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Sample records for large-scale spatial variation

  1. Herbivory drives large-scale spatial variation in reef fish trophic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Guilherme O; Ferreira, Carlos Eduardo L; Floeter, Sergio R

    2014-01-01

    Trophic interactions play a critical role in the structure and function of ecosystems. Given the widespread loss of biodiversity due to anthropogenic activities, understanding how trophic interactions respond to natural gradients (e.g., abiotic conditions, species richness) through large-scale comparisons can provide a broader understanding of their importance in changing ecosystems and support informed conservation actions. We explored large-scale variation in reef fish trophic interactions, encompassing tropical and subtropical reefs with different abiotic conditions and trophic structure of reef fish community. Reef fish feeding pressure on the benthos was determined combining bite rates on the substrate and the individual biomass per unit of time and area, using video recordings in three sites between latitudes 17°S and 27°S on the Brazilian Coast. Total feeding pressure decreased 10-fold and the composition of functional groups and species shifted from the northern to the southernmost sites. Both patterns were driven by the decline in the feeding pressure of roving herbivores, particularly scrapers, while the feeding pressure of invertebrate feeders and omnivores remained similar. The differential contribution to the feeding pressure across trophic categories, with roving herbivores being more important in the northernmost and southeastern reefs, determined changes in the intensity and composition of fish feeding pressure on the benthos among sites. It also determined the distribution of trophic interactions across different trophic categories, altering the evenness of interactions. Feeding pressure was more evenly distributed at the southernmost than in the southeastern and northernmost sites, where it was dominated by few herbivores. Species and functional groups that performed higher feeding pressure than predicted by their biomass were identified as critical for their potential to remove benthic biomass. Fishing pressure unlikely drove the large-scale

  2. Herbivory drives large-scale spatial variation in reef fish trophic interactions.

    PubMed

    Longo, Guilherme O; Ferreira, Carlos Eduardo L; Floeter, Sergio R

    2014-12-01

    Trophic interactions play a critical role in the structure and function of ecosystems. Given the widespread loss of biodiversity due to anthropogenic activities, understanding how trophic interactions respond to natural gradients (e.g., abiotic conditions, species richness) through large-scale comparisons can provide a broader understanding of their importance in changing ecosystems and support informed conservation actions. We explored large-scale variation in reef fish trophic interactions, encompassing tropical and subtropical reefs with different abiotic conditions and trophic structure of reef fish community. Reef fish feeding pressure on the benthos was determined combining bite rates on the substrate and the individual biomass per unit of time and area, using video recordings in three sites between latitudes 17°S and 27°S on the Brazilian Coast. Total feeding pressure decreased 10-fold and the composition of functional groups and species shifted from the northern to the southernmost sites. Both patterns were driven by the decline in the feeding pressure of roving herbivores, particularly scrapers, while the feeding pressure of invertebrate feeders and omnivores remained similar. The differential contribution to the feeding pressure across trophic categories, with roving herbivores being more important in the northernmost and southeastern reefs, determined changes in the intensity and composition of fish feeding pressure on the benthos among sites. It also determined the distribution of trophic interactions across different trophic categories, altering the evenness of interactions. Feeding pressure was more evenly distributed at the southernmost than in the southeastern and northernmost sites, where it was dominated by few herbivores. Species and functional groups that performed higher feeding pressure than predicted by their biomass were identified as critical for their potential to remove benthic biomass. Fishing pressure unlikely drove the large-scale

  3. Multi-variate spatial explicit constraining of a large scale hydrological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakovec, Oldrich; Kumar, Rohini; Samaniego, Luis

    2016-04-01

    model parameters leads to considerable changes in the partitioning of precipitation into runoff components, while maintaining total runoff estimates unaltered. Objective functions that take into account the spatial patters of GRACE estimates perform better than those constrained only against discharge. Improvements in parameter estimation based on multiple data sources will enhance the community efforts towards spatially consistent large scale seamless predictions. Reference: Rakovec, O., Kumar, R., Mai, J., Cuntz, M., Thober, S., Zink, M., Attinger, S., Schäfer, D., Schrön, M., Samaniego, L. (2016): Multiscale and multivariate evaluation of water fluxes and states over European river basins, J. Hydrometeorol., 17, 287-307, doi: 10.1175/JHM-D-15-0054.1.

  4. Spatial and temporal variations in rainfall over Darwin and its vicinity during different large-scale environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauniyar, Surendra P.; Walsh, Kevin J. E.

    2016-02-01

    This study analyses the regional variations in rainfall over Darwin and its vicinity due to different large-scale circulations during the Australian summer by utilizing the combination of in situ and C-band polarimetric radar rainfall data at hourly resolution. The eight phases of the Madden-Julian oscillation as defined by Wheeler and Hendon (Mon Weather Rev 132(8):1917-1932, 2004) were used as indicators of different large-scale environments. The analysis found that the large-scale forcing starts to build up from phase 4 by the reversal of low- to mid-level easterly winds to moist westerly winds, reaching a maximum in phase 5 and weakening through phases 6-7. During phases 4-6, most of the study domain experiences widespread rainfall, but with distinct spatial and temporal structures. In addition, during these phases, coastal areas near Darwin receive more rainfall in the early morning (0200-0400 LT) due to the spreading or expansion of rainfall from the Beagle Gulf, explaining the occurrence of a secondary diurnal rainfall peak over Darwin. In contrast, local-scale mechanisms (sea breezes) reinvigorate from phase 8, further strengthening through phases 1-3, when low-level easterly winds become established over Darwin producing rainfall predominately over land and island locations during the afternoon. During these phases, below average rainfall is observed over most of the radar domain, except over the Tiwi Islands in phase 2.

  5. Life-history implications of large-scale spatial variation in adult survival of black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedinger, James S.; Chelgren, Nathan; Lindberg, Mark S.; Obritchkewitch, Tim; Kirk, Morgan T.; Martin, Philip D.; Anderson, Betty A.; Ward, David H.

    2002-01-01

    We used capture-recapture methods to estimate adult survival rates for adult female Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans; hereafter “brant”) from three colonies in Alaska, two on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, and one on Alaska's Arctic coast. Costs of migration and reproductive effort varied among those colonies, enabling us to examine variation in survival in relation to variation in these other variables. We used the Barker model in program MARK to estimate true annual survival for brant from the three colonies. Models allowing for spatial variation in survival were among the most parsimonious models but were indistinguishable from a model with no spatial variation. Point estimates of annual survival were slightly higher for brant from the Arctic (0.90 ± 0.036) than for brant from either Tutakoke River (0.85 ± 0.004) or Kokechik Bay (0.86 ± 0.011). Thus, our survival estimates do not support a hypothesis that the cost of longer migrations or harvest experienced by brant from the Arctic reduced their annual survival relative to brant from the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta. Spatial variation in survival provides weak support for life-history theory because brant from the region with lower reproductive investment had slightly higher survival.

  6. Large-scale spatial variation in feather corticosterone in invasive house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in Mexico is related to climate

    PubMed Central

    Treen, Gillian D; Hobson, Keith A; Marchant, Tracy A; Bortolotti, Gary R

    2015-01-01

    Ecologists frequently use physiological tools to understand how organisms cope with their surroundings but rarely at macroecological scales. This study describes spatial variation in corticosterone (CORT) levels in feathers of invasive house sparrows (Passer domesticus) across their range in Mexico and evaluates CORT–climate relationships with a focus on temperature and precipitation. Samples were collected from 49 sites across Mexico. Feather CORT (CORTf) was measured using methanol-based extraction and radioimmunoassay. Relationships between CORTf and spatial and climate variables were examined using simple linear regressions. Ordination was used on climate data, CORTf was plotted against the resulting axes, and univariate regression trees were used to identify important predictors of CORTf. Universal kriging interpolation was used to illustrate spatial variation in CORTf across Mexico. Correlations with ordination axes showed that high CORTf was associated with low precipitation during the rainy season and low dry season temperatures. Specifically, CORTf was negatively related to May precipitation and January and July minimum temperatures, and positively related to April deuterium excess and June minimum temperatures. CORTf was higher in second-year birds compared to after-hatch years and after-second years. House sparrows had higher CORTf levels in the hot, dry, north-central region of Mexico, and CORTf was negatively related to temperature and precipitation. House sparrows molt primarily from August–September but climate conditions throughout the year were important predictors of CORTf, suggesting that conditions outside of molt can carry over to influence energetics during feather growth. These data suggest that dry conditions are challenging for house sparrows in Mexico, supporting previous work showing that precipitation is an important predictor of broad-scale CORT variation. This work highlights the utility of CORTf for evaluating the influence of

  7. Spatial variation in foraging behaviour of a marine top predator (Phoca vitulina) determined by a large-scale satellite tagging program.

    PubMed

    Sharples, Ruth J; Moss, Simon E; Patterson, Toby A; Hammond, Philip S

    2012-01-01

    The harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) is a widespread marine predator in Northern Hemisphere waters. British populations have been subject to rapid declines in recent years. Food supply or inter-specific competition may be implicated but basic ecological data are lacking and there are few studies of harbour seal foraging distribution and habits. In this study, satellite tagging conducted at the major seal haul outs around the British Isles showed both that seal movements were highly variable among individuals and that foraging strategy appears to be specialized within particular regions. We investigated whether these apparent differences could be explained by individual level factors: by modelling measures of trip duration and distance travelled as a function of size, sex and body condition. However, these were not found to be good predictors of foraging trip duration or distance, which instead was best predicted by tagging region, time of year and inter-trip duration. Therefore, we propose that local habitat conditions and the constraints they impose are the major determinants of foraging movements. Specifically the distance to profitable feeding grounds from suitable haul-out locations may dictate foraging strategy and behaviour. Accounting for proximity to productive foraging resources is likely to be an important component of understanding population processes. Despite more extensive offshore movements than expected, there was also marked fidelity to the local haul-out region with limited connectivity between study regions. These empirical observations of regional exchange at short time scales demonstrates the value of large scale electronic tagging programs for robust characterization of at-sea foraging behaviour at a wide spatial scale.

  8. Semantic overlay network for large-scale spatial information indexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yue; Cao, Kai; Qu, Tianshan; Wang, Zhongmin

    2013-08-01

    The increased demand for online services of spatial information poses new challenges to the combined filed of Computer Science and Geographic Information Science. Amongst others, these include fast indexing of spatial data in distributed networks. In this paper we propose a novel semantic overlay network for large-scale multi-dimensional spatial information indexing, called SON_LSII, which has a hybrid structure integrating a semantic quad-tree and Chord ring. The SON_LSII is a small world overlay network that achieves a very competitive trade-off between indexing efficiency and maintenance overhead. To create SON_LSII, we use an effective semantic clustering strategy that considers two aspects, i.e., the semantic of spatial information that peer holds in overlay network and physical network performances. Based on SON_LSII, a mapping method is used to reduce the multi-dimensional features into a single dimension and an efficient indexing algorithm is presented to support complex range queries of the spatial information with a massive number of concurrent users. The results from extensive experiments demonstrate that SON_LSII is superior to existing overlay networks in various respects, including scalability, maintenance, rate of indexing hits, indexing logical hops, and adaptability. Thus, the proposed SON_LSII can be used for large-scale spatial information indexing.

  9. Large-scale spatial population databases in infectious disease research

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Modelling studies on the spatial distribution and spread of infectious diseases are becoming increasingly detailed and sophisticated, with global risk mapping and epidemic modelling studies now popular. Yet, in deriving populations at risk of disease estimates, these spatial models must rely on existing global and regional datasets on population distribution, which are often based on outdated and coarse resolution data. Moreover, a variety of different methods have been used to model population distribution at large spatial scales. In this review we describe the main global gridded population datasets that are freely available for health researchers and compare their construction methods, and highlight the uncertainties inherent in these population datasets. We review their application in past studies on disease risk and dynamics, and discuss how the choice of dataset can affect results. Moreover, we highlight how the lack of contemporary, detailed and reliable data on human population distribution in low income countries is proving a barrier to obtaining accurate large-scale estimates of population at risk and constructing reliable models of disease spread, and suggest research directions required to further reduce these barriers. PMID:22433126

  10. Spatial solitons in photonic lattices with large-scale defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiao-Yu; Zheng, Jiang-Bo; Dong, Liang-Wei

    2011-03-01

    We address the existence, stability and propagation dynamics of solitons supported by large-scale defects surrounded by the harmonic photonic lattices imprinted in the defocusing saturable nonlinear medium. Several families of soliton solutions, including flat-topped, dipole-like, and multipole-like solitons, can be supported by the defected lattices with different heights of defects. The width of existence domain of solitons is determined solely by the saturable parameter. The existence domains of various types of solitons can be shifted by the variations of defect size, lattice depth and soliton order. Solitons in the model are stable in a wide parameter window, provided that the propagation constant exceeds a critical value, which is in sharp contrast to the case where the soliton trains is supported by periodic lattices imprinted in defocusing saturable nonlinear medium. We also find stable solitons in the semi-infinite gap which rarely occur in the defocusing media. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 10704067) and the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant No. Y6100381).

  11. False Discovery Control in Large-Scale Spatial Multiple Testing

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wenguang; Reich, Brian J.; Cai, T. Tony; Guindani, Michele; Schwartzman, Armin

    2014-01-01

    Summary This article develops a unified theoretical and computational framework for false discovery control in multiple testing of spatial signals. We consider both point-wise and cluster-wise spatial analyses, and derive oracle procedures which optimally control the false discovery rate, false discovery exceedance and false cluster rate, respectively. A data-driven finite approximation strategy is developed to mimic the oracle procedures on a continuous spatial domain. Our multiple testing procedures are asymptotically valid and can be effectively implemented using Bayesian computational algorithms for analysis of large spatial data sets. Numerical results show that the proposed procedures lead to more accurate error control and better power performance than conventional methods. We demonstrate our methods for analyzing the time trends in tropospheric ozone in eastern US. PMID:25642138

  12. Large-scale discovery of spatially related images.

    PubMed

    Chum, Ondrej; Matas, Jirí

    2010-02-01

    We propose a randomized data mining method that finds clusters of spatially overlapping images. The core of the method relies on the min-Hash algorithm for fast detection of pairs of images with spatial overlap, the so-called cluster seeds. The seeds are then used as visual queries to obtain clusters which are formed as transitive closures of sets of partially overlapping images that include the seed. We show that the probability of finding a seed for an image cluster rapidly increases with the size of the cluster. The properties and performance of the algorithm are demonstrated on data sets with 10(4), 10(5), and 5 x 10(6) images. The speed of the method depends on the size of the database and the number of clusters. The first stage of seed generation is close to linear for databases sizes up to approximately 2(34) approximately 10(10) images. On a single 2.4 GHz PC, the clustering process took only 24 minutes for a standard database of more than 100,000 images, i.e., only 0.014 seconds per image.

  13. Large scale variation in DNA copy number in chicken breeds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background Detecting genetic variation is a critical step in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying phenotypic diversity. Until recently, such detection has mostly focused on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) because of the ease in screening complete genomes. Another type of variant, c...

  14. Solar cycle variation of large-scale coronal structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antonucci, E.; Duvall, T. L.

    1974-01-01

    A green line intensity variation is associated with the interplanetary and photospheric magnetic sector structure. This effect depends on the solar cycle and occurs with the same amplitude in the latitude range 60 deg N - 60 deg S. Extended longitudinal coronal structures are suggested, which indicate the existence of closed magnetic field lines over the neutral line, separating adjacent regions of opposite polarities on the photospheric surface.

  15. Spatial coherence and large-scale drivers of drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, Cecilia; Hannaford, Jamie

    2017-04-01

    Drought is a potentially widespread and generally multifaceted natural phenomenon affecting all aspects of the hydrological cycle. It mainly manifests itself at seasonal, or longer, time scales. Here, we use seasonal river flows across the climatologically and topographically diverse UK to investigate the spatial coherence of drought, and explore its oceanic and atmospheric drivers. A better understanding of the spatial characteristics and drivers will improve forecasting and help increase drought preparedness. The location of the UK in the mid-latitude belt of predominantly westerly winds, together with a pronounced topographical divide running roughly from north to south, produce strong windward and leeward effects. Weather fronts associated with storms tracking north-eastward between Scotland and Iceland typically lead to abundant precipitation in the mountainous north and west, while the south and east remain drier. In contrast, prolonged precipitation in eastern Britain tends to be associated with storms on a more southerly track, producing precipitation in onshore winds on the northern side of depressions. Persistence in the preferred storm tracks can therefore result in periods of wet/dry conditions across two main regions of the UK, a mountainous northwest region exposed to westerly winds and a more sheltered, lowland southeast region. This is reflected in cluster analyses of monthly river flow anomalies. A further division into three clusters separates out a region of highly permeable, slowly responding, catchments in the southeast. An expectation that the preferred storm tracks over seasonal time scales can be captured by atmospheric airflow indices, which in turn may be related to oceanic conditions, suggests that statistical methods may be used to describe the relationships between UK regional streamflows, and oceanic and atmospheric drivers. Such relationships may be concurrent or lagged, and the longer response time of the group of permeable

  16. Spatial properties of large-scale structure in a turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jinyul; Lee, Jin; Jung, Seo Yoon; Zaki, Tamer A.; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2013-11-01

    Direct numerical simulation (DNS) database of a zero pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer was scrutinized to investigate the spatial distribution of vortices around a streamwise-elongated low-speed structure. The turbulent flow field has been numerically produced by preceding the bypass transition simulation using the isotropic free-stream turbulence, in which the Reynolds number reaches up to Reθ = 3280 . In the present study, the low-speed structures and vortices have been identified and tracked in order to obtain spatial properties of the large-scale structures. The information about the inclination angle, distance and population of individual vortices on the long streamwise structure has been investigated. Finally, the present study provides statistical evidence on the formation of large-scale packet-like structure and its variation along the downstream. This work was supported by the Creative Research Initiatives (No. 2013-003364) program of the National Research Foundation of Korea (MSIP) and partially supported by KISTI under the Strategic Supercomputing Support Program.

  17. Large-scale, spatially-explicit test of the refuge strategy for delaying insecticide resistance

    PubMed Central

    Carrière, Yves; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Hartfield, Kyle; Larocque, Guillaume; Degain, Ben; Dutilleul, Pierre; Dennehy, Timothy J.; Marsh, Stuart E.; Crowder, David W.; Li, Xianchun; Ellsworth, Peter C.; Naranjo, Steven E.; Palumbo, John C.; Fournier, Al; Antilla, Larry; Tabashnik, Bruce E.

    2012-01-01

    The refuge strategy is used worldwide to delay the evolution of pest resistance to insecticides that are either sprayed or produced by transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops. This strategy is based on the idea that refuges of host plants where pests are not exposed to an insecticide promote survival of susceptible pests. Despite widespread adoption of this approach, large-scale tests of the refuge strategy have been problematic. Here we tested the refuge strategy with 8 y of data on refuges and resistance to the insecticide pyriproxyfen in 84 populations of the sweetpotato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) from cotton fields in central Arizona. We found that spatial variation in resistance to pyriproxyfen within each year was not affected by refuges of melons or alfalfa near cotton fields. However, resistance was negatively associated with the area of cotton refuges and positively associated with the area of cotton treated with pyriproxyfen. A statistical model based on the first 4 y of data, incorporating the spatial distribution of cotton treated and not treated with pyriproxyfen, adequately predicted the spatial variation in resistance observed in the last 4 y of the study, confirming that cotton refuges delayed resistance and treated cotton fields accelerated resistance. By providing a systematic assessment of the effectiveness of refuges and the scale of their effects, the spatially explicit approach applied here could be useful for testing and improving the refuge strategy in other crop–pest systems. PMID:22215605

  18. Large-scale, spatially-explicit test of the refuge strategy for delaying insecticide resistance.

    PubMed

    Carrière, Yves; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Hartfield, Kyle; Larocque, Guillaume; Degain, Ben; Dutilleul, Pierre; Dennehy, Timothy J; Marsh, Stuart E; Crowder, David W; Li, Xianchun; Ellsworth, Peter C; Naranjo, Steven E; Palumbo, John C; Fournier, Al; Antilla, Larry; Tabashnik, Bruce E

    2012-01-17

    The refuge strategy is used worldwide to delay the evolution of pest resistance to insecticides that are either sprayed or produced by transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops. This strategy is based on the idea that refuges of host plants where pests are not exposed to an insecticide promote survival of susceptible pests. Despite widespread adoption of this approach, large-scale tests of the refuge strategy have been problematic. Here we tested the refuge strategy with 8 y of data on refuges and resistance to the insecticide pyriproxyfen in 84 populations of the sweetpotato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) from cotton fields in central Arizona. We found that spatial variation in resistance to pyriproxyfen within each year was not affected by refuges of melons or alfalfa near cotton fields. However, resistance was negatively associated with the area of cotton refuges and positively associated with the area of cotton treated with pyriproxyfen. A statistical model based on the first 4 y of data, incorporating the spatial distribution of cotton treated and not treated with pyriproxyfen, adequately predicted the spatial variation in resistance observed in the last 4 y of the study, confirming that cotton refuges delayed resistance and treated cotton fields accelerated resistance. By providing a systematic assessment of the effectiveness of refuges and the scale of their effects, the spatially explicit approach applied here could be useful for testing and improving the refuge strategy in other crop-pest systems.

  19. Large-Scale Geographic Variation in Distribution and Abundance of Australian Deep-Water Kelp Forests

    PubMed Central

    Marzinelli, Ezequiel M.; Williams, Stefan B.; Babcock, Russell C.; Barrett, Neville S.; Johnson, Craig R.; Jordan, Alan; Kendrick, Gary A.; Pizarro, Oscar R.; Smale, Dan A.; Steinberg, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the significance of marine habitat-forming organisms, little is known about their large-scale distribution and abundance in deeper waters, where they are difficult to access. Such information is necessary to develop sound conservation and management strategies. Kelps are main habitat-formers in temperate reefs worldwide; however, these habitats are highly sensitive to environmental change. The kelp Ecklonia radiate is the major habitat-forming organism on subtidal reefs in temperate Australia. Here, we provide large-scale ecological data encompassing the latitudinal distribution along the continent of these kelp forests, which is a necessary first step towards quantitative inferences about the effects of climatic change and other stressors on these valuable habitats. We used the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) facility of Australia’s Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) to survey 157,000 m2 of seabed, of which ca 13,000 m2 were used to quantify kelp covers at multiple spatial scales (10–100 m to 100–1,000 km) and depths (15–60 m) across several regions ca 2–6° latitude apart along the East and West coast of Australia. We investigated the large-scale geographic variation in distribution and abundance of deep-water kelp (>15 m depth) and their relationships with physical variables. Kelp cover generally increased with latitude despite great variability at smaller spatial scales. Maximum depth of kelp occurrence was 40–50 m. Kelp latitudinal distribution along the continent was most strongly related to water temperature and substratum availability. This extensive survey data, coupled with ongoing AUV missions, will allow for the detection of long-term shifts in the distribution and abundance of habitat-forming kelp and the organisms they support on a continental scale, and provide information necessary for successful implementation and management of conservation reserves. PMID:25693066

  20. Large-scale geographic variation in distribution and abundance of Australian deep-water kelp forests.

    PubMed

    Marzinelli, Ezequiel M; Williams, Stefan B; Babcock, Russell C; Barrett, Neville S; Johnson, Craig R; Jordan, Alan; Kendrick, Gary A; Pizarro, Oscar R; Smale, Dan A; Steinberg, Peter D

    2015-01-01

    Despite the significance of marine habitat-forming organisms, little is known about their large-scale distribution and abundance in deeper waters, where they are difficult to access. Such information is necessary to develop sound conservation and management strategies. Kelps are main habitat-formers in temperate reefs worldwide; however, these habitats are highly sensitive to environmental change. The kelp Ecklonia radiate is the major habitat-forming organism on subtidal reefs in temperate Australia. Here, we provide large-scale ecological data encompassing the latitudinal distribution along the continent of these kelp forests, which is a necessary first step towards quantitative inferences about the effects of climatic change and other stressors on these valuable habitats. We used the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) facility of Australia's Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) to survey 157,000 m2 of seabed, of which ca 13,000 m2 were used to quantify kelp covers at multiple spatial scales (10-100 m to 100-1,000 km) and depths (15-60 m) across several regions ca 2-6° latitude apart along the East and West coast of Australia. We investigated the large-scale geographic variation in distribution and abundance of deep-water kelp (>15 m depth) and their relationships with physical variables. Kelp cover generally increased with latitude despite great variability at smaller spatial scales. Maximum depth of kelp occurrence was 40-50 m. Kelp latitudinal distribution along the continent was most strongly related to water temperature and substratum availability. This extensive survey data, coupled with ongoing AUV missions, will allow for the detection of long-term shifts in the distribution and abundance of habitat-forming kelp and the organisms they support on a continental scale, and provide information necessary for successful implementation and management of conservation reserves.

  1. Modeling the interdecadal eurasian snow cover variations influenced by large-scale atmospheric modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmakin, A. B.; Popova, V. V.

    2003-04-01

    The variations of snow water equivalent (SWE) in Eurasia during the last 100 years have been evaluated using a simplified model of heat/water exchange at the land surface. The model is designed for monthly time step, and its equations are written in deviations from average climatic regime. The forcing anomalies of meteorological parameters for 20th century at each grid cell were specified according to large-scale atmospheric indices (such as NAO, PNA, etc.) and regressions between the indices and the meteorological variables. The results were tested against the data observed in Russia during several decades at regular stations and in their vicinity in typical environment. The observed data, Former Soviet Union Hydrological Snow Surveys, were obtained from the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), University of Colorado at Boulder. The main features of SWE spatial distribution and its interdecadal variance were reproduced satisfactorily, but the errors were greater in the regions with poorer correlation between atmospheric variables and circulation indices. The regions located closer to Atlantic and, to lesser extent, Pacific coast, demonstrated better agreement with observed data. The large-scale atmospheric modes most responsible for the Eurasian SWE variations at decadal time scale are NAO and intensity of Aleutian low. The study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants 01-05-64707 and 01-05-64395).

  2. Solar Wind and IMF Control of Large-Scale Ionospheric Currents and Their Time Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juusola, L.; Kauristie, K.; Tanskanen, E.; Partamies, N.; Viljanen, A.; Andréeová, K.; van de Kamp, M.; Vanhamäki, H.; Milan, S. E.; Lester, M.; Grocott, A.; Imber, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    Patterns of high-latitude ionospheric currents are a manifestation of the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. Rapid variations of the currents are associated with geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) in technological conductor systems and displays of bright, diverse auroras. One advantage of a ground-based magnetometer network over a low-orbit satellite is the possibility to distinguish between temporal and spatial variations in the data. Although ground magnetic field data can only yield distributions of ionospheric equivalent currents instead of the full horizontal and field-aligned current density, estimates for these can be obtained, under certain assumptions. We use data (1994-2013) from the ground-based IMAGE magnetometer network to derive statistical distributions of the large-scale ionospheric equivalent current density and its time-derivative as well as estimates for the field-aligned current density. These are compared with and validated against horizontal and field-aligned current density distributions obtained from low-orbit CHAMP satellite magnetic field data (2000-2010) and convection maps obtained from SuperDARN radar data (2000-2010). The ground-based distributions reveal a strong dependence of the dayside variations on radial interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientation and solar wind speed. The spatial distribution of enhanced nightside activity agrees with that of the average substorm bulge and depends on solar wind energy input into the magnetosphere. The most intense time variation events are related to substorm activity and occur on the nightside.

  3. Solving Large-scale Spatial Optimization Problems in Water Resources Management through Spatial Evolutionary Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Cai, X.

    2007-12-01

    A water resources system can be defined as a large-scale spatial system, within which distributed ecological system interacts with the stream network and ground water system. Water resources management, the causative factors and hence the solutions to be developed have a significant spatial dimension. This motivates a modeling analysis of water resources management within a spatial analytical framework, where data is usually geo- referenced and in the form of a map. One of the important functions of Geographic information systems (GIS) is to identify spatial patterns of environmental variables. The role of spatial patterns in water resources management has been well established in the literature particularly regarding how to design better spatial patterns for satisfying the designated objectives of water resources management. Evolutionary algorithms (EA) have been demonstrated to be successful in solving complex optimization models for water resources management due to its flexibility to incorporate complex simulation models in the optimal search procedure. The idea of combining GIS and EA motivates the development and application of spatial evolutionary algorithms (SEA). SEA assimilates spatial information into EA, and even changes the representation and operators of EA. In an EA used for water resources management, the mathematical optimization model should be modified to account the spatial patterns; however, spatial patterns are usually implicit, and it is difficult to impose appropriate patterns to spatial data. Also it is difficult to express complex spatial patterns by explicit constraints included in the EA. The GIS can help identify the spatial linkages and correlations based on the spatial knowledge of the problem. These linkages are incorporated in the fitness function for the preference of the compatible vegetation distribution. Unlike a regular GA for spatial models, the SEA employs a special hierarchical hyper-population and spatial genetic operators

  4. Optical correlator using very-large-scale integrated circuit/ferroelectric-liquid-crystal electrically addressed spatial light modulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Richard M.; Jared, David A.; Sharp, Gary D.; Johnson, Kristina M.

    1993-01-01

    The use of 2-kHz 64 x 64 very-large-scale integrated circuit/ferroelectric-liquid-crystal electrically addressed spatial light modulators as the input and filter planes of a VanderLugt-type optical correlator is discussed. Liquid-crystal layer thickness variations that are present in the devices are analyzed, and the effects on correlator performance are investigated through computer simulations. Experimental results from the very-large-scale-integrated / ferroelectric-liquid-crystal optical-correlator system are presented and are consistent with the level of performance predicted by the simulations.

  5. Spatial length scales of large-scale structures in atmospheric surface layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, HongYou; Wang, GuoHua; Zheng, XiaoJing

    2017-06-01

    Synchronous multipoint measurements were performed in the atmospheric surface layer at the Qingtu Lake Observation Array site to obtain high-Reynolds-number [Reτ˜O (106) ] data. Based on the selected high-quality data in the near-neutral surface layer, the spatial length scales of the large-scale dominant structures in the outer region of the turbulent boundary layer are investigated. The characteristic length scales are extracted from the two-point streamwise velocity correlations. Results show that the spatial length scales are invariant over a three order of magnitude change in Reynolds number [Reτ˜O (103) -O (106) ] . However, they increase significantly with the wall-normal distance, showing reasonable collapses on outer-scaled axes. The variation of the spanwise width scale in the logarithmic region follows a linear increase, with the rate of increase much larger than that in the wake region. Moreover, the variation of the wall-normal length scale is also revealed, which displays a qualitative behavior similar to that of the spanwise width scale. The universal laws revealed in the present work contribute to a better understanding of the dominant structures in the outer region of the turbulent boundary layer at high Reynolds numbers.

  6. Identification of large-scale genomic variation in cancer genomes using in silico reference models

    PubMed Central

    Killcoyne, Sarah; del Sol, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Identifying large-scale structural variation in cancer genomes continues to be a challenge to researchers. Current methods rely on genome alignments based on a reference that can be a poor fit to highly variant and complex tumor genomes. To address this challenge we developed a method that uses available breakpoint information to generate models of structural variations. We use these models as references to align previously unmapped and discordant reads from a genome. By using these models to align unmapped reads, we show that our method can help to identify large-scale variations that have been previously missed. PMID:26264669

  7. Software System Design for Large Scale, Spatially-explicit Agroecosystem Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Dali; Nichols, Dr Jeff A; Kang, Shujiang; Post, Wilfred M; Liu, Sumang

    2012-01-01

    Recently, site-based agroecosystem model has been applied at regional and state level to enable comprehensive analyses of environmental sustainability of food and biofuel production. Those large-scale, spatially-explicit simulations present computational challenges in software systems design. Herein, we describe our software system design for large-scale, spatially-explicit agroecosystem modeling and data analysis. First, we describe the software design principles in three major phases: data preparation, high performance simulation, and data management and analysis. Then, we use a case study at a regional intensive modeling area (RIMA) to demonstrate our system implementation and capability.

  8. Analysis of Large Scale Spatial Variability of Soil Moisture Using a Geostatistical Method

    PubMed Central

    Lakhankar, Tarendra; Jones, Andrew S.; Combs, Cynthia L.; Sengupta, Manajit; Vonder Haar, Thomas H.; Khanbilvardi, Reza

    2010-01-01

    Spatial and temporal soil moisture dynamics are critically needed to improve the parameterization for hydrological and meteorological modeling processes. This study evaluates the statistical spatial structure of large-scale observed and simulated estimates of soil moisture under pre- and post-precipitation event conditions. This large scale variability is a crucial in calibration and validation of large-scale satellite based data assimilation systems. Spatial analysis using geostatistical approaches was used to validate modeled soil moisture by the Agriculture Meteorological (AGRMET) model using in situ measurements of soil moisture from a state-wide environmental monitoring network (Oklahoma Mesonet). The results show that AGRMET data produces larger spatial decorrelation compared to in situ based soil moisture data. The precipitation storms drive the soil moisture spatial structures at large scale, found smaller decorrelation length after precipitation. This study also evaluates the geostatistical approach for mitigation for quality control issues within in situ soil moisture network to estimates at soil moisture at unsampled stations. PMID:22315576

  9. Relation of Physical Form to Spatial Knowledge in Large-Scale Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cubukcu, Ebru; Nasar, Jack L.

    2005-01-01

    This study used a desktop virtual environmental simulation of 18 large-scale residential environments to test effects of plan layout complexity, physical differentiation, and gender on acquired spatial knowledge. One hundred sixty people (95 males and 65 females) were assigned at random to the different conditions. After a learning phase,…

  10. Changes in US extreme sea levels and the role of large scale climate variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahl, T.; Chambers, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    We analyze a set of 20 tide gauge records covering the contiguous United States (US) coastline and the period from 1929 to 2013 to identify long-term trends and multi-decadal variations in extreme sea levels (ESLs) relative to changes in mean sea level (MSL). Significant but small long-term trends in ESLs above/below MSL are found at individual sites along most coastline stretches, but are mostly confined to the southeast coast and the winter season when storm surges are primarily driven by extra-tropical cyclones. We identify six regions with broadly coherent and considerable multi-decadal ESL variations unrelated to MSL changes. Using a quasi-non-stationary extreme value analysis approach we show that the latter would have caused variations in design relevant return water levels (RWLs; 50 to 200 year return periods) ranging from ~10 cm to as much as 110 cm across the six regions. To explore the origin of these temporal changes and the role of large-scale climate variability we develop different sets of simple and multiple linear regression models with RWLs as dependent variables and climate indices, or tailored (toward the goal of predicting multi-decadal RWL changes) versions of them, and wind stress curl as independent predictors. The models, after being tested for spatial and temporal stability, explain up to 97% of the observed variability at individual sites and almost 80% on average. Using the model predictions as covariates for the quasi-non-stationary extreme value analysis also significantly reduces the range of change in the 100-year RWLs over time, turning a non-stationary process into a stationary one. This highlights that the models - when used with regional and global climate model output of the predictors - should also be capable of projecting future RWL changes to be used by decision makers for improved flood preparedness and long-term resiliency.

  11. Study on spatial structure of large scale retail stores based on space syntax: case study in Wuhan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Qingming; Zhou, Jingnan; Sliuzas, Richard

    2009-10-01

    This research analyzes the spatial pattern of large-scale stores based on space syntax theory and explores the correlation between the variations in syntax accessibility and the spatial pattern of large-scale stores. This research develops a framework of spatial topology analysis based on the space syntax theory, which includes the following modifications: the trail to break the traditional long axial line network of space syntax and apply this partitioned network in the topological analysis; the trail to analyze the bus route network; By taking both the syntax accessibility of road and bus network into consideration, we produce the scopes of urban syntax centers of city level, local level and sub local level respectively. In the analysis of the retail distribution pattern, the city level, local level and sub local level urban retail centers are suggested respectively according to the spatial distributions of the quantity and scale of the retail stores. The spatial distribution pattern of each retail format is studied as spatial correlations between the retail locations and the urban space syntax centers based on a case study in Wuhan, China. The Space Syntax can be a useful tool to explain the allocation logic of urban retail space in large cities. We suggest to apply the partitioned transportation network instead of the traditional long axial line network.

  12. Small parametric model for nonlinear dynamics of large scale cyclogenesis with wind speed variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erokhin, Nikolay; Shkevov, Rumen; Zolnikova, Nadezhda; Mikhailovskaya, Ludmila

    2016-07-01

    It is performed a numerical investigation of a self consistent small parametric model (SPM) for large scale cyclogenesis (RLSC) by usage of connected nonlinear equations for mean wind speed and ocean surface temperature in the tropical cyclone (TC). These equations may describe the different scenario of temporal dynamics of a powerful atmospheric vortex during its full life cycle. The numerical calculations have shown that relevant choice of SPMTs incoming parameters allows to describe the seasonal behavior of regional large scale cyclogenesis dynamics for a given number of TC during the active season. It is shown that SPM allows describe also the variable wind speed variations inside the TC. Thus by usage of the nonlinear small parametric model it is possible to study the features of RLSCTs temporal dynamics during the active season in the region given and to analyze the relationship between regional cyclogenesis parameters and different external factors like the space weather including the solar activity level and cosmic rays variations.

  13. Evaluation of variational principle based model for LDPE large scale film blowing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolarik, Roman; Zatloukal, Martin

    2013-04-01

    In this work, variational principle based film blowing model combined with Pearson and Petrie formulation, considering non-isothermal processing conditions and novel generalized Newtonian model allowing to capture steady shear and uniaxial extensional viscosities has been validated by using experimentally determined bubble shape and velocity profile for LDPE sample on large scale film blowing line. It has been revealed that the minute change in the flow activation energy can significantly influence the film stretching level.

  14. Spatial distribution of ultra-diffuse galaxies within large-scale structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Román, Javier; Trujillo, Ignacio

    2017-06-01

    Taking advantage of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe82 data, we have explored the spatial distribution of ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) within an area of 8 × 8 Mpc2 centred around the galaxy cluster Abell 168 (z = 0.045). This intermediate massive cluster (σ = 550 km s-1) is surrounded by a complex large-scale structure. Our work confirms the presence of UDGs in the cluster and in the large-scale structure that surrounds it, and it is the first detection of UDGs outside clusters. Approximately 50 per cent of the UDGs analysed in the selected area inhabit the cluster region (˜11 ± 5 per cent in the core and ˜39 ± 9 per cent in the outskirts), whereas the remaining UDGs are found outside the main cluster structure (˜50 ± 11 per cent). The colours and the spatial distribution of the UDGs within this large-scale structure are more similar to dwarf galaxies than to L⋆ galaxies, suggesting that most UDGs could be bona fide dwarf galaxies.

  15. Mechanism design and dynamic analysis of a large-scale spatial deployable structure for space mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yanling; Lin, Qiuhong; Wang, Xingze; Li, Lin; Cong, Qiang; Pan, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The deployable structure is critical to the overall success of the space mission. This paper introduces a large-scale spatial deployable structure (SDS), which is developed to deploy and support the payload panels in a precise configuration once on the track. And segmental researching in the design, kinematics and dynamics analysis of SDS's prototyping system are presented. Geometric construction method and Bar-groups method are adopted to analysis the dimensions and coordinates of the SDS, which finally construct an well-determined mathematical model to raise the productivity and efficiency during optimization and analysis work. Be reasoned with the large-scale of the truss structures, flexible multibody dynamic simulations are developed, which present much more authentic stress transfer and kinematics behaviors. According to the deployment experiments of SDS's prototyping system, the correctness and validity of the flexible multibody simulation work are well proved.

  16. The dissociation of small- and large-scale spatial abilities in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Petra

    2009-10-01

    This experiment with school-age children was designed to assess the extent to which training in a "small-scale space"--so-called manual rotation training--can improve performance in a "large-scale space." In a preliminary test, 72 9- and 10-yr.-olds completed a direction estimation test. Half of the children then completed manual rotation training or played a nonspatial computer game. All of the children subsequently performed the direction estimation test again. Performance in direction estimation did not differ between the preliminary test and the posttest. Thus, in contrast to the parallel study with adults, the "small-scale spatial ability" was not associated with "large-scale ability."

  17. Spatial domain-based parallelism in large scale, participating-media, radiative transport applications

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, S.P.; Christon, M.A.

    1996-11-01

    Parallelism for gray participating media radiation heat transfer may be placed in two primary categories: spatial and angular domain-based parallelism. Angular, e.g., ray based, decomposition has received the greatest attention in the open literature for moderate sized applications where the entire geometry may be placed on processor. Angular based decomposition is limited, however, for large scale applications (O(10{sup 6}) to O(10{sup 8}) computational cells) given the memory required to store computational grids of this size on each processor. Therefore, the objective of this work is to examine the application of spatial domain-based parallelism to large scale, three-dimensional, participating-media radiation transport calculations using a massively parallel supercomputer architecture. Both scaled and fixed problem size efficiencies are presented for an application of the Discrete Ordinate method to a three dimensional, non-scattering radiative transport application with nonuniform absorptivity. The data presented shows that the spatial domain-based decomposition paradigm results in some degradation in the parallel efficiency but provides useful speedup for large computational grids.

  18. Global Climate Forcing from Albedo Change Caused by Large-scale Deforestation and Reforestation: Quantification and Attribution of Geographic Variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiao, Tong; Williams, Christopher A.; Ghimire, Bardan; Masek, Jeffrey; Gao, Feng; Schaaf, Crystal

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale deforestation and reforestation have contributed substantially to historical and contemporary global climate change in part through albedo-induced radiative forcing, with meaningful implications for forest management aiming to mitigate climate change. Associated warming or cooling varies widely across the globe due to a range of factors including forest type, snow cover, and insolation, but resulting geographic variation remain spoorly described and has been largely based on model assessments. This study provides an observation-based approach to quantify local and global radiative forcings from large-scale deforestation and reforestation and further examines mechanisms that result in the spatial heterogeneity of radiative forcing. We incorporate a new spatially and temporally explicit land cover-specific albedo product derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer with a historical land use data set (Land Use Harmonization product). Spatial variation in radiative forcing was attributed to four mechanisms, including the change in snow-covered albedo, change in snow-free albedo, snow cover fraction, and incoming solar radiation. We find an albedo-only radiative forcing (RF) of -0.819 W m(exp -2) if year 2000 forests were completely deforested and converted to croplands. Albedo RF from global reforestation of present-day croplands to recover year 1700 forests is estimated to be 0.161 W m)exp -2). Snow-cover fraction is identified as the primary factor in determining the spatial variation of radiative forcing in winter, while the magnitude of the change in snow-free albedo is the primary factor determining variations in summertime RF. Findings reinforce the notion that, for conifers at the snowier high latitudes, albedo RF diminishes the warming from forest loss and the cooling from forest gain more so than for other forest types, latitudes, and climate settings.

  19. Spatial and serial clustering of extreme European winter windstorms and their large scale drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walz, Michael A.; Befort, Daniel J.; Kirchner-Bossi, Nicolas O.; Ulbrich, Uwe; Leckebusch, Gregor C.

    2017-04-01

    Winter windstorms are amongst the most dangerous and destructive natural hazards in Europe. In order to better comprehend these extreme events, particularly the driving mechanisms, their variability in space and time is examined. Windstorm trajectories are extracted from 6-hourly wind speed data of the core winter season (DJF) via the objective WTRACK wind tracking algorithm. The spatial clustering is carried out by a probabilistic clustering technique (Gaussian mixture models) which is applied to the windstorm trajectories identified in retrospective seasonal forecast data (ECMWF System 4 covering the years 1983-2014). The 51 ensemble members allow the construction of a broad statistical event base of (artificial) extreme storms. Three spatial clusters (SW to NE, W to E and NW to SE progression) can be identified. All three clusters have particulate individual features in terms of intensity, duration or celerity. Serial clustering and large scale drivers of winter windstorms are analysed by developing a statistical model relating the winter windstorm counts to known teleconnection patterns in Europe (e.g. North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Scandinavian Pattern (SCA)…). The model is established using a step-wise AIC approach which is applied to annual windstorm counts and large scale indices retrieved from the ERA 20C reanalysis. Significant large scale drivers responsible for the inter-annual variability of storms are identified and compared on a regional as well as on grid box level. Additional to the SCA and the NAO which are found to be the key drivers for serial clustering for most regions in the European domain, for example Northern Hemispheric sea ice cover appears as an important driver for the Mediterranean region. The developed statistical model is able to estimate (with satisfactory skill) whether a season is positively or negatively clustered, especially for the British Isles and Scandinavia.

  20. Large-scale coherence of the bose condensate of spatially indirect excitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbunov, A. V.; Timofeev, V. B.

    2006-11-01

    The Bose condensation of spatially indirect (dipolar) excitons in a wide single quantum well in an electric field transverse to the heterolayers is analyzed. Voltage is applied between a metallic film on the surface (Schottky gate) and a conducting electron layer inside a heterostructure (integrated electrode). The excitation of dipolar excitons and observation of their luminescence are performed through circle windows in a metallic mask 5 μm in diameter. Excitons are collected in a ring lateral trap, which is formed along the window perimeter owing to the strongly inhomogeneous electric field. When the critical condensation conditions in pump and temperature are reached, a narrow line of dipolar excitons corresponding to the exciton condensate appears stepwise in the luminescence spectrum. Under these conditions, a spatially periodic structure of equidistant luminescence spots appears in the luminescence pattern that is observed through a window with a resolution of about 1 μm and is selected by means of an interference filter. An in situ optical Fourier transform of spatially periodic structures from the real space to the k space is derived. The resulting Fourier transforms reproducing the pattern of the luminescence intensity distribution in the far field exhibit the result of the destructive and constructive interference, as well as the fact that the luminescence is directed along the normal to the heterolayers. These results are consequences of the large-scale coherence of the condensed exciton state in the ring lateral trap. Direct measurements of double-beam interference from pairs of luminescence spots in the ring show that the spatial coherence length is no less than 4 μm. Such a large scale means that the experimentally observed periodic luminescence structures are described by a common wavefunction under the condition of the Bose condensation of dipolar excitons.

  1. Training pilots to visualize large-scale spatial relationships in a stereoscopic display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mowafy, Lyn; Thurman, Richard A.

    1993-09-01

    In flying air intercepts, a fighter pilot must plan most tactical maneuvers well before acquiring visual contact. Success depends on one's ability to create an accurate mental model of dynamic 3D spatial relationships from 2D information displays. This paper describes an Air Force training program for visualizing large- scale dynamic spatial relationships. It employs a low-cost, portable system in which the helmet-mounted stereoscopic display reveals the unobservable spatial relationships in a virtual world. We also describe recent research which evaluated the training effectiveness of this interactive three-dimensional display technology. Three display formats have been tested for their impact on the pilot's ability to encode, retain and recall functionally relevant spatial information: (1) a set of 2D orthographic plan views, (2) a flat panel 3D perspective rendering and, (3) the 3D virtual environment. Trainees flew specified air intercepts and reviewed the flights in one of the display formats. Experts' trajectories were provided for comparison. After training, flight performance was tested on a new set of scenarios. Differences in pilots' performances under the three formats suggest how virtual environment displays can aid people learning to visualize 3D spatial relationships from 2D information.

  2. The variation of large-scale structure inclination angles in high Reynolds number atmospheric surface layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hong-You; Bo, Tian-Li; Liang, Yi-Rui

    2017-03-01

    Field observations were performed to explore the variation of large-scale structure inclination angles in the high Reynolds number atmospheric surface layer (ASL). The high Reynolds number flow measurements [Reτ ˜ Ο (106)] were acquired at the Qingtu Lake observation array site. The structure inclination angles inferred from two-point correlations of the fluctuating streamwise velocity were obtained for different friction velocities in the neutral regime and different thermal stability conditions. Results indicate that, in addition to the Monin- Obukhov stability parameter, the structure inclination angle varies systematically with the friction velocity in the neutral surface layer. An empirical model is proposed to parametrize the variation of the inclination angle with the normalized friction velocity. The empirical formula agrees well with both the current ASL results and the previously documented results. Further analysis suggests that the inclination angle is dominated by the vertical velocity gradient (vertical wind shear) for both neutral and non-neutral regimes. The present work contributes to a better understanding of the inclination angle for the large-scale structures and may be used to improve the existing wall-models in the large-eddy simulation of the ASL.

  3. Towards Building a High Performance Spatial Query System for Large Scale Medical Imaging Data

    PubMed Central

    Aji, Ablimit; Wang, Fusheng; Saltz, Joel H.

    2013-01-01

    Support of high performance queries on large volumes of scientific spatial data is becoming increasingly important in many applications. This growth is driven by not only geospatial problems in numerous fields, but also emerging scientific applications that are increasingly data- and compute-intensive. For example, digital pathology imaging has become an emerging field during the past decade, where examination of high resolution images of human tissue specimens enables more effective diagnosis, prediction and treatment of diseases. Systematic analysis of large-scale pathology images generates tremendous amounts of spatially derived quantifications of micro-anatomic objects, such as nuclei, blood vessels, and tissue regions. Analytical pathology imaging provides high potential to support image based computer aided diagnosis. One major requirement for this is effective querying of such enormous amount of data with fast response, which is faced with two major challenges: the “big data” challenge and the high computation complexity. In this paper, we present our work towards building a high performance spatial query system for querying massive spatial data on MapReduce. Our framework takes an on demand index building approach for processing spatial queries and a partition-merge approach for building parallel spatial query pipelines, which fits nicely with the computing model of MapReduce. We demonstrate our framework on supporting multi-way spatial joins for algorithm evaluation and nearest neighbor queries for microanatomic objects. To reduce query response time, we propose cost based query optimization to mitigate the effect of data skew. Our experiments show that the framework can efficiently support complex analytical spatial queries on MapReduce. PMID:24501719

  4. Towards Building a High Performance Spatial Query System for Large Scale Medical Imaging Data.

    PubMed

    Aji, Ablimit; Wang, Fusheng; Saltz, Joel H

    2012-11-06

    Support of high performance queries on large volumes of scientific spatial data is becoming increasingly important in many applications. This growth is driven by not only geospatial problems in numerous fields, but also emerging scientific applications that are increasingly data- and compute-intensive. For example, digital pathology imaging has become an emerging field during the past decade, where examination of high resolution images of human tissue specimens enables more effective diagnosis, prediction and treatment of diseases. Systematic analysis of large-scale pathology images generates tremendous amounts of spatially derived quantifications of micro-anatomic objects, such as nuclei, blood vessels, and tissue regions. Analytical pathology imaging provides high potential to support image based computer aided diagnosis. One major requirement for this is effective querying of such enormous amount of data with fast response, which is faced with two major challenges: the "big data" challenge and the high computation complexity. In this paper, we present our work towards building a high performance spatial query system for querying massive spatial data on MapReduce. Our framework takes an on demand index building approach for processing spatial queries and a partition-merge approach for building parallel spatial query pipelines, which fits nicely with the computing model of MapReduce. We demonstrate our framework on supporting multi-way spatial joins for algorithm evaluation and nearest neighbor queries for microanatomic objects. To reduce query response time, we propose cost based query optimization to mitigate the effect of data skew. Our experiments show that the framework can efficiently support complex analytical spatial queries on MapReduce.

  5. Spatially resolved Spectroscopy of Europa’s Large-scale Compositional Units at 3–4 μm with Keck NIRSPEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, P. D.; Brown, M. E.; Trumbo, S. K.; Hand, K. P.

    2017-01-01

    We present spatially resolved spectroscopic observations of Europa’s surface at 3–4 μm obtained with the near-infrared spectrograph and adaptive optics system on the Keck II telescope. These are the highest quality spatially resolved reflectance spectra of Europa’s surface at 3–4 μm. The observations spatially resolve Europa’s large-scale compositional units at a resolution of several hundred kilometers. The spectra show distinct features and geographic variations associated with known compositional units; in particular, large-scale leading hemisphere chaos shows a characteristic longward shift in peak reflectance near 3.7 μm compared to icy regions. These observations complement previous spectra of large-scale chaos, and can aid efforts to identify the endogenous non-ice species.

  6. Spatially Resolved Gas Kinematics within a Lyα Nebula: Evidence for Large-scale Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prescott, Moire K. M.; Martin, Crystal L.; Dey, Arjun

    2015-01-01

    We use spatially extended measurements of Lyα as well as less optically thick emission lines from an ≈80 kpc Lyα nebula at z ≈ 1.67 to assess the role of resonant scattering and to disentangle kinematic signatures from Lyα radiative transfer effects. We find that the Lyα, C IV, He II, and C III] emission lines all tell a similar story in this system, and that the kinematics are broadly consistent with large-scale rotation. First, the observed surface brightness profiles are similar in extent in all four lines, strongly favoring a picture in which the Lyα photons are produced in situ instead of being resonantly scattered from a central source. Second, we see low kinematic offsets between Lyα and the less optically thick He II line (~100-200 km s-1), providing further support for the argument that the Lyα and other emission lines are all being produced within the spatially extended gas. Finally, the full velocity field of the system shows coherent velocity shear in all emission lines: ≈500 km s-1 over the central ≈50 kpc of the nebula. The kinematic profiles are broadly consistent with large-scale rotation in a gas disk that is at least partially stable against collapse. These observations suggest that the Lyα nebula represents accreting material that is illuminated by an offset, hidden active galactic nucleus or distributed star formation, and that is undergoing rotation in a clumpy and turbulent gas disk. With an implied mass of M(

  7. SPATIALLY RESOLVED GAS KINEMATICS WITHIN A Lyα NEBULA: EVIDENCE FOR LARGE-SCALE ROTATION

    SciTech Connect

    Prescott, Moire K. M.; Martin, Crystal L.; Dey, Arjun

    2015-01-20

    We use spatially extended measurements of Lyα as well as less optically thick emission lines from an ≈80 kpc Lyα nebula at z ≈ 1.67 to assess the role of resonant scattering and to disentangle kinematic signatures from Lyα radiative transfer effects. We find that the Lyα, C IV, He II, and C III] emission lines all tell a similar story in this system, and that the kinematics are broadly consistent with large-scale rotation. First, the observed surface brightness profiles are similar in extent in all four lines, strongly favoring a picture in which the Lyα photons are produced in situ instead of being resonantly scattered from a central source. Second, we see low kinematic offsets between Lyα and the less optically thick He II line (∼100-200 km s{sup –1}), providing further support for the argument that the Lyα and other emission lines are all being produced within the spatially extended gas. Finally, the full velocity field of the system shows coherent velocity shear in all emission lines: ≈500 km s{sup –1} over the central ≈50 kpc of the nebula. The kinematic profiles are broadly consistent with large-scale rotation in a gas disk that is at least partially stable against collapse. These observations suggest that the Lyα nebula represents accreting material that is illuminated by an offset, hidden active galactic nucleus or distributed star formation, and that is undergoing rotation in a clumpy and turbulent gas disk. With an implied mass of M(

  8. Controls on Variations of Surface Energy, Water, and Carbon Budgets within Large-Scale Amazon Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Cooper, Harry J.; Grose, Andrew; Gu, Jiu-Jing; Norman, John; daRocha, Humberto R.; Dias, Pedro Silva

    2002-01-01

    A key research focus of the LBA Research Program is understanding the space-time variations in interlinked surface energy, water, and carbon budgets, the controls on these variations, and the implications of these controls on the carbon sequestering capacity of the large scale forest-pasture system that dominates the Amaz6nia landscape. Quantification of these variations and controls are investigated by a combination of in situ measurements, remotely sensed measurements from space, and a realistically forced hydrometeorological model coupled to a carbon assimilation model, capable of simulating details within the surface energy and water budgets along with the principle processes of photosynthesis and respiration. Herein we describe the results of an investigation concerning the space-time controls of carbon sources and sinks distributed over the large scale Amazon basin. The results are derived from a carbon-water-energy budget retrieval system for the large scale Amazon basin, which uses a coupled carbon assimilation-hydrometeorological model as an integrating system, forced by both in situ meteorological measurements and remotely sensed radiation and precipitation fluxes obtained from a combination of GOES, SSM/I, TOMS, and TRh4M satellite measurements. Results include validation of (a) retrieved surface radiation and precipitation fluxes based on 30-min averaged surface measurements taken at Ji-Parani in Rondania and Manaus in Amazonas, and (b) modeled sensible, latent, and C02 fluxes based on tower measurements taken at Reserva Jaru, Manaus and Fazenda Nossa Senhora. The space-time controls on carbon sequestration are partitioned into sets of factors classified by: (1) above canopy meteorology, (2) incoming surface radiation, (3) precipitation interception, and (4) indigenous stomatal processes varied over the different land covers of pristine rainforest, partially, and fully logged rainforests, and pasture lands. These are the principle meteorological

  9. Controls on Variations of Surface Energy, Water, and Carbon Budgets within Large-Scale Amazon Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Cooper, Harry J.; Grose, Andrew; Gu, Jiu-Jing; Norman, John; daRocha, Humberto R.; Dias, Pedro Silva

    2002-01-01

    A key research focus of the LBA Research Program is understanding the space-time variations in interlinked surface energy, water, and carbon budgets, the controls on these variations, and the implications of these controls on the carbon sequestering capacity of the large scale forest-pasture system that dominates the Amaz6nia landscape. Quantification of these variations and controls are investigated by a combination of in situ measurements, remotely sensed measurements from space, and a realistically forced hydrometeorological model coupled to a carbon assimilation model, capable of simulating details within the surface energy and water budgets along with the principle processes of photosynthesis and respiration. Herein we describe the results of an investigation concerning the space-time controls of carbon sources and sinks distributed over the large scale Amazon basin. The results are derived from a carbon-water-energy budget retrieval system for the large scale Amazon basin, which uses a coupled carbon assimilation-hydrometeorological model as an integrating system, forced by both in situ meteorological measurements and remotely sensed radiation and precipitation fluxes obtained from a combination of GOES, SSM/I, TOMS, and TRh4M satellite measurements. Results include validation of (a) retrieved surface radiation and precipitation fluxes based on 30-min averaged surface measurements taken at Ji-Parani in Rondania and Manaus in Amazonas, and (b) modeled sensible, latent, and C02 fluxes based on tower measurements taken at Reserva Jaru, Manaus and Fazenda Nossa Senhora. The space-time controls on carbon sequestration are partitioned into sets of factors classified by: (1) above canopy meteorology, (2) incoming surface radiation, (3) precipitation interception, and (4) indigenous stomatal processes varied over the different land covers of pristine rainforest, partially, and fully logged rainforests, and pasture lands. These are the principle meteorological

  10. Spatial dynamics of large-scale, multistage crab (Callinectes sapidus) dispersal: Determinants and consequences for recruitment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Etherington, L.L.; Eggleston, D.B.

    2003-01-01

    We assessed determinants and consequences of multistage dispersal on spatial recruitment of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, within the Croatan, Albemarle, Pamlico Estuarine System (CAPES), North Carolina, U.S.A. Large-scale sampling of early juvenile crabs over 4 years indicated that spatial abundance patterns were size-dependent and resulted from primary post-larval dispersal (pre-settlement) and secondary juvenile dispersal (early post-settlement). In general, primary dispersal led to high abundances within more seaward habitats, whereas secondary dispersal (which was relatively consistent) expanded the distribution of juveniles, potentially increasing the estuarine nursery capacity. There were strong relationships between juvenile crab density and specific wind characteristics; however, these patterns were spatially explicit. Various physical processes (e.g., seasonal wind events, timing and magnitude of tropical cyclones) interacted to influence dispersal during multiple stages and determined crab recruitment patterns. Our results suggest that the nursery value of different habitats is highly dependent on the dispersal potential (primary and secondary dispersal) to and from these areas, which is largely determined by the relative position of habitats within the estuarine landscape.

  11. Spatial, temporal, and hybrid decompositions for large-scale vehicle routing with time windows

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, Russell W

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the use of decomposition techniques to quickly find high-quality solutions to large-scale vehicle routing problems with time windows. It considers an adaptive decomposition scheme which iteratively decouples a routing problem based on the current solution. Earlier work considered vehicle-based decompositions that partitions the vehicles across the subproblems. The subproblems can then be optimized independently and merged easily. This paper argues that vehicle-based decompositions, although very effective on various problem classes also have limitations. In particular, they do not accommodate temporal decompositions and may produce spatial decompositions that are not focused enough. This paper then proposes customer-based decompositions which generalize vehicle-based decouplings and allows for focused spatial and temporal decompositions. Experimental results on class R2 of the extended Solomon benchmarks demonstrates the benefits of the customer-based adaptive decomposition scheme and its spatial, temporal, and hybrid instantiations. In particular, they show that customer-based decompositions bring significant benefits over large neighborhood search in contrast to vehicle-based decompositions.

  12. Upscaling of Large-Scale Transport in Spatially Heterogeneous Porous Media Using Wavelet Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moslehi, M.; de Barros, F.; Ebrahimi, F.; Sahimi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Modeling flow and solute transport in large-scale heterogeneous porous media involves substantial computational burdens. A common approach to alleviate this complexity is to utilize upscaling methods. These processes generate upscaled models with less complexity while attempting to preserve the hydrogeological properties comparable to the original fine-scale model. We use Wavelet Transformations (WT) of the spatial distribution of aquifer's property to upscale the hydrogeological models and consequently transport processes. In particular, we apply the technique to a porous formation with broadly distributed and correlated transmissivity to verify the performance of the WT. First, transmissivity fields are coarsened using WT in such a way that the high transmissivity zones, in which more important information is embedded, mostly remain the same, while the low transmissivity zones are averaged out since they contain less information about the hydrogeological formation. Next, flow and non-reactive transport are simulated in both fine-scale and upscaled models to predict both the concentration breakthrough curves at a control location and the large-scale spreading of the plume around its centroid. The results reveal that the WT of the fields generates non-uniform grids with an average of 2.1% of the number of grid blocks in the original fine-scale models, which eventually leads to a significant reduction in the computational costs. We show that the upscaled model obtained through the WT reconstructs the concentration breakthrough curves and the spreading of the plume at different times accurately. Furthermore, the impacts of the Hurst coefficient, size of the flow domain and the orders of magnitude difference in transmissivity values on the results have been investigated. It is observed that as the heterogeneity and the size of the domain increase, better agreement between the results of fine-scale and upscaled models can be achieved. Having this framework at hand aids

  13. Averaging over spatial heterogeneity leads to overestimation of ET in large scale Earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouholahnejad Freund, Elham; Fan, Ying; Kirchner, James W.

    2017-04-01

    Hydrologic processes are heterogeneous at far smaller spatial scales than a typical Earth system model grid (1-5 degree, 100-500km). Thus, estimates of evapotranspiration (ET) in most Earth system models average over considerable sub-grid heterogeneity in land surface properties, precipitation (P), and potential evapotranspiration (PET). This spatial averaging could potentially bias ET estimates, due to the nonlinearities in the underlying relationships. Here we estimate the effects of spatial heterogeneity on grid-cell-averaged ET, as seen from the atmosphere over heterogeneous landscapes at global scale. Using a Budyko framework to express ET as a function of P and PET, we quantify how sub-grid heterogeneity affects average ET at the scale of typical Earth system model grid cells (1° by 1°). We show that averaging over sub-grid heterogeneity in P and PET, as typical Earth system models do, leads to overestimation of average ET. Our analysis at global scale shows that the effects of sub-grid heterogeneity will be most pronounced in steep mountainous areas where the topographic gradient is high and where P is inversely correlated with PET across the landscape. This approach yields a simple conceptual framework and mathematical expressions for determining whether, and how much, spatial heterogeneity can affect regional ET fluxes as seen from the atmosphere. Correcting for this overestimation of ET in Earth system models will be important for future temperature predictions, since smaller values of ET imply greater sensible heat fluxes, thus potentially amplifying dry and warm conditions in the context of climate change. This work presented here provides the basis for translating the quantified heterogeneity bias into correction factors for large scale Earth system models, which will be the focus of future work.

  14. Specialization of China large-scale exchange market based on constrained co-local spatial association rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuewu; Du, Yunyan; Su, Fenzhen; Wen, Wei

    2009-10-01

    With quick development of economy, spatial distribution and specialization level of China large scale commodity exchange markets whose turnover are more than 100 million Yuan, have changed greatly. And influencing factors which distribute in the research region have attribute information and spatial information and do not satisfy statistical independence. Commodity exchange market specialization index is brought forward to measure specialization degree, based on the former research and constrained co-local spatial association rule is used to analyze symbiotic pattern between specialization level and influencing factors. Constrained predicate templates and association rule templates can improve mining efficiency greatly. As the result shown, large scale commodity exchange market specialization level on country-region spatial scale went down from 2000 to 2005 and rose at 2006. The interesting association rules extracted based on defined minimum support and confident can provide officers of region governments with rational advices on large scale commodity exchange markets planning and construction.

  15. Large-scale variations in the stoichiometry of marine organic matter respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devries, Tim; Deutsch, Curtis

    2014-12-01

    The elemental composition of marine organic matter governs resource competition among plankton, and couples the global cycles of carbon, nutrients and oxygen. Observations have revealed systematic large-scale variation in the ratios of these essential elements removed from surface waters by phytoplankton. However, an impact of this variability on deep ocean properties has not been detected. Here we use a data-constrained ocean circulation model and observed long-term mean distributions of dissolved oxygen and the nutrient phosphate to show that there is a threefold variation across latitudes in the amount of dissolved oxygen consumed per unit of phosphate released during organic matter respiration. This pattern of remineralization ratios is shown to significantly modify the extent and distribution of low-oxygen water masses in the interior ocean. We also find that ocean biomes with distinct light and nutrient availability are characterized by different regional stoichiometries. These findings suggest that in a more stratified ocean, an increase in light exposure and decrease in nutrient concentration could raise the C:P ratio of phytoplankton, and the associated carbon storage by the ocean’s biological pump.

  16. Static analysis of large-scale multibody system using joint coordinates and spatial algebra operator.

    PubMed

    Omar, Mohamed A

    2014-01-01

    Initial transient oscillations inhibited in the dynamic simulations responses of multibody systems can lead to inaccurate results, unrealistic load prediction, or simulation failure. These transients could result from incompatible initial conditions, initial constraints violation, and inadequate kinematic assembly. Performing static equilibrium analysis before the dynamic simulation can eliminate these transients and lead to stable simulation. Most exiting multibody formulations determine the static equilibrium position by minimizing the system potential energy. This paper presents a new general purpose approach for solving the static equilibrium in large-scale articulated multibody. The proposed approach introduces an energy drainage mechanism based on Baumgarte constraint stabilization approach to determine the static equilibrium position. The spatial algebra operator is used to express the kinematic and dynamic equations of the closed-loop multibody system. The proposed multibody system formulation utilizes the joint coordinates and modal elastic coordinates as the system generalized coordinates. The recursive nonlinear equations of motion are formulated using the Cartesian coordinates and the joint coordinates to form an augmented set of differential algebraic equations. Then system connectivity matrix is derived from the system topological relations and used to project the Cartesian quantities into the joint subspace leading to minimum set of differential equations.

  17. Static Analysis of Large-Scale Multibody System Using Joint Coordinates and Spatial Algebra Operator

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Mohamed A.

    2014-01-01

    Initial transient oscillations inhibited in the dynamic simulations responses of multibody systems can lead to inaccurate results, unrealistic load prediction, or simulation failure. These transients could result from incompatible initial conditions, initial constraints violation, and inadequate kinematic assembly. Performing static equilibrium analysis before the dynamic simulation can eliminate these transients and lead to stable simulation. Most exiting multibody formulations determine the static equilibrium position by minimizing the system potential energy. This paper presents a new general purpose approach for solving the static equilibrium in large-scale articulated multibody. The proposed approach introduces an energy drainage mechanism based on Baumgarte constraint stabilization approach to determine the static equilibrium position. The spatial algebra operator is used to express the kinematic and dynamic equations of the closed-loop multibody system. The proposed multibody system formulation utilizes the joint coordinates and modal elastic coordinates as the system generalized coordinates. The recursive nonlinear equations of motion are formulated using the Cartesian coordinates and the joint coordinates to form an augmented set of differential algebraic equations. Then system connectivity matrix is derived from the system topological relations and used to project the Cartesian quantities into the joint subspace leading to minimum set of differential equations. PMID:25045732

  18. Algorithms for large scale singular value analysis of spatially variant tomography systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cao-Huu, Tuan; Brownell, G.; Lachiver, G.

    1996-12-31

    The problem of determining the eigenvalues of large matrices occurs often in the design and analysis of modem tomography systems. As there is an interest in solving systems containing an ever-increasing number of variables, current research effort is being made to create more robust solvers which do not depend on some special feature of the matrix for convergence (e.g. block circulant), and to improve the speed of already known and understood solvers so that solving even larger systems in a reasonable time becomes viable. Our standard techniques for singular value analysis are based on sparse matrix factorization and are not applicable when the input matrices are large because the algorithms cause too much fill. Fill refers to the increase of non-zero elements in the LU decomposition of the original matrix A (the system matrix). So we have developed iterative solutions that are based on sparse direct methods. Data motion and preconditioning techniques are critical for performance. This conference paper describes our algorithmic approaches for large scale singular value analysis of spatially variant imaging systems, and in particular of PCR2, a cylindrical three-dimensional PET imager 2 built at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) in Boston. We recommend the desirable features and challenges for the next generation of parallel machines for optimal performance of our solver.

  19. Changes in large-scale climate alter spatial synchrony of aphid pests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Lawrence W.; Bell, James R.; Harrington, Richard; Reuman, Daniel C.

    2016-06-01

    Spatial synchrony, the tendency of distant populations to fluctuate similarly, is a major concern in ecology. Except in special circumstances, researchers historically had difficulty identifying drivers of synchrony in field systems. Perhaps for this reason, the possibility that changes in large-scale climatic drivers may modify synchrony, thereby impacting ecosystems and human concerns, has been little examined. Here, we use wavelets to determine environmental drivers of phenological synchrony across Britain for 20 aphid species, most major crop pests. Consistently across species, changes in drivers produced large changes in aphid synchrony. Different drivers acted on different timescales: using a new wavelet analogue of the Moran theorem, we show that on long timescales (>4 years), 80% of synchrony in aphid first flights is due to synchrony in winter climate; but this explanation accounts for less short-timescale (<=4 years) synchrony. Changes in aphid synchrony over time also differed by timescale: long-timescale synchrony fell from before 1993 to after, caused by similar changes in winter climate; whereas short-timescale synchrony increased. Shifts in winter climate are attributable to the North Atlantic Oscillation, an important climatic phenomenon, so effects described here may influence other taxa. This study documents a new way that climatic changes influence populations, through altered Moran effects.

  20. Spatially-explicit estimation of geographical representation in large-scale species distribution datasets.

    PubMed

    Kalwij, Jesse M; Robertson, Mark P; Ronk, Argo; Zobel, Martin; Pärtel, Meelis

    2014-01-01

    Much ecological research relies on existing multispecies distribution datasets. Such datasets, however, can vary considerably in quality, extent, resolution or taxonomic coverage. We provide a framework for a spatially-explicit evaluation of geographical representation within large-scale species distribution datasets, using the comparison of an occurrence atlas with a range atlas dataset as a working example. Specifically, we compared occurrence maps for 3773 taxa from the widely-used Atlas Florae Europaeae (AFE) with digitised range maps for 2049 taxa of the lesser-known Atlas of North European Vascular Plants. We calculated the level of agreement at a 50-km spatial resolution using average latitudinal and longitudinal species range, and area of occupancy. Agreement in species distribution was calculated and mapped using Jaccard similarity index and a reduced major axis (RMA) regression analysis of species richness between the entire atlases (5221 taxa in total) and between co-occurring species (601 taxa). We found no difference in distribution ranges or in the area of occupancy frequency distribution, indicating that atlases were sufficiently overlapping for a valid comparison. The similarity index map showed high levels of agreement for central, western, and northern Europe. The RMA regression confirmed that geographical representation of AFE was low in areas with a sparse data recording history (e.g., Russia, Belarus and the Ukraine). For co-occurring species in south-eastern Europe, however, the Atlas of North European Vascular Plants showed remarkably higher richness estimations. Geographical representation of atlas data can be much more heterogeneous than often assumed. Level of agreement between datasets can be used to evaluate geographical representation within datasets. Merging atlases into a single dataset is worthwhile in spite of methodological differences, and helps to fill gaps in our knowledge of species distribution ranges. Species distribution

  1. Design and implementation of a distributed large-scale spatial database system based on J2EE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Jianya; Chen, Nengcheng; Zhu, Xinyan; Zhang, Xia

    2003-03-01

    With the increasing maturity of distributed object technology, CORBA, .NET and EJB are universally used in traditional IT field. However, theories and practices of distributed spatial database need farther improvement in virtue of contradictions between large scale spatial data and limited network bandwidth or between transitory session and long transaction processing. Differences and trends among of CORBA, .NET and EJB are discussed in details, afterwards the concept, architecture and characteristic of distributed large-scale seamless spatial database system based on J2EE is provided, which contains GIS client application, web server, GIS application server and spatial data server. Moreover the design and implementation of components of GIS client application based on JavaBeans, the GIS engine based on servlet, the GIS Application server based on GIS enterprise JavaBeans(contains session bean and entity bean) are explained.Besides, the experiments of relation of spatial data and response time under different conditions are conducted, which proves that distributed spatial database system based on J2EE can be used to manage, distribute and share large scale spatial data on Internet. Lastly, a distributed large-scale seamless image database based on Internet is presented.

  2. World-wide seasonal variation of 7Be related to large-scale atmospheric circulation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terzi, Lucrezia; Kalinowski, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Meteorological processes can be deciphered using 7Be as aerosol tracer. Especially ground based observation of 7Be world-wide over a long period of time can reveal information about large-scale atmospheric circulation dynamics. The CTBT through its RN network collects the activity concentration of these tracers since over 15 years and built up unique and powerful datasets that can be interpolated into global concentration maps. Maps of observed 7Be global seasonal variation as an expression of atmospheric cell migration such as Hadley, Ferrel and Polar cells. Previous studies used data from IMS stations to correlate beryllium trends to atmospheric patterns but on a local or regional scale. In this paper, we demonstrate how for the first time a worldwide beryllium concentration map is reconstructed using 15 years of data from 63 IMS radionuclide stations. Findings can be presented on correlation between 7Be global patterns with ITCZ, sun spots, tropopause height, Walker circulation, ENSO, SSW, SEP, Indian Monsoon and QBO. 7Be might possibly serve as an early warning indicator and complement other methodologies for determining global atmospheric phenomena. These relations would benefit from further studies.

  3. PGen: large-scale genomic variations analysis workflow and browser in SoyKB.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Khan, Saad M; Wang, Juexin; Rynge, Mats; Zhang, Yuanxun; Zeng, Shuai; Chen, Shiyuan; Maldonado Dos Santos, Joao V; Valliyodan, Babu; Calyam, Prasad P; Merchant, Nirav; Nguyen, Henry T; Xu, Dong; Joshi, Trupti

    2016-10-06

    With the advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology and significant reductions in sequencing costs, it is now possible to sequence large collections of germplasm in crops for detecting genome-scale genetic variations and to apply the knowledge towards improvements in traits. To efficiently facilitate large-scale NGS resequencing data analysis of genomic variations, we have developed "PGen", an integrated and optimized workflow using the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE) high-performance computing (HPC) virtual system, iPlant cloud data storage resources and Pegasus workflow management system (Pegasus-WMS). The workflow allows users to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion-deletions (indels), perform SNP annotations and conduct copy number variation analyses on multiple resequencing datasets in a user-friendly and seamless way. We have developed both a Linux version in GitHub ( https://github.com/pegasus-isi/PGen-GenomicVariations-Workflow ) and a web-based implementation of the PGen workflow integrated within the Soybean Knowledge Base (SoyKB), ( http://soykb.org/Pegasus/index.php ). Using PGen, we identified 10,218,140 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 1,398,982 indels from analysis of 106 soybean lines sequenced at 15X coverage. 297,245 non-synonymous SNPs and 3330 copy number variation (CNV) regions were identified from this analysis. SNPs identified using PGen from additional soybean resequencing projects adding to 500+ soybean germplasm lines in total have been integrated. These SNPs are being utilized for trait improvement using genotype to phenotype prediction approaches developed in-house. In order to browse and access NGS data easily, we have also developed an NGS resequencing data browser ( http://soykb.org/NGS_Resequence/NGS_index.php ) within SoyKB to provide easy access to SNP and downstream analysis results for soybean researchers. PGen workflow has been optimized for the most

  4. Large-Scale Spatial Distribution Patterns of Gastropod Assemblages in Rocky Shores

    PubMed Central

    Miloslavich, Patricia; Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Klein, Eduardo; Iken, Katrin; Weinberger, Vanessa; Konar, Brenda; Trott, Tom; Pohle, Gerhard; Bigatti, Gregorio; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Shirayama, Yoshihisa; Mead, Angela; Palomo, Gabriela; Ortiz, Manuel; Gobin, Judith; Sardi, Adriana; Díaz, Juan Manuel; Knowlton, Ann; Wong, Melisa; Peralta, Ana C.

    2013-01-01

    Gastropod assemblages from nearshore rocky habitats were studied over large spatial scales to (1) describe broad-scale patterns in assemblage composition, including patterns by feeding modes, (2) identify latitudinal pattern of biodiversity, i.e., richness and abundance of gastropods and/or regional hotspots, and (3) identify potential environmental and anthropogenic drivers of these assemblages. Gastropods were sampled from 45 sites distributed within 12 Large Marine Ecosystem regions (LME) following the NaGISA (Natural Geography in Shore Areas) standard protocol (www.nagisa.coml.org). A total of 393 gastropod taxa from 87 families were collected. Eight of these families (9.2%) appeared in four or more different LMEs. Among these, the Littorinidae was the most widely distributed (8 LMEs) followed by the Trochidae and the Columbellidae (6 LMEs). In all regions, assemblages were dominated by few species, the most diverse and abundant of which were herbivores. No latitudinal gradients were evident in relation to species richness or densities among sampling sites. Highest diversity was found in the Mediterranean and in the Gulf of Alaska, while highest densities were found at different latitudes and represented by few species within one genus (e.g. Afrolittorina in the Agulhas Current, Littorina in the Scotian Shelf, and Lacuna in the Gulf of Alaska). No significant correlation was found between species composition and environmental variables (r≤0.355, p>0.05). Contributing variables to this low correlation included invasive species, inorganic pollution, SST anomalies, and chlorophyll-a anomalies. Despite data limitations in this study which restrict conclusions in a global context, this work represents the first effort to sample gastropod biodiversity on rocky shores using a standardized protocol across a wide scale. Our results will generate more work to build global databases allowing for large-scale diversity comparisons of rocky intertidal assemblages. PMID

  5. Large-scale spatial distribution patterns of gastropod assemblages in rocky shores.

    PubMed

    Miloslavich, Patricia; Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Klein, Eduardo; Iken, Katrin; Weinberger, Vanessa; Konar, Brenda; Trott, Tom; Pohle, Gerhard; Bigatti, Gregorio; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Shirayama, Yoshihisa; Mead, Angela; Palomo, Gabriela; Ortiz, Manuel; Gobin, Judith; Sardi, Adriana; Díaz, Juan Manuel; Knowlton, Ann; Wong, Melisa; Peralta, Ana C

    2013-01-01

    Gastropod assemblages from nearshore rocky habitats were studied over large spatial scales to (1) describe broad-scale patterns in assemblage composition, including patterns by feeding modes, (2) identify latitudinal pattern of biodiversity, i.e., richness and abundance of gastropods and/or regional hotspots, and (3) identify potential environmental and anthropogenic drivers of these assemblages. Gastropods were sampled from 45 sites distributed within 12 Large Marine Ecosystem regions (LME) following the NaGISA (Natural Geography in Shore Areas) standard protocol (www.nagisa.coml.org). A total of 393 gastropod taxa from 87 families were collected. Eight of these families (9.2%) appeared in four or more different LMEs. Among these, the Littorinidae was the most widely distributed (8 LMEs) followed by the Trochidae and the Columbellidae (6 LMEs). In all regions, assemblages were dominated by few species, the most diverse and abundant of which were herbivores. No latitudinal gradients were evident in relation to species richness or densities among sampling sites. Highest diversity was found in the Mediterranean and in the Gulf of Alaska, while highest densities were found at different latitudes and represented by few species within one genus (e.g. Afrolittorina in the Agulhas Current, Littorina in the Scotian Shelf, and Lacuna in the Gulf of Alaska). No significant correlation was found between species composition and environmental variables (r≤0.355, p>0.05). Contributing variables to this low correlation included invasive species, inorganic pollution, SST anomalies, and chlorophyll-a anomalies. Despite data limitations in this study which restrict conclusions in a global context, this work represents the first effort to sample gastropod biodiversity on rocky shores using a standardized protocol across a wide scale. Our results will generate more work to build global databases allowing for large-scale diversity comparisons of rocky intertidal assemblages.

  6. Relationships between persistent large-scale flow anomalies and variation in synoptic-scale eddy activity and cyclogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dole, Randall M.; Neilley, Peter P.

    1988-01-01

    Observational analyses to study the relationships between large-scale flow anomalies and variations in synoptic-scale eddy activity and cyclogenesis are presented. The way in which changes in the large-scale flow influence the behavior of synoptic-scale eddies and the way in which changes in eddies may feedback to influence the large-scale flow anomalies are examined. Situations characterized by differing large-scale flows are compared, showing well-defined diferences in synoptic-scale eddy activity. The net forcings of anomalous mean flows by eddies as deduced from tendency methods and E-vector analyses suggest that synoptic-scale eddies may play an important role in maintaining certain anomalous flow patterns such as blocking.

  7. Spatial extreme value analysis to project extremes of large-scale indicators for severe weather

    PubMed Central

    Gilleland, Eric; Brown, Barbara G; Ammann, Caspar M

    2013-01-01

    Concurrently high values of the maximum potential wind speed of updrafts (Wmax) and 0–6 km wind shear (Shear) have been found to represent conducive environments for severe weather, which subsequently provides a way to study severe weather in future climates. Here, we employ a model for the product of these variables (WmSh) from the National Center for Atmospheric Research/United States National Center for Environmental Prediction reanalysis over North America conditioned on their having extreme energy in the spatial field in order to project the predominant spatial patterns of WmSh. The approach is based on the Heffernan and Tawn conditional extreme value model. Results suggest that this technique estimates the spatial behavior of WmSh well, which allows for exploring possible changes in the patterns over time. While the model enables a method for inferring the uncertainty in the patterns, such analysis is difficult with the currently available inference approach. A variation of the method is also explored to investigate how this type of model might be used to qualitatively understand how the spatial patterns of WmSh correspond to extreme river flow events. A case study for river flows from three rivers in northwestern Tennessee is studied, and it is found that advection of WmSh from the Gulf of Mexico prevails while elsewhere, WmSh is generally very low during such extreme events. © 2013 The Authors. Environmetrics published by JohnWiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24223482

  8. Spatial Structure of Large-Scale Plasma Density Perturbations HF-Induced in the Ionospheric F 2 Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, V. L.; Komrakov, G. P.; Glukhov, Ya. V.; Andreeva, E. S.; Kunitsyn, V. E.; Kurbatov, G. A.

    2016-07-01

    We consider the experimental results obtained by studying the large-scale structure of the HF-disturbed ionospheric region. The experiments were performed using the SURA heating facility. The disturbed ionospheric region was sounded by signals radiated by GPS navigation satellite beacons as well as by signals of low-orbit satellites (radio tomography). The results of the experiments show that large-scale plasma density perturbations induced at altitudes higher than the F2 layer maximum can contribute significantly to the measured variations of the total electron density and can, with a certain arrangement of the reception points, be measured by the GPS sounding method.

  9. Geographic distribution, large-scale spatial structure and diversity of parasitoids of the seed-feeding beetle Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus.

    PubMed

    Wood, A; Haga, E B; Costa, V A; Rossi, M N

    2016-10-21

    Bruchine beetles are highly host-specific seed feeders during the larval stage. Although some specific parasitoid families have been recorded attacking bruchine beetles, most studies have been done at small spatial scales. Therefore, the current knowledge about the diversity and the geographic distribution of parasitoid species parasitizing bruchines is scarce, especially at a wide geographic area that extends over large distances through a latitudinal cline (i.e. large-scale spatial structure). The present study determined the species richness and evenness of parasitoids attacking the bruchine beetle Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus feeding on Leucaena leucocephala seeds, examined their geographic distribution, and characterized the large-scale spatial structure in parasitoid species composition. A total of 1420 parasitoids (all Hymenoptera) belonging to four families, five subfamilies and eight species were collected (genera: Horismenus, Paracrias, Urosigalphus, Stenocorse, Chryseida, Eupelmus). Most parasitoid species showed wide spatial distribution, high evenness in species abundance and the species richness estimators were close to stabilization (approximately eight species). Overall, greater similarity was observed in the species composition of plant populations near to each other than those farther apart, revealing a large-scale spatial structure in parasitoid species composition.

  10. Large-scale inpact depressions and variations of the heat flow on Ganymede

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozenko, A. V.

    1989-06-01

    It is proposed that large-scale impact craters provide boundary conditions for the thermal and rheological history of Ganymede. On Ganymede as in the case of the moon, the ratio of the depth to the radius of the impact crater is about 1/5. Models of the heat flow from Ganymede suggest that the most realistic depths h for Gilgamesh and Hathor are 29 and 12 km, respectively.

  11. Spatial distribution of GRBs and large scale structure of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagoly, Zsolt; Rácz, István I.; Balázs, Lajos G.; Tóth, L. Viktor; Horváth, István

    We studied the space distribution of the starburst galaxies from Millennium XXL database at z = 0.82. We examined the starburst distribution in the classical Millennium I (De Lucia et al. (2006)) using a semi-analytical model for the genesis of the galaxies. We simulated a starburst galaxies sample with Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. The connection between the large scale structures homogenous and starburst groups distribution (Kofman and Shandarin 1998), Suhhonenko et al. (2011), Liivamägi et al. (2012), Park et al. (2012), Horvath et al. (2014), Horvath et al. (2015)) on a defined scale were checked too.

  12. Spatial distribution of GRB and large scale structure of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagoly, Zsolt; Racz, Istvan; Gyorgy Balazs, Lajos; Toth, Viktor; Horvath, Istvan

    2015-08-01

    We studied the distribution the starburst galaxies from Millenium XXL database at z=0.82. First we examined the starburst distribution in the classical Millenium I, from the DeLucia (2006) database which used a semi-analytical model for the galaxies genesis. We found a relationship between the starburst galaxies and the dark matter density distribution in Millenium I and we determined the Millenium I and Millenium XXL transformation factor. We simulated a starburst galaxies sample with Markov Chain Monte Carlo method where we used the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. The connection between the large scale structures homogenous and starburst groups distribution on a defined scale were checked too.

  13. Radial variations of large-scale magnetohydrodynamic fluctuations in the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlaga, L. F.; Goldstein, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    Two time periods are studied for which comprehensive data coverage is available at both 1 AU using IMP-8 and ISEE-3 and beyond using Voyager 1. One of these periods is characterized by the predominance of corotating stream interactions. Relatively small scale transient flows characterize the second period. The evolution of these flows with heliocentric distance is studied using power spectral techniques. The evolution of the transient dominated period is consistent with the hypothesis of turbulent evolution including an inverse cascade of large scales. The evolution of the corotating period is consistent with the entrainment of slow streams by faster streams in a deterministic model.

  14. Importance of Geosat orbit and tidal errors in the estimation of large-scale Indian Ocean variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perigaud, Claire; Zlotnicki, Victor

    1992-01-01

    To improve the estimate accuracy of large-scale meridional sea-level variations, Geosat ERM data on the Indian Ocean for a 26-month period were processed using two different techniques of orbit error reduction. The first technique removes an along-track polynomial of degree 1 over about 5000 km and the second technique removes an along-track once-per-revolution sine wave about 40,000 km. Results obtained show that the polynomial technique produces stronger attenuation of both the tidal error and the large-scale oceanic signal. After filtering, the residual difference between the two methods represents 44 percent of the total variance and 23 percent of the annual variance. The sine-wave method yields a larger estimate of annual and interannual meridional variations.

  15. Relationship between North American winter temperature and large-scale atmospheric circulation anomalies and its decadal variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, B.; Lin, H.; Wu, Z. W.; Merryfield, W. J.

    2016-07-01

    The interannual relationship between North American (NA) winter temperature and large-scale atmospheric circulation anomalies and its decadal variation are analyzed. NA temperature anomalies are dominated by two leading maximum covariance analysis (MCA) modes of NA surface temperature and Northern Hemisphere 500 hPa geopotential anomalies. A new teleconnection index, termed the Asian-Bering-North American (ABNA) pattern, is constructed from the normalized geopotential field after linearly removing the contribution of the Pacific-North American (PNA) pattern. The ABNA pattern is sustained by synoptic eddy forcing. The first MCA mode of NA surface temperature is highly correlated with the PNA and ABNA teleconnections, and the second mode with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). This indicates that NA temperature is largely controlled by these three large-scale atmospheric patterns, i.e., the PNA, ABNA and NAO. These temperature-circulation relationships appear stationary in the 20th century.

  16. Large-Scale Spatial Distribution Patterns of Echinoderms in Nearshore Rocky Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Iken, Katrin; Konar, Brenda; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Knowlton, Ann; Pohle, Gerhard; Mead, Angela; Miloslavich, Patricia; Wong, Melisa; Trott, Thomas; Mieszkowska, Nova; Riosmena-Rodriguez, Rafael; Airoldi, Laura; Kimani, Edward; Shirayama, Yoshihisa; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Ortiz-Touzet, Manuel; Silva, Angelica

    2010-01-01

    This study examined echinoderm assemblages from nearshore rocky habitats for large-scale distribution patterns with specific emphasis on identifying latitudinal trends and large regional hotspots. Echinoderms were sampled from 76 globally-distributed sites within 12 ecoregions, following the standardized sampling protocol of the Census of Marine Life NaGISA project (www.nagisa.coml.org). Sample-based species richness was overall low (<1–5 species per site), with a total of 32 asteroid, 18 echinoid, 21 ophiuroid, and 15 holothuroid species. Abundance and species richness in intertidal assemblages sampled with visual methods (organisms >2 cm in 1 m2 quadrats) was highest in the Caribbean ecoregions and echinoids dominated these assemblages with an average of 5 ind m−2. In contrast, intertidal echinoderm assemblages collected from clearings of 0.0625 m2 quadrats had the highest abundance and richness in the Northeast Pacific ecoregions where asteroids and holothurians dominated with an average of 14 ind 0.0625 m−2. Distinct latitudinal trends existed for abundance and richness in intertidal assemblages with declines from peaks at high northern latitudes. No latitudinal trends were found for subtidal echinoderm assemblages with either sampling technique. Latitudinal gradients appear to be superseded by regional diversity hotspots. In these hotspots echinoderm assemblages may be driven by local and regional processes, such as overall productivity and evolutionary history. We also tested a set of 14 environmental variables (six natural and eight anthropogenic) as potential drivers of echinoderm assemblages by ecoregions. The natural variables of salinity, sea-surface temperature, chlorophyll a, and primary productivity were strongly correlated with echinoderm assemblages; the anthropogenic variables of inorganic pollution and nutrient contamination also contributed to correlations. Our results indicate that nearshore echinoderm assemblages appear to be shaped by a

  17. Large-scale spatial distribution patterns of echinoderms in nearshore rocky habitats.

    PubMed

    Iken, Katrin; Konar, Brenda; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Knowlton, Ann; Pohle, Gerhard; Mead, Angela; Miloslavich, Patricia; Wong, Melisa; Trott, Thomas; Mieszkowska, Nova; Riosmena-Rodriguez, Rafael; Airoldi, Laura; Kimani, Edward; Shirayama, Yoshihisa; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Ortiz-Touzet, Manuel; Silva, Angelica

    2010-11-05

    This study examined echinoderm assemblages from nearshore rocky habitats for large-scale distribution patterns with specific emphasis on identifying latitudinal trends and large regional hotspots. Echinoderms were sampled from 76 globally-distributed sites within 12 ecoregions, following the standardized sampling protocol of the Census of Marine Life NaGISA project (www.nagisa.coml.org). Sample-based species richness was overall low (<1-5 species per site), with a total of 32 asteroid, 18 echinoid, 21 ophiuroid, and 15 holothuroid species. Abundance and species richness in intertidal assemblages sampled with visual methods (organisms >2 cm in 1 m(2) quadrats) was highest in the Caribbean ecoregions and echinoids dominated these assemblages with an average of 5 ind m(-2). In contrast, intertidal echinoderm assemblages collected from clearings of 0.0625 m(2) quadrats had the highest abundance and richness in the Northeast Pacific ecoregions where asteroids and holothurians dominated with an average of 14 ind 0.0625 m(-2). Distinct latitudinal trends existed for abundance and richness in intertidal assemblages with declines from peaks at high northern latitudes. No latitudinal trends were found for subtidal echinoderm assemblages with either sampling technique. Latitudinal gradients appear to be superseded by regional diversity hotspots. In these hotspots echinoderm assemblages may be driven by local and regional processes, such as overall productivity and evolutionary history. We also tested a set of 14 environmental variables (six natural and eight anthropogenic) as potential drivers of echinoderm assemblages by ecoregions. The natural variables of salinity, sea-surface temperature, chlorophyll a, and primary productivity were strongly correlated with echinoderm assemblages; the anthropogenic variables of inorganic pollution and nutrient contamination also contributed to correlations. Our results indicate that nearshore echinoderm assemblages appear to be shaped by

  18. Large-scale proton radiography with micrometer spatial resolution using femtosecond petawatt laser system

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W. P.; Shen, B. F. Zhang, H.; Lu, X. M.; Wang, C.; Liu, Y. Q.; Yu, L. H.; Chu, Y. X.; Li, Y. Y.; Xu, T. J.; Zhang, H.; Zhai, S. H.; Leng, Y. X.; Liang, X. Y.; Li, R. X.; Xu, Z. Z.

    2015-10-15

    An image of dragonfly with many details is obtained by the fundamental property of the high-energy proton source on a femtosecond petawatt laser system. Equal imaging of the dragonfly and high spatial resolution on the micrometer scale are simultaneously obtained. The head, wing, leg, tail, and even the internal tissue structures are clearly mapped in detail by the proton beam. Experiments show that image blurring caused by multiple Coulomb scattering can be reduced to a certain extent and the spatial resolution can be increased by attaching the dragonfly to the RCFs, which is consistent with theoretical assumptions.

  19. Spatial Knowledge of Children with Spina Bifida in a Virtual Large-Scale Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiedenbauer, Gunnar; Jansen-Osmann, Petra

    2006-01-01

    The spatial knowledge of 18 children with spina bifida and 18 healthy control children (matched according to sex, age, and verbal IQ) was investigated in a computer-simulated environment. All children had to learn a route through a virtual floor system containing 18 landmarks. Controlling for cognitive abilities, the results revealed that children…

  20. Spatial Knowledge of Children with Spina Bifida in a Virtual Large-Scale Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiedenbauer, Gunnar; Jansen-Osmann, Petra

    2006-01-01

    The spatial knowledge of 18 children with spina bifida and 18 healthy control children (matched according to sex, age, and verbal IQ) was investigated in a computer-simulated environment. All children had to learn a route through a virtual floor system containing 18 landmarks. Controlling for cognitive abilities, the results revealed that children…

  1. Insights into a spatially embedded social network from a large-scale snowball sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illenberger, J.; Kowald, M.; Axhausen, K. W.; Nagel, K.

    2011-12-01

    Much research has been conducted to obtain insights into the basic laws governing human travel behaviour. While the traditional travel survey has been for a long time the main source of travel data, recent approaches to use GPS data, mobile phone data, or the circulation of bank notes as a proxy for human travel behaviour are promising. The present study proposes a further source of such proxy-data: the social network. We collect data using an innovative snowball sampling technique to obtain details on the structure of a leisure-contacts network. We analyse the network with respect to its topology, the individuals' characteristics, and its spatial structure. We further show that a multiplication of the functions describing the spatial distribution of leisure contacts and the frequency of physical contacts results in a trip distribution that is consistent with data from the Swiss travel survey.

  2. Analysis of Large Scale Spatial Variability of Soil Moisture Using a Geostatistical Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-25

    NPOESS) data for soil moisture retrieval. Figure 1 illustrates typical application variogram and kriging analysis to bring new spatial dynamic of soil...Figure 1. Application of variogram and kriging analysis in calibration and validation of soil moisture information for data assimilation process... data , a 110 km by 63 km grid box was centered over each site and averaged. 3. Methodology 3.1. Variogram and Kriging A variogram , a

  3. Methods for Modeling and Decomposing Treatment Effect Variation in Large-Scale Randomized Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Peng; Feller, Avi; Miratrix, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Recent literature has underscored the critical role of treatment effect variation in estimating and understanding causal effects. This approach, however, is in contrast to much of the foundational research on causal inference. Linear models, for example, classically rely on constant treatment effect assumptions, or treatment effects defined by…

  4. Parallel STEPS: Large Scale Stochastic Spatial Reaction-Diffusion Simulation with High Performance Computers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weiliang; De Schutter, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Stochastic, spatial reaction-diffusion simulations have been widely used in systems biology and computational neuroscience. However, the increasing scale and complexity of models and morphologies have exceeded the capacity of any serial implementation. This led to the development of parallel solutions that benefit from the boost in performance of modern supercomputers. In this paper, we describe an MPI-based, parallel operator-splitting implementation for stochastic spatial reaction-diffusion simulations with irregular tetrahedral meshes. The performance of our implementation is first examined and analyzed with simulations of a simple model. We then demonstrate its application to real-world research by simulating the reaction-diffusion components of a published calcium burst model in both Purkinje neuron sub-branch and full dendrite morphologies. Simulation results indicate that our implementation is capable of achieving super-linear speedup for balanced loading simulations with reasonable molecule density and mesh quality. In the best scenario, a parallel simulation with 2,000 processes runs more than 3,600 times faster than its serial SSA counterpart, and achieves more than 20-fold speedup relative to parallel simulation with 100 processes. In a more realistic scenario with dynamic calcium influx and data recording, the parallel simulation with 1,000 processes and no load balancing is still 500 times faster than the conventional serial SSA simulation. PMID:28239346

  5. Parallel STEPS: Large Scale Stochastic Spatial Reaction-Diffusion Simulation with High Performance Computers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiliang; De Schutter, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Stochastic, spatial reaction-diffusion simulations have been widely used in systems biology and computational neuroscience. However, the increasing scale and complexity of models and morphologies have exceeded the capacity of any serial implementation. This led to the development of parallel solutions that benefit from the boost in performance of modern supercomputers. In this paper, we describe an MPI-based, parallel operator-splitting implementation for stochastic spatial reaction-diffusion simulations with irregular tetrahedral meshes. The performance of our implementation is first examined and analyzed with simulations of a simple model. We then demonstrate its application to real-world research by simulating the reaction-diffusion components of a published calcium burst model in both Purkinje neuron sub-branch and full dendrite morphologies. Simulation results indicate that our implementation is capable of achieving super-linear speedup for balanced loading simulations with reasonable molecule density and mesh quality. In the best scenario, a parallel simulation with 2,000 processes runs more than 3,600 times faster than its serial SSA counterpart, and achieves more than 20-fold speedup relative to parallel simulation with 100 processes. In a more realistic scenario with dynamic calcium influx and data recording, the parallel simulation with 1,000 processes and no load balancing is still 500 times faster than the conventional serial SSA simulation.

  6. Large-scale geographical variation in eggshell metal and calcium content in a passerine bird (Ficedula hypoleuca).

    PubMed

    Ruuskanen, Suvi; Laaksonen, Toni; Morales, Judith; Moreno, Juan; Mateo, Rafael; Belskii, Eugen; Bushuev, Andrey; Järvinen, Antero; Kerimov, Anvar; Krams, Indrikis; Morosinotto, Chiara; Mänd, Raivo; Orell, Markku; Qvarnström, Anna; Slate, Fred; Tilgar, Vallo; Visser, Marcel E; Winkel, Wolfgang; Zang, Herwig; Eeva, Tapio

    2014-03-01

    Birds have been used as bioindicators of pollution, such as toxic metals. Levels of pollutants in eggs are especially interesting, as developing birds are more sensitive to detrimental effects of pollutants than adults. Only very few studies have monitored intraspecific, large-scale variation in metal pollution across a species' breeding range. We studied large-scale geographic variation in metal levels in the eggs of a small passerine, the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca), sampled from 15 populations across Europe. We measured 10 eggshell elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Se, Sr, and Ca) and several shell characteristics (mass, thickness, porosity, and color). We found significant variation among populations in eggshell metal levels for all metals except copper. Eggshell lead, zinc, and chromium levels decreased from central Europe to the north, in line with the gradient in pollution levels over Europe, thus suggesting that eggshell can be used as an indicator of pollution levels. Eggshell lead levels were also correlated with soil lead levels and pH. Most of the metals were not correlated with eggshell characteristics, with the exception of shell mass, or with breeding success, which may suggest that birds can cope well with the current background exposure levels across Europe.

  7. Large-scale variations of solar wind elemental composition and charge states with heliospheric latitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woch, J.; Wilken, B.; Livi, S.; von Steiger, R.; Geiss, J.; Gloeckler, G.

    1995-01-01

    The Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer (SWICS) onboard Ulysses allows determination of the elemental composition of the solar wind and the charge states of all major solar wind ion species. Ulysses left the ecliptic plane in early 1992, crossed the Sun's south polar region in late 1994 and made a fast approach back towards the ecliptic in the first half of 1995. Data from this period were investigated for long-term variations in the solar wind composition. At midlatitudes Ulysses encountered periodically the fast solar wind stream emerging from the south coronal hole. As a consequence, dramatic variations in the charge-states arise, between high charge-states dominating in the current sheet solar wind and low charge states in the coronal hole stream. However, the initial analysis indicates that from midlatitudes onwards, with Ulysses permanently immersed in the coronal hole stream, the charge state and elemental abundance ratios of the major solar wind ion species stayed essentially constant. This implies that the temperature profile in the coronal hole at solar wind source altitudes exhibit no variation with solar latitude. It confirms that the south coronal hole is essentially unstructured down to scale lengths of several degrees in solar latitude.

  8. SPATIALLY RESOLVED SPECTROSCOPY OF EUROPA: THE DISTINCT SPECTRUM OF LARGE-SCALE CHAOS

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, P. D.; Brown, M. E.; Hand, K. P.

    2015-11-15

    We present a comprehensive analysis of spatially resolved moderate spectral resolution near-infrared spectra obtained with the adaptive optics system at the Keck Observatory. We identify three compositionally distinct end member regions: the trailing hemisphere bullseye, the leading hemisphere upper latitudes, and a third component associated with leading hemisphere chaos units. We interpret the composition of the three end member regions to be dominated by irradiation products, water ice, and evaporite deposits or salt brines, respectively. The third component is associated with geological features and distinct from the geography of irradiation, suggesting an endogenous identity. Identifying the endogenous composition is of particular interest for revealing the subsurface composition. However, its spectrum is not consistent with linear mixtures of the salt minerals previously considered relevant to Europa. The spectrum of this component is distinguished by distorted hydration features rather than distinct spectral features, indicating hydrated minerals but making unique identification difficult. In particular, it lacks features common to hydrated sulfate minerals, challenging the traditional view of an endogenous salty component dominated by Mg-sulfates. Chloride evaporite deposits are one possible alternative.

  9. Recollection-dependent memory for event duration in large-scale spatial navigation.

    PubMed

    Brunec, Iva K; Ozubko, Jason D; Barense, Morgan D; Moscovitch, Morris

    2017-03-01

    Time and space represent two key aspects of episodic memories, forming the spatiotemporal context of events in a sequence. Little is known, however, about how temporal information, such as the duration and the order of particular events, are encoded into memory, and if it matters whether the memory representation is based on recollection or familiarity. To investigate this issue, we used a real world virtual reality navigation paradigm where periods of navigation were interspersed with pauses of different durations. Crucially, participants were able to reliably distinguish the durations of events that were subjectively "reexperienced" (i.e., recollected), but not of those that were familiar. This effect was not found in temporal order (ordinal) judgments. We also show that the active experience of the passage of time (holding down a key while waiting) moderately enhanced duration memory accuracy. Memory for event duration, therefore, appears to rely on the hippocampally supported ability to recollect or reexperience an event enabling the reinstatement of both its duration and its spatial context, to distinguish it from other events in a sequence. In contrast, ordinal memory appears to rely on familiarity and recollection to a similar extent.

  10. Large-scale spatial and temporal genetic diversity of feline calicivirus.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Karen P; Christley, Rob M; Pybus, Oliver G; Dawson, Susan; Gaskell, Rosalind M; Radford, Alan D

    2012-10-01

    Feline calicivirus (FCV) is an important pathogen of domestic cats and a frequently used model of human caliciviruses. Here we use an epidemiologically rigorous sampling framework to describe for the first time the phylodynamics of a calicivirus at regional and national scales. A large number of FCV strains cocirculated in the United Kingdom at the national and community levels, with no strain comprising more than 5% and 14% of these populations, respectively. The majority of strains exhibited a relatively restricted geographical range, with only two strains (one field virus and one vaccine virus) spreading further than 100 km. None of the field strains were identified outside the United Kingdom. Temporally, while some strains persisted locally for the majority of the study, others may have become locally extinct. Evolutionary analysis revealed a radial phylogeny with little bootstrap support for nodes above the strain level. In most cases, spatially and temporally diverse strains intermingled in the phylogeny. Together, these data suggest that current FCV evolution is not associated with selective competition among strains. Rather, the genetic and antigenic landscape in each geographical location is highly complex, with many strains cocirculating. These variants likely exist at the community level by a combination of de novo evolution and occasional gene flow from the wider national population. This complexity provides a benchmark, for the first time, against which vaccine cross-protection at both local and national levels can be judged.

  11. Large-Scale Spatial and Temporal Genetic Diversity of Feline Calicivirus

    PubMed Central

    Coyne, Karen P.; Christley, Rob M.; Pybus, Oliver G.; Dawson, Susan; Gaskell, Rosalind M.

    2012-01-01

    Feline calicivirus (FCV) is an important pathogen of domestic cats and a frequently used model of human caliciviruses. Here we use an epidemiologically rigorous sampling framework to describe for the first time the phylodynamics of a calicivirus at regional and national scales. A large number of FCV strains cocirculated in the United Kingdom at the national and community levels, with no strain comprising more than 5% and 14% of these populations, respectively. The majority of strains exhibited a relatively restricted geographical range, with only two strains (one field virus and one vaccine virus) spreading further than 100 km. None of the field strains were identified outside the United Kingdom. Temporally, while some strains persisted locally for the majority of the study, others may have become locally extinct. Evolutionary analysis revealed a radial phylogeny with little bootstrap support for nodes above the strain level. In most cases, spatially and temporally diverse strains intermingled in the phylogeny. Together, these data suggest that current FCV evolution is not associated with selective competition among strains. Rather, the genetic and antigenic landscape in each geographical location is highly complex, with many strains cocirculating. These variants likely exist at the community level by a combination of de novo evolution and occasional gene flow from the wider national population. This complexity provides a benchmark, for the first time, against which vaccine cross-protection at both local and national levels can be judged. PMID:22855496

  12. Large scale DNA sequencing: new challenges emerge--the 2007 Human Genome Variation Society scientific meeting.

    PubMed

    Oetting, William S

    2008-05-01

    The annual scientific meeting of the Human Genome Variation Society (HGVS) was held on 23 October 2007, in San Diego, CA. The major theme of this meeting was "New DNA Sequencing Technologies & Human Genome Variation." A series of speakers provided information on several new technologies that produce DNA sequence data on a scale far beyond what was possible even a few years ago. These new technologies produce up to gigabases of nucleotides on a single run. Already, two individuals have had their entire genome sequenced, resulting in the identification of many novel DNA variants. Several new questions now need to be answered. What impact do these novel variants have on the phenotypes? How are we to associate private variants in a single individual with disease, especially when current association studies require genotyping thousands of individuals? Further work will be required to create methodologies to analyze these variants to determine if they are potentially disease-producing or are phenotypically silent. For the technology to be useful in a medical setting it will be crucial to answer to these questions.

  13. Characterisation of the large-scale production process of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) with the analysis of succession and spatial heterogeneity of lignocellulolytic enzyme activities.

    PubMed

    Bánfi, Renáta; Pohner, Zsuzsanna; Kovács, József; Luzics, Szabina; Nagy, Adrienn; Dudás, Melinda; Tanos, Péter; Márialigeti, Károly; Vajna, Balázs

    2015-12-01

    Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) lignocellulolytic enzyme activity pattern and variation was investigated in a large-scale facility from spawning until the end of the second flush. In the first cultivation cycle laccase production reached its peak during vegetative growth stage, while manganese-peroxidase showed the highest activity during fruiting body induction. Cellulose and hemicellulose degrading enzymes had maximal activity at the beginning of flush and harvest stage. The enzyme activities showed similar tendencies among five different mushroom substrate blocks representing a production house. The spatial variability analysis of enzyme activities pointed out the within substrate block heterogeneity as the main source if variation. This result was confirmed by Combined Cluster and Discriminant Analysis (CCDA) method showing minimal among block heterogeneity considering the whole investigation period; furthermore in the first cultivation cycle all blocks were grouped into one cluster. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An Ensemble Three-Dimensional Constrained Variational Analysis Method to Derive Large-Scale Forcing Data for Single-Column Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Shuaiqi

    Atmospheric vertical velocities and advective tendencies are essential as large-scale forcing data to drive single-column models (SCM), cloud-resolving models (CRM) and large-eddy simulations (LES). They cannot be directly measured or easily calculated with great accuracy from field measurements. In the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program, a constrained variational algorithm (1DCVA) has been used to derive large-scale forcing data over a sounding network domain with the aid of flux measurements at the surface and top of the atmosphere (TOA). We extend the 1DCVA algorithm into three dimensions (3DCVA) along with other improvements to calculate gridded large-scale forcing data. We also introduce an ensemble framework using different background data, error covariance matrices and constraint variables to quantify the uncertainties of the large-scale forcing data. The results of sensitivity study show that the derived forcing data and SCM simulated clouds are more sensitive to the background data than to the error covariance matrices and constraint variables, while horizontal moisture advection has relatively large sensitivities to the precipitation, the dominate constraint variable. Using a mid-latitude cyclone case study in March 3rd, 2000 at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, we investigate the spatial distribution of diabatic heating sources (Q1) and moisture sinks (Q2), and show that they are consistent with the satellite clouds and intuitive structure of the mid-latitude cyclone. We also evaluate the Q1 and Q2 in analysis/reanalysis, finding that the regional analysis/reanalysis all tend to underestimate the sub-grid scale upward transport of moist static energy in the lower troposphere. With the uncertainties from large-scale forcing data and observation specified, we compare SCM results and observations and find that models have large biases on cloud properties which could not be fully explained by the uncertainty from the large-scale forcing

  15. Using large-scale genome variation cohorts to decipher the molecular mechanism of cancer.

    PubMed

    Habermann, Nina; Mardin, Balca R; Yakneen, Sergei; Korbel, Jan O

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing genomic structural variations (SVs) in the human genome remains challenging, and there is a growing interest to understand somatic SVs occurring in cancer, a disease of the genome. A havoc-causing SV process known as chromothripsis scars the genome when localized chromosome shattering and repair occur in a one-off catastrophe. Recent efforts led to the development of a set of conceptual criteria for the inference of chromothripsis events in cancer genomes and to the development of experimental model systems for studying this striking DNA alteration process in vitro. We discuss these approaches, and additionally touch upon current "Big Data" efforts that employ hybrid cloud computing to enable studies of numerous cancer genomes in an effort to search for commonalities and differences in molecular DNA alteration processes in cancer.

  16. Large-scale causes of variation in the serpentine vegetation of California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grace, J.B.; Safford, H.D.; Harrison, S.

    2007-01-01

    Serpentine vegetation in California ranges from forest to shrubland and grassland, harbors many rare and endemic species, and is only moderately altered by invasive exotic species at the present time. To better understand the factors regulating the distribution of common/representative species, endemic/rare species, and the threat of exotics in this important flora, we analyzed broad-scale community patterns and environmental conditions in a geographically stratified set of samples from across the state. We considered three major classes of environmental influences: climate (especially precipitation), soils (especially the Mg2+/Ca2+ ratio), and the indirect influences of climate on soils. We used ordination to identify the major axes of variation in common species abundances, structural equation models to analyze the relationship of community axes and endemic and exotic species richness to the environment, and group analysis techniques to identify consistent groupings of species and characterize their properties. We found that community variation could be explained by a two-axis ordination. One axis ranged from conifer forest to grassland and was strongly related to precipitation. The second axis ranged from chaparral to grassland and had little relationship to current environmental conditions, suggesting a possible role for successional history. Precipitation and elevation were respectively the largest influences on endemic and exotic richness, followed by Mg 2+/Ca2+. The results also support the idea that long-term precipitation patterns have altered the Mg2+/Ca2+ ratio via selective leaching, resulting in indirect influences on endemics (positive) and exotics (negative) but not affecting the abundances of common species. We discuss implications of these findings for the conservation of the California serpentine flora. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  17. Large-scale spatial patterns in estuaries: estuarine macrobenthic communities in the Schelde estuary, NW Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ysebaert, T.; Herman, P. M. J.; Meire, P.; Craeymeersch, J.; Verbeek, H.; Heip, C. H. R.

    2003-05-01

    the two other main gradients. The different assemblages are further described in terms of indicator species and abiotic characteristics. The results showed that at a large, estuarine scale a considerable fraction of the variation in abundance and biomass of the benthic macrofauna correlated very well with environmental factors (depth, salinity, tidal current velocity, sediment composition).

  18. Large-scale variation in boreal and temperate forest carbon turnover rate related to climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurner, Martin; Beer, Christian; Carvalhais, Nuno; Forkel, Matthias; Santoro, Maurizio; Tum, Markus; Schmullius, Christiane

    2016-05-01

    Vegetation carbon turnover processes in forest ecosystems and their dominant drivers are far from being understood at a broader scale. Many of these turnover processes act on long timescales and include a lateral dimension and thus can hardly be investigated by plot-level studies alone. Making use of remote sensing-based products of net primary production (NPP) and biomass, here we show that spatial gradients of carbon turnover rate (k) in Northern Hemisphere boreal and temperate forests are explained by different climate-related processes depending on the ecosystem. k is related to frost damage effects and the trade-off between growth and frost adaptation in boreal forests, while drought stress and climate effects on insects and pathogens can explain an elevated k in temperate forests. By identifying relevant processes underlying broadscale patterns in k, we provide the basis for a detailed exploration of these mechanisms in field studies, and ultimately the improvement of their representations in global vegetation models (GVMs).

  19. Variations of cosmic large-scale structure covariance matrices across parameter space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reischke, Robert; Kiessling, Alina; Schäfer, Björn Malte

    2017-03-01

    The likelihood function for cosmological parameters, given by e.g. weak lensing shear measurements, depends on contributions to the covariance induced by the non-linear evolution of the cosmic web. As highly non-linear clustering to date has only been described by numerical N-body simulations in a reliable and sufficiently precise way, the necessary computational costs for estimating those covariances at different points in parameter space are tremendous. In this work, we describe the change of the matter covariance and the weak lensing covariance matrix as a function of cosmological parameters by constructing a suitable basis, where we model the contribution to the covariance from non-linear structure formation using Eulerian perturbation theory at third order. We show that our formalism is capable of dealing with large matrices and reproduces expected degeneracies and scaling with cosmological parameters in a reliable way. Comparing our analytical results to numerical simulations, we find that the method describes the variation of the covariance matrix found in the SUNGLASS weak lensing simulation pipeline within the errors at one-loop and tree-level for the spectrum and the trispectrum, respectively, for multipoles up to ℓ ≤ 1300. We show that it is possible to optimize the sampling of parameter space where numerical simulations should be carried out by minimizing interpolation errors and propose a corresponding method to distribute points in parameter space in an economical way.

  20. Robust classification of protein variation using structural modelling and large-scale data integration

    PubMed Central

    Baugh, Evan H.; Simmons-Edler, Riley; Müller, Christian L.; Alford, Rebecca F.; Volfovsky, Natalia; Lash, Alex E.; Bonneau, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Existing methods for interpreting protein variation focus on annotating mutation pathogenicity rather than detailed interpretation of variant deleteriousness and frequently use only sequence-based or structure-based information. We present VIPUR, a computational framework that seamlessly integrates sequence analysis and structural modelling (using the Rosetta protein modelling suite) to identify and interpret deleterious protein variants. To train VIPUR, we collected 9477 protein variants with known effects on protein function from multiple organisms and curated structural models for each variant from crystal structures and homology models. VIPUR can be applied to mutations in any organism's proteome with improved generalized accuracy (AUROC .83) and interpretability (AUPR .87) compared to other methods. We demonstrate that VIPUR's predictions of deleteriousness match the biological phenotypes in ClinVar and provide a clear ranking of prediction confidence. We use VIPUR to interpret known mutations associated with inflammation and diabetes, demonstrating the structural diversity of disrupted functional sites and improved interpretation of mutations associated with human diseases. Lastly, we demonstrate VIPUR's ability to highlight candidate variants associated with human diseases by applying VIPUR to de novo variants associated with autism spectrum disorders. PMID:26926108

  1. Large-scale variation in lithospheric structure along and across the Kenya rift

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prodehl, C.; Mechie, J.; Kaminski, W.; Fuchs, K.; Grosse, C.; Hoffmann, H.; Stangl, R.; Stellrecht, R.; Khan, M.A.; Maguire, Peter K.H.; Kirk, W.; Keller, Gordon R.; Githui, A.; Baker, M.; Mooney, W.; Criley, E.; Luetgert, J.; Jacob, B.; Thybo, H.; Demartin, M.; Scarascia, S.; Hirn, A.; Bowman, J.R.; Nyambok, I.; Gaciri, S.; Patel, J.; Dindi, E.; Griffiths, D.H.; King, R.F.; Mussett, A.E.; Braile, L.W.; Thompson, G.; Olsen, K.; Harder, S.; Vees, R.; Gajewski, D.; Schulte, A.; Obel, J.; Mwango, F.; Mukinya, J.; Riaroh, D.

    1991-01-01

    The Kenya rift is one of the classic examples of a continental rift zone: models for its evolution range from extension of the lithosphere by pure shear1, through extension by simple shear2, to diapiric upwelling of an asthenolith3. Following a pilot study in 19854, the present work involved the shooting of three seismic refraction and wide-angle reflection profiles along the axis, across the margins, and on the northeastern flank of the rift (Fig. 1). These lines were intended to reconcile the different crustal thickness estimates for the northern and southern parts of the rift4-6 and to reveal the structure across the rift, including that beneath the flanks. The data, presented here, reveal significant lateral variations in structure both along and across the rift. The crust thins along the rift axis from 35 km in the south to 20 km in the north; there are abrupt changes in Mono depth and uppermost-mantle seismic velocity across the rift margins, and crustal thickening across the boundary between the Archaean craton and PanAfrican orogenic belt immediately west of the rift. These results suggest that thickened crust may have controlled the rift's location, that there is a decrease in extension from north to south, and that the upper mantle immediately beneath the rift may contain reservoirs of magma generated at greater depth.

  2. Large Scale Site Response variation in the Central and Eastern U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yassminh, R.; Sandvol, E. A.; Gallegos, A. C.; Ranasinghe, N. R.

    2015-12-01

    Central and eastern United States (CEUS) is considered to be less seismically active compared with western United States; however, these few earthquakes are felt over much larger distances and have the potential to cause damages over a very large area. The earthquake ground motions vary due to the site conditions that effect strongly the propagation and localized amplification of regional seismic waves. Lg, is the most destructive regional phase for stable continental paths due to its large amplitudes due to low attenuation. The United States combined seismic network that includes EarthScope Transportable Array (TA), offer excellent station coverage for all of the CEUS. The availability of regional and local seismic records provided the resources to study and understand the characteristics of the site amplification of high frequency regional waves. The goal of this project to understand the physical characteristics of regional high frequency phases and the factors effecting these phases. We have used 40 earthquakes with magnitudes between 4 and 5 Mw and distances range between 20 - 2000 km. We collected approximately 8000 seismograms recorded on Transport Array (TA) component of USArray. We employed to methods to estimate the site effect: Nakamura technique (Nakamura, 1989), Horizontal over vertical spectral ratio (HVSR), applied on the shear wave part of seismic event and on the ambient noise. We also employed a Reverse two station method (RTS), which eliminates the source effect and includes the attenuation factor Q in calculating the site response (Chun et al., 1987). In order to correlate the site effect results, the shear wave velocity was calculated for each TA stations by modeling Horizontal/ vertical ratio of the first part of the P waves. The comparison between the two methods suggests we are able to estimate regional variations in site amplification of regional waves. Comparisons of this site amplification with Vs30m suggest that there is only a weak

  3. Developing a 3D Constrained Variational Analysis Method to Calculate Large Scale Forcing Data and the Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, S.; Zhang, M. H.

    2014-12-01

    Large-scale forcing data (vertical velocities and advective tendencies) are important atmospheric fields to drive single-column models (SCM), cloud-resolving models (CRM) and large-eddy simulations (LES), but they are difficult to calculate accurately. The current 1-dimensional constrained variational analysis (1D CVA) method (Zhang and Lin, 1997) used by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program is limited to represent the average of a sounding network domain. We extended the original 1D CVA algorithm into 3-dimensional along with other improvements, calculated gridded large-scale forcing data, apparent heating sources (Q1) and moisture sinks (Q2), and compared with 5 reanalyses: ERA-Interim, NCEP CFSR, MERRA, JRA55 and NARR for a mid-latitude spring cyclone case. The results from a case study for in March 3rd 2000 at the Southern Great Plain (SGP) show that reanalyses generally captured the structure of the mid-latitude cyclone, but they have serious biases in the 2nd order derivative terms (divergences and horizontal derivations) at regional scales of less than a few hundred kilometers. Our algorithm provides a set of atmospheric fields consistent with the observed constraint variables at the surface and top of the atmosphere better than reanalyses. The analyzed atmospheric fields can be used in SCM, CRM and LES to provide 3-dimensional dynamical forcing, or be used to evaluate reanalyses or model simulations.

  4. Large-Scale Spatial Distribution of Virioplankton in the Adriatic Sea: Testing the Trophic State Control Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Corinaldesi, C.; Crevatin, E.; Del Negro, P.; Marini, M.; Russo, A.; Fonda-Umani, S.; Danovaro, R.

    2003-01-01

    Little is known concerning environmental factors that may control the distribution of virioplankton on large spatial scales. In previous studies workers reported high viral levels in eutrophic systems and suggested that the trophic state is a possible driving force controlling the spatial distribution of viruses. In order to test this hypothesis, we determined the distribution of viral abundance and bacterial abundance and the virus-to-bacterium ratio in a wide area covering the entire Adriatic basin (Mediterranean Sea). To gather additional information on factors controlling viral distribution on a large scale, functional microbial parameters (exoenzymatic activities, bacterial production and turnover) were related to trophic gradients. At large spatial scales, viral distribution was independent of autotrophic biomass and all other environmental parameters. We concluded that in contrast to what was previously hypothesized, changing trophic conditions do not directly affect virioplankton distribution. Since virus distribution was coupled with bacterial turnover times, our results suggest that viral abundance depends on bacterial activity and on host cell abundance. PMID:12732535

  5. Large-scale spatial distribution of virioplankton in the Adriatic Sea: testing the trophic state control hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Corinaldesi, C; Crevatin, E; Del Negro, P; Marini, M; Russo, A; Fonda-Umani, S; Danovaro, R

    2003-05-01

    Little is known concerning environmental factors that may control the distribution of virioplankton on large spatial scales. In previous studies workers reported high viral levels in eutrophic systems and suggested that the trophic state is a possible driving force controlling the spatial distribution of viruses. In order to test this hypothesis, we determined the distribution of viral abundance and bacterial abundance and the virus-to-bacterium ratio in a wide area covering the entire Adriatic basin (Mediterranean Sea). To gather additional information on factors controlling viral distribution on a large scale, functional microbial parameters (exoenzymatic activities, bacterial production and turnover) were related to trophic gradients. At large spatial scales, viral distribution was independent of autotrophic biomass and all other environmental parameters. We concluded that in contrast to what was previously hypothesized, changing trophic conditions do not directly affect virioplankton distribution. Since virus distribution was coupled with bacterial turnover times, our results suggest that viral abundance depends on bacterial activity and on host cell abundance.

  6. Curbing variations in packaging process through Six Sigma way in a large-scale food-processing industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Darshak A.; Kotadiya, Parth; Makwana, Nikheel; Patel, Sonalinkumar

    2015-08-01

    Indian industries need overall operational excellence for sustainable profitability and growth in the present age of global competitiveness. Among different quality and productivity improvement techniques, Six Sigma has emerged as one of the most effective breakthrough improvement strategies. Though Indian industries are exploring this improvement methodology to their advantage and reaping the benefits, not much has been presented and published regarding experience of Six Sigma in the food-processing industries. This paper is an effort to exemplify the application of Six Sigma quality improvement drive to one of the large-scale food-processing sectors in India. The paper discusses the phase wiz implementation of define, measure, analyze, improve, and control (DMAIC) on one of the chronic problems, variations in the weight of milk powder pouch. The paper wraps up with the improvements achieved and projected bottom-line gain to the unit by application of Six Sigma methodology.

  7. Using large scale surveys to investigate seasonal variations in seabird distribution and abundance. Part I: The North Western Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettex, Emeline; David, Léa; Authier, Matthieu; Blanck, Aurélie; Dorémus, Ghislain; Falchetto, Hélène; Laran, Sophie; Monestiez, Pascal; Van Canneyt, Olivier; Virgili, Auriane; Ridoux, Vincent

    2017-07-01

    Scientific investigation in offshore areas are logistically challenging and expensive, therefore the available knowledge on seabird at sea distribution and abundance, as well as their seasonal variations, remains limited. To investigate the seasonal variability in seabird distribution and abundance in the North-Western Mediterranean Sea (NWMS), we conducted two large-scale aerial surveys in winter 2011-12 and summer 2012, covering a 181,400 km2 area. Following a strip-transect method, observers recorded a total of 4141 seabird sightings in winter and 2334 in summer, along 32,213 km. Using geostatistical methods, we generated sightings density maps for both seasons, as well as estimates of density and abundance. Most taxa showed seasonal variations in their density and distribution patterns, as they used the area either for wintering or for breeding. Highest densities of seabirds were recorded during winter, although large-sized shearwaters, storm petrels and terns were more abundant during summer. Consequently, with nearly 170,000 seabirds estimated in winter, the total abundance was twice higher in winter. Coastal waters of the continental shelf were generally more exploited by seabirds, even though some species, such as Mediterranean gulls, black-headed gulls, little gulls and storm petrels were found at high densities in highly offshore waters. Our results revealed areas highly exploited by the seabird community in the NWMS, such as the Gulf of Lion, the Tuscan region, and the area between Corsica and Sardinia. In addition, these large-scale surveys provide a baseline for the monitoring of seabird at sea distribution, and could inform the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

  8. Extensive Capsule Locus Variation and Large-Scale Genomic Recombination within the Klebsiella pneumoniae Clonal Group 258.

    PubMed

    Wyres, Kelly L; Gorrie, Claire; Edwards, David J; Wertheim, Heiman F L; Hsu, Li Yang; Van Kinh, Nguyen; Zadoks, Ruth; Baker, Stephen; Holt, Kathryn E

    2015-04-10

    Klebsiella pneumoniae clonal group (CG) 258, comprising sequence types (STs) 258, 11, and closely related variants, is associated with dissemination of the K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC). Hospital outbreaks of KPC CG258 infections have been observed globally and are very difficult to treat. As a consequence, there is renewed interest in alternative infection control measures such as vaccines and phage or depolymerase treatments targeting the K. pneumoniae polysaccharide capsule. To date, 78 immunologically distinct capsule variants have been described in K. pneumoniae. Previous investigations of ST258 and a small number of closely related strains suggested that capsular variation was limited within this clone; only two distinct ST258 capsule polysaccharide synthesis (cps) loci have been identified, both acquired through large-scale recombination events (>50 kb). In contrast to previous studies, we report a comparative genomic analysis of the broader K. pneumoniae CG258 (n = 39). We identified 11 different cps loci within CG258, indicating that capsular switching is actually common within the complex. We observed several insertion sequences (IS) within the cps loci, and show further intraclone diversification of two cps loci through IS activity. Our data also indicate that several large-scale recombination events have shaped the genomes of CG258, and that definition of the complex should be broadened to include ST395 (also reported to harbor KPC). As only the second report of extensive intraclonal cps variation among Gram-negative bacterial species, our findings alter our understanding of the evolution of these organisms and have key implications for the design of control measures targeting K. pneumoniae capsules.

  9. Coalescent-based method for learning parameters of admixture events from large-scale genetic variation data.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Chi; Blelloch, Guy; Ravi, R; Schwartz, Russell

    2013-01-01

    Detecting and quantifying the timing and the genetic contributions of parental populations to a hybrid population is an important but challenging problem in reconstructing evolutionary histories from genetic variation data. With the advent of high throughput genotyping technologies, new methods suitable for large-scale data are especially needed. Furthermore, existing methods typically assume the assignment of individuals into subpopulations is known, when that itself is a difficult problem often unresolved for real data. Here, we propose a novel method that combines prior work for inferring non reticulate population structures with an MCMC scheme for sampling over admixture scenarios to both identify population assignments and learn divergence times and admixture proportions for those populations using genome-scale admixed genetic variation data. We validated our method using coalescent simulations and a collection of real bovine and human variation data. On simulated sequences, our methods show better accuracy and faster run time than leading competitive methods in estimating admixture fractions and divergence times. Analysis on the real data further shows our methods to be effective at matching our best current knowledge about the relevant populations.

  10. Spatial Fingerprints of Community Structure in Human Interaction Network for an Extensive Set of Large-Scale Regions

    PubMed Central

    Kallus, Zsófia; Barankai, Norbert; Szüle, János; Vattay, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    Human interaction networks inferred from country-wide telephone activity recordings were recently used to redraw political maps by projecting their topological partitions into geographical space. The results showed remarkable spatial cohesiveness of the network communities and a significant overlap between the redrawn and the administrative borders. Here we present a similar analysis based on one of the most popular online social networks represented by the ties between more than 5.8 million of its geo-located users. The worldwide coverage of their measured activity allowed us to analyze the large-scale regional subgraphs of entire continents and an extensive set of examples for single countries. We present results for North and South America, Europe and Asia. In our analysis we used the well-established method of modularity clustering after an aggregation of the individual links into a weighted graph connecting equal-area geographical pixels. Our results show fingerprints of both of the opposing forces of dividing local conflicts and of uniting cross-cultural trends of globalization. PMID:25993329

  11. The typical MSW odorants identification and the spatial odorants distribution in a large-scale transfer station.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhongtao; Cheng, Zhaowen; Wang, Luochun; Lou, Ziyang; Zhu, Nanwen; Zhou, Xuejun; Feng, Lili

    2017-03-01

    Odorants from municipal solid waste (MSW) were complex variable, and the screening of key offensive odorants was the prerequisite for odor control process. In this study, spatial odor emissions and environmental impacts were investigated based on a large-scale working waste transfer station (LSWTS) using waste container system, and a comprehensive odor characterization method was developed and applied in terms of the odor concentration (OC), theory odor concentration (TOC), total chemical concentration (TCC), and electric nose (EN). The detected odor concentration ranged from 14 to 28 (dimensionless), and MSW container showed the highest OC value of 28, EN of 78, and TCC of 35 (ppm) due to the accumulation of leachate and residual MSW. Ninety-two species odorants were identified, and H2S, NH3, benzene, styrene, ethyl acetate, and dichloromethane were the main contributors in the container, while benzene, m,p,x-xylene, butanone, acetone, isopropanol, and ethyl acetate were predominant in the compression surface (CS) and compression plant (CP). Side of roads (SR) and unload hall (UH) showed low odorous impact. Based on this odor list, 20 species of odor substances were screened for the priority control through the synthetic evaluation method, considering the odorants concentrations, toxicity, threshold values, detection frequency, saturated vapor pressure, and appeared frequency. Graphical abstract.

  12. Global direct pressures on biodiversity by large-scale metal mining: Spatial distribution and implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Murguía, Diego I; Bringezu, Stefan; Schaldach, Rüdiger

    2016-09-15

    Biodiversity loss is widely recognized as a serious global environmental change process. While large-scale metal mining activities do not belong to the top drivers of such change, these operations exert or may intensify pressures on biodiversity by adversely changing habitats, directly and indirectly, at local and regional scales. So far, analyses of global spatial dynamics of mining and its burden on biodiversity focused on the overlap between mines and protected areas or areas of high value for conservation. However, it is less clear how operating metal mines are globally exerting pressure on zones of different biodiversity richness; a similar gap exists for unmined but known mineral deposits. By using vascular plants' diversity as a proxy to quantify overall biodiversity, this study provides a first examination of the global spatial distribution of mines and deposits for five key metals across different biodiversity zones. The results indicate that mines and deposits are not randomly distributed, but concentrated within intermediate and high diversity zones, especially bauxite and silver. In contrast, iron, gold, and copper mines and deposits are closer to a more proportional distribution while showing a high concentration in the intermediate biodiversity zone. Considering the five metals together, 63% and 61% of available mines and deposits, respectively, are located in intermediate diversity zones, comprising 52% of the global land terrestrial surface. 23% of mines and 20% of ore deposits are located in areas of high plant diversity, covering 17% of the land. 13% of mines and 19% of deposits are in areas of low plant diversity, comprising 31% of the land surface. Thus, there seems to be potential for opening new mines in areas of low biodiversity in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Large-scale variations of the interplanetary magnetic field: Voyager 1 and 2 observations between 1-5 AU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlaga, L. F.; Lepping, R. P.; Behannon, K. W.; Klein, L. W.; Neubauer, F. M.

    1981-01-01

    Observations by the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft of the interplanetary magnetic field between 1 and 5 AU were used to investigate the large scale structure of the IMF in a period of increasing solar activity. The Voyager spacecraft found notable deviations from the Parker axial model. These deviations are attributed both to temporal variations associated with increasing solar activity, and to the effects of fluctuations of the field in the radial direction. The amplitude of the latter fluctuations were found to be large relative to the magnitude of the radial field component itself beyond approximately 3 AU. Both Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 observed decreases with increasing heliocentric distance in the amplitude of transverse fluctuations in the averaged field strength (B) which are consistent with the presence of predominantly undamped Alfven waves in the solar wind, although and necessarily implying the presence of them. Fluctuations in the strength of B (relative to mean field strength) were found to be small in amplitude, with a RMS which is approximately one third of that for the transverse fluctuations and they are essentially independent of distance from the Sun.

  14. Large scale spatio-temporal behaviour in surface growth. Scaling and dynamics of slow height variations in generalized two-dimensional Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juknevičius, Vaidas; Ruseckas, Julius; Armaitis, Jogundas

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents new findings concerning the dynamics of the slow height variations in surfaces produced by the two-dimensional isotropic Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation with an additional nonlinear term. In addition to the disordered cellular patterns of specific size evident at small scales, slow height variations of scale-free character become increasingly evident when the system size is increased. This paper focuses on the parameter range in which the kinetic roughening with eventual saturation in surface roughness and coarseness is obtained, and the statistical and dynamical properties of surfaces in the long-time stationary regime are investigated. The resulting long-range scaling properties of the saturated surface roughness consistent with the power-law shape of the surface spectrum at small wave numbers are obtained in a wider parameter range than previously reported. The temporal properties of these long-range height variations are investigated by analysing the time series of surface roughness fluctuations. The resulting power-spectral densities can be expressed as a generalized Lorentzian whose cut-off frequency varies with system size. The dependence of this lower cut-off frequency on the smallest wave number connects spatial and temporal properties and gives new insight into the surface evolution on large scales.

  15. Global climate forcing from albedo change caused by large-scale deforestation and reforestation: quantification and attribution of geographic variation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Large-scale deforestation and reforestation have contributed substantially to historical and contemporary global climate change in part through albedo-induced radiative forcing, with meaningful implications for forest management aiming to mitigate climate change. Associated warming or cooling varies...

  16. Surface Forcing of the Infrared Cooling Profile over the Tibetan Plateau. Part II: Cooling-Rate Variation over Large-Scale Plateau Domain during Summer Monsoon Transition.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Lei; Smith, Eric A.

    1992-05-01

    During the summer east Asian monsoon transition period in 1979, a meteorological field experiment entitled the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau Meteorological Experiment (QXPMEX-79) was conducted over the entire Tibetan Plateau. Data collected on and around the plateau during this period, in conjunction with a medium spectral-resolution infrared radiative transfer model, are used to gain an understanding of how elevation and surface biophysical factors, which are highly variable over the large-scale plateau domain, regulate the spatial distribution of clear-sky infrared cooling during the transition phase of the summer monsoon.The spatial distribution of longwave cooling over the plateau is significantly influenced by variations in biophysical composition, topography, and elevation, the surface thermal diurnal cycle, and various climatological factors. An important factor is soil moisture. Bulk clear-sky longwave cooling rates are larger in the southeast sector of the plateau than in the north. This is because rainfall is greatest in the southeast, whereas the north is highly desertified and relative longwave radiative heating by the surface is greatest. Another important phenomenon is that the locale of a large-scale east-west-aligned spatial gradient in radiative cooling propagates northward with time. During the premonsoon period (May-June), the location of the strong spatial gradient is found in the southeastern margin of the plateau. Due to changes in surface and atmospheric conditions after the summer monsoon commences, the high gradient sector is shifted to the central Qinghai region. Furthermore, an overall decrease in longwave cooling takes place in the lower atmosphere immediately prior to the arrival of the active monsoon.The magnitude of longwave cooling is significantly affected by skin-temperature boundary conditions at plateau altitudes. If skin-temperature discontinuities across the surface-atmosphere interface are neglected, bulk cooling rates will be in

  17. Which spatial discretization for distributed hydrological models? Proposition of a methodology and illustration for medium to large-scale catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehotin, J.; Braud, I.

    2008-05-01

    discretization). The first part of the paper presents a review about catchment discretization in hydrological models from which we derived the principles of our general methodology. The second part of the paper focuses on the derivation of hydro-landscape units for medium to large scale catchments. For this sub-catchment discretization, we propose the use of principles borrowed from landscape classification. These principles are independent of the catchment size. They allow retaining suitable features required in the catchment description in order to fulfil a specific modelling objective. The method leads to unstructured and homogeneous areas within the sub-catchments, which can be used to derive modelling meshes. It avoids map smoothing by suppressing the smallest units, the role of which can be very important in hydrology, and provides a confidence map (the distance map) for the classification. The confidence map can be used for further uncertainty analysis of modelling results. The final discretization remains consistent with the resolution of input data and that of the source maps. The last part of the paper illustrates the method using available data for the upper Saône catchment in France. The interest of the method for an efficient representation of landscape heterogeneity is illustrated by a comparison with more traditional mapping approaches. Examples of possible models, which can be built on this spatial discretization, are finally given as perspectives for the work.

  18. Large-scale Observations of a Subauroral Polarization Stream by Midlatitude SuperDARN Radars: Instantaneous Longitudinal Velocity Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clausen, L. B. N.; Baker, J. B. H.; Sazykin, S.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Greenwald, R. A.; Thomas, E. J.; Shepherd, S. G.; Talaat, E. R.; Bristow, W. A.; Zheng, Y.; Coster, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present simultaneous measurements of flow velocities inside a subauroral polarization stream (SAPS) made by six midlatitude high-frequency SuperDARN radars. The instantaneous observations cover three hours of universal time and six hours of magnetic local time (MLT). From velocity variations across the field-of-view of the radars we infer the local 2D flow direction at three different longitudes. We find that the local flow direction inside the SAPS channel is remarkably constant over the course of the event. The flow speed, however, shows significant temporal and spatial variations. After correcting for the radar look direction we are able to accurately determine the dependence of the SAPS velocity on magnetic local time. We find that the SAPS velocity variation with magnetic local time is best described by an exponential function. The average velocity at 00 MLT was 1.2 km/s and it decreased with a spatial e-folding scale of two hours of MLT toward the dawn sector. We speculate that the longitudinal distribution of pressure gradients in the ring current is responsible for this dependence and find these observations in good agreement with results from ring current models. Using TEC measurements we find that the high westward velocities of the SAPS are - as expected - located in a region of low TEC values, indicating low ionospheric conductivities.

  19. An integrated, indicator framework for assessing large-scale variations and change in seasonal timing and phenology (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betancourt, J. L.; Weltzin, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    As part of an effort to develop an Indicator System for the National Climate Assessment (NCA), the Seasonality and Phenology Indicators Technical Team (SPITT) proposed an integrated, continental-scale framework for understanding and tracking seasonal timing in physical and biological systems. The framework shares several metrics with the EPA's National Climate Change Indicators. The SPITT framework includes a comprehensive suite of national indicators to track conditions, anticipate vulnerabilities, and facilitate intervention or adaptation to the extent possible. Observed, modeled, and forecasted seasonal timing metrics can inform a wide spectrum of decisions on federal, state, and private lands in the U.S., and will be pivotal for international efforts to mitigation and adaptation. Humans use calendars both to understand the natural world and to plan their lives. Although the seasons are familiar concepts, we lack a comprehensive understanding of how variability arises in the timing of seasonal transitions in the atmosphere, and how variability and change translate and propagate through hydrological, ecological and human systems. For example, the contributions of greenhouse warming and natural variability to secular trends in seasonal timing are difficult to disentangle, including earlier spring transitions from winter (strong westerlies) to summer (weak easterlies) patterns of atmospheric circulation; shifts in annual phasing of daily temperature means and extremes; advanced timing of snow and ice melt and soil thaw at higher latitudes and elevations; and earlier start and longer duration of the growing and fire seasons. The SPITT framework aims to relate spatiotemporal variability in surface climate to (1) large-scale modes of natural climate variability and greenhouse gas-driven climatic change, and (2) spatiotemporal variability in hydrological, ecological and human responses and impacts. The hierarchical framework relies on ground and satellite observations

  20. Examiners and Content and Site: Oh My! a National Organization's Investigation of Score Variation in Large-Scale Performance Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebok, Stefanie S.; Roy, Marguerite; Klinger, Don A.; De Champlain, André F.

    2015-01-01

    Examiner effects and content specificity are two well known sources of construct irrelevant variance that present great challenges in performance-based assessments. National medical organizations that are responsible for large-scale performance based assessments experience an additional challenge as they are responsible for administering…

  1. Examiners and Content and Site: Oh My! a National Organization's Investigation of Score Variation in Large-Scale Performance Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebok, Stefanie S.; Roy, Marguerite; Klinger, Don A.; De Champlain, André F.

    2015-01-01

    Examiner effects and content specificity are two well known sources of construct irrelevant variance that present great challenges in performance-based assessments. National medical organizations that are responsible for large-scale performance based assessments experience an additional challenge as they are responsible for administering…

  2. Inefficient search of large-scale space in Williams syndrome: further insights on the role of LIMK1 deletion in deficits of spatial cognition.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alastair D; Gilchrist, Iain D; Hood, Bruce; Tassabehji, May; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2009-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic disorder associated with impairments of spatial cognition. This has primarily been studied in small-scale space, and rarely in large-scale environments. In order to fully characterise the spatial deficits in WS, and also to address claims that the deletion of LIM-kinase 1 (LIMK1) on chromosome 7 is responsible for those deficits, we report an automated large-scale search task for humans that places the participant egocentrically within the search space. Search locations were defined as lights and switches embedded in the floor, and participants attempted to locate a hidden target by pressing the switch at potential locations. We compared individuals with WS to patients with smaller deletions (including LIMK1) in the critical region on chromosome 7. Whilst partial-deletion participants performed efficiently on the task, participants with WS demonstrated inefficient search profiles: their search slopes were steeper and they made significantly more erroneous revisits to previously inspected locations. Our findings indicate that spatial deficits associated with WS also affect large-scale spatial processing and suggest that hemizygous deletion of LIMK1 is not sufficient to account for any of the spatial deficits associated with WS.

  3. Microstructural variation in the transport direction of a large-scale mid-crustal thrust (Woodroffe Thrust, Central Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wex, Sebastian; Mancktelow, Neil S.; Hawemann, Friedrich; Pennacchioni, Giorgio; Camacho, Alfredo

    2016-04-01

    The over ˜600 km long E-W trending mid-crustal Woodroffe Thrust is one the most prominent structures of a range of large-scale shear zones that developed in the Musgrave Ranges region in Central Australia. During the Petermann Orogeny around 550 Ma the Woodroffe Thrust placed 1.2 Ga granulites onto similarly-aged amphibolite and granulite facies gneisses along a south-dipping plane with a top-to-north shear sense. Due to late-stage open folding of the thrust plane, a nearly continuous N-S profile of 60 km length in the direction of thrusting could be studied for variation in microstructure. The regional P/T variations in the mylonitized footwall (600 to 500 °C at ~ 0.8 GPa from S to N) indicate that the original angle of dip was shallow (~ 10°) towards the south. Along the profile, evidence for fluid-present conditions are effectively absent in the more southerly areas and only present on a local scale in the north, characterizing the regional conditions to be "dry". This is indicated by: 1) only rare syntectonic quartz veins in the footwall; 2) very little sericitization of plagioclase; 3) breakdown of plagioclase to kyanite + garnet, rather than kyanite + clinozoisite; and 4) variable presence of hydrothermally introduced calcite. These changes in P/T conditions and fluid availability are associated with corresponding changes in mineral assemblage and microstructure. Mylonitized dolerites consists of a syn-kinematic assemblage (decreasing modal amounts from left to right) of Pl + Cpx + Grt + Ky + Rt + Ilm ± Opx ± Amp ± Qz in the central/southern areas and Pl + Bt + Amp + Chl + Ilm ± Kfs ± Mag ± Ap in the north. The amount of newly grown garnet decreases towards the north and garnet is generally absent in the northernmost exposures of the Woodroffe Thrust. Mylonitized felsic granulites and granitoids consist of syn-kinematic assemblages of Qz + Pl + Kfs + Grt + Cpx + Ky + Ilm + Rt ± Bt ± Amp ± Opx ± Ap in the south and Qz + Pl + Kfs + Bt + Czo + Grt

  4. Large scale study on the variation of RF energy absorption in the head & brain regions of adults and children and evaluation of the SAM phantom conservativeness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshvari, J.; Kivento, M.; Christ, A.; Bit-Babik, G.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the results of two computational large scale studies using highly realistic exposure scenarios, MRI based human head and hand models, and two mobile phone models. The objectives are (i) to study the relevance of age when people are exposed to RF by comparing adult and child heads and (ii) to analyze and discuss the conservativeness of the SAM phantom for all age groups. Representative use conditions were simulated using detailed CAD models of two mobile phones operating between 900 MHz and 1950 MHz including configurations with the hand holding the phone, which were not considered in most previous studies. The peak spatial-average specific absorption rate (psSAR) in the head and the pinna tissues is assessed using anatomically accurate head and hand models. The first of the two mentioned studies involved nine head-, four hand- and two phone-models, the second study included six head-, four hand- and three simplified phone-models (over 400 configurations in total). In addition, both studies also evaluated the exposure using the SAM phantom. Results show no systematic differences between psSAR induced in the adult and child heads. The exposure level and its variation for different age groups may be different for particular phones, but no correlation between psSAR and model age was found. The psSAR from all exposure conditions was compared to the corresponding configurations using SAM, which was found to be conservative in the large majority of cases.

  5. Large scale study on the variation of RF energy absorption in the head & brain regions of adults and children and evaluation of the SAM phantom conservativeness.

    PubMed

    Keshvari, J; Kivento, M; Christ, A; Bit-Babik, G

    2016-04-21

    This paper presents the results of two computational large scale studies using highly realistic exposure scenarios, MRI based human head and hand models, and two mobile phone models. The objectives are (i) to study the relevance of age when people are exposed to RF by comparing adult and child heads and (ii) to analyze and discuss the conservativeness of the SAM phantom for all age groups. Representative use conditions were simulated using detailed CAD models of two mobile phones operating between 900 MHz and 1950 MHz including configurations with the hand holding the phone, which were not considered in most previous studies. The peak spatial-average specific absorption rate (psSAR) in the head and the pinna tissues is assessed using anatomically accurate head and hand models. The first of the two mentioned studies involved nine head-, four hand- and two phone-models, the second study included six head-, four hand- and three simplified phone-models (over 400 configurations in total). In addition, both studies also evaluated the exposure using the SAM phantom. Results show no systematic differences between psSAR induced in the adult and child heads. The exposure level and its variation for different age groups may be different for particular phones, but no correlation between psSAR and model age was found. The psSAR from all exposure conditions was compared to the corresponding configurations using SAM, which was found to be conservative in the large majority of cases.

  6. Incorporation of a permafrost model into a large-scale ecosystem model: Evaluation of temporal and spatial scaling issues in simulating soil thermal dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Q.; Romanovsky, V. E.; McGuire, A. D.

    2001-12-01

    This study evaluated whether a model of permafrost dynamics with a 0.5-day resolution internal time step that is driven by monthly climate inputs is adequate for representing the soil thermal dynamics in a large-scale ecosystem model. An extant version of the Goodrich model was modified to develop a soil thermal model (STM) with the capability to operate with either 0.5-hour or 0.5-day internal time steps and to be driven with either daily or monthly input data. The choice of internal time step had little effect on the simulation of soil thermal dynamics of a black spruce site in Alaska. The use of monthly climate inputs to drive the model resulted in an error of less than 1°C in the upper organic soil layer and in an accurate simulation of seasonal active layer dynamics. Uncertainty analyses of the STM driven with monthly climate inputs identified that soil temperature estimates of the upper organic layer were most sensitive to variability in parameters that described snow thermal conductivity, moss thickness, and moss thermal conductivity. The STM was coupled to the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM), and the performance of the coupled model was verified for the simulation of soil temperatures in applications to a black spruce site in Canada and to white spruce, aspen, and tundra sites in Alaska. A 1°C error in the temperature of the upper organic soil layer had little influence on the carbon dynamics simulated for the black spruce site in Canada. Application of the model across the range of black spruce ecosystems in North America demonstrated that the STM-TEM has the capability to operate over temporal and spatial domains that consider substantial variation in surface climate given that spatial variability in key structural characteristics and physical properties of the soil thermal regime are described.

  7. Nekton community response to a large-scale Mississippi River discharge: Examining spatial and temporal response to river management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piazza, Bryan P.; La Peyre, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    Freshwater flow is generally held to be one of the most influential factors affecting community structure and production in estuaries. In coastal Louisiana, the Caernarvon Freshwater Diversion (CFD) is managed to control freshwater discharge from the Mississippi River into Breton Sound basin. Operational since 1991, CFD has undergone several changes in management strategy including pulsed spring flooding, which was introduced in 2001. We used a 20-yr time series of fisheries-independent data to investigate how variation in freshwater inflow (i.e., pre- and post-CFD, and pre and post spring pulsing management) influences the downstream nekton community (abundance, diversity, and assemblage). Analyses of long-term data demonstrated that while there were effects from the CFD, they largely involved subtle changes in community structure. Spatially, effects were largely limited to the sites immediately downstream of the diversion and extended only occasionally to more down-estuary sites. Temporally, effects were 1) immediate (detected during spring diversion events) or 2) delayed (detected several months post-diversion). Analysis of river management found that pulsed spring-time inflow resulted in more significant changes in nekton assemblages, likely due to higher discharge rates that 1) increased marsh flooding, thus increasing marsh habitat accessibility for small resident marsh species, and 2) reduced salinity, possibly causing displacement of marine pelagic species down estuary. ?? 2010.

  8. Reconstruction of micron resolution mouse brain surface from large-scale imaging dataset using resampling-based variational model

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Quan, Tingwei; Li, Shiwei; Zhou, Hang; Luo, Qingming; Gong, Hui; Zeng, Shaoqun

    2015-01-01

    Brain surface profile is essential for brain studies, including registration, segmentation of brain structure and drawing neuronal circuits. Recent advances in high-throughput imaging techniques enable imaging whole mouse brain at micron spatial resolution and provide a basis for more fine quantitative studies in neuroscience. However, reconstructing micron resolution brain surface from newly produced neuronal dataset still faces challenges. Most current methods apply global analysis, which are neither applicable to a large imaging dataset nor to a brain surface with an inhomogeneous signal intensity. Here, we proposed a resampling-based variational model for this purpose. In this model, the movement directions of the initial boundary elements are fixed, the final positions of the initial boundary elements that form the brain surface are determined by the local signal intensity. These features assure an effective reconstruction of the brain surface from a new brain dataset. Compared with conventional typical methods, such as level set based method and active contour method, our method significantly increases the recall and precision rates above 97% and is approximately hundreds-fold faster. We demonstrated a fast reconstruction at micron level of the whole brain surface from a large dataset of hundreds of GB in size within 6 hours. PMID:26245266

  9. Reconstruction of micron resolution mouse brain surface from large-scale imaging dataset using resampling-based variational model.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Quan, Tingwei; Li, Shiwei; Zhou, Hang; Luo, Qingming; Gong, Hui; Zeng, Shaoqun

    2015-08-06

    Brain surface profile is essential for brain studies, including registration, segmentation of brain structure and drawing neuronal circuits. Recent advances in high-throughput imaging techniques enable imaging whole mouse brain at micron spatial resolution and provide a basis for more fine quantitative studies in neuroscience. However, reconstructing micron resolution brain surface from newly produced neuronal dataset still faces challenges. Most current methods apply global analysis, which are neither applicable to a large imaging dataset nor to a brain surface with an inhomogeneous signal intensity. Here, we proposed a resampling-based variational model for this purpose. In this model, the movement directions of the initial boundary elements are fixed, the final positions of the initial boundary elements that form the brain surface are determined by the local signal intensity. These features assure an effective reconstruction of the brain surface from a new brain dataset. Compared with conventional typical methods, such as level set based method and active contour method, our method significantly increases the recall and precision rates above 97% and is approximately hundreds-fold faster. We demonstrated a fast reconstruction at micron level of the whole brain surface from a large dataset of hundreds of GB in size within 6 hours.

  10. Genome resequencing in Populus: Revealing large-scale genome variation and implications on specialized-trait genomics

    SciTech Connect

    Muchero, Wellington; Labbe, Jessy L; Priya, Ranjan; DiFazio, Steven P; Tuskan, Gerald A

    2014-01-01

    To date, Populus ranks among a few plant species with a complete genome sequence and other highly developed genomic resources. With the first genome sequence among all tree species, Populus has been adopted as a suitable model organism for genomic studies in trees. However, far from being just a model species, Populus is a key renewable economic resource that plays a significant role in providing raw materials for the biofuel and pulp and paper industries. Therefore, aside from leading frontiers of basic tree molecular biology and ecological research, Populus leads frontiers in addressing global economic challenges related to fuel and fiber production. The latter fact suggests that research aimed at improving quality and quantity of Populus as a raw material will likely drive the pursuit of more targeted and deeper research in order to unlock the economic potential tied in molecular biology processes that drive this tree species. Advances in genome sequence-driven technologies, such as resequencing individual genotypes, which in turn facilitates large scale SNP discovery and identification of large scale polymorphisms are key determinants of future success in these initiatives. In this treatise we discuss implications of genome sequence-enable technologies on Populus genomic and genetic studies of complex and specialized-traits.

  11. Reconstructing Large-Scale Brain Resting-State Networks from High-Resolution EEG: Spatial and Temporal Comparisons with fMRI.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Han; Ding, Lei; Zhu, Min; Zotev, Vadim; Phillips, Raquel; Bodurka, Jerzy

    2016-03-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies utilizing measures of hemodynamic signal, such as the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal, have discovered that resting-state brain activities are organized into multiple large-scale functional networks, coined as resting-state networks (RSNs). However, an important limitation of the available fMRI studies is that hemodynamic signals only provide an indirect measure of the neuronal activity. In contrast, electroencephalography (EEG) directly measures electrophysiological activity of the brain. However, little is known about the brain-wide organization of such spontaneous neuronal population signals at the resting state. It is not entirely clear if or how the network structure built upon slowly fluctuating hemodynamic signals is represented in terms of fast, dynamic, and spontaneous neuronal activity. In this study, we investigated the electrophysiological representation of RSNs from simultaneously acquired EEG and fMRI data in the resting human brain. We developed a data-driven analysis approach that reconstructed multiple large-scale electrophysiological networks from high-resolution EEG data alone. The networks derived from EEG were then compared with RSNs independently derived from simultaneously acquired fMRI in their spatial structures as well as temporal dynamics. Results reveal spatially and temporally specific electrophysiological correlates for the fMRI-RSNs. Findings suggest that the spontaneous activity of various large-scale cortical networks is reflected in macroscopic EEG potentials.

  12. Large-Scale Variations in Lumber Value Recovery of Yellow Birch and Sugar Maple in Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Hassegawa, Mariana; Havreljuk, Filip; Ouimet, Rock; Auty, David; Pothier, David; Achim, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Silvicultural restoration measures have been implemented in the northern hardwoods forests of southern Quebec, Canada, but their financial applicability is often hampered by the depleted state of the resource. To help identify sites most suited for the production of high quality timber, where the potential return on silvicultural investments should be the highest, this study assessed the impact of stand and site characteristics on timber quality in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.). For this purpose, lumber value recovery (LVR), an estimate of the summed value of boards contained in a unit volume of round wood, was used as an indicator of timber quality. Predictions of LVR were made for yellow birch and sugar maple trees contained in a network of more than 22000 temporary sample plots across the Province. Next, stand-level variables were selected and models to predict LVR were built using the boosted regression trees method. Finally, the occurrence of spatial clusters was verified by a hotspot analysis. Results showed that in both species LVR was positively correlated with the stand age and structural diversity index, and negatively correlated with the number of merchantable stems. Yellow birch had higher LVR in areas with shallower soils, whereas sugar maple had higher LVR in regions with deeper soils. The hotspot analysis indicated that clusters of high and low LVR exist across the province for both species. Although it remains uncertain to what extent the variability of LVR may result from variations in past management practices or in inherent site quality, we argue that efforts to produce high quality timber should be prioritized in sites where LVR is predicted to be the highest. PMID:26313689

  13. Large-Scale Variations in Lumber Value Recovery of Yellow Birch and Sugar Maple in Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hassegawa, Mariana; Havreljuk, Filip; Ouimet, Rock; Auty, David; Pothier, David; Achim, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Silvicultural restoration measures have been implemented in the northern hardwoods forests of southern Quebec, Canada, but their financial applicability is often hampered by the depleted state of the resource. To help identify sites most suited for the production of high quality timber, where the potential return on silvicultural investments should be the highest, this study assessed the impact of stand and site characteristics on timber quality in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.). For this purpose, lumber value recovery (LVR), an estimate of the summed value of boards contained in a unit volume of round wood, was used as an indicator of timber quality. Predictions of LVR were made for yellow birch and sugar maple trees contained in a network of more than 22000 temporary sample plots across the Province. Next, stand-level variables were selected and models to predict LVR were built using the boosted regression trees method. Finally, the occurrence of spatial clusters was verified by a hotspot analysis. Results showed that in both species LVR was positively correlated with the stand age and structural diversity index, and negatively correlated with the number of merchantable stems. Yellow birch had higher LVR in areas with shallower soils, whereas sugar maple had higher LVR in regions with deeper soils. The hotspot analysis indicated that clusters of high and low LVR exist across the province for both species. Although it remains uncertain to what extent the variability of LVR may result from variations in past management practices or in inherent site quality, we argue that efforts to produce high quality timber should be prioritized in sites where LVR is predicted to be the highest.

  14. Large-scale variations in ozone and polar stratospheric clouds measured with airborne lidar during formation of the 1987 ozone hole over Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, Edward V.; Poole, Lamont R.; Mccormick, M. Patrick; Ismail, Syed; Butler, Carolyn F.; Kooi, Susan A.; Szedlmayer, Margaret M.; Jones, Rod; Krueger, Arlin J.; Tuck, Adrian

    1988-01-01

    A joint field experiment between NASA and NOAA was conducted during August to September 1987 to obtain in situ and remote measurements of key gases and aerosols from aircraft platforms during the formation of the ozone (O3) hole over Antarctica. The ER-2 (advanced U-2) and DC-8 aircraft from the NASA Ames Research Center were used in this field experiment. The NASA Langley Research Center's airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system was operated from the DC-8 to obtain profiles of O3 and polar stratospheric clouds in the lower stratosphere during long-range flights over Antarctica from August 28 to September 29, 1987. The airborne DIAL system was configured to transmit simultaneously four laser wavelengths (301, 311, 622, and 1064 nm) above the DC-8 for DIAL measurements of O3 profiles between 11 to 20 km ASL (geometric altitude above sea level) and multiple wavelength aerosol backscatter measurements between 11 to 24 km ASL. A total of 13 DC-8 flights were made over Antarctica with 2 flights reaching the South Pole. Polar stratospheric clouds (PSC's) were detected in multiple thin layers in the 11 to 21 km ASL altitude range with each layer having a typical thickness of less than 1 km. Two types of PSC's were found based on aerosol backscattering ratios: predominantly water ice clouds (type 2) and clouds with scattering characteristics consistent with binary solid nitric acid/water clouds (type 1). Large-scale cross sections of O3 distributions were obtained. The data provides additional information about a potentially important transport mechanism that may influence the O3 budget inside the vortex. There is also some evidence that strong low pressure systems in the troposphere are associated with regions of lower stratospheric O3. This paper discusses the spatial and temporal variations of O3 inside and outside the polar vortex region during the development of the O3 hole and relates these data to other measurements obtained during this field experiment.

  15. Large scale spatial variation of accumulation rate across ice promontory in coastal Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callens, Denis; Matsuoka, Kenichi; Drews, Reinhard; Pattyn, Frank

    2013-04-01

    Ice rises are known to play a key role on ice shelf dynamics. By buttressing the flow, they constrain the flow of ice from the continent toward the ocean. However, since they are small hills surrounded by extremely flat area, they also play a role on atmospheric circulation. However, this impact is relatively unknown. Here, we show evidence that ice rises play a significant role on the wind redistribution of the snow. We report observations of persistent features observed all around the coast of Dronning Maud Land (DML). By analyzing radio-echo sounding data, we identified internal reflection horizons assumed to be isochronous. These layers show a remarkable variability in layer depth at both sides of the ridge, pointing to variability in surface accumulation rates. We show that a strong gradient of accumulation rate exist across, at least, 5 different ice rises in DML : Halvfarryggen Ice Rise nearby Ekstromisen (7°W), 2 ice rises into the Fimbulisen (2°E) and 2 ice rises within the Roi Baudoin Ice Shelf (25°E, Derwael & FranKenny Ice Rise). We used deepness of radar reflector as a proxy of the accumulation rate as long as we removed the influence of ice dynamics. All collected data (both low and high frequency) all show the similar persistent gradient in accumulation rate. Comparison of accumulation rate distribution and meteorological data shows that accumulation rate is twice as high on the wind side of the ridge compared to the lee side, which makes ice rise topography playing a significant role in snow redistribution. This feature is important in term of ice coring and paleoclimatic reconstruction of on time scales of 2 to 20k years.

  16. Geographic and environmental sources of variation in bacterial community composition in a large-scale municipal landfill site in China.

    PubMed

    Song, Liyan; Yang, Shu; Liu, Hongjie; Xu, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Little is known regarding how bacterial communities assemble at landfill, as well as how the environment shapes the composition of bacterial community. In this study, up to 42 refuse samples from a large-scale landfill in China were physicochemically and phylogenetically investigated. 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene-based Illumina MiSeq sequencing (nine samples) revealed that representatives of Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes were dominant in the refuse samples, which was similar to a previous study on landfill leachate by using 454 pyrosequencing. Although 741 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected across all nine samples, 6 of these OTUs were detected in all of the data sets, suggesting difference between bacterial community structures. Geographical differences between the samples, irrespective of depths, were revealed by a principal component analysis (PCA) based on the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) profiles of 42 refuse samples. Redundancy analysis (RDA) suggested that environmental heterogeneity (pH, landfilling ages, and depths) and the abundance of bacteria (represented by 16S rRNA gene copy numbers) were the main drivers shaping the bacterial community structure.

  17. Large scale spatial risk and comparative prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes pacificus.

    PubMed

    Padgett, Kerry; Bonilla, Denise; Kjemtrup, Anne; Vilcins, Inger-Marie; Yoshimizu, Melissa Hardstone; Hui, Lucia; Sola, Milagros; Quintana, Miguel; Kramer, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi is a newly described emerging pathogen transmitted to people by Ixodes species ticks and found in temperate regions of North America, Europe, and Asia. There is limited understanding of large scale entomological risk patterns of B. miyamotoi and of Borreila burgdorferi sensu stricto (ss), the agent of Lyme disease, in western North America. In this study, B. miyamotoi, a relapsing fever spirochete, was detected in adult (n=70) and nymphal (n=36) Ixodes pacificus ticks collected from 24 of 48 California counties that were surveyed over a 13 year period. Statewide prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato (sl), which includes B. burgdorferi ss, and B. miyamotoi were similar in adult I. pacificus (0.6% and 0.8%, respectively). In contrast, the prevalence of B. burgdorferi sl was almost 2.5 times higher than B. miyamotoi in nymphal I. pacificus (3.2% versus 1.4%). These results suggest similar risk of exposure to B. burgdorferi sl and B. miyamotoi from adult I. pacificus tick bites in California, but a higher risk of contracting B. burgdorferi sl than B. miyamotoi from nymphal tick bites. While regional risk of exposure to these two spirochetes varies, the highest risk for both species is found in north and central coastal California and the Sierra Nevada foothill region, and the lowest risk is in southern California; nevertheless, tick-bite avoidance measures should be implemented in all regions of California. This is the first study to comprehensively evaluate entomologic risk for B. miyamotoi and B. burgdorferi for both adult and nymphal I. pacificus, an important human biting tick in western North America.

  18. Large Scale Spatial Risk and Comparative Prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi and Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato in Ixodes pacificus

    PubMed Central

    Padgett, Kerry; Bonilla, Denise; Kjemtrup, Anne; Vilcins, Inger-Marie; Yoshimizu, Melissa Hardstone; Hui, Lucia; Sola, Milagros; Quintana, Miguel; Kramer, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi is a newly described emerging pathogen transmitted to people by Ixodes species ticks and found in temperate regions of North America, Europe, and Asia. There is limited understanding of large scale entomological risk patterns of B. miyamotoi and of Borreila burgdorferi sensu stricto (ss), the agent of Lyme disease, in western North America. In this study, B. miyamotoi, a relapsing fever spirochete, was detected in adult (n = 70) and nymphal (n = 36) Ixodes pacificus ticks collected from 24 of 48 California counties that were surveyed over a 13 year period. Statewide prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato (sl), which includes B. burgdorferi ss, and B. miyamotoi were similar in adult I. pacificus (0.6% and 0.8%, respectively). In contrast, the prevalence of B. burgdorferi sl was almost 2.5 times higher than B. miyamotoi in nymphal I. pacificus (3.2% versus 1.4%). These results suggest similar risk of exposure to B. burgdorferi sl and B. miyamotoi from adult I. pacificus tick bites in California, but a higher risk of contracting B. burgdorferi sl than B. miyamotoi from nymphal tick bites. While regional risk of exposure to these two spirochetes varies, the highest risk for both species is found in north and central coastal California and the Sierra Nevada foothill region, and the lowest risk is in southern California; nevertheless, tick-bite avoidance measures should be implemented in all regions of California. This is the first study to comprehensively evaluate entomologic risk for B. miyamotoi and B. burgdorferi for both adult and nymphal I. pacificus, an important human biting tick in western North America. PMID:25333277

  19. Age-Related Wayfinding Differences in Real Large-Scale Environments: Detrimental Motor Control Effects during Spatial Learning Are Mediated by Executive Decline?

    PubMed Central

    Taillade, Mathieu; Sauzéon, Hélène; Arvind Pala, Prashant; Déjos, Marie; Larrue, Florian; Gross, Christian; N’Kaoua, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate motor control activity (active vs. passive condition) with regards to wayfinding and spatial learning difficulties in large-scale spaces for older adults. We compared virtual reality (VR)-based wayfinding and spatial memory (survey and route knowledge) performances between 30 younger and 30 older adults. A significant effect of age was obtained on the wayfinding performances but not on the spatial memory performances. Specifically, the active condition deteriorated the survey measure in all of the participants and increased the age-related differences in the wayfinding performances. Importantly, the age-related differences in the wayfinding performances, after an active condition, were further mediated by the executive measures. All of the results relative to a detrimental effect of motor activity are discussed in terms of a dual task effect as well as executive decline associated with aging. PMID:23843992

  20. Spatial validation of large scale land surface models against monthly land surface temperature patterns using innovative performance metrics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Julian; Siemann, Amanda; Stisen, Simon; Sheffield, Justin

    2016-04-01

    Land surface models (LSMs) are a key tool to enhance process understanding and to provide predictions of the terrestrial hydrosphere and its atmospheric coupling. Distributed LSMs predict hydrological states and fluxes, such as land surface temperature (LST) or actual evapotranspiration (aET), at each grid cell. LST observations are widely available through satellite remote sensing platforms that enable comprehensive spatial validations of LSMs. In spite of the availability of LST data, most validation studies rely on simple cell to cell comparisons and thus do not regard true spatial pattern information. This study features two innovative spatial performance metrics, namely EOF- and connectivity-analysis, to validate predicted LST patterns by three LSMs (Mosaic, Noah, VIC) over the contiguous USA. The LST validation dataset is derived from global High-Resolution-Infrared-Radiometric-Sounder (HIRS) retrievals for a 30 year period. The metrics are bias insensitive, which is an important feature in order to truly validate spatial patterns. The EOF analysis evaluates the spatial variability and pattern seasonality, and attests better performance to VIC in the warm months and to Mosaic and Noah in the cold months. Further, more than 75% of the LST variability can be captured by a single pattern that is strongly driven by air temperature. The connectivity analysis assesses the homogeneity and smoothness of patterns. The LSMs are most reliable at predicting cold LST patterns in the warm months and vice versa. Lastly, the coupling between aET and LST is investigated at flux tower sites and compared against LSMs to explain the identified LST shortcomings.

  1. Seasonal climate information preserved within West Antarctic ice cores and its relation to large-scale atmospheric circulation and regional sea ice variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küttel, M.; Steig, E. J.; Ding, Q.; Battisti, D. S.

    2010-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that West Antarctica has been warming since at least the 1950s. With the instrumental record being limited to the mid-20th century, indirect information from stable isotopes (δ18O and δD, hereafter collectively δ) preserved within ice cores have commonly been used to place this warming into a long term context. Here, using a large number of δ records obtained during the International Trans-Antarctic Scientific Expedition (ITASE), past variations in West Antarctic δ are not only investigated over time but also in space. This study therefore provides an important complement to longer records from single locations as e.g. the currently being processed West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) Divide ice core. Although snow accumulation rates at the ITASE sites in West Antarctica are variable, they are generally high enough to allow studies on sub-annual scale over the last 50-100 years. Here, we show that variations in δ in this region are strongly related to the state of the large-scale atmospheric circulation as well as sea ice variations in the adjacent Southern Ocean, with important seasonal changes. While a strong relationship to sea ice changes in the Ross and Amundsen Sea as well as to the atmospheric circulation offshore is found during austral fall (MAM) and winter (JJA), only modest correlations are found during spring (SON) and summer (DJF). Interestingly, the correlations with the atmospheric circulation in the latter two seasons have the strongest signal over the Antarctic continent, but not offshore - an important difference to MAM and JJA. These seasonal changes are in good agreement with the seasonally varying predominant circulation: meridional with more frequent storms in the Amundsen Sea during MAM and JJA and more zonal and stable during SON and DJF. The relationship to regional temperature is similarly seasonally variable with highest correlations found during MAM and JJA. Notably, the circulation pattern found to be strongest

  2. Seasonal and spatial variability of nitrosamines and their precursor sources at a large-scale urban drinking water system.

    PubMed

    Woods, Gwen C; Trenholm, Rebecca A; Hale, Bruce; Campbell, Zeke; Dickenson, Eric R V

    2015-07-01

    Nitrosamines are considered to pose greater health risks than currently regulated DBPs and are subsequently listed as a priority pollutant by the EPA, with potential for future regulation. Denver Water, as part of the EPA's Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule 2 (UCMR2) monitoring campaign, found detectable levels of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) at all sites of maximum residency within the distribution system. To better understand the occurrence of nitrosamines and nitrosamine precursors, Denver Water undertook a comprehensive year-long monitoring campaign. Samples were taken every two weeks to monitor for NDMA in the distribution system, and quarterly sampling events further examined 9 nitrosamines and nitrosamine precursors throughout the treatment and distribution systems. NDMA levels within the distribution system were typically low (>1.3 to 7.2 ng/L) with a remote distribution site (frequently >200 h of residency) experiencing the highest concentrations found. Eight other nitrosamines (N-nitrosomethylethylamine, N-nitrosodiethylamine, N-nitroso-di-n-propylamine, N-nitroso-di-n-butylamine, N-nitroso-di-phenylamine, N-nitrosopyrrolidine, N-nitrosopiperidine, N-nitrosomorpholine) were also monitored but none of these 8, or precursors of these 8 [as estimated with formation potential (FP) tests], were detected anywhere in raw, partially-treated or distribution samples. Throughout the year, there was evidence that seasonality may impact NDMA formation, such that lower temperatures (~5-10°C) produced greater NDMA than during warmer months. The year of sampling further provided evidence that water quality and weather events may impact NDMA precursor loads. Precursor loading estimates demonstrated that NDMA precursors increased during treatment (potentially from cationic polymer coagulant aids). The precursor analysis also provided evidence that precursors may have increased further within the distribution system itself. This comprehensive study of a large-scale

  3. On the variation of the ionospheric potential due to large-scale radioactivity enhancement and solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slyunyaev, Nikolay N.; Mareev, Evgeny A.; Zhidkov, Artem A.

    2015-08-01

    Sensitivity of the global electric circuit (GEC) to variations of atmospheric conductivity and current sources is analyzed and discussed. When the undisturbed exponential conductivity profile is assumed all over the Earth, the most substantial changes in the ionospheric potential (IP) are caused by conductivity perturbations inside thunderstorms; if, in addition, conductivity reduction inside thunderstorms and nonelectrified clouds is assumed, the IP becomes less sensitive to conductivity perturbations; besides, the IP is even more sensitive to source current variations than to conductivity. Current source and voltage source descriptions of GEC generators are compared; it is shown that the IP variation may critically depend on the chosen description. As an application, the IP variation due to nuclear weapons testing is studied; it is shown that neither local nor global increase of conductivity in the stratosphere could alone explain the observed 40% IP increase in the 1960s; at the same time this increase might be accounted for by a 40% increase in the source current density or a 46% reduction of the conductivity inside thunderstorms, provided that it was not reduced initially. The IP variation due to solar activity and, in particular, due to solar modulation of galactic cosmic ray flux is also discussed and modeled, which required an adequate parameterization of the rate of atmospheric ion pair production over the solar cycle. It is estimated that the maximum IP variation on the scale of the solar cycle does not exceed 5% of the mean value, unless source current perturbations are taken into account.

  4. Application of Satellite Solar-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence to Understanding Large-Scale Variations in Vegetation Phenology and Function Over Northern High Latitude Forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeong, Su-Jong; Schimel, David; Frankenberg, Christian; Drewry, Darren T.; Fisher, Joshua B.; Verma, Manish; Berry, Joseph A.; Lee, Jung-Eun; Joiner, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the large-scale seasonal phenology and physiology of vegetation over northern high latitude forests (40 deg - 55 deg N) during spring and fall by using remote sensing of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and observation-based estimate of gross primary productivity (GPP) from 2009 to 2011. Based on GPP phenology estimation in GPP, the growing season determined by SIF time-series is shorter in length than the growing season length determined solely using NDVI. This is mainly due to the extended period of high NDVI values, as compared to SIF, by about 46 days (+/-11 days), indicating a large-scale seasonal decoupling of physiological activity and changes in greenness in the fall. In addition to phenological timing, mean seasonal NDVI and SIF have different responses to temperature changes throughout the growing season. We observed that both NDVI and SIF linearly increased with temperature increases throughout the spring. However, in the fall, although NDVI linearly responded to temperature increases, SIF and GPP did not linearly increase with temperature increases, implying a seasonal hysteresis of SIF and GPP in response to temperature changes across boreal ecosystems throughout their growing season. Seasonal hysteresis of vegetation at large-scales is consistent with the known phenomena that light limits boreal forest ecosystem productivity in the fall. Our results suggest that continuing measurements from satellite remote sensing of both SIF and NDVI can help to understand the differences between, and information carried by, seasonal variations vegetation structure and greenness and physiology at large-scales across the critical boreal regions.

  5. Application of Satellite Solar-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence to Understanding Large-Scale Variations in Vegetation Phenology and Function Over Northern High Latitude Forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeong, Su-Jong; Schimel, David; Frankenberg, Christian; Drewry, Darren T.; Fisher, Joshua B.; Verma, Manish; Berry, Joseph A.; Lee, Jung-Eun; Joiner, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the large-scale seasonal phenology and physiology of vegetation over northern high latitude forests (40 deg - 55 deg N) during spring and fall by using remote sensing of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and observation-based estimate of gross primary productivity (GPP) from 2009 to 2011. Based on GPP phenology estimation in GPP, the growing season determined by SIF time-series is shorter in length than the growing season length determined solely using NDVI. This is mainly due to the extended period of high NDVI values, as compared to SIF, by about 46 days (+/-11 days), indicating a large-scale seasonal decoupling of physiological activity and changes in greenness in the fall. In addition to phenological timing, mean seasonal NDVI and SIF have different responses to temperature changes throughout the growing season. We observed that both NDVI and SIF linearly increased with temperature increases throughout the spring. However, in the fall, although NDVI linearly responded to temperature increases, SIF and GPP did not linearly increase with temperature increases, implying a seasonal hysteresis of SIF and GPP in response to temperature changes across boreal ecosystems throughout their growing season. Seasonal hysteresis of vegetation at large-scales is consistent with the known phenomena that light limits boreal forest ecosystem productivity in the fall. Our results suggest that continuing measurements from satellite remote sensing of both SIF and NDVI can help to understand the differences between, and information carried by, seasonal variations vegetation structure and greenness and physiology at large-scales across the critical boreal regions.

  6. A Capacity Design Method of Distributed Battery Storage for Controlling Power Variation with Large-Scale Photovoltaic Sources in Distribution Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Sawa, Toshiyuki; Gunji, Keiko; Yamazaki, Jun; Watanabe, Masahiro

    A design method for distributed battery storage capacity has been developed for evaluating battery storage advantage on demand-supply imbalance control in distribution systems with which large-scale home photovoltaic powers connected. The proposed method is based on a linear storage capacity minimization model with design basis demand load and photovoltaic output time series subjective to battery management constraints. The design method has been experimentally applied to a sample distribution system with substation storage and terminal area storage. From the numerical results, the developed method successfully clarifies the charge-discharge control and stored power variation, satisfies peak cut requirement, and pinpoints the minimum distributed storage capacity.

  7. Neurocognitive stages of spatial cognitive mapping measured during free exploration of a large-scale virtual environment.

    PubMed

    Plank, Markus; Snider, Joseph; Kaestner, Erik; Halgren, Eric; Poizner, Howard

    2015-02-01

    Using a novel, fully mobile virtual reality paradigm, we investigated the EEG correlates of spatial representations formed during unsupervised exploration. On day 1, subjects implicitly learned the location of 39 objects by exploring a room and popping bubbles that hid the objects. On day 2, they again popped bubbles in the same environment. In most cases, the objects hidden underneath the bubbles were in the same place as on day 1. However, a varying third of them were misplaced in each block. Subjects indicated their certainty that the object was in the same location as the day before. Compared with bubble pops revealing correctly placed objects, bubble pops revealing misplaced objects evoked a decreased negativity starting at 145 ms, with scalp topography consistent with generation in medial parietal cortex. There was also an increased negativity starting at 515 ms to misplaced objects, with scalp topography consistent with generation in inferior temporal cortex. Additionally, misplaced objects elicited an increase in frontal midline theta power. These findings suggest that the successive neurocognitive stages of processing allocentric space may include an initial template matching, integration of the object within its spatial cognitive map, and memory recall, analogous to the processing negativity N400 and theta that support verbal cognitive maps in humans.

  8. Large-scale spatial variability of riverbed temperature gradients in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.

    2007-02-01

    In the Snake River basin of the Pacific northwestern United States, hydroelectric dam operations are often based on the predicted emergence timing of salmon fry from the riverbed. The spatial variability and complexity of surface water and riverbed temperature gradients results in emergence timing predictions that are likely to have large errors. The objectives of this study were to quantify the thermal heterogeneity between the river and riverbed in fall Chinook salmon spawning areas and to determine the effects of thermal heterogeneity on fall Chinook salmon emergence timing. This study quantified river and riverbed temperatures at 15 fall Chinook salmon spawning sites distributed in two reaches throughout 160 km of the Snake River in Hells Canyon, Idaho, USA, during three different water years. Temperatures were measured during the fall Chinook salmon incubation period with self-contained data loggers placed in the river and at three different depths below the riverbed surface. At all sites temperature increased with depth into the riverbed, including significant differences (p<0.05) in mean water temperature of up to 3.8°C between the river and the riverbed among all the sites. During each of the three water years studied, river and riverbed temperatures varied significantly among all the study sites, among the study sites within each reach, and between sites located in the two reaches. Considerable variability in riverbed temperatures among the sites resulted in fall Chinook salmon emergence timing estimates that varied by as much as 55 days, depending on the source of temperature data used for the estimate. Monitoring of riverbed temperature gradients at a range of spatial scales throughout the Snake River would provide better information for managing hydroelectric dam operations, and would aid in the design and interpretation of future empirical research into the ecological significance of physical riverine processes.

  9. Large-Scale Variation in Forest Carbon Turnover Rate and its Relation to Climate - Remote Sensing vs. Global Vegetation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalhais, N.; Thurner, M.; Beer, C.; Forkel, M.; Rademacher, T. T.; Santoro, M.; Tum, M.; Schmullius, C.

    2015-12-01

    While vegetation productivity is known to be strongly correlated to climate, there is a need for an improved understanding of the underlying processes of vegetation carbon turnover and their importance at a global scale. This shortcoming has been due to the lack of spatially extensive information on vegetation carbon stocks, which we recently have been able to overcome by a biomass dataset covering northern boreal and temperate forests originating from radar remote sensing. Based on state-of-the-art products on biomass and NPP, we are for the first time able to study the relation between carbon turnover rate and a set of climate indices in northern boreal and temperate forests. The implementation of climate-related mortality processes, for instance drought, fire, frost or insect effects, is often lacking or insufficient in current global vegetation models. In contrast to our observation-based findings, investigated models from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP), including HYBRID4, JeDi, JULES, LPJml, ORCHIDEE, SDGVM, and VISIT, are able to reproduce spatial climate - turnover rate relationships only to a limited extent. While most of the models compare relatively well to observation-based NPP, simulated vegetation carbon stocks are severely biased compared to our biomass dataset. Current limitations lead to considerable uncertainties in the estimated vegetation carbon turnover, contributing substantially to the forest feedback to climate change. Our results are the basis for improving mortality concepts in global vegetation models and estimating their impact on the land carbon balance.

  10. A Novel Joint Spatial-Code Clustered Interference Alignment Scheme for Large-Scale Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhilu; Jiang, Lihui; Ren, Guanghui; Zhao, Nan; Zhao, Yaqin

    2015-01-01

    Interference alignment (IA) has been put forward as a promising technique which can mitigate interference and effectively increase the throughput of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However, the number of users is strictly restricted by the IA feasibility condition, and the interference leakage will become so strong that the quality of service will degrade significantly when there are more users than that IA can support. In this paper, a novel joint spatial-code clustered (JSCC)-IA scheme is proposed to solve this problem. In the proposed scheme, the users are clustered into several groups so that feasible IA can be achieved within each group. In addition, each group is assigned a pseudo noise (PN) code in order to suppress the inter-group interference via the code dimension. The analytical bit error rate (BER) expressions of the proposed JSCC-IA scheme are formulated for the systems with identical and different propagation delays, respectively. To further improve the performance of the JSCC-IA scheme in asymmetric networks, a random grouping selection (RGS) algorithm is developed to search for better grouping combinations. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed JSCC-IA scheme is capable of accommodating many more users to communicate simultaneously in the same frequency band with better performance. PMID:25602270

  11. A novel joint spatial-code clustered interference alignment scheme for large-scale wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhilu; Jiang, Lihui; Ren, Guanghui; Zhao, Nan; Zhao, Yaqin

    2015-01-16

    Interference alignment (IA) has been put forward as a promising technique which can mitigate interference and effectively increase the throughput of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However, the number of users is strictly restricted by the IA feasibility condition, and the interference leakage will become so strong that the quality of service will degrade significantly when there are more users than that IA can support. In this paper, a novel joint spatial-code clustered (JSCC)-IA scheme is proposed to solve this problem. In the proposed scheme, the users are clustered into several groups so that feasible IA can be achieved within each group. In addition, each group is assigned a pseudo noise (PN) code in order to suppress the inter-group interference via the code dimension. The analytical bit error rate (BER) expressions of the proposed JSCC-IA scheme are formulated for the systems with identical and different propagation delays, respectively. To further improve the performance of the JSCC-IA scheme in asymmetric networks, a random grouping selection (RGS) algorithm is developed to search for better grouping combinations. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed JSCC-IA scheme is capable of accommodating many more users to communicate simultaneously in the same frequency band with better performance.

  12. Medium and large-scale variations of dynamo-induced electric fields from AE ion drift measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coley, W. R.; Mcclure, J. P.

    1986-01-01

    Current models of the low latitude electric field are largely based on data from incoherent scatter radars. These observations are extended through the addition of the rather extensive high quality electric field measurements from the Ion Drift Meter (IDM) aboard the Atmosphere Explorer (AE) spacecraft. Some preliminary results obtained from the Unified Abstract files of satellite AE-E are presented. This satellite was active from the end of 1975 through June 1981 in various elliptical and circular orbits having an inclination near 20 deg. The resulting data can be examined for the variation of ion drift with latitude, longitude, season, solar cycle, altitude, and magnetic activity. The results presented deal primarily with latitudinal variations of the drift features. Diagrams of data are given and briefly interpreted. The preliminary results presented here indicate that IDM data from the AE and the more recent Dynamics Explorer B spacecraft should continue to disclose some interesting and previously unobserved dynamical features of the low latitude F region.

  13. Large-scale variation in combined impacts of canopy loss and disturbance on community structure and ecosystem functioning.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Tasman P; Cusson, Mathieu; Bulleri, Fabio; Davoult, Dominique; Arenas, Francisco; Aspden, Rebecca; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Bevilacqua, Stanislao; Davidson, Irvine; Defew, Emma; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Golléty, Claire; Griffin, John N; Herkül, Kristjan; Kotta, Jonne; Migné, Aline; Molis, Markus; Nicol, Sophie K; Noël, Laure M-L J; Pinto, Isabel Sousa; Valdivia, Nelson; Vaselli, Stefano; Jenkins, Stuart R

    2013-01-01

    Ecosystems are under pressure from multiple human disturbances whose impact may vary depending on environmental context. We experimentally evaluated variation in the separate and combined effects of the loss of a key functional group (canopy algae) and physical disturbance on rocky shore ecosystems at nine locations across Europe. Multivariate community structure was initially affected (during the first three to six months) at six locations but after 18 months, effects were apparent at only three. Loss of canopy caused increases in cover of non-canopy algae in the three locations in southern Europe and decreases in some northern locations. Measures of ecosystem functioning (community respiration, gross primary productivity, net primary productivity) were affected by loss of canopy at five of the six locations for which data were available. Short-term effects on community respiration were widespread, but effects were rare after 18 months. Functional changes corresponded with changes in community structure and/or species richness at most locations and times sampled, but no single aspect of biodiversity was an effective predictor of longer-term functional changes. Most ecosystems studied were able to compensate in functional terms for impacts caused by indiscriminate physical disturbance. The only consistent effect of disturbance was to increase cover of non-canopy species. Loss of canopy algae temporarily reduced community resistance to disturbance at only two locations and at two locations actually increased resistance. Resistance to disturbance-induced changes in gross primary productivity was reduced by loss of canopy algae at four locations. Location-specific variation in the effects of the same stressors argues for flexible frameworks for the management of marine environments. These results also highlight the need to analyse how species loss and other stressors combine and interact in different environmental contexts.

  14. Large-Scale Variation in Combined Impacts of Canopy Loss and Disturbance on Community Structure and Ecosystem Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, Tasman P.; Cusson, Mathieu; Bulleri, Fabio; Davoult, Dominique; Arenas, Francisco; Aspden, Rebecca; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Bevilacqua, Stanislao; Davidson, Irvine; Defew, Emma; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Golléty, Claire; Griffin, John N.; Herkül, Kristjan; Kotta, Jonne; Migné, Aline; Molis, Markus; Nicol, Sophie K.; Noël, Laure M-L J.; Pinto, Isabel Sousa; Valdivia, Nelson; Vaselli, Stefano; Jenkins, Stuart R.

    2013-01-01

    Ecosystems are under pressure from multiple human disturbances whose impact may vary depending on environmental context. We experimentally evaluated variation in the separate and combined effects of the loss of a key functional group (canopy algae) and physical disturbance on rocky shore ecosystems at nine locations across Europe. Multivariate community structure was initially affected (during the first three to six months) at six locations but after 18 months, effects were apparent at only three. Loss of canopy caused increases in cover of non-canopy algae in the three locations in southern Europe and decreases in some northern locations. Measures of ecosystem functioning (community respiration, gross primary productivity, net primary productivity) were affected by loss of canopy at five of the six locations for which data were available. Short-term effects on community respiration were widespread, but effects were rare after 18 months. Functional changes corresponded with changes in community structure and/or species richness at most locations and times sampled, but no single aspect of biodiversity was an effective predictor of longer-term functional changes. Most ecosystems studied were able to compensate in functional terms for impacts caused by indiscriminate physical disturbance. The only consistent effect of disturbance was to increase cover of non-canopy species. Loss of canopy algae temporarily reduced community resistance to disturbance at only two locations and at two locations actually increased resistance. Resistance to disturbance-induced changes in gross primary productivity was reduced by loss of canopy algae at four locations. Location-specific variation in the effects of the same stressors argues for flexible frameworks for the management of marine environments. These results also highlight the need to analyse how species loss and other stressors combine and interact in different environmental contexts. PMID:23799082

  15. Variations of mesoscale and large-scale sea ice morphology in the 1984 Marginal Ice Zone Experiment as observed by microwave remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. J.; Josberger, E. G.; Gloersen, P.; Johannessen, O. M.; Guest, P. S.

    1987-01-01

    The data acquired during the summer 1984 Marginal Ice Zone Experiment in the Fram Strait-Greenland Sea marginal ice zone, using airborne active and passive microwave sensors and the Nimbus 7 SMMR, were analyzed to compile a sequential description of the mesoscale and large-scale ice morphology variations during the period of June 6 - July 16, 1984. Throughout the experiment, the long ice edge between northwest Svalbard and central Greenland meandered; eddies were repeatedly formed, moved, and disappeared but the ice edge remained within a 100-km-wide zone. The ice pack behind this alternately diffuse and compact edge underwent rapid and pronounced variations in ice concentration over a 200-km-wide zone. The high-resolution ice concentration distributions obtained in the aircraft images agree well with the low-resolution distributions of SMMR images.

  16. The relationships between large-scale variations in shear velocity, density, and compressional velocity in the Earth's mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulik, P.; Ekström, G.

    2016-04-01

    A large data set of surface wave phase anomalies, body wave travel times, normal-mode splitting functions, and long-period waveforms is used to investigate the scaling between shear velocity, density, and compressional velocity in the Earth's mantle. We introduce a methodology that allows construction of joint models with various levels of scaling complexity (ϱ = dlnρ/dlnvS, ν = dlnvS/dlnvP), in order to detect seismological signatures of chemical heterogeneity. We demonstrate that the data sets considered cannot be fit concurrently with a uniform ν or a positive and uniform ϱ throughout the mantle. The variance reductions to P wave travel times and vP-sensitive modes are up to 40% higher with our preferred model of anisotropic shear and compressional velocity than the recent anisotropic shear velocity model S362ANI+M, which was constructed assuming a uniform ν throughout the mantle. Several features reported in earlier tomographic studies persist after the inclusion of new and larger data sets; anticorrelation between bulk sound and shear velocities in the lowermost mantle as well as an increase in ν with depth in the lower mantle are largely independent of the regularization scheme. When correlations between density and shear velocity variations are imposed in the lowermost mantle, variance reductions of several spheroidal and toroidal modes deteriorate by as much as 40%. Recent measurements of the splitting of 0S2, in particular, are largely incompatible with perfectly correlated shear velocity and density heterogeneity throughout the mantle. A way to significantly improve the fits to various data sets is by allowing independent density perturbations in the lowermost mantle. Our preferred joint model consists of denser-than-average anomalies (˜1% peak to peak) at the base of the mantle roughly coincident with the low-velocity superplumes. The relative variation of shear velocity, density, and compressional velocity in our study disfavors a purely thermal

  17. Recurrent patterning in the daily foraging routes of hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas): spatial memory in large-scale versus small-scale space.

    PubMed

    Schreier, Amy L; Grove, Matt

    2014-05-01

    The benefits of spatial memory for foraging animals can be assessed on two distinct spatial scales: small-scale space (travel within patches) and large-scale space (travel between patches). While the patches themselves may be distributed at low density, within patches resources are likely densely distributed. We propose, therefore, that spatial memory for recalling the particular locations of previously visited feeding sites will be more advantageous during between-patch movement, where it may reduce the distances traveled by animals that possess this ability compared to those that must rely on random search. We address this hypothesis by employing descriptive statistics and spectral analyses to characterize the daily foraging routes of a band of wild hamadryas baboons in Filoha, Ethiopia. The baboons slept on two main cliffs--the Filoha cliff and the Wasaro cliff--and daily travel began and ended on a cliff; thus four daily travel routes exist: Filoha-Filoha, Filoha-Wasaro, Wasaro-Wasaro, Wasaro-Filoha. We use newly developed partial sum methods and distribution-fitting analyses to distinguish periods of area-restricted search from more extensive movements. The results indicate a single peak in travel activity in the Filoha-Filoha and Wasaro-Filoha routes, three peaks of travel activity in the Filoha-Wasaro routes, and two peaks in the Wasaro-Wasaro routes; and are consistent with on-the-ground observations of foraging and ranging behavior of the baboons. In each of the four daily travel routes the "tipping points" identified by the partial sum analyses indicate transitions between travel in small- versus large-scale space. The correspondence between the quantitative analyses and the field observations suggest great utility for using these types of analyses to examine primate travel patterns and especially in distinguishing between movement in small versus large-scale space. Only the distribution-fitting analyses are inconsistent with the field observations, which

  18. Two dominant modes of winter temperature variations over China and their relationships with large-scale circulations in CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yan; Zhao, Zongci; Dong, Wenjie

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we analyze the two dominant modes of winter surface air temperature (SAT) variations over China and their relationships with large-scale circulation anomalies. We then examine the fidelities of 20 individual models participating in the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 in reproducing these two perspectives. Results showed that the winter SAT variations over China are dominated by two modes, a homogeneous warming pattern and a tripole pattern with warm departure in Northwest and Northeast China and cold departure in central and southern China. Consistent with the previous studies which documented the variations of the two modes are associated with the Siberian high and Arctic Oscillation (AO) anomalies, respectively, it is newly found that the variation of Empirical Orthogonal Function 2 (EOF2) mode is associated with the Northwest Pacific south-north dipole sea surface temperature anomaly in addition to the AO anomaly. Through comparisons with the observations, we identified that eight models outperform the others in simulating the two dominant modes and their relationships with large-scale circulation anomalies. These high-performing models were then selected to project future winter SAT changes over China under the Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5) scenario. Based on the multi-model ensemble mean, a nationwide warming was projected relative to the present climatology (1970-1999), with the largest increase in the Tibetan Plateau of 1.45 ± 0.62 °C by the period 2010-2039 and 2.87 ± 0.82 °C by the period 2050-2079; followed by Northeast China, Northwest China, North China, East China, Southwest China, and, finally, Southeast China.

  19. Large scale patterns of genetic variation and differentiation in sugar maple from tropical Central America to temperate North America.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Rodriguez, Yalma L; Platt, William J; Urbatsch, Lowell E; Foltz, David W

    2015-11-19

    Geological events in the latter Cenozoic have influenced the distribution, abundance and genetic structure of tree populations in temperate and tropical North America. The biogeographical history of temperate vegetation that spans large ranges of latitude is complex, involving multiple latitudinal shifts that might have occurred via different migration routes. We determined the regional structuring of genetic variation of sugar maple (Acer saccharum subsp. saccharum) and its only subspecies in tropical America (Acer saccharum subsp. skutchii) using nuclear and chloroplast data. The studied populations span a geographic range from Maine, USA (46°N), to El Progreso, Guatemala (15°N). We examined genetic subdivisions, explored the locations of ancestral haplotypes, analyzed genetic data to explore the presence of a single or multiple glacial refugia, and tested whether genetic lineages are temporally consistent with a Pleistocene or older divergence. Nuclear and chloroplast data indicated that populations in midwestern USA and western Mexico were highly differentiated from populations in the rest of the sites. The time of the most recent common ancestor of the western Mexico haplotype lineage was dated to the Pliocene (5.9 Ma, 95% HPD: 4.3-7.3 Ma). Splits during the Pleistocene separated the rest of the phylogroups. The most frequent and widespread haplotype occurred in half of the sites (Guatemala, eastern Mexico, southeastern USA, and Ohio). Our data also suggested that multiple Pleistocene refugia (tropics-southeastern USA, midwestern, and northeastern USA), but not western Mexico (Jalisco), contributed to post-glacial northward expansion of ranges. Current southern Mexican and Guatemalan populations have reduced population sizes, genetic bottlenecks and tend toward homozygosity, as indicated using nuclear and chloroplast markers. The divergence of western Mexican populations from the rest of the sugar maples likely resulted from orographic and volcanic barriers

  20. Large-Scale Evaluation of Common Variation in Regulatory T Cell-Related Genes and Ovarian Cancer Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Charbonneau, Bridget; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Kalli, Kimberly R.; Oberg, Ann L.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Fogarty, Zachary C.; Block, Matthew S.; Maurer, Matthew J.; Goergen, Krista M.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Rider, David N.; Preston, Claudia; Hartmann, Lynn C.; Lawrenson, Kate; Wang, Chen; Tyrer, Jonathan; Song, Honglin; deFazio, Anna; Johnatty, Sharon E.; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Phelan, Catherine M.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Ramirez, Starr M.; Vitonis, Allison F.; Terry, Kathryn L.; Van Den Berg, David; Pike, Malcolm C.; Wu, Anna H.; Berchuck, Andrew; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Ramus, Susan J.; Diergaarde, Brenda; Shen, Howard; Jensen, Allan; Menkiszak, Janusz; Cybulski, Cezary; Lubiński, Jan; Ziogas, Argyrios; Rothstein, Joseph H.; McGuire, Valerie; Sieh, Weiva; Lester, Jenny; Walsh, Christine; Vergote, Ignace; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Despierre, Evelyn; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Yang, Hannah; Brinton, Louise A.; Spiewankiewicz, Beata; Rzepecka, Iwona K.; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Seibold, Petra; Rudolph, Anja; Paddock, Lisa E.; Orlow, Irene; Lundvall, Lene; Olson, Sara H.; Hogdall, Claus K.; Schwaab, Ira; du Bois, Andreas; Harter, Philipp; Flanagan, James M.; Brown, Robert; Paul, James; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Hein, Alexander; Eccles, Diana; Lurie, Galina; Hays, Laura E.; Bean, Yukie T.; Pejovic, Tanja; Goodman, Marc T.; Campbell, Ian; Fasching, Peter A.; Konecny, Gottfried; Kaye, Stanley B.; Heitz, Florian; Hogdall, Estrid; Bandera, Elisa V.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Lambrechts, Diether; Karlan, Beth Y.; Whittemore, Alice S.; Culver, Hoda Anton; Gronwald, Jacek; Levine, Douglas A.; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Menon, Usha; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Cramer, Daniel W.; Rossing, Mary Anne; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Gayther, Simon A.; Ness, Roberta B.; Odunsi, Kunle; Sucheston, Lara E.; Knutson, Keith L.; Goode, Ellen L.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in solid tumors is known to play a role in patient survival in ovarian cancer and other malignancies. We assessed inherited genetic variations via 749 tag SNPs in 25 Treg-associated genes (CD28, CTLA4, FOXP3, IDO1, IL10, IL10RA, IL15, 1L17RA, IL23A, IL23R, IL2RA, IL6, IL6R, IL8, LGALS1, LGALS9, MAP3K8, STAT5A, STAT5B, TGFB1, TGFB2, TGFB3, TGFBR1, TGRBR2, and TGFBR3) in relation to ovarian cancer survival. We analyzed genotype and overall survival in 10,084 women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer, including 5,248 high-grade serous, 1,452 endometrioid, 795 clear cell, and 661 mucinous carcinoma cases of European descent across 28 studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). The strongest associations were found for endometrioid carcinoma and IL2RA SNPs rs11256497 [HR=1.42, 95% CI: 1.22–1.64; p=5.7 × 10−6], rs791587 [HR=1.36, 95% CI:1.17–1.57; p=6.2 × 10−5], rs2476491 [HR=1.40, 95% CI: 1.191.64; p=5.6 × 10−5], and rs10795763 [HR=1.35, 95% CI: 1.17–1.57; p=7.9 × 10−5], and for clear cell carcinoma and CTLA4 SNP rs231775 [HR=0.67, 95% CI: 0.54–0.82; p=9.3 × 10−5] after adjustment for age, study site, population stratification, stage, grade, and oral contraceptive use. The rs231775 allele associated with improved survival in our study also results in an amino acid change in CTLA4 and previously has been reported to be associated with autoimmune conditions. Thus, we found evidence that SNPs in genes related to Tregs appear to play a role in ovarian cancer survival, particularly in patients with clear cell and endometrioid EOC. PMID:24764580

  1. Large-scale natural gradient tracer test in sand and gravel, Cape Cod, Massachusetts: 2. Analysis of spatial moments for a nonreactive tracer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garabedian, Stephen P.; LeBlanc, Dennis R.; Gelhar, Lynn W.; Celia, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    A large-scale natural gradient tracer test was conducted to examine the transport of reactive and nonreactive tracers in a sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. As part of this test the transport of bromide, a nonreactive tracer, was monitored for about 280 m and quantified using spatial moments. The calculated mass of bromide for each sampling date varied between 85% and 105% of the injected mass using an estimated porosity of 0.39, and the center of mass moved at a nearly constant horizontal velocity of 0.42 m per day. A nonlinear change in the bromide longitudinal variance was observed during the first 26 m of travel distance, but afterward the variance followed a linear trend, indicating the longitudinal dispersivity had reached a constant value of 0.96 m. The transverse dispersivities were much smaller; transverse horizontal dispersivity was 1.8 cm, and transverse vertical dispersivity was about 1.5 mm.

  2. Modelling large-scale spatial variability of soil properties with sequential stochastic simulation conditioned by universal kriging in a Hungarian study site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szatmári, Gábor; Barta, Károly; Pásztor, László

    2015-04-01

    Modelling of large-scale spatial variability of soil properties is a promising subject in soil science, as well as in general environmental research, since the resulted model(s) can be applied to solve various problems. In addition to "purely" map an environmental element, the spatial uncertainty of the map product can deduced, specific areas could be identified and/or delineated (contaminated or endangered regions, plots for fertilization, etc.). Geostatistics, which can be regarded as a subset of statistics specialized in analysis and interpretation of geographically referenced data, offer a huge amount of tools to solve these tasks. Numerous spatial modeling methods have been developed in the past decades based on the regionalized variable theory. One of these techniques is sequential stochastic simulation, which can be conditioned with universal kriging (also referred to as regression kriging). As opposed to universal kriging (UK), sequential simulation conditioned with universal kriging (SSUK) provides not just one but several alternative and equally probable "maps", i.e. realizations. The realizations reproduce the global statistics (e.g. sample histogram, variogram), i.e. they reflect/model the reality in a certain global (and not local!) sense. In this paper we present and test SSUK developed in R-code and its utilizations in a water erosion affected study area. Furthermore, we compare the results from UK and SSUK. For this purpose, two soil variables were selected: soil organic matter (SOM) content and rooting depth (RD). SSUK approach is illustrated with a legacy soil dataset from a study area endangered by water erosion in Central Hungary. Legacy soil data was collected in the end of the 1980s in the framework of the National Land Evaluation Programme. Spatially exhaustive covariates were derived from a digital elevation model and from the land-use-map of the study area. SSUK was built upon a UK prediction system for both variables and 200 realizations

  3. Variations over time in latitudinal distribution of the large-scale magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere at heights from the photosphere to the source surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtemov, Z. S.; Andreyeva, O. A.; Rudenko, G. V.; Stepanian, N. N.; Fainshtein, V. G.

    2015-02-01

    Calculations of magnetic field in the solar atmosphere and the "potential field-source surface" model have been used to study time variations in several parameters of the large-scale magnetic field at various heights during the last four solar cycles. At ten heights from the solar surface (R = Ro) to the source surface (R = 2.5Ro), we have constructed synoptic charts (SC) of the radial component Br of the estimated magnetic field. For these SC, we have identified 10-degree latitudinal zones. Within these zones, we found values of Sp (positive Br values averaged within the latitudinal zone over latitude and longitude), Sm (averaged modulus of negative Br values) and S + fields (a part of the latitudinal zone area (in %) occupied by positive Br values). At lower latitudes, cyclic variations in the Sp + Sm parameter are demonstrated to be similar (but not in detail) to time variations in Wolf numbers. Latitudes of 55° and higher exhibited virtually no cyclic peculiarities of time variations in this parameter. The authors believe that this indicates the diverse nature of the large-scale magnetic field in the near-equatorial and polar regions of the solar atmosphere. At R = 2.5Ro, Sp + Sm cyclic variations are almost invisible at all latitudes and only slightly apparent near the equator. The analysis of S + fields variations revealed that at low latitudes at R = 2.5Ro during solar cycles 21, 22 and ascending phase of cycle 23 there were almost no mixed-polarity periods. However, beginning from the maximum of cycle 23, in the near-equatorial region the mixed polarity was observed until the end of the long solar activity minimum. An assumption has been made that this might have been one of the forerunners and manifestations of the prolonged minimum between cycles 23 and 24. It has been found that during solar activity minima poleward there appears motion of magnetic fields with polarity opposite to that of the field at the pole. We have estimated the velocity of such a

  4. Regional and large-scale patterns in Amazon forest structure and function are mediated by variations in soil physical and chemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A, Quesada, C.; Lloyd, J.

    2009-04-01

    Forest structure and dynamics have been noted to vary across the Amazon Basin in an east-west gradient in a pattern which coincides with variations in soil fertility and geology. This has resulted in the hypothesis that soil fertility may play an important role in explaining Basin-wide variations in forest biomass, growth and stem turnover rates. To test this hypothesis and assess the importance of edaphic properties in affect forest structure and dynamics, soil and plant samples were collected in a total of 59 different forest plots across the Amazon Basin. Samples were analysed for exchangeable cations, C, N, pH with various P fractions also determined. Physical properties were also examined and an index of soil physical quality developed. Overall, forest structure and dynamics were found to be strongly and quantitatively related to edaphic conditions. Tree turnover rates emerged to be mostly influenced by soil physical properties whereas forest growth rates were mainly related to a measure of available soil phosphorus, although also dependent on rainfall amount and distribution. On the other hand, large scale variations in forest biomass could not be explained by any of the edaphic properties measured, nor by variation in climate. A new hypothesis of self-maintaining forest dynamic feedback mechanisms initiated by edaphic conditions is proposed. It is further suggested that this is a major factor determining forest disturbance levels, species composition and forest productivity on a Basin wide scale.

  5. Integrating SMOS brightness temperatures with a new conceptual spatially distributed hydrological model for improving flood and drought predictions at large scale.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hostache, Renaud; Rains, Dominik; Chini, Marco; Lievens, Hans; Verhoest, Niko E. C.; Matgen, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Motivated by climate change and its impact on the scarcity or excess of water in many parts of the world, several agencies and research institutions have taken initiatives in monitoring and predicting the hydrologic cycle at a global scale. Such a monitoring/prediction effort is important for understanding the vulnerability to extreme hydrological events and for providing early warnings. This can be based on an optimal combination of hydro-meteorological models and remote sensing, in which satellite measurements can be used as forcing or calibration data or for regularly updating the model states or parameters. Many advances have been made in these domains and the near future will bring new opportunities with respect to remote sensing as a result of the increasing number of spaceborn sensors enabling the large scale monitoring of water resources. Besides of these advances, there is currently a tendency to refine and further complicate physically-based hydrologic models to better capture the hydrologic processes at hand. However, this may not necessarily be beneficial for large-scale hydrology, as computational efforts are therefore increasing significantly. As a matter of fact, a novel thematic science question that is to be investigated is whether a flexible conceptual model can match the performance of a complex physically-based model for hydrologic simulations at large scale. In this context, the main objective of this study is to investigate how innovative techniques that allow for the estimation of soil moisture from satellite data can help in reducing errors and uncertainties in large scale conceptual hydro-meteorological modelling. A spatially distributed conceptual hydrologic model has been set up based on recent developments of the SUPERFLEX modelling framework. As it requires limited computational efforts, this model enables early warnings for large areas. Using as forcings the ERA-Interim public dataset and coupled with the CMEM radiative transfer model

  6. Using large scale surveys to investigate seasonal variations in seabird distribution and abundance. Part II: The Bay of Biscay and the English Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettex, Emeline; Laran, Sophie; Authier, Matthieu; Blanck, Aurélie; Dorémus, Ghislain; Falchetto, Hélène; Lambert, Charlotte; Monestiez, Pascal; Stéfan, Eric; Van Canneyt, Olivier; Ridoux, Vincent

    2017-07-01

    Seabird distributions and the associated seasonal variations remain challenging to investigate, especially in oceanic areas. Recent advances in telemetry have provided considerable information on seabird ecology, but still exclude small species, non-breeding birds and individuals from inaccessible colonies from any scientific survey. To overcome this issue and investigate seabird distribution and abundance in the eastern North Atlantic (ENA), large-scale aerial surveys were conducted in winter 2011-12 and summer 2012 over a 375,000 km2 area encompassing the English Channel (EC) and the Bay of Biscay (BoB). Seabird sightings, from 15 taxonomic groups, added up to 17,506 and 8263 sightings in winter and summer respectively, along 66,307 km. Using geostatistical methods, density maps were provided for both seasons. Abundance was estimated by strip transect sampling. Most taxa showed marked seasonal variations in their density and distribution. The highest densities were recorded during winter for most groups except shearwaters, storm-petrels, terns and large-sized gulls. Subsequently, the abundance in winter nearly reached one million individuals and was 2.5 times larger than in summer. The continental shelf and the slope in the BoB and the EC were identified as key areas for seabird conservation, especially during winter, as birds from northern Europe migrate southward after breeding. This large-scale study provided a synoptic view of the seabird community in the ENA, over two contrasting seasons. Our results highlight that oceanic areas harbour an abundant avifauna. Since most of the existing marine protected areas are restricted to the coastal fringe, the importance of oceanic areas in winter should be considered in future conservation plans. Our work will provide a baseline for the monitoring of seabird distribution at sea, and could inform the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

  7. In-stream attenuation of nitrogen and phosphorus from major point source in large-scale watershed: mixed source and long-term variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Fulda, M.; Keller, A. A.

    2011-12-01

    Increased human activity in agriculture and industry has posed significant impact on natural water bodies and resulted in water quality deterioration. Agricultural non-point source pollution and urban point source discharge from municipal waste water treatment plant are the more recent concerns. Computer models are often used to help assess the fate and transport of pollutant, which involves complex interactions such as adsorption, biochemical reaction and plants uptake. However, it remains to be a challenge to assess the attenuation of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in large-scale watershed where there are significant difference in land use types and soil properties, especially when there are significant temporal variations through a long-term simulation. In this study, a large-scale watershed model in the Ohio River Basin was constructed considering a ten year simulation period. To assess the downstream impacts of increasing or decreasing nutrient loads, a hypothetical waste water treatment plant was added as the point source in different subwatersheds, monitoring the downstream effects. Five scenarios (100 kg/d Ammonia, 100 kg/d Nitrate, 100 kg/d Phosphate, mixed 100 kg/d Ammonia & 100 kg/d Phosphate and mixed 100 kg/d Nitrate & 100 kg/d Phosphate) were examined to assess the attenuation process throughout the 10-years simulation. In addition to significant differences in the attenuation in different subwatersheds, the various loads had complex interrelations. We also observed significant variations in attenuation for short-term simulation, while in long-term, the attenuation factors tended to be stabilized.

  8. Large scale dynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doolin, B. F.

    1975-01-01

    Classes of large scale dynamic systems were discussed in the context of modern control theory. Specific examples discussed were in the technical fields of aeronautics, water resources and electric power.

  9. Importance of large-scale bathymetry features on 2011 Tohoku tsunami waveforms through comparison of simulations with the spatially dense ALBACORE OBS array data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, M. D.; Lynett, P. J.; Legg, M. R.; Weeraratne, D. S.

    2012-12-01

    In March 2011, a deployment of ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) off the coast of Southern California recorded the tsunami resulting from the Mw=9.0 Tohoku, Japan earthquake with very high spatial resolution. The ALBACORE (Asthenosphere and Lithosphere Broadband Architecture from the California Offshore Region Experiment) OBS array spanned a region that was 150 km north-south by 400 km east-west, extending into deep open ocean west of the Patton escarpment. In that array, 22 stations with a spacing of 75 km had differential pressure gauges (DPGs) that recorded water pressure waveform data continuously at 50 samples/second. The DPG tsunami records across the entire array show multiple large-amplitude, coherent phases arriving one hour to more than 36 hours after the initial tsunami phase. To determine the source of the large-amplitude coherent phases, gravity ocean wave propagation calculations were carried out for the Pacific Ocean. Simulated pressure waveforms were compared with data for the ALBACORE stations, as well as for the NOAA DART buoys. The linear, non-dispersive shallow-water simulations include bottom frictional effects, and use the USGS NEIC Tohoku slip model and ETOPO2 (two-minute spatial resolution) bathymetry. The predicted travel times of the initial arrivals are found to be less than 1% different from the observed travel times in the southern California ALBACORE DPG data. In order to gauge the effects of large-scale features in Pacific Ocean bathymetry, several large-scale features were individually removed, and simulations were carried out for the modified bathymetry. The removed features include the Emperor Seamount chain, Hawaiian Islands, Oceania, French Polynesia, and the South American coastline. The results show that the removal of these features has an effect on the arrival time of the phases that depends on the feature proximity to the direct path, but their removal does not have a significant effect on the frequency content or phase

  10. Large Scale Density Estimation of Blue and Fin Whales (LSD)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Large Scale Density Estimation of Blue and Fin Whales ...estimating blue and fin whale density that is effective over large spatial scales and is designed to cope with spatial variation in animal density utilizing...a density estimation methodology for quantifying blue and fin whale abundance from passive acoustic data recorded on sparse hydrophone arrays in the

  11. Incorporation of spatial interactions in location networks to identify critical geo-referenced routes for assessing disease control measures on a large-scale campus.

    PubMed

    Wen, Tzai-Hung; Chin, Wei Chien Benny

    2015-04-14

    Respiratory diseases mainly spread through interpersonal contact. Class suspension is the most direct strategy to prevent the spread of disease through elementary or secondary schools by blocking the contact network. However, as university students usually attend courses in different buildings, the daily contact patterns on a university campus are complicated, and once disease clusters have occurred, suspending classes is far from an efficient strategy to control disease spread. The purpose of this study is to propose a methodological framework for generating campus location networks from a routine administration database, analyzing the community structure of the network, and identifying the critical links and nodes for blocking respiratory disease transmission. The data comes from the student enrollment records of a major comprehensive university in Taiwan. We combined the social network analysis and spatial interaction model to establish a geo-referenced community structure among the classroom buildings. We also identified the critical links among the communities that were acting as contact bridges and explored the changes in the location network after the sequential removal of the high-risk buildings. Instead of conducting a questionnaire survey, the study established a standard procedure for constructing a location network on a large-scale campus from a routine curriculum database. We also present how a location network structure at a campus could function to target the high-risk buildings as the bridges connecting communities for blocking disease transmission.

  12. Incorporation of Spatial Interactions in Location Networks to Identify Critical Geo-Referenced Routes for Assessing Disease Control Measures on a Large-Scale Campus

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Tzai-Hung; Chin, Wei Chien Benny

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory diseases mainly spread through interpersonal contact. Class suspension is the most direct strategy to prevent the spread of disease through elementary or secondary schools by blocking the contact network. However, as university students usually attend courses in different buildings, the daily contact patterns on a university campus are complicated, and once disease clusters have occurred, suspending classes is far from an efficient strategy to control disease spread. The purpose of this study is to propose a methodological framework for generating campus location networks from a routine administration database, analyzing the community structure of the network, and identifying the critical links and nodes for blocking respiratory disease transmission. The data comes from the student enrollment records of a major comprehensive university in Taiwan. We combined the social network analysis and spatial interaction model to establish a geo-referenced community structure among the classroom buildings. We also identified the critical links among the communities that were acting as contact bridges and explored the changes in the location network after the sequential removal of the high-risk buildings. Instead of conducting a questionnaire survey, the study established a standard procedure for constructing a location network on a large-scale campus from a routine curriculum database. We also present how a location network structure at a campus could function to target the high-risk buildings as the bridges connecting communities for blocking disease transmission. PMID:25874686

  13. Spatial Structure of Above-Ground Biomass Limits Accuracy of Carbon Mapping in Rainforest but Large Scale Forest Inventories Can Help to Overcome.

    PubMed

    Guitet, Stéphane; Hérault, Bruno; Molto, Quentin; Brunaux, Olivier; Couteron, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Precise mapping of above-ground biomass (AGB) is a major challenge for the success of REDD+ processes in tropical rainforest. The usual mapping methods are based on two hypotheses: a large and long-ranged spatial autocorrelation and a strong environment influence at the regional scale. However, there are no studies of the spatial structure of AGB at the landscapes scale to support these assumptions. We studied spatial variation in AGB at various scales using two large forest inventories conducted in French Guiana. The dataset comprised 2507 plots (0.4 to 0.5 ha) of undisturbed rainforest distributed over the whole region. After checking the uncertainties of estimates obtained from these data, we used half of the dataset to develop explicit predictive models including spatial and environmental effects and tested the accuracy of the resulting maps according to their resolution using the rest of the data. Forest inventories provided accurate AGB estimates at the plot scale, for a mean of 325 Mg.ha-1. They revealed high local variability combined with a weak autocorrelation up to distances of no more than10 km. Environmental variables accounted for a minor part of spatial variation. Accuracy of the best model including spatial effects was 90 Mg.ha-1 at plot scale but coarse graining up to 2-km resolution allowed mapping AGB with accuracy lower than 50 Mg.ha-1. Whatever the resolution, no agreement was found with available pan-tropical reference maps at all resolutions. We concluded that the combined weak autocorrelation and weak environmental effect limit AGB maps accuracy in rainforest, and that a trade-off has to be found between spatial resolution and effective accuracy until adequate "wall-to-wall" remote sensing signals provide reliable AGB predictions. Waiting for this, using large forest inventories with low sampling rate (<0.5%) may be an efficient way to increase the global coverage of AGB maps with acceptable accuracy at kilometric resolution.

  14. Spatial Structure of Above-Ground Biomass Limits Accuracy of Carbon Mapping in Rainforest but Large Scale Forest Inventories Can Help to Overcome

    PubMed Central

    Guitet, Stéphane; Hérault, Bruno; Molto, Quentin; Brunaux, Olivier; Couteron, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Precise mapping of above-ground biomass (AGB) is a major challenge for the success of REDD+ processes in tropical rainforest. The usual mapping methods are based on two hypotheses: a large and long-ranged spatial autocorrelation and a strong environment influence at the regional scale. However, there are no studies of the spatial structure of AGB at the landscapes scale to support these assumptions. We studied spatial variation in AGB at various scales using two large forest inventories conducted in French Guiana. The dataset comprised 2507 plots (0.4 to 0.5 ha) of undisturbed rainforest distributed over the whole region. After checking the uncertainties of estimates obtained from these data, we used half of the dataset to develop explicit predictive models including spatial and environmental effects and tested the accuracy of the resulting maps according to their resolution using the rest of the data. Forest inventories provided accurate AGB estimates at the plot scale, for a mean of 325 Mg.ha-1. They revealed high local variability combined with a weak autocorrelation up to distances of no more than10 km. Environmental variables accounted for a minor part of spatial variation. Accuracy of the best model including spatial effects was 90 Mg.ha-1 at plot scale but coarse graining up to 2-km resolution allowed mapping AGB with accuracy lower than 50 Mg.ha-1. Whatever the resolution, no agreement was found with available pan-tropical reference maps at all resolutions. We concluded that the combined weak autocorrelation and weak environmental effect limit AGB maps accuracy in rainforest, and that a trade-off has to be found between spatial resolution and effective accuracy until adequate “wall-to-wall” remote sensing signals provide reliable AGB predictions. Waiting for this, using large forest inventories with low sampling rate (<0.5%) may be an efficient way to increase the global coverage of AGB maps with acceptable accuracy at kilometric resolution. PMID

  15. Large scale scientific computing

    SciTech Connect

    Deuflhard, P. ); Engquist, B. )

    1987-01-01

    This book presents papers on large scale scientific computing. It includes: Initial value problems of ODE's and parabolic PDE's; Boundary value problems of ODE's and elliptic PDE's; Hyperbolic PDE's; Inverse problems; Optimization and optimal control problems; and Algorithm adaptation on supercomputers.

  16. Variations in large-scale tropical cyclone genesis factors over the western North Pacific in the PMIP3 last millennium simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Qing; Wei, Ting; Zhang, Zhongshi

    2017-02-01

    Investigation of past tropical cyclone (TC) activity in the Western North Pacific (WNP) is potentially helpful to enable better understanding of future TC behaviors. In this study, we examine variations in large-scale environmental factors important to TC genesis in the last millennium simulations from the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (PMIP3). The results show that potential intensity, a theoretical prediction of the maximum TC intensity, is increased relative to the last millennium in the north part of the WNP in the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; 950-1200 AD) while it is decreased in the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1600-1850 AD). Vertical wind shear that generally inhibits TC genesis is enhanced (reduced) to the south of 20°N and is reduced (enhanced) to the north in the MCA (LIA). Relative humidity (at 600 hPa) that measures the mid-tropospheric moisture content broadly shows an increase (decrease) in the MCA (LIA). A genesis potential index indicates that conditions are generally favorable (unfavorable) for TC formation in the WNP in the MCA (LIA), especially in the northern part. Taking changes in steering flows into account, there may be an increasing (decreasing) favorability for storm strikes in East Asia in the MCA (LIA). The estimated TC activity is consistent with the geological proxies in Japan, but contradicts with the typhoon records in southern China and Taiwan. This model-data discrepancy is attributed to the limitations in both simulations and reconstructions.

  17. Climate-related large-scale variation in forest carbon turnover rate - Evaluating global vegetation models using remote sensing products of biomass and NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurner, Martin; Beer, Christian; Carvalhais, Nuno; Ciais, Philippe; Forkel, Matthias; Friend, Andrew; Ito, Akihiko; Kleidon, Axel; Lomas, Mark; Quegan, Shaun; Tito Rademacher, Tim; Santoro, Maurizio; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Schmullius, Christiane; Tum, Markus; Wiltshire, Andy

    2017-04-01

    Vegetation carbon turnover, in terms of its spatial variation and its response to climate change, is one of the most important, but also most uncertain carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems. Its measurement is hardly possible by inventory studies alone, due to several reasons: First, vegetation carbon turnover involves a variety of processes, including litterfall, background mortality, and mortality by all kinds of disturbances, affecting single biomass compartments, individual trees or even whole ecosystems. Second, these processes act on very different timescales, involving short-term extreme events and long-term responses, and spatial scales, from local extremes to global impacts. In order to capture this variety of processes, spatial scales and timescales, here we estimate forest carbon turnover rate from novel remote sensing products of NPP and biomass. These products allow investigating the spatial variation in long-term mean turnover rate at 0.5° resolution across northern boreal and temperate forest ecosystems and its relation to climate variables. We observe an increase in turnover rate with colder and longer winters in boreal forests, whereas in temperate forests the spatial gradients in turnover rate are related to the length of both warm and dry periods. Thus, we hypothesize that the spatial variation in turnover rate can be explained by direct and indirect frost damage effects on mortality in boreal forests but drought and insect outbreaks in temperate forests. An evaluation of a set of global vegetation models (GVMs) participating in the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP; including HYBRID4, JeDi, JULES, LPJml, ORCHIDEE, SDGVM, VISIT) shows that those models are able to reproduce the observation-based spatial relationships only to a limited extent. Deviations from the observation-based turnover rates can be mostly attributed to severe overestimations of biomass, however also important differences in the simulated spatial

  18. Climate-related Large-scale Variation in Forest Carbon Turnover Rate - Evaluating Global Vegetation Models Using Remote Sensing Products of Biomass and NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurner, M.; Beer, C.; Carvalhais, N.; Ciais, P.; Forkel, M.; Friend, A. D.; Ito, A.; Kleidon, A.; Lomas, M.; Quegan, S.; Rademacher, T. T.; Santoro, M.; Schaphoff, S.; Schmullius, C.; Tum, M.; Wiltshire, A.

    2016-12-01

    Vegetation carbon turnover, in terms of its spatial variation and its response to climate change, is one of the most important, but also most uncertain carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems. Its measurement is hardly possible by inventory studies alone, due to several reasons: First, vegetation carbon turnover involves a variety of processes, including litterfall, background mortality, and mortality by all kinds of disturbances, affecting single biomass compartments, individual trees or even whole ecosystems. Second, these processes act on very different timescales, involving short-term extreme events and long-term responses, and spatial scales, from local extremes to global impacts. In order to capture this variety of processes, spatial scales and timescales, here we estimate forest carbon turnover rate from novel remote sensing products of NPP and biomass. These products allow investigating the spatial variation in long-term mean turnover rate at 0.5° resolution across northern boreal and temperate forest ecosystems and its relation to climate variables. We observe an increase in turnover rate with colder and longer winters in boreal forests, whereas in temperate forests the spatial gradients in turnover rate are related to the length of both warm and dry periods. Thus, we hypothesize that the spatial variation in turnover rate can be explained by direct and indirect frost damage effects on mortality in boreal forests but drought and insect outbreaks in temperate forests. An evaluation of a set of global vegetation models (GVMs) participating in the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP; including HYBRID4, JeDi, JULES, LPJml, ORCHIDEE, SDGVM, VISIT) shows that those models are able to reproduce the observed spatial relationships only to a limited extent. Deviations from the observation-based turnover rates can be mostly attributed to severe overestimations of biomass, however also important differences in the simulated spatial patterns

  19. Large-Scale Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gad-El-Hak, Mohamed

    "Extreme" events - including climatic events, such as hurricanes, tornadoes, and drought - can cause massive disruption to society, including large death tolls and property damage in the billions of dollars. Events in recent years have shown the importance of being prepared and that countries need to work together to help alleviate the resulting pain and suffering. This volume presents a review of the broad research field of large-scale disasters. It establishes a common framework for predicting, controlling and managing both manmade and natural disasters. There is a particular focus on events caused by weather and climate change. Other topics include air pollution, tsunamis, disaster modeling, the use of remote sensing and the logistics of disaster management. It will appeal to scientists, engineers, first responders and health-care professionals, in addition to graduate students and researchers who have an interest in the prediction, prevention or mitigation of large-scale disasters.

  20. Spatial patterns of groundwater-surface water interactions at the meander-bend scale in a gravel-bed lowland river during a large-scale flow experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, E. N.; Dunne, T.

    2012-12-01

    Improved characterization of 1) streambed hydraulic conductivity and 2) near-bed and subsurface water temperatures allows better understanding of the spatial patterns of groundwater-surface water exchange in rivers. We measured the effects of a large-scale flow experiment on groundwater-surface water exchange and temperature using fiber optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS), measured temperature in the shallow hyporheic zone (46 cm), and measured streambed saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) over the length of three river meander bends (2 km). Measured channel bed elevation, flow depth, velocity, and bed-material grain size were used to develop a two-dimensional numerical model of the flow field as boundary conditions for a model of the hyporheic flow field. We deployed 2 km of fiber-optic cable directly on top of the riverbed over three pool-riffle sequences each with a different degree of bed mobility. DTS data were collected every 2 m for 32 days (1.5 days at 10 cms, 10 days at 20 cms, 16 days at 10 cms, and 4.5 days at 2-4 cms). Three installations of six hyporheic zone sensors, located near the upstream and downstream ends of the DTS cable, recorded interstitial pore water temperature at depths of 46 cm. During flows of 10 cms, we measured Ksat in the streambed at depths of 60 cm using a groundwater standpipe and backpack permeameter over the length of two meander bends. DTS results showed relatively uniform temperature over the 2-km reach during the initial flow of 10 cms. Near-bed temperatures averaged 15.6°C while pore water temperatures averaged 15.4°C. The 20 cms flow decreased near-bed temperatures to 14.9°C and pore water temperatures averaged 14.7°C. However, during the 20 cms flow, the bed became mobile causing local scour and deposition at three locations and buried the DTS cable with gravel/sand up to 26 cm deep. Our DTS results allowed us to record the transition from near-bed temperatures to shallow subsurface temperatures during a

  1. Large Scale Nonlinear Programming.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-15

    KEY WORDS (Conhinu. as, t.n.t.. aid. if nic••iary aid ld.ntify by block n,a,b.r) L. In,~~~ IP!CIE LARGE SCALE OPTIMIZATION APPLICATIONS OF NONLINEAR ... NONLINEAR PROGRAMMING by Garth P. McCormick 1. Introduction The general mathematical programming ( optimization ) problem can be stated in the following form...because the difficulty in solving a general nonlinear optimization problem has a~ much to do with the nature of the functions involved as it does with the

  2. Impact of interannual changes of large scale circulation and hydrography on the spatial distribution of beaked redfish (Sebastes mentella) in the Irminger Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Núñez-Riboni, Ismael; Kristinsson, Kristján; Bernreuther, Matthias; van Aken, Hendrik M.; Stransky, Christoph; Cisewski, Boris; Rolskiy, Alexey

    2013-12-01

    This study provides evidence of the influence of hydrography and large scale ocean circulation on the geographical distribution of beaked redfish (Sebastes mentella) in the Irminger Sea on the interannual time scale, from 1992 to 2011. The results reveal the average relationship of adult pelagic redfish to their physical habitat from 100 to 800 m depth: the most preferred latitude, longitude, depth, temperature and salinity for redfish are approximately 58°N, 41°W, 557 m, 4.5 °C and 34.87, respectively. The redfish habitat corresponds in a temperature-salinity (TS) diagram to a mixing triangle between East Greenland Current Water (EGCW), Labrador Sea Water (LSW) and Irminger Current Water (ICW). The geographical centre of mass of the redfish distribution (as revealed by acoustic fish density) indicates displacements from year to year. Changes in hydrographic conditions were investigated in detail for possible reasons for these displacements. Empirical Orthogonal Analysis reveals that maximum variations of water mass volume on an interannual time-scale in the study region correspond to ICW and LSW changes, while EGCW remains comparatively stable. Indices of redfish geographical centroid, LSW volume, ICW temperature and Subpolar Gyre (SPG) intensity suggest that the geographical redfish displacements are closely related to interannual changes of ICW modulated by the SPG intensity with a lag of 1 or 2 years. In comparison, LSW seems to have no impact on the redfish distribution at the studied depth range. The time lag between ICW and redfish displacements indicates an indirect influence of temperature on redfish. Hence, changes of chlorophyll-a (from satellite imagery), as a proxy for primary production, were used in a first approach to study the role of food availability. The analysis is based on acoustic and trawl data from nine expeditions coordinated by the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES), around 71,000 hydrographic stations from the

  3. Limnology in the Upper Paraná River floodplain: large-scale spatial and temporal patterns, and the influence of reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Roberto, M C; Santana, N N; Thomaz, S M

    2009-06-01

    Knowledge of abiotic limnological factors is important to monitor changes caused by humans, and to explain the structure and dynamics of populations and communities in a variety of inland water ecosystems. In this study, we used a long term data-set (eight years) collected in 10 habitats with different features (river channels, and connected and isolated lakes) to describe the spatial and temporal patterns of some of the principal limnological factors. In general, the degree of connectivity of the lakes, together with the rivers to which the lakes are connected, were important determinants of their limnological characteristics. These differences are expected, because rivers entering the floodplain come from different geological regions and are subject to different human impacts. At large spatial scales, these differences contribute to the increased habitat diversity of the floodplain and thus to its high biodiversity. With regard to temporal variation, Secchi-disk transparency increased, and total phosphorus decreased in the Paraná River main channel during the last 20 years. Although these changes are directly attributed to the several reservoir cascades located upstream, the closing of the Porto Primavera dam in 1998 enhanced this effect. The increase in water transparency explains biotic changes within the floodplain. The lower-phosphorus Paraná River water probably dilutes concentrations of this element in the floodplain waterbodies during major floods, with future consequences for their productivity.

  4. The Large -scale Distribution of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flin, Piotr

    A review of the Large-scale structure of the Universe is given. A connection is made with the titanic work by Johannes Kepler in many areas of astronomy and cosmology. A special concern is made to spatial distribution of Galaxies, voids and walls (cellular structure of the Universe). Finaly, the author is concluding that the large scale structure of the Universe can be observed in much greater scale that it was thought twenty years ago.

  5. Large scale tracking algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Ross L.; Love, Joshua Alan; Melgaard, David Kennett; Karelitz, David B.; Pitts, Todd Alan; Zollweg, Joshua David; Anderson, Dylan Z.; Nandy, Prabal; Whitlow, Gary L.; Bender, Daniel A.; Byrne, Raymond Harry

    2015-01-01

    Low signal-to-noise data processing algorithms for improved detection, tracking, discrimination and situational threat assessment are a key research challenge. As sensor technologies progress, the number of pixels will increase signi cantly. This will result in increased resolution, which could improve object discrimination, but unfortunately, will also result in a significant increase in the number of potential targets to track. Many tracking techniques, like multi-hypothesis trackers, suffer from a combinatorial explosion as the number of potential targets increase. As the resolution increases, the phenomenology applied towards detection algorithms also changes. For low resolution sensors, "blob" tracking is the norm. For higher resolution data, additional information may be employed in the detection and classfication steps. The most challenging scenarios are those where the targets cannot be fully resolved, yet must be tracked and distinguished for neighboring closely spaced objects. Tracking vehicles in an urban environment is an example of such a challenging scenario. This report evaluates several potential tracking algorithms for large-scale tracking in an urban environment.

  6. Large scale traffic simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Nagel, K.; Barrett, C.L. |; Rickert, M. |

    1997-04-01

    Large scale microscopic (i.e. vehicle-based) traffic simulations pose high demands on computational speed in at least two application areas: (i) real-time traffic forecasting, and (ii) long-term planning applications (where repeated {open_quotes}looping{close_quotes} between the microsimulation and the simulated planning of individual person`s behavior is necessary). As a rough number, a real-time simulation of an area such as Los Angeles (ca. 1 million travellers) will need a computational speed of much higher than 1 million {open_quotes}particle{close_quotes} (= vehicle) updates per second. This paper reviews how this problem is approached in different projects and how these approaches are dependent both on the specific questions and on the prospective user community. The approaches reach from highly parallel and vectorizable, single-bit implementations on parallel supercomputers for Statistical Physics questions, via more realistic implementations on coupled workstations, to more complicated driving dynamics implemented again on parallel supercomputers. 45 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Large-scale dynamics of sandy beach ecosystems in transitional waters of the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean: Species turnover, stability and spatial synchrony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar

    2015-03-01

    Transitional waters (TW) are interfaces between the terrestrial and freshwater environments and the sea. These ecotones are characterized by highly dynamic physico-chemical and hydro-morphologic conditions, resulting in a mosaic of habitats in which species are particularly well adapted to variability. However, sandy beach ecotones occurring along estuarine gradients are rarely addressed from the TW perspective. We conducted a 2-yr study to assess the seasonal dynamics of environmental and macrofaunal descriptors in 16 sandy beaches of the Uruguayan coast in TW defined by the widest estuary of the world (Rio de la Plata). A strong variability in environmental conditions was found at inner estuarine beaches, reflecting the seasonal dynamics of the estuarine discharge. The greatest abundance and species richness found in dissipative oceanic beaches were also characterized by their lowest temporal variability, indicating that macrofaunal communities were more stable towards oceanic conditions, where environmental variability was also lowest. Spatial synchrony was reflected in changes across seasons in the species richness in the TW system. A high turnover of species along spatio-temporal gradients occurring within the TW ecotone was observed. Mollusca and Polychaeta were absent in highly-variable estuarine beaches, irrespective of the morphodynamic state. A functional equivalence between species was found at the extremes of the salinity gradient. The environmental variables that best explained community patterns differed among seasons: in summer and autumn, salinity, wave period and beach width were the main explanatory factors, whereas temperature had a primary influence in winter and morphodynamic variables exerted a major influence in autumn. We highlight the need to consider concurrent variations in estuarine and morphodynamic variables when assessing the spatial distribution of macrofaunal species richness and abundance in sandy beaches occurring along TW.

  8. Responses of spatial-temporal dynamics of bacterioplankton community to large-scale reservoir operation: a case study in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhe; Lu, Lunhui; Guo, Jinsong; Yang, Jixiang; Zhang, Jiachao; He, Bin; Xu, Linlin

    2017-01-01

    Large rivers are commonly regulated by damming, yet the effects of such disruption on bacterioplankton community structures have not been adequately studied. The aim of this study was to explore the biogeographical patterns present under dam regulation and to uncover the major drivers structuring bacterioplankton communities. Bacterioplankton assemblages in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) were analyzed using Illumina Miseq sequencing by comparing seven sites located within the TGR before and after impoundment. This approach revealed ecological and spatial-temporal variations in bacterioplankton community composition along the longitudinal axis. The community was dynamic and dominated by Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria phyla, encompassing 39.26% and 37.14% of all sequences, respectively, followed by Bacteroidetes (8.67%) and Cyanobacteria (3.90%). The Shannon-Wiener index of the bacterioplankton community in the flood season (August) was generally higher than that in the impoundment season (November). Principal Component Analysis of the bacterioplankton community compositions showed separation between different seasons and sampling sites. Results of the relationship between bacterioplankton community compositions and environmental variables highlighted that ecological processes of element cycling and large dam disturbances are of prime importance in driving the assemblages of riverine bacterioplankton communities. PMID:28211884

  9. Spatial and temporal variation in evapotranspiration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spatial and temporal variation in evapotranspiration occurs at multiple scales as the result of several different spatial and temporal patterns in precipitation, soil water holding capacity, cloudiness (available energy), types of crops, and residue and tillage management practices. We have often as...

  10. Understanding the recurrent large-scale green tide in the Yellow Sea: temporal and spatial correlations between multiple geographical, aquacultural and biological factors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Pang, Shaojun; Chopin, Thierry; Gao, Suqin; Shan, Tifeng; Zhao, Xiaobo; Li, Jing

    2013-02-01

    The coast of Jiangsu Province in China - where Ulva prolifera has always been firstly spotted before developing into green tides - is uniquely characterized by a huge intertidal radial mudflat. Results showed that: (1) propagules of U. prolifera have been consistently present in seawater and sediments of this mudflat and varied with locations and seasons; (2) over 50,000 tons of fermented chicken manure have been applied annually from March to May in coastal animal aquaculture ponds and thereafter the waste water has been discharged into the radial mudflat intensifying eutrophication; and (3) free-floating U. prolifera could be stranded in any floating infrastructures in coastal waters including large scale Porphyra farming rafts. For a truly integrated management of the coastal zone, reduction in nutrient inputs, and control of the effluents of the coastal pond systems, are needed to control eutrophication and prevent green tides in the future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Particle Acceleration at Shocks: Effects of Spatial Variations Along the Shock Face

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokipii, J. R.; Kóta, J.

    2008-08-01

    We consider the acceleration of charged particles and anomalous cosmic rays (ACR) at propagating shocks and especially at the heliospheric termination shock, when upstream variations cause spatial variations along the shock face, or, alternatively, if the global spatial geometry causes the shock to vary. Here we present the results a new analytic solution for the case of a shock in which the injection low-energy particles varies with position along the shock face. We find that, downstream of the shock, positive spatial gradients together with modulation-like and multiple-power-law spectral features are naturally produced by plausible spatial variations at the shock. Similar effects also result from large-scale or global spatial structure. These various effects show promising qualitative agreement with observations at and near the heliospheric termination shock, suggesting that they may play an important role.

  12. The large-scale distribution of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, Margaret J.

    1989-01-01

    The spatial distribution of galaxies in the universe is characterized on the basis of the six completed strips of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics redshift-survey extension. The design of the survey is briefly reviewed, and the results are presented graphically. Vast low-density voids similar to the void in Bootes are found, almost completely surrounded by thin sheets of galaxies. Also discussed are the implications of the results for the survey sampling problem, the two-point correlation function of the galaxy distribution, the possibility of detecting large-scale coherent flows, theoretical models of large-scale structure, and the identification of groups and clusters of galaxies.

  13. Fleet behavior is responsive to a large-scale environmental disturbance: Hypoxia effects on the spatial dynamics of the northern Gulf of Mexico shrimp fishery

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Kevin M.; Nance, James M.; Smith, Martin D.; Bennear, Lori S.

    2017-01-01

    The northwestern Gulf of Mexico shelf experiences one of the largest seasonal hypoxic zones in the western hemisphere. Hypoxia (dissolved oxygen, DO ≤ 2.0 mg·L-1) is most severe from May to August during the height of the Gulf shrimp fishery, but its effects on the fishery are not well known. Prior studies indicate that hypoxia alters the spatial dynamics of shrimp and other species through habitat loss and aggregation in nearby oxygenated refuge habitats. We hypothesized that hypoxia-induced changes in the distribution of shrimp also alter the spatial dynamics of the Gulf shrimp fleet. We integrated data on the geographic distribution of shrimp tows and bottom DO to evaluate the effects of hypoxia on spatial patterns in shrimping effort. Our analyses indicate that shrimping effort declines in low DO waters on both the Texas and Louisiana shelf, but that considerable effort still occurs in low DO waters off Louisiana, likely because riverine nutrients fuel both benthic production and low bottom DO in the same general regions. The response of the shrimp fleet to hypoxia on the Louisiana shelf was complex with shifts in effort inshore, offshore, westward, and eastward of the hypoxic zone, as well as to an oxygenated area between two hypoxia regimes associated with the Mississippi and the Atchafalaya River outflows. In contrast, effort on the Texas shelf mostly shifted offshore in response to low DO but also shifted inshore in some years. Spatial patterns in total shrimping effort were driven primarily by the number of shrimp tows, consistent with aggregation of the fleet outside of hypoxic waters, though tow duration also declined in low DO waters. Overall, our results demonstrate that hypoxia alters the spatial dynamics of the Gulf shrimp fishery with potential consequences for harvest interactions and the economic condition of the fishery. PMID:28837674

  14. Fleet behavior is responsive to a large-scale environmental disturbance: Hypoxia effects on the spatial dynamics of the northern Gulf of Mexico shrimp fishery.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Kevin M; Craig, J Kevin; Nance, James M; Smith, Martin D; Bennear, Lori S

    2017-01-01

    The northwestern Gulf of Mexico shelf experiences one of the largest seasonal hypoxic zones in the western hemisphere. Hypoxia (dissolved oxygen, DO ≤ 2.0 mg·L-1) is most severe from May to August during the height of the Gulf shrimp fishery, but its effects on the fishery are not well known. Prior studies indicate that hypoxia alters the spatial dynamics of shrimp and other species through habitat loss and aggregation in nearby oxygenated refuge habitats. We hypothesized that hypoxia-induced changes in the distribution of shrimp also alter the spatial dynamics of the Gulf shrimp fleet. We integrated data on the geographic distribution of shrimp tows and bottom DO to evaluate the effects of hypoxia on spatial patterns in shrimping effort. Our analyses indicate that shrimping effort declines in low DO waters on both the Texas and Louisiana shelf, but that considerable effort still occurs in low DO waters off Louisiana, likely because riverine nutrients fuel both benthic production and low bottom DO in the same general regions. The response of the shrimp fleet to hypoxia on the Louisiana shelf was complex with shifts in effort inshore, offshore, westward, and eastward of the hypoxic zone, as well as to an oxygenated area between two hypoxia regimes associated with the Mississippi and the Atchafalaya River outflows. In contrast, effort on the Texas shelf mostly shifted offshore in response to low DO but also shifted inshore in some years. Spatial patterns in total shrimping effort were driven primarily by the number of shrimp tows, consistent with aggregation of the fleet outside of hypoxic waters, though tow duration also declined in low DO waters. Overall, our results demonstrate that hypoxia alters the spatial dynamics of the Gulf shrimp fishery with potential consequences for harvest interactions and the economic condition of the fishery.

  15. Multiresolution comparison of precipitation datasets for large-scale models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, K. P.; Sapriza Azuri, G.; Davison, B.; DeBeer, C. M.; Wheater, H. S.

    2014-12-01

    Gridded precipitation datasets are crucial for driving large-scale models which are related to weather forecast and climate research. However, the quality of precipitation products is usually validated individually. Comparisons between gridded precipitation products along with ground observations provide another avenue for investigating how the precipitation uncertainty would affect the performance of large-scale models. In this study, using data from a set of precipitation gauges over British Columbia and Alberta, we evaluate several widely used North America gridded products including the Canadian Gridded Precipitation Anomalies (CANGRD), the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis, the Water and Global Change (WATCH) project, the thin plate spline smoothing algorithms (ANUSPLIN) and Canadian Precipitation Analysis (CaPA). Based on verification criteria for various temporal and spatial scales, results provide an assessment of possible applications for various precipitation datasets. For long-term climate variation studies (~100 years), CANGRD, NCEP, WATCH and ANUSPLIN have different comparative advantages in terms of their resolution and accuracy. For synoptic and mesoscale precipitation patterns, CaPA provides appealing performance of spatial coherence. In addition to the products comparison, various downscaling methods are also surveyed to explore new verification and bias-reduction methods for improving gridded precipitation outputs for large-scale models.

  16. Implementation of 3D spatial indexing and compression in a large-scale molecular dynamics simulation database for rapid atomic contact detection.

    PubMed

    Toofanny, Rudesh D; Simms, Andrew M; Beck, David A C; Daggett, Valerie

    2011-08-10

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations offer the ability to observe the dynamics and interactions of both whole macromolecules and individual atoms as a function of time. Taken in context with experimental data, atomic interactions from simulation provide insight into the mechanics of protein folding, dynamics, and function. The calculation of atomic interactions or contacts from an MD trajectory is computationally demanding and the work required grows exponentially with the size of the simulation system. We describe the implementation of a spatial indexing algorithm in our multi-terabyte MD simulation database that significantly reduces the run-time required for discovery of contacts. The approach is applied to the Dynameomics project data. Spatial indexing, also known as spatial hashing, is a method that divides the simulation space into regular sized bins and attributes an index to each bin. Since, the calculation of contacts is widely employed in the simulation field, we also use this as the basis for testing compression of data tables. We investigate the effects of compression of the trajectory coordinate tables with different options of data and index compression within MS SQL SERVER 2008. Our implementation of spatial indexing speeds up the calculation of contacts over a 1 nanosecond (ns) simulation window by between 14% and 90% (i.e., 1.2 and 10.3 times faster). For a 'full' simulation trajectory (51 ns) spatial indexing reduces the calculation run-time between 31 and 81% (between 1.4 and 5.3 times faster). Compression resulted in reduced table sizes but resulted in no significant difference in the total execution time for neighbour discovery. The greatest compression (~36%) was achieved using page level compression on both the data and indexes. The spatial indexing scheme significantly decreases the time taken to calculate atomic contacts and could be applied to other multidimensional neighbor discovery problems. The speed up enables on-the-fly calculation

  17. Quantifying rare, deleterious variation in 12 human cytochrome P450 drug-metabolism genes in a large-scale exome dataset

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Adam S.; Tabor, Holly K.; Johnson, Andrew D.; Snively, Beverly M.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Auer, Paul L.; Ioannidis, John P.A.; Peters, Ulrike; Robinson, Jennifer G.; Sucheston, Lara E.; Wang, Danxin; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Rotter, Jerome I.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Herrington, David M.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Reiner, Alexander P.; Rich, Stephen S.; Rieder, Mark J.; Bamshad, Michael J.; Nickerson, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    The study of genetic influences on drug response and efficacy (‘pharmacogenetics’) has existed for over 50 years. Yet, we still lack a complete picture of how genetic variation, both common and rare, affects each individual's responses to medications. Exome sequencing is a promising alternative method for pharmacogenetic discovery as it provides information on both common and rare variation in large numbers of individuals. Using exome data from 2203 AA and 4300 Caucasian individuals through the NHLBI Exome Sequencing Project, we conducted a survey of coding variation within 12 Cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes that are collectively responsible for catalyzing nearly 75% of all known Phase I drug oxidation reactions. In addition to identifying many polymorphisms with known pharmacogenetic effects, we discovered over 730 novel nonsynonymous alleles across the 12 CYP genes of interest. These alleles include many with diverse functional effects such as premature stop codons, aberrant splicesites and mutations at conserved active site residues. Our analysis considering both novel, predicted functional alleles as well as known, actionable CYP alleles reveals that rare, deleterious variation contributes markedly to the overall burden of pharmacogenetic alleles within the populations considered, and that the contribution of rare variation to this burden is over three times greater in AA individuals as compared with Caucasians. While most of these impactful alleles are individually rare, 7.6–11.7% of individuals interrogated in the study carry at least one newly described potentially deleterious alleles in a major drug-metabolizing CYP. PMID:24282029

  18. Quantifying rare, deleterious variation in 12 human cytochrome P450 drug-metabolism genes in a large-scale exome dataset.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Adam S; Tabor, Holly K; Johnson, Andrew D; Snively, Beverly M; Assimes, Themistocles L; Auer, Paul L; Ioannidis, John P A; Peters, Ulrike; Robinson, Jennifer G; Sucheston, Lara E; Wang, Danxin; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Rotter, Jerome I; Psaty, Bruce M; Jackson, Rebecca D; Herrington, David M; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Reiner, Alexander P; Rich, Stephen S; Rieder, Mark J; Bamshad, Michael J; Nickerson, Deborah A

    2014-04-15

    The study of genetic influences on drug response and efficacy ('pharmacogenetics') has existed for over 50 years. Yet, we still lack a complete picture of how genetic variation, both common and rare, affects each individual's responses to medications. Exome sequencing is a promising alternative method for pharmacogenetic discovery as it provides information on both common and rare variation in large numbers of individuals. Using exome data from 2203 AA and 4300 Caucasian individuals through the NHLBI Exome Sequencing Project, we conducted a survey of coding variation within 12 Cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes that are collectively responsible for catalyzing nearly 75% of all known Phase I drug oxidation reactions. In addition to identifying many polymorphisms with known pharmacogenetic effects, we discovered over 730 novel nonsynonymous alleles across the 12 CYP genes of interest. These alleles include many with diverse functional effects such as premature stop codons, aberrant splicesites and mutations at conserved active site residues. Our analysis considering both novel, predicted functional alleles as well as known, actionable CYP alleles reveals that rare, deleterious variation contributes markedly to the overall burden of pharmacogenetic alleles within the populations considered, and that the contribution of rare variation to this burden is over three times greater in AA individuals as compared with Caucasians. While most of these impactful alleles are individually rare, 7.6-11.7% of individuals interrogated in the study carry at least one newly described potentially deleterious alleles in a major drug-metabolizing CYP.

  19. Developing a large-scale model to predict the effects of land use and climatic variation on the biological condition of USA streams and rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA’s National Rivers and Streams Assessment (NRSA) uses spatially balanced sampling to estimate the proportion of streams within the continental US (CONUS) that fail to support healthy biological communities. However, to manage these systems, we also must understand...

  20. Developing a large-scale model to predict the effects of land use and climatic variation on the biological condition of USA streams and rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA’s National Rivers and Streams Assessment (NRSA) uses spatially balanced sampling to estimate the proportion of streams within the continental US (CONUS) that fail to support healthy biological communities. However, to manage these systems, we also must understand...

  1. Soil physical properties of agricultural systems in a large-scale study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A large-scale field study was performed to determine the effects of agricultural management systems on soil physical properties, including their spatial and temporal variations. Replicates were established in 1998 at the Center for Environmental Farming Systems, Goldsboro, North Carolina; replicates...

  2. Large-Scale Ozone Variations in the Arctic During SOLVE-2 and Comparisons of Remote and In Situ Ozone Profile Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browell, E. V.; Fenn, M. A.; Grant, W. B.; Avery, M. A.; Neuber, R.; McGee, T. J.; Trepte, C. R.; Butler, C. F.; Kooi, S. A.; Notari, A.; Hair, J. W.; Lait, L. R.

    2003-12-01

    Ozone cross sections were obtained from near the surface to above 30 km along the ground track of the NASA DC-8 on long-range flights across the Arctic during the 2003 SAGE-III (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment) Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE-2). Extensive regions of lower than expected ozone were found inside the polar vortex below about 22 km at the start of the mission (January 9, 2003), and by the end of mission (February 12, 2003) ozone had decreased to less than 2.0 ppm in localized regions inside the vortex at about 19 km. These regions of particularly low ozone were associated with air masses that had seen extended periods of sunlight. Extensive structure was observed in the ozone field near the edge of the vortex on many flights, and on occasion, large filaments of extra-vortex air were observed inside the vortex. When the vortex divided into two separate vortices, the ozone field reflected the separation with extra-vortex air in between. The nadir ozone data showed strong evidence of downward transport in vicinity of jet streams, and these intrusions were observed to extend down to below 4 km in some cases. Directly under the vortex, large-scale descent of stratospheric air produced ozone levels exceeding 100 ppbv down to 5 km. This is the first time the entire ozone cross section was obtained during an airborne field experiment, and it will provide important new information on atmospheric dynamics and ozone chemistry in the Arctic. This experiment also provided a unique opportunity to compare ozone measurements from several different remote and in situ instruments. Ozone profiles were measured above and below the DC-8 with the airborne UV Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system, and the Airborne Raman Ozone, Temperature, and Aerosol Lidar (AROTAL) measured ozone profiles above the aircraft. In situ ozone measurements were made at the DC-8 flight level, and ground-based lidar and ozonesonde measurements were made from Ny

  3. The large-scale isolated disturbances dynamics in the main peak of electronic concentration of ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinin, U. K.; Romanchuk, A. A.; Sergeenko, N. P.; Shubin, V. N.

    2003-07-01

    The vertical sounding data at chains of ionosphere stations are used to obtain relative variations of electron concentration in the F2 ionosphere region. Specific isolated traveling large-scale irregularities are distinguished in the diurnal succession of the fcF2 relative variations records. The temporal shifts of the irregularities at the station chains determine their motion velocity (of the order of speed of sound) and spatial scale (of order of 3000-5000km, the trajectory length being up to 10000km). The motion trajectories of large-scale isolated irregularities which had preceded the earthquakes are reconstructed.

  4. Large Scale Nanolaminate Deformable Mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Papavasiliou, A; Olivier, S; Barbee, T; Miles, R; Chang, K

    2005-11-30

    This work concerns the development of a technology that uses Nanolaminate foils to form light-weight, deformable mirrors that are scalable over a wide range of mirror sizes. While MEMS-based deformable mirrors and spatial light modulators have considerably reduced the cost and increased the capabilities of adaptive optic systems, there has not been a way to utilize the advantages of lithography and batch-fabrication to produce large-scale deformable mirrors. This technology is made scalable by using fabrication techniques and lithography that are not limited to the sizes of conventional MEMS devices. Like many MEMS devices, these mirrors use parallel plate electrostatic actuators. This technology replicates that functionality by suspending a horizontal piece of nanolaminate foil over an electrode by electroplated nickel posts. This actuator is attached, with another post, to another nanolaminate foil that acts as the mirror surface. Most MEMS devices are produced with integrated circuit lithography techniques that are capable of very small line widths, but are not scalable to large sizes. This technology is very tolerant of lithography errors and can use coarser, printed circuit board lithography techniques that can be scaled to very large sizes. These mirrors use small, lithographically defined actuators and thin nanolaminate foils allowing them to produce deformations over a large area while minimizing weight. This paper will describe a staged program to develop this technology. First-principles models were developed to determine design parameters. Three stages of fabrication will be described starting with a 3 x 3 device using conventional metal foils and epoxy to a 10-across all-metal device with nanolaminate mirror surfaces.

  5. Large-scale vertical velocity, diabatic heating and drying profiles associated with seasonal and diurnal variations of convective systems observed in the GoAmazon2014/5 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Shuaiqi; Xie, Shaocheng; Zhang, Yunyan; Zhang, Minghua; Schumacher, Courtney; Upton, Hannah; Jensen, Michael P.; Johnson, Karen L.; Wang, Meng; Ahlgrimm, Maike; Feng, Zhe; Minnis, Patrick; Thieman, Mandana

    2016-11-01

    This study describes the characteristics of large-scale vertical velocity, apparent heating source (Q1) and apparent moisture sink (Q2) profiles associated with seasonal and diurnal variations of convective systems observed during the two intensive operational periods (IOPs) that were conducted from 15 February to 26 March 2014 (wet season) and from 1 September to 10 October 2014 (dry season) near Manaus, Brazil, during the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) experiment. The derived large-scale fields have large diurnal variations according to convective activity in the GoAmazon region and the morning profiles show distinct differences between the dry and wet seasons. In the wet season, propagating convective systems originating far from the GoAmazon region are often seen in the early morning, while in the dry season they are rarely observed. Afternoon convective systems due to solar heating are frequently seen in both seasons. Accordingly, in the morning, there is strong upward motion and associated heating and drying throughout the entire troposphere in the wet season, which is limited to lower levels in the dry season. In the afternoon, both seasons exhibit weak heating and strong moistening in the boundary layer related to the vertical convergence of eddy fluxes. A set of case studies of three typical types of convective systems occurring in Amazonia - i.e., locally occurring systems, coastal-occurring systems and basin-occurring systems - is also conducted to investigate the variability of the large-scale environment with different types of convective systems.

  6. Large-scale vertical velocity, diabatic heating and drying profiles associated with seasonal and diurnal variations of convective systems observed in the GoAmazon2014/5 experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Tang, Shuaiqi; Xie, Shaocheng; Zhang, Yunyan; ...

    2016-11-16

    This study describes the characteristics of large-scale vertical velocity, apparent heating source (Q1) and apparent moisture sink (Q2) profiles associated with seasonal and diurnal variations of convective systems observed during the two intensive operational periods (IOPs) that were conducted from 15 February to 26 March 2014 (wet season) and from 1 September to 10 October 2014 (dry season) near Manaus, Brazil, during the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) experiment. The derived large-scale fields have large diurnal variations according to convective activity in the GoAmazon region and the morning profiles show distinct differences between the dry and wet seasons. In the wetmore » season, propagating convective systems originating far from the GoAmazon region are often seen in the early morning, while in the dry season they are rarely observed. Afternoon convective systems due to solar heating are frequently seen in both seasons. Accordingly, in the morning, there is strong upward motion and associated heating and drying throughout the entire troposphere in the wet season, which is limited to lower levels in the dry season. In the afternoon, both seasons exhibit weak heating and strong moistening in the boundary layer related to the vertical convergence of eddy fluxes. A set of case studies of three typical types of convective systems occurring in Amazonia – i.e., locally occurring systems, coastal-occurring systems and basin-occurring systems – is also conducted to investigate the variability of the large-scale environment with different types of convective systems.« less

  7. Spatial and temporal distributions of contaminant body burden and disease in Gulf of Mexico oyster populations: The role of local and large-scale climatic controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, E. A.; Powell, E. N.; Wade, T. L.; Taylor, R. J.; Presley, B. J.; Brooks, J. M.

    1992-06-01

    As part of NOAA's Status and Trends Program, oysters were sampled from 43 sites throughout the Gulf of Mexico from Brownsville, Texas, to the Florida Everglades from 1986 to 1989. Oysters were analysed for body burden of a suite of metals and petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the prevalence and intensity of the oyster pathogen, Perkinsus marinus, and condition index. The contaminants fell into two groups based on the spatial distribution of body burden throughout the Gulf. Arsenic, selenium, mercury and cadmium were characterized by clinal reduction in similarity with distance reminiscent of that followed by mean monthly temperature and precipitation. Zinc, copper, PAHs and silver showed no consistent geographic trend. Within local regions, industrial and agricultural and use and P. marinus prevalence and infection intensity frequently correlated with body burden. Contaminants and biological attributes followed one of three temporal trends. Zinc, copper and PAHs showed concordant shifts over 4 years throughout the eastern and southern Gulf. Mercury and cadmium showed concordant shifts in the northwestern Gulf. Selenium, arsenic, length, condition index and P. marinus prevalence and infection intensity showed concordant shifts throughout most of the entire Gulf. Concordant shifts suggest that climatic factors, the El Niño/Southern Oscillation being one example, exert a strong influence on biological attributes and contaminant body burdens in the Gulf. Correlative factors are those that probably affect or indicate the rate of tissue turnover and the frequency of reproduction; namely, temperature, disease intensity, condition index and length.

  8. Seeing the elephant: Importance of spatial and temporal coverage in a large-scale volunteer-based program to monitor horseshoe crabs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.R.; Michels, S.F.

    2006-01-01

    As in John Godfrey Saxe's poem about six blind men and an elephant, conclusions drawn from a monitoring program depend critically on where and when observations are made. We examined results from the Delaware Bay horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) spawning survey to evaluate the effect of spatial and temporal coverage on conclusions about spawning activity. Declines due to previously unregulated harvest triggered an increase in monitoring. Although we detected no apparent trend in bay-wide spawning activity for 1999-2005, conclusions would have differed depending on where and when observations were made. For example, spawning activity in May during the shorebird stopover was a poor predictor of spawning activity over the whole season. Observations made only during peak spawning incorrectly suggested that spawning activity increased during 2001-2005. Trends at one place in the bay were not indicative of trends for the whole bay. Many natural resource issues begin like the blind men and the elephant with dispute partially caused by an incomplete picture of the resource. As sufficient time and funds are directed to gathering necessary data using effective sampling designs, a more complete picture can emerge.

  9. Investigating the presence of post-perovskite and large-scale chemical variations in Earth's lower mantle using tomographic-geodynamic model comparisons.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koelemeijer, Paula; Ritsema, Jeroen; Deuss, Arwen; Davies, Rhodri; Schuberth, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Tomographic models of the Earth's mantle consistently image two large provinces of low shear-wave velocities (LLSVPs) in the lowermost mantle beneath Africa and the Pacific. Seismic studies also find an increase in the ratio of shear-wave velocity (Vs) to compressional-wave velocity (Vp) variations, accompanied by a significant negative correlation between shear-wave and bulk-sound velocity (Vc) variations, both of which are also observed in the recent SP12RTS model. The LLSVPs have consequently been suggested to represent intrinsically dense piles of thermochemical material. Alternatively, they have been interpreted as poorly imaged clusters of thermal plumes, with the deep mantle post-perovskite (pPv) phase invoked as explanation for the high Vs/Vp ratios and Vs-Vc anti-correlation. Geodynamical calculations of thermal plumes and thermochemical piles predict a fundamentally different style of mantle convection, interface topographies and CMB heat flow. However, to interpret tomographic images using these high-resolution models, the limited resolving power of seismic tomography has to be accounted for. Here, we interpret the observed seismic characteristics of SP12RTS by comparing the velocity structures to synthetic tomography images derived from 3D mantle convection models. As in previous studies, geodynamic models are converted to seismic velocities using mineral physics constraints and subsequently convolved with the tomographic resolution operator. In contrast to these studies, where generally only the shear-wave velocity structure has been compared, we use both the Vs and Vp resolution operator of SP12RTS to allow direct comparisons of the resulting velocity ratios and correlations. We use geodynamic models with and without pPv and/or chemical variations to investigate the cause of the high Vs/Vp ratio and Vs-Vs anti-correlation. Although the tomographic filtering significantly affects the synthetic tomography images, we demonstrate that the patterns

  10. Multi-scale variation of the meridional movement of the western Pacific warm pool and its associated large-scale climate features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guojun; Yang, Song; Zheng, Dawei

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we investigated variation of the meridional movement of the western Pacific warm pool (WPWP). The variation was measured by the central latitude (Clat) of the WPWP on various time scales. Its relationships with global sea surface temperature (SST), precipitation, and atmospheric circulation were examined by applying several advanced statistical methods. First, the techniques of wavelet analysis and least-square adjustment were used to depict the time-frequency features and the mean dominant oscillating time scales of the Clat. Then, a multi-stage filtering technique was applied to illustrate the related dominant oscillating signals. We also examined the time-frequency characteristics of the relationships between Clat and the leading modes of the Indo-Pacific oceans by employing a cross-covariance function analysis and a multiple moving-window method. The physical mechanisms for the relationships between Clat and the patterns of SST, precipitation, and atmospheric circulation were discussed. Results indicated that there is a weakening trend in the oscillation of Clat mainly because the quasi-annual oscillation of Clat increases in January-March and decreases in July-September. The semi-annual oscillation of Clat closely interacts with the westerly wind over the summer hemisphere of the tropical western Pacific Ocean and with the easterly wind over the winter hemisphere of the ocean. The interannual component of Clat corresponds to El Niño-Southern Oscillation and the Indian Ocean basin-wide warming or cooling with strengthened oscillations in the 1970s, and the lower-frequency component of Clat closely corresponds to the central Pacific type of El Niño from the 1990s.

  11. Multi-scale variation of the meridional movement of the western Pacific warm pool and its associated large-scale climate features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guojun; Yang, Song; Zheng, Dawei

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we investigated variation of the meridional movement of the western Pacific warm pool (WPWP). The variation was measured by the central latitude (Clat) of the WPWP on various time scales. Its relationships with global sea surface temperature (SST), precipitation, and atmospheric circulation were examined by applying several advanced statistical methods. First, the techniques of wavelet analysis and least-square adjustment were used to depict the time-frequency features and the mean dominant oscillating time scales of the Clat. Then, a multi-stage filtering technique was applied to illustrate the related dominant oscillating signals. We also examined the time-frequency characteristics of the relationships between Clat and the leading modes of the Indo-Pacific oceans by employing a cross-covariance function analysis and a multiple moving-window method. The physical mechanisms for the relationships between Clat and the patterns of SST, precipitation, and atmospheric circulation were discussed. Results indicated that there is a weakening trend in the oscillation of Clat mainly because the quasi-annual oscillation of Clat increases in January-March and decreases in July-September. The semi-annual oscillation of Clat closely interacts with the westerly wind over the summer hemisphere of the tropical western Pacific Ocean and with the easterly wind over the winter hemisphere of the ocean. The interannual component of Clat corresponds to El Niño-Southern Oscillation and the Indian Ocean basin-wide warming or cooling with strengthened oscillations in the 1970s, and the lower-frequency component of Clat closely corresponds to the central Pacific type of El Niño from the 1990s.

  12. Spatial and temporal operation of the Scotia Sea ecosystem: a review of large-scale links in a krill centred food web

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, E.J; Watkins, J.L; Trathan, P.N; Reid, K; Meredith, M.P; Thorpe, S.E; Johnston, N.M; Clarke, A; Tarling, G.A; Collins, M.A; Forcada, J; Shreeve, R.S; Atkinson, A; Korb, R; Whitehouse, M.J; Ward, P; Rodhouse, P.G; Enderlein, P; Hirst, A.G; Martin, A.R; Hill, S.L; Staniland, I.J; Pond, D.W; Briggs, D.R; Cunningham, N.J; Fleming, A.H

    2006-01-01

    The Scotia Sea ecosystem is a major component of the circumpolar Southern Ocean system, where productivity and predator demand for prey are high. The eastward-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and waters from the Weddell–Scotia Confluence dominate the physics of the Scotia Sea, leading to a strong advective flow, intense eddy activity and mixing. There is also strong seasonality, manifest by the changing irradiance and sea ice cover, which leads to shorter summers in the south. Summer phytoplankton blooms, which at times can cover an area of more than 0.5 million km2, probably result from the mixing of micronutrients into surface waters through the flow of the ACC over the Scotia Arc. This production is consumed by a range of species including Antarctic krill, which are the major prey item of large seabird and marine mammal populations. The flow of the ACC is steered north by the Scotia Arc, pushing polar water to lower latitudes, carrying with it krill during spring and summer, which subsidize food webs around South Georgia and the northern Scotia Arc. There is also marked interannual variability in winter sea ice distribution and sea surface temperatures that is linked to southern hemisphere-scale climate processes such as the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. This variation affects regional primary and secondary production and influences biogeochemical cycles. It also affects krill population dynamics and dispersal, which in turn impacts higher trophic level predator foraging, breeding performance and population dynamics. The ecosystem has also been highly perturbed as a result of harvesting over the last two centuries and significant ecological changes have also occurred in response to rapid regional warming during the second half of the twentieth century. This combination of historical perturbation and rapid regional change highlights that the Scotia Sea ecosystem is likely to show significant change over the next two to three decades, which may

  13. Spatial and temporal operation of the Scotia Sea ecosystem: a review of large-scale links in a krill centred food web.

    PubMed

    Murphy, E J; Watkins, J L; Trathan, P N; Reid, K; Meredith, M P; Thorpe, S E; Johnston, N M; Clarke, A; Tarling, G A; Collins, M A; Forcada, J; Shreeve, R S; Atkinson, A; Korb, R; Whitehouse, M J; Ward, P; Rodhouse, P G; Enderlein, P; Hirst, A G; Martin, A R; Hill, S L; Staniland, I J; Pond, D W; Briggs, D R; Cunningham, N J; Fleming, A H

    2007-01-29

    The Scotia Sea ecosystem is a major component of the circumpolar Southern Ocean system, where productivity and predator demand for prey are high. The eastward-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and waters from the Weddell-Scotia Confluence dominate the physics of the Scotia Sea, leading to a strong advective flow, intense eddy activity and mixing. There is also strong seasonality, manifest by the changing irradiance and sea ice cover, which leads to shorter summers in the south. Summer phytoplankton blooms, which at times can cover an area of more than 0.5 million km2, probably result from the mixing of micronutrients into surface waters through the flow of the ACC over the Scotia Arc. This production is consumed by a range of species including Antarctic krill, which are the major prey item of large seabird and marine mammal populations. The flow of the ACC is steered north by the Scotia Arc, pushing polar water to lower latitudes, carrying with it krill during spring and summer, which subsidize food webs around South Georgia and the northern Scotia Arc. There is also marked interannual variability in winter sea ice distribution and sea surface temperatures that is linked to southern hemisphere-scale climate processes such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. This variation affects regional primary and secondary production and influences biogeochemical cycles. It also affects krill population dynamics and dispersal, which in turn impacts higher trophic level predator foraging, breeding performance and population dynamics. The ecosystem has also been highly perturbed as a result of harvesting over the last two centuries and significant ecological changes have also occurred in response to rapid regional warming during the second half of the twentieth century. This combination of historical perturbation and rapid regional change highlights that the Scotia Sea ecosystem is likely to show significant change over the next two to three decades, which may result

  14. Large-scale spatial pollution patterns around the North Sea indicated by coastal bird eggs within an EcoQO programme.

    PubMed

    Dittmann, Tobias; Becker, Peter H; Bakker, Joop; Bignert, Anders; Nyberg, Elisabeth; Pereira, M Glória; Pijanowska, Ursula; Shore, Richard F; Stienen, Eric; Toft, Geir Olav; Marencic, Harald

    2012-11-01

    To categorize the marine environmental health status, the Oslo and Paris commissions have recently formulated Ecological Quality Objectives (EcoQOs) for many ecological features including the contamination of coastal bird eggs with mercury and organochlorines. In this study, we describe spatial and temporal patterns of egg contamination around the North Sea and compared them to the EcoQOs. Concentrations of mercury, polychlorinated biphenyl (ΣPCB) congeners, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (ΣDDT) and derivatives, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and hexachlorocyclohexane (ΣHCH) isomers were analysed in two tern species (Sterna hirundo and Sterna paradisaea) and Oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus) eggs collected between 2008 and 2010 in a total of 21 sites in seven countries surrounding the North Sea. Hg, ΣPCB and HCB were highest in the southern sites, while ΣDDT and ΣHCH concentrations were greatest in eggs from the western North Sea and the Elbe estuary. There were rarely any consistent decreases over time for any compounds. In the terns, Hg, HCB and ΣHCH increased at most sites, ΣPCB and ΣDDT in Sweden and Norway. In the Oystercatcher, HCB and ΣHCH increased at more than the half of the sites, ΣPCB, ΣDDT and Hg at several German sites. In the terns, Hg, ΣPCB and ΣDDT exceeded the EcoQO in all, HCB in most years and sites. At most sites, ΣHCH fulfilled the EcoQO in some study years. In the Oystercatcher, Hg, ΣPCB and ΣDDT exceeded the EcoQO in all or most years and sites. HCB and ΣHCH fulfilled the EcoQO in some or all years at most sites. The EcoQO was exceeded most frequently in estuaries. We conclude that EcoQOs are suitable for drawing contamination patterns of the coastal North Sea in an easily understandable manner, offering the opportunity to harmonize the EcoQOs with coordinated environmental monitoring programmes.

  15. Improving AFLP analysis of large-scale patterns of genetic variation--a case study with the Central African lianas Haumania spp (Marantaceae) showing interspecific gene flow.

    PubMed

    Ley, A C; Hardy, O J

    2013-04-01

    AFLP markers are often used to study patterns of population genetic variation and gene flow because they offer a good coverage of the nuclear genome, but the reliability of AFLP scoring is critical. To assess interspecific gene flow in two African rainforest liana species (Haumania danckelmaniana, H. liebrechtsiana) where previous evidence of chloroplast captures questioned the importance of hybridization and species boundaries, we developed new AFLP markers and a novel approach to select reliable bands from their degree of reproducibility. The latter is based on the estimation of the broad-sense heritability of AFLP phenotypes, an improvement over classical scoring error rates, which showed that the polymorphism of most AFLP bands was affected by a substantial nongenetic component. Therefore, using a quantitative genetics framework, we also modified an existing estimator of pairwise kinship coefficient between individuals correcting for the limited heritability of markers. Bayesian clustering confirms the recognition of the two Haumania species. Nevertheless, the decay of the relatedness between individuals of distinct species with geographic distance demonstrates that hybridization affects the nuclear genome. In conclusion, although we showed that AFLP markers might be substantially affected by nongenetic factors, their analysis using the new methods developed considerably advanced our understanding of the pattern of gene flow in our model species.

  16. Large-scale genetic variation of the symbiosis-required megaplasmid pSymA revealed by comparative genomic analysis of Sinorhizobium meliloti natural strains.

    PubMed

    Giuntini, Elisa; Mengoni, Alessio; De Filippo, Carlotta; Cavalieri, Duccio; Aubin-Horth, Nadia; Landry, Christian R; Becker, Anke; Bazzicalupo, Marco

    2005-11-10

    Sinorhizobium meliloti is a soil bacterium that forms nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of leguminous plants such as alfalfa (Medicago sativa). This species occupies different ecological niches, being present as a free-living soil bacterium and as a symbiont of plant root nodules. The genome of the type strain Rm 1021 contains one chromosome and two megaplasmids for a total genome size of 6 Mb. We applied comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) on an oligonucleotide microarrays to estimate genetic variation at the genomic level in four natural strains, two isolated from Italian agricultural soil and two from desert soil in the Aral Sea region. From 4.6 to 5.7 percent of the genes showed a pattern of hybridisation concordant with deletion, nucleotide divergence or ORF duplication when compared to the type strain Rm 1021. A large number of these polymorphisms were confirmed by sequencing and Southern blot. A statistically significant fraction of these variable genes was found on the pSymA megaplasmid and grouped in clusters. These variable genes were found to be mainly transposases or genes with unknown function. The obtained results allow to conclude that the symbiosis-required megaplasmid pSymA can be considered the major hot-spot for intra-specific differentiation in S. meliloti.

  17. Large-scale genetic variation of the symbiosis-required megaplasmid pSymA revealed by comparative genomic analysis of Sinorhizobium meliloti natural strains

    PubMed Central

    Giuntini, Elisa; Mengoni, Alessio; De Filippo, Carlotta; Cavalieri, Duccio; Aubin-Horth, Nadia; Landry, Christian R; Becker, Anke; Bazzicalupo, Marco

    2005-01-01

    Background Sinorhizobium meliloti is a soil bacterium that forms nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of leguminous plants such as alfalfa (Medicago sativa). This species occupies different ecological niches, being present as a free-living soil bacterium and as a symbiont of plant root nodules. The genome of the type strain Rm 1021 contains one chromosome and two megaplasmids for a total genome size of 6 Mb. We applied comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) on an oligonucleotide microarrays to estimate genetic variation at the genomic level in four natural strains, two isolated from Italian agricultural soil and two from desert soil in the Aral Sea region. Results From 4.6 to 5.7 percent of the genes showed a pattern of hybridisation concordant with deletion, nucleotide divergence or ORF duplication when compared to the type strain Rm 1021. A large number of these polymorphisms were confirmed by sequencing and Southern blot. A statistically significant fraction of these variable genes was found on the pSymA megaplasmid and grouped in clusters. These variable genes were found to be mainly transposases or genes with unknown function. Conclusion The obtained results allow to conclude that the symbiosis-required megaplasmid pSymA can be considered the major hot-spot for intra-specific differentiation in S. meliloti. PMID:16283928

  18. Homogenization of Large-Scale Movement Models in Ecology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garlick, M.J.; Powell, J.A.; Hooten, M.B.; McFarlane, L.R.

    2011-01-01

    A difficulty in using diffusion models to predict large scale animal population dispersal is that individuals move differently based on local information (as opposed to gradients) in differing habitat types. This can be accommodated by using ecological diffusion. However, real environments are often spatially complex, limiting application of a direct approach. Homogenization for partial differential equations has long been applied to Fickian diffusion (in which average individual movement is organized along gradients of habitat and population density). We derive a homogenization procedure for ecological diffusion and apply it to a simple model for chronic wasting disease in mule deer. Homogenization allows us to determine the impact of small scale (10-100 m) habitat variability on large scale (10-100 km) movement. The procedure generates asymptotic equations for solutions on the large scale with parameters defined by small-scale variation. The simplicity of this homogenization procedure is striking when compared to the multi-dimensional homogenization procedure for Fickian diffusion,and the method will be equally straightforward for more complex models. ?? 2010 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  19. Developing a large-scale model to predict the effects of land use and climatic variation on the biological condition of USA streams and rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, R. A.; Weber, M.; Leibowitz, S. G.; Olsen, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    The US EPA's National Rivers and Streams Assessment (NRSA) uses spatially balanced sampling to estimate the proportion of streams within the continental US (CONUS) that fail to support healthy biological communities. However, to manage these systems, we also must understand how human land use alters stream communities from their natural condition and how natural factors, such as climate, interact with these effects. We used random forest modeling and data from 1353 streams that NRSA determined to be in "good" or "poor" biological condition (BC) to predict the probable BC of nearly 5.4 million km of stream (National Hydrography Dataset) within the CONUS. BC was best predicted by 5 natural factors (mean discharge, mean annual air temperature [AT], soil water content, topography, major ecoregion) and 2 riparian factors that are easily altered by humans (% riparian urbanization [%Urb], % riparian forest [%Fst] cover). The model correctly predicted BC for 74% of sites, but predicted poor BC slightly more accurately (76%) than good BC (71%). Initial results showed that probability of good BC declined rapidly with increasing %Urb, but this effect leveled off in streams with >7 %Urb. Likewise, probability of good BC increased in streams with >45 %Fst. This model can be used to generate hypotheses to guide future research and test restoration scenarios. For example, BC had a U-shaped relationship with AT, with poorest BCs predicted between 10-15°C. Plots suggested a strong AT-%Fst interaction, where higher %Fst values mitigated this U-shaped response of BC to AT. These ATs correspond to latitudes that receive the greatest combination of solar radiation intensity and duration in July, and we hypothesize that thermal alteration due to riparian disturbance may be negatively affecting BC in these streams. Finally, simulations suggested that restoring riparian forests could increase the number of streams achieving good BC by 60%, and may represent a critical management tool.

  20. Large-scale structural optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.

    1983-01-01

    Problems encountered by aerospace designers in attempting to optimize whole aircraft are discussed, along with possible solutions. Large scale optimization, as opposed to component-by-component optimization, is hindered by computational costs, software inflexibility, concentration on a single, rather than trade-off, design methodology and the incompatibility of large-scale optimization with single program, single computer methods. The software problem can be approached by placing the full analysis outside of the optimization loop. Full analysis is then performed only periodically. Problem-dependent software can be removed from the generic code using a systems programming technique, and then embody the definitions of design variables, objective function and design constraints. Trade-off algorithms can be used at the design points to obtain quantitative answers. Finally, decomposing the large-scale problem into independent subproblems allows systematic optimization of the problems by an organization of people and machines.

  1. Large-scale circuit simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Y. P.

    1982-12-01

    The simulation of VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) circuits falls beyond the capabilities of conventional circuit simulators like SPICE. On the other hand, conventional logic simulators can only give the results of logic levels 1 and 0 with the attendent loss of detail in the waveforms. The aim of developing large-scale circuit simulation is to bridge the gap between conventional circuit simulation and logic simulation. This research is to investigate new approaches for fast and relatively accurate time-domain simulation of MOS (Metal Oxide Semiconductors), LSI (Large Scale Integration) and VLSI circuits. New techniques and new algorithms are studied in the following areas: (1) analysis sequencing (2) nonlinear iteration (3) modified Gauss-Seidel method (4) latency criteria and timestep control scheme. The developed methods have been implemented into a simulation program PREMOS which could be used as a design verification tool for MOS circuits.

  2. Large Scale Dynamos in Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishniac, Ethan T.

    2015-01-01

    We show that a differentially rotating conducting fluid automatically creates a magnetic helicity flux with components along the rotation axis and in the direction of the local vorticity. This drives a rapid growth in the local density of current helicity, which in turn drives a large scale dynamo. The dynamo growth rate derived from this process is not constant, but depends inversely on the large scale magnetic field strength. This dynamo saturates when buoyant losses of magnetic flux compete with the large scale dynamo, providing a simple prediction for magnetic field strength as a function of Rossby number in stars. Increasing anisotropy in the turbulence produces a decreasing magnetic helicity flux, which explains the flattening of the B/Rossby number relation at low Rossby numbers. We also show that the kinetic helicity is always a subdominant effect. There is no kinematic dynamo in real stars.

  3. Large-scale variations in the vegetation growing season and annual cycle of atmospheric CO2 at high northern latitudes from 1950 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Barichivich, Jonathan; Briffa, Keith R; Myneni, Ranga B; Osborn, Timothy J; Melvin, Thomas M; Ciais, Philippe; Piao, Shilong; Tucker, Compton

    2013-10-01

    We combine satellite and ground observations during 1950-2011 to study the long-term links between multiple climate (air temperature and cryospheric dynamics) and vegetation (greenness and atmospheric CO(2) concentrations) indicators of the growing season of northern ecosystems (>45°N) and their connection with the carbon cycle. During the last three decades, the thermal potential growing season has lengthened by about 10.5 days (P < 0.01, 1982-2011), which is unprecedented in the context of the past 60 years. The overall lengthening has been stronger and more significant in Eurasia (12.6 days, P < 0.01) than North America (6.2 days, P > 0.05). The photosynthetic growing season has closely tracked the pace of warming and extension of the potential growing season in spring, but not in autumn when factors such as light and moisture limitation may constrain photosynthesis. The autumnal extension of the photosynthetic growing season since 1982 appears to be about half that of the thermal potential growing season, yielding a smaller lengthening of the photosynthetic growing season (6.7 days at the circumpolar scale, P < 0.01). Nevertheless, when integrated over the growing season, photosynthetic activity has closely followed the interannual variations and warming trend in cumulative growing season temperatures. This lengthening and intensification of the photosynthetic growing season, manifested principally over Eurasia rather than North America, is associated with a long-term increase (22.2% since 1972, P < 0.01) in the amplitude of the CO(2) annual cycle at northern latitudes. The springtime extension of the photosynthetic and potential growing seasons has apparently stimulated earlier and stronger net CO(2) uptake by northern ecosystems, while the autumnal extension is associated with an earlier net release of CO(2) to the atmosphere. These contrasting responses may be critical in determining the impact of continued warming on northern terrestrial ecosystems and the

  4. Spatial variation in the charcoal pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohlson, M.; Bjune, A. E.; Kasin, I.; Nordtug Wist, A.

    2012-04-01

    Mikael Ohlson, Anne E. Bjune, Isabella Kasin and Anveig Nordtug Wist It is well known that the soil charcoal pool varies significantly in size across different types of forest landscapes and regional climates. However, the level of variation on fine spatial scales within a given forest landscape remains poorly known. Here we use a geostatistical approach to describe the spatial structure and variability of the soil charcoal pool in a boreal forest landscape. Our study landscape is a watershed including a small lake and two distinct types of forests, viz. Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forests. The study is based on 200 forest soil cores and one lake sediment core in which the amount of macroscopic charcoal was measured. The amount of charcoal in the forest soil cores was very variable and ranged from 0 to 3600 g per square meter. The variation was profound also on fine spatial scales, i.e. 0.05 - 0.2 m, and geostatistical analysis revealed only weak spatial structuring on scales from 0.05 up to 200 m. Although weak spatial structuring, there were three significant and general patterns in the soil charcoal pool. First, there was a positive relationship between the amount of charcoal in the soil and the density of the contemporary forest. Second, there was more charcoal in the spruce forest than in the pine forest. Third, the amount of charcoal in the soil increased with increasing distance from the lake. The lake sediment core, which had a depth of 3 m and an age of 11 000 years, recorded a continuous influx of macroscopic charcoal throughout the Holocene. Interestingly, the amount of charcoal in the lake sediment exceeded that in the majority of the forest soil cores, indicating a relatively high degradation rate of charcoal in the forest soil and that charcoal is well preserved in the lake sediment.

  5. The oxygen isotope composition, petrology and geochemistry of mare basalts: Evidence for large-scale compositional variation in the lunar mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallis, L. J.; Anand, M.; Greenwood, R. C.; Miller, M. F.; Franchi, I. A.; Russell, S. S.

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the formation and early evolution of the lunar mantle and crust we have analysed the oxygen isotopic composition, titanium content and modal mineralogy of a suite of lunar basalts. Our sample set included eight low-Ti basalts from the Apollo 12 and 15 collections, and 12 high-Ti basalts from Apollo 11 and 17 collections. In addition, we have determined the oxygen isotopic composition of an Apollo 15 KREEP (K - potassium, REE - Rare Earth Element, and P - phosphorus) basalt (sample 15386) and an Apollo 14 feldspathic mare basalt (sample 14053). Our data display a continuum in bulk-rock δ 18O values, from relatively low values in the most Ti-rich samples to higher values in the Ti-poor samples, with the Apollo 11 sample suite partially bridging the gap. Calculation of bulk-rock δ 18O values, using a combination of previously published oxygen isotope data on mineral separates from lunar basalts, and modal mineralogy (determined in this study), match with the measured bulk-rock δ 18O values. This demonstrates that differences in mineral modal assemblage produce differences in mare basalt δ 18O bulk-rock values. Differences between the low- and high-Ti mare basalts appear to be largely a reflection of mantle-source heterogeneities, and in particular, the highly variable distribution of ilmenite within the lunar mantle. Bulk δ 18O variation in mare basalts is also controlled by fractional crystallisation of a few key mineral phases. Thus, ilmenite fractionation is important in the case of high-Ti Apollo 17 samples, whereas olivine plays a more dominant role for the low-Ti Apollo 12 samples. Consistent with the results of previous studies, our data reveal no detectable difference between the Δ 17O of the Earth and Moon. The fact that oxygen three-isotope studies have been unable to detect a measurable difference at such high precisions reinforces doubts about the giant impact hypothesis as presently formulated.

  6. Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeaman, Andrew R. J.

    Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI), the state-of-the-art production techniques for computer chips, promises such powerful, inexpensive computing that, in the future, people will be able to communicate with computer devices in natural language or even speech. However, before full-scale VLSI implementation can occur, certain salient factors must be…

  7. Galaxy clustering on large scales.

    PubMed Central

    Efstathiou, G

    1993-01-01

    I describe some recent observations of large-scale structure in the galaxy distribution. The best constraints come from two-dimensional galaxy surveys and studies of angular correlation functions. Results from galaxy redshift surveys are much less precise but are consistent with the angular correlations, provided the distortions in mapping between real-space and redshift-space are relatively weak. The galaxy two-point correlation function, rich-cluster two-point correlation function, and galaxy-cluster cross-correlation function are all well described on large scales ( greater, similar 20h-1 Mpc, where the Hubble constant, H0 = 100h km.s-1.Mpc; 1 pc = 3.09 x 10(16) m) by the power spectrum of an initially scale-invariant, adiabatic, cold-dark-matter Universe with Gamma = Omegah approximately 0.2. I discuss how this fits in with the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite detection of large-scale anisotropies in the microwave background radiation and other measures of large-scale structure in the Universe. PMID:11607400

  8. Spatial Variations of Scintillation and TEC During Equatorial Spread F

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groves, K.; Basu, S.; Pedersen, T. R.; Beach, T. L.; Quinn, J. M.; Taliaferro, B.; de Paula, E. R.; Batista, I. S.; Abdu, M. A.; Livingston, R. C.; Ning, P.; Carrano, C.

    2004-05-01

    Numerous studies of geophysical observables associated with large-scale instabilities in the post-sunset equatorial ionosphere have been conducted for several decades; these observables include electric fields, electron density profiles, total electron content (TEC), plasma and neutral drift, scintillations and coherent radar backscatter. Despite a general understanding of the local correlations between these parameters during the on-set and evolution of equatorial bubbles, detailed knowledge of the variations of these parameters as a function of latitude on a given magnetic meridian is lacking. During the Oct-Nov 2002 Conjugate Points Equatorial Experiment (COPEX) campaign was conducted at three sites in western Brazil; one site was situated at the magnetic equator while the other two were selected at magnetic conjugate locations approximately ± 10° MLat. The campaign was organized and coordinated by the Aeronomy Group at the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais- INPE). A number of diagnostic instruments, including digisondes, GPS scintillation and TEC diagnostics, VHF scintillations and plasma drifts, and all-sky imagers were operated routinely throughout the campaign period. The work presented here focuses on the meridional variations of GPS and VHF scintillations from the northern to the southern anomaly regions (~± 15° MLat) and their correlation with total electron content over the same spatial extent. The key issue for consideration is whether the scintillation intensity is directly proportional to electron density (i.e., TEC) across a flux tube implying constant Δ N/N within the instability region, or whether some other relative scaling between the density and scintillation exists. The results provide insight into the distribution of irregularities and, indirectly, the energetics of instabilities within a flux tube. The outcome of this investigation directly impacts techniques to extrapolate local

  9. Spatial Variations in Vitreous Oxygen Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Murali, Karthik; Kang, Dongyang; Nazari, Hossein; Scianmarello, Nicholas; Cadenas, Enrique; Tai, Yu-Chong; Kashani, Amir; Humayun, Mark

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the spatial variation of vitreous oxygen consumption in enucleated porcine eyes. A custom made oxygen source was fabricated that could be localized to either the mid or posterior vitreous cavity and steady state vitreous oxygen tension was measured as a function of distance from the source using a commercially available probe. The reaction rate constant of ascorbate oxidation was estimated ex vivo by measuring the change in oxygen tension over time using vitreous harvested from porcine eyes. Vitreous ascorbate from mid and posterior vitreous was measured spectrophotometrically. When the oxygen source was placed in either the mid-vitreous (N = 6) or the posterior vitreous (N = 6), we measured a statistically significant decrease in vitreous oxygen tension as a function of distance from the oxygen source when compared to control experiments without an oxygen source; (p<0.005 for mid-vitreous and p<0.018 for posterior vitreous at all distances). The mid-vitreous oxygen tension change was significantly different from the posterior vitreous oxygen tension change at 2 and 3mm distances from the respective oxygen source (p<0.001). We also found a statistically significant lower concentration of ascorbate in the mid-vitreous as compared to posterior vitreous (p = 0.02). We determined the reaction rate constant, k = 1.61 M-1s-1 ± 0.708 M-1s-1 (SE), of the oxidation of ascorbate which was modeled following a second order rate equation. Our data demonstrates that vitreous oxygen consumption is higher in the posterior vitreous compared to the mid-vitreous. We also show spatial variations in vitreous ascorbate concentration. PMID:26930281

  10. What is a large-scale dynamo?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigro, G.; Pongkitiwanichakul, P.; Cattaneo, F.; Tobias, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    We consider kinematic dynamo action in a sheared helical flow at moderate to high values of the magnetic Reynolds number (Rm). We find exponentially growing solutions which, for large enough shear, take the form of a coherent part embedded in incoherent fluctuations. We argue that at large Rm large-scale dynamo action should be identified by the presence of structures coherent in time, rather than those at large spatial scales. We further argue that although the growth rate is determined by small-scale processes, the period of the coherent structures is set by mean-field considerations.

  11. Spatial scales of variation in lichens: implications for sampling design in biomonitoring surveys.

    PubMed

    Giordani, Paolo; Brunialti, Giorgio; Frati, Luisa; Incerti, Guido; Ianesch, Luca; Vallone, Emanuele; Bacaro, Giovanni; Maccherini, Simona

    2013-02-01

    The variability of biological data is a main constraint affecting the quality and reliability of lichen biomonitoring surveys for estimation of the effects of atmospheric pollution. Although most epiphytic lichen bioindication surveys focus on between-site differences at the landscape level, associated with the large scale effects of atmospheric pollution, current protocols are based on multilevel sampling, thus adding further sources of variation and affecting the error budget. We test the hypothesis that assemblages of lichen communities vary at each spatial scale examined, in order to determine what scales should be included in future monitoring studies. We compared four sites in Italy, along gradients of atmospheric pollution and climate, to test the partitioning of the variance components of lichen diversity across spatial scales (from trunks to landscapes). Despite environmental heterogeneity, we observed comparable spatial variance. However, residuals often overcame between-plot variability, leading to biased estimation of atmospheric pollution effects.

  12. The large scale dust distribution in the inner galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauser, M. G.; Dwek, E.; Gezari, D.; Silverberg, R.; Kelsall, T.; Stier, M.; Cheung, L.

    1983-01-01

    Initial results are presented from a new large-scale survey of the first quadrant of the galactic plane at wavelengths of 160, 260, and 300 microns. The submillimeter wavelength emission, interpreted as thermal radiation by dust grains, reveals an optically thin disk of angular width about 0.09 deg (FWHM) with a mean dust temperature of 23 K and significant variation of the dust mass column density. Comparison of the dust column density with the gas column density inferred from CO survey data shows a striking spatial correlation. The mean luminosity per hydrogen atom is found to be 2.5 x 10 to the -30th W/H, implying a radiant energy density in the vicinity of the dust an order of magnitude larger than in the solar neighborhood. The data favor dust in molecular clouds as the dominant submillimeter radiation source.

  13. Determination of the Average Native Background and the Light-Induced EPR Signals and their Variation in the Teeth Enamel Based on Large-Scale Survey of the Population.

    PubMed

    Ivannikov, Alexander I; Khailov, Artem M; Orlenko, Sergey P; Skvortsov, Valeri G; Stepanenko, Valeri F; Zhumadilov, Kassym Sh; Williams, Benjamin B; Flood, Ann B; Swartz, Harold M

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the average intensity and variation of the native background signal amplitude (NSA) and of the solar light-induced signal amplitude (LSA) in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of tooth enamel for different kinds of teeth and different groups of people. These values are necessary for determination of the intensity of the radiation-induced signal amplitude (RSA) by subtraction of the expected NSA and LSA from the total signal amplitude measured in L-band for in vivo EPR dosimetry. Variation of these signals should be taken into account when estimating the uncertainty of the estimated RSA. A new analysis of several hundred EPR spectra that were measured earlier at X-band in a large-scale examination of the population of the Central Russia was performed. Based on this analysis, the average values and the variation (standard deviation, SD) of the amplitude of the NSA for the teeth from different positions, as well as LSA in outer enamel of the front teeth for different population groups, were determined. To convert data acquired at X-band to values corresponding to the conditions of measurement at L-band, the experimental dependencies of the intensities of the RSA, LSA and NSA on the m.w. power, measured at both X and L-band, were analysed. For the two central upper incisors, which are mainly used in in vivo dosimetry, the mean LSA annual rate induced only in the outer side enamel and its variation were obtained as 10 ± 2 (SD = 8) mGy y(-1), the same for X- and L-bands (results are presented as the mean ± error of mean). Mean NSA in enamel and its variation for the upper incisors was calculated at 2.0 ± 0.2 (SD = 0.5) Gy, relative to the calibrated RSA dose-response to gamma radiation measured under non-power saturation conditions at X-band. Assuming the same value for L-band under non-power saturating conditions, then for in vivo measurements at L-band at 25 mW (power saturation conditions), a mean NSA and its

  14. Cosmology with Large Scale Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Shirley; Cuesta, A.; Ross, A.; Seo, H.; DePutter, R.; Padmanabhan, N.; White, M.; Myers, A.; Bovy, J.; Blanton, M.; Hernandez, C.; Mena, O.; Percival, W.; Prada, F.; Ross, N. P.; Saito, S.; Schneider, D.; Skibba, R.; Smith, K.; Slosar, A.; Strauss, M.; Verde, L.; Weinberg, D.; Bachall, N.; Brinkmann, J.; da Costa, L. A.

    2012-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey I-III surveyed 14,000 square degrees, and delivered over a trillion pixels of imaging data. I present cosmological results from this unprecedented data set which contains over a million galaxies distributed between redshift of 0.45 to 0.70. With such a large volume of data set, high precision cosmological constraints can be obtained given a careful control and understanding of observational systematics. I present a novel treatment of observational systematics and its application to the clustering signals from the data set. I will present cosmological constraints on dark components of the Universe and tightest constraints of the non-gaussianity of early Universe to date utilizing Large Scale Structure.

  15. Large scale biomimetic membrane arrays.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Jesper S; Perry, Mark; Vogel, Jörg; Groth, Jesper S; Vissing, Thomas; Larsen, Marianne S; Geschke, Oliver; Emneús, Jenny; Bohr, Henrik; Nielsen, Claus H

    2009-10-01

    To establish planar biomimetic membranes across large scale partition aperture arrays, we created a disposable single-use horizontal chamber design that supports combined optical-electrical measurements. Functional lipid bilayers could easily and efficiently be established across CO(2) laser micro-structured 8 x 8 aperture partition arrays with average aperture diameters of 301 +/- 5 microm. We addressed the electro-physical properties of the lipid bilayers established across the micro-structured scaffold arrays by controllable reconstitution of biotechnological and physiological relevant membrane peptides and proteins. Next, we tested the scalability of the biomimetic membrane design by establishing lipid bilayers in rectangular 24 x 24 and hexagonal 24 x 27 aperture arrays, respectively. The results presented show that the design is suitable for further developments of sensitive biosensor assays, and furthermore demonstrate that the design can conveniently be scaled up to support planar lipid bilayers in large square-centimeter partition arrays.

  16. High Speed Networking and Large-scale Simulation in Geodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, Weijia; Gary, Patrick; Seablom, Michael; Truszkowski, Walt; Odubiyi, Jide; Jiang, Weiyuan; Liu, Dong

    2004-01-01

    Large-scale numerical simulation has been one of the most important approaches for understanding global geodynamical processes. In this approach, peta-scale floating point operations (pflops) are often required to carry out a single physically-meaningful numerical experiment. For example, to model convective flow in the Earth's core and generation of the geomagnetic field (geodynamo), simulation for one magnetic free-decay time (approximately 15000 years) with a modest resolution of 150 in three spatial dimensions would require approximately 0.2 pflops. If such a numerical model is used to predict geomagnetic secular variation over decades and longer, with e.g. an ensemble Kalman filter assimilation approach, approximately 30 (and perhaps more) independent simulations of similar scales would be needed for one data assimilation analysis. Obviously, such a simulation would require an enormous computing resource that exceeds the capacity of a single facility currently available at our disposal. One solution is to utilize a very fast network (e.g. 10Gb optical networks) and available middleware (e.g. Globus Toolkit) to allocate available but often heterogeneous resources for such large-scale computing efforts. At NASA GSFC, we are experimenting with such an approach by networking several clusters for geomagnetic data assimilation research. We shall present our initial testing results in the meeting.

  17. High Speed Networking and Large-scale Simulation in Geodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, Weijia; Gary, Patrick; Seablom, Michael; Truszkowski, Walt; Odubiyi, Jide; Jiang, Weiyuan; Liu, Dong

    2004-01-01

    Large-scale numerical simulation has been one of the most important approaches for understanding global geodynamical processes. In this approach, peta-scale floating point operations (pflops) are often required to carry out a single physically-meaningful numerical experiment. For example, to model convective flow in the Earth's core and generation of the geomagnetic field (geodynamo), simulation for one magnetic free-decay time (approximately 15000 years) with a modest resolution of 150 in three spatial dimensions would require approximately 0.2 pflops. If such a numerical model is used to predict geomagnetic secular variation over decades and longer, with e.g. an ensemble Kalman filter assimilation approach, approximately 30 (and perhaps more) independent simulations of similar scales would be needed for one data assimilation analysis. Obviously, such a simulation would require an enormous computing resource that exceeds the capacity of a single facility currently available at our disposal. One solution is to utilize a very fast network (e.g. 10Gb optical networks) and available middleware (e.g. Globus Toolkit) to allocate available but often heterogeneous resources for such large-scale computing efforts. At NASA GSFC, we are experimenting with such an approach by networking several clusters for geomagnetic data assimilation research. We shall present our initial testing results in the meeting.

  18. Challenges for Large Scale Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troyer, Matthias

    2010-03-01

    With computational approaches becoming ubiquitous the growing impact of large scale computing on research influences both theoretical and experimental work. I will review a few examples in condensed matter physics and quantum optics, including the impact of computer simulations in the search for supersolidity, thermometry in ultracold quantum gases, and the challenging search for novel phases in strongly correlated electron systems. While only a decade ago such simulations needed the fastest supercomputers, many simulations can now be performed on small workstation clusters or even a laptop: what was previously restricted to a few experts can now potentially be used by many. Only part of the gain in computational capabilities is due to Moore's law and improvement in hardware. Equally impressive is the performance gain due to new algorithms - as I will illustrate using some recently developed algorithms. At the same time modern peta-scale supercomputers offer unprecedented computational power and allow us to tackle new problems and address questions that were impossible to solve numerically only a few years ago. While there is a roadmap for future hardware developments to exascale and beyond, the main challenges are on the algorithmic and software infrastructure side. Among the problems that face the computational physicist are: the development of new algorithms that scale to thousands of cores and beyond, a software infrastructure that lifts code development to a higher level and speeds up the development of new simulation programs for large scale computing machines, tools to analyze the large volume of data obtained from such simulations, and as an emerging field provenance-aware software that aims for reproducibility of the complete computational workflow from model parameters to the final figures. Interdisciplinary collaborations and collective efforts will be required, in contrast to the cottage-industry culture currently present in many areas of computational

  19. Spatial variations of ocean wave directional spectra from the Seasat synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beal, R. C.; Gerling, T. W.; Irvine, D. E.; Monaldo, F. M.; Tilley, D. G.

    1986-01-01

    Seasat synthetic aperture radar ocean wave spectra for a 900-km pass are analyzed and interpreted in the context of both their probable generation sources and their surface current and bathymetric modifiers. Systematic vector wavenumber variations of several times the standard error of determination (about 1.5 percent in magnitude and 0.9 deg in direction) occur along the entire 900-km pass. The large-scale spatial variation of a 200-m swell system can be accurately accounted for as a result of dispersion from a distant storm. The more local variations are qualitatively well correlated in position with known currents and bathymetry but show systematic biases that appear partly due to an environmentally dependent instrument transfer function in the regions of high current and highest sea state. There is also substantial evidence that a large angular deviation in the center of the pass is the result of a mesoscale eddy just to the east.

  20. Jovian large-scale stratospheric circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, R. A.; Friedson, A. J.; Appleby, J. F.

    1992-01-01

    An attempt is made to diagnose the annual-average mean meridional residual Jovian large-scale stratospheric circulation from observations of the temperature and reflected sunlight that reveal the morphology of the aerosol heating. The annual mean solar heating, total radiative flux divergence, mass stream function, and Eliassen-Palm flux divergence are shown. The stratospheric radiative flux divergence is dominated the high latitudes by aerosol absorption. Between the 270 and 100 mbar pressure levels, where there is no aerosol heating in the model, the structure of the circulation at low- to midlatitudes is governed by the meridional variation of infrared cooling in association with the variation of zonal mean temperatures observed by IRIS. The principal features of the vertical velocity profile found by Gierasch et al. (1986) are recovered in the present calculation.

  1. Large-scale PACS implementation.

    PubMed

    Carrino, J A; Unkel, P J; Miller, I D; Bowser, C L; Freckleton, M W; Johnson, T G

    1998-08-01

    The transition to filmless radiology is a much more formidable task than making the request for proposal to purchase a (Picture Archiving and Communications System) PACS. The Department of Defense and the Veterans Administration have been pioneers in the transformation of medical diagnostic imaging to the electronic environment. Many civilian sites are expected to implement large-scale PACS in the next five to ten years. This presentation will related the empirical insights gleaned at our institution from a large-scale PACS implementation. Our PACS integration was introduced into a fully operational department (not a new hospital) in which work flow had to continue with minimal impact. Impediments to user acceptance will be addressed. The critical components of this enormous task will be discussed. The topics covered during this session will include issues such as phased implementation, DICOM (digital imaging and communications in medicine) standard-based interaction of devices, hospital information system (HIS)/radiology information system (RIS) interface, user approval, networking, workstation deployment and backup procedures. The presentation will make specific suggestions regarding the implementation team, operating instructions, quality control (QC), training and education. The concept of identifying key functional areas is relevant to transitioning the facility to be entirely on line. Special attention must be paid to specific functional areas such as the operating rooms and trauma rooms where the clinical requirements may not match the PACS capabilities. The printing of films may be necessary for certain circumstances. The integration of teleradiology and remote clinics into a PACS is a salient topic with respect to the overall role of the radiologists providing rapid consultation. A Web-based server allows a clinician to review images and reports on a desk-top (personal) computer and thus reduce the number of dedicated PACS review workstations. This session

  2. Large scale cluster computing workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Dane Skow; Alan Silverman

    2002-12-23

    Recent revolutions in computer hardware and software technologies have paved the way for the large-scale deployment of clusters of commodity computers to address problems heretofore the domain of tightly coupled SMP processors. Near term projects within High Energy Physics and other computing communities will deploy clusters of scale 1000s of processors and be used by 100s to 1000s of independent users. This will expand the reach in both dimensions by an order of magnitude from the current successful production facilities. The goals of this workshop were: (1) to determine what tools exist which can scale up to the cluster sizes foreseen for the next generation of HENP experiments (several thousand nodes) and by implication to identify areas where some investment of money or effort is likely to be needed. (2) To compare and record experimences gained with such tools. (3) To produce a practical guide to all stages of planning, installing, building and operating a large computing cluster in HENP. (4) To identify and connect groups with similar interest within HENP and the larger clustering community.

  3. Large-Scale Sequence Comparison.

    PubMed

    Lal, Devi; Verma, Mansi

    2017-01-01

    There are millions of sequences deposited in genomic databases, and it is an important task to categorize them according to their structural and functional roles. Sequence comparison is a prerequisite for proper categorization of both DNA and protein sequences, and helps in assigning a putative or hypothetical structure and function to a given sequence. There are various methods available for comparing sequences, alignment being first and foremost for sequences with a small number of base pairs as well as for large-scale genome comparison. Various tools are available for performing pairwise large sequence comparison. The best known tools either perform global alignment or generate local alignments between the two sequences. In this chapter we first provide basic information regarding sequence comparison. This is followed by the description of the PAM and BLOSUM matrices that form the basis of sequence comparison. We also give a practical overview of currently available methods such as BLAST and FASTA, followed by a description and overview of tools available for genome comparison including LAGAN, MumMER, BLASTZ, and AVID.

  4. Large Scale Homing in Honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Pahl, Mario; Zhu, Hong; Tautz, Jürgen; Zhang, Shaowu

    2011-01-01

    Honeybee foragers frequently fly several kilometres to and from vital resources, and communicate those locations to their nest mates by a symbolic dance language. Research has shown that they achieve this feat by memorizing landmarks and the skyline panorama, using the sun and polarized skylight as compasses and by integrating their outbound flight paths. In order to investigate the capacity of the honeybees' homing abilities, we artificially displaced foragers to novel release spots at various distances up to 13 km in the four cardinal directions. Returning bees were individually registered by a radio frequency identification (RFID) system at the hive entrance. We found that homing rate, homing speed and the maximum homing distance depend on the release direction. Bees released in the east were more likely to find their way back home, and returned faster than bees released in any other direction, due to the familiarity of global landmarks seen from the hive. Our findings suggest that such large scale homing is facilitated by global landmarks acting as beacons, and possibly the entire skyline panorama. PMID:21602920

  5. Large Scale Magnetostrictive Valve Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, James A.; Holleman, Elizabeth; Eddleman, David

    2008-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center's Valves, Actuators and Ducts Design and Development Branch developed a large scale magnetostrictive valve actuator. The potential advantages of this technology are faster, more efficient valve actuators that consume less power and provide precise position control and deliver higher flow rates than conventional solenoid valves. Magnetostrictive materials change dimensions when a magnetic field is applied; this property is referred to as magnetostriction. Magnetostriction is caused by the alignment of the magnetic domains in the material s crystalline structure and the applied magnetic field lines. Typically, the material changes shape by elongating in the axial direction and constricting in the radial direction, resulting in no net change in volume. All hardware and testing is complete. This paper will discuss: the potential applications of the technology; overview of the as built actuator design; discuss problems that were uncovered during the development testing; review test data and evaluate weaknesses of the design; and discuss areas for improvement for future work. This actuator holds promises of a low power, high load, proportionally controlled actuator for valves requiring 440 to 1500 newtons load.

  6. Monitoring the spatial and temporal dynamics of the Brazilian Cerrado physiognomies with spectral vegetation indices: An assessment within the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Laerte Guimaraes, Junior

    The large extension and diversity of the Cerrado vegetative cover, the second largest biome in South America, has a strong impact on regional, and possibly global, energy, water, and carbon balances. Nevertheless, as a major farming frontier in Brazil, it is estimated that about 40% of the Cerrado land cover has already been converted into cultivated pastures, field crops, urban development, and degraded areas. Despite this aggressive pace of land conversion, there have been few investigations on the operational utilization of remote sensing data to effectively monitor and understand this biome. Within this context, and within the goals and framework of the Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA), we evaluated the usefulness of spectral vegetation indices (VIs), to effectively monitor the Cerrado, detect land conversions, and discriminate and assess the conditions of the major structural types of Cerrado vegetation. Using a full hydrologic year (1995) of AVHRR, local-area-coverage (LAC), data over the Cerrado, converted to normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI), we were able to spatially discriminate three major communities based on their phenologic patterns. These included savanna formations and pasture sites, forested areas, and agricultural crops. We also analyzed wet and dry season, aircraft-based radiometric data and a ground-based set of biophysical measurements, collected over the Brasilia National Park (BNP), the largest LBA core site in the Cerrado biome. Overall, we found the MODIS vegetation indices, which include a continuity NDVI and the new enhanced vegetation index (EVI), to provide better performance capabilities with improved dynamic ranges and contrasts in seasonal dynamics. Land cover discrimination was favored by the NDVI, while the EVI more strongly responded to the seasonal contrast of the vegetative cover. Thus, the synergistic use of the MODIS VI products will very likely

  7. Spatial and temporal variations of fundamental constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levshakov, S. A.; Agafonova, I. I.; Molaro, P.; Reimers, D.

    2010-11-01

    Spatial and temporal variations in the electron-to-proton mass ratio, μ, and in the fine-structure constant, α, are not present in the Standard Model of particle physics but they arise quite naturally in grant unification theories, multidimensional theories and in general when a coupling of light scalar fields to baryonic matter is considered. The light scalar fields are usually attributed to a negative pressure substance permeating the entire visible Universe and known as dark energy. This substance is thought to be responsible for a cosmic acceleration at low redshifts, z < 1. A strong dependence of μ and α on the ambient matter density is predicted by chameleon-like scalar field models. Calculations of atomic and molecular spectra show that different transitions have different sensitivities to changes in fundamental constants. Thus, measuring the relative line positions, Δ V, between such transitions one can probe the hypothetical variability of physical constants. In particular, interstellar molecular clouds can be used to test the matter density dependence of μ, since gas density in these clouds is ~15 orders of magnitude lower than that in terrestrial environment. We use the best quality radio spectra of the inversion transition of NH3 (J,K)=(1,1) and rotational transitions of other molecules to estimate the radial velocity offsets, Δ V ≡ Vrot - Vinv. The obtained value of Δ V shows a statistically significant positive shift of 23±4stat±3sys m s-1 (1σ). Being interpreted in terms of the electron-to-proton mass ratio variation, this gives Δμ/μ = (22±4stat±3sys)×10-9. A strong constraint on variation of the quantity F = α2/μ in the Milky Way is found from comparison of the fine-structure transition J=1-0 in atomic carbon C i with the low-J rotational lines in carbon monoxide 13CO arising in the interstellar molecular clouds: |Δ F/F| < 3×10-7. This yields |Δ α/α| < 1.5×10-7 at z = 0. Since extragalactic absorbers have gas densities

  8. Methane emissions on large scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beswick, K. M.; Simpson, T. W.; Fowler, D.; Choularton, T. W.; Gallagher, M. W.; Hargreaves, K. J.; Sutton, M. A.; Kaye, A.

    with previous results from the area, indicating that this method of data analysis provided good estimates of large scale methane emissions.

  9. Large-Scale Information Systems

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. Nicol; H. R. Ammerlahn; M. E. Goldsby; M. M. Johnson; D. E. Rhodes; A. S. Yoshimura

    2000-12-01

    Large enterprises are ever more dependent on their Large-Scale Information Systems (LSLS), computer systems that are distinguished architecturally by distributed components--data sources, networks, computing engines, simulations, human-in-the-loop control and remote access stations. These systems provide such capabilities as workflow, data fusion and distributed database access. The Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) contains many examples of LSIS components, a fact that motivates this research. However, most LSIS in use grew up from collections of separate subsystems that were not designed to be components of an integrated system. For this reason, they are often difficult to analyze and control. The problem is made more difficult by the size of a typical system, its diversity of information sources, and the institutional complexities associated with its geographic distribution across the enterprise. Moreover, there is no integrated approach for analyzing or managing such systems. Indeed, integrated development of LSIS is an active area of academic research. This work developed such an approach by simulating the various components of the LSIS and allowing the simulated components to interact with real LSIS subsystems. This research demonstrated two benefits. First, applying it to a particular LSIS provided a thorough understanding of the interfaces between the system's components. Second, it demonstrated how more rapid and detailed answers could be obtained to questions significant to the enterprise by interacting with the relevant LSIS subsystems through simulated components designed with those questions in mind. In a final, added phase of the project, investigations were made on extending this research to wireless communication networks in support of telemetry applications.

  10. Distribution probability of large-scale landslides in central Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timilsina, Manita; Bhandary, Netra P.; Dahal, Ranjan Kumar; Yatabe, Ryuichi

    2014-12-01

    Large-scale landslides in the Himalaya are defined as huge, deep-seated landslide masses that occurred in the geological past. They are widely distributed in the Nepal Himalaya. The steep topography and high local relief provide high potential for such failures, whereas the dynamic geology and adverse climatic conditions play a key role in the occurrence and reactivation of such landslides. The major geoscientific problems related with such large-scale landslides are 1) difficulties in their identification and delineation, 2) sources of small-scale failures, and 3) reactivation. Only a few scientific publications have been published concerning large-scale landslides in Nepal. In this context, the identification and quantification of large-scale landslides and their potential distribution are crucial. Therefore, this study explores the distribution of large-scale landslides in the Lesser Himalaya. It provides simple guidelines to identify large-scale landslides based on their typical characteristics and using a 3D schematic diagram. Based on the spatial distribution of landslides, geomorphological/geological parameters and logistic regression, an equation of large-scale landslide distribution is also derived. The equation is validated by applying it to another area. For the new area, the area under the receiver operating curve of the landslide distribution probability in the new area is 0.699, and a distribution probability value could explain > 65% of existing landslides. Therefore, the regression equation can be applied to areas of the Lesser Himalaya of central Nepal with similar geological and geomorphological conditions.

  11. Spatial distribution of mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA variation in Daubenton's bat within Scotland.

    PubMed

    Ngamprasertwong, Thongchai; Mackie, Iain J; Racey, Paul A; Piertney, Stuart B

    2008-07-01

    Daubenton's bat (Myotis daubentonii) is a known reservoir for European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2). An appreciation of the potential for epidemiological spread and disease risk requires an understanding of the dispersal of the primary host, and any large-scale geographical barriers that may impede gene flow. The spatial pattern of microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA variation was examined to infer patterns of dispersal of bats among 35 populations across Scotland. DNA sequence variation at the mitochondrial control region and ND1 genes revealed two distinct phylogeographical clades, with generally nonoverlapping geographical distributions except for a small number of populations where both matrilines were found in sympatry. Such discontinuity suggests that Scotland was recolonized twice following the retreat of the Pleistocene ice sheet with little subsequent matrilineal introgression. However, eight microsatellite loci showed low levels of genetic divergence among populations, even between populations from the two distinct mitochondrial DNA clades. An overall, macrogeographical genetic isolation-by-distance pattern was observed, with high levels of gene flow among local populations. Apparently contrasting patterns of mitochondrial and microsatellite divergence at different scales could be explained by sex-specific differences in gene flow at large scales.

  12. Standing variation in spatially growing populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusco, Diana; Gralka, Matti; Kayser, Jona; Hallatschek, Oskar

    Patterns of genetic diversity not only reflect the evolutionary history of a species but they can also determine the evolutionary response to environmental change. For instance, the standing genetic diversity of a microbial population can be key to rescue in the face of an antibiotic attack. While genetic diversity is in general shaped by both demography and evolution, very little is understood when both factors matter, as e.g. for biofilms with pronounced spatial organization. Here, we quantitatively explore patterns of genetic diversity by using microbial colonies and well-mixed test tube populations as antipodal model systems with extreme and very little spatial structure, respectively. We find that Eden model simulations and KPZ theory can remarkably reproduce the genetic diversity in microbial colonies obtained via population sequencing. The excellent agreement allows to draw conclusions on the resilience of spatially-organized populations and to uncover new strategies to contain antibiotic resistance.

  13. Review and synthesis of problems and directions for large scale geographic information system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, A. R.; Dangermond, J.; Marble, D.; Simonett, D. S.; Tomlinson, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Problems and directions for large scale geographic information system development were reviewed and the general problems associated with automated geographic information systems and spatial data handling were addressed.

  14. Spatial correlation of auroral zone geomagnetic variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackel, B. J.; Davalos, A.

    2016-12-01

    Magnetic field perturbations in the auroral zone are produced by a combination of distant ionospheric and local ground induced currents. Spatial and temporal structure of these currents is scientifically interesting and can also have a significant influence on critical infrastructure.Ground-based magnetometer networks are an essential tool for studying these phenomena, with the existing complement of instruments in Canada providing extended local time coverage. In this study we examine the spatial correlation between magnetic field observations over a range of scale lengths. Principal component and canonical correlation analysis are used to quantify relationships between multiple sites. Results could be used to optimize network configurations, validate computational models, and improve methods for empirical interpolation.

  15. Indoor air: Spatial variations of chlorinated pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, David J.; Hites, Ronald A.

    The concentrations of two classes of chlorinated pesticides were measured in various locations within four homes. The prevalent compounds were chlorinated derivatives of cyclopentadiene which had been used as termiticides. These compounds were found in basement areas at higher concentrations than in upstairs areas of the homes. Another class of chlorinated pesticide was represented by chlorpyrifos; its spatial profile was consistent with its application in upstairs areas.

  16. Is there further evidence for spatial variation of fundamental constants?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berengut, J. C.; Flambaum, V. V.; King, J. A.; Curran, S. J.; Webb, J. K.

    2011-06-01

    Indications of spatial variation of the fine-structure constant, α, based on study of quasar absorption systems have recently been reported [J. K. Webb, J. A. King, M. T. Murphy, V. V. Flambaum, R. F. Carswell, and M. B. Bainbridge, arXiv:1008.3907.]. The physics that causes this α-variation should have other observable manifestations, and this motivates us to look for complementary astrophysical effects. In this paper we propose a method to test whether spatial variation of fundamental constants existed during the epoch of big bang nucleosynthesis and study existing measurements of deuterium abundance for a signal. We also examine existing quasar absorption spectra data that are sensitive to variation of the electron-to-proton mass ratio μ and x=α2μgp for spatial variation.

  17. Utility of semivariogram for spatial variation of soil nutrients and the robust analysis of semivariogram.

    PubMed

    Guo, X D; Fu, B J; Ma, K M; Chen, L D

    2001-10-01

    The spatial variation of soil nutrients in topsoil (0-20 cm) was analyzed using semivariogram in the Zunhua County of Hebei Province, China. The effect on semivariogram with randomly deleted data and kriged estimates using various reduced sample sizes was also analyzed. The semivariograms of available N, total N, available P, organic matter were best described by a spherical model, except for available K, which best fitted a complex structure of exponential model and linear with sill model. The ratio of nugget to total sample variance ranged from 34.4% to 68.4%, indicating the spatial correlation of tested soil nutrients on a large scale was moderately dependent. Among five soil nutrients, available nitrogen and available phosphorus had the shortest spatial correlation range (5 km and 5.5 km), available K had the longest range (25.5 km), whereas total nitrogen and organic matter had intermediate spatial correlation range (14.5 km and 8.5 km). The semivariograms of available N, total N, available P, and organic matter were insensitive to a 50%-60% reduction in original sampling density, while for available K, it is up to 70%. The estimated spatial distributions of total N by kriging, under various reduced sample sizes, all correlated significantly (P = 0.001) with those obtained from original data. The results showed that the semivariogram was a relatively robust tool when used in a large region and sufficient spatial variation information could be retained regardless of a higher deletion proportion of the original data. The original sample data could be reduced by kriging and the estimates showed no loss of spatial information, however, the results may be unreliable unless a clearly identified semivariogram model could be obtained. The results may provide useful information for determining the appropriate sampling densities for these scales of soil survey.

  18. EINSTEIN'S SIGNATURE IN COSMOLOGICAL LARGE-SCALE STRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Bruni, Marco; Hidalgo, Juan Carlos; Wands, David

    2014-10-10

    We show how the nonlinearity of general relativity generates a characteristic nonGaussian signal in cosmological large-scale structure that we calculate at all perturbative orders in a large-scale limit. Newtonian gravity and general relativity provide complementary theoretical frameworks for modeling large-scale structure in ΛCDM cosmology; a relativistic approach is essential to determine initial conditions, which can then be used in Newtonian simulations studying the nonlinear evolution of the matter density. Most inflationary models in the very early universe predict an almost Gaussian distribution for the primordial metric perturbation, ζ. However, we argue that it is the Ricci curvature of comoving-orthogonal spatial hypersurfaces, R, that drives structure formation at large scales. We show how the nonlinear relation between the spatial curvature, R, and the metric perturbation, ζ, translates into a specific nonGaussian contribution to the initial comoving matter density that we calculate for the simple case of an initially Gaussian ζ. Our analysis shows the nonlinear signature of Einstein's gravity in large-scale structure.

  19. Individual Skill Differences and Large-Scale Environmental Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Alexa W.; Shelton, Amy L.

    2006-01-01

    Spatial skills are known to vary widely among normal individuals. This project was designed to address whether these individual differences are differentially related to large-scale environmental learning from route (ground-level) and survey (aerial) perspectives. Participants learned two virtual environments (route and survey) with limited…

  20. Spatial response variations within biosensor flow cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cant, Nicola; Harrison, Sarah

    2012-02-01

    Biosensors are currently being developed for the detection of a wide range of analytes in a variety of scenarios. One such area is that of environmental monitoring for the presence of biological threats, from toxins through to viruses and bacteria. The varying nature, and in particular disparate size, of such a variety of analytes poses a significant challenge in the development of effective high confidence instruments. Many existing biosensors employ functionalised flow cells in which spatially defined arrays of surface immobilised recognition elements are present to specifically capture their analyte of interest. Experimental data obtained using a grating coupled SPR instrument, the BIAcore Flexchip, has revealed spatial dependency differences in response behaviours between proteinaceous and particulate analytes. In particular, the magnitude of responses seen with Bacillus anthracis spores across the instruments flow cell appear to be influenced by shear and gravitational effects whilst those from soluble proteins are more uniform. We have explored this dependence to understand its fundamental impact on the successful implementation of multi-analyte environmental biological detection systems.

  1. Spatial variations of shallow and deep soil moisture in the semi-arid Loess Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, L.; Wei, W.; Chen, L.; Jia, F.; Mo, B.

    2012-09-01

    Soil moisture in deep soil layers is an important relatively stable water resource for vegetation growth in the semi-arid Loess Plateau of China. Characterizing the spatial variations of deep soil moisture with respect to the topographic conditions has significant importance for vegetation restoration. In this study, we focused on analyzing the spatial variations and factors influencing soil moisture content (SMC) in shallow (0-2 m) and deep (2-8 m) soil layers, based on soil moisture observations in the Longtan watershed, Dingxi, Gansu province. The vegetation type of each sampling site for each comparison is same and varies by different positions, gradients, or aspects. The following discoveries were captured: (1) in comparison with shallow SMC, slope position and slope aspect may affect shallow soil moisture more than deep layers, while slope gradient affects both shallow and deep soil moisture significantly. This indicates that a great difference in deep soil hydrological processes between shallow and deep soil moisture remains that can be attributed to the introduced vegetation and topography. (2) A clear negative relationship exists between vegetation growth condition and deep soil moisture, which indicates that plants under different growing conditions may differ in consuming soil moisture, thus causing higher spatial variations in deep soil moisture. (3) The dynamic role of slope position and slope aspect on deep soil moisture has been changed due to large-scale plantation in semi-arid environment. Consequently, vegetation growth conditions and slope gradients may become the key factors dominating the spatial variations in deep soil moisture.

  2. Determinants of Spatial Variations in the Cost of Living,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    W-A095 455 RAND CORP SANTA MONICA CA F/6 b/3 DETERMINANTS Of SPATIAL VARIATIONS IN THE COST OF LIVING , CU) UNCLASSIFIED ND/P 5*9G4 L IC I uuuu no...ND DETERMINANTS OF SPATIAL VARIATIONS IN THE COST OF LIVING Kevin Neels October 1979 FEB 6198 P-6444 0 JTERMINANTS OF WATIAL VARIATIONS IN THE COST OF... LIVING /Kevin/Neels October 1979 1,.r ’ " - 9 U:-U,,"d ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author wishes to thank Matthew Neels for his assistance in constructing

  3. Large-Scale Reform Comes of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullan, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the history of large-scale education reform and makes the case that large-scale or whole system reform policies and strategies are becoming increasingly evident. The review briefly addresses the pre 1997 period concluding that while the pressure for reform was mounting that there were very few examples of deliberate or…

  4. Automating large-scale reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kisner, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper conveys a philosophy for developing automated large-scale control systems that behave in an integrated, intelligent, flexible manner. Methods for operating large-scale systems under varying degrees of equipment degradation are discussed, and a design approach that separates the effort into phases is suggested. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Modeling spatial variation in avian survival and residency probabilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saracco, James F.; Royle, J. Andrew; DeSante, David F.; Gardner, Beth

    2010-01-01

    The importance of understanding spatial variation in processes driving animal population dynamics is widely recognized. Yet little attention has been paid to spatial modeling of vital rates. Here we describe a hierarchical spatial autoregressive model to provide spatially explicit year-specific estimates of apparent survival (phi) and residency (pi) probabilities from capture-recapture data. We apply the model to data collected on a declining bird species, Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), as part of a broad-scale bird-banding network, the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship (MAPS) program. The Wood Thrush analysis showed variability in both phi and pi among years and across space. Spatial heterogeneity in residency probability was particularly striking, suggesting the importance of understanding the role of transients in local populations. We found broad-scale spatial patterning in Wood Thrush phi and pi that lend insight into population trends and can direct conservation and research. The spatial model developed here represents a significant advance over approaches to investigating spatial pattern in vital rates that aggregate data at coarse spatial scales and do not explicitly incorporate spatial information in the model. Further development and application of hierarchical capture-recapture models offers the opportunity to more fully investigate spatiotemporal variation in the processes that drive population changes.

  6. Patterns of Spatial Variation of Assemblages Associated with Intertidal Rocky Shores: A Global Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Miloslavich, Patricia; Palomo, Gabriela; Iken, Katrin; Konar, Brenda; Pohle, Gerhard; Trott, Tom; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Herrera, César; Hernández, Alejandra; Sardi, Adriana; Bueno, Andrea; Castillo, Julio; Klein, Eduardo; Guerra-Castro, Edlin; Gobin, Judith; Gómez, Diana Isabel; Riosmena-Rodríguez, Rafael; Mead, Angela; Bigatti, Gregorio; Knowlton, Ann; Shirayama, Yoshihisa

    2010-01-01

    Assemblages associated with intertidal rocky shores were examined for large scale distribution patterns with specific emphasis on identifying latitudinal trends of species richness and taxonomic distinctiveness. Seventy-two sites distributed around the globe were evaluated following the standardized sampling protocol of the Census of Marine Life NaGISA project (www.nagisa.coml.org). There were no clear patterns of standardized estimators of species richness along latitudinal gradients or among Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs); however, a strong latitudinal gradient in taxonomic composition (i.e., proportion of different taxonomic groups in a given sample) was observed. Environmental variables related to natural influences were strongly related to the distribution patterns of the assemblages on the LME scale, particularly photoperiod, sea surface temperature (SST) and rainfall. In contrast, no environmental variables directly associated with human influences (with the exception of the inorganic pollution index) were related to assemblage patterns among LMEs. Correlations of the natural assemblages with either latitudinal gradients or environmental variables were equally strong suggesting that neither neutral models nor models based solely on environmental variables sufficiently explain spatial variation of these assemblages at a global scale. Despite the data shortcomings in this study (e.g., unbalanced sample distribution), we show the importance of generating biological global databases for the use in large-scale diversity comparisons of rocky intertidal assemblages to stimulate continued sampling and analyses. PMID:21179546

  7. Patterns of spatial variation of assemblages associated with intertidal rocky shores: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Miloslavich, Patricia; Palomo, Gabriela; Iken, Katrin; Konar, Brenda; Pohle, Gerhard; Trott, Tom; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Herrera, César; Hernández, Alejandra; Sardi, Adriana; Bueno, Andrea; Castillo, Julio; Klein, Eduardo; Guerra-Castro, Edlin; Gobin, Judith; Gómez, Diana Isabel; Riosmena-Rodríguez, Rafael; Mead, Angela; Bigatti, Gregorio; Knowlton, Ann; Shirayama, Yoshihisa

    2010-12-16

    Assemblages associated with intertidal rocky shores were examined for large scale distribution patterns with specific emphasis on identifying latitudinal trends of species richness and taxonomic distinctiveness. Seventy-two sites distributed around the globe were evaluated following the standardized sampling protocol of the Census of Marine Life NaGISA project (www.nagisa.coml.org). There were no clear patterns of standardized estimators of species richness along latitudinal gradients or among Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs); however, a strong latitudinal gradient in taxonomic composition (i.e., proportion of different taxonomic groups in a given sample) was observed. Environmental variables related to natural influences were strongly related to the distribution patterns of the assemblages on the LME scale, particularly photoperiod, sea surface temperature (SST) and rainfall. In contrast, no environmental variables directly associated with human influences (with the exception of the inorganic pollution index) were related to assemblage patterns among LMEs. Correlations of the natural assemblages with either latitudinal gradients or environmental variables were equally strong suggesting that neither neutral models nor models based solely on environmental variables sufficiently explain spatial variation of these assemblages at a global scale. Despite the data shortcomings in this study (e.g., unbalanced sample distribution), we show the importance of generating biological global databases for the use in large-scale diversity comparisons of rocky intertidal assemblages to stimulate continued sampling and analyses.

  8. Large Scale EOF Analysis of Climate Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhat, M.; Gittens, A.; Kashinath, K.; Cavanaugh, N. R.; Mahoney, M.

    2016-12-01

    We present a distributed approach towards extracting EOFs from 3D climate data. We implement the method in Apache Spark, and process multi-TB sized datasets on O(1000-10,000) cores. We apply this method to latitude-weighted ocean temperature data from CSFR, a 2.2 terabyte-sized data set comprising ocean and subsurface reanalysis measurements collected at 41 levels in the ocean, at 6 hour intervals over 31 years. We extract the first 100 EOFs of this full data set and compare to the EOFs computed simply on the surface temperature field. Our analyses provide evidence of Kelvin and Rossy waves and components of large-scale modes of oscillation including the ENSO and PDO that are not visible in the usual SST EOFs. Further, they provide information on the the most influential parts of the ocean, such as the thermocline, that exist below the surface. Work is ongoing to understand the factors determining the depth-varying spatial patterns observed in the EOFs. We will experiment with weighting schemes to appropriately account for the differing depths of the observations. We also plan to apply the same distributed approach to analysis of analysis of 3D atmospheric climatic data sets, including multiple variables. Because the atmosphere changes on a quicker time-scale than the ocean, we expect that the results will demonstrate an even greater advantage to computing 3D EOFs in lieu of 2D EOFs.

  9. Large scale digital atlases in neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawrylycz, M.; Feng, D.; Lau, C.; Kuan, C.; Miller, J.; Dang, C.; Ng, L.

    2014-03-01

    Imaging in neuroscience has revolutionized our current understanding of brain structure, architecture and increasingly its function. Many characteristics of morphology, cell type, and neuronal circuitry have been elucidated through methods of neuroimaging. Combining this data in a meaningful, standardized, and accessible manner is the scope and goal of the digital brain atlas. Digital brain atlases are used today in neuroscience to characterize the spatial organization of neuronal structures, for planning and guidance during neurosurgery, and as a reference for interpreting other data modalities such as gene expression and connectivity data. The field of digital atlases is extensive and in addition to atlases of the human includes high quality brain atlases of the mouse, rat, rhesus macaque, and other model organisms. Using techniques based on histology, structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging as well as gene expression data, modern digital atlases use probabilistic and multimodal techniques, as well as sophisticated visualization software to form an integrated product. Toward this goal, brain atlases form a common coordinate framework for summarizing, accessing, and organizing this knowledge and will undoubtedly remain a key technology in neuroscience in the future. Since the development of its flagship project of a genome wide image-based atlas of the mouse brain, the Allen Institute for Brain Science has used imaging as a primary data modality for many of its large scale atlas projects. We present an overview of Allen Institute digital atlases in neuroscience, with a focus on the challenges and opportunities for image processing and computation.

  10. Large-scale velocity structures in turbulent thermal convection.

    PubMed

    Qiu, X L; Tong, P

    2001-09-01

    A systematic study of large-scale velocity structures in turbulent thermal convection is carried out in three different aspect-ratio cells filled with water. Laser Doppler velocimetry is used to measure the velocity profiles and statistics over varying Rayleigh numbers Ra and at various spatial positions across the whole convection cell. Large velocity fluctuations are found both in the central region and near the cell boundary. Despite the large velocity fluctuations, the flow field still maintains a large-scale quasi-two-dimensional structure, which rotates in a coherent manner. This coherent single-roll structure scales with Ra and can be divided into three regions in the rotation plane: (1) a thin viscous boundary layer, (2) a fully mixed central core region with a constant mean velocity gradient, and (3) an intermediate plume-dominated buffer region. The experiment reveals a unique driving mechanism for the large-scale coherent rotation in turbulent convection.

  11. Are the traditional large-scale drought indices suitable for shallow water wetlands? An example in the Everglades.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dehua; Wang, Penghe; Zuo, Jie; Zhang, Hui; An, Shuqing; Ramesh, Reddy K

    2017-08-01

    Numerous drought indices have been developed over the past several decades. However, few studies have focused on the suitability of indices for studies of ephemeral wetlands. The objective is to answer the following question: can the traditional large-scale drought indices characterize drought severity in shallow water wetlands such as the Everglades? The question was approached from two perspectives: the available water quantity and the response of wetland ecosystems to drought. The results showed the unsuitability of traditional large-scale drought indices for characterizing the actual available water quantity based on two findings. (1) Large spatial variations in precipitation (P), potential evapotranspiration (PE), water table depth (WTD) and the monthly water storage change (SC) were observed in the Everglades; notably, the spatial variation in SC, which reflects the monthly water balance, was 1.86 and 1.62 times larger than the temporal variation between seasons and between years, respectively. (2) The large-scale water balance measured based on the water storage variation had an average indicating efficiency (IE) of only 60.01% due to the redistribution of interior water. The spatial distribution of variations in the Normalized Different Vegetation Index (NDVI) in the 2011 dry season showed significantly positive, significantly negative and weak correlations with the minimum WTD in wet prairies, graminoid prairies and sawgrass wetlands, respectively. The significant and opposite correlations imply the unsuitability of the traditional large-scale drought indices in evaluating the effect of drought on shallow water wetlands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Large Scale Metal Additive Techniques Review

    SciTech Connect

    Nycz, Andrzej; Adediran, Adeola I; Noakes, Mark W; Love, Lonnie J

    2016-01-01

    In recent years additive manufacturing made long strides toward becoming a main stream production technology. Particularly strong progress has been made in large-scale polymer deposition. However, large scale metal additive has not yet reached parity with large scale polymer. This paper is a review study of the metal additive techniques in the context of building large structures. Current commercial devices are capable of printing metal parts on the order of several cubic feet compared to hundreds of cubic feet for the polymer side. In order to follow the polymer progress path several factors are considered: potential to scale, economy, environment friendliness, material properties, feedstock availability, robustness of the process, quality and accuracy, potential for defects, and post processing as well as potential applications. This paper focuses on current state of art of large scale metal additive technology with a focus on expanding the geometric limits.

  13. Large-scale regions of antimatter

    SciTech Connect

    Grobov, A. V. Rubin, S. G.

    2015-07-15

    Amodified mechanism of the formation of large-scale antimatter regions is proposed. Antimatter appears owing to fluctuations of a complex scalar field that carries a baryon charge in the inflation era.

  14. Hurricane Directional Wave Spectrum Spatial Variation at Landfall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Edward J.; Wright, C. Wayne; Vandemark, Douglas C.; Krabill, William B.; Garcia, Andrew W.; Houston, Samuel H.; Powell, Mark D.; Black, Peter G.; Marke, Frank D.; Busalacchi, Antonio J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    On 26 August 1998, hurricane Bonnie was making landfall near Wilmington, NC. The NASA airborne scanning radar altimeter (SRA) carried aboard one of the NOAA WP-3D hurricane hunter aircraft at 2.2 km height documented the sea surface directional wave spectrum in the region between Charleston, SC and Cape Hatteras, NC. The aircraft ground track included both segments along the shoreline and Pamlico Sound as well as far offshore. An animation of the directional wave spectrum spatial variation at landfall will be presented and contrasted with the spatial variation when Bonnie was in the open ocean on 24 August 1998.

  15. Large-Scale Atmospheric Variability and the Great Salt Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Young-Il.

    The impact of climate variability on the hydrologic cycle is of importance from the point of view of understanding the underlying dynamics of the system. The regional climate is governed primarily by the topography, vegetal cover, geomorphological characteristics, and the large scale atmospheric circulation. Regional climate is strongly affected by the nature of temporal variations in the atmospheric circulation. There is a large literature concerning potential hydrologic changes coming from various climatic change scenarios. Thus, we need to understand how the climate system influences hydrologic variability. Water-level fluctuations of Great Salt Lake (GSL) are a subject of concern and interest to industries along the shore, governmental officials, and the general public. Utah's rate of population growth is among the highest in the nation. Economic impacts of reduced water supply on industrial growth and agriculture are thus likely to be very significant if projected climate change scenarios occur. The ability to identify a relationship between Great Salt Lake (GSL) and atmospheric circulation patterns is important for understanding the response of lake volume to climatic variability. In particular, the impact of variability for atmospheric circulation is strong in the Western United States, where water resources are limited. The proposed research was motivated by an interest in how variations in climate may influence hydrologic extremes. Climatic variability and predictability is a function of the time and space scales of interest. Persistent droughts and wet periods typically have long time scales and large spatial extent. Closed basin lakes can act as amplifiers of climatic variability, and represent a space-time integration of basin hydrologic processes. The study (1) showed relationships between the time variability of the volume of the Great Salt Lake (GSL) and selected atmospheric circulation indices, (2) developed and applied nonlinear measures of

  16. Magnetic Helicity and Large Scale Magnetic Fields: A Primer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackman, Eric G.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic fields of laboratory, planetary, stellar, and galactic plasmas commonly exhibit significant order on large temporal or spatial scales compared to the otherwise random motions within the hosting system. Such ordered fields can be measured in the case of planets, stars, and galaxies, or inferred indirectly by the action of their dynamical influence, such as jets. Whether large scale fields are amplified in situ or a remnant from previous stages of an object's history is often debated for objects without a definitive magnetic activity cycle. Magnetic helicity, a measure of twist and linkage of magnetic field lines, is a unifying tool for understanding large scale field evolution for both mechanisms of origin. Its importance stems from its two basic properties: (1) magnetic helicity is typically better conserved than magnetic energy; and (2) the magnetic energy associated with a fixed amount of magnetic helicity is minimized when the system relaxes this helical structure to the largest scale available. Here I discuss how magnetic helicity has come to help us understand the saturation of and sustenance of large scale dynamos, the need for either local or global helicity fluxes to avoid dynamo quenching, and the associated observational consequences. I also discuss how magnetic helicity acts as a hindrance to turbulent diffusion of large scale fields, and thus a helper for fossil remnant large scale field origin models in some contexts. I briefly discuss the connection between large scale fields and accretion disk theory as well. The goal here is to provide a conceptual primer to help the reader efficiently penetrate the literature.

  17. Regional spatially adaptive total variation super-resolution with spatial information filtering and clustering.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Liangpei; Shen, Huanfeng

    2013-06-01

    Total variation is used as a popular and effective image prior model in the regularization-based image processing fields. However, as the total variation model favors a piecewise constant solution, the processing result under high noise intensity in the flat regions of the image is often poor, and some pseudoedges are produced. In this paper, we develop a regional spatially adaptive total variation model. Initially, the spatial information is extracted based on each pixel, and then two filtering processes are added to suppress the effect of pseudoedges. In addition, the spatial information weight is constructed and classified with k-means clustering, and the regularization strength in each region is controlled by the clustering center value. The experimental results, on both simulated and real datasets, show that the proposed approach can effectively reduce the pseudoedges of the total variation regularization in the flat regions, and maintain the partial smoothness of the high-resolution image. More importantly, compared with the traditional pixel-based spatial information adaptive approach, the proposed region-based spatial information adaptive total variation model can better avoid the effect of noise on the spatial information extraction, and maintains robustness with changes in the noise intensity in the super-resolution process.

  18. Large-scale atmospheric circulation forms and their impact on air temperature in Europe and northern Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoy, Andreas; Sepp, Mait; Matschullat, Jörg

    2013-08-01

    Air temperature variations in Europe and northern Asia are strongly affected by atmospheric circulation. A large-scale study of temperature signals is presented, using a newly available global gridded daily temperature dataset. Major types of European Grosswetterlagen (large-scale weather patterns) and the Russian Vangengeim-Girs classification are compared in their spatial applicability to air temperatures within the past 110 years (1901-2010). The consistency of spatial patterns in the three most recent decades (1981-2010) is investigated, and temperature changes are interpreted against the backdrop of changes in character and frequency of circulation patterns. Both classifications largely explain the observed temperature variability. Spatial patterns are large-scale and strong in both regions, especially in winter. Both spatial extent and signal magnitude show a distinct seasonality with maximum values in winter and minimum ones in summer. Spatial patterns show little changes in Europe; yet the ability to explain temperature variability in northern Asia decreased within 1981-2010. European winter warming corresponds to increased maritime and to decreased continental air mass inflow, superimposed on the general warming trend. Northern Asian winter warming is partly explainable by circulation changes in January and February, but to a lesser extend in December. These results may be used to advance input variables of global climate models and to improve their performance in the European-Northern Asian area.

  19. Temporal and spatial variations in fly ash quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hower, J.C.; Trimble, A.S.; Eble, C.F.

    2001-01-01

    Fly ash quality, both as the amount of petrographically distinguishable carbons and in chemistry, varies in both time and space. Temporal variations are a function of a number of variables. Variables can include variations in the coal blend organic petrography, mineralogy, and chemistry; variations in the pulverization of the coal, both as a function of the coal's Hardgrove grindability index and as a function of the maintenance and settings of the pulverizers; and variations in the operating conditions of the boiler, including changes in the pollution control system. Spatial variation, as an instantaneous measure of fly ash characteristics, should not involve changes in the first two sets of variables listed above. Spatial variations are a function of the gas flow within the boiler and ducts, certain flow conditions leading to a tendency for segregation of the less-dense carbons in one portion of the gas stream. Caution must be applied in sampling fly ash. Samples from a single bin, or series of bins, m ay not be representative of the whole fly ash, providing a biased view of the nature of the material. Further, it is generally not possible to be certain about variation until the analysis of the ash is complete. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Genetic mapping of variation in spatial learning in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Steinberger, Daniela; Reynolds, David S; Ferris, Pushpindar; Lincoln, Rachael; Datta, Susmita; Stanley, Joanna; Paterson, Andrea; Dawson, Gerard R; Flint, Jonathan

    2003-03-15

    Inbred strains of mice are known to differ in their performance in the Morris water maze task, a test of spatial discrimination and place navigation in rodents, but the genetic basis of individual variation in spatial learning is unknown. We have mapped genetic effects that contribute to the difference between two strains, DBA/2 and C57BL6/J, using an F2 intercross and methods to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL). We found two QTL, one on chromosome 4 and one on chromosome 12, that influence behavior in the probe trial of the water maze (genome-wide significance p = 0.017 and 0.015, respectively). By including tests of avoidance conditioning and behavior in a novel environment, we show that the QTL on chromosomes 4 and 12 specifically influence variation in spatial learning. QTL that influence differences in fearful behavior (on chromosomes 1, 3, 7, 15, and 19) operate while mice are trained in the water maze apparatus.

  1. Sensitivity technologies for large scale simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    Collis, Samuel Scott; Bartlett, Roscoe Ainsworth; Smith, Thomas Michael; Heinkenschloss, Matthias; Wilcox, Lucas C.; Hill, Judith C.; Ghattas, Omar; Berggren, Martin Olof; Akcelik, Volkan; Ober, Curtis Curry; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Keiter, Eric Richard

    2005-01-01

    order approximation of the Euler equations and used as a preconditioner. In comparison to other methods, the AD preconditioner showed better convergence behavior. Our ultimate target is to perform shape optimization and hp adaptivity using adjoint formulations in the Premo compressible fluid flow simulator. A mathematical formulation for mixed-level simulation algorithms has been developed where different physics interact at potentially different spatial resolutions in a single domain. To minimize the implementation effort, explicit solution methods can be considered, however, implicit methods are preferred if computational efficiency is of high priority. We present the use of a partial elimination nonlinear solver technique to solve these mixed level problems and show how these formulation are closely coupled to intrusive optimization approaches and sensitivity analyses. Production codes are typically not designed for sensitivity analysis or large scale optimization. The implementation of our optimization libraries into multiple production simulation codes in which each code has their own linear algebra interface becomes an intractable problem. In an attempt to streamline this task, we have developed a standard interface between the numerical algorithm (such as optimization) and the underlying linear algebra. These interfaces (TSFCore and TSFCoreNonlin) have been adopted by the Trilinos framework and the goal is to promote the use of these interfaces especially with new developments. Finally, an adjoint based a posteriori error estimator has been developed for discontinuous Galerkin discretization of Poisson's equation. The goal is to investigate other ways to leverage the adjoint calculations and we show how the convergence of the forward problem can be improved by adapting the grid using adjoint-based error estimates. Error estimation is usually conducted with continuous adjoints but if discrete adjoints are available it may be possible to reuse the discrete version

  2. A variational image restoration with spatially varying noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Zheng; Bai, Hua; Liu, Ruihua; Shen, Chaomin

    2008-10-01

    The noise in natural images sometimes changes according to imaging mechanism or local image information. This is called spatially varying noise. It is obvious that classical variational denoising algorithms such as the Rudin-Osher-Fatemi model are not suitable for this kind of noise. We propose a variational method to remove this spatially varying noise based on the estimation of local variance for a given image, such that high noise regions are smoothed meanwhile the textures and certain details in low noise regions are preserved. Moreover, we give the proof of existence of the minimizer of our proposed functional. The experimental results show visual improvement and high signal-to-noise ratio over other variational denoising models.

  3. Large-scale cortical networks and cognition.

    PubMed

    Bressler, S L

    1995-03-01

    The well-known parcellation of the mammalian cerebral cortex into a large number of functionally distinct cytoarchitectonic areas presents a problem for understanding the complex cortical integrative functions that underlie cognition. How do cortical areas having unique individual functional properties cooperate to accomplish these complex operations? Do neurons distributed throughout the cerebral cortex act together in large-scale functional assemblages? This review examines the substantial body of evidence supporting the view that complex integrative functions are carried out by large-scale networks of cortical areas. Pathway tracing studies in non-human primates have revealed widely distributed networks of interconnected cortical areas, providing an anatomical substrate for large-scale parallel processing of information in the cerebral cortex. Functional coactivation of multiple cortical areas has been demonstrated by neurophysiological studies in non-human primates and several different cognitive functions have been shown to depend on multiple distributed areas by human neuropsychological studies. Electrophysiological studies on interareal synchronization have provided evidence that active neurons in different cortical areas may become not only coactive, but also functionally interdependent. The computational advantages of synchronization between cortical areas in large-scale networks have been elucidated by studies using artificial neural network models. Recent observations of time-varying multi-areal cortical synchronization suggest that the functional topology of a large-scale cortical network is dynamically reorganized during visuomotor behavior.

  4. A Novel Large-Scale Temperature Dominated Model for Predicting the End of the Growing Season

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yang; Zheng, Zeyu; Shi, Haibo; Xiao, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Vegetation phenology regulates many ecosystem processes and is an indicator of the biological responses to climate change. It is important to model the timing of leaf senescence accurately, since the canopy duration and carbon assimilation are strongly determined by the timings of leaf senescence. However, the existing phenology models are unlikely to accurately predict the end of the growing season (EGS) on large scales, resulting in the misrepresentation of the seasonality and interannual variability of biosphere–atmosphere feedbacks and interactions in coupled global climate models. In this paper, we presented a novel large-scale temperature dominated model integrated with the physiological adaptation of plants to the local temperature to assess the spatial pattern and interannual variability of the EGS. Our model was validated in all temperate vegetation types over the Northern Hemisphere. The results indicated that our model showed better performance in representing the spatial and interannual variability of leaf senescence, compared with the original phenology model in the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS). Our model explained approximately 63% of the EGS variations, whereas the original model explained much lower variations (coefficient of determination R2 = 0.01–0.18). In addition, the differences between the EGS reproduced by our model and the MODIS EGS at 71.3% of the pixels were within 10 days. For the original model, it is only 26.1%. We also found that the temperature threshold (TcritTm) of grassland was lower than that of woody species in the same latitudinal zone. PMID:27893828

  5. Survey on large scale system control methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercadal, Mathieu

    1987-01-01

    The problem inherent to large scale systems such as power network, communication network and economic or ecological systems were studied. The increase in size and flexibility of future spacecraft has put those dynamical systems into the category of large scale systems, and tools specific to the class of large systems are being sought to design control systems that can guarantee more stability and better performance. Among several survey papers, reference was found to a thorough investigation on decentralized control methods. Especially helpful was the classification made of the different existing approaches to deal with large scale systems. A very similar classification is used, even though the papers surveyed are somehow different from the ones reviewed in other papers. Special attention is brought to the applicability of the existing methods to controlling large mechanical systems like large space structures. Some recent developments are added to this survey.

  6. US National Large-scale City Orthoimage Standard Initiative

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhou, G.; Song, C.; Benjamin, S.; Schickler, W.

    2003-01-01

    The early procedures and algorithms for National digital orthophoto generation in National Digital Orthophoto Program (NDOP) were based on earlier USGS mapping operations, such as field control, aerotriangulation (derived in the early 1920's), the quarter-quadrangle-centered (3.75 minutes of longitude and latitude in geographic extent), 1:40,000 aerial photographs, and 2.5 D digital elevation models. However, large-scale city orthophotos using early procedures have disclosed many shortcomings, e.g., ghost image, occlusion, shadow. Thus, to provide the technical base (algorithms, procedure) and experience needed for city large-scale digital orthophoto creation is essential for the near future national large-scale digital orthophoto deployment and the revision of the Standards for National Large-scale City Digital Orthophoto in National Digital Orthophoto Program (NDOP). This paper will report our initial research results as follows: (1) High-precision 3D city DSM generation through LIDAR data processing, (2) Spatial objects/features extraction through surface material information and high-accuracy 3D DSM data, (3) 3D city model development, (4) Algorithm development for generation of DTM-based orthophoto, and DBM-based orthophoto, (5) True orthophoto generation by merging DBM-based orthophoto and DTM-based orthophoto, and (6) Automatic mosaic by optimizing and combining imagery from many perspectives.

  7. Large-scale nanophotonic phased array.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jie; Timurdogan, Erman; Yaacobi, Ami; Hosseini, Ehsan Shah; Watts, Michael R

    2013-01-10

    Electromagnetic phased arrays at radio frequencies are well known and have enabled applications ranging from communications to radar, broadcasting and astronomy. The ability to generate arbitrary radiation patterns with large-scale phased arrays has long been pursued. Although it is extremely expensive and cumbersome to deploy large-scale radiofrequency phased arrays, optical phased arrays have a unique advantage in that the much shorter optical wavelength holds promise for large-scale integration. However, the short optical wavelength also imposes stringent requirements on fabrication. As a consequence, although optical phased arrays have been studied with various platforms and recently with chip-scale nanophotonics, all of the demonstrations so far are restricted to one-dimensional or small-scale two-dimensional arrays. Here we report the demonstration of a large-scale two-dimensional nanophotonic phased array (NPA), in which 64 × 64 (4,096) optical nanoantennas are densely integrated on a silicon chip within a footprint of 576 μm × 576 μm with all of the nanoantennas precisely balanced in power and aligned in phase to generate a designed, sophisticated radiation pattern in the far field. We also show that active phase tunability can be realized in the proposed NPA by demonstrating dynamic beam steering and shaping with an 8 × 8 array. This work demonstrates that a robust design, together with state-of-the-art complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology, allows large-scale NPAs to be implemented on compact and inexpensive nanophotonic chips. In turn, this enables arbitrary radiation pattern generation using NPAs and therefore extends the functionalities of phased arrays beyond conventional beam focusing and steering, opening up possibilities for large-scale deployment in applications such as communication, laser detection and ranging, three-dimensional holography and biomedical sciences, to name just a few.

  8. Spatial Variation as a Tool for Inferring Temporal Variation and Diagnosing Types of Mechanisms in Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Matthew P.; Kolasa, Jurek

    2014-01-01

    Ecological processes, like the rise and fall of populations, leave an imprint of their dynamics as a pattern in space. Mining this spatial record for insight into temporal change underlies many applications, including using spatial snapshots to infer trends in communities, rates of species spread across boundaries, likelihood of chaotic dynamics, and proximity to regime shifts. However, these approaches rely on an inherent but undefined link between spatial and temporal variation. We present a quantitative link between a variable’s spatial and temporal variation based on established variance-partitioning techniques, and test it for predictive and diagnostic applications. A strong link existed between spatial and regional temporal variation (estimated as Coefficients of Variation or CV’s) in 136 variables from three aquatic ecosystems. This association suggests a basis for substituting one for the other, either quantitatively or qualitatively, when long time series are lacking. We further show that weak substitution of temporal for spatial CV results from distortion by specific spatiotemporal patterns (e.g., inter-patch synchrony). Where spatial and temporal CV’s do not match, we pinpoint the spatiotemporal causes of deviation in the dynamics of variables and suggest ways that may control for them. In turn, we demonstrate the use of this framework for describing spatiotemporal patterns in multiple ecosystem variables and attributing them to types of mechanisms. Linking spatial and temporal variability makes quantitative the hitherto inexact practice of space-for-time substitution and may thus point to new opportunities for navigating the complex variation of ecosystems. PMID:24586627

  9. Uncovering Spatial Variation in Acoustic Environments Using Sound Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Job, Jacob R.; Myers, Kyle; Naghshineh, Koorosh; Gill, Sharon A.

    2016-01-01

    Animals select and use habitats based on environmental features relevant to their ecology and behavior. For animals that use acoustic communication, the sound environment itself may be a critical feature, yet acoustic characteristics are not commonly measured when describing habitats and as a result, how habitats vary acoustically over space and time is poorly known. Such considerations are timely, given worldwide increases in anthropogenic noise combined with rapidly accumulating evidence that noise hampers the ability of animals to detect and interpret natural sounds. Here, we used microphone arrays to record the sound environment in three terrestrial habitats (forest, prairie, and urban) under ambient conditions and during experimental noise introductions. We mapped sound pressure levels (SPLs) over spatial scales relevant to diverse taxa to explore spatial variation in acoustic habitats and to evaluate the number of microphones needed within arrays to capture this variation under both ambient and noisy conditions. Even at small spatial scales and over relatively short time spans, SPLs varied considerably, especially in forest and urban habitats, suggesting that quantifying and mapping acoustic features could improve habitat descriptions. Subset maps based on input from 4, 8, 12 and 16 microphones differed slightly (< 2 dBA/pixel) from those based on full arrays of 24 microphones under ambient conditions across habitats. Map differences were more pronounced with noise introductions, particularly in forests; maps made from only 4-microphones differed more (> 4 dBA/pixel) from full maps than the remaining subset maps, but maps with input from eight microphones resulted in smaller differences. Thus, acoustic environments varied over small spatial scales and variation could be mapped with input from 4–8 microphones. Mapping sound in different environments will improve understanding of acoustic environments and allow us to explore the influence of spatial variation

  10. Uncovering Spatial Variation in Acoustic Environments Using Sound Mapping.

    PubMed

    Job, Jacob R; Myers, Kyle; Naghshineh, Koorosh; Gill, Sharon A

    2016-01-01

    Animals select and use habitats based on environmental features relevant to their ecology and behavior. For animals that use acoustic communication, the sound environment itself may be a critical feature, yet acoustic characteristics are not commonly measured when describing habitats and as a result, how habitats vary acoustically over space and time is poorly known. Such considerations are timely, given worldwide increases in anthropogenic noise combined with rapidly accumulating evidence that noise hampers the ability of animals to detect and interpret natural sounds. Here, we used microphone arrays to record the sound environment in three terrestrial habitats (forest, prairie, and urban) under ambient conditions and during experimental noise introductions. We mapped sound pressure levels (SPLs) over spatial scales relevant to diverse taxa to explore spatial variation in acoustic habitats and to evaluate the number of microphones needed within arrays to capture this variation under both ambient and noisy conditions. Even at small spatial scales and over relatively short time spans, SPLs varied considerably, especially in forest and urban habitats, suggesting that quantifying and mapping acoustic features could improve habitat descriptions. Subset maps based on input from 4, 8, 12 and 16 microphones differed slightly (< 2 dBA/pixel) from those based on full arrays of 24 microphones under ambient conditions across habitats. Map differences were more pronounced with noise introductions, particularly in forests; maps made from only 4-microphones differed more (> 4 dBA/pixel) from full maps than the remaining subset maps, but maps with input from eight microphones resulted in smaller differences. Thus, acoustic environments varied over small spatial scales and variation could be mapped with input from 4-8 microphones. Mapping sound in different environments will improve understanding of acoustic environments and allow us to explore the influence of spatial variation

  11. Spatial and temporal variations of aridity indices in Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şarlak, Nermin; Mahmood Agha, Omar M. A.

    2017-06-01

    This study investigates the spatial and temporal variations of the aridity indices to reveal the desertification vulnerability of Iraq region. Relying on temperature and precipitation data taken from 28 meteorological stations for 31 years, the study aims to determine (1) dry land types and their delineating boundaries and (2) temporal change in aridity conditions in Iraq. Lang's aridity (Im), De Martonne's aridity (Am), United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) aridity (AIu), and Erinç aridity (IE) indices were selected in this study because of the scarcity of the observed data. The analysis of the spatial variation of aridity indices exhibited that the arid and semi-arid regions cover about 97% of the country's areas. As for temporal variations, it was observed that the aridity indices tend to decrease (statistically significant or not) for all stations. The cumulative sum charts (CUSUMs) were applied to detect the year on which the climate pattern of aridity indices had changed from one pattern to another. The abrupt change point was detected around year 1997 for the majority of the stations. Thus, the spatial and temporal aridity characteristics in Iraq were examined for the two periods 1980-1997 and 1998-2011 (before and after the change-point year) to observe the influence of abrupt change point on aridity phenomena. The spatial variation after 1997 was observed from semi-arid (dry sub humid) to arid (semi-arid) especially at the stations located in northern Iraq, while hyper-arid and arid climatic conditions were still dominant over southern and central Iraq. Besides, the negative temporal variations of the two periods 1980-1997 and 1998-2011 were obtained for almost every station. As a result, it was emphasized that Iraq region, like other Middle East regions, has become drier after 1997. The observed reduction in precipitation and increase in temperature for this region seem to make the situation worse in future.

  12. Super-Planckian spatial field variations and quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaewer, Daniel; Palti, Eran

    2017-01-01

    We study scenarios where a scalar field has a spatially varying vacuum expectation value such that the total field variation is super-Planckian. We focus on the case where the scalar field controls the coupling of a U(1) gauge field, which allows us to apply the Weak Gravity Conjecture to such configurations. We show that this leads to evidence for a conjectured property of quantum gravity that as a scalar field variation in field space asymptotes to infinity there must exist an infinite tower of states whose mass decreases as an exponential function of the scalar field variation. We determine the rate at which the mass of the states reaches this exponential behaviour showing that it occurs quickly after the field variation passes the Planck scale.

  13. Management of large-scale technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, A.

    1985-01-01

    Two major themes are addressed in this assessment of the management of large-scale NASA programs: (1) how a high technology agency was a decade marked by a rapid expansion of funds and manpower in the first half and almost as rapid contraction in the second; and (2) how NASA combined central planning and control with decentralized project execution.

  14. Large-scale multimedia modeling applications

    SciTech Connect

    Droppo, J.G. Jr.; Buck, J.W.; Whelan, G.; Strenge, D.L.; Castleton, K.J.; Gelston, G.M.

    1995-08-01

    Over the past decade, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and other agencies have faced increasing scrutiny for a wide range of environmental issues related to past and current practices. A number of large-scale applications have been undertaken that required analysis of large numbers of potential environmental issues over a wide range of environmental conditions and contaminants. Several of these applications, referred to here as large-scale applications, have addressed long-term public health risks using a holistic approach for assessing impacts from potential waterborne and airborne transport pathways. Multimedia models such as the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) were designed for use in such applications. MEPAS integrates radioactive and hazardous contaminants impact computations for major exposure routes via air, surface water, ground water, and overland flow transport. A number of large-scale applications of MEPAS have been conducted to assess various endpoints for environmental and human health impacts. These applications are described in terms of lessons learned in the development of an effective approach for large-scale applications.

  15. Evaluating Large-Scale Interactive Radio Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Charles; Naidoo, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the challenges involved in conducting evaluations of interactive radio programmes in South Africa with large numbers of schools, teachers, and learners. It focuses on the role such large-scale evaluation has played during the South African radio learning programme's development stage, as well as during its subsequent…

  16. Evaluating Large-Scale Interactive Radio Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Charles; Naidoo, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the challenges involved in conducting evaluations of interactive radio programmes in South Africa with large numbers of schools, teachers, and learners. It focuses on the role such large-scale evaluation has played during the South African radio learning programme's development stage, as well as during its subsequent…

  17. Long-term Spatial and Temporal Variations of Aurora Borealis Events in the Period 1700 - 1905

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, M.; Vaquero, J. M.; Gallego, M. C.

    2014-05-01

    Catalogues and other records of aurora-borealis events were used to study the long-term spatial and temporal variation of these phenomena in the period from 1700 to 1905 in the Northern Hemisphere. For this purpose, geographic and geomagnetic coordinates were assigned to approximately 27 000 auroral events with more than 80 000 observations. They were analyzed separately in three large-scale areas: i) Europe and North Africa, ii) North America, and iii) Asia. There was a clear need to fill some gaps existing in the records so as to have a reliable proxy of solar activity, especially during the 18th century. In order to enhance the long-term variability, an 11-year smoothing window was applied to the data. Variations in the cumulative numbers of auroral events with latitude (in both geographic and geomagnetic coordinates) were used to discriminate between the two main solar sources: coronal mass ejections and high-speed streams from coronal holes. The characteristics of the associated auroras correlate differently with the solar-activity cycle.

  18. Large-scale solar magnetic field mapping: I.

    PubMed

    Schatten, Kenneth H

    2013-12-01

    This article focuses on mapping the Sun's large-scale magnetic fields. In particular, the model considers how photospheric fields evolve in time. Our solar field mapping method uses Netlogo's cellular automata software via algorithms to carry out the movement of magnetic field on the Sun via agents. This model's entities consist of two breeds: blue and red agents. The former carry a fixed amount of radially outward magnetic flux: 10(23) Mx, and the latter, the identical amount of inward directed flux. The individual agents are distinguished, for clarity, by various shades of blue and red arrows whose orientation indicates the direction the agents are moving, relative to the near-steady bulk fluid motions. The fluid motions generally advect the field with the well known meridional circulation and differential rotation. Our model predominantly focuses on spatial and temporal variations from the bulk fluid motions owing to magnetic interactions. There are but a few effects that agents have on each other: i) while at the poles, field agents are connected via the Babcock - Leighton (B - L) subsurface field to other latitudes. This allows them to undertake two duties there: A) the B - L subsurface field spawns the next generation of new magnetic field via new agents, and B) the B - L subsurface field attracts lower-latitude fields via the "long-range" magnetic stress tension; ii) nearby agents affect each other's motion by short-range interactions; and iii) through annihilation: when opposite field agents get too close to each other, they disappear in pairs. The behavior of the agents' long- and short-range magnetic forces is discussed within this paper as well as the model's use of internal boundary conditions. The workings of the model may be seen in the accompanying movies and/or by using the software available via SpringerPlus' website, or on the Netlogo (TM) community website, where help is readable available, and should all these fail, some help from the author.

  19. Scalable WIM: effective exploration in large-scale astrophysical environments.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinggang; Fu, Chi-Wing; Hanson, Andrew J

    2006-01-01

    Navigating through large-scale virtual environments such as simulations of the astrophysical Universe is difficult. The huge spatial range of astronomical models and the dominance of empty space make it hard for users to travel across cosmological scales effectively, and the problem of wayfinding further impedes the user's ability to acquire reliable spatial knowledge of astronomical contexts. We introduce a new technique called the scalable world-in-miniature (WIM) map as a unifying interface to facilitate travel and wayfinding in a virtual environment spanning gigantic spatial scales: Power-law spatial scaling enables rapid and accurate transitions among widely separated regions; logarithmically mapped miniature spaces offer a global overview mode when the full context is too large; 3D landmarks represented in the WIM are enhanced by scale, positional, and directional cues to augment spatial context awareness; a series of navigation models are incorporated into the scalable WIM to improve the performance of travel tasks posed by the unique characteristics of virtual cosmic exploration. The scalable WIM user interface supports an improved physical navigation experience and assists pragmatic cognitive understanding of a visualization context that incorporates the features of large-scale astronomy.

  20. Spatial Variation of Soil Type and Soil Moisture in the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, R.

    2001-06-27

    Soil characteristics (texture and moisture) are typically assumed to be initially constant when performing simulations with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). Soil texture is spatially homogeneous and time-independent, while soil moisture is often spatially homogeneous initially, but time-dependent. This report discusses the conversion of a global data set of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) soil types to RAMS soil texture and the subsequent modifications required in RAMS to ingest this information. Spatial variations in initial soil moisture obtained from the National Center for Environmental Predictions (NCEP) large-scale models are also introduced. Comparisons involving simulations over the southeastern United States for two different time periods, one during warmer, more humid summer conditions, and one during cooler, dryer winter conditions, reveals differences in surface conditions related to increases or decreases in near-surface atmospheric moisture con tent as a result of different soil properties. Three separate simulation types were considered. The base case assumed spatially homogeneous soil texture and initial soil moisture. The second case assumed variable soil texture and constant initial soil moisture, while the third case allowed for both variable soil texture and initial soil moisture. The simulation domain was further divided into four geographically distinct regions. It is concluded there is a more dramatic impact on thermodynamic variables (surface temperature and dewpoint) than on surface winds, and a more pronounced variability in results during the summer period. While no obvious trends in surface winds or dewpoint temperature were found relative to observations covering all regions and times, improvement in surface temperatures in most regions and time periods was generally seen with the incorporation of variable soil texture and initial soil moisture.

  1. Spatial variation in soil phosphomonoesterase in irrigated and dry farmlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinegani, A. A. S.; Hossainpour, A.; Nazarizadeh, F.

    2006-05-01

    Spatial variation in the content of acid and alkaline phosphatase was surveyed on two farmlands. Two adjacent plots, one irrigated and cultivated and the other nonirrigated and cultivated, were marked on a 300-m-long transect with 10-m spacing. Soil samples were collected at the depths of 0-30 and 30-60 cm and were then analyzed for acid and alkaline phosphatase and other soil parameters. The analytical results were then subjected to classical statistical and geostatistical analysis. The results showed that the correlation coefficients of the phosphatase and clay, the silt, the sand, the mean weight diameter, the geometric mean diameter, the equivalent CaCO3, the pH, the electrical conductivity, the organic carbon, the respiration, the Olsen available phosphorus, and the vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) spore numbers of the soils in the transect studied were highly significant. In both layers of the irrigated farmland, the coefficients of the variation of the acid phosphatase were relatively high and the coefficients of the variation of the alkaline phosphatase were relatively low compared to those of the dry farmland. Although the acid and alkaline phosphatase in the topsoil and subsoil of the farmlands exhibited a spatial dependence at the sampled scale, the stability of the spatial structures were markedly low.

  2. Coupling large scale hydrologic-reservoir-hydraulic models for impact studies in data sparse regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Loughlin, Fiachra; Neal, Jeff; Wagener, Thorsten; Bates, Paul; Freer, Jim; Woods, Ross; Pianosi, Francesca; Sheffied, Justin

    2017-04-01

    As hydraulic modelling moves to increasingly large spatial domains it has become essential to take reservoirs and their operations into account. Large-scale hydrological models have been including reservoirs for at least the past two decades, yet they cannot explicitly model the variations in spatial extent of reservoirs, and many reservoirs operations in hydrological models are not undertaken during the run-time operation. This requires a hydraulic model, yet to-date no continental scale hydraulic model has directly simulated reservoirs and their operations. In addition to the need to include reservoirs and their operations in hydraulic models as they move to global coverage, there is also a need to link such models to large scale hydrology models or land surface schemes. This is especially true for Africa where the number of river gauges has consistently declined since the middle of the twentieth century. In this study we address these two major issues by developing: 1) a coupling methodology for the VIC large-scale hydrological model and the LISFLOOD-FP hydraulic model, and 2) a reservoir module for the LISFLOOD-FP model, which currently includes four sets of reservoir operating rules taken from the major large-scale hydrological models. The Volta Basin, West Africa, was chosen to demonstrate the capability of the modelling framework as it is a large river basin ( 400,000 km2) and contains the largest man-made lake in terms of area (8,482 km2), Lake Volta, created by the Akosombo dam. Lake Volta also experiences a seasonal variation in water levels of between two and six metres that creates a dynamic shoreline. In this study, we first run our coupled VIC and LISFLOOD-FP model without explicitly modelling Lake Volta and then compare these results with those from model runs where the dam operations and Lake Volta are included. The results show that we are able to obtain variation in the Lake Volta water levels and that including the dam operations and Lake Volta

  3. Multitree Algorithms for Large-Scale Astrostatistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    March, William B.; Ozakin, Arkadas; Lee, Dongryeol; Riegel, Ryan; Gray, Alexander G.

    2012-03-01

    this number every week, resulting in billions of objects. At such scales, even linear-time analysis operations present challenges, particularly since statistical analyses are inherently interactive processes, requiring that computations complete within some reasonable human attention span. The quadratic (or worse) runtimes of straightforward implementations become quickly unbearable. Examples of applications. These analysis subroutines occur ubiquitously in astrostatistical work. We list just a few examples. The need to cross-match objects across different catalogs has led to various algorithms, which at some point perform an AllNN computation. 2-point and higher-order spatial correlations for the basis of spatial statistics, and are utilized in astronomy to compare the spatial structures of two datasets, such as an observed sample and a theoretical sample, for example, forming the basis for two-sample hypothesis testing. Friends-of-friends clustering is often used to identify halos in data from astrophysical simulations. Minimum spanning tree properties have also been proposed as statistics of large-scale structure. Comparison of the distributions of different kinds of objects requires accurate density estimation, for which KDE is the overall statistical method of choice. The prediction of redshifts from optical data requires accurate regression, for which kernel regression is a powerful method. The identification of objects of various types in astronomy, such as stars versus galaxies, requires accurate classification, for which KDA is a powerful method. Overview. In this chapter, we will briefly sketch the main ideas behind recent fast algorithms which achieve, for example, linear runtimes for pairwise-distance problems, or similarly dramatic reductions in computational growth. In some cases, the runtime orders for these algorithms are mathematically provable statements, while in others we have only conjectures backed by experimental observations for the time being

  4. Time-of-day variation of visuo-spatial attention.

    PubMed

    Fimm, Bruno; Brand, Tanja; Spijkers, Will

    2016-05-01

    Time-of-day variation of visuo-spatial attention in relation to body temperature and subjective arousal was assessed. At five different times of day, alertness, covert, and overt orienting of attention were assessed in fifteen healthy subjects. Based on previous studies reporting a tight coupling of alerting and orienting the present study investigates potential attentional asymmetries induced by diurnal variations of arousal. Both covert and overt orienting of attention improved in the course of the day. However, no asymmetries between left and right visual hemifields could be detected. Covert orienting additionally covaried with body temperature, indicating a quite close relation between the attentional arousal and orienting system. Conversely, overt orienting only improved due to repeated testing but did not correlate with body temperature suggesting a partial independence of both modes of attentional orienting. It can be assumed that due to limited diurnal variations of arousal in the participants and practice effects caused by repeated testing, no attentional asymmetries could be provoked.

  5. Retention of memory for large-scale spaces.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Toru

    2013-01-01

    This study empirically examined the retention of large-scale spatial memory, taking different types of spatial knowledge and levels of sense of direction into consideration. A total of 38 participants learned a route from a video and conducted spatial tasks immediately after learning the route and after 2 weeks or 3 months had passed. Results showed that spatial memory decayed over time, at a faster rate for the first 2-week period than for the subsequent period of up to 3 months, although it was not completely forgotten even after 3 months. The rate of forgetting differed depending on the type of knowledge, with landmark and route knowledge deteriorating at a much faster rate than survey knowledge. Sense of direction affected both the acquisition and the retention of survey knowledge. Survey knowledge by people with a good sense of direction was more accurate and decayed much less than that by people with a poor sense of direction.

  6. Preparing Students with Learning Disabilities for Large-Scale Writing Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olinghouse, Natalie G.; Colwell, Ryan P.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides recommendations for teachers to better prepare 3rd through 12th grade students with learning disabilities for large-scale writing assessments. The variation across large-scale writing assessments and the multiple needs of struggling writers indicate the need for test preparation to be embedded within a comprehensive,…

  7. Preparing Students with Learning Disabilities for Large-Scale Writing Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olinghouse, Natalie G.; Colwell, Ryan P.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides recommendations for teachers to better prepare 3rd through 12th grade students with learning disabilities for large-scale writing assessments. The variation across large-scale writing assessments and the multiple needs of struggling writers indicate the need for test preparation to be embedded within a comprehensive,…

  8. Spatial variation in disease resistance: from molecules to metapopulations

    PubMed Central

    Laine, Anna-Liisa; Burdon, Jeremy J.; Dodds, Peter N.; Thrall, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Variation in disease resistance is a widespread phenomenon in wild plant-pathogen associations. Here, we review current literature on natural plant-pathogen associations to determine how diversity in disease resistance is distributed at different hierarchical levels – within host individuals, within host populations, among host populations at the metapopulation scale and at larger regional scales. We find diversity in resistance across all spatial scales examined. Furthermore, variability seems to be the best counter-defence of plants against their rapidly evolving pathogens. We find that higher diversity of resistance phenotypes also results in higher levels of resistance at the population level. Overall, we find that wild plant populations are more likely to be susceptible than resistant to their pathogens. However, the degree of resistance differs strikingly depending on the origin of the pathogen strains used in experimental inoculation studies. Plant populations are on average 16% more resistant to allopatric pathogen strains than they are to strains that occur within the same population (48 % vs. 32 % respectively). Pathogen dispersal mode affects levels of resistance in natural plant populations with lowest levels detected for hosts of airborne pathogens and highest for waterborne pathogens. Detailed analysis of two model systems, Linum marginale infected by Melampsora lini, and Plantago lanceolata infected by Podosphaera plantaginis, show that the amount of variation in disease resistance declines towards higher spatial scales as we move from individual hosts to metapopulations, but evaluation of multiple spatial scales is needed to fully capture the structure of disease resistance. Synthesis: Variation in disease resistance is ubiquitous in wild plant-pathogen associations. While the debate over whether the resistance structure of plant populations is determined by pathogen-imposed selection versus non-adaptive processes remains unresolved, we do

  9. Condition Monitoring of Large-Scale Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, David L.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides a summary of the research conducted for the NASA Ames Research Center under grant NAG2-1182 (Condition-Based Monitoring of Large-Scale Facilities). The information includes copies of view graphs presented at NASA Ames in the final Workshop (held during December of 1998), as well as a copy of a technical report provided to the COTR (Dr. Anne Patterson-Hine) subsequent to the workshop. The material describes the experimental design, collection of data, and analysis results associated with monitoring the health of large-scale facilities. In addition to this material, a copy of the Pennsylvania State University Applied Research Laboratory data fusion visual programming tool kit was also provided to NASA Ames researchers.

  10. Large-scale Advanced Propfan (LAP) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagerser, D. A.; Ludemann, S. G.

    1985-01-01

    The propfan is an advanced propeller concept which maintains the high efficiencies traditionally associated with conventional propellers at the higher aircraft cruise speeds associated with jet transports. The large-scale advanced propfan (LAP) program extends the research done on 2 ft diameter propfan models to a 9 ft diameter article. The program includes design, fabrication, and testing of both an eight bladed, 9 ft diameter propfan, designated SR-7L, and a 2 ft diameter aeroelastically scaled model, SR-7A. The LAP program is complemented by the propfan test assessment (PTA) program, which takes the large-scale propfan and mates it with a gas generator and gearbox to form a propfan propulsion system and then flight tests this system on the wing of a Gulfstream 2 testbed aircraft.

  11. Spatial variations in Achilles tendon shear wave speed

    PubMed Central

    DeWall, Ryan J.; Slane, Laura C.; Lee, Kenneth S.; Thelen, Darryl G.

    2014-01-01

    Supersonic shear imaging (SSI) is an ultrasound imaging modality that can provide insight into tissue mechanics by measuring shear wave propagation speed, a property that depends on tissue elasticity. SSI has previously been used to characterize the increase in Achilles tendon shear wave speed that occurs with loading, an effect attributable to the strain-stiffening behavior of the tissue. However, little is known about how shear wave speed varies spatially, which is important, given the anatomical variation that occurs between the calcaneus insertion and the gastrocnemius musculotendon junction. The purpose of this study was to investigate spatial variations in shear wave speed along medial and lateral paths of the Achilles tendon for three different ankle postures: resting ankle angle (R, i.e. neutral), plantarflexed (P; R − 15 deg), and dorsiflexed (D; R + 15 deg). We observed significant spatial and posture variations in tendon shear wave speed in ten healthy young adults. Shear wave speeds in the Achilles free tendon averaged 12 ± 1.2 m/s in a resting position, but decreased to 7.2 ± 1.8 m/s with passive plantarflexion. Distal tendon shear wave speeds often reached the maximum tracking limit (16.3 m/s) of the system when the ankle was in the passively dorsiflexed posture (+15 deg from R). At a fixed posture, shear wave speeds decreased significantly from the free tendon to the gastrocnemius musculotendon junction, with slightly higher speeds measured on the medial side than on the lateral side. Shear wave speeds were only weakly correlated with the thickness and depth of the tendon, suggesting that the distal-to-proximal variations may reflect greater compliance in the aponeurosis relative to the free tendon. The results highlight the importance of considering both limb posture and transducer positioning when using SSI for biomechanical and clinical assessments of the Achilles tendon. PMID:24933528

  12. Large-scale fibre-array multiplexing

    SciTech Connect

    Cheremiskin, I V; Chekhlova, T K

    2001-05-31

    The possibility of creating a fibre multiplexer/demultiplexer with large-scale multiplexing without any basic restrictions on the number of channels and the spectral spacing between them is shown. The operating capacity of a fibre multiplexer based on a four-fibre array ensuring a spectral spacing of 0.7 pm ({approx} 10 GHz) between channels is demonstrated. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  13. Modeling Human Behavior at a Large Scale

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Discerning intentions in dynamic human action. Trends in Cognitive Sciences , 5(4):171 – 178, 2001. Shirli Bar-David, Israel Bar-David, Paul C. Cross, Sadie...Limits of predictability in human mobility. Science , 327(5968):1018, 2010. S.A. Stouffer. Intervening opportunities: a theory relating mobility and...Modeling Human Behavior at a Large Scale by Adam Sadilek Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy

  14. Large-Scale Aerosol Modeling and Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-30

    aerosol species up to six days in advance anywhere on the globe. NAAPS and COAMPS are particularly useful for forecasts of dust storms in areas...impact cloud processes globally. With increasing dust storms due to climate change and land use changes in desert regions, the impact of the...bacteria in large-scale dust storms is expected to significantly impact warm ice cloud formation, human health, and ecosystems globally. In Niemi et al

  15. Large-scale instabilities of helical flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Alexandre; Alexakis, Alexandros; Brachet, Marc-Étienne

    2016-10-01

    Large-scale hydrodynamic instabilities of periodic helical flows of a given wave number K are investigated using three-dimensional Floquet numerical computations. In the Floquet formalism the unstable field is expanded in modes of different spacial periodicity. This allows us (i) to clearly distinguish large from small scale instabilities and (ii) to study modes of wave number q of arbitrarily large-scale separation q ≪K . Different flows are examined including flows that exhibit small-scale turbulence. The growth rate σ of the most unstable mode is measured as a function of the scale separation q /K ≪1 and the Reynolds number Re. It is shown that the growth rate follows the scaling σ ∝q if an AKA effect [Frisch et al., Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena 28, 382 (1987), 10.1016/0167-2789(87)90026-1] is present or a negative eddy viscosity scaling σ ∝q2 in its absence. This holds both for the Re≪1 regime where previously derived asymptotic results are verified but also for Re=O (1 ) that is beyond their range of validity. Furthermore, for values of Re above a critical value ReSc beyond which small-scale instabilities are present, the growth rate becomes independent of q and the energy of the perturbation at large scales decreases with scale separation. The nonlinear behavior of these large-scale instabilities is also examined in the nonlinear regime where the largest scales of the system are found to be the most dominant energetically. These results are interpreted by low-order models.

  16. Economically viable large-scale hydrogen liquefaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardella, U.; Decker, L.; Klein, H.

    2017-02-01

    The liquid hydrogen demand, particularly driven by clean energy applications, will rise in the near future. As industrial large scale liquefiers will play a major role within the hydrogen supply chain, production capacity will have to increase by a multiple of today’s typical sizes. The main goal is to reduce the total cost of ownership for these plants by increasing energy efficiency with innovative and simple process designs, optimized in capital expenditure. New concepts must ensure a manageable plant complexity and flexible operability. In the phase of process development and selection, a dimensioning of key equipment for large scale liquefiers, such as turbines and compressors as well as heat exchangers, must be performed iteratively to ensure technological feasibility and maturity. Further critical aspects related to hydrogen liquefaction, e.g. fluid properties, ortho-para hydrogen conversion, and coldbox configuration, must be analysed in detail. This paper provides an overview on the approach, challenges and preliminary results in the development of efficient as well as economically viable concepts for large-scale hydrogen liquefaction.

  17. Large-Scale Visual Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Chris

    2014-04-01

    Modern high performance computers have speeds measured in petaflops and handle data set sizes measured in terabytes and petabytes. Although these machines offer enormous potential for solving very large-scale realistic computational problems, their effectiveness will hinge upon the ability of human experts to interact with their simulation results and extract useful information. One of the greatest scientific challenges of the 21st century is to effectively understand and make use of the vast amount of information being produced. Visual data analysis will be among our most most important tools in helping to understand such large-scale information. Our research at the Scientific Computing and Imaging (SCI) Institute at the University of Utah has focused on innovative, scalable techniques for large-scale 3D visual data analysis. In this talk, I will present state- of-the-art visualization techniques, including scalable visualization algorithms and software, cluster-based visualization methods and innovate visualization techniques applied to problems in computational science, engineering, and medicine. I will conclude with an outline for a future high performance visualization research challenges and opportunities.

  18. Large-scale neuromorphic computing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furber, Steve

    2016-10-01

    Neuromorphic computing covers a diverse range of approaches to information processing all of which demonstrate some degree of neurobiological inspiration that differentiates them from mainstream conventional computing systems. The philosophy behind neuromorphic computing has its origins in the seminal work carried out by Carver Mead at Caltech in the late 1980s. This early work influenced others to carry developments forward, and advances in VLSI technology supported steady growth in the scale and capability of neuromorphic devices. Recently, a number of large-scale neuromorphic projects have emerged, taking the approach to unprecedented scales and capabilities. These large-scale projects are associated with major new funding initiatives for brain-related research, creating a sense that the time and circumstances are right for progress in our understanding of information processing in the brain. In this review we present a brief history of neuromorphic engineering then focus on some of the principal current large-scale projects, their main features, how their approaches are complementary and distinct, their advantages and drawbacks, and highlight the sorts of capabilities that each can deliver to neural modellers.

  19. Estimating spatial and temporal components of variation in count data using negative binomial mixed models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irwin, Brian J.; Wagner, Tyler; Bence, James R.; Kepler, Megan V.; Liu, Weihai; Hayes, Daniel B.

    2013-01-01

    Partitioning total variability into its component temporal and spatial sources is a powerful way to better understand time series and elucidate trends. The data available for such analyses of fish and other populations are usually nonnegative integer counts of the number of organisms, often dominated by many low values with few observations of relatively high abundance. These characteristics are not well approximated by the Gaussian distribution. We present a detailed description of a negative binomial mixed-model framework that can be used to model count data and quantify temporal and spatial variability. We applied these models to data from four fishery-independent surveys of Walleyes Sander vitreus across the Great Lakes basin. Specifically, we fitted models to gill-net catches from Wisconsin waters of Lake Superior; Oneida Lake, New York; Saginaw Bay in Lake Huron, Michigan; and Ohio waters of Lake Erie. These long-term monitoring surveys varied in overall sampling intensity, the total catch of Walleyes, and the proportion of zero catches. Parameter estimation included the negative binomial scaling parameter, and we quantified the random effects as the variations among gill-net sampling sites, the variations among sampled years, and site × year interactions. This framework (i.e., the application of a mixed model appropriate for count data in a variance-partitioning context) represents a flexible approach that has implications for monitoring programs (e.g., trend detection) and for examining the potential of individual variance components to serve as response metrics to large-scale anthropogenic perturbations or ecological changes.

  20. Sea surface temperature and large-scale circulation influences on tropical greenhouse effect and cloud radiative forcing

    SciTech Connect

    Bony, S.; Lau, K.M.; Sud, Y.C.

    1997-08-01

    Two independent sets of meteorological reanalyses are used to investigate relationships between the tropical sea surface temperature (SST) and the large-scale vertical motion of the atmosphere for spatial and seasonal variations, as well as for El Nino/La Nina episodes of 1987-88. Supergreenhouse effect (SGE) situations are found to be linked to the occurrence of enhance large-scale rising motion associated with increasing SST. In regions where the large-scale atmospheric motion is largely decoupled from the local SST due to internal or remote forcings, the SGE occurrence is weak. On seasonal and interannual timescales, such regions are found mainly over equatorial regions of the Indian Ocean and western Pacific, especially for SSTs exceeding 29.5{degrees}C. In these regions, the activation of feedback processes that regulate the ocean temperature is thus likely to be more related to the large-scale remote processes, such as those that govern the monsoon circulations and the low-frequency variability of the atmosphere, than to the local SST change. The relationships among SST, clouds, and cloud radiative forcing inferred from satellite observations are also investigated. 57 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Spatial variations of seismic parameters and seismic properties in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q.; Jackson, D. D.

    2008-12-01

    The b value in Gutenberg-Richer relationship is critical for both hazard analysis and physical understanding of earthquakes. In California, people usually assume that the magnitude distribution is independent of location, but it might not be apply to other regions such as creeping zone, geothermal and volcanic regions. We divide California into 1x1 degrees grid and calculate the b value in each cell and estimation the variation of b value caused by magnitude errors using simulated earthquakes. The spatial variation of p value in Omori law will help people to find the whether and how the stress field, geographical condition and temperature influence the aftershock sequences. We use ETAS model to estimate the p value in each cell and find the statistical spatial correlations. We explore the relationship between b, p values and heat flow in California to find whether there are more small earthquakes in high temperature area and whether the high temperature shortens the stress relaxation time. We explore the background rate in California. We find the stationarity of background rates in southern and northern California are significant different. And we also explore the variation of the ratio of background events to total events across different stress regimes to discuss how stress influences the earthquake physicics.

  2. Actinide ions for testing the spatial α -variation hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzuba, V. A.; Safronova, M. S.; Safronova, U. I.; Flambaum, V. V.

    2015-12-01

    Testing the spatial variation of the fine-structure constant α indicated by Webb et al. [J. K. Webb, J. A. King, M. T. Murphy, V. V. Flambaum, R. F. Carswell, and M. B. Bainbridge, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 191101 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.191101] with terrestrial laboratory atomic measurements requires at least α ˙/α ˜10-19yr-1 sensitivity. We conduct a systematic search of atomic systems for such a test that have all features of the best optical clock transitions leading to the possibility of the frequency measurements with fractional accuracy on the level of 10-18 or better and have a factor of 100 extra enhancement of α variation in comparison to experimental frequency ratio measurement accuracy. We identify the pair of actinide Cf15 + and Es16 + ions as the best system for a test of spatial α -variation hypothesis as it satisfies both of these requirements and has sufficiently simple electronic structure to allow for high-precision predictions of all atomic properties required for rapid experimental progress.

  3. Interannual Variability of Heat Wave in South Korea and theirs Connection with Large-Scale Atmospheric Circulation Pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Woo-Seop; Lee, Myong-In

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the interannual variation of heat wave frequency (HWF) in South Korea during the past 42 years (1973-2014) and examines its connection with large-scale atmospheric circulation changes. Korean heat waves tend to develop most frequently in late summer during July and August. The leading Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) accounting for 50% of the total variance shows a mono-signed pattern over South Korea, suggesting that the dominant mechanisms responsible for the heat wave are linked in a spatial scale much larger than the nation. It also exhibits a regional variation with more occurrences in the southeastern inland area. The regression of the leading principal component (PC) time series of HWF with large-scale atmospheric circulation identifies a north-south dipole pattern between the South China Sea and Northeast Asia. When this large-scale circulation mode facilitates deep convection in South China Sea, it tends to weaken moisture transport from the South China Sea to Northeast Asia. Enhanced deep convection in the South China Sea triggers a source of Rossby wave train along southerly wind that generates positive geopotential height anomalies around Korea. The anomalous high pressure pattern is accompanied by large-scale subsidence in Korea, thereby providing a favorable condition for extreme hot and dry days in Korea. This study highlights that there is a decadal change of the relationship between Korean heat waves and large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns. The tropical forcing tends to be weakened in the recent decade, with more influences from the Arctic variability from the mid-1990s.

  4. Reproduction on the edge: large-scale patterns of individual performance in a marine invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Lester, Sarah E; Gaines, Steven D; Kinlan, Brian P

    2007-09-01

    Reproductive output is a central attribute of life history, providing a measure of individual and population performance. The fields of ecology, biogeography, and evolutionary biology take disparate approaches in addressing spatial variation in reproduction, and thus we lack clear predictions for how reproductive output should vary geographically. We empirically investigate these contrasting theoretical approaches by determining geographic patterns in reproductive output for intertidal populations of the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, at 15 sites spanning a large geographic distance (9 degrees span of latitude) from central California, USA, to Baja California, Mexico. Contrary to predictions from biogeography, some of the highest values of reproductive output are at sites near the species' southern range boundary. Additionally, sea urchins do not exhibit a latitudinal gradient in reproduction, but rather show considerable mesoscale variation in reproductive output. Spatial analyses reveal that this variation is correlated with coastal topographic features that are known to influence the pattern of nearshore nutrient flux and circulation. We hypothesize that urchins' reproductive output may be driven by the spatial distribution of their food supply, drift macroalgae, the abundance of which is influenced by both nutrient supply and alongshore transport processes that are coupled to topographic features. Large-scale studies such as this provide valuable insight into the causes of species' range limits, population connectivity, habitat reserve design, and forecasting the effects of climate change on species' distributions.

  5. Large-scale data mining pilot project in human genome

    SciTech Connect

    Musick, R.; Fidelis, R.; Slezak, T.

    1997-05-01

    This whitepaper briefly describes a new, aggressive effort in large- scale data Livermore National Labs. The implications of `large- scale` will be clarified Section. In the short term, this effort will focus on several @ssion-critical questions of Genome project. We will adapt current data mining techniques to the Genome domain, to quantify the accuracy of inference results, and lay the groundwork for a more extensive effort in large-scale data mining. A major aspect of the approach is that we will be fully-staffed data warehousing effort in the human Genome area. The long term goal is strong applications- oriented research program in large-@e data mining. The tools, skill set gained will be directly applicable to a wide spectrum of tasks involving a for large spatial and multidimensional data. This includes applications in ensuring non-proliferation, stockpile stewardship, enabling Global Ecology (Materials Database Industrial Ecology), advancing the Biosciences (Human Genome Project), and supporting data for others (Battlefield Management, Health Care).

  6. Channel capacity of next generation large scale MIMO systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alshammari, A.; Albdran, S.; Matin, M.

    2016-09-01

    Information rate that can be transferred over a given bandwidth is limited by the information theory. Capacity depends on many factors such as the signal to noise ratio (SNR), channel state information (CSI) and the spatial correlation in the propagation environment. It is very important to increase spectral efficiency in order to meet the growing demand for wireless services. Thus, Multiple input multiple output (MIMO) technology has been developed and applied in most of the wireless standards and it has been very successful in increasing capacity and reliability. As the demand is still increasing, attention now is shifting towards large scale multiple input multiple output (MIMO) which has a potential of bringing orders of magnitude of improvement in spectral and energy efficiency. It has been shown that users channels decorrelate after increasing the number of antennas. As a result, inter-user interference can be avoided since energy can be focused on precise directions. This paper investigates the limits of channel capacity for large scale MIMO. We study the relation between spectral efficiency and the number of antenna N. We use time division duplex (TDD) system in order to obtain CSI using training sequence in the uplink. The same CSI is used for the downlink because the channel is reciprocal. Spectral efficiency is measured for channel model that account for small scale fading while ignoring the effect of large scale fading. It is shown the spectral efficiency can be improved significantly when compared to single antenna systems in ideal circumstances.

  7. Large-scale flow generation by inhomogeneous helicity.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, N; Brandenburg, A

    2016-03-01

    The effect of kinetic helicity (velocity-vorticity correlation) on turbulent momentum transport is investigated. The turbulent kinetic helicity (pseudoscalar) enters the Reynolds stress (mirror-symmetric tensor) expression in the form of a helicity gradient as the coupling coefficient for the mean vorticity and/or the angular velocity (axial vector), which suggests the possibility of mean-flow generation in the presence of inhomogeneous helicity. This inhomogeneous helicity effect, which was previously confirmed at the level of a turbulence- or closure-model simulation, is examined with the aid of direct numerical simulations of rotating turbulence with nonuniform helicity sustained by an external forcing. The numerical simulations show that the spatial distribution of the Reynolds stress is in agreement with the helicity-related term coupled with the angular velocity, and that a large-scale flow is generated in the direction of angular velocity. Such a large-scale flow is not induced in the case of homogeneous turbulent helicity. This result confirms the validity of the inhomogeneous helicity effect in large-scale flow generation and suggests that a vortex dynamo is possible even in incompressible turbulence where there is no baroclinicity effect.

  8. Large-scale flow experiments for managing river systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konrad, Christopher P.; Olden, Julian D.; Lytle, David A.; Melis, Theodore S.; Schmidt, John C.; Bray, Erin N.; Freeman, Mary C.; Gido, Keith B.; Hemphill, Nina P.; Kennard, Mark J.; McMullen, Laura E.; Mims, Meryl C.; Pyron, Mark; Robinson, Christopher T.; Williams, John G.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental manipulations of streamflow have been used globally in recent decades to mitigate the impacts of dam operations on river systems. Rivers are challenging subjects for experimentation, because they are open systems that cannot be isolated from their social context. We identify principles to address the challenges of conducting effective large-scale flow experiments. Flow experiments have both scientific and social value when they help to resolve specific questions about the ecological action of flow with a clear nexus to water policies and decisions. Water managers must integrate new information into operating policies for large-scale experiments to be effective. Modeling and monitoring can be integrated with experiments to analyze long-term ecological responses. Experimental design should include spatially extensive observations and well-defined, repeated treatments. Large-scale flow manipulations are only a part of dam operations that affect river systems. Scientists can ensure that experimental manipulations continue to be a valuable approach for the scientifically based management of river systems.

  9. Spatial and temporal variations of persistent organic pollutants impacted by episodic sediment resuspension in southern Lake Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Sondra M.; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    2014-01-01

    The impacts of large-scale, episodic sediment resuspension on the cycling of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) were examined using a spatially coordinated air and water sampling strategy conducted in southern Lake Michigan in the late winters of 1998, 1999, and 2000. We found no significant temporal changes in gas phase, dissolved phase, or suspended sediment PCB concentrations despite large-scale seasonal storms occurring before and after sampling campaigns. Only gas phase and suspended sediment PCBs varied spatially. Higher total suspended material (TSM) concentrations and fraction organic carbon (foc) were measured at sampling stations located in the near-shore region of southern Lake Michigan than at open-water sampling stations. Gas phase concentrations (ΣPCBg) were higher in the west (0.436 ± 0.200 ng/m3, n = 11) and south (0.408 ± 0.286 ng/m3, n = 5) than the east (0.214 ± 0.082 ng/m3, n = 10) and central (0.253 ± 0.145 ng/m3, n = 8) regions of southern Lake Michigan. Dissolved phase concentrations (ΣPCBd) averaged 0.18 ± 0.024 ng/L (n = 52); suspended sediment concentrations (ΣPCBs) accounted for between 4% and 72% (23 ± 4%, n = 52) of the total ΣPCB concentrations (ΣPCBT = ΣPCBd + ΣPCBs). Despite no consistent temporal variations in both dissolved phase or suspended sediment ΣPCB concentrations, there were temporal and spatial variations in the distribution shift between phases that can be linked to sediment resuspension, not a state of equilibrium. Specifically, our analysis suggests sediment resuspension results in preferential sorption of heavier, more chlorinated PCB congeners. PMID:25309030

  10. Spatial variation patterns of subtidal seaweed assemblages along a subtropical oceanic archipelago: Thermal gradient vs herbivore pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangil, Carlos; Sansón, Marta; Afonso-Carrillo, Julio

    2011-10-01

    The structure and composition of subtidal rocky seaweed assemblages were studied at 69 sites on the Canary Islands (northeastern Atlantic). This group of islands are situated at the southern boundary of the warm temperate region and adjacent to the cold waters from the northwest African coastal upwelling, which creates a difference of almost 2 °C in surface seawater temperature from the eastern to the western islands. This thermal variation allows an examination of the transition between the warm temperate and the tropical regions along this longitudinal gradient together with the hypothesised Fucales-dominated assemblages towards the eastern islands in contrast to the Dictyotales-dominated assemblages towards the western ones. Environmental and biological parameters were considered in order to investigate which were the main factors explaining spatial variation along the gradient in a multi-scaled approach. Although seventy-nine macroalgae were identified, 87.63% of the total mean cover was due to six taxa ( Lobophora variegata, nongeniculate corallines, Canistrocarpus cervicornis, Jania adhaerens, Cystoseira abies-marina and Pseudolithoderma adriaticum). At a large scale, sea urchin density explained the highest variation in seaweed assemblages (26.94%), and its pattern of distribution across the islands. The expected pattern of distribution according to the upwelling distance only occurred in restricted areas of the Canarian Archipelago in absence of herbivore pressure and habitat degradation. Spatial variations within islands (medium scale) were mainly related to wave exposure, while at a small scale these were mostly due to the degree of sedimentation.

  11. Analytical framework for screening long-time and large-scale soil moisture variability and its comparison with GRACE satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verrot, Lucile; Destouni, Georgia

    2016-04-01

    Soil moisture is a central component of the hydrologic cycle and its spatiotemporal variability offers a great challenge in assessing large-scale hydrological processes. As this variability depends greatly on prevailing hydro-climate, along with soil texture and its primarily spatial heterogeneity, soil moisture may be relatively easily constrained by large-scale water balance consideration in time and knowledge of soil property distribution in space. We have developed a relatively simple soil moisture model that relies on explicit account of spatial soil hydraulics parameters and catchment-wise organized hydro-climatic data and their variation in time. The current state of field techniques does not allow the retrieval of large-scale soil moisture data for direct comparison with model results. However, the recent GRACE satellite data provides for the first time large-scale directly comparative of large-scale water storage variability. This study compares the developed soil moisture model's ability to reproduce main variability dynamics in long-term data series of unsaturated water content and groundwater table position at the catchment scale with GRACE data, for a set of large tropical catchments.

  12. Large spatial variations in glacial erosion detected with detrital thermochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlers, T. A.; Stock, G. M.; Farley, K. A.; Densmore, M. S.; Rushlow, C.

    2008-12-01

    Studies of drainage basin erosion and landform evolution are often limited by not knowing where sediment is sourced from and how climate change influences catchment erosion. Detrital thermochronometer cooling ages collected from Quaternary glacial moraines and modern river sediments provide a promising tool to address these problems. We present an application of detrital thermochronology to quantify spatial variations in alpine glacial erosion during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Results are compared to the distribution of recent erosion recorded in samples from modern river sediments. The elevation dependence of detrital apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) ages is used as a sediment tracer to track the elevations where glacially eroded sediment is produced from bedrock. We measured ~204 AHe single grain ages from three moraines located between 2.3 and 3.7 km elevation in the Lone Pine catchment, Sierra Nevada, California. Ages from the lowest elevation moraine were measured on fine (<250 um) and coarse (>250 um) grained fractions of the sample to assess potential variations in sediment supply from different erosional processes. Measured AHe age probability density functions (PDFs) were compared with predicted PDFs, calculated by convolving bedrock age-elevation relationships with catchment hypsometries clipped at different elevations to reflect variable source elevations of sediment. Statistical comparison of the PDFs using a Monte Carlo approach and Kuiper test are used to evaluate the spatial distribution of erosion in the catchments. Results from the lowest elevation moraine indicate sediment is produced from the lower ~50-70% of catchment elevations at the 95% confidence level, indicating erosion near the base and sides of the glacier proportionally outweigh erosion from higher elevation head wall retreat and rock fall onto the glacier. Furthermore, grain-age distributions from the fine and coarse grain fractions are virtually indistinguishable, suggesting either both

  13. Spatial variations of levoglucosan in four European study areas.

    PubMed

    Jedynska, Aleksandra; Hoek, Gerard; Wang, Meng; Eeftens, Marloes; Cyrys, Josef; Beelen, Rob; Cirach, Marta; De Nazelle, Audrey; Keuken, Menno; Visschedijk, Antoon; Nystad, Wenche; Akhlaghi, Helgah Makarem; Meliefste, Kees; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; de Hoogh, Kees; Brunekreef, Bert; Kooter, Ingeborg M

    2015-02-01

    Relatively little is known about long term effects of wood smoke on population health. A wood combustion marker - levoglucosan - was measured using a standardized sampling and measurement method in four European study areas (Oslo, The Netherlands, Munich/Augsburg, Catalonia) to assess within and between study area spatial variation. Levoglucosan was analyzed in addition to: PM2.5, PM2.5 absorbance, PM10, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitrogen oxides (NOx), elemental and organic carbon (EC/OC), hopanes, steranes and elemental composition. Measurements were conducted at street, urban and regional background sites. Three two-week samples were taken per site and the annual average concentrations of pollutants were calculated using continuous measurements at one background reference site. Land use regression (LUR) models were developed to explain the spatial variation of levoglucosan. Much larger within than between study area contrast in levoglucosan concentration was found. Spatial variation patterns differed from other measured pollutants: PM2.5, NOx and EC. Levoglucosan had the highest spatial correlation with ΣPAH (r=0.65) and the lowest with traffic markers - NOx, Σhopanes/steranes (r=-0.22). Levoglucosan concentrations in the cold (heating) period were between 3 and 20 times higher compared to the warm period. The contribution of wood-smoke calculated based on levoglucosan measurements and previous European emission data to OC and PM2.5 mass was 13 to 28% and 3 to 9% respectively in the full year. Larger contributions were calculated for the cold period. The median model R(2) of the LUR models was 60%. The LUR models included population and natural land related variables. In conclusion, substantial spatial variability was found in levoglucosan concentrations within study areas. Wood smoke contributed substantially to especially wintertime PM2.5 OC and mass. The low to moderate correlation with PM2.5 mass and traffic markers offers the potential to

  14. Spatial variation of the current in grain boundary Josephson junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Carmody, M.; Moeckly, B. H.; Merkle, K. L.; Marks, L. D.

    2000-03-01

    The spatial variation of the current across the boundary in several YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} grain boundary Josephson junctions was determined using direct methods. A phase retrieval algorithm was used to calculate the positional critical current density J(x) from critical current versus applied magnetic field, I{sub c}(B), measurements. The current distributions were highly nonuniform along the length of the junctions. These measurements are consistent with existing filamentary grain boundary models, low temperature scanning microscopy studies, and laser scanning microscopy studies of high T{sub c} grain boundaries. The very large scatter in the critical currents reported in the literature for grain boundaries of the same macroscopic geometry appear to be due to the underlying variations in local critical currents. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  15. Large-scale biodiversity patterns in freshwater phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Stomp, Maayke; Huisman, Jef; Mittelbach, Gary G; Litchman, Elena; Klausmeier, Christopher A

    2011-11-01

    Our planet shows striking gradients in the species richness of plants and animals, from high biodiversity in the tropics to low biodiversity in polar and high-mountain regions. Recently, similar patterns have been described for some groups of microorganisms, but the large-scale biogeographical distribution of freshwater phytoplankton diversity is still largely unknown. We examined the species diversity of freshwater phytoplankton sampled from 540 lakes and reservoirs distributed across the continental United States and found strong latitudinal, longitudinal, and altitudinal gradients in phytoplankton biodiversity, demonstrating that microorganisms can show substantial geographic variation in biodiversity. Detailed analysis using structural equation models indicated that these large-scale biodiversity gradients in freshwater phytoplankton diversity were mainly driven by local environmental factors, although there were residual direct effects of latitude, longitude, and altitude as well. Specifically, we found that phytoplankton species richness was an increasing saturating function of lake chlorophyll a concentration, increased with lake surface area and possibly increased with water temperature, resembling effects of productivity, habitat area, and temperature on diversity patterns commonly observed for macroorganisms. In turn, these local environmental factors varied along latitudinal, longitudinal, and altitudinal gradients. These results imply that changes in land use or climate that affect these local environmental factors are likely to have major impacts on large-scale biodiversity patterns of freshwater phytoplankton.

  16. Horvitz-Thompson survey sample methods for estimating large-scale animal abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Garton, E.O.

    1994-01-01

    Large-scale surveys to estimate animal abundance can be useful for monitoring population status and trends, for measuring responses to management or environmental alterations, and for testing ecological hypotheses about abundance. However, large-scale surveys may be expensive and logistically complex. To ensure resources are not wasted on unattainable targets, the goals and uses of each survey should be specified carefully and alternative methods for addressing these objectives always should be considered. During survey design, the impoflance of each survey error component (spatial design, propofiion of detected animals, precision in detection) should be considered carefully to produce a complete statistically based survey. Failure to address these three survey components may produce population estimates that are inaccurate (biased low), have unrealistic precision (too precise) and do not satisfactorily meet the survey objectives. Optimum survey design requires trade-offs in these sources of error relative to the costs of sampling plots and detecting animals on plots, considerations that are specific to the spatial logistics and survey methods. The Horvitz-Thompson estimators provide a comprehensive framework for considering all three survey components during the design and analysis of large-scale wildlife surveys. Problems of spatial and temporal (especially survey to survey) heterogeneity in detection probabilities have received little consideration, but failure to account for heterogeneity produces biased population estimates. The goal of producing unbiased population estimates is in conflict with the increased variation from heterogeneous detection in the population estimate. One solution to this conflict is to use an MSE-based approach to achieve a balance between bias reduction and increased variation. Further research is needed to develop methods that address spatial heterogeneity in detection, evaluate the effects of temporal heterogeneity on survey

  17. Epidemiological implications of spatial and temporal radon variations

    SciTech Connect

    Steck, D.J.; Lively, R.S.; Ney, E.P.

    1992-12-31

    Epidemiological studies require accurate assessments of total radon-daughter exposures. Short-term radon measurements taken in current dwellings may misrepresent past exposures. In the upper midwest, we have observed significant spatial variation, on a scale of several kilometers, in yearly average indoor radon concentrations. Thus, ecological studies using small samples, or case-control studies using only the current residences for exposure assessment, could misjudge the actual long-term exposures if the size of the geographical cluster used is larger than a county. Short-term measurements also may introduce unacceptable variation. In a comparison of two measurement techniques in 80 upper-midwest homes, a correlation was found between year-long alpha-track and 2-day charcoal canister measurements. However, the observed coefficient of variation (factor of two) between measurement protocols may introduce enough scatter to obscure weak correlations in small samples. A correlation that was observed between lung-cancer rates in 13 rural Minnesota counties and the annual-average radon concentration (median = 100 Bq m{sup {minus}3}) estimated from year-long alpha-track measurements was not found when charcoal canister data were used to estimate the radon exposure. Year-to-year variations may also be important. In 12 homes that have been monitored for longer than 1 y, yearly variations ranged from 0 to 500%, with a median variation of 22%. We are investigating a retrospective detection technique that may improve long-term radon exposure assessments. We have found correlation between the surface alpha activity and radon exposure for glass surfaces exposed from 6 to 2000 kBq y m{sup {minus}3}. We have developed an alpha-track detection system that measures both current radon concentrations and exposure history.

  18. Spatial Variation of Soil Respiration in a Cropland under Winter Wheat and Summer Maize Rotation in the North China Plain

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ni; Wang, Li; Hu, Yongsen; Tian, Haifeng; Niu, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Spatial variation of soil respiration (Rs) in cropland ecosystems must be assessed to evaluate the global terrestrial carbon budget. This study aims to explore the spatial characteristics and controlling factors of Rs in a cropland under winter wheat and summer maize rotation in the North China Plain. We collected Rs data from 23 sample plots in the cropland. At the late jointing stage, the daily mean Rs of summer maize (4.74 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1) was significantly higher than that of winter wheat (3.77μmol CO2 m-2 s-1). However, the spatial variation of Rs in summer maize (coefficient of variation, CV = 12.2%) was lower than that in winter wheat (CV = 18.5%). A similar trend in CV was also observed for environmental factors but not for biotic factors, such as leaf area index, aboveground biomass, and canopy chlorophyll content. Pearson’s correlation analyses based on the sampling data revealed that the spatial variation of Rs was poorly explained by the spatial variations of biotic factors, environmental factors, or soil properties alone for winter wheat and summer maize. The similarly non-significant relationship was observed between Rs and the enhanced vegetation index (EVI), which was used as surrogate for plant photosynthesis. EVI was better correlated with field-measured leaf area index than the normalized difference vegetation index and red edge chlorophyll index. All the data from the 23 sample plots were categorized into three clusters based on the cluster analysis of soil carbon/nitrogen and soil organic carbon content. An apparent improvement was observed in the relationship between Rs and EVI in each cluster for both winter wheat and summer maize. The spatial variation of Rs in the cropland under winter wheat and summer maize rotation could be attributed to the differences in spatial variations of soil properties and biotic factors. The results indicate that applying cluster analysis to minimize differences in soil properties among different clusters

  19. Experimental Simulations of Large-Scale Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housen, Kevin R.

    2002-01-01

    This report summarizes research on the effects of target porosity on the mechanics of impact cratering. Impact experiments conducted on a centrifuge provide direct simulations of large-scale cratering on porous asteroids. The experiments show that large craters in porous materials form mostly by compaction, with essentially no deposition of material into the ejecta blanket that is a signature of cratering in less-porous materials. The ratio of ejecta mass to crater mass is shown to decrease with increasing crater size or target porosity. These results are consistent with the observation that large closely-packed craters on asteroid Mathilde appear to have formed without degradation to earlier craters.

  20. Large-scale brightenings associated with flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandrini, Cristina H.; Machado, Marcos E.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown that large-scale brightenings (LSBs) associated with solar flares, similar to the 'giant arches' discovered by Svestka et al. (1982) in images obtained by the SSM HXIS hours after the onset of two-ribbon flares, can also occur in association with confined flares in complex active regions. For these events, a clear link between the LSB and the underlying flare is clearly evident from the active-region magnetic field topology. The implications of these findings are discussed within the framework of the interacting loops of flares and the giant arch phenomenology.

  1. Large scale phononic metamaterials for seismic isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Aravantinos-Zafiris, N.; Sigalas, M. M.

    2015-08-14

    In this work, we numerically examine structures that could be characterized as large scale phononic metamaterials. These novel structures could have band gaps in the frequency spectrum of seismic waves when their dimensions are chosen appropriately, thus raising the belief that they could be serious candidates for seismic isolation structures. Different and easy to fabricate structures were examined made from construction materials such as concrete and steel. The well-known finite difference time domain method is used in our calculations in order to calculate the band structures of the proposed metamaterials.

  2. Large-scale planar lightwave circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidnyk, Serge; Zhang, Hua; Pearson, Matt; Balakrishnan, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    By leveraging advanced wafer processing and flip-chip bonding techniques, we have succeeded in hybrid integrating a myriad of active optical components, including photodetectors and laser diodes, with our planar lightwave circuit (PLC) platform. We have combined hybrid integration of active components with monolithic integration of other critical functions, such as diffraction gratings, on-chip mirrors, mode-converters, and thermo-optic elements. Further process development has led to the integration of polarization controlling functionality. Most recently, all these technological advancements have been combined to create large-scale planar lightwave circuits that comprise hundreds of optical elements integrated on chips less than a square inch in size.

  3. Large-Scale PV Integration Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shuai; Etingov, Pavel V.; Diao, Ruisheng; Ma, Jian; Samaan, Nader A.; Makarov, Yuri V.; Guo, Xinxin; Hafen, Ryan P.; Jin, Chunlian; Kirkham, Harold; Shlatz, Eugene; Frantzis, Lisa; McClive, Timothy; Karlson, Gregory; Acharya, Dhruv; Ellis, Abraham; Stein, Joshua; Hansen, Clifford; Chadliev, Vladimir; Smart, Michael; Salgo, Richard; Sorensen, Rahn; Allen, Barbara; Idelchik, Boris

    2011-07-29

    This research effort evaluates the impact of large-scale photovoltaic (PV) and distributed generation (DG) output on NV Energy’s electric grid system in southern Nevada. It analyzes the ability of NV Energy’s generation to accommodate increasing amounts of utility-scale PV and DG, and the resulting cost of integrating variable renewable resources. The study was jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy and NV Energy, and conducted by a project team comprised of industry experts and research scientists from Navigant Consulting Inc., Sandia National Laboratories, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and NV Energy.

  4. Colloquium: Large scale simulations on GPU clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernaschi, Massimo; Bisson, Mauro; Fatica, Massimiliano

    2015-06-01

    Graphics processing units (GPU) are currently used as a cost-effective platform for computer simulations and big-data processing. Large scale applications require that multiple GPUs work together but the efficiency obtained with cluster of GPUs is, at times, sub-optimal because the GPU features are not exploited at their best. We describe how it is possible to achieve an excellent efficiency for applications in statistical mechanics, particle dynamics and networks analysis by using suitable memory access patterns and mechanisms like CUDA streams, profiling tools, etc. Similar concepts and techniques may be applied also to other problems like the solution of Partial Differential Equations.

  5. Neutrinos and large-scale structure

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenstein, Daniel J.

    2015-07-15

    I review the use of cosmological large-scale structure to measure properties of neutrinos and other relic populations of light relativistic particles. With experiments to measure the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave anisotropies and the clustering of matter at low redshift, we now have securely measured a relativistic background with density appropriate to the cosmic neutrino background. Our limits on the mass of the neutrino continue to shrink. Experiments coming in the next decade will greatly improve the available precision on searches for the energy density of novel relativistic backgrounds and the mass of neutrinos.

  6. Large-scale Heterogeneous Network Data Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-31

    Data for Multi-Player Influence Maximization on Social Networks.” KDD 2012 (Demo).  Po-Tzu Chang , Yen-Chieh Huang, Cheng-Lun Yang, Shou-De Lin, Pu...Jen Cheng. “Learning-Based Time-Sensitive Re-Ranking for Web Search.” SIGIR 2012 (poster)  Hung -Che Lai, Cheng-Te Li, Yi-Chen Lo, and Shou-De Lin...Exploiting and Evaluating MapReduce for Large-Scale Graph Mining.” ASONAM 2012 (Full, 16% acceptance ratio).  Hsun-Ping Hsieh , Cheng-Te Li, and Shou

  7. Long-Term Large-Scale Bias-Adjusted Precipitation Estimates at High Spatial and Temporal Resolution Derived from the National Mosaic and Multi-Sensor QPE (NMQ/Q2) Precipitation Reanalysis over CONUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prat, O. P.; Nelson, B. R.; Stevens, S. E.; Seo, D. J.; Kim, B.

    2014-12-01

    The processing of radar-only precipitation via the reanalysis from the National Mosaic and Multi-Sensor Quantitative (NMQ/Q2) based on the WSR-88D Next-generation Radar (Nexrad) network over Continental United States (CONUS) is nearly completed for the period covering from 2000 to 2012. This important milestone constitutes a unique opportunity to study precipitation processes at a 1-km spatial resolution for a 5-min temporal resolution. However, in order to be suitable for hydrological, meteorological and climatological applications, the radar-only product needs to be bias-adjusted and merged with in-situ rain gauge information. Rain gauge networks such as the Hydrometeorological Automated Data System (HADS), the Automated Surface Observing Systems (ASOS), the Climate Reference Network (CRN), and the Global Historical Climatology Network - Daily (GHCN-D) are used to adjust for those biases and to merge with the radar only product to provide a multi-sensor estimate. The challenges related to incorporating non-homogeneous networks over a vast area and for a long-term record are enormous. Among the challenges we are facing are the difficulties incorporating differing resolution and quality surface measurements to adjust gridded estimates of precipitation. Another challenge is the type of adjustment technique. After assessing the bias and applying reduction or elimination techniques, we are investigating the kriging method and its variants such as simple kriging (SK), ordinary kriging (OK), and conditional bias-penalized Kriging (CBPK) among others. In addition we hope to generate estimates of uncertainty for the gridded estimate. In this work the methodology is presented as well as a comparison between the radar-only product and the final multi-sensor QPE product. The comparison is performed at various time scales from the sub-hourly, to annual. In addition, comparisons over the same period with a suite of lower resolution QPEs derived from ground based radar

  8. Explorative Function in Williams Syndrome Analyzed through a Large-Scale Task with Multiple Rewards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foti, F.; Petrosini, L.; Cutuli, D.; Menghini, D.; Chiarotti, F.; Vicari, S.; Mandolesi, L.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate spatial function in subjects with Williams syndrome (WS) by using a large-scale task with multiple rewards and comparing the spatial abilities of WS subjects with those of mental age-matched control children. In the present spatial task, WS participants had to explore an open space to search nine rewards placed in…

  9. Explorative Function in Williams Syndrome Analyzed through a Large-Scale Task with Multiple Rewards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foti, F.; Petrosini, L.; Cutuli, D.; Menghini, D.; Chiarotti, F.; Vicari, S.; Mandolesi, L.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate spatial function in subjects with Williams syndrome (WS) by using a large-scale task with multiple rewards and comparing the spatial abilities of WS subjects with those of mental age-matched control children. In the present spatial task, WS participants had to explore an open space to search nine rewards placed in…

  10. Potential climatic impacts and reliability of large-scale offshore wind farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chien; Prinn, Ronald G.

    2011-04-01

    The vast availability of wind power has fueled substantial interest in this renewable energy source as a potential near-zero greenhouse gas emission technology for meeting future world energy needs while addressing the climate change issue. However, in order to provide even a fraction of the estimated future energy needs, a large-scale deployment of wind turbines (several million) is required. The consequent environmental impacts, and the inherent reliability of such a large-scale usage of intermittent wind power would have to be carefully assessed, in addition to the need to lower the high current unit wind power costs. Our previous study (Wang and Prinn 2010 Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10 2053) using a three-dimensional climate model suggested that a large deployment of wind turbines over land to meet about 10% of predicted world energy needs in 2100 could lead to a significant temperature increase in the lower atmosphere over the installed regions. A global-scale perturbation to the general circulation patterns as well as to the cloud and precipitation distribution was also predicted. In the later study reported here, we conducted a set of six additional model simulations using an improved climate model to further address the potential environmental and intermittency issues of large-scale deployment of offshore wind turbines for differing installation areas and spatial densities. In contrast to the previous land installation results, the offshore wind turbine installations are found to cause a surface cooling over the installed offshore regions. This cooling is due principally to the enhanced latent heat flux from the sea surface to lower atmosphere, driven by an increase in turbulent mixing caused by the wind turbines which was not entirely offset by the concurrent reduction of mean wind kinetic energy. We found that the perturbation of the large-scale deployment of offshore wind turbines to the global climate is relatively small compared to the case of land

  11. Infering the Relation of Hydrometeorological Variability on the Durance Watershed (southeastern France) to Large Scale Circulation from Anatem Reconstructed Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossa, M.; Mathevet, T.; Gailhard, J.; Massei, N.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding large spatio-temporal hydrometeorological variabilities is critical in the present context of climate change. Large scale information analyses require long and numerous times series as input data. It is often met with difficulty because good quality time series are scarce and often not available over a large area. Reconstructions offer an interesting alternative to alleviate this problem. An original reconstruction method for rainfall and temperature called ANATEM has been developed by Electricité de France in 2013 (Kuentz et al., 2015) combining both a nearby time series (TEM) and a climate field (i.e: geopotential height)(ANA) as predictors. By using large scale information, this method should allow improving on the TEM regression model both in spatial and temporal dimensions. ANATEM was used to reconstruct daily rainfall time series from 25 stations of the Durance watershed in South of France, spanning 1883-2010. This study focused on extracting the large scale information contained in the reconstructed series. Wavelet analyses were used to break down the signal and extract its long-term component (out of 4 different time scales) while composite map analyses enabled to show the links between mean rainfall over the durance and climate fields in the Euro-Atlantic sector. The study showed that ANATEM reconstruction can indeed improve on long term/large scale reconstructions and thus that reconstructions can be used to infer climate processes. Wavelet Multiresolution analysis over the Durance watershed showed a dip in long-term rainfall from 1950 to the end of the 20th century. Composite analysis revealed that rainfall variation (from low to high rainfall) over the Durance watershed is mainly associated with transition from positive NAO-like pattern to negative NAO-like one. The spatial large scale information shows a strong variability with season. In summer, large scale forcings seem less apparent. Long term oscillations showed distinct spatio

  12. Internationalization Measures in Large Scale Research Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soeding, Emanuel; Smith, Nancy

    2017-04-01

    Internationalization measures in Large Scale Research Projects Large scale research projects (LSRP) often serve as flagships used by universities or research institutions to demonstrate their performance and capability to stakeholders and other interested parties. As the global competition among universities for the recruitment of the brightest brains has increased, effective internationalization measures have become hot topics for universities and LSRP alike. Nevertheless, most projects and universities are challenged with little experience on how to conduct these measures and make internationalization an cost efficient and useful activity. Furthermore, those undertakings permanently have to be justified with the Project PIs as important, valuable tools to improve the capacity of the project and the research location. There are a variety of measures, suited to support universities in international recruitment. These include e.g. institutional partnerships, research marketing, a welcome culture, support for science mobility and an effective alumni strategy. These activities, although often conducted by different university entities, are interlocked and can be very powerful measures if interfaced in an effective way. On this poster we display a number of internationalization measures for various target groups, identify interfaces between project management, university administration, researchers and international partners to work together, exchange information and improve processes in order to be able to recruit, support and keep the brightest heads to your project.

  13. Local gravity and large-scale structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juszkiewicz, Roman; Vittorio, Nicola; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    1990-01-01

    The magnitude and direction of the observed dipole anisotropy of the galaxy distribution can in principle constrain the amount of large-scale power present in the spectrum of primordial density fluctuations. This paper confronts the data, provided by a recent redshift survey of galaxies detected by the IRAS satellite, with the predictions of two cosmological models with very different levels of large-scale power: the biased Cold Dark Matter dominated model (CDM) and a baryon-dominated model (BDM) with isocurvature initial conditions. Model predictions are investigated for the Local Group peculiar velocity, v(R), induced by mass inhomogeneities distributed out to a given radius, R, for R less than about 10,000 km/s. Several convergence measures for v(R) are developed, which can become powerful cosmological tests when deep enough samples become available. For the present data sets, the CDM and BDM predictions are indistinguishable at the 2 sigma level and both are consistent with observations. A promising discriminant between cosmological models is the misalignment angle between v(R) and the apex of the dipole anisotropy of the microwave background.

  14. Large-scale Intelligent Transporation Systems simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, T.; Canfield, T.; Hannebutte, U.; Levine, D.; Tentner, A.

    1995-06-01

    A prototype computer system has been developed which defines a high-level architecture for a large-scale, comprehensive, scalable simulation of an Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) capable of running on massively parallel computers and distributed (networked) computer systems. The prototype includes the modelling of instrumented ``smart`` vehicles with in-vehicle navigation units capable of optimal route planning and Traffic Management Centers (TMC). The TMC has probe vehicle tracking capabilities (display position and attributes of instrumented vehicles), and can provide 2-way interaction with traffic to provide advisories and link times. Both the in-vehicle navigation module and the TMC feature detailed graphical user interfaces to support human-factors studies. The prototype has been developed on a distributed system of networked UNIX computers but is designed to run on ANL`s IBM SP-X parallel computer system for large scale problems. A novel feature of our design is that vehicles will be represented by autonomus computer processes, each with a behavior model which performs independent route selection and reacts to external traffic events much like real vehicles. With this approach, one will be able to take advantage of emerging massively parallel processor (MPP) systems.

  15. Local gravity and large-scale structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juszkiewicz, Roman; Vittorio, Nicola; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    1990-01-01

    The magnitude and direction of the observed dipole anisotropy of the galaxy distribution can in principle constrain the amount of large-scale power present in the spectrum of primordial density fluctuations. This paper confronts the data, provided by a recent redshift survey of galaxies detected by the IRAS satellite, with the predictions of two cosmological models with very different levels of large-scale power: the biased Cold Dark Matter dominated model (CDM) and a baryon-dominated model (BDM) with isocurvature initial conditions. Model predictions are investigated for the Local Group peculiar velocity, v(R), induced by mass inhomogeneities distributed out to a given radius, R, for R less than about 10,000 km/s. Several convergence measures for v(R) are developed, which can become powerful cosmological tests when deep enough samples become available. For the present data sets, the CDM and BDM predictions are indistinguishable at the 2 sigma level and both are consistent with observations. A promising discriminant between cosmological models is the misalignment angle between v(R) and the apex of the dipole anisotropy of the microwave background.

  16. Large-scale Globally Propagating Coronal Waves.

    PubMed

    Warmuth, Alexander

    Large-scale, globally propagating wave-like disturbances have been observed in the solar chromosphere and by inference in the corona since the 1960s. However, detailed analysis of these phenomena has only been conducted since the late 1990s. This was prompted by the availability of high-cadence coronal imaging data from numerous spaced-based instruments, which routinely show spectacular globally propagating bright fronts. Coronal waves, as these perturbations are usually referred to, have now been observed in a wide range of spectral channels, yielding a wealth of information. Many findings have supported the "classical" interpretation of the disturbances: fast-mode MHD waves or shocks that are propagating in the solar corona. However, observations that seemed inconsistent with this picture have stimulated the development of alternative models in which "pseudo waves" are generated by magnetic reconfiguration in the framework of an expanding coronal mass ejection. This has resulted in a vigorous debate on the physical nature of these disturbances. This review focuses on demonstrating how the numerous observational findings of the last one and a half decades can be used to constrain our models of large-scale coronal waves, and how a coherent physical understanding of these disturbances is finally emerging.

  17. Characterization of the time-dependent strain field at seismogenic depths using first-motion focal mechanisms: Observations of large-scale decadal variations in stress along the San Andrea fault system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sipkin, S.A.; Silver, P.G.

    2003-01-01

    We present a method for summing moment tensors derived from first-motion focal mechanisms to study temporal dependence in features of the subsurface regional strain field. Time-dependent processes are inferred by comparing mechanisms summed over differing time periods. We apply this methodology to seismogenic zones in central and southern California using focal mechanisms produced by the Northern and Southern California Seismograph Networks for events during 1980-1999. We find a consistent pattern in both the style of deformation (strike-slip versus compressional) and seismicity rate across the entire region. If these temporal variations are causally related, it suggests a temporal change in the regional-scale stress field. One change consistent with the observations is a rotation in the regional maximum horizontal compressive stress direction, followed by a reversal to the original direction. Depending upon the dominant style of deformation locally, this change in orientation of the regional stress will tend to either enhance or hinder deformation. The mode of enhanced deformation can range from increased microseismicity and creep to major earthquakes. We hypothesize that these temporal changes in the regional stress field are the result of subtle changes in apparent relative plate motion between the Pacific and North American plates, perhaps due to long-range postseismic stress diffusion. Others have hypothesized that small changes in plate motion over thousands of years, and/or over decades, are responsible for changes in the style of deformation in southern California. We propose that such changes, over the course of just a few years, also affect the style of deformation.

  18. Spatial and temporal variations in residential housing prices in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Lv, Meng; Yin, Zhongdong

    2009-10-01

    During the past 10 years, the real estate industry in Beijing has been manifesting a strongly growing trend. Researching on the distribution of house prices and their tendencies is helpful to grasp and predict the development of the real estate industry and could be used as reference to city planning. 120 records of housing price data in 2005 to 2006 and open prices in 38 developing projects from the first quarter of 2002 to the second quarter of 2008 were used in this study to analyze the spatial and temporal variations of house price with geostatistical methods and nonlinear regression. Results show that there was a very strong autocorrelation among the house prices in Beijing within the range of about 11 km in 2005 to 2006, which can be well fitted with the spherical model. The isogram of the house prices formed a group of homocentric ellipses, with their long axis extending NW-SE, and the house prices decreased from the center to the periphery. The spatial pattern of house prices in Beijing changed obviously from 2003 to 2006. Although both the spatial patterns for the two periods were homocentric ellipses, the shapes of the ellipses and the directions of the axes changed greatly. And there were more imbalances in 2005 to 2006. The house prices in the Huilongguan-Qinghe residential zone, an example of the typical real estate industry in Beijing, kept growing from 2002 to 2008 and could be fitted with exponential growth model.

  19. Spatial and temporal variation of atmospheric particle in local scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, S.; Nakata, M.; Sano, I.; Nakano, T.; Okuhara, T.

    2011-12-01

    This work intends to demonstrate the spatial and temporal variation of atmospheric particles around AERONET/Osaka site. Osaka is the second big city in Japan and a typical Asian urban area. It is well known that the aerosol distribution in Asia is complicated due to the increasing emissions of anthropogenic aerosols in association with economic growth and in addition behavior of natural dusts significantly varies with the seasons. Therefore local spatially and temporally resolved measurements of atmospheric particles in Asian urban city are meaningful. The sampling of PM2.5, PM10 and OBC have been undertaken using an Kimoto/SPM sampler at the AERONET/Osaka site since 2004. It is noted that a portable multi-spectral sun-photometer (Solar-Light Company Microtops-II) has been employed since 2010. It is found from the simultaneous measurements of AOT (aerosol optical thickness) at AERONET/Osaka site and several locations in the neighborhood and PM sampling that the local scale spatial and temporal factors influence the characterization of atmospheric particles for sure and vice versa.

  20. New probes of Cosmic Microwave Background large-scale anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiola, Simone

    Fifty years of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data played a crucial role in constraining the parameters of the LambdaCDM model, where Dark Energy, Dark Matter, and Inflation are the three most important pillars not yet understood. Inflation prescribes an isotropic universe on large scales, and it generates spatially-correlated density fluctuations over the whole Hubble volume. CMB temperature fluctuations on scales bigger than a degree in the sky, affected by modes on super-horizon scale at the time of recombination, are a clean snapshot of the universe after inflation. In addition, the accelerated expansion of the universe, driven by Dark Energy, leaves a hardly detectable imprint in the large-scale temperature sky at late times. Such fundamental predictions have been tested with current CMB data and found to be in tension with what we expect from our simple LambdaCDM model. Is this tension just a random fluke or a fundamental issue with the present model? In this thesis, we present a new framework to probe the lack of large-scale correlations in the temperature sky using CMB polarization data. Our analysis shows that if a suppression in the CMB polarization correlations is detected, it will provide compelling evidence for new physics on super-horizon scale. To further analyze the statistical properties of the CMB temperature sky, we constrain the degree of statistical anisotropy of the CMB in the context of the observed large-scale dipole power asymmetry. We find evidence for a scale-dependent dipolar modulation at 2.5sigma. To isolate late-time signals from the primordial ones, we test the anomalously high Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect signal generated by superstructures in the universe. We find that the detected signal is in tension with the expectations from LambdaCDM at the 2.5sigma level, which is somewhat smaller than what has been previously argued. To conclude, we describe the current status of CMB observations on small scales, highlighting the

  1. Spatial-temporal variations and their dynamics of the saline lakes in the Qaidam Basin over the past 40 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, S. L.; Zhang, W. C.; Wang, F.

    2016-11-01

    The saline lakes in the Qaidam basin, providing numerous saline mineral resources to the development of China's western region have changed greatly in recent decades. Understanding the spatial-temporal variations of the saline lakes for exploring the dynamics of those changes is not only essential for sustainable development of the region, but also is of significance for scientific studies. By using multi-temporal Landsat and HJ-1A/1B remote sensing data, this study focused on detecting the spatial-temporal variations of the saline lakes concerning with their extent changes with the influence of climate and human activities in the Qaidam basin from 1973 to 2014 based on the normalized difference water index (NDWI) and maximum likelihood supervised classification techniques. The results indicated that most of the saline lakes studied in this paper across the study region had experienced great changes over the past 40 years, and each saline lake differed considerably on extent. The runoff supplies from the surrounding rivers and the large-scale saline resource exploitation were considered as direct reasons for the saline lake extent changes, in which climatic changes characterized by the increase of temperature and slight decrease of precipitation over the region had significant impacts on the lake area variations directly or indirectly.

  2. Global weather and local butterflies: variable responses to a large-scale climate pattern along an elevational gradient.

    PubMed

    Pardikes, Nicholas A; Shapiro, Arthur M; Dyer, Lee A; Forister, Matthew L

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the spatial and temporal scales at which environmental variation affects populations of plants and animals is an important goal for modern population biology, especially in the context of shifting climatic conditions. The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) generates climatic extremes of interannual variation, and has been shown to have significant effects on the diversity and abundance of a variety of terrestrial taxa. However, studies that have investigated the influence of such large-scale climate phenomena have often been limited in spatial and taxonomic scope. We used 23 years (1988-2010) of a long-term butterfly monitoring data set to explore associations between variation in population abundance of 28 butterfly species and variation in ENSO-derived sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) across 10 sites that encompass an elevational range of 2750 m in the Sierra Nevada mountain range of California. Our analysis detected a positive, regional effect of increased SSTA on butterfly abundance (wetter and warmer years predict more butterfly observations), yet the influence of SSTA on butterfly abundances varied along the elevational gradient, and also differed greatly among the 28 species. Migratory species had the strongest relationships with ENSO-derived SSTA, suggesting that large-scale climate indices are particularly valuable for understanding biotic-abiotic relationships of the most mobile species. In general, however, the ecological effects of large-scale climatic factors are context dependent between sites and species. Our results illustrate the power of long-term data sets for revealing pervasive yet subtle climatic effects, but also caution against expectations derived from exemplar species or single locations in the study of biotic-abiotic interactions.

  3. Scalable Parallel Distance Field Construction for Large-Scale Applications.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongfeng; Xie, Jinrong; Ma, Kwan-Liu; Kolla, Hemanth; Chen, Jacqueline H

    2015-10-01

    Computing distance fields is fundamental to many scientific and engineering applications. Distance fields can be used to direct analysis and reduce data. In this paper, we present a highly scalable method for computing 3D distance fields on massively parallel distributed-memory machines. A new distributed spatial data structure, named parallel distance tree, is introduced to manage the level sets of data and facilitate surface tracking over time, resulting in significantly reduced computation and communication costs for calculating the distance to the surface of interest from any spatial locations. Our method supports several data types and distance metrics from real-world applications. We demonstrate its efficiency and scalability on state-of-the-art supercomputers using both large-scale volume datasets and surface models. We also demonstrate in-situ distance field computation on dynamic turbulent flame surfaces for a petascale combustion simulation. Our work greatly extends the usability of distance fields for demanding applications.

  4. Statistics of Caustics in Large-Scale Structure Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldbrugge, Job L.; Hidding, Johan; van de Weygaert, Rien

    2016-10-01

    The cosmic web is a complex spatial pattern of walls, filaments, cluster nodes and underdense void regions. It emerged through gravitational amplification from the Gaussian primordial density field. Here we infer analytical expressions for the spatial statistics of caustics in the evolving large-scale mass distribution. In our analysis, following the quasi-linear Zel'dovich formalism and confined to the 1D and 2D situation, we compute number density and correlation properties of caustics in cosmic density fields that evolve from Gaussian primordial conditions. The analysis can be straightforwardly extended to the 3D situation. We moreover, are currently extending the approach to the non-linear regime of structure formation by including higher order Lagrangian approximations and Lagrangian effective field theory.

  5. Scalable parallel distance field construction for large-scale applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Hongfeng; Xie, Jinrong; Ma, Kwan -Liu; Kolla, Hemanth; Chen, Jacqueline H.

    2015-10-01

    Computing distance fields is fundamental to many scientific and engineering applications. Distance fields can be used to direct analysis and reduce data. In this paper, we present a highly scalable method for computing 3D distance fields on massively parallel distributed-memory machines. Anew distributed spatial data structure, named parallel distance tree, is introduced to manage the level sets of data and facilitate surface tracking overtime, resulting in significantly reduced computation and communication costs for calculating the distance to the surface of interest from any spatial locations. Our method supports several data types and distance metrics from real-world applications. We demonstrate its efficiency and scalability on state-of-the-art supercomputers using both large-scale volume datasets and surface models. We also demonstrate in-situ distance field computation on dynamic turbulent flame surfaces for a petascale combustion simulation. In conclusion, our work greatly extends the usability of distance fields for demanding applications.

  6. Efficient, large scale separation of coal macerals

    SciTech Connect

    Dyrkacz, G.R.; Bloomquist, C.A.A.

    1988-01-01

    The authors believe that the separation of macerals by continuous flow centrifugation offers a simple technique for the large scale separation of macerals. With relatively little cost (/approximately/ $10K), it provides an opportunity for obtaining quite pure maceral fractions. Although they have not completely worked out all the nuances of this separation system, they believe that the problems they have indicated can be minimized to pose only minor inconvenience. It cannot be said that this system completely bypasses the disagreeable tedium or time involved in separating macerals, nor will it by itself overcome the mental inertia required to make maceral separation an accepted necessary fact in fundamental coal science. However, they find their particular brand of continuous flow centrifugation is considerably faster than sink/float separation, can provide a good quality product with even one separation cycle, and permits the handling of more material than a conventional sink/float centrifuge separation.

  7. Primer design for large scale sequencing.

    PubMed Central

    Haas, S; Vingron, M; Poustka, A; Wiemann, S

    1998-01-01

    We have developed PRIDE, a primer design program that automatically designs primers in single contigs or whole sequencing projects to extend the already known sequence and to double strand single-stranded regions. The program is fully integrated into the Staden package (GAP4) and accessible with a graphical user interface. PRIDE uses a fuzzy logic-based system to calculate primer qualities. The computational performance of PRIDE is enhanced by using suffix trees to store the huge amount of data being produced. A test set of 110 sequencing primers and 11 PCR primer pairs has been designed on genomic templates, cDNAs and sequences containing repetitive elements to analyze PRIDE's success rate. The high performance of PRIDE, combined with its minimal requirement of user interaction and its fast algorithm, make this program useful for the large scale design of primers, especially in large sequencing projects. PMID:9611248

  8. Grid sensitivity capability for large scale structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagendra, Gopal K.; Wallerstein, David V.

    1989-01-01

    The considerations and the resultant approach used to implement design sensitivity capability for grids into a large scale, general purpose finite element system (MSC/NASTRAN) are presented. The design variables are grid perturbations with a rather general linking capability. Moreover, shape and sizing variables may be linked together. The design is general enough to facilitate geometric modeling techniques for generating design variable linking schemes in an easy and straightforward manner. Test cases have been run and validated by comparison with the overall finite difference method. The linking of a design sensitivity capability for shape variables in MSC/NASTRAN with an optimizer would give designers a powerful, automated tool to carry out practical optimization design of real life, complicated structures.

  9. Large-Scale Organization of Glycosylation Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Pan-Jun; Lee, Dong-Yup; Jeong, Hawoong

    2009-03-01

    Glycosylation is a highly complex process to produce a diverse repertoire of cellular glycans that are frequently attached to proteins and lipids. Glycans participate in fundamental biological processes including molecular trafficking and clearance, cell proliferation and apoptosis, developmental biology, immune response, and pathogenesis. N-linked glycans found on proteins are formed by sequential attachments of monosaccharides with the help of a relatively small number of enzymes. Many of these enzymes can accept multiple N-linked glycans as substrates, thus generating a large number of glycan intermediates and their intermingled pathways. Motivated by the quantitative methods developed in complex network research, we investigate the large-scale organization of such N-glycosylation pathways in a mammalian cell. The uncovered results give the experimentally-testable predictions for glycosylation process, and can be applied to the engineering of therapeutic glycoproteins.

  10. Large-scale optimization of neuron arbors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, Christopher; Changizi, Mark; Won Kang, Du

    1999-05-01

    At the global as well as local scales, some of the geometry of types of neuron arbors-both dendrites and axons-appears to be self-organizing: Their morphogenesis behaves like flowing water, that is, fluid dynamically; waterflow in branching networks in turn acts like a tree composed of cords under tension, that is, vector mechanically. Branch diameters and angles and junction sites conform significantly to this model. The result is that such neuron tree samples globally minimize their total volume-rather than, for example, surface area or branch length. In addition, the arbors perform well at generating the cheapest topology interconnecting their terminals: their large-scale layouts are among the best of all such possible connecting patterns, approaching 5% of optimum. This model also applies comparably to arterial and river networks.

  11. Engineering management of large scale systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Serita; Gill, Tepper L.; Paul, Arthur S.

    1989-01-01

    The organization of high technology and engineering problem solving, has given rise to an emerging concept. Reasoning principles for integrating traditional engineering problem solving with system theory, management sciences, behavioral decision theory, and planning and design approaches can be incorporated into a methodological approach to solving problems with a long range perspective. Long range planning has a great potential to improve productivity by using a systematic and organized approach. Thus, efficiency and cost effectiveness are the driving forces in promoting the organization of engineering problems. Aspects of systems engineering that provide an understanding of management of large scale systems are broadly covered here. Due to the focus and application of research, other significant factors (e.g., human behavior, decision making, etc.) are not emphasized but are considered.

  12. Large scale cryogenic fluid systems testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's Cryogenic Fluid Systems Branch (CFSB) within the Space Propulsion Technology Division (SPTD) has the ultimate goal of enabling the long term storage and in-space fueling/resupply operations for spacecraft and reusable vehicles in support of space exploration. Using analytical modeling, ground based testing, and on-orbit experimentation, the CFSB is studying three primary categories of fluid technology: storage, supply, and transfer. The CFSB is also investigating fluid handling, advanced instrumentation, and tank structures and materials. Ground based testing of large-scale systems is done using liquid hydrogen as a test fluid at the Cryogenic Propellant Tank Facility (K-site) at Lewis' Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio. A general overview of tests involving liquid transfer, thermal control, pressure control, and pressurization is given.

  13. Large scale preparation of pure phycobiliproteins.

    PubMed

    Padgett, M P; Krogmann, D W

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes simple procedures for the purification of large amounts of phycocyanin and allophycocyanin from the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. A homogeneous natural bloom of this organism provided hundreds of kilograms of cells. Large samples of cells were broken by freezing and thawing. Repeated extraction of the broken cells with distilled water released phycocyanin first, then allophycocyanin, and provides supporting evidence for the current models of phycobilisome structure. The very low ionic strength of the aqueous extracts allowed allophycocyanin release in a particulate form so that this protein could be easily concentrated by centrifugation. Other proteins in the extract were enriched and concentrated by large scale membrane filtration. The biliproteins were purified to homogeneity by chromatography on DEAE cellulose. Purity was established by HPLC and by N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis. The proteins were examined for stability at various pHs and exposures to visible light.

  14. Primer design for large scale sequencing.

    PubMed

    Haas, S; Vingron, M; Poustka, A; Wiemann, S

    1998-06-15

    We have developed PRIDE, a primer design program that automatically designs primers in single contigs or whole sequencing projects to extend the already known sequence and to double strand single-stranded regions. The program is fully integrated into the Staden package (GAP4) and accessible with a graphical user interface. PRIDE uses a fuzzy logic-based system to calculate primer qualities. The computational performance of PRIDE is enhanced by using suffix trees to store the huge amount of data being produced. A test set of 110 sequencing primers and 11 PCR primer pairs has been designed on genomic templates, cDNAs and sequences containing repetitive elements to analyze PRIDE's success rate. The high performance of PRIDE, combined with its minimal requirement of user interaction and its fast algorithm, make this program useful for the large scale design of primers, especially in large sequencing projects.

  15. Large-scale synthesis of peptides.

    PubMed

    Andersson, L; Blomberg, L; Flegel, M; Lepsa, L; Nilsson, B; Verlander, M

    2000-01-01

    Recent advances in the areas of formulation and delivery have rekindled the interest of the pharmaceutical community in peptides as drug candidates, which, in turn, has provided a challenge to the peptide industry to develop efficient methods for the manufacture of relatively complex peptides on scales of up to metric tons per year. This article focuses on chemical synthesis approaches for peptides, and presents an overview of the methods available and in use currently, together with a discussion of scale-up strategies. Examples of the different methods are discussed, together with solutions to some specific problems encountered during scale-up development. Finally, an overview is presented of issues common to all manufacturing methods, i.e., methods used for the large-scale purification and isolation of final bulk products and regulatory considerations to be addressed during scale-up of processes to commercial levels. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 55: 227-250, 2000

  16. Large Scale Quantum Simulations of Nuclear Pasta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fattoyev, Farrukh J.; Horowitz, Charles J.; Schuetrumpf, Bastian

    2016-03-01

    Complex and exotic nuclear geometries collectively referred to as ``nuclear pasta'' are expected to naturally exist in the crust of neutron stars and in supernovae matter. Using a set of self-consistent microscopic nuclear energy density functionals we present the first results of large scale quantum simulations of pasta phases at baryon densities 0 . 03 < ρ < 0 . 10 fm-3, proton fractions 0 . 05

  17. Large-scale parametric survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Sushil; Madigan, David; Cheng, Jerry Q; Burd, Randall S

    2013-10-15

    Survival analysis has been a topic of active statistical research in the past few decades with applications spread across several areas. Traditional applications usually consider data with only a small numbers of predictors with a few hundreds or thousands of observations. Recent advances in data acquisition techniques and computation power have led to considerable interest in analyzing very-high-dimensional data where the number of predictor variables and the number of observations range between 10(4) and 10(6). In this paper, we present a tool for performing large-scale regularized parametric survival analysis using a variant of the cyclic coordinate descent method. Through our experiments on two real data sets, we show that application of regularized models to high-dimensional data avoids overfitting and can provide improved predictive performance and calibration over corresponding low-dimensional models.

  18. Large-Scale Parametric Survival Analysis†

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Sushil; Madigan, David; Cheng, Jerry; Burd, Randall S.

    2013-01-01

    Survival analysis has been a topic of active statistical research in the past few decades with applications spread across several areas. Traditional applications usually consider data with only small numbers of predictors with a few hundreds or thousands of observations. Recent advances in data acquisition techniques and computation power has led to considerable interest in analyzing very high-dimensional data where the number of predictor variables and the number of observations range between 104 – 106. In this paper, we present a tool for performing large-scale regularized parametric survival analysis using a variant of cyclic coordinate descent method. Through our experiments on two real data sets, we show that application of regularized models to high-dimensional data avoids overfitting and can provide improved predictive performance and calibration over corresponding low-dimensional models. PMID:23625862

  19. Large scale study of tooth enamel

    SciTech Connect

    Bodart, F.; Deconninck, G.; Martin, M.Th.

    1981-04-01

    Human tooth enamel contains traces of foreign elements. The presence of these elements is related to the history and the environment of the human body and can be considered as the signature of perturbations which occur during the growth of a tooth. A map of the distribution of these traces on a large scale sample of the population will constitute a reference for further investigations of environmental effects. One hundred eighty samples of teeth were first analysed using PIXE, backscattering and nuclear reaction techniques. The results were analysed using statistical methods. Correlations between O, F, Na, P, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Sr were observed and cluster analysis was in progress. The techniques described in the present work have been developed in order to establish a method for the exploration of very large samples of the Belgian population.

  20. The challenge of large-scale structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, S. A.

    1996-03-01

    The tasks that I have assumed for myself in this presentation include three separate parts. The first, appropriate to the particular setting of this meeting, is to review the basic work of the founding of this field; the appropriateness comes from the fact that W. G. Tifft made immense contributions that are not often realized by the astronomical community. The second task is to outline the general tone of the observational evidence for large scale structures. (Here, in particular, I cannot claim to be complete. I beg forgiveness from any workers who are left out by my oversight for lack of space and time.) The third task is to point out some of the major aspects of the field that may represent the clues by which some brilliant sleuth will ultimately figure out how galaxies formed.

  1. Modeling the Internet's large-scale topology

    PubMed Central

    Yook, Soon-Hyung; Jeong, Hawoong; Barabási, Albert-László

    2002-01-01

    Network generators that capture the Internet's large-scale topology are crucial for the development of efficient routing protocols and modeling Internet traffic. Our ability to design realistic generators is limited by the incomplete understanding of the fundamental driving forces that affect the Internet's evolution. By combining several independent databases capturing the time evolution, topology, and physical layout of the Internet, we identify the universal mechanisms that shape the Internet's router and autonomous system level topology. We find that the physical layout of nodes form a fractal set, determined by population density patterns around the globe. The placement of links is driven by competition between preferential attachment and linear distance dependence, a marked departure from the currently used exponential laws. The universal parameters that we extract significantly restrict the class of potentially correct Internet models and indicate that the networks created by all available topology generators are fundamentally different from the current Internet. PMID:12368484

  2. Large-scale and spatio-temporal extreme rain events over India: a hydrometeorological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranade, Ashwini; Singh, Nityanand

    2014-02-01

    Frequency, intensity, areal extent (AE) and duration of rain spells during summer monsoon exhibit large intra-seasonal and inter-annual variations. Important features of the monsoon period large-scale wet spells over India have been documented. A main monsoon wet spell (MMWS) occurs over the country from 18 June to 16 September, during which, 26.5 % of the area receives rainfall 26.3 mm/day. Detailed characteristics of the MMWS period large-scale extreme rain events (EREs) and spatio-temporal EREs (ST-EREs), each concerning rainfall intensity (RI), AE and rainwater (RW), for 1 to 25 days have been studied using 1° gridded daily rainfall (1951-2007). In EREs, `same area' (grids) is continuously wet, whereas in ST-EREs, `any area' on the mean under wet condition for specified durations is considered. For the different extremes, second-degree polynomial gave excellent fit to increase in values from distribution of annual maximum RI and RW series with increase in duration. Fluctuations of RI, AE, RW and date of occurrence (or start) of the EREs and the ST-EREs did not show any significant trend. However, fluctuations of 1° latitude-longitude grid annual and spatial maximum rainfall showed highly significant increasing trend for 1 to 5 days, and unprecedented rains on 26-27 July 2005 over Mumbai could be a realization of this trend. The Asia-India monsoon intensity significantly influences the MMWS RW.

  3. Large-scale sequential quadratic programming algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Eldersveld, S.K.

    1992-09-01

    The problem addressed is the general nonlinear programming problem: finding a local minimizer for a nonlinear function subject to a mixture of nonlinear equality and inequality constraints. The methods studied are in the class of sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithms, which have previously proved successful for problems of moderate size. Our goal is to devise an SQP algorithm that is applicable to large-scale optimization problems, using sparse data structures and storing less curvature information but maintaining the property of superlinear convergence. The main features are: 1. The use of a quasi-Newton approximation to the reduced Hessian of the Lagrangian function. Only an estimate of the reduced Hessian matrix is required by our algorithm. The impact of not having available the full Hessian approximation is studied and alternative estimates are constructed. 2. The use of a transformation matrix Q. This allows the QP gradient to be computed easily when only the reduced Hessian approximation is maintained. 3. The use of a reduced-gradient form of the basis for the null space of the working set. This choice of basis is more practical than an orthogonal null-space basis for large-scale problems. The continuity condition for this choice is proven. 4. The use of incomplete solutions of quadratic programming subproblems. Certain iterates generated by an active-set method for the QP subproblem are used in place of the QP minimizer to define the search direction for the nonlinear problem. An implementation of the new algorithm has been obtained by modifying the code MINOS. Results and comparisons with MINOS and NPSOL are given for the new algorithm on a set of 92 test problems.

  4. Supporting large-scale computational science

    SciTech Connect

    Musick, R., LLNL

    1998-02-19

    Business needs have driven the development of commercial database systems since their inception. As a result, there has been a strong focus on supporting many users, minimizing the potential corruption or loss of data, and maximizing performance metrics like transactions per second, or TPC-C and TPC-D results. It turns out that these optimizations have little to do with the needs of the scientific community, and in particular have little impact on improving the management and use of large-scale high-dimensional data. At the same time, there is an unanswered need in the scientific community for many of the benefits offered by a robust DBMS. For example, tying an ad-hoc query language such as SQL together with a visualization toolkit would be a powerful enhancement to current capabilities. Unfortunately, there has been little emphasis or discussion in the VLDB community on this mismatch over the last decade. The goal of the paper is to identify the specific issues that need to be resolved before large-scale scientific applications can make use of DBMS products. This topic is addressed in the context of an evaluation of commercial DBMS technology applied to the exploration of data generated by the Department of Energy`s Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI). The paper describes the data being generated for ASCI as well as current capabilities for interacting with and exploring this data. The attraction of applying standard DBMS technology to this domain is discussed, as well as the technical and business issues that currently make this an infeasible solution.

  5. Improving Recent Large-Scale Pulsar Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, Rogerio Fernando; Ransom, S.

    2011-01-01

    Pulsars are unique in that they act as celestial laboratories for precise tests of gravity and other extreme physics (Kramer 2004). There are approximately 2000 known pulsars today, which is less than ten percent of pulsars in the Milky Way according to theoretical models (Lorimer 2004). Out of these 2000 known pulsars, approximately ten percent are known millisecond pulsars, objects used for their period stability for detailed physics tests and searches for gravitational radiation (Lorimer 2008). As the field and instrumentation progress, pulsar astronomers attempt to overcome observational biases and detect new pulsars, consequently discovering new millisecond pulsars. We attempt to improve large scale pulsar surveys by examining three recent pulsar surveys. The first, the Green Bank Telescope 350MHz Drift Scan, a low frequency isotropic survey of the northern sky, has yielded a large number of candidates that were visually inspected and identified, resulting in over 34.000 thousands candidates viewed, dozens of detections of known pulsars, and the discovery of a new low-flux pulsar, PSRJ1911+22. The second, the PALFA survey, is a high frequency survey of the galactic plane with the Arecibo telescope. We created a processing pipeline for the PALFA survey at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Charlottesville- VA, in addition to making needed modifications upon advice from the PALFA consortium. The third survey examined is a new GBT 820MHz survey devoted to find new millisecond pulsars by observing the target-rich environment of unidentified sources in the FERMI LAT catalogue. By approaching these three pulsar surveys at different stages, we seek to improve the success rates of large scale surveys, and hence the possibility for ground-breaking work in both basic physics and astrophysics.

  6. Introducing Large-Scale Innovation in Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotiriou, Sofoklis; Riviou, Katherina; Cherouvis, Stephanos; Chelioti, Eleni; Bogner, Franz X.

    2016-08-01

    Education reform initiatives tend to promise higher effectiveness in classrooms especially when emphasis is given to e-learning and digital resources. Practical changes in classroom realities or school organization, however, are lacking. A major European initiative entitled Open Discovery Space (ODS) examined the challenge of modernizing school education via a large-scale implementation of an open-scale methodology in using technology-supported innovation. The present paper describes this innovation scheme which involved schools and teachers all over Europe, embedded technology-enhanced learning into wider school environments and provided training to teachers. Our implementation scheme consisted of three phases: (1) stimulating interest, (2) incorporating the innovation into school settings and (3) accelerating the implementation of the innovation. The scheme's impact was monitored for a school year using five indicators: leadership and vision building, ICT in the curriculum, development of ICT culture, professional development support, and school resources and infrastructure. Based on about 400 schools, our study produced four results: (1) The growth in digital maturity was substantial, even for previously high scoring schools. This was even more important for indicators such as vision and leadership" and "professional development." (2) The evolution of networking is presented graphically, showing the gradual growth of connections achieved. (3) These communities became core nodes, involving numerous teachers in sharing educational content and experiences: One out of three registered users (36 %) has shared his/her educational resources in at least one community. (4) Satisfaction scores ranged from 76 % (offer of useful support through teacher academies) to 87 % (good environment to exchange best practices). Initiatives such as ODS add substantial value to schools on a large scale.

  7. Supporting large-scale computational science

    SciTech Connect

    Musick, R

    1998-10-01

    A study has been carried out to determine the feasibility of using commercial database management systems (DBMSs) to support large-scale computational science. Conventional wisdom in the past has been that DBMSs are too slow for such data. Several events over the past few years have muddied the clarity of this mindset: 1. 2. 3. 4. Several commercial DBMS systems have demonstrated storage and ad-hoc quer access to Terabyte data sets. Several large-scale science teams, such as EOSDIS [NAS91], high energy physics [MM97] and human genome [Kin93] have adopted (or make frequent use of) commercial DBMS systems as the central part of their data management scheme. Several major DBMS vendors have introduced their first object-relational products (ORDBMSs), which have the potential to support large, array-oriented data. In some cases, performance is a moot issue. This is true in particular if the performance of legacy applications is not reduced while new, albeit slow, capabilities are added to the system. The basic assessment is still that DBMSs do not scale to large computational data. However, many of the reasons have changed, and there is an expiration date attached to that prognosis. This document expands on this conclusion, identifies the advantages and disadvantages of various commercial approaches, and describes the studies carried out in exploring this area. The document is meant to be brief, technical and informative, rather than a motivational pitch. The conclusions within are very likely to become outdated within the next 5-7 years, as market forces will have a significant impact on the state of the art in scientific data management over the next decade.

  8. Voids in the Large-Scale Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Ad, Hagai; Piran, Tsvi

    1997-12-01

    Voids are the most prominent feature of the large-scale structure of the universe. Still, their incorporation into quantitative analysis of it has been relatively recent, owing essentially to the lack of an objective tool to identify the voids and to quantify them. To overcome this, we present here the VOID FINDER algorithm, a novel tool for objectively quantifying voids in the galaxy distribution. The algorithm first classifies galaxies as either wall galaxies or field galaxies. Then, it identifies voids in the wall-galaxy distribution. Voids are defined as continuous volumes that do not contain any wall galaxies. The voids must be thicker than an adjustable limit, which is refined in successive iterations. In this way, we identify the same regions that would be recognized as voids by the eye. Small breaches in the walls are ignored, avoiding artificial connections between neighboring voids. We test the algorithm using Voronoi tesselations. By appropriate scaling of the parameters with the selection function, we apply it to two redshift surveys, the dense SSRS2 and the full-sky IRAS 1.2 Jy. Both surveys show similar properties: ~50% of the volume is filled by voids. The voids have a scale of at least 40 h-1 Mpc and an average -0.9 underdensity. Faint galaxies do not fill the voids, but they do populate them more than bright ones. These results suggest that both optically and IRAS-selected galaxies delineate the same large-scale structure. Comparison with the recovered mass distribution further suggests that the observed voids in the galaxy distribution correspond well to underdense regions in the mass distribution. This confirms the gravitational origin of the voids.

  9. UAV Data Processing for Large Scale Topographical Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tampubolon, W.; Reinhardt, W.

    2014-06-01

    Large scale topographical mapping in the third world countries is really a prominent challenge in geospatial industries nowadays. On one side the demand is significantly increasing while on the other hand it is constrained by limited budgets available for mapping projects. Since the advent of Act Nr.4/yr.2011 about Geospatial Information in Indonesia, large scale topographical mapping has been on high priority for supporting the nationwide development e.g. detail spatial planning. Usually large scale topographical mapping relies on conventional aerial survey campaigns in order to provide high resolution 3D geospatial data sources. Widely growing on a leisure hobby, aero models in form of the so-called Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) bring up alternative semi photogrammetric aerial data acquisition possibilities suitable for relatively small Area of Interest (AOI) i.e. <5,000 hectares. For detail spatial planning purposes in Indonesia this area size can be used as a mapping unit since it usually concentrates on the basis of sub district area (kecamatan) level. In this paper different camera and processing software systems will be further analyzed for identifying the best optimum UAV data acquisition campaign components in combination with the data processing scheme. The selected AOI is covering the cultural heritage of Borobudur Temple as one of the Seven Wonders of the World. A detailed accuracy assessment will be concentrated within the object feature of the temple at the first place. Feature compilation involving planimetric objects (2D) and digital terrain models (3D) will be integrated in order to provide Digital Elevation Models (DEM) as the main interest of the topographic mapping activity. By doing this research, incorporating the optimum amount of GCPs in the UAV photo data processing will increase the accuracy along with its high resolution in 5 cm Ground Sampling Distance (GSD). Finally this result will be used as the benchmark for alternative geospatial

  10. Temporal and spatial variations of energy consumption in rural China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L. X.; Yang, Z. F.; Chen, B.; Chen, G. Q.; Zhang, Y. Q.

    2009-11-01

    Presented in this paper is an overview of energy consumption in rural China in view of temporal and spatial variations. Characterized by steadily decreased proportion of biomass use and increased percentage of coal and electricity use, coal and biomass are still the major energy sources in rural areas, accounting for nearly 80% of the total rural energy consumption. Moreover, the energy consumption varies significantly across provinces both in total sum and by fuel types due to diversities of geographic features, economic development levels and local energy source availability. Three statistical groups are clustered associated with quantitative change and structural change, exhibiting evident transition from noncommercial energy pattern to commercial energy pattern. Much more work need to be done to cope with the forthcoming dramatic changes associated with booming rural economy and newly released policy from the points of both energy security and environmental pressure in China.

  11. Non-parametric estimation of spatial variation in relative risk.

    PubMed

    Kelsall, J E; Diggle, P J

    We consider the problem of estimating the spatial variation in relative risks of two diseases, say, over a geographical region. Using an underlying Poisson point process model, we approach the problem as one of density ratio estimation implemented with a non-parametric kernel smoothing method. In order to assess the significance of any local peaks or troughs in the estimated risk surface, we introduce pointwise tolerance contours which can enhance a greyscale image plot of the estimate. We also propose a Monte Carlo test of the null hypothesis of constant risk over the whole region, to avoid possible over-interpretation of the estimated risk surface. We illustrate the capabilities of the methodology with two epidemiological examples.

  12. Spatial information in large-scale neural recordings

    PubMed Central

    Cybulski, Thaddeus R.; Glaser, Joshua I.; Marblestone, Adam H.; Zamft, Bradley M.; Boyden, Edward S.; Church, George M.; Kording, Konrad P.

    2015-01-01

    To record from a given neuron, a recording technology must be able to separate the activity of that neuron from the activity of its neighbors. Here, we develop a Fisher information based framework to determine the conditions under which this is feasible for a given technology. This framework combines measurable point spread functions with measurable noise distributions to produce theoretical bounds on the precision with which a recording technology can localize neural activities. If there is sufficient information to uniquely localize neural activities, then a technology will, from an information theoretic perspective, be able to record from these neurons. We (1) describe this framework, and (2) demonstrate its application in model experiments. This method generalizes to many recording devices that resolve objects in space and should be useful in the design of next-generation scalable neural recording systems. PMID:25653613

  13. Hurricane Directional Wave Spectrum Spatial Variation in the Open Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, C. W.; Walsh, E. J.; Vandemark, D.; Krabill, W. B.; Garcia, A. W.

    1999-01-01

    The sea surface directional wave spectrum was measured for the first time in all quadrants of a hurricane in open water using the NASA airborne scanning radar altimeter (SRA) carried aboard one of the NOAA WP-3D hurricane hunter aircraft at 1.5 km height. The SRA measures the energetic portion of the directional wave spectrum by generating a topographic map of the sea surface. At 8 Hz, the SRA sweeps a radar beam of 1 deg half-power width (two-way) across the aircraft ground track over a swath equal to 0. 8 of the aircraft height, simultaneously measuring the backscattered power at its 36 GHz (8.3 mm) operating frequency and the range to the sea surface at 64 positions. These slant ranges are multiplied by the cosine of the incidence angles to determine the vertical distances from the aircraft to the sea surface. Subtracting these distances from the aircraft height produces the sea surface elevation map. The sea surface topography is interpolated to a uniform grid, transformed by a two-dimensional FFT, and Doppler corrected. The data presented were acquired on 24 August 1998 when hurricane Bonnie was east of the Bahamas and moving slowly to the north. Wave heights up to 18 m were observed and the spatial variation of the wave field was dramatic. The dominant waves generally propagated at significant angles to the downwind direction and at times there were wave fields traveling at right angles to each other. The NOAA aircraft spent over five hours within 180 km of the hurricane Bonnie eye, and made five eye penetrations. A 2-minute animation of the directional wave spectrum spatial variation over this period will be shown.

  14. Spatial variation in larval concentrations as a cause of spatial variation in settlement for the barnacle, Balanus glandula.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Steven; Brown, Stephen; Roughgarden, Jonathan

    1985-09-01

    Settlement rates of the high intertidal barnacle, Balanus glandula, were monitored at three sites in the rocky intertidal zone in Central California simultaneously with measurements of larval concentrations in the adjacent water column. In both 1983 and 1984, settlement rates onto vacant substrate differed among the sites by nearly two orders of magnitude. For all sampling dates, this spatial variation in settlement mirrored the spatial distribution of Balanus glandula cyprid concentration in the water column. A perfect rank correlation was found between cyprid concentrations near a site and subsequent settlement. A noteworthy observation was that the sites switched rank in their settlement rates from 1983 to 1984. This change in settlement rankings matched a switch in rankings for cyprid concentrations.Settlement itself appears to be an important cause of the spatial pattern of cyprid concentrations. Comparing the rates of settlement to estimates of the number of cyprids available at a site suggests that settlement causes a large drain on the cyprid population as a water mass passes over successive sites. No consistent spatial patterns were found in the distribution of other major plankton groups (calanoid copepods) that are similar in size to Balanus cyprids but do not settle.The large differences in settlement rates among these sites were previously shown to be a leading cause of large differences in the structure of benthic barnacle populations. The close correspondence shown here between these large differences in settlement and differences in larval concentrations suggests that nearshore oceanic processes affecting larval arrival contribute to the control of benthic community structure.

  15. Spatial variation in energy exchange across coastal environments in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, M.; Abermann, J.; Citterio, M.; Hansen, B. U.; Larsen, S. H.; Stiegler, C.; Sørensen, L. L.; van As, D.

    2015-12-01

    The surface energy partitioning in Arctic terrestrial and marine areas is a crucial process, regulating snow, glacier ice and sea ice melt, and permafrost thaw, as well as modulating Earth's climate on both local, regional, and eventually, global scales. The Arctic region has warmed approximately twice as much as the global average, due to a number of feedback mechanisms related to energy partitioning, most importantly the snow and ice-albedo feedback. However, direct measurements of surface energy budgets in the Arctic are scarce, especially for the cold and dark winter period and over transects going from the ice sheet and glaciers to the sea. This study aims to describe annual cycles of the surface energy budget from various surface types in Arctic Greenland; e.g. glacier, snow, wet and dry tundra and sea ice, based on data from a number of measurement locations across coastal Greenland related to the Greenland Ecosystem Monitoring (GEM) program, including Station Nord/Kronprins Christians Land, Zackenberg/Daneborg, Disko, Qaanaq, Nuuk/Kobbefjord and Upernaviarsuk. Based on the available time series, we will analyze the sensitivity of the energy balance partitioning to variations in meteorological conditions (temperature, cloudiness, precipitation). Such analysis would allow for a quantification of the spatial variation in the energy exchange in aforementioned Arctic environments. Furthermore, this study will identify uncertainties and knowledge gaps in Arctic energy budgets and related climate feedback effects.

  16. Spatial variation in shorebird nest success: Implications for inference

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCaffery, Brian J.; Ruthrauff, Daniel R.

    2004-01-01

    Estimates of nest success are widely applied in order to evaluate a multitude of theoretical and practical issues. Frequently, however, researchers fail to limit their inferences to the appropriate spatial scale. We evaluated small-scale variation in nest success of Western Sandpipers Calidris mauri during a four-year study on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta in western Alaska. We use these data to demonstrate that small-scale variation in nest success can significantly alter a researcher's interpretation of the factors affecting that reproductive parameter. In the absence of a statistically valid sampling design, researchers must be very careful about making inferences for areas beyond their actual study site. Properly designed studies allow for broader inferential power, but the logistical and financial hurdles involved in designing and implementing such a study are daunting. Metareplication can enhance one's confidence in the interpretation of local results, but should not be seen as a substitute for well-designed sampling schemes implemented across broad geographic scales.

  17. Identifying spatial and temporal variations in seismicity in eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiampo, K. F.; Atkinson, G. M.; Fereidoni, A.; Bhattacharya, P.; Cho, N.; Kazemian, J.; Vincent, P.; Gonzalez, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    Natural earthquake fault systems are highly heterogeneous in space; inhomogeneities occur because of the varying internal structures and material strengths that dissipate stress differently. However, because analysis of the actual earthquake fault system remains incomplete due to the inherent difficulty in sampling the solid Earth (Richter, 1958; Kanamori, 1981; Geller et al., 1997), much of the recent research in statistical seismology has centered on investigating the variety of spatial and temporal patterns that exist in local and regional data. In particular, in recent years a combination of theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and seismicity data analysis has established the link between variations in seismicity rates and the dynamics of the underlying stress field (Dieterich, 1994; Dieterich et al., 2002; Toda et al., 2002; Rundle et al., 2002; Tiampo et al., 2002, 2006; Schorlemmer and Wiemer, 2005). However, this research has predominantly focused on tectonically-active regions with a relatively high rate of background seismicity. Here we present new work that quantifies seismicity rate changes in the intraplate region of eastern Canada in order to identify spatial and temporal variations in local and regional stress (Tiampo et al, 2002, 2006). Although stable eastern North America generally has much lower seismicity than plate boundary regions, there are areas of substantial seismicity and earthquake hazard. The bulk of the eastern Canadian seismicity is concentrated in both the lower Saint Lawrence seismic zone, downriver from Québec City and the Charlevoix seismic zone to the west of Québec City. Although Mazzotti and Adams (2005) estimate that seismic strain rates in most of eastern Canada are about 10-13 to 10-11/yr, exceptions to these low strain rates can be found in these regions of higher seismic activation. These seismically active zones generally are associated with large lithospheric-scale paleotectonic geologic features and this strong

  18. Spatial variations of sea level along the coast of Thailand: Impacts of extreme land subsidence, earthquakes and the seasonal monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saramul, Suriyan; Ezer, Tal

    2014-11-01

    The study addresses two important issues associated with sea level along the coasts of Thailand: first, the fast sea level rise and its spatial variation, and second, the monsoonal-driven seasonal variations in sea level. Tide gauge data that are more extensive than in past studies were obtained from several different local and global sources, and relative sea level rise (RSLR) rates were obtained from two different methods, linear regressions and non-linear Empirical Mode Decomposition/Hilbert-Huang Transform (EMD/HHT) analysis. The results show extremely large spatial variations in RSLR, with rates varying from ~ 1 mm y-1 to ~ 20 mm y-1; the maximum RSLR is found in the upper Gulf of Thailand (GOT) near Bangkok, where local land subsidence due to groundwater extraction dominates the trend. Furthermore, there are indications that RSLR rates increased significantly in all locations after the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake and the Indian Ocean tsunami that followed, so that recent RSLR rates seem to have less spatial differences than in the past, but with high rates of ~ 20-30 mm y-1 almost everywhere. The seasonal sea level cycle was found to be very different between stations in the GOT, which have minimum sea level in June-July, and stations in the Andaman Sea, which have minimum sea level in February. The seasonal sea-level variations in the GOT are driven mostly by large-scale wind-driven set-up/set-down processes associated with the seasonal monsoon and have amplitudes about ten times larger than either typical steric changes at those latitudes or astronomical annual tides.

  19. Analytical method of seafloor crustal deformation corresponding to the large scale ocean current region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, K.; Tadokoro, K.; Matsuhiro, K.

    2015-12-01

    We monitor seafloor crustal deformation at two observation points (south and north of Nankai Trough (TOA and TCA)) across the Nankai Trough, Japan, from 2013 to 2015. A ocean current flows frequently above our points called the Kuroshio current that has temperature difference perpendicular to the flow axis down to 1000 m in depths. Sound speed in the water depends on temperature (Del Grosso, 1974). Determination of seafloor benchmark position (SBP) has a bias when the sound speed structure includes a horizontal inhomogeneity (HI) in large-scale ocean current area. This bias is caused by trade-off between estimated spatial-temporal variation of sound speed structure and SBP. In this study, we propose a new observation system and analytical method, which directly observe the HI of sound speed derived from Underway CTD (UCTD) measurement and we introduce the HI to analytical method. We performed the observation in May 2015. We measured acoustic ranging during marine navigation on a circle with radius of 2 miles. At the same time, we observed six UCTD measurements down to 700 m in depths at both points. We use analytical method of Ikuta et al. (2008) for determination of SBP and adopt estimated HI of sound speed structure from UCTD measurements. We use the following equation to adopt the HI model: S(t,x,X)=S(t)+∆S(R(X)+ar(x,X)), where S(t,x,X) is the spatial-temporal variation of slowness but spatial variation is the uniform during the observation period, S(t) is the estimated temporal variation of sound speed structure following Ikuta et al. (2008), ∆S is the horizontal gradient of slowness estimated from UCTD measurement, R(x) is the distance of a ship from center of three SBPs, r(x,X) is the distance between ship position and benchmark position, a is the ratio of layer of HI for the whole depth, x is the ship position, and X is the benchmark position. SBP adopted the HI model is determined 74.9 cm toward N17.4˚E at TCA and 90.0 cm toward N7.8˚E at TOA. The

  20. Spatially Controlled Fe Isotope Variations at Torres del Paine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajos, N.; Lundstrom, C.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in mass-spectrometry have identified systematic trends of non-traditional stable isotope variation in igneous rocks with differentiation index. We present new Fe isotope data for the Torres del Paine igneous complex in southern Chile. The multi-composition pluton consists of a 1 km vertical exposure of homogenous granite overlying a contemporaneous and possibly cogenetic 0.5 km mafic gabbro suite. Whereas previous isotopic investigations do little to address variations across important magmatic contacts, this study focuses on a first-of-its-kind spatially dependent non-traditional stable isotope investigation of an igneous pluton. Samples were collected at Torres del Paine in spatially significant transects, focusing on major contacts between country rock, granite and mafic units. Results collected by bracketed double spike MC-ICP-MS (2s precision of ×0.03) show an increase in δ56Fe towards the high silica margins of the pluton with values as high as δ56Fe 0.36. Additionally, the data show a decrease in δ56Fe toward the mafic center of the pluton with δ56Fe values ranging from δ56Fe -0.05 to 0.18. Samples collected on the contact between the granite and mafic complex show intermediate values of δ56Fe= 0.18(×) 0.03. Country rock samples in contact with granite show an isotopically light signature of δ56Fe=0.04 (×) 0.03. Analysis of 50 samples in total show a trend of increasing δ56Fe with SiO2 content. The process responsible for Fe isotope variations remains debated but is suggested to reflect four mechanisms: (1) crustal assimilation, (2) fractional crystallization, (3) late stage fluid exsolution [1] and (4) thermal migration [3]. Preliminary results show that mechanisms #1 and #2 would produce isotopic signatures opposite of those seen at Torres del Paine and other plutonic rocks. Isotopically light Torres country rock samples reveal that assimilation of rocks would not produce the isotopically heavy granites seen at Torres. Based on

  1. Statistical Measures of Large-Scale Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogeley, Michael; Geller, Margaret; Huchra, John; Park, Changbom; Gott, J. Richard

    1993-12-01

    \\inv Mpc} To quantify clustering in the large-scale distribution of galaxies and to test theories for the formation of structure in the universe, we apply statistical measures to the CfA Redshift Survey. This survey is complete to m_{B(0)}=15.5 over two contiguous regions which cover one-quarter of the sky and include ~ 11,000 galaxies. The salient features of these data are voids with diameter 30-50\\hmpc and coherent dense structures with a scale ~ 100\\hmpc. Comparison with N-body simulations rules out the ``standard" CDM model (Omega =1, b=1.5, sigma_8 =1) at the 99% confidence level because this model has insufficient power on scales lambda >30\\hmpc. An unbiased open universe CDM model (Omega h =0.2) and a biased CDM model with non-zero cosmological constant (Omega h =0.24, lambda_0 =0.6) match the observed power spectrum. The amplitude of the power spectrum depends on the luminosity of galaxies in the sample; bright (L>L(*) ) galaxies are more strongly clustered than faint galaxies. The paucity of bright galaxies in low-density regions may explain this dependence. To measure the topology of large-scale structure, we compute the genus of isodensity surfaces of the smoothed density field. On scales in the ``non-linear" regime, <= 10\\hmpc, the high- and low-density regions are multiply-connected over a broad range of density threshold, as in a filamentary net. On smoothing scales >10\\hmpc, the topology is consistent with statistics of a Gaussian random field. Simulations of CDM models fail to produce the observed coherence of structure on non-linear scales (>95% confidence level). The underdensity probability (the frequency of regions with density contrast delta rho //lineρ=-0.8) depends strongly on the luminosity of galaxies; underdense regions are significantly more common (>2sigma ) in bright (L>L(*) ) galaxy samples than in samples which include fainter galaxies.

  2. Spatio-temporal variation in European starling reproductive success at multiple small spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Brickhill, Daisy; Evans, Peter Gh; Reid, Jane M

    2015-08-01

    Understanding population dynamics requires spatio-temporal variation in demography to be measured across appropriate spatial and temporal scales. However, the most appropriate spatial scale(s) may not be obvious, few datasets cover sufficient time periods, and key demographic rates are often incompletely measured. Consequently, it is often assumed that demography will be spatially homogeneous within populations that lack obvious subdivision. Here, we quantify small-scale spatial and temporal variation in a key demographic rate, reproductive success (RS), within an apparently contiguous population of European starlings. We used hierarchical cluster analysis to define spatial clusters of nest sites at multiple small spatial scales and long-term data to test the hypothesis that small-scale spatio-temporal variation in RS occurred. RS was measured as the number of chicks alive ca. 12 days posthatch either per first brood or per nest site per breeding season (thereby incorporating multiple breeding attempts). First brood RS varied substantially among spatial clusters and years. Furthermore, the pattern of spatial variation was stable across years; some nest clusters consistently produced more chicks than others. Total seasonal RS also varied substantially among spatial clusters and years. However, the magnitude of variation was much larger and the pattern of spatial variation was no longer temporally consistent. Furthermore, the estimated magnitude of spatial variation in RS was greater at smaller spatial scales. We thereby demonstrate substantial spatial, temporal, and spatio-temporal variation in RS occurring at very small spatial scales. We show that the estimated magnitude of this variation depended on spatial scale and that spatio-temporal variation would not have been detected if season-long RS had not been measured. Such small-scale spatio-temporal variation should be incorporated into empirical and theoretical treatments of population dynamics.

  3. Spatio-temporal variation in European starling reproductive success at multiple small spatial scales

    PubMed Central

    Brickhill, Daisy; Evans, Peter GH; Reid, Jane M

    2015-01-01

    Understanding population dynamics requires spatio-temporal variation in demography to be measured across appropriate spatial and temporal scales. However, the most appropriate spatial scale(s) may not be obvious, few datasets cover sufficient time periods, and key demographic rates are often incompletely measured. Consequently, it is often assumed that demography will be spatially homogeneous within populations that lack obvious subdivision. Here, we quantify small-scale spatial and temporal variation in a key demographic rate, reproductive success (RS), within an apparently contiguous population of European starlings. We used hierarchical cluster analysis to define spatial clusters of nest sites at multiple small spatial scales and long-term data to test the hypothesis that small-scale spatio-temporal variation in RS occurred. RS was measured as the number of chicks alive ca. 12 days posthatch either per first brood or per nest site per breeding season (thereby incorporating multiple breeding attempts). First brood RS varied substantially among spatial clusters and years. Furthermore, the pattern of spatial variation was stable across years; some nest clusters consistently produced more chicks than others. Total seasonal RS also varied substantially among spatial clusters and years. However, the magnitude of variation was much larger and the pattern of spatial variation was no longer temporally consistent. Furthermore, the estimated magnitude of spatial variation in RS was greater at smaller spatial scales. We thereby demonstrate substantial spatial, temporal, and spatio-temporal variation in RS occurring at very small spatial scales. We show that the estimated magnitude of this variation depended on spatial scale and that spatio-temporal variation would not have been detected if season-long RS had not been measured. Such small-scale spatio-temporal variation should be incorporated into empirical and theoretical treatments of population dynamics. PMID:26380670

  4. Radar backscattering from a sea having an anisotropic large-scale surface, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentz, F. J.

    1977-01-01

    A two scale scattering model was derived that combines specular reflections from sea waves and Bragg scattering in a manner consistent with energy conservation. The effect of the tilting of the small scale roughness by the large scale roughness was included, which accounted for the reduction of reflected power. The special case of backscattering for which the transmitted polarization equaled the received polarization was considered. An anisotropic large scale surface was used to specify the probability density function of the large scale surface normal. In order to isolate the azimuthal variation of the normalized radar cross section produced by the anisotropic probability density function, an isotropical small scale spectrum was assumed.

  5. Management of large-scale multimedia conferencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cidon, Israel; Nachum, Youval

    1998-12-01

    The goal of this work is to explore management strategies and algorithms for large-scale multimedia conferencing over a communication network. Since the use of multimedia conferencing is still limited, the management of such systems has not yet been studied in depth. A well organized and human friendly multimedia conference management should utilize efficiently and fairly its limited resources as well as take into account the requirements of the conference participants. The ability of the management to enforce fair policies and to quickly take into account the participants preferences may even lead to a conference environment that is more pleasant and more effective than a similar face to face meeting. We suggest several principles for defining and solving resource sharing problems in this context. The conference resources which are addressed in this paper are the bandwidth (conference network capacity), time (participants' scheduling) and limitations of audio and visual equipment. The participants' requirements for these resources are defined and translated in terms of Quality of Service requirements and the fairness criteria.

  6. Large-scale wind turbine structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spera, David A.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to show how structural technology was applied in the design of modern wind turbines, which were recently brought to an advanced stage of development as sources of renewable power. Wind turbine structures present many difficult problems because they are relatively slender and flexible; subject to vibration and aeroelastic instabilities; acted upon by loads which are often nondeterministic; operated continuously with little maintenance in all weather; and dominated by life-cycle cost considerations. Progress in horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT) development was paced by progress in the understanding of structural loads, modeling of structural dynamic response, and designing of innovative structural response. During the past 15 years a series of large HAWTs was developed. This has culminated in the recent completion of the world's largest operating wind turbine, the 3.2 MW Mod-5B power plane installed on the island of Oahu, Hawaii. Some of the applications of structures technology to wind turbine will be illustrated by referring to the Mod-5B design. First, a video overview will be presented to provide familiarization with the Mod-5B project and the important components of the wind turbine system. Next, the structural requirements for large-scale wind turbines will be discussed, emphasizing the difficult fatigue-life requirements. Finally, the procedures used to design the structure will be presented, including the use of the fracture mechanics approach for determining allowable fatigue stresses.

  7. Large-scale tides in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ip, Hiu Yan; Schmidt, Fabian

    2017-02-01

    Density perturbations in cosmology, i.e. spherically symmetric adiabatic perturbations of a Friedmann-Lemaȋtre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) spacetime, are locally exactly equivalent to a different FLRW solution, as long as their wavelength is much larger than the sound horizon of all fluid components. This fact is known as the "separate universe" paradigm. However, no such relation is known for anisotropic adiabatic perturbations, which correspond to an FLRW spacetime with large-scale tidal fields. Here, we provide a closed, fully relativistic set of evolutionary equations for the nonlinear evolution of such modes, based on the conformal Fermi (CFC) frame. We show explicitly that the tidal effects are encoded by the Weyl tensor, and are hence entirely different from an anisotropic Bianchi I spacetime, where the anisotropy is sourced by the Ricci tensor. In order to close the system, certain higher derivative terms have to be dropped. We show that this approximation is equivalent to the local tidal approximation of Hui and Bertschinger [1]. We also show that this very simple set of equations matches the exact evolution of the density field at second order, but fails at third and higher order. This provides a useful, easy-to-use framework for computing the fully relativistic growth of structure at second order.

  8. Large scale mechanical metamaterials as seismic shields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miniaci, Marco; Krushynska, Anastasiia; Bosia, Federico; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2016-08-01

    Earthquakes represent one of the most catastrophic natural events affecting mankind. At present, a universally accepted risk mitigation strategy for seismic events remains to be proposed. Most approaches are based on vibration isolation of structures rather than on the remote shielding of incoming waves. In this work, we propose a novel approach to the problem and discuss the feasibility of a passive isolation strategy for seismic waves based on large-scale mechanical metamaterials, including for the first time numerical analysis of both surface and guided waves, soil dissipation effects, and adopting a full 3D simulations. The study focuses on realistic structures that can be effective in frequency ranges of interest for seismic waves, and optimal design criteria are provided, exploring different metamaterial configurations, combining phononic crystals and locally resonant structures and different ranges of mechanical properties. Dispersion analysis and full-scale 3D transient wave transmission simulations are carried out on finite size systems to assess the seismic wave amplitude attenuation in realistic conditions. Results reveal that both surface and bulk seismic waves can be considerably attenuated, making this strategy viable for the protection of civil structures against seismic risk. The proposed remote shielding approach could open up new perspectives in the field of seismology and in related areas of low-frequency vibration damping or blast protection.

  9. Food appropriation through large scale land acquisitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rulli, Maria Cristina; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    The increasing demand for agricultural products and the uncertainty of international food markets has recently drawn the attention of governments and agribusiness firms toward investments in productive agricultural land, mostly in the developing world. The targeted countries are typically located in regions that have remained only marginally utilized because of lack of modern technology. It is expected that in the long run large scale land acquisitions (LSLAs) for commercial farming will bring the technology required to close the existing crops yield gaps. While the extent of the acquired land and the associated appropriation of freshwater resources have been investigated in detail, the amount of food this land can produce and the number of people it could feed still need to be quantified. Here we use a unique dataset of land deals to provide a global quantitative assessment of the rates of crop and food appropriation potentially associated with LSLAs. We show how up to 300-550 million people could be fed by crops grown in the acquired land, should these investments in agriculture improve crop production and close the yield gap. In contrast, about 190-370 million people could be supported by this land without closing of the yield gap. These numbers raise some concern because the food produced in the acquired land is typically exported to other regions, while the target countries exhibit high levels of malnourishment. Conversely, if used for domestic consumption, the crops harvested in the acquired land could ensure food security to the local populations.

  10. Large scale structure of the sun's corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Mukul R.

    Results concerning the large-scale structure of the solar corona obtained by observations at meter-decameter wavelengths are reviewed. Coronal holes observed on the disk at multiple frequencies show the radial and azimuthal geometry of the hole. At the base of the hole there is good correspondence to the chromospheric signature in He I 10,830 A, but at greater heights the hole may show departures from symmetry. Two-dimensional imaging of weak-type III bursts simultaneously with the HAO SMM coronagraph/polarimeter measurements indicate that these bursts occur along elongated features emanating from the quiet sun, corresponding in position angle to the bright coronal streamers. It is shown that the densest regions of streamers and the regions of maximum intensity of type II bursts coincide closely. Non-flare-associated type II/type IV bursts associated with coronal streamer disruption events are studied along with correlated type II burst emissions originating from distant centers on the sun.

  11. Large-scale carbon fiber tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pride, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    A realistic release of carbon fibers was established by burning a minimum of 45 kg of carbon fiber composite aircraft structural components in each of five large scale, outdoor aviation jet fuel fire tests. This release was quantified by several independent assessments with various instruments developed specifically for these tests. The most likely values for the mass of single carbon fibers released ranged from 0.2 percent of the initial mass of carbon fiber for the source tests (zero wind velocity) to a maximum of 0.6 percent of the initial carbon fiber mass for dissemination tests (5 to 6 m/s wind velocity). Mean fiber lengths for fibers greater than 1 mm in length ranged from 2.5 to 3.5 mm. Mean diameters ranged from 3.6 to 5.3 micrometers which was indicative of significant oxidation. Footprints of downwind dissemination of the fire released fibers were measured to 19.1 km from the fire.

  12. Large-scale clustering of cosmic voids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Kwan Chuen; Hamaus, Nico; Desjacques, Vincent

    2014-11-01

    We study the clustering of voids using N -body simulations and simple theoretical models. The excursion-set formalism describes fairly well the abundance of voids identified with the watershed algorithm, although the void formation threshold required is quite different from the spherical collapse value. The void cross bias bc is measured and its large-scale value is found to be consistent with the peak background split results. A simple fitting formula for bc is found. We model the void auto-power spectrum taking into account the void biasing and exclusion effect. A good fit to the simulation data is obtained for voids with radii ≳30 Mpc h-1 , especially when the void biasing model is extended to 1-loop order. However, the best-fit bias parameters do not agree well with the peak-background results. Being able to fit the void auto-power spectrum is particularly important not only because it is the direct observable in galaxy surveys, but also our method enables us to treat the bias parameters as nuisance parameters, which are sensitive to the techniques used to identify voids.

  13. Large-scale autostereoscopic outdoor display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitterer, Jörg; Fidler, Franz; Saint Julien-Wallsee, Ferdinand; Schmid, Gerhard; Gartner, Wolfgang; Leeb, Walter; Schmid, Ulrich

    2013-03-01

    State-of-the-art autostereoscopic displays are often limited in size, effective brightness, number of 3D viewing zones, and maximum 3D viewing distances, all of which are mandatory requirements for large-scale outdoor displays. Conventional autostereoscopic indoor concepts like lenticular lenses or parallax barriers cannot simply be adapted for these screens due to the inherent loss of effective resolution and brightness, which would reduce both image quality and sunlight readability. We have developed a modular autostereoscopic multi-view laser display concept with sunlight readable effective brightness, theoretically up to several thousand 3D viewing zones, and maximum 3D viewing distances of up to 60 meters. For proof-of-concept purposes a prototype display with two pixels was realized. Due to various manufacturing tolerances each individual pixel has slightly different optical properties, and hence the 3D image quality of the display has to be calculated stochastically. In this paper we present the corresponding stochastic model, we evaluate the simulation and measurement results of the prototype display, and we calculate the achievable autostereoscopic image quality to be expected for our concept.

  14. Numerical Modeling for Large Scale Hydrothermal System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrabi, Reza; Jansen, Gunnar; Malvoisin, Benjamin; Mazzini, Adriano; Miller, Stephen A.

    2017-04-01

    Moderate-to-high enthalpy systems are driven by multiphase and multicomponent processes, fluid and rock mechanics, and heat transport processes, all of which present challenges in developing realistic numerical models of the underlying physics. The objective of this work is to present an approach, and some initial results, for modeling and understanding dynamics of the birth of large scale hydrothermal systems. Numerical modeling of such complex systems must take into account a variety of coupled thermal, hydraulic, mechanical and chemical processes, which is numerically challenging. To provide first estimates of the behavior of this deep complex systems, geological structures must be constrained, and the fluid dynamics, mechanics and the heat transport need to be investigated in three dimensions. Modeling these processes numerically at adequate resolution and reasonable computation times requires a suite of tools that we are developing and/or utilizing to investigate such systems. Our long-term goal is to develop 3D numerical models, based on a geological models, which couples mechanics with the hydraulics and thermal processes driving hydrothermal system. Our first results from the Lusi hydrothermal system in East Java, Indonesia provide a basis for more sophisticated studies, eventually in 3D, and we introduce a workflow necessary to achieve these objectives. Future work focuses with the aim and parallelization suitable for High Performance Computing (HPC). Such developments are necessary to achieve high-resolution simulations to more fully understand the complex dynamics of hydrothermal systems.

  15. Topographically Engineered Large Scale Nanostructures for Plasmonic Biosensing

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Bo; Pradhan, Sangram K.; Santiago, Kevin C.; Rutherford, Gugu N.; Pradhan, Aswini K.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that a nanostructured metal thin film can achieve enhanced transmission efficiency and sharp resonances and use a large-scale and high-throughput nanofabrication technique for the plasmonic structures. The fabrication technique combines the features of nanoimprint and soft lithography to topographically construct metal thin films with nanoscale patterns. Metal nanogratings developed using this method show significantly enhanced optical transmission (up to a one-order-of-magnitude enhancement) and sharp resonances with full width at half maximum (FWHM) of ~15nm in the zero-order transmission using an incoherent white light source. These nanostructures are sensitive to the surrounding environment, and the resonance can shift as the refractive index changes. We derive an analytical method using a spatial Fourier transformation to understand the enhancement phenomenon and the sensing mechanism. The use of real-time monitoring of protein-protein interactions in microfluidic cells integrated with these nanostructures is demonstrated to be effective for biosensing. The perpendicular transmission configuration and large-scale structures provide a feasible platform without sophisticated optical instrumentation to realize label-free surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing. PMID:27072067

  16. Large-scale anisotropy in stably stratified rotating flows

    DOE PAGES

    Marino, R.; Mininni, P. D.; Rosenberg, D. L.; ...

    2014-08-28

    We present results from direct numerical simulations of the Boussinesq equations in the presence of rotation and/or stratification, both in the vertical direction. The runs are forced isotropically and randomly at small scales and have spatial resolutions of up tomore » $1024^3$ grid points and Reynolds numbers of $$\\approx 1000$$. We first show that solutions with negative energy flux and inverse cascades develop in rotating turbulence, whether or not stratification is present. However, the purely stratified case is characterized instead by an early-time, highly anisotropic transfer to large scales with almost zero net isotropic energy flux. This is consistent with previous studies that observed the development of vertically sheared horizontal winds, although only at substantially later times. However, and unlike previous works, when sufficient scale separation is allowed between the forcing scale and the domain size, the total energy displays a perpendicular (horizontal) spectrum with power law behavior compatible with $$\\sim k_\\perp^{-5/3}$$, including in the absence of rotation. In this latter purely stratified case, such a spectrum is the result of a direct cascade of the energy contained in the large-scale horizontal wind, as is evidenced by a strong positive flux of energy in the parallel direction at all scales including the largest resolved scales.« less

  17. Large-scale anisotropy in stably stratified rotating flows

    SciTech Connect

    Marino, R.; Mininni, P. D.; Rosenberg, D. L.; Pouquet, A.

    2014-08-28

    We present results from direct numerical simulations of the Boussinesq equations in the presence of rotation and/or stratification, both in the vertical direction. The runs are forced isotropically and randomly at small scales and have spatial resolutions of up to $1024^3$ grid points and Reynolds numbers of $\\approx 1000$. We first show that solutions with negative energy flux and inverse cascades develop in rotating turbulence, whether or not stratification is present. However, the purely stratified case is characterized instead by an early-time, highly anisotropic transfer to large scales with almost zero net isotropic energy flux. This is consistent with previous studies that observed the development of vertically sheared horizontal winds, although only at substantially later times. However, and unlike previous works, when sufficient scale separation is allowed between the forcing scale and the domain size, the total energy displays a perpendicular (horizontal) spectrum with power law behavior compatible with $\\sim k_\\perp^{-5/3}$, including in the absence of rotation. In this latter purely stratified case, such a spectrum is the result of a direct cascade of the energy contained in the large-scale horizontal wind, as is evidenced by a strong positive flux of energy in the parallel direction at all scales including the largest resolved scales.

  18. Knocking down highly-ordered large-scale nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Pevzner, Alexander; Engel, Yoni; Elnathan, Roey; Ducobni, Tamir; Ben-Ishai, Moshit; Reddy, Koteeswara; Shpaisman, Nava; Tsukernik, Alexander; Oksman, Mark; Patolsky, Fernando

    2010-04-14

    The large-scale assembly of nanowire elements with controlled and uniform orientation and density at spatially well-defined locations on solid substrates presents one of the most significant challenges facing their integration in real-world electronic applications. Here, we present the universal "knocking-down" approach, based on the controlled in-place planarization of nanowire elements, for the formation of large-scale ordered nanowire arrays. The controlled planarization of the nanowires is achieved by the use of an appropriate elastomer-covered rigid-roller device. After being knocked down, each nanowire in the array can be easily addressed electrically, by a simple single photolithographic step, to yield a large number of nanoelectrical devices with an unprecedented high-fidelity rate. The approach allows controlling, in only two simple steps, all possible array parameters, that is, nanowire dimensions, chemical composition, orientation, and density. The resulting knocked-down arrays can be further used for the creation of massive nanoelectronic-device arrays. More than million devices were already fabricated with yields over 98% on substrate areas of up, but not limited to, to 10 cm(2).

  19. Large-scale forcing on lightning in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, J. A.; Sousa, J.; Reis, M. A.; Leite, S. M.; Correia, S.; Fraga, H.; Fragoso, M.

    2012-04-01

    An overview of the large-scale atmospheric forcing on the occurrence of cloud-to-ground lightning activity over Portugal is presented here. A dataset generated by a network of nine sensors, maintained by the Portuguese Meteorological Institute (four sensors) and by Spanish Meteorological Agency (five sensors), with available data over the 2003-2009 time period (7 years) is used for this purpose. For the same time period, a state-of-the-art high-resolution reanalysis dataset in a 1.0° latitude × 1.0° longitude grid (Modern Era Retrospective - Analysis for Research and Applications; MERRA300) is also considered in order to assess the atmospheric large-scale features over the target region. Three lightning regimes of the atmospheric general circulation within the Euro-Atlantic sector can be clearly detected. These regimes are characterized according to their underlying dynamical conditions (sea surface pressure, 500 hPa geopotential height and air temperature, streamlines of the 10 m wind vectors, and best 4-layer lifted index at 500 hPa). The spatial distribution of lighting activity in Portugal (patterns of the density of the atmospheric electrical discharges) is also analyzed for each regime separately. Considerations regarding seasonality, flash polarity and daily cycles in the lighting activity are also given for each lightning regime.

  20. Very large-scale motions in a turbulent pipe flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae Hwa; Jang, Seong Jae; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2011-11-01

    Direct numerical simulation of a turbulent pipe flow with ReD=35000 was performed to investigate the spatially coherent structures associated with very large-scale motions. The corresponding friction Reynolds number, based on pipe radius R, is R+=934, and the computational domain length is 30 R. The computed mean flow statistics agree well with previous DNS data at ReD=44000 and 24000. Inspection of the instantaneous fields and two-point correlation of the streamwise velocity fluctuations showed that the very long meandering motions exceeding 25R exist in logarithmic and wake regions, and the streamwise length scale is almost linearly increased up to y/R ~0.3, while the structures in the turbulent boundary layer only reach up to the edge of the log-layer. Time-resolved instantaneous fields revealed that the hairpin packet-like structures grow with continuous stretching along the streamwise direction and create the very large-scale structures with meandering in the spanwise direction, consistent with the previous conceptual model of Kim & Adrian (1999). This work was supported by the Creative Research Initiatives of NRF/MEST of Korea (No. 2011-0000423).

  1. Simulator for Large-scale Planetary and Terrestrial Radar Sounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, M.; Schroeder, D. M.; Duan, X.; Arumugam, D.; McMichael, J. G.; Hensley, S.; Cwik, T. A.

    2016-12-01

    We are developing a radar sounding simulation tool that can simulate radar scattering from large-scale, heterogeneous sub-surfaces for all existing, proposed, and future potential planetary and terrestrial sounder missions for Mars, Venus, Earth (e.g., atmosphere, ice sheets), Europa, Ganymede, Enceladus or other icy planetary bodies. This tool will be the first of its kind in planetary and terrestrial radar sounding simulation to support system engineering and to test scientific observables. No extant radar simulator is capable of producing echoes with realistic phase histories, heterogeneous media propagation effects, and processing gains at the spatial scales of planetary or terrestrial radar sounding (e.g., computational subsurface volumes of 10,000s of wavelengths in three dimensions at sounding frequencies of 5-100 MHz). Today's radar point target simulators are fast, but do not model transmission and propagation through heterogeneous dielectric media. We present progress on two simulation modules aimed at addressing different regimes of the sounding scattering problem: the Pseudo-Spectral Time-Domain (PSTD) for scattering from shallow subsurface dielectric heterogeneities, and the Multi-layer Fast Multipole Method for scattering from deep, large-scale dielectric interfaces. We will show simulated radargrams and compare computation times for realistic radar sounding scenes, in addition we solicit community input for this tool and outline the development path.

  2. Modulation of energetic coherent motions by large-scale topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Wing; Hamed, Ali M.; Troolin, Dan; Chamorro, Leonardo P.

    2016-11-01

    The distinctive characteristics and dynamics of the large-scale coherent motions induced over 2D and 3D large-scale wavy walls were explored experimentally with time-resolved volumetric PIV, and selected wall-normal high-resolution stereo PIV in a refractive-index-matching channel. The 2D wall consists of a sinusoidal wave in the streamwise direction with amplitude to wavelength ratio a/ λx = 0.05, while the 3D wall has an additional wave in the spanwise direction with a/ λy = 0.1. The ?ow was characterized at Re 8000, based on the bulk velocity and the channel half height. The walls are such that the amplitude to boundary layer thickness ratio is a/ δ99 0.1, which resemble geophysical-like topography. Insight on the dynamics of the coherent motions, Reynolds stress and spatial interaction of sweep and ejection events will be discussed in terms of the wall topography modulation.

  3. Resonant plankton patchiness induced by large-scale turbulent flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKiver, William J.; Neufeld, Zoltán

    2011-01-01

    Here we study how large-scale variability of oceanic plankton is affected by mesoscale turbulence in a spatially heterogeneous environment. We consider a phytoplankton-zooplankton (PZ) ecosystem model, with different types of zooplankton grazing functions, coupled to a turbulent flow described by the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations, representing large-scale horizontal transport in the ocean. We characterize the system using a dimensionless parameter, γ=TB/TF, which is the ratio of the ecosystem biological time scale TB and the flow time scale TF. Through numerical simulations, we examine how the PZ system depends on the time-scale ratio γ and find that the variance of both species changes significantly, with maximum phytoplankton variability at intermediate mixing rates. Through an analysis of the linearized population dynamics, we find an analytical solution based on the forced harmonic oscillator, which explains the behavior of the ecosystem, where there is resonance between the advection and the ecosystem predator-prey dynamics when the forcing time scales match the ecosystem time scales. We also examine the dependence of the power spectra on γ and find that the resonance behavior leads to different spectral slopes for phytoplankton and zooplankton, in agreement with observations.

  4. Resonant plankton patchiness induced by large-scale turbulent flow.

    PubMed

    McKiver, William J; Neufeld, Zoltán

    2011-01-01

    Here we study how large-scale variability of oceanic plankton is affected by mesoscale turbulence in a spatially heterogeneous environment. We consider a phytoplankton-zooplankton (PZ) ecosystem model, with different types of zooplankton grazing functions, coupled to a turbulent flow described by the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations, representing large-scale horizontal transport in the ocean. We characterize the system using a dimensionless parameter, γ=T(B)/T(F), which is the ratio of the ecosystem biological time scale T(B) and the flow time scale T(F). Through numerical simulations, we examine how the PZ system depends on the time-scale ratio γ and find that the variance of both species changes significantly, with maximum phytoplankton variability at intermediate mixing rates. Through an analysis of the linearized population dynamics, we find an analytical solution based on the forced harmonic oscillator, which explains the behavior of the ecosystem, where there is resonance between the advection and the ecosystem predator-prey dynamics when the forcing time scales match the ecosystem time scales. We also examine the dependence of the power spectra on γ and find that the resonance behavior leads to different spectral slopes for phytoplankton and zooplankton, in agreement with observations.

  5. Large Scale Organization of a Near Wall Turbulent Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanislas, Michel; Dekou Tiomajou, Raoul Florent; Foucaut, Jean Marc

    2016-11-01

    This study lies in the context of large scale coherent structures investigation in a near wall turbulent boundary layer. An experimental database at high Reynolds numbers (Re θ = 9830 and Re θ = 19660) was obtained in the LML wind tunnel with stereo-PIV at 4 Hz and hot wire anemometry at 30 kHz. A Linear Stochastic Estimation procedure, is used to reconstruct a 3 component field resolved in space and time. Algorithms were developed to extract coherent structures from the reconstructed field. A sample of 3D view of the structures is depicted in Figure 1. Uniform momentum regions are characterized with their mean hydraulic diameter in the YZ plane, their life time and their contribution to Reynolds stresses. The vortical motions are characterized by their position, radius, circulation and vorticity in addition to their life time and their number computed at a fixed position from the wall. The spatial organization of the structures was investigated through a correlation of their respective indicative functions in the spanwise direction. The simplified large scale model that arise is compared to the ones available in the literature. Streamwise low (green) and high (yellow) uniform momentum regions with positive (red) and negative (blue) vortical motions. This work was supported by Campus International pour la Sécurité et l'Intermodalité des Transports.

  6. Large Scale Land Acquisition as a driver of slope instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilo Chiarelli, Davide; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Davis, Kyle F.; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Forests play a key role in preventing shallow landslides and deforestation has been analyzed as one of the main causes of increased mass wasting in hillsplopes undergoing land cover change. In the last few years vast tracts of lands have been acquired by foreign investors to satisfy an increasing demand for agricultural products. Large Scale Land Acquisitions (LSLA) often entail the conversion of forested landscapes into agricultural fields. Mozambique has been a major target of LSLAs and there is evidence that many of the acquired land have recently undergone forest clearing. The Zambezia Province in Mozambique has lost more than 500000ha of forest from 2000 to 2014; 25.4% of them were in areas acquired by large scale land investors. According to Land Matrix, an open-source database of reported land deals, there are currently 123 intended and confirmed deals in Mozambique; collectively, they account for 2.34million ha, the majority of which are located in forested areas. This study analyses the relationship between deforestation taking place inside LSLA areas(usually for agricultural purpose) and the likelihood of landslides occurrence in the Zambezia province in Mozambique. To this aim we use a spatially distributed and physically based model that couples slope stability analysis with a hillslope scale hydrological model and we compare the change in slope stability associated the forest loss documented by satellite imagery.

  7. A study of synthetic large scales in turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duvvuri, Subrahmanyam; Luhar, Mitul; Barnard, Casey; Sheplak, Mark; McKeon, Beverley

    2013-11-01

    Synthetic spanwise-constant spatio-temporal disturbances are excited in a turbulent boundary layer through a spatially impulsive patch of dynamic wall-roughness. The downstream flow response is studied through hot wire anemometry, pressure measurements at the wall and direct measurements of wall-shear-stress made using a novel micro-machined capacitive floating element sensor. These measurements are phase-locked to the input perturbation to recover the synthetic large-scale motion and characterize its structure and wall signature. The phase relationship between the synthetic large scale and small scale activity provides further insights into the apparent amplitude modulation effect between them, and the dynamics of wall-bounded turbulent flows in general. Results from these experiments will be discussed in the context of the critical-layer behavior revealed by the resolvent analysis of McKeon & Sharma (J Fluid Mech, 2010), and compared with similar earlier work by Jacobi & McKeon (J Fluid Mech, 2011). Model predictions are shown to be in broad agreement with experiments. The support of AFOSR grant #FA 9550-12-1-0469, Resnick Institute Graduate Research Fellowship (S.D.) and Sandia Graduate Fellowship (C.B.) are gratefully acknowledged.

  8. Large-scale phenomena, chapter 3, part D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Oceanic phenomena with horizontal scales from approximately 100 km up to the widths of the oceans themselves are examined. Data include: shape of geoid, quasi-stationary anomalies due to spatial variations in sea density and steady current systems, and the time dependent variations due to tidal and meteorological forces and to varying currents.

  9. MULTIPLE TESTING VIA FDRL FOR LARGE SCALE IMAGING DATA

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunming; Fan, Jianqing; Yu, Tao

    2010-01-01

    The multiple testing procedure plays an important role in detecting the presence of spatial signals for large scale imaging data. Typically, the spatial signals are sparse but clustered. This paper provides empirical evidence that for a range of commonly used control levels, the conventional FDR procedure can lack the ability to detect statistical significance, even if the p-values under the true null hypotheses are independent and uniformly distributed; more generally, ignoring the neighboring information of spatially structured data will tend to diminish the detection effectiveness of the FDR procedure. This paper first introduces a scalar quantity to characterize the extent to which the “lack of identification phenomenon” (LIP) of the FDR procedure occurs. Second, we propose a new multiple comparison procedure, called FDRL, to accommodate the spatial information of neighboring p-values, via a local aggregation of p-values. Theoretical properties of the FDRL procedure are investigated under weak dependence of p-values. It is shown that the FDRL procedure alleviates the LIP of the FDR procedure, thus substantially facilitating the selection of more stringent control levels. Simulation evaluations indicate that the FDRL procedure improves the detection sensitivity of the FDR procedure with little loss in detection specificity. The computational simplicity and detection effectiveness of the FDRL procedure are illustrated through a real brain fMRI dataset. PMID:21643445

  10. Large Scale Turbulent Structures in Supersonic Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Ram Mohan; Lundgren, Thomas S.

    1997-01-01

    Jet noise is a major concern in the design of commercial aircraft. Studies by various researchers suggest that aerodynamic noise is a major contributor to jet noise. Some of these studies indicate that most of the aerodynamic jet noise due to turbulent mixing occurs when there is a rapid variation in turbulent structure, i.e. rapidly growing or decaying vortices. The objective of this research was to simulate a compressible round jet to study the non-linear evolution of vortices and the resulting acoustic radiations. In particular, to understand the effect of turbulence structure on the noise. An ideal technique to study this problem is Direct Numerical Simulations(DNS), because it provides precise control on the initial and boundary conditions that lead to the turbulent structures studied. It also provides complete 3-dimensional time dependent data. Since the dynamics of a temporally evolving jet are not greatly different from those, of a spatially evolving jet, a temporal jet problem was solved, using periodicity ill the direction of the jet axis. This enables the application of Fourier spectral methods in the streamwise direction. Physically this means that turbulent structures in the jet are repeated in successive downstream cells instead of being gradually modified downstream into a jet plume. The DNS jet simulation helps us understand the various turbulent scales and mechanisms of turbulence generation in the evolution of a compressible round jet. These accurate flow solutions will be used in future research to estimate near-field acoustic radiation by computing the total outward flux across a surface and determine how it is related to the evolution of the turbulent solutions. Furthermore, these simulations allow us to investigate the sensitivity of acoustic radiations to inlet/boundary conditions, with possible application to active noise suppression. In addition, the data generated can be used to compute various turbulence quantities such as mean velocities

  11. Large Scale Turbulent Structures in Supersonic Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Ram Mohan; Lundgren, Thomas S.

    1997-01-01

    Jet noise is a major concern in the design of commercial aircraft. Studies by various researchers suggest that aerodynamic noise is a major contributor to jet noise. Some of these studies indicate that most of the aerodynamic jet noise due to turbulent mixing occurs when there is a rapid variation in turbulent structure, i.e. rapidly growing or decaying vortices. The objective of this research was to simulate a compressible round jet to study the non-linear evolution of vortices and the resulting acoustic radiations. In particular, to understand the effect of turbulence structure on the noise. An ideal technique to study this problem is Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS), because it provides precise control on the initial and boundary conditions that lead to the turbulent structures studied. It also provides complete 3-dimensional time dependent data. Since the dynamics of a temporally evolving jet are not greatly different from those of a spatially evolving jet, a temporal jet problem was solved, using periodicity in the direction of the jet axis. This enables the application of Fourier spectral methods in the streamwise direction. Physically this means that turbulent structures in the jet are repeated in successive downstream cells instead of being gradually modified downstream into a jet plume. The DNS jet simulation helps us understand the various turbulent scales and mechanisms of turbulence generation in the evolution of a compressible round jet. These accurate flow solutions will be used in future research to estimate near-field acoustic radiation by computing the total outward flux across a surface and determine how it is related to the evolution of the turbulent solutions. Furthermore, these simulations allow us to investigate the sensitivity of acoustic radiations to inlet/boundary conditions, with possible appli(,a- tion to active noise suppression. In addition, the data generated can be used to compute, various turbulence quantities such as mean

  12. Spatial and temporal variations of thunderstorm activities over Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnadara, Upul

    2016-05-01

    Spatial and temporal variation of frequencies of thunderstorms over Sri Lanka using thunder day data is presented. A thunder day is simply a calendar day in which thunder is heard at least once at a given location. Two sets of data were collected and analyzed: annual totals for 10 climatological stations for a period of 50 years and monthly totals for 20 climatological stations for a period of 20 years. The average annual thunder days over Sri Lanka was found to be 76. Among the climatological stations considered, a high number of annual thunder days was recorded in Ratnapura (150 days/year), followed by Colombo (108 days/year) and Bandarawela (106 days/year). It appears that there are no widespread long-term increasing or decreasing trends in thunderstorm frequencies. However, Colombo, the capital of Sri Lanka which has over two million people shows an increasing trend of 0.8 thunder days per year. Although there is a high variability between stations reporting the number of thunder days, the overall pattern within a year is clear. Thunderstorm frequencies are high during two periods: March-May and September-November, which coincide with the first inter-monsoon and second inter-monsoon periods. Compared to the dry zone, the wet zone, especially the southwestern region, has high thunderstorm activity. There is a clear spatial difference in thunderstorm activities during the southwest and northeast monsoon seasons. During both these seasons, enhanced thunderstorm activities are reported on the leeward side of the mountain range. A slight reduction in the thunderstorm activities was found in the high elevation areas of the hill country compared to the surrounding areas. A lightning ground flash density map derived using annual thunder days is also presented.

  13. The combustion behavior of large scale lithium titanate battery

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Peifeng; Wang, Qingsong; Li, Ke; Ping, Ping; Sun, Jinhua

    2015-01-01

    Safety problem is always a big obstacle for lithium battery marching to large scale application. However, the knowledge on the battery combustion behavior is limited. To investigate the combustion behavior of large scale lithium battery, three 50 Ah Li(NixCoyMnz)O2/Li4Ti5O12 batteries under different state of charge (SOC) were heated to fire. The flame size variation is depicted to analyze the combustion behavior directly. The mass loss rate, temperature and heat release rate are used to analyze the combustion behavior in reaction way deeply. Based on the phenomenon, the combustion process is divided into three basic stages, even more complicated at higher SOC with sudden smoke flow ejected. The reason is that a phase change occurs in Li(NixCoyMnz)O2 material from layer structure to spinel structure. The critical temperatures of ignition are at 112–121°C on anode tab and 139 to 147°C on upper surface for all cells. But the heating time and combustion time become shorter with the ascending of SOC. The results indicate that the battery fire hazard increases with the SOC. It is analyzed that the internal short and the Li+ distribution are the main causes that lead to the difference. PMID:25586064

  14. Large-scale Direct Targeting for Drug Repositioning and Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Chunli; Guo, Zihu; Huang, Chao; Wu, Ziyin; Li, Yan; Chen, Xuetong; Fu, Yingxue; Ru, Jinlong; Ali Shar, Piar; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    A system-level identification of drug-target direct interactions is vital to drug repositioning and discovery. However, the biological means on a large scale remains challenging and expensive even nowadays. The available computational models mainly focus on predicting indirect interactions or direct interactions on a small scale. To address these problems, in this work, a novel algorithm termed weighted ensemble similarity (WES) has been developed to identify drug direct targets based on a large-scale of 98,327 drug-target relationships. WES includes: (1) identifying the key ligand structural features that are highly-related to the pharmacological properties in a framework of ensemble; (2) determining a drug’s affiliation of a target by evaluation of the overall similarity (ensemble) rather than a single ligand judgment; and (3) integrating the standardized ensemble similarities (Z score) by Bayesian network and multi-variate kernel approach to make predictions. All these lead WES to predict drug direct targets with external and experimental test accuracies of 70% and 71%, respectively. This shows that the WES method provides a potential in silico model for drug repositioning and discovery. PMID:26155766

  15. Evaluating Unmanned Aerial Platforms for Cultural Heritage Large Scale Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgopoulos, A.; Oikonomou, C.; Adamopoulos, E.; Stathopoulou, E. K.

    2016-06-01

    When it comes to large scale mapping of limited areas especially for cultural heritage sites, things become critical. Optical and non-optical sensors are developed to such sizes and weights that can be lifted by such platforms, like e.g. LiDAR units. At the same time there is an increase in emphasis on solutions that enable users to get access to 3D information faster and cheaper. Considering the multitude of platforms, cameras and the advancement of algorithms in conjunction with the increase of available computing power this challenge should and indeed is further investigated. In this paper a short review of the UAS technologies today is attempted. A discussion follows as to their applicability and advantages, depending on their specifications, which vary immensely. The on-board cameras available are also compared and evaluated for large scale mapping. Furthermore a thorough analysis, review and experimentation with different software implementations of Structure from Motion and Multiple View Stereo algorithms, able to process such dense and mostly unordered sequence of digital images is also conducted and presented. As test data set, we use a rich optical and thermal data set from both fixed wing and multi-rotor platforms over an archaeological excavation with adverse height variations and using different cameras. Dense 3D point clouds, digital terrain models and orthophotos have been produced and evaluated for their radiometric as well as metric qualities.

  16. The combustion behavior of large scale lithium titanate battery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Peifeng; Wang, Qingsong; Li, Ke; Ping, Ping; Sun, Jinhua

    2015-01-14

    Safety problem is always a big obstacle for lithium battery marching to large scale application. However, the knowledge on the battery combustion behavior is limited. To investigate the combustion behavior of large scale lithium battery, three 50 Ah Li(Ni(x)Co(y)Mn(z))O2/Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) batteries under different state of charge (SOC) were heated to fire. The flame size variation is depicted to analyze the combustion behavior directly. The mass loss rate, temperature and heat release rate are used to analyze the combustion behavior in reaction way deeply. Based on the phenomenon, the combustion process is divided into three basic stages, even more complicated at higher SOC with sudden smoke flow ejected. The reason is that a phase change occurs in Li(Ni(x)Co(y)Mn(z))O2 material from layer structure to spinel structure. The critical temperatures of ignition are at 112-121 °C on anode tab and 139 to 147 °C on upper surface for all cells. But the heating time and combustion time become shorter with the ascending of SOC. The results indicate that the battery fire hazard increases with the SOC. It is analyzed that the internal short and the Li(+) distribution are the main causes that lead to the difference.

  17. The influence of the large scale circulation on an eastern boundary current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Rizzoli, P. M.; Spall, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    The wind-driven gyre circulation in the ocean interior varies across large temporal and spatial scales, while the current along the eastern boundary is concentrated in a narrow jet with smaller temporal and spatial scales. These boundary currents are often hydrodynamically unstable and generate mesoscale and sub-mesoscale variability. In this study, we investigate the influence of the large scale circulation on an unstable eastern boundary current. One example is the influence of the Pacific subtropical gyre on the California current system. We study the problem using both a linear stability analysis and a nonlinear numerical model in a barotropic and quasi-geostrophic framework. The large scale circulation and the boundary current are specified in the linear analysis and are generated by an Ekman forcing in the numerical model. The linear stability analysis shows that to the lowest order the eastward (westward) flow of the large scale circulation stabilizes (destabilizes) the boundary current. Additionally, the meridional flow contributed by the large scale circulation accelerates or decelerates the originally parallel boundary current and modifies the stability of the current through the Doppler effect. Unstable perturbations which can be represented by normal modes for a parallel current then develop streamwise spatial structures. In the nonlinear numerical simulations, the streamwise nonuniformity of the boundary current influenced by the large scale circulation is clearly shown in the eddy kinetic energy. The location of the maximum eddy kinetic energy depends on the relative strength of the large scale circulation and the boundary current. The meridionally nonuniform eddy activities are important in offshore tracer transport. The nonlinear numerical simulation is forced by a wind curl field which generates a southward eastern boundary current and a large scale circulation with double gyres (white contours). The mean eddy kinetic energy of the boundary current

  18. Large Scale Flame Spread Environmental Characterization Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayman, Lauren K.; Olson, Sandra L.; Gokoghi, Suleyman A.; Brooker, John E.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Kacher, Henry F.

    2013-01-01

    Under the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration Project (SFSDP), as a risk mitigation activity in support of the development of a large-scale fire demonstration experiment in microgravity, flame-spread tests were conducted in normal gravity on thin, cellulose-based fuels in a sealed chamber. The primary objective of the tests was to measure pressure rise in a chamber as sample material, burning direction (upward/downward), total heat release, heat release rate, and heat loss mechanisms were varied between tests. A Design of Experiments (DOE) method was imposed to produce an array of tests from a fixed set of constraints and a coupled response model was developed. Supplementary tests were run without experimental design to additionally vary select parameters such as initial chamber pressure. The starting chamber pressure for each test was set below atmospheric to prevent chamber overpressure. Bottom ignition, or upward propagating burns, produced rapid acceleratory turbulent flame spread. Pressure rise in the chamber increases as the amount of fuel burned increases mainly because of the larger amount of heat generation and, to a much smaller extent, due to the increase in gaseous number of moles. Top ignition, or downward propagating burns, produced a steady flame spread with a very small flat flame across the burning edge. Steady-state pressure is achieved during downward flame spread as the pressure rises and plateaus. This indicates that the heat generation by the flame matches the heat loss to surroundings during the longer, slower downward burns. One heat loss mechanism included mounting a heat exchanger directly above the burning sample in the path of the plume to act as a heat sink and more efficiently dissipate the heat due to the combustion event. This proved an effective means for chamber overpressure mitigation for those tests producing the most total heat release and thusly was determined to be a feasible mitigation

  19. Large scale, synchronous variability of marine fish populations driven by commercial exploitation

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Kenneth T.; Petrie, Brian; Leggett, William C.; Boyce, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    Synchronous variations in the abundance of geographically distinct marine fish populations are known to occur across spatial scales on the order of 1,000 km and greater. The prevailing assumption is that this large-scale coherent variability is a response to coupled atmosphere–ocean dynamics, commonly represented by climate indexes, such as the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and North Atlantic Oscillation. On the other hand, it has been suggested that exploitation might contribute to this coherent variability. This possibility has been generally ignored or dismissed on the grounds that exploitation is unlikely to operate synchronously at such large spatial scales. Our analysis of adult fishing mortality and spawning stock biomass of 22 North Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) stocks revealed that both the temporal and spatial scales in fishing mortality and spawning stock biomass were equivalent to those of the climate drivers. From these results, we conclude that greater consideration must be given to the potential of exploitation as a driving force behind broad, coherent variability of heavily exploited fish species. PMID:27382163

  20. Large-scale sparse functional networks from resting state fMRI.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongming; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Fan, Yong

    2017-08-01

    Delineation of large-scale functional networks (FNs) from resting state functional MRI data has become a standard tool to explore the functional brain organization in neuroscience. However, existing methods sacrifice subject specific variation in order to maintain the across-subject correspondence necessary for group-level analyses. In order to obtain subject specific FNs that are comparable across subjects, existing brain decomposition techniques typically adopt heuristic strategies or assume a specific statistical distribution for the FNs across subjects, and therefore might yield biased results. Here we present a novel data-driven method for detecting subject specific FNs while establishing group level correspondence. Our method simultaneously computes subject specific FNs for a group of subjects regularized by group sparsity, to generate subject specific FNs that are spatially sparse and share common spatial patterns across subjects. Our method is built upon non-negative matrix decomposition techniques, enhanced by a data locality regularization term that makes the decomposition robust to imaging noise and improves spatial smoothness and functional coherences of the subject specific FNs. Our method also adopts automatic relevance determination techniques to eliminate redundant FNs in order to generate a compact set of informative sparse FNs. We have validated our method based on simulated, task fMRI, and resting state fMRI datasets. The experimental results have demonstrated our method could obtain subject specific, sparse, non-negative FNs with improved functional coherence, providing enhanced ability for characterizing the functional brain of individual subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Exploiting large-scale correlations to detect continuous gravitational waves.

    PubMed

    Pletsch, Holger J; Allen, Bruce

    2009-10-30

    Fully coherent searches (over realistic ranges of parameter space and year-long observation times) for unknown sources of continuous gravitational waves are computationally prohibitive. Less expensive hierarchical searches divide the data into shorter segments which are analyzed coherently, then detection statistics from different segments are combined incoherently. The novel method presented here solves the long-standing problem of how best to do the incoherent combination. The optimal solution exploits large-scale parameter-space correlations in the coherent detection statistic. Application to simulated data shows dramatic sensitivity improvements compared with previously available (ad hoc) methods, increasing the spatial volume probed by more than 2 orders of magnitude at lower computational cost.

  2. Testing Inflation with Large Scale Structure: Connecting Hopes with Reality

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, Marcello; Baldauf, T.; Bond, J. Richard; Dalal, N.; Putter, R. D.; Dore, O.; Green, Daniel; Hirata, Chris; Huang, Zhiqi; Huterer, Dragan; Jeong, Donghui; Johnson, Matthew C.; Krause, Elisabeth; Loverde, Marilena; Meyers, Joel; Meeburg, Daniel; Senatore, Leonardo; Shandera, Sarah; Silverstein, Eva; Slosar, Anze; Smith, Kendrick; Zaldarriaga, Matias; Assassi, Valentin; Braden, Jonathan; Hajian, Amir; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Stein, George; Engelen, Alexander van

    2014-12-15

    The statistics of primordial curvature fluctuations are our window into the period of inflation, where these fluctuations were generated. To date, the cosmic microwave background has been the dominant source of information about these perturbations. Large-scale structure is, however, from where drastic improvements should originate. In this paper, we explain the theoretical motivations for pursuing such measurements and the challenges that lie ahead. In particular, we discuss and identify theoretical targets regarding the measurement of primordial non-Gaussianity. We argue that when quantified in terms of the local (equilateral) template amplitude f$loc\\atop{NL}$ (f$eq\\atop{NL}$), natural target levels of sensitivity are Δf$loc, eq\\atop{NL}$ ≃ 1. We highlight that such levels are within reach of future surveys by measuring 2-, 3- and 4-point statistics of the galaxy spatial distribution. This paper summarizes a workshop held at CITA (University of Toronto) on October 23-24, 2014.

  3. Galaxy clustering and the origin of large-scale flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juszkiewicz, R.; Yahil, A.

    1989-01-01

    Peebles's 'cosmic virial theorem' is extended from its original range of validity at small separations, where hydrostatic equilibrium holds, to large separations, in which linear gravitational stability theory applies. The rms pairwise velocity difference at separation r is shown to depend on the spatial galaxy correlation function xi(x) only for x less than r. Gravitational instability theory can therefore be tested by comparing the two up to the maximum separation for which both can reliably be determined, and there is no dependence on the poorly known large-scale density and velocity fields. With the expected improvement in the data over the next few years, however, this method should yield a reliable determination of omega.

  4. Large scale structure of the globular cluster population in Coma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagliano, Alexander T.; O'Neill, Conor; Madrid, Juan P.

    2016-01-01

    A search for globular cluster candidates in the Coma Cluster was carried out using Hubble Space Telescope data taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys. We combine different observing programs including the Coma Treasury Survey in order to obtain the large scale distribution of globular clusters in Coma. Globular cluster candidates were selected through careful morphological inspection and a detailed analysis of their magnitude and colors in the two available wavebands, F475W (Sloan g) and F814W (I). Color Magnitude Diagrams, radial density plots and density maps were then created to characterize the globular cluster population in Coma. Preliminary results show the structure of the intergalactic globular cluster system throughout Coma, among the largest globular clusters catalogues to date. The spatial distribution of globular clusters shows clear overdensities, or bridges, between Coma galaxies. It also becomes evident that galaxies of similar luminosity have vastly different numbers of associated globular clusters.

  5. Synchronization of coupled large-scale Boolean networks

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Fangfei

    2014-03-15

    This paper investigates the complete synchronization and partial synchronization of two large-scale Boolean networks. First, the aggregation algorithm towards large-scale Boolean network is reviewed. Second, the aggregation algorithm is applied to study the complete synchronization and partial synchronization of large-scale Boolean networks. Finally, an illustrative example is presented to show the efficiency of the proposed results.

  6. The School Principal's Role in Large-Scale Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Paul; Tunison, Scott; Viczko, Melody

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on an interpretive study in which 25 elementary principals were asked about their assessment knowledge, the use of large-scale assessments in their schools, and principals' perceptions on their roles with respect to large-scale assessments. Principals in this study suggested that the current context of large-scale assessment and…

  7. Synchronization of coupled large-scale Boolean networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fangfei

    2014-03-01

    This paper investigates the complete synchronization and partial synchronization of two large-scale Boolean networks. First, the aggregation algorithm towards large-scale Boolean network is reviewed. Second, the aggregation algorithm is applied to study the complete synchronization and partial synchronization of large-scale Boolean networks. Finally, an illustrative example is presented to show the efficiency of the proposed results.

  8. Spatial Variation in Population Structure and Its Relation to Movement and the Potential for Dispersal in a Model Intertidal Invertebrate

    PubMed Central

    Bringloe, Trevor T.; Drolet, David; Barbeau, Myriam A.; Forbes, Mark R.; Gerwing, Travis G.

    2013-01-01

    Dispersal, the movement of an individual away from its natal or breeding ground, has been studied extensively in birds and mammals to understand the costs and benefits of movement behavior. Whether or not invertebrates disperse in response to such attributes as habitat quality or density of conspecifics remains uncertain, due in part to the difficulties in marking and recapturing invertebrates. In the upper Bay of Fundy, Canada, the intertidal amphipod Corophium volutator swims at night around the new or full moon. Furthermore, this species is regionally widespread across a large spatial scale with site-to-site variation in population structure. Such variation provides a backdrop against which biological determinants of dispersal can be investigated. We conducted a large-scale study at nine mudflats, and used swimmer density, sampled using stationary plankton nets, as a proxy for dispersing individuals. We also sampled mud residents using sediment cores over 3 sampling rounds (20–28 June, 10–17 July, 2–11 August 2010). Density of swimmers was most variable at the largest spatial scales, indicating important population-level variation. The smallest juveniles and large juveniles or small adults (particularly females) were consistently overrepresented as swimmers. Small juveniles swam at most times and locations, whereas swimming of young females decreased with increasing mud presence of young males, and swimming of large juveniles decreased with increasing mud presence of adults. Swimming in most stages increased with density of mud residents; however, proportionally less swimming occurred as total mud resident density increased. We suggest small juveniles move in search of C. volutator aggregations which possibly act as a proxy for better habitat. We also suggest large juveniles and small adults move if potential mates are limiting. Future studies can use sampling designs over large spatial scales with varying population structure to help understand the

  9. Spatial variation in population structure and its relation to movement and the potential for dispersal in a model intertidal invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Bringloe, Trevor T; Drolet, David; Barbeau, Myriam A; Forbes, Mark R; Gerwing, Travis G

    2013-01-01

    Dispersal, the movement of an individual away from its natal or breeding ground, has been studied extensively in birds and mammals to understand the costs and benefits of movement behavior. Whether or not invertebrates disperse in response to such attributes as habitat quality or density of conspecifics remains uncertain, due in part to the difficulties in marking and recapturing invertebrates. In the upper Bay of Fundy, Canada, the intertidal amphipod Corophium volutator swims at night around the new or full moon. Furthermore, this species is regionally widespread across a large spatial scale with site-to-site variation in population structure. Such variation provides a backdrop against which biological determinants of dispersal can be investigated. We conducted a large-scale study at nine mudflats, and used swimmer density, sampled using stationary plankton nets, as a proxy for dispersing individuals. We also sampled mud residents using sediment cores over 3 sampling rounds (20-28 June, 10-17 July, 2-11 August 2010). Density of swimmers was most variable at the largest spatial scales, indicating important population-level variation. The smallest juveniles and large juveniles or small adults (particularly females) were consistently overrepresented as swimmers. Small juveniles swam at most times and locations, whereas swimming of young females decreased with increasing mud presence of young males, and swimming of large juveniles decreased with increasing mud presence of adults. Swimming in most stages increased with density of mud residents; however, proportionally less swimming occurred as total mud resident density increased. We suggest small juveniles move in search of C. volutator aggregations which possibly act as a proxy for better habitat. We also suggest large juveniles and small adults move if potential mates are limiting. Future studies can use sampling designs over large spatial scales with varying population structure to help understand the behavioral

  10. Insights into interphase large-scale chromatin structure from analysis of engineered chromosome regions.

    PubMed

    Belmont, A S; Hu, Y; Sinclair, P B; Wu, W; Bian, Q; Kireev, I

    2010-01-01

    How chromatin folds into mitotic and interphase chromosomes has remained a difficult question for many years. We have used three generations of engineered chromosome regions as a means of visualizing specific chromosome regions in live cells and cells fixed under conditions that preserve large-scale chromatin structure. Our results confirm the existence of large-scale chromatin domains and fibers formed by the folding of 10-nm and 30-nm chromatin fibers into larger, spatially distinct domains. Transcription at levels within severalfold of the levels measured for endogenous loci occur within these large-scale chromatin structures on a condensed template linearly compacted several hundred fold to 1000-fold relative to B-form DNA. However, transcriptional induction is accompanied by a severalfold decondensation of this large-scale chromatin structure that propagates hundreds of kilobases beyond the induced gene. Examination of engineered chromosome regions in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and differentiated cells suggests a surprising degree of plasticity in this large-scale chromatin structure, allowing long-range DNA interactions within the context of large-scale chromatin fibers. Recapitulation of gene-specific differences in large-scale chromatin conformation and nuclear positioning using these engineered chromosome regions will facilitate identification of cis and trans determinants of interphase chromosome architecture.

  11. Insights into interphase large-scale chromatin structure from analysis of engineered chromosome regions

    PubMed Central

    Belmont, Andrew S.; Hu, Yan; Sinclair, Paul; Wu, Wei; Bian, Qian; Kireev, Igor

    2012-01-01

    How chromatin folds into mitotic and interphase chromosomes has remained a difficult question for many years. We have used three generations of engineered chromosome regions as a means of visualizing specific chromosome regions in live cells and cells fixed under conditions which preserve large-scale chromatin structure. Our results confirm the existence of large-scale chromatin domains and fibers formed by the folding of 10 and 30 nm chromatin fibers into larger, spatially distinct domains. Transcription at levels within several fold of the levels measured for endogenous loci occur within these large-scale chromatin structures on a condensed template linearly compacted several hundred fold to one thousand fold relative to B-form DNA. However, transcriptional induction is accompanied by a several fold decondensation of this large-scale chromatin structure that propagates hundreds of kb beyond the induced gene. Examination of engineered chromosome regions in mouse ES and differentiated cells suggests a surprising degree of plasticity in this large-scale chromatin structure, allowing long-range DNA interactions within the context of large-scale chromatin fibers. Recapitulation of gene specific differences in large-scale chromatin conformation and nuclear positioning using these engineered chromosome regions will facilitate identification of cis and trans determinants of interphase chromosome architecture. PMID:21467143

  12. Spatial and temporal variations in oceanographic and meteorologic forcing along the central California coast, 1980-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Wingfield, Dana K.

    2005-01-01

    Since the 1980s, our understanding of such important large-scale phenomena as El Ni?o events and the California Current System that drive physical, chemical, and biologic processes along the U.S. west coast has greatly improved. However, our ability to predict the influence of annual and interannual events on a regional scale still remains limited. We have analyzed high-resolution hourly data from eight National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration buoys deployed since the early 1980s off central California to study spatial and temporal variations in oceanographic and meteorologic forcing along the coast. We identified seasonal to interannual trends in significant wave height, dominant wave period, sea-level barometric pressure, sea-surface water temperature, windspeed, and wind direction were identified, as well as significant departures in these trends during El Ni?o and La Ni?a periods. The results suggest increasing wave heights and wave periods, decreasing sea-level barometric pressures and variations in sea-surface water temperatures, and increasing variations in windspeed and wind direction off central California between 1980 and 2002.

  13. Large Scale Archaeological Satellite Classification and Data Mining Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canham, Kelly

    Archaeological applications routinely use many different forms of remote sensing imagery, the exception being hyperspectral imagery (HSI). HSI tends to be utilized in a similar fashion as multispectral imagery (MSI) or processed to the point that it can be utilized similarly to MSI, thus reducing the benefits of HSI. However, for large scale archaeological surveys, HSI data can be used to differentiate materials more accurately than MSI because of HSI's larger number of spectral bands. HSI also has the ability to identify multiple materials found within a single pixel (sub-pixel material mixing), which is traditionally not possible with MSI. The Zapotec people of Oaxaca, Mexico, lived in an environment that isolates the individual settlements by rugged mountain ranges and dramatically different ecosystems. The rugged mountains of Oaxaca make large scale ground based archaeological surveys expensive in terms of both time and money. The diverse ecosystems of Oaxaca make multispectral satellite imagery inadequate for local material identification. For these reasons hyperspectral imagery was collected over Oaxaca, Mexico. Using HSI, investigations were conducted into how the Zapotec statehood was impacted by the environment, and conversely, how the environment impacted the statehood. Emphasis in this research is placed on identifying the number of pure materials present in the imagery, what these materials are, and identifying archaeological regions of interest using image processing techniques. The HSI processing techniques applied include a new spatially adaptive spectral unmixing approach (LoGlo) to identify pure materials across broad regions of Oaxaca, vegetation indices analysis, and spectral change detection algorithms. Verification of identified archaeological sites is completed using Geospatial Information System (GIS) tools, ground truth data, and high-resolution satellite MSI. GIS tools are also used to analyze spatial trends in lost archaeological sites due

  14. Large-scale quantum photonic circuits in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Nicholas C.; Bunandar, Darius; Pant, Mihir; Steinbrecher, Greg R.; Mower, Jacob; Prabhu, Mihika; Baehr-Jones, Tom; Hochberg, Michael; Englund, Dirk

    2016-08-01

    Quantum information science offers inherently more powerful methods for communication, computation, and precision measurement that take advantage of quantum superposition and entanglement. In recent years, theoretical and experimental advances in quantum computing and simulation with photons have spurred great interest in developing large photonic entangled states that challenge today's classical computers. As experiments have increased in complexity, there has been an increasing need to transition bulk optics experiments to integrated photonics platforms to control more spatial modes with higher fidelity and phase stability. The silicon-on-insulator (SOI) nanophotonics platform offers new possibilities for quantum optics, including the integration of bright, nonclassical light sources, based on the large third-order nonlinearity (χ(3)) of silicon, alongside quantum state manipulation circuits with thousands of optical elements, all on a single phase-stable chip. How large do these photonic systems need to be? Recent theoretical work on Boson Sampling suggests that even the problem of sampling from e30 identical photons, having passed through an interferometer of hundreds of modes, becomes challenging for classical computers. While experiments of this size are still challenging, the SOI platform has the required component density to enable low-loss and programmable interferometers for manipulating hundreds of spatial modes. Here, we discuss the SOI nanophotonics platform for quantum photonic circuits with hundreds-to-thousands of optical elements and the associated challenges. We compare SOI to competing technologies in terms of requirements for quantum optical systems. We review recent results on large-scale quantum state evolution circuits and strategies for realizing high-fidelity heralded gates with imperfect, practical systems. Next, we review recent results on silicon photonics-based photon-pair sources and device architectures, and we discuss a path towards

  15. Spatial and temporal variations of manganese concentrations in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Barbeau, Benoit; Carrière, Annie; Bouchard, Maryse F

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the variability of manganese concentrations in drinking water (daily, seasonal, spatial) for eight communities who participated in an epidemiological study on neurotoxic effects associated with exposure to manganese in drinking water. We also assessed the performance of residential point-of-use and point-of-entry devices (POE) for reducing manganese concentrations in water. While the total Mn concentrations measured during this study were highly variable depending on the location (< 1-2,700 μg/L), daily or seasonal variations were minimal. Flushing the tap for 5 minutes did not significantly reduce total manganese concentration for 4 out of 5 sampling locations. The efficiency of reverse osmosis and ion exchange for total Mn removal was consistently high while activated carbon provided variable results. The four POE greensand filters investigated all increased (29 to 199%) manganese concentration, indicating deficient operation and/or maintenance practices. Manganese concentrations in the distribution system were equal or lower than at the inlet, indicating that sampling at the inlet of the distribution system is conservative. The decline in total Mn concentration was linked to higher water residence time in the distribution system.

  16. Spatial and temporal variation in mined land pastures

    SciTech Connect

    Teutsch, C.D.; Collins, M.; Ditsch, D.C.; Johns, J.; Larson, B.; Turner, W.; Hamilton, T.; May, C.; Clay, L.

    1998-12-31

    Kentucky has large areas of reclaimed surface mined land that could provide grazing for livestock. Research is needed to define optimum stocking densities and to determine the sustainability of such grazing systems for this region. A long-term field study was initiated in 1997 on 151 ha of reclaimed land near Chavies, KY to assess spatial and temporal variation under grazing with stocking densities of 0, 0.28, 0.42, or 0.83 beef cow/calf pairs/ha. Global Positioning System and GIS technologies were employed to interpolate surface maps of the site using 11,000 points. Herbage and soil samples were collected around permanent markers systematically placed over the entire area at a density of 1 per 0.4 ha. Elevation ranged from 295 to 371 m and pasture slope ranged from 0 to 57{degree} with a mean of 13{degree}. Biomass density in late April ranged from 0 to 2500 kg/ha and was lowest at the highest stocking density, where grazing activity was highest. Spring-born calves averaged 240 kg at weaning. Cow weight and body condition score at the end of the grazing season was reduced at the highest stocking density and suggests that the highest stocking density may be excessive for mined land pastures in this region.

  17. Spatial variations of groundwater background concentrations in coastal aquifers, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Yunjung; Lee, Soojae

    2014-05-01

    In coastal aquifers the mixing between fresh terrestrial water and seawater occurs, which influences groundwater quality. Due to mixing elevated chloride concentrations are often observed in coastal aquifers. In coastal areas terrestrial water-seawater mixing can be caused by anthropogenic activities or natural factors such as tides and sea level changes. Therefore, it is difficult or even impossible to characterize groundwater background concentrations in coastal aquifers. Although it is usual to exclude coastal aquifer when characterizing background concentrations, it is essential to accurately characterize naturally-affected groundwater quality in coastal areas because groundwater is a major water resource for potable, irrigation, domestic uses. So in this work we define groundwater background concentrations as naturally occurring ambient concentrations with excluding groundwater abstraction. Based on this definition, we evaluate groundwater background concentrations in various geologic formations and analyze characteristics of groundwater quality in coastal aquifers by utilizing Groundwater Quality Monitoring System (GQMS) data. The results show that high concentrations of chloride are observed in some coastal areas but not always. Tidal effects and topographical characteristics are thought to be as factors affecting such spatial variations. In some coastal areas high concentrations of chloride are observed with high nitrate concentrations. This means that agricultural practices can attribute to anthropogenic background, leading to elevated concentrations of nitrate. These results provide some essential information for groundwater resources management in coastal areas. Further data collection and analysis is required for evaluating the effect of tide and sea level changes on groundwater quality.

  18. Spatial Variation in Storm Surge in the Strait of Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soontiens, N. K.; Allen, S. E.; Latornell, D.; Le Souef, K.; Machuca, I.

    2014-12-01

    The Strait of Georgia is a strongly stratified, deep body of water located between Vancouver Island and the mainland of British Columbia and is connected to the Pacific Ocean via the Strait of Juan de Fuca to the south and Johnstone Strait to the north. It is on average 220 km in length and 30 km wide and its maximum depth is 420 m. During the winter months, coastal communities in the Strait of Georgia are at risk to flooding caused by storm surges, a natural hazard that occurs when a strong wind storm with low atmospheric pressure coincides with an unusually high tide. This study presents storm surge hindcasts of significant events between 2006 and 2009 using a numerical model of the Straits of Georgia, Juan de Fuca, Johnstone and Puget Sound (together the Salish Sea). The model is based on the Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO) in a regional configuration. Realistic stratification is produced by including input from the surrounding rivers. A discussion on the sensitivity of modelled surge amplitude to open boundary conditions and atmospheric forcing will be presented. As barotropic models have previously shown, the surge entering the domain from the Pacific Ocean contributes most significantly. Surge amplitudes are found to be greater within the Strait of Georgia than those in the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Local wind patterns cause spatial variations in the strength of the surge in the Strait of Georgia, generally leading to stronger surges on the Mainland side of the Strait.

  19. Spatial variation in senescence rates in a bird metapopulation.

    PubMed

    Holand, H; Kvalnes, T; Gamelon, M; Tufto, J; Jensen, H; Pärn, H; Ringsby, T H; Sæther, B-E

    2016-07-01

    Investigating factors which affect the decline in survival with age, i.e. actuarial senescence, is important in order to understand how demographic rates vary in wild populations. Although the evidence for the occurrence of actuarial senescence in wild populations is growing, very few studies have compared actuarial senescence rates between wild populations of the same species. We used data from a long-time study of demography of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) to investigate differences in rates of actuarial senescence between habitats and sub-populations. We also investigated whether rates of actuarial senescence differed between males and females. We found that rates of actuarial senescence showed large spatial variation. We also found that the onset of actuarial senescence varied between sub-populations. However, these differences were not significantly explained by a general difference in habitat type. We also found no significant difference in actuarial senescence rates between males and females. This study shows that senescence rates in natural populations may vary significantly between sub-populations and that failing to account for such differences may give a biased estimate of senescence rates of a species.

  20. Types of hydrogeological response to large-scale explosions and earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbunova, Ella; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Besedina, Alina; Martynov, Vasilii

    2017-04-01

    Hydrogeological response to anthropogenic and natural impact indicates massif properties and mode of deformation. We studied uneven-aged aquifers that had been unsealed at the Semipalatinsk testing area (Kazakhstan) and geophysical observatory "Mikhnevo" at the Moscow region (Russia). Data was collected during long-term underground water monitoring that was carried out in 1983-1989 when large-scale underground nuclear explosions were realized. Precise observations of underground water response to distant earthquakes waves passage at GPO "Mikhnevo" have been conducted since 2008. One of the goals of the study was to mark out main types of either dynamic or irreversible spatial-temporal underground water response to large-scale explosions and to compare them with those of earthquakes impact as it had been presented in different papers. As far as nobody really knows hydrogeological processes that occur at the earthquake source it's especially important to analyze experimental data of groundwater level variations that was carried close to epicenter first minutes to hours after explosions. We found that hydrogeodynamic reaction strongly depends on initial geological and hydrogeological conditions as far as on seismic impact parameters. In the near area post-dynamic variations can lead to either excess pressure dome or depression cone forming that results of aquifer drainage due to rock massif fracturing. In the far area explosion effect is comparable with the one of distant earthquake and provides dynamic water level oscillations. Precise monitoring at the "Mikhnevo" area was conducted in the platform conditions far from active faults thus we consider it as a purely calm area far from earthquake sources. Both dynamic and irreversible water level change seem to form power dependence on vertical peak ground displacement velocity due to wave passage. Further research will be aimed at transition close-to-far area to identify a criterion that determines either irreversible

  1. Statistical analysis of mesoscale rainfall: Dependence of a random cascade generator on large-scale forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Over, Thomas, M.; Gupta, Vijay K.

    1994-01-01

    Under the theory of independent and identically distributed random cascades, the probability distribution of the cascade generator determines the spatial and the ensemble properties of spatial rainfall. Three sets of radar-derived rainfall data in space and time are analyzed to estimate the probability distribution of the generator. A detailed comparison between instantaneous scans of spatial rainfall and simulated cascades using the scaling properties of the marginal moments is carried out. This comparison highlights important similarities and differences between the data and the random cascade theory. Differences are quantified and measured for the three datasets. Evidence is presented to show that the scaling properties of the rainfall can be captured to the first order by a random cascade with a single parameter. The dependence of this parameter on forcing by the large-scale meteorological conditions, as measured by the large-scale spatial average rain rate, is investigated for these three datasets. The data show that this dependence can be captured by a one-to-one function. Since the large-scale average rain rate can be diagnosed from the large-scale dynamics, this relationship demonstrates an important linkage between the large-scale atmospheric dynamics and the statistical cascade theory of mesoscale rainfall. Potential application of this research to parameterization of runoff from the land surface and regional flood frequency analysis is briefly discussed, and open problems for further research are presented.

  2. Large scale propagation intermittency in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrabi, Ali

    2000-11-01

    Long-term (several minutes to hours) amplitude variations observed in outdoor sound propagation experiments at Disneyland, California, in February 1998 are explained in terms of a time varying index of refraction. The experimentally propagated acoustic signals were received and recorded at several locations ranging from 300 meters to 2,800 meters. Meteorological data was taken as a function of altitude simultaneously with the received signal levels. There were many barriers along the path of acoustic propagation that affected the received signal levels, especially at short ranges. In a downward refraction situation, there could be a random change of amplitude in the predicted signals. A computer model based on the Fast Field Program (FFP) was used to compute the signal loss at the different receiving locations and to verify that the variations in the received signal levels can be predicted numerically. The calculations agree with experimental data with the same trend variations in average amplitude.

  3. Large-scale and global features of complex genomic signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristea, Paul D.

    2003-10-01

    The paper briefly reviews the methodology of the symbolic nucleic sequence conversion into genomic signals and presents large scale and global features of the resulting genomic signals. Whole chromosomes or whole genomes are converted into complex signals and phase analysis is performed. The phase, cumulated phase and unwrapped phase of genomic signals are studied as tools for revealing important features of to the first and second order statistics of nucleotide distribution along DNA strands. It is shown that the unwrapped phase displays an almost linear variation along whole chromosomes. The property holds for all the investigated genomes, being shared by both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, while the magnitude and sign of the unwrapped phase slope is specific for each taxon and chromosome. The comparison between the behavior of the cumulated phase and of the unwrapped phase across the putative origins and termini of the replichores suggests a model of the 'patchy' structure of the chromosomes.

  4. The dynamics of large-scale arrays of coupled resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borra, Chaitanya; Pyles, Conor S.; Wetherton, Blake A.; Quinn, D. Dane; Rhoads, Jeffrey F.

    2017-03-01

    This work describes an analytical framework suitable for the analysis of large-scale arrays of coupled resonators, including those which feature amplitude and phase dynamics, inherent element-level parameter variation, nonlinearity, and/or noise. In particular, this analysis allows for the consideration of coupled systems in which the number of individual resonators is large, extending as far as the continuum limit corresponding to an infinite number of resonators. Moreover, this framework permits analytical predictions for the amplitude and phase dynamics of such systems. The utility of this analytical methodology is explored through the analysis of a system of N non-identical resonators with global coupling, including both reactive and dissipative components, physically motivated by an electromagnetically-transduced microresonator array. In addition to the amplitude and phase dynamics, the behavior of the system as the number of resonators varies is investigated and the convergence of the discrete system to the infinite-N limit is characterized.

  5. Large scale dynamics of protoplanetary discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béthune, William

    2017-08-01

    Planets form in the gaseous and dusty