been used to successfully clean several full-size paintings. (This facility can accommodate paintings up to 1.5 by 2.1 m. The atomic oxygen plasma is produced between two large parallel aluminum plates using a radiofrequency power source operating at roughly 400 W. Atomic oxygen is

  14. Large-area, freestanding, single-layer graphene-gold: a hybrid plasmonic nanostructure.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Ganjigunte R Swathi; Wang, Jian; Wells, Garth; Guruvenket, Srinivasan; Payne, Scott; Bradley, Michael; Borondics, Ferenc

    2014-06-24

    Graphene-based plasmonic devices have recently drawn great attention. However, practical limitations in fabrication and device architectures prevent studies from being carried out on the intrinsic properties of graphene and their change by plasmonic structures. The influence of a quasi-infinite object (i.e., the substrate) on graphene, being a single sheet of carbon atoms, and the plasmonic device is overwhelming. To address this and put the intrinsic properties of the graphene-plasmonic nanostructures in focus, we fabricate large-area, freestanding, single-layer graphene-gold (LFG-Au) sandwich structures and Au nanoparticle decorated graphene (formed via thermal treatment) hybrid plasmonic nanostructures. We observed two distinct plasmonic enhancement routes of graphene unique to each structure via surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. The localized electronic structure variation in the LFG due to graphene-Au interaction at the nanoscale is mapped using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy. The measurements show an optical density of ∼0.007, which is the smallest experimentally determined for single-layer graphene thus far. Our results on freestanding graphene-Au plasmonic structures provide great insight for the rational design and future fabrication of graphene plasmonic hybrid nanostructures.

  15. Few-layer, large-area, 2D covalent organic framework semiconductor thin films.

    PubMed

    Feldblyum, Jeremy I; McCreery, Clara H; Andrews, Sean C; Kurosawa, Tadanori; Santos, Elton J G; Duong, Vincent; Fang, Lei; Ayzner, Alexander L; Bao, Zhenan

    2015-09-21

    In this work, we synthesize large-area thin films of a conjugated, imine-based, two-dimensional covalent organic framework at the solution/air interface. Thicknesses between ∼2-200 nm are achieved. Films can be transferred to any desired substrate by lifting from underneath, enabling their use as the semiconducting active layer in field-effect transistors.

  16. Large-area few-layer MoS2 deposited by sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jyun-Hong; Chen, Hsing-Hung; Liu, Pang-Shiuan; Lu, Li-Syuan; Wu, Chien-Ting; Chou, Cheng-Tung; Lee, Yao-Jen; Li, Lain-Jong; Chang, Wen-Hao; Hou, Tuo-Hung

    2016-06-01

    Direct magnetron sputtering of transition metal dichalcogenide targets is proposed as a new approach for depositing large-area two-dimensional layered materials. Bilayer to few-layer MoS2 deposited by magnetron sputtering followed by post-deposition annealing shows superior area scalability over 20 cm2 and layer-by-layer controllability. High crystallinity of layered MoS2 was confirmed by Raman, photo-luminescence, and transmission electron microscopy analysis. The sputtering temperature and annealing ambience were found to play an important role in the film quality. The top-gate field-effect transistor by using the layered MoS2 channel shows typical n-type characteristics with a current on/off ratio of approximately 104. The relatively low mobility is attributed to the small grain size of 0.1-1 μm with a trap charge density in grain boundaries of the order of 1013 cm-2.

  17. Multi-layered fabrication of large area PDMS flexible optical light guide sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Robert; Knopf, George K.; Bordatchev, Evgueni V.

    2017-02-01

    Large area polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) flexible optical light guide sheets can be used to create a variety of passive light harvesting and illumination systems for wearable technology, advanced indoor lighting, non-planar solar light collectors, customized signature lighting, and enhanced safety illumination for motorized vehicles. These thin optically transparent micro-patterned polymer sheets can be draped over a flat or arbitrarily curved surface. The light guiding behavior of the optical light guides depends on the geometry and spatial distribution of micro-optical structures, thickness and shape of the flexible sheet, refractive indices of the constituent layers, and the wavelength of the incident light. A scalable fabrication method that combines soft-lithography, closed thin cavity molding, partial curing, and centrifugal casting is described in this paper for building thin large area multi-layered PDMS optical light guide sheets. The proposed fabrication methodology enables the of internal micro-optical structures (MOSs) in the monolithic PDMS light guide by building the optical system layer-by-layer. Each PDMS layer in the optical light guide can have the similar, or a slightly different, indices of refraction that permit total internal reflection within the optical sheet. The individual molded layers may also be defect free or micro-patterned with microlens or reflecting micro-features. In addition, the bond between adjacent layers is ensured because each layer is only partially cured before the next functional layer is added. To illustrate the scalable build-by-layers fabrication method a three-layer mechanically flexible illuminator with an embedded LED strip is constructed and demonstrated.

  18. Large-area field-ionization detector for the study of Rydberg atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. C. L.; Piñeiro, A. M.; Roeder, E. E.; Rutbeck-Goldman, H. J.; Tom, H. W. K.; Mills, A. P.

    2016-11-01

    We describe here the development and characterization of a micro-channel plate (MCP) based detector designed for the efficient collection and detection of Rydberg positronium (Ps) atoms for use in a time-of-flight apparatus. The designed detector collects Rydberg atoms over a large area (˜4 times greater than the active area of the MCP), ionizing incident atoms and then collecting and focusing the freed positrons onto the MCP. Here we discuss the function, design, and optimization of the device. The detector has an efficiency for Rydberg Ps that is two times larger than that of the γ-ray scintillation detector based scheme it has been designed to replace, with half the background signal. In principle, detectors of the type described here could be readily employed for the detection of any Rydberg atom species, provided a sufficient field can be applied to achieve an ionization rate of ≥108/s. In such cases, the best time resolution would be achieved by collecting ionized electrons rather than the positive ions.

  19. Large area single and bilayer graphene with controlled orientation for each layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Lola; Lochocki, Edward; Gutiérrez, Christopher; Pasupathy, Abhay; Shen, Kyle; Park, Jiwoong; Cornell Collaboration; Cornell-Columbia Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    The creation and exploration of artificial graphene structures has recently become the focus of great interest. In particular, controlling the interlayer twist angles in multilayer graphene stacks allows modulation of the overall band structure. However, producing such a structure remains difficult due to the random distribution of twist angles in as-grown samples. Here we report a novel way for creating large area graphene stacks with a pre-determined twist angle. We first grow single layer graphene whose orientation is aligned over a few cm length scale on copper foil. The overall angle alignment of the graphene is confirmed using low energy electron microscopy (LEED) and transmission electron microscopy techniques. Since the graphene is well aligned over a few centimeters, we can create large area graphene stacks with known twist angle by transferring these graphene layers while controlling the orientation of each layer during transfer. We confirm that the layers are coupled by probing the resulting band structure using angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), and examining their interlayer optical resonance features using spatially resolved hyperspectral (DUV-Vis-NIR wavelengths). This new method is scalable, and controllable and thus paves the way to explore and exploit the novel properties of two-dimensional crystals in artificial stacks with controlled interlayer structures. Second affiliation: Kavli Institute at Cornell for Nanoscale Science.

  20. Tuning the thickness of electrochemically grafted layers in large area molecular junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Fluteau, T.; Bessis, C.; Barraud, C. Della Rocca, M. L.; Lafarge, P.; Martin, P.; Lacroix, J.-C.

    2014-09-21

    We have investigated the thickness, the surface roughness, and the transport properties of oligo(1-(2-bisthienyl)benzene) (BTB) thin films grafted on evaporated Au electrodes, thanks to a diazonium-based electro-reduction process. The thickness of the organic film is tuned by varying the number of electrochemical cycles during the growth process. Atomic force microscopy measurements reveal the evolution of the thickness in the range of 2–27 nm. Its variation displays a linear dependence with the number of cycles followed by a saturation attributed to the insulating behavior of the organic films. Both ultrathin (2 nm) and thin (12 and 27 nm) large area BTB-based junctions have then been fabricated using standard CMOS processes and finally electrically characterized. The electronic responses are fully consistent with a tunneling barrier in case of ultrathin BTB film whereas a pronounced rectifying behavior is reported for thicker molecular films.

  1. Electrochemical Atomic Layer Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-25

    where an atomic layer of an element is deposited , or removed, in a surface limited reaction. The potentials used are referred to as underpotentials in...the electrochemical literature. The atomic layer deposition process is referred to as underpotential deposition (UPD). 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15, NUMBER OF...reaction. The potentials used are referred to as underpotentials in the electrochemical literature. The atomic layer deposition process is referred to as

  2. Atomic oxidation of large area epitaxial graphene on 4H-SiC(0001)

    SciTech Connect

    Velez-Fort, E.; Ouerghi, A.; Silly, M. G.; Sirtti, F.; Eddrief, M.; Marangolo, M.; Shukla, A.

    2014-03-03

    Structural and electronic properties of epitaxial graphene on 4H-SiC were studied before and after an atomic oxidation process. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy indicates that oxygen penetrates into the substrate and decouples a part of the interface layer. Raman spectroscopy demonstrates the increase of defects due to the presence of oxygen. Interestingly, we observed on the near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectra a splitting of the π* peak into two distinct resonances centered at 284.7 and 285.2 eV. This double structure smears out after the oxidation process and permits to probe the interface architecture between graphene and the substrate.

  3. Physically-based failure analysis of shallow layered soil deposits over large areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuomo, Sabatino; Castorino, Giuseppe Claudio; Iervolino, Aniello

    2014-05-01

    In the last decades, the analysis of slope stability conditions over large areas has become popular among scientists and practitioners (Cascini et al., 2011; Cuomo and Della Sala, 2013). This is due to the availability of new computational tools (Baum et al., 2002; Godt et al., 2008; Baum and Godt, 2012; Salciarini et al., 2012) - implemented in GIS (Geographic Information System) platforms - which allow taking into account the major hydraulic and mechanical issues related to slope failure, even for unsaturated soils, as well as the spatial variability of both topography and soil properties. However, the effectiveness (Sorbino et al., 2010) of the above methods it is still controversial for landslides forecasting especially depending on the accuracy of DTM (Digital Terrain Model) and for the chance that distinct triggering mechanisms may occur over large area. Among the major uncertainties, layering of soil deposits is of primary importance due to soil layer conductivity contrast and differences in shear strength. This work deals with the hazard analysis of shallow landslides over large areas, considering two distinct schematizations of soil stratigraphy, i.e. homogeneous or layered. To this purpose, the physically-based model TRIGRS (Baum et al., 2002) is firstly used, then extended to the case of layered deposit: specifically, a unique set of hydraulic properties is assumed while distinct soil unit weight and shear strength are considered for each soil layer. Both models are applied to a significant study area of Southern Italy, about 4 km2 large, where shallow deposits of air-fall volcanic (pyroclastic) soils have been affected by several landslides, causing victims, damages and economic losses. The achieved results highlight that soil volume globally mobilized over the study area highly depends on local stratigraphy of shallow deposits. This relates to the depth of critical slip surface which rarely corresponds to the bedrock contact where cohesionless coarse

  4. Large area nanoscale metal meshes for use as transparent conductive layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yuanhao; Li, Qunqing; Chen, Mo; Li, Guanhong; Zhao, Yudan; Xiao, Xiaoyang; Wang, Jiaping; Jiang, Kaili; Fan, Shoushan

    2015-10-01

    We report on the experimental realization of using super-aligned carbon nanotubes (SACNTs) as etching masks for the fabrication of large area nanoscale metal meshes. This method can easily be extended to different metals on both rigid and flexible substrates. The as-fabricated metal meshes, including the ones made of gold, copper, and aluminum, are suitable for use as transparent conductive layers (TCLs). The metal meshes, which are similar to the SACNT networks in their dimensional features of tens of nanometers, exhibit compatible performance in terms of optical transmittance and sheet resistance. Moreover, because the metal meshes are fabricated as an integrated material, there is no junction resistance between the interconnected metal nanostructures, which markedly lowers their sheet resistance at high temperatures. The fabrication of such an effective etching mask involves a simple drawing process of the SACNT networks prepared and a common deposition process. This approach should be easy to extend to various research fields and has broad prospects in commercial applications.We report on the experimental realization of using super-aligned carbon nanotubes (SACNTs) as etching masks for the fabrication of large area nanoscale metal meshes. This method can easily be extended to different metals on both rigid and flexible substrates. The as-fabricated metal meshes, including the ones made of gold, copper, and aluminum, are suitable for use as transparent conductive layers (TCLs). The metal meshes, which are similar to the SACNT networks in their dimensional features of tens of nanometers, exhibit compatible performance in terms of optical transmittance and sheet resistance. Moreover, because the metal meshes are fabricated as an integrated material, there is no junction resistance between the interconnected metal nanostructures, which markedly lowers their sheet resistance at high temperatures. The fabrication of such an effective etching mask involves a simple

  5. High-resolution functional epoxysilsesquioxane-based patterning layers for large-area nanoimprinting.

    PubMed

    Pina-Hernandez, Carlos; Guo, L Jay; Fu, Peng-Fei

    2010-08-24

    Epoxysilsesquioxane (SSQ)-based materials have been developed as patterning layers for large-area and high-resolution nanoimprinting. The SSQ polymers, poly(methyl-co-3-glycidoxypropyl) silsesquioxanes (T(Me)T(Ep)), poly(phenyl-co-3-glycidoxypropyl) silsesquioxanes (T(Ph)T(Ep)), and poly(phenyl-co-3-glycidoxypropyl-co-perfluorooctyl) silsesquioxanes (T(Ph)T(Ep)T(Fluo)), were precisely designed and synthesized by incorporating the necessary functional groups onto the SSQ backbone. The materials possess a variety of characteristics desirable for NIL, such as great coatability, high modulus, good mold release, and excellent dry etch resistance. In particular, the presence of epoxy functional groups allows the resists to be solidified within seconds under UV exposure at room temperature, and the presence of the fluoroalkyl groups in the SSQ resins greatly facilitate mold release after the imprint process. In addition, the absence of metal in the resins makes the materials highly compatible with applications involving Si CMOS integrated circuits fabrication.

  6. Controlled synthesis and transfer of large-area WS2 sheets: from single layer to few layers.

    PubMed

    Elías, Ana Laura; Perea-López, Néstor; Castro-Beltrán, Andrés; Berkdemir, Ayse; Lv, Ruitao; Feng, Simin; Long, Aaron D; Hayashi, Takuya; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Endo, Morinobu; Gutiérrez, Humberto R; Pradhan, Nihar R; Balicas, Luis; Mallouk, Thomas E; López-Urías, Florentino; Terrones, Humberto; Terrones, Mauricio

    2013-06-25

    The isolation of few-layered transition metal dichalcogenides has mainly been performed by mechanical and chemical exfoliation with very low yields. In this account, a controlled thermal reduction-sulfurization method is used to synthesize large-area (~1 cm(2)) WS2 sheets with thicknesses ranging from monolayers to a few layers. During synthesis, WOx thin films are first deposited on Si/SiO2 substrates, which are then sulfurized (under vacuum) at high temperatures (750-950 °C). An efficient route to transfer the synthesized WS2 films onto different substrates such as quartz and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) grids has been satisfactorily developed using concentrated HF. Samples with different thicknesses have been analyzed by Raman spectroscopy and TEM, and their photoluminescence properties have been evaluated. We demonstrated the presence of single-, bi-, and few-layered WS2 on as-grown samples. It is well known that the electronic structure of these materials is very sensitive to the number of layers, ranging from indirect band gap semiconductor in the bulk phase to direct band gap semiconductor in monolayers. This method has also proved successful in the synthesis of heterogeneous systems of MoS2 and WS2 layers, thus shedding light on the controlled production of heterolayered devices from transition metal chalcogenides.

  7. 102({h_bar}/2{pi})k Large Area Atom Interferometers

    SciTech Connect

    Chiow, Sheng-wey; Kovachy, Tim; Chien, Hui-Chun; Kasevich, Mark A.

    2011-09-23

    We demonstrate atom interferometers utilizing a novel beam splitter based on sequential multiphoton Bragg diffractions. With this sequential Bragg large momentum transfer (SB-LMT) beam splitter, we achieve high contrast atom interferometers with momentum splittings of up to 102 photon recoil momenta (102({h_bar}/2{pi})k). To our knowledge, this is the highest momentum splitting achieved in any atom interferometer, advancing the state-of-the-art by an order of magnitude. We also demonstrate strong noise correlation between two simultaneous SB-LMT interferometers, which alleviates the need for ultralow noise lasers and ultrastable inertial environments in some future applications. Our method is intrinsically scalable and can be used to dramatically increase the sensitivity of atom interferometers in a wide range of applications, including inertial sensing, measuring the fine structure constant, and detecting gravitational waves.

  8. EDITORIAL: Atomic layer deposition Atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godlewski, Marek

    2012-07-01

    The growth method of atomic layer deposition (ALD) was introduced in Finland by Suntola under the name of atomic layer epitaxy (ALE). The method was originally used for deposition of thin films of sulphides (ZnS, CaS, SrS) activated with manganese or rare-earth ions. Such films were grown for applications in thin-film electroluminescence (TFEL) displays. The ALE mode of growth was also tested in the case of molecular beam epitaxy. Films grown by ALD are commonly polycrystalline or even amorphous. Thus, the name ALE has been replaced by ALD. In the 80s ALD was developed mostly in Finland and neighboring Baltic countries. Deposition of a range of different materials was demonstrated at that time, including II-VI semiconductors (e.g. CdTe, CdS) and III-V (e.g. GaAs, GaN), with possible applications in e.g. photovoltaics. The number of publications on ALD was slowly increasing, approaching about 100 each year. A real boom in interest came with the development of deposition methods of thin films of high-k dielectrics. This research was motivated by a high leakage current in field-effect transistors with SiO2-based gate dielectrics. In 2007 Intel introduced a new generation of integrated circuits (ICs) with thin films of HfO2 used as gate isolating layers. In these and subsequent ICs, films of HfO2 are deposited by the ALD method. This is due to their unique properties. The introduction of ALD to the electronics industry led to a booming interest in the ALD growth method, with the number of publications increasing rapidly to well above 1000 each year. A number of new applications were proposed, as reflected in this special issue of Semiconductor Science and Technology. The included articles cover a wide range of possible applications—in microelectronics, transparent electronics, optoelectronics, photovoltaics and spintronics. Research papers and reviews on the basics of ALD growth are also included, reflecting a growing interest in precursor chemistry and growth

  9. Electrochemical Atomic Layer Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Brian Wayne

    1992-01-01

    Presented here are initial investigations into an electrochemical method whereby thin films of compound semiconductors are produced by epitaxial growth of the constituent elements. This method is the electrochemical analogue of atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) (a vacuum-based technique which relies on sequential formation of atomic layers of the constituent elements) and has been termed "Electrochemical atomic layer epitaxy" (ECALE). These preliminary studies are centered on the formation of CdTe, though in principle they could be extended to a number of other compound semiconductors. A background introduction on topics relevant to epitaxial growth in electrochemical systems will be presented. Predictions of underpotential behavior in the CdTe system will be made using potential -pH (Pourbaix) diagrams. Development of the method will proceed from our initial studies of Cd and Te underpotential deposition (UPD) on a number of metallic substrates, followed by results demonstrating the ECALE formation of two monolayers of CdTe on polycrystalline and single crystal gold substrates. The final chapter will present current attempts to design and construct an automated, computer-controlled thin-layer electrochemical flow cell, which is to be used for the deposition of thicker layers (up to 1 mu m) of compound semiconductors.

  10. Controlled-layer and large-area MoS2 films encapsulated Au nanoparticle hybrids for SERS.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Jiang, Shouzhen; Huo, Yanyan; Liu, Mei; Yang, Cheng; Zhang, Chao; Liu, Xiaoyun; Sheng, Yingqing; Li, Chonghui; Man, Baoyuan

    2016-11-14

    In this work, a facile and effective method for controlled-layer and large-area MoS2 films encapsulated Au nanoparticle hybrids is developed. With accurate Ar plasma treatment time control, the large-area MoS2 layers can be obtained from monolayer to trilayer. The fabricated MoS2@Au NPs with higher surface area exhibit excellent Raman enhanced effect for aromatic organic molecules (rhodamine 6G and crystal violet) and achieve the best when the monolayer MoS2@AuNPs was obtained. The limit of detection is found to be as low as 1 × 10-10 M. The MoS2@AuNPs was characterized by SEM, EDS, AFM, Raman spectroscopy, UV-Vis, XRD and HRTEM.

  11. A Large-Area Transferable Wide Band Gap 2D Silicon Dioxide Layer.

    PubMed

    Büchner, Christin; Wang, Zhu-Jun; Burson, Kristen M; Willinger, Marc-Georg; Heyde, Markus; Schlögl, Robert; Freund, Hans-Joachim

    2016-08-23

    An atomically smooth silica bilayer is transferred from the growth substrate to a new support via mechanical exfoliation at millimeter scale. The atomic structure and morphology are maintained perfectly throughout the process. A simple heating treatment results in complete removal of the transfer medium. Low-energy electron diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and environmental scanning electron microscopy show the success of the transfer steps. Excellent chemical and thermal stability result from the absence of dangling bonds in the film structure. By adding this wide band gap oxide to the toolbox of 2D materials, possibilities for van der Waals heterostructures will be broadened significantly.

  12. Contact-free sheet resistance determination of large area graphene layers by an open dielectric loaded microwave cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaforost, O.; Wang, K.; Goniszewski, S.; Adabi, M.; Guo, Z.; Hanham, S.; Gallop, J.; Hao, L.; Klein, N.

    2015-01-01

    A method for contact-free determination of the sheet resistance of large-area and arbitrary shaped wafers or sheets coated with graphene and other (semi) conducting ultrathin layers is described, which is based on an open dielectric loaded microwave cavity. The sample under test is exposed to the evanescent resonant field outside the cavity. A comparison with a closed cavity configuration revealed that radiation losses have no significant influence of the experimental results. Moreover, the microwave sheet resistance results show good agreement with the dc conductivity determined by four-probe van der Pauw measurements on a set of CVD samples transferred on quartz. As an example of a practical application, correlations between the sheet resistance and deposition conditions for CVD graphene transferred on quartz wafers are described. Our method has a high potential as measurement standard for contact-free sheet resistance measurement and mapping of large area graphene samples.

  13. Contact-free sheet resistance determination of large area graphene layers by an open dielectric loaded microwave cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Shaforost, O.; Wang, K.; Adabi, M.; Guo, Z.; Hanham, S.; Klein, N.; Goniszewski, S.; Gallop, J.; Hao, L.

    2015-01-14

    A method for contact-free determination of the sheet resistance of large-area and arbitrary shaped wafers or sheets coated with graphene and other (semi) conducting ultrathin layers is described, which is based on an open dielectric loaded microwave cavity. The sample under test is exposed to the evanescent resonant field outside the cavity. A comparison with a closed cavity configuration revealed that radiation losses have no significant influence of the experimental results. Moreover, the microwave sheet resistance results show good agreement with the dc conductivity determined by four-probe van der Pauw measurements on a set of CVD samples transferred on quartz. As an example of a practical application, correlations between the sheet resistance and deposition conditions for CVD graphene transferred on quartz wafers are described. Our method has a high potential as measurement standard for contact-free sheet resistance measurement and mapping of large area graphene samples.

  14. Synthesis of Few-Layer, Large Area Hexagonal-Boron Nitride by Pulsed Laser Deposition (POSTPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    like CNx films, J. Appl. Phys. 92 (2002) 724. [27] R. Trehan, Y. Lifshitz, J.W. Rabalais, Auger and X-ray electron spectroscopy studies of hBN, cBN...determine structural and electrical properties, the films were ex amined with Raman spectroscopy , AFM topography, TEM, and conduc tive atomic forcemicroscopy...83 (6) (2011) 065601. [22] B.P. Payne, M.C. Beisinger, N.S. McIntyre, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of reactions on chromiummetal and

  15. Graphene oxide hole transport layers for large area, high efficiency organic solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Chris T. G.; Rhodes, Rhys W.; Beliatis, Michail J.; Imalka Jayawardena, K. D. G.; Rozanski, Lynn J.; Mills, Christopher A.; Silva, S. Ravi P.

    2014-08-18

    Graphene oxide (GO) is becoming increasingly popular for organic electronic applications. We present large active area (0.64 cm{sup 2}), solution processable, poly[[9-(1-octylnonyl)-9H-carbazole-2,7-diyl]-2,5-thiophenediyl-2,1, 3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl-2,5-thiophenediyl]:[6,6]-Phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester (PCDTBT:PC{sub 70}BM) organic photovoltaic (OPV) solar cells, incorporating GO hole transport layers (HTL). The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of ∼5% is the highest reported for OPV using this architecture. A comparative study of solution-processable devices has been undertaken to benchmark GO OPV performance with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) HTL devices, confirming the viability of GO devices, with comparable PCEs, suitable as high chemical and thermal stability replacements for PEDOT:PSS in OPV.

  16. Large area single and multi-layer graphene with uniform intralayer and interlayer orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Yui; Kim, Cheol-Joo; Brown, Lola; Huang, Lujie; Lee, Kan-Heng; Ziegler, Zachary; Park, Jiwoong

    2015-03-01

    The precise control over the intralayer and interlayer structures in two-dimensional (2D) materials provides new and exciting routes toward novel materials with unique electrical and optical properties. A prototypical example is twisted bilayer graphene (tBLG), where the interlayer rotation angle (θ) gives rise to various angle-dependent electrical and optical phenomena. However, it is generally difficulty to control θ during growth, especially for small θ, as Bernal-stacked BLG is energetically and kinetically preferred. Here, we report the fabrication and properties of large scale tBLG with controlled θ. For this, we use a newly-developed double-transfer technique with a building block of lattice-uniform single layer graphene. The interlayer structure and interaction is measured and confirmed using hyperspectral optical imaging and darkfield transmission electron microscopy. In addition, we can grow lattice-uniform graphene on Cu-film as well as Cu-foil. While Cu-foil is promising for the realization of scalable graphene growth, graphene on Cu-film allow us specific applications, such very flat substrate for excellent LEED and ARPES characterization, as well as forming unique structures. Our fabrication and characterization methods are scalable and applicable to multilayer graphene and other 2D materials in the future.

  17. Large area graphene ion sensitive field effect transistors with tantalum pentoxide sensing layers for pH measurement at the Nernstian limit

    SciTech Connect

    Fakih, Ibrahim Sabri, Shadi; Szkopek, Thomas; Mahvash, Farzaneh; Nannini, Matthieu; Siaj, Mohamed

    2014-08-25

    We have fabricated and characterized large area graphene ion sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs) with tantalum pentoxide sensing layers and demonstrated pH sensitivities approaching the Nernstian limit. Low temperature atomic layer deposition was used to deposit tantalum pentoxide atop large area graphene ISFETs. The charge neutrality point of graphene, inferred from quantum capacitance or channel conductance, was used to monitor surface potential in the presence of an electrolyte with varying pH. Bare graphene ISFETs exhibit negligible response, while graphene ISFETs with tantalum pentoxide sensing layers show increased sensitivity reaching up to 55 mV/pH over pH 3 through pH 8. Applying the Bergveld model, which accounts for site binding and a Guoy-Chapman-Stern picture of the surface-electrolyte interface, the increased pH sensitivity can be attributed to an increased buffer capacity reaching up to 10{sup 14} sites/cm{sup 2}. ISFET response was found to be stable to better than 0.05 pH units over the course of two weeks.

  18. A flatbed scanner for large-area thickness determination of ultra-thin layers in printed electronics.

    PubMed

    Bornemann, Nils; Dörsam, Edgar

    2013-09-23

    Enabling solution-based printing techniques for sub-100 nm thin semiconductors for the application in large-area organic electronics is a challenging task. In order to optimize the process parameters, the layers have to be characterized on a large lateral scale while determining the nanometer thickness at the same time. We present a lateral and vertical resolving measurement method for large-area, semi-transparent thin films based on optical interference effects. We analyzed the RGB color images of up to 150 mm square-sized thin film samples obtained by a modified commercial flatbed scanner. Utilizing and comparing theoretical and measured color contrast values, we determined most probable thickness values of the imaged sample area pixel by pixel. Within specific boundary conditions, we found very good agreement between the presented imaging color reflectometry and reference methods. Due to its simple setup, our method is suitable to be implemented as part of a color vision inspection system in in-line printing and coating processes.

  19. MoS2 transistors fabricated via plasma-assisted nanoprinting of few-layer MoS2 flakes into large-area arrays.

    PubMed

    Nam, Hongsuk; Wi, Sungjin; Rokni, Hossein; Chen, Mikai; Priessnitz, Greg; Lu, Wei; Liang, Xiaogan

    2013-07-23

    Large-area few-layer-MoS2 device arrays are desirable for scale-up applications in nanoelectronics. Here we present a novel approach for producing orderly arranged, pristine few-layer MoS2 flakes, which holds significant potential to be developed into a nanomanufacturing technology that can be scaled up. We pattern bulk MoS2 stamps using lithographic techniques and subsequently transfer-print prepatterned MoS2 features onto pristine and plasma-charged SiO2 substrates. Our work successfully demonstrates the transfer printing of MoS2 flakes into ordered arrays over cm(2)-scale areas. Especially, the MoS2 patterns printed on plasma-charged substrates feature a regular edge profile and a narrow distribution of MoS2 flake thicknesses (i.e., 3.0 ± 1.9 nm) over cm(2)-scale areas. Furthermore, we experimentally show that our plasma-assisted printing process can be generally used for producing other emerging atomically layered nanostructures (e.g., graphene nanoribbons). We also demonstrate working n-type transistors made from printed MoS2 flakes that exhibit excellent properties (e.g., ON/OFF current ratio 10(5)-10(7), field-effect mobility on SiO2 gate dielectrics 6 to 44 cm(2)/(V s)) as well as good uniformity of such transistor parameters over a large area. Finally, with additional plasma treatment processes, we also show the feasibility of creation of p-type transistors as well as pn junctions in MoS2 flakes. This work lays an important foundation for future scale-up nanoelectronic applications of few-layer-MoS2 micro- and nanostructures.

  20. Mutual Photoluminescence Quenching and Photovoltaic Effect in Large-Area Single-Layer MoS2-Polymer Heterojunctions.

    PubMed

    Shastry, Tejas A; Balla, Itamar; Bergeron, Hadallia; Amsterdam, Samuel H; Marks, Tobin J; Hersam, Mark C

    2016-11-22

    Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have recently attracted attention due to their superlative optical and electronic properties. In particular, their extraordinary optical absorption and semiconducting band gap have enabled demonstrations of photovoltaic response from heterostructures composed of TMDCs and other organic or inorganic materials. However, these early studies were limited to devices at the micrometer scale and/or failed to exploit the unique optical absorption properties of single-layer TMDCs. Here we present an experimental realization of a large-area type-II photovoltaic heterojunction using single-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as the primary absorber, by coupling it to the organic π-donor polymer PTB7. This TMDC-polymer heterojunction exhibits photoluminescence intensity that is tunable as a function of the thickness of the polymer layer, ultimately enabling complete quenching of the TMDC photoluminescence. The strong optical absorption in the TMDC-polymer heterojunction produces an internal quantum efficiency exceeding 40% for an overall cell thickness of less than 20 nm, resulting in exceptional current density per absorbing thickness in comparison to other organic and inorganic solar cells. Furthermore, this work provides insight into the recombination processes in type-II TMDC-polymer heterojunctions and thus provides quantitative guidance to ongoing efforts to realize efficient TMDC-based solar cells.

  1. Effect of surface modification of CeO2 buffer layers on Jc and defect microstructures of large-area YBCO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Develos-Bagarinao, K.; Yamasaki, H.; Nakagawa, Y.

    2006-08-01

    High-quality CeO2 buffer layers are requisite for the successful growth of YBCO thin films with excellent properties on sapphire substrates. In this study, we evaluated the effect of surface modification of the CeO2 layers on the properties of the YBCO thin films prepared by large-area pulsed laser deposition (PLD), in particular the critical current density Jc and defect microstructure. High-temperature annealing (1050 °C) has been found to significantly smoothen the very rough and granular surfaces of the as-grown CeO2 layers (surface roughness rms~5-10 nm) to atomic flatness (rms~0.5 nm). However, a rather unique characteristic of the CeO2 layers deposited by large-area PLD is the development of pores when subjected to prolonged high-temperature annealing. For very short annealing periods (10-20 min), the surface morphology becomes atomically flat, along with the appearance of a high density of 'nanopores' that are ~40-100 nm in diameter and ~3-5 nm in depth. Extending the annealing period to 60 min or more results in the development of a surface subtended with enlarged pores ~0.2-0.5 µm in diameter. Compared with the YBCO thin films deposited on as-grown CeO2, YBCO thin films on annealed CeO2 exhibited better homogeneity of Jc and better crystalline texture. Among the YBCO thin films deposited on annealed CeO2, higher self-field and in-field Jc was obtained for YBCO thin films deposited on CeO2 with smooth surfaces but interspersed with nanopores. Investigation of the defect microstructure via the etch pit method in conjunction with atomic force microscopy (AFM) of the YBCO thin films revealed a high density of linear defects in the form of screw and edge dislocations, which correlated well with a high density of nanopores on annealed CeO2. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) further confirmed the presence of threading dislocations clearly emanating from the nanopore sites. Angular dependence of Jc revealed enhanced flux pinning for YBCO thin films

  2. Discrete Atomic Layers at the Molecular Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yorimitsu, Hideki; Bhanuchandra, M.

    2015-12-01

    In this review, we deal with the syntheses of large discrete atomic layers at the molecular level. Spectroscopic measurements as well as X-ray crystallographic analyses lead to unambiguous characterizations of these layers. The molecular atomic layers can be considered to be parts of graphenes and related atomic layers, thereby helping to understand such indefinitely huge atomic layers or serving as seeds for the controlled synthesis of nanocarbons.

  3. Large-Area Growth of Uniform Single-Layer MoS2 Thin Films by Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    PubMed

    Baek, Seung Hyun; Choi, Yura; Choi, Woong

    2015-12-01

    We report the largest-size thin films of uniform single-layer MoS2 on sapphire substrates grown by chemical vapor deposition based on the reaction of gaseous MoO3 and S evaporated from solid sources. The as-grown thin films of single-layer MoS2 were continuous and uniform in thickness for more than 4 cm without the existence of triangular-shaped MoS2 clusters. Compared to mechanically exfoliated crystals, the as-grown single-layer MoS2 thin films possessed consistent chemical valence states and crystal structure along with strong photoluminescence emission and optical absorbance at high energy. These results demonstrate that it is possible to scale up the growth of uniform single-layer MoS2 thin films, providing potentially important implications on realizing high-performance MoS2 devices.

  4. Studies of Large-Area Inversion-Layer Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor (IL/MIS) Solar Cells and Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, Fat Duen

    1996-01-01

    Many inversion-layer metal-insulator-semiconductor (IL/MIS) solar cells have been fabricated. There are around eighteen 1 cm(exp 2) IL/MIS solar cells which have efficiencies greater than 7%. There are only about three 19 cm(exp 2) IL/MIS cells which have efficiencies greater than 4%. The more accurate control of the thickness of the thin layer of oxide between aluminum and silicon of the MIS contacts has been achieved. A lot of effort and progress have been made in this area. A comprehensive model for MIS contacts under dark conditions has been developed that covers a wide range of parameters. It has been applied to MIS solar cells. One of the main advantages of these models is the prediction of the range of the thin oxide thickness versus the maximum efficiencies of the MIS solar cells. This is particularly important when the thickness is increased to 25 A. This study is very useful for our investigation of the IL/MIS solar cells. The two-dimensional numerical model for the IL/MIS solar cells has been tried to develop and the results are presented in this report.

  5. Large-Area Elemental Imaging Reveals Van Eyck's Original Paint Layers on the Ghent Altarpiece (1432), Rescoping Its Conservation Treatment.

    PubMed

    Van der Snickt, Geert; Dubois, Hélène; Sanyova, Jana; Legrand, Stijn; Coudray, Alexia; Glaude, Cécile; Postec, Marie; Van Espen, Piet; Janssens, Koen

    2017-04-18

    A combination of large-scale and micro-scale elemental imaging, yielding elemental distribution maps obtained by, respectively non-invasive macroscopic X-ray fluorescence (MA-XRF) and by secondary electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX) and synchrotron radiation-based micro-XRF (SR μ-XRF) imaging was employed to reorient and optimize the conservation strategy of van Eyck's renowned Ghent Altarpiece. By exploiting the penetrative properties of X-rays together with the elemental specificity offered by XRF, it was possible to visualize the original paint layers by van Eyck hidden below the overpainted surface and to simultaneously assess their condition. The distribution of the high-energy Pb-L and Hg-L emission lines revealed the exact location of hidden paint losses, while Fe-K maps demonstrated how and where these lacunae were filled-up using an iron-containing material. The chemical maps nourished the scholarly debate on the overpaint removal with objective, chemical arguments, leading to the decision to remove all skillfully applied overpaints, hitherto interpreted as work by van Eyck. MA-XRF was also employed for monitoring the removal of the overpaint during the treatment phase. To gather complementary information on the in-depth layer build-up, SEM-EDX and SR μ-XRF imaging was used on paint cross sections to record micro-scale elemental maps. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Fast solid-phase synthesis of large-area few-layer 1T'-MoTe2 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Sheng; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Tian-Bao; Nie, Xin-Ran; Zhu, Hao; Ding, Shi-Jin; Sun, Qing-Qing; Zhang, David Wei

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we report on a novel approach to produce ∼12 nm thick few-layer monoclinic 1T'-MoTe2 films. The deposition method comprised sputtering of Mo, molecular beam epitaxy of Te, and rapid thermal processing to effect tellurization of the Mo into 1T'-MoTe2. The heating rate and annealing time are the critical factors. 30 °C s-1 heating rate and 2 min annealing at 470 °C were adopted in this work. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the formation of stoichiometric 1T'-MoTe2 films, while X-ray diffraction confirmed the monoclinic polymorph. Raman spectroscopy confirmed spatial uniformity over the sample size of 1 cm × 1.5 cm. Our fast synthesis approach to realize high-quality 1T'-MoTe2 paves the way towards the large-scale application of 1T'-MoTe2 in high-performance nanoelectronics and optoelectronics.

  7. Nanomechanical cleavage of molybdenum disulphide atomic layers.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dai-Ming; Kvashnin, Dmitry G; Najmaei, Sina; Bando, Yoshio; Kimoto, Koji; Koskinen, Pekka; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Yakobson, Boris I; Sorokin, Pavel B; Lou, Jun; Golberg, Dmitri

    2014-04-03

    The discovery of two-dimensional materials became possible due to the mechanical cleavage technique. Despite its simplicity, the as-cleaved materials demonstrated surprising macro-continuity, high crystalline quality and extraordinary mechanical and electrical properties that triggered global research interest. Here such cleavage processes and associated mechanical behaviours are investigated by a direct in situ transmission electron microscopy probing technique, using atomically thin molybdenum disulphide layers as a model material. Our technique demonstrates layer number selective cleavage, from a monolayer to double layer and up to 23 atomic layers. In situ observations combined with molecular dynamics simulations reveal unique layer-dependent bending behaviours, from spontaneous rippling (<5 atomic layers) to homogeneous curving (~ 10 layers) and finally to kinking (20 or more layers), depending on the competition of strain energy and interfacial energy.

  8. Nanomechanical cleavage of molybdenum disulphide atomic layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Dai-Ming; Kvashnin, Dmitry G.; Najmaei, Sina; Bando, Yoshio; Kimoto, Koji; Koskinen, Pekka; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Yakobson, Boris I.; Sorokin, Pavel B.; Lou, Jun; Golberg, Dmitri

    2014-04-01

    The discovery of two-dimensional materials became possible due to the mechanical cleavage technique. Despite its simplicity, the as-cleaved materials demonstrated surprising macro-continuity, high crystalline quality and extraordinary mechanical and electrical properties that triggered global research interest. Here such cleavage processes and associated mechanical behaviours are investigated by a direct in situ transmission electron microscopy probing technique, using atomically thin molybdenum disulphide layers as a model material. Our technique demonstrates layer number selective cleavage, from a monolayer to double layer and up to 23 atomic layers. In situ observations combined with molecular dynamics simulations reveal unique layer-dependent bending behaviours, from spontaneous rippling (<5 atomic layers) to homogeneous curving (~ 10 layers) and finally to kinking (20 or more layers), depending on the competition of strain energy and interfacial energy.

  9. Low-Temperature Preparation of Tungsten Oxide Anode Buffer Layer via Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis Method for Large-Area Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, Ran; Zheng, Ding; Zhou, Chang; Cheng, Jiang; Yu, Junsheng; Li, Lu

    2017-07-18

    Tungsten oxide (WO₃) is prepared by a low-temperature ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method in air atmosphere, and it is used as an anode buffer layer (ABL) for organic solar cells (OSCs). The properties of the WO₃ transition metal oxide material as well as the mechanism of ultrasonic spray pyrolysis processes are investigated. The results show that the ultrasonic spray pyrolysized WO₃ ABL exhibits low roughness, matched energy level, and high conductivity, which results in high charge transport efficiency and suppressive recombination in OSCs. As a result, compared to the OSCs based on vacuum thermal evaporated WO₃, a higher power conversion efficiency of 3.63% is reached with low-temperature ultrasonic spray pyrolysized WO₃ ABL. Furthermore, the mostly spray-coated OSCs with large area was fabricated, which has a power conversion efficiency of ~1%. This work significantly enhances our understanding of the preparation and application of low temperature-processed WO₃, and highlights the potential of large area, all spray coated OSCs for sustainable commercial fabrication.

  10. Mass-transport-controlled, large-area, uniform deposition of carbon nanofibers and their application in gas diffusion layers of fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xian; Xie, Zhiyong; Huang, Qizhong; Chen, Guofen; Hou, Ming; Yi, Baolian

    2015-05-07

    The effect of mass transport on the growth characteristics of large-area vapor-grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs) was investigated by adjusting the substrate deposition angle (α). The catalyst precursor solution was coated onto one side of a 2D porous carbon paper substrate via a decal printing method. The results showed that the CNFs were grown on only one side of the substrate and α was found to significantly affect the growth uniformity. At α = 0°, the growth thickness, the density, the microstructure and the yield of the CNF film were uniform across the substrate surface, whereas the growth uniformity decreased with increasing α, suggesting that the large-area CNF deposition processes were mass-transport-controlled. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of the gas diffusion processes revealed the homogeneous distributions of the carbon-source-gas concentration, pressure, and velocity near the substrate surface at α = 0°, which were the important factors in achieving the mass-transport-limited uniform CNF growth. The homogeneity of the field distributions decreased with increasing α, in accordance with the variation in the growth uniformity with α. When used as a micro-porous layer, the uniform CNF film enabled higher proton exchange membrane fuel cell performance in comparison with commercial carbon black by virtue of its improved electronic and mass-transport properties confirmed by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results.

  11. Low-Temperature Preparation of Tungsten Oxide Anode Buffer Layer via Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis Method for Large-Area Organic Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Ran; Zheng, Ding; Zhou, Chang; Cheng, Jiang; Yu, Junsheng; Li, Lu

    2017-01-01

    Tungsten oxide (WO3) is prepared by a low-temperature ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method in air atmosphere, and it is used as an anode buffer layer (ABL) for organic solar cells (OSCs). The properties of the WO3 transition metal oxide material as well as the mechanism of ultrasonic spray pyrolysis processes are investigated. The results show that the ultrasonic spray pyrolysized WO3 ABL exhibits low roughness, matched energy level, and high conductivity, which results in high charge transport efficiency and suppressive recombination in OSCs. As a result, compared to the OSCs based on vacuum thermal evaporated WO3, a higher power conversion efficiency of 3.63% is reached with low-temperature ultrasonic spray pyrolysized WO3 ABL. Furthermore, the mostly spray-coated OSCs with large area was fabricated, which has a power conversion efficiency of ~1%. This work significantly enhances our understanding of the preparation and application of low temperature-processed WO3, and highlights the potential of large area, all spray coated OSCs for sustainable commercial fabrication. PMID:28773177

  12. Tellurization Velocity-Dependent Metallic-Semiconducting-Metallic Phase Evolution in Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of Large-Area, Few-Layer MoTe2.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Zhang, Wenfeng; Li, Jie; Cheng, Shuai; Xie, Zijian; Chang, Haixin

    2017-02-28

    Phase engineering of two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) such as MoTe2 offers tremendous opportunities in various device applications. However, most of the existing methods so far only address the small-area local phase change or the growth of certain kinds of phases of MoTe2 film by laser irradiation, mechanical strain, or procursor type. Obtaining facile, tunable, reversible, and continuous-phase transition and evolution between different phases in direct growth of large-area, few-layer MoTe2 still remains challenging. Here, we develop a facile method to achieve phase control and transition and report a highly tunable, tellurization velocity-dependent metallic-semiconducting-metallic phase evolution in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of large-area, few-layer MoTe2. We found four different phase stages, including two different types of coexistence phases of both 2H and 1 T' phases, 100% 2H phase, and 100% 1T' phase, would emerge, relying on the adopted tellurization velocity. Importantly, the tellurization velocity should be extremely controlled to obtain 100% 2H phase MoTe2, while 100% 1T' phase requires a fast tellurization velocity. We further found that such metallic-semiconducting-metallic phase evolution took place with a homogeneous spatial distribution and differs from previous reports in which obvious phase separations are usually found during the phase transition. The resulting MoTe2 shows high quality with room-temperature mobility comparable with mechanically exfoliated materials. The results might impact large-scale phase engineering of TMDs and other 2D materials for Weyl semimetal topological physics and potential 2D semiconductor device applications.

  13. The Effect of Growth Parameters on the Intrinsic Properties of Large-Area Single Layer Graphene Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition on Cu

    SciTech Connect

    Regmi, Murari; Chisholm, Matthew F; Eres, Gyula

    2012-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the parameter space for single layer graphene growth by chemical vapor deposition on Cu. The temperature is the most widely recognized parameter in single layer graphene growth. We show that the methane-to-hydrogen ratio and the growth pressure also are critical parameters that affect the structural perfection and the cleanliness of graphene. The optimal conditions for suppressing double and multilayer graphene growth occur near 1000 C, 1:20 methane-to-hydrogen ratio, and a total pressure in the range from 0.5 to 1 Torr. Raman mapping of a 40x30 m2 area shows single layer domains with 5-10 m linear dimensions. Atomic resolution imaging of suspended graphene by aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy shows that the cleanest single layer graphene consists of areas of 10-15 nm linear dimensions and smaller patches of residual contamination that was undetected by other characterization methods.

  14. Film-coupled nanoparticles by atomic layer deposition: Comparison with organic spacing layers

    SciTech Connect

    Ciracì, Cristian Mock, Jack J.; McGuire, Felicia; Liu, Xiaojun; Smith, David R.; Chen, Xiaoshu; Oh, Sang-Hyun

    2014-01-13

    Film-coupled nanoparticle systems have proven a reliable platform for exploring the field enhancement associated with sub-nanometer sized gaps between plasmonic nanostructures. In this Letter, we present a side-by-side comparison of the spectral properties of film-coupled plasmon-resonant, gold nanoparticles, with dielectric spacer layers fabricated either using atomic layer deposition or using organic layers (polyelectrolytes or self-assembled monolayers of molecules). In either case, large area, uniform spacer layers with sub-nanometer thicknesses can be accurately deposited, allowing extreme coupling regimes to be probed. The observed spectral shifts of the nanoparticles as a function of spacer layer thickness are similar for the organic and inorganic films and are consistent with numerical calculations taking into account the nonlocal response of the metal.

  15. Large-area growth of multi-layer hexagonal boron nitride on polished cobalt foils by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhongguang; Tian, Hao; Khanaki, Alireza; Zheng, Renjing; Suja, Mohammad; Liu, Jianlin

    2017-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), which has a similar honeycomb lattice structure to graphene, is promising as a dielectric material for a wide variety of potential applications based on 2D materials. Synthesis of high-quality, large-size and single-crystalline h-BN domains is of vital importance for fundamental research as well as practical applications. In this work, we report the growth of h-BN films on mechanically polished cobalt (Co) foils using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Under appropriate growth conditions, the coverage of h-BN layers can be readily controlled by growth time. A large-area, multi-layer h-BN film with a thickness of 5~6 nm is confirmed by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, the size of h-BN single domains is 20~100 μm. Dielectric property of as-grown h-BN film is evaluated by characterization of Co(foil)/h-BN/Co(contact) capacitor devices. Breakdown electric field is in the range of 3.0~3.3 MV/cm, which indicates that the epitaxial h-BN film has good insulating characteristics. In addition, the effect of substrate morphology on h-BN growth is discussed regarding different domain density, lateral size, and thickness of the h-BN films grown on unpolished and polished Co foils. PMID:28230178

  16. Large-area growth of multi-layer hexagonal boron nitride on polished cobalt foils by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhongguang; Tian, Hao; Khanaki, Alireza; Zheng, Renjing; Suja, Mohammad; Liu, Jianlin

    2017-02-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), which has a similar honeycomb lattice structure to graphene, is promising as a dielectric material for a wide variety of potential applications based on 2D materials. Synthesis of high-quality, large-size and single-crystalline h-BN domains is of vital importance for fundamental research as well as practical applications. In this work, we report the growth of h-BN films on mechanically polished cobalt (Co) foils using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Under appropriate growth conditions, the coverage of h-BN layers can be readily controlled by growth time. A large-area, multi-layer h-BN film with a thickness of 5~6 nm is confirmed by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, the size of h-BN single domains is 20~100 μm. Dielectric property of as-grown h-BN film is evaluated by characterization of Co(foil)/h-BN/Co(contact) capacitor devices. Breakdown electric field is in the range of 3.0~3.3 MV/cm, which indicates that the epitaxial h-BN film has good insulating characteristics. In addition, the effect of substrate morphology on h-BN growth is discussed regarding different domain density, lateral size, and thickness of the h-BN films grown on unpolished and polished Co foils.

  17. Large-area growth of multi-layer hexagonal boron nitride on polished cobalt foils by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhongguang; Tian, Hao; Khanaki, Alireza; Zheng, Renjing; Suja, Mohammad; Liu, Jianlin

    2017-02-23

    Two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), which has a similar honeycomb lattice structure to graphene, is promising as a dielectric material for a wide variety of potential applications based on 2D materials. Synthesis of high-quality, large-size and single-crystalline h-BN domains is of vital importance for fundamental research as well as practical applications. In this work, we report the growth of h-BN films on mechanically polished cobalt (Co) foils using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Under appropriate growth conditions, the coverage of h-BN layers can be readily controlled by growth time. A large-area, multi-layer h-BN film with a thickness of 5~6 nm is confirmed by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, the size of h-BN single domains is 20~100 μm. Dielectric property of as-grown h-BN film is evaluated by characterization of Co(foil)/h-BN/Co(contact) capacitor devices. Breakdown electric field is in the range of 3.0~3.3 MV/cm, which indicates that the epitaxial h-BN film has good insulating characteristics. In addition, the effect of substrate morphology on h-BN growth is discussed regarding different domain density, lateral size, and thickness of the h-BN films grown on unpolished and polished Co foils.

  18. Surface Chemistry in Electrochemical Atomic Layer Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    example, where a thin film of a material is formed an atomic layer at a time. That is, surface limited reactions are used to deposit individual atomic...The present studies were designed to investigate these surface limited reactions. To determine what the structures of the deposits were, and how that structure influenced subsequent deposition .

  19. Advanced atom chips with two metal layers.

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, James E.; Blain, Matthew Glenn; Benito, Francisco M.; Biedermann, Grant

    2010-12-01

    A design concept, device layout, and monolithic microfabrication processing sequence have been developed for a dual-metal layer atom chip for next-generation positional control of ultracold ensembles of trapped atoms. Atom chips are intriguing systems for precision metrology and quantum information that use ultracold atoms on microfabricated chips. Using magnetic fields generated by current carrying wires, atoms are confined via the Zeeman effect and controllably positioned near optical resonators. Current state-of-the-art atom chips are single-layer or hybrid-integrated multilayer devices with limited flexibility and repeatability. An attractive feature of multi-level metallization is the ability to construct more complicated conductor patterns and thereby realize the complex magnetic potentials necessary for the more precise spatial and temporal control of atoms that is required. Here, we have designed a true, monolithically integrated, planarized, multi-metal-layer atom chip for demonstrating crossed-wire conductor patterns that trap and controllably transport atoms across the chip surface to targets of interest.

  20. An Introduction to Atomic Layer Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwivedi, Vivek H.

    2017-01-01

    Atomic Layer Deposition has been instrumental in providing a deposition method for multiple space flight applications. It is well known that ALD is a cost effective nanoadditive-manufacturing technique that allows for the conformal coating of substrates with atomic control in a benign temperature and pressure environment. Through the introduction of paired precursor gases, thin films can be deposited on a myriad of substrates from flat surfaces to those with significant topography. By providing atomic layer control, where single layers of atoms can be deposited, the fabrication of metal transparent films, precise nano-laminates, and coatings of nano-channels, pores and particles is achievable. The feasibility of this technology for NASA line of business applications range from thermal systems, optics, sensors, to environmental protection. An overview of this technology will be presented.

  1. Formation of Compound Semiconductors by Electrochemical Atomic Layer Epitaxy (ECALE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-26

    by using Underpotential Deposition (UPD). UPD is a phenomena where an atomic layer of an element deposits at a potential prior to that needed to...atomic layers of the constituent elements. Atomic layers are formed in ECALE by using Underpotential Deposition (UPD). UPD is a phenomena where an atomic...atomic layers of the constituent elements which make up a compound. Deposition is limited to an atomic layer by the use of underpotential deposition (UPD

  2. Development of the large-area silicon PIN diode with 2 millimeter-thick depletion layer for hard x-ray detector (HXD) on board ASTRO-E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Kubo, S.; Murakami, Toshio; Ota, Naomi; Ozawa, Hideki; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Iyomoto, Naoko; Kamae, Tuneyoshi; Kokubun, Motohide; Kubota, Aya; Makishima, Kazuo; Tamura, Takayuki; Tashiro, Makoto

    1997-07-01

    ASTRO-E is the next Japanese x-ray satellite to be launched in the year 2000. It carries three high-energy astrophysical experiments, including the hard x-ray detector (HXD) which is unique in covering the wide energy band from 10 keV to 700 keV with an extremely low background. The HXD is a compound-eye detector, employing 16 GSO/BGO well-type phoswich scintillation counters together with 64 silicon PIN detectors. The scintillation counters cover an energy range of 40 - 700 keV, while the PIN diodes fill the intermediate energy range from 10 keV to 70 keV with an energy resolution about 3 keV. In this paper, we report on the developments of the large area, thick silicon PIN diodes. In order to achieve a high quantum efficiency up to 70 keV with a high energy resolution, we utilize a double stack of silicon PIN diodes, each 20 by 20 mm(superscript 2) in size and 2 mm thick. Signals from the two diodes are summed into a single output. Four of these stacks (or eight diodes) are placed inside the deep BGO active-shield well of a phoswich counter, to achieve an extremely low background environment. Thus, the HXD utilizes 64 stacked silicon PIN detectors, achieving a total geometrical collecting area of 256 cm(superscript 2). We have developed the 2 mm thick silicon PIN diodes which have low leakage current, a low capacitance, and a high breakdown voltage to meet the requirements of our goal. Through various trials in fabricating PIN diodes with different structures, we have found optimal design parameters, such as mask design of the surface p(superscript +) layer and the implantation process.

  3. Layer-controlled precise fabrication of ultrathin MoS2 films by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Huang, Yazhou; Sha, Jingjie; Chen, Yunfei

    2017-05-01

    Monolayer and/or atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides cover a wide range of two-dimensional (2D) materials, whose fascinating semiconducting and optical properties have made them promising candidate materials for optoelectronic devices. Controllable growth of these materials is critical for their device applications. By using MoCl5 and H2S as precursors, monolayer and ultrathin molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) films with controlled lamellar structure have been directly built layer by layer on SiO2 substrates without being followed by high-temperature annealing. Furthermore, the thickness of MoS2 films can be precisely regulated by applying different atomic layer deposition (ALD) cycles. Once an ALD cycle is applied, one molecular layer of MoS2 material will be ‘added’ on the substrate or original existing MoS2 films. At the initial stage (one to three ALD cycles), the density of MoS2 materials increases with an increase in ALD cycles, while a large area of continuous MoS2 film on the substrate can be obtained when four or more ALD cycles are applied. In this way, excellent triangular crystals of MoS2 with controlled atomic size in thickness and a highly oriented hexagonal crystal structures can be obtained by applying definite ALD cycles.

  4. Large area LED package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goullon, L.; Jordan, R.; Braun, T.; Bauer, J.; Becker, F.; Hutter, M.; Schneider-Ramelow, M.; Lang, K.-D.

    2015-03-01

    Solid state lighting using LED-dies is a rapidly growing market. LED-dies with the needed increasing luminous flux per chip area produce a lot of heat. Therefore an appropriate thermal management is required for general lighting with LEDdies. One way to avoid overheating and shorter lifetime is the use of many small LED-dies on a large area heat sink (down to 70 μm edge length), so that heat can spread into a large area while at the same time light also appears on a larger area. The handling with such small LED-dies is very difficult because they are too small to be picked with common equipment. Therefore a new concept called collective transfer bonding using a temporary carrier chip was developed. A further benefit of this new technology is the high precision assembly as well as the plane parallel assembly of the LED-dies which is necessary for wire bonding. It has been shown that hundred functional LED-dies were transferred and soldered at the same time. After the assembly a cost effective established PCB-technology was applied to produce a large-area light source consisting of many small LED-dies and electrically connected on a PCB-substrate. The top contacts of the LED-dies were realized by laminating an adhesive copper sheet followed by LDI structuring as known from PCB-via-technology. This assembly can be completed by adding converting and light forming optical elements. In summary two technologies based on standard SMD and PCB technology have been developed for panel level LED packaging up to 610x 457 mm2 area size.

  5. Triangular Black Phosphorus Atomic Layers by Liquid Exfoliation

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Soonjoo; Lee, Hyun Uk; Lee, Soon Chang; Kim, Yooseok; Kim, Hyeran; Bang, Junhyeok; Won, Jonghan; Kim, Youngjun; Park, Byoungnam; Lee, Jouhahn

    2016-01-01

    Few-layer black phosphorus (BP) is the most promising material among the two-dimensional materials due to its layered structure and the excellent semiconductor properties. Currently, thin BP atomic layers are obtained mostly by mechanical exfoliation of bulk BP, which limits applications in thin-film based electronics due to a scaling process. Here we report highly crystalline few-layer black phosphorus thin films produced by liquid exfoliation. We demonstrate that the liquid-exfoliated BP forms a triangular crystalline structure on SiO2/Si (001) and amorphous carbon. The highly crystalline BP layers are faceted with a preferred orientation of the (010) plane on the sharp edge, which is an energetically most favorable facet according to the density functional theory calculations. Our results can be useful in understanding the triangular BP structure for large-area applications in electronic devices using two-dimensional materials. The sensitivity and selectivity of liquid-exfoliated BP to gas vapor demonstrate great potential for practical applications as sensors. PMID:27026070

  6. Layered Atom Arrangements in Complex Materials

    SciTech Connect

    K.E. Sikafus; R.W.Grimes; S.M.Corish; A.R. Cleave; M.Tang; C.R.Stanek; B.P. Uberuaga; J.A.Valdez

    2005-04-15

    In this report, we develop an atom layer stacking model to describe systematically the crystal structures of complex materials. To illustrate the concepts, we consider a sequence of oxide compounds in which the metal cations progress in oxidation state from monovalent (M{sup 1+}) to tetravalent (M{sup 4+}). We use concepts relating to geometric subdivisions of a triangular atom net to describe the layered atom patterns in these compounds (concepts originally proposed by Shuichi Iida). We demonstrate that as a function of increasing oxidation state (from M{sup 1+} to M{sup 4+}), the layer stacking motifs used to generate each successive structure (specifically, motifs along a 3 symmetry axis), progress through the following sequence: MMO, MO, M{sub r}O, MO{sub r/s}O{sub u/v}, MOO (where M and O represent fully dense triangular atom nets and r/s and u/v are fractions used to describe partially filled triangular atom nets). We also develop complete crystallographic descriptions for the compounds in our oxidation sequence using trigonal space group R{bar 3}.

  7. Nano-soldering to single atomic layer

    DOEpatents

    Girit, Caglar O [Berkeley, CA; Zettl, Alexander K [Kensington, CA

    2011-10-11

    A simple technique to solder submicron sized, ohmic contacts to nanostructures has been disclosed. The technique has several advantages over standard electron beam lithography methods, which are complex, costly, and can contaminate samples. To demonstrate the soldering technique graphene, a single atomic layer of carbon, has been contacted, and low- and high-field electronic transport properties have been measured.

  8. Large area mass analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachev, Mikhail; Srama, Ralf; Srowig, Andre; Grün, Eberhard

    2004-12-01

    A new time-of-flight spectrometer for the chemical analysis of cosmic dust particles in space has been simulated by Simion 7.0. The instrument is based upon impact ionization. This method is a reliable method for in situ dust detection and is well established. Instruments using the impact ionization flew on board of Helios and Galileo and are still in operation on board of the Ulysses and Cassini-Huygens missions. The new instrument has a large sensitive area of 0.1 m2 in order to achieve a significant number of measurements. The mass resolution M/ΔM>100 and the mass range covers the most relevant elements expected in cosmic dust. The instrument has a reflectron configuration which increases the mass resolution. Most of the ions released during the impact are focused to the detector. The ion detector consists of a large area ion-to-electron converter, an electron reflectron and a microchannel plate detector.

  9. The Large Area Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Michelson, Peter F.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL

    2007-11-13

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT), one of two instruments on the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view, high-energy pair-conversion telescope, covering the energy range from {approx}20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. The LAT is being built by an international collaboration with contributions from space agencies, high-energy particle physics institutes, and universities in France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, and the United States. The scientific objectives the LAT will address include resolving the high-energy gamma-ray sky and determining the nature of the unidentified gamma-ray sources and the origin of the apparently isotropic diffuse emission observed by EGRET; understanding the mechanisms of particle acceleration in celestial sources, including active galactic nuclei, pulsars, and supernovae remnants; studying the high-energy behavior of gamma-ray bursts and transients; using high-energy gamma-rays to probe the early universe to z {ge} 6; and probing the nature of dark matter. The components of the LAT include a precision silicon-strip detector tracker and a CsI(Tl) calorimeter, a segmented anticoincidence shield that covers the tracker array, and a programmable trigger and data acquisition system. The calorimeter's depth and segmentation enable the high-energy reach of the LAT and contribute significantly to background rejection. The aspect ratio of the tracker (height/width) is 0.4, allowing a large field-of-view and ensuring that nearly all pair-conversion showers initiated in the tracker will pass into the calorimeter for energy measurement. This paper includes a description of each of these LAT subsystems as well as a summary of the overall performance of the telescope.

  10. Atomic layer deposition of alternative glass microchannel plates

    SciTech Connect

    O'Mahony, Aileen Craven, Christopher A.; Minot, Michael J.; Popecki, Mark A.; Renaud, Joseph M.; Bennis, Daniel C.; Bond, Justin L.; Stochaj, Michael E.; Foley, Michael R.; Adams, Bernhard W.; Mane, Anil U.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Ertley, Camden; Siegmund, Oswald H. W.

    2016-01-15

    The technique of atomic layer deposition (ALD) has enabled the development of alternative glass microchannel plates (MCPs) with independently tunable resistive and emissive layers, resulting in excellent thickness uniformity across the large area (20 × 20 cm), high aspect ratio (60:1 L/d) glass substrates. Furthermore, the use of ALD to deposit functional layers allows the optimal substrate material to be selected, such as borosilicate glass, which has many benefits compared to the lead-oxide glass used in conventional MCPs, including increased stability and lifetime, low background noise, mechanical robustness, and larger area (at present up to 400 cm{sup 2}). Resistively stable, high gain MCPs are demonstrated due to the deposition of uniform ALD resistive and emissive layers on alternative glass microcapillary substrates. The MCP performance characteristics reported include increased stability and lifetime, low background noise (0.04 events cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}), and low gain variation (±5%)

  11. Atomic layer deposition of nanoporous biomaterials.

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, R. J.; Adiga, S. P.; Pellin, M. J.; Curtiss, L. A.; Stafslien, S.; Chisholm, B.; Monteiro-Riviere, N. A.; Brigmon, R. L.; Elam, J. W.; Univ. of North Carolina; North Carolina State Univ.; Eastman Kodak Co.; North Dakota State Univ.; SRL

    2010-03-01

    Due to its chemical stability, uniform pore size, and high pore density, nanoporous alumina is being investigated for use in biosensing, drug delivery, hemodialysis, and other medical applications. In recent work, we have examined the use of atomic layer deposition for coating the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes. Zinc oxide coatings were deposited on nanoporous alumina membranes using atomic layer deposition. The zinc oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. These results suggest that atomic layer deposition is an attractive technique for modifying the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes and other nanostructured biomaterials. Nanoporous alumina, also known as anodic aluminum oxide (AAO), is a nanomaterial that exhibits several unusual properties, including high pore densities, straight pores, small pore sizes, and uniform pore sizes. In 1953, Keller et al. showed that anodizing aluminum in acid electrolytes results in a thick layer of nearly cylindrical pores, which are arranged in a close-packed hexagonal cell structure. More recently, Matsuda & Fukuda demonstrated preparation of highly ordered platinum and gold nanohole arrays using a replication process. In this study, a negative structure of nanoporous alumina was initially fabricated and a positive structure of a nanoporous metal was subsequently fabricated. Over the past fifteen years, nanoporous alumina membranes have been used as templates for growth of a variety of nanostructured materials, including nanotubes, nanowires, nanorods, and nanoporous membranes.

  12. Large area Czochralski silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rea, S. N.; Gleim, P. S.

    1977-01-01

    The overall cost effectiveness of the Czochralski process for producing large-area silicon was determined. The feasibility of growing several 12 cm diameter crystals sequentially at 12 cm/h during a furnace run and the subsequent slicing of the ingot using a multiblade slurry saw were investigated. The goal of the wafering process was a slice thickness of 0.25 mm with minimal kerf. A slice + kerf of 0.56 mm was achieved on 12 cm crystal using both 400 grit B4C and SiC abrasive slurries. Crystal growth experiments were performed at 12 cm diameter in a commercially available puller with both 10 and 12 kg melts. Several modifications to the puller hoz zone were required to achieve stable crystal growth over the entire crystal length and to prevent crystallinity loss a few centimeters down the crystal. The maximum practical growth rate for 12 cm crystal in this puller design was 10 cm/h, with 12 to 14 cm/h being the absolute maximum range at which melt freeze occurred.

  13. Layer-controlled precise fabrication of ultrathin MoS2 films by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Huang, Yazhou; Sha, Jingjie; Chen, Yunfei

    2017-03-21

    Monolayer and/or atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides cover a wide range of two-dimensional (2-D) materials, whose fascinating semiconducting and optical properties have made them being promising candidate materials for optoelectronic device. Controllable growth of these materials is critical for their device applications. By using MoCl5 and H2S as precursors, monolayer and ultrathin molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) films with controlled lamellar structure have been directly built layer by layer on SiO2 substrates without followed high-temperature annealing. Furthermore, the thickness of MoS2 films can be precisely regulated by applying different ALD cycles. Once an ALD cycle is applied, one molecular layer of MoS2 material will be "added" on substrate or original existing MoS2 films. At the initial stage (1 to 3 ALD cycles), the density of MoS2 materials increases with ALD cycle increasing, while large area of continuous MoS2 film on the substrate can be obtained when 4 or more ALD cycles are applied. By this way, excellent triangular crystal of MoS2 with controlled atomic size in thickness and highly oriented hexagonal crystal structure can be obtained by applying definite ALD cycles.

  14. Atomic Layer Deposition of Metal Sulfide Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, Neil P.; Meng, Xiangbo; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Martinson, Alex B. F.

    2015-02-17

    The field of nanoscience is delivering increasingly intricate yet elegant geometric structures incorporating an ever-expanding palette of materials. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a powerful driver of this field, providing exceptionally conformal coatings spanning the periodic table and atomic-scale precision independent of substrate geometry. This versatility is intrinsic to ALD and results from sequential and self-limiting surface reactions. This characteristic facilitates digital synthesis, in which the film grows linearly with the number of reaction cycles. While the majority of ALD processes identified to date produce metal oxides, novel applications in areas such as energy storage, catalysis, and nanophotonics are motivating interest in sulfide materials. Recent progress in ALD of sulfides has expanded the diversity of accessible materials as well as a more complete understanding of the unique chalcogenide surface chemistry.

  15. Ruthenium / aerogel nanocomposits via Atomic Layer Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Biener, J; Baumann, T F; Wang, Y; Nelson, E J; Kucheyev, S O; Hamza, A V; Kemell, M; Ritala, M; Leskela, M

    2006-08-28

    We present a general approach to prepare metal/aerogel nanocomposites via template directed atomic layer deposition (ALD). In particular, we used a Ru ALD process consisting of alternating exposures to bis(cyclopentadienyl)ruthenium (RuCp{sub 2}) and air at 350 C to deposit metallic Ru nanoparticles on the internal surfaces of carbon and silica aerogels. The process does not affect the morphology of the aerogel template and offers excellent control over metal loading by simply adjusting the number of ALD cycles. We also discuss the limitations of our ALD approach, and suggest ways to overcome these.

  16. Optical coatings in microscale channels by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Nicholas T; Talghader, Joseph J

    2010-03-10

    High-aspect-ratio channels may be coated using atomic layer deposition (ALD) due to the unique self-limiting nature of the process, and this has been often demonstrated using deep reactive-ion etched trenches in silicon. However, for optical and microfluidic applications, many channels are centimeters deep with diameters of tens to hundreds of micrometers, and the relatively large area exposes more difficult problems of temperature and gas flow uniformity. To quantify the uniformity of optical coatings deposited by ALD under those conditions, an air wedge has been created between two square wafers of silicon approximately 7 cm on a side, with the air gap varying linearly from 0-1560 microm. ALD aluminum oxide uniformity is astounding, while hafnium oxide shows a need for process optimization, but still exceeds the capability observed in other deposition techniques. A six-layer Fabry-Perot optical cavity with fixed 500 nm resonance was deposited inside a wedge, and the measured resonant wavelength closely matched predictions, except at the deepest regions of the wedge.

  17. Atomic Layer Deposition for SRF Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Proslier, Th.; Ha, Y.; Zasadzinski, J.; Ciovati, G.; Kneissel, P.; Reece, C.; Rimmer, R.; Gurevich, A.; Cooley, L.; Wu, G.; Pellin, M.; /Argonne

    2009-05-01

    We have begun using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) to synthesize a variety of surface coatings on coupons and cavities as part of an effort to produce rf structures with significantly better performance and yield than those obtained from bulk niobium, The ALD process offers the possibility of conformally coating complex cavity shapes with precise layered structures with tightly constrained morphology and chemical properties. Our program looks both at the metallurgy and superconducting properties of these coatings, and also their performance in working structures. Initial results include: (1) results from ALD coated cavities and coupons, (2) new evidence from point contact tunneling (PCT) showing magnetic oxides can be a significant limitation to high gradient operation, (3) a study of high pressure rinsing damage on niobium samples.

  18. Atomic Layer Deposition for SRF Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Norem, J; Pellin, M J; Antoine, C Z; Ciovati, G; Kneisel, P; Reece, C E; Rimmer, R A; Cooley, L; Gurevich, A V; Ha, Y; Proslier, Th; Zasadzinski, J

    2009-05-01

    We have begun using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) to synthesize a variety of surface coatings on coupons and cavities as part of an effort to produce rf structures with significantly better performance and yield than those obtained from bulk niobium, The ALD process offers the possibility of conformally coating complex cavity shapes with precise layered structures with tightly constrained morphology and chemical properties. Our program looks both at the metallurgy and superconducting properties of these coatings, and also their performance in working structures. Initial results include: 1) evidence from point contact tunneling showing magnetic oxides can be a significant limitation to high gradient operation, 2) experimental results showing the production sharp niobium/oxide interfaces from a high temperature bake of ALD coated Al2O3 on niobium surfaces, 3) results from ALD coated structures.

  19. Back gated FETs fabricated by large-area, transfer-free growth of a few layer MoS2 with high electron mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahangir, Ifat; Koley, Goutam; Chandrashekhar, M. V. S.

    2017-05-01

    We demonstrate a transfer-free method for producing 3-5 monolayers, large area MoS2 by pre-oxidation of metallic Mo. The growth temperature was reduced, eliminating free sulfur-induced degradation of the SiO2 gate dielectric in strong accumulation, which suppressed the leakage current at VGS=-3 V by a factor of ≥108, when compared to a single step direct sulfidation method. Back-gated field effect transistors with an accumulation electron mobility of >80 cm2/Vs, an on/off ratio of >105, and a subthreshold swing of 84 mV/dec from this MoS2 represent the state-of-the-art on SiO2. In accumulation, current saturation was attributed to charge control rather than velocity saturation. The hysteresis-free transistor characteristics were stable up to a temperature of 500 K.

  20. Catalyst design with atomic layer deposition

    DOE PAGES

    O'Neill, Brandon J.; Jackson, David H. K.; Lee, Jechan; ...

    2015-02-06

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has emerged as an interesting tool for the atomically precise design and synthesis of catalytic materials. Herein, we discuss examples in which the atomic precision has been used to elucidate reaction mechanisms and catalyst structure-property relationships by creating materials with a controlled distribution of size, composition, and active site. We highlight ways ALD has been utilized to design catalysts with improved activity, selectivity, and stability under a variety of conditions (e.g., high temperature, gas and liquid phase, and corrosive environments). In addition, due to the flexibility and control of structure and composition, ALD can create myriadmore » catalytic structures (e.g., high surface area oxides, metal nanoparticles, bimetallic nanoparticles, bifunctional catalysts, controlled microenvironments, etc.) that consequently possess applicability for a wide range of chemical reactions (e.g., CO2 conversion, electrocatalysis, photocatalytic and thermal water splitting, methane conversion, ethane and propane dehydrogenation, and biomass conversion). Lastly, the outlook for ALD-derived catalytic materials is discussed, with emphasis on the pending challenges as well as areas of significant potential for building scientific insight and achieving practical impacts.« less

  1. Fast sintering of silver nanoparticle and flake layers by infrared module assistance in large area roll-to-roll gravure printing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Janghoon; Kang, Hyi Jae; Shin, Kee-Hyun; Kang, Hyunkyoo

    2016-10-01

    We present fast sintering for silver (Ag) nanoparticle (NP) and flake layers printed using roll-to-roll (R2R) gravure printing. An infrared (IR) sintering module was applied to an R2R system to shorten the sintering duration of an R2R gravure-printed Ag layer. IR sintering of the conductive layer was improved by optimising the process condition. After printing of the Ag NP and Ag flake layers, additional IR sintering was performed in the R2R system. The lowest sheet resistance obtained in the Ag NP layer was 0.294 Ω/□, the distance between the substrate and lamp was 50-mm long, the IR lamp power was 500 W, and the sintering time was 5.4 s. The fastest sintering of 0.34 Ω/□ was achieved with 50-mm distance, 1,000-W IR lamp power, and 1.08-s sintering time. In the Ag flake layer, the lowest sheet resistance obtained was 0.288 Ω/□ with a 20-mm distance, 1,000-W IR lamp power, and 10.8-s sintering time. Meanwhile, the fastest sintering was obtained with a 3.83 Ω/□ sheet resistance, 20-mm distance, 1000-W IR lamp, and 1.08-s sintering time. Thus, the IR sintering module can easily be employed in an R2R system to obtain excellent layer sheet resistance.

  2. Fast sintering of silver nanoparticle and flake layers by infrared module assistance in large area roll-to-roll gravure printing system.

    PubMed

    Park, Janghoon; Kang, Hyi Jae; Shin, Kee-Hyun; Kang, Hyunkyoo

    2016-10-07

    We present fast sintering for silver (Ag) nanoparticle (NP) and flake layers printed using roll-to-roll (R2R) gravure printing. An infrared (IR) sintering module was applied to an R2R system to shorten the sintering duration of an R2R gravure-printed Ag layer. IR sintering of the conductive layer was improved by optimising the process condition. After printing of the Ag NP and Ag flake layers, additional IR sintering was performed in the R2R system. The lowest sheet resistance obtained in the Ag NP layer was 0.294 Ω/□, the distance between the substrate and lamp was 50-mm long, the IR lamp power was 500 W, and the sintering time was 5.4 s. The fastest sintering of 0.34 Ω/□ was achieved with 50-mm distance, 1,000-W IR lamp power, and 1.08-s sintering time. In the Ag flake layer, the lowest sheet resistance obtained was 0.288 Ω/□ with a 20-mm distance, 1,000-W IR lamp power, and 10.8-s sintering time. Meanwhile, the fastest sintering was obtained with a 3.83 Ω/□ sheet resistance, 20-mm distance, 1000-W IR lamp, and 1.08-s sintering time. Thus, the IR sintering module can easily be employed in an R2R system to obtain excellent layer sheet resistance.

  3. Fast sintering of silver nanoparticle and flake layers by infrared module assistance in large area roll-to-roll gravure printing system

    PubMed Central

    Park, Janghoon; Kang, Hyi Jae; Shin, Kee-Hyun; Kang, Hyunkyoo

    2016-01-01

    We present fast sintering for silver (Ag) nanoparticle (NP) and flake layers printed using roll-to-roll (R2R) gravure printing. An infrared (IR) sintering module was applied to an R2R system to shorten the sintering duration of an R2R gravure-printed Ag layer. IR sintering of the conductive layer was improved by optimising the process condition. After printing of the Ag NP and Ag flake layers, additional IR sintering was performed in the R2R system. The lowest sheet resistance obtained in the Ag NP layer was 0.294 Ω/□, the distance between the substrate and lamp was 50-mm long, the IR lamp power was 500 W, and the sintering time was 5.4 s. The fastest sintering of 0.34 Ω/□ was achieved with 50-mm distance, 1,000-W IR lamp power, and 1.08-s sintering time. In the Ag flake layer, the lowest sheet resistance obtained was 0.288 Ω/□ with a 20-mm distance, 1,000-W IR lamp power, and 10.8-s sintering time. Meanwhile, the fastest sintering was obtained with a 3.83 Ω/□ sheet resistance, 20-mm distance, 1000-W IR lamp, and 1.08-s sintering time. Thus, the IR sintering module can easily be employed in an R2R system to obtain excellent layer sheet resistance. PMID:27713469

  4. Layered quantum Hall insulators with ultracold atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Zamora, A.; Szirmai, G.; Lewenstein, M.

    2011-11-15

    We consider a generalization of the two-dimensional (2D) quantum Hall insulator to a noncompact, non-Abelian gauge group, the Heisenberg-Weyl group. We show that this kind of insulator is actually a layered three-dimensional (3D) insulator with nontrivial topology. We further show that nontrivial combinations of quantized transverse conductivities can be engineered with the help of a staggered potential. We investigate the robustness and topological nature of this conductivity and connect it to the surface modes of the system. We also propose a simple experimental realization with ultracold atoms in 3D confined to a 2D square lattice with the third dimension being mapped to a gauge coordinate.

  5. Nanoengineering Heterogeneous Catalysts by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Singh, Joseph A; Yang, Nuoya; Bent, Stacey F

    2017-02-27

    A new generation of catalysts is needed to meet society's energy and resource requirements. Current catalyst synthesis does not fully achieve optimum control of composition, size, and structure. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is an emerging technique that allows synthesizing of highly controlled catalysts in the forms of films, nanoparticles, and single sites. The addition of ALD coatings can also be used to introduce promoters and improve the stability of traditional catalysts. Evolving research shows promise for applying ALD to understand catalytically active sites and create next-generation catalysts using advanced 3D nanostructures. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Volume 8 is June 7, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  6. Large-area, continuous and high electrical performances of bilayer to few layers MoS2 fabricated by RF sputtering via post-deposition annealing method

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Sajjad; Singh, Jai; Vikraman, Dhanasekaran; Singh, Arun Kumar; Iqbal, Muhammad Zahir; Khan, Muhammad Farooq; Kumar, Pushpendra; Choi, Dong-Chul; Song, Wooseok; An, Ki-Seok; Eom, Jonghwa; Lee, Wan-Gyu; Jung, Jongwan

    2016-01-01

    We report a simple and mass-scalable approach for thin MoS2 films via RF sputtering combined with the post-deposition annealing process. We have prepared as-sputtered film using a MoS2 target in the sputtering system. The as-sputtered film was subjected to post-deposition annealing to improve crystalline quality at 700 °C in a sulfur and argon environment. The analysis confirmed the growth of continuous bilayer to few-layer MoS2 film. The mobility value of ~29 cm2/Vs and current on/off ratio on the order of ~104 were obtained for bilayer MoS2. The mobility increased up to ~173–181 cm2/Vs, respectively, for few-layer MoS2. The mobility of our bilayer MoS2 FETs is larger than any previously reported values of single to bilayer MoS2 grown on SiO2/Si substrate with a SiO2 gate oxide. Moreover, our few-layer MoS2 FETs exhibited the highest mobility value ever reported for any MoS2 FETs with a SiO2 gate oxide. It is presumed that the high mobility behavior of our film could be attributed to low charged impurities of our film and dielectric screening effect by an interfacial MoOxSiy layer. The combined preparation route of RF sputtering and post-deposition annealing process opens up the novel possibility of mass and batch production of MoS2 film. PMID:27492282

  7. Large-area, continuous and high electrical performances of bilayer to few layers MoS2 fabricated by RF sputtering via post-deposition annealing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Sajjad; Singh, Jai; Vikraman, Dhanasekaran; Singh, Arun Kumar; Iqbal, Muhammad Zahir; Khan, Muhammad Farooq; Kumar, Pushpendra; Choi, Dong-Chul; Song, Wooseok; An, Ki-Seok; Eom, Jonghwa; Lee, Wan-Gyu; Jung, Jongwan

    2016-08-01

    We report a simple and mass-scalable approach for thin MoS2 films via RF sputtering combined with the post-deposition annealing process. We have prepared as-sputtered film using a MoS2 target in the sputtering system. The as-sputtered film was subjected to post-deposition annealing to improve crystalline quality at 700 °C in a sulfur and argon environment. The analysis confirmed the growth of continuous bilayer to few-layer MoS2 film. The mobility value of ~29 cm2/Vs and current on/off ratio on the order of ~104 were obtained for bilayer MoS2. The mobility increased up to ~173-181 cm2/Vs, respectively, for few-layer MoS2. The mobility of our bilayer MoS2 FETs is larger than any previously reported values of single to bilayer MoS2 grown on SiO2/Si substrate with a SiO2 gate oxide. Moreover, our few-layer MoS2 FETs exhibited the highest mobility value ever reported for any MoS2 FETs with a SiO2 gate oxide. It is presumed that the high mobility behavior of our film could be attributed to low charged impurities of our film and dielectric screening effect by an interfacial MoOxSiy layer. The combined preparation route of RF sputtering and post-deposition annealing process opens up the novel possibility of mass and batch production of MoS2 film.

  8. Large-area, continuous and high electrical performances of bilayer to few layers MoS2 fabricated by RF sputtering via post-deposition annealing method.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Sajjad; Singh, Jai; Vikraman, Dhanasekaran; Singh, Arun Kumar; Iqbal, Muhammad Zahir; Khan, Muhammad Farooq; Kumar, Pushpendra; Choi, Dong-Chul; Song, Wooseok; An, Ki-Seok; Eom, Jonghwa; Lee, Wan-Gyu; Jung, Jongwan

    2016-08-05

    We report a simple and mass-scalable approach for thin MoS2 films via RF sputtering combined with the post-deposition annealing process. We have prepared as-sputtered film using a MoS2 target in the sputtering system. The as-sputtered film was subjected to post-deposition annealing to improve crystalline quality at 700 °C in a sulfur and argon environment. The analysis confirmed the growth of continuous bilayer to few-layer MoS2 film. The mobility value of ~29 cm(2)/Vs and current on/off ratio on the order of ~10(4) were obtained for bilayer MoS2. The mobility increased up to ~173-181 cm(2)/Vs, respectively, for few-layer MoS2. The mobility of our bilayer MoS2 FETs is larger than any previously reported values of single to bilayer MoS2 grown on SiO2/Si substrate with a SiO2 gate oxide. Moreover, our few-layer MoS2 FETs exhibited the highest mobility value ever reported for any MoS2 FETs with a SiO2 gate oxide. It is presumed that the high mobility behavior of our film could be attributed to low charged impurities of our film and dielectric screening effect by an interfacial MoOxSiy layer. The combined preparation route of RF sputtering and post-deposition annealing process opens up the novel possibility of mass and batch production of MoS2 film.

  9. A High-On/Off-Ratio Floating-Gate Memristor Array on a Flexible Substrate via CVD-Grown Large-Area 2D Layer Stacking.

    PubMed

    Vu, Quoc An; Kim, Hyun; Nguyen, Van Luan; Won, Ui Yeon; Adhikari, Subash; Kim, Kunnyun; Lee, Young Hee; Yu, Woo Jong

    2017-09-26

    Memristors such as phase-change memory and resistive memory have been proposed to emulate the synaptic activities in neuromorphic systems. However, the low reliability of these types of memories is their biggest challenge for commercialization. Here, a highly reliable memristor array using floating-gate memory operated by two terminals (source and drain) using van der Waals layered materials is demonstrated. Centimeter-scale samples (1.5 cm × 1.5 cm) of MoS2 as a channel and graphene as a trap layer grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) are used for array fabrication with Al2 O3 as the tunneling barrier. With regard to the memory characteristics, 93% of the devices exhibit an on/off ratio of over 10(3) with an average ratio of 10(4) . The high on/off ratio and reliable endurance in the devices allow stable 6-level memory applications. The devices also exhibit excellent memory durability over 8000 cycles with a negligible shift in the threshold voltage and on-current, which is a significant improvement over other types of memristors. In addition, the devices can be strained up to 1% by fabricating on a flexible substrate. This demonstration opens a practical route for next-generation electronics with CVD-grown van der Waals layered materials. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Vapour phase growth and grain boundary structure of molybdenum disulphide atomic layers.

    PubMed

    Najmaei, Sina; Liu, Zheng; Zhou, Wu; Zou, Xiaolong; Shi, Gang; Lei, Sidong; Yakobson, Boris I; Idrobo, Juan-Carlos; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Lou, Jun

    2013-08-01

    Single-layered molybdenum disulphide with a direct bandgap is a promising two-dimensional material that goes beyond graphene for the next generation of nanoelectronics. Here, we report the controlled vapour phase synthesis of molybdenum disulphide atomic layers and elucidate a fundamental mechanism for the nucleation, growth, and grain boundary formation in its crystalline monolayers. Furthermore, a nucleation-controlled strategy is established to systematically promote the formation of large-area, single- and few-layered films. Using high-resolution electron microscopy imaging, the atomic structure and morphology of the grains and their boundaries in the polycrystalline molybdenum disulphide atomic layers are examined, and the primary mechanisms for grain boundary formation are evaluated. Grain boundaries consisting of 5- and 7- member rings are directly observed with atomic resolution, and their energy landscape is investigated via first-principles calculations. The uniformity in thickness, large grain sizes, and excellent electrical performance signify the high quality and scalable synthesis of the molybdenum disulphide atomic layers.

  11. Nanolaminates with Novel Properties Fabricated Using Atomic Layer Deposition Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    ALD can be deposited on the A120 3 ALD layer to form a conducting layer . Subsequently, an...additional A120 3 ALD layer can be deposited on the W ALD layer to form an additional insulating layer . This A120 3/W/ A120 3 layer on the carbon nanotube...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This AFOSR grant worked on the development, understanding and applications of atomic layer deposition ( ALD ) for nanolaminates. ALD

  12. Ultrathin-layer chromatography nanostructures modified by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Jim, S R; Foroughi-Abari, A; Krause, K M; Li, P; Kupsta, M; Taschuk, M T; Cadien, K C; Brett, M J

    2013-07-19

    Stationary phase morphology and surface chemistry dictate the properties of ultrathin-layer chromatography (UTLC) media and interactions with analytes in sample mixtures. In this paper, we combined two powerful thin film deposition techniques to create composite chromatography nanomaterials. Glancing angle deposition (GLAD) produces high surface area columnar microstructures with aligned macropores well-suited for UTLC. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) enables precise fabrication of conformal, nanometer-scale coatings that can tune surfaces of these UTLC films. We coated ∼5μm thick GLAD SiO2 UTLC media with <10nm thick ALD metal oxides (Al2O3, ZrO2, and ZnO) to decouple surface chemistry from the underlying GLAD scaffold microstructure. The effects of ALD coatings on GLAD UTLC media were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), gas adsorption porosimetry, and lipophilic dye separations. The results collectively show that the most significant changes occur over the first few nanometers of ALD coating. They further demonstrate independent control of film microstructure and surface characteristics. ALD coatings can enhance complex GLAD microstructures to engineer new composite nanomaterials potentially useful in analytical chromatography.

  13. Tailoring nanoporous materials by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Detavernier, Christophe; Dendooven, Jolien; Sree, Sreeprasanth Pulinthanathu; Ludwig, Karl F; Martens, Johan A

    2011-11-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a cyclic process which relies on sequential self-terminating reactions between gas phase precursor molecules and a solid surface. The self-limiting nature of the chemical reactions ensures precise film thickness control and excellent step coverage, even on 3D structures with large aspect ratios. At present, ALD is mainly used in the microelectronics industry, e.g. for growing gate oxides. The excellent conformality that can be achieved with ALD also renders it a promising candidate for coating porous structures, e.g. for functionalization of large surface area substrates for catalysis, fuel cells, batteries, supercapacitors, filtration devices, sensors, membranes etc. This tutorial review focuses on the application of ALD for catalyst design. Examples are discussed where ALD of TiO(2) is used for tailoring the interior surface of nanoporous films with pore sizes of 4-6 nm, resulting in photocatalytic activity. In still narrower pores, the ability to deposit chemical elements can be exploited to generate catalytic sites. In zeolites, ALD of aluminium species enables the generation of acid catalytic activity.

  14. Atomic layer deposition of oxides for microelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongtao

    Atomic layer deposition of high-kappa oxides has gained interest due to the wide applications in microelectronics. For gate dielectric application, amorphous oxides are preferred for the structural uniformity at nanometer scale. LaxM2-xO 3 (M = Sc, Lu or Y) films were deposited by ALD with metal amidinate precursors and H2O. Both LaScO3 and LaLuO3 films are amorphous and free of interfacial layers. Besides the structural benefits, both oxides have high dielectric constants (˜23 for LaScO 3 and 28 +/- 1 for LaLuO3), low leakage current density, and very few bulk traps, and are scalable to EOT < 1 nm. La1.23Y 0.77O3 films have polycrystalline structures with moderately high kappa ˜ 17 and low leakage current. The Poole-Frenkel mechanism is verified in the ternary oxide films by studying temperature dependence of the leakage current. For La1.1Al0.9O3/Si, the thermal stability was evaluated by studying the interface structure evolution under different annealing conditions. It concludes that an interfacial layer forms at the temperature above 600°C and the oxygen source resides in the film. For DRAM application, ALD deposition of rutile phase TiO2 is developed for its 70. The substrate, SnO2 and RuO2/Ru, works as both bottom electrodes and templates for rutile TiO2 nucleation. The growth rate is ˜ 0.3 A/cycle and is regardless of phases and crystallinity. The crystallinity strongly depends on the substrates. High quality ruthenium thin films were deposited by ALD with bis( N,N'-di-tert-butylacetamidinato) ruthenium(II) dicarbonyl and O2. The film crystallinity, density, and resistivity strongly depend on the O2 exposure. As EO ≈ Emax, the films have the lowest resistivity, highest density and best crystallinity (˜10 muO·cm, ˜12.3 g/cm3 and grain size comparable to film thickness). When EO > Emax, films peel off from the substrate due to the recombinative desorption of O2. The impurities are mainly O (0.27+/-0.03at.%) and C (0.30+/-0.05at.%). The C is mostly

  15. Atomic layer deposition of absorbing thin films on nanostructured electrodes for short-wavelength infrared photosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jixian; Sutherland, Brandon R.; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Fan, Fengjia; Kinge, Sachin; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-10-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD), prized for its high-quality thin-film formation in the absence of high temperature or high vacuum, has become an industry standard for the large-area deposition of a wide array of oxide materials. Recently, it has shown promise in the formation of nanocrystalline sulfide films. Here, we demonstrate the viability of ALD lead sulfide for photodetection. Leveraging the conformal capabilities of ALD, we enhance the absorption without compromising the extraction efficiency in the absorbing layer by utilizing a ZnO nanowire electrode. The nanowires are first coated with a thin shunt-preventing TiO2 layer, followed by an infrared-active ALD PbS layer for photosensing. The ALD PbS photodetector exhibits a peak responsivity of 10-2 A W-1 and a shot-derived specific detectivity of 3 × 109 Jones at 1530 nm wavelength.

  16. Atomic layer deposition of metal sulfide materials.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Neil P; Meng, Xiangbo; Elam, Jeffrey W; Martinson, Alex B F

    2015-02-17

    CONSPECTUS: The field of nanoscience is delivering increasingly intricate yet elegant geometric structures incorporating an ever-expanding palette of materials. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a powerful driver of this field, providing exceptionally conformal coatings spanning the periodic table and atomic-scale precision independent of substrate geometry. This versatility is intrinsic to ALD and results from sequential and self-limiting surface reactions. This characteristic facilitates digital synthesis, in which the film grows linearly with the number of reaction cycles. While the majority of ALD processes identified to date produce metal oxides, novel applications in areas such as energy storage, catalysis, and nanophotonics are motivating interest in sulfide materials. Recent progress in ALD of sulfides has expanded the diversity of accessible materials as well as a more complete understanding of the unique chalcogenide surface chemistry. ALD of sulfide materials typically uses metalorganic precursors and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). As in oxide ALD, the precursor chemistry is critical to controlling both the film growth and properties including roughness, crystallinity, and impurity levels. By modification of the precursor sequence, multicomponent sulfides have been deposited, although challenges remain because of the higher propensity for cation exchange reactions, greater diffusion rates, and unintentional annealing of this more labile class of materials. A deeper understanding of these surface chemical reactions has been achieved through a combination of in situ studies and quantum-chemical calculations. As this understanding matures, so does our ability to deterministically tailor film properties to new applications and more sophisticated devices. This Account highlights the attributes of ALD chemistry that are unique to metal sulfides and surveys recent applications of these materials in photovoltaics, energy storage, and photonics. Within each application

  17. Atomic layer deposition of metal sulfide materials

    DOE PAGES

    Dasgupta, Neil P.; Meng, Xiangbo; Elam, Jeffrey W.; ...

    2015-01-12

    The field of nanoscience is delivering increasingly intricate yet elegant geometric structures incorporating an ever-expanding palette of materials. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a powerful driver of this field, providing exceptionally conformal coatings spanning the periodic table and atomic-scale precision independent of substrate geometry. This versatility is intrinsic to ALD and results from sequential and self-limiting surface reactions. This characteristic facilitates digital synthesis, in which the film grows linearly with the number of reaction cycles. While the majority of ALD processes identified to date produce metal oxides, novel applications in areas such as energy storage, catalysis, and nanophotonics are motivatingmore » interest in sulfide materials. Recent progress in ALD of sulfides has expanded the diversity of accessible materials as well as a more complete understanding of the unique chalcogenide surface chemistry. ALD of sulfide materials typically uses metalorganic precursors and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). As in oxide ALD, the precursor chemistry is critical to controlling both the film growth and properties including roughness, crystallinity, and impurity levels. By modification of the precursor sequence, multicomponent sulfides have been deposited, although challenges remain because of the higher propensity for cation exchange reactions, greater diffusion rates, and unintentional annealing of this more labile class of materials. A deeper understanding of these surface chemical reactions has been achieved through a combination of in situ studies and quantum-chemical calculations. As this understanding matures, so does our ability to deterministically tailor film properties to new applications and more sophisticated devices. This Account highlights the attributes of ALD chemistry that are unique to metal sulfides and surveys recent applications of these materials in photovoltaics, energy storage, and photonics. Within each application space

  18. Alloyed 2D Metal-Semiconductor Atomic Layer Junctions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ah Ra; Kim, Yonghun; Nam, Jaewook; Chung, Hee-Suk; Kim, Dong Jae; Kwon, Jung-Dae; Park, Sang Won; Park, Jucheol; Choi, Sun Young; Lee, Byoung Hun; Park, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Kyu Hwan; Kim, Dong-Ho; Choi, Sung Mook; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Hahm, Myung Gwan; Cho, Byungjin

    2016-03-09

    Heterostructures of compositionally and electronically variant two-dimensional (2D) atomic layers are viable building blocks for ultrathin optoelectronic devices. We show that the composition of interfacial transition region between semiconducting WSe2 atomic layer channels and metallic NbSe2 contact layers can be engineered through interfacial doping with Nb atoms. WxNb1-xSe2 interfacial regions considerably lower the potential barrier height of the junction, significantly improving the performance of the corresponding WSe2-based field-effect transistor devices. The creation of such alloyed 2D junctions between dissimilar atomic layer domains could be the most important factor in controlling the electronic properties of 2D junctions and the design and fabrication of 2D atomic layer devices.

  19. Large-Area and High-Quality 2D Transition Metal Telluride

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Jiadong; Liu, Fucai; Lin, Junhao; ...

    2016-11-17

    Large-area and high-quality 2D transition metal tellurides are synthesized in this paper by the chemical vapor deposition method. The as-grown WTe2 maintains two different stacking sequences in the bilayer, where the atomic structure of the stacking boundary is revealed by scanning transmission electron microscopy. Finally, the low-temperature transport measurements reveal a novel semimetal-to-insulator transition in WTe2 layers and an enhanced superconductivity in few-layer MoTe2.

  20. Flat metallic surface gratings with sub-10 nm gaps controlled by atomic-layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Borui; Ji, Dengxin; Cheney, Alec; Zhang, Nan; Song, Haomin; Zeng, Xie; Thomay, Tim; Gan, Qiaoqiang; Cartwright, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    Atomic layer lithography is a recently reported new technology to fabricate deep-subwavelength features down to 1-2 nm, based on combinations of electron beam lithography (EBL) and atomic layer deposition (ALD). However, the patterning area is relatively small as limited by EBL, and the fabrication yield is not very high due to technical challenges. Here we report an improved procedure to fabricate flat metallic surfaces with sub-10 nm features based on ALD processes. To demonstrate the scalability of the new manufacturing method, we combine the ALD process with large area optical interference patterning, which is particularly promising for the development of practical applications for nanoelectronics and nanophotonics with extremely strong confinement of electromagnetic fields.

  1. Atomic layer deposition of metal oxides on pristine and functionalized graphene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinran; Tabakman, Scott M; Dai, Hongjie

    2008-07-02

    We investigate atomic layer deposition (ALD) of metal oxide on pristine and functionalized graphene. On pristine graphene, ALD coating can only actively grow on edges and defect sites, where dangling bonds or surface groups react with ALD precursors. This affords a simple method to decorate and probe single defect sites in graphene planes. We used perylene tetracarboxylic acid (PTCA) to functionalize the graphene surface and selectively introduced densely packed surface groups on graphene. Uniform ultrathin ALD coating on PTCA graphene was achieved over a large area. The functionalization method could be used to integrate ultrathin high-kappa dielectrics in future graphene electronics.

  2. Atomic-layer deposition of cadmium chalcogenides on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezhovskii, Yu. K.

    2014-09-01

    The results of studies of the synthesis of ultrafine layers of cadmium selenide and telluride by atomic-layer deposition on the silicon surface of different orientations were summarized. The main tendencies of the chemisorption of the components and conditions of layer growth during the formation of nanostructures of these compounds were determined.

  3. Fermi's Large Area Telescope (LAT)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Fermi’s Large Area Telescope (LAT) is the spacecraft’s main scientificinstrument. This animation shows a gamma ray (purple) entering the LAT,where it is converted into an electron (red) and a...

  4. USE OF ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF FUNCTIONALIZATION OF NANOPOROUS BIOMATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R.; Narayan, R.; Adiga, S.; Pellin, M.; Curtiss, L.; Stafslien, S.; Chisholm, B.; Monteiro-Riviere, N.; Elam, J.

    2010-02-08

    Due to its chemical stability, uniform pore size, and high pore density, nanoporous alumina is being investigated for use in biosensing, drug delivery, hemodialysis, and other medical applications. In recent work, we have examined the use of atomic layer deposition for coating the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes. Zinc oxide coatings were deposited on nanoporous alumina membranes using atomic layer deposition. The zinc oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. These results suggest that atomic layer deposition is an attractive technique for modifying the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes and other nanostructured biomaterials.

  5. Slidable atomic layers in van der Waals heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yu; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Maniwa, Yutaka; Miyata, Yasumitsu

    2017-04-01

    We report the preparation and manipulation of slidable atomic layers in clean, incommensurate van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures. Monolayer and multilayer WS2 grains are grown on graphite and hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) via chemical vapor deposition, and these grains can slide smoothly on graphite and hBN surfaces by manipulation with a tip. Furthermore, this sliding process allows the suspension, tearing, stacking, and connection of the atomic layers. These results demonstrate a novel approach for developing a wide variety of atomic-layer heterostructures with tunable interlayer coupling and an ideal system for studying the superlubricity of incommensurate, highly clean vdW contacts.

  6. Large Area Synthesis of 2D Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Eric

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have generated significant interest for numerous applications including sensors, flexible electronics, heterostructures and optoelectronics due to their interesting, thickness-dependent properties. Despite recent progress, the synthesis of high-quality and highly uniform TMDs on a large scale is still a challenge. In this talk, synthesis routes for WSe2 and MoS2 that achieve monolayer thickness uniformity across large area substrates with electrical properties equivalent to geological crystals will be described. Controlled doping of 2D semiconductors is also critically required. However, methods established for conventional semiconductors, such as ion implantation, are not easily applicable to 2D materials because of their atomically thin structure. Redox-active molecular dopants will be demonstrated which provide large changes in carrier density and workfunction through the choice of dopant, treatment time, and the solution concentration. Finally, several applications of these large-area, uniform 2D materials will be described including heterostructures, biosensors and strain sensors.

  7. Large-area aircraft scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iddings, Frank A.

    A program to determine the feasibility of present state-of-the-art NDI technology to produce a large-area scanner and to identify commercial equipment available to construct the desired system is presented. Work performed to attain these objectives is described, along with suggested modifications to the existing commercial equipment in order to meet the design criteria as closely as possible. Techniques that show the most promise at present are: D-sight, shearography, and pulse IR thermography (PIRT). D-sight is argued to be inadequate alone, but may well help form a system in conjunction with another technique. Shearography requires additional development in the area of stress application along with interpretation and overall application. PIRT is argued to be satisfactory as a large-area scanner system, at least for thin composite and metal panels.

  8. Nanoprocessing of layered crystalline materials by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Shojiro; Wang, Mei

    2015-01-01

    By taking advantage of the mechanical anisotropy of crystalline materials, processing at a single-layer level can be realized for layered crystalline materials with periodically weak bonds. Mica (muscovite), graphite, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), and boron nitride have layered structures, and there is little interaction between the cleavage planes existing in the basal planes of these materials. Moreover, it is easy to image the atoms on the basal plane, where the processed shape can be observed on the atomic level. This study reviews research evaluating the nanometer-scale wear and friction as well as the nanometer-scale mechanical processing of muscovite using atomic force microscopy (AFM). It also summarizes recent AFM results obtained by our research group regarding the atomic-scale mechanical processing of layered materials including mica, graphite, MoS2, and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite.

  9. Mode Locking of Lasers with Atomic Layer Graphene

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    method to produce the few atomic layers graphene . In a typical experiment , a SiO2/Si substrate with 300 nm Ni film was loaded into a CVD chamber...by ANSI Std Z39-18 2 Abstract: Large size atomic layer graphene was fabricated using the chemical vapor deposition ( CVD ) technique. The...order to achieve the optimized mode locking performance of a laser, the parameters of a saturable absorber, these are the saturable modulation strength

  10. Pilot Production of Large Area Microchannel Plates and Picosecond Photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minot, M.; Adams, B.; Abiles, M.; Bond, J.; Craven, C.; Cremer, T.; Foley, M.; Lyashenko, A.; Popecki, M.; Stochaj, M.; Worstell, W.; Elam, J.; Mane, A.; Siegmund, O.; Ertley, C.

    2016-09-01

    Pilot production performance is reported for large area atomic layer deposition (ALD) coated microchannel plates (ALD-GCA-MCPs) and for Large Area Picosecond Photodetectors (LAPPD™) which incorporate them. "Hollowcore" glass capillary array (GCA) substrates are coated with ALD resistive and emissive layers to form the ALDGCA- MCPs, an approach that facilitates independent selection of glass substrates that are mechanically stronger and that have lower levels of radioactive alkali elements compared to conventional MCP lead glass, reducing background noise[1,2,3,4]. ALD-GCA-MCPs have competitive gain ( 104 each or 107 for a chevron pair ), enhanced lifetime and gain stability (7 C cm-2 of charge extraction), reduced background levels (0.028 events cm-2 sec-1) and low gamma-ray detection efficiency. They can be fabricated in large area (20cm X 20 cm) planar and curved formats suitable for use in high radiation environment applications, including astronomy, space instrumentation, and remote night time sensing. The LAPPD™ photodetector incorporates these ALD-GCA-MCPs in an all-glass hermetic package with top and bottom plates and sidewalls made of borosilicate float glass. Signals are generated by a bi-alkali Na2KSb photocathode, amplified with a stacked chevron pair of ALD-GCA-MCPs. Signals are collected on RF strip-line anodes integrated into to the bottom plates which exit the detector via pin-free hermetic seals under the side walls [5]. Tests show that LAPPDTMs have electron gains greater than 107, submillimeter spatial resolution for large (multiphoton) pulses and several mm for single photons, time resolution less than 50 picoseconds for single photons, predicted resolution less than 5 picoseconds for large pulses, high stability versus charge extraction[6], and good uniformity for applications including astrophysics, neutron detection, high energy physics Cherenkov light detection, and quantum-optical photon-correlation experiments.

  11. Electrochemical Atomic Layer Epitaxy of InAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddox, Clinton B.; Happek, Uwe; Flowers, Billy H., Jr.; Vaidyanathan, Raman; Wade, Travis L.; Stickney, John L.

    1999-11-01

    We report on the electrosynthesis of InAs semiconductor films at room temperature using electrochemical atomic layer epitaxy. With this novel technique a semiconductor film can be formed layer by layer, via electrodeposition. An automated thin-layer electrochemical flow cell system is used to deposit InAs. A layer of In is first deposited on a gold cathode from a solution containing ions of In. Using the proper potential, only an atomic layer of material is formed. The solution is then exchanged for one containing As ions, and the second atomic layer (at a different, ion-specific potential) is deposited. These two steps establish a cycle producing a monolayer of the compound. The cycle can be repeated to produce semiconductor films consisting of thousands of layers. The quality of the obtained films is analyzed using x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy probing the bandgap of the material. This work is supported in part by the National Science Foundation and the University of Georgia Research Foundation.

  12. Low-temperature atomic layer epitaxy of AlN ultrathin films by layer-by-layer, in-situ atomic layer annealing

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Huan-Yu; Lee, Wei-Hao; Kao, Wei-Chung; Chuang, Yung-Chuan; Lin, Ray-Ming; Lin, Hsin-Chih; Shiojiri, Makoto; Chen, Miin-Jang

    2017-01-01

    Low-temperature epitaxial growth of AlN ultrathin films was realized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) together with the layer-by-layer, in-situ atomic layer annealing (ALA), instead of a high growth temperature which is needed in conventional epitaxial growth techniques. By applying the ALA with the Ar plasma treatment in each ALD cycle, the AlN thin film was converted dramatically from the amorphous phase to a single-crystalline epitaxial layer, at a low deposition temperature of 300 °C. The energy transferred from plasma not only provides the crystallization energy but also enhances the migration of adatoms and the removal of ligands, which significantly improve the crystallinity of the epitaxial layer. The X-ray diffraction reveals that the full width at half-maximum of the AlN (0002) rocking curve is only 144 arcsec in the AlN ultrathin epilayer with a thickness of only a few tens of nm. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy also indicates the high-quality single-crystal hexagonal phase of the AlN epitaxial layer on the sapphire substrate. The result opens a window for further extension of the ALD applications from amorphous thin films to the high-quality low-temperature atomic layer epitaxy, which can be exploited in a variety of fields and applications in the near future. PMID:28045075

  13. Low-temperature atomic layer epitaxy of AlN ultrathin films by layer-by-layer, in-situ atomic layer annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Huan-Yu; Lee, Wei-Hao; Kao, Wei-Chung; Chuang, Yung-Chuan; Lin, Ray-Ming; Lin, Hsin-Chih; Shiojiri, Makoto; Chen, Miin-Jang

    2017-01-01

    Low-temperature epitaxial growth of AlN ultrathin films was realized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) together with the layer-by-layer, in-situ atomic layer annealing (ALA), instead of a high growth temperature which is needed in conventional epitaxial growth techniques. By applying the ALA with the Ar plasma treatment in each ALD cycle, the AlN thin film was converted dramatically from the amorphous phase to a single-crystalline epitaxial layer, at a low deposition temperature of 300 °C. The energy transferred from plasma not only provides the crystallization energy but also enhances the migration of adatoms and the removal of ligands, which significantly improve the crystallinity of the epitaxial layer. The X-ray diffraction reveals that the full width at half-maximum of the AlN (0002) rocking curve is only 144 arcsec in the AlN ultrathin epilayer with a thickness of only a few tens of nm. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy also indicates the high-quality single-crystal hexagonal phase of the AlN epitaxial layer on the sapphire substrate. The result opens a window for further extension of the ALD applications from amorphous thin films to the high-quality low-temperature atomic layer epitaxy, which can be exploited in a variety of fields and applications in the near future.

  14. Low-temperature atomic layer epitaxy of AlN ultrathin films by layer-by-layer, in-situ atomic layer annealing.

    PubMed

    Shih, Huan-Yu; Lee, Wei-Hao; Kao, Wei-Chung; Chuang, Yung-Chuan; Lin, Ray-Ming; Lin, Hsin-Chih; Shiojiri, Makoto; Chen, Miin-Jang

    2017-01-03

    Low-temperature epitaxial growth of AlN ultrathin films was realized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) together with the layer-by-layer, in-situ atomic layer annealing (ALA), instead of a high growth temperature which is needed in conventional epitaxial growth techniques. By applying the ALA with the Ar plasma treatment in each ALD cycle, the AlN thin film was converted dramatically from the amorphous phase to a single-crystalline epitaxial layer, at a low deposition temperature of 300 °C. The energy transferred from plasma not only provides the crystallization energy but also enhances the migration of adatoms and the removal of ligands, which significantly improve the crystallinity of the epitaxial layer. The X-ray diffraction reveals that the full width at half-maximum of the AlN (0002) rocking curve is only 144 arcsec in the AlN ultrathin epilayer with a thickness of only a few tens of nm. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy also indicates the high-quality single-crystal hexagonal phase of the AlN epitaxial layer on the sapphire substrate. The result opens a window for further extension of the ALD applications from amorphous thin films to the high-quality low-temperature atomic layer epitaxy, which can be exploited in a variety of fields and applications in the near future.

  15. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) for optical nanofabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maula, Jarmo

    2010-02-01

    ALD is currently one of the most rapidly developing fields of thin film technology. Presentation gives an overview of ALD technology for optical film deposition, highlighting benefits, drawbacks and peculiarities of the ALD, especially compared to PVD. Viewpoint is practical, based on experience gained from tens of different applications over the last few decades. ALD is not competing, but enabling technology to provide coatings, which are difficult for traditional technologies. Examples of such cases are films inside of tubes; double side deposition on the substrate; large area accurate coatings; decorative coating for 3D parts; conformal coatings on high aspect ratio surfaces or inside porous structures. Novel materials can be easily engineered by making modifications on molecular level. ALD coats large surfaces effectively and fast. Opposite to common view, it actually provides high throughput (coated area/time), when used properly with a batch and/or in-line tools. It is possible to use ALD for many micrometers thick films or even produce thin parts with competitive cost. Besides optical films ALD provides large variety of features for nanofabrication. For example pin hole free films for passivation and barrier applications and best available films for conformal coatings like planarization or to improve surface smoothness. High deposition repeatability even with subnanometer film structures helps fabrication. ALD enters to production mostly through new products, not yet existing on the market and so the application IP field is reasonably open. ALD is an enabling, mature technology to fabricate novel optical materials and to open pathways for new applications.

  16. Interfacial engineering of two-dimensional nano-structured materials by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuiykov, Serge; Kawaguchi, Toshikazu; Hai, Zhenyin; Karbalaei Akbari, Mohammad; Heynderickx, Philippe M.

    2017-01-01

    Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is an enabling technology which provides coating and material features with significant advantages compared to other existing techniques for depositing precise nanometer-thin two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures. It is a cyclic process which relies on sequential self-terminating reactions between gas phase precursor molecules and a solid surface. ALD is especially advantageous when the film quality or thickness is critical, offering ultra-high aspect ratios. ALD provides digital thickness control to the atomic level by depositing film one atomic layer at a time, as well as pinhole-free films even over a very large and complex areas. Digital control extends to sandwiches, hetero-structures, nano-laminates, metal oxides, graded index layers and doping, and it is perfect for conformal coating and challenging 2D electrodes for various functional devices. The technique's capabilities are presented on the example of ALD-developed ultra-thin 2D tungsten oxide (WO3) over the large area of standard 4" Si substrates. The discussed advantages of ALD enable and endorse the employment of this technique for the development of hetero-nanostructure 2D semiconductors with unique properties.

  17. Compositional characterization of atomic layer deposited alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Philip, Anu; Thomas, Subin; Kumar, K. Rajeev

    2014-01-28

    As the microelectronic industry demands feature size in the order of few and sub nanometer regime, the film composition and other film properties become critical issues and ALD has emerged as the choice of industry. Aluminum oxide is a material with wide applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices and protective and ion barrier layers. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is an excellent dielectric because of its large band gap (8.7eV), large band offsets with silicon. We have deposited thin layers of alumina on silicon wafer (p-type) for gate dielectric applications by ALD technique and compositional characterizations of the deposited thin films were done using EDS, XPS and FTIR spectra.

  18. Atomic-Layer Engineering of Oxide Superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Bozovic I.; Bollinger, A.T.; Eckstein, J.N.; Dubuis, G.; Pavuna, D.

    2012-03-01

    Molecular beam epitaxy technique has enabled synthesis of atomically smooth thin films, multilayers, and superlattices of cuprates and other complex oxides. Such heterostructures show high temperature superconductivity and enable novel experiments that probe the basic physics of this phenomenon. For example, it was established that high temperature superconductivity and anti-ferromagnetic phases separate on Angstrom scale, while the pseudo-gap state apparently mixes with high temperature superconductivity over an anomalously large length scale (the 'Giant Proximity Effect'). We review some recent experiments on such films and superlattices, including X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, angle-resolved time of flight ion scattering and recoil spectroscopy, transport measurements, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, resonant X-ray scattering, low-energy muon spin resonance, and ultrafast photo-induced reflection high energy electron diffraction. The results include an unambiguous demonstration of strong coupling of in-plane charge excitations to out-of-plane lattice vibrations, a discovery of interface high temperature superconductivity that occurs in a single CuO{sub 2} plane, evidence for local pairs, and establishing tight limits on the temperature range of superconducting fluctuations.

  19. Transparent Oxide TFTs Fabricated by Atomic Layer Deposition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-17

    2011.5.1-2012.4.30 Purpose and Background: In recent years, the application of zinc oxide ( ZnO ) thin films as an active channel layer in TFTs has...become of great interest owing to their specific characteristics. ZnO is transparent in the visible wavelengths region because of its wide band gap...3.37eV), and the ability to fabricate good quality films over large areas at low temperature suggests the compatibility of ZnO films with plastic

  20. Large area mercuric iodide photodetectors

    SciTech Connect

    Iwanczyk, J.S.; Dabrowski, A.J.; Markakis, J.M.; Ortale, C.; Schnepple, W.F.

    1984-02-01

    Results of an investigation of large area mercuric iodide (HgI/sub 2/) photodetectors are reported. Different entrance contacts were studied, including semitransparent metallic films and conductive liquids. Theoretical calculations of electronic noise of these photodetectors were compared with experimental results. HgI/sub 2/ photodetectors with active area up to 4 cm/sup 2/ were matched with NaI(Tl) and CsI(Tl) scintillation crystals and were evaluated as gamma-radiation spectrometers. Energy resolution of 9.3% for gamma radiation of 511 keV with a CsI(Tl) scintillator and energy resolution of 9.0% for gamma radiation of 622 keV with a NaI(Tl) scintillator have been obtained.

  1. Coating of nanoporous membranes: atomic layer deposition versus sputtering.

    PubMed

    Grigoras, K; Airaksinen, V M; Franssila, S

    2009-06-01

    Nanoporous anodic alumina membranes and silicon samples with plasma etched nanopores have been coated with zinc oxide or gold layer using atomic layer deposition (ALD) or sputtering, respectively. In the case of ALD process, the precursor pulses were extended, compared with planar substrate coating. Thick (60 microm) anodic alumina membranes have been conformally coated with zinc oxide ALD layer. Metal sputtering technique was used just for opposite purpose--to minimize the penetration of gold into the pores during gold-coating of the top and bottom surfaces of the membrane. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been used to investigate the layer thickness, uniformity and conformality inside the nanopores.

  2. Atomic layer engineering of perovskite oxides for chemically sharp heterointerfaces.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woo Seok; Rouleau, Christopher M; Seo, Sung Seok A; Luo, Zhenlin; Zhou, Hua; Fister, Timothy T; Eastman, Jeffrey A; Fuoss, Paul H; Fong, Dillon D; Tischler, Jonathan Z; Eres, Gyula; Chisholm, Matthew F; Lee, Ho Nyung

    2012-12-18

    Atomic layer engineering enables fabrication of a chemically sharp oxide heterointerface. The interface formation and strain evolution during the initial growth of LaAlO(3) /SrTiO(3) heterostructures by pulsed laser deposition are investigated in search of a means for controlling the atomic-sharpness of the interface. This study shows that inserting a monolayer of LaAlO(3) grown at high oxygen pressure dramatically enhances interface abruptness.

  3. An Introduction to Atomic Layer Deposition with Thermal Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwivedi, Vivek H.

    2015-01-01

    Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is a cost effective nano-manufacturing technique that allows for the conformal coating of substrates with atomic control in a benign temperature and pressure environment. Through the introduction of paired precursor gases thin films can be deposited on a myriad of substrates ranging from glass, polymers, aerogels, and metals to high aspect ratio geometries. This talk will focus on the utilization of ALD for engineering applications.

  4. Single-atom Catalysis Using Pt/Graphene Achieved through Atomic Layer Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shuhui; Zhang, Gaixia; Gauquelin, Nicolas; Chen, Ning; Zhou, Jigang; Yang, Songlan; Chen, Weifeng; Meng, Xiangbo; Geng, Dongsheng; Banis, Mohammad N.; Li, Ruying; Ye, Siyu; Knights, Shanna; Botton, Gianluigi A.; Sham, Tsun-Kong; Sun, Xueliang

    2013-01-01

    Platinum-nanoparticle-based catalysts are widely used in many important chemical processes and automobile industries. Downsizing catalyst nanoparticles to single atoms is highly desirable to maximize their use efficiency, however, very challenging. Here we report a practical synthesis for isolated single Pt atoms anchored to graphene nanosheet using the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. ALD offers the capability of precise control of catalyst size span from single atom, subnanometer cluster to nanoparticle. The single-atom catalysts exhibit significantly improved catalytic activity (up to 10 times) over that of the state-of-the-art commercial Pt/C catalyst. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analyses reveal that the low-coordination and partially unoccupied densities of states of 5d orbital of Pt atoms are responsible for the excellent performance. This work is anticipated to form the basis for the exploration of a next generation of highly efficient single-atom catalysts for various applications.

  5. Electrochemical atomic layer deposition of copper nanofilms on ruthenium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebregziabiher, Daniel K.; Kim, Youn-Geun; Thambidurai, Chandru; Ivanova, Valentina; Haumesser, Paul-Henri; Stickney, John L.

    2010-04-01

    As ULSI scales to smaller and smaller dimensions, it has become necessary to form layers of materials only a few nm thick. In addition, trenches are now being incorporated in ULSI formation which require conformal coating and will not be amenable to CMP. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is being developed to address such issues. ALD is the formation of materials layer by layer using self-limiting reactions. This article describes the formation of Cu seed layers (for the Cu damascene process) on a Ru barrier layer. The deposit was formed by the electrochemical analog of ALD, using electrochemical self-limiting reactions which are referred to as underpotential deposition (UPD). Monolayer restricted galvanic displacement was used to form atomic layers of Cu. First Pb UPD was deposited, forming a sacrificial layer, and then a Cu +2 solution was flushed into the cell and Pb was exchanged for Cu. A linear dependence was shown for Cu growth over 8 ALD cycles, and STM showed a conformal deposition, as expected for an ALD process. Relative Cu coverages were determined using Auger electron spectroscopy, while absolute Cu coverages were obtained from coulometry during oxidative stripping of the deposits. Use of a Cl - containing electrolyte results in Cu deposits covered with an atomic layer of Cl atoms, which have been shown to protect the surfaced from oxidation during various stages of the deposition process. The 10 nm thick Ru substrates were formed on Si(1 0 0) wafers, and were partially oxidized upon receipt. Electrochemical reduction, prior to Cu deposition, removed the oxygen and some traces of carbon, the result of transport. Ion bombardment proved to clean all oxygen and carbon traces from the surface.

  6. New Optical Absorption Bands in Atomic Layer Superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckstein, James

    2011-03-01

    Using atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy, atomic layer superlattices can be constructed that exhibit new electronic, optical and lattice effects not present in the individual components. In particular, new optical transitions giving rise to sharp absorption peaks can be created by placing a layer of a material with occupied source states next to a layer of another material with unoccupied destination states. We combine atomic layers of SrTi O3 and LaMn O3 into superlattice structures with component layers as thin as single monolayer and find a new absorption band due to a transition from manganese- to titanium-derived states. The energy of the new transition depends on how the bands line up at the interface. Furthermore, a substantial shift of spectral weight occurs as well, while retaining a constant sum rule. This work was supported by the Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences at the Fredrick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana. This work was done in collaboration with Xiaofang Zhai, Mao Zheng, Amish Shah, Chandra Mohapatra, and Jian-Min Zuo. This work was supported by the Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences at the Fredrick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana.

  7. Iridium wire grid polarizer fabricated using atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Weber, Thomas; Käsebier, Thomas; Szeghalmi, Adriana; Knez, Mato; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2011-10-25

    In this work, an effective multistep process toward fabrication of an iridium wire grid polarizer for UV applications involving a frequency doubling process based on ultrafast electron beam lithography and atomic layer deposition is presented. The choice of iridium as grating material is based on its good optical properties and a superior oxidation resistance. Furthermore, atomic layer deposition of iridium allows a precise adjustment of the structural parameters of the grating much better than other deposition techniques like sputtering for example. At the target wavelength of 250 nm, a transmission of about 45% and an extinction ratio of 87 are achieved.

  8. Atomically thin semiconducting layers and nanomembranes: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragoman, Mircea; Dragoman, Daniela; Tiginyanu, Ion

    2017-03-01

    This article reviews the main physical properties of atomically thin semiconductors and the electronic devices based on them. We start with graphene, describing its physical properties and growth methods, followed by a discussion of its electronic device applications. Then, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are analyzed as a prototype of atomically thin semiconductors, their physical properties, growth methods, and electronic devices are discussed in detail. Finally, non-layered semiconducting membranes with thicknesses ranging from a few nanometers to about 50 nm, and considered as counterparts of atomically thin semiconductors, are analyzed, and their applications presented.

  9. Atomic Force Microscopy of the Nacreous Layer in Mollusc Shells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-25

    studies of the nacreous layers of molluscan shells . In particular, our studies of native and treated samples have highlighted significant morphological...sUnh S. PUNOWNG NUMIEMS Atomic Force Microscopy of the Nacreous Layer N00014-90-J-1159 in Mollusc Shells -. AUThORtS) S. Manne, C. M. Zaremba, R. Giles...tablets which comprise the mineral portion of nacre, in two types of molluscs, a bivalve (Arrina serrate) and a gastropod (Haliois rufescens). By

  10. 500 V/200 A fault current limiter modules made of large-area MOD-YBa2Cu3O7 thin films with high-resistivity Au-Ag alloy shunt layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, H.; Arai, K.; Kaiho, K.; Nakagawa, Y.; Sohma, M.; Kondo, W.; Yamaguchi, I.; Matsui, H.; Kumagai, T.; Natori, N.; Higuchi, N.

    2009-12-01

    We developed 500 Vrms/ 200 Arms superconducting thin-film fault current limiter (FCL) modules that can withstand high electric fields (E>30 Vrms cm-1) by using large-area YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) thin films with high-resistivity Au-Ag alloy shunt layers. Au-Ag alloy films about 60 nm thick were sputter-deposited on YBCO/CeO2/sapphire films (2.7 cm × 20 cm) prepared using a fluorine-free MOD method. Each 20 cm long Au-Ag/YBCO film was then divided into three segments (each ~5.7 cm long) by four Ag electrodes deposited on the Au-Ag layer, resulting in an effective length of 17 cm. The 500 V/200 A FCL modules were then fabricated by first connecting two of the segmented films in parallel using Ag-sheathed Bi-2223 superconducting tapes and then connecting in parallel an external resistor and a capacitor for each segment to protect the Au-Ag/YBCO film from hot spots. Switching tests using a short-circuit generator revealed that all the modules carried a superconducting ac current of >=237 Arms and that modules prepared with YBCO films having a relatively homogeneous critical current Ic distribution successfully withstood >=515 Vrms for five cycles without any damage. These results demonstrate that (a) the FCL modules fabricated here successfully achieved the rated current of 200 Arms and rated voltage of 500 Vrms and (b) total area of the YBCO films on sapphire substrates required for the 500 V/200 A (100 kV A) module was less than one-third that for conventional thin-film FCL modules that use gold shunt layers, leading to the significantly reduced cost of thin-film FCLs. Film damage due to hot spots depended on the difference in Ic between the two parallel-connected films and on the inhomogeneity of the Ic distribution in the film, and is most probably due to nonlinear current flows at the moment of quenching that cause local overheating.

  11. Laser crystallization for large-area electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sameshima, Toshiyuki

    2009-07-01

    Laser crystallization is reviewed for the purpose of fabrication of polycrystalline silicon thin film transistors (poly-Si TFTs). Laser-induced rapid heating is important for formation of crystalline films with a low thermal budget. Reduction of electrically active defects located at grain boundaries is essential for improving electrical properties of poly-Si films and achieving poly-Si TFTs with high performances. The internal film stress is attractive to increase the carrier mobility. Recent developments in laser crystallization methods with pulsed and continuous-wave lasers are also reviewed. Control of heat flow results in crystalline grain growth in the lateral direction, which is important for fabrication of large crystalline grains. We also report an annealing method using a high-power infrared semiconductor laser. High-power lasers will be attractive for rapid formation of crystalline films over a large area and activation of silicon with impurity atoms.

  12. Vibration atomic layer deposition for conformal nanoparticle coating

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Suk Won; Woo Kim, Jun; Jong Choi, Hyung; Hyung Shim, Joon

    2014-01-15

    A vibration atomic layer deposition reactor was developed for fabricating a conformal thin-film coating on nanosize particles. In this study, atomic layer deposition of 10–15-nm-thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films was conducted on a high-surface-area acetylene black powder with particle diameters of 200–250 nm. Intense vibration during the deposition resulted in the effective separation of particles, overcoming the interparticle agglomeration force and enabling effective diffusion of the precursor into the powder chunk; this phenomenon led to the formation of a conformal film coating on the nanopowder particles. It was also confirmed that the atomic layer deposition Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films initially grew on the high-surface-area acetylene black powder particles as discrete islands, presumably because chemisorption of the precursor and water occurred only on a few sites on the high-surface-area acetylene black powder surface. Relatively sluggish growth of the films during the initial atomic layer deposition cycles was identified from composition analysis.

  13. Cost-Effective Systems for Atomic Layer Deposition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubitz, Michael; Medina, Phillip A., IV; Antic, Aleks; Rosin, Joseph T.; Fahlman, Bradley D.

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we describe the design and testing of two different home-built atomic layer deposition (ALD) systems for the growth of thin films with sub-monolayer control over film thickness. The first reactor is a horizontally aligned hot-walled reactor with a vacuum purging system. The second reactor is a vertically aligned cold-walled reactor with a…

  14. Cost-Effective Systems for Atomic Layer Deposition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubitz, Michael; Medina, Phillip A., IV; Antic, Aleks; Rosin, Joseph T.; Fahlman, Bradley D.

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we describe the design and testing of two different home-built atomic layer deposition (ALD) systems for the growth of thin films with sub-monolayer control over film thickness. The first reactor is a horizontally aligned hot-walled reactor with a vacuum purging system. The second reactor is a vertically aligned cold-walled reactor with a…

  15. A DFT study of halogen atoms adsorbed on graphene layers.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Paulo V C; Mascarenhas, Artur J S; de Brito Mota, F; de Castilho, Caio M C

    2010-12-03

    In this work, ab initio density functional theory calculations were performed in order to study the structural and electronic properties of halogens (X = fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine) that were deposited on both sides of graphene single layers (X-graphene). The adsorption of these atoms on only one side of the layer with hydrogen atoms adsorbed on the other was also considered (H,X-graphene). The results indicate that the F-C bond in the F-graphene system causes an sp(2) to sp(3) transition of the carbon orbitals, and similar effects seem to occur in the H,X-graphene systems. For the other cases, two configurations are found: bonded (B) and non-bonded (NB). For the B configuration, the structural arrangement of the atoms was similar to F-graphene and H-graphene (graphane), although the electronic structures present some differences. In the NB configuration, the interaction between the adsorbed atoms and the graphene layer seems to be essentially of the van der Waals type. In these cases, the original shape of the graphene layer presents only small deviations from the pristine form and the adsorbed atoms reach equilibrium far from the sheet. The F-graphene structure has a direct bandgap of approximately 3.16 eV at the Γ point, which is a value that is close to the value of 3.50 eV that was found for graphane. The Cl-graphene (B configuration), H,F-graphene and H,Cl-graphene systems have smaller bandgap values. All of the other systems present metallic behaviours. Energy calculations indicate the possible stability of these X-graphene layers, although some considerations about the possibility of spontaneous formation have to be taken into account.

  16. Mechanism of atomic layer epitaxy of AlAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirose, S.; Yamaura, M.; Yoshida, A.; Ibuka, H.; Hara, K.; Munekata, H.

    1998-11-01

    A systematic study on atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) of AlAs thin films has been carried out by using ethyldimethylamine alane as an Al source. Self-limiting growth modes accompanied by one, two and three monolayers per ALE cycle have been clearly presented. Each growth mode shows unique dependence of growth temperature on carbon contents. We discuss that one monolayer self-limiting growth proceeds with the conventional adsorbate inhibition model, whereas the self-limiting growth with two and three monolayers can only be explained by the formation of metallic Al layers. We also point out that atomic configuration of the layer may depend on the substrate temperature. Kinetic consideration is also given to examine these models.

  17. Large-Area and High-Quality 2D Transition Metal Telluride

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Jiadong; Liu, Fucai; Lin, Junhao; Huang, Xiangwei; Xia, Juan; Zhang, Bowei; Zeng, Qingsheng; Wang, Hong; Zhu, Chao; Niu, Lin; Wang, Xuewen; Fu, Wei; Yu, Peng; Chang, Tay-Rong; Hsu, Chuang-Han; Wu, Di; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Huang, Yizhong; Lin, Hsin; Shen, Zexiang; Yang, Changli; Lu, Li; Suenaga, Kazu; Zhou, Wu; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Liu, Guangtong; Liu, Zheng

    2016-11-17

    Large-area and high-quality 2D transition metal tellurides are synthesized in this paper by the chemical vapor deposition method. The as-grown WTe2 maintains two different stacking sequences in the bilayer, where the atomic structure of the stacking boundary is revealed by scanning transmission electron microscopy. Finally, the low-temperature transport measurements reveal a novel semimetal-to-insulator transition in WTe2 layers and an enhanced superconductivity in few-layer MoTe2.

  18. Atomic layer deposition of ultrathin platinum films on tungsten atomic layer deposition adhesion layers: Application to high surface area substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Clancey, Joel W.; Cavanagh, Andrew S.; Kukreja, Ratandeep S.; Kongkanand, Anusorn; George, Steven M.

    2015-01-15

    Platinum (Pt) atomic layer deposition (ALD) usually yields Pt nanoparticles during initial film growth. In contrast, deposition of continuous and ultrathin Pt films is needed for many important applications, such as the oxygen reduction reaction in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. A continuous and high radius of curvature Pt film is more stable and has a higher area-specific activity than the Pt nanoparticles commonly used in PEM fuel cells. However, the Pt film must be ultrathin and have a large surface area to be cost effective. In this paper, a review of earlier Pt ALD studies on flat substrates is presented that demonstrates that tungsten, with a higher surface energy than platinum, can serve as an adhesion layer to achieve Pt ALD films that are continuous at ultrathin thicknesses of ∼1.5 nm. This work utilized MeCpPtMe{sub 3} and H{sub 2} plasma as the Pt ALD reactants. The deposition of continuous and ultrathin Pt ALD films using MeCpPtMe{sub 3} and H{sub 2} plasma as the reactants is then studied on two high surface area substrate materials: TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and 3M nanostructured thin film (NSTF). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed uniform and continuous Pt films with thicknesses of ∼4 nm on the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. TEM with electron energy loss spectroscopy analysis revealed W ALD and Pt ALD films with thicknesses of ∼3 nm that were continuous and conformal on the high aspect ratio NSTF substrates. These results demonstrate that cost effective use of Pt ALD on high surface area substrates is possible for PEM fuel cells.

  19. Atomic and molecular layer deposition for surface modification

    SciTech Connect

    Vähä-Nissi, Mika; Sievänen, Jenni; Salo, Erkki; Heikkilä, Pirjo; Kenttä, Eija; Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Koskinen, Jorma T.; Harlin, Ali

    2014-06-01

    Atomic and molecular layer deposition (ALD and MLD, respectively) techniques are based on repeated cycles of gas–solid surface reactions. A partial monolayer of atoms or molecules is deposited to the surface during a single deposition cycle, enabling tailored film composition in principle down to molecular resolution on ideal surfaces. Typically ALD/MLD has been used for applications where uniform and pinhole free thin film is a necessity even on 3D surfaces. However, thin – even non-uniform – atomic and molecular deposited layers can also be used to tailor the surface characteristics of different non-ideal substrates. For example, print quality of inkjet printing on polymer films and penetration of water into porous nonwovens can be adjusted with low-temperature deposited metal oxide. In addition, adhesion of extrusion coated biopolymer to inorganic oxides can be improved with a hybrid layer based on lactic acid. - Graphical abstract: Print quality of a polylactide film surface modified with atomic layer deposition prior to inkjet printing (360 dpi) with an aqueous ink. Number of printed dots illustrated as a function of 0, 5, 15 and 25 deposition cycles of trimethylaluminum and water. - Highlights: • ALD/MLD can be used to adjust surface characteristics of films and fiber materials. • Hydrophobicity after few deposition cycles of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} due to e.g. complex formation. • Same effect on cellulosic fabrics observed with low temperature deposited TiO{sub 2}. • Different film growth and oxidation potential with different precursors. • Hybrid layer on inorganic layer can be used to improve adhesion of polymer melt.

  20. Protecting polymers in space with atomic layer deposition coatings.

    PubMed

    Minton, Timothy K; Wu, Bohan; Zhang, Jianming; Lindholm, Ned F; Abdulagatov, Aziz I; O'Patchen, Jennifer; George, Steven M; Groner, Markus D

    2010-09-01

    Polymers in space may be subjected to a barrage of incident atoms, photons, and/or ions. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) techniques can produce films that mitigate many of the current challenges for space polymers. We have studied the efficacy of various ALD coatings to protect Kapton polyimide, FEP Teflon, and poly(methyl methacrylate) films from atomic-oxygen and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) attack. Atomic-oxygen and VUV studies were conducted with the use of a laser-detonation source for hyperthermal O atoms and a D2 lamp as a source of VUV light. These studies used a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to monitor mass loss in situ, as well as surface profilometry and scanning electron microscopy to study the surface recession and morphology changes ex situ. Al2O3 ALD coatings protected the underlying substrates from atomic-oxygen attack, and the addition of TiO2 coatings protected the substrates from VUV-induced damage. The results indicate that ALD coatings can simultaneously protect polymers from oxygen-atom erosion and VUV radiation damage.

  1. Atomic-Layer-Confined Doping for Atomic-Level Insights into Visible-Light Water Splitting.

    PubMed

    Lei, Fengcai; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Yongfu; Liang, Liang; Liu, Katong; Xu, Jiaqi; Zhang, Qun; Pan, Bicai; Luo, Yi; Xie, Yi

    2015-08-03

    A model of doping confined in atomic layers is proposed for atomic-level insights into the effect of doping on photocatalysis. Co doping confined in three atomic layers of In2S3 was implemented with a lamellar hybrid intermediate strategy. Density functional calculations reveal that the introduction of Co ions brings about several new energy levels and increased density of states at the conduction band minimum, leading to sharply increased visible-light absorption and three times higher carrier concentration. Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy reveals that the electron transfer time of about 1.6 ps from the valence band to newly formed localized states is due to Co doping. The 25-fold increase in average recovery lifetime is believed to be responsible for the increased of electron-hole separation. The synthesized Co-doped In2S3 (three atomic layers) yield a photocurrent of 1.17 mA cm(-2) at 1.5 V vs. RHE, nearly 10 and 17 times higher than that of the perfect In2S3 (three atomic layers) and the bulk counterpart, respectively.

  2. Atomic layer deposition of absorbing thin films on nanostructured electrodes for short-wavelength infrared photosensing

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jixian; Sutherland, Brandon R.; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Fan, Fengjia; Sargent, Edward H.; Kinge, Sachin

    2015-10-12

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD), prized for its high-quality thin-film formation in the absence of high temperature or high vacuum, has become an industry standard for the large-area deposition of a wide array of oxide materials. Recently, it has shown promise in the formation of nanocrystalline sulfide films. Here, we demonstrate the viability of ALD lead sulfide for photodetection. Leveraging the conformal capabilities of ALD, we enhance the absorption without compromising the extraction efficiency in the absorbing layer by utilizing a ZnO nanowire electrode. The nanowires are first coated with a thin shunt-preventing TiO{sub 2} layer, followed by an infrared-active ALD PbS layer for photosensing. The ALD PbS photodetector exhibits a peak responsivity of 10{sup −2} A W{sup −1} and a shot-derived specific detectivity of 3 × 10{sup 9} Jones at 1530 nm wavelength.

  3. Interfacial Atomic Structure of Twisted Few-Layer Graphene.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Ryo; Lugg, Nathan R; Inoue, Kazutoshi; Sawada, Hidetaka; Taniguchi, Takashi; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2016-02-18

    A twist in bi- or few-layer graphene breaks the local symmetry, introducing a number of intriguing physical properties such as opening new bandgaps. Therefore, determining the twisted atomic structure is critical to understanding and controlling the functional properties of graphene. Combining low-angle annular dark-field electron microscopy with image simulations, we directly determine the atomic structure of twisted few-layer graphene in terms of a moiré superstructure which is parameterized by a single twist angle and lattice constant. This method is shown to be a powerful tool for accurately determining the atomic structure of two-dimensional materials such as graphene, even in the presence of experimental errors. Using coincidence-site-lattice and displacement-shift-complete theories, we show that the in-plane translation state between layers is not a significant structure parameter, explaining why the present method is adequate not only for bilayer graphene but also a few-layered twisted graphene.

  4. Applications of atomic layer deposition in solar cells.

    PubMed

    Niu, Wenbin; Li, Xianglin; Karuturi, Siva Krishna; Fam, Derrick Wenhui; Fan, Hongjin; Shrestha, Santosh; Wong, Lydia Helena; Tok, Alfred Iing Yoong

    2015-02-13

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) provides a unique tool for the growth of thin films with excellent conformity and thickness control down to atomic levels. The application of ALD in energy research has received increasing attention in recent years. In this review, the versatility of ALD in solar cells will be discussed. This is specifically focused on the fabrication of nanostructured photoelectrodes, surface passivation, surface sensitization, and band-structure engineering of solar cell materials. Challenges and future directions of ALD in the applications of solar cells are also discussed.

  5. High-Throughput Fabrication of Resonant Metamaterials with Ultrasmall Coaxial Apertures via Atomic Layer Lithography.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Daehan; Nguyen, Ngoc-Cuong; Martin-Moreno, Luis; Mohr, Daniel A; Carretero-Palacios, Sol; Shaver, Jonah; Peraire, Jaime; Ebbesen, Thomas W; Oh, Sang-Hyun

    2016-03-09

    We combine atomic layer lithography and glancing-angle ion polishing to create wafer-scale metamaterials composed of dense arrays of ultrasmall coaxial nanocavities in gold films. This new fabrication scheme makes it possible to shrink the diameter and increase the packing density of 2 nm-gap coaxial resonators, an extreme subwavelength structure first manufactured via atomic layer lithography, both by a factor of 100 with respect to previous studies. We demonstrate that the nonpropagating zeroth-order Fabry-Pérot mode, which possesses slow light-like properties at the cutoff resonance, traps infrared light inside 2 nm gaps (gap volume ∼ λ(3)/10(6)). Notably, the annular gaps cover only 3% or less of the metal surface, while open-area normalized transmission is as high as 1700% at the epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) condition. The resulting energy accumulation alongside extraordinary optical transmission can benefit applications in nonlinear optics, optical trapping, and surface-enhanced spectroscopies. Furthermore, because the resonance wavelength is independent of the cavity length and dramatically red shifts as the gap size is reduced, large-area arrays can be constructed with λresonance ≫ period, making this fabrication method ideal for manufacturing resonant metamaterials.

  6. High-Throughput Fabrication of Resonant Metamaterials with Ultrasmall Coaxial Apertures via Atomic Layer Lithography

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We combine atomic layer lithography and glancing-angle ion polishing to create wafer-scale metamaterials composed of dense arrays of ultrasmall coaxial nanocavities in gold films. This new fabrication scheme makes it possible to shrink the diameter and increase the packing density of 2 nm-gap coaxial resonators, an extreme subwavelength structure first manufactured via atomic layer lithography, both by a factor of 100 with respect to previous studies. We demonstrate that the nonpropagating zeroth-order Fabry-Pérot mode, which possesses slow light-like properties at the cutoff resonance, traps infrared light inside 2 nm gaps (gap volume ∼ λ3/106). Notably, the annular gaps cover only 3% or less of the metal surface, while open-area normalized transmission is as high as 1700% at the epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) condition. The resulting energy accumulation alongside extraordinary optical transmission can benefit applications in nonlinear optics, optical trapping, and surface-enhanced spectroscopies. Furthermore, because the resonance wavelength is independent of the cavity length and dramatically red shifts as the gap size is reduced, large-area arrays can be constructed with λresonance ≫ period, making this fabrication method ideal for manufacturing resonant metamaterials. PMID:26910363

  7. Oxide-based materials by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godlewski, Marek; Pietruszka, Rafał; Kaszewski, Jarosław; Witkowski, Bartłomiej S.; Gierałtowska, Sylwia; Wachnicki, Łukasz; Godlewski, Michał M.; Slonska, Anna; Gajewski, Zdzisław

    2017-02-01

    Thin films of wide band-gap oxides grown by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) are suitable for a range of applications. Some of these applications will be presented. First of all, ALD-grown high-k HfO2 is used as a gate oxide in the electronic devices. Moreover, ALD-grown oxides can be used in memory devices, in transparent transistors, or as elements of solar cells. Regarding photovoltaics (PV), ALD-grown thin films of Al2O3 are already used as anti-reflection layers. In addition, thin films of ZnO are tested as replacement of ITO in PV devices. New applications in organic photovoltaics, electronics and optoelectronics are also demonstrated Considering new applications, the same layers, as used in electronics, can also find applications in biology, medicine and in a food industry. This is because layers of high-k oxides show antibacterial activity, as discussed in this work.

  8. Buffer layer engineering on graphene via various oxidation methods for atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Nobuaki; Nagashio, Kosuke

    2016-12-01

    The integration of a high-k oxide on graphene using atomic layer deposition requires an electrically reliable buffer layer. In this study, Y was selected as the buffer layer due to its highest oxidation ability among the rare-earth elements, and various oxidation methods (atmospheric, and high-pressure O2 and ozone annealing) were applied to the Y metal buffer layer. By optimizing the oxidation conditions of the top-gate insulator, we successfully improved the capacitance of the top gate Y2O3 insulator and demonstrated a large I on/I off ratio for bilayer graphene under an external electric field.

  9. Characterization of CZTSSe photovoltaic device with an atomic layer-deposited passivation layer

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Wei Cao, Yanyan; Caspar, Jonathan V.; Guo, Qijie; Johnson, Lynda K.; Mclean, Robert S.; Malajovich, Irina; Choudhury, Kaushik Roy

    2014-07-28

    We describe a CZTSSe (Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S{sub 1−x},Se{sub x}){sub 4}) photovoltaic (PV) device with an ALD (atomic layer deposition) coated buffer dielectric layer for CZTSSe surface passivation. An ALD buffer layer, such as TiO{sub 2}, can be applied in order to reduce the interface recombination and improve the device's open-circuit voltage. Detailed characterization data including current-voltage, admittance spectroscopy, and capacitance profiling are presented in order to compare the performance of PV devices with and without the ALD layer.

  10. Carbon nanotube forests growth using catalysts from atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Bingan; Zhang, Can; Esconjauregui, Santiago; Xie, Rongsi; Zhong, Guofang; Robertson, John; Bhardwaj, Sunil; Cepek, Cinzia

    2014-04-14

    We have grown carbon nanotubes using Fe and Ni catalyst films deposited by atomic layer deposition. Both metals lead to catalytically active nanoparticles for growing vertically aligned nanotube forests or carbon fibres, depending on the growth conditions and whether the substrate is alumina or silica. The resulting nanotubes have narrow diameter and wall number distributions that are as narrow as those grown from sputtered catalysts. The state of the catalyst is studied by in-situ and ex-situ X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. We demonstrate multi-directional nanotube growth on a porous alumina foam coated with Fe prepared by atomic layer deposition. This deposition technique can be useful for nanotube applications in microelectronics, filter technology, and energy storage.

  11. microstructures by inversion of macroporous silicon using atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langner, A.; Knez, M.; Müller, F.; Gösele, U.

    2008-07-01

    An approach is presented which is capable of fabricating arbitrarily shaped three-dimensional microstructures. Two methods—namely, macroporous silicon and atomic layer deposition—are combined to realize structures in the micrometer and submicrometer range. Using TiO2 as an example, the fabrication of single hollow objects as well as complex network structures is shown. The scalability and the wide range of applicable materials are the key points of this method for future applications.

  12. Large-area high-quality graphene on Ge(001)/Si(001) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasternak, I.; Dabrowski, P.; Ciepielewski, P.; Kolkovsky, V.; Klusek, Z.; Baranowski, J. M.; Strupinski, W.

    2016-05-01

    Various experimental data revealing large-area high-quality graphene films grown by the CVD method on Ge(001)/Si(001) substrates are presented. SEM images have shown that the structure of nano-facets is formed on the entire surface of Ge(001), which is covered by a graphene layer over the whole macroscopic sample surface of 1 cm2. The hill-and-valley structures are positioned 90° to each other and run along the <100> direction. The hill height in relation to the valley measured by STM is about 10 nm. Raman measurements have shown that a uniform graphene monolayer covers the nano-facet structures on the Ge(001) surface. Raman spectroscopy has also proved that the grown graphene monolayer is characterized by small strain variations and minimal charge fluctuations. Atomically resolved STM images on the hills of the nanostructures on the Ge(001) surface have confirmed the presence of a graphene monolayer. In addition, the STS/CITS maps show that high-quality graphene has been obtained on such terraces. The subsequent coalescence of graphene domains has led to a relatively well-oriented large-area layer. This is confirmed by LEED measurements, which have indicated that two orientations are preferable in the grown large-area graphene monolayer. The presence of large-area coverage by graphene has been also confirmed by low temperature Hall measurements of a macroscopic sample, showing an n-type concentration of 9.3 × 1012 cm-2 and a mobility of 2500 cm2 V-1 s-1. These important characteristic features of graphene indicate a high homogeneity of the layer grown on the large area Ge(001)/Si(001) substrates.

  13. Overview of atomic layer etching in the semiconductor industry

    SciTech Connect

    Kanarik, Keren J. Lill, Thorsten; Hudson, Eric A.; Sriraman, Saravanapriyan; Tan, Samantha; Marks, Jeffrey; Vahedi, Vahid; Gottscho, Richard A.

    2015-03-15

    Atomic layer etching (ALE) is a technique for removing thin layers of material using sequential reaction steps that are self-limiting. ALE has been studied in the laboratory for more than 25 years. Today, it is being driven by the semiconductor industry as an alternative to continuous etching and is viewed as an essential counterpart to atomic layer deposition. As we enter the era of atomic-scale dimensions, there is need to unify the ALE field through increased effectiveness of collaboration between academia and industry, and to help enable the transition from lab to fab. With this in mind, this article provides defining criteria for ALE, along with clarification of some of the terminology and assumptions of this field. To increase understanding of the process, the mechanistic understanding is described for the silicon ALE case study, including the advantages of plasma-assisted processing. A historical overview spanning more than 25 years is provided for silicon, as well as ALE studies on oxides, III–V compounds, and other materials. Together, these processes encompass a variety of implementations, all following the same ALE principles. While the focus is on directional etching, isotropic ALE is also included. As part of this review, the authors also address the role of power pulsing as a predecessor to ALE and examine the outlook of ALE in the manufacturing of advanced semiconductor devices.

  14. Epitaxial growth of AlN films via plasma-assisted atomic layer epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Nepal, N.; Qadri, S. B.; Hite, J. K.; Mahadik, N. A.; Mastro, M. A.; Eddy, C. R. Jr.

    2013-08-19

    Thin AlN layers were grown at 200–650 °C by plasma assisted atomic layer epitaxy (PA-ALE) simultaneously on Si(111), sapphire (1120), and GaN/sapphire substrates. The AlN growth on Si(111) is self-limited for trimethyaluminum (TMA) pulse of length > 0.04 s, using a 10 s purge. However, the AlN nucleation on GaN/sapphire is non-uniform and has a bimodal island size distribution for TMA pulse of ≤0.03 s. The growth rate (GR) remains almost constant for T{sub g} between 300 and 400 °C indicating ALE mode at those temperatures. The GR is increased by 20% at T{sub g} = 500 °C. Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurement shows that the ALE AlN layers grown at T{sub g} ≤ 400 °C have no clear band edge related features, however, the theoretically estimated band gap of 6.2 eV was measured for AlN grown at T{sub g} ≥ 500 °C. X-ray diffraction measurements on 37 nm thick AlN films grown at optimized growth conditions (T{sub g} = 500 °C, 10 s purge, 0.06 s TMA pulse) reveal that the ALE AlN on GaN/sapphire is (0002) oriented with rocking curve full width at the half maximum (FWHM) of 670 arc sec. Epitaxial growth of crystalline AlN layers by PA-ALE at low temperatures broadens application of the material in the technologies that require large area conformal growth at low temperatures with thickness control at the atomic scale.

  15. Plasma atomic layer etching using conventional plasma equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Ankur; Kushner, Mark J.

    2009-01-15

    The decrease in feature sizes in microelectronics fabrication will soon require plasma etching processes having atomic layer resolution. The basis of plasma atomic layer etching (PALE) is forming a layer of passivation that allows the underlying substrate material to be etched with lower activation energy than in the absence of the passivation. The subsequent removal of the passivation with carefully tailored activation energy then removes a single layer of the underlying material. If these goals are met, the process is self-limiting. A challenge of PALE is the high cost of specialized equipment and slow processing speed. In this work, results from a computational investigation of PALE will be discussed with the goal of demonstrating the potential of using conventional plasma etching equipment having acceptable processing speeds. Results will be discussed using inductively coupled and magnetically enhanced capacitively coupled plasmas in which nonsinusoidal waveforms are used to regulate ion energies to optimize the passivation and etch steps. This strategy may also enable the use of a single gas mixture, as opposed to changing gas mixtures between steps.

  16. Nanostructure templating using low temperature atomic layer deposition

    DOEpatents

    Grubbs, Robert K [Albuquerque, NM; Bogart, Gregory R [Corrales, NM; Rogers, John A [Champaign, IL

    2011-12-20

    Methods are described for making nanostructures that are mechanically, chemically and thermally stable at desired elevated temperatures, from nanostructure templates having a stability temperature that is less than the desired elevated temperature. The methods comprise depositing by atomic layer deposition (ALD) structural layers that are stable at the desired elevated temperatures, onto a template employing a graded temperature deposition scheme. At least one structural layer is deposited at an initial temperature that is less than or equal to the stability temperature of the template, and subsequent depositions made at incrementally increased deposition temperatures until the desired elevated temperature stability is achieved. Nanostructure templates include three dimensional (3D) polymeric templates having features on the order of 100 nm fabricated by proximity field nanopatterning (PnP) methods.

  17. Degradation of High-k/Interface Layer Structures by H Atoms and Interface Engineering with O Atom Manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, K.; Hirano, I.; Matsushita, D.; Nakasaki, Y.; Mitani, Y.

    2011-12-01

    With regard to the growing numbers of H atoms in high-k/SiO2/Si systems, it is revealed through first principles calculations that degradation of high-k/interface layer structures has been found to occur from the interface layers by H atoms, even if the interface defects are terminated with H atoms by forming gas annealing. O termination is proposed to prevent this degradation. The effects of H and O atoms are verified by experimental analyses.

  18. Photoluminescence of phosphorus atomic layer doped Ge grown on Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Yuji; Nien, Li-Wei; Capellini, Giovanni; Virgilio, Michele; Costina, Ioan; Schubert, Markus Andreas; Seifert, Winfried; Srinivasan, Ashwyn; Loo, Roger; Scappucci, Giordano; Sabbagh, Diego; Hesse, Anne; Murota, Junichi; Schroeder, Thomas; Tillack, Bernd

    2017-10-01

    Improvement of the photoluminescence (PL) of Phosphorus (P) doped Ge by P atomic layer doping (ALD) is investigated. Fifty P delta layers of 8 × 1013 cm‑2 separated by 4 nm Ge spacer are selectively deposited at 300 °C on a 700 nm thick P-doped Ge buffer layer of 1.4 × 1019 cm‑3 on SiO2 structured Si (100) substrate. A high P concentration region of 1.6 × 1020 cm‑3 with abrupt P delta profiles is formed by the P-ALD process. Compared to the P-doped Ge buffer layer, a reduced PL intensity is observed, which might be caused by a higher density of point defects in the P delta doped Ge layer. The peak position is shifted by ∼0.1 eV towards lower energy, indicating an increased active carrier concentration in the P-delta doped Ge layer. By introducing annealing at 400 °C to 500 °C after each Ge spacer deposition, P desorption and diffusion is observed resulting in relatively uniform P profiles of ∼2 × 1019 cm‑3. Increased PL intensity and red shift of the PL peak are observed due to improved crystallinity and higher active P concentration.

  19. Improvement of Gas-Sensing Performance of Large-Area Tungsten Disulfide Nanosheets by Surface Functionalization.

    PubMed

    Ko, Kyung Yong; Song, Jeong-Gyu; Kim, Youngjun; Choi, Taejin; Shin, Sera; Lee, Chang Wan; Lee, Kyounghoon; Koo, Jahyun; Lee, Hoonkyung; Kim, Jongbaeg; Lee, Taeyoon; Park, Jusang; Kim, Hyungjun

    2016-10-05

    Semiconducting two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are promising gas-sensing materials due to their large surface-to-volume ratio. However, their poor gas-sensing performance resulting from the low response, incomplete recovery, and insufficient selectivity hinders the realization of high-performance 2D TMDC gas sensors. Here, we demonstrate the improvement of gas-sensing performance of large-area tungsten disulfide (WS2) nanosheets through surface functionalization using Ag nanowires (NWs). Large-area WS2 nanosheets were synthesized through atomic layer deposition of WO3 followed by sulfurization. The pristine WS2 gas sensors exhibited a significant response to acetone and NO2 but an incomplete recovery in the case of NO2 sensing. After AgNW functionalization, the WS2 gas sensor showed dramatically improved response (667%) and recovery upon NO2 exposure. Our results establish that the proposed method is a promising strategy to improve 2D TMDC gas sensors.

  20. Nanoscale Structuring of Surfaces by Using Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Sobel, Nicolas; Hess, Christian

    2015-12-07

    Controlled structuring of surfaces is interesting for a wide variety of areas, including microelectronic device fabrication, optical devices, bio(sensing), (electro-, photo)catalysis, batteries, solar cells, fuel cells, and sorption. A unique feature of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is the possibility to form conformal uniform coatings on arbitrarily shaped materials with controlled atomic-scale thickness. In this Minireview, we discuss the potential of ALD for the nanoscale structuring of surfaces, highlighting its versatile application to structuring both planar substrates and powder materials. Recent progress in the application of ALD to porous substrates has even made the nanoscale structuring of high-surface-area materials now feasible, thereby enabling novel applications, such as those in the fields of catalysis and alternative energy.

  1. Nanoporous SiO2 thin films made by atomic layer deposition and atomic etching.

    PubMed

    Ghazaryan, Lilit; Kley, E-Bernhard; Tünnermann, Andreas; Szeghalmi, Adriana

    2016-06-24

    A new route to prepare nanoporous SiO2 films by mixing atomic-layer-deposited alumina and silica in an Å-scale is presented. The selective removal of Al2O3 from the composites using wet chemical etching with phosphoric acid resulted in nanoporous thin SiO2 layers. A diffusion-controlled dissolution mechanism is identified whereby an interesting reorganization of the residual SiO2 is observed. The atomic scale oxide mixing is decisive in attaining and tailoring the film porosity. The porosity and the refractive index of nanoporous silica films were tailored from 9% to 69% and from 1.40 to 1.13, respectively. The nanoporous silica was successfully employed as antireflection coatings and as diffusion membranes to encapsulate nanostructures.

  2. Nanoporous SiO2 thin films made by atomic layer deposition and atomic etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazaryan, Lilit; Kley, E.-Bernhard; Tünnermann, Andreas; Szeghalmi, Adriana

    2016-06-01

    A new route to prepare nanoporous SiO2 films by mixing atomic-layer-deposited alumina and silica in an Å-scale is presented. The selective removal of Al2O3 from the composites using wet chemical etching with phosphoric acid resulted in nanoporous thin SiO2 layers. A diffusion-controlled dissolution mechanism is identified whereby an interesting reorganization of the residual SiO2 is observed. The atomic scale oxide mixing is decisive in attaining and tailoring the film porosity. The porosity and the refractive index of nanoporous silica films were tailored from 9% to 69% and from 1.40 to 1.13, respectively. The nanoporous silica was successfully employed as antireflection coatings and as diffusion membranes to encapsulate nanostructures.

  3. Issues involved in the atomic layer deposition of metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grubbs, Robert Kimes

    Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) was used to study the nucleation and growth of tungsten on aluminum oxide surfaces. Tungsten metal was deposited using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) techniques. ALD uses sequential surface reactions to deposit material with atomic layer control. W ALD is performed using sequential exposures of WF6 and Si2H6. The step-wise nature of W ALD allows nucleation studies to be performed by analyzing the W surface concentration after each ALD reaction. Nucleation and growth regions can be identified by quantifying the AES signal intensities from both the W surface and the Al2O3 substrate. W nucleation occurred in 3 ALD reaction cycles. The AES results yielded a nucleation rate of 1.0 A/ALD cycle and a growth rate of ≈3 A/ALD cycle. AES studies also explored the nucleation and growth of Al2O3 on W. Al2O3 nucleated in 1 ALD cycle giving a nucleation rate of 3.5 A/ALD cycle and a subsequent growth rate of 1.0 A/ALD cycle. Mass spectrometry was then used to study the ALD reaction chemistry of tungsten deposition. Because of the step-wise nature of the W ALD chemistry, each W ALD reaction could be studied independently. The gaseous mass products were identified from both the WF6 and Si2H6 reactions. H2, HF and SiF4 mass products were observed for the WF6 reaction. The Si2H6 reaction displayed a room temperature reaction and a 200°C reaction. Products from the room temperature Si2H6 reaction were H2 and SiF3H. The reaction at 200°C yielded only H2 as a reaction product. H2 desorption from the surface contributes to the 200°C Si2H6 reaction. AES was used to confirm that the gas phase reaction products are correlated with a change in the surface species. Atomic hydrogen reduction of metal halides and oganometallic compounds provides another method for depositing metals with atomic layer control. The quantity of atomic hydrogen necessary to perform this chemistry is critical to the metal ALD process. A thermocouple probe was constructed to

  4. Toward atomically-precise synthesis of supported bimetallic nanoparticles using atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Lu, Junling; Low, Ke-Bin; Lei, Yu; Libera, Joseph A; Nicholls, Alan; Stair, Peter C; Elam, Jeffrey W

    2014-01-01

    Multi-metallic nanoparticles constitute a new class of materials offering the opportunity to tune the properties via the composition, atomic ordering and size. In particular, supported bimetallic nanoparticles have generated intense interest in catalysis and electrocatalysis. However, traditional synthesis methods often lack precise control, yielding a mixture of monometallic and bimetallic particles with various compositions. Here we report a general strategy for synthesizing supported bimetallic nanoparticles by atomic layer deposition, where monometallic nanoparticle formation is avoided by selectively growing the secondary metal on the primary metal nanoparticle but not on the support; meanwhile, the size, composition and structure of the bimetallic nanoparticles are precisely controlled by tailoring the precursor pulse sequence. Such exquisite control is clearly demonstrated through in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of CO chemisorption by mapping the gradual atomic-scale evolution in the surface composition, and further confirmed using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy.

  5. Results from Point Contact Tunnelling Spectroscopy and Atomic Layer Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Proslier, Th.; Zasadzinski, J.; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Kneisel, Peter K.; Elam, J. W.; Norem, J.; Pellin, M. J.

    2009-11-01

    We have shown previously that magnetic niobium oxides can influence the superconducting density of states at the surface of cavity-grade niobium coupons. We will present recent results obtained by Point Contact Tunneling spectroscopy (PCT) on coupons removed from hot and cold spots in a niobium cavity, as well as a comparative study of magnetic oxides on mild baked/unbaked electropolished coupons. We will also describe recent results obtained from coated cavities, ALD films properties and new materials using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD).

  6. Atomic Layer Deposition for Lithium-Based Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Lu; Nuwayhid, Ramsay B.; Wu, Tianpin; Lei, Yu; Amine, Khalil; Lu, Jun

    2016-09-05

    With the increasing demand for energy at a low cost and minimal environmental impact, the development of next-generation high-performance batteries has drawn considerable attention. Owing to the capability of forming conformal coatings of thin films and nanoparticles, atomic layer deposition (ALD) has shown great potential in deposition and surface modification of electrode materials with various nanostructures, deposition of solid-state electrolyte, and fabrication of electrochemical catalysts. This paper reviews the recent development and applications of ALD in Li-based batteries, especially beyond Li-ion systems, and provides suggestions for further development of ALD techniques for these batteries.

  7. One-atom-layer compounds on silicon and germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruznev, Dimitry V.; Zotov, Andrey V.; Saranin, Alexander A.

    2017-08-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) compounds having one-atomic-layer thickness represent a novel class of low-dimensional materials with potentially advanced properties. In the present progress review, we overview the recent results on the 2D compounds of metallic adsorbates on Si(111) and Ge(111) surfaces. The main attention is focused on their contribution to the very modern subjects of the surface science, namely surface Rashba effect and surface superconductivity. The possible prospects of studying 2D compounds are briefly discussed.

  8. Atomic Layer Deposition of L-Alanine Polypeptide

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Yaqin; Li, Binsong; Jiang, Ying-Bing; Dunphy, Darren R.; Tsai, Andy; Tam, Siu-Yue; Fan, Hongyou Y.; Zhang, Hongxia; Rogers, David; Rempe, Susan; Atanassov, Plamen; Cecchi, Joseph L.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2014-10-30

    L-Alanine polypeptide thin films were synthesized via atomic layer deposition (ALD). Rather, instead of using an amino acid monomer as the precursor, an L-alanine amino acid derivatized with a protecting group was used to prevent self-polymerization, increase the vapor pressure, and allow linear cycle-by-cycle growth emblematic of ALD. Moreover, the successful deposition of a conformal polypeptide film has been confirmed by FTIR, TEM, and Mass Spectrometry, and the ALD process has been extended to polyvaline.

  9. Electrochemical Reaction in Single Layer MoS2: Nanopores Opened Atom by Atom.

    PubMed

    Feng, J; Liu, K; Graf, M; Lihter, M; Bulushev, R D; Dumcenco, D; Alexander, D T L; Krasnozhon, D; Vuletic, T; Kis, A; Radenovic, A

    2015-05-13

    Ultrathin nanopore membranes based on 2D materials have demonstrated ultimate resolution toward DNA sequencing. Among them, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) shows long-term stability as well as superior sensitivity enabling high throughput performance. The traditional method of fabricating nanopores with nanometer precision is based on the use of focused electron beams in transmission electron microscope (TEM). This nanopore fabrication process is time-consuming, expensive, not scalable, and hard to control below 1 nm. Here, we exploited the electrochemical activity of MoS2 and developed a convenient and scalable method to controllably make nanopores in single-layer MoS2 with subnanometer precision using electrochemical reaction (ECR). The electrochemical reaction on the surface of single-layer MoS2 is initiated at the location of defects or single atom vacancy, followed by the successive removals of individual atoms or unit cells from single-layer MoS2 lattice and finally formation of a nanopore. Step-like features in the ionic current through the growing nanopore provide direct feedback on the nanopore size inferred from a widely used conductance vs pore size model. Furthermore, DNA translocations can be detected in situ when as-fabricated MoS2 nanopores are used. The atomic resolution and accessibility of this approach paves the way for mass production of nanopores in 2D membranes for potential solid-state nanopore sequencing.

  10. Blistering during the atomic layer deposition of iridium

    SciTech Connect

    Genevée, Pascal E-mail: a.szeghalmi@uni-jena.de; Ahiavi, Ernest; Janunts, Norik; Pertsch, Thomas; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Szeghalmi, Adriana E-mail: a.szeghalmi@uni-jena.de; Oliva, Maria

    2016-01-15

    The authors report on the formation of blisters during the atomic layer deposition of iridium using iridium acetylacetonate and oxygen precursors. Films deposited on fused silica substrates led to sparsely distributed large blisters while in the case of silicon with native oxide additional small blisters with a high density was observed. It is found that the formation of blisters is favored by a higher deposition temperature and a larger layer thickness. Postdeposition annealing did not have a significant effect on the formation of blisters. Finally, changing purge duration during the film growth allowed us to avoid blistering and evidenced that impurities released from the film in gas phase were responsible for the formation of blisters.

  11. Disentangling atomic-layer-specific x-ray absorption spectra by Auger electron diffraction spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Fumihiko; Matsushita, Tomohiro; Kato, Yukako; Hashimoto, Mie; Daimon, Hiroshi

    2009-11-01

    In order to investigate the electronic and magnetic structures of each atomic layer at subsurface, we have proposed a new method, Auger electron diffraction spectroscopy, which is the combination of x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and Auger electron diffraction (AED) techniques. We have measured a series of Ni LMM AED patterns of the Ni film grown on Cu(001) surface for various thicknesses. Then we deduced a set of atomic-layer-specific AED patterns in a numerical way. Furthermore, we developed an algorithm to disentangle XANES spectra from different atomic layers using these atomic-layer-specific AED patterns. Surface and subsurface core level shift were determined for each atomic layer.

  12. Ultraclean and large-area monolayer hexagonal boron nitride on Cu foil using chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Yao; Shang, Xunzhong; Dong, Ji; Xu, Kai; He, Jun; Jiang, Chao

    2015-07-01

    Atomically thin hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) has been demonstrated to be an excellent dielectric layer as well as an ideal van der Waals epitaxial substrate for fabrication of two-dimensional (2D) atomic layers and their vertical heterostructures. Although many groups have obtained large-scale monolayer h-BN through low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD), it is still a challenge to grow clean monolayers without the reduction of domain size. Here we report the synthesis of large-area (4 × 2 cm2) high quality monolayer h-BN with an ultraclean and unbroken surface on copper foil by using LPCVD. A detailed investigation of the key factors affecting growth and transfer of the monolayer was carried out in order to eliminate the adverse effects of impurity particles. Furthermore, an optimized transfer approach allowed the nondestructive and clean transfer of the monolayer from copper foil onto an arbitrary substrate, including a flexible substrate, under mild conditions. Atomic force microscopy indicated that the root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of the monolayer h-BN on SiO2 was less than 0.269 nm for areas with fewer wrinkles. Selective area electron diffraction analysis of the h-BN revealed a pattern of hexagonal diffraction spots, which unambiguously demonstrated its highly crystalline character. Our work paves the way toward the use of ultraclean and large-area monolayer h-BN as the dielectric layer in the fabrication of high performance electronic and optoelectronic devices for novel 2D atomic layer materials.

  13. Ultraclean and large-area monolayer hexagonal boron nitride on Cu foil using chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yao; Shang, Xunzhong; Dong, Ji; Xu, Kai; He, Jun; Jiang, Chao

    2015-07-10

    Atomically thin hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) has been demonstrated to be an excellent dielectric layer as well as an ideal van der Waals epitaxial substrate for fabrication of two-dimensional (2D) atomic layers and their vertical heterostructures. Although many groups have obtained large-scale monolayer h-BN through low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD), it is still a challenge to grow clean monolayers without the reduction of domain size. Here we report the synthesis of large-area (4 × 2 cm(2)) high quality monolayer h-BN with an ultraclean and unbroken surface on copper foil by using LPCVD. A detailed investigation of the key factors affecting growth and transfer of the monolayer was carried out in order to eliminate the adverse effects of impurity particles. Furthermore, an optimized transfer approach allowed the nondestructive and clean transfer of the monolayer from copper foil onto an arbitrary substrate, including a flexible substrate, under mild conditions. Atomic force microscopy indicated that the root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of the monolayer h-BN on SiO2 was less than 0.269 nm for areas with fewer wrinkles. Selective area electron diffraction analysis of the h-BN revealed a pattern of hexagonal diffraction spots, which unambiguously demonstrated its highly crystalline character. Our work paves the way toward the use of ultraclean and large-area monolayer h-BN as the dielectric layer in the fabrication of high performance electronic and optoelectronic devices for novel 2D atomic layer materials.

  14. Atomic layer deposition ultrathin film origami using focused ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supekar, O. D.; Brown, J. J.; Eigenfeld, N. T.; Gertsch, J. C.; Bright, V. M.

    2016-12-01

    Focused ion beam (FIB) micromachining is a powerful tool for maskless lithography and in recent years FIB has been explored as a tool for strain engineering. Ion beam induced deformation can be utilized as a means for folding freestanding thin films into complex 3D structures. FIB of high energy gallium (Ga+) ions induces stress by generation of dislocations and ion implantation within material layers, which create creases or folds upon mechanical relaxation enabled by motion of the material layers. One limitation on such processing is the ability to fabricate flat freestanding thin film structures. This capability is limited by the residual stresses formed during processing and fabrication of the films, which can result in initial curvature and deformation of films upon release from a sacrificial fabrication layer. This paper demonstrates folding in freestanding ultrathin films (<40 nm thin) of heterogeneous composition (metal, insulator, semiconductor, etc) with large lateral dimension structures (aspect ratio >1:1000) by ion-induced stress relaxation. The ultrathin flat structures are fabricated using atomic layer deposition on sacrificial polyimide. We have demonstrated vertical folding with 30 keV Ga+ ions in structures with lateral dimensions varying from 10 to 50 μm.

  15. Atomic layer deposition ultrathin film origami using focused ion beams.

    PubMed

    Supekar, O D; Brown, J J; Eigenfeld, N T; Gertsch, J C; Bright, V M

    2016-12-09

    Focused ion beam (FIB) micromachining is a powerful tool for maskless lithography and in recent years FIB has been explored as a tool for strain engineering. Ion beam induced deformation can be utilized as a means for folding freestanding thin films into complex 3D structures. FIB of high energy gallium (Ga(+)) ions induces stress by generation of dislocations and ion implantation within material layers, which create creases or folds upon mechanical relaxation enabled by motion of the material layers. One limitation on such processing is the ability to fabricate flat freestanding thin film structures. This capability is limited by the residual stresses formed during processing and fabrication of the films, which can result in initial curvature and deformation of films upon release from a sacrificial fabrication layer. This paper demonstrates folding in freestanding ultrathin films (<40 nm thin) of heterogeneous composition (metal, insulator, semiconductor, etc) with large lateral dimension structures (aspect ratio >1:1000) by ion-induced stress relaxation. The ultrathin flat structures are fabricated using atomic layer deposition on sacrificial polyimide. We have demonstrated vertical folding with 30 keV Ga(+) ions in structures with lateral dimensions varying from 10 to 50 μm.

  16. New buffer layers for GaN on sapphire by atomic layer and molecular stream epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Piner, E.L.; He, Y.W.; Boutros, K.S.; McIntosh, F.G.; Roberts, J.C.; Bedair, S.M.; El-Masry, N.A.

    1996-11-01

    The current approach of depositing a low temperature then annealed AlN or GaN buffer for the growth of GaN on sapphire results in a high dislocation density. These dislocations thread through the GaN layer to the surface. Reducing their density either by growing thicker films or using a strained layer superlattice is ineffective. Two new approaches for AlN/GaN buffer layer growth for GaN on sapphire have been employed: Atomic Layer Epitaxy (ALE) and molecular Stream Epitaxy (MSE). ALE is distinguished by organo-metallic/ammonia separation while MSE is distinguished by cyclic annealing of the growing film. Both ALE and MSE enhance two dimensional growth of single crystal GaN on sapphire. The structural quality of epitaxial GaN grown on these buffer layers was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The initial result for the ALE buffer shows an improved quality GaN film with lower defect densities. The MSE grown buffer layer closely resembles that of conventionally grown MOCVD buffer layers observed by others, with dislocations threading through the GaN epilayer. The effects of these buffer layers on the structural and optical properties of GaN grown on sapphire will be presented.

  17. Plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition of silicon nitride using neopentasilane

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, Stephen Nowling, Greg; Fuchigami, Nobi; Bowes, Michael; Littau, Karl

    2016-01-15

    Progress in transistor scaling has increased the demands on the material properties of silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}) thin films used in device fabrication and at the same time placed stringent restrictions on the deposition conditions employed. Recently, low temperature plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition has emerged as a viable technique for depositing these films with a thermal budget compatible with semiconductor processing at sub-32 nm technology nodes. For these depositions, it is desirable to use precursors that are free from carbon and halogens that can incorporate into the film. Beyond this, it is necessary to develop processing schemes that minimize the wet etch rate of the film as it will be subjected to wet chemical processing in subsequent fabrication steps. In this work, the authors introduce low temperature deposition of SiN{sub x} using neopentasilane [NPS, (SiH{sub 3}){sub 4}Si] in a plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition process with a direct N{sub 2} plasma. The growth with NPS is compared to a more common precursor, trisilylamine [TSA, (SiH{sub 3}){sub 3 }N] at identical process conditions. The wet etch rates of the films deposited with NPS are characterized at different plasma conditions and the impact of ion energy is discussed.

  18. Titanium dioxide thin films by atomic layer deposition: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemelä, Janne-Petteri; Marin, Giovanni; Karppinen, Maarit

    2017-09-01

    Within its rich phase diagram titanium dioxide is a truly multifunctional material with a property palette that has been shown to span from dielectric to transparent-conducting characteristics, in addition to the well-known catalytic properties. At the same time down-scaling of microelectronic devices has led to an explosive growth in research on atomic layer deposition (ALD) of a wide variety of frontier thin-film materials, among which TiO2 is one of the most popular ones. In this topical review we summarize the advances in research of ALD of titanium dioxide starting from the chemistries of the over 50 different deposition routes developed for TiO2 and the resultant structural characteristics of the films. We then continue with the doped ALD-TiO2 thin films from the perspective of dielectric, transparent-conductor and photocatalytic applications. Moreover, in order to cover the latest trends in the research field, both the variously constructed TiO2 nanostructures enabled by ALD and the Ti-based hybrid inorganic-organic films grown by the emerging ALD/MLD (combined atomic/molecular layer deposition) technique are discussed.

  19. Catalytically active single-atom niobium in graphitic layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuefeng; Guo, Junjie; Guan, Pengfei; Liu, Chunjing; Huang, Hao; Xue, Fanghong; Dong, Xinglong; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Chisholm, Matthew F.

    2013-05-01

    Carbides of groups IV through VI (Ti, V and Cr groups) have long been proposed as substitutes for noble metal-based electrocatalysts in polymer electrolyte fuel cells. However, their catalytic activity has been extremely limited because of the low density and stability of catalytically active sites. Here we report the excellent performance of a niobium-carbon structure for catalysing the cathodic oxygen reduction reaction. A large number of single niobium atoms and ultra small clusters trapped in graphitic layers are directly identified using state-of-the-art aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. This structure not only enhances the overall conductivity for accelerating the exchange of ions and electrons, but it suppresses the chemical/thermal coarsening of the active particles. Experimental results coupled with theory calculations reveal that the single niobium atoms incorporated within the graphitic layers produce a redistribution of d-band electrons and become surprisingly active for O2 adsorption and dissociation, and also exhibit high stability.

  20. Atomic layer deposition of thin superconducting films and multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proslier, Thomas; Klug, Jeffrey; Groll, Nikolas; Altin, Serdar; Becker, Nicholas

    2012-02-01

    We report the use of atomic layer deposition (ALD) to synthesize thin superconducting films and multilayer superconductor-insulator (S-I) heterostructures including: nitrides, carbides, and silicides, nitrides of molybdenum and titanium, and Nb1-xTixN/AlN-based S-I heterostructures. The atomic-scale thickness control afforded by ALD enables the study of superconductivity and associated phenomena in homogeneous layers in the ultra-thin film limit. Two-dimensional superconductivity in such films is of interest from a fundamental point of view, as a new effect has recently been discovered at ultra-low temperature in thin superconducting films made by ALD: the super-insulating transition. Furthermore, the ALD technique applied to superconducting films opens the way for a variety of applications, including improving the performance and decreasing the cost of high energy particle accelerators, superconducting wires for energy storage, and bolometers for radiation detection. In this respect, we will present results on the ALD growth processes, the metallurgy and superconducting properties of these coatings.

  1. Atomic layer deposition of GaN at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Ozgit, Cagla; Donmez, Inci; Alevli, Mustafa; Biyikli, Necmi

    2012-01-15

    The authors report on the self-limiting growth of GaN thin films at low temperatures. Films were deposited on Si substrates by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition using trimethylgallium (TMG) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) as the group-III and -V precursors, respectively. GaN deposition rate saturated at 185 deg. C for NH{sub 3} doses starting from 90 s. Atomic layer deposition temperature window was observed from 185 to {approx}385 deg. C. Deposition rate, which is constant at {approx}0.51 A/cycle within the temperature range of 250 - 350 deg. C, increased slightly as the temperature decreased to 185 deg. C. In the bulk film, concentrations of Ga, N, and O were constant at {approx}36.6, {approx}43.9, and {approx}19.5 at. %, respectively. C was detected only at the surface and no C impurities were found in the bulk film. High oxygen concentration in films was attributed to the oxygen impurities present in group-V precursor. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy studies revealed a microstructure consisting of small crystallites dispersed in an amorphous matrix.

  2. Atomic layer deposition of superparamagnetic and ferrimagnetic magnetite thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yijun; Liu, Ming E-mail: wren@mail.xjtu.edu.cn Ren, Wei E-mail: wren@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Zhang, Yuepeng; Chen, Xing; Ye, Zuo-Guang E-mail: wren@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

    2015-05-07

    One of the key challenges in realizing superparamagnetism in magnetic thin films lies in finding a low-energy growth way to create sufficiently small grains and magnetic domains which allow the magnetization to randomly and rapidly reverse. In this work, well-defined superparamagnetic and ferrimagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin films are successfully prepared using atomic layer deposition technique by finely controlling the growth condition and post-annealing process. As-grown Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin films exhibit a conformal surface and poly-crystalline nature with an average grain size of 7 nm, resulting in a superparamagnetic behavior with a blocking temperature of 210 K. After post-annealing in H{sub 2}/Ar at 400 °C, the as-grown α−Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} sample is reduced to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase, exhibiting a ferrimagnetic ordering and distinct magnetic shape anisotropy. Atomic layer deposition of magnetite thin films with well-controlled morphology and magnetic properties provides great opportunities for integrating with other order parameters to realize magnetic nano-devices with potential applications in spintronics, electronics, and bio-applications.

  3. Breakthrough to Non-Vacuum Deposition of Single-Crystal, Ultra-Thin, Homogeneous Nanoparticle Layers: A Better Alternative to Chemical Bath Deposition and Atomic Layer Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yu-Kuang; Liu, Yung-Tsung; Hsieh, Dan-Hua; Shen, Tien-Lin; Hsieh, Ming-Yang; Tzou, An-Jye; Chen, Shih-Chen; Tsai, Yu-Lin; Lin, Wei-Sheng; Chan, Sheng-Wen; Shen, Yen-Ping; Cheng, Shun-Jen; Chen, Chyong-Hua; Wu, Kaung-Hsiung; Chen, Hao-Ming; Kuo, Shou-Yi; Charlton, Martin D. B.; Hsieh, Tung-Po; Kuo, Hao-Chung

    2017-01-01

    Most thin-film techniques require a multiple vacuum process, and cannot produce high-coverage continuous thin films with the thickness of a few nanometers on rough surfaces. We present a new ”paradigm shift” non-vacuum process to deposit high-quality, ultra-thin, single-crystal layers of coalesced sulfide nanoparticles (NPs) with controllable thickness down to a few nanometers, based on thermal decomposition. This provides high-coverage, homogeneous thickness, and large-area deposition over a rough surface, with little material loss or liquid chemical waste, and deposition rates of 10 nm/min. This technique can potentially replace conventional thin-film deposition methods, such as atomic layer deposition (ALD) and chemical bath deposition (CBD) as used by the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin-film solar cell industry for decades. We demonstrate 32% improvement of CIGS thin-film solar cell efficiency in comparison to reference devices prepared by conventional CBD deposition method by depositing the ZnS NPs buffer layer using the new process. The new ZnS NPs layer allows reduction of an intrinsic ZnO layer, which can lead to severe shunt leakage in case of a CBD buffer layer. This leads to a 65% relative efficiency increase. PMID:28383488

  4. Breakthrough to Non-Vacuum Deposition of Single-Crystal, Ultra-Thin, Homogeneous Nanoparticle Layers: A Better Alternative to Chemical Bath Deposition and Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yu-Kuang; Liu, Yung-Tsung; Hsieh, Dan-Hua; Shen, Tien-Lin; Hsieh, Ming-Yang; Tzou, An-Jye; Chen, Shih-Chen; Tsai, Yu-Lin; Lin, Wei-Sheng; Chan, Sheng-Wen; Shen, Yen-Ping; Cheng, Shun-Jen; Chen, Chyong-Hua; Wu, Kaung-Hsiung; Chen, Hao-Ming; Kuo, Shou-Yi; Charlton, Martin D B; Hsieh, Tung-Po; Kuo, Hao-Chung

    2017-04-06

    Most thin-film techniques require a multiple vacuum process, and cannot produce high-coverage continuous thin films with the thickness of a few nanometers on rough surfaces. We present a new "paradigm shift" non-vacuum process to deposit high-quality, ultra-thin, single-crystal layers of coalesced sulfide nanoparticles (NPs) with controllable thickness down to a few nanometers, based on thermal decomposition. This provides high-coverage, homogeneous thickness, and large-area deposition over a rough surface, with little material loss or liquid chemical waste, and deposition rates of 10 nm/min. This technique can potentially replace conventional thin-film deposition methods, such as atomic layer deposition (ALD) and chemical bath deposition (CBD) as used by the Cu(In,Ga)Se₂ (CIGS) thin-film solar cell industry for decades. We demonstrate 32% improvement of CIGS thin-film solar cell efficiency in comparison to reference devices prepared by conventional CBD deposition method by depositing the ZnS NPs buffer layer using the new process. The new ZnS NPs layer allows reduction of an intrinsic ZnO layer, which can lead to severe shunt leakage in case of a CBD buffer layer. This leads to a 65% relative efficiency increase.

  5. Engineering titanium and aluminum oxide composites using atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biluš Abaffy, N.; McCulloch, D. G.; Partridge, J. G.; Evans, P. J.; Triani, G.

    2011-12-01

    Mixed metal oxides provide a convenient means to produce coatings with tailored physical properties. We investigate the possibility of synthesizing novel coatings of mixed titanium and aluminum oxide using atomic layer deposition (ALD). Results show that ALD films were prepared with compositions ranging between Al2O3 and TiO2 having refractive indices between 1.6 and 2.4 (at λ = 550 nm) at low temperature. The microstructure and bonding environment within the films was investigated using electron microscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The films were amorphous, and the Ti and Al atoms were mixed at the atomic scale. The electrical breakdown characteristics of the films were measured and showed that films with intermediate compositions had poor leakage current properties, believed to be caused by the presence of distorted bonding configurations. This study shows that ALD can be used to deposit high quality thin films with tailored optical properties, particularly suitable for applications in which complex topographies are required.

  6. Large area perovskite solar cell module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Longhua; Liang, Lusheng; Wu, Jifeng; Ding, Bin; Gao, Lili; Fan, Bin

    2017-01-01

    The recent dramatic rise in power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of perovskite solar cells has triggered intense research worldwide. However, their practical development is hampered by poor stability and low PCE values with large areas devices. Here, we developed a gas-pumping method to avoid pinholes and eliminate local structural defects over large areas of perovskite film, even for 5 × 5 cm2 modules, the PCE reached 10.6% and no significant degradation was found after 140 days of outdoor testing. Our approach enables the realization of high performance large-area PSCs for practical application.

  7. Damaged silicon contact layer removal using atomic layer etching for deep-nanoscale semiconductor devices

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jong Kyu; Cho, Sung Il; Lee, Sung Ho; Kim, Chan Kyu; Min, Kyung Suk; Kang, Seung Hyun; Yeom, Geun Young

    2013-11-15

    Silicon atomic layer etching (ALET) using Cl{sub 2} is applied to remove the damaged layer on a 30 nm contact silicon surface formed by high-energy reactive ions during high aspect ratio contact etching, and its effects on the damage removal characteristics are investigated. Compared to a conventional damage removal method, such as the low-power CF{sub 4} plasma treatment technique, ALET produces less secondary damage to the substrate and gives exact etch depth control and extremely high etch selectivity to the contact SiO{sub 2} insulating pattern mold. When ALET is applied after a conventional damage removal technique, the sheet resistance of the damaged contact silicon surface is improved to a level close to that of a clean silicon surface, while exact atomic-scale depth control is maintained without changes in the pattern mold profile.

  8. Epitaxial growth of large-area bilayer graphene on Ru(0001)

    SciTech Connect

    Que, Yande; Xiao, Wende E-mail: hjgao@iphy.ac.cn; Fei, Xiangmin; Chen, Hui; Du, S. X.; Gao, H.-J. E-mail: hjgao@iphy.ac.cn; Huang, Li

    2014-03-03

    Large-area bilayer graphene (BG) is grown epitaxially on Ru(0001) surface and characterized by low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy. The lattice of the bottom layer of BG is stretched by 1.2%, while strain is absent from the top layer. The lattice mismatch between the two layers leads to the formation of a moiré pattern with a periodicity of ∼21.5 nm and a mixture of AA- and AB-stacking. The √3 × √3 superstructure around atomic defects is attributed to the inter-valley scattering of the delocalized π-electrons, demonstrating that the as-grown BG behaves like intrinsic free-standing graphene.

  9. Atomic layer confined vacancies for atomic-level insights into carbon dioxide electroreduction

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shan; Sun, Zhongti; Liu, Wei; Jiao, Xingchen; Zu, Xiaolong; Hu, Qitao; Sun, Yongfu; Yao, Tao; Zhang, Wenhua; Wei, Shiqiang; Xie, Yi

    2017-01-01

    The role of oxygen vacancies in carbon dioxide electroreduction remains somewhat unclear. Here we construct a model of oxygen vacancies confined in atomic layer, taking the synthetic oxygen-deficient cobalt oxide single-unit-cell layers as an example. Density functional theory calculations demonstrate the main defect is the oxygen(II) vacancy, while X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy reveals their distinct oxygen vacancy concentrations. Proton transfer is theoretically/experimentally demonstrated to be a rate-limiting step, while energy calculations unveil that the presence of oxygen(II) vacancies lower the rate-limiting activation barrier from 0.51 to 0.40 eV via stabilizing the formate anion radical intermediate, confirmed by the lowered onset potential from 0.81 to 0.78 V and decreased Tafel slope from 48 to 37 mV dec−1. Hence, vacancy-rich cobalt oxide single-unit-cell layers exhibit current densities of 2.7 mA cm−2 with ca. 85% formate selectivity during 40-h tests. This work establishes a clear atomic-level correlation between oxygen vacancies and carbon dioxide electroreduction. PMID:28220847

  10. Atomic layer confined vacancies for atomic-level insights into carbon dioxide electroreduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shan; Sun, Zhongti; Liu, Wei; Jiao, Xingchen; Zu, Xiaolong; Hu, Qitao; Sun, Yongfu; Yao, Tao; Zhang, Wenhua; Wei, Shiqiang; Xie, Yi

    2017-02-01

    The role of oxygen vacancies in carbon dioxide electroreduction remains somewhat unclear. Here we construct a model of oxygen vacancies confined in atomic layer, taking the synthetic oxygen-deficient cobalt oxide single-unit-cell layers as an example. Density functional theory calculations demonstrate the main defect is the oxygen(II) vacancy, while X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy reveals their distinct oxygen vacancy concentrations. Proton transfer is theoretically/experimentally demonstrated to be a rate-limiting step, while energy calculations unveil that the presence of oxygen(II) vacancies lower the rate-limiting activation barrier from 0.51 to 0.40 eV via stabilizing the formate anion radical intermediate, confirmed by the lowered onset potential from 0.81 to 0.78 V and decreased Tafel slope from 48 to 37 mV dec-1. Hence, vacancy-rich cobalt oxide single-unit-cell layers exhibit current densities of 2.7 mA cm-2 with ca. 85% formate selectivity during 40-h tests. This work establishes a clear atomic-level correlation between oxygen vacancies and carbon dioxide electroreduction.

  11. In Situ Infrared Spectroscopic Studies of Molecular Layer Deposition and Atomic Layer Etching Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DuMont, Jaime Willadean

    In this thesis, in situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to study: i) the growth and pyrolysis of molecular layer deposition (MLD) films. ii) the surface chemistry of atomic layer etching (ALE) processes. Atomic layer processes such as molecular layer deposition (MLD) and atomic layer etching (ALE) are techniques that can add or remove material with atomic level precision using sequential, self-limiting surface reactions. Deposition and removal processes at the atomic scale are powerful tools for many industrial and research applications such as energy storage and semiconductor nanofabrication. The first section of this thesis describes the chemistry of reactions leading to the MLD of aluminum and tin alkoxide polymer films known as "alucone" and "tincone", respectively. The subsequent pyrolysis of these films to produce metal oxide/carbon composites was also investigated. In situ FTIR spectroscopy was conducted to monitor surface species during MLD film growth and to monitor the films background infrared absorbance versus pyrolysis temperature. Ex situ techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), four-point probe and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were utilized to study the properties of the films post-pyrolysis. TEM confirmed that the pyrolyzed films maintained conformality during post-processing. Four-point probe monitored film resistivity versus pyrolysis temperature and XRD determined the film crystallinity. The second section of this thesis focuses on the surface chemistry of Al2O3 and SiO2 ALE processes, respectively. Thermal ALE processes have been recently developed which utilize sequential fluorination and ligand exchange reactions. An intimate knowledge of the surface chemistry is important in understanding the ALE process. In this section, the competition between the Al2O3 etching and AlF 3 growth that occur during sequential HF (fluorinating agent) and TMA (ligand exchange) exposures is investigated using in situ FTIR

  12. Damage evaluation in graphene underlying atomic layer deposition dielectrics

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaohui; Reckinger, Nicolas; Poncelet, Olivier; Louette, Pierre; Ureña, Ferran; Idrissi, Hosni; Turner, Stuart; Cabosart, Damien; Colomer, Jean-François; Raskin, Jean-Pierre; Hackens, Benoit; Francis, Laurent A.

    2015-01-01

    Based on micro-Raman spectroscopy (μRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), we study the structural damage incurred in monolayer (1L) and few-layer (FL) graphene subjected to atomic-layer deposition of HfO2 and Al2O3 upon different oxygen plasma power levels. We evaluate the damage level and the influence of the HfO2 thickness on graphene. The results indicate that in the case of Al2O3/graphene, whether 1L or FL graphene is strongly damaged under our process conditions. For the case of HfO2/graphene, μRS analysis clearly shows that FL graphene is less disordered than 1L graphene. In addition, the damage levels in FL graphene decrease with the number of layers. Moreover, the FL graphene damage is inversely proportional to the thickness of HfO2 film. Particularly, the bottom layer of twisted bilayer (t-2L) has the salient features of 1L graphene. Therefore, FL graphene allows for controlling/limiting the degree of defect during the PE-ALD HfO2 of dielectrics and could be a good starting material for building field effect transistors, sensors, touch screens and solar cells. Besides, the formation of Hf-C bonds may favor growing high-quality and uniform-coverage dielectric. HfO2 could be a suitable high-K gate dielectric with a scaling capability down to sub-5-nm for graphene-based transistors. PMID:26311131

  13. Damage evaluation in graphene underlying atomic layer deposition dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiaohui; Reckinger, Nicolas; Poncelet, Olivier; Louette, Pierre; Ureña, Ferran; Idrissi, Hosni; Turner, Stuart; Cabosart, Damien; Colomer, Jean-François; Raskin, Jean-Pierre; Hackens, Benoit; Francis, Laurent A.

    2015-08-01

    Based on micro-Raman spectroscopy (μRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), we study the structural damage incurred in monolayer (1L) and few-layer (FL) graphene subjected to atomic-layer deposition of HfO2 and Al2O3 upon different oxygen plasma power levels. We evaluate the damage level and the influence of the HfO2 thickness on graphene. The results indicate that in the case of Al2O3/graphene, whether 1L or FL graphene is strongly damaged under our process conditions. For the case of HfO2/graphene, μRS analysis clearly shows that FL graphene is less disordered than 1L graphene. In addition, the damage levels in FL graphene decrease with the number of layers. Moreover, the FL graphene damage is inversely proportional to the thickness of HfO2 film. Particularly, the bottom layer of twisted bilayer (t-2L) has the salient features of 1L graphene. Therefore, FL graphene allows for controlling/limiting the degree of defect during the PE-ALD HfO2 of dielectrics and could be a good starting material for building field effect transistors, sensors, touch screens and solar cells. Besides, the formation of Hf-C bonds may favor growing high-quality and uniform-coverage dielectric. HfO2 could be a suitable high-K gate dielectric with a scaling capability down to sub-5-nm for graphene-based transistors.

  14. Damage evaluation in graphene underlying atomic layer deposition dielectrics.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaohui; Reckinger, Nicolas; Poncelet, Olivier; Louette, Pierre; Ureña, Ferran; Idrissi, Hosni; Turner, Stuart; Cabosart, Damien; Colomer, Jean-François; Raskin, Jean-Pierre; Hackens, Benoit; Francis, Laurent A

    2015-08-27

    Based on micro-Raman spectroscopy (μRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), we study the structural damage incurred in monolayer (1L) and few-layer (FL) graphene subjected to atomic-layer deposition of HfO2 and Al2O3 upon different oxygen plasma power levels. We evaluate the damage level and the influence of the HfO2 thickness on graphene. The results indicate that in the case of Al2O3/graphene, whether 1L or FL graphene is strongly damaged under our process conditions. For the case of HfO2/graphene, μRS analysis clearly shows that FL graphene is less disordered than 1L graphene. In addition, the damage levels in FL graphene decrease with the number of layers. Moreover, the FL graphene damage is inversely proportional to the thickness of HfO2 film. Particularly, the bottom layer of twisted bilayer (t-2L) has the salient features of 1L graphene. Therefore, FL graphene allows for controlling/limiting the degree of defect during the PE-ALD HfO2 of dielectrics and could be a good starting material for building field effect transistors, sensors, touch screens and solar cells. Besides, the formation of Hf-C bonds may favor growing high-quality and uniform-coverage dielectric. HfO2 could be a suitable high-K gate dielectric with a scaling capability down to sub-5-nm for graphene-based transistors.

  15. In situ catalytic growth of large-area multilayered graphene/MoS2 heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Wei; Du, Fei-Hu; Su, Juan; Li, Xin-Hao; Wei, Xiao; Ye, Tian-Nan; Wang, Kai-Xue; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2014-04-01

    Stacking various two-dimensional atomic crystals on top of each other is a feasible approach to create unique multilayered heterostructures with desired properties. Herein for the first time, we present a controlled preparation of large-area graphene/MoS2 heterostructures via a simple heating procedure on Mo-oleate complex coated sodium sulfate under N2 atmosphere. Through a direct in situ catalytic reaction, graphene layer has been uniformly grown on the MoS2 film formed by the reaction of Mo species with S pecies, which is from the carbothermal reduction of sodium sulfate. Due to the excellent graphene ``painting'' on MoS2 atomic layers, the significantly shortened lithium ion diffusion distance and the markedly enhanced electronic conductivity, these multilayered graphene/MoS2 heterostructures exhibit high specific capacity, unprecedented rate performance and outstanding cycling stability, especially at a high current density, when used as an anode material for lithium batteries. This work provides a simple but efficient route for the controlled fabrication of large-area multilayered graphene/metal sulfide heterostructures with promising applications in battery manufacture, electronics or catalysis.

  16. Atomic layer deposition for nanofabrication and interface engineering.

    PubMed

    Liu, Monan; Li, Xianglin; Karuturi, Siva Krishna; Tok, Alfred Iing Yoong; Fan, Hong Jin

    2012-03-07

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) provides a tool for conformal coating on high aspect-ratio nanostructures with excellent uniformity. It has become a technique for both template-directed nanofabrications and engineering of surface properties. This Feature Article highlights the application of ALD in selected fields including photonics, SERS and energy materials. Specifically, the topics include fabrication of plasmonic nanostructures for the SERS applications, fabrication of 3-D nanoarchitectured photoanodes for solar energy conversions (dye-sensitized solar cells and photoelectrochemical cells), and coating of electrodes to enhance the cyclic stability and thus device life span of batteries. Dielectric coating for tailoring optical properties of semiconductor nanostructures is also discussed as exemplified by ZnO nanowires. Future direction of ALD in these applications is discussed at the end.

  17. Electrocatalysts by atomic layer deposition for fuel cell applications

    DOE PAGES

    Cheng, Niancai; Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Jun; ...

    2016-01-22

    Here, fuel cells are a promising technology solution for reliable and clean energy because they offer high energy conversion efficiency and low emission of pollutants. However, high cost and insufficient durability are considerable challenges for widespread adoption of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) in practical applications. Current PEMFCs catalysts have been identified as major contributors to both the high cost and limited durability. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is emerging as a powerful technique for solving these problems due to its exclusive advantages over other methods. In this review, we summarize recent developments of ALD in PEMFCs with a focusmore » on design of materials for improved catalyst activity and durability. New research directions and future trends have also been discussed.« less

  18. Electrocatalysts by atomic layer deposition for fuel cell applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Niancai; Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Jun; Sun, Xueliang

    2016-01-22

    Here, fuel cells are a promising technology solution for reliable and clean energy because they offer high energy conversion efficiency and low emission of pollutants. However, high cost and insufficient durability are considerable challenges for widespread adoption of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) in practical applications. Current PEMFCs catalysts have been identified as major contributors to both the high cost and limited durability. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is emerging as a powerful technique for solving these problems due to its exclusive advantages over other methods. In this review, we summarize recent developments of ALD in PEMFCs with a focus on design of materials for improved catalyst activity and durability. New research directions and future trends have also been discussed.

  19. Highly reflective polymeric substrates functionalized utilizing atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Zuzuarregui, Ana Gregorczyk, Keith E.; Coto, Borja; Ruiz de Gopegui, Unai; Barriga, Javier; Rodríguez, Jorge; Knez, Mato

    2015-08-10

    Reflective surfaces are one of the key elements of solar plants to concentrate energy in the receivers of solar thermal electricity plants. Polymeric substrates are being considered as an alternative to the widely used glass mirrors due to their intrinsic and processing advantages, but optimizing both the reflectance and the physical stability of polymeric mirrors still poses technological difficulties. In this work, polymeric surfaces have been functionalized with ceramic thin-films by atomic layer deposition. The characterization and optimization of the parameters involved in the process resulted in surfaces with a reflection index of 97%, turning polymers into a real alternative to glass substrates. The solution we present here can be easily applied in further technological areas where seemingly incompatible combinations of polymeric substrates and ceramic coatings occur.

  20. Ferromagnetic nanotubes by atomic layer deposition in anodic alumina membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daub, M.; Knez, M.; Goesele, U.; Nielsch, K.

    2007-05-01

    In this paper, two methods for the synthesis of magnetic nanotubes inside the pores of anodic alumina membranes by atomic layer deposition (ALD) are compared. The precursors were nickelocene or cobaltocene, and H2O or O3. The first method consists of a three-step ALD cycle: First, the sample is exposed to the metal-organic precursor, subsequently to water, and finally, to hydrogen. In the second method, metal oxide is deposited by a conventional two-step ALD cycle. After the ALD process, the sample is reduced under hydrogen atmosphere. The magnetic nanotubes obtained by the second method have a smaller grain size and improved magnetic properties. The magnetic nanotubes with diameters ranging from 35to60nm exhibit a preferential magnetization direction along the nanowire axis. The Ni or Co nanotubes with larger diameters (around 160nm) show a nearly isotropic magnetic behavior, with the magnetic moments arranged in a vortex state at zero field.

  1. Atomic layer deposition of ZnO: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tynell, Tommi; Karppinen, Maarit

    2014-04-01

    Due to the unique set of properties possessed by ZnO, thin films of ZnO have received more and more interest in the last 20 years as a potential material for applications such as thin-film transistors, light-emitting diodes and gas sensors. At the same time, the increasingly stringent requirements of the microelectronics industry, among other factors, have led to a dramatic increase in the use of atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique in various thin-film applications. During this time, the research on ALD-grown ZnO thin films has developed from relatively simple deposition studies to the fabrication of increasingly intricate nanostructures and an understanding of the factors affecting the fundamental properties of the films. In this review, we give an overview of the current state of ZnO ALD research including the applications that are being considered for ZnO thin films.

  2. Oxygen-free atomic layer deposition of indium sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Martinson, Alex B.; Hock, Adam S.; McCarthy, Robert; Weimer, Matthew S.

    2016-07-05

    A method for synthesizing an In(III) N,N'-diisopropylacetamidinate precursor including cooling a mixture comprised of diisopropylcarbodiimide and diethyl ether to approximately -30.degree. C., adding methyllithium drop-wise into the mixture, allowing the mixture to warm to room temperature, adding indium(III) chloride as a solid to the mixture to produce a white solid, dissolving the white solid in pentane to form a clear and colorless solution, filtering the mixture over a celite plug, and evaporating the solution under reduced pressure to obtain a solid In(III) N,N'-diisopropylacetamidinate precursor. This precursor has been further used to develop a novel atomic layer deposition technique for indium sulfide by dosing a reactor with the precursor, purging with nitrogen, dosing with dilute hydrogen sulfide, purging again with nitrogen, and repeating these steps to increase growth.

  3. Epitaxial Atomic Layer Deposition of Sn-Doped Indium Oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, Jonathan D.; Schlepütz, Christian M.; Guo, Peijun; Chang, Robert P. H.; Martinson, Alex B. F.

    2016-02-03

    Coherently strained, epitaxial Sn-doped In2O3 (ITO) thin films were fabricated at temperatures as low as 250 degrees C using atomic layer deposition (ALD) on (001)-, (011)-, and (111)-oriented single-crystal Y-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) substrates. Resultant films possess cube-on-cube epitaxial relationships with the underlying YSZ substrates and are smooth, highly conductive, and optically transparent. This epitaxial ALD approach is favorable compared to many conventional growth techniques as it is a large-scale synthesis method that does not necessitate the use of high temperatures or ultrahigh vacuum. These films may prove valuable as a conductive growth template in areas where high-quality crystalline thin film substrates are important, such as solar energy materials, light-emitting diodes, or wide bandgap semiconductors. Furthermore, we discuss the applicability of this ALD system as an excellent model system for the study of ALD surface chemistry, nucleation, and film growth.

  4. Improvement of oxidation resistance of copper by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, M. L.; Cheng, T. C.; Lin, M. C.; Lin, H. C.; Chen, M. J.

    2012-10-01

    Al2O3 films were deposited by the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique onto pure copper at temperatures in the range 100-200 °C. The chemical composition, microstructure, and mechanic properties of the ALD-deposited Al2O3 films were systematically analyzed. The variations in the film characteristics with substrate temperature were observed. Oxidation trials revealed that 20-nm-thick Al2O3 films deposited at a substrate temperature as low as 100 °C suppress oxidative attack on pure copper. The Al2O3 films also showed excellent durability of adhesion strength, according to predictions using the Coffin-Manson model based on the results of accelerated temperature cycling tests. These features indicate that ALD-deposited Al2O3 film is a very promising candidate to be a protective coating for pure copper.

  5. Highly reflective polymeric substrates functionalized utilizing atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuzuarregui, Ana; Coto, Borja; Rodríguez, Jorge; Gregorczyk, Keith E.; Ruiz de Gopegui, Unai; Barriga, Javier; Knez, Mato

    2015-08-01

    Reflective surfaces are one of the key elements of solar plants to concentrate energy in the receivers of solar thermal electricity plants. Polymeric substrates are being considered as an alternative to the widely used glass mirrors due to their intrinsic and processing advantages, but optimizing both the reflectance and the physical stability of polymeric mirrors still poses technological difficulties. In this work, polymeric surfaces have been functionalized with ceramic thin-films by atomic layer deposition. The characterization and optimization of the parameters involved in the process resulted in surfaces with a reflection index of 97%, turning polymers into a real alternative to glass substrates. The solution we present here can be easily applied in further technological areas where seemingly incompatible combinations of polymeric substrates and ceramic coatings occur.

  6. Ab initio determination of kinetics for atomic layer deposition modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remmers, Elizabeth M.

    A first principles model is developed to describe the kinetics of atomic layer deposition (ALD) systems. This model requires no fitting parameters, as it is based on the reaction pathways, structures, and energetics obtained from quantum-chemical studies. Using transition state theory and partition functions from statistical mechanics, equilibrium constants and reaction rates can be calculated. Several tools were created in Python to aid in the calculation of these quantities, and this procedure was applied to two systems- zinc oxide deposition from diethyl zinc (DEZ) and water, and alumina deposition from trimethyl aluminum (TMA) and water. A Gauss-Jordan factorization is used to decompose the system dynamics, and the resulting systems of equations are solved numerically to obtain the temporal concentration profiles of these two deposition systems.

  7. Inhibiting Metal Oxide Atomic Layer Deposition: Beyond Zinc Oxide.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Matthew D; Emery, Jonathan D; Pellin, Michael J; Martinson, Alex B F

    2017-04-05

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of several metal oxides is selectivity inhibited on alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on Au, and the eventual nucleation mechanism is investigated. The inhibition ability of the SAM is significantly improved by the in situ H2-plasma pretreatment of the Au substrate prior to the gas-phase deposition of a long-chain alkanethiol, 1-dodecanethiol (DDT). This more rigorous surface preparation inhibits even aggressive oxide ALD precursors, including trimethylaluminum and water, for at least 20 cycles. We study the effect that the ALD precursor purge times, growth temperature, alkanethiol chain length, alkanethiol deposition time, and plasma treatment time have on Al2O3 ALD inhibition. This is the first example of Al2O3 ALD inhibition from a vapor-deposited SAM. The inhibitions of Al2O3, ZnO, and MnO ALD processes are compared, revealing the versatility of this selective surface treatment. Atomic force microscopy and grazing-incidence X-ray fluorescence further reveal insight into the mechanism by which the well-defined surface chemistry of ALD may eventually be circumvented to allow metal oxide nucleation and growth on SAM-modified surfaces.

  8. Probabilistic distributions of pinhole defects in atomic layer deposited films on polymeric substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Yersak, Alexander S. Lee, Yung-Cheng

    2016-01-15

    Pinhole defects in atomic layer deposition (ALD) coatings were measured in an area of 30 cm{sup 2} in an ALD reactor, and these defects were represented by a probabilistic cluster model instead of a single defect density value with number of defects over area. With the probabilistic cluster model, the pinhole defects were simulated over a manufacturing scale surface area of ∼1 m{sup 2}. Large-area pinhole defect simulations were used to develop an improved and enhanced design method for ALD-based devices. A flexible thermal ground plane (FTGP) device requiring ALD hermetic coatings was used as an example. Using a single defect density value, it was determined that for an application with operation temperatures higher than 60 °C, the FTGP device would not be possible. The new probabilistic cluster model shows that up to 40.3% of the FTGP would be acceptable. With this new approach the manufacturing yield of ALD-enabled or other thin film based devices with different design configurations can be determined. It is important to guide process optimization and control and design for manufacturability.

  9. Graphene devices with bottom-up contacts by area-selective atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thissen, Nick F. W.; Vervuurt, René H. J.; Mackus, Adriaan J. M.; Mulders, Johannes J. L.; Weber, Jan-Willem; Kessels, Wilhelmus M. M.; Bol, Ageeth A.

    2017-06-01

    Graphene field-effect transistor devices were fabricated using a bottom-up and resist-free method, avoiding common compatibility issues such as contamination by resist residues. Large-area CVD graphene sheets were structured into device channels by patterning with a focused ion beam. Platinum contacts were then deposited by direct-write atomic layer deposition (ALD), which is a combination between electron beam induced deposition (EBID) and bottom-up area-selective ALD. This is a unique approach that enables nucleation of Pt ALD on graphene, and therefore these devices are the first reported graphene devices with contacts deposited by ALD. Electrical characterization of the devices confirms ambipolar transistor behaviour with typical field-effect mobilities in the range of 1000-1800 cm2 V-1 s-1. We observe clear signs of strong Pt-graphene coupling and contact induced hole doping, implying good contact properties in contrast to the conventionally weak bonding between Pt and graphene. We attribute these observations to the reduced amount of resist residue under the contacts, the improved wettability of the Pt due to the use of ALD, and the formation of a graphitic interlayer that bonds the Pt more strongly to the graphene. We conclude that direct-write ALD is a very suitable technique for metallization of graphene devices and to study the intrinsic properties of metal-graphene contacts in more detail. In addition, it offers unique opportunities to control the metal-graphene coupling strength.

  10. Zintl layer formation during perovskite atomic layer deposition on Ge (001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shen; Lin, Edward L.; Hamze, Ali K.; Posadas, Agham; Wu, HsinWei; Smith, David J.; Demkov, Alexander A.; Ekerdt, John G.

    2017-02-01

    Using in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, reflection high-energy electron diffraction, and density functional theory, we analyzed the surface core level shifts and surface structure during the initial growth of ABO3 perovskites on Ge (001) by atomic layer deposition, where A = Ba, Sr and B = Ti, Hf, Zr. We find that the initial dosing of the barium- or strontium-bis(triisopropylcyclopentadienyl) precursors on a clean Ge surface produces a surface phase that has the same chemical and structural properties as the 0.5-monolayer Ba Zintl layer formed when depositing Ba by molecular beam epitaxy. Similar binding energy shifts are found for Ba, Sr, and Ge when using either chemical or elemental metal sources. The observed germanium surface core level shifts are consistent with the flattening of the initially tilted Ge surface dimers using both molecular and atomic metal sources. Similar binding energy shifts and changes in dimer tilting with alkaline earth metal adsorption are found with density functional theory calculations. High angle angular dark field scanning transmission microscopy images of BaTiO3, SrZrO3, SrHfO3, and SrHf0.55Ti0.45O3 reveal the location of the Ba (or Sr) atomic columns between the Ge dimers. The results imply that the organic ligands dissociate from the precursor after precursor adsorption on the Ge surface, producing the same Zintl template critical for perovskite growth on Group IV semiconductors during molecular beam epitaxy.

  11. Zintl layer formation during perovskite atomic layer deposition on Ge (001).

    PubMed

    Hu, Shen; Lin, Edward L; Hamze, Ali K; Posadas, Agham; Wu, HsinWei; Smith, David J; Demkov, Alexander A; Ekerdt, John G

    2017-02-07

    Using in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, reflection high-energy electron diffraction, and density functional theory, we analyzed the surface core level shifts and surface structure during the initial growth of ABO3 perovskites on Ge (001) by atomic layer deposition, where A = Ba, Sr and B = Ti, Hf, Zr. We find that the initial dosing of the barium- or strontium-bis(triisopropylcyclopentadienyl) precursors on a clean Ge surface produces a surface phase that has the same chemical and structural properties as the 0.5-monolayer Ba Zintl layer formed when depositing Ba by molecular beam epitaxy. Similar binding energy shifts are found for Ba, Sr, and Ge when using either chemical or elemental metal sources. The observed germanium surface core level shifts are consistent with the flattening of the initially tilted Ge surface dimers using both molecular and atomic metal sources. Similar binding energy shifts and changes in dimer tilting with alkaline earth metal adsorption are found with density functional theory calculations. High angle angular dark field scanning transmission microscopy images of BaTiO3, SrZrO3, SrHfO3, and SrHf0.55Ti0.45O3 reveal the location of the Ba (or Sr) atomic columns between the Ge dimers. The results imply that the organic ligands dissociate from the precursor after precursor adsorption on the Ge surface, producing the same Zintl template critical for perovskite growth on Group IV semiconductors during molecular beam epitaxy.

  12. Profile evolution for conformal atomic layer deposition over nanotopography.

    PubMed

    Cleveland, Erin R; Banerjee, Parag; Perez, Israel; Lee, Sang Bok; Rubloff, Gary W

    2010-08-24

    The self-limiting reactions which distinguish atomic layer deposition (ALD) provide ultrathin film deposition with superb conformality over the most challenging topography. This work addresses how the shapes (i.e., surface profiles) of nanostructures are modified by the conformality of ALD. As a nanostructure template, we employ a highly scalloped surface formed during the first anodization of the porous anodic alumina (PAA) process, followed by removal of the alumina to expose a scalloped Al surface. SEM and AFM reveal evolution of surface profiles that change with ALD layer thickness, influenced by the way ALD conformality decorates the underlying topography. The evolution of surface profiles is modeled using a simple geometric 3D extrusion model, which replicates the measured complex surface topography. Excellent agreement is obtained between experimental data and the results from this model, suggesting that for this ALD system conformality is very high even on highly structured, sharp features of the initial template surface. Through modeling and experimentation, the benefits of ALD to manipulate complex surface topographies are recognized and will play an important role in the design and nanofabrication of next generation devices with increasingly high aspect ratios as well as nanoscale features.

  13. Oxygen-Free Atomic Layer Deposition of Indium Sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, Robert F.; Weimer, Matthew S.; Emery, Jonathan D.; Hock, Adam S.; Martinson, Alex B. F.

    2014-08-13

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of indium sulfide (In2S3) films was achieved using a newly synthesized indium precursor and hydrogen sulfide. We obtain dense and adherent thin films free from halide and oxygen impurities. Self-limiting half-reactions are demonstrated at temperatures up to 200°C, where oriented crystalline thin films are obtained without further annealing. Low temperature growth of 0.89 Å/cycle is observed at 150°C while higher growth temperatures gradually reduce the per-cycle growth rate. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) together with depth-profiling Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) reveal a S/In ratio of 1.5 with no detectable carbon, nitrogen, halogen, or oxygen impurities. The resistivity of thin films prior to air exposure decreases with increasing deposition temperature, reaching <1 ohm-cm for films deposited at 225°C. Hall measurements reveal n-type conductivity due to free electron concentrations up to 1018 cm-3 and mobilities of order 1 cm2/(V*s). The digital synthesis of In2S3 via ALD at temperatures up to 225°C may allow high quality thin films to be leveraged in optoelectronic devices including photovoltaic absorbers, buffer layers, and intermediate band materials.

  14. Oxygen-free atomic layer deposition of indium sulfide.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Robert F; Weimer, Matthew S; Emery, Jonathan D; Hock, Adam S; Martinson, Alex B F

    2014-08-13

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of indium sulfide (In2S3) films was achieved using a newly synthesized indium precursor and hydrogen sulfide. We obtain dense and adherent thin films free from halide and oxygen impurities. Self-limiting half-reactions are demonstrated at temperatures up to 225 °C, where oriented crystalline thin films are obtained without further annealing. Low-temperature growth of 0.89 Å/cycle is observed at 150 °C, while higher growth temperatures gradually reduce the per-cycle growth rate. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) together with depth-profiling Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) reveal a S/In ratio of 1.5 with no detectable carbon, nitrogen, halogen, or oxygen impurities. The resistivity of thin films prior to air exposure decreases with increasing deposition temperature, reaching <1 Ω·cm for films deposited at 225 °C. Hall measurements reveal n-type conductivity due to free electron concentrations up to 10(18) cm(-3) and mobilities of order 1 cm(2)/(V·s). The digital synthesis of In2S3 via ALD at temperatures up to 225 °C may allow high quality thin films to be leveraged in optoelectronic devices including photovoltaic absorbers, buffer layers, and intermediate band materials.

  15. Atomic Layer Deposition of Bismuth Vanadates for Solar Energy Materials.

    PubMed

    Stefik, Morgan

    2016-07-07

    The fabrication of porous nanocomposites is key to the advancement of energy conversion and storage devices that interface with electrolytes. Bismuth vanadate, BiVO4 , is a promising oxide for solar water splitting where the controlled fabrication of BiVO4 layers within porous, conducting scaffolds has remained a challenge. Here, the atomic layer deposition of bismuth vanadates is reported from BiPh3 , vanadium(V) oxytriisopropoxide, and water. The resulting films have tunable stoichiometry and may be crystallized to form the photoactive scheelite structure of BiVO4 . A selective etching process was used with vanadium-rich depositions to enable the synthesis of phase-pure BiVO4 after spinodal decomposition. BiVO4 thin films were measured for photoelectrochemical performance under AM 1.5 illumination. The average photocurrents were 1.17 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode using a hole-scavenging sulfite electrolyte. The capability to deposit conformal bismuth vanadates will enable a new generation of nanocomposite architectures for solar water splitting.

  16. Very high frequency plasma reactant for atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Il-Kwon; Yoo, Gilsang; Yoon, Chang Mo; Kim, Tae Hyung; Yeom, Geun Young; Kim, Kangsik; Lee, Zonghoon; Jung, Hanearl; Lee, Chang Wan; Kim, Hyungjun; Lee, Han-Bo-Ram

    2016-11-01

    Although plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) results in several benefits in the formation of high-k dielectrics, including a low processing temperature and improved film properties compared to conventional thermal ALD, energetic radicals and ions in the plasma cause damage to layer stacks, leading to the deterioration of electrical properties. In this study, the growth characteristics and film properties of PE-ALD Al2O3 were investigated using a very-high-frequency (VHF) plasma reactant. Because VHF plasma features a lower electron temperature and higher plasma density than conventional radio frequency (RF) plasma, it has a larger number of less energetic reaction species, such as radicals and ions. VHF PE-ALD Al2O3 shows superior physical and electrical properties over RF PE-ALD Al2O3, including high growth per cycle, excellent conformality, low roughness, high dielectric constant, low leakage current, and low interface trap density. In addition, interlayer-free Al2O3 on Si was achieved in VHF PE-ALD via a significant reduction in plasma damage. VHF PE-ALD will be an essential process to realize nanoscale devices that require precise control of interfaces and electrical properties.

  17. Direct synthesis of large area graphene on insulating substrate by gallium vapor-assisted chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, Katsuhisa Hiyama, Takaki; Kuwajima, Tomoya; Fujita, Jun-ichi; Tanaka, Shunsuke; Hirukawa, Ayaka; Kano, Emi; Takeguchi, Masaki

    2015-03-02

    A single layer of graphene with dimensions of 20 mm × 20 mm was grown directly on an insulating substrate by chemical vapor deposition using Ga vapor catalysts. The graphene layer showed highly homogeneous crystal quality over a large area on the insulating substrate. The crystal quality of the graphene was measured by Raman spectroscopy and was found to improve with increasing Ga vapor density on the reaction area. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy observations showed that the synthesized graphene had a perfect atomic-scale crystal structure within its grains, which ranged in size from 50 nm to 200 nm.

  18. Method of Making Large Area Nanostructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marks, Alvin M.

    1995-01-01

    A method which enables the high speed formation of nanostructures on large area surfaces is described. The method uses a super sub-micron beam writer (Supersebter). The Supersebter uses a large area multi-electrode (Spindt type emitter source) to produce multiple electron beams simultaneously scanned to form a pattern on a surface in an electron beam writer. A 100,000 x 100,000 array of electron point sources, demagnified in a long electron beam writer to simultaneously produce 10 billion nano-patterns on a 1 meter squared surface by multi-electron beam impact on a 1 cm squared surface of an insulating material is proposed.

  19. Characteristics of Spontaneous Emission of Polarized Atoms in Metal Dielectric Multiple Layer Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Li-Ming; Gu, Ben-Yuan; Zhou, Yun-Song

    2007-11-01

    The spontaneous emission (SE) progress of polarized atoms in a stratified structure of air-dielectric(D0)-metal(M)-dielectric(D1)-air can be controlled effectively by changing the thickness of the D1 layer and rotating the polarized direction of atoms. It is found that the normalized SE rate of atoms located inside the D0 layer crucially depends on the atomic position and the thickness of the D1 layer. When the atom is located near the D0-M interface, the normalized atomic SE rate as a function of the atomic position is abruptly onset for the thin D1 layer. However, with the increasing thickness of the D1 layer, the corresponding curve profile exhibits plateau and stays nearly unchanged. The substantial change of the SE rate stems from the excitation of the surface plasmon polaritons in metal-dielectric interface, and the feature crucially depends on the thickness of D1 layer. If atoms are positioned near the D0-air interface, the substantial variation of the normalized SE rate appears when rotating the polarized direction of atoms. These findings manifest that the atomic SE processes can be flexibly controlled by altering the thickness of the dielectric layer D1 or rotating the orientation of the polarization of atoms.

  20. Large area high-speed metrology SPM system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapetek, P.; Valtr, M.; Picco, L.; Payton, O. D.; Martinek, J.; Yacoot, A.; Miles, M.

    2015-02-01

    We present a large area high-speed measuring system capable of rapidly generating nanometre resolution scanning probe microscopy data over mm2 regions. The system combines a slow moving but accurate large area XYZ scanner with a very fast but less accurate small area XY scanner. This arrangement enables very large areas to be scanned by stitching together the small, rapidly acquired, images from the fast XY scanner while simultaneously moving the slow XYZ scanner across the region of interest. In order to successfully merge the image sequences together two software approaches for calibrating the data from the fast scanner are described. The first utilizes the low uncertainty interferometric sensors of the XYZ scanner while the second implements a genetic algorithm with multiple parameter fitting during the data merging step of the image stitching process. The basic uncertainty components related to these high-speed measurements are also discussed. Both techniques are shown to successfully enable high-resolution, large area images to be generated at least an order of magnitude faster than with a conventional atomic force microscope.

  1. Influence of PEDOT:PSS on the effectiveness of barrier layers prepared by atomic layer deposition in organic light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Wegler, Barbara; Schmidt, Oliver; Hensel, Bernhard

    2015-01-15

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are well suited for energy saving lighting applications, especially when thinking about highly flexible and large area devices. In order to avoid the degradation of the organic components by water and oxygen, OLEDs need to be encapsulated, e.g., by a thin sheet of glass. As the device is then no longer flexible, alternative coatings are required. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a very promising approach in this respect. The authors studied OLEDs that were encapsulated by 100 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} deposited by ALD. The authors show that this coating effectively protects the active surface area of the OLEDs from humidity. However, secondary degradation processes still occur at sharp edges of the OLED stack where the extremely thin encapsulation layer does not provide perfect coverage. Particularly, the swelling of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) mixed with poly(styrenesulfonate), which is a popular choice for the planarization of the bottom electrode and at the same time acts as a hole injection layer, affects the effectiveness of the encapsulation layer.

  2. Nanoscale engineering materials by supercritical fluid and atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Qing

    With the development of material science and technology, modification of substrates, which have random geometry and high aspect ratio three dimensional (3D) complex structures, with desired functional, reactive and stable coatings becomes important and challenging. The ability to fabricate mono- or multi-layers of functional materials with precisely controlled dimensions, finely tuned composition and molecular structures, attracts significant interests in materials science and is the key to construct such devices and structures at nano- and micro-scale with desired properties. In this study, supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) has been studied as an alternative route for modifying substrates due to the unique gas-like (low viscosity, high diffusivity and zero surface tension) and liquid-like properties (high density). (1) The reaction kinetics of metal oxides thin film deposition from pyrolysis of metal organics in scCO2 was studied in detail. This method was demonstrated as a powerful technique to coat oxides, including Al2O3, Ga2O3 and others, into 3D high aspect ratio complex structure of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) forest. (2) The low temperature scCO 2 based hydrogenolysis process was developed as a useful way to functionalize aligned CNTs forest with dense Nickel nanoparticles. On the second part of this work, atomic layer deposition (ALD)/molecular layer deposition (MLD), as a vapor phase, stepwise and self-limiting vacuum based deposition process, was demonstrated as a powerful way to form highly conformal and uniform film onto substrates, even into highly complex 3D complex structures. In this study, (4) Metal oxide ALD is applied onto 3D electrospun polymer microfiber mats template to illustrate an effective and robust strategy to fabricate long and uniform metal oxide microtubes with precisely controllable wall thickness. Designer tubes of various sizes and different materials were demonstrated by using this method. (5) By further extending this technique

  3. Direct atomic-scale observation of layer-by-layer oxide growth during magnesium oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, He; Wu, Shujing; Sheng, Huaping; Liu, Chun; Liu, Yu; Cao, Fan; Zhou, Zhichao; Zhao, Dongshan E-mail: dszhao@whu.edu.cn; Wang, Jianbo E-mail: dszhao@whu.edu.cn; Zhao, Xingzhong

    2014-04-07

    The atomic-scale oxide growth dynamics are directly revealed by in situ high resolution transmission electron microscopy during the oxidation of Mg surface. The oxidation process is characterized by the layer-by-layer growth of magnesium oxide (MgO) nanocrystal via the adatom process. Consistently, the nucleated MgO crystals exhibit faceted surface morphology as enclosed by (200) lattice planes. It is believed that the relatively lower surface energies of (200) lattice planes should play important roles, governing the growth mechanism. These results facilitate the understanding of the nanoscale oxide growth mechanism that will have an important impact on the development of magnesium or magnesium alloys with improved resistance to oxidation.

  4. Large area space solar cell assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, M. B.; Nowlan, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    Development of a large area space solar cell assembly is presented. The assembly consists of an ion implanted silicon cell and glass cover. The important attributes of fabrication are (1) use of a back surface field which is compatible with a back surface reflector, and (2) integration of coverglass application and call fabrication.

  5. Large area monolithic organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Hui; Tao, Cheng; Hambsch, Mike; Pivrikas, Almantas; Velusamy, Marappan; Aljada, Muhsen; Zhang, Yuliang; Burn, Paul L.; Meredith, Paul

    2012-11-01

    Although efficiencies of > 10% have recently been achieved in laboratory-scale organic solar cells, these competitive performance figures are yet to be translated to large active areas and geometries relevant for viable manufacturing. One of the factors hindering scale-up is a lack of knowledge of device physics at the sub-module level, particularly cell architecture, electrode geometry and current collection pathways. A more in depth understanding of how photocurrent and photovoltage extraction can be optimised over large active areas is urgently needed. Another key factor suppressing conversion efficiencies in large area cells is the relatively high sheet resistance of the transparent conducting anode - typically indium tin oxide. Hence, to replace ITO with alternative transparent conducting anodes is also a high priority on the pathway to viable module-level organic solar cells. In our paper we will focus on large area devices relevant to sub-module scales - 5 cm × 5 cm monolithic geometry. We have applied a range of experimental techniques to create a more comprehensive understanding of the true device physics that could help make large area, monolithic organic solar cells more viable. By employing this knowledge, a novel transparent anode consisting of molybdenum oxide (MoOx) and silver (Ag) is developed to replace ITO and PEDOT-free large area solar cell sub-modules, acting as both a transparent window and hole-collecting electrode. The proposed architecture and anode materials are well suited to high throughput, low cost all-solution processing.

  6. The Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. B.

    1976-01-01

    A Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE) was undertaken to prove out an economically important application of remote sensing from space. The experiment focused upon determination of wheat acreages in the U.S. Great Plains and upon the development and testing of yield models. The results and conclusions are presented.

  7. Stowable large area solar power module

    SciTech Connect

    Hanak, J.J.

    1987-12-15

    A stowable, deployable large area solar module is described comprising: discrete, interconnected, flexible, large area solar panels; hinge means operatively disposed on the panels so as to provide for the relative planar displacement of the folded panels of the module when the panels are folded in overlying sandwiched relationship; the hinge means also operatively disposed so as to provide for the folded panels to be rolled into a stowable, substantially cylindrical configuration. The hinge means comprise: hinge knuckles associated with at least one edge of each large area panel, each of the knuckles including a passage therethrough adapted to receive pintle means, the knuckles of adjacent panels disposed in a spaced apart, generally coplanar, interdigitating relationship; and, flexible pintle means disposed so as to sequentially pass through the interdigitating knuckles, whereby the spaced apart knuckles allow for a degree of planar displacement of adjoining large area panels relative to one another, as well as allowing for the folding of the panels in a sandwiched relationship and the flexible pintle means allows for the panels to be rolled into the substantially cylindrical configuration.

  8. STATUS OF THE GLAST LARGE AREA TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, R

    2003-12-05

    The GLAST Large Area telescope is a modular 4 x 4 tower pair conversion telescope with field of view greater than 2 steradians and energy coverage from 20 MeV to 300 GeV. The observatory is scheduled for launch in September 2006. A status of the instrument construction is presented here.

  9. Ultra-thin Materials from Atomic Layer Deposition for Microbolometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eigenfeld, Nathan Thomas

    This research focuses on the incorporation of atomic layer deposition (ALD) materials into microbolometer devices for infrared (IR) imaging. Microbolometers are suspended micro-electromechanical (MEMS) devices, which respond electrically to absorbed IR radiation. By minimizing the heat capacity (thermal mass) of these devices, their performance may be substantially improved. Thus, implementing ultra-thin freestanding ALD materials into microbolometer devices will offer a substantial reduction in the overall heat capacity of the device. A novel nanofabrication method is developed to produce robust ultra-thin suspended structures from ALD generated materials including W, Ru and Al2O 3. Unique aspects of ALD such as high conformality offer the ability to create 3-dimensional structures with mechanical reinforcement. Additionally, the ability to tune residual stresses via atomically precise thickness control enables the fabrication of flat suspended structures. Since microbolometer elements are electro-thermally active, the electro-thermal properties of ultra-thin ALD W, Ru and Al2O3 are investigated. Several distinct deviations from bulk electro-thermal properties of resistivity, temperature coefficient of resistance, thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity are identified and interpreted with traditional nanoscale transport modeling and theory. For example, for ALD W, the electrical resistivity is increased by up to 99%, thermal conductivity is reduced by up to 91% and specific heat capacity increased 70% from bulk. Finally, the developed ALD nano-fabrication process and measured ALD material properties are combined to fabricate an industrial level, state-of-the-art microbolometer pixel structure with 1.4X performance improvement. Further microbolomter performance enhancements based on the developed nanofabrication methods and electro-thermal measurements are discussed.

  10. Research Update: Atmospheric pressure spatial atomic layer deposition of ZnO thin films: Reactors, doping, and devices

    SciTech Connect

    Hoye, Robert L. Z. E-mail: jld35@cam.ac.uk; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L. E-mail: jld35@cam.ac.uk; Muñoz-Rojas, David; Nelson, Shelby F.; Illiberi, Andrea; Poodt, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric pressure spatial atomic layer deposition (AP-SALD) has recently emerged as an appealing technique for rapidly producing high quality oxides. Here, we focus on the use of AP-SALD to deposit functional ZnO thin films, particularly on the reactors used, the film properties, and the dopants that have been studied. We highlight how these films are advantageous for the performance of solar cells, organometal halide perovskite light emitting diodes, and thin-film transistors. Future AP-SALD technology will enable the commercial processing of thin films over large areas on a sheet-to-sheet and roll-to-roll basis, with new reactor designs emerging for flexible plastic and paper electronics.

  11. CMUTs with High-K Atomic Layer Deposition Dielectric Material Insulation Layer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Toby; Tekes, Coskun; Degertekin, F. Levent

    2014-01-01

    Use of high-κ dielectric, atomic layer deposition (ALD) materials as an insulation layer material for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) is investigated. The effect of insulation layer material and thickness on CMUT performance is evaluated using a simple parallel plate model. The model shows that both high dielectric constant and the electrical breakdown strength are important for the dielectric material, and significant performance improvement can be achieved, especially as the vacuum gap thickness is reduced. In particular, ALD hafnium oxide (HfO2) is evaluated and used as an improvement over plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) silicon nitride (SixNy) for CMUTs fabricated by a low-temperature, complementary metal oxide semiconductor transistor-compatible, sacrificial release method. Relevant properties of ALD HfO2 such as dielectric constant and breakdown strength are characterized to further guide CMUT design. Experiments are performed on parallel fabricated test CMUTs with 50-nm gap and 16.5-MHz center frequency to measure and compare pressure output and receive sensitivity for 200-nm PECVD SixNy and 100-nm HfO2 insulation layers. Results for this particular design show a 6-dB improvement in receiver output with the collapse voltage reduced by one-half; while in transmit mode, half the input voltage is needed to achieve the same maximum output pressure. PMID:25474786

  12. CMUTs with high-K atomic layer deposition dielectric material insulation layer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Toby; Tekes, Coskun; Degertekin, F

    2014-12-01

    Use of high-κ dielectric, atomic layer deposition (ALD) materials as an insulation layer material for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) is investigated. The effect of insulation layer material and thickness on CMUT performance is evaluated using a simple parallel plate model. The model shows that both high dielectric constant and the electrical breakdown strength are important for the dielectric material, and significant performance improvement can be achieved, especially as the vacuum gap thickness is reduced. In particular, ALD hafnium oxide (HfO2) is evaluated and used as an improvement over plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) silicon nitride (Six)Ny)) for CMUTs fabricated by a low-temperature, complementary metal oxide semiconductor transistor-compatible, sacrificial release method. Relevant properties of ALD HfO2) such as dielectric constant and breakdown strength are characterized to further guide CMUT design. Experiments are performed on parallel fabricated test CMUTs with 50-nm gap and 16.5-MHz center frequency to measure and compare pressure output and receive sensitivity for 200-nm PECVD Six)Ny) and 100-nm HfO2) insulation layers. Results for this particular design show a 6-dB improvement in receiver output with the collapse voltage reduced by one-half; while in transmit mode, half the input voltage is needed to achieve the same maximum output pressure.

  13. Roll-to-Roll Atomic Layer Deposition for Ultrabarriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yersak, Alexander

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a bottom-up, gas phase, thin film deposition technique based on sequential, self-limiting binary surface reactions. The precise sub-nanometer film thickness control and conformal nature of this process have led to various commercial applications of ALD. However, ALD films are most commonly deposited in batch processes at low pressures, which raises throughput and/or cost concerns for many otherwise promising applications. This problem can be solved by spatial ALD (S-ALD) which is a version of the ALD technique where the precursors are separated in space rather than time. We have demonstrated the first atmospheric pressure roll-to-roll (R2R) ALD web coating system. A thickness uniformity of +/-2% was achieved across the web. ALD cycle times as low as 76 ms were demonstrated with a web speed of 1 m/s and a vertical gap height of 0.5 mm. Extrinsic defects in the ALD films were investigated, and a predictive cluster model was proposed, and was demonstrated with a residual (i.e. difference between the actual defect counts and those predicted by the cluster model) of <10%. A R2R ALD web coating tool with molecular layer deposition (MLD) capabilities was investigated and achieved a defect density <10 /cm2. A hyperbaric corrosion chamber with in situ monitoring of film thickness was demonstrated with the ability to characterize R2R ALD films using water dissolution as a metric. ALD SiO2 films were determined to be dissolution-predictable with a predicted dissolution rate of 3.7 nm/year at physiological temperatures. ALD TiO2 films were observed with no measurable dissolution in 150 °C water over the measurement period of 12 days.

  14. Atomic-layer-deposition oxide nanoglue for sodium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaogang; Liu, Yang; Jia, Zheng; Chen, Yu-Chen; Wan, Jiayu; Weadock, Nicholas; Gaskell, Karen J; Li, Teng; Hu, Liangbing

    2014-01-08

    Atomic-layer-deposition (ALD) coatings have been increasingly used to improve battery performance. However, the electrochemical and mechanistic roles remain largely unclear, especially for ALD coatings on electrodes that undergo significant volume changes (up to 100%) during charging/discharging. Here we investigate an anode consisting of tin nanoparticles (SnNPs) with an ALD-Al2O3 coating. For the first time, in situ transmission electron microscopy unveiled the dynamic mechanical protection of the ALD-Al2O3 coating by coherently deforming with the SnNPs under the huge volume changes during charging/discharging. Battery tests in coin-cells further showed the ALD-Al2O3 coating remarkably boosts the cycling performance of the Sn anodes, comparing with those made of bare SnNPs. Chemomechanical simulations clearly revealed that a bare SnNP debonds and falls off the underlying substrate upon charging, and by contrast the ALD-Al2O3 coating, like ion-conductive nanoglue, robustly anchors the SnNP anode to the substrate during charging/discharging, a key to improving battery cycle performance.

  15. Biocompatibility of atomic layer-deposited alumina thin films.

    PubMed

    Finch, Dudley S; Oreskovic, Tammy; Ramadurai, Krishna; Herrmann, Cari F; George, Steven M; Mahajan, Roop L

    2008-10-01

    Presented in this paper is a study of the biocompatibility of an atomic layer-deposited (ALD) alumina (Al2O3) thin film and an ALD hydrophobic coating on standard glass cover slips. The pure ALD alumina coating exhibited a water contact angle of 55 degrees +/- 5 degrees attributed, in part, to a high concentration of -OH groups on the surface. In contrast, the hydrophobic coating (tridecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydro-octyl-methyl-bis(dimethylamino)silane) had a water contact angle of 108 degrees +/- 2 degrees. Observations using differential interference contrast microscopy on human coronary artery smooth muscle cells showed normal cell proliferation on both the ALD alumina and hydrophobic coatings when compared to cells grown on control substrates. These observations suggested good biocompatibility over a period of 7 days in vitro. Using a colorimetric assay technique to assess cell viability, the cellular response between the three substrates can be differentiated to show that the ALD alumina coating is more biocompatible and that the hydrophobic coating is less biocompatible when compared to the control. These results suggest that patterning a substrate with hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups can control cell growth. This patterning can further enhance the known advantages of ALD alumina, such as conformality and excellent dielectric properties for bio-micro electro mechanical systems (Bio-MEMS) in sensors, actuators, and microfluidics devices.

  16. Recent progress of atomic layer deposition on polymeric materials.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hong Chen; Ye, Enyi; Li, Zibiao; Han, Ming-Yong; Loh, Xian Jun

    2017-01-01

    As a very promising surface coating technology, atomic layer deposition (ALD) can be used to modify the surfaces of polymeric materials for improving their functions and expanding their application areas. Polymeric materials vary in surface functional groups (number and type), surface morphology and internal structure, and thus ALD deposition conditions that typically work on a normal solid surface, usually do not work on a polymeric material surface. To date, a large variety of research has been carried out to investigate ALD deposition on various polymeric materials. This paper aims to provide an in-depth review of ALD deposition on polymeric materials and its applications. Through this review, we will provide a better understanding of surface chemistry and reaction mechanism for controlled surface modification of polymeric materials by ALD. The integrated knowledge can aid in devising an improved way in the reaction between reactant precursors and polymer functional groups/polymer backbones, which will in turn open new opportunities in processing ALD materials for better inorganic/organic film integration and potential applications.

  17. Robust, functional nanocrystal solids by infilling with atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yao; Gibbs, Markelle; Perkins, Craig L.; Tolentino, Jason; Zarghami, Mohammad H.; Bustamante, Jr., Jorge; Law, Matt

    2011-12-14

    Thin films of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) are inherently metatstable materials prone to oxidative and photothermal degradation driven by their large surface-to-volume ratios and high surface energies. The fabrication of practical electronic devices based on NC solids hinges on preventing oxidation, surface diffusion, ripening, sintering, and other unwanted physicochemical changes that can plague these materials. Here we use low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) to infill conductive PbSe NC solids with metal oxides to produce inorganic nanocomposites in which the NCs are locked in place and protected against oxidative and photothermal damage. Infilling NC field-effect transistors and solar cells with amorphous alumina yields devices that operate with enhanced and stable performance for at least months in air. Furthermore, ALD infilling with ZnO lowers the height of the inter-NC tunnel barrier for electron transport, yielding PbSe NC films with electron mobilities of 1 cm² V-1 s-1. Our ALD technique is a versatile means to fabricate robust NC solids for optoelectronic devices.

  18. Subnanometer Palladium Particles Synthesized by Atomic Layer Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Hao P.; Libera, Joseph A.; Stair, Peter C.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Elam, Jeffrey W.

    2011-06-03

    Monodispersed palladium nanoparticle catalysts were synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using alternating exposures of Pd hexafluoroacetylacetonate (Pd(hfac)₂) and formalin on an alumina support. The size of the ALD Pd particles could be tuned by adjusting the preparation conditions. Conventional ALD conditions produced Pd particles with an average size of 1.4 nm. Removal of surface hydroxyls from the alumina support by a chemical treatment using trimethyl aluminum (TMA) before performing Pd ALD led to nanoparticles larger than 2 nm. Ultrasmall (subnanometer) Pd particles were synthesized using low-temperature metal precursor exposures, followed by applying protective ALD alumina overcoats. The ALD Pd particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, extended X-ray absorption fine structure, and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy techniques. The Pd loadings were measured by X-ray fluorescence. The catalytic performance of ALD Pd particles of different sizes was compared in the methanol decomposition reaction. The specific activity (normalized by Pd loading) of the ultrasmall Pd particles was higher than those of the larger particles. Considering the metal dispersion factor, the turnover frequency (TOF) of the ultrasmall Pd particles is comparable to that of the medium-sized (1.4 nm, on average) Pd particles synthesized under standard ALD conditions. The large Pd particles (>2 nm) are a factor of 2 less active than the smaller Pd particles.

  19. High Gradient Accelerator Cavities Using Atomic Layer Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Ives, Robert Lawrence; Parsons, Gregory; Williams, Philip; Oldham, Christopher; Mundy, Zach; Dolgashev, Valery

    2014-12-09

    In the Phase I program, Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. (CCR), in collaboration with North Carolina State University (NCSU), fabricated copper accelerator cavities and used Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) to apply thin metal coatings of tungsten and platinum. It was hypothesized that a tungsten coating would provide a robust surface more resistant to arcing and arc damage. The platinum coating was predicted to reduce processing time by inhibiting oxides that form on copper surfaces soon after machining. Two sets of cavity parts were fabricated. One was coated with 35 nm of tungsten, and the other with approximately 10 nm of platinum. Only the platinum cavity parts could be high power tested during the Phase I program due to schedule and funding constraints. The platinum coated cavity exhibit poor performance when compared with pure copper cavities. Not only did arcing occur at lower power levels, but the processing time was actually longer. There were several issues that contributed to the poor performance. First, machining of the base copper cavity parts failed to achieve the quality and cleanliness standards specified to SLAC National Accelerator Center. Secondly, the ALD facilities were not configured to provide the high levels of cleanliness required. Finally, the nanometer coating applied was likely far too thin to provide the performance required. The coating was ablated or peeled from the surface in regions of high fields. It was concluded that the current ALD process could not provide improved performance over cavities produced at national laboratories using dedicated facilities.

  20. Luminescent YbVO4 by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Getz, Michael; Hansen, Per-Anders; Ahmed, Mohammed A K; Fjellvåg, Helmer; Nilsen, Ola

    2017-02-28

    UV to visible and near-infrared converting thin films of YbVO4 have been deposited by atomic layer deposition, using the precursor combinations Yb(thd)3 (thd = 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedione) and O3, and VO(thd)2 and O3 at a deposition temperature of 240 °C, followed by post deposition annealing at 400-1000 °C. The UV absorption and the visible and near-infrared emission have been investigated in detail. The structure, thickness and composition of the deposited films have been studied by X-ray diffraction, ellipsometry, and X-ray fluorescence, respectively. The optimal pulse ratio of Yb(thd)3 and VO(thd)2 with respect to near-infrared emission was found to be 1 : 3, which also yielded the most crystalline sample after annealing. Crystallization of the films is accelerated when an excess of V2O5 is present, enabling crystallization at temperatures as low as 500 °C, probably through a flux aided process.

  1. Studies on atomic layer deposition of IRMOF-8 thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Salmi, Leo D. Heikkilä, Mikko J.; Vehkamäki, Marko; Puukilainen, Esa; Ritala, Mikko; Sajavaara, Timo

    2015-01-15

    Deposition of IRMOF-8 thin films by atomic layer deposition was studied at 260–320 °C. Zinc acetate and 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid were used as the precursors. The as-deposited amorphous films were crystallized in 70% relative humidity at room temperature resulting in an unknown phase with a large unit cell. An autoclave with dimethylformamide as the solvent was used to recrystallize the films into IRMOF-8 as confirmed by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction. The films were further characterized by high temperature x-ray diffraction (HTXRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis (TOF-ERDA), nanoindentation, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. HTXRD measurements revealed similar behavior to bulk IRMOF-8. According to TOF-ERDA and FTIR, composition of the films was similar to IRMOF-8. Through-porosity was confirmed by loading the films with palladium using Pd(thd){sub 2} (thd = 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato) as the precursor.

  2. Continuous production of nanostructured particles using spatial atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Ommen, J. Ruud van Kooijman, Dirkjan; Niet, Mark de; Talebi, Mojgan; Goulas, Aristeidis

    2015-03-15

    In this paper, the authors demonstrate a novel spatial atomic layer deposition (ALD) process based on pneumatic transport of nanoparticle agglomerates. Nanoclusters of platinum (Pt) of ∼1 nm diameter are deposited onto titania (TiO{sub 2}) P25 nanoparticles resulting to a continuous production of an active photocatalyst (0.12–0.31 wt. % of Pt) at a rate of about 1 g min{sup −1}. Tuning the precursor injection velocity (10–40 m s{sup −1}) enhances the contact between the precursor and the pneumatically transported support flows. Decreasing the chemisorption temperature (from 250 to 100 °C) results in more uniform distribution of the Pt nanoclusters as it decreases the reaction rate as compared to the rate of diffusion into the nanoparticle agglomerates. Utilizing this photocatalyst in the oxidation reaction of Acid Blue 9 showed a factor of five increase of the photocatalytic activity compared to the native P25 nanoparticles. The use of spatial particle ALD can be further expanded to deposition of nanoclusters on porous, micron-sized particles and to the production of core–shell nanoparticles enabling the robust and scalable manufacturing of nanostructured powders for catalysis and other applications.

  3. Robust, functional nanocrystal solids by infilling with atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yao; Gibbs, Markelle; Perkins, Craig L; Tolentino, Jason; Zarghami, Mohammad H; Bustamante, Jorge; Law, Matt

    2011-12-14

    Thin films of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) are inherently metatstable materials prone to oxidative and photothermal degradation driven by their large surface-to-volume ratios and high surface energies. (1) The fabrication of practical electronic devices based on NC solids hinges on preventing oxidation, surface diffusion, ripening, sintering, and other unwanted physicochemical changes that can plague these materials. Here we use low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) to infill conductive PbSe NC solids with metal oxides to produce inorganic nanocomposites in which the NCs are locked in place and protected against oxidative and photothermal damage. Infilling NC field-effect transistors and solar cells with amorphous alumina yields devices that operate with enhanced and stable performance for at least months in air. Furthermore, ALD infilling with ZnO lowers the height of the inter-NC tunnel barrier for electron transport, yielding PbSe NC films with electron mobilities of 1 cm2 V(-1) s(-1). Our ALD technique is a versatile means to fabricate robust NC solids for optoelectronic devices.

  4. Atomic layer deposition of nickel-cobalt spinel thin films.

    PubMed

    Hagen, D J; Tripathi, T S; Karppinen, M

    2017-04-05

    We report the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of high-quality crystalline thin films of the spinel-oxide system (Co1-xNix)3O4. These spinel oxides are ferrimagnetic p-type semiconductors, and promising material candidates for several applications ranging from photovoltaics and spintronics to thermoelectrics. The spinel phase is obtained for Ni contents exceeding the x = 0.33 limit for bulk samples. It is observed that the electrical resistivity decreases continuously with x while the magnetic moment increases up to x = 0.5. This is in contrast to bulk samples where a decrease of resistivity is not observed for x > 0.33 due to the formation of a rock-salt phase. From UV-VIS-NIR absorption measurements, a change from distinct absorption edges for the parent oxide Co3O4 to a continuous absorption band ranging deep into the near infrared for 0 < x ≤ 0.5 was observed. The conformal deposition of dense films on high-aspect-ratio patterns is demonstrated.

  5. Synthesis of platinum nanoparticle electrocatalysts by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubers, Alia Marie

    Demand for energy continues to increase, and without alternatives to fossil fuel combustion the effects on our environment will become increasingly severe. Fuel cells offer a promising improvement on current methods of energy generation; they are able to convert hydrogen fuel into electricity with a theoretical efficiency of up to 83% and interface smoothly with renewable hydrogen production. Fuel cells can replace internal combustion engines in vehicles and are used in stationary applications to power homes and businesses. The efficiency of a fuel cell is maximized by its catalyst, which is often composed of platinum nanoparticles supported on carbon. Economical production of fuel cell catalysts will promote adoption of this technology. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a possible method for producing catalysts at a large scale when employed in a fluidized bed. ALD relies on sequential dosing of gas-phase precursors to grow a material layer by layer. We have synthesized platinum nanoparticles on a carbon particle support (Pt/C) by ALD for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and electrochemical hydrogen pumps. Platinum nanoparticles with different characteristics were deposited by changing two chemistries: the carbon substrate through functionalization; and the deposition process by use of either oxygen or hydrogen as ligand removing reactants. The metal depositing reactant was trimethyl(methylcyclopentadienyl)platinum(IV). Functionalizing the carbon substrate increased nucleation during deposition resulting in smaller and more dispersed nanoparticles. Use of hydrogen produced smaller nanoparticles than oxygen, due to a gentler hydrogenation reaction compared to using oxygen's destructive combustion reaction. Synthesized Pt/C materials were used as catalysts in an electrochemical hydrogen pump, a device used to separate hydrogen fuel from contaminants. Catalysts deposited by ALD on functionalized carbon using a hydrogen chemistry were the most

  6. Atomic-Layer-Deposited Transparent Electrodes for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Demaurex, Benedicte; Seif, Johannes P.; Smit, Sjoerd; Macco, Bart; Kessels, W. M.; Geissbuhler, Jonas; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2014-11-01

    We examine damage-free transparent-electrode deposition to fabricate high-efficiency amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells. Such solar cells usually feature sputtered transparent electrodes, the deposition of which may damage the layers underneath. Using atomic layer deposition, we insert thin protective films between the amorphous silicon layers and sputtered contacts and investigate their effect on device operation. We find that a 20-nm-thick protective layer suffices to preserve, unchanged, the amorphous silicon layers beneath. Insertion of such protective atomic-layer-deposited layers yields slightly higher internal voltages at low carrier injection levels. However, we identify the presence of a silicon oxide layer, formed during processing, between the amorphous silicon and the atomic-layer-deposited transparent electrode that acts as a barrier, impeding hole and electron collection.

  7. Atomic-Layer-Deposited Transparent Electrodes for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    DOE PAGES

    Demaurex, Benedicte; Seif, Johannes P.; Smit, Sjoerd; ...

    2014-11-01

    We examine damage-free transparent-electrode deposition to fabricate high-efficiency amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells. Such solar cells usually feature sputtered transparent electrodes, the deposition of which may damage the layers underneath. Using atomic layer deposition, we insert thin protective films between the amorphous silicon layers and sputtered contacts and investigate their effect on device operation. We find that a 20-nm-thick protective layer suffices to preserve, unchanged, the amorphous silicon layers beneath. Insertion of such protective atomic-layer-deposited layers yields slightly higher internal voltages at low carrier injection levels. However, we identify the presence of a silicon oxide layer, formed during processing,more » between the amorphous silicon and the atomic-layer-deposited transparent electrode that acts as a barrier, impeding hole and electron collection.« less

  8. Epitaxial growth of large area single-crystalline few-layer MoS{sub 2} with high space charge mobility of 192 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Lu; Yu, Mingzhe; Wu, Yiying E-mail: wu@chemistry.ohio-state.edu; Nath, Digbijoy N.; Lee, Edwin W.; Lee, Choong Hee; Arehart, Aaron; Rajan, Siddharth E-mail: wu@chemistry.ohio-state.edu

    2014-08-18

    We report on the vapor-solid growth of single crystalline few-layer MoS{sub 2} films on (0001)-oriented sapphire with excellent structural and electrical properties over centimeter length scale. High-resolution X-ray diffraction scans indicated that the films had good out-of-plane ordering and epitaxial registry. A carrier density of ∼2 × 10{sup 11 }cm{sup −2} and a room temperature mobility of 192 cm{sup 2}/Vs were extracted from space-charge limited transport regime in the films. The electron mobility was found to exhibit in-plane anisotropy with a ratio of ∼1.8. Theoretical estimates of the temperature-dependent electron mobility including optical phonon, acoustic deformation potential, and remote ionized impurity scattering were found to satisfactorily match the measured data. The synthesis approach reported here demonstrates the feasibility of device quality few-layer MoS{sub 2} films with excellent uniformity and high quality.

  9. The mechanical robustness of atomic-layer- and molecular-layer-deposited coatings on polymer substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, David C.; Foster, Ross R.; Zhang, Yadong; Jen, Shih-Hui; Bertrand, Jacob A.; Lu, Zhixing; Seghete, Dragos; O'Patchen, Jennifer L.; Yang, Ronggui; Lee, Yung-Cheng; George, Steven M.; Dunn, Martin L.

    2009-05-01

    The mechanical robustness of atomic layer deposited alumina and recently developed molecular layer deposited aluminum alkoxide ("alucone") films, as well as laminated composite films composed of both materials, was characterized using mechanical tensile tests along with a recently developed fluorescent tag to visualize channel cracks in the transparent films. All coatings were deposited on polyethylene naphthalate substrates and demonstrated a similar evolution of damage morphology according to applied strain, including channel crack initiation, crack propagation at the critical strain, crack densification up to saturation, and transverse crack formation associated with buckling and delamination. From measurements of crack density versus applied tensile strain coupled with a fracture mechanics model, the mode I fracture toughness of alumina and alucone films was determined to be KIC=1.89±0.10 and 0.17±0.02 MPa m0.5, respectively. From measurements of the saturated crack density, the critical interfacial shear stress was estimated to be τc=39.5±8.3 and 66.6±6.1 MPa, respectively. The toughness of nanometer-scale alumina was comparable to that of alumina thin films grown using other techniques, whereas alucone was quite brittle. The use of alucone as a spacer layer between alumina films was not found to increase the critical strain at fracture for the composite films. This performance is attributed to the low toughness of alucone. The experimental results were supported by companion simulations using fracture mechanics formalism for multilayer films. To aid future development, the modeling method was used to study the increase in the toughness and elastic modulus of the spacer layer required to render improved critical strain at fracture. These results may be applied to a broad variety of multilayer material systems composed of ceramic and spacer layers to yield robust coatings for use in chemical barrier and other applications.

  10. GLAST Large Area Telescope Multiwavelength Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reimer, O.; Michelson, P. F.; Cameron, R. A.; Digel, S. W.; Thompson, D. J.; Wood, K. S.

    2007-01-01

    Gamma-ray astrophysics depends in many ways on multiwavelength studies. The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Large Area Telescope (LAT) Collaboration has started multiwavelength planning well before the scheduled 2007 launch of the observatory. Some of the high-priority multiwavelength needs include: (1) availability of contemporaneous radio and X-ray timing of pulsars; (2) expansion of blazar catalogs, including redshift measurements; (3) improved observations of molecular clouds, especially at high galactic latitudes; (4) simultaneous broad-spectrum blazar monitoring; (5) characterization of gamma-ray transients, including gamma ray bursts; (6) radio, optical, X-ray and TeV counterpart searches for reliable and effective sources identification and characterization. Several of these activities are needed to be in place before launch.

  11. GLAST Large Area Telescope Multiwavelength Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Reimer, O.; Michelson, P.F.; Cameron, R.A.; Digel, S.W.; Thompson, D.J.; Wood, K.S.

    2007-01-03

    Gamma-ray astrophysics depends in many ways on multiwavelength studies. The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Large Area Telescope (LAT) Collaboration has started multiwavelength planning well before the scheduled 2007 launch of the observatory. Some of the high-priority multiwavelength needs include: (1) availability of contemporaneous radio and X-ray timing of pulsars; (2) expansion of blazar catalogs, including redshift measurements; (3) improved observations of molecular clouds, especially at high galactic latitudes; (4) simultaneous broad-band blazar monitoring; (5) characterization of gamma-ray transients, including gamma ray bursts; (6) radio, optical, X-ray and TeV counterpart searches for reliable and effective sources identification and characterization. Several of these activities are needed to be in place before launch.

  12. Large area damage testing of optics

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, L.; Kozlowski, M.; Stolz, C.

    1996-04-26

    The damage threshold specifications for the National Ignition Facility will include a mixture of standard small-area tests and new large-area tests. During our studies of laser damage and conditioning processes of various materials we have found that some damage morphologies are fairly small and this damage does not grow with further illumination. This type of damage might not be detrimental to the laser performance. We should therefore assume that some damage can be allowed on the optics, but decide on a maximum damage allowance of damage. A new specification of damage threshold termed {open_quotes}functional damage threshold{close_quotes} was derived. Further correlation of damage size and type to system performance must be determined in order to use this measurement, but it is clear that it will be a large factor in the optics performance specifications. Large-area tests have verified that small-area testing is not always sufficient when the optic in question has defect-initiated damage. This was evident for example on sputtered polarizer and mirror coatings where the defect density was low enough that the features could be missed by standard small- area testing. For some materials, the scale-length at which damage non-uniformities occur will effect the comparison of small-area and large-area tests. An example of this was the sub-aperture tests on KD*P crystals on the Beamlet test station. The tests verified the large-area damage threshold to be similar to that found when testing a small-area. Implying that for this KD*P material, the dominate damage mechanism is of sufficiently small scale-length that small-area testing is capable of determining the threshold. The Beamlet test station experiments also demonstrated the use of on-line laser conditioning to increase the crystals damage threshold.

  13. Large area silicon sheet by EFG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Recent advances toward silicon growth stations and improved electronic quality of multiplesilicon are discussed. These advances were made in large measure by studies in which the composition of the gas environment around the meniscus area was varied. By introducing gases such as CO2, CO, and CH4 into this region, reproducible increases in diffusion length and cell performance were realized, with the best large area (5 cm x 10 cm) cells exceeding 11% efficiency.

  14. MeerKAT Large Area Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leeuw, Lerothodi

    2017-01-01

    We present the goals and strategies for a large area MeerKAT survey, that is expected to be proposed under the MeerKAT open time call. The survey will be at least 400 square degrees, detect galaxies up to high redshift and cover various science interests that will exploit synergies with complementary data at other wavebands. For as high impact and legacy value as possible, the survey is open to synergies from the community.

  15. Large-area thin-film modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyan, Y. S.; Perez-Albuerne, E. A.

    1985-01-01

    The low cost potential of thin film solar cells can only be fully realized if large area modules can be made economically with good production yields. This paper deals with two of the critical challenges. A scheme is presented which allows the simple, economical realization of the long recognized, preferred module structure of monolithic integration. Another scheme reduces the impact of shorting defects and, as a result, increases the production yields. Analytical results demonstrating the utilization and advantages of such schemes are discussed.

  16. Large-area thin-film modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyan, Y. S.; Perez-Albuerne, E. A.

    1985-10-01

    The low cost potential of thin film solar cells can only be fully realized if large area modules can be made economically with good production yields. This paper deals with two of the critical challenges. A scheme is presented which allows the simple, economical realization of the long recognized, preferred module structure of monolithic integration. Another scheme reduces the impact of shorting defects and, as a result, increases the production yields. Analytical results demonstrating the utilization and advantages of such schemes are discussed.

  17. Realization of Large-Area Wrinkle-Free Monolayer Graphene Films Transferred to Functional Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Park, Byeong-Ju; Choi, Jin-Seok; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Hyun-You; Jeong, Jong-Ryul; Choi, Hyung-Jin; Jung, Hyun-June; Jung, Min-Wook; An, Ki-Seok; Yoon, Soon-Gil

    2015-01-01

    Structural inhomogeneities, such as the wrinkles and ripples within a graphene film after transferring the free-standing graphene layer to a functional substrate, degrade the physical and electrical properties of the corresponding electronic devices. Here, we introduced titanium as a superior adhesion layer for fabricating wrinkle-free graphene films that is highly applicable to flexible and transparent electronic devices. The Ti layer does not influence the electronic performance of the functional substrates. Experimental and theoretical investigations confirm that the strong chemical interactions between Ti and any oxygen atoms unintentionally introduced on/within the graphene are responsible for forming the clean, defect-free graphene layer. Our results accelerate the practical application of graphene-related electronic devices with enhanced functionality. The large-area monolayer graphenes were prepared by a simple attachment of the Ti layer with the multi-layer wrinkle-free graphene films. For the first time, the graphene films were addressed for applications of superior bottom electrode for flexible capacitors instead of the novel metals. PMID:26043868

  18. Atomic layer etching removal of damaged layers in a contact hole for low sheet resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jong Kyu; Cho, Sung Il; Lee, Sung Ho; Kim, Chan Kyu; Min, Kyung Suk; Yeom, Geun Young

    2013-11-15

    A damaged layer remains on silicon substrates after high-aspect-ratio contact (HARC) etching when using a fluorocarbon gas. Atomic layer etching (ALET) is a technique that can be applied to remove the damaged layer of silicon, removing about 1.36 Å per etch cycle. The characteristics of contact damage removal by ALET are investigated and compared with the conventional damage removal technique of low-power CF{sub 4} plasma etching. The low-power CF{sub 4} plasma etching technique not only has inadequate etch depth control, but also introduces secondary damage by implanting impurities about 25 Å into the contact bottom of the silicon surface. However, ALET allows contact damage to be removed effectively without introducing secondary damage to the substrate, and with precision etch depth control at the angstrom scale. When ALET is applied subsequent to low-power CF{sub 4} plasma etching, the fluorine- and carbon-damaged silicon is effectively removed in about 10 cycles. The sheet resistance of HARC etched silicon decreases from 142 to 137 Ω/□ after using low-power CF{sub 4} plasma etching, and subsequent ALET treatment further decreases the sheet resistance to 129 Ω/□, which is close to the reference value of 124 Ω/□.

  19. Conformal hydrophobic coatings prepared using atomic layer deposition seed layers and non-chlorinated hydrophobic precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Cari F.; DelRio, Frank W.; Bright, Victor M.; George, Steven M.

    2005-05-01

    Ultrathin and conformal films deposited using atomic layer deposition (ALD) can enhance the reliability and performance of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) devices. Al2O3 ALD films are particularly useful because the Al2O3 ALD surface chemistry is very favorable and amenable to growth on a wide variety of substrates. Al2O3 ALD can be utilized to deposit robust and reliable hydrophobic coatings. A thin Al2O3 ALD film is deposited and is used as a seed layer to prepare and optimize the MEMS surface for the subsequent attachment of the hydrophobic precursors. Once the Al2O3-coated surface is prepared, non-chlorinated alkylsilanes are chemically bonded to the surface hydroxyl groups on the ALD seed layer. The film growth was monitored using an in situ quartz crystal microbalance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and ex situ Auger electron spectroscopy. This deposition technique results in a dense and conformal hydrophobic film with a water contact angle of 108 ± 2°. When annealed in air to 300 °C for 10 min, the hydrophobic ALD films remained hydrophobic with a contact angle greater than 90°. Using MEMS cantilever beam arrays, hydrophobic ALD-coated beams were determined to have an adhesion energy of 0.11 ± 0.03 mJ m-2 at 100% humidity as compared with an adhesion energy of 12 ± 1 mJ m-2 for the same beams without any coating.

  20. Characteristics of layered tin disulfide deposited by atomic layer deposition with H2S annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seungjin; Shin, Seokyoon; Ham, Giyul; Lee, Juhyun; Choi, Hyeongsu; Park, Hyunwoo; Jeon, Hyeongtag

    2017-04-01

    Tin disulfide (SnS2) has attracted much attention as a two-dimensional (2D) material. A high-quality, low-temperature process for producing 2D materials is required for future electronic devices. Here, we investigate tin disulfide (SnS2) layers deposited via atomic layer deposition (ALD) using tetrakis(dimethylamino)tin (TDMASn) as a Sn precursor and H2S gas as a sulfur source at low temperature (150° C). The crystallinity of SnS2 was improved by H2S gas annealing. We carried out H2S gas annealing at various conditions (250° C, 300° C, 350° C, and using a three-step method). Angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS) results revealed the valence state corresponding to Sn4+ and S2- in the SnS2 annealed with H2S gas. The SnS2 annealed with H2S gas had a hexagonal structure, as measured via X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the clearly out-of-plane (A1g) mode in Raman spectroscopy. The crystallinity of SnS2 was improved after H2S annealing and was confirmed using the XRD full-width at half-maximum (FWHM). In addition, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) images indicated a clear layered structure.

  1. Influence of atomic layer deposition valve temperature on ZrN plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition growth

    SciTech Connect

    Muneshwar, Triratna Cadien, Ken

    2015-11-15

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) relies on a sequence of self-limiting surface reactions for thin film growth. The effect of non-ALD side reactions, from insufficient purging between pulses and from precursor self-decomposition, on film growth is well known. In this article, precursor condensation within an ALD valve is described, and the effect of the continuous precursor source from condensate evaporation on ALD growth is discussed. The influence of the ALD valve temperature on growth and electrical resistivity of ZrN plasma enhanced ALD (PEALD) films is reported. Increasing ALD valve temperature from 75 to 95 °C, with other process parameters being identical, decreased both the growth per cycle and electrical resistivity (ρ) of ZrN PEALD films from 0.10 to 0.07 nm/cycle and from 560 to 350 μΩ cm, respectively. Our results show that the non-ALD growth resulting from condensate accumulation is eliminated at valve temperatures close to the pressure corrected boiling point of precursor.

  2. Design and Properties of Confined Nanocatalysts by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhe; Qin, Yong

    2017-09-19

    Governing the process and outcome of chemical reactions is the most important aim of catalytic chemistry. The confinement of active sites inside nanosized spaces provides a powerful strategy to achieve this goal. Reacting molecules (reactants, intermediates, and products of a reaction) and nanomaterials (metal/metal-oxide nanoparticles) confined inside nanoreactors have been observed to exhibit modified behaviors and properties with respect to their unconfined counterparts. Typically, catalysts confined in zeolites, mesoporous materials, metal-organic frameworks, and nanotubes are obtained by traditional liquid-phase methods. However, excess metals or undesired solvents and other reagents must be removed. It is also difficult to precisely regulate the confined nanostructures and assemble multifunctional sites in the confined nanospaces. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) provides a controllable method to fabricate confined catalysts due to its outstanding advantages. In this Account, we describe our progress in the design and properties of confined nanocatalysts by ALD. ALD is an elegant method to directly deposit highly dispersed metal or oxide species into porous materials, including zeolites and mesoporous materials. We deposited Pt nanoclusters in the micropores of a KL zeolite with precisely controlled size by ALD. We also introduced CoOx nanoclusters into mesoporous SBA-15. We have reported pioneering works on the synthesis of confined nanoparticles with metal-in-nanotube structures by a template-assisted ALD method. Confined Cu nanoparticles were prepared by reducing CuO nanowires coated with Al2O3, TiO2, or alucone layers by ALD. Confined Cu and Au nanoparticles were also prepared starting from the corresponding metal nanowires with the assistance of sacrificial layers produced by ALD. In a more facile strategy, Au nanoparticles confined in Al2O3 nanotubes were produced using a sacrificial template by ALD. Furthermore, we synthesized a multiply confined Ni

  3. Palladium catalysts synthesized by atomic layer deposition for methanol decomposition.

    SciTech Connect

    Elam, J. W.; Feng, H.; Stair, P. C.; Libera, J. A.; Setthapun, W.; Northwestern Univ.

    2010-05-25

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) palladium films were deposited at 200 C on various ALD metal oxide surfaces using sequential exposures to Pd(II) hexafluoroacetylacetonate (Pd(hfac)2) and formalin. In situ quartz crystal microbalance measurements as well as ex situ measurements performed on planar substrates revealed that the Pd growth begins with a relatively slow nucleation process and accelerates once an adequate amount of Pd has deposited on the surface. Furthermore, the Pd nucleation is faster on ALD ZnO surfaces compared to ALD Al2O3 surfaces. ALD was utilized to synthesize highly dispersed, uniform Pd nanoparticles (1 to 2 nm in diameter) on ALD ZnO and Al2O3 coated mesoporous silica gel, and the catalytic performances of these samples were compared in the methanol decomposition reaction. The ALD Pd-Al2O3 showed high activity and hydrogen selectivity at relatively low temperatures while the ALD Pd-ZnO showed very low activity as well as quick deactivation. In situ extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurement revealed that the Pd supported on ZnO 'dissolves' into the substrate during the methanol decomposition reaction which accounts for the gradual disappearance of its catalytic activity. By applying one cycle of ALD Al2O3 on top of the Pd-ZnO catalyst, the activity was enhanced and the catalyst deactivation was mitigated. This Al2O3 overcoating method stabilizes the Pd-ZnO and effectively prevents the dissolution of Pd into the ZnO substrate.

  4. Large-Area WS2 Film with Big Single Domains Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengyu; Luo, Tao; Xing, Jie; Xu, Hong; Hao, Huiying; Liu, Hao; Dong, Jingjing

    2017-10-03

    High-quality WS2 film with the single domain size up to 400 μm was grown on Si/SiO2 wafer by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition. The effects of some important fabrication parameters on the controlled growth of WS2 film have been investigated in detail, including the choice of precursors, tube pressure, growing temperature, holding time, the amount of sulfur powder, and gas flow rate. By optimizing the growth conditions at one atmospheric pressure, we obtained tungsten disulfide single domains with an average size over 100 μm. Raman spectra, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy provided direct evidence that the WS2 film had an atomic layer thickness and a single-domain hexagonal structure with a high crystal quality. And the photoluminescence spectra indicated that the tungsten disulfide films showed an evident layer-number-dependent fluorescence efficiency, depending on their energy band structure. Our study provides an important experimental basis for large-area, controllable preparation of atom-thick tungsten disulfide thin film and can also expedite the development of scalable high-performance optoelectronic devices based on WS2 film.

  5. Atomic layer deposition of ultrathin blocking layer for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell on nanoporous substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Wonjong; Cho, Gu Young; Noh, Seungtak; Tanveer, Waqas Hassan; Cha, Suk Won; Ji, Sanghoon; An, Jihwan

    2015-01-15

    An ultrathin yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) blocking layer deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) was utilized for improving the performance and reliability of low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) supported by an anodic aluminum oxide substrate. Physical vapor-deposited YSZ and gadolinia-doped ceria (GDC) electrolyte layers were deposited by a sputtering method. The ultrathin ALD YSZ blocking layer was inserted between the YSZ and GDC sputtered layers. To investigate the effects of an inserted ultrathin ALD blocking layer, SOFCs with and without an ultrathin ALD blocking layer were electrochemically characterized. The open circuit voltage (1.14 V) of the ALD blocking-layered SOFC was visibly higher than that (1.05 V) of the other cell. Furthermore, the ALD blocking layer augmented the power density and improved the reproducibility.

  6. Substrate induced tuning of compressive strain and phonon modes in large area MoS2 and WS2 van der Waals epitaxial thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Rajib; Radhakrishnan, Dhanya; Vishal, Badri; Negi, Devendra Singh; Sil, Anomitra; Narayana, Chandrabhas; Datta, Ranjan

    2017-07-01

    Large area MoS2 and WS2 van der Waals epitaxial thin films with control over number of layers including monolayer is grown by pulsed laser deposition utilizing slower growth kinetics. The films grown on c-plane sapphire show stiffening of A1g and E12g phonon modes with decreasing number of layers for both MoS2 and WS2. The observed stiffening translate into the compressive strain of 0.52% & 0.53% with accompanying increase in fundamental direct band gap to 1.74 and 1.68 eV for monolayer MoS2 and WS2, respectively. The strain decays with the number of layers. HRTEM imaging directly reveals the nature of atomic registry of van der Waals layers with the substrate and the associated compressive strain. The results demonstrate a practical route to stabilize and engineer strain for this class of material over large area device fabrication.

  7. Atomic-layer deposited thulium oxide as a passivation layer on germanium

    SciTech Connect

    Mitrovic, I. Z. Hall, S.; Weerakkody, A. D.; Sedghi, N.; Althobaiti, M.; Hesp, D.; Dhanak, V. R.; Santoni, A.; Chalker, P. R.; Henkel, C.; Dentoni Litta, E.; Hellström, P.-E.; Östling, M.; Tan, H.; Schamm-Chardon, S.

    2015-06-07

    A comprehensive study of atomic-layer deposited thulium oxide (Tm{sub 2}O{sub 3}) on germanium has been conducted using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), vacuum ultra-violet variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. The valence band offset is found to be 3.05 ± 0.2 eV for Tm{sub 2}O{sub 3}/p-Ge from the Tm 4d centroid and Ge 3p{sub 3/2} charge-corrected XPS core-level spectra taken at different sputtering times of a single bulk thulium oxide sample. A negligible downward band bending of ∼0.12 eV is observed during progressive differential charging of Tm 4d peaks. The optical band gap is estimated from the absorption edge and found to be 5.77 eV with an apparent Urbach tail signifying band gap tailing at ∼5.3 eV. The latter has been correlated to HRTEM and electron diffraction results corroborating the polycrystalline nature of the Tm{sub 2}O{sub 3} films. The Tm{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ge interface is found to be rather atomically abrupt with sub-nanometer thickness. In addition, the band line-up of reference GeO{sub 2}/n-Ge stacks obtained by thermal oxidation has been discussed and derived. The observed low reactivity of thulium oxide on germanium as well as the high effective barriers for holes (∼3 eV) and electrons (∼2 eV) identify Tm{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a strong contender for interfacial layer engineering in future generations of scaled high-κ gate stacks on Ge.

  8. Supernova Remnants with Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caragiulo, M.; Di Venere, L.

    2017-03-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT), on-board the Fermi satellite, proved to be, after 8 years of data taking, an excellent instrument to detect and observe Supernova Remnants (SNRs) in a range of energies running from few hundred MeV up to few hundred GeV. It provides essential information on physical processes that occur at the source, involving both accelerated leptons and hadrons, in order to understand the mechanisms responsible for the primary Cosmic Ray (CR) acceleration. We show the latest results in the observation of Galactic SNRs by Fermi-LAT.

  9. Large area cold plasma applicator for decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konesky, G. A.

    2008-04-01

    Cold plasma applicators have been used in the Medical community for several years for uses ranging from hemostasis ("stop bleeding") to tumor removal. An added benefit of this technology is enhanced wound healing by the destruction of infectious microbial agents without damaging healthy tissue. The beam is typically one millimeter to less than a centimeter in diameter. This technology has been adapted and expanded to large area applicators of potentially a square meter or more. Decontamination applications include both biological and chemical agents, and assisting in the removal of radiological agents, with minimal or no damage to the contaminated substrate material. Linear and planar multiemitter array plasma applicator design and operation is discussed.

  10. High Efficiency Large Area Polysilicon Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, S. M.; Winter, C.

    1985-01-01

    Large area (100 sq cm) polysilicon solar cells having efficiencies of up to 14.1% (100 mW/sq cm, 25 C) were fabricated and a detailed analysis was performed to identify the efficiency loss mechanisms. The 1-5 characteristics of the best cell were dominated by recombination in the quasi-neutral base due to the combination of minority carrier diffusion length and base resistivity. An analysis of the microstructural defects present in the material and their effect on the electrical properties is presented.

  11. Large Area X-Ray Spectroscopy Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tananbaum, H.

    1997-01-01

    The Large Area X-ray Spectroscopy (LAXS) mission concept study continues to evolve strongly following the merging of the LAXS mission with the Next Generation X-ray Observatory (NGXO, PI: Nick White) into the re-named High Throughput X-ray Spectroscopy (HTXS) Mission. HTXS retains key elements of the LAXS proposal, including the use of multiple satellites for risk-reduction and cost savings. A key achievement of the program has been the recommendation by the Structure and Evolution of the Universe (SEUS) (April 1997) for a new start for the HTXS mission in the 2000-2004 timeframe.

  12. Creation of economical and robust large area MCPs by ALD method for photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mane, Anil U.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Wagner, Robert G.; Siegmund, Oswald H. W.; Minot, Michael J.

    2016-09-01

    We report a cost-effective and production achievable path to fabricate robust large-area microchannel plates (MCPs), which offers the new prospect for larger area MCP-based detector technologies. We used atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), a thin film growth technique, to independently adjust the desired electrical resistance and secondary electron emission (SEE) properties of low cost borosilicate glass micro-capillary arrays (MCAs). These capabilities allow a separation of the substrate material properties from the signal amplification properties. This methodology enables the functionalization of microporous, highly insulating MCA substrates to produce sturdy, large format MCPs with unique properties such as high gain (<107/MCP pair), low background noise, 10ps time resolution, sub-micron spatial resolution and excellent stability after only a short (2-3days) scrubbing time. The ALD self-limiting growth mechanism allows atomic level control over the thickness and composition of resistive and secondary electron emission (SEE) layers that can be deposited conformally on high aspect ratio ( 100) capillary glass arrays. We have developed several robust and consistent production doable ALD processes for the resistive coatings and SEE layers to give us precise control over the MCP parameters. Further, the adjustment of MCPs resistance by tailoring the ALD material composition permits the use of these MCPs at high or low temperature detector applications. Here we discuss ALD method for MCP functionalization and a variety of MCP testing results.

  13. Enhanced light extraction of scintillator using large-area photonic crystal structures fabricated by soft-X-ray interference lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Zhichao; Wu, Shuang; Liu, Bo Cheng, Chuanwei; Gu, Mu; Chen, Hong; Xue, Chaofan; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Liansheng; Wu, Yanqing; Tai, Renzhong

    2015-06-15

    Soft-X-ray interference lithography is utilized in combination with atomic layer deposition to prepare photonic crystal structures on the surface of Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12} (BGO) scintillator in order to extract the light otherwise trapped in the internal of scintillator due to total internal reflection. An enhancement with wavelength- and emergence angle-integration by 95.1% has been achieved. This method is advantageous to fabricate photonic crystal structures with large-area and high-index-contrast which enable a high-efficient coupling of evanescent field and the photonic crystal structures. Generally, the method demonstrated in this work is also suitable for many other light emitting devices where a large-area is required in the practical applications.

  14. Atomic Layer Deposition for Coating of High Aspect Ratio TiO2 Nanotube Layers.

    PubMed

    Zazpe, Raul; Knaut, Martin; Sopha, Hanna; Hromadko, Ludek; Albert, Matthias; Prikryl, Jan; Gärtnerová, V; Bartha, Johann W; Macak, Jan M

    2016-10-05

    We present an optimized approach for the deposition of Al2O3 (as a model secondary material) coating into high aspect ratio (≈180) anodic TiO2 nanotube layers using the atomic layer deposition (ALD) process. In order to study the influence of the diffusion of the Al2O3 precursors on the resulting coating thickness, ALD processes with different exposure times (i.e., 0.5, 2, 5, and 10 s) of the trimethylaluminum (TMA) precursor were performed. Uniform coating of the nanotube interiors was achieved with longer exposure times (5 and 10 s), as verified by detailed scanning electron microscopy analysis. Quartz crystal microbalance measurements were used to monitor the deposition process and its particular features due to the tube diameter gradient. Finally, theoretical calculations were performed to calculate the minimum precursor exposure time to attain uniform coating. Theoretical values on the diffusion regime matched with the experimental results and helped to obtain valuable information for further optimization of ALD coating processes. The presented approach provides a straightforward solution toward the development of many novel devices, based on a high surface area interface between TiO2 nanotubes and a secondary material (such as Al2O3).

  15. Atomic Layer Deposition for Coating of High Aspect Ratio TiO2 Nanotube Layers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We present an optimized approach for the deposition of Al2O3 (as a model secondary material) coating into high aspect ratio (≈180) anodic TiO2 nanotube layers using the atomic layer deposition (ALD) process. In order to study the influence of the diffusion of the Al2O3 precursors on the resulting coating thickness, ALD processes with different exposure times (i.e., 0.5, 2, 5, and 10 s) of the trimethylaluminum (TMA) precursor were performed. Uniform coating of the nanotube interiors was achieved with longer exposure times (5 and 10 s), as verified by detailed scanning electron microscopy analysis. Quartz crystal microbalance measurements were used to monitor the deposition process and its particular features due to the tube diameter gradient. Finally, theoretical calculations were performed to calculate the minimum precursor exposure time to attain uniform coating. Theoretical values on the diffusion regime matched with the experimental results and helped to obtain valuable information for further optimization of ALD coating processes. The presented approach provides a straightforward solution toward the development of many novel devices, based on a high surface area interface between TiO2 nanotubes and a secondary material (such as Al2O3). PMID:27643411

  16. Tailoring polarity in a layered nickelate with single atomic layer control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Anand; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany; Zhou, Hua; Balachandran, Prasanna; Fabbris, Gilberto; Hoffman, Jason; Haskel, Daniel; Rondinelli, James

    2014-03-01

    Many of the 3d transition metal oxides share a common structural MO6 building unit--a central transition metal (TM) cation octahedrally coordinated with oxygen nearest neighbors. The electronic states in these materials can be modified by tailoring the M-O bonds, which typically include the application of epitaxial strain in thin films, or pressure and isovalent cation substitution in bulk samples. Here, we present a new route to tailor the M-O bonds without changes to the strain state or stoichiometry in two-dimensional perovskite nickelate (n =1 in the Ruddlesden Popper series). We do this by tailoring the dipolar electrostatic interactions at the unit cell level in nominally non-polar LaSrNiO4 via single atomic layer-by-layer synthesis using oxide-MBE. We reconstruct the response of the crystal lattice to the induced polarity using a x-ray phase retrieval technique (COBRA). We find that the response of the O anions to the resulting local electric fields distorts the M-O bonds, being largest for the apical oxygens (Oap) . It also alters the Ni valence.

  17. Conduction mechanisms in thin atomic layer deposited Al2O3 layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spahr, Holger; Montzka, Sebastian; Reinker, Johannes; Hirschberg, Felix; Kowalsky, Wolfgang; Johannes, Hans-Hermann

    2013-11-01

    Thin Al2O3 layers of 2-135 nm thickness deposited by thermal atomic layer deposition at 80 °C were characterized regarding the current limiting mechanisms by increasing voltage ramp stress. By analyzing the j(U)-characteristics regarding ohmic injection, space charge limited current (SCLC), Schottky-emission, Fowler-Nordheim-tunneling, and Poole-Frenkel-emission, the limiting mechanisms were identified. This was performed by rearranging and plotting the data in a linear scale, such as Schottky-plot, Poole-Frenkel-plot, and Fowler-Nordheim-plot. Linear regression then was applied to the data to extract the values of relative permittivity from Schottky-plot slope and Poole-Frenkel-plot slope. From Fowler-Nordheim-plot slope, the Fowler-Nordheim-energy-barrier was extracted. Example measurements in addition to a statistical overview of the results of all investigated samples are provided. Linear regression was applied to the region of the data that matches the realistic values most. It is concluded that ohmic injection and therefore SCLC only occurs at thicknesses below 12 nm and that the Poole-Frenkel-effect is no significant current limiting process. The extracted Fowler-Nordheim-barriers vary in the range of up to approximately 4 eV but do not show a specific trend. It is discussed whether the negative slope in the Fowler-Nordheim-plot could in some cases be a misinterpreted trap filled limit in the case of space charge limited current.

  18. Atomic layer deposition of NiO hole-transporting layers for polymer solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Che-Chen; Su, Heng-Wei; Hou, Cheng-Hung; Shyue, Jing-Jong; Tsai, Feng-Yu

    2015-09-01

    NiO is an attractive hole-transporting material for polymer solar cells (PSCs) owing to its excellent stability and electrical/optical properties. This study demonstrates, for the first time, fabrication of uniform, defect-free, and conformal NiO ultra-thin films for use as hole-transporting layers (HTLs) in PSCs by atomic layer deposition (ALD) through optimization of the ALD processing parameters. The morphological, optical, and electrical properties of ALD NiO films were determined to be favorable for their HTL application. As a result, PSCs containing an ALD NiO HTL with an optimized thickness of 4 nm achieved a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.4%, which was comparable to that of a control device with a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy-thiophene):poly(styrene-sulfonate) HTL. The high quality and manufacturing scalability of ALD NiO films demonstrated here will facilitate the adoption of NiO HTLs in PSCs.

  19. Low-Temperature Plasma-Assisted Atomic Layer Deposition of Silicon Nitride Moisture Permeation Barrier Layers.

    PubMed

    Andringa, Anne-Marije; Perrotta, Alberto; de Peuter, Koen; Knoops, Harm C M; Kessels, Wilhelmus M M; Creatore, Mariadriana

    2015-10-14

    Encapsulation of organic (opto-)electronic devices, such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), photovoltaic cells, and field-effect transistors, is required to minimize device degradation induced by moisture and oxygen ingress. SiNx moisture permeation barriers have been fabricated using a very recently developed low-temperature plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD) approach, consisting of half-reactions of the substrate with the precursor SiH2(NH(t)Bu)2 and with N2-fed plasma. The deposited films have been characterized in terms of their refractive index and chemical composition by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The SiNx thin-film refractive index ranges from 1.80 to 1.90 for films deposited at 80 °C up to 200 °C, respectively, and the C, O, and H impurity levels decrease when the deposition temperature increases. The relative open porosity content of the layers has been studied by means of multisolvent ellipsometric porosimetry (EP), adopting three solvents with different kinetic diameters: water (∼0.3 nm), ethanol (∼0.4 nm), and toluene (∼0.6 nm). Irrespective of the deposition temperature, and hence the impurity content in the SiNx films, no uptake of any adsorptive has been observed, pointing to the absence of open pores larger than 0.3 nm in diameter. Instead, multilayer development has been observed, leading to type II isotherms that, according to the IUPAC classification, are characteristic of nonporous layers. The calcium test has been performed in a climate chamber at 20 °C and 50% relative humidity to determine the intrinsic water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of SiNx barriers deposited at 120 °C. Intrinsic WVTR values in the range of 10(-6) g/m2/day indicate excellent barrier properties for ALD SiNx layers as thin as 10 nm, competing with that of state-of-the-art plasma-enhanced chemical vapor-deposited SiNx layers of a few hundred

  20. Atomic Layer Deposition for the Modification and Creation of Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Needham, Erinn Christine

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a vapor-phase technique for the conformal deposition of material with sub-nanometer precision, making it an ideal process for modifying and even creating nanomaterials. The focus of this dissertation is the study of how ALD precursors interact with organic materials, namely polymers, to create selectively deposited nano-scale patterns and how ALD coatings modify biological responses to nanomaterials, namely carbon nanotubes (CNT), after inhalation. Nanoscale patterning is vital to the semiconductor industry. With features becoming smaller and more complex with each passing year, new techniques are required to meet the needs of the industry. The ability to selectively pattern a material onto a wafer is of particular interest for the replacement of costly etching steps. In the first half of this dissertation, a method for the selective deposition of nano-scale patterns is presented. Patterned polymers were used as sacrificial sponges to soak up ALD precursors for the creation of metal-oxide features. Meanwhile, deposition in areas without polymer was limited to the monolayer regime. Following infiltration, the saturated polymer was burned away and the precursor oxidized to form a metal oxide reproduction of the polymer pattern. Determining the reaction between the ALD precursor, trimethylaluminum, and polymer, poly(methyl methacrylate), helped to achieve patterning by informing the proper selection of reactor temperature as well as exposure and purge times. Using this technique, features from tens of nanometers to tens of microns were patterned uniformly and simultaneously across a 150 mm wafer. Finally, this technique was extended to pattern two different materials using only one patterned polymer layer. ALD was first used to deposit a metal oxide were there was no polymer. By selecting ALD precursors that do not react within or on top of the polymer, selective deposition of the first material was achieved. Following this, the

  1. Reducing interface recombination for Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} by atomic layer deposited buffer layers

    SciTech Connect

    Hultqvist, Adam; Bent, Stacey F.; Li, Jian V.; Kuciauskas, Darius; Dippo, Patricia; Contreras, Miguel A.; Levi, Dean H.

    2015-07-20

    Partial CuInGaSe{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cell stacks with different atomic layer deposited buffer layers and pretreatments were analyzed by photoluminescence (PL) and capacitance voltage (CV) measurements to investigate the buffer layer/CIGS interface. Atomic layer deposited ZnS, ZnO, and SnO{sub x} buffer layers were compared with chemical bath deposited CdS buffer layers. Band bending, charge density, and interface state density were extracted from the CV measurement using an analysis technique new to CIGS. The surface recombination velocity calculated from the density of interface traps for a ZnS/CIGS stack shows a remarkably low value of 810 cm/s, approaching the range of single crystalline II–VI systems. Both the PL spectra and its lifetime depend on the buffer layer; thus, these measurements are not only sensitive to the absorber but also to the absorber/buffer layer system. Pretreatment of the CIGS prior to the buffer layer deposition plays a significant role on the electrical properties for the same buffer layer/CIGS stack, further illuminating the importance of good interface formation. Finally, ZnS is found to be the best performing buffer layer in this study, especially if the CIGS surface is pretreated with potassium cyanide.

  2. Reducing interface recombination for Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 by atomic layer deposited buffer layers

    SciTech Connect

    Hultqvist, Adam; Li, Jian V.; Kuciauskas, Darius; Dippo, Patricia; Contreras, Miguel A.; Levi, Dean H.; Bent, Stacey F.

    2015-07-20

    Partial CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) solar cell stacks with different atomic layer deposited buffer layers and pretreatments were analyzed by photoluminescence (PL) and capacitance voltage (CV) measurements to investigate the buffer layer/CIGS interface. Atomic layer deposited ZnS, ZnO, and SnOx buffer layers were compared with chemical bath deposited CdS buffer layers. Band bending, charge density, and interface state density were extracted from the CV measurement using an analysis technique new to CIGS. The surface recombination velocity calculated from the density of interface traps for a ZnS/CIGS stack shows a remarkably low value of 810 cm/s, approaching the range of single crystalline II-VI systems. Both the PL spectra and its lifetime depend on the buffer layer; thus, these measurements are not only sensitive to the absorber but also to the absorber/buffer layer system. Pretreatment of the CIGS prior to the buffer layer deposition plays a significant role on the electrical properties for the same buffer layer/CIGS stack, further illuminating the importance of good interface formation. Finally, ZnS is found to be the best performing buffer layer in this study, especially if the CIGS surface is pretreated with potassium cyanide.

  3. Atomic-Scale Tuning of Layered Binary Metal Oxides for High Temperature Moving Assemblies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0166 Atomic -Scale Tuning of Layered Binary Metal OxideS ASHLIE MARTINI UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA MERCED Final Report 06/01/2015...COVERED (From - To)      01-05-2012 to 30-04-2015 4.  TITLE AND SUBTITLE Atomic -Scale Tuning of Layered Binary Metal Oxides for High Temperature Moving...understand, at an atomic level, the material properties that influence the thermal, mechanical and tribological behavior of intrinsically layered binary

  4. A large area, high gain Micro Gap Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelini, F.; Bellazzini, R.; Bozzo, M.; Brez, A.; Massai, M. M.; Raffo, R.; Spandre, G.; Spezziga, M.; Toropin, A.

    1995-02-01

    A new approach to the construction of the Micro Gap Chamber is presented. A 10 × 10 cm 2 MGC has been built using a 8 μm thick polyimide layer as anode-cathode insulator. Studies on gas gain, uniformity of response along the strip and charging-up have been carried out in laboratory by using X-ray sources. Very large proportional gains, up to ˜ 210 4, have been reached working with gas mixtures based on Ne-DME. The simplified technology for the detector fabrication opens the possibility to produce very large area MGCs.

  5. Timing Characteristics of Large Area Picosecond Photodetectors

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Bernhard W.; Elagin, Andrey L.; Frisch, H.; Obaid, Razib; Oberla, E; Vostrikov, Alexander; Wagner, Robert G.; Wang, Jingbo; Wetstein, Matthew J.; Northrop, R

    2015-09-21

    The LAPPD Collaboration was formed to develop ultralast large-area imaging photodetectors based on new methods for fabricating microchannel plates (MCPs). In this paper we characterize the time response using a pulsed, sub picosecond laser. We observe single photoelectron time resolutions of a 20 cm x 20 cm MCP consistently below 70 ps, spatial resolutions of roughly 500 pm, and median gains higher than 10(7). The RMS measured at one particular point on an LAPPD detector is 58 ps, with in of 47 ps. The differential time resolution between the signal reaching the two ends of the delay line anode is measured to be 5.1 ps for large signals, with an asymptotic limit falling below 2 ps as noise-over-signal approaches zero.

  6. The CLAS12 large area RICH detector

    SciTech Connect

    M. Contalbrigo, E. Cisbani, P. Rossi

    2011-05-01

    A large area RICH detector is being designed for the CLAS12 spectrometer as part of the 12 GeV upgrade program of the Jefferson Lab Experimental Hall-B. This detector is intended to provide excellent hadron identification from 3 GeV/c up to momenta exceeding 8 GeV/c and to be able to work at the very high design luminosity-up to 1035 cm2 s-1. Detailed feasibility studies are presented for two types of radiators, aerogel and liquid C6F14 freon, in conjunction with a highly segmented light detector in the visible wavelength range. The basic parameters of the RICH are outlined and the resulting performances, as defined by preliminary simulation studies, are reported.

  7. The CLAS12 large area RICH detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contalbrigo, M.; Cisbani, E.; Rossi, P.

    2011-05-01

    A large area RICH detector is being designed for the CLAS12 spectrometer as part of the 12 GeV upgrade program of the Jefferson Lab Experimental Hall-B. This detector is intended to provide excellent hadron identification from 3 GeV/ c up to momenta exceeding 8 GeV/ c and to be able to work at the very high design luminosity-up to 10 35 cm 2 s -1. Detailed feasibility studies are presented for two types of radiators, aerogel and liquid C 6F 14 freon, in conjunction with a highly segmented light detector in the visible wavelength range. The basic parameters of the RICH are outlined and the resulting performances, as defined by preliminary simulation studies, are reported.

  8. The Large Area Pulsed Solar Simulator (LAPSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, R. L.

    1993-01-01

    A Large Area Pulsed Solar Simulator (LAPSS) has been installed at JPL. It is primarily intended to be used to illuminate and measure the electrical performance of photovoltaic devices. The simulator, originally manufactured by Spectrolab, Sylmar, California, occupies an area measuring about 3 meters wide by 12 meters long. The data acquisition and data processing subsystems have been modernized. Tests on the LAPSS performance resulted in better than +/- 2 percent uniformity of irradiance at the test plane and better than +/- 0.3 percent measurement repeatability after warm-up. Glass absorption filters are used to reduce the level of ultraviolet light emitted from the xenon flash lamps. This provides a close match to standard airmass zero and airmass 1.5 spectral irradiance distributions. The 2 millisecond light pulse prevents heating of the device under test, resulting in more reliable temperature measurements. Overall, excellent electrical performance measurements have been made of many different types and sizes of photovoltaic devices.

  9. Fermi Large Area Telescope Second Source Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, P. L.; Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Antolini, E.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Belfiore, A.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bignami, G. F.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Bonnell, J.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Bouvier, A.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Burnett, T. H.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Campana, R.; Cañadas, B.; Cannon, A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Ceccanti, M.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Chipaux, R.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cominsky, L. R.; Conrad, J.; Corbet, R.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; Davis, D. S.; de Angelis, A.; DeCesar, M. E.; DeKlotz, M.; De Luca, A.; den Hartog, P. R.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Digel, S. W.; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Enoto, T.; Escande, L.; Fabiani, D.; Falletti, L.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Fortin, P.; Frailis, M.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giebels, B.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Gustafsson, M.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Hill, A. B.; Horan, D.; Hou, X.; Hughes, R. E.; Iafrate, G.; Itoh, R.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, R. P.; Johnson, T. E.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, T. J.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Katsuta, J.; Kawai, N.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kocevski, D.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Landriu, D.; Latronico, L.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lionetto, A. M.; Llena Garde, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Marelli, M.; Massaro, E.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McConville, W.; McEnery, J. E.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Minuti, M.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mongelli, M.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Nymark, T.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Pinchera, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Racusin, J. L.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reposeur, T.; Ritz, S.; Rochester, L. S.; Romani, R. W.; Roth, M.; Rousseau, R.; Ryde, F.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Salvetti, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Sbarra, C.; Scargle, J. D.; Schalk, T. L.; Sgrò, C.; Shaw, M. S.; Shrader, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stephens, T. E.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Tibolla, O.; Tinebra, F.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Van Etten, A.; Van Klaveren, B.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wallace, E.; Wang, P.; Werner, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, D. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Yang, Z.; Zimmer, S.

    2012-04-01

    We present the second catalog of high-energy γ-ray sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), derived from data taken during the first 24 months of the science phase of the mission, which began on 2008 August 4. Source detection is based on the average flux over the 24 month period. The second Fermi-LAT catalog (2FGL) includes source location regions, defined in terms of elliptical fits to the 95% confidence regions and spectral fits in terms of power-law, exponentially cutoff power-law, or log-normal forms. Also included are flux measurements in five energy bands and light curves on monthly intervals for each source. Twelve sources in the catalog are modeled as spatially extended. We provide a detailed comparison of the results from this catalog with those from the first Fermi-LAT catalog (1FGL). Although the diffuse Galactic and isotropic models used in the 2FGL analysis are improved compared to the 1FGL catalog, we attach caution flags to 162 of the sources to indicate possible confusion with residual imperfections in the diffuse model. The 2FGL catalog contains 1873 sources detected and characterized in the 100 MeV to 100 GeV range of which we consider 127 as being firmly identified and 1171 as being reliably associated with counterparts of known or likely γ-ray-producing source classes. We dedicate this paper to the memory of our colleague Patrick Nolan, who died on 2011 November 6. His career spanned much of the history of high-energy astronomy from space and his work on the Large Area Telescope (LAT) began nearly 20 years ago when it was just a concept. Pat was a central member in the operation of the LAT collaboration and he is greatly missed.

  10. Atomic structures of silicene layers grown on Ag(111): scanning tunneling microscopy and noncontact atomic force microscopy observations.

    PubMed

    Resta, Andrea; Leoni, Thomas; Barth, Clemens; Ranguis, Alain; Becker, Conrad; Bruhn, Thomas; Vogt, Patrick; Le Lay, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Silicene, the considered equivalent of graphene for silicon, has been recently synthesized on Ag(111) surfaces. Following the tremendous success of graphene, silicene might further widen the horizon of two-dimensional materials with new allotropes artificially created. Due to stronger spin-orbit coupling, lower group symmetry and different chemistry compared to graphene, silicene presents many new interesting features. Here, we focus on very important aspects of silicene layers on Ag(111): First, we present scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy (nc-AFM) observations of the major structures of single layer and bi-layer silicene in epitaxy with Ag(111). For the (3 × 3) reconstructed first silicene layer nc-AFM represents the same lateral arrangement of silicene atoms as STM and therefore provides a timely experimental confirmation of the current picture of the atomic silicene structure. Furthermore, both nc-AFM and STM give a unifying interpretation of the second layer (√3 × √3)R ± 30° structure. Finally, we give support to the conjectured possible existence of less stable, ~2% stressed, (√7 × √7)R ± 19.1° rotated silicene domains in the first layer.

  11. Atomic Structures of Silicene Layers Grown on Ag(111): Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Noncontact Atomic Force Microscopy Observations

    PubMed Central

    Resta, Andrea; Leoni, Thomas; Barth, Clemens; Ranguis, Alain; Becker, Conrad; Bruhn, Thomas; Vogt, Patrick; Le Lay, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Silicene, the considered equivalent of graphene for silicon, has been recently synthesized on Ag(111) surfaces. Following the tremendous success of graphene, silicene might further widen the horizon of two-dimensional materials with new allotropes artificially created. Due to stronger spin-orbit coupling, lower group symmetry and different chemistry compared to graphene, silicene presents many new interesting features. Here, we focus on very important aspects of silicene layers on Ag(111): First, we present scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy (nc-AFM) observations of the major structures of single layer and bi-layer silicene in epitaxy with Ag(111). For the (3 × 3) reconstructed first silicene layer nc-AFM represents the same lateral arrangement of silicene atoms as STM and therefore provides a timely experimental confirmation of the current picture of the atomic silicene structure. Furthermore, both nc-AFM and STM give a unifying interpretation of the second layer (√3 × √3)R ± 30° structure. Finally, we give support to the conjectured possible existence of less stable, ~2% stressed, (√7 × √7)R ± 19.1° rotated silicene domains in the first layer. PMID:23928998

  12. Conduction mechanisms in thin atomic layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers

    SciTech Connect

    Spahr, Holger; Montzka, Sebastian; Reinker, Johannes; Hirschberg, Felix; Kowalsky, Wolfgang; Johannes, Hans-Hermann

    2013-11-14

    Thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers of 2–135 nm thickness deposited by thermal atomic layer deposition at 80 °C were characterized regarding the current limiting mechanisms by increasing voltage ramp stress. By analyzing the j(U)-characteristics regarding ohmic injection, space charge limited current (SCLC), Schottky-emission, Fowler-Nordheim-tunneling, and Poole-Frenkel-emission, the limiting mechanisms were identified. This was performed by rearranging and plotting the data in a linear scale, such as Schottky-plot, Poole-Frenkel-plot, and Fowler-Nordheim-plot. Linear regression then was applied to the data to extract the values of relative permittivity from Schottky-plot slope and Poole-Frenkel-plot slope. From Fowler-Nordheim-plot slope, the Fowler-Nordheim-energy-barrier was extracted. Example measurements in addition to a statistical overview of the results of all investigated samples are provided. Linear regression was applied to the region of the data that matches the realistic values most. It is concluded that ohmic injection and therefore SCLC only occurs at thicknesses below 12 nm and that the Poole-Frenkel-effect is no significant current limiting process. The extracted Fowler-Nordheim-barriers vary in the range of up to approximately 4 eV but do not show a specific trend. It is discussed whether the negative slope in the Fowler-Nordheim-plot could in some cases be a misinterpreted trap filled limit in the case of space charge limited current.

  13. Large-Area Nanolattice Film with Enhanced Modulus, Hardness, and Energy Dissipation.

    PubMed

    Bagal, Abhijeet; Zhang, Xu A; Shahrin, Rahnuma; Dandley, Erinn C; Zhao, Junjie; Poblete, Felipe R; Oldham, Christopher J; Zhu, Yong; Parsons, Gregory N; Bobko, Christopher; Chang, Chih-Hao

    2017-08-22

    We present an engineered nanolattice material with enhanced mechanical properties that can be broadly applied as a thin film over large areas. The nanolattice films consist of ordered, three-dimensional architecture with thin-shell tubular elements, resulting in favorable modulus-density scaling (n ~ 1.1), enhanced energy dissipation, and extremely large material recoverability for strains up to 20% under normal compressive loading. At 95.6% porosity, the nanolattice film has demonstrated modulus of 1.19 GPa and specific energy dissipation of 325.5 kJ/kg, surpassing previously reported values at similar densities. The largest length scale in the reported nanolattice is the 500 nm unit-cell lattice constant, allowing the film to behave more like a continuum material and be visually unobservable. Fabricated using three-dimensional colloidal nanolithography and atomic layer deposition, the process can be scaled for large-area patterning. The proposed nanolattice film can find applications as a robust multifunctional insulating film that can be applied in integrated photonic elements, optoelectronic devices, and microcircuit chips.

  14. Atomic Layer Deposition on Carbon Nanotubes and their Assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stano, Kelly Lynn

    Global issues related to energy and the environment have motivated development of advanced material solutions outside of traditional metals ceramics, and polymers. Taking inspiration from composites, where the combination of two or more materials often yields superior properties, the field of organic-inorganic hybrids has recently emerged. Carbon nanotube (CNT)-inorganic hybrids have drawn widespread and increasing interest in recent years due to their multifunctionality and potential impact across several technologically important application areas. Before the impacts of CNT-inorganic hybrids can be realized however, processing techniques must be developed for their scalable production. Optimization in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods for synthesis of CNTs and vertically aligned CNT arrays has created production routes both high throughput and economically feasible. Additionally, control of CVD parameters has allowed for growth of CNT arrays that are able to be drawn into aligned sheets and further processed to form a variety of aligned 1, 2, and 3-dimensional bulk assemblies including ribbons, yarns, and foams. To date, there have only been a few studies on utilizing these bulk assemblies for the production of CNT-inorganic hybrids. Wet chemical methods traditionally used for fabricating CNT-inorganic hybrids are largely incompatible with CNT assemblies, since wetting and drying the delicate structures with solvents can destroy their structure. It is therefore necessary to investigate alternative processing strategies in order to advance the field of CNT-inorganic hybrids. In this dissertation, atomic layer deposition (ALD) is evaluated as a synthetic route for the production of large-scale CNT-metal oxide hybrids as well as pure metal oxide architectures utilizing CNT arrays, ribbons, and ultralow density foams as deposition templates. Nucleation and growth behavior of alumina was evaluated as a function of CNT surface chemistry. While highly graphitic

  15. Development of a large area microstructure photomultiplier assembly (LAMPA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifford, E. T. H.; Dick, M.; Facina, M.; Wakeford, D.; Andrews, H. R.; Ing, H.; Best, D.; Baginski, M. J.

    2017-05-01

    Large area (> m2) position-sensitive readout of scintillators is important for passive/active gamma and neutron imaging for counter-terrorism applications. The goal of the LAMPA project is to provide a novel, affordable, large-area photodetector (8" x 8") by replacing the conventional dynodes of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) with electron multiplier microstructure boards (MSBs) that can be produced using industrial manufacturing techniques. The square, planar format of the LAMPA assemblies enables tiling of multiple units to support large area applications. The LAMPA performance objectives include comparable gain, noise, timing, and energy resolution relative to conventional PMTs, as well as spatial resolution in the few mm range. The current LAMPA prototype is a stack of 8" x 8" MSBs made commercially by chemical etching of a molybdenum substrate and coated with hydrogen-terminated boron-doped diamond for high secondary emission yield (SEY). The layers of MSBs are electrically isolated using ceramic standoffs. Field-shaping grids are located between adjacent boards to achieve good transmission of electrons from one board to the next. The spacing between layers and the design of the microstructure pattern and grids were guided by simulations performed using an electro-optics code. A position sensitive anode board at the back of the stack of MSBs provides 2-D readout. This presentation discusses the trade studies performed in the design of the MSBs, the measurements of SEY from various electro-emissive materials, the electro-optics simulations conducted, the design of the 2-D readout, and the mechanical aspects of the LAMPA design, in order to achieve a gain of > 104 in an 8-stage stack of MSBs, suitable for use with various scintillators when coupled to an appropriate photocathode.

  16. Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Tang, D Y; Zhao, L M; Bao, Q L; Loh, K P

    2009-09-28

    We report on large energy pulse generation in an erbium-doped fiber laser passively mode-locked with atomic layer graphene. Stable mode locked pulses with single pulse energy up to 7.3 nJ and pulse width of 415 fs have been directly generated from the laser. Our results show that atomic layer graphene could be a promising saturable absorber for large energy mode locking.

  17. Thermo-Mechanical Properties of Alumina Films Created Using the Atomic Layer Deposition Technique

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    b s t r a c t Interdigitated humidity sensors with atomic layer deposited (ALD) coatings of aluminum oxide demon- strated no leakage current relative...unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Interdigitated humidity sensors with atomic layer deposited (ALD) coatings of aluminum oxide...23 (9) (2008) 2443–2457. [32] G.G. Stoney, The tension ofmetallic films deposited by electrolysis , Proc. R. Soc. A82 (553) (1909) 172–175. [33] M

  18. Effect of substrate composition on atomic layer deposition using self-assembled monolayers as blocking layers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wenyu; Engstrom, James R.

    2016-01-15

    The authors have examined the effect of two molecules that form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on the subsequent growth of TaN{sub x} by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on two substrate surfaces, SiO{sub 2} and Cu. The SAMs that the authors have investigated include two vapor phase deposited, fluorinated alkyl silanes: Cl{sub 3}Si(CH{sub 2}){sub 2}(CF{sub 2}){sub 5}CF{sub 3} (FOTS) and (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}O){sub 3}Si(CH{sub 2}){sub 2}(CF{sub 2}){sub 7}CF{sub 3} (HDFTEOS). Both the SAMs themselves and the TaN{sub x} thin films, grown using Ta[N(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 5} and NH{sub 3}, were analyzed ex situ using contact angle, spectroscopic ellipsometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and low energy ion-scattering spectroscopy (LEISS). First, the authors find that both SAMs on SiO{sub 2} are nominally stable at T{sub s} ∼ 300 °C, the substrate temperature used for ALD, while on Cu, the authors find that HDFTEOS thermally desorbs, while FOTS is retained on the surface. The latter result reflects the difference in the head groups of these two molecules. The authors find that both SAMs strongly attenuate the ALD growth of TaN{sub x} on SiO{sub 2}, by about a factor of 10, while on Cu, the SAMs have no effect on ALD growth. Results from LEISS and XPS are decisive in determining the nature of the mechanism of growth of TaN{sub x} on all surfaces. Growth on SiO{sub 2} is 2D and approximately layer-by-layer, while on the surfaces terminated by the SAMs, it nucleates at defect sites, is islanded, and is 3D. In the latter case, our results support growth of the TaN{sub x} thin film over the SAM, with a considerable delay in formation of a continuous thin film. Growth on Cu, with or without the SAMs, is also 3D and islanded, and there is also a delay in the formation of a continuous thin film as compared to growth on SiO{sub 2}. These results highlight the power of coupling measurements from both LEISS and XPS in examinations of ultrathin films formed by ALD.

  19. Large-area sol-gel optical coatings for the Megajoule Laser prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegon, Philippe M.; Germain, Chantal V.; Rorato, Yannick R.; Belleville, Philippe F.; Lavastre, Eric

    2004-02-01

    In the field of thin film coatings, sol-gel (SG) process is an alternative to the conventional Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) techniques. Sol-gel process is particularly competitive on large-area or fragile substates by taking advantage of various liquid phase deposition techniques performed at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, coupled with the versatility of organo-metallic chemistry. Developed by the French Commission for Atomic Energy (CEA) since 1985 for its former high-power lasers generation, optimized sol-gel coatings proved also very resistant to laser energy. In 1998, THALES Angenieux (TAGX) was selected by CEA to provide all the sol-gel coatings dedicated to the French Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) prototype, named Ligne d'Integration Laser (LIL). In cooperation with Saint-Etienne Pole Optique et Vision (POV), TAGX initiated the building of a sol-gel technological platform (SGPF) aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of production of optical and functional coatings on large area substrates. A technology transfer was performed by CEA (Le Ripault) to TAGX focusing on the manufacture mainly of single-layer antireflective coatings (SLAR), but also of multi-layer AR-coatings and of multi-layered highly reflective (HR)-coatings. Since beginning of 2001 and using SGPF equipments, TAGX successfully coated within specificaitons and schedule most of the 300 optics required for LIL activation. After this 2 years 1/2 production campaign in pre-industrial conditions, we can now analyse the advantages of each deposition technique used, the repeatability of the several processes, and the performance of the various coatings.

  20. Large-area ALON windows for reconnaissance and armor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Lee M.; Twedt, Richard; Foti, Robyn; Smith, Mark; Sastri, Suri A.

    2009-05-01

    The demand for large ALON® windows has continued to increase since the material transitioned to Surmet Corporation for commercialization. Two applications which represent opposite ends of the requirements spectrum in terms of required optical performance and cost sensitivity are Reconnaissance windows and transparent armor. Consequently, the approaches to producing large area windows for both applications are quite different. While Recce applications require windows of the highest possible optical quality and stringent refractive index homogeneity across the large aperture sizes of Recce sensors, the optical requirements for transparent armor windows are substantially looser. Furthermore, optical performance is paramount for Recce applications while transparent armor applications are more strongly driven by cost considerations. Surmet has developed processes for producing large (i.e., up to ~17x30-in) ALON® window blanks of extremely high optical quality and refractive index homogeneity, for Recce applications. This material has been optically fabricated into finished windows and characterized for transmitted wavefront and homogeneity. Recent results will be presented. Large area transparent armor windows have been produced using a tiling approach. Since transparent armor laminates consist of multiple layers (i.e., ALON/Glass/Polycarbonate) Smaller ALON® tiles can be face bonded onto the underlying glass and polycarbonate layers to produce very large windows. Excellent ballistic results have been obtained using a tiled configuration. Recent results will be presented.

  1. Large area single crystal (0001) oriented MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskar, Masihhur R.; Ma, Lu; Kannappan, Santhakumar; Sung Park, Pil; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Nath, Digbijoy N.; Lu, Wu; Wu, Yiying; Rajan, Siddharth

    2013-06-01

    Layered metal dichalcogenide materials are a family of semiconductors with a wide range of energy band gaps and properties, the potential for exciting physics and technology applications. However, obtaining high crystal quality thin films over a large area remains a challenge. Here we show that chemical vapor deposition (CVD) can be used to achieve large area single crystal Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) thin films. Growth temperature and choice of substrate were found to critically impact the quality of film grown, and high temperature growth on (0001) oriented sapphire yielded highly oriented single crystal MoS2 films. Films grown under optimal conditions were found to be of high structural quality from high-resolution X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Raman measurements, approaching the quality of reference geological MoS2. Photoluminescence and electrical measurements confirmed the growth of optically active MoS2 with a low background carrier concentration, and high mobility. The CVD method reported here for the growth of high quality MoS2 thin films paves the way towards growth of a variety of layered 2D chalcogenide semiconductors and their heterostructures.

  2. Nonlinear Microwave Properties of Atomic Layer Controlled HTS Multilayers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-14

    nm YBCO 160 nm YBCO 160 nm YBCO -160 -130 - 100 -70 -40 -10 0 10 20 30 Circulating power (dBm) N or m al iz ed IM D p ow er (d B m ) Single layer...film with each YBCO layer 160- nm thick interspersed with CeO2 buffer layers 40- nm thick, giving an aggregate thickness of 640 nm of YBCO . The...flux penetration and flux motion are sources of loss. Thickness dependence of IMD of YBCO

  3. Electrohydrodynamically driven large-area liquid ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Pregenzer, Arian L.

    1988-01-01

    A large-area liquid ion source comprises means for generating, over a large area of the surface of a liquid, an electric field of a strength sufficient to induce emission of ions from a large area of said liquid. Large areas in this context are those distinct from emitting areas in unidimensional emitters.

  4. Atomic layer deposition of epitaxial layers of anatase on strontium titanate single crystals: Morphological and photoelectrochemical characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, Theodore J.; Nepomnyashchii, Alexander B.; Parkinson, B. A.

    2015-01-15

    Atomic layer deposition was used to grow epitaxial layers of anatase (001) TiO{sub 2} on the surface of SrTiO{sub 3} (100) crystals with a 3% lattice mismatch. The epilayers grow as anatase (001) as confirmed by x-ray diffraction. Atomic force microscope images of deposited films showed epitaxial layer-by-layer growth up to about 10 nm, whereas thicker films, of up to 32 nm, revealed the formation of 2–5 nm anatase nanocrystallites oriented in the (001) direction. The anatase epilayers were used as substrates for dye sensitization. The as received strontium titanate crystal was not sensitized with a ruthenium-based dye (N3) or a thiacyanine dye (G15); however, photocurrent from excited state electron injection from these dyes was observed when adsorbed on the anatase epilayers. These results show that highly ordered anatase surfaces can be grown on an easily obtained substrate crystal.

  5. Polyurethane Masks Large Areas in Electroplating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beasley, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    Polyurethane foam provides effective mask in electroplating of copper or nickel. Thin layer of Turco maskant painted on area to be masked: Layer ensures polyurethane foam removed easily after served its purpose. Component A, isocyanate, and component B, polyol, mixed together and brushed or sprayed on mask area. Mixture reacts, yielding polyurethane foam. Foam prevents deposition of nickel or copper on covered area. New method saves time, increases productivity and uses less material than older procedures.

  6. Two-dimensional materials: Printing functional atomic layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinwande, Deji

    2017-04-01

    A new approach for the formulation of 2D-nanomaterial dispersions in water with additives, which allows layers to be printed on top of one another with distinctive interfaces, can enable inkjet-printed complex circuits.

  7. Flexible integrated circuits and multifunctional electronics based on single atomic layers of MoS2 and graphene.

    PubMed

    Amani, Matin; Burke, Robert A; Proie, Robert M; Dubey, Madan

    2015-03-20

    Two-dimensional materials, such as graphene and its analogues, have been investigated by numerous researchers for high performance flexible and conformal electronic systems, because they offer the ultimate level of thickness scaling, atomically smooth surfaces and high crystalline quality. Here, we use layer-by-layer transfer of large area molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) to demonstrate electronics on flexible polyimide (PI) substrates. On the same PI substrate, we are able to simultaneously fabricate MoS2 based logic, non-volatile memory cells with graphene floating gates, photo-detectors and MoS2 transistors with tunable source and drain contacts. We are also able to demonstrate that these flexible heterostructure devices have very high electronic performance, comparable to four point measurements taken on SiO2 substrates, with on/off ratios >10(7) and field effect mobilities as high as 16.4 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). Additionally, the heterojunctions show high optoelectronic sensitivity and were operated as photodetectors with responsivities over 30 A W(-1). Through local gating of the individual graphene/MoS2 contacts, we are able to tune the contact resistance over the range of 322-1210 Ω mm for each contact, by modulating the graphene work function. This leads to devices with tunable and multifunctional performance that can be implemented in a conformable platform.

  8. Flexible integrated circuits and multifunctional electronics based on single atomic layers of MoS2 and graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amani, Matin; Burke, Robert A.; Proie, Robert M.; Dubey, Madan

    2015-03-01

    Two-dimensional materials, such as graphene and its analogues, have been investigated by numerous researchers for high performance flexible and conformal electronic systems, because they offer the ultimate level of thickness scaling, atomically smooth surfaces and high crystalline quality. Here, we use layer-by-layer transfer of large area molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) to demonstrate electronics on flexible polyimide (PI) substrates. On the same PI substrate, we are able to simultaneously fabricate MoS2 based logic, non-volatile memory cells with graphene floating gates, photo-detectors and MoS2 transistors with tunable source and drain contacts. We are also able to demonstrate that these flexible heterostructure devices have very high electronic performance, comparable to four point measurements taken on SiO2 substrates, with on/off ratios >107 and field effect mobilities as high as 16.4 cm2 V-1 s-1. Additionally, the heterojunctions show high optoelectronic sensitivity and were operated as photodetectors with responsivities over 30 A W-1. Through local gating of the individual graphene/MoS2 contacts, we are able to tune the contact resistance over the range of 322-1210 Ω mm for each contact, by modulating the graphene work function. This leads to devices with tunable and multifunctional performance that can be implemented in a conformable platform.

  9. Large area silicon sheet by EFG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalejs, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    Work carried out on the JPL Flat Plate Solar Array Project, for the purpose of developing a method for silicon ribbon production by Edge-defined Film-fed Growth (EEG) for use as low-cost substrate material in terrestrial solar cell manufacture, is described. A multiple ribbon furnace unit that is designed to operate on a continuous basis for periods of at least one week, with melt replenishment and automatic ribbon width control, and to produce silicon sheet at a rate of one square meter per hour, was constructed. Program milestones set for single ribbon furnace operation to demonstrate basic EEG system capabilities with respect to growth speed, thickness and cell performance were achieved for 10 cm wide ribbon: steady-state growth at 4 cm/min and 200 micron thickness over periods of an hour and longer was made routine, and a small area cell efficiency of 13+% demonstrated. Large area cells of average efficiency of 10 to 11%, with peak values of 11 to 12% were also achieved. The integration of these individual performance levels into multiple ribbon furnace operation was not accomplished.

  10. Fermi large area telescope second source catalog

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, P. L.; Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Antolini, E.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Belfiore, A.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bignami, G. F.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Bonnell, J.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Bouvier, A.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Burnett, T. H.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Campana, R.; Cañadas, B.; Cannon, A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Ceccanti, M.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Chipaux, R.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cominsky, L. R.; Conrad, J.; Corbet, R.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; Davis, D. S.; de Angelis, A.; DeCesar, M. E.; DeKlotz, M.; De Luca, A.; den Hartog, P. R.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Digel, S. W.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Enoto, T.; Escande, L.; Fabiani, D.; Falletti, L.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Fortin, P.; Frailis, M.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giebels, B.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M. -H.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Gustafsson, M.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Hill, A. B.; Horan, D.; Hou, X.; Hughes, R. E.; Iafrate, G.; Itoh, R.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, R. P.; Johnson, T. E.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, T. J.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Katsuta, J.; Kawai, N.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kocevski, D.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Landriu, D.; Latronico, L.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lionetto, A. M.; Llena Garde, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Marelli, M.; Massaro, E.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McConville, W.; McEnery, J. E.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Minuti, M.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mongelli, M.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Nymark, T.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Pinchera, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Racusin, J. L.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reposeur, T.; Ritz, S.; Rochester, L. S.; Romani, R. W.; Roth, M.; Rousseau, R.; Ryde, F.; Sadrozinski, H. F. -W.; Salvetti, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Sbarra, C.; Scargle, J. D.; Schalk, T. L.; Sgrò, C.; Shaw, M. S.; Shrader, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stephens, T. E.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Tibolla, O.; Tinebra, F.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Van Etten, A.; Van Klaveren, B.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wallace, E.; Wang, P.; Werner, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, D. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Yang, Z.; Zimmer, S.

    2012-03-28

    Here, we present the second catalog of high-energy γ-ray sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), derived from data taken during the first 24 months of the science phase of the mission, which began on 2008 August 4. Source detection is based on the average flux over the 24 month period. The second Fermi-LAT catalog (2FGL) includes source location regions, defined in terms of elliptical fits to the 95% confidence regions and spectral fits in terms of power-law, exponentially cutoff power-law, or log-normal forms. Also included are flux measurements in five energy bands and light curves on monthly intervals for each source. Twelve sources in the catalog are modeled as spatially extended. Furthermore, we provide a detailed comparison of the results from this catalog with those from the first Fermi-LAT catalog (1FGL). Although the diffuse Galactic and isotropic models used in the 2FGL analysis are improved compared to the 1FGL catalog, we attach caution flags to 162 of the sources to indicate possible confusion with residual imperfections in the diffuse model. Finally, the 2FGL catalog contains 1873 sources detected and characterized in the 100 MeV to 100 GeV range of which we consider 127 as being firmly identified and 1171 as being reliably associated with counterparts of known or likely γ-ray-producing source classes.

  11. Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    DOEpatents

    Selwyn, Gary S.; Henins, Ivars; Babayan, Steve E.; Hicks, Robert F.

    2001-01-01

    Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two planar, parallel electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the volume therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly spacing the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, there is a negligible density of ions surviving for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike the situation for low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

  12. Large area silicon sheet by EFG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Progress was made in improving ribbon flatness and reducing stress, and in raising cell performance for 10 cm wide ribbon grown in single cartridge EFG furnaces. Optimization of growth conditions resulted in improved ribbon thickness uniformity at a thickness of 200 micron, grown at 4 cm/minute, and growth at this target speed is routinely achieved over periods of the order of one hour or more. With the improved ribbon flatness, fabrication of large area (50 cm2) cells is now possible, and 10 to 11% efficiencies were demonstrated on ribbon grown at 3.5 to 4 cm/minute. Factors limiting performance of the existing multiple ribbon furnace were identified, and growth system improvements implemented to help raise throughput rates and the time percentage of simultaneous three-ribbon growth. However, it is evident that major redesign of this furnace would be needed to overcome shortfalls in its ability to achieve the Technical Features Demonstration goals of 1980. It was decided to start construction of a new multiple ribbon furnace and to incorporate the desired improvements into its design. The construction of this furnace is completed.

  13. Fermi Large Area Telescope Second Source Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolan, P. L.; Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M; Allafort, A.; Antolini, E; Bonnell, J.; Cannon, A.; Celik O.; Corbet, R.; Davis, D. S.; DeCesar, M. E.; Ferrara, E. C.; Gehrels, N.; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E.; Johnson, T. E.; McConville, W.; McEnery, J. E; Perkins, J. S.; Racusin, J. L; Scargle, J. D.; Stephens, T. E.; Thompson, D. J.; Troja, E.

    2012-01-01

    We present the second catalog of high-energy gamma-ray sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), derived from data taken during the first 24 months of the science phase of the mission, which began on 2008 August 4. Source detection is based on the average flux over the 24-month period. The Second Fermi-LAT catalog (2FGL) includes source location regions, defined in terms of elliptical fits to the 95% confidence regions and spectral fits in terms of power-law, exponentially cutoff power-law, or log-normal forms. Also included are flux measurements in 5 energy bands and light curves on monthly intervals for each source. Twelve sources in the catalog are modeled as spatially extended. We provide a detailed comparison of the results from this catalog with those from the first Fermi-LAT catalog (1FGL). Although the diffuse Galactic and isotropic models used in the 2FGL analysis are improved compared to the 1FGL catalog, we attach caution flags to 162 of the sources to indicate possible confusion with residual imperfections in the diffuse model. The 2FGL catalog contains 1873 sources detected and characterized in the 100 11eV to 100 GeV range of which we consider 127 as being firmly identified and 1171 as being reliably associated with counterparts of known or likely gamma-ray-producing source classes.

  14. The Large Area Pulsed Solar Simulator (LAPSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, R. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Large Area Pulsed Solar Simulator (LAPSS) has been installed at JPL. It is primarily intended to be used to illuminate and measure the electrical performance of photovoltaic devices. The simulator, originally manufactured by Spectrolab, Sylmar, CA, occupies an area measuring about 3 m wide x 12 m long. The data acquisition and data processing subsystems have been modernized. Tests on the LAPSS performance resulted in better than plus or minus 2 percent uniformity of irradiance at the test plane and better than plus or minus 0.3 percent measurement repeatability after warm-up. Glass absorption filters reduce the ultraviolet light emitted from the xenon flash lamps. This results in a close match to three different standard airmass zero and airmass 1.5 spectral irradiances. The 2-ms light pulse prevents heating of the device under test, resulting in more reliable temperature measurements. Overall, excellent electrical performance measurements have been made of many different types and sizes of photovoltaic devices. Since the original printing of this publication, in 1993, the LAPSS has been operational and new capabilities have been added. This revision includes a new section relating to the installation of a method to measure the I-V curve of a solar cell or array exhibiting a large effective capacitance. Another new section has been added relating to new capabilities for plotting single and multiple I-V curves, and for archiving the I-V data and test parameters. Finally, a section has been added regarding the data acquisition electronics calibration.

  15. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE SECOND SOURCE CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, P. L.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Antolini, E.; Bonamente, E.; Atwood, W. B.; Belfiore, A.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Ballet, J.; Bastieri, D.; Bignami, G. F. E-mail: Gino.Tosti@pg.infn.it E-mail: tburnett@u.washington.edu; and others

    2012-04-01

    We present the second catalog of high-energy {gamma}-ray sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), derived from data taken during the first 24 months of the science phase of the mission, which began on 2008 August 4. Source detection is based on the average flux over the 24 month period. The second Fermi-LAT catalog (2FGL) includes source location regions, defined in terms of elliptical fits to the 95% confidence regions and spectral fits in terms of power-law, exponentially cutoff power-law, or log-normal forms. Also included are flux measurements in five energy bands and light curves on monthly intervals for each source. Twelve sources in the catalog are modeled as spatially extended. We provide a detailed comparison of the results from this catalog with those from the first Fermi-LAT catalog (1FGL). Although the diffuse Galactic and isotropic models used in the 2FGL analysis are improved compared to the 1FGL catalog, we attach caution flags to 162 of the sources to indicate possible confusion with residual imperfections in the diffuse model. The 2FGL catalog contains 1873 sources detected and characterized in the 100 MeV to 100 GeV range of which we consider 127 as being firmly identified and 1171 as being reliably associated with counterparts of known or likely {gamma}-ray-producing source classes.

  16. Fabrication of low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells with a nanothin protective layer by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Sanghoon; Chang, Ikwhang; Lee, Yoon Ho; Park, Joonho; Paek, Jun Yeol; Lee, Min Hwan; Cha, Suk Won

    2013-01-01

    Anode aluminum oxide-supported thin-film fuel cells having a sub-500-nm-thick bilayered electrolyte comprising a gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC) layer and an yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) layer were fabricated and electrochemically characterized in order to investigate the effect of the YSZ protective layer. The highly dense and thin YSZ layer acted as a blockage against electron and oxygen permeation between the anode and GDC electrolyte. Dense GDC and YSZ thin films were fabricated using radio frequency sputtering and atomic layer deposition techniques, respectively. The resulting bilayered thin-film fuel cell generated a significantly higher open circuit voltage of approximately 1.07 V compared with a thin-film fuel cell with a single-layered GDC electrolyte (approximately 0.3 V).

  17. Fabrication of low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells with a nanothin protective layer by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Ji, Sanghoon; Chang, Ikwhang; Lee, Yoon Ho; Park, Joonho; Paek, Jun Yeol; Lee, Min Hwan; Cha, Suk Won

    2013-01-23

    Anode aluminum oxide-supported thin-film fuel cells having a sub-500-nm-thick bilayered electrolyte comprising a gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC) layer and an yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) layer were fabricated and electrochemically characterized in order to investigate the effect of the YSZ protective layer. The highly dense and thin YSZ layer acted as a blockage against electron and oxygen permeation between the anode and GDC electrolyte. Dense GDC and YSZ thin films were fabricated using radio frequency sputtering and atomic layer deposition techniques, respectively. The resulting bilayered thin-film fuel cell generated a significantly higher open circuit voltage of approximately 1.07 V compared with a thin-film fuel cell with a single-layered GDC electrolyte (approximately 0.3 V).

  18. Fermi level de-pinning of aluminium contacts to n-type germanium using thin atomic layer deposited layers

    SciTech Connect

    Gajula, D. R. Baine, P.; Armstrong, B. M.; McNeill, D. W.; Modreanu, M.; Hurley, P. K.

    2014-01-06

    Fermi-level pinning of aluminium on n-type germanium (n-Ge) was reduced by insertion of a thin interfacial dielectric by atomic layer deposition. The barrier height for aluminium contacts on n-Ge was reduced from 0.7 eV to a value of 0.28 eV for a thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interfacial layer (∼2.8 nm). For diodes with an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interfacial layer, the contact resistance started to increase for layer thicknesses above 2.8 nm. For diodes with a HfO{sub 2} interfacial layer, the barrier height was also reduced but the contact resistance increased dramatically for layer thicknesses above 1.5 nm.

  19. Fabrication of low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells with a nanothin protective layer by atomic layer deposition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Anode aluminum oxide-supported thin-film fuel cells having a sub-500-nm-thick bilayered electrolyte comprising a gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC) layer and an yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) layer were fabricated and electrochemically characterized in order to investigate the effect of the YSZ protective layer. The highly dense and thin YSZ layer acted as a blockage against electron and oxygen permeation between the anode and GDC electrolyte. Dense GDC and YSZ thin films were fabricated using radio frequency sputtering and atomic layer deposition techniques, respectively. The resulting bilayered thin-film fuel cell generated a significantly higher open circuit voltage of approximately 1.07 V compared with a thin-film fuel cell with a single-layered GDC electrolyte (approximately 0.3 V). PMID:23342963

  20. Large area epitaxial germanane for electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amamou, Walid; Odenthal, Patrick M.; Bushong, Elizabeth J.; O'Hara, Dante J.; Luo, Yunqiu Kelly; van Baren, Jeremiah; Pinchuk, Igor; Wu, Yi; Ahmed, Adam S.; Katoch, Jyoti; Bockrath, Marc W.; Tom, Harry W. K.; Goldberger, Joshua E.; Kawakami, Roland K.

    2015-09-01

    We report the synthesis and transfer of epitaxial germanane (GeH) onto arbitrary substrates by electrochemical delamination and investigate its optoelectronic properties. GeH films with thickness ranging from 1 to 600 nm (2-1000 layers) and areas up to ˜1 cm2 have been reliably transferred and characterized by photoluminescence, x-ray diffraction, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Wavelength dependent photoconductivity measurements on few-layer GeH exhibit an absorption edge and provide a sensitive characterization tool for ultrathin germanane materials. The transfer process also enables the possibility of integrating germanane into vertically stacked heterostructures.

  1. Fermi Large Area Telescope First Source Catalog

    DOE PAGES

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; ...

    2010-05-25

    Here, we present a catalog of high-energy gamma-ray sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), during the first 11 months of the science phase of the mission, which began on 2008 August 4. The First Fermi-LAT catalog (1FGL) contains 1451 sources detected and characterized in the 100 MeV to 100 GeV range. Source detection was based on the average flux over the 11 month period, and the threshold likelihood Test Statistic is 25, corresponding to a significance of just over 4σ. The 1FGL catalog includes source location regions,more » defined in terms of elliptical fits to the 95% confidence regions and power-law spectral fits as well as flux measurements in five energy bands for each source. In addition, monthly light curves are provided. Using a protocol defined before launch we have tested for several populations of gamma-ray sources among the sources in the catalog. For individual LAT-detected sources we provide firm identifications or plausible associations with sources in other astronomical catalogs. Identifications are based on correlated variability with counterparts at other wavelengths, or on spin or orbital periodicity. For the catalogs and association criteria that we have selected, 630 of the sources are unassociated. In conclusion, care was taken to characterize the sensitivity of the results to the model of interstellar diffuse gamma-ray emission used to model the bright foreground, with the result that 161 sources at low Galactic latitudes and toward bright local interstellar clouds are flagged as having properties that are strongly dependent on the model or as potentially being due to incorrectly modeled structure in the Galactic diffuse emission.« less

  2. Fermi large area telescope second source catalog

    DOE PAGES

    Nolan, P. L.; Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; ...

    2012-03-28

    Here, we present the second catalog of high-energy γ-ray sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), derived from data taken during the first 24 months of the science phase of the mission, which began on 2008 August 4. Source detection is based on the average flux over the 24 month period. The second Fermi-LAT catalog (2FGL) includes source location regions, defined in terms of elliptical fits to the 95% confidence regions and spectral fits in terms of power-law, exponentially cutoff power-law, or log-normal forms. Also included are fluxmore » measurements in five energy bands and light curves on monthly intervals for each source. Twelve sources in the catalog are modeled as spatially extended. Furthermore, we provide a detailed comparison of the results from this catalog with those from the first Fermi-LAT catalog (1FGL). Although the diffuse Galactic and isotropic models used in the 2FGL analysis are improved compared to the 1FGL catalog, we attach caution flags to 162 of the sources to indicate possible confusion with residual imperfections in the diffuse model. Finally, the 2FGL catalog contains 1873 sources detected and characterized in the 100 MeV to 100 GeV range of which we consider 127 as being firmly identified and 1171 as being reliably associated with counterparts of known or likely γ-ray-producing source classes.« less

  3. Large Area Lunar Dust Flux Measurement Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corsaro, R.; Giovane, F.; Liou, Jer-Chyi; Burchell, M.; Stansbery, Eugene; Lagakos, N.

    2009-01-01

    The instrument under development is designed to characterize the flux and size distribution of the lunar micrometeoroid and secondary ejecta environment. When deployed on the lunar surface, the data collected will benefit fundamental lunar science as well as enabling more reliable impact risk assessments for human lunar exploration activities. To perform this task, the instrument requirements are demanding. It must have as large a surface area as possible to sample the very sparse population of the larger potentially damage-inducing micrometeorites. It must also have very high sensitivity to enable it to measure the flux of small (<10 micron) micrometeorite and secondary ejecta dust particles. To be delivered to the lunar surface, it must also be very low mass, rugged and stow compactly. The instrument designed to meet these requirements is called FOMIS. It is a large-area thin film under tension (i.e. a drum) with multiple fiber optic displacement (FOD) sensors to monitor displacements of the film. This sensor was chosen since it can measure displacements over a wide dynamic range: 1 cm to sub-Angstrom. A prototype system was successfully demonstrated using the hypervelocity impact test facility at the University of Kent (Canterbury, UK). Based on these results, the prototype system can detect hypervelocity (approx.5 km/s) impacts by particles as small as 2 microns diameter. Additional tests using slow speeds find that it can detect secondary ejecta particles (which do not penetrate the film) with momentums as small as 15 pico-gram 100m/s, or nominally 5 microns diameter at 100 m/s.

  4. Large Area Lunar Dust Flux Measurement Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corsaro, R.; Giovane, F.; Liou, Jer-Chyi; Burchell, M.; Stansbery, Eugene; Lagakos, N.

    2009-01-01

    The instrument under development is designed to characterize the flux and size distribution of the lunar micrometeoroid and secondary ejecta environment. When deployed on the lunar surface, the data collected will benefit fundamental lunar science as well as enabling more reliable impact risk assessments for human lunar exploration activities. To perform this task, the instrument requirements are demanding. It must have as large a surface area as possible to sample the very sparse population of the larger potentially damage-inducing micrometeorites. It must also have very high sensitivity to enable it to measure the flux of small (<10 micron) micrometeorite and secondary ejecta dust particles. To be delivered to the lunar surface, it must also be very low mass, rugged and stow compactly. The instrument designed to meet these requirements is called FOMIS. It is a large-area thin film under tension (i.e. a drum) with multiple fiber optic displacement (FOD) sensors to monitor displacements of the film. This sensor was chosen since it can measure displacements over a wide dynamic range: 1 cm to sub-Angstrom. A prototype system was successfully demonstrated using the hypervelocity impact test facility at the University of Kent (Canterbury, UK). Based on these results, the prototype system can detect hypervelocity (approx.5 km/s) impacts by particles as small as 2 microns diameter. Additional tests using slow speeds find that it can detect secondary ejecta particles (which do not penetrate the film) with momentums as small as 15 pico-gram 100m/s, or nominally 5 microns diameter at 100 m/s.

  5. Fermi Large Area Telescope First Source Catalog

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Antolini, E.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Belli, F.; Berenji, B.; Bisello, D.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Bonnell, J.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, T. H.; Busetto, G.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Campana, R.; Canadas, B.; Caraveo, P. A.; Carrigan, S.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Ceccanti, M.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Cillis, A. N.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Corbet, R.; Davis, D. S.; DeKlotz, M.; den Hartog, P. R.; Dermer, C. D.; de Angelis, A.; de Luca, A.; de Palma, F.; Digel, S. W.; Dormody, M.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Fabiani, D.; Farnier, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Fortin, P.; Frailis, M.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M. -H.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Gustafsson, M.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Healey, S. E.; Hill, A. B.; Horan, D.; Hughes, R. E.; Iafrate, G.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, R. P.; Johnson, T. J.; Johnson, W. N.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kawai, N.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kocevski, D.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Landriu, D.; Latronico, L.; Lee, S. -H.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lionetto, A. M.; Llena Garde, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Makeev, A.; Marangelli, B.; Marelli, M.; Massaro, E.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McConville, W.; McEnery, J. E.; Michelson, P. F.; Minuti, M.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mongelli, M.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Moretti, E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakajima, H.; Nakamori, T.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paccagnella, A.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pinchera, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Poupard, L.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Ray, P. S.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Rea, N.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reposeur, T.; Ripken, J.; Ritz, S.; Rochester, L. S.; Rodriguez, A. Y.; Romani, R. W.; Roth, M.; Sadrozinski, H. F. -W.; Salvetti, D.; Sanchez, D.; Sander, A.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Scargle, J. D.; Schalk, T. L.; Scolieri, G.; Sgrò, C.; Shaw, M. S.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Starck, J. -L.; Stephens, T. E.; Striani, E.; Strickman, M. S.; Strong, A. W.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Thayer, J. G.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Tibolla, O.; Tinebra, F.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Van Etten, A.; Vasileiou, V.; Vilchez, N.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wallace, E.; Wang, P.; Watters, K.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yang, Z.; Ylinen, T.; Ziegler, M.

    2010-05-25

    Here, we present a catalog of high-energy gamma-ray sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), during the first 11 months of the science phase of the mission, which began on 2008 August 4. The First Fermi-LAT catalog (1FGL) contains 1451 sources detected and characterized in the 100 MeV to 100 GeV range. Source detection was based on the average flux over the 11 month period, and the threshold likelihood Test Statistic is 25, corresponding to a significance of just over 4σ. The 1FGL catalog includes source location regions, defined in terms of elliptical fits to the 95% confidence regions and power-law spectral fits as well as flux measurements in five energy bands for each source. In addition, monthly light curves are provided. Using a protocol defined before launch we have tested for several populations of gamma-ray sources among the sources in the catalog. For individual LAT-detected sources we provide firm identifications or plausible associations with sources in other astronomical catalogs. Identifications are based on correlated variability with counterparts at other wavelengths, or on spin or orbital periodicity. For the catalogs and association criteria that we have selected, 630 of the sources are unassociated. In conclusion, care was taken to characterize the sensitivity of the results to the model of interstellar diffuse gamma-ray emission used to model the bright foreground, with the result that 161 sources at low Galactic latitudes and toward bright local interstellar clouds are flagged as having properties that are strongly dependent on the model or as potentially being due to incorrectly modeled structure in the Galactic diffuse emission.

  6. Large Area X-ray Spectroscopy Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tananbaum, Harvey

    1996-01-01

    The Large Area X-ray Spectroscopy (LAXS) mission study concept has evolved strongly over the last year culminating in the merging of LAXS with the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) proposal for a similar mission, the Next Generation X-ray Observatory (NGXO, PI: Nick White). The resulting merger, re-named the High Throughput X-rays Spectroscopy (HTXS) Mission has also expanded by the inclusion of another SAO proposed new mission concept proposal, the Hard X-Ray Telescope (PI: Paul Gorenstein). The resultant multi-instrument mission retains much of heritage from the LAXS proposal, including the use of multiple satellites for robustness. These mergers resulted from a series of contacts between various team members, via e-mail, telecons, and in-person meetings. The impetus for the mergers was the fundamental similarity between the missions, and the recognition that all three proposal teams had significant contributions to make in the effort to define the next stage in the X-ray exploration of the universe. We have enclosed four items that represent some of the work that has occurred during the first year of the study: first, a presentation at the Leicester meeting, second a presentation that was made to Dan Goldin following the merging of LAXS and NGXO, third a copy of the first announcement for the Workshop, and finally the interim report that was prepared by the HTXS study team towards the end of the first year. This last document provides the foundation for the HTXS Technology Roadmap that is being generated. The HTXS roadmap will define the near-term goals that the merged mission must achieve over the next few years. A web site has been developed and populated that contains much of the material that has been generated over the past year.

  7. Fermi Large Area Telescope third source catalog

    DOE PAGES

    Acero, F.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; ...

    2015-06-12

    Here, we present the third Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) source catalog (3FGL) of sources in the 100 MeV–300 GeV range. Based on the first 4 yr of science data from the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope mission, it is the deepest yet in this energy range. Relative to the Second Fermi LAT catalog, the 3FGL catalog incorporates twice as much data, as well as a number of analysis improvements, including improved calibrations at the event reconstruction level, an updated model for Galactic diffuse γ-ray emission, a refined procedure for source detection, and improved methods for associating LAT sources with potential counterparts at other wavelengths. The 3FGL catalog includes 3033 sources abovemore » $$4\\sigma $$ significance, with source location regions, spectral properties, and monthly light curves for each. Of these, 78 are flagged as potentially being due to imperfections in the model for Galactic diffuse emission. Twenty-five sources are modeled explicitly as spatially extended, and overall 238 sources are considered as identified based on angular extent or correlated variability (periodic or otherwise) observed at other wavelengths. For 1010 sources we have not found plausible counterparts at other wavelengths. More than 1100 of the identified or associated sources are active galaxies of the blazar class; several other classes of non-blazar active galaxies are also represented in the 3FGL. Pulsars represent the largest Galactic source class. As a result, from source counts of Galactic sources we estimate that the contribution of unresolved sources to the Galactic diffuse emission is ~3% at 1 GeV.« less

  8. Large-area mapping of biodiversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, J.M.; Jennings, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    The age of discovery, description, and classification of biodiversity is entering a new phase. In responding to the conservation imperative, we can now supplement the essential work of systematics with spatially explicit information on species and assemblages of species. This is possible because of recent conceptual, technical, and organizational progress in generating synoptic views of the earth's surface and a great deal of its biological content, at multiple scales of thematic as well as geographic resolution. The development of extensive spatial data on species distributions and vegetation types provides us with a framework for: (a) assessing what we know and where we know it at meso-scales, and (b) stratifying the biological universe so that higher-resolution surveys can be more efficiently implemented, coveting, for example, geographic adequacy of specimen collections, population abundance, reproductive success, and genetic dynamics. The land areas involved are very large, and the questions, such as resolution, scale, classification, and accuracy, are complex. In this paper, we provide examples from the United States Gap Analysis Program on the advantages and limitations of mapping the occurrence of terrestrial vertebrate species and dominant land-cover types over large areas as joint ventures and in multi-organizational partnerships, and how these cooperative efforts can be designed to implement results from data development and analyses as on-the-ground actions. Clearly, new frameworks for thinking about biogeographic information as well as organizational cooperation are needed if we are to have any hope of documenting the full range of species occurrences and ecological processes in ways meaningful to their management. The Gap Analysis experience provides one model for achieving these new frameworks.

  9. Fermi Large Area Telescope First Source Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Antolini, E.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Belli, F.; Berenji, B.; Bisello, D.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Bonnell, J.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, T. H.; Busetto, G.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Campana, R.; Canadas, B.; Caraveo, P. A.; Carrigan, S.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Ceccanti, M.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Cillis, A. N.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Corbet, R.; Davis, D. S.; DeKlotz, M.; den Hartog, P. R.; Dermer, C. D.; de Angelis, A.; de Luca, A.; de Palma, F.; Digel, S. W.; Dormody, M.; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Fabiani, D.; Farnier, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Fortin, P.; Frailis, M.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Gustafsson, M.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Healey, S. E.; Hill, A. B.; Horan, D.; Hughes, R. E.; Iafrate, G.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, R. P.; Johnson, T. J.; Johnson, W. N.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kawai, N.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kocevski, D.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Landriu, D.; Latronico, L.; Lee, S.-H.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lionetto, A. M.; Llena Garde, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Makeev, A.; Marangelli, B.; Marelli, M.; Massaro, E.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McConville, W.; McEnery, J. E.; Michelson, P. F.; Minuti, M.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mongelli, M.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Moretti, E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakajima, H.; Nakamori, T.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paccagnella, A.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pinchera, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Poupard, L.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Ray, P. S.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Rea, N.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reposeur, T.; Ripken, J.; Ritz, S.; Rochester, L. S.; Rodriguez, A. Y.; Romani, R. W.; Roth, M.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Salvetti, D.; Sanchez, D.; Sander, A.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Scargle, J. D.; Schalk, T. L.; Scolieri, G.; Sgrò, C.; Shaw, M. S.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Starck, J.-L.; Stephens, T. E.; Striani, E.; Strickman, M. S.; Strong, A. W.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Thayer, J. G.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Tibolla, O.; Tinebra, F.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Van Etten, A.; Vasileiou, V.; Vilchez, N.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wallace, E.; Wang, P.; Watters, K.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yang, Z.; Ylinen, T.; Ziegler, M.; Fermi LAT Collaboration

    2010-06-01

    We present a catalog of high-energy gamma-ray sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), during the first 11 months of the science phase of the mission, which began on 2008 August 4. The First Fermi-LAT catalog (1FGL) contains 1451 sources detected and characterized in the 100 MeV to 100 GeV range. Source detection was based on the average flux over the 11 month period, and the threshold likelihood Test Statistic is 25, corresponding to a significance of just over 4σ. The 1FGL catalog includes source location regions, defined in terms of elliptical fits to the 95% confidence regions and power-law spectral fits as well as flux measurements in five energy bands for each source. In addition, monthly light curves are provided. Using a protocol defined before launch we have tested for several populations of gamma-ray sources among the sources in the catalog. For individual LAT-detected sources we provide firm identifications or plausible associations with sources in other astronomical catalogs. Identifications are based on correlated variability with counterparts at other wavelengths, or on spin or orbital periodicity. For the catalogs and association criteria that we have selected, 630 of the sources are unassociated. Care was taken to characterize the sensitivity of the results to the model of interstellar diffuse gamma-ray emission used to model the bright foreground, with the result that 161 sources at low Galactic latitudes and toward bright local interstellar clouds are flagged as having properties that are strongly dependent on the model or as potentially being due to incorrectly modeled structure in the Galactic diffuse emission.

  10. Interactions between C and Cu atoms in single-layer graphene: direct observation and modelling.

    PubMed

    Kano, Emi; Hashimoto, Ayako; Kaneko, Tomoaki; Tajima, Nobuo; Ohno, Takahisa; Takeguchi, Masaki

    2016-01-07

    Metal doping into the graphene lattice has been studied recently to develop novel nanoelectronic devices and to gain an understanding of the catalytic activities of metals in nanocarbon structures. Here we report the direct observation of interactions between Cu atoms and single-layer graphene by transmission electron microscopy. We document stable configurations of Cu atoms in the graphene sheet and unique transformations of graphene promoted by Cu atoms. First-principles calculations based on density functional theory reveal a reduction of energy barrier that caused rotation of C-C bonds near Cu atoms. We discuss two driving forces, electron irradiation and in situ heating, and conclude that the observed transformations were mainly promoted by electron irradiation. Our results suggest that individual Cu atoms can promote reconstruction of single-layer graphene.

  11. Atomic Layer Deposition of Titanium Oxide on Single-Layer Graphene: An Atomic-Scale Study toward Understanding Nucleation and Growth

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Controlled synthesis of a hybrid nanomaterial based on titanium oxide and single-layer graphene (SLG) using atomic layer deposition (ALD) is reported here. The morphology and crystallinity of the oxide layer on SLG can be tuned mainly with the deposition temperature, achieving either a uniform amorphous layer at 60 °C or ∼2 nm individual nanocrystals on the SLG at 200 °C after only 20 ALD cycles. A continuous and uniform amorphous layer formed on the SLG after 180 cycles at 60 °C can be converted to a polycrystalline layer containing domains of anatase TiO2 after a postdeposition annealing at 400 °C under vacuum. Using aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (AC-TEM), characterization of the structure and chemistry was performed on an atomic scale and provided insight into understanding the nucleation and growth. AC-TEM imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy revealed that rocksalt TiO nanocrystals were occasionally formed at the early stage of nucleation after only 20 ALD cycles. Understanding and controlling nucleation and growth of the hybrid nanomaterial are crucial to achieving novel properties and enhanced performance for a wide range of applications that exploit the synergetic functionalities of the ensemble. PMID:28356613

  12. Atomic Layer Deposition of Titanium Oxide on Single-Layer Graphene: An Atomic-Scale Study toward Understanding Nucleation and Growth.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yucheng; Guerra-Nuñez, Carlos; Utke, Ivo; Michler, Johann; Agrawal, Piyush; Rossell, Marta D; Erni, Rolf

    2017-03-14

    Controlled synthesis of a hybrid nanomaterial based on titanium oxide and single-layer graphene (SLG) using atomic layer deposition (ALD) is reported here. The morphology and crystallinity of the oxide layer on SLG can be tuned mainly with the deposition temperature, achieving either a uniform amorphous layer at 60 °C or ∼2 nm individual nanocrystals on the SLG at 200 °C after only 20 ALD cycles. A continuous and uniform amorphous layer formed on the SLG after 180 cycles at 60 °C can be converted to a polycrystalline layer containing domains of anatase TiO2 after a postdeposition annealing at 400 °C under vacuum. Using aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (AC-TEM), characterization of the structure and chemistry was performed on an atomic scale and provided insight into understanding the nucleation and growth. AC-TEM imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy revealed that rocksalt TiO nanocrystals were occasionally formed at the early stage of nucleation after only 20 ALD cycles. Understanding and controlling nucleation and growth of the hybrid nanomaterial are crucial to achieving novel properties and enhanced performance for a wide range of applications that exploit the synergetic functionalities of the ensemble.

  13. Atomic-scale imaging of few-layer black phosphorus and its reconstructed edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yangjin; Yoon, Jun-Yeong; Scullion, Declan; Jang, Jeongsu; Santos, Elton J. G.; Jeong, Hu Young; Kim, Kwanpyo

    2017-03-01

    Black phosphorus (BP) has recently emerged as an alternative 2D semiconductor owing to its fascinating electronic properties such as tunable bandgap and high charge carrier mobility. The structural investigation of few-layer BP, such as identification of layer thickness and atomic-scale edge structure, is of great importance to fully understand its electronic and optical properties. Here we report atomic-scale analysis of few-layered BP performed by aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We establish the layer-number-dependent atomic resolution imaging of few-layer BP via TEM imaging and image simulations. The structural modification induced by the electron beam leads to revelation of crystalline edge and formation of BP nanoribbons. Atomic resolution imaging of BP clearly shows the reconstructed zigzag (ZZ) edge structures, which is also corroborated by van der Waals first principles calculations on the edge stability. Our study on the precise identification of BP thickness and atomic-resolution imaging of edge structures will lay the groundwork for investigation of few-layer BP, especially BP in nanostructured forms.

  14. Humidity Sensing and Photodetection Behavior of Electrochemically Exfoliated Atomically Thin-Layered Black Phosphorus Nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Erande, Manisha B; Pawar, Mahendra S; Late, Dattatray J

    2016-05-11

    Recent investigations on two-dimensional black phosphorus material mainly highlight work on few atomic layers and multilayers. It is still unknown if the black phosphorus atomically thin sheet is an ideal structure for the enhanced gas-solid interactions due to its large surface area. To further investigate this concern, we have synthesized few atomic layer thick nanosheets of black phosphorus using an electrochemical exfoliation method. The surface morphology and thickness of the nanosheet were identified using AFM, TEM, and Raman spectroscopy. The black phosphorus nanosheet thick film device was used for the gas sensing application with exposure to different humidites. Further, the few layer black phosphorus nanosheet based transistor shows good mobility and on/off ratio. The UV light irradiation on the black phosphorus nanosheet shows good response time. The overall results show that the few layer thick film of black phosphorus nanosheets sample exhibits creditable sensitivity and better recovery time to be used in humidity sensor and photodetector applications.

  15. Quantitative Raman spectrum and reliable thickness identification for atomic layers on insulating substrates.

    PubMed

    Li, Song-Lin; Miyazaki, Hisao; Song, Haisheng; Kuramochi, Hiromi; Nakaharai, Shu; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito

    2012-08-28

    We demonstrate the possibility in quantifying the Raman intensities for both specimen and substrate layers in a common stacked experimental configuration and, consequently, propose a general and rapid thickness identification technique for atomic-scale layers on dielectric substrates. Unprecedentedly wide-range Raman data for atomically flat MoS(2) flakes are collected to compare with theoretical models. We reveal that all intensity features can be accurately captured when including optical interference effect. Surprisingly, we find that even freely suspended chalcogenide few-layer flakes have a stronger Raman response than that from the bulk phase. Importantly, despite the oscillating intensity of specimen spectrum versus thickness, the substrate weighted spectral intensity becomes monotonic. Combined with its sensitivity to specimen thickness, we suggest this quantity can be used to rapidly determine the accurate thickness for atomic layers.

  16. Interface Electrical Properties of Al2O3 Thin Films on Graphene Obtained by Atomic Layer Deposition with an in Situ Seedlike Layer.

    PubMed

    Fisichella, Gabriele; Schilirò, Emanuela; Di Franco, Salvatore; Fiorenza, Patrick; Lo Nigro, Raffaella; Roccaforte, Fabrizio; Ravesi, Sebastiano; Giannazzo, Filippo

    2017-03-01

    High-quality thin insulating films on graphene (Gr) are essential for field-effect transistors (FETs) and other electronics applications of this material. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is the method of choice to deposit high-κ dielectrics with excellent thickness uniformity and conformal coverage. However, to start the growth on the sp(2) Gr surface, a chemical prefunctionalization or the physical deposition of a seed layer are required, which can effect, to some extent, the electrical properties of Gr. In this paper, we report a detailed morphological, structural, and electrical investigation of Al2O3 thin films grown by a two-steps ALD process on a large area Gr membrane residing on an Al2O3-Si substrate. This process consists of the H2O-activated deposition of a Al2O3 seed layer a few nanometers in thickness, performed in situ at 100 °C, followed by ALD thermal growth of Al2O3 at 250 °C. The optimization of the low-temperature seed layer allowed us to obtain a uniform, conformal, and pinhole-free Al2O3 film on Gr by the second ALD step. Nanoscale-resolution mapping of the current through the dielectric by conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) demonstrated an excellent laterally uniformity of the film. Raman spectroscopy measurements indicated that the ALD process does not introduce defects in Gr, whereas it produces a partial compensation of Gr unintentional p-type doping, as confirmed by the increase of Gr sheet resistance (from ∼300 Ω/sq in pristine Gr to ∼1100 Ω/sq after Al2O3 deposition). Analysis of the transfer characteristics of Gr field-effect transistors (GFETs) allowed us to evaluate the relative dielectric permittivity (ε = 7.45) and the breakdown electric field (EBD = 7.4 MV/cm) of the Al2O3 film as well as the transconductance and the holes field-effect mobility (∼1200 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)). A special focus has been given to the electrical characterization of the Al2O3-Gr interface by the analysis of high frequency capacitance

  17. Bi-layer Channel AZO/ZnO Thin Film Transistors Fabricated by Atomic Layer Deposition Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huijin; Han, Dedong; Liu, Liqiao; Dong, Junchen; Cui, Guodong; Zhang, Shengdong; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Yi

    2017-03-01

    This letter demonstrates bi-layer channel Al-doped ZnO/ZnO thin film transistors (AZO/ZnO TFTs) via atomic layer deposition process at a relatively low temperature. The effects of annealing in oxygen atmosphere at different temperatures have also been investigated. The ALD bi-layer channel AZO/ZnO TFTs annealed in dry O2 at 300 °C exhibit a low leakage current of 2.5 × 10-13A, I on/ I off ratio of 1.4 × 107, subthreshold swing (SS) of 0.23 V/decade, and high transmittance. The enhanced performance obtained from the bi-layer channel AZO/ZnO TFT devices is explained by the inserted AZO front channel layer playing the role of the mobility booster.

  18. Bi-layer Channel AZO/ZnO Thin Film Transistors Fabricated by Atomic Layer Deposition Technique.

    PubMed

    Li, Huijin; Han, Dedong; Liu, Liqiao; Dong, Junchen; Cui, Guodong; Zhang, Shengdong; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Yi

    2017-12-01

    This letter demonstrates bi-layer channel Al-doped ZnO/ZnO thin film transistors (AZO/ZnO TFTs) via atomic layer deposition process at a relatively low temperature. The effects of annealing in oxygen atmosphere at different temperatures have also been investigated. The ALD bi-layer channel AZO/ZnO TFTs annealed in dry O2 at 300 °C exhibit a low leakage current of 2.5 × 10(-13)A, I on/I off ratio of 1.4 × 10(7), subthreshold swing (SS) of 0.23 V/decade, and high transmittance. The enhanced performance obtained from the bi-layer channel AZO/ZnO TFT devices is explained by the inserted AZO front channel layer playing the role of the mobility booster.

  19. Development of large Area Covering Height Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, K.

    2014-04-01

    Height information is a basic part of topographic mapping. Only in special areas frequent update of height models is required, usually the update cycle is quite lower as for horizontal map information. Some height models are available free of charge in the internet; for commercial height models a fee has to be paid. Mostly digital surface models (DSM) with the height of the visible surface are given and not the bare ground height, as required for standard mapping. Nevertheless by filtering of DSM, digital terrain models (DTM) with the height of the bare ground can be generated with the exception of dense forest areas where no height of the bare ground is available. These height models may be better as the DTM of some survey administrations. In addition several DTM from national survey administrations are classified, so as alternative the commercial or free of charge available information from internet can be used. The widely used SRTM DSM is available also as ACE-2 GDEM corrected by altimeter data for systematic height errors caused by vegetation and orientation errors. But the ACE-2 GDEM did not respect neighbourhood information. With the worldwide covering TanDEM-X height model, distributed starting 2014 by Airbus Defence and Space (former ASTRIUM) as WorldDEM, higher level of details and accuracy is reached as with other large area covering height models. At first the raw-version of WorldDEM will be available, followed by an edited version and finally as WorldDEM-DTM a height model of the bare ground. With 12 m spacing and a relative standard deviation of 1.2 m within an area of 1° x 1° an accuracy and resolution level is reached, satisfying also for larger map scales. For limited areas with the HDEM also a height model with 6 m spacing and a relative vertical accuracy of 0.5 m can be generated on demand. By bathymetric LiDAR and stereo images also the height of the sea floor can be determined if the water has satisfying transparency. Another method of getting

  20. Large Area Graphene Synthesis and its Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-10

    The University of Texas at Dallas), iii) and utilize them for various applications such as explosive sensor, biofuel cell, Peltier device, organic...relations between two single layer graphenes. Transferred CVD graphene was annealed in the TEM chamber up to 1200ºC to explore the effects that high...resulting nanoribbons show p-type character and field effect GOn/GOff > 104. The results suggest a simple route towards patterning narrow GNR with

  1. Large area CNT-Si heterojunction for photodetection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aramo, C.; Ambrosio, M.; Bonavolontà, C.; Boscardin, M.; Crivellari, M.; de Lisio, C.; Grossi, V.; Maddalena, P.; Passacantando, M.; Valentino, M.

    2017-02-01

    Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) consist of multiple layers of graphite sheets arranged in concentric cylinders, from two to many tens. These systems are closely related to graphite layers but in some features, MWCNTs behave quite differently from graphite. In particular, their ability to generate a photocurrent in a wide wavelength range has been demonstrated either without or with the application of a draining voltage. In addition, the photocurrent signal has been found to reproduce the optical absorbance of MWCNTs, showing a maximum in the near UV region. In this paper main characteristics of a novel large area photodetector featuring low noise, high linearity and efficiency are reported. This detector has been obtained by coupling the optoelectronic characteristics of MWCNTs with the well-known properties of silicon. MWCNTs are growth on n-doped silicon layer by chemical vapour deposition creating a p-n heterojunction with high sensitivity to the radiation from UV to IR. An additional MIS junction is obtained with a metallic conductive layer deposited on the back of silicon substrate. Moreover, first results on the signals generated by pulsed laser are also reported.

  2. Development of a Large-Area Ultracold Neutron Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoffel, Jenna; Liu, Chen-Yu; UCN Tau Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    To improve our knowledge in particle physics and cosmology, including big-bang nucleosynthesis, we need a more precise and accurate measurement of the lifetime of free neutrons. Though there have been many attempts to measure the neutron lifetime, discrepancies exist between the two major experimental techniques of the beam and the bottle methods. To resolve this discrepancy, the UCN τ experiment will trap ultracold neutrons (UCNs) to perform lifetime measurements to the 1-second level. To accomplish this goal, we are developing a large-area, high-efficiency UCN detector. We construct a scintillating UCN detector by evaporating a thin film of boron-10 onto an airbrushed layer of zinc sulfide (ZnS); the 10B-coated ZnS scintillating film is then glued to wavelength-shifting plastic, which acts as a light guide to direct photons into modern silicon photomultipliers. This new detector has similar efficiency and background noise as the previously-used ion gas detectors, but can be easily scaled up to cover large areas for many applications. The new detector opens up exciting new ways to study systematic effects, as they hold the key to the interpretation of neutron lifetime.

  3. Atomic Layer Etching Mechanism of MoS2 for Nanodevices.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Seok; Kim, Ki Hyun; Nam, Yeonsig; Jeon, Jaeho; Yim, Soonmin; Singh, Eric; Lee, Jin Yong; Lee, Sung Joo; Jung, Yeon Sik; Yeom, Geun Young; Kim, Dong Woo

    2017-04-05

    Among the layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) that can form stable two-dimensional crystal structures, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has been intensively investigated because of its unique properties in various electronic and optoelectronic applications with different band gap energies from 1.29 to 1.9 eV as the number of layers decreases. To control the MoS2 layers, atomic layer etching (ALE) (which is a cyclic etching consisting of a radical-adsorption step such as Cl adsorption and a reacted-compound-desorption step via a low-energy Ar(+)-ion exposure) can be a highly effective technique to avoid inducing damage and contamination that occur during the reactive steps. Whereas graphene is composed of one-atom-thick layers, MoS2 is composed of three-atom-thick S(top)-Mo(mid)-S(bottom) layers; therefore, the ALE mechanisms of the two structures are significantly different. In this study, for MoS2 ALE, the Cl radical is used as the adsorption species and a low-energy Ar(+) ion is used as the desorption species. A MoS2 ALE mechanism (by which the S(top), Mo(mid), and S(bottom) atoms are sequentially removed from the MoS2 crystal structure due to the trapped Cl atoms between the S(top) layer and the Mo(mid) layer) is reported according to the results of an experiment and a simulation. In addition, the ALE technique shows that a monolayer MoS2 field effect transistor (FET) fabricated after one cycle of ALE is undamaged and exhibits electrical characteristics similar to those of a pristine monolayer MoS2 FET. This technique is also applicable to all layered TMD materials, such as tungsten disulfide (WS2), molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2), and tungsten diselenide (WSe2).

  4. Thermoelectric material including conformal oxide layers and method of making the same using atomic layer deposition

    DOEpatents

    Cho, Jung Young; Ahn, Dongjoon; Salvador, James R.; Meisner, Gregory P.

    2016-06-07

    A thermoelectric material includes a substrate particle and a plurality of conformal oxide layers formed on the substrate particle. The plurality of conformal oxide layers has a total oxide layer thickness ranging from about 2 nm to about 20 nm. The thermoelectric material excludes oxide nanoparticles. A method of making the thermoelectric material is also disclosed herein.

  5. Isentropic thermal instability in atomic surface layers of photodissociation regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnobaev, K. V.; Tagirova, R. R.

    2017-08-01

    We consider the evolution of an isentropic thermal instability in the atomic zone of a photodissociation region (PDR). In this zone, gas heating and cooling are associated mainly with photoelectric emission from dust grains and fine-structure lines ([C II] 158, [O i] 63 and [O i] 146 μm), respectively. The instability criterion has a multi-parametric dependence on the conditions of the interstellar medium. We found that instability occurs when the intensity of the incident far-ultraviolet field G0 and gas density n are high. For example, we have 3 × 103 < G0 < 106 and 4.5 × 104 < n < 106 cm-3 at temperatures 360 < T < 104 K for optical thin fine-structure lines and for typical carbon and oxygen abundances ξC = 1.4 × 10-4 and ξO = 3.2 × 10-4. If we take line opacities into account, these ranges of G0, n and T are expanded. Moreover, the instability criterion depends significantly on the relation between ξC and ξO abundances. We also give examples of observed PDRs where instability could occur. For these PDRs, the characteristic perturbation growth time is tinst ∼ 103-104 yr and the distance characterizing the formation of secondary waves is L ∼ 10-3-5 × 10-2 pc. For objects that are older than tinst and have sizes of the atomic zone larger than L, we expect that instability influences the PDR structure significantly. The presence of multiple shock waves, turbulent velocities of several kilometres per second and inhomogeneities with higher density and temperature than the surrounding medium can characterize isentropic thermal instability in PDRs.

  6. Layer-by-Layer Molecular Assemblies for Dye-Sensitized Photoelectrosynthesis Cells Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Degao; Sheridan, Matthew V; Shan, Bing; Farnum, Byron H; Marquard, Seth L; Sherman, Benjamin D; Eberhart, Michael S; Nayak, Animesh; Dares, Christopher J; Das, Atanu K; Bullock, R Morris; Meyer, Thomas J

    2017-08-30

    In a dye sensitized photoelectrosynthesis cell (DSPEC), the relative orientation of the catalyst and chromophore plays an important role in determining the device efficiency. Here we introduce a new, robust atomic layer deposition (ALD) procedure for the preparation of molecular chromophore-catalyst assemblies on wide bandgap semiconductors. In this procedure, solution deposited, phosphonate derivatized metal complexes on metal oxide surfaces are treated with reactive metal reagents in the gas phase by ALD to form an outer metal ion bridging group, which can bind a second phosphonate containing species from solution to establish a R1-PO2-O-M-O-PO2-R2 type surface assembly. With the ALD procedure, assemblies bridged by Al(III), Sn(IV), Ti(IV), or Zr(IV) metal oxide units have been prepared. To evaluate the performance of this new type of surface assembly, intra-assembly electron transfer was investigated by transient absorption spectroscopy, and light-driven water splitting experiments under steady-state illumination were conducted. A SnO2 bridged assembly on SnO2/TiO2 core/shell electrodes undergoes light-driven water oxidation with an incident photon to current efficiency (IPCE) of 17.1% at 440 nm. Light-driven water reduction with a ruthenium trisbipyridine chromophore and molecular Ni(II) catalyst on NiO films was also used to produce H2. Compared to conventional solution-based procedures, the ALD approach offers significant advantages in scope and flexibility for the preparation of stable surface structures.

  7. Surface passivation investigation on ultra-thin atomic layer deposited aluminum oxide layers for their potential application to form tunnel layer passivated contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Zheng; Ling, Zhi Peng; Nandakumar, Naomi; Kaur, Gurleen; Ke, Cangming; Liao, Baochen; Aberle, Armin G.; Stangl, Rolf

    2017-08-01

    The surface passivation performance of atomic layer deposited ultra-thin aluminium oxide layers with different thickness in the tunnel layer regime, i.e., ranging from one atomic cycle (∼0.13 nm) to 11 atomic cycles (∼1.5 nm) on n-type silicon wafers is studied. The effect of thickness and thermal activation on passivation performance is investigated with corona-voltage metrology to measure the interface defect density D it(E) and the total interface charge Q tot. Furthermore, the bonding configuration variation of the AlO x films under various post-deposition thermal activation conditions is analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Additionally, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrene sulfonate) is used as capping layer on ultra-thin AlO x tunneling layers to further reduce the surface recombination current density to values as low as 42 fA/cm2. This work is a useful reference for using ultra-thin ALD AlO x layers as tunnel layers in order to form hole selective passivated contacts for silicon solar cells.

  8. Fabrication of large area Si cylindrical drift detectors. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei; Kraner, H.W.; Li, Zheng; Rehak, P.; Hess, F.

    1994-04-01

    The processing of an advanced silicon detector, a large area cylindrical drift detector (CDD), was carried out in the BNL Instrumentation Division Fabrication Facility. The double-sided planar process technique was developed for the fabrication of the CDD. Important improvements of the double-sided planar process in this fabrication include the introduction of an Al implantation protection mask and implantation of boron through an 1000 angstrom oxide layer in the step of opening the p-window. Another important aspect of the design of the CDD is the structure called ``river,`` which allows the current generated OD the Si-SiO{sub 2} interface to ``flow`` into the guard anode, and thus minimize the leakage, current at the signal anode. The test result showed that for the best detector most of the signal anodes have leakage currents of about 0.3 nA/cm{sup 2}.

  9. Large Area Printing of 3D Photonic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, James J.; Beaulieu, Michael R.; Hendricks, Nicholas R.; Kothari, Rohit

    2014-03-01

    We have developed a readily scalable print, lift, and stack approach for producing large area, 3D photonic crystal (PC) structures. UV-assisted nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) was used to pattern grating structures comprised of highly filled nanoparticle polymer composite resists with tune-able refractive indices (RI). The gratings were robust and upon release from a support substrate were oriented and stacked to yield 3D PCs. The RI of the composite resists was tuned between 1.58 and 1.92 at 800 nm while maintaining excellent optical transparency. The grating structure dimensions, line width, depth, and pitch, were easily varied by simply changing the imprint mold. For example, a 6 layer log-pile stack was prepared using a composite resist a RI of 1.72 yielding 72 % reflection at 900 nm. The process is scalable for roll-to-roll (R2R) production. Center for Hierarchical Manufacturing - an NSF Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center.

  10. Towards Large Area Growth of 3C-SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Vasiliauskas, Remigijus; Liljedahl, Rickard; Syvaejaervi, Mikael; Yakimova, Rositza

    2010-11-01

    In this work we have analyzed the possibility of upscaling the growth of 3C-SiC. The growth was done at different temperatures to find limiting mechanisms of the growth rate and to examine the morphology of grown layers. Coverage by 3C-SiC increases when increasing temperature, however more twins appeared. Activation energy of the growth is 130 kcal/mol--showing that growth rate limiting mechanism is sublimation of the source. We discuss the influence of large area 6H-SiC wafers on the formation of 3C-SiC, in which the change in basal plane orientation could also influence the growth of 3C-SiC.

  11. A large area liquid scintillation multiphoton detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharadwaj, V. K.; Cain, M. P.; Caldwell, D. O.; Denby, B. H.; Eisner, A. M.; Joshi, U. P.; Kennett, R. G.; Lu, A.; Morrison, R. J.; Pfost, D. R.; Stuber, H. R.; Summers, D. J.; Yellin, S. J.; Appel, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    A 60 layer lead-liquid scintillator shower detector, which we call the SLIC, has been used for multiphoton detection in the Fermilab tagged photon spectrometer. The detector has an unimpeded active area which is 2.44 m by 4.88 m and is segmented, by means of teflon coated channels, into 3.17 cm wide strips. The 60 layers in depth are broken into three directions of alternating readouts so that three position coordinates are determined for each shower. At present the readouts are made by 334 photomultiplier tubes coupled to BBQ doped wavelength shifter bars which integrate the entire depth of the detector. It is relatively straightforward to increase the number of readouts to include longitudinal segmentation and to increase the segmentation of the outer region which are at present read out two strips to a readout. The energy and position resolutions of isolated showers are about {12%}/{√E} and 3 mm., respectively. The SLIC has been used to study the K-π+π0 decay of the D 0 [1], as well as for electron and muon identification in ψ → e +e - and ψ → μ+μ- plus π0 identification in γp → ψχ [8].

  12. Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope- GLAST Mission Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moiseev, Alexander A.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), and the instrumentation that will be on the spacecraft: Large Area Telescope (LAT) and GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM). The presentation revierws in detail the LAT instrument.

  13. Implementation of atomic layer etching of silicon: Scaling parameters, feasibility, and profile control

    SciTech Connect

    Ranjan, Alok Wang, Mingmei; Sherpa, Sonam D.; Rastogi, Vinayak; Koshiishi, Akira; Ventzek, Peter L. G.

    2016-05-15

    Atomic or layer by layer etching of silicon exploits temporally segregated self-limiting adsorption and material removal steps to mitigate the problems associated with continuous or quasicontinuous (pulsed) plasma processes: selectivity loss, damage, and profile control. Successful implementation of atomic layer etching requires careful choice of the plasma parameters for adsorption and desorption steps. This paper illustrates how process parameters can be arrived at through basic scaling exercises, modeling and simulation, and fundamental experimental tests of their predictions. Using chlorine and argon plasma in a radial line slot antenna plasma source as a platform, the authors illustrate how cycle time, ion energy, and radical to ion ratio can be manipulated to manage the deviation from ideality when cycle times are shortened or purges are incomplete. Cell based Monte Carlo feature scale modeling is used to illustrate profile outcomes. Experimental results of atomic layer etching processes are illustrated on silicon line and space structures such that iso-dense bias and aspect ratio dependent free profiles are produced. Experimental results also illustrate the profile control margin as processes move from atomic layer to multilayer by layer etching. The consequence of not controlling contamination (e.g., oxygen) is shown to result in deposition and roughness generation.

  14. Effect of polymer residues on the electrical properties of large-area graphene–hexagonal boron nitride planar heterostructures

    DOE PAGES

    Stehle, Yijing Y.; Voylov, Dmitry; Vlassiouk, Ivan V.; ...

    2017-06-19

    Polymer residue plays an important role in the performance of 2D heterostructured materials. Herein, we study the effect of polymer residual impurities on the electrical properties of graphene–boron nitride planar heterostructures. Large-area graphene (Gr) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) monolayers were synthesized using chemical vapor deposition techniques. Atomic van-der-Waals heterostructure layers based on varied configurations of Gr and h-BN layers were assembled. The average interlayer resistance of the heterojunctions over a 1 cm2 area for several planar heterostructure configurations was assessed by impedance spectroscopy and modeled by equivalent electrical circuits. As a result, conductive AFM measurements showed that the presencemore » of polymer residues on the surface of the Gr and h-BN monolayers resulted in significant resistance deviations over nanoscale regions.« less

  15. Effect of polymer residues on the electrical properties of large-area graphene-hexagonal boron nitride planar heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stehle, Yijing Y.; Voylov, Dmitry; Vlassiouk, Ivan V.; Lassiter, Matthew G.; Park, Jaehyeung; Sharma, Jaswinder K.; Sokolov, Alexei P.; Polizos, Georgios

    2017-07-01

    Polymer residue plays an important role in the performance of 2D heterostructured materials. Herein, we study the effect of polymer residual impurities on the electrical properties of graphene-boron nitride planar heterostructures. Large-area graphene (Gr) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) monolayers were synthesized using chemical vapor deposition techniques. Atomic van-der-Waals heterostructure layers based on varied configurations of Gr and h-BN layers were assembled. The average interlayer resistance of the heterojunctions over a 1 cm2 area for several planar heterostructure configurations was assessed by impedance spectroscopy and modeled by equivalent electrical circuits. Conductive AFM measurements showed that the presence of polymer residues on the surface of the Gr and h-BN monolayers resulted in significant resistance deviations over nanoscale regions.

  16. Large area substrate for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) using glass-drawing technique

    DOEpatents

    Ivanov, Ilia N; Simpson, John T

    2012-06-26

    A method of making a large area substrate comprises drawing a plurality of tubes to form a plurality of drawn tubes, and cutting the plurality of drawn tubes into cut drawn tubes. Each cut drawn tube has a first end and a second end along the longitudinal direction of the respective cut drawn tube. The cut drawn tubes collectively have a predetermined periodicity. The method of making a large area substrate also comprises forming a metal layer on the first ends of the cut drawn tubes to provide a large area substrate.

  17. Viable route towards large-area 2D MoS2 using magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samassekou, Hassana; Alkabsh, Asma; Wasala, Milinda; Eaton, Miller; Walber, Aaron; Walker, Andrew; Pitkänen, Olli; Kordas, Krisztian; Talapatra, Saikat; Jayasekera, Thushari; Mazumdar, Dipanjan

    2017-06-01

    Structural, interfacial, optical, and transport properties of large-area MoS2 ultra-thin films on BN-buffered silicon substrates fabricated using magnetron sputtering are investigated. A relatively simple growth strategy is demonstrated here that simultaneously promotes superior interfacial and bulk MoS2 properties. Few layers of MoS2 are established using x-ray reflectivity, diffraction, ellipsometry, and Raman spectroscopy measurements. Layer-specific modeling of optical constants show very good agreement with first-principles calculations. Conductivity measurements reveal that few-layer MoS2 films are more conducting than many-layer films. Photo-conductivity measurements reveal that the sputter deposited MoS2 films compare favorably with other large-area methods. Our work illustrates that sputtering is a viable route for large-area device applications using transition metal dichalcogenides.

  18. Large area flexible solar array design for Space Shuttle application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Souza, C. J.

    1980-01-01

    A large area flexible solar array has been designed for Shuttle power augmentation. The solar array utilizes large area, low cost, weldable solar cells. The paper addresses how the unique requirements of this system are implemented into the design. Economic and reliability issues relating to the optimization of a large area, foldable solar array concomitant to the Shuttle/Orbiter system are reviewed.

  19. Atomic Layer Deposition Alumina-Passivated Silicon Nanowires: Probing the Transition from Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitor to Electrolytic Capacitor.

    PubMed

    Gaboriau, Dorian; Boniface, Maxime; Valero, Anthony; Aldakov, Dmitry; Brousse, Thierry; Gentile, Pascal; Sadki, Said

    2017-04-10

    Silicon nanowires were coated by a 1-5 nm thin alumina layer by atomic layer deposition (ALD) in order to replace poorly reproducible and unstable native silicon oxide by a highly conformal passivating alumina layer. The surface coating enabled probing the behavior of symmetric devices using such electrodes in the EMI-TFSI electrolyte, allowing us to attain a large cell voltage up to 6 V in ionic liquid, together with very high cyclability with less than 4% capacitance fade after 10(6) charge/discharge cycles. These results yielded fruitful insights into the transition between an electrochemical double-layer capacitor behavior and an electrolytic capacitor behavior. Ultimately, thin ALD dielectric coatings can be used to obtain hybrid devices exhibiting large cell voltage and excellent cycle life of dielectric capacitors, while retaining energy and power densities close to the ones displayed by supercapacitors.

  20. Atomic Layer Deposition for the Conformal Coating of Nanoporous Materials

    DOE PAGES

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Xiong, Guang; Han, Catherine Y.; ...

    2006-01-01

    Amore » tomic layer deposition ( ALD ) is ideal for applying precise and conformal coatings over nanoporous materials. We have recently used ALD to coat two nanoporous solids: anodic aluminum oxide ( AAO ) and silica aerogels. AAO possesses hexagonally ordered pores with diameters d ∼ 40 nm and pore length L ∼ 70 microns. The AAO membranes were coated by ALD to fabricate catalytic membranes that demonstrate remarkable selectivity in the oxidative dehydrogenation of cyclohexane.dditional AAO membranes coated with ALD Pd films show promise as hydrogen sensors. Silica aerogels have the lowest density and highest surface area of any solid material. Consequently, these materials serve as an excellent substrate to fabricate novel catalytic materials and gas sensors by ALD .« less

  1. Surface Phenomena During Plasma-Assisted Atomic Layer Etching of SiO2.

    PubMed

    Gasvoda, Ryan J; van de Steeg, Alex W; Bhowmick, Ranadeep; Hudson, Eric A; Agarwal, Sumit

    2017-09-13

    Surface phenomena during atomic layer etching (ALE) of SiO2 were studied during sequential half-cycles of plasma-assisted fluorocarbon (CFx) film deposition and Ar plasma activation of the CFx film using in situ surface infrared spectroscopy and ellipsometry. Infrared spectra of the surface after the CFx deposition half-cycle from a C4F8/Ar plasma show that an atomically thin mixing layer is formed between the deposited CFx layer and the underlying SiO2 film. Etching during the Ar plasma cycle is activated by Ar(+) bombardment of the CFx layer, which results in the simultaneous removal of surface CFx and the underlying SiO2 film. The interfacial mixing layer in ALE is atomically thin due to the low ion energy during CFx deposition, which combined with an ultrathin CFx layer ensures an etch rate of a few monolayers per cycle. In situ ellipsometry shows that for a ∼4 Å thick CFx film, ∼3-4 Å of SiO2 was etched per cycle. However, during the Ar plasma half-cycle, etching proceeds beyond complete removal of the surface CFx layer as F-containing radicals are slowly released into the plasma from the reactor walls. Buildup of CFx on reactor walls leads to a gradual increase in the etch per cycle.

  2. Area selective atomic layer deposition: use of lithographically defined polymer masking layers for the deposition of titanium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Ashwini; Hess, Dennis W.; Henderson, Clifford L.

    2005-05-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a promising method for depositing high quality, conformal, ultra-thin films. The ability to perform area selective ALD would provide a number of benefits including a reduction in the cost and number of process steps required for patternwise deposition of materials, elimination of possible substrate and device damage induced by plasma etching of thin films, and ability to direct pattern materials that are difficult to etch. Previous attempts have been made to develop area selective ALD processes based on the use of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). In these schemes, the SAM layers were used to selectively passivate specific regions of a substrate surface and thus prevent ALD. However, the process times required for SAM deposition and problems with SAM defectivity have limited the practical application of such methods. This paper presents a new approach to area selective atomic layer deposition techniques (ASALDT) based on the use of lithographically definable polymeric masking layers that allow deposition only in selected areas of a substrate. It is shown that there are a number of factors that must be considered in designing such patternable polymeric masking materials and processes including: reactivity of the polymer with the ALD precursor species, diffusion of ALD precursors through the polymer mask, and remnant precursor content in the masking film during ALD cycling. Finally, successful direct patterned deposition of TiO2 is demonstrated using a poly(methyl methacrylate) masking layer that has been patterned using deep-UV lithography.

  3. Immobilizing individual atoms beneath a corrugated single layer of boron nitride.

    PubMed

    Cun, Huanyao; Iannuzzi, Marcella; Hemmi, Adrian; Roth, Silvan; Osterwalder, Jürg; Greber, Thomas

    2013-05-08

    Single atoms, and in particular the least reactive noble gases, are difficult to immobilize at room temperature. Ion implantation into a crystal lattice has this capability, but the randomness of the involved processes does not permit much control over their distribution within the solid. Here we demonstrate that the boron nitride nanomesh, a corrugated single layer of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) with a 3.2 nm honeycomb superstructure formed on a Rh(111) surface, can trap individual argon atoms at distinct subsurface sites at room temperature. A kinetic energy window for implantation is identified where the argon ions can penetrate the h-BN layer but not enter the Rh lattice. Scanning tunneling microscopy and photoemission data show the presence of argon atoms at two distinct sites within the nanomesh unit cell, confirmed also by density functional theory calculations. The single atom implants are stable in air. Annealing of implanted structures to 900 K induces the formation of highly regular holes of 2 nm diameter in the h-BN layer with adjacent flakes of the same size found on top of the layer. We explain this "can-opener" effect by the presence of a vacancy defect, generated during the penetration of the Ar ion through the h-BN lattice, and propagating along the rim of a nanomesh pore where the h-BN lattice is highly bent. The reported effects are also observed in graphene on ruthenium and for neon atoms.

  4. Antireflective conducting nanostructures with an atomic layer deposited an AlZnO layer on a transparent substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyun-Woo; Ji, Seungmuk; Herdini, Diptya Suci; Lim, Hyuneui; Park, Jin-Seong; Chung, Kwun-Bum

    2015-12-01

    The antireflective conducting nanostructures on a transparent substrate were shown to have enhanced optical and electrical properties via colloidal lithography and atomic layer deposition. The conformal AlZnO layer on a transparent nanostructured substrate exhibited 5.52 × 10-4 Ω cm in resistivity and 88% in average visible transmittance, both of which were superior to those of a flat transparent conducting substrate. The improvement of transparency was explained by the gradual changes of the refractive index in the film depth direction. The decrease in electrical resistivity is strongly correlated to the increased surface area with the nanostructure and the change of chemical bonding states.

  5. Plasmonic Coupling Effects in Large-area High-enhancement, Periodically-Arrayed Nanopillars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezares, Francisco; Caldwell, Joshua; Glembocki, Orest; Kariniemi, Maarit; Niinistö, Jaakko; Hatanpää, Timo; Rendell, Ronald; Ukaegbu, Maraizu; Ritala, Mikko; Prokes, Sharka; Hosten, Charles; Leskela, Markku

    2012-02-01

    Periodically arrayed Si nanopillars, coated with a thin layer of Ag, have been shown to produce large-area (˜1 mm or more), uniform enhancement of the electromagnetic (EM) field near the surface of such arrays, thus suggesting suitability for the development of next-generation chem/bio-sensors. Although short-range plasmonic coupling effects are expected to increase the enhancement factor of these arrays several orders of magnitude, limitations in current lithographic techniques prohibit the fabrication of closely spaced nanopillars where such coupling effects become significant. Here we show experimentally that the use of Atomic Layer Deposition of Ag allows for the fabrication of Ag-coated Si nanopillar arrays with interpillar spacings of a few nanometers (˜2 nm) resulting in 1-2 orders of magnitude increase in EM enhancement observed throughout the whole array area. Experimental observations that provide insight into the nature of the different coupling phenomena contributing to the overall enhancement of the EM field in these systems will also be discussed.

  6. Atomic layer epitaxy of YBaCuO for optoelectronic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skogman, R. A.; Khan, M. A.; Van Hove, J. M.; Bhattarai, A.; Boord, W. T.

    1992-01-01

    An MOCVD-based atomic-layer epitaxy process is being developed as a potential solution to the problems of film-thickness and interface-abruptness control which are encountered when fabricating superconductor-insulator-superconductor devices using YBa2Cu3O(7-x). In initial studies, the atomic-layer MOCVD process yields superconducting YBa2Cu3O(7-x) films with substrate temperatures of 605 C during film growth, and no postdeposition anneal. The low temperature process yields a smooth film surface and can reduce interface degradation due to diffusion.

  7. All dielectric hard x-ray mirror by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szeghalmi, Adriana; Senz, Stephan; Bretschneider, Mario; Gösele, Ulrich; Knez, Mato

    2009-03-01

    Mirrors consisting of Al2O3 and Ta2O5 (˜2 nm film thickness) nanolaminates for hard x-ray wavelengths were produced by atomic layer deposition and characterized. Atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) proved extremely smooth surfaces of the mirrors, which are critical for highest reflectance. TEM images showed sharp interfaces between the oxides. The experimental x-ray reflectivity data were theoretically modeled and indicated minimal random thickness variations in the individual layers. Additionally, a depth graded sample with a total thickness of ˜4 μm for focusing applications in transmission (Laue) geometry and capillaries was coated.

  8. Atomic layer epitaxy of YBaCuO for optoelectronic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skogman, R. A.; Khan, M. A.; Van Hove, J. M.; Bhattarai, A.; Boord, W. T.

    1992-01-01

    An MOCVD-based atomic-layer epitaxy process is being developed as a potential solution to the problems of film-thickness and interface-abruptness control which are encountered when fabricating superconductor-insulator-superconductor devices using YBa2Cu3O(7-x). In initial studies, the atomic-layer MOCVD process yields superconducting YBa2Cu3O(7-x) films with substrate temperatures of 605 C during film growth, and no postdeposition anneal. The low temperature process yields a smooth film surface and can reduce interface degradation due to diffusion.

  9. Metal-induced crystallization of amorphous Si thin films assisted by atomic layer deposition of nickel oxide layers.

    PubMed

    So, Byung-Soo; Bae, Seung-Muk; You, Yil-Hwan; Jo, DaiHui; Lee, Sun Sook; Chung, Taek-Mo; Kim, Chang Gyoun; An, Ki-Seok; Hwang, Jin-Ha

    2011-08-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of nickel oxide was applied to the nickel-induced crystallization of amorphous Si thin films. The nickel-induced crystallization was monitored as a function of annealing temperature and time using Raman spectroscopy. Since Raman spectroscopy allows for the numerical quantification of structural components, the incubation time and the crystallization rates were estimated as functions of the annealing temperature. The spatial locations of a nickel-based species, probably NiSi2, were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectrometry. The formed NiSi2 seeds appeared to accelerate the crystallization kinetics in amorphous Si thin films deposited onto glass substrates. The ramifications of the atomic layer deposition are discussed with regard to large-panel displays, with special emphasis on the sophisticated control of the catalytic elements, especially nickel.

  10. Gamma Large Area Silicon Telescope (GLAST)

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, G.L.

    1993-11-01

    The recent discoveries and excitement generated by EGRET have prompted an investigation into modern technologies ultimately leading to the next generation space-based gamma ray telescope. The goal is to design a detector that will increase the data acquisition rate by almost two orders of magnitude beyond EGRET, while at the same time improving on the angular resolution, the energy measurement of reconstructed gamma rays, and the triggering capability of the instrument. The GLAST proposal is based on the assertion that silicon particle detectors are the technology of choice for space application: no consumables, no gas volume, robust (versus fragile), long lived, and self triggering. The GLAST detector is roughly modeled after EGRET in that a tracking module precedes a calorimeter. The GLAST Tracker has planes of thin radiatior interspersed with planes of crossed-strip (x,y) 300-{mu}m-pitch silicon detectors to measure the coordinates of converted electron-positron pairs. The gap between the layers ({approximately}5 cm) provides a lever arm in track fitting resulting in an angular resolution of 0.1{degree} at high energy (the low energy angular resolution at 100 MeV would be about 2{degree}, limited by multiple scattering). A possible GLAST calorimeter is made of a mosaic of Csl crystals of order 10 r.l. in depth, with silicon photodiodes readout. The increased depth of the GLAST calorimeter over EGRET`s extends the energy range to about 300 GeV.

  11. Cooperative Lamb shift in an atomic vapor layer of nanometer thickness.

    PubMed

    Keaveney, J; Sargsyan, A; Krohn, U; Hughes, I G; Sarkisyan, D; Adams, C S

    2012-04-27

    We present an experimental measurement of the cooperative Lamb shift and the Lorentz shift using a nanothickness atomic vapor layer with tunable thickness and atomic density. The cooperative Lamb shift arises due to the exchange of virtual photons between identical atoms. The interference between the forward and backward propagating virtual fields is confirmed by the thickness dependence of the shift, which has a spatial frequency equal to twice that of the optical field. The demonstration of cooperative interactions in an easily scalable system opens the door to a new domain for nonlinear optics.

  12. Atomic layer etching of Cu film using gas cluster ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoda, Noriaki; Ogawa, Akihiro

    2017-05-01

    In this work, atomic layer etching (ALE) with a gas cluster ion beam (GCIB) was investigated for the first time. Since gas cluster ions produce dense energy deposition without severe damage, effective, low-damage, and low-temperature removal of chemically altered surface layers is expected. In this study, ALE of Cu films upon oxygen GCIB (O2-GCIB) irradiation in the presence of acetic acid vapor was investigated. Cu atoms were removed from the surface layer, owing to chemical reactions between adsorbed acetic acid molecules and Cu atoms upon O2-GCIB irradiation at room temperature. Since there was no physical sputtering upon 5 kV O2-GCIB irradiation, a self-limiting etch stop was observed after removal of the top layer. Conversely, upon 20 kV O2-GCIB irradiation, Cu atoms were physically sputtered after removal of the chemically altered surface layer. By applying low-energy (5 kV) GCIB irradiation, ALE with GCIB was achieved at room temperature.

  13. Atomic Layer Deposition of High-k Dielectrics Using Supercritical CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shende, Rajesh

    2005-03-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of high-κdielectric was performed in supercritical CO2 (SCCO2), using a two-step reaction sequence. In step one, tetraethoxy silane (TEOS) precursor was injected in SCCO2 at 80-100 C and 50 MPa pressure to obtain a chemisorbed surface monolayer, which was then oxidized into SiO2 using peroxide entrained in SCCO2. ALD process was controlled by estimating precursor solubility and its mass transport with respect to the density of SCCO2, and correlating these parameters with precursor injection volume. In the ALD process, 7 pulses of precursor were used anticipating deposition of one atomic layer in each of the pulses. The thickness of the SiO2 atomic layers deposited using SCCO2 was measured by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE), and the C-V measurements were also performed. The result obtained using VASE indicates that there were 7 monolayers of SiO2 with total thickness of 35 å, and the dielectric constant of the deposited layers was 4.0±0.1. Our initial findings clearly demonstrate that SCCO2 is capable of atomic layer deposition of high quality dielectric films at very low process temperatures preventing interface reaction. More research is in progress to achieve ALD of HfO2 and TiO2 in SCCO2.

  14. Synthesis of FeH5: A layered structure with atomic hydrogen slabs.

    PubMed

    Pépin, C M; Geneste, G; Dewaele, A; Mezouar, M; Loubeyre, P

    2017-07-28

    High pressure promotes the formation of polyhydrides with unusually high hydrogen-to-metal ratios. These polyhydrides have complex hydrogenic sublattices. We synthesized iron pentahydride (FeH5) by a direct reaction between iron and H2 above 130 gigapascals in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell. FeH5 exhibits a structure built of atomic hydrogen only. It consists of intercalated layers of quasicubic FeH3 units and four-plane slabs of thin atomic hydrogen. The distribution of the valence electron density indicates a bonding between hydrogen and iron atoms but none between hydrogen atoms, presenting a two-dimensional metallic character. The discovery of FeH5 suggests a low-pressure path to make materials that approach bulk dense atomic hydrogen. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  15. Synthesis of FeH5: A layered structure with atomic hydrogen slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pépin, C. M.; Geneste, G.; Dewaele, A.; Mezouar, M.; Loubeyre, P.

    2017-07-01

    High pressure promotes the formation of polyhydrides with unusually high hydrogen-to-metal ratios. These polyhydrides have complex hydrogenic sublattices. We synthesized iron pentahydride (FeH5) by a direct reaction between iron and H2 above 130 gigapascals in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell. FeH5 exhibits a structure built of atomic hydrogen only. It consists of intercalated layers of quasicubic FeH3 units and four-plane slabs of thin atomic hydrogen. The distribution of the valence electron density indicates a bonding between hydrogen and iron atoms but none between hydrogen atoms, presenting a two-dimensional metallic character. The discovery of FeH5 suggests a low-pressure path to make materials that approach bulk dense atomic hydrogen.

  16. On the way from infinite layer compounds to atomic engineering of superconducting cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagues, Michel; Beuran, C. F.; Deville Cavellin, C.; Eustache, B.; Germain, Philippe; Hatterer, C.; Mairet, V.; Partiot, C.; Xie, X. M.; Xu, Xiang Z.

    1996-07-01

    The quest for new cuprates compounds exhibiting superconducting properties at elevated temperatures was intensified recently. The synthesis under high pressure led first to an increased Tc record of around 160K with Hg compounds, and second to new bulk compounds including Cu, CO3 and infinite layer families. Meanwhile the results concerning thin films of new cuprates, even grown by atomic layering, were not as convincing. We describe here the growth of infinite layer related compounds with emphasis on the growth mechanisms. The deposition is performed in the range of 500 to 550 degrees C under atomic oxygen, using real time control by RHEED intensity. Various deposition sequences were used leading mainly to two basic families. The first one belongs to the infinite layer family, while the other one seems to belong to the spin ladder Can-1Cun+1O2n family. Transport properties in a wide range of temperatures are presented and discussed.

  17. Insertion of Ag atoms into layered MoO{sub 3} via a template route

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Ke; Wang, Hao

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: PVP–Ag{sup +} complex self-assembled with inorganic (Mo{sub x}O{sub y}){sub ∞}{sup n−} chains into a layered hybrid, in which the PVP–Ag complex was intercalated between the (Mo{sub x}O{sub y}){sub ∞}{sup n−} layers. Calcinations of this hybrid at 500 °C lead to formation of Ag/MoO{sub 3} nanohybrid. By this method we have successfully inserted Ag atoms into the semiconductor MoO{sub 3} lattice. Display Omitted Highlights: ► We fabricated a PVP–Ag/polyoxomolybdate layered hybrid via in situ self-assembly. ► The PVP–Ag complex has been inserted between the molybdenum oxide layers. ► This layered hybrid transformed into Ag/MoO{sub 3} nanocomposite after calcinations. ► HR-TEM images show that Ag atoms of about 1 nm have been inserted in the MoO{sub 3} layers. -- Abstract: We report insertion of Ag atoms into layered MoO{sub 3} via an in situ template route. PVP–Ag{sup +} complex self-assembled with inorganic (Mo{sub x}O{sub y}){sub ∞}{sup n−} chains into a layered hybrid, in which the PVP–Ag complex was intercalated between the (Mo{sub x}O{sub y}){sub ∞}{sup n−} layers. Calcinations of this hybrid at 500 °C lead to formation of Ag/MoO{sub 3} hybrid, in which Ag nanoparticles of about 1 nm have been inserted between the MoO{sub 3} layers. By this method pillared MoO{sub 3} has been obtained very easily. We believe that this research opens new routes to fabricate novel intercalation compounds and metal/semiconductor nanohybrids via an efficient and green route.

  18. Subharmonic excitation in amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy in the presence of adsorbed water layers

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, Sergio; Barcons, Victor; Verdaguer, Albert; Chiesa, Matteo

    2011-12-01

    In ambient conditions, nanometric water layers form on hydrophilic surfaces covering them and significantly changing their properties and characteristics. Here we report the excitation of subharmonics in amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy induced by intermittent water contacts. Our simulations show that there are several regimes of operation depending on whether there is perturbation of water layers. Single period orbitals, where subharmonics are never induced, follow only when the tip is either in permanent contact with the water layers or in pure noncontact where the water layers are never perturbed. When the water layers are perturbed subharmonic excitation increases with decreasing oscillation amplitude. We derive an analytical expression which establishes whether water perturbations compromise harmonic motion and show that the predictions are in agreement with numerical simulations. Empirical validation of our interpretation is provided by the observation of a range of values for apparent height of water layers when subharmonic excitation is predicted.

  19. Interlayer breathing and shear modes in NbSe2 atomic layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Rui; van Baren, Jeremiah; Yan, Jia-An; Xi, Xiaoxiang; Ye, Zhipeng; Ye, Gaihua; Lu, I.-Hsi; Leong, S. M.; Lui, C. H.

    2016-09-01

    Atomically thin NbSe2 is a metallic layered transition metal dichalcogenide with novel charge-density-wave (CDW) and superconductive phases. Properties of NbSe2 atomic layers are sensitive to interlayer coupling. Here we investigate the interlayer phonons of few-layer NbSe2 by ultralow-frequency Raman spectroscopy. We observe both the interlayer breathing modes and shear modes at frequencies below 40 cm-1 for samples of 2-15 layers. Their frequency, Raman activity, and environmental instability depend systematically on the layer number. We account for these results by a combination of linear-chain model, group theory and first-principles calculations. We find that, although NbSe2 has different stacking order from MoS2, MoSe2, WS2 and WSe2, they share the same crystal symmetry groups and exhibit similar Raman selection rules for interlayer phonons. In addition, the interlayer phonon modes evolve smoothly from T = 300 to 8 K, with no observable response to the CDW formation in NbSe2. This finding indicates that the atomic registry between adjacent NbSe2 layers is well preserved in the CDW transition.

  20. Atomic-layer soft plasma etching of MoS2.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shaoqing; Xiao, Peng; Zhang, Xuecheng; Yan, Dawei; Gu, Xiaofeng; Qin, Fang; Ni, Zhenhua; Han, Zhao Jun; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken

    2016-01-27

    Transition from multi-layer to monolayer and sub-monolayer thickness leads to the many exotic properties and distinctive applications of two-dimensional (2D) MoS2. This transition requires atomic-layer-precision thinning of bulk MoS2 without damaging the remaining layers, which presently remains elusive. Here we report a soft, selective and high-throughput atomic-layer-precision etching of MoS2 in SF6 + N2 plasmas with low-energy (<0.4 eV) electrons and minimized ion-bombardment-related damage. Equal numbers of MoS2 layers are removed uniformly across domains with vastly different initial thickness, without affecting the underlying SiO2 substrate and the remaining MoS2 layers. The etching rates can be tuned to achieve complete MoS2 removal and any desired number of MoS2 layers including monolayer. Layer-dependent vibrational and photoluminescence spectra of the etched MoS2 are also demonstrated. This soft plasma etching technique is versatile, scalable, compatible with the semiconductor manufacturing processes, and may be applicable for a broader range of 2D materials and intended device applications.

  1. Atomic-layer soft plasma etching of MoS2

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Shaoqing; Xiao, Peng; Zhang, Xuecheng; Yan, Dawei; Gu, Xiaofeng; Qin, Fang; Ni, Zhenhua; Han, Zhao Jun; Ostrikov, Kostya (Ken)

    2016-01-01

    Transition from multi-layer to monolayer and sub-monolayer thickness leads to the many exotic properties and distinctive applications of two-dimensional (2D) MoS2. This transition requires atomic-layer-precision thinning of bulk MoS2 without damaging the remaining layers, which presently remains elusive. Here we report a soft, selective and high-throughput atomic-layer-precision etching of MoS2 in SF6 + N2 plasmas with low-energy (<0.4 eV) electrons and minimized ion-bombardment-related damage. Equal numbers of MoS2 layers are removed uniformly across domains with vastly different initial thickness, without affecting the underlying SiO2 substrate and the remaining MoS2 layers. The etching rates can be tuned to achieve complete MoS2 removal and any desired number of MoS2 layers including monolayer. Layer-dependent vibrational and photoluminescence spectra of the etched MoS2 are also demonstrated. This soft plasma etching technique is versatile, scalable, compatible with the semiconductor manufacturing processes, and may be applicable for a broader range of 2D materials and intended device applications. PMID:26813335

  2. Geometric correction methods for Timepix based large area detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemlicka, J.; Dudak, J.; Karch, J.; Krejci, F.

    2017-01-01

    X-ray micro radiography with the hybrid pixel detectors provides versatile tool for the object inspection in various fields of science. It has proven itself especially suitable for the samples with low intrinsic attenuation contrast (e.g. soft tissue in biology, plastics in material sciences, thin paint layers in cultural heritage, etc.). The limited size of single Medipix type detector (1.96 cm2) was recently overcome by the construction of large area detectors WidePIX assembled of Timepix chips equipped with edgeless silicon sensors. The largest already built device consists of 100 chips and provides fully sensitive area of 14.3 × 14.3 cm2 without any physical gaps between sensors. The pixel resolution of this device is 2560 × 2560 pixels (6.5 Mpix). The unique modular detector layout requires special processing of acquired data to avoid occurring image distortions. It is necessary to use several geometric compensations after standard corrections methods typical for this type of pixel detectors (i.e. flat-field, beam hardening correction). The proposed geometric compensations cover both concept features and particular detector assembly misalignment of individual chip rows of large area detectors based on Timepix assemblies. The former deals with larger border pixels in individual edgeless sensors and their behaviour while the latter grapple with shifts, tilts and steps between detector rows. The real position of all pixels is defined in Cartesian coordinate system and together with non-binary reliability mask it is used for the final image interpolation. The results of geometric corrections for test wire phantoms and paleo botanic material are presented in this article.

  3. Distinguishing plasmonic absorption modes by virtue of inversed architectures with tunable atomic-layer-deposited spacer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Kenan; Zhang, Tianning; Sun, Yan; Chen, Xin; Dai, Ning

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrated the distinguishing between plasmonic absorption modes by exploiting an inversed architecture with tunable atomic-layer-deposited dielectric spacer layer. The dielectric spacer layer was manipulated between the bottom metal-nanoparticle monolayer and the upper metal film to inspect the contributions of metal nanoparticles and dielectric film in a step-by-step manner. The experimental and simulated differences between the two peak absorption positions (Δf) and between the corresponding half width at half maxima (Δw) confirmed the evolutions of gap plasmon and interference-enhanced local surface plasmon resonance absorption modes in the plasmonic metamaterial absorbers (PMAs), which were useful for understanding the underlying mechanism of amorphous PMAs.

  4. Low temperature plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of thin vanadium nitride layers for copper diffusion barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Rampelberg, Geert; Devloo-Casier, Kilian; Deduytsche, Davy; Detavernier, Christophe; Blasco, Nicolas

    2013-03-18

    Thin vanadium nitride (VN) layers were grown by atomic layer deposition using tetrakis(ethylmethylamino)vanadium and NH{sub 3} plasma at deposition temperatures between 70 Degree-Sign C and 150 Degree-Sign C on silicon substrates and polymer foil. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed a composition close to stoichiometric VN, while x-ray diffraction showed the {delta}-VN crystal structure. The resistivity was as low as 200 {mu}{Omega} cm for the as deposited films and further reduced to 143 {mu}{Omega} cm and 93 {mu}{Omega} cm by annealing in N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}/He/N{sub 2}, respectively. A 5 nm VN layer proved to be effective as a diffusion barrier for copper up to a temperature of 720 Degree-Sign C.

  5. Protection of Polymers from the Space Environment by Atomic Layer Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindholm, Ned F.; Zhang, Jianming; Minton, Timothy K.; O'Patchen, Jennifer; George, Steven M.; Groner, Markus D.

    2009-01-01

    Polymers in space may be subjected to a barrage of incident atoms, photons, and/or ions. For example, oxygen atoms can etch and oxidize these materials. Photons may act either alone or in combination with oxygen atoms to degrade polymers and paints and thus limit their usefulness. Colors fade under the intense vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) solar radiation. Ions can lead to the build-up of static charge on polymers. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) techniques can provide coatings that could mitigate many challenges for polymers in space. ALD is a gas-phase technique based on two sequential, self-limiting surface reactions, and it can deposit very uniform, conformal, and pinhole-free films with atomic layer control. We have studied the efficacy of various ALD coatings to protect Kapton® polyimide, FEP Teflon®, and poly(methyl methacrylate) films from atomic-oxygen and VUV attack. Atomic-oxygen and VUV studies were conducted with the use of a laser-breakdown source for hyperthermal O atoms and a D2 lamp as a source of VUV light. These studies used a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to monitor mass loss in situ, as well as surface profilometry and scanning electron microscopy to study the surface recession and morphology changes ex situ. Al2O3 ALD coatings applied to polyimide and FEP Teflon® films protected the underlying substrates from O-atom attack, and ZnO coatings protected the poly(methyl methacrylate) substrate from VUV-induced damage.

  6. Large-area Epitaxial Growth of MoSe2 via an Incandescent Molybdenum Source.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Man Kit; Liang, Jing; Lai, Ying-Hoi; Pang, Liang-Xi; Liu, Yi; Shen, Junying; Hou, Jianqiang; He, Qing Lin; Xu, Bochao; Chen, Junshu; Wang, Gan; Liu, Chang; Lortz, Rolf; Sou, Iam Keong

    2017-09-11

    We have developed an incandescent Mo source to fabricate large-area single-crystalline MoSe<sub>2</sub> thin films. The as-grown MoSe<sub>2</sub> thin films were characterized using transmission electron spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and angular resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). A new Raman characteristic peak at 1591 cm<sup>-1</sup> was identified. Results from Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, RHEED and ARPES studies consistently reveal that large-area single crystalline mono-layer of MoSe<sub>2</sub> could be achieved by this technique. This technique enjoys several advantages over conventional approaches and could be extended to the growth of other two-dimensional layered materials containing a low-vapor-pressure element. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  7. Study of HfO2 films deposited on strained Si1-xGex layers by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damlencourt, J.-F.; Weber, O.; Renault, O.; Hartmann, J.-M.; Poggi, C.; Ducroquet, F.; Billon, T.

    2004-11-01

    This paper focuses on the growth of HfO2 by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at 350°C on pseudomorphic Si1-xGex thin films (x =15% and 25%). Two different Si1-xGex surface preparations (chemical oxidation and HF "last" treatment) have been investigated to obtain the highest HfO2 film quality with the thinnest interfacial layer possible. The initial stages of the ALD growth on these different surfaces (i.e., hafnium adsorption and chlorine contamination) analyzed by total x-ray fluorescence show that HF last treated Si1-xGex surfaces are more convenient than chemically oxidized ones to grow high quality HfO2 layers. This result is confirmed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations of the interfacial layer structure as a function of the surface treatment. As-deposited and annealed thin HfO2 layers (2.5, 3.5, 5, and 8nm) grown on HF last treated Si0.75Ge0.25 strained layers were analyzed by mercury probe. An equivalent oxide thickness as low as 0.7nm was obtained for a 2.5nm as-deposited HfO2 film. Mobility results show that a 22% mobility enhancement is obtained in the entire effective field range with HfO2/SiGe compared to the HfO2/Si reference.

  8. Atomic layer deposition-based functionalization of materials for medical and environmental health applications

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Roger J.; Adiga, Shashishekar P.; Pellin, Michael J.; Curtiss, Larry A.; Hryn, Alexander J.; Stafslien, Shane; Chisholm, Bret; Shih, Chun-Che; Shih, Chun-Ming; Lin, Shing-Jong; Su, Yea-Yang; Jin, Chunming; Zhang, Junping; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A.; Elam, Jeffrey W.

    2010-01-01

    Nanoporous alumina membranes exhibit high pore densities, well-controlled and uniform pore sizes, as well as straight pores. Owing to these unusual properties, nanoporous alumina membranes are currently being considered for use in implantable sensor membranes and water purification membranes. Atomic layer deposition is a thin-film growth process that may be used to modify the pore size in a nanoporous alumina membrane while retaining a narrow pore distribution. In addition, films deposited by means of atomic layer deposition may impart improved biological functionality to nanoporous alumina membranes. In this study, zinc oxide coatings and platinum coatings were deposited on nanoporous alumina membranes by means of atomic layer deposition. PEGylated nanoporous alumina membranes were prepared by self-assembly of 1-mercaptoundec-11-yl hexa(ethylene glycol) on platinum-coated nanoporous alumina membranes. The pores of the PEGylated nanoporous alumina membranes remained free of fouling after exposure to human platelet-rich plasma; protein adsorption, fibrin networks and platelet aggregation were not observed on the coated membrane surface. Zinc oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes demonstrated activity against two waterborne pathogens, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The results of this work indicate that nanoporous alumina membranes may be modified using atomic layer deposition for use in a variety of medical and environmental health applications. PMID:20308114

  9. Synthesis and Characterizations of Two-Dimensional Atomic Layers and Their Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yi-Hsien

    2015-03-01

    Monolayers of van der Waals (vdw) materials, including graphene, h-BN, and MoS2, have been highlighted regarding both scientific and industrial aspects due to novel physical phenomenon inherited from the reduced dimensionality. Layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) atomic layers, being considered as the thinnest semiconductor, exhibit great potential for advanced nano-devices. Monolayer in the class of offered a burgeoning field in fundamental physics, energy harvesting, electronics and optoelectronics. Recently, atomically thin heterostructures of TMD monolayer with various geometrical and energy band alignments are expected to be the key materials for next generation flexible optoelectronics. The individual TMD monolayers can be adjoined vertically or laterally to construct diverse heterostructures which are difficult to reach with the laborious pick up-and-transfer method of the exfoliated flakes. The ability to produce copious amounts of high quality layered heterostructures on diverse surfaces is highly desirable but it has remained a challenging issue. Here, we have achieved a direct synthesis of various heterostructures of monolayer TMDs. The synthesis was performed using ambient-pressure CVD with aromatic molecules as seeding promoters. We discuss possible growth behaviors, and we examine the symmetry and the interface of these heterostructures using optical analysis and atomic-resolution scanning TEM. Our method offers a controllable synthesis of to obtain high-quality heterostructures of TMD atomic layers with diverse interface geometry.

  10. Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition: a gas-phase route to hydrophilic, glueable polytetrafluoroethylene.

    PubMed

    Roy, Amit K; Dendooven, Jolien; Deduytsche, Davy; Devloo-Casier, Kilian; Ragaert, Kim; Cardon, Ludwig; Detavernier, Christophe

    2015-02-28

    This communication reports an approach based on plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of aluminium oxide for the functionalization of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or "Teflon") surfaces. Alternating exposure of PTFE to oxygen plasma and trimethylaluminium causes a permanent hydrophilic effect, and a more than 10-fold improvement of the "glueability" of PTFE to aluminium.

  11. Atomic migration of carbon in hard turned layers of carburized bearing steel

    SciTech Connect

    Bedekar, Vikram; Poplawsky, Jonathan D.; Guo, Wei; Shivpuri, Rajiv; Scott Hyde, R.

    2016-01-01

    In grain finement and non-equilibrium there is carbon segregation within grain boundaries alters the mechanical performance of hard turning layers in carburized bearing steel. Moreover, an atom probe tomography (APT) study on the nanostructured hard turning layers reveals carbon migration to grain boundaries as a result of carbide decomposition during severe plastic deformation. In addition, samples exposed to different cutting speeds show that the carbon migration rate increases with the cutting speed. For these two effects lead to an ultrafine carbon network structure resulting in increased hardness and thermal stability in the severely deformed surface layer.

  12. Atomic migration of carbon in hard turned layers of carburized bearing steel

    DOE PAGES

    Bedekar, Vikram; Poplawsky, Jonathan D.; Guo, Wei; ...

    2016-01-01

    In grain finement and non-equilibrium there is carbon segregation within grain boundaries alters the mechanical performance of hard turning layers in carburized bearing steel. Moreover, an atom probe tomography (APT) study on the nanostructured hard turning layers reveals carbon migration to grain boundaries as a result of carbide decomposition during severe plastic deformation. In addition, samples exposed to different cutting speeds show that the carbon migration rate increases with the cutting speed. For these two effects lead to an ultrafine carbon network structure resulting in increased hardness and thermal stability in the severely deformed surface layer.

  13. Boron atoms in the subsurface layers of diamond: Quantum chemical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lvova, N. A.; Ponomarev, O. V.; Ananina, O. Yu.; Ryazanova, A. I.

    2017-08-01

    Results from quantum-chemical modeling of the configurations of boron impurities and BV complexes of "boron + monovacancy" on diamond surface C(100)-(2 × 1) are presented with their positions varied in subsurface layers. The geometric, electronic, and energy characteristics of these configurations are calculated. It is shown that the most stable BV complexes are complex defects consisting of an impurity defect in the fourth layer and an intrinsic defect in the third layer. The bonding energy of a hydrogen atom and a surface containing the most stable of the studied defects is estimated.

  14. Crystalline growth of AlN thin films by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghpour, S.; Ceyssens, F.; Puers, R.

    2016-10-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) thin film was grown by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition using trimethylaluminum and ammonia precursors. A method was found to have crystalline thin film AlN with almost zero thickness variation and a truly one layer deposition of atoms per each cycle of the process. The growth rate saturated at ∼ 1 Å/cycle, and the thickness was proportional to the number of reaction cycles. The preferred crystal orientation, uniformity of the nucleation and the surface roughness of the grown AlN were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic focused microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were carried out to analyze the crystallinity and properties of the films.

  15. Influence of Atomic Layer Deposition Temperatures on TiO2/n-Si MOS Capacitor

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Daming; Hossain, T; Garces, N. Y.; Nepal, N.; Meyer III, Harry M; Kirkham, Melanie J; Eddy, C.R., Jr.; Edgar, J H

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the influence of temperature on the structure, composition, and electrical properties of TiO2 thin films deposited on n-type silicon (100) by atomic layer deposition (ALD). TiO2 layers around 20nm thick, deposited at temperatures ranging from 100 to 300 C, were studied. Samples deposited at 250 C and 200 C had the most uniform coverage as determined by atomic force microscopy. The average carbon concentration throughout the oxide layer and at the TiO2/Si interface was lowest at 200 C. Metal oxide semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) were fabricated, and profiled by capacitance-voltage techniques. Negligible hysteresis was observed from a capacitance-voltage plot and the capacitance in the accumulation region was constant for the sample prepared at a 200 C ALD growth temperature. The interface trap density was on the order of 1013 eV-1cm-2 regardless of the deposition temperature.

  16. Using fence post designs to speed the atomic layer deposition of optical thin films.

    PubMed

    Willey, Ronald R

    2008-05-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) at this time is much slower than conventional optical thin-film deposition techniques. A more rapid ALD process for SiO(2) has been developed than for other ALD materials. A fence post design for optical thin films has thin layers of high-index posts standing above a broad low-index ground. If a design for ALD can be predominantly composed of SiO(2) layers with thin high-index layers, the deposition times can be correspondingly shortened, and it is shown that the required performance can still be nearly that of more conventional designs with high- and low-index layers of equal thickness. This combination makes the ALD benefits of conformal coating and precise thickness control more practical for optical thin-film applications.

  17. Design of step composition gradient thin film transistor channel layers grown by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Cheol Hyoun; Hee Kim, So; Gu Yun, Myeong; Koun Cho, Hyung

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we proposed the artificially designed channel structure in oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) called a “step-composition gradient channel.” We demonstrated Al step-composition gradient Al-Zn-O (AZO) channel structures consisting of three AZO layers with different Al contents. The effects of stacking sequence in the step-composition gradient channel on performance and electrical stability of bottom-gate TFT devices were investigated with two channels of inverse stacking order (ascending/descending step-composition). The TFT with ascending step-composition channel structure (5 → 10 → 14 at. % Al composition) showed relatively negative threshold voltage (−3.7 V) and good instability characteristics with a reduced threshold voltage shift (Δ 1.4 V), which was related to the alignment of the conduction band off-set within the channel layer depending on the Al contents. Finally, the reduced Al composition in the initial layer of ascending step-composition channel resulted in the best field effect mobility of 4.5 cm{sup 2}/V s. We presented a unique active layer of the “step-composition gradient channel” in the oxide TFTs and explained the mechanism of adequate channel design.

  18. Design of step composition gradient thin film transistor channel layers grown by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Cheol Hyoun; Hee Kim, So; Gu Yun, Myeong; Koun Cho, Hyung

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we proposed the artificially designed channel structure in oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) called a "step-composition gradient channel." We demonstrated Al step-composition gradient Al-Zn-O (AZO) channel structures consisting of three AZO layers with different Al contents. The effects of stacking sequence in the step-composition gradient channel on performance and electrical stability of bottom-gate TFT devices were investigated with two channels of inverse stacking order (ascending/descending step-composition). The TFT with ascending step-composition channel structure (5 → 10 → 14 at. % Al composition) showed relatively negative threshold voltage (-3.7 V) and good instability characteristics with a reduced threshold voltage shift ( Δ 1.4 V), which was related to the alignment of the conduction band off-set within the channel layer depending on the Al contents. Finally, the reduced Al composition in the initial layer of ascending step-composition channel resulted in the best field effect mobility of 4.5 cm2/V s. We presented a unique active layer of the "step-composition gradient channel" in the oxide TFTs and explained the mechanism of adequate channel design.

  19. Dimensional crossover of electron weak localization in ZnO/TiOx stacked layers grown by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, D.; Misra, P.; Bhartiya, S.; Gupta, M.; Joshi, M. P.; Kukreja, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the dimensional crossover of electron weak localization in ZnO/TiOx stacked layers having well-defined and spatially-localized Ti dopant profiles along film thickness. These films were grown by in situ incorporation of sub-monolayer TiOx on the growing ZnO film surface and subsequent overgrowth of thin conducting ZnO spacer layer using atomic layer deposition. Film thickness was varied in the range of ˜6-65 nm by vertically stacking different numbers (n = 1-7) of ZnO/TiOx layers of nearly identical dopant-profiles. The evolution of zero-field sheet resistance (R⊙) versus temperature with decreasing film thickness showed a metal to insulator transition. On the metallic side of the metal-insulator transition, R⊙(T) and magnetoresistance data were found to be well corroborated with the theoretical framework of electron weak localization in the diffusive transport regime. The temperature dependence of both R⊙ and inelastic scattering length provided strong evidence for a smooth crossover from 2D to 3D weak localization behaviour. Results of this study provide deeper insight into the electron transport in low-dimensional n-type ZnO/TiOx stacked layers which have potential applications in the field of transparent oxide electronics.

  20. Development of inverted organic solar cells with TiO₂ interface layer by using low-temperature atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhenhua; Jiang, Changyun; Zhu, Chunxiang; Zhang, Jie

    2013-02-01

    Organic solar cells (OSCs) with inverted structure have attracted much attention in recent years because of their improved device air stability due to the use of stable materials for electrodes and interface layers. In this work, TiO(2) films, fabricated using low temperature (e.g., 130-170 °C) atomic layer deposition (ALD) on ITO substrates, are used as electron selective interface layers to investigate inverted OSCs. It is found that though the as-deposited TiO(2) films are high resistive due to the presence of oxygen defects, the defects can be significantly reduced by light soaking. PV cells with 15-nm-thick amorphous-TiO(2) layers fabricated at low temperature show better performance than those with poly crystal TiO(2) with same thickness deposited at 250 °C. The low temperature ALD-grown TiO(2) films are dense, stable and robust with capability of conformal coating on nanostructural surfaces, showing a promising interface layer for achieving air-stable plastic OSCs with roll-to-roll mass production potential.

  1. Preface: Special Topic on Atomic and Molecular Layer Processing: Deposition, Patterning, and Etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engstrom, James R.; Kummel, Andrew C.

    2017-02-01

    Thin film processing technologies that promise atomic and molecular scale control have received increasing interest in the past several years, as traditional methods for fabrication begin to reach their fundamental limits. Many of these technologies involve at their heart phenomena occurring at or near surfaces, including adsorption, gas-surface reactions, diffusion, desorption, and re-organization of near-surface layers. Moreover many of these phenomena involve not just reactions occurring under conditions of local thermodynamic equilibrium but also the action of energetic species including electrons, ions, and hyperthermal neutrals. There is a rich landscape of atomic and molecular scale interactions occurring in these systems that is still not well understood. In this Special Topic Issue of The Journal of Chemical Physics, we have collected recent representative examples of work that is directed at unraveling the mechanistic details concerning atomic and molecular layer processing, which will provide an important framework from which these fields can continue to develop. These studies range from the application of theory and computation to these systems to the use of powerful experimental probes, such as X-ray synchrotron radiation, probe microscopies, and photoelectron and infrared spectroscopies. The work presented here helps in identifying some of the major challenges and direct future activities in this exciting area of research involving atomic and molecular layer manipulation and fabrication.

  2. Preface: Special Topic on Atomic and Molecular Layer Processing: Deposition, Patterning, and Etching.

    PubMed

    Engstrom, James R; Kummel, Andrew C

    2017-02-07

    Thin film processing technologies that promise atomic and molecular scale control have received increasing interest in the past several years, as traditional methods for fabrication begin to reach their fundamental limits. Many of these technologies involve at their heart phenomena occurring at or near surfaces, including adsorption, gas-surface reactions, diffusion, desorption, and re-organization of near-surface layers. Moreover many of these phenomena involve not just reactions occurring under conditions of local thermodynamic equilibrium but also the action of energetic species including electrons, ions, and hyperthermal neutrals. There is a rich landscape of atomic and molecular scale interactions occurring in these systems that is still not well understood. In this Special Topic Issue of The Journal of Chemical Physics, we have collected recent representative examples of work that is directed at unraveling the mechanistic details concerning atomic and molecular layer processing, which will provide an important framework from which these fields can continue to develop. These studies range from the application of theory and computation to these systems to the use of powerful experimental probes, such as X-ray synchrotron radiation, probe microscopies, and photoelectron and infrared spectroscopies. The work presented here helps in identifying some of the major challenges and direct future activities in this exciting area of research involving atomic and molecular layer manipulation and fabrication.

  3. Superior Stable and Long Life Sodium Metal Anodes Achieved by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Goncharova, Lyudmila V; Lushington, Andrew; Sun, Qian; Yadegari, Hossein; Wang, Biqiong; Xiao, Wei; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang

    2017-03-03

    Na-metal batteries are considered as the promising alternative candidate for Li-ion battery beneficial from the wide availability and low cost of sodium, high theoretical specific capacity, and high energy density based on the plating/stripping processes and lowest electrochemical potential. For Na-metal batteries, the crucial problem on metallic Na is one of the biggest challenges. Mossy or dendritic growth of Na occurs in the repetitive Na stripping/plating process with an unstable solid electrolyte interphase layer of nonuniform ionic flux, which can not only lead to the low Coulombic efficiency, but also can create short circuit risks, resulting in possible burning or explosion. In this communication, the atomic layer deposition of Al2 O3 coating is first demonstrated for the protection of metallic Na anode for Na-metal batteries. By protecting Na foil with ultrathin Al2 O3 layer, the dendrites and mossy Na formation have been effectively suppressed and lifetime has been significantly improved. Furthermore, the thickness of protective layer has been further optimized with 25 cycles of Al2 O3 layer presenting the best performance over 500 cycles. The novel design of atomic layer deposition protected metal Na anode may bring in new opportunities to the realization of the next-generation high energy-density Na metal batteries.

  4. Effect of Elastic Strain Fluctuation on Atomic Layer Growth of Epitaxial Silicide in Si Nanowires by Point Contact Reactions.

    PubMed

    Chou, Yi-Chia; Tang, Wei; Chiou, Chien-Jyun; Chen, Kai; Minor, Andrew M; Tu, K N

    2015-06-10

    Effects of strain impact a range of applications involving mobility change in field-effect-transistors. We report the effect of strain fluctuation on epitaxial growth of NiSi2 in a Si nanowire via point contact and atomic layer reactions, and we discuss the thermodynamic, kinetic, and mechanical implications. The generation and relaxation of strain shown by in situ TEM is periodic and in synchronization with the atomic layer reaction. The Si lattice at the epitaxial interface is under tensile strain, which enables a high solubility of supersaturated interstitial Ni atoms for homogeneous nucleation of an epitaxial atomic layer of the disilicide phase. The tensile strain is reduced locally during the incubation period of nucleation by the dissolution of supersaturated Ni atoms in the Si lattice but the strained-Si state returns once the atomic layer epitaxial growth of NiSi2 occurs by consuming the supersaturated Ni.

  5. Photocurrent detection of chemically tuned hierarchical ZnO nanostructures grown on seed layers formed by atomic layer deposition

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the morphological control method of ZnO nanostructures by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on an Al2O3/ZnO seed layer surface and the application of a hierarchical ZnO nanostructure for a photodetector. Two layers of ZnO and Al2O3 prepared using ALD with different pH values in solution coexisted on the alloy film surface, leading to deactivation of the surface hydroxyl groups. This surface complex decreased the ZnO nucleation on the seed layer surface, and thereby effectively screened the inherent surface polarity of ZnO. As a result, a 2-D zinc hydroxyl compound nanosheet was produced. With increasing ALD cycles of ZnO in the seed layer, the nanostructure morphology changes from 2-D nanosheet to 1-D nanorod due to the recovery of the natural crystallinity and polarity of ZnO. The thin ALD ZnO seed layer conformally covers the complex nanosheet structure to produce a nanorod, then a 3-D, hierarchical ZnO nanostructure was synthesized using a combined hydrothermal and ALD method. During the deposition of the ALD ZnO seed layer, the zinc hydroxyl compound nanosheets underwent a self-annealing process at 150 °C, resulting in structural transformation to pure ZnO 3-D nanosheets without collapse of the intrinsic morphology. The investigation on band electronic properties of ZnO 2-D nanosheet and 3-D hierarchical structure revealed noticeable variations depending on the richness of Zn-OH in each morphology. The improved visible and ultraviolet photocurrent characteristics of a photodetector with the active region using 3-D hierarchical structure against those of 2-D nanosheet structure were achieved. PMID:22672780

  6. Atomically thin layered NiFe double hydroxides assembled 3D microspheres with promoted electrochemical performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaomin; Zai, Jiantao; Liu, Yuanyuan; He, Xiaobo; Xiang, Shijie; Ma, Zifeng; Qian, Xuefeng

    2016-09-01

    LDHs in atomic thickness (mono-/bi-layers) usually exhibit novel physicochemical properties, especially in surface-dependent energy storage and catalysis areas. However, the thickness of the commonly reported 2D LDHs is in nanoscale and the bottom-up synthesis of atomically thin LDHs is rarely reported. Herein, high-quality atomically thin layered NiFe-LDHs assembled 3D microspheres were synthesized via a rational designed reaction system, where the formation of atomically thin building blocks was controlled by the synergetic effects of released carbonate anions and butanol. Furthermore, the complexant and solvents played important effects on the process of coprecipitation and the assembling of LDHs. Due to the nature of atomically thin LDHs nanosheets and unique 3D hierarchical structures, the obtained microspheres exhibited excellent electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) activity in alkaline medium with an onset overpotential (0.435 V, which is lower than that of common LDHs) and good durability. The as-prepared 3D NiFe-LDHs microspheres were also firstly used as supercapacitor materials and displayed a high specific capacitance of 1061 F g-1 at the current density of 1 A g-1.

  7. Local atomic arrangements and lattice distortions in layered Ge-Sb-Te crystal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotnyk, Andriy; Ross, Ulrich; Bernütz, Sabine; Thelander, Erik; Rauschenbach, Bernd

    2016-05-01

    Insights into the local atomic arrangements of layered Ge-Sb-Te compounds are of particular importance from a fundamental point of view and for data storage applications. In this view, a detailed knowledge of the atomic structure in such alloys is central to understanding the functional properties both in the more commonly utilized amorphous–crystalline transition and in recently proposed interfacial phase change memory based on the transition between two crystalline structures. Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy allows direct imaging of local arrangement in the crystalline lattice with atomic resolution. However, due to the non-trivial influence of thermal diffuse scattering on the high-angle scattering signal, a detailed examination of the image contrast requires comparison with theoretical image simulations. This work reveals the local atomic structure of trigonal Ge-Sb-Te thin films by using a combination of direct imaging of the atomic columns and theoretical image simulation approaches. The results show that the thin films are prone to the formation of stacking disorder with individual building blocks of the Ge2Sb2Te5, Ge1Sb2Te4 and Ge3Sb2Te6 crystal structures intercalated within randomly oriented grains. The comparison with image simulations based on various theoretical models reveals intermixed cation layers with pronounced local lattice distortions, exceeding those reported in literature.

  8. Local atomic arrangements and lattice distortions in layered Ge-Sb-Te crystal structures

    PubMed Central

    Lotnyk, Andriy; Ross, Ulrich; Bernütz, Sabine; Thelander, Erik; Rauschenbach, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Insights into the local atomic arrangements of layered Ge-Sb-Te compounds are of particular importance from a fundamental point of view and for data storage applications. In this view, a detailed knowledge of the atomic structure in such alloys is central to understanding the functional properties both in the more commonly utilized amorphous–crystalline transition and in recently proposed interfacial phase change memory based on the transition between two crystalline structures. Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy allows direct imaging of local arrangement in the crystalline lattice with atomic resolution. However, due to the non-trivial influence of thermal diffuse scattering on the high-angle scattering signal, a detailed examination of the image contrast requires comparison with theoretical image simulations. This work reveals the local atomic structure of trigonal Ge-Sb-Te thin films by using a combination of direct imaging of the atomic columns and theoretical image simulation approaches. The results show that the thin films are prone to the formation of stacking disorder with individual building blocks of the Ge2Sb2Te5, Ge1Sb2Te4 and Ge3Sb2Te6 crystal structures intercalated within randomly oriented grains. The comparison with image simulations based on various theoretical models reveals intermixed cation layers with pronounced local lattice distortions, exceeding those reported in literature. PMID:27220411

  9. Partially oxidized atomic cobalt layers for carbon dioxide electroreduction to liquid fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shan; Lin, Yue; Jiao, Xingchen; Sun, Yongfu; Luo, Qiquan; Zhang, Wenhua; Li, Dianqi; Yang, Jinlong; Xie, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Electroreduction of CO2 into useful fuels, especially if driven by renewable energy, represents a potentially ‘clean’ strategy for replacing fossil feedstocks and dealing with increasing CO2 emissions and their adverse effects on climate. The critical bottleneck lies in activating CO2 into the CO2•- radical anion or other intermediates that can be converted further, as the activation usually requires impractically high overpotentials. Recently, electrocatalysts based on oxide-derived metal nanostructures have been shown to enable CO2 reduction at low overpotentials. However, it remains unclear how the electrocatalytic activity of these metals is influenced by their native oxides, mainly because microstructural features such as interfaces and defects influence CO2 reduction activity yet are difficult to control. To evaluate the role of the two different catalytic sites, here we fabricate two kinds of four-atom-thick layers: pure cobalt metal, and co-existing domains of cobalt metal and cobalt oxide. Cobalt mainly produces formate (HCOO-) during CO2 electroreduction; we find that surface cobalt atoms of the atomically thin layers have higher intrinsic activity and selectivity towards formate production, at lower overpotentials, than do surface cobalt atoms on bulk samples. Partial oxidation of the atomic layers further increases their intrinsic activity, allowing us to realize stable current densities of about 10 milliamperes per square centimetre over 40 hours, with approximately 90 per cent formate selectivity at an overpotential of only 0.24 volts, which outperforms previously reported metal or metal oxide electrodes evaluated under comparable conditions. The correct morphology and oxidation state can thus transform a material from one considered nearly non-catalytic for the CO2 electroreduction reaction into an active catalyst. These findings point to new opportunities for manipulating and improving the CO2 electroreduction properties of metal systems

  10. New metallic quasi-two-dimensional structures of graphene and molybdenum disulfide layers with embedded rhenium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demin, V. A.; Chernozatonskii, L. A.

    2015-01-01

    New metallic structures in the system of graphene and molybdenum disulfide layers with embedded rhenium atoms, in which the graphene layer is rotated by 30° to the molybdenum disulfide layer and the Re atom either substitutes the molybdenum atom in the MoS2 layer or is located between the layers mainly interacting with three sulfur atoms and six carbon atoms, are examined. In the latter case, a high electron density of states has been found in the Fermi level, which indicates a high metallicity of the graphene30°-(Re)-MoS2 bilayer in comparison with other bilayer structures considered earlier. All proposed structures are energetically stable. Possible applications of the studied bilayers have been considered as well.

  11. Development of large area, pico-second resolution photo-detectors and associated readout electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Grabas, H.; Oberla, E.; Attenkoffer, K.; Bogdan, M.; Frisch, H. J.; Genat, J. F.; May, E. N.; Varner, G. S.; Wetstein, M.

    2011-07-01

    The Large Area Pico-second Photo-detectors described in this contribution incorporate a photo-cathode and a borosilicate glass capillary Micro-Channel Plate (MCP) pair functionalized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of separate resistive and electron secondary emitters materials. They may be used for biomedical imaging purposes, a remarkable opportunity to apply technologies developed in HEP having the potential to make major advances in the medical world, in particular for Positron Emission Tomography (PET). If daisy-chained and coupled to fast transmission lines read at both ends, they could be implemented in very large dimensions. Initial testing with matched pairs of small glass capillary test has demonstrated gains of the order of 105 to 106. Compared to other fast imaging devices, these photo-detectors are expected to provide timing resolutions in the 10-100 ps range, and two-dimension position in the sub-millimeter range. A 6-channel readout ASIC has been designed in 130 nm CMOS technology and tested. As a result, fast analog sampling up to 17 GS/s has been obtained, the intrinsic analog bandwidth being presently under evaluation. The digitization in parallel of several cells in two microseconds allows getting off-chip digital data read at a maximum rate of 40 MHz. Digital Signal Processing of the sampled waveforms is expected achieving the timing and space resolutions obtained with digital oscilloscopes. (authors)

  12. Atomic Layer Epitaxy Group IV Materials: Surface Processes, Thin Films, Devices and Their Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    carbide, SiH 2 Cb1, 14PRC CD adsorbtion , desorption 01.PIECD J7. S(CURITY CLASSI;ICATION 1S SECURITY C.AS’IfICAIION 19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 20...the hydrogen atoms break away from the molecule as the SiH 2 CI2 nears or is adsorbed onto the heated substrate and a monolayer of Si having a...terminating layer formed by the remaining chlorine atoms now resides on the Si surface. This molecular surface configuration now prevents the adsorbtion of

  13. Au/n-InP Schottky diodes using an Al2O3 interfacial layer grown by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hogyoung; Kim, Min Soo; Yoon, Seung Yu; Choi, Byung Joon

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the effect of an Al2O3 interfacial layer grown by atomic layer deposition on the electrical properties of Au Schottky contacts to n-type InP. Considering barrier inhomogeneity, modified Richardson plots yielded a Richardson constant of 8.4 and 7.5 Acm-2K-2, respectively, for the sample with and without the Al2O3 interlayer (theoretical value of 9.4 Acm-2K-2 for n-type InP). The dominant reverse current flow for the sample with an Al2O3 interlayer was found to be Poole-Frenkel emission. From capacitance-voltage measurements, it was observed that the capacitance for the sample without the Al2O3 interlayer was frequency dependent. Sputter-induced defects as well as structural defects were passivated effectively with an Al2O3 interlayer.

  14. Controlling Edge Morphology in Graphene Layers Using Electron Irradiation: From Sharp Atomic Edges to Coalesced Layers Forming Loops

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz-Silva, E.; Botello-Mendez, A.R.; Barnett, Zachary M; Jia, Xiaoting; Dresselhaus, M; Terrones, H.; Terrones, M.; Sumpter, Bobby G; Meunier, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Recent experimental reports indicate that Joule heating can atomically sharpen the edges of chemical vapor deposition grown graphitic nanoribbons. The absence or presence of loops between adjacent layers in the annealed materials is the topic of a growing debate that this Letter aims to put to rest. We offer a rationale explaining why loops do form if Joule heating is used alone, and why adjacent nanoribbon layers do not coalesce when Joule heating is applied after high-energy electrons first irradiate the sample. Our work, based on large-scale quantum molecular dynamics and electronic-transport calculations, shows that vacancies on adjacent graphene sheets, created by electron irradiation, inhibit the formation of edge loops.

  15. Complex protein nanopatterns over large areas via colloidal lithography.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Stine H; Pedersen, Gitte A; Ogaki, Ryosuke; Bochenkov, Vladimir; Nejsum, Lene N; Sutherland, Duncan S

    2013-04-01

    The patterning of biomolecules at the nanoscale provides a powerful method to investigate cellular adhesion processes. A novel method for patterning is presented that is based on colloidal monolayer templating combined with multiple and angled deposition steps. Patterns of gold and SiO2 layers are used to generate complex protein nanopatterns over large areas. Simple circular patches or more complex ring structures are produced in addition to hierarchical patterns of smaller patches. The gold regions are modified through alkanethiol chemistry, which enables the preparation of extracellular matrix proteins (vitronectin) or cellular ligands (the extracellular domain of E-cadherin) in the nanopatterns, whereas the selective poly(l-lysine)-poly(ethylene glycol) functionalization of the SiO2 matrix renders it protein repellent. Cell studies, as a proof of principle, demonstrate the potential for using sets of systematically varied samples with simpler or more complex patterns for studies of cellular adhesive behavior and reveal that the local distribution of proteins within a simple patch critically influences cell adhesion. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Scalable control program for multiprecursor flow-type atomic layer deposition system

    SciTech Connect

    Selvaraj, Sathees Kannan; Takoudis, Christos G.

    2015-01-01

    The authors report the development and implementation of a scalable control program to control flow type atomic layer deposition (ALD) reactor with multiple precursor delivery lines. The program logic is written and tested in LABVIEW environment to control ALD reactor with four precursor delivery lines to deposit up to four layers of different materials in cyclic manner. The programming logic is conceived such that to facilitate scale up for depositing more layers with multiple precursors and scale down for using single layer with any one precursor in the ALD reactor. The program takes precursor and oxidizer exposure and purging times as input and controls the sequential opening and closing of the valves to facilitate the complex ALD process in cyclic manner. The program could be used to deposit materials from any single line or in tandem with other lines in any combination and in any sequence.

  17. Surface treatment for the atomic layer deposition of HfO2 on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damlencourt, J.-F.; Renault, O.; Martin, F.; Séméria, M.-N.; Billon, T.; Bedu, F.

    2005-04-01

    The atomic layer deposition (ALD) of HfO2 on silicon with a Cl2 surface treatment is investigated by physicochemical and electrical techniques. The specificity of this treatment is to create, on a HF-dipped silicon surface, the nucleation sites necessary for the ALD growth. The growth rates obtained by spectroscopic ellipsometry and total x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy indicate that the nucleation sites (i.e., the -OH groups), which are necessary to perform some bidimensional ALD growth, are generated during this surface treatment. After deposition of thin HfO2 layers (from a few monolayers up to 8.7nm), a very thin parasitic SiOx layer, underneath 1 monolayer of Hf silicate, is observed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Nevertheless, an equivalent oxide thickness of 1.1nm is obtained with an as-deposited 3.7nm thick HfO2 layer.

  18. Improved electrical properties of atomic layer deposited tin disulfide at low temperatures using ZrO2 layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Juhyun; Lee, Jeongsu; Ham, Giyul; Shin, Seokyoon; Park, Joohyun; Choi, Hyeongsu; Lee, Seungjin; Kim, Juyoung; Sul, Onejae; Lee, Seungbeck; Jeon, Hyeongtag

    2017-02-01

    We report the effect of zirconium oxide (ZrO2) layers on the electrical characteristics of multilayered tin disulfide (SnS2) formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at low temperatures. SnS2 is a two-dimensional (2D) layered material which exhibits a promising electrical characteristics as a channel material for field-effect transistors (FETs) because of its high mobility, good on/off ratio and low temperature processability. In order to apply these 2D materials to large-scale and flexible electronics, it is essential to develop processes that are compatible with current electronic device manufacturing technology which should be conducted at low temperatures. Here, we deposited a crystalline SnS2 at 150 °C using ALD, and we then annealed at 300 °C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy measurements before and after the annealing showed that SnS2 had a hexagonal (001) peak at 14.9° and A1g mode at 313 cm-1. The annealed SnS2 exhibited clearly a layered structure confirmed by the high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) images. Back-gate FETs with SnS2 channel sandwiched by top and bottom ZrO2 on p++Si/SiO2 substrate were suggested to improve electrical characteristics. We used a bottom ZrO2 layer to increase adhesion between the channel and the substrate and a top ZrO2 layer to improve contact property, passivate surface, and protect from process-induced damages to the channel. ZTZ (ZrO2/SnS2/ZrO2) FETs showed improved electrical characteristics with an on/off ratio of from 0.39×103 to 6.39×103 and a mobility of from 0.0076 cm2/Vs to 0.06 cm2/Vs.

  19. In-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry study of copper selective-area atomic layer deposition on palladium

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Han; Qi, Jie; Willis, Brian G.

    2014-07-01

    Selective area copper atomic layer deposition on palladium seed layers has been investigated with in-situ real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry to probe the adsorption/desorption and reaction characteristics of individual deposition cycles. The reactants are copper bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionate) vapor and hydrogen gas. Self-limiting atomic layer deposition was observed in the temperature range of 135–230 °C in a low pressure reactor. Under optimal conditions, growth occurs selectively on palladium and not on silicon dioxide or silicon nitride layers. Based on in-situ ellipsometry data and supporting experiments, a new mechanism for growth is proposed. In the proposed mechanism, precursor adsorption is reversible, and dissociatively adsorbed hydrogen are the stable surface intermediates between growth cycles. The mechanism is enabled by continuous diffusion of palladium from the seed layer into the deposited copper film and strong H* binding to palladium sites. Less intermixing can be obtained at low growth temperatures and short cycle times by minimizing Cu/Pd inter-diffusion.

  20. Surface modification of carbon post arrays by atomic layer deposition of ZnO film.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Ae; Byun, Young-Chul; Singh, Umesh; Cho, Hyoung J; Kim, Hyoungsub

    2011-08-01

    The applicability of atomic layer deposition (ALD) process to the carbon microelectromechanical system technology was studied for a surface modification method of the carbon post electrodes. A conformal coating of the ALD-ZnO film was successfully demonstrated on the carbon post arrays which were fabricated by the traditional photolithography and subsequent two-step pyrolysis. A significant Zn diffusion into the underlying carbon posts was observed during the ALD process. The addition of a sputter-deposited ZnO interfacial layer efficiently blocked the Zn diffusion without altering the microstructure and surface morphology of the ALD-ZnO film.

  1. Atomic layer deposition of platinum with enhanced nucleation and coalescence by trimethylaluminum pre-pulsing

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Yoontae; Dayeh, Shadi A.; Nguyen, Binh-Minh

    2013-12-23

    Conformal coating of metal layers on three-dimensional structures is essential for advanced electronic devices such as storage elements, transistors, and sensors. The quality of atomic layer deposited platinum on oxide surfaces was enhanced by adding pre-deposition pulses of trimethylaluminum (TMA) for improved wetting. With an optimal number of TMA pre-pulses, a 6 nm thick Pt film was perfectly coalesced in contrast to only Pt island formation without TMA pre-pulses. A Pt gate all around Ge/Si nanowire field effect transistor was realized highlighting the potential of this approach for efficient deposition of Pt on 3D nanoelectronic devices.

  2. Optical properties of atomic layer deposited materials and their application in silicon waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alasaarela, Tapani; Hiltunen, Jussi; Khanna, Amit; Säynätjoki, Antti; Tervonen, Ari; Honkanen, Seppo

    2010-02-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a promising method to grow optical materials on waveguide structures. Propagation loss analysis indicates that amorphous TiO2 and Al2O3 films are promising for the waveguide purposes. Instead, polycrystalline ZnO does not work properly as a waveguide by itself, but the waveguiding properties can probably be enhanced by introducing intermediate Al2O3 layers. The wide variety of available materials, conformal growth properties and low scattering losses of many ALD films enable their usage in various waveguide applications. Experimental coating of silicon waveguides is discussed.

  3. Evolution of microstructure and related optical properties of ZnO grown by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Abou Chaaya, Adib; Viter, Roman; Bechelany, Mikhael; Alute, Zanda; Erts, Donats; Zalesskaya, Anastasiya; Kovalevskis, Kristaps; Rouessac, Vincent; Smyntyna, Valentyn; Miele, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    A study of transmittance and photoluminescence spectra on the growth of oxygen-rich ultra-thin ZnO films prepared by atomic layer deposition is reported. The structural transition from an amorphous to a polycrystalline state is observed upon increasing the thickness. The unusual behavior of the energy gap with thickness reflected by optical properties is attributed to the improvement of the crystalline structure resulting from a decreasing concentration of point defects at the growth of grains. The spectra of UV and visible photoluminescence emissions correspond to transitions near the band-edge and defect-related transitions. Additional emissions were observed from band-tail states near the edge. A high oxygen ratio and variable optical properties could be attractive for an application of atomic layer deposition (ALD) deposited ultrathin ZnO films in optical sensors and biosensors.

  4. Metallic atomically-thin layered silicon epitaxially grown on silicene/ZrB2

    DOE PAGES

    Gill, Tobias; Fleurence, Antoine; Warner, Ben; ...

    2017-01-19

    We observe a new two-dimensional (2D) silicon crystal, using low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and it's formed by depositing additional Si atoms onto spontaneously-formed epitaxial silicene on a ZrB2 thin film. From scanning tunnelling spectroscopy (STS) studies, we find that this atomically-thin layered silicon has distinctly different electronic properties. Angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) reveals that, in sharp contrast to epitaxial silicene, the layered silicon exhibits significantly enhanced density of states at the Fermi level resulting from newly formed metallic bands. Furthermore, the 2D growth of this material could allow for direct contacting to themore » silicene surface and demonstrates the dramatic changes in electronic structure that can occur by the addition of even a single monolayer amount of material in 2D systems.« less

  5. Metallic atomically-thin layered silicon epitaxially grown on silicene/ZrB 2

    DOE PAGES

    Gill, Tobias G.; Fleurence, Antoine; Warner, Ben; ...

    2017-02-17

    We observe a new two-dimensional (2D) silicon crystal, using low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and it's formed by depositing additional Si atoms onto spontaneously-formed epitaxial silicene on a ZrB2 thin film. From scanning tunnelling spectroscopy (STS) studies, we find that this atomically-thin layered silicon has distinctly different electronic properties. Angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) reveals that, in sharp contrast to epitaxial silicene, the layered silicon exhibits significantly enhanced density of states at the Fermi level resulting from newly formed metallic bands. Furthermore, the 2D growth of this material could allow for direct contacting to themore » silicene surface and demonstrates the dramatic changes in electronic structure that can occur by the addition of even a single monolayer amount of material in 2D systems.« less

  6. Atomic Layer Deposition of Titania on Cellulose Acetate for Enhanced Hemostasis

    PubMed Central

    Hyde, G. Kevin; Stewart, S. Michael; Scarel, Giovanna; Parsons, Gregory N.; Shih, Chun-Che; Shih, Chun-Ming; Lin, Shing-Jong; Su, Yea-Yang; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A.; Narayan, Roger J.

    2012-01-01

    TiO2 films may be used to alter the wettability and hemocompatibility of cellulose materials. In this study, pure and stoichiometric TiO2 films were grown using atomic layer deposition on both silicon and cellulose substrates. The films were grown with uniform thicknesses and with a growth rate in agreement with literature results. The TiO2 films were shown to profoundly alter the water contact angle values of cellulose depending upon processing characteristics. Higher rates of protein adsorption were noted on TiO2-coated cellulose acetate than on uncoated cellulose acetate. These results suggest that atomic layer deposition is an appropriate method for improving the biological properties of hemostatic agents and other blood-contacting biomaterials. PMID:21298806

  7. Atomic layer deposition of zinc sulfide with Zn(TMHD){sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Short, Andrew; Jewell, Leila; Doshay, Sage; Church, Carena; Keiber, Trevor; Bridges, Frank; Carter, Sue; Alers, Glenn

    2013-01-15

    The atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ZnS films with Zn(TMHD){sub 2} and in situ generated H{sub 2}S as precursors was investigated, over a temperature range of 150-375 Degree-Sign C. ALD behavior was confirmed by investigation of growth behavior and saturation curves. The properties of the films were studied with atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible-infrared spectroscopy, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure. The results demonstrate a film that can penetrate a porous matrix, with a local Zn structure of bulk ZnS, and a band gap between 3.5 and 3.6 eV. The ZnS film was used as a buffer layer in nanostructured PbS quantum dot solar cell devices.

  8. Electrochemical Atomic-Layer Epitaxy: Electrodeposition of IN_2SE3 Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, L. M.; Happek, U.; Vaidyanathan, R.; Stickney, J. L.

    2003-03-01

    Electrochemical atomic-layer epitaxy (EC-ALE) is an approach to electrodepositing thin-films of compound semiconductors. It takes advantage of underpotential deposition (UPD), deposition of a surface limited amount (a monolayer) of an element at a potential less negative than bulk deposition, to form a thin-film of a compound - one atomic layer at a time. In_2Se3 is a semiconductor with a band gap of 1.8 eV, and considerable interest has been shown in the growth of this compound due to its use in photovoltaic devices. Here we report on the formation of In_2Se3 nanoparticles inside the pores of commercial polycarbonate membrane using EC-ALE. AFM studies show that the diameter of the obtained structures range between 180- 200 nm.

  9. Atomic layer deposition of TiO2 thin films on nanoporous alumina templates: Medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, Roger J.; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A.; Brigmon, Robin L.; Pellin, Michael J.; Elam, Jeffrey W.

    2009-06-01

    Nanostructured materials may play a significant role in controlled release of pharmacologic agents for treatment of cancer. Many nanoporous polymer materials are inadequate for use in drug delivery. Nanoporous alumina provides several advantages over other materials for use in controlled drug delivery and other medical applications. Atomic layer deposition was used to coat all the surfaces of a nanoporous alumina membrane in order to reduce the pore size in a controlled manner. Neither the 20 nm nor the 100 nm TiO2-coated nanoporous alumina membranes exhibited statistically lower viability compared to the uncoated nanoporous alumina membrane control materials. Nanostructured materials prepared using atomic layer deposition may be useful for delivering a pharmacologic agent at a precise rate to a specific location in the body. These materials may serve as the basis for “smart” drug delivery devices, orthopedic implants, or self-sterilizing medical devices.

  10. Atomic layer deposition of TIO{sub 2} thin films on nanoporous alumina templates : medical applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, R. J.; Monteiro-Riviere, N. A.; Brigmon, R. L.; Pellin, M. J.; Elam, J.W.; Energy Systems; Univ. of North Carolina; North Carolina State Univ.; SRL

    2009-06-01

    Nanostructured materials may play a significant role in controlled release of pharmacologic agents for treatment of cancer. Many nanoporous polymer materials are inadequate for use in drug delivery. Nanoporous alumina provides several advantages over other materials for use in controlled drug delivery and other medical applications. Atomic layer deposition was used to coat all the surfaces of a nanoporous alumina membrane in order to reduce the pore size in a controlled manner. Neither the 20 nm nor the 100 nm TiO{sub 2}-coated nanoporous alumina membranes exhibited statistically lower viability compared to the uncoated nanoporous alumina membrane control materials. Nanostructured materials prepared using atomic layer deposition may be useful for delivering a pharmacologic agent at a precise rate to a specific location in the body. These materials may serve as the basis for 'smart' drug delivery devices, orthopedic implants, or self-sterilizing medical devices.

  11. Evolution of microstructure and related optical properties of ZnO grown by atomic layer deposition

    PubMed Central

    Abou Chaaya, Adib; Alute, Zanda; Erts, Donats; Zalesskaya, Anastasiya; Kovalevskis, Kristaps; Rouessac, Vincent; Smyntyna, Valentyn; Miele, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Summary A study of transmittance and photoluminescence spectra on the growth of oxygen-rich ultra-thin ZnO films prepared by atomic layer deposition is reported. The structural transition from an amorphous to a polycrystalline state is observed upon increasing the thickness. The unusual behavior of the energy gap with thickness reflected by optical properties is attributed to the improvement of the crystalline structure resulting from a decreasing concentration of point defects at the growth of grains. The spectra of UV and visible photoluminescence emissions correspond to transitions near the band-edge and defect-related transitions. Additional emissions were observed from band-tail states near the edge. A high oxygen ratio and variable optical properties could be attractive for an application of atomic layer deposition (ALD) deposited ultrathin ZnO films in optical sensors and biosensors. PMID:24205465

  12. Metallic atomically-thin layered silicon epitaxially grown on silicene/ZrB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Tobias G.; Fleurence, Antoine; Warner, Ben; Prüser, Henning; Friedlein, Rainer; Sadowski, Jerzy T.; Hirjibehedin, Cyrus F.; Yamada-Takamura, Yukiko

    2017-06-01

    Using low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), we observe a new two-dimensional (2D) silicon crystal that is formed by depositing additional Si atoms onto spontaneously-formed epitaxial silicene on a ZrB2 thin film. From scanning tunnelling spectroscopy (STS) studies, we find that this atomically-thin layered silicon has distinctly different electronic properties. Angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) reveals that, in sharp contrast to epitaxial silicene, the layered silicon exhibits significantly enhanced density of states at the Fermi level resulting from newly formed metallic bands. The 2D growth of this material could allow for direct contacting to the silicene surface and demonstrates the dramatic changes in electronic structure that can occur by the addition of even a single monolayer amount of material in 2D systems.

  13. CoFe2/Al2O3/PMNPT multiferroic heterostructures by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ziyao; Grocke, Garrett; Yanguas-Gil, Angel; Wang, Xinjun; Gao, Yuan; Sun, Nianxiang; Howe, Brandon; Chen, Xing

    2016-05-01

    Multiferroic materials and applications allow electric bias control of magnetism or magnetic bias control of polarization, enabling fast, compact, energy-efficient devices in RF/microwave communication systems such as filters, shifters, and antennas; electronics devices such as inductors and capacitors; and other magnetic material related applications including sensors and memories. In this manuscript, we utilize atomic layer deposition technology to grow magnetic CoFe metallic thin films onto PMNPT, with a ˜110 Oe electric field induced ferromagnetic resonance field shift in the CoFe/Al2O3/PMNPT multiferroic heterostructure. Our work demonstrates an atomic layer deposition fabricated multiferroic heterostructure with significant tunability and shows that the unique thin film growth mechanism will benefit integrated multiferroic application in near future.

  14. Regioselective atomic layer deposition in metal–organic frameworks directed by dispersion interactions

    DOE PAGES

    Gallington, Leighanne C.; Kim, In Soo; Liu, Wei -Guang; ...

    2016-10-03

    The application of atomic layer deposition (ALD) to metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) offers a promising new approach to synthesize designer functional materials with atomic precision. While ALD on flat substrates is well established, the complexity of the pore architecture and surface chemistry in MOFs present new challenges. Through in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction, we visualize how the deposited atoms are localized and redistribute within the MOF during ALD. We demonstrate that the ALD is regioselective, with preferential deposition of oxy-Zn(II) species within the small pores of NU-1000. As a result, complementary density functional calculations indicate that this startling regioselectivity ismore » driven by dispersion interactions associated with the preferential adsorption sites for the organometallic precursors prior to reaction.« less

  15. Regioselective atomic layer deposition in metal–organic frameworks directed by dispersion interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gallington, Leighanne C.; Kim, In Soo; Liu, Wei -Guang; Yakovenko, Andrey A.; Platero-Prats, Ana E.; Li, Zhanyong; Wang, Timothy C.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Farha, Omar K.; Truhlar, Donald G.; Martinson, Alex B. F.; Chapman, Karena W.

    2016-10-03

    The application of atomic layer deposition (ALD) to metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) offers a promising new approach to synthesize designer functional materials with atomic precision. While ALD on flat substrates is well established, the complexity of the pore architecture and surface chemistry in MOFs present new challenges. Through in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction, we visualize how the deposited atoms are localized and redistribute within the MOF during ALD. We demonstrate that the ALD is regioselective, with preferential deposition of oxy-Zn(II) species within the small pores of NU-1000. As a result, complementary density functional calculations indicate that this startling regioselectivity is driven by dispersion interactions associated with the preferential adsorption sites for the organometallic precursors prior to reaction.

  16. Regioselective atomic layer deposition in metal–organic frameworks directed by dispersion interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gallington, Leighanne C.; Kim, In Soo; Liu, Wei-Guang; Yakovenko, Andrey A.; Platero-Prats, Ana E.; Li, Zhanyong; Wang, Timothy C.; Hupp, Joseph; Farha, Omar K.; Truhlar, Donald G.; Martinson, Alex B. F.; Chapman, Karena W.

    2016-10-03

    The application of atomic layer deposition (ALD) to metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) offers a promising new approach to synthesize designer functional materials with atomic precision. While ALD on flat substrates is well established, the complexity of the pore architecture and surface chemistry in MOFs present new challenges. Through in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction, we visualize how the deposited atoms are localized and redistribute within the MOF during ALD. We demonstrate that the ALD is regioselective, with preferential deposition of oxy-Zn(II) species within the small pores of NU-1000. As a result, complementary density functional calculations indicate that this startling regioselectivity is driven by dispersion interactions associated with the preferential adsorption sites for the organometallic precursors prior to reaction.

  17. Atomic Layer Epitaxy of Group IV Materials: Surface Processes, Thin Films, Devices and their Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    U AD-A274 325 Semiannual Technical Report U Atomic Layer Epitaxy of Group IV Materials: Surface Processes, Thin Films, Devices and Their... Group IV Materials: Surface Processes, Thin 414v001---01 Films, Devices and Their Characterization 1114SS S. AUTHOS) N00179 Robert F. Davis, Salah... Conformal deposition of SiC has been demonstrated within trenches etched into Si(100) wafers. P-type films have also been achieved using Al as a

  18. Modeling Mechanism and Growth Reactions for New Nanofabrication Processes by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Simon D; Dey, Gangotri; Maimaiti, Yasheng; Ablat, Hayrensa; Filatova, Ekaterina A; Fomengia, Glen N

    2016-07-01

    Recent progress in the simulation of the chemistry of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is presented for technologically important materials such as alumina, silica, and copper metal. Self-limiting chemisorption of precursors onto substrates is studied using density functional theory so as to determine reaction pathways and aid process development. The main challenges for the future of ALD modeling are outlined. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Dispersion engineering of thick high-Q silicon nitride ring-resonators via atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Riemensberger, Johann; Hartinger, Klaus; Herr, Tobias; Brasch, Victor; Holzwarth, Ronald; Kippenberg, Tobias J

    2012-12-03

    We demonstrate dispersion engineering of integrated silicon nitride based ring resonators through conformal coating with hafnium dioxide deposited on top of the structures via atomic layer deposition. Both, magnitude and bandwidth of anomalous dispersion can be significantly increased. The results are confirmed by high resolution frequency-comb-assisted-diode-laser spectroscopy and are in very good agreement with the simulated modification of the mode spectrum.

  20. Atomic Layer-Deposited Titanium-Doped Vanadium Oxide Thin Films and Their Thermistor Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuyu; Yu, Shifeng; Lu, Ming; Liu, Mingzhao; Zuo, Lei

    2017-04-01

    Here we report the enhancement in the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of atomic layer-deposited vanadium oxide thin films through the doping of titanium oxide. The Hall effect measurement provides a potential explanation for the phenomenon. The composition and morphology of the thin films are investigated by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The high TCR, good uniformity, and low processing temperature of the material make it a good candidate for thermistor application.

  1. MoS{sub 2} functionalization for ultra-thin atomic layer deposited dielectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Azcatl, Angelica; McDonnell, Stephen; Santosh, K.C.; Peng, Xin; Dong, Hong; Qin, Xiaoye; Addou, Rafik; Lu, Ning; Kim, Moon J.; Cho, Kyeongjae; Wallace, Robert M.; Mordi, Greg I.; Kim, Jiyoung

    2014-03-17

    The effect of room temperature ultraviolet-ozone (UV-O{sub 3}) exposure of MoS{sub 2} on the uniformity of subsequent atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is investigated. It is found that a UV-O{sub 3} pre-treatment removes adsorbed carbon contamination from the MoS{sub 2} surface and also functionalizes the MoS{sub 2} surface through the formation of a weak sulfur-oxygen bond without any evidence of molybdenum-sulfur bond disruption. This is supported by first principles density functional theory calculations which show that oxygen bonded to a surface sulfur atom while the sulfur is simultaneously back-bonded to three molybdenum atoms is a thermodynamically favorable configuration. The adsorbed oxygen increases the reactivity of MoS{sub 2} surface and provides nucleation sites for atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The enhanced nucleation is found to be dependent on the thin film deposition temperature.

  2. Atomic layer deposition of aluminum oxide films for carbon nanotube network transistor passivation.

    PubMed

    Grigoras, Kestutis; Zavodchikova, Marina Y; Nasibulin, Albert G; Kauppinen, Esko I; Ermolov, Vladimir; Franssila, Sami

    2011-10-01

    Ultra-thin (2-5 nm thick) aluminum oxide layers were grown on non-functionalized individual single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and their bundles by atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique in order to investigate the mechanism of the coating process. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to examine the uniformity and conformality of the coatings grown at different temperatures (80 degrees C or 220 degrees C) and with different precursors for oxidation (water and ozone). We found that bundles of SWCNTs were coated continuously, but at the same time, bare individual nanotubes remained uncoated. The successful coating of bundles was explained by the formation of interstitial pores between the individual SWCNTs constituting the bundle, where the precursor molecules can adhere, initiating the layer growth. Thicker alumina layers (20-35 nm thick) were used for the coating of bottom-gated SWCNT-network based field effect transistors (FETs). ALD layers, grown at different conditions, were found to influence the performance of the SWCNT-network FETs: low temperature ALD layers caused the ambipolarity of the channel and pronounced n-type conduction, whereas high temperature ALD processes resulted in hysteresis suppression in the transfer characteristics of the SWCNT transistors and preserved p-type conduction. Fixed charges in the ALD layer have been considered as the main factor influencing the conduction change of the SWCNT network based transistors.

  3. Enhancing of catalytic properties of vanadia via surface doping with phosphorus using atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Strempel, Verena E.; Naumann d'Alnoncourt, Raoul; Löffler, Daniel; Kröhnert, Jutta; Skorupska, Katarzyna; Johnson, Benjamin; Driess, Matthias; Rosowski, Frank

    2016-01-15

    Atomic layer deposition is mainly used to deposit thin films on flat substrates. Here, the authors deposit a submonolayer of phosphorus on V{sub 2}O{sub 5} in the form of catalyst powder. The goal is to prepare a model catalyst related to the vanadyl pyrophosphate catalyst (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} industrially used for the oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride. The oxidation state of vanadium in vanadyl pyrophosphate is 4+. In literature, it was shown that the surface of vanadyl pyrophosphate contains V{sup 5+} and is enriched in phosphorus under reaction conditions. On account of this, V{sub 2}O{sub 5} with the oxidation state of 5+ for vanadium partially covered with phosphorus can be regarded as a suitable model catalyst. The catalytic performance of the model catalyst prepared via atomic layer deposition was measured and compared to the performance of catalysts prepared via incipient wetness impregnation and the original V{sub 2}O{sub 5} substrate. It could be clearly shown that the dedicated deposition of phosphorus by atomic layer deposition enhances the catalytic performance of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} by suppression of total oxidation reactions, thereby increasing the selectivity to maleic anhydride.

  4. Inhomogeneous longitudinal distribution of Ni atoms on graphene induced by layer-number-dependent internal diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, M.; Tashima, K.; Kotsugi, M.; Ohkochi, T.; Suemitsu, M.; Fukidome, H.

    2016-09-01

    The intrinsic transport properties, such as carrier mobility and saturation velocity, of graphene are the highest among materials owing to its linear band dispersion and weak backscattering. However, the reported field-effect mobility of transistors using graphene as a channel is much lower than the intrinsic channel mobility. One of the reasons for this low mobility is the high contact resistance between graphene and metals used for the source and drain electrodes, which results from the interfacial roughness. Even Ni, which is a promising contact metal for many materials because of its high adhesion and lower contact resistance, does not meet the requirement as a contact metal for graphene. Noticing that the interfacial roughness between the a metal and graphene is strongly related to the onset of the contact resistance, we performed transmission electron microscopy and photoemission electron microscopy measurements to evaluate the microscopic lateral and longitudinal distributions of Ni atoms at the Ni/graphene interface formed on epitaxial graphene (EG) on 4H-SiC(0001). Our data revealed that the deposited Ni atoms diffused into the EG layers, but they did not reach the EG/SiC interface, and the diffusion was stronger on bilayered graphene than on monolayered graphene. We thus ascribe the layer-number-dependent internal diffusion of Ni atoms in EG as a cause of the microscopic interfacial roughness between graphene and the metal. Ensuring homogeneous distribution of the number of EG layers should be key to lowering the contact resistance.

  5. Nano/biosensors based on large-area graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducos, Pedro Jose

    Two dimensional materials have properties that make them ideal for applications in chemical and biomolecular sensing. Their high surface/volume ratio implies that all atoms are exposed to the environment, in contrast to three dimensional materials with most atoms shielded from interactions inside the bulk. Graphene additionally has an extremely high carrier mobility, even at ambient temperature and pressure, which makes it ideal as a transduction device. The work presented in this thesis describes large-scale fabrication of Graphene Field Effect Transistors (GFETs), their physical and chemical characterization, and their application as biomolecular sensors. Initially, work was focused on developing an easily scalable fabrication process. A large-area graphene growth, transfer and photolithography process was developed that allowed the scaling of production of devices from a few devices per single transfer in a chip, to over a thousand devices per transfer in a full wafer of fabrication. Two approaches to biomolecules sensing were then investigated, through nanoparticles and through chemical linkers. Gold and platinum Nanoparticles were used as intermediary agents to immobilize a biomolecule. First, gold nanoparticles were monodispersed and functionalized with thiolated probe DNA to yield DNA biosensors with a detection limit of 1 nM and high specificity against noncomplementary DNA. Second, devices are modified with platinum nanoparticles and functionalized with thiolated genetically engineered scFv HER3 antibodies to realize a HER3 biosensor. Sensors retain the high affinity from the scFv fragment and show a detection limit of 300 pM. We then show covalent and non-covalent chemical linkers between graphene and antibodies. The chemical linker 1-pyrenebutanoic acid succinimidyl ester (pyrene) stacks to the graphene by Van der Waals interaction, being a completely non-covalent interaction. The linker 4-Azide-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzoic acid, succinimidyl ester (azide

  6. Analytic expressions for atomic layer deposition: Coverage, throughput, and materials utilization in cross-flow, particle coating, and spatial atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Yanguas-Gil, Angel; Elam, Jeffrey W.

    2014-05-15

    In this work, the authors present analytic models for atomic layer deposition (ALD) in three common experimental configurations: cross-flow, particle coating, and spatial ALD. These models, based on the plug-flow and well-mixed approximations, allow us to determine the minimum dose times and materials utilization for all three configurations. A comparison between the three models shows that throughput and precursor utilization can each be expressed by universal equations, in which the particularity of the experimental system is contained in a single parameter related to the residence time of the precursor in the reactor. For the case of cross-flow reactors, the authors show how simple analytic expressions for the reactor saturation profiles agree well with experimental results. Consequently, the analytic model can be used to extract information about the ALD surface chemistry (e.g., the reaction probability) by comparing the analytic and experimental saturation profiles, providing a useful tool for characterizing new and existing ALD processes.

  7. Integration of atomic layer deposited nanolaminates on silicon waveguides (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autere, Anton; Karvonen, Lasse; Säynätjoki, Antti; Roussey, Matthieu; Roenn, John; Färm, Elina; Kemell, Marianna; Tu, Xiaoguang; Liow, Tsung-Yang; Lo, Patrick; Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku; Lipsanen, Harri; Honkanen, Seppo; Sun, Zhipei

    2016-05-01

    Despite all the eminent advantages of silicon photonics, other materials need to be integrated to fulfill the functions that are difficult to realize with silicon alone. This is because silicon has a low light emission efficiency and a low electro-optic coefficient, limiting the use of silicon as a material for light sources and modulators. A strong two-photon absorption (TPA) at high intensities also limits the use of silicon in applications exploiting nonlinear effects. In addition, signal amplification is needed to compensate the insertion and propagation losses in silicon nanowaveguides. To address these issues we have demonstrated the integration of atomic layer deposited nanolaminates on silicon waveguides. Firstly we demonstrate slot waveguide ring resonators patterned on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer coated with an atomic layer deposited organic/inorganic nanolaminate structure, which consists of alternating layers of tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) and polyimide (PI) [1]. These materials were selected since the ALD process for depositing Ta2O5/PI nanolaminate films is already available [2] and both materials exhibit high third order nonlinearities [3-4]. In our nanolaminate ring resonators, the optical power is not only confined in the narrow central air slot but also in several parallel sub-10 nm wide vertical polyimide slots. This indicates that the mode profiles in the silicon slot waveguide can be accurately tuned by the atomic layer deposition (ALD) method. Our results show that ALD of organic and inorganic materials can be combined with conventional silicon waveguide fabrication techniques to create slot waveguide ring resonators with varying mode profiles. Secondly we demonstrate the integration of atomic layer deposited erbium-doped aluminum oxide (Al2O3) nanolaminates on silicon waveguides. This method provides an efficient way for controlling the concentration and distribution of erbium ions. We have applied this method on silicon strip and slot

  8. Mechanism of interfacial layer suppression after performing surface Al(CH3)3 pretreatment during atomic layer deposition of Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Min; Zhang, Chi; Ding, Shi-Jin; Lu, Hong-Liang; Chen, Wei; Sun, Qing-Qing; Zhang, David Wei; Wang, Li-Kang

    2006-11-01

    During atomic layer deposition of high permittivity (high-k) metal oxide gate dielectrics, an interfacial layer (IL) containing SiOx between high-k dielectric and Si substrate is almost unavoidable. However, an Al(CH3)3 (TMA) pretreatment for 3600s on H-terminated silicon surface can effectively reduce the interfacial layer from 1.7to0.5nm during atomic layer deposition of aluminum oxide. Interestingly, the surface TMA pretreatment increases the thickness of the initial IL during atomic layer deposition, but it greatly suppresses the final IL after 35 growth cycles. A reasonable mechanism is proposed based on the steric hindrance effect cofunctioning with the interfacial Al catalyzing effect.

  9. Atomic scale imaging of competing polar states in a Ruddlesden–Popper layered oxide

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Greg; Ophus, Colin; Birol, Turan; Ciston, Jim; Lee, Che-Hui; Wang, Ke; Fennie, Craig J.; Schlom, Darrell G.; Alem, Nasim; Gopalan, Venkatraman

    2016-01-01

    Layered complex oxides offer an unusually rich materials platform for emergent phenomena through many built-in design knobs such as varied topologies, chemical ordering schemes and geometric tuning of the structure. A multitude of polar phases are predicted to compete in Ruddlesden–Popper (RP), An+1BnO3n+1, thin films by tuning layer dimension (n) and strain; however, direct atomic-scale evidence for such competing states is currently absent. Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy with sub-Ångstrom resolution in Srn+1TinO3n+1 thin films, we demonstrate the coexistence of antiferroelectric, ferroelectric and new ordered and low-symmetry phases. We also directly image the atomic rumpling of the rock salt layer, a critical feature in RP structures that is responsible for the competing phases; exceptional quantitative agreement between electron microscopy and density functional theory is demonstrated. The study shows that layered topologies can enable multifunctionality through highly competitive phases exhibiting diverse phenomena in a single structure. PMID:27578622

  10. Atomic scale imaging of competing polar states in a Ruddlesden–Popper layered oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Greg; Ophus, Colin; Birol, Turan; Ciston, Jim; Lee, Che-Hui; Wang, Ke; Fennie, Craig J.; Schlom, Darrell G.; Alem, Nasim; Gopalan, Venkatraman

    2016-08-31

    Layered complex oxides offer an unusually rich materials platform for emergent phenomena through many built-in design knobs such as varied topologies, chemical ordering schemes and geometric tuning of the structure. A multitude of polar phases are predicted to compete in Ruddlesden-Popper (RP), A n+1 B n O 3n+1 , thin films by tuning layer dimension (n) and strain; however, direct atomic-scale evidence for such competing states is currently absent. Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy with sub-Ångstrom resolution in Sr n+1 Ti n O 3n+1 thin films, we demonstrate the coexistence of antiferroelectric, ferroelectric and new ordered and low-symmetry phases. We also directly image the atomic rumpling of the rock salt layer, a critical feature in RP structures that is responsible for the competing phases; exceptional quantitative agreement between electron microscopy and density functional theory is demonstrated. The study shows that layered topologies can enable multifunctionality through highly competitive phases exhibiting diverse phenomena in a single structure.

  11. Atomic scale imaging of competing polar states in a Ruddlesden–Popper layered oxide

    DOE PAGES

    Stone, Greg; Ophus, Colin; Birol, Turan; ...

    2016-08-31

    Layered complex oxides offer an unusually rich materials platform for emergent phenomena through many built-in design knobs such as varied topologies, chemical ordering schemes and geometric tuning of the structure. A multitude of polar phases are predicted to compete in Ruddlesden-Popper (RP), A n+1 B n O 3n+1 , thin films by tuning layer dimension (n) and strain; however, direct atomic-scale evidence for such competing states is currently absent. Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy with sub-Ångstrom resolution in Sr n+1 Ti n O 3n+1 thin films, we demonstrate the coexistence of antiferroelectric, ferroelectric and new ordered and low-symmetry phases.more » We also directly image the atomic rumpling of the rock salt layer, a critical feature in RP structures that is responsible for the competing phases; exceptional quantitative agreement between electron microscopy and density functional theory is demonstrated. The study shows that layered topologies can enable multifunctionality through highly competitive phases exhibiting diverse phenomena in a single structure.« less

  12. Atomic layer deposition enhanced grafting of phosphorylcholine on stainless steel for intravascular stents.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Qi; Yan, Jin; Qian, Xu; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Zhuo; Li, Aidong

    2014-09-01

    In-stent restenosis (ISR) and re-endothelialization delay are two major issues of intravascular stent in terms of clinical safety and effects. Construction of mimetic cell membrane surface on stents using phosphorylcholine have been regarded as one of the most powerful strategies to resolve these two issues and improve the performance of stents. In this study, atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology, which is widely used in semiconductor industry, was utilized to fabricate ultra-thin layer (10nm) of alumina (Al2O3) on 316L stainless steel (SS), then the alumina covered surface was modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS) and 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) sequentially in order to produce phosphorylcholine mimetic cell membrane surface. The pristine and modified surfaces were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscope and water contact angle measurement. Furthermore, the abilities of protein adsorption, platelet adhesion and cell proliferation on the surfaces were investigated. It was found that alumina layer can significantly enhance the surface grafting of APS and MPC on SS; and in turn efficiently inhibit protein adsorption and platelet adhesion, and promote the attachment and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) on the surfaces. In association with the fact that the deposition of alumina layer is also beneficial to the improvement of adhesion and integrity of drug-carrying polymer coating on drug eluting stents, we expect that ALD technology can largely assist in the modifications on inert metallic surfaces and benefit implantable medical devices, especially intravascular stents.

  13. Composition-Modulated Two-Dimensional Semiconductor Lateral Heterostructures via Layer-Selected Atomic Substitution.

    PubMed

    Li, Honglai; Wu, Xueping; Liu, Hongjun; Zheng, Biyuan; Zhang, Qinglin; Zhu, Xiaoli; Wei, Zheng; Zhuang, Xiujuan; Zhou, Hong; Tang, Wenxin; Duan, Xiangfeng; Pan, Anlian

    2017-01-24

    Composition-controlled growth of two-dimensional layered semiconductor heterostructures is crucially important for their applications in multifunctional integrated photonics and optoelectronics devices. Here, we report the realization of composition completely modulated layered semiconductor MoS2-MoS2(1-x)Se2x (0 < x < 1) lateral heterostructures via the controlled layer-selected atomic substitution of pregrown stacking MoS2, with a bilayer located at the center of a monolayer. Through controlling the reaction time, S at the monolayer MoS2 at the peripheral area can be selectively substituted by Se atoms at different levels, while the bilayer region at the center retains the original composition. Microstructure characterizations demonstrated the formation of lateral heterostructures with a sharp interface, with the composition at the monolayer area gradually modulated from MoS2 to MoSe2 and having high-quality crystallization at both the monolayer and the bilayer areas. Photoluminescence and Raman mapping studies exhibit the tunable optical properties only at the monolayer region of the as-grown heterostructures, which further demonstrates the realization of high-quality composition/bandgap modulated lateral heterostructures. This work offers an interesting and easy route for the development of high-quality layered semiconductor heterostructures for potential broad applications in integrated nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices.

  14. Controlling the grain size of polycrystalline TiO2 films grown by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavre Piltaver, Ivna; Peter, Robert; Šarić, Iva; Salamon, Krešimir; Jelovica Badovinac, Ivana; Koshmak, Konstantin; Nannarone, Stefano; Delač Marion, Ida; Petravić, Mladen

    2017-10-01

    The crystal structure and the grain size of thin TiO2 films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, secondary ion mass spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. The films of different thicknesses between 50 and 150 nm were grown at temperatures between 200 and 250 °C with a TiCl4-H2O ALD process on two different substrates, Si and NiTi. The grain size of the anatase TiO2 was dramatically increased if a thin buffer layer of Al2O3 was deposited on substrates in the same ALD sequence prior to the TiO2 deposition. The largest TiO2 plate-like grains of more than one micrometer in diameter were observed on 150 nm thick films grown at 250 °C. The present work demonstrates that the grain size of an anatase TiO2 film can be tailored and controlled on different substrates not only by the processing temperature and film thickness, but, more dramatically, by the nanometric intermediate Al2O3 layers deposited on substrates in the same ALD sequences. The large lateral grain size is explained in terms of low density of the initial nucleation grains created in TiO2 films grown on Al2O3 layers.

  15. Atomic scale imaging of competing polar states in a Ruddlesden-Popper layered oxide.

    PubMed

    Stone, Greg; Ophus, Colin; Birol, Turan; Ciston, Jim; Lee, Che-Hui; Wang, Ke; Fennie, Craig J; Schlom, Darrell G; Alem, Nasim; Gopalan, Venkatraman

    2016-08-31

    Layered complex oxides offer an unusually rich materials platform for emergent phenomena through many built-in design knobs such as varied topologies, chemical ordering schemes and geometric tuning of the structure. A multitude of polar phases are predicted to compete in Ruddlesden-Popper (RP), An+1BnO3n+1, thin films by tuning layer dimension (n) and strain; however, direct atomic-scale evidence for such competing states is currently absent. Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy with sub-Ångstrom resolution in Srn+1TinO3n+1 thin films, we demonstrate the coexistence of antiferroelectric, ferroelectric and new ordered and low-symmetry phases. We also directly image the atomic rumpling of the rock salt layer, a critical feature in RP structures that is responsible for the competing phases; exceptional quantitative agreement between electron microscopy and density functional theory is demonstrated. The study shows that layered topologies can enable multifunctionality through highly competitive phases exhibiting diverse phenomena in a single structure.

  16. Atomic scale imaging of competing polar states in a Ruddlesden-Popper layered oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Greg; Ophus, Colin; Birol, Turan; Ciston, Jim; Lee, Che-Hui; Wang, Ke; Fennie, Craig J.; Schlom, Darrell G.; Alem, Nasim; Gopalan, Venkatraman

    2016-08-01

    Layered complex oxides offer an unusually rich materials platform for emergent phenomena through many built-in design knobs such as varied topologies, chemical ordering schemes and geometric tuning of the structure. A multitude of polar phases are predicted to compete in Ruddlesden-Popper (RP), An+1BnO3n+1, thin films by tuning layer dimension (n) and strain; however, direct atomic-scale evidence for such competing states is currently absent. Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy with sub-Ångstrom resolution in Srn+1TinO3n+1 thin films, we demonstrate the coexistence of antiferroelectric, ferroelectric and new ordered and low-symmetry phases. We also directly image the atomic rumpling of the rock salt layer, a critical feature in RP structures that is responsible for the competing phases; exceptional quantitative agreement between electron microscopy and density functional theory is demonstrated. The study shows that layered topologies can enable multifunctionality through highly competitive phases exhibiting diverse phenomena in a single structure.

  17. Attribution and Characterisation of Sclerophyll Forested Landscapes Over Large Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Simon; Soto-Berelov, Mariela; Suarez, Lola; Wilkes, Phil; Woodgate, Will; Haywood, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    conducted a total of 67 ground-based method-to-method pairwise comparisons across 11 plots in five sites, incorporating the previously mentioned LAI methods. Out of the 67 comparisons, 29 had an RMSE ≥ 0.5 LAIe. This has important implications for the validation of remotely sensed products since ground based techniques themselves exhibit LAI variations greater than internationally recommended guidelines for satellite product accuracies. 2. Two methods of canopy height derivation are proposed and tested over a large area (4 Million Ha). 99th percentile maximum height achieved a RMSE of 6.6%, whilst 95th percentile dominant height a RMSE = 10.3%. Vertical canopy complexity (i.e. the number of forest layers of strata) was calculated as the local maxima of vegetation density within the LiDAR canopy profile and determined using a cubic spline smoothing of Pgap. This was then validated against in-situ and LiDAR observations of canopy strata with an RMSE 0.39 canopy layers. 3. Preliminary results are presented of landcover characterisation using LandTrendr analysis of Landsat LEDAPS data. kNN is then used to link these features to a dense network of 800 field plots sites.

  18. Atomic Layer Deposited (ALD) coatings for future astronomical telescopes: recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Christopher Samuel; Hennessy, John; Jewell, April D.; Nikzad, Shouleh; France, Kevin

    2016-07-01

    Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) can create conformal, near stoichiometric and pinhole free transmissive metal fluoride coatings to protect reflective aluminum films. Spectral performance of astronomical mirror coatings strongly affect the science capabilities of astronomical satellite missions. We are utilizing ALD to create a transmissive overcoat to protect aluminum film mirrors from oxidation with the goal of achieving high reflectance (> 80%) from the UV ( 100 nm) to the IR ( 2,000 nm). This paper summarizes the recent developments of ALD aluminum fluoride (AlF3) coatings on Al. Reflectance measurements of aluminum mirrors protected by ALD AlF3 and future applications are discussed. These measurements demonstrate that Al + ALD AlF3, even with an interfacial oxide layer of a few nanometers, can provide higher reflectance than Al protected by traditional physical vapor deposited MgF2 without an oxide layer, below 115 nm.

  19. Thin films of topological crystalline insulator SnTe in contact with heterogeneous atomic layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chi-Hsuan; Yang, Chih-Kai

    2016-12-01

    Tin telluride is a topological crystalline insulator that has gapless surface states protected by mirror symmetry. The symmetry remains intact when the insulator is reduced in thickness and becomes a thin film, according to ab initio calculations based on density functional theory. Furthermore, a SnTe thin film in contact with a heterogeneous atomic layer is capable of closing energy gap caused by quantum tunneling between the two thin film surfaces and therefore distinguishes two conducting channels through surface and interface states respectively. Our calculations of SnTe films deposited with a lead telluride layer have two Dirac cones separated in energy, while the same film in contact with strontium telluride have the cones separated in momentum. The composite with a magnetic manganese telluride layer, however, loses both the mirror and time-reversal symmetry.

  20. Measurement of interactions between protein layers adsorbed on silica by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valle-Delgado, J. J.; Molina-Bolívar, J. A.; Galisteo-González, F.; Gálvez-Ruiz, M. J.; Feiler, A.; Rutland, M. W.

    2004-07-01

    The present work, using an atomic force microscope and the colloid probe technique, investigates the interaction forces between bovine serum albumin (BSA) layers and between apoferritin layers adsorbed on silica surfaces. The measurements have been carried out in an aqueous medium at different pH values and NaCl concentrations. Similar behaviours have been found with both proteins. Electrostatic and steric forces dominate the interactions between the protein layers at low NaCl concentrations. However, a very strange behaviour is found as a function of pH at high NaCl concentrations. The results obtained under these conditions could be explained if the presence of hydration forces in these systems is assumed.

  1. Precise broad-band anti-refection coating fabricated by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanghui; Shen, Weidong; Zhang, Yueguang; Hao, Xiang; Fan, Huanhuan; Liu, Xu

    2013-04-01

    By demarcating the ranges of transition regions on different underlayers in atomic layer deposition (ALD), their effects on broad-band anti-refection (BBAR) coating (400-680 nm) are evaluated. In ALD, comparatively larger transition region of TiO2 on bare BK7 glass severely limits the fabricated precision of BBAR coating with a thin first layer. Considering that the transition region on existent ALD material is much thinner than that on bare substrate, a thick Al2O3 film is inserted as a pre-deposited layer on the substrate to completely overlay the transition region on bare BK7.A good agreement between the designed and experimental curves is obtained, and its average reflectance is 0.535% (400-680 nm) in practice.

  2. Interface Engineering for Atomic Layer Deposited Alumina Gate Dielectric on SiGe Substrates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangliang; Guo, Yuzheng; Hassan, Vinayak Vishwanath; Tang, Kechao; Foad, Majeed A; Woicik, Joseph C; Pianetta, Piero; Robertson, John; McIntyre, Paul C

    2016-07-27

    Optimization of the interface between high-k dielectrics and SiGe substrates is a challenging topic due to the complexity arising from the coexistence of Si and Ge interfacial oxides. Defective high-k/SiGe interfaces limit future applications of SiGe as a channel material for electronic devices. In this paper, we identify the surface layer structure of as-received SiGe and Al2O3/SiGe structures based on soft and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. As-received SiGe substrates have native SiOx/GeOx surface layers, where the GeOx-rich layer is beneath a SiOx-rich surface. Silicon oxide regrows on the SiGe surface during Al2O3 atomic layer deposition, and both SiOx and GeOx regrow during forming gas anneal in the presence of a Pt gate metal. The resulting mixed SiOx-GeOx interface layer causes large interface trap densities (Dit) due to distorted Ge-O bonds across the interface. In contrast, we observe that oxygen-scavenging Al top gates decompose the underlying SiOx/GeOx, in a selective fashion, leaving an ultrathin SiOx interfacial layer that exhibits dramatically reduced Dit.

  3. Atomic-Layer-Deposition Growth of an Ultrathin HfO2 Film on Graphene.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Mengmeng; Qiu, Chenguang; Zhang, Zhiyong; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2017-10-04

    Direct growth of an ultrathin gate dielectric layer with high uniformity and high quality on graphene remains a challenge for developing graphene-based transistors due to the chemically inert surface properties of graphene. Here, we develop a method to realize atomic-layer-deposition (ALD) growth of an ultrathin high-κ dielectric layer on graphene through premodifying the graphene surface using electron beam irradiation. An amorphous carbon layer induced by electron beam scanning is formed on graphene and then acts as seeds for ALD growth of high-κ dielectrics. A uniform HfO2 layer with an equivalent oxide thickness of 1.3 nm was grown as a gate dielectric for top-gate graphene field-effect transistors (FETs). The achieved gate capacitance is up to 2.63 μF/cm(2), which is the highest gate capacitance on a graphene solid-state device to date. In addition, the fabricated top-gate graphene FETs present a high carrier mobility of up to 2500 cm(2)/(V·s) and a negligible gate leakage current of down to 0.1 mA/cm(2), showing that the ALD-grown HfO2 dielectric layer is highly uniform and of very high quality.

  4. Scalability of plasma enhanced atomic layer deposited ruthenium films for interconnect applications

    SciTech Connect

    Swerts, J.; Armini, S.; Carbonell, L.; Delabie, A.; Franquet, A.; Mertens, S.; Popovici, M.; Schaekers, M.; Witters, T.; Toekei, Z.; Beyer, G.; Van Elshocht, S.; Gravey, V.; Cockburn, A.; Shah, K.; Aubuchon, J.

    2012-01-15

    Ru thin films were deposited by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition using MethylCyclopentadienylPyrrolylRuthenium (MeCpPy)Ru and N{sub 2}/NH{sub 3} plasma. The growth characteristics have been studied on titanium nitride or tantalum nitride substrates of various thicknesses. On SiO{sub 2}, a large incubation period has been observed, which can be resolved by the use of a metal nitride layer of {approx} 0.8 nm. The growth characteristics of Ru layers deposited on ultra-thin metal nitride layers are similar to those on thick metal nitride substrates despite the fact that the metal nitride layers are not fully closed. Scaled Ru/metal nitride stacks were deposited in narrow lines down to 25 nm width. Thinning of the metal nitride does not impact the conformality of the Ru layer in the narrow lines. For the thinnest lines the Ru deposited on the side wall showed a more granular structure when compared to the bottom of the trench, which is attributed to the plasma directionality during the deposition process.

  5. Atom-scale depth localization of biologically important chemical elements in molecular layers.

    PubMed

    Schneck, Emanuel; Scoppola, Ernesto; Drnec, Jakub; Mocuta, Cristian; Felici, Roberto; Novikov, Dmitri; Fragneto, Giovanna; Daillant, Jean

    2016-08-23

    In nature, biomolecules are often organized as functional thin layers in interfacial architectures, the most prominent examples being biological membranes. Biomolecular layers play also important roles in context with biotechnological surfaces, for instance, when they are the result of adsorption processes. For the understanding of many biological or biotechnologically relevant phenomena, detailed structural insight into the involved biomolecular layers is required. Here, we use standing-wave X-ray fluorescence (SWXF) to localize chemical elements in solid-supported lipid and protein layers with near-Ångstrom precision. The technique complements traditional specular reflectometry experiments that merely yield the layers' global density profiles. While earlier work mostly focused on relatively heavy elements, typically metal ions, we show that it is also possible to determine the position of the comparatively light elements S and P, which are found in the most abundant classes of biomolecules and are therefore particularly important. With that, we overcome the need of artificial heavy atom labels, the main obstacle to a broader application of high-resolution SWXF in the fields of biology and soft matter. This work may thus constitute the basis for the label-free, element-specific structural investigation of complex biomolecular layers and biological surfaces.

  6. Conformational change of the hexagonally packed intermediate layer of Deinococcus radiodurans monitored by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Müller, D J; Baumeister, W; Engel, A

    1996-01-01

    Both surfaces of the hexagonally packed intermediate (HPI) layer of Deinococcus radiodurans were imaged in buffer solution by atomic force microscopy. When adsorbed to freshly cleaved mica, the hydrophilic outer surface of the HPI layer was attached to the substrate and the hydrophobic inner surface was exposed to the stylus. The height of a single HPI layer was 7.0 nm, while overlapping edges of adjacent single layers adsorbed to mica had a height of 14.7 nm. However, double-layered stacks with inner surfaces facing each other exhibited a height of 17.4 nm. These stacks exposed the outer surface to the stylus. The different heights of overlapping layers and stacks are attributed to differences in the interaction between inner and outer surfaces. At high resolution, the inner surface revealed a protruding core with a central pore connected by six emanating arms. The pores exhibited two conformations, one with and the other without a central plug. Individual pores were observed to switch from one state to the other. PMID:8655475

  7. Field electron emission of layered Bi2Se3 nanosheets with atom-thick sharp edges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Huihui; Li, Yuan; Li, Qi; Li, Borui; Song, Zengcai; Huang, Wenxiao; Zhao, Chujun; Zhang, Han; Wen, Shuangchun; Carroll, David; Fang, Guojia

    2014-06-01

    Field electron emission properties of solution processed few-layer Bi2Se3 nanosheets are studied for the first time, which exhibit a low turn-on field of 2.3 V μm-1, a high field enhancement factor of up to 6860 and good field emission stability. This performance is better than that of the as reported layered MoS2f sheets and is comparable to that of single layer graphene films. The efficient field emission behaviours are found to be not only attributed to their lower work function but also related to their numerous sharp edges or protrusion decorated structure based on our simulation results. Besides, the contribution of possible two-dimensional electron gas surface states of atom-thick layered Bi2Se3 nanosheets is discussed in this paper. We anticipate that these solution processed layered Bi2Se3 nanosheets have great potential as robust high-performance vertical structure electron emitters for future light weight and highly flexible vacuum micro/nano-electronic device applications.Field electron emission properties of solution processed few-layer Bi2Se3 nanosheets are studied for the first time, which exhibit a low turn-on field of 2.3 V μm-1, a high field enhancement factor of up to 6860 and good field emission stability. This performance is better than that of the as reported layered MoS2f sheets and is comparable to that of single layer graphene films. The efficient field emission behaviours are found to be not only attributed to their lower work function but also related to their numerous sharp edges or protrusion decorated structure based on our simulation results. Besides, the contribution of possible two-dimensional electron gas surface states of atom-thick layered Bi2Se3 nanosheets is discussed in this paper. We anticipate that these solution processed layered Bi2Se3 nanosheets have great potential as robust high-performance vertical structure electron emitters for future light weight and highly flexible vacuum micro/nano-electronic device applications

  8. Large-area settlement pattern recognition from Landsat-8 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieland, Marc; Pittore, Massimiliano

    2016-09-01

    The study presents an image processing and analysis pipeline that combines object-based image analysis with a Support Vector Machine to derive a multi-layered settlement product from Landsat-8 data over large areas. 43 image scenes are processed over large parts of Central Asia (Southern Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Eastern Uzbekistan). The main tasks tackled by this work include built-up area identification, settlement type classification and urban structure types pattern recognition. Besides commonly used accuracy assessments of the resulting map products, thorough performance evaluations are carried out under varying conditions to tune algorithm parameters and assess their applicability for the given tasks. As part of this, several research questions are being addressed. In particular the influence of the improved spatial and spectral resolution of Landsat-8 on the SVM performance to identify built-up areas and urban structure types are evaluated. Also the influence of an extended feature space including digital elevation model features is tested for mountainous regions. Moreover, the spatial distribution of classification uncertainties is analyzed and compared to the heterogeneity of the building stock within the computational unit of the segments. The study concludes that the information content of Landsat-8 images is sufficient for the tested classification tasks and even detailed urban structures could be extracted with satisfying accuracy. Freely available ancillary settlement point location data could further improve the built-up area classification. Digital elevation features and pan-sharpening could, however, not significantly improve the classification results. The study highlights the importance of dynamically tuned classifier parameters, and underlines the use of Shannon entropy computed from the soft answers of the SVM as a valid measure of the spatial distribution of classification uncertainties.

  9. The optical spectra of atomic/ionic mixing layers in outflows from young stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binette, L.; Cabrit, S.; Raga, A.; Cantó, J.

    1999-06-01

    It has been previously suggested on kinematical grounds that at least part of the emission from Herbig-Haro (HH) objects might be produced in turbulent mixing layers associated with high velocity outflows. In order to explore this possibility, we compute 1D models of the temperature and ionization cross sections of mixing layers between a high velocity flow and a stationary environment (both the jet beam and the environment being atomic). The mixing layer models are very simple from the dynamical point of view (being based on a ``turbulent viscosity'' approach), but include a detailed treatment of the relevant atomic/ionic processes and radiative cooling for the 8 most important elements (H, He, C, N, O, Ne, S, Fe). In this way, we produce a grid of 1D models with three free parameters: the velocity of the jet, the local width of the mixing layer h, and the environment pressure Penv. These models are to some extent comparable to a family of plane-parallel, steady shock models computed for different pre-shock velocities and densities. We find that the temperature cross-section changes from parabolic to flat-topped as the layer width increases, as predicted by earlier analytical results. The ionization fraction does not show this behavior and is always strongly out of coronal equilibrium, because of turbulent diffusion of neutral gas from the jet and external medium into the layer. Above a minimum jet velocity, we find that the predicted temperature and optical spectra of the mixing-layer depend mostly on the combination hPenv/(alpha v_j(2)equiv ) Sigma [where alpha ( =~ 0.007) is the adopted turbulent viscosity parameter and v_j the velocity of the jet]. This contrasts with shock models, where line ratios are strongly dependent upon the shock velocity. The [O I]6300/Hα ratio predicted by mixing-layer models appears too high by a factor of two compared with the line ratios of low-excitation HH objects. However, it may be compatible with line ratios in the

  10. Atomic-scale friction modulated by potential corrugation in multi-layered graphene materials

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang, Chunqiang; Liu, Lei

    2015-03-21

    Friction is an important issue that has to be carefully treated for the fabrication of graphene-based nano-scale devices. So far, the friction mechanism of graphene materials on the atomic scale has not yet been clearly presented. Here, first-principles calculations were employed to unveil the friction behaviors and their atomic-scale mechanism. We found that potential corrugations on sliding surfaces dominate the friction force and the friction anisotropy of graphene materials. Higher friction forces correspond to larger corrugations of potential energy, which are tuned by the number of graphene layers. The friction anisotropy is determined by the regular distributions of potential energy. The sliding along a fold-line path (hollow-atop-hollow) has a relatively small potential energy barrier. Thus, the linear sliding observed in macroscopic friction experiments may probably be attributed to the fold-line sliding mode on the atomic scale. These findings can also be extended to other layer-structure materials, such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) and graphene-like BN sheets.

  11. Targeted Single-Site MOF Node Modification: Trivalent Metal Loading via Atomic Layer Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, In Soo; Borycz, Joshua; Platero-Prats, Ana E.; Tussupbayev, Samat; Wang, Timothy C.; Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Gagliardi, Laura; Chapman, Karena W.; Cramer, Christopher J.; Martinson, Alex B. F.

    2015-07-02

    Postsynthetic functionalization of metal organic frameworks (MOFs) enables the controlled, high-density incorporation of new atoms on a crystallographically precise framework. Leveraging the broad palette of known atomic layer deposition (ALD) chemistries, ALD in MOFs (AIM) is one such targeted approach to construct diverse, highly functional, few-atom clusters. In this paper, we demonstrate the saturating reaction of trimethylindium (InMe3) with the node hydroxyls and ligated water of NU-1000, which takes place without significant loss of MOF crystallinity or internal surface area. We computationally identify the elementary steps by which trimethylated trivalent metal compounds (ALD precursors) react with this Zr-based MOF node to generate a uniform and well characterized new surface layer on the node itself, and we predict a final structure that is fully consistent with experimental X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) analysis. Finally, we further demonstrate tunable metal loading through controlled number density of the reactive handles (–OH and –OH2) achieved through node dehydration at elevated temperatures.

  12. Controlled Modification of Superconductivity in Epitaxial Atomic Layer-Organic Molecule Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Shunsuke; Minamitani, Emi; Vijayaraghavan, Saranyan; Mishra, Puneet; Takagi, Yasumasa; Yokoyama, Toshihiko; Oba, Hiroaki; Nitta, Jun; Sakamoto, Kazuyuki; Watanabe, Satoshi; Nakayama, Tomonobu; Uchihashi, Takashi

    2017-04-12

    Self-assembled organic molecules can potentially be an excellent source of charge and spin for two-dimensional (2D) atomic-layer superconductors. Here we investigate 2D heterostructures based on In atomic layers epitaxially grown on Si and highly ordered metal-phthalocyanine (MPc, M = Mn, Cu) through a variety of techniques: scanning tunneling microscopy, electron transport measurements, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, X-ray magnetic circular dichroism, and ab initio calculations. We demonstrate that the superconducting transition temperature (Tc) of the heterostructures can be modified in a controllable manner. Particularly, the substitution of the coordinated metal atoms from Mn to Cu is found to reverse the Tc shift from negative to positive directions. This distinctive behavior is attributed to a competition of charge and spin effects, the latter of which is governed by the directionality of the relevant d-orbitals. The present study shows the effectiveness of molecule-induced surface doping and the significance of microscopic understanding of the molecular states in these 2D heterostructures.

  13. Al2O3 on Black Phosphorus by Atomic Layer Deposition: An in Situ Interface Study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hui; McDonnell, Stephen; Qin, Xiaoye; Azcatl, Angelica; Cheng, Lanxia; Addou, Rafik; Kim, Jiyoung; Ye, Peide D; Wallace, Robert M

    2015-06-17

    In situ "half cycle" atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al2O3 was carried out on black phosphorus ("black-P") surfaces with modified phosphorus oxide concentrations. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is employed to investigate the interfacial chemistry and the nucleation of the Al2O3 on black-P surfaces. This work suggests that exposing a sample that is initially free of phosphorus oxide to the ALD precursors does not result in detectable oxidation. However, when the phosphorus oxide is formed on the surface prior to deposition, the black-P can react with both the surface adventitious oxygen contamination and the H2O precursor at a deposition temperature of 200 °C. As a result, the concentration of the phosphorus oxide increases after both annealing and the atomic layer deposition process. The nucleation rate of Al2O3 on black-P is correlated with the amount of oxygen on samples prior to the deposition. The growth of Al2O3 follows a "substrate inhibited growth" behavior where an incubation period is required. Ex situ atomic force microscopy is also used to investigate the deposited Al2O3 morphologies on black-P where the Al2O3 tends to form islands on the exfoliated black-P samples. Therefore, surface functionalization may be needed to get a conformal coverage of Al2O3 on the phosphorus oxide free samples.

  14. Targeted Single-Site MOF Node Modification: Trivalent Metal Loading via Atomic Layer Deposition

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, In Soo; Borycz, Joshua; Platero-Prats, Ana E.; ...

    2015-07-02

    Postsynthetic functionalization of metal organic frameworks (MOFs) enables the controlled, high-density incorporation of new atoms on a crystallographically precise framework. Leveraging the broad palette of known atomic layer deposition (ALD) chemistries, ALD in MOFs (AIM) is one such targeted approach to construct diverse, highly functional, few-atom clusters. In this paper, we demonstrate the saturating reaction of trimethylindium (InMe3) with the node hydroxyls and ligated water of NU-1000, which takes place without significant loss of MOF crystallinity or internal surface area. We computationally identify the elementary steps by which trimethylated trivalent metal compounds (ALD precursors) react with this Zr-based MOF nodemore » to generate a uniform and well characterized new surface layer on the node itself, and we predict a final structure that is fully consistent with experimental X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) analysis. Finally, we further demonstrate tunable metal loading through controlled number density of the reactive handles (–OH and –OH2) achieved through node dehydration at elevated temperatures.« less

  15. Broadband optical properties of large-area monolayer CVD molybdenum disulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Birdwell, A. Glen; Amani, Matin; Burke, Robert A.; Ling, Xi; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Liang, Xuelei; Peng, Lianmao; Richter, Curt A.; Kong, Jing; Gundlach, David J.; Nguyen, N. V.

    2014-11-01

    Recently emerging large-area single-layer MoS2 grown by chemical vapor deposition has triggered great interest due to its exciting potential for applications in advanced electronic and optoelectronic devices. Unlike gapless graphene, MoS2 has an intrinsic band gap in the visible which crosses over from an indirect to a direct gap when reduced to a single atomic layer. In this paper, we report a comprehensive study of fundamental optical properties of MoS2 revealed by optical spectroscopy of Raman, photoluminescence, and vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopic ellipsometry. A band gap of 1.42 eV is determined by the absorption threshold of bulk MoS2 that shifts to 1.83 eV in monolayer MoS2. We extracted the high precision dielectric function up to 9.0 eV, which leads to the identification of many unique interband transitions at high symmetry points in the MoS2 momentum space. The positions of the so-called A and B excitons in single layers are found to shift upwards in energy compared with those of the bulk form and have smaller separation because of the decreased interactions between the layers. A very strong optical critical point predicted to correspond to a quasiparticle gap is observed at 2.86 eV, which is attributed to optical transitions along the parallel bands between the M and Γ points in the reduced Brillouin zone. The absence of the bulk MoS2 spin-orbit interaction peak at ˜3.0 eV in monolayer MoS2 is, as predicted, the consequence of the coalescence of nearby excitons. A higher energy optical transition at 3.98 eV, commonly occurring in bulk semiconductors, is associated with a combination of several critical points. Additionally, extending into the vacuum ultraviolet energy spectrum are a series of newly observed oscillations representing optical transitions from valence bands to higher conduction bands of the monolayer MoS2 complex band structure. These optical transitions herein reported enhance our understanding of monolayer MoS2 as well as of two

  16. Synthesis of multiferroic Er-Fe-O thin films by atomic layer and chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Mantovan, R. Vangelista, S.; Wiemer, C.; Lamperti, A.; Tallarida, G.; Chikoidze, E.; Dumont, Y.; Fanciulli, M.

    2014-05-07

    R-Fe-O (R = rare earth) compounds have recently attracted high interest as potential new multiferroic materials. Here, we report a method based on the solid-state reaction between Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe layers, respectively grown by atomic layer deposition and chemical vapor deposition, to synthesize Er-Fe-O thin films. The reaction is induced by thermal annealing and evolution of the formed phases is followed by in situ grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. Dominant ErFeO{sub 3} and ErFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} phases develop following subsequent thermal annealing processes at 850 °C in air and N{sub 2}. Structural, chemical, and morphological characterization of the layers are conducted through X-ray diffraction and reflectivity, time-of-flight secondary ion-mass spectrometry, and atomic force microscopy. Magnetic properties are evaluated by magnetic force microscopy, conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer, being consistent with the presence of the phases identified by X-ray diffraction. Our results constitute a first step toward the use of cost-effective chemical methods for the synthesis of this class of multiferroic thin films.

  17. Tuning the mechanical properties of vertical graphene sheets through atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Davami, Keivan; Jiang, Yijie; Cortes, John; Lin, Chen; Shaygan, Mehrdad; Turner, Kevin T; Bargatin, Igor

    2016-04-15

    We report the fabrication and characterization of graphene nanostructures with mechanical properties that are tuned by conformal deposition of alumina. Vertical graphene (VG) sheets, also called carbon nanowalls (CNWs), were grown on copper foil substrates using a radio-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD) technique and conformally coated with different thicknesses of alumina (Al2O3) using atomic layer deposition (ALD). Nanoindentation was used to characterize the mechanical properties of pristine and alumina-coated VG sheets. Results show a significant increase in the effective Young's modulus of the VG sheets with increasing thickness of deposited alumina. Deposition of only a 5 nm thick alumina layer on the VG sheets nearly triples the effective Young's modulus of the VG structures. Both energy absorption and strain recovery were lower in VG sheets coated with alumina than in pure VG sheets (for the same peak force). This may be attributed to the increase in bending stiffness of the VG sheets and the creation of connections between the sheets after ALD deposition. These results demonstrate that the mechanical properties of VG sheets can be tuned over a wide range through conformal atomic layer deposition, facilitating the use of VG sheets in applications where specific mechanical properties are needed.

  18. Nanostaircases: An atomic shadowing instability during epitaxial CrN(001) layer growth

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, J.R.; Gall, D.

    2005-08-01

    Epitaxial CrN(001) layers, 57 and 230 nm thick, were grown on MgO(001) at 700 deg. C by ultrahigh-vacuum magnetron sputter deposition in pure N{sub 2} discharges. An oblique deposition angle {alpha}=80 deg. was utilized to purposely increase the effect of atomic shadowing on surface morphological and microstructural evolution. The layers are single crystals with a surface morphology that is characterized by dendritic ridge patterns extending along orthogonal <110> directions superposed by square-shaped supermounds with <100> edges. The ridge patterns are due to a two-dimensional growth instability related to a gradient in the adatom density while the supermounds form due to atomic shadowing. The supermounds protrude out of the surface and capture a larger deposition flux than the surrounding layer. This leads to both vertical and lateral growth and the formation of inverted pyramids that are epitaxially embedded in a single crystalline matrix. The inverted pyramids are terminated by 1-3-nm-wide tilted voids that form nanostaircases due to kinetic faceting along orthogonal {l_brace}100{r_brace} planes.

  19. Design and implementation of a novel portable atomic layer deposition/chemical vapor deposition hybrid reactor.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Sathees Kannan; Jursich, Gregory; Takoudis, Christos G

    2013-09-01

    We report the development of a novel portable atomic layer deposition chemical vapor deposition (ALD/CVD) hybrid reactor setup. Unique feature of this reactor is the use of ALD/CVD mode in a single portable deposition system to fabricate multi-layer thin films over a broad range from "bulk-like" multi-micrometer to nanometer atomic dimensions. The precursor delivery system and control-architecture are designed so that continuous reactant flows for CVD and cyclic pulsating flows for ALD mode are facilitated. A custom-written LabVIEW program controls the valve sequencing to allow synthesis of different kinds of film structures under either ALD or CVD mode or both. The entire reactor setup weighs less than 40 lb and has a relatively small footprint of 8 × 9 in., making it compact and easy for transportation. The reactor is tested in the ALD mode with titanium oxide (TiO2) ALD using tetrakis(diethylamino)titanium and water vapor. The resulting growth rate of 0.04 nm/cycle and purity of the films are in good agreement with literature values. The ALD/CVD hybrid mode is demonstrated with ALD of TiO2 and CVD of tin oxide (SnOx). Transmission electron microscopy images of the resulting films confirm the formation of successive distinct TiO2-ALD and SnO(x)-CVD layers.

  20. Design and implementation of a novel portable atomic layer deposition/chemical vapor deposition hybrid reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvaraj, Sathees Kannan; Jursich, Gregory; Takoudis, Christos G.

    2013-09-01

    We report the development of a novel portable atomic layer deposition chemical vapor deposition (ALD/CVD) hybrid reactor setup. Unique feature of this reactor is the use of ALD/CVD mode in a single portable deposition system to fabricate multi-layer thin films over a broad range from "bulk-like" multi-micrometer to nanometer atomic dimensions. The precursor delivery system and control-architecture are designed so that continuous reactant flows for CVD and cyclic pulsating flows for ALD mode are facilitated. A custom-written LabVIEW program controls the valve sequencing to allow synthesis of different kinds of film structures under either ALD or CVD mode or both. The entire reactor setup weighs less than 40 lb and has a relatively small footprint of 8 × 9 in., making it compact and easy for transportation. The reactor is tested in the ALD mode with titanium oxide (TiO2) ALD using tetrakis(diethylamino)titanium and water vapor. The resulting growth rate of 0.04 nm/cycle and purity of the films are in good agreement with literature values. The ALD/CVD hybrid mode is demonstrated with ALD of TiO2 and CVD of tin oxide (SnOx). Transmission electron microscopy images of the resulting films confirm the formation of successive distinct TiO2-ALD and SnOx-CVD layers.

  1. A 3D Computational Study on the Air-Blast Atomization of a Planar Liquid Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiodi, Robert; Desjardins, Olivier

    2016-11-01

    The air-blast atomization of a planar liquid layer is a complex fluid phenomenon involving the destabilization of a low speed liquid layer by a high speed gas coflow. While progress has been made in recent years on understanding the instability of the liquid surface, it remains difficult to accurately predict using stability analysis and requires special expertise and equipment to perform thorough experiments. Simulations provide an excellent way to conduct parametric studies to determine the effect of splitter plate geometry and momentum flux ratio on the frequency and wavelengths of instability, however, they are extremely difficult due to the high density ratio and large range of length and time scales present in the flow. Using an accurate conservative level set method in conjunction with a newly reformulated reinitialization equation, we perform 3D simulations of the air-blast atomization of a planar liquid layer and compare them to experiments. We then go on to explore the role momentum flux ratio plays in the longitudinal and transverse wavelengths of instability.

  2. Atomic-layer molybdenum sulfide optical modulator for visible coherent light

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuxia; Wang, Shuxian; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Chen, Yanxue; Mei, Liangmo; Di Lieto, Alberto; Tonelli, Mauro; Wang, Jiyang

    2015-01-01

    Coherent light sources in the visible range are playing important roles in our daily life and modern technology, since about 50% of the capability of the our human brains is devoted to processing visual information. Visible lasers can be achieved by nonlinear optical process of infrared lasers and direct lasing of gain materials, and the latter has advantages in the aspects of compactness, efficiency, simplicity, etc. However, due to lack of visible optical modulators, the directly generated visible lasers with only a gain material are constrained in continuous-wave operation. Here, we demonstrated the fabrication of a visible optical modulator and pulsed visible lasers based on atomic-layer molybdenum sulfide (MoS2), a ultrathin two-dimensional material with about 9–10 layers. By employing the nonlinear absorption of the modulator, the pulsed orange, red and deep red lasers were directly generated. Besides, the present atomic-layer MoS2 optical modulator has broadband modulating properties and advantages in the simple preparation process. The present results experimentally verify the theoretical prediction for the low-dimensional optoelectronic modulating devices in the visible wavelength region and may open an attractive avenue for removing a stumbling block for the further development of pulsed visible lasers. PMID:26067821

  3. Structure in multilayer films of zinc sulfide and copper sulfide via atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Short, Andrew; Jewell, Leila; Bielecki, Anthony; Keiber, Trevor; Bridges, Frank; Carter, Sue; Alers, Glenn

    2014-01-15

    Multilayer film stacks of ZnS and Cu{sub x}S (x ∼ 2) were made via atomic layer deposition. The precursors were bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato)zinc, bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato)copper, and H{sub 2}S generated in situ for sulfur. Samples were deposited at 200 °C, in layers ranging from approximately 2 to 20 nm thick, based on binary growth rates. The properties of the film stacks were studied with atomic force microscopy, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure. The results demonstrate that the structure of films with the thinnest layers is dominated by Cu{sub x}S, whereas in the thicker films, the structure is determined by whichever material is first deposited. This can be attributed to the crystal structure mismatch of ZnS and Cu{sub x}S.

  4. Impurity gettering effect of atomic layer deposited aluminium oxide films on silicon wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, A. Y.; Macdonald, D.

    2017-05-01

    We present experimental evidence for the impurity gettering effect of atomic layer deposited aluminium oxide (Al2O3) films on silicon wafers, during typical surface passivation activation at 425 °C. Iron was used as a model impurity in silicon to study the gettering effects. Dissolved iron concentrations were determined by carrier lifetime measurements, allowing the iron loss kinetics in silicon wafers with Al2O3 coatings to be monitored during annealing. The redistribution of iron to the surface layers and the sub-surface regions was examined by secondary ion mass spectrometry depth profiling. The results show that the atomic layer deposited Al2O3 films generate a strong gettering effect, removing 50% of the iron after 30 min at 425 °C for a 160-μm thick silicon wafer. The iron reduction process is largely diffusion-limited in the initial stages. The gettering effect is caused by the accumulation of iron at the Al2O3/Si interface.

  5. Atomic layer epitaxy of group 4 materials: Surface processes, thin films, devices and their characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Robert F.; Bedair, Salah; El-Masry, Nadina; Glass, Jeffrey T.

    1993-12-01

    Atomic layer epitaxy of monocrystalline Beta-SiC on Si(100) and alpha (6H)-SiC(0001) substrates has been accomplished at 850 C by alternating the supplies of Si2H6, C2H4, and atomic hydrogen without the use of a carbonizing step. Conformal deposition of SiC has been demonstrated within trenches etched into Si(100) wafers. P-type films have also been achieved using Al as a dopant. Devices including HBT's with Beta-SiC emitters have been designed. Hydrogen plasma cleaning of SiC surfaces has been studied. XPS has shown that this process effectively removes C-O, C-F and C-H bonding at the surface. Temperature programmed desorption has been used to look at the amount of subsurface hydrogen generated during plasma cleaning. The diamond precursors of chlorinated methylsilanes and the substrate of Si(100) were subjected to bias enhanced high-frequency CVD. No difference in diamond nucleation density between the precursors was observed. An interface structure of single crystal CeO2/Si(111) grown by laser ablation has been investigated. An interfacial reaction occurred between these phases during deposition which resulted in the formation of an oxygen deficient amorphous (a) CeOx layer and an SiO2 layer. Post annealing in O2 caused the disappearance of the a-CeOx and the regrowth of crystalline CeO2.

  6. Observation of anomalous Stokes versus anti-Stokes ratio in MoTe2 atomic layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Thomas; Chen, Shao-Yu; Xiao, Di; Ramasubramaniam, Ashwin; Yan, Jun

    We grow hexagonal molybdenum ditelluride (MoTe2), a prototypical transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) semiconductor, with chemical vapor transport methods and investigate its atomic layers with Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman scattering. We report observation of all six types of zone center optical phonons. Quite remarkably, the anti-Stokes Raman intensity of the low energy layer-breathing mode becomes more intense than the Stokes peak under certain experimental conditions, creating an illusion of 'negative temperature'. This effect is tunable, and can be switched from anti-Stokes enhancement to suppression by varying the excitation wavelength. We interpret this observation to be a result of resonance effects arising from the C excitons in the vicinity of the Brillouin zone center, which are robust even for multiple layers of MoTe2. The intense anti-Stokes Raman scattering provides a cooling channel for the crystal and opens up opportunities for laser cooling of atomically thin TMDC semiconductor devices. Supported by the University of Massachusetts Amherst, the National Science Foundation Center for Hierarchical Manufacturing (CMMI-1025020) and Office of Emerging Frontiers in Research and Innovation (EFRI-1433496).

  7. Growth Mechanism of Atomic Layer Epitaxy of Iii-V Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirose, S.

    2001-04-01

    A systematic study on atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) of GaAs and AlAs thin films has been carried out by using trimethyl gallium and ethyldimethylamine alane as Ga and Al sources, respectively. For GaAs, the self-limiting growth of ALE occurs at just one monolayer (ML) per cycle. The mechanism of the growth is explained in terms of either adsorbate inhibition model or selective adsorption model. On the other hand, as to ALE-AlAs, self-limiting growth modes accompanied by one-, two- and three-monolayers per ALE cycle have been clearly presented. Each growth mode shows unique dependence of growth temperature on carbon contents. It can be concluded that one monolayer self-limiting growth proceeds with the conventional adsorbate inhibition model, whereas the self-limiting growth with two- and three-monolayers can only be explained by the formation of metallic Al layers. We also point out that atomic configuration of the layer may depend on the substrate temperature.

  8. Atomic-layer molybdenum sulfide optical modulator for visible coherent light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuxia; Wang, Shuxian; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Chen, Yanxue; Mei, Liangmo; di Lieto, Alberto; Tonelli, Mauro; Wang, Jiyang

    2015-06-01

    Coherent light sources in the visible range are playing important roles in our daily life and modern technology, since about 50% of the capability of the our human brains is devoted to processing visual information. Visible lasers can be achieved by nonlinear optical process of infrared lasers and direct lasing of gain materials, and the latter has advantages in the aspects of compactness, efficiency, simplicity, etc. However, due to lack of visible optical modulators, the directly generated visible lasers with only a gain material are constrained in continuous-wave operation. Here, we demonstrated the fabrication of a visible optical modulator and pulsed visible lasers based on atomic-layer molybdenum sulfide (MoS2), a ultrathin two-dimensional material with about 9-10 layers. By employing the nonlinear absorption of the modulator, the pulsed orange, red and deep red lasers were directly generated. Besides, the present atomic-layer MoS2 optical modulator has broadband modulating properties and advantages in the simple preparation process. The present results experimentally verify the theoretical prediction for the low-dimensional optoelectronic modulating devices in the visible wavelength region and may open an attractive avenue for removing a stumbling block for the further development of pulsed visible lasers.

  9. Tuning the mechanical properties of vertical graphene sheets through atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davami, Keivan; Jiang, Yijie; Cortes, John; Lin, Chen; Shaygan, Mehrdad; Turner, Kevin T.; Bargatin, Igor

    2016-04-01

    We report the fabrication and characterization of graphene nanostructures with mechanical properties that are tuned by conformal deposition of alumina. Vertical graphene (VG) sheets, also called carbon nanowalls (CNWs), were grown on copper foil substrates using a radio-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD) technique and conformally coated with different thicknesses of alumina (Al2O3) using atomic layer deposition (ALD). Nanoindentation was used to characterize the mechanical properties of pristine and alumina-coated VG sheets. Results show a significant increase in the effective Young’s modulus of the VG sheets with increasing thickness of deposited alumina. Deposition of only a 5 nm thick alumina layer on the VG sheets nearly triples the effective Young’s modulus of the VG structures. Both energy absorption and strain recovery were lower in VG sheets coated with alumina than in pure VG sheets (for the same peak force). This may be attributed to the increase in bending stiffness of the VG sheets and the creation of connections between the sheets after ALD deposition. These results demonstrate that the mechanical properties of VG sheets can be tuned over a wide range through conformal atomic layer deposition, facilitating the use of VG sheets in applications where specific mechanical properties are needed.

  10. Preparation of gallium nitride surfaces for atomic layer deposition of aluminum oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, A. J.; Chagarov, E.; Gu, S.; Kaufman-Osborn, T.; Madisetti, S.; Wu, J.; Asbeck, P. M.; Oktyabrsky, S.; Kummel, A. C.

    2014-09-01

    A combined wet and dry cleaning process for GaN(0001) has been investigated with XPS and DFT-MD modeling to determine the molecular-level mechanisms for cleaning and the subsequent nucleation of gate oxide atomic layer deposition (ALD). In situ XPS studies show that for the wet sulfur treatment on GaN(0001), sulfur desorbs at room temperature in vacuum prior to gate oxide deposition. Angle resolved depth profiling XPS post-ALD deposition shows that the a-Al2O3 gate oxide bonds directly to the GaN substrate leaving both the gallium surface atoms and the oxide interfacial atoms with XPS chemical shifts consistent with bulk-like charge. These results are in agreement with DFT calculations that predict the oxide/GaN(0001) interface will have bulk-like charges and a low density of band gap states. This passivation is consistent with the oxide restoring the surface gallium atoms to tetrahedral bonding by eliminating the gallium empty dangling bonds on bulk terminated GaN(0001).

  11. Controlled Phase and Tunable Magnetism in Ordered Iron Oxide Nanotube Arrays Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yijun; Liu, Ming; Peng, Bin; Zhou, Ziyao; Chen, Xing; Yang, Shu-Ming; Jiang, Zhuang-De; Zhang, Jie; Ren, Wei; Ye, Zuo-Guang

    2016-01-27

    Highly-ordered and conformal iron oxide nanotube arrays on an atomic scale are successfully prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) with controlled oxidization states and tunable magnetic properties between superparamagnetism and ferrimagnetism. Non-magnetic α-Fe2O3 and superparamagnetic Fe2O3with a blocking temperature of 120 K are in-situ obtained by finely controlling the oxidation reaction. Both of them exhibit a very small grain size of only several nanometers due to the nature of atom-by-atom growth of the ALD technique. Post-annealing α-Fe2O3 in a reducing atmosphere leads to the formation of the spinel Fe3O4 phase which displays a distinct ferrimagnetic anisotropy and the Verwey metal-insulator transition that usually takes place only in single crystal magnetite or thick epitaxial films at low temperatures. Finally, the ALD deposition of iron oxide with well-controlled phase and tunable magnetism demonstrated in this work provides a promising opportunity for the fabrication of 3D nano-devices to be used in catalysis, spintronics, microelectronics, data storages and bio-applications.

  12. Preparation of gallium nitride surfaces for atomic layer deposition of aluminum oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, A. J.; Chagarov, E.; Kaufman-Osborn, T.; Kummel, A. C.; Gu, S.; Wu, J.; Asbeck, P. M.; Madisetti, S.; Oktyabrsky, S.

    2014-09-14

    A combined wet and dry cleaning process for GaN(0001) has been investigated with XPS and DFT-MD modeling to determine the molecular-level mechanisms for cleaning and the subsequent nucleation of gate oxide atomic layer deposition (ALD). In situ XPS studies show that for the wet sulfur treatment on GaN(0001), sulfur desorbs at room temperature in vacuum prior to gate oxide deposition. Angle resolved depth profiling XPS post-ALD deposition shows that the a-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate oxide bonds directly to the GaN substrate leaving both the gallium surface atoms and the oxide interfacial atoms with XPS chemical shifts consistent with bulk-like charge. These results are in agreement with DFT calculations that predict the oxide/GaN(0001) interface will have bulk-like charges and a low density of band gap states. This passivation is consistent with the oxide restoring the surface gallium atoms to tetrahedral bonding by eliminating the gallium empty dangling bonds on bulk terminated GaN(0001)

  13. Controlled Phase and Tunable Magnetism in Ordered Iron Oxide Nanotube Arrays Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yijun; Liu, Ming; Peng, Bin; Zhou, Ziyao; Chen, Xing; Yang, Shu-Ming; Jiang, Zhuang-De; Zhang, Jie; Ren, Wei; Ye, Zuo-Guang

    2016-01-27

    Highly-ordered and conformal iron oxide nanotube arrays on an atomic scale are successfully prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) with controlled oxidization states and tunable magnetic properties between superparamagnetism and ferrimagnetism. Non-magnetic α-Fe2O3 and superparamagnetic Fe3O4 with a blocking temperature of 120 K are in-situ obtained by finely controlling the oxidation reaction. Both of them exhibit a very small grain size of only several nanometers due to the nature of atom-by-atom growth of the ALD technique. Post-annealing α-Fe2O3 in a reducing atmosphere leads to the formation of the spinel Fe3O4 phase which displays a distinct ferrimagnetic anisotropy and the Verwey metal-insulator transition that usually takes place only in single crystal magnetite or thick epitaxial films at low temperatures. The ALD deposition of iron oxide with well-controlled phase and tunable magnetism demonstrated in this work provides a promising opportunity for the fabrication of 3D nano-devices to be used in catalysis, spintronics, microelectronics, data storages and bio-applications.

  14. Controlled Phase and Tunable Magnetism in Ordered Iron Oxide Nanotube Arrays Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yijun; Liu, Ming; Peng, Bin; Zhou, Ziyao; Chen, Xing; Yang, Shu-Ming; Jiang, Zhuang-De; Zhang, Jie; Ren, Wei; Ye, Zuo-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Highly-ordered and conformal iron oxide nanotube arrays on an atomic scale are successfully prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) with controlled oxidization states and tunable magnetic properties between superparamagnetism and ferrimagnetism. Non-magnetic α-Fe2O3 and superparamagnetic Fe3O4 with a blocking temperature of 120 K are in-situ obtained by finely controlling the oxidation reaction. Both of them exhibit a very small grain size of only several nanometers due to the nature of atom-by-atom growth of the ALD technique. Post-annealing α-Fe2O3 in a reducing atmosphere leads to the formation of the spinel Fe3O4 phase which displays a distinct ferrimagnetic anisotropy and the Verwey metal-insulator transition that usually takes place only in single crystal magnetite or thick epitaxial films at low temperatures. The ALD deposition of iron oxide with well-controlled phase and tunable magnetism demonstrated in this work provides a promising opportunity for the fabrication of 3D nano-devices to be used in catalysis, spintronics, microelectronics, data storages and bio-applications.

  15. Controlled Phase and Tunable Magnetism in Ordered Iron Oxide Nanotube Arrays Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Yijun; Liu, Ming; Peng, Bin; ...

    2016-01-27

    Highly-ordered and conformal iron oxide nanotube arrays on an atomic scale are successfully prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) with controlled oxidization states and tunable magnetic properties between superparamagnetism and ferrimagnetism. Non-magnetic α-Fe2O3 and superparamagnetic Fe2O3with a blocking temperature of 120 K are in-situ obtained by finely controlling the oxidation reaction. Both of them exhibit a very small grain size of only several nanometers due to the nature of atom-by-atom growth of the ALD technique. Post-annealing α-Fe2O3 in a reducing atmosphere leads to the formation of the spinel Fe3O4 phase which displays a distinct ferrimagnetic anisotropy and the Verwey metal-insulatormore » transition that usually takes place only in single crystal magnetite or thick epitaxial films at low temperatures. Finally, the ALD deposition of iron oxide with well-controlled phase and tunable magnetism demonstrated in this work provides a promising opportunity for the fabrication of 3D nano-devices to be used in catalysis, spintronics, microelectronics, data storages and bio-applications.« less

  16. Preparation of gallium nitride surfaces for atomic layer deposition of aluminum oxide.

    PubMed

    Kerr, A J; Chagarov, E; Gu, S; Kaufman-Osborn, T; Madisetti, S; Wu, J; Asbeck, P M; Oktyabrsky, S; Kummel, A C

    2014-09-14

    A combined wet and dry cleaning process for GaN(0001) has been investigated with XPS and DFT-MD modeling to determine the molecular-level mechanisms for cleaning and the subsequent nucleation of gate oxide atomic layer deposition (ALD). In situ XPS studies show that for the wet sulfur treatment on GaN(0001), sulfur desorbs at room temperature in vacuum prior to gate oxide deposition. Angle resolved depth profiling XPS post-ALD deposition shows that the a-Al2O3 gate oxide bonds directly to the GaN substrate leaving both the gallium surface atoms and the oxide interfacial atoms with XPS chemical shifts consistent with bulk-like charge. These results are in agreement with DFT calculations that predict the oxide/GaN(0001) interface will have bulk-like charges and a low density of band gap states. This passivation is consistent with the oxide restoring the surface gallium atoms to tetrahedral bonding by eliminating the gallium empty dangling bonds on bulk terminated GaN(0001).

  17. Controlled Phase and Tunable Magnetism in Ordered Iron Oxide Nanotube Arrays Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yijun; Liu, Ming; Peng, Bin; Zhou, Ziyao; Chen, Xing; Yang, Shu-Ming; Jiang, Zhuang-De; Zhang, Jie; Ren, Wei; Ye, Zuo-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Highly-ordered and conformal iron oxide nanotube arrays on an atomic scale are successfully prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) with controlled oxidization states and tunable magnetic properties between superparamagnetism and ferrimagnetism. Non-magnetic α-Fe2O3 and superparamagnetic Fe3O4 with a blocking temperature of 120 K are in-situ obtained by finely controlling the oxidation reaction. Both of them exhibit a very small grain size of only several nanometers due to the nature of atom-by-atom growth of the ALD technique. Post-annealing α-Fe2O3 in a reducing atmosphere leads to the formation of the spinel Fe3O4 phase which displays a distinct ferrimagnetic anisotropy and the Verwey metal-insulator transition that usually takes place only in single crystal magnetite or thick epitaxial films at low temperatures. The ALD deposition of iron oxide with well-controlled phase and tunable magnetism demonstrated in this work provides a promising opportunity for the fabrication of 3D nano-devices to be used in catalysis, spintronics, microelectronics, data storages and bio-applications. PMID:26813143

  18. Low frequency Raman spectroscopy of few-atomic-layer thick hBN crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenger, I.; Schué, L.; Boukhicha, M.; Berini, B.; Plaçais, B.; Loiseau, A.; Barjon, J.

    2017-09-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) has recently gained a strong interest as a strategic component in engineering van der Waals heterostructures built with 2D crystals such as graphene. This work reports micro-Raman measurements on hBN flakes made of a few atomic layers, prepared by mechanical exfoliation. The temperature dependence of the Raman scattering in hBN is investigated first such as to define appropriate measurements conditions suitable for thin layers avoiding undesirable heating induced effects. We further focus on the low frequency Raman mode corresponding to the rigid shearing oscillation between adjacent layers, found to be equal to 52.5 cm-1 in bulk hBN. For hBN sheets with thicknesses below typically 4 nm, the frequency of this mode presents discrete values, which are found to decrease down to 46.0(5) cm-1 for a three-layer hBN, in good agreement with the linear-chain model. This makes Raman spectroscopy a relevant tool to quantitatively determine in a non destructive way the number of layers in ultra thin hBN sheets, below 8 L, prior to their integration in van der Waals heterostructures.

  19. Role of atomic layer deposited aluminum oxide as oxidation barrier for silicon based materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorentino, Giuseppe Morana, Bruno; Forte, Salvatore; Sarro, Pasqualina Maria

    2015-01-15

    In this paper, the authors study the protective effect against oxidation of a thin layer of atomic layer deposited (ALD) aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Nitrogen doped silicon carbide (poly-SiC:N) based microheaters coated with ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} are used as test structure to investigate the barrier effect of the alumina layers to oxygen and water vapor at very high temperature (up to 1000 °C). Different device sets have been fabricated changing the doping levels, to evaluate possible interaction between the dopants and the alumina layer. The as-deposited alumina layer morphology has been evaluated by means of AFM analysis and compared to an annealed sample (8 h at 1000 °C) to estimate the change in the grain structure and the film density. The coated microheaters are subjected to very long oxidation time in dry and wet environment (up to 8 h at 900 and 1000 °C). By evaluating the electrical resistance variation between uncoated reference devices and the ALD coated devices, the oxide growth on the SiC is estimated. The results show that the ALD alumina coating completely prevents the oxidation of the SiC up to 900 °C in wet environment, while an oxide thickness reduction of 50% is observed at 1000 °C compared to uncoated devices.

  20. Stabilization of Polyoxometalate Water Oxidation Catalysts on Hematite by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Lauinger, Sarah M; Piercy, Brandon D; Li, Wei; Yin, Qiushi; Collins-Wildman, Daniel L; Glass, Elliot N; Losego, Mark D; Wang, Dunwei; Geletii, Yurii V; Hill, Craig L

    2017-10-11

    Fast and earth-abundant-element polyoxometalates (POMs) have been heavily studied recently as water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) in homogeneous solution. However, POM WOCs can be quite unstable when supported on electrode or photoelectrode surfaces under applied potential. This article reports for the first time that a nanoscale oxide coating (Al2O3) applied by the atomic layer deposition (ALD) aids immobilization and greatly stabilizes this now large family of molecular WOCs when on electrode surfaces. In this study, [{Ru(IV)4(OH)2(H2O)4}(γ-SiW10O34)2](10-) (Ru4Si2) is supported on hematite photoelectrodes and then protected by ALD Al2O3; this ternary system was characterized before and after photoelectrocatalytic water oxidation by Fourier transform infrared, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray, and voltammetry. All these studies indicate that Ru4Si2 remains intact with Al2O3 ALD protection, but not without. The thickness of the Al2O3 layer significantly affects the catalytic performance of the system: a 4 nm thick Al2O3 layer provides optimal performance with nearly 100% faradaic efficiency for oxygen generation under visible-light illumination. Al2O3 layers thicker than 6.5 nm appear to completely bury the Ru4Si2 catalyst, removing all of the catalytic activity, whereas thinner layers are insufficient to maintain a long-term attachment of the catalytic POM.