NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Biqin; Appelbaum, Ian
2010-12-01
Drift-diffusion theory—which fully describes charge transport in semiconductors—is also universally used to model transport of spin-polarized electrons in the presence of longitudinal electric fields. By transforming spin transit time into spin orientation with precession (a technique called the “Larmor clock”) in current-sensing vertical-transport intrinsic Si devices, we show that spin diffusion (and concomitant spin dephasing) can be greatly enhanced with respect to charge diffusion, in direct contrast to predictions of spin Coulomb-drag diffusion suppression.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Souder, P. A.; Casperson, D. E.; Crane, T. W.; Hughes, V. W.; Lu, D. C.; Yam, M. H.; Orth, H.; Reist, H. W.; Zu Putlitz, G.
1975-01-01
Experiments are described in which it proved possible to form the muonic helium atom by stopping polarized negative muons in a helium gas with a 2% xenon admixture at a pressure of 14 atm. The observed Larmor precession amplitudes are plotted against the gyromagnetic ratio for both muons and antimuons stopped in He + 2% Xe. In addition, a non-zero residual polarization of 0.06 plus or minus 0.01 was measured for muons stopped in pure helium gas, which corresponds to a depolarization factor of 18 plus or minus 3.
Precessing Ferromagnetic Needle Magnetometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jackson Kimball, Derek F.; Sushkov, Alexander O.; Budker, Dmitry
2016-05-01
A ferromagnetic needle is predicted to precess about the magnetic field axis at a Larmor frequency Ω under conditions where its intrinsic spin dominates over its rotational angular momentum, N ℏ≫I Ω (I is the moment of inertia of the needle about the precession axis and N is the number of polarized spins in the needle). In this regime the needle behaves as a gyroscope with spin N ℏ maintained along the easy axis of the needle by the crystalline and shape anisotropy. A precessing ferromagnetic needle is a correlated system of N spins which can be used to measure magnetic fields for long times. In principle, by taking advantage of rapid averaging of quantum uncertainty, the sensitivity of a precessing needle magnetometer can far surpass that of magnetometers based on spin precession of atoms in the gas phase. Under conditions where noise from coupling to the environment is subdominant, the scaling with measurement time t of the quantum- and detection-limited magnetometric sensitivity is t-3 /2. The phenomenon of ferromagnetic needle precession may be of particular interest for precision measurements testing fundamental physics.
Precessing Ferromagnetic Needle Magnetometer.
Jackson Kimball, Derek F; Sushkov, Alexander O; Budker, Dmitry
2016-05-13
A ferromagnetic needle is predicted to precess about the magnetic field axis at a Larmor frequency Ω under conditions where its intrinsic spin dominates over its rotational angular momentum, Nℏ≫IΩ (I is the moment of inertia of the needle about the precession axis and N is the number of polarized spins in the needle). In this regime the needle behaves as a gyroscope with spin Nℏ maintained along the easy axis of the needle by the crystalline and shape anisotropy. A precessing ferromagnetic needle is a correlated system of N spins which can be used to measure magnetic fields for long times. In principle, by taking advantage of rapid averaging of quantum uncertainty, the sensitivity of a precessing needle magnetometer can far surpass that of magnetometers based on spin precession of atoms in the gas phase. Under conditions where noise from coupling to the environment is subdominant, the scaling with measurement time t of the quantum- and detection-limited magnetometric sensitivity is t^{-3/2}. The phenomenon of ferromagnetic needle precession may be of particular interest for precision measurements testing fundamental physics. PMID:27232012
Calibration of a Larmor clock for tunneling time experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramos, Jesus; Potnis, Shreyas; Spierings, David; Ebadi, Sapehr; Steinberg, Aephraim
2016-05-01
How much time does it take for a particle to tunnel? This has been a controversial question since the early times of quantum mechanics. The debate stems mainly from the inability to measure time directly. One proposal to measure the tunnelling time is the Larmor clock, in which the spin degree of freedom of the tunneling particle is used as a clock. This clock only ``ticks'' inside the forbidden region due to the precession of the spin about a magnetic field localized within the barrier. Here, we report the calibration of a Larmor clock to measure tunneling times of a 87 Rb Bose Einstein condensate. We use the Zeeman sublevels of the ground-state F = 2 manifold and Raman beams for the implementation of a Larmor clock. Experimental progress towards measuring the tunneling time and the challenges involved in this measurement will also be discussed.
Large-Larmor-radius interchange instability
Ripin, B.H.; McLean, E.A.; Manka, C.K.; Pawley, C.; Stamper, J.A.; Peyser, T.A.; Mostovych, A.N.; Grun, J.; Hassam, A.B.; Huba, J.
1987-11-16
We observe linear and nonlinear features of a strong plasma/magnetic field interchange Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the limit of large ion Larmor radius. The instability undergoes rapid linear growth culminating in free-streaming flute tips.
Binder, Bernd
2008-01-21
An advanced and exact geometric description of nonlinear precession dynamics modeling very accurately natural and artificial couplings showing Lorentz symmetry is derived. In the linear description it is usually ignored that the geometric phase of relativistic motion couples back to the orbital motion providing for a non-linear recursive precession dynamics. The high coupling strength in the nonlinear case is found to be a gravitomagnetic charge proportional to the precession angle and angular velocity generated by geometric phases, which are induced by high-speed relativistic rotations and are relevant to propulsion technologies but also to basic interactions. In the quantum range some magic precession angles indicating strong coupling in a phase-locked chaotic system are identified, emerging from a discrete time dynamical system known as the cosine map showing bifurcations at special precession angles relevant to heavy nuclei stability. The 'Magic Angle Precession' (MAP) dynamics can be simulated and visualized by cones rolling in or on each other, where the apex and precession angles are indexed by spin, charge or precession quantum numbers, and corresponding magic angles. The most extreme relativistic warping and twisting effect is given by the Dirac spinor half spin constellation with 'Hyperdiamond' MAP, which resembles quark confinement.
Zhao, Jinkui Hamilton, William A.; Robertson, J. L.; Crow, Lowell; Lee, Sung-Woo; Kang, Yoon W.
2015-09-14
The analysis of neutron diffraction experiments often assumes that neutrons are elastically scattered from the sample. However, there is growing evidence that a significant fraction of the detected neutrons is in fact inelastically scattered, especially from soft materials and aqueous samples. Ignoring these inelastic contributions gives rise to inaccurate experimental results. To date, there has been no simple method with broad applicability for inelastic signal separation in neutron diffraction experiments. Here, we present a simple and robust method that we believe could be suited for this purpose. We use two radio frequency resonant spin flippers integrated with a Larmor precession field to modulate the neutron intensity and to encode the inelastic scattering information into the neutron data. All three components contribute to the spin encoding. The Larmor field serves several additional purposes. Its usage facilitates neutron time-focusing, eliminates the need for stringent magnetic shielding, and allows for compact setups. The scheme is robust, simple, and flexible. We believe that, with further improvements, it has the potential of adding inelastic signal discrimination capabilities to many existing diffraction instruments in the future.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Jinkui; Hamilton, William A.; Lee, Sung-Woo; Robertson, J. L.; Crow, Lowell; Kang, Yoon W.
2015-09-01
The analysis of neutron diffraction experiments often assumes that neutrons are elastically scattered from the sample. However, there is growing evidence that a significant fraction of the detected neutrons is in fact inelastically scattered, especially from soft materials and aqueous samples. Ignoring these inelastic contributions gives rise to inaccurate experimental results. To date, there has been no simple method with broad applicability for inelastic signal separation in neutron diffraction experiments. Here, we present a simple and robust method that we believe could be suited for this purpose. We use two radio frequency resonant spin flippers integrated with a Larmor precession field to modulate the neutron intensity and to encode the inelastic scattering information into the neutron data. All three components contribute to the spin encoding. The Larmor field serves several additional purposes. Its usage facilitates neutron time-focusing, eliminates the need for stringent magnetic shielding, and allows for compact setups. The scheme is robust, simple, and flexible. We believe that, with further improvements, it has the potential of adding inelastic signal discrimination capabilities to many existing diffraction instruments in the future.
Photon-assisted electronic and spin transport in a junction containing precessing molecular spin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filipović, Milena; Belzig, Wolfgang
2016-02-01
We study the ac charge and -spin transport through an orbital of a magnetic molecule with spin precessing in a constant magnetic field. We assume that the source and drain contacts have time-dependent chemical potentials. We employ the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's functions method to calculate the spin and charge currents to linear order in the time-dependent potentials. The molecular and electronic spins are coupled via exchange interaction. The time-dependent molecular spin drives inelastic transitions between the molecular quasienergy levels, resulting in a rich structure in the transport characteristics. The time-dependent voltages allow us to reveal the internal precession time scale (the Larmor frequency) by a dc conductance measurement if the ac frequency matches the Larmor frequency. In the low-ac-frequency limit the junction resembles a classical electric circuit. Furthermore, we show that the setup can be used to generate dc-spin currents, which are controlled by the molecular magnetization direction and the relative phases between the Larmor precession and the ac voltage.
Experimental study of finite Larmor radius effects
Struve, K.W.
1980-08-01
Linear Z-pinches in Ar, Kr, Xe, N/sub 2/, and He are experimentally studied in regimes where strong finite Larmor radius effects could provide a significant stabilizing effect. Scaling arguments show that for deuterium such a pinch has an electron line density of order 2 x 10/sup 15//cm. For higher Z plasmas a higher line density is allowed, the exact value of which depends on the average ion charge. The pinch is formed by puffing gas axially through the cathode towards the anode of an evacuated pinch chamber. When the gas reaches the anode, the pinch bank is fired. The pinch current rises in 2 to 3 ..mu..sec to a maximum of 100 to 200 kA. The pinch bank capacitance is 900 ..mu..F, and the external inductance is 100 nH. Additionally, the bank is fused to increase dI/dt. The primary diagnostics are a framing camera, a spatially resolved Mach-Zehnder interferometer, and X-ray absorption.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirata, R.
2007-03-01
From the polarimetric observation of Pleione, we found that the intrinsic polarization angle varied from 60° to 130° in 1974-2003. The Hα profile also changed dramatically from the edge-on type (shell-line profile) to the surface-on type (wine-bottle profile). These facts clearly indicate the spatial motion of the disk axis. We interpret these variations in terms of the disk precession, caused by the secondary of this spectroscopic binary with a period of 218d. We performed the χ^2 minimization for the polarization angle, assuming uniform precession with an imposed condition that the shell maximum occurred at edge-on view. The resulting precession angle is 59° with a period of 81 years. Then, we can describe chronologically the spatial motion of disk axis. We also derived the Hα disk radius from the peak separation, assuming the Keplerian disk. The precession of the disk gives natural explanation of the mysterious long-term spectroscopic behaviors of this star.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hester, R. E., Jr.
2015-12-01
The study considers a north-south pair of mid-latitude rings of atmospheric mass, symmetric with respect to the equator, and rotating with respect to the distant stars. The mass and angular velocity are assigned similar to the annual and zonal mean upper level westerlies. Their relatively rapid rotation is assumed to allow a rigid body approximation on long time and space scales. The rings are constrained to move as if rigidly connected to a common axis of rotation. The pair thus constitutes a symmetric top with a fixed pivot point at the center of mass. Analysis of the dynamics follows the classical mechanics approach used for precession of the equinoxes. The theoretical rate of precession for this highly idealized system yields a period on the order of decades. The predicted dynamics appears consistent with three prior studies of observational data: latitudinal movements of atmospheric circulation above far Southern Australia, latitudinal movements of ocean circulation in the Kuroshio Extension, and changes in global Atmospheric Angular Momentum before and after 1976. Each of these observational records indicates correlation with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. The theoretical dynamics in combination with the observations suggests the axis of rotation of the atmospheric westerlies is offset from the Earth axis by a few degrees, and further, that this axis precesses around a mean axis on a time scale of a few decades.
Finite Larmor radius flute mode theory with end loss
Kotelnikov, I.A.; Berk, H.L.
1993-08-01
The theory of flute mode stability is developed for a two-energy- component plasma partially terminated by a conducting limiter. The formalism is developed as a preliminary study of the effect of end-loss in open-ended mirror machines where large Larmor radius effects are important.
Effect of limiter end loss in finite Larmor radius theory
Berk, H.L.; Kotelnikov, I.A.
1993-08-01
We have examined the effect of incomplete line tying on the MHD flute mode with FLR (finite Larmor radius) effects. We show that the combination of line tying and FLR effects can slow down MHD instability, but cannot produce complete stabilization.
Spin precession in anisotropic cosmologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamenshchik, A. Yu.; Teryaev, O. V.
2016-05-01
We consider the precession of a Dirac particle spin in some anisotropic Bianchi universes. This effect is present already in the Bianchi-I universe. We discuss in some detail the geodesics and the spin precession for both the Kasner and the Heckmann-Schucking solutions. In the Bianchi-IX universe the spin precession acquires the chaotic character due to the stochasticity of the oscillatory approach to the cosmological singularity. The related helicity flip of fermions in the very early universe may produce the sterile particles contributing to dark matter.
Flute waves at the ion Larmor radius scales
Onishchenko, O. G.
2010-12-14
The theory of the magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) is discussed. Modified linear kinetic theory allows us to investigate RTI and flute waves with arbitrary perpendicular spatial scales compared to the ion Larmor radius. It is shown that in the linear limit a Fourier transform of these equations yields the dispersion relation which in the so-called Pade approximation corresponds to results of the kinetic theory. This analysis represents an extension of the previous study of the magnetic RTI obtained in the large wave scale approximation. It is shown that incorporation of the effects associated with wave scales of the order of the ion Larmor radius leads to a broader wave number range of the magnetic RTI.
Larmor labeling of neutron spin using superconducting Wollaston prisms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Fankang
Neutron spin Larmor labeling using magnetic Wollaston prisms (WP) provides a way to overcome some of the limitations arising from the nature of neutron beams: low flux and divergence. Using superconducting films and tapes, a series of strong, well-defined shaped magnetic fields can be produced due to both the zero-resistance and Meissner effect in superconductors. Using finite element simulations, the criterion to build a superconducting magnetic Wollaston prism with high encoding efficiency and low Larmor phase aberrations are presented. To achieve a high magnetic field and simplify the maintenance, we optimize the design using careful thermal analysis. The measured neutron spin flipping efficiency is measured to be independent of both the neutron wavelength and energizing current, which is a significant improvement over other devices with similar functions. A highly linear variation of the Larmor phase is measured across the device, which ensures a highly uniform encoding of scattering angles into the neutron spin Larmor phase. Using two WPs, the correlation function for a colloidal silica sample was measured by spin echo modulated small angle neutron scattering (SEMSANS) and agrees well with other techniques. Using Monte Carlo code (McStas), we further investigated the SEMSANS setup and showed the requirements to improve its performance. We have proposed a new technique to implement neutron spin echo on a triple axis neutron spectrometer to achieve high resolution measurements of the lifetime of dispersive phonon excitations. The spin echo is tuned by appropriate choice of magnetic fields instead of physically tilting the coils used in traditional methods. This new approach allows a higher energy resolution and a larger effective tilting angle and hence larger group velocity to be measured.
Quantum Larmor radiation in a conformally flat universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kimura, Rampei; Nakamura, Gen; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro
2011-02-01
We investigate the quantum effect on the Larmor radiation from a moving charge in an expanding universe based on the framework of the scalar quantum electrodynamics. A theoretical formula for the radiation energy is derived at the lowest order of the perturbation theory with respect to the coupling constant of the scalar quantum electrodynamics. We evaluate the radiation energy on the background universe so that the Minkowski spacetime transits to the Milne universe, in which the equation of motion for the mode function of the free complex scalar field can be exactly solved in an analytic way. Then, the result is compared with the WKB approach, in which the equation of motion of the mode function is constructed with the WKB approximation which is valid as long as the Compton wavelength is shorter than the Hubble horizon length. This demonstrates that the quantum effect on the Larmor radiation of the order e2ℏ is determined by a nonlocal integration in time depending on the background expansion. We also compare our result with a recent work by Higuchi and Walker [Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 80, 105019 (2009)10.1103/PhysRevD.80.105019], which investigated the quantum correction to the Larmor radiation from a charged particle in a nonrelativistic motion in a homogeneous electric field.
Quantum Larmor radiation in a conformally flat universe
Kimura, Rampei; Nakamura, Gen; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro
2011-02-15
We investigate the quantum effect on the Larmor radiation from a moving charge in an expanding universe based on the framework of the scalar quantum electrodynamics. A theoretical formula for the radiation energy is derived at the lowest order of the perturbation theory with respect to the coupling constant of the scalar quantum electrodynamics. We evaluate the radiation energy on the background universe so that the Minkowski spacetime transits to the Milne universe, in which the equation of motion for the mode function of the free complex scalar field can be exactly solved in an analytic way. Then, the result is compared with the WKB approach, in which the equation of motion of the mode function is constructed with the WKB approximation which is valid as long as the Compton wavelength is shorter than the Hubble horizon length. This demonstrates that the quantum effect on the Larmor radiation of the order e{sup 2}({h_bar}/2{pi}) is determined by a nonlocal integration in time depending on the background expansion. We also compare our result with a recent work by Higuchi and Walker [Phys. Rev. D 80, 105019 (2009)], which investigated the quantum correction to the Larmor radiation from a charged particle in a nonrelativistic motion in a homogeneous electric field.
Gravitomagnetism: a novel explanation of the precession of planets and binary pulsars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arbab, Arbab I.
2010-11-01
We have studied the consequences of applying gravitomagnetism to gravitating objects. Gravitomagnetism was the missing part of the Newton’s law of gravitation. This phenomenon is manifest in the generalized Newton’s law of gravitation that is published in A.I. Arbab, Astrophys. Space Sci. 325:37, 2010a. Owing to gravitomagnetism, we have shown, the precession of planetary and pulsars orbits is due to the interaction of these objects with the gravitomagnetic field. We have calculated the gravitomagnetic fields arising from the orbital motion of the planets and binary pulsars and we have shown that they are double the Larmor-like frequency. This effect coincides with the prediction of general relativity and places the general theory of relativity on new affirmative grounds. Consequently, a modified Newton law of gravitation of Lorentz-type is proposed, which explains this precession.
Harnessing spin precession with dissipation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crisan, A. D.; Datta, S.; Viennot, J. J.; Delbecq, M. R.; Cottet, A.; Kontos, T.
2016-01-01
Non-collinear spin transport is at the heart of spin or magnetization control in spintronics devices. The use of nanoscale conductors exhibiting quantum effects in transport could provide new paths for that purpose. Here we study non-collinear spin transport in a quantum dot. We use a device made out of a single-wall carbon nanotube connected to orthogonal ferromagnetic electrodes. In the spin transport signals, we observe signatures of out of equilibrium spin precession that are electrically tunable through dissipation. This could provide a new path to harness spin precession in nanoscale conductors.
Harnessing spin precession with dissipation
Crisan, A. D.; Datta, S.; Viennot, J. J.; Delbecq, M. R.; Cottet, A.; Kontos, T.
2016-01-01
Non-collinear spin transport is at the heart of spin or magnetization control in spintronics devices. The use of nanoscale conductors exhibiting quantum effects in transport could provide new paths for that purpose. Here we study non-collinear spin transport in a quantum dot. We use a device made out of a single-wall carbon nanotube connected to orthogonal ferromagnetic electrodes. In the spin transport signals, we observe signatures of out of equilibrium spin precession that are electrically tunable through dissipation. This could provide a new path to harness spin precession in nanoscale conductors. PMID:26816050
Toroidal Precession as a Geometric Phase
J.W. Burby and H. Qin
2012-09-26
Toroidal precession is commonly understood as the orbit-averaged toroidal drift of guiding centers in axisymmetric and quasisymmetric configurations. We give a new, more natural description of precession as a geometric phase effect. In particular, we show that the precession angle arises as the holonomy of a guiding center's poloidal trajectory relative to a principal connection. The fact that this description is physically appropriate is borne out with new, manifestly coordinate-independent expressions for the precession angle that apply to all types of orbits in tokamaks and quasisymmetric stellarators alike. We then describe how these expressions may be fruitfully employed in numerical calculations of precession.
The Precession of Asteroid 1620 Geographos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prokof'eva, V. V.; Tarashchuk, V. P.; Karachkina, L. G.
The frequency analysis of the fine photometric effects in the photometric observation obtained during asteroid 1620 Geographos approaching to Earth in 1994 allowed to derive the precession of asteroid spin axis. The periods of 0({rm) d!.8 and 2({rm) d!.8 or multiple to them were revealed. The magnitude of precession angle was estimated to be near 3({circ) . The nature of the precession discussed. The emergence of the free precession may be supported at time of the formation of the asteroid or by the collision with another body. The forced precession does not contradict to the Geographos connection with meteor streams and the assumption that Geographos may have small satellites.
RF Field Visualization of RF Ablation at the Larmor Frequency
Stang, Pascal; Kerr, Adam; Pauly, John; Scott, Greig
2012-01-01
Radiofrequency ablation is an effective minimally invasive treatment for tumors. One primary source of difficulty is monitoring and controlling the ablation region. Currently, RF ablation is performed at 460 kHz, for which MRI could play a role given its capability for temperature monitoring and tumor visualization. If instead the ablation were to be performed at the MRI Larmor frequency, then the MR capability for B1 field mapping could be used to directly visualize the RF fields created by the ablation currents. Visualizing the RF fields may enable better control of the ablation currents, enabling better control of lesion shape and size and improving repeatability. We demonstrate the feasibility of performing RF ablations at 64 MHz and show preliminary results from imaging the RF fields from the ablation. The post-ablation RF fields show an increase in current density in the ablated region, consistent with an increase in conductivity of the ablated tissue. PMID:21775256
Finite Larmor radius effect on ion pickup at Venus
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Phillips, J. L.; Luhmann, J. G.; Russell, C. T.; Moore, K. R.
1987-01-01
The interaction of the solar wind with Venus is influenced by the pickup of newly born exospheric oxygen ions by the convecting magnetosheath plasma. The flow and field configuration of the magnetosheath plasma, together with the large gyroradius of the pickup ions, cause mass loading to occur preferentially on one side of the magnetosheath. The observed hemispherical asymmetry in the magnetic field in the near-planet magnetosheath, attributed to this pickup process, is confirmed by direct observation of the picked-up planetary particles. Test particle calculations show that a current system created by ion pickup has the appropriate location and magnitude to account for the magnetic field asymmetry. The results indicate that a fluid treatment of the Venus mass-loading problem is not entirely appropriate; a hybrid or kinetic model is necessary to incorporate the finite Larmor radius of the pickup particles which produces the observed asymmetry.
Noninvasive measurement of conductivity anisotropy at larmor frequency using MRI.
Lee, Joonsung; Song, Yizhuang; Choi, Narae; Cho, Sungmin; Seo, Jin Keun; Kim, Dong-Hyun
2013-01-01
Anisotropic electrical properties can be found in biological tissues such as muscles and nerves. Conductivity tensor is a simplified model to express the effective electrical anisotropic information and depends on the imaging resolution. The determination of the conductivity tensor should be based on Ohm's law. In other words, the measurement of partial information of current density and the electric fields should be made. Since the direct measurements of the electric field and the current density are difficult, we use MRI to measure their partial information such as B1 map; it measures circulating current density and circulating electric field. In this work, the ratio of the two circulating fields, termed circulating admittivity, is proposed as measures of the conductivity anisotropy at Larmor frequency. Given eigenvectors of the conductivity tensor, quantitative measurement of the eigenvalues can be achieved from circulating admittivity for special tissue models. Without eigenvectors, qualitative information of anisotropy still can be acquired from circulating admittivity. The limitation of the circulating admittivity is that at least two components of the magnetic fields should be measured to capture anisotropic information. PMID:23554838
Free nuclear precession gradiometer system
Hinton, G. F.
1985-10-08
A free nuclear precession gradiometer uses a fluid sample surrounded by a coil the fluid sample containing one or more nuclear species which display a magnetic moment. Current in the coil polarizes the nucleii, which when the current is abruptly terminated precess coherently about the earth's magnetic field. The exact frequency generated is a precise measure of the absolute value of the earth's magnetic field. The signal is in the form of a damped sinusoid with the rate of decay being a function of gradients in the ambient magnetic field. Two vector magnetometers are mounted rigidly on the sensor at the right angles to each other and to the earth's magnetic field. A servo system continuously orients the sensor in a two-axis gimbal system to reduce the output of the vector magnetometers to zero. The instrument is polarized, a counter is triggered to make the frequency measurement, and the signal is analyzed by determining the average amplitude of the signal over a precise interval of time. The result is simultaneous measurement of total intensity and total gradient.
Non-Mathematical Explanation of Precession
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cordell, John
2011-01-01
The phenomenon of precession is necessary to explain the motion of footballs, gyroscopes, tops, the Earth, and many other interesting physical systems, but it was very hard for me to understand as a student and is very difficult to teach to students now. Many explanations of precession in physics textbooks are highly mathematical and hard to…
Insolation and the Precession Index
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubincam, David Parry
2000-01-01
Simple nonlinear climate models yield a precession index-like term in the temperature. Despite its importance in the geologic record, the precession index e sin omega, where e is the Earth's orbital eccentricity and omega is the Sun's perigee in the geocentric frame, is not present in the insolation at the top of the atmosphere. Hence there is no one-for-one mapping of 23,000 and 19,000 year periodicities from the insolation to the paleoclimate record; a nonlinear climate model is needed to produce these periods. Two such models, a grey body and an energy balance climate model with an added quadratic term, produce e sin omega terms in temperature. These terms, which without feedback mechanisms achieve extreme values of about plus or minus 0.48 K for the grey body and plus or minus 0.64 K for the energy balance model, simultaneously cool one hemisphere while they warm the other. Moreover, they produce long-term cooling in the northern hemisphere when the Sun's perigee is near northern solstice and long-term warming in the northern hemisphere when the perigee is near southern solstice. Thus this seemingly paradoxical mechanism works against the standard model which requires cool northern summers (Sun far from Earth in northern summer) to build up northern ice sheets, so that if the standard model is correct it may be more efficient than previously thought. Alternatively, the new mechanism could possibly be dominant and indicate southern hemisphere control of the northern ice sheets, wherein the southern oceans undergo a long-term cooling when the Sun is close to the Earth during southern summer. The cold water eventually flows north, cooling the northern hemisphere. This might explain why the northern oceans lag the southern ones when it comes to orbital forcing.
Torque-induced precession of bacterial flagella.
Shimogonya, Yuji; Sawano, Yoichiro; Wakebe, Hiromichi; Inoue, Yuichi; Ishijima, Akihiko; Ishikawa, Takuji
2015-01-01
The bacterial flagellar motor is an ion-driven rotary machine in the cell envelope of bacteria. Using a gold nanoparticle as a probe, we observed the precession of flagella during rotation. Since the mechanism of flagella precession was unknown, we investigated it using a combination of full simulations, theory, and experiments. The results show that the mechanism can be well explained by fluid mechanics. The validity of our theory was confirmed by our full simulation, which was utilized to predict both the filament tilt angle and motor torque from experimental flagellar precession data. The knowledge obtained is important in understanding mechanical properties of the bacterial motor and hook. PMID:26691402
About detection of precessing circumpulsar discs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grimani, Catia
2016-08-01
Detections of circumpulsar discs and planetary systems through electromagnetic observations appear quite rare. In the case of PSR 1931+24 and B0656+14, the hypothesis of a precessing disc penetrating the pulsar light cylinder is found consistent with radio and gamma observations from these stars. Disc self-occultation and precession may affect electromagnetic measurements. We investigate here under which conditions gravitational waves generated by circumpulsar disc precession may be detected by the proposed second-generation space interferometers DECI-hertz Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory and Big Bang Observer. The characteristics of circumpulsar detectable precessing discs are estimated as a function of distance from the Solar system. Speculations on detection rates are presented.
Consistent Numerical Expressions for Precession Formulae.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soma, M.
The precession formulae by Lieske et al. (1977) have been used since 1984 for calculating apparent positions and reducing astrometric observations of celestial objects. These formulae are based on the IAU (1976) Astronomical Constants, some of which deviate from their recently determined values. They are also derived using the secular variations of the ecliptic pole from Newcomb's theory, which is not consistent with the recent planetary theories. Accordingly Simon et al. (1994) developed new precession formulae using the recently determined astronomical constants and also being based on the new planetary theory VSOP87. There are two differing definitions of the ecliptic: ecliptic in the inertial sense and ecliptic in the rotating sense (Standish 1981). The ecliptic given by the VSOP87 theory is that in the inertial sense, but the value for obliquity Simon et al. used is the obliquity in the rotating sense. Therefore their precession formulae has inconsistency. This paper gives corrections for consistent precession formulae.
About detection of precessing circumpulsar disks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grimani, Catia
2016-05-01
Detections of circumpulsar disks and planetary systems through electromagnetic observations appear quite rare. In the case of PSR 1931+24 and B0656+14, the hypothesis of a precessing disk penetrating the pulsar light cylinder is found consistent with radio and gamma observations from these stars. Disk self-occultation and precession may affect electromagnetic measurements. We investigate here under which conditions gravitational waves generated by circumpulsar disk precession may be detected by the proposed second generation space interferometers DECIGO (DECI-hertz Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory) and BBO (Big Bang Observer). The characteristics of circumpulsar detectable precessing disks are estimated as a function of distance from the Solar System. Speculations on detection rates are presented.
Trapped Electron Precession Shear Induced Fluctuation Decorrelation
T.S. Hahm; P.H. Diamond; E.-J. Kim
2002-07-29
We consider the effects of trapped electron precession shear on the microturbulence. In a similar way the strong E x B shear reduces the radial correlation length of ambient fluctuations, the radial variation of the trapped electron precession frequency can reduce the radial correlation length of fluctuations associated with trapped electrons. In reversed shear plasmas, with the explicit dependence of the trapped electron precession shearing rate on B(subscript)theta, the sharp radial gradient of T(subscript)e due to local electron heating inside qmin can make the precession shearing mechanism more effective, and reduce the electron thermal transport constructing a positive feedback loop for the T(subscript)e barrier formation.
Larmor electric field observed at the Earth's magnetopause by Polar satellite
Koga, D. Gonzalez, W. D.; Silveira, M. V. D.; Mozer, F. S.; Cardoso, F. R.
2014-10-15
We present, for the first time, observational evidence of a kinetic electric field near the X-line associated with asymmetric reconnection at the Earth's dayside magnetopause using Polar observations. On March 29, 2003, Polar satellite detected an asymmetric collisionless reconnection event. This event shows a unipolar Hall electric field signature and a simple deviation from the guide field during the magnetopause crossing, with the absence of an ion plasma jet outflow indicating that the magnetopause crossing was near the X-line. As expected from particle-in-cell simulations by Malakit et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 135001 (2013)), an earthward pointing normal electric field appears in the magnetospheric side of the ion diffusion region. The electric field satisfies two necessary conditions for the existence of the finite ion Larmor radius effect: (1) the ion Larmor radius (r{sub g2}) is larger than the distance between the stagnation point and the edge of the ion diffusion region in the strong magnetic field side (δ{sub S2}) and (2) the spatial extent of the kinetic electric field (δ{sub EL}) is of the order of the ion Larmor radius. Furthermore, it is shown that the peak value of the Larmor electric field is comparable to the predicted value. The observation of the Larmor electric field can be valuable in other analyses to show that the crossing occurred near the X-line.
The modulational instability in the extended Hasegawa-Mima equation with a finite Larmor radius
Gallagher, S.; Hnat, B.; Rowlands, G.; Connaughton, C.; Nazarenko, S.
2012-12-15
The effects of the finite Larmor radius on the generation of zonal flows by the four-wave modulational instability are investigated using an extended form of the Hasegawa-Mima equation. Growth rates of the zonal mode are quantified using analytical predictions from a four-mode truncated model, as well as from direct numerical simulation of the nonlinear extended Hasegawa-Mima equation. We not only consider purely zonal flows but also examine the generic oblique case and show that, for small Larmor radii, off-axis modes may become dominant. We find a key parameter M{sub {rho}} which characterises the behaviour of the system due to changes in the Larmor radius. We find that, similarly to previous results obtained by changing the driving wave amplitude, two separate dynamical regimes can be accessed. These correspond to oscillatory energy transfer between zonal flows and a driving wave and the fully saturated zonal flow.
The modulational instability in the extended Hasegawa-Mima equation with a finite Larmor radius
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gallagher, S.; Hnat, B.; Connaughton, C.; Nazarenko, S.; Rowlands, G.
2012-12-01
The effects of the finite Larmor radius on the generation of zonal flows by the four-wave modulational instability are investigated using an extended form of the Hasegawa-Mima equation. Growth rates of the zonal mode are quantified using analytical predictions from a four-mode truncated model, as well as from direct numerical simulation of the nonlinear extended Hasegawa-Mima equation. We not only consider purely zonal flows but also examine the generic oblique case and show that, for small Larmor radii, off-axis modes may become dominant. We find a key parameter Mρ which characterises the behaviour of the system due to changes in the Larmor radius. We find that, similarly to previous results obtained by changing the driving wave amplitude, two separate dynamical regimes can be accessed. These correspond to oscillatory energy transfer between zonal flows and a driving wave and the fully saturated zonal flow.
Collisional damping of zonal flows due to finite Larmor radius effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ricci, Paolo; Rogers, B. N.; Dorland, W.
2010-07-01
The collisional damping of seeded E ×B zonal flows on the ion Larmor radius scale is studied using a gyrokinetic model. The focus is on flow damping due to finite Larmor radius effects, which cause a v∥/v anisotropy of the ion distribution function that is damped by ion-ion collisions. The gyrokinetic equations are solved in a slab geometry with no gradients or curvature, and a gyroaveraged Lorentz collision operator that conserves particle number, momentum, and energy is used. The solution of the gyrokinetic equations explores the dependence of the damping rate on the wavelength of the flows and the impact of the collisions on the ion distribution function. These numerical results can be used as a benchmark test during the implementation of finite Larmor radius effects in the collision operator of gyrokinetic codes.
Improvement of the IAU 2000 precession model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Capitaine, N.; Wallace, P. T.; Chapront, J.
2005-03-01
The IAU 2000 precession consists of the IAU 1976 ecliptic precession (Lieske et al. [CITE], A&A, 58, 1) and the precession part of the IAU 2000A equator adopted by IAU 2000 Resolution B1.6 (Mathews et al. [CITE], J. Geophys. Res., 107, B4, 10.1029/2001JB000390). In this paper we provide a range of new expressions as possible replacements for the IAU 2000 precession. The new expressions are based upon the so-called P03 solution of Capitaine et al. ([CITE], A&A, 412, 567) for the equator and the ecliptic. In addition an improved model for the precession of the equator is discussed. This improved solution was obtained in exactly the same way as P03 but using a refined model for the contributions of the non-rigid Earth (Mathews [CITE], private communication) and revised integration constants for the precession rates resulting from fits to the most recent VLBI data. The paper reports on the procedure that was used for improving the P03 solution and on the comparisons of this solution with the MHB 2000, IAU 2000 and P03 solutions. It also discusses the choices for the solution to be put forward as a replacement for IAU 2000. We concluded that the existing VLBI data were insufficient to provide convincing evidence that the improved solutions would deliver better accuracy than the existing P03 solution, and we recommend retaining P03 as the replacement for IAU 2000. P03, which unlike the IAU 2000 precession is dynamically consistent, has the advantage of already having been used experimentally by a number of groups; the model is recalled in Tables [see full text]- [see full text]. Due to the strong dependence of the precession expressions on the precession rates and of the precession in longitude (or equivalently the celestial CIP X coordinate) on the J2 rate model, we also provide a parameterized P04 solution for these quantities as functions of those parameters. The expressions include the quantities to be used in both the equinox-based and CIO-based (i.e. referred to
Ng Sheungwah; Hassam, A.B.
2005-06-15
Finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects, originally shown to stabilize magnetized plasma interchange modes at short wavelength, are shown to assist velocity shear stabilization of long wavelength interchanges. It is shown that the FLR effects result in stabilization with roughly the same efficacy as the stabilization from dissipative (resistive and viscous) effects found earlier.
The magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability and flute waves at the ion Larmor radius scales
Onishchenko, O. G.; Pokhotelov, O. A.; Stenflo, L.; Shukla, P. K.
2011-02-15
The theory of flute waves (with arbitrary spatial scales compared to the ion Larmor radius) driven by the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) is developed. Both the kinetic and hydrodynamic models are considered. In this way we have extended the previous analysis of RTI carried out in the long wavelength limit. It is found that complete finite ion Larmor radius stabilization is absent when the ion diamagnetic velocity attains the ion gravitation drift velocity. The hydrodynamic approach allowed us to deduce a new set of nonlinear equations for flute waves with arbitrary spatial scales. It is shown that the previously deduced equations are inadequate when the wavelength becomes of the order of the ion Larmor radius. In the linear limit a Fourier transform of these equations yields the dispersion relation which in the so-called Pade approximation corresponds to the results of the fully kinetic treatment. The development of such a theory gives us enough grounds for an adequate description of the RTI stabilization by the finite ion Larmor radius effect.
Spin Precession in Oblique Magnetic Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jing; Huang, Biqin; Appelbaum, Ian
2009-03-01
Spin precession and dephasing (``Hanle effect'') provide an unambiguous means to establish the presence of spin transport in semiconductors. We compare theoretical modeling with experimental data from drift-dominated silicon spin-transport devices, illustrating the non-trivial consequences of employing oblique magnetic fields (due to misalignment or intentional, fixed in-plane field components) to measure the effects of spin precession. Model results are also calculated for Hanle measurements under conditions of diffusion-dominated transport, revealing an expected Hanle peak-widening effect induced by the presence of fixed in-plane magnetic bias fields.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, Hong; Chen, Jie; Zeng, Xiaoyan; Yan, Ming
2016-04-01
The Doppler effect is a fundamental physical phenomenon observed for waves propagating in vacuum or various media, commonly gaseous or liquid. Here, we report on the occurrence of a Doppler effect in a solid medium. Instead of a real object, a topological soliton, i.e., a magnetic domain wall (DW) traveling in a current-carrying ferromagnetic nanowire, plays the role of the moving wave source. The Larmor precession of the DW in an external field stimulates emission of monochromatic spin waves (SWs) during its motion, which show a significant Doppler effect, comparable to the acoustic one of a train whistle. This process involves two prominent spin-transfer-torque effects simultaneously, the current-driven DW motion and the current-induced SW Doppler shift. The latter gives rise to an interesting feature, i.e., the observed SW Doppler effect appears resulting from a stationary source and a moving observer, contrary to the laboratory frame.
Thomas precession and squeezed states of light
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Han, D.; Hardekopf, E. E.; Kim, Y. S.
1989-01-01
The Lorentz group, which is the language of special relativity, is a useful theoretical toll in modern optics. Optics experiments can therefore serve as analog computers for special relativity. Possible optics experiments involving squeezed states are discussed in connection with the Thomas precession and the Wigner rotation.
Nonrelativistic Contribution to Mercury's Perihelion Precession.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Price, Michael P.; Rush, William F.
1979-01-01
Presents a calculation of the precession of the perihelion of Mercury due to the perturbations from the outer planets. The time-average effect of each planet is calculated by replacing that planet with a ring of linear mass density equal to the mass of the planet divided by the circumference of its orbit. (Author/GA)
Precession of the Earth-Moon System
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Urbassek, Herbert M.
2009-01-01
The precession rate of the Earth-Moon system by the gravitational influence of the Sun is derived. Attention is focussed on a physically transparent but complete presentation accessible to first- or second-year physics students. Both a shortcut and a full analysis are given, which allows the inclusion of this material as an example of the physics…
Spinor approach to gravitational motion and precession
Hestenes, D.
1986-06-01
The translational and rotational equations of motion for a small rigid body in a gravitational field are combined in a single spinor equation. Besides its computational advantages, this unifies the description of gravitational interaction in classical and quantum theory. Explicit expressions for gravitational precession rates are derived.
The precession dynamo experiment at HZDR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giesecke, A.; Gundrum, T.; Herault, J.; Stefani, F.; Gerbeth, G.
2015-12-01
In a next generation dynamo experiment currently under development atthe Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) a fluid flow of liquidsodium, solely driven by precession, will be considered as a possiblesource for magnetic field generation. The experiment is mainlymotivated by alternative concepts for astrophysical dynamos that arebased on mechanical flow driving. For example, it has long beendiscussed whether precession may be a complementary power source forthe geodynamo (Malkus, Science 1968) or for the ancient lunar dynamodue to the Earth-driven precession of the lunar spin axis (Dwyer, Nature 2011).We will present the current state of development of the dynamoexperiment together with results from non-linear hydrodynamicsimulations with moderate precessional forcing. Our simulations reveala non-axisymmetric forced mode with an amplitude of up to one fourthof the rotation velocity of the cylindrical container confirming thatprecession provides a rather efficient flow driving mechanism even atmoderate precession rates.More relevant for dynamo action might be free Kelvin modes (thenatural flow eigenmodes in a rotating cylinder) with higher azimuthalwave number. These modes may become relevant when constituting atriadic resonance with the fundamental forced mode, i.e., when theheight of the container matches their axial wave lengths. We findtriadic resonances at aspect ratios close to those predicted by thelinear theory except around the primary resonance of the forcedmode. In that regime we still identify free Kelvin modes propagatingin retrograde direction but none of them can be assigned to a triade.Our results will enter into the development of flow models that willbe used in kinematic simulations of the electromagnetic inductionequation in order to determine whether a precession driven flow willbe capable to drive a dynamo at all and to limit the parameter spacewithin which the occurrence of dynamo action is most promising.
Interchange and Flow Velocity Shear Instabilities in the Presence of Finite Larmor Radius Effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sotnikov, V.; Kim, T.; Mishin, E.; Genoni, T.; Rose, D.; Mehlhorn, T.
2014-09-01
Ionospheric irregularities cause scintillations of electromagnetic signals that can severely affect navigation and transionospheric communication, in particular during Equatorial Plasma Bubbles (EPBs) events. However, the existing ionospheric models do not describe density irregularities with typical scales of several ion Larmor radii that affect UHF and L bands. These irregularities can be produced in the process of nonlinear evolution of interchange or flow velocity shear instabilities. The model of nonlinear development of these instabilities based on two-fluid hydrodynamic description with inclusion of finite Larmor radius effects will be presented. The derived nonlinear equations will be numerically solved by using the code Flute, which was originally developed for High Energy Density applications and modified to describe interchange and flow velocity shear instabilities in the ionosphere. The high-resolution simulations will be driven by the ambient conditions corresponding to the AFRL C/NOFS satellite low-resolution data during EPBs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Medvedev, Mikhail
2010-02-01
An extensive body of studies indicate that small-scale (sub-Larmor-scale) magnetic turbulence are produced at relativistic shocks, in reconnection events and other high-energy density environments. Here we present a general description of radiation produced by relativistic electrons moving in such fields and stress its non-synchrotron spectral characteristics. We illustrate the results with spectral data from gamma-ray burst observations. )
Finite ion Larmor radius effects and wall effects on m = 1 instabilities
Cayton, T.E.
1980-12-01
A set of fluid-like equations that simultaneously includes effects due to geometry and finite ion gyroradii is used to examine the stability of a straight, radially diffuse screw pinch in the regime where the poloidal magnetic field is very small compared with the axial magnetic field. It is shown that this pinch may be rendered completely stable through a combination of finite Larmor radius effects and wall effects. Many of the m = 1 modes of the diffuse pinch can be stabilized by finite ion Larmor radius effects, just as all flute modes can be stabilized. Because of the special nature of the m = 1 eigenfunctions, finite ion gyroradius effects are negligible for the kink modes of very large wavelength. This special nature of the eigenfunctions, however, makes these modes good candidates for wall stabilization. The finite Larmor radius stabilization of m = 1 modes of a diffuse pinch is contrary to the conventional wisdom that has evolved from studies of sharp-boundary, skin-current models of the pinch.
Relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar.
Breton, Rene P; Kaspi, Victoria M; Kramer, Michael; McLaughlin, Maura A; Lyutikov, Maxim; Ransom, Scott M; Stairs, Ingrid H; Ferdman, Robert D; Camilo, Fernando; Possenti, Andrea
2008-07-01
The double pulsar PSR J0737-3039A/B consists of two neutron stars in a highly relativistic orbit that displays a roughly 30-second eclipse when pulsar A passes behind pulsar B. Describing this eclipse of pulsar A as due to absorption occurring in the magnetosphere of pulsar B, we successfully used a simple geometric model to characterize the observed changing eclipse morphology and to measure the relativistic precession of pulsar B's spin axis around the total orbital angular momentum. This provides a test of general relativity and alternative theories of gravity in the strong-field regime. Our measured relativistic spin precession rate of 4.77 degrees (-0 degrees .65)(+0 degrees .66) per year (68% confidence level) is consistent with that predicted by general relativity within an uncertainty of 13%. PMID:18599782
Prospects for aberration corrected electron precession.
Own, C S; Sinkler, W; Marks, L D
2007-01-01
Recent developments in aberration control in the TEM have yielded a tremendous enhancement of direct imaging capabilities for studying atomic structures. However, aberration correction also has substantial benefits for achieving ultra-resolution in the TEM through reciprocal space techniques. Several tools are available that allow very accurate detection of the electron distribution in surfaces allowing precise atomic-scale characterization through statistical inversion techniques from diffraction data. The precession technique now appears to extend this capability to the bulk. This article covers some of the progress in this area and details requirements for a next-generation analytical diffraction instrument. An analysis of the contributions offered by aberration correction for precision electron precession is included. PMID:17207934
Using the P03 Precession Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wallace, P. T.; Capitaine, N.
2006-08-01
The precession model adopted by the IAU in 2000 comprised the existing Lieske et al. (1977) model plus rate corrections of about 300 mas/cy in longitude and 25 mas/cy in obliquity. Though accurate with respect to existing VLBI observations, the IAU 2000 model is not consistent with dynamical theory, and consequently the IAU Working Group on precession and the ecliptic has recommended (Hilton et al. 2006) that it be replaced by the "P03" model of Capitaine et al. (2003). P03 provides improved models for both the equator and the ecliptic, and also includes parameterized provision for future adjustment to match new determinations of properties of the non-rigid Earth such as the precession rates and J2 rate. Practical use of the new model involves choices of algorithm and computational procedure, and a number of ways have been studied (Capitaine & Wallace 2006) of generating the directions of the celestial intermediate pole and origin (CIP, CIO), from which the usual rotation matrices can be obtained. From a wide range of possible procedures we have selected two that target different classes of application, typified by the SOFA software and the IERS Conventions respectively. These procedures achieve a high standard of consistency, both internal and mutual, as well as being efficient and versatile. One is based on the Fukushima-Williams precession-nutation angles, the other on series for the CIP coordinates. Both use the CIO locator s, and both deliver the full range of products, supporting classical equinox/GST methods in addition to the CIO/ERA "new paradigm".
Turbulent mixing in a precessing sphere
Goto, Susumu Shimizu, Masaki; Kawahara, Genta
2014-11-15
By numerically simulating turbulent flows at high Reynolds numbers in a precessing sphere, we propose a method to enhance the mixing of a fluid confined within a smooth cavity by its rotational motion alone. To precisely evaluate the mixing efficiency, we extend the quantification method proposed by Danckwerts [“The definition and measurement of some characteristics of mixtures,” Appl. Sci. Res. A 3, 279–296 (1952)] to the case in which only a finite number of fluid particle trajectories can be known. Our accurate numerical tracking of fluid particles in the flow, which is controlled by the Reynolds number (an indicator of the spin rate) and the Poincaré number (the precession rate), shows the following results. First, the mixing process on the time scale normalized by the spin period is independent of the Reynolds number as long as it is high enough for the flow to be developed turbulence. Second, fastest mixing is achieved under weak precession (Poincaré number ≈0.1); in such cases, perfect mixing requires only 10–15 spins of the container. Third, the power to sustain turbulence is a weakly increasing function of the Poincaré number, and the energy efficiency of the mixing is also maximized when the Poincaré number is about 0.1. Fourth, efficient mixing driven by the weak precession arises from the effective cooperation of complex large-scale flow and small-scale turbulence, which itself is sustained by the large-scale flow.
Uncertainty relations and precession of perihelion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scardigli, Fabio; Casadio, Roberto
2016-03-01
We compute the corrections to the Schwarzschild metric necessary to reproduce the Hawking temperature derived from a Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP), so that the GUP deformation parameter is directly linked to the deformation of the metric. Using this modified Schwarzschild metric, we compute corrections to the standard General Relativistic predictions for the perihelion precession for planets in the solar system, and for binary pulsars. This analysis allows us to set bounds for the GUP deformation parameter from well-known astronomical measurements.
Geodetic precession or dragging of inertial frames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ashby, Neil; Shahid-Saless, Bahman
1989-01-01
In General Relativity, the Principle of General Covariance allows one to describe phenomena by means of any convenient choice of coordinate system. Here, it is shown that the geodetic precession of a gyroscope orbiting a spherically symmetric, nonrotating mass can be recast as a Lense-Thirring frame-dragging effect, in an appropriately chosen coordinate frame whose origin falls freely along with the gyroscope and whose spatial coordinate axes point in fixed directions.
Warp evidence in precessing galactic bar models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sánchez-Martín, P.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Masdemont, J. J.
2016-04-01
Most galaxies have a warped shape when they are seen edge-on. The reason for this curious form is not completely known so far, so in this work we apply dynamical system tools to contribute to its explanation. Starting from a simple, but realistic model formed by a bar and a disc, we study the effect of a small misalignment between the angular momentum of the system and its angular velocity. To this end, a precession model was developed and considered, assuming that the bar behaves like a rigid body. After checking that the periodic orbits inside the bar continue to be the skeleton of the inner system even after inflicting a precession to the potential, we computed the invariant manifolds of the unstable periodic orbits departing from the equilibrium points at the ends of the bar to find evidence of their warped shapes. As is well known, the invariant manifolds associated with these periodic orbits drive the arms and rings of barred galaxies and constitute the skeleton of these building blocks. Looking at them from a side-on viewpoint, we find that these manifolds present warped shapes like those recognised in observations. Lastly, test particle simulations have been performed to determine how the stars are affected by the applied precession, this way confirming the theoretical results.
Structure refinement from precession electron diffraction data.
Palatinus, Lukáš; Jacob, Damien; Cuvillier, Priscille; Klementová, Mariana; Sinkler, Wharton; Marks, Laurence D
2013-03-01
Electron diffraction is a unique tool for analysing the crystal structures of very small crystals. In particular, precession electron diffraction has been shown to be a useful method for ab initio structure solution. In this work it is demonstrated that precession electron diffraction data can also be successfully used for structure refinement, if the dynamical theory of diffraction is used for the calculation of diffracted intensities. The method is demonstrated on data from three materials - silicon, orthopyroxene (Mg,Fe)(2)Si(2)O(6) and gallium-indium tin oxide (Ga,In)(4)Sn(2)O(10). In particular, it is shown that atomic occupancies of mixed crystallographic sites can be refined to an accuracy approaching X-ray or neutron diffraction methods. In comparison with conventional electron diffraction data, the refinement against precession diffraction data yields significantly lower figures of merit, higher accuracy of refined parameters, much broader radii of convergence, especially for the thickness and orientation of the sample, and significantly reduced correlations between the structure parameters. The full dynamical refinement is compared with refinement using kinematical and two-beam approximations, and is shown to be superior to the latter two. PMID:23403968
Quipus and System of Coordinated Precession
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campos, T. C.
2004-05-01
The Incas of ancient Peru possessed no writing. Instead, they developed a unique system expressed on spatial arrays of colored knotted cords called Quipus to record and transmit information throughout their vast empire. In their thorough description of quipus, Ascher & Ascher observed that in two cases the numbers registered in their strings have a very special relationship to each other. For this to occur the numbers must have been obtained through the multiplication of whole numbers by fractions or decimals, operations apparently beyond the arithmetic knowledge of the Incas. The quipus AS120 and AS143, coming from Ica (Peru) and conserved in the Museum of Berlin has the suitable characteristics previously. In the AS143 there is a the relationship with the systems of coordinated precession (tilt of Earth's spin axis (40036); eccentricity of Earth's orbit (97357); and precession of equinoxes (between 18504 and 23098)). For the history of the Earth are necessary an chronometer natural to coordinate and to classify the observations and this chronometer comes to be the vernal point, defining the vernal point as" a sensitive axis of maximum conductivity" as itdemonstrates it the stability of the geomagnetic equator (inclination of the field is zero grades), in the year 1939 calculated with the IGRF from the year 1900 up to the 2004 and that it is confirmed with tabulated data of the Geophysical Institute of Huancayo (Peru),from that date until this year (2004) and this fluctuating between the 12-14 South.,on the other hand in the area of Brazil it has advanced very quickly toward the north, and above to 108 km. approximately it is located the equatorial electrojet that is but intense in the equinoxes in South America. And this stability from the point of view of the precession of the equinoxes this coinciding with the entrance of the apparent sun for the constellation of Aquarius, being this mechanism the base to establish a system of coordinated precession where it is
Precession as a driving mechanism for the geodynamo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tilgner, A.
Precession of the earth's rotation axis has long ago been proposed as a possible driving mechanism for the geodynamo. Past research has focused on convectively driven dynamos and relatively little is known about the hydrodynamics of precession, even in the absence of a magnetic field. Some properties of precession driven flows will be presented and the possiblity of these flows acting as dynamos will be discussed.
Compatibility of Larmor's Formula with Radiation Reaction for an Accelerated Charge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singal, Ashok K.
2016-05-01
It is shown that the well-known disparity in classical electrodynamics between the power losses calculated from the radiation reaction and that from Larmor's formula, is succinctly understood when a proper distinction is made between quantities expressed in terms of a "real time" and those expressed in terms of a retarded time. It is explicitly shown that an accelerated charge, taken to be a sphere of vanishingly small radius r_o , experiences at any time a self-force proportional to the acceleration it had at a time r_o /c earlier, while the rate of work done on the charge is obtained by a scalar product of the self-force with the instantaneous (present) value of its velocity. Now if the retarded value of acceleration is expressed in terms of the present values of acceleration, then we get the rate of work done according to the radiation reaction equation, however if we instead express the present value of velocity in terms of its time-retarded value, then we get back the familiar Larmor's radiation formula. From this simple relation between the two we show that they differ because Larmor's formula, in contrast with the radiation reaction, is written not in terms of the real-time values of quantities specifying the charge motion but is instead expressed in terms of the time-retarded values. Moreover, it is explicitly shown that the difference in the two formulas for radiative power loss exactly matches the difference in the temporal rate of the change of energy in the self-fields between the retarded and real times. From this it becomes obvious that the ad hoc introduction of an acceleration-dependent energy term, usually referred to in the prevalent literature as Schott-term, in order to make the two formulas comply with each other, is redundant.
Comments on finite Larmor radius models for ion cyclotron range of frequencies heating in tokamaks
Phillips, C.K.; Wilson, J.R.; Hosea, J.C.; Majeski, R. ); Smithe, D.N. )
1994-12-01
The accuracy of standard finite Larmor radius (FLR) models for wave propagation in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) is compared against full hot plasma models. For multiple ion species plasmas, the FLR model is shown to predict the presence of a spurious second harmonic ion--ion type resonance between the second harmonic cyclotron layers of two ion species. It is shown explicitly here that the spurious resonance is an artifact of the FLR models and that no absorption occurs in the plasma as a result of this resonance.''
Comments on finite Larmor radius models for ion cyclotron range of frequencies heating in tokamaks
Phillips, C.K.; Wilson, J.R.; Hosea, J.C.; Majeski, R.; Smithe, D.N.
1994-06-01
The accuracy of standard finite Larmor radius (FLR) models for wave propagation in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) is compared against full hot plasma models. For multiple ion species plasmas, the FLR model is shown to predict the presence of a spurious second harmonic ion-ion type resonance between the second harmonic cyclotron layers of two ion species. It is shown explicitly here that the spurious resonance is an artifact of the FLR models and that no absorption occurs in the plasma as a result of this ``resonance.``
Jain, Shweta Sharma, Prerana; Chhajlani, R. K.
2015-07-31
The Jeans instability of self-gravitating quantum plasma is examined considering the effects of viscosity, finite Larmor radius (FLR) corrections and rotation. The analysis is done by normal mode analysis theory with the help of relevant linearized perturbation equations of the problem. The general dispersion relation is obtained using the quantum magneto hydrodynamic model. The modified condition of Jeans instability is obtained and the numerical calculations have been performed to show the effects of various parameters on the growth rate of Jeans instability.
Finite Larmor radius effects on the coupled trapped electron and ion temperature gradient modes
Sandberg, I.; Isliker, H.; Pavlenko, V. P.
2007-09-15
The properties of the coupled trapped electron and toroidal ion temperature gradient modes are investigated using the standard reactive fluid model and taking rigorously into account the effects attributed to the ion polarization drift and to the drifts associated with the lowest-order finite ion Larmor radius effects. In the flat density regime, where the coupling between the modes is relatively weak, the properties of the unstable modes are slightly modified through these effects. For the peak density regions, where the coupling of the modes is rather strong, these second-order drifts determine the spectra of the unstable modes near the marginal conditions.
Finite Larmor radius effects on the (m = 2, n = 1) cylindrical tearing mode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Y.; Chowdhury, J.; Parker, S. E.; Wan, W.
2015-04-01
New field solvers are developed in the gyrokinetic code GEM [Chen and Parker, J. Comput. Phys. 220, 839 (2007)] to simulate low-n modes. A novel discretization is developed for the ion polarization term in the gyrokinetic vorticity equation. An eigenmode analysis with finite Larmor radius effects is developed to study the linear resistive tearing mode. The mode growth rate is shown to scale with resistivity as γ ˜ η1/3, the same as the semi-collisional regime in previous kinetic treatments [Drake and Lee, Phys. Fluids 20, 1341 (1977)]. Tearing mode simulations with gyrokinetic ions are verified with the eigenmode calculation.
Review Of The Working Group On Precession And The Ecliptic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hilton, J. L.
2006-08-01
The IAU Working Group on Precession and the Ecliptic was charged with providing a precession model that was both dynamically consistent and compatible with the IAU 2000A nutation model, along with an updated definition and model for the ecliptic. The report of the working group has been accepted for publication in Celestial Mechanics (Hilton et al. 2006, in press) and has resulted in a recommendation to be considered at this General Assembly of the IAU. Specifically, the working group recommends: 1. That the terms lunisolar precession and planetary precession be replaced by precession of the equator and precession of the ecliptic, respectively. 2. That, beginning on 1 January 2009, the precession component of the IAU 2000A precession-nutation model be replaced by the P03 precession theory, of Capitaine et al. (2003, A&A, 412, 567-586) for the precession of the equator (Eqs. 37) and the precession of the ecliptic (Eqs. 38); the same paper provides the polynomial developments for the P03 primary angles and a number of derived quantities for use in both the equinox based and Celestial Intermediate Origin based paradigms. 3. That the choice of precession parameters be left to the user. 4. That the ecliptic pole should be explicitly defined by the mean orbital angular momentum vector of the Earth-Moon barycenter in an inertial reference frame, and this definition should be explicitly stated to avoid confusion with other, older definitions. consistent and compatible with the IAU 2000A nutation model, along consistent and compatible with the IAU 2000A nutation model, along with an updated definition and model for the ecliptic. The report of the working group has been accepted for publication in Celestial Mechanics (Hilton et al. 2006, in press) and has resulted in a recommendation to be considered at this General Assembly of the IAU. Specifically, the working group recommends, * that the terms lunisolar precession and planetary precession be replaced by precession of the
Two spinning ways for precession dynamo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cappanera, L.; Guermond, J.-L.; Léorat, J.; Nore, C.
2016-04-01
It is numerically demonstrated by means of a magnetohydrodynamic code that precession can trigger dynamo action in a cylindrical container. Fixing the angle between the spin and the precession axis to be 1/2 π , two limit configurations of the spinning axis are explored: either the symmetry axis of the cylinder is parallel to the spin axis (this configuration is henceforth referred to as the axial spin case), or it is perpendicular to the spin axis (this configuration is referred to as the equatorial spin case). In both cases, the centro-symmetry of the flow breaks when the kinetic Reynolds number increases. Equatorial spinning is found to be more efficient in breaking the centro-symmetry of the flow. In both cases, the average flow in the reference frame of the mantle converges to a counter-rotation with respect to the spin axis as the Reynolds number grows. We find a scaling law for the average kinetic energy in term of the Reynolds number in the axial spin case. In the equatorial spin case, the unsteady asymmetric flow is shown to be capable of sustaining dynamo action in the linear and nonlinear regimes. The magnetic field is mainly dipolar in the equatorial spin case, while it is is mainly quadrupolar in the axial spin case.
A Precession-Driven Lunar Dynamo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, B. Y.; Stanley, S.; Tikoo, S. M.; Weiss, B. P.
2014-12-01
Paleomagnetic studies of Apollo samples suggest that the Moon generated a magnetic field with surface field intensities of several tens of microteslas until at least 3.56 billion years ago (Ga). The field then declined by an order of magnitude from 3.56 - 3.19 Ga. Because of difficulties in reproducing such a long-lived and intense field with convection-driven dynamos, a dynamo driven by precession of the mantle relative to the core was proposed as an alternative. However, there have not been any detailed numerical models demonstrating the feasibility, lifetime, and intensity of such a lunar dynamo. Using fully 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we determined the strength and duration of a mechanically-driven dynamo powered by mantle precession. We found that this mechanism was capable of not only generating the 10-100μT paleomagnetic intensities observed in Apollo samples aged between 4.25 and 3.56 Ga, but also reproducing the precipitous decline in paleointensity beyond 3.56 Ga as the obliquity of the Moon decreased below 15°.
Ghosh, Sanjoy; Parashar, Tulasi N.
2015-04-15
The local k-space ratio of linear and nonlinear accelerations associated with a variety of initial conditions undergoing steady relaxation is investigated for the Hall–finite-Larmor-radius magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) system in the presence of a mean magnetic field. Building on a related study (Paper I) where it was shown that discrepancies exist between describing the global and local characterizations of the pure MHD system with mean magnetic field, we find regions of the Fourier space that are consistently dominated by linear acceleration and other regions that are consistently dominated by nonlinear acceleration, independent of the overall system's description as linear, weakly nonlinear, or turbulent. In general, dynamics within a certain angular range of the mean magnetic field direction are predominantly linear, while dynamics adjacent the Hall scales along the field-parallel direction and dynamics adjacent the finite Larmor radius scales in the field-perpendicular direction can become strongly nonlinear. The nonlinear influences are particularly significant as the plasma beta increases from unity to higher values.
The use of symmetry to correct Larmor phase aberrations in spin echo scattering angle measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pynn, Roger; Lee, W. T.; Stonaha, P.; Shah, V. R.; Washington, A. L.; Kirby, B. J.; Majkrzak, C. F.; Maranville, B. B.
2008-06-01
Spin echo scattering angle measurement (SESAME) is a sensitive interference technique for measuring neutron diffraction. The method uses waveplates or birefringent prisms to produce a phase separation (the Larmor phase) between the "up" and "down" spin components of a neutron wavefunction that is initially prepared in a state that is a linear combination of in-phase up and down components. For neutrons, uniformly birefringent optical elements can be constructed from closed solenoids with appropriately shaped cross sections. Such elements are inconvenient in practice, however, both because of the precision they demand in the control of magnetic fields outside the elements and because of the amount of material required in the neutron beam. In this paper, we explore a different option in which triangular-cross-section solenoids used to create magnetic fields for SESAME have gaps in one face, allowing the lines of magnetic flux to "leak out" of the solenoid. Although the resulting field inhomogeneity produces aberrations in the Larmor phase, the symmetry of the solenoid gaps causes the aberrations produced by neighboring pairs of triangular solenoids to cancel to a significant extent. The overall symmetry of the SESAME apparatus leads to further cancellations of aberrations, providing an architecture that is easy to construct and robust in performance.
Keenan, Brett D; Ford, Alexander L; Medvedev, Mikhail V
2015-11-01
High-amplitude, chaotic or turbulent electromagnetic fluctuations are ubiquitous in high-energy-density laboratory and astrophysical plasmas, where they can be excited by various kinetic-streaming and/or anisotropy-driven instabilities, such as the Weibel instability. These fields typically exist on "sub-Larmor scales"-scales smaller than the electron Larmor radius. Electrons moving through such magnetic fields undergo small-angle stochastic deflections of their pitch angles, thus establishing diffusive transport on long time scales. We show that this behavior, under certain conditions, is equivalent to Coulomb collisions in collisional plasmas. The magnetic pitch-angle diffusion coefficient, which acts as an effective "collision" frequency, may be substantial in these, otherwise, collisionless environments. We show that this effect, colloquially referred to as the plasma "quasicollisionality," may radically alter the expected radiative transport properties of candidate plasmas. We argue that the modified magneto-optic effects in these plasmas provide an attractive, radiative diagnostic tool for the exploration and characterization of small-scale magnetic turbulence, as well as affect inertial confinement fusion and other laser-plasma experiments. PMID:26651797
Ultra high resolution neutron scattering: Neutron Resonance Spin-Echo and Larmor Diffraction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walters, Andrew; Keller, Thomas; Keimer, Bernhard
2012-02-01
The TRISP spectrometer at the FRM II neutron source near Munich, Germany, is a unique world-leading neutron scattering instrument which employs the Neutron Resonance Spin-Echo technique (NRSE). Linewidths of dispersive excitations with energy transfers up to 50 meV can be measured with an energy resolution in the μeV range without the restrictive flux limitations that normally apply to high resolution neutron triple-axis spectrometers. Pioneering studies on the electron-phonon interaction in elemental superconductorsootnotetextP. Aynajian et al., Science 319 1509 (2008) and the lifetimes of magnetic excitations in archetypal magnetic systems will be reviewed.ootnotetextS. Bayrakci et al., Science 312 1928 (2006) The instrument can also be used as a Larmor diffractometer, enabling d-spacings to be measured with a resolution of δdd ˜10-6, i.e. more than one order of magnitude more sensitive than conventional diffraction techniques.ootnotetextC. Pfleiderer et al., Science 316 1871 (2007) Ongoing and future NRSE and Larmor diffraction projects will be outlined, especially in regard to prospective studies which will take full advantage of the new low temperature and high pressure sample environment capabilities now available at TRISP.
A fluid finite ion Larmor radius model of the magnetopause layer
Stasiewicz, K. )
1989-07-01
A model of the magnetopause current layer is constructed on the basis of fluid equations for collision-free plasmas with finite ion Larmor radius (FLR). The model provides self-consistent solutions for the plasma flow vector, magnetic field, and electric currents inside the magnetopause layer. This is the first fluid model that offers explanations for some observations at the terrestrial magnetopause that are inexplicable by earlier models. In particular, it is shown that the erosion of the dayside magnetosphere can be explained by the normal component of the gyroviscous stress tensor that is related to the intensity of field-aligned currents inside the magnetopause layer. It is found that the sense of rotation of the magnetic field across the magnetopause is determined by the ratio of the normal component of the Alfven velocity to the normal flow velocity {xi}={ital B}{sub {ital n}}/({mu}{sub 0}{rho}){sup 1/2}{ital V}{sub {ital n}}. For {vert bar} {xi} {vert bar}{gt}1 the sense of rotation corresponds to electron polarization, and {vert bar} {xi} {vert bar}{lt}1 yields proton polarization. It is argued that the case {vert bar} {xi} {vert bar}=1 corresponds to the formation of transient flux transfer events. The observed departures from MHD jump conditions across the magnetopause are explained by additional, finite Larmor radius terms in the moment equations. An expression is also derived for the characteristic thickness of the magnetopause layer. {copyright} American Geophysical Union 1989
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keenan, Brett D.; Ford, Alexander L.; Medvedev, Mikhail V.
2015-11-01
High-amplitude, chaotic or turbulent electromagnetic fluctuations are ubiquitous in high-energy-density laboratory and astrophysical plasmas, where they can be excited by various kinetic-streaming and/or anisotropy-driven instabilities, such as the Weibel instability. These fields typically exist on "sub-Larmor scales"—scales smaller than the electron Larmor radius. Electrons moving through such magnetic fields undergo small-angle stochastic deflections of their pitch angles, thus establishing diffusive transport on long time scales. We show that this behavior, under certain conditions, is equivalent to Coulomb collisions in collisional plasmas. The magnetic pitch-angle diffusion coefficient, which acts as an effective "collision" frequency, may be substantial in these, otherwise, collisionless environments. We show that this effect, colloquially referred to as the plasma "quasicollisionality," may radically alter the expected radiative transport properties of candidate plasmas. We argue that the modified magneto-optic effects in these plasmas provide an attractive, radiative diagnostic tool for the exploration and characterization of small-scale magnetic turbulence, as well as affect inertial confinement fusion and other laser-plasma experiments.
Geodetic precession in squashed Kaluza-Klein black hole spacetimes
Matsuno, Ken; Ishihara, Hideki
2009-11-15
We investigate the geodetic precession effect of a parallelly transported spin vector along a circular geodesic in five-dimensional squashed Kaluza-Klein black hole spacetime. Then we derive the higher-dimensional correction of the precession angle to general relativity. We find that the correction is proportional to the square of (size of extra dimension)/(gravitational radius of central object)
precession: Dynamics of spinning black-hole binaries with python
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerosa, Davide; Kesden, Michael
2016-06-01
We present the numerical code precession, a new open-source python module to study the dynamics of precessing black-hole binaries in the post-Newtonian regime. The code provides a comprehensive toolbox to (i) study the evolution of the black-hole spins along their precession cycles, (ii) perform gravitational-wave-driven binary inspirals using both orbit-averaged and precession-averaged integrations, and (iii) predict the properties of the merger remnant through fitting formulas obtained from numerical-relativity simulations. precession is a ready-to-use tool to add the black-hole spin dynamics to larger-scale numerical studies such as gravitational-wave parameter estimation codes, population synthesis models to predict gravitational-wave event rates, galaxy merger trees and cosmological simulations of structure formation. precession provides fast and reliable integration methods to propagate statistical samples of black-hole binaries from/to large separations where they form to/from small separations where they become detectable, thus linking gravitational-wave observations of spinning black-hole binaries to their astrophysical formation history. The code is also a useful tool to compute initial parameters for numerical-relativity simulations targeting specific precessing systems. precession can be installed from the python Package Index, and it is freely distributed under version control on github, where further documentation is provided.
Keenan, Brett D; Ford, Alexander L; Medvedev, Mikhail V
2015-09-01
Plasmas with electromagnetic fields turbulent at sub-Larmor scales are a feature of a wide variety of high-energy-density environments and are essential to the description of many astrophysical and laboratory plasma phenomena. Radiation from particles, whether they are relativistic or nonrelativistic, moving through small-scale magnetic turbulence has spectral characteristics distinct from both synchrotron and cyclotron radiation. The radiation, carrying information on the statistical properties of the magnetic turbulence, is also intimately related to the particle diffusive transport. We have investigated, both theoretically and numerically, the transport of nonrelativistic and trans-relativistic particles in plasmas with high-amplitude isotropic sub-Larmor-scale magnetic turbulence, and its relation to the spectra of radiation simultaneously produced by these particles. Consequently, the diffusive and radiative properties of plasmas turbulent on sub-Larmor scales may serve as a powerful tool to diagnosis laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. PMID:26465572
Effect of equinoctial precession on geosynchronous earth satellites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gurfil, P.
The long-periodic effects of the equinoctial precession on geosynchronous Earth orbit satellites are investigated. The equations of motion in a reference frame that coprecesses with the Earth are developed, and the resulting variational equations are derived using mean classical orbital elements. The Earth gravitational model includes the J_2 and J_3 zonal harmonics, which induce the equinoctial precession due to the lunisolar gravitational torque. It is shown that the ever-growing lifetime and mass of geosynchronous Earth orbit satellites render the equinoctial precession a significant factor, which should be taken into account during mission design, as it affects north-south stationkeeping maneuvers. The equilibria of the variational equations including the zonal harmonics and the equinoctial precession are investigated and a class of stable frozen orbits which are equinoctial precession invariant is derived.
Rectification and precession signals in the climate system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huybers, P.; Wunsch, C.
2003-10-01
Precession of the equinoxes has no effect on the mean annual insolation, but does modulate the amplitude of the seasonal cycle. In a linear climate system, there would be no energy near the 21,000 year precession period. It is only when a non-linear mechanism rectifies the seasonal modulation that precession-period variability appears. Such rectification can arise from physical processes within the climate system, for example a dependence of ice cover only on summer maximum insolation. The possibility exists, however, that the seasonality inherent in many climate proxies will produce precession-period variability in the records independent of any precession-period variability in the climate. One must distinguish this instrumental effect from true climate responses. Careful examination of regions without seasonal cycles, for example the abyssal ocean, and the use of proxies with different seasonal responses, might permit separation of physical from instrumental effects.
Division I Working Group on `Precession and the Ecliptic'
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hilton, James L.; Capitaine, N.; Chapront, J.; Ferrandiz, J. M.; Fienga, A.; Fukushima, T.; Getino, J.; Mathews, P.; Simon, J.-L.; Soffel, M.; Vondrak, J.; Wallace, P.; Williams, J.
2007-03-01
The WG has conferred via email on the topics of providing a precession theory dynamically consistent with the IAU 2000A nutation theory and updating the expressions defining the ecliptic. The consensus of the WG is to recommend:(a) The terms lunisolar precession and planetary precession be replaced by precession of the equator and precession of the ecliptic, respectively.(b) The IAU adopt the P03 precession theory, of Capitaine et al (2003a, A& A 412, 567-586) for the precession of the equator (Eqs. 37) and the precession of the ecliptic (Eqs. 38); the same paper provides the polynomial developments for the P03 primary angles and a number of derived quantities for use in both the equinox based and celestial intermediate origin based paradigms.(c) The choice of precession parameters be left to the user.(d) The recommended polynomial coefficients for a number of precession angles are given in Table 1 of the WG report, including the P03 expressions set out in Tables 3-5 of Capitaine et al (2005, A& A 432, 355-367), and those of the alternative Fukushima (2003, AJ 126, 494-534) parameterization; the corresponding matrix representations are given in equations 1, 6, 11, and 22 of the WG report.(e) The ecliptic pole should be explicitly defined by the mean orbital angular momentum vector of the Earth-Moon barycenter in an inertial reference frame, and this definition should be explicitly stated to avoid confusion with older definitions. The formal WG report will be submitted, shortly to Celest. Mech. for publication and their recommendations will be submitted at the next General Assembly for adoption by the IAU.
Precession, Nutation and Wobble of the Earth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dehant, V.; Mathews, P. M.
2015-04-01
Covering both astronomical and geophysical perspectives, this book describes changes in the Earth's orientation, specifically precession and nutation, and how they are observed and computed in terms of tidal forcing and models of the Earth's interior. Following an introduction to key concepts and elementary geodetic theory, the book describes how precise measurements of the Earth's orientation are made using observations of extra-galactic radio-sources by Very Long Baseline Interferometry techniques. It demonstrates how models are used to accurately pinpoint the location and orientation of the Earth with reference to the stars and how to determine variations in its rotation speed. A theoretical framework is also presented that describes the role played by the structure and properties of the Earth's deep interior. Incorporating suggestions for future developments in nutation theory for the next generation models, this book is ideal for advanced-level students and researche! rs in solid Earth geophysics, planetary science and astronomy.
Precession electron diffraction – a topical review
Midgley, Paul A.; Eggeman, Alexander S.
2015-01-01
In the 20 years since precession electron diffraction (PED) was introduced, it has grown from a little-known niche technique to one that is seen as a cornerstone of electron crystallography. It is now used primarily in two ways. The first is to determine crystal structures, to identify lattice parameters and symmetry, and ultimately to solve the atomic structure ab initio. The second is, through connection with the microscope scanning system, to map the local orientation of the specimen to investigate crystal texture, rotation and strain at the nanometre scale. This topical review brings the reader up to date, highlighting recent successes using PED and providing some pointers to the future in terms of method development and how the technique can meet some of the needs of the X-ray crystallography community. Complementary electron techniques are also discussed, together with how a synergy of methods may provide the best approach to electron-based structure analysis. PMID:25610633
Solutions to the relativistic precession model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ingram, Adam; Motta, Sara
2014-11-01
The relativistic precession model (RPM) can be used to obtain a precise measurement of the mass and spin of a black hole when the appropriate set of quasi-periodic oscillations is detected in the power-density spectrum of an accreting black hole. However, in previous studies, the solution of the RPM equations could be obtained only through numerical methods at a price of an intensive computational effort. Here, we demonstrate that the RPM system of equations can be solved analytically, drastically reducing the computational load, now limited to the Monte Carlo simulation necessary to estimate the uncertainties. The analytical method not only provides an easy solution to the RPM system when three oscillations are detected, but in all the cases where the detection of two simultaneous oscillations is coupled with an independent mass measurement. We also present a computationally inexpensive method to place limits on the black hole mass and spin when only two oscillations are observed.
Precession electron diffraction - a topical review.
Midgley, Paul A; Eggeman, Alexander S
2015-01-01
In the 20 years since precession electron diffraction (PED) was introduced, it has grown from a little-known niche technique to one that is seen as a cornerstone of electron crystallography. It is now used primarily in two ways. The first is to determine crystal structures, to identify lattice parameters and symmetry, and ultimately to solve the atomic structure ab initio. The second is, through connection with the microscope scanning system, to map the local orientation of the specimen to investigate crystal texture, rotation and strain at the nanometre scale. This topical review brings the reader up to date, highlighting recent successes using PED and providing some pointers to the future in terms of method development and how the technique can meet some of the needs of the X-ray crystallography community. Complementary electron techniques are also discussed, together with how a synergy of methods may provide the best approach to electron-based structure analysis. PMID:25610633
P03-based precession-nutation matrices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wallace, P.; Capitaine, N.
2006-10-01
The IAU WG on precession and the ecliptic has recommended the adoption of the P03 models of Capitaine et al. (2003). We discuss methods for generating the rotation matrices that transform celestial to terrestrial coordinates, taking into account frame bias (B), P03 precession (P), P03-adjusted IAU 2000A nutation (N) and Earth rotation. The NPB portion can refer either to the equinox or the celestial intermediate origin (CIO), requiring either the Greenwich sidereal time (GST) or the Earth rotation angle (ERA) as the measure of Earth rotation. The equinox based NPB transformation can be formed using various sequences of rotations, while the CIO based transformation can be formed using series for the X, Y coordinates of the celestial intermediate pole (CIP) and for the CIO locator s; also, either matrix can be computing using series for the x, y, z components of the "rotation vector". Common to both methods is the CIP, which forms the bottom row of the transformation matrix. In the case of the CIO based transformation, the CIO is the top row of the NPB matrix, whereas in the equinox based case it enters via the GST formulation in the form of the equation of the origins (EO). The EO is the difference between ERA and GST and equivalently the distance between the CIO and equinox. The choice of method is dictated by considerations of internal consistency, flexibility and ease of use; the different ways agree at the level of a few microarcseconds over several centuries, and consume similar computing resources.
Ion finite Larmor radius effects on the interchange instability in an open system
Katanuma, I.; Sato, S.; Okuyama, Y.; Kato, S.; Kubota, R.
2013-11-15
A particle simulation of an interchange instability was performed by taking into account the ion finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects. It is found that the interchange instability with large FLR grows in two phases, that is, linearly growing phase and the nonlinear phase subsequent to the linear phase, where the instability grows exponentially in both phases. The linear growth rates observed in the simulation agree well with the theoretical calculation. The effects of FLR are usually taken in the fluid simulation through the gyroviscosity, the effects of which are verified in the particle simulation with large FLR regime. The gyroviscous cancellation phenomenon observed in the particle simulation causes the drifts in the direction of ion diamagnetic drifts.
Forward and Backward Precession of a Vertical Anisotropically Supported Rotor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muszynska, A.
1996-04-01
This paper presents the analytical and experimental study of a vertical, overhung imbalanced rotor supported by flexible, anisotropic bearings. The results show that existence of imbalance and shaft bow causes the synchronous forced precession of the rotor to be forward (below the first value of split balance resonance and above the second value of the split balance resonance) or backward (between the two values of the split resonance). This phenomenon is classical. The new result consists of exploring the existence of forward precession of the inboard and midspan rotor sections while the outboard disk is precessing backward. The sensitivity analysis shows which system parameters are mainly responsible for this apparently bizarre phenomenon.
Electronic spin transport and spin precession in single graphene layers at room temperature.
Tombros, Nikolaos; Jozsa, Csaba; Popinciuc, Mihaita; Jonkman, Harry T; van Wees, Bart J
2007-08-01
Electronic transport in single or a few layers of graphene is the subject of intense interest at present. The specific band structure of graphene, with its unique valley structure and Dirac neutrality point separating hole states from electron states, has led to the observation of new electronic transport phenomena such as anomalously quantized Hall effects, absence of weak localization and the existence of a minimum conductivity. In addition to dissipative transport, supercurrent transport has also been observed. Graphene might also be a promising material for spintronics and related applications, such as the realization of spin qubits, owing to the low intrinsic spin orbit interaction, as well as the low hyperfine interaction of the electron spins with the carbon nuclei. Here we report the observation of spin transport, as well as Larmor spin precession, over micrometre-scale distances in single graphene layers. The 'non-local' spin valve geometry was used in these experiments, employing four-terminal contact geometries with ferromagnetic cobalt electrodes making contact with the graphene sheet through a thin oxide layer. We observe clear bipolar (changing from positive to negative sign) spin signals that reflect the magnetization direction of all four electrodes, indicating that spin coherence extends underneath all of the contacts. No significant changes in the spin signals occur between 4.2 K, 77 K and room temperature. We extract a spin relaxation length between 1.5 and 2 mum at room temperature, only weakly dependent on charge density. The spin polarization of the ferromagnetic contacts is calculated from the measurements to be around ten per cent. PMID:17632544
Electronic spin transport and spin precession in single graphene layers at room temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tombros, Nikolaos; Jozsa, Csaba; Popinciuc, Mihaita; Jonkman, Harry T.; van Wees, Bart J.
2007-08-01
Electronic transport in single or a few layers of graphene is the subject of intense interest at present. The specific band structure of graphene, with its unique valley structure and Dirac neutrality point separating hole states from electron states, has led to the observation of new electronic transport phenomena such as anomalously quantized Hall effects, absence of weak localization and the existence of a minimum conductivity. In addition to dissipative transport, supercurrent transport has also been observed. Graphene might also be a promising material for spintronics and related applications, such as the realization of spin qubits, owing to the low intrinsic spin orbit interaction, as well as the low hyperfine interaction of the electron spins with the carbon nuclei. Here we report the observation of spin transport, as well as Larmor spin precession, over micrometre-scale distances in single graphene layers. The `non-local' spin valve geometry was used in these experiments, employing four-terminal contact geometries with ferromagnetic cobalt electrodes making contact with the graphene sheet through a thin oxide layer. We observe clear bipolar (changing from positive to negative sign) spin signals that reflect the magnetization direction of all four electrodes, indicating that spin coherence extends underneath all of the contacts. No significant changes in the spin signals occur between 4.2K, 77K and room temperature. We extract a spin relaxation length between 1.5 and 2μm at room temperature, only weakly dependent on charge density. The spin polarization of the ferromagnetic contacts is calculated from the measurements to be around ten per cent.
Suppression of vortex core precession in a swirling reacting flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Litvinov, I. V.; Nazarov, A. V.; Shtork, S. I.
2016-03-01
The influence of combustion effect on unsteady vortex structure in the form of precessing vortex core was studied using the non-intrusive method of laser Doppler anemometry and special procedure of extracting the non-axisymmetric mode of flow fluctuations. The studies show that combustion has a significant effect on the parameters of such a core, reducing the amplitude (vortex deviation from the burner center) and increasing precession frequency. At the same time, the acoustic sensors detect almost an order reduction in the level of pressure pulsations generated by the precessing vortex core. Moreover, distributions of tangential velocity fluctuations and cross-correlation analysis show that vortex precession is quite pronounced even under the combustion conditions, bringing a significant coherent component to distributions of velocity fluctuations.
GRAVITATIONAL WAVES OF JET PRECESSION IN GAMMA-RAY BURSTS
Sun Mouyuan; Liu Tong; Gu Weimin; Lu Jufu
2012-06-10
The physical nature of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is believed to involve an ultra-relativistic jet. The observed complex structure of light curves motivates the idea of jet precession. In this work, we study the gravitational waves of jet precession based on neutrino-dominated accretion disks around black holes, which may account for the central engine of GRBs. In our model, the jet and the inner part of the disk may precess along with the black hole, which is driven by the outer part of the disk. Gravitational waves are therefore expected to be significant from this black-hole-inner-disk precession system. By comparing our numerical results with the sensitivity of some detectors, we find that it is possible for DECIGO and BBO to detect such gravitational waves, particularly for GRBs in the Local Group.
The Equivalence of Precession Phenomena in Metric Theories of Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krisher, Timothy P.
1996-01-01
A simple argument is presented that demonstrates clearly, without the need for detailed calculation, how geodetic precession of a gyroscope and the effect of fram-draggin are fundamentally equivalent.
General spin precession and betatron oscillation in storage rings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukuyama, Takeshi
2016-07-01
Spin precession of particles having both anomalous magnetic and electric dipole moments (EDMs) is considered. We give the generalized expression of spin precession of these particles injected with transversal extent in magnetic storage rings. This is the generalization of the Farley’s pitch correction [F. J. N. Farley, Phys. Lett. B 42, 66 (1972)], including radial oscillation as well as vertical one. The transversal betatron oscillation formulae of these particles are also reproduced.
Pulsar state switching, timing noise and free precession
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, D. I.
2012-03-01
Recent radio pulsar observations have shown that a number of pulsars display interesting long-term periodicities in their spin-down rates. At least some of these pulsars also undergo sharp changes in pulse profile. This has been convincingly attributed to the stars abruptly switching between two different magnetospheric states. The sharpness of these transitions has been taken as evidence against free precession as the mechanism behind the long-term variations. We argue that such a conclusion is premature. By performing a simple best-fitting analysis to the data, we show that the relationship between the observed spin and modulation periods is of approximately the correct form to be accounted for by the free precession of a population of neutron stars with strained crusts, the level of strain being similar in all of the stars, and consistent with the star retaining a memory of a former faster rotation rate. We also provide an argument as to why abrupt magnetospheric changes can occur in precessing stars, and how such changes would serve to magnify the effect of precession in the timing data, making the observation of the precession more likely in those stars where such switching occurs. We describe how future observations could further test the precession hypothesis advanced here.
Single-spin precessing gravitational waveform in closed form
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lundgren, Andrew; O'Shaughnessy, R.
2014-02-01
In coming years, gravitational-wave detectors should find black hole-neutron star (BH-NS) binaries, potentially coincident with astronomical phenomena like short gamma ray bursts. These binaries are expected to precess. Gravitational-wave science requires a tractable model for precessing binaries, to disentangle precession physics from other phenomena like modified strong field gravity, tidal deformability, or Hubble flow; and to measure compact object masses, spins, and alignments. Moreover, current searches for gravitational waves from compact binaries use templates where the binary does not precess and are ill-suited for detection of generic precessing sources. In this paper we provide a closed-form representation of the single-spin precessing waveform in the frequency domain by reorganizing the signal as a sum over harmonics, each of which resembles a nonprecessing waveform. This form enables simple analytic calculations of the Fisher matrix for use in template bank generation and coincidence metrics, and jump proposals to improve the efficiency of Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. We have verified that for generic BH-NS binaries, our model agrees with the time-domain waveform to 2%. Straightforward extensions of the derivations outlined here (and provided in full online) allow higher accuracy and error estimates.
Experimental study of fluid flows in a precessing cylindrical annulus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Yufeng; Noir, Jerome; Jackson, Andrew
2014-04-01
The flow inside a precessing fluid cavity has been given particular attention since the end of the 19th century in geophysical and industrial contexts. The present study aims at shedding light on the underlying mechanism by which the flow inside a precessing cylindrical annulus transitions from laminar to multiple scale complex structures. We address this problem experimentally using ultrasonic Doppler velocimetry to diagnose the fluid velocity in a rotating and precessing cylindrical annulus. When precession is weak, the flow can be described as a superposition of forced inertial modes. Above a critical value of the precession rate, the forced flow couples with two free inertial modes satisfying triadic resonance conditions, leading to the classical growth and collapse. Using a Bayesian approach, we extract the wavenumber, frequency, growth rate, and amplitude of each mode involved in the instability. In some cases, we observe for the first time ever experimentally two pairs of free modes coexisting with the forced flow. At larger precession rates, we do not observe triadic resonance any more, instead we observe several harmonics whose frequencies are integer multiples of the rotation frequency.
Perihelion precession, polar ice and global warming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steel, Duncan
2013-03-01
The increase in mean global temperature over the past 150 years is generally ascribed to human activities, in particular the rises in the atmospheric mixing ratios of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases since the Industrial Revolution began. Whilst it is thought that ice ages and interglacial periods are mainly initiated by multi-millennial variations in Earth's heliocentric orbit and obliquity, shorter-term orbital variations and consequent observable climatic effects over decadal/centurial timescales have not been considered significant causes of contemporary climate change compared to anthropogenic influences. Here it is shown that the precession of perihelion occurring over a century substantially affects the intra-annual variation of solar radiation influx at different locations, especially higher latitudes, with northern and southern hemispheres being subject to contrasting insolation changes. This north/south asymmetry has grown since perihelion was aligned with the winter solstice seven to eight centuries ago, and must cause enhanced year-on-year springtime melting of Arctic (but not Antarctic) ice and therefore feedback warming because increasing amounts of land and open sea are denuded of high-albedo ice and snow across boreal summer and into autumn. The accelerating sequence of insolation change now occurring as perihelion moves further into boreal winter has not occurred previously during the Holocene and so would not have been observed before by past or present civilisations. Reasons are given for the significance of this process having been overlooked until now. This mechanism represents a supplementary - natural - contribution to climate change in the present epoch and may even be the dominant fundamental cause of global warming, although anthropogenic effects surely play a role too.
Kinetic-Scale Magnetic Turbulence and Finite Larmor Radius Effects at Mercury
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Uritsky, V. M.; Slavin, J. A.; Khazanov, G. V.; Donovan, E. F.; Boardsen, S. A.; Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.
2011-01-01
We use a nonstationary generalization of the higher-order structure function technique to investigate statistical properties of the magnetic field fluctuations recorded by MESSENGER spacecraft during its first flyby (01/14/2008) through the near-Mercury space environment, with the emphasis on key boundary regions participating in the solar wind - magnetosphere interaction. Our analysis shows, for the first time, that kinetic-scale fluctuations play a significant role in the Mercury's magnetosphere up to the largest resolvable timescale (approx.20 s) imposed by the signal nonstationariry, suggesting that turbulence at this plane I is largely controlled by finite Larmor radius effects. In particular, we report the presence of a highly turbulent and extended foreshock system filled with packets of ULF oscillations, broad-band intermittent fluctuations in the magnetosheath, ion-kinetic turbulence in the central plasma sheet of Mercury's magnetotail, and kinetic-scale fluctuations in the inner current sheet encountered at the outbound (dawn-side) magnetopause. Overall, our measurements indicate that the Hermean magnetosphere, as well as the surrounding region, are strongly affected by non-MHD effects introduced by finite sizes of cyclotron orbits of the constituting ion species. Physical mechanisms of these effects and their potentially critical impact on the structure and dynamics of Mercury's magnetic field remain to be understood.
Two-fluid and finite Larmor radius effects on helicity evolution in a plasma pinch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sauppe, J. P.; Sovinec, C. R.
2016-03-01
The evolution of magnetic energy, helicity, and hybrid helicity during nonlinear relaxation of a driven-damped plasma pinch is compared in visco-resistive magnetohydrodynamics and two-fluid models with and without the ion gyroviscous stress tensor. Magnetic energy and helicity are supplied via a boundary electric field which initially balances the resistive dissipation, and the plasma undergoes multiple relaxation events during the nonlinear evolution. The magnetic helicity is well conserved relative to the magnetic energy over each event, which is short compared with the global resistive diffusion time. The magnetic energy decreases by roughly 1.5% of its initial value over a relaxation event, while the magnetic helicity changes by at most 0.2% of the initial value. The hybrid helicity is dominated by magnetic helicity in low-β pinch conditions and is also well conserved. Differences of less than 1% between magnetic helicity and hybrid helicity are observed with two-fluid modeling and result from cross helicity evolution. The cross helicity is found to change appreciably due to the first-order finite Larmor radius effects which have not been included in contemporary relaxation theories. The plasma current evolves towards the flat parallel current state predicted by Taylor relaxation theory but does not achieve it. Plasma flow develops significant structure for two-fluid models, and the flow perpendicular to the magnetic field is much more substantial than the flow along it.
Finite Larmor Radius approximation for waves propagation in cylindrical plasma configurations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galeotti, Laura; Ceccherini, Francesco; Brambilla, Marco; Barnes, Daniel C.; Pegoraro, Francesco
2011-10-01
We present an analytical derivation in cylindrical geometry of the Finite Larmor Radius approximation for the wave equations in the cyclotron frequency range and show a set of numerical results obtained with a new extended version of the code FELICE, which allows for arbitrary profiles of field, densities and temperatures. Obtaining a cylindrical FLR approximation is of great relevance for studying the wave propagation in plasma configurations like FRC's and theta-pinches in particular. The generic configuration we consider can be divided in the radial direction in two regions, i.e, a ``plasma region'' and a ``vacuum region''. In the former the wave propagation is computed numerically from the FRL approximation found, in the latter instead a general analytical solution has been calculated and implemented in the code. A detailed description on how to ensure both the overall causality of the propagation process and the correct matching conditions for the antenna surface and the vacuum/plasma surface is shown as well.
The effect of finite Larmor radius corrections on Jeans instability of quantum plasma
Sharma, Prerana; Chhajlani, R. K.
2013-09-15
The influence of finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects on the Jeans instability of infinitely conducting homogeneous quantum plasma is investigated. The quantum magnetohydrodynamic (QMHD) model is used to formulate the problem. The contribution of FLR is incorporated to the QMHD set of equations in the present analysis. The general dispersion relation is obtained analytically using the normal mode analysis technique which is modified due to the contribution of FLR corrections. From general dispersion relation, the condition of instability is obtained and it is found that Jeans condition is modified due to quantum effect. The general dispersion relation is reduced for both transverse and longitudinal mode of propagations. The condition of gravitational instability is modified due to the presence of both FLR and quantum corrections in the transverse mode of propagation. In longitudinal case, it is found to be unaffected by the FLR effects but modified due to the quantum corrections. The growth rate of Jeans instability is discussed numerically for various values of quantum and FLR corrections of the medium. It is found that the quantum parameter and FLR effects have stabilizing influence on the growth rate of instability of the system.
An optical NMR spectrometer for Larmor-beat detection and high-resolution POWER NMR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kempf, J. G.; Marohn, J. A.; Carson, P. J.; Shykind, D. A.; Hwang, J. Y.; Miller, M. A.; Weitekamp, D. P.
2008-06-01
Optical nuclear magnetic resonance (ONMR) is a powerful probe of electronic properties in III-V semiconductors. Larmor-beat detection (LBD) is a sensitivity optimized, time-domain NMR version of optical detection based on the Hanle effect. Combining LBD ONMR with the line-narrowing method of POWER (perturbations observed with enhanced resolution) NMR further enables atomically detailed views of local electronic features in III-Vs. POWER NMR spectra display the distribution of resonance shifts or line splittings introduced by a perturbation, such as optical excitation or application of an electric field, that is synchronized with a NMR multiple-pulse time-suspension sequence. Meanwhile, ONMR provides the requisite sensitivity and spatial selectivity to isolate local signals within macroscopic samples. Optical NMR, LBD, and the POWER method each introduce unique demands on instrumentation. Here, we detail the design and implementation of our system, including cryogenic, optical, and radio-frequency components. The result is a flexible, low-cost system with important applications in semiconductor electronics and spin physics. We also demonstrate the performance of our systems with high-resolution ONMR spectra of an epitaxial AlGaAs /GaAs heterojunction. NMR linewidths down to 4.1Hz full width at half maximum were obtained, a 103-fold resolution enhancement relative any previous optically detected NMR experiment.
Kohn's theorem, Larmor's equivalence principle and the Newton-Hooke group
Gibbons, G.W.; Pope, C.N.
2011-07-15
Highlights: > We show that non-relativistic electrons moving in a magnetic field with trapping potential admits as relativity group the Newton-Hooke group. > We use this fact to give a group theoretic interpretation of Kohn's theorem and to obtain the spectrum. > We obtain the lightlike lift of the system exhibiting showing it coincides with the Nappi-Witten spacetime. - Abstract: We consider non-relativistic electrons, each of the same charge to mass ratio, moving in an external magnetic field with an interaction potential depending only on the mutual separations, possibly confined by a harmonic trapping potential. We show that the system admits a 'relativity group' which is a one-parameter family of deformations of the standard Galilei group to the Newton-Hooke group which is a Wigner-Inoenue contraction of the de Sitter group. This allows a group-theoretic interpretation of Kohn's theorem and related results. Larmor's theorem is used to show that the one-parameter family of deformations are all isomorphic. We study the 'Eisenhart' or 'lightlike' lift of the system, exhibiting it as a pp-wave. In the planar case, the Eisenhart lift is the Brdicka-Eardley-Nappi-Witten pp-wave solution of Einstein-Maxwell theory, which may also be regarded as a bi-invariant metric on the Cangemi-Jackiw group.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hilton, J. L.; Capitaine, N.; Chapront, J.; Ferrandiz, J. M.; Fienga, A.; Fukushima, T.; Getino, J.; Mathews, P.; Simon, J.-L.; Soffel, M.; Vondrak, J.; Wallace, P.; Williams, J.
2006-03-01
The IAU Working Group on Precession and the Equinox looked at several solutions for replacing the precession part of the IAU 2000A precession nutation model, which is not consistent with dynamical theory. These comparisons show that the (Capitaine et al., Astron. Astrophys., 412, 2003a) precession theory, P03, is both consistent with dynamical theory and the solution most compatible with the IAU 2000A nutation model. Thus, the working group recommends the adoption of the P03 precession theory for use with the IAU 2000A nutation. The two greatest sources of uncertainty in the precession theory are the rate of change of the Earth’s dynamical flattening, ΔJ 2, and the precession rates (i.e. the constants of integration used in deriving the precession). The combined uncertainties limit the accuracy in the precession theory to approximately 2 mas cent-2.
Electrical tissue property imaging using MRI at dc and Larmor frequency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seo, Jin Keun; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Joonsung; In Kwon, Oh; Sajib, Saurav Z. K.; Woo, Eung Je
2012-08-01
Cross-sectional imaging of conductivity and permittivity distributions inside the human body has been actively investigated in impedance imaging areas such as electrical impedance tomography (EIT) and magnetic induction tomography (MIT). Since the conductivity and permittivity values exhibit frequency-dependent changes, it is worthwhile to perform spectroscopic imaging from almost dc to hundreds of MHz. To probe the human body, we may inject current using surface electrodes or induce current using external coils. In EIT and MIT, measured data are only available on the boundary or exterior of the body unless we invasively place sensors inside the body. Their image reconstruction problems are nonlinear and ill-posed to result in images with a relatively low spatial resolution. Noting that an MRI scanner can noninvasively measure magnetic fields inside the human body, electrical tissue property imaging methods using MRI have lately been proposed. Magnetic resonance EIT (MREIT) performs conductivity imaging at dc or below 1 kHz by externally injecting current into the human body and measuring induced internal magnetic flux density data using an MRI scanner. Magnetic resonance electrical property tomography (MREPT) produces both conductivity and permittivity images at the Larmor frequency of an MRI scanner based on B1-mapping techniques. Since internal data are only available in MREIT and MREPT, we may formulate well-posed inverse problems for image reconstructions. To develop related imaging techniques, we should clearly understand the basic principles of MREIT and MREPT, which are based on coupled physics of bioelectromagnetism and MRI as well as associated mathematical methods. In this paper, we describe the physical principles of MREIT and MREPT in a unified way and associate measurable quantities with the conductivity and permittivity. Clarifying the key relations among them, we examine existing image reconstruction algorithms to reveal their capabilities and
Rotation of rigid Venus: a complete precession-nutation model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cottereau, L.; Souchay, J.
2009-12-01
Context: With the increasing knowledge of the terrestrial planets due to recent space probes it is possible to model their rotation with increasing accuracy. Despite that fact, an accurate determination of Venus precession and nutation is lacking Aims: Although Venus rotation has been studied in several aspects, a full and precise analytical model of its precession-nutation motion remains to be constructed. We propose to determine this motion with up-to-date physical parameters of the planet Methods: We adopt a theoritical framework already used for a precise precession-nutation model of the Earth, based on a Hamiltonian formulation, canonical equations and an accurate development of the perturbing function due to the Sun. Results: After integrating the disturbing function and applying the canonical equations, we can evaluate the precession constant dot{Psi} and the coefficients of nutation, both in longitude and in obliquity. We get dot{Psi} = 4474farcs35/Jcy ± 66.5 , corresponding to a precession period of 28 965.10±437 years. This result, based on recent estimations of the Venus moment of inertia is significantly different from previous estimations. The largest nutation coefficient in longitude with an argument 2 LS (where LS is the longitude of the Sun) has a 2''19 amplitude and a 112.35 d period. We show that the coefficients of nutation of Venus due to its triaxiality are of the same order of amplitude as these values due to its dynamical flattening, unlike of the Earth, for which they are negligible. Conclusions: We have constucted a complete theory of the rotation of a rigid body applied to Venus, with up-to-date determinations of its physical and rotational parameters. This allowed us to set up a new and better constrained value of the Venus precession constant and to calculate its nutation coefficients for the first time.
Precessive sand ripples in intense steady shear flows.
Restrepo, Juan M; Moulton, Derek E; Uys, Hermann
2011-03-01
We describe experimental observations of fully developed, large-amplitude bars under the action of a shearing fluid. The experiments were performed in an annular tank filled with water and sheared above by a steady motor source. The same steady shearing flow can produce a variety of different erodible bed manifestations: advective or precessive bars, which refer to bar structures with global regularity and a near-steady precession velocity; interactive bars, the structure of which depends on local rearrangements, which are in turn a response to complex background topography; and dispersive bars, which are created when an initially isolated mound of sand evolves into a train of sand ripples. Of these, the most amenable to analysis are the precessive bars. For precession bars, we find that the skin depth, which is the nondimensionalized mean-field transport rate, grows exponentially as a function of the shear velocity. From this, we arrive at an analytical expression that approximates the precession speed of the bars as a function of shear velocity. We use this to obtain a formula for sediment transport rate. However, in intense flows, the bars can get large engendering boundary layer separation, leading to a different dynamic for bar formation and evolution. Numerical flow calculations over an experimentally obtained set of precessive bars are presented and show that classical parametrizations of mass flux in terms of bottom gradients have shortcomings. Within the range of shear rates considered, a quantity that does not change appreciably in time is the aspect ratio, which is defined as the ratio of the average bar amplitude, with respect to a mean depth, to the average bar length. PMID:21517492
Precessive sand ripples in intense steady shear flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Restrepo, Juan M.; Moulton, Derek E.; Uys, Hermann
2011-03-01
We describe experimental observations of fully developed, large-amplitude bars under the action of a shearing fluid. The experiments were performed in an annular tank filled with water and sheared above by a steady motor source. The same steady shearing flow can produce a variety of different erodible bed manifestations: advective or precessive bars, which refer to bar structures with global regularity and a near-steady precession velocity; interactive bars, the structure of which depends on local rearrangements, which are in turn a response to complex background topography; and dispersive bars, which are created when an initially isolated mound of sand evolves into a train of sand ripples. Of these, the most amenable to analysis are the precessive bars. For precession bars, we find that the skin depth, which is the nondimensionalized mean-field transport rate, grows exponentially as a function of the shear velocity. From this, we arrive at an analytical expression that approximates the precession speed of the bars as a function of shear velocity. We use this to obtain a formula for sediment transport rate. However, in intense flows, the bars can get large engendering boundary layer separation, leading to a different dynamic for bar formation and evolution. Numerical flow calculations over an experimentally obtained set of precessive bars are presented and show that classical parametrizations of mass flux in terms of bottom gradients have shortcomings. Within the range of shear rates considered, a quantity that does not change appreciably in time is the aspect ratio, which is defined as the ratio of the average bar amplitude, with respect to a mean depth, to the average bar length.
A precessing relativistic jet model for 3C 449
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gower, A. C.; Hutchings, J. B.
1982-01-01
It is shown that the radio structure of 3C 449 can be matched with a model in which the jets are precessing and have relativistic (beta greater-than or equal to 0.4) velocities. The best-fit model implies a precession period of about 100,000 yr and a cone angle which increases with time. A similar model may be relevant for the radio structure of 3C 31. A brief discussion of the implications for 3C 449 is given.
Bounce Precession Fishbones in the National Spherical Tokamak Experiment
Eric Fredrickson; Liu Chen; Roscoe White Eric Fredrickson; Roscoe White
2003-06-27
Bursting modes are observed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40 (2000) 557], which are identified as bounce-precession-frequency fishbone modes. They are predicted to be important in high-current, low-shear discharges with a significant population of trapped particles with a large mean-bounce angle, such as produced by near-tangential beam injection into a large aspect-ratio device. Such a distribution is often stable to the usual precession-resonance fishbone mode. These modes could be important in ignited plasmas, driven by the trapped-alpha-particle population.
Existence of Exotic Torus Isomer States and Their Precession Motions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ichikawa, Takatoshi; Matsuyanagi, Kenichi; Maruhn, Joachim A.; Itagaki, Naoyuki
We systematically investigate the existence of exotic high-spin torus isomers and their precession motions for a series of N = Z even-even nuclei from 28Si to 56Ni. For this purpose, we use the cranked three-dimensional Hatree-Fock (HF) method in a systematic search for high-spin torus isomers and the three-dimensional time-dependent Hatree-Fock (TDHF) method for describing the precession motion of the torus isomer. We obtain high-spin torus isomers in 36Ar, 40Ca, 44Ti, 48Cr, and 52Fe. The emergence of the torus isomers is associated with the alignments of single-particle angular momenta, which is the same mechanism as found in 40Ca. We find that all the obtained torus isomers execute the precession motion at least two rotational periods. The moment of inertia about a perpendicular axis, which characterizes the precession motion, is found to be close to the classical rigid-body value.
Variations of a Constant -- On the History of Precession
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kokott, W.
The precession of the equinoxes, the phenomenon which defines one of the fundamental constants of astronomy, has been with us for more than two millennia. Discovered by Hipparchos who did notice a systematic difference of his star positions as compared with older observations, subsequently adopted by Ptolemaios, its correct value became the object of prolonged controversy. The apparent variability of the precession led to the superimposition of a so-called ''trepidation``, an oscillation of typically +/- 9 deg amplitude and 7000 years period, over a linear precession of only 26 arcsec per annum. This construction, finalized in the Alfonsine Tables (ca. 1280), did work for less than two centuries. The motion of the vernal equinox, at 39 arcsec p.a. too small from the outset, decreases according to this theory to 34 arcsec in the year 1475, the first year covered by the printed version of Johannes Regiomontanus' Ephemerides. Regiomontanus had to re-adjust his longitudes to the real situation, but the difficulties caused by the apparent nonlinearity did persist, leading to a prolonged debate which was finally put to rest by Tycho Brahe. Subsequent to Edmond Halley's successful derivation of a modern value of the precessional constant, again by comparing contemporary star positions with the Almagest catalogue, and Bradley's discovery of the nutation, the last long-term comparison of modern with Ptolemaic coordinates was published by Bode (1795). Shortly after, the analytical theory of precession was established by Bessel in his Fundamenta Astronomiae (1818).
Do Jets Precess... or Even Move at All?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nixon, Chris; King, Andrew
2013-03-01
Observations of accreting black holes often provoke suggestions that their jets precess. The precession is usually supposed to result from a combination of the Lense-Thirring effect and accretion disk viscosity. We show that this is unlikely for any type of black hole system, as the disk generally has too little angular momentum compared with a spinning hole to cause any significant movement of the jet direction across the sky on short timescales. Uncorrelated accretion events, as in the chaotic accretion picture of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), change AGN jet directions only on timescales >~ 107 yr. In this picture AGN jet directions are stable on shorter timescales, but uncorrelated with any structure of the host galaxy, as observed. We argue that observations of black hole jets precessing on timescales short compared to the accretion time would be a strong indication that the accretion disk, and not the standard Blandford-Znajek mechanism, is responsible for driving the jet. This would be particularly convincing in a tidal disruption event. We suggest that additional disk physics is needed to explain any jet precession on timescales short compared with the accretion time. Possibilities include the radiation warping instability, or disk tearing.
Sparse representations of gravitational waves from precessing compact binaries.
Blackman, Jonathan; Szilagyi, Bela; Galley, Chad R; Tiglio, Manuel
2014-07-11
Many relevant applications in gravitational wave physics share a significant common problem: the seven-dimensional parameter space of gravitational waveforms from precessing compact binary inspirals and coalescences is large enough to prohibit covering the space of waveforms with sufficient density. We find that by using the reduced basis method together with a parametrization of waveforms based on their phase and precession, we can construct ultracompact yet high-accuracy representations of this large space. As a demonstration, we show that less than 100 judiciously chosen precessing inspiral waveforms are needed for 200 cycles, mass ratios from 1 to 10, and spin magnitudes ≤0.9. In fact, using only the first 10 reduced basis waveforms yields a maximum mismatch of 0.016 over the whole range of considered parameters. We test whether the parameters selected from the inspiral regime result in an accurate reduced basis when including merger and ringdown; we find that this is indeed the case in the context of a nonprecessing effective-one-body model. This evidence suggests that as few as ∼100 numerical simulations of binary black hole coalescences may accurately represent the seven-dimensional parameter space of precession waveforms for the considered ranges. PMID:25062160
Comparing post-Newtonian and numerical relativity precession dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ossokine, Serguei; Boyle, Michael; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilágyi, Béla
2015-11-01
Binary black-hole systems are expected to be important sources of gravitational waves for upcoming gravitational-wave detectors. If the spins are not colinear with each other or with the orbital angular momentum, these systems exhibit complicated precession dynamics that are imprinted on the gravitational waveform. We develop a new procedure to match the precession dynamics computed by post-Newtonian (PN) theory to those of numerical binary black-hole simulations in full general relativity. For numerical relativity (NR) simulations lasting approximately two precession cycles, we find that the PN and NR predictions for the directions of the orbital angular momentum and the spins agree to better than ˜1 ° with NR during the inspiral, increasing to 5° near merger. Nutation of the orbital plane on the orbital time scale agrees well between NR and PN, whereas nutation of the spin direction shows qualitatively different behavior in PN and NR. We also examine how the PN equations for precession and orbital-phase evolution converge with PN order, and we quantify the impact of various choices for handling partially known PN terms.
Wigner-Thomas spin precession in polarized coincidence electronuclear scattering
Dmitrasinovic, V. )
1993-05-01
The role of the Wigner-Thomas precession in nucleon recoil polarization measurements in coincidence electron scattering processes is examined. The necessary formalism is developed within the framework of the Jacob-Wick method, and then applied to two processes: the pseudoscalar electroproduction off a nucleon and the deuteron two-body electrodisintegration.
Comparing Post-Newtonian and Numerical-Relativity Precession Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kidder, Lawrence; Ossokine, Sergei; Boyle, Michael; Pfeiffer, Harald; Scheel, Mark; Szilagyi, Bela
2015-04-01
Binary black-hole systems are expected to be important sources of gravitational waves for upcoming gravitational-wave detectors. If the spins are not colinear with each other or with the orbital angular momentum, these systems exhibit complicated precession dynamics that are imprinted on the gravitational waveform. We develop a new procedure to match the precession dynamics computed by post-Newtonian (PN) theory to those of numerical binary black-hole simulations in full general relativity. For numerical relativity (NR) simulations lasting approximately two precession cycles, we find that the PN and NR predictions for the directions of the orbital angular momentum and the spins agree to better than ~1° with NR during the inspiral, increasing to 5° near merger. Nutation of the orbital plane on the orbital time-scale agrees well between NR and PN, whereas nutation of the spin direction shows qualitatively different behavior in PN and NR. We also examine how the PN equations for precession and orbital-phase evolution converge with PN order, and we quantify the impact of various choices for handling partially known PN terms.
Predicting Mercury's precession using simple relativistic Newtonian dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Friedman, Y.; Steiner, J. M.
2016-03-01
We present a new simple relativistic model for planetary motion describing accurately the anomalous precession of the perihelion of Mercury and its origin. The model is based on transforming Newton's classical equation for planetary motion from absolute to real spacetime influenced by the gravitational potential and introducing the concept of influenced direction.
Lense-Thirring precession around neutron stars with known spin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Van Doesburgh, Marieke; van der Klis, Michiel
2016-07-01
Quasi periodic oscillations (QPOs) between 300 and 1200 Hz in the X-ray emission from low mass X-ray binaries have been linked to Keplerian orbital motion at the inner edge of accretion disks. Lense-Thirring precession is precession of the line of nodes of inclined orbits with respect to the equatorial plane of a rotating object due to the general relativistic effect of frame dragging. The Lense-Thirring model of Stella and Vietri (1998) explains QPOs observed in neutron star low mass X-ray binaries at frequencies of a few tens of Hz by the nodal precession of the orbits at the inner disk edge at a precession frequency, ν_{LT} , identical to the Lense-Thirring precession of a test particle orbit. A quadratic relation between ν_{LT} and the Keplerian orbital frequency, and a linear dependence on spin frequency are predicted. In early work (van Straaten et al., 2003) this quadratic relation was confirmed to remarkable precision in three objects of uncertain spin. Since the initial work, many neutron star spin frequencies have been measured in X-ray sources that show QPOs at both low and high frequency. Using archival data from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, we compare the Lense-Thirring prediction to the properties of quasi periodic oscillations measured in a sample of 14 low mass X-ray binaries of which the neutron star spin frequencies can be inferred from their bursting behaviour. We find that in the range predicted for the precession frequency, we can distinguish two different oscillations that often occur simultaneously. In previous works, these two oscillations have often been confused. For both frequencies, we find correlations with inferred Keplerian frequency characterized by power laws with indices that differ significantly from the prediction of 2.0 and therefore inconsistent with the Lense-Thirring model. Also, the specific moment of inertia of the neutron star required by the observed frequencies exceeds values predicted for realistic equations of
Ballistic missile precession frequency extraction based on the Viterbi & Kalman algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Longlong; Xie, Yongjie; Xu, Daping; Ren, Li
2015-12-01
Radar Micro-Doppler signatures are of great potential for target detection, classification and recognition. In the mid-course phase, warheads flying outside the atmosphere are usually accompanied by precession. Precession may induce additional frequency modulations on the returned radar signal, which can be regarded as a unique signature and provide additional information that is complementary to existing target recognition methods. The main purpose of this paper is to establish a more actual precession model of conical ballistic missile warhead and extract the precession parameters by utilizing Viterbi & Kalman algorithm, which improving the precession frequency estimation accuracy evidently , especially in low SNR.
High-spin torus isomers and their precession motions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ichikawa, T.; Matsuyanagi, K.; Maruhn, J. A.; Itagaki, N.
2014-09-01
Background: In our previous study, we found that an exotic isomer with a torus shape may exist in the high-spin, highly excited states of Ca40. The z component of the total angular momentum, Jz=60ℏ, of this torus isomer is constructed by totally aligning 12 single-particle angular momenta in the direction of the symmetry axis of the density distribution. The torus isomer executes precession motion with the rigid-body moments of inertia about an axis perpendicular to the symmetry axis. The investigation, however, has been focused only on Ca40. Purpose: We systematically investigate the existence of exotic torus isomers and their precession motions for a series of N =Z even-even nuclei from Si28 to Ni56. We analyze the microscopic shell structure of the torus isomer and discuss why the torus shape is generated beyond the limit of large oblate deformation. Method: We use the cranked three-dimensional Hartree-Fock method with various Skyrme interactions in a systematic search for high-spin torus isomers. We use the three-dimensional time-dependent Hartree-Fock method for describing the precession motion of the torus isomer. Results: We obtain high-spin torus isomers in Ar36,Ca40,Ti44,Cr48, and Fe52. The emergence of the torus isomers is associated with the alignments of single-particle angular momenta, which is the same mechanism as found in Ca40. It is found that all the obtained torus isomers execute the precession motion at least two rotational periods. The moment of inertia about a perpendicular axis, which characterizes the precession motion, is found to be close to the classical rigid-body value. Conclusions: The high-spin torus isomer of Ca40 is not an exceptional case. Similar torus isomers exist widely in nuclei from Ar36 to Fe52 and they execute the precession motion. The torus shape is generated beyond the limit of large oblate deformation by eliminating the 0s components from all the deformed single-particle wave functions to maximize their mutual
Precessing rotating flows with additional shear: Stability analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salhi, A.; Cambon, C.
2009-03-01
We consider unbounded precessing rotating flows in which vertical or horizontal shear is induced by the interaction between the solid-body rotation (with angular velocity Ω0 ) and the additional “precessing” Coriolis force (with angular velocity -ɛΩ0 ), normal to it. A “weak” shear flow, with rate 2ɛ of the same order of the Poincaré “small” ratio ɛ , is needed for balancing the gyroscopic torque, so that the whole flow satisfies Euler’s equations in the precessing frame (the so-called admissibility conditions). The base flow case with vertical shear (its cross-gradient direction is aligned with the main angular velocity) corresponds to Mahalov’s [Phys. Fluids A 5, 891 (1993)] precessing infinite cylinder base flow (ignoring boundary conditions), while the base flow case with horizontal shear (its cross-gradient direction is normal to both main and precessing angular velocities) corresponds to the unbounded precessing rotating shear flow considered by Kerswell [Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. 72, 107 (1993)]. We show that both these base flows satisfy the admissibility conditions and can support disturbances in terms of advected Fourier modes. Because the admissibility conditions cannot select one case with respect to the other, a more physical derivation is sought: Both flows are deduced from Poincaré’s [Bull. Astron. 27, 321 (1910)] basic state of a precessing spheroidal container, in the limit of small ɛ . A Rapid distortion theory (RDT) type of stability analysis is then performed for the previously mentioned disturbances, for both base flows. The stability analysis of the Kerswell base flow, using Floquet’s theory, is recovered, and its counterpart for the Mahalov base flow is presented. Typical growth rates are found to be the same for both flows at very small ɛ , but significant differences are obtained regarding growth rates and widths of instability bands, if larger ɛ values, up to 0.2, are considered. Finally, both flow cases
Full-wave evaluation of RF absorption in NSTX, with accuracy to all orders in Larmor radius
Smithe, D.; Bettenhausen, M.; Phillips, C.; Wilson, R.; Majeski, R.; Hosea, J.
1999-09-20
RF heating scenarios for the magnetic geometry of NSTX are investigated using the most recent version of the METS RF analysis tool. This 1-D tool includes the full Bessel function expansion of the plasma dielectric tensor, and thus provides accuracy to all orders in Larmor radius, making it ideal for the full-wave analysis of heating at higher harmonics. A recent upgrade to the tool permits the study of the magnetic well geometry of NSTX. Other upgrades allow for realistic variation of local poloidal field and shear profile. Temperature anisotropy and nonzero rotation velocity are also treated properly. Ultimately, it is highly desirable that a 2-D full-wave solution, which is similarly complete in the Larmor expansion, be performed to better understand the 2-D power deposition profile for NSTX. Present thoughts on how to make this feasible are outlined, and new methods for treating the problem of passing-particle absorption and multi-pass correlation are also presented. (c) 1999 American Institute of Physics.
Precession of cylindrical dust particles in the plasma sheath
Banu, N.; Ticoş, C. M.
2015-10-15
The vertical precession of cylindrical dust particles levitated in the sheath of an rf plasma is experimentally investigated. Typically, the dust particles have two equilibrium positions depending on the orientation of their longitudinal axis: horizontal and vertical. A transition between these two states is induced by rapidly increasing the neutral gas pressure in the plasma chamber. During this transition, the cylindrical dust particles make an angle with the horizontal and rotate about their center of mass. The rotation speed increases as the dust rods aligned with the vertical axis. All dust particles will eventually end up in the vertical state while spinning fast about their longitudinal axis. Dust-dust interaction and the attracting ion wakes are possible mechanisms for inducing the observed dust precession.
Spike phase precession persists after transient intrahippocampal perturbation
Zugaro, Michaël B; Monconduit, Lénaïc; Buzsáki, György
2007-01-01
Oscillatory spike timing in the hippocampus is regarded as a temporal coding mechanism for space, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. To contrast the predictions of the different models of phase precession, we transiently turned off neuronal discharges for up to 250 ms and reset the phase of theta oscillations by stimulating the commissural pathway in rats. After recovery from silence, phase precession continued. The phase of spikes for the first theta cycle after the perturbation was more advanced than the phase of spikes for the last theta cycle just before the perturbation. These findings indicate that phase advancement that emerges within hippocampal circuitry may be updated at the beginning of each theta cycle by extrahippocampal inputs. PMID:15592464
Nonlinear dynamo action in a precessing cylindrical container.
Nore, C; Léorat, J; Guermond, J-L; Luddens, F
2011-07-01
It is numerically demonstrated by means of a magnetohydrodynamics code that precession can trigger the dynamo effect in a cylindrical container. When the Reynolds number, based on the radius of the cylinder and its angular velocity, increases, the flow, which is initially centrosymmetric, loses its stability and bifurcates to a quasiperiodic motion. This unsteady and asymmetric flow is shown to be capable of sustaining dynamo action in the linear and nonlinear regimes. The magnetic field thus generated is unsteady and quadrupolar. These numerical evidences of dynamo action in a precessing cylindrical container may be useful for an experiment now planned at the Dresden sodium facility for dynamo and thermohydraulic studies in Germany. PMID:21867314
Triadic instability of a non-resonant precessing fluid cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lagrange, Romain; Meunier, Patrice; Eloy, Christophe
2016-06-01
Flows forced by a precessional motion can exhibit instabilities of crucial importance, whether they concern the fuel of a flying object or the liquid core of a telluric planet. So far, stability analyses of these flows have focused on the special case of a resonant forcing. Here, we address the instability of the flow inside a precessing cylinder in the general case. We first show that the base flow forced by the cylinder precession is a superposition of a vertical or horizontal shear flow and of an infinite sum of forced modes. We then perform a linear stability analysis of this base flow by considering its triadic resonance with two free Kelvin modes. Finally, we derive the amplitude equations of the free Kelvin modes and obtain an expression of the instability threshold and growth rate. xml:lang="fr"
Precession and circularization of elliptical space-tether motion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chapel, Jim D.; Grosserode, Patrick
1993-01-01
In this paper, we present a simplified analytic model for predicting motion of long space tethers. The perturbation model developed here addresses skip rope motion, where each end of the tether is held in place and the middle of the tether swings with a motion similar to that of a child's skip rope. If the motion of the tether midpoint is elliptical rather than circular, precession of the ellipse complicates the procedures required to damp this motion. The simplified analytic model developed in this paper parametrically predicts the precession of elliptical skip rope motion. Furthermore, the model shows that elliptic skip rope motion will circularize when damping is present in the longitudinal direction. Compared with high-fidelity simulation results, this simplified model provides excellent predictions of these phenomena.
Magnetic environment of hydrogen in Fe from muon precession measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heiman, N.; Foy, M. L. G.; Kossler, W. J.; Stronach, C. E.
1974-01-01
Polarized positive muon radiation was stopped in an ellipsoidal iron target and its precession was observed in a transverse magnetic field. Results indicate that the conduction electron polarization in the 77 K-Fe Curie point region is less than expected, and that the relaxation time of the muon polarization is dominated by the static inhomogeneity to 900 K, at which point magnetization fluctuations become important.
Chaotic spin precession in anisotropic universes and fermionic dark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamenshchik, A. Yu.; Teryaev, O. V.
2016-05-01
We consider the precession of a Dirac particle spin in some anisotropic Bianchi universes. This effect is present already in the Bianchi-I universe. In the Bianchi-IX universe it acquires the chaotic character due to the stochasticity of the oscillatory approach to the cosmological singularity. The related helicity flip of fermions in the veryearly Universe may produce the sterile particles contributing to dark matter.
Contribution of HIPPARCOS to the Determination of Precession
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vityazev, V. V.
2002-01-01
The IAU (1976) luni-solar precession constant was derived by Fricke from intensive study of the catalog of 512 FK4-FK4/Sup distant stars. At present, when the data from the catalog HIPPARCOS is available, it is helpful to reconsider Fricke's analysis. This paper presents a redetermination of precession based on the following new factors: (a) the accurate parallaxes of stars have been taken into account; (b) galactic rotation and other kinematics have been eliminated from the proper motions of 512 stars; (c) the systems of the FK5 and improved GC catalog were used in combination with the HIPPARCOS catalog; (d) a new method (the MOTOR) of studying stellar kinematics was used. This method is based on the decomposition of proper motions on a set of orthogonal functions. The MOTOR, in contrast to the commonly used Least Squares Procedure, provides a test for whether or not the model is compatible with the data. Derived corrections to the IAU (1976) luni-solar precession constant are consistent with the results from VLBI observations and kinematic study of modern catalogues of proper motions.
Shear secondary instability in a precessing cylinder flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mouhali, Waleed; Lehner, Thierry; Ater Collaboration
2015-11-01
For a certain value of the forcing parameter, cyclones regime has been observed in our experiment involving water in a precessing cylinder. They result from an instability. We propose here to study the nature of this so-called instability. We consider first the mode coupling of two inertial waves with azimuthal wavenumber m =0 and m =1 (mode forced by the precession) in the inviscid regime (at high Re number limit) creates a differential rotation regime which has been observed in the same experiment at small enough Poincaré number ɛ (ratio of the precession to the rotation frequencies). Secondly, the radial profile of the corresponding axial mean flow vorticity shows an inflexion point leading to a localized inflectional secondary instability. We show that when ɛ is increased from low values the forced mode m =0 becomes the most instable in this induced differential rotation, which can be responsible for the observed eruptions of jets from the lateral walls of the cylinder leading to the cyclones formation within the volume from the development of an inviscid secondary shear instability.
Wobbling and Precessing Jets from Warped Disks in Binary Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheikhnezami, Somayeh; Fendt, Christian
2015-12-01
We present results of the first ever three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the accretion-ejection structure. We investigate the 3D evolution of jets launched symmetrically from single stars but also jets from warped disks in binary systems. We have applied various model setups and tested them by simulating a stable and bipolar symmetric 3D structure from a single star-disk-jet system. Our reference simulation maintains a good axial symmetry and also a bipolar symmetry for more than 500 rotations of the inner disk, confirming the quality of our model setup. We have then implemented a 3D gravitational potential (Roche potential) due by a companion star and run a variety of simulations with different binary separations and mass ratios. These simulations show typical 3D deviations from axial symmetry, such as jet bending outside the Roche lobe or spiral arms forming in the accretion disk. In order to find indications of precession effects, we have also run an exemplary parameter setup, essentially governed by a small binary separation of only ≃200 inner disk radii. This simulation shows a strong indication that we observe the onset of a jet precession caused by the wobbling of the jet-launching disk. We estimate the opening angle of the precession cone defined by the lateral motion of the jet axis to be about 4° after about 5000 dynamical time steps.
The precessing jets of 1E 1740.7-2942
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luque-Escamilla, Pedro L.; Martí, Josep; Martínez-Aroza, José
2015-12-01
Context. The source 1E 1740.7-2942 is believed to be one of the two prototypical microquasars towards the Galactic center region whose X-ray states strongly resemble those of Cygnus X-1. Yet, the bipolar radio jets of 1E 1740.7-2942 are very reminiscent of a radio galaxy. The true nature of the object has thus remained an open question for nearly a quarter of a century. Aims: Our main goal here is to confirm the Galactic membership of 1E 1740.7-2942 by searching for morphological changes of its extended radio jets in human timescales. This work was triggered as a result of recent positive detection of fast structural changes in the large-scale jets of the very similar source GRS 1758-258. Methods: We carried out an in-depth exploration of the Very Large Array public archives and fully recalibrated all 1E 1740.7-2942 extended data sets in the C configuration of the array. We obtained and analyzed matching beam radio maps for five epochs, covering years 1992, 1993, 1994, 1997 and 2000, with an angular resolution of a few arcseconds. Results: We clearly detected structural changes in the arc-minute jets of 1E 1740.7-2942 on timescales of roughly a year, which set a firm distance upper limit of 12 kpc. Moreover, a simple precessing twin-jet model was simultaneously fitted to the five observing epochs available. The observed changes in the jet flow are strongly suggestive of a precession period of ~1.3 yr. Conclusions: The fitting of the precession model to the data yields a distance of ~5 kpc. This value, and the observed changes, rule out any remaining doubts about the 1E 1740.7-2942 Galactic nature. To our knowledge, this microquasar is the second whose jet precession ephemeris become available after SS433. This kind of information is relevant to the physics of compact objects, since the genesis of the precession phenomenon occurs very close to the interplay region between the accretion disk and the compact object in the system. Appendix A and a movie associated to
Long-term evolution of orbits about a precessing oblate planet. 2. The case of variable precession
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Efroimsky, Michael
2006-11-01
We continue the study undertaken in Efroimsky [Celest. Mech. Dyn. Astron. 91, 75 108 (2005a)] where we explored the influence of spin-axis variations of an oblate planet on satellite orbits. Near-equatorial satellites had long been believed to keep up with the oblate primary’s equator in the cause of its spin-axis variations. As demonstrated by Efroimsky and Goldreich [Astron. Astrophys. 415, 1187 1199 (2004)], this opinion had stemmed from an inexact interpretation of a correct result by Goldreich [Astron. J. 70, 5 9 (1965)]. Although Goldreich [Astron. J. 70, 5 9 (1965)] mentioned that his result (preservation of the initial inclination, up to small oscillations about the moving equatorial plane) was obtained for non-osculating inclination, his admonition had been persistently ignored for forty years. It was explained in Efroimsky and Goldreich [Astron. Astrophys. 415, 1187 1199 (2004)] that the equator precession influences the osculating inclination of a satellite orbit already in the first order over the perturbation caused by a transition from an inertial to an equatorial coordinate system. It was later shown in Efroimsky [Celest. Mech. Dyn. Astron. 91, 75 108 (2005a)] that the secular part of the inclination is affected only in the second order. This fact, anticipated by Goldreich [Astron. J. 70, 5 9 (1965)], remains valid for a constant rate of the precession. It turns out that non-uniform variations of the planetary spin state generate changes in the osculating elements, that are linear in | \\varvec{dot{μ}} |, where \\varvec{μ} is the planetary equator’s total precession rate that includes the equinoctial precession, nutation, the Chandler wobble, and the polar wander. We work out a formalism which will help us to determine if these factors cause a drift of a satellite orbit away from the evolving planetary equator.
Finite Larmor Radius and Three-Dimensional Effects on the Blobs in the Scrape-Off Layer
Jovanovic, D.; Shukla, P. K.; Pegoraro, F.
2008-10-15
The nonlinear processes in the tokamak core edge and in the scrape-off layer are studied within the electrostatic interchange paradigm, with the collisions among the plasma particles and with the neutras, including the effects of the finite ion Larmor radius and of fully three-dimensional electron dynamics. These new three-dimensional model equations are solved numerically, to study the propagation of plasma blobs in the scrape-off layer. It is shown that the coupling with the resistive drift mode causes the transverse contraction and the rotation of the blob. The parallel resistivity and the finite ion temperature give rise to the symmetry breaking and the poloidal propagation of the blobs, while their stability is only weakly affected.
Decoupling a spin qubit from high-frequency Larmor dynamics of a GaAs nuclear spin bath
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malinowski, Filip K.; Martins, Frederico; Nissen, Peter D.; Rudner, Mark S.; Marcus, Charles M.; Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Barnes, Edwin; Fallahi, Saeed; Gardner, Geoffrey C.; Manfra, Michael J.
We present a technique of decoupling a spin qubit in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure from low- and high-frequency noise arising from hyperfine interaction of electrons with nuclear spins. We use Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill sequences in which we synchronize the repetition rate of π pulses to difference Larmor frequencies of 69Ga, 71Ga and 75As nuclei. This decouples the qubit both from low-frequency noise due to diffusion of nuclear spins and from noise at selected high frequencies, allowing us to apply more than a thousand π pulses in a sequence. We demonstrate a coherence time of a singlet-triplet qubit of 0.87 ms, i.e. five orders of magnitude longer than the inhomogeneous dephasing time intrinsic to GaAs. Support through IARPA-MQCO, Army Research Office, LPS-MPO-CMTC, the Villum Foundation and the Danish National Research Foundation is acknowledged.
The Combined Effect of Precession and Convection on the Dynamo Action
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Xing
2016-08-01
To understand the generation of the Earth’s magnetic field and those of other planets, we numerically investigate the combined effect of precession and convection on dynamo action in a spherical shell. Convection alone, precession alone, and the combined effect of convection and precession are studied at the low Ekman number at which the precessing flow is already unstable. The key result is that although precession or convection alone are not strong enough to support the dynamo action, the combined effect of precession and convection can support the dynamo action because of the resonance of precessional and convective instabilities. This result may explain why the geodynamo has been maintained for such a long time compared to the Martian dynamo.
Evolution and precession of accretion disk in tidal disruption events
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, R.-F.; Matzner, C. D.
2012-12-01
In a supermassive black hole (BH) tidal disruption event (TDE), the tidally disrupted star feeds the BH via an accretion disk. Most often it is assumed that the accretion rate history, hence the emission light curve, tracks the rate at which new debris mass falls back onto the disk, notably the t-5/3 power law. But this is not the case when the disk evolution due to viscous spreading - the driving force for accretion - is carefully considered. We construct a simple analytical model that comprehensively describes the accretion rate history across 4 different phases of the disk evolution, in the presence of mass fallback and disk wind loss. Accretion rate evolves differently in those phases which are governed by how the disk heat energy is carried away, early on by advection and later by radiation. The accretion rate can decline as steeply as t-5/3 only if copious disk wind loss is present during the early advection-cooled phase. Later, the accretion rate history is t-8/7 or shallower. These have great implications on the TDE flare light curve. A TDE accretion disk is most likely misaligned with the equatorial plane of the spinning BH. Moreover, in the TDE the accretion rate is super- or near-Eddington thus the disk is geometrically thick, for which case the BH's frame dragging effect may cause the disk precess as a solid body, which may manifest itself as quasi-periodic signal in the TDE light curve. Our disk evolution model predicts the disk precession period increases with time, typically as ∝ t. The results are applied to the recently jetted TDE flare Swift transient J1644 + 57 which shows numerous, quasi-periodic dips in its long-term X-ray light curve. As the current TDE sample increases, the identification of the disk precession signature provides a unique way of measuring BH spin and studying BH accretion physics.
Pluto and Charon: A Case of Precession-Orbit Resonance?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubincam, David Parry; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
Pluto may be the only known case of precession-orbit resonance in the solar system. The Pluto-Charon system orbits the Sun with a period of 1 Plutonian year, which is 250.8 Earth years. The observed parameters of the system are such that Charon may cause Pluto to precess with a period near 250.8 Earth years. This gives rise to two possible resonances, heretofore unrecognized. The first is due to Pluto's orbit being highly eccentric, giving solar torques on Charon with a period of 1 Plutonian year. Charon in turn drives Pluto near its precession period. Volatiles, which are expected to shuttle across Pluto's surface between equator and pole as Pluto's obliquity oscillates, might change the planet's dynamical flattening enough so that Pluto crosses the nearby resonance, forcing the planet's equatorial plane to depart from Charon's orbital plane. The mutual tilt can reach as much as 2 deg after integrating over 5.6 x 10(exp 6) years, depending upon how close Pluto is to the resonance and the supply of volatiles. The second resonance is due to the Sun's traveling above and below Charon's orbital plane; it has a period half that of the eccentricity resonance. Reaching this half-Plutonian year resonance requires a much larger but still theoretically possible amount of volatiles. In this case the departure of Charon from an equatorial orbit is about 1 deg after integrating for 5.6 x 10(exp 6) years. The calculations ignore libration and tidal friction. It is not presently known how large the mutual tilt can grow over the age of the solar system, but if it remains only a few degrees, then observing such small angles from a Pluto flyby mission would be difficult. It is not clear why the parameters of the Pluto-Charon system are so close to the eccentricity resonance.
The forced precession of the Moon's inner core
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dumberry, Mathieu; Wieczorek, Mark A.
2016-07-01
The tilt angle of the 18.6 year precession of the Moon's solid inner core is unknown, but it is set by a balance between gravitational and pressure torques acting on its elliptical figure. We show here that to first order, the angle of precession of the inner core of a planetary body is determined by the frequency of the free inner core nutation, ωficn, relative to the precession frequency, Ωp. If |ωficn|≪|Ωp|, the inner core is blind to the gravitational influence of the mantle. If |ωficn|≫|Ωp|, the inner core is gravitationally locked to the mantle and is nearly aligned with it. If ωficn≈Ωp, large inner core tilt angles can result from resonant excitation. Viscous inner core relaxation and electromagnetic coupling can attenuate large tilt angles. For the specific case of the Moon, we show that ωficn is to within a factor of 2 of Ωp = 2π/18.6 yr-1. For a rigid inner core, this implies a tilt of 2 to 5° with respect to the mantle, and larger if ωficn is very close to Ωp. More modest tilt angles between 0 and 0.5° result if viscous relaxation within the inner core occurs on a timescale of one lunar day. Predictions from our model may be used in an attempt to detect the gravity signal resulting from a tilted inner core, to determine the past history of the inner core tilt angle, and to assess models of dynamo generation powered by differential rotation at the core-mantle and inner core boundaries.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zimmerman, M.
1979-01-01
The classical mechanics results for free precession which are needed in order to calculate the weak field, slow-motion, quadrupole-moment gravitational waves are reviewed. Within that formalism, algorithms are given for computing the exact gravitational power radiated and waveforms produced by arbitrary rigid-body freely-precessing sources. The dominant terms are presented in series expansions of the waveforms for the case of an almost spherical object precessing with a small wobble angle. These series expansions, which retain the precise frequency dependence of the waves, may be useful for gravitational astronomers when freely-precessing sources begin to be observed.
Precession-nutation procedures consistent with IAU 2006 resolutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wallace, P. T.; Capitaine, N.
2006-12-01
Context: .The 2006 IAU General Assembly has adopted the P03 model of Capitaine et al. (2003a) recommended by the WG on precession and the ecliptic (Hilton et al. 2006) to replace the IAU 2000 model, which comprised the Lieske et al. (1977) model with adjusted rates. Practical implementations of this new "IAU 2006" model are therefore required, involving choices of procedures and algorithms. Aims: .The purpose of this paper is to recommend IAU 2006 based precession-nutation computing procedures, suitable for different classes of application and achieving high standards of consistency. Methods: .We discuss IAU 2006 based procedures and algorithms for generating the rotation matrices that transform celestial to terrestrial coordinates, taking into account frame bias (B), P03 precession (P), P03-adjusted IAU 2000A nutation (N) and Earth rotation. The NPB portion can refer either to the equinox or to the celestial intermediate origin (CIO), requiring either the Greenwich sidereal time (GST) or the Earth rotation angle (ERA) as the measure of Earth rotation. Where GST is used, it is derived from ERA and the equation of the origins (EO) rather than through an explicit formula as in the past, and the EO itself is derived from the CIO locator. Results: .We provide precession-nutation procedures for two different classes of full-accuracy application, namely (i) the construction of algorithm collections such as the Standards Of Fundamental Astronomy (SOFA) library and (ii) IERS Conventions, and in addition some concise procedures for applications where the highest accuracy is not a requirement. The appendix contains a fully worked numerical example, to aid implementors and to illustrate the consistency of the two full-accuracy procedures which, for the test date, agree to better than 1 μas. Conclusions: .The paper recommends, for case (i), procedures based on angles to represent the PB and N components and, for case (ii), procedures based on series for the CIP X,Y. The two
Geometric phase and gravitational precession of D-branes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pedder, Chris; Sonner, Julian; Tong, David
2007-12-01
We study Berry’s phase in the D0-D4-brane system. When a D0-brane moves in the background of D4-branes, the first excited states undergo a holonomy described by a non-Abelian Berry connection. At weak coupling this is an SU(2) connection over R5, known as the Yang monopole. At strong coupling, the holonomy is recast as the classical gravitational precession of a spinning particle. The Berry connection is the spin connection of the near-horizon limit of the D4-branes, which is a continuous deformation of the Yang and anti-Yang monopole.
Three-axis atomic magnetometer based on spin precession modulation
Huang, H. C.; Dong, H. F. Hu, X. Y.; Chen, L.; Gao, Y.
2015-11-02
We demonstrate a three-axis atomic magnetometer with one intensity-modulated pump beam and one orthogonal probe beam. The main field component is measured using the resonance of the pumping light, while the transverse field components are measured simultaneously using the optical rotation of the probe beam modulated by the spin precession. It is an all-optical magnetometer without using any modulation field or radio frequency field. Magnetic field sensitivity of 0.8 pT/Hz{sup 1∕2} is achieved under a bias field of 2 μT.
Parametric pumping of precession modes in ferromagnetic nanodisks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Feng; Belova, L. M.; McMichael, R. D.
2014-03-01
We report on the parametric excitation of magnetic precession modes in nanodisks using a parallel pumping configuration. The excitations are detected using a ferromagnetic resonance force microscopy method, and the parallel-pumped spectra reveal nonlinear characteristics including instability thresholds and multiple, narrow, sawtooth-shaped resonances. These characteristics are in accord with analytical theory and micromagnetic modeling results. Modeled mode profiles of the excitations show that higher-order standing spin-wave modes with both even and odd symmetries are excited under parallel pumping.
Electromagnetic torques, precession and evolution of magnetic inclination of pulsars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zanazzi, J. J.; Lai, Dong
2015-07-01
We present analytic calculations of the electromagnetic torques acting on a magnetic neutron star rotating in vacuum, including near-zone torques associated with the inertia of dipole and quadrupole magnetic fields. We incorporate these torques into the rotational dynamics of a rigid-body neutron star, and show that the effects of the inertial torque can be understood as a modification of the moment of inertia tensor of the star. We apply our rotational dynamics equation to the Crab pulsar, including intrinsic distortions of the star and various electromagnetic torques, to investigate the possibility that the counter-alignment of the magnetic inclination angle, as suggested by recent observations, could be explained by pulsar precession. We find that if the effective principal axis of the pulsar is nearly aligned with either the magnetic dipole axis or the rotation axis, then precession may account for the observed counter-alignment over decade time-scales. Over the spindown time-scale of the pulsar, the magnetic inclination angle always decreases.
Accretion-disc precession in UX Ursae Majoris
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Miguel, E.; Patterson, J.; Cejudo, D.; Ulowetz, J.; Jones, J. L.; Boardman, J.; Barret, D.; Koff, R.; Stein, W.; Campbell, T.; Vanmunster, T.; Menzies, K.; Slauson, D.; Goff, W.; Roberts, G.; Morelle, E.; Dvorak, S.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Starkey, D.; Collins, D.; Costello, M.; Cook, M. J.; Oksanen, A.; Lemay, D.; Cook, L. M.; Ogmen, Y.; Richmond, M.; Kemp, J.
2016-04-01
We report the results of a long campaign of time series photometry on the nova-like variable UX Ursae Majoris during 2015. It spanned 150 nights, with ˜ 1800 h of coverage on 121 separate nights. The star was in its normal `high state' near magnitude V = 13, with slow waves in the light curve and eclipses every 4.72 h. Remarkably, the star also showed a nearly sinusoidal signal with a full amplitude of 0.44 mag and a period of 3.680 ± 0.007 d. We interpret this as the signature of a retrograde precession (wobble) of the accretion disc. The same period is manifest as a ±33 s wobble in the timings of mid-eclipse, indicating that the disc's centre of light moves with this period. The star also showed strong `negative superhumps' at frequencies ωorb + N and 2ωorb + N, where ωorb and N are, respectively, the orbital and precession frequencies. It is possible that these powerful signals have been present, unsuspected, throughout the more than 60 yr of previous photometric studies.
Searching for gravitational waves from compact binaries with precessing spins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harry, Ian; Privitera, Stephen; Bohé, Alejandro; Buonanno, Alessandra
2016-07-01
Current searches for gravitational waves from compact-object binaries with the LIGO and Virgo observatories employ waveform models with spins aligned (or antialigned) with the orbital angular momentum. Here, we derive a new statistic to search for compact objects carrying generic (precessing) spins. Applying this statistic, we construct banks of both aligned- and generic-spin templates for binary black holes and neutron star-black hole binaries, and compare the effectualness of these banks towards simulated populations of generic-spin systems. We then use these banks in a pipeline analysis of Gaussian noise to measure the increase in background incurred by using generic- instead of aligned-spin banks. Although the generic-spin banks have roughly a factor of ten more templates than the aligned-spin banks, we find an overall improvement in signal recovery at a fixed false-alarm rate for systems with high-mass ratio and highly precessing spins. This gain in sensitivity comes at a small loss of sensitivity (≲4 %) for systems that are already well covered by aligned-spin templates. Since the observation of even a single binary merger with misaligned spins could provide unique astrophysical insights into the formation of these sources, we recommend that the method described here be developed further to mount a viable search for generic-spin binary mergers in LIGO/Virgo data.
THE RECENTLY DETERMINED ANOMALOUS PERIHELION PRECESSION OF SATURN
Iorio, Lorenzo
2009-03-15
The astronomer E. V. Pitjeva, by analyzing with the EPM2008 ephemerides a large number of planetary observations including also two years (2004-2006) of normal points from the Cassini spacecraft, phenomenologically estimated a statistically significant nonzero correction to the usual Newtonian/Einsteinian secular precession of the longitude of the perihelion of Saturn, i.e., {delta}{omega}-bar-dot{sub Sat} = -0.006{+-}0''.002 cy{sup -1}; the formal, statistical error is 0.''0007. It can be explained neither by any of the standard classical and general relativistic dynamical effects mismodeled/unmodeled in the force models of the EPM2008 ephemerides nor by several exotic modifications of gravity recently put forth to accommodate certain cosmological/astrophysical observations without resorting to dark energy/dark matter. Both independent analyses by other teams of astronomers and further processing of larger data sets from Cassini will be helpful in clarifying the nature and the true existence of the anomalous precession of the perihelion of Saturn.
Shear-induced molecular precession in a hexatic Langmuir monolayer.
Ignés-Mullol, J; Schwartz, D K
2001-03-15
Liquid crystalline behaviour is generally limited to a select group of specially designed bulk substances. By contrast, it is a common feature of simple molecular monolayers and other quasi-two-dimensional systems, which often possess a type of in-plane ordering that results from unbinding of dislocations-a 'hexatic' liquid crystalline phase. The flow of monolayers is closely related to molecular transport in biological membranes, affects foam and emulsion stability and is relevant to microfluidics research. For liquid crystalline phases, it is important to understand the coupling of the molecular orientation to the flow. Orientationally ordered (nematic) phases in bulk liquid crystals exhibit 'shear aligning' or 'tumbling' behaviour under shear, and are described quantitatively by Leslie-Ericksen theory. For hexatic monolayers, the effects of flow have been inferred from textures of Langmuir-Blodgett films and directly observed at the macroscopic level. However, there is no accepted model of hexatic flow at the molecular level. Here we report observations of a hexatic Langmuir monolayer that reveal continuous, shear-induced molecular precession, interrupted by occasional jump discontinuities. Although superficially similar to tumbling in a bulk nematic phase, the kinematic details are quite different and provide a possible mechanism for domain coarsening and eventual molecular alignment in monolayers. We explain the precession and jumps within a quantitative framework that involves coupling of molecular orientation to the local molecular hexatic 'lattice', which is continuously deformed by shear. PMID:11268206
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belyanin, S.; Gurfil, P.
2008-06-01
In this study, we investigate the effect of Earth's precession on the orbital dynamics of geostationary satellites. Our astrodynamical model includes second-order zonal and tesseral harmonics, and lunisolar gravitation. We show that the equinoctial precession induces secular inclination growth and thus bares a non-negligible effect on north-south stationkeeping for long mission lifetimes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belyanin, S.; Gurfil, P.
2008-02-01
In this study, we investigate the effect of Earth's precession on the orbital dynamics of geostationary satellites. Our astrodynamical model includes second-order zonal and tesseral harmonics, and lunisolar gravitation. We show that the equinoctial precession induces secular inclination growth and thus bares a non-negligible effect on north-south stationkeeping for long mission lifetimes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wolf, Carl
By considering a spin-one particle precession in a magnetic field, we demonstrate that if very refined measurements were made of both the precession frequency and the amplitude of spin polarization, these measurements could be used to probe for compositeness of gauge bosons, discrete time effects and possible Markov environmental effects.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Farr, Benjamin; Ochsner, Evan; Cho, Hee-Suk; Raymond, V.; Kim, Chunglee; Lee, Chang-Hwan
2014-05-01
Precessing black hole-neutron star (BH-NS) binaries produce a rich gravitational wave signal, encoding the binary's nature and inspiral kinematics. Using the lalinference_mcmc Markov chain Monte Carlo parameter estimation code, we use two fiducial examples to illustrate how the geometry and kinematics are encoded into the modulated gravitational wave signal, using coordinates well adapted to precession. Extending previous work, we demonstrate that the performance of detailed parameter estimation studies can often be estimated by "effective" studies: comparisons of a prototype signal with its nearest neighbors, adopting a fixed sky location and idealized two-detector network. Using a concrete example, we show that higher harmonics provide nonzero but small local improvement when estimating the parameters of precessing BH-NS binaries. We also show that higher harmonics can improve parameter estimation accuracy for precessing binaries by breaking leading-order discrete symmetries and thus ruling out approximately degenerate source orientations. Our work illustrates quantities gravitational wave measurements can provide, such as the orientation of a precessing short gamma ray burst progenitor relative to the line of sight. More broadly, "effective" estimates may provide a simple way to estimate trends in the performance of parameter estimation for generic precessing BH-NS binaries in next-generation detectors. For example, our results suggest that the orbital chirp rate, precession rate, and precession geometry are roughly independent observables, defining natural variables to organize correlations in the high-dimensional BH-NS binary parameter space.
The precession constant of the Earth: Variations through the ice-age
Peltier, W.R.; Jiang, X.
1994-10-01
We directly calculate the history of variations in Earth`s precession constant H that are forced by variations in surface mass associated with late Pleistocene ice-age glaciation and deglaciation events. Our analyses show that the magnitude of Delta H/H(sub zero) is lower than that required to cause the recently hypothesized resonant reduction of the precession period.
The Pole Orientation, Pole Precession, and Moment of Inertia Factor of Saturn
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jacobson, R. A.; French, R. G.; Nicholson, P. D.; Hedman, M.; Colwell, J. E.; Marouf, E.; Rappaport, N.; McGhee, C.; Sepersky, T.; Lonergan, K.
2011-01-01
This paper discusses our determination of the Saturn's pole orientation and precession using a combination of Earthbased and spacecraft based observational data. From our model of the polar motion and the observed precession rate we obtain a value for Saturn's polar moment of inertia
Dephasing in photoinduced large-angle spin precession of confined ferromagnetic structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Kyeong-Dong; Ryu, Kwang-Su; Kim, Ji-Wan; Song, Hyon-Seok; Jeong, Jae-Woo; Shin, Sung-Chul
2010-10-01
Spin precessions in the stripes of α-MnAs films prepared on GaAs(001) are investigated using an all-optical pump-probe method. We find that a large-angle spin precession appears while the stripe width decreases. In addition, the large-angle precession considerably changes the resonance frequency, resulting in a significant decrease in the relaxation time. These changes in the precessional motion are mainly ascribed to the dephasing of the nonuniform spin waves existing at the large-angle precession, as experimentally confirmed by varying the precession angle via tuning pump fluence. Micromagnetic simulations using a single Gilbert damping constant well predict the experimental observations, which verifies the interpretation of the change in the precessional motion.
Jet-intracluster medium interaction in Hydra A - II. The effect of jet precession
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nawaz, M. A.; Bicknell, G. V.; Wagner, A. Y.; Sutherland, R. S.; McNamara, B. R.
2016-05-01
We present three-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamical simulations of a precessing jet interacting with the intracluster medium and compare the simulated jet structure with the observed structure of the Hydra A northern jet. For the simulations, we use jet parameters obtained in the parameter space study of the first paper in this series and probe different values for the precession period and precession angle. We find that for a precession period P ≈ 1 Myr and a precession angle ψ ≈ 20°, the model reproduces (i) the curvature of the jet, (ii) the correct number of bright knots within 20 kpc at approximately correct locations and (iii) the turbulent transition of the jet to a plume. The Mach number of the advancing bow shock ≈1.85 is indicative of gentle cluster atmosphere heating during the early stages of the AGN's activity.
Precession-driven dynamos in a full sphere and the role of large scale cyclonic vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Yufeng; Marti, Philippe; Noir, Jerome; Jackson, Andrew
2016-06-01
Precession has been proposed as an alternative power source for planetary dynamos. Previous hydrodynamic simulations suggested that precession can generate very complex flows in planetary liquid cores [Y. Lin, P. Marti, and J. Noir, "Shear-driven parametric instability in a precessing sphere," Phys. Fluids 27, 046601 (2015)]. In the present study, we numerically investigate the magnetohydrodynamics of a precessing sphere. We demonstrate precession driven dynamos in different flow regimes, from laminar to turbulent flows. In particular, we highlight the magnetic field generation by large scale cyclonic vortices, which has not been explored previously. In this regime, dynamos can be sustained at relatively low Ekman numbers and magnetic Prandtl numbers, which paves the way for planetary applications.
The Precession Index, A Nonlinear Energy Balance Model, And Seversmith Psychroterms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubincam, David Parry
2004-01-01
An important component of Milankovitch's astronomical theory of climate change is the precession index. The precession index, along with the Earth's tilt and orbital eccentricity, are believed to be the major controlling factors of climate change in the last few million years. The precession index is e sin omega(sub s) where e is the Earth's orbital eccentricity and omega(sub s) measures how close the Sun is to the Earth at midsummer. When omega(sub s) = 90deg the Sun is close to the Earth during northern summer, and at 270deg it is far from the Earth during northern summer. The precession index varies with time, because both the eccentricity e and the parameter omega(sub s) are constantly changing due to disturbances in the Earth's orbit by other planets, and due to the precession of the Earth, The change is largely periodic, with a period of about 23,000 years.
Qiu, X. M.; Huang, L.; Jian, G. D.
2007-03-15
The Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability in Z pinches with sheared axial flow (SAF) is analyzed using finite Larmor radius (FLR) magnetohydrodynamic theory, in whose momentum equation the FLR effect (also referred to as the effect of gyroviscosity) is introduced through an anisotropic ion (FLR) stress tensor. A dispersion relation is derived for the linear RT instability. Both analytical and numerical solutions of the dispersion equation are given. The results indicate that the short-wavelength modes of the RT instability can be stabilized by a sufficient FLR, whereas the long-wavelength modes can be stabilized by a sufficient SAF. In the small-wavenumber region, for normalized wavenumber K<2.4, the hybrid RT/KH (Kelvin-Helmholtz) instability is shown to be the most difficult to stabilize. However the synergistic effect of the SAF and gyroviscosity can mitigate both the RT instability in the large-wavenumber region (K>2.4) and the hybrid RT/KH instability in the small-wavenumber region. In addition, this synergistic effect can compress the RT instability to a narrow wavenumber region. Even the thorough stabilization of the RT instability in the large-wavenumber region is possible with a sufficient SAF and a sufficient gyroviscosity.
Highly stable atomic vector magnetometer based on free spin precession.
Afach, S; Ban, G; Bison, G; Bodek, K; Chowdhuri, Z; Grujić, Z D; Hayen, L; Hélaine, V; Kasprzak, M; Kirch, K; Knowles, P; Koch, H-C; Komposch, S; Kozela, A; Krempel, J; Lauss, B; Lefort, T; Lemière, Y; Mtchedlishvili, A; Naviliat-Cuncic, O; Piegsa, F M; Prashanth, P N; Quéméner, G; Rawlik, M; Ries, D; Roccia, S; Rozpedzik, D; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P; Severjins, N; Weis, A; Wursten, E; Wyszynski, G; Zejma, J; Zsigmond, G
2015-08-24
We present a magnetometer based on optically pumped Cs atoms that measures the magnitude and direction of a 1 μT magnetic field. Multiple circularly polarized laser beams were used to probe the free spin precession of the Cs atoms. The design was optimized for long-time stability and achieves a scalar resolution better than 300 fT for integration times ranging from 80 ms to 1000 s. The best scalar resolution of less than 80 fT was reached with integration times of 1.6 to 6 s. We were able to measure the magnetic field direction with a resolution better than 10 μrad for integration times from 10 s up to 2000 s. PMID:26368184
Test of Lorentz Invariance with Spin Precession of Ultracold Neutrons
Altarev, I.; Gutsmiedl, E.; Baker, C. A.; Iaydjiev, P.; Ivanov, S. N.; Ban, G.; Lefort, T.; Naviliat-Cuncic, O.; Quemener, G.; Bodek, K.; Kistryn, S.; Zejma, J.; Daum, M.; Henneck, R.; Kirch, K.; Knecht, A.; Lauss, B.; Mtchedlishvili, A.; Petzoldt, G.
2009-08-21
A clock comparison experiment, analyzing the ratio of spin precession frequencies of stored ultracold neutrons and {sup 199}Hg atoms, is reported. No daily variation of this ratio could be found, from which is set an upper limit on the Lorentz invariance violating cosmic anisotropy field b{sub perpendicular}<2x10{sup -20} eV (95% C.L.). This is the first limit for the free neutron. This result is also interpreted as a direct limit on the gravitational dipole moment of the neutron |g{sub n}|<0.3 eV/c{sup 2} m from a spin-dependent interaction with the Sun. Analyzing the gravitational interaction with the Earth, based on previous data, yields a more stringent limit |g{sub n}|<3x10{sup -4} eV/c{sup 2} m.
System design and verification of the precession electron diffraction technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Own, Christopher Su-Yan
2005-07-01
Bulk structural crystallography is generally a two-part process wherein a rough starting structure model is first derived, then later refined to give an accurate model of the structure. The critical step is the determination of the initial model. As materials problems decrease in length scale, the electron microscope has proven to be a versatile and effective tool for studying many problems. However, study of complex bulk structures by electron diffraction has been hindered by the problem of dynamical diffraction. This phenomenon makes bulk electron diffraction very sensitive to specimen thickness, and expensive equipment such as aberration-corrected scanning transmission microscopes or elaborate methodology such as high resolution imaging combined with diffraction and simulation are often required to generate good starting structures. The precession electron diffraction technique (PED), which has the ability to significantly reduce dynamical effects in diffraction patterns, has shown promise as being a "philosopher's stone" for bulk electron diffraction. However, a comprehensive understanding of its abilities and limitations is necessary before it can be put into widespread use as a standalone technique. This thesis aims to bridge the gaps in understanding and utilizing precession so that practical application might be realized. Two new PED systems have been built, and optimal operating parameters have been elucidated. The role of lens aberrations is described in detail, and an alignment procedure is given that shows how to circumvent aberration in order to obtain high-quality patterns. Multislice simulation is used for investigating the errors inherent in precession, and is also used as a reference for comparison to simple models and to experimental PED data. General trends over a large sampling of parameter space are determined. In particular, we show that the primary reflection intensity errors occur near the transmitted beam and decay with increasing angle and
Superhumps and Accretion Disk Precession in TT ARIETIS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skillman, David R.; Harvey, David A.; Patterson, Joseph; Kemp, Jonathan; Jensen, Lasse; Fried, Robert E.; Garradd, Gordon; Gunn, Jerry; van Zyl, Liza; Kiyota, Seiichiro; Retter, Alon; Vanmunster, Tonny; Warhurst, Paul
1998-08-01
We have been conducting a long-term (1988-1998) photometric study of the nova-like variable TT Arietis. The main periodic signal in the star's light curve normally occurs at a period that varies but averages ~0.1329 days, which is about 3.5% shorter than the orbital period of the binary. In 1997, this signal disappeared and was replaced by a stronger signal 8.5% longer than the orbital period. This new wave strongly resembles the``superhumps'' commonly seen in SU UMa-type dwarf novae during superoutburst. In superhump parlance, we could say that a negative superhump was replaced by a positive superhump (P>Porb). This could signify the development of an eccentric instability in the accretion disk. The two superhumps probably signify two types of disk precession: apsidal advance and nodal regression. TT Ari is an excellent candidate for observational studies that probe the origin of superhumps.
A decadal precession of atmospheric pressures over the North Pacific
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, Bruce T.; Gianotti, Daniel J. S.; Furtado, Jason C.; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele
2016-04-01
Sustained droughts over the Northwestern U.S. can alter water availability to the region's agricultural, hydroelectric, and ecosystem service sectors. Here we analyze decadal variations in precipitation across this region and reveal their relation to the slow (~10 year) progression of an atmospheric pressure pattern around the North Pacific, which we term the Pacific Decadal Precession (PDP). Observations corroborate that leading patterns of atmospheric pressure variability over the North Pacific evolve in a manner consistent with the PDP and manifest as different phases in its evolution. Further analysis of the data indicates that low-frequency fluctuations of the tropical Pacific Ocean state energize one phase of the PDP and possibly the other through coupling with the polar stratosphere. Evidence that many recent climate variations influencing the North Pacific/North American sector over the last few years are consistent with the current phase of the PDP confirms the need to enhance our predictive understanding of its behavior.
A PRECESSING JET IN THE CH Cyg SYMBIOTIC SYSTEM
Karovska, Margarita; Gaetz, Terrance J.; Raymond, John C.; Lee, Nicholas P.; Carilli, Christopher L.; Hack, Warren
2010-02-20
Jets have been detected in only a few symbiotic binaries to date, and CH Cyg is one of them. In 2001, a non-relativistic jet was detected in CH Cyg for the first time in X-rays. We carried out coordinated Chandra, Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and VLA observations in 2008 to study the propagation of this jet and its interaction with the circumbinary medium. We detected the jet with Chandra and HST and determined that the apex has expanded to the south from {approx}300 AU to {approx}1400 AU, with the shock front propagating with velocity <100 km s{sup -1}. The shock front has significantly slowed down since 2001. Unexpectedly, we also discovered a powerful jet in the NE-SW direction, in the X-ray, optical and radio. This jet has a multi-component structure, including an inner jet and a counterjet at {approx}170 AU, and a SW component ending in several clumps extending out to {approx}750 AU. The structure of the jet and the curvature of the outer portion of the SW jet suggest an episodically powered precessing jet or a continuous precessing jet with occasional mass ejections or pulses. We carried out detailed spatial mapping of the X-ray emission and correlation with the optical and radio emission. X-ray spectra were extracted from the central source, inner NE counterjet, and the brightest clump at a distance of {approx}500 AU from the central source. We discuss the initial results of our analyses, including the multi-component spectral fitting of the jet components and of the central source.
The Orientation and Precession of the Pole of Saturn - Revised
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobson, Robert A.; French, R. G.
2011-04-01
The effort to determine the orientation and precession of Saturn's pole is currently motivated by three needs: to orient the Saturn gravity field for ephemeris development and spacecraft navigation, to orient the Saturn ring plane for studies of ring structure and dynamics, and to determine Saturn's polar moment of inertia for studies of Saturn's interior. Boué, G. and Laskar, J. (2006 Icarus 185, 312) published an informative theoretical discussion of polar motion applicable to Saturn. However, their model cannot be easily used in practice. Jacobson (2007 BAAS 39, 317) presented a pole model in the standard IAU trigometric series representation based on the rigid body rotational equations of motion with couples exerted by the Sun, Titan, and Iapetus. He determined the orientation and precession by fitting Saturn ring occultation measurements, in particular: the radio occultation of Voyager 1, the occultation of the star δSco seen with the Voyager 2 Ultraviolet Spectrometer, the 1989 occultation of the star 28 Sgr seen from the Earth, the 1991 occultation of the star GSC 6323-01396 seen from HST, and ring plane crossing times (Nicholson and French, 1997 BAAS 29, 1097). We have since acquired measurements from the 1995 occultation of the star GSC 5249-01240 seen from HST and the re-reduced meansurements of the 1991 occultation (French et al. 2010 AJ 139, 1649). In this paper we present our current results using the occultation data together with satellite astrometry and tracking of the Voyager and Cassini spacecraft. We also discuss future plans for the incorporation of Cassini ring occultation observations.
Spin-orbit Larmor clock for ionization times in one-photon and strong-field regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaushal, Jivesh; Morales, Felipe; Torlina, Lisa; Ivanov, Misha; Smirnova, Olga
2015-12-01
Photoionization is a process where absorption of one or several photons liberates an electron and creates a hole in a quantum system, such as an atom or a molecule. Is it faster to remove an electron using one or many photons, and how to define this time? Here we introduce a clock that allows us to define ionization time for both one-photon and many-photon ionization regimes. The clock uses the interaction of the electron or hole spin with the magnetic field created by their orbital motion, known as the spin-orbit interaction. The angle of spin precession in the magnetic field records time. We use the combination of analytical theory and ab initio calculations to show how ionization delay depends on the number of absorbed photons, how it appears in the experiment and what electron dynamics it signifies. In particular, we apply our method to calculate the derived time delays in tunneling regime of strong-field ionization.
Spin-orbit Larmor clock for ionization times in one-photon and strong-field regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaushal, Jivesh; Morales, Felipe; Torlina, Lisa; Ivanov, Misha; Smirnova, Olga
2014-12-01
Photoionization is a process where absorption of one or several photons liberates an electron and creates a hole in a quantum system, such as an atom or a molecule. Is it faster to remove an electron using one or many photons, and how to define this time? Here we introduce a clock that allows us to define ionization time for both one-photon and many-photon ionization regimes. The clock uses the interaction of the electron or hole spin with the magnetic field created by their orbital motion, known as the spin-orbit interaction. The angle of spin precession in the magnetic field records time. We use the combination of analytical theory and ab initio calculations to show how ionization delay depends on the number of absorbed photons, how it appears in the experiment and what electron dynamics it signifies. In particular, we apply our method to calculate the derived time delays in tunneling regime of strong-field ionization.
Determining phase relations of proxy data using the eccentricity-precession pattern
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeeden, C.; Rivera, T. A.
2012-04-01
The phase relation between proxy data and orbital forcing is not always obvious; a link to both precession/insolation maxima or -minima can often be reasoned for. We present a novel approach to extract the phase relation using solely eccentricity-precession pattern from high quality proxy data. We determine the position of consecutive eccentricity maxima as precisely as possible from a stratigraphic record using both eccentricity filters and the amplitude modulation of precession. This way we obtain both the position of these eccentricity maxima as well as the sedimentation rate between successive maxima with error margins. Combining these results with the precession pattern in the geological record, we can determine whether precession-related patterns relate to precession (or insolation) minima or maxima. This approach relies on high quality geological data, the assumption of a direct eccentricity and precession response to orbital forcing, and a well defined orbital solution, but avoids the assumption of an instantaneous response to obliquity. For data with filtered components showing a good fit with the proxy data, this approach yields good results. Using high quality proxy data (color, magnetic susceptibility), we are able to determine the phase relation for equatorial Atlantic Miocene successions of ODP Leg 154. The research leading to these results has received funding from the [European Community's] Seventh Framework Programme ([FP7/2007-2013] under grant agreement n° [215458]. This research used data provided by IODP. Funding for this research was provided by NWO.
Importance of tides for periastron precession in eccentric neutron star-white dwarf binaries
Sravan, N.; Valsecchi, F.; Kalogera, V.; Althaus, L. G.
2014-09-10
Although not nearly as numerous as binaries with two white dwarfs, eccentric neutron star-white dwarf (NS-WD) binaries are important gravitational-wave (GW) sources for the next generation of space-based detectors sensitive to low frequency waves. Here we investigate periastron precession in these sources as a result of general relativistic, tidal, and rotational effects; such precession is expected to be detectable for at least some of the detected binaries of this type. Currently, two eccentric NS-WD binaries are known in the galactic field, PSR J1141–6545 and PSR B2303+46, both of which have orbits too wide to be relevant in their current state to GW observations. However, population synthesis studies predict the existence of a significant Galactic population of such systems. Though small in most of these systems, we find that tidally induced periastron precession becomes important when tides contribute to more than 3% of the total precession rate. For these systems, accounting for tides when analyzing periastron precession rate measurements can improve estimates of the inferred WD component mass and, in some cases, will prevent us from misclassifying the object. However, such systems are rare, due to rapid orbital decay. To aid the inclusion of tidal effects when using periastron precession as a mass measurement tool, we derive a function that relates the WD radius and periastron precession constant to the WD mass.
Inspiral waveforms for spinning compact binaries in a new precessing convention
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Anuradha; Gopakumar, Achamveedu
2016-05-01
It is customary to use a precessing convention, based on Newtonian orbital angular momentum L N, to model inspiral gravitational waves from generic spinning compact binaries. A key feature of such a precessing convention is its ability to remove all spin precession induced modulations from the orbital phase evolution. However, this convention usually employs a postNewtonian (PN) accurate precessional equation, appropriate for the PN accurate orbital angular momentum L, to evolve the L N-based precessing source frame. This motivated us to develop inspiral waveforms for spinning compact binaries in a precessing convention that explicitly use L to describe the binary orbits. Our approach introduces certain additional 3PN order terms in the orbital phase and frequency evolution equations with respect to the usual L N-based implementation of the precessing convention. The implications of these additional terms are explored by computing the match between inspiral waveforms that employ L and L N-based precessing conventions. We found that the match estimates are smaller than the optimal value, namely 0.97, for a non-negligible fraction of unequal mass spinning compact binaries.
Regular and chaotic dynamics of magnetization precession in ferrite-garnet films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shutyĭ, Anatoliy M.; Sementsov, Dmitriy I.
2009-03-01
By numerically solving equations of motion and constructing the spectrum of Lyapunov exponents, nonlinear dynamics of uniformly precessing magnetization in (110) thin film structures with perpendicular magnetic bias is investigated over a wide frequency range of the alternating field. Bifurcational changes in magnetization precession and the states of dynamical bistability are discovered. Conditions for the realization of high-amplitude regular and chaotic dynamic regimes are revealed. The possibility of controlling those precession regimes by using external magnetic fields is shown. The features of time analogs of the Poincaré section of trajectories in the chaotic regimes are studied.
Precessed electron beam electron energy loss spectroscopy of graphene: Beyond channelling effects
Yedra, Ll.; Estradé, S.; Torruella, P.; Eljarrat, A.; Peiró, F.; Darbal, A. D.; Weiss, J. K.
2014-08-04
The effects of beam precession on the Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) signal of the carbon K edge in a 2 monolayer graphene sheet are studied. In a previous work, we demonstrated the use of precession to compensate for the channeling-induced reduction of EELS signal when in zone axis. In the case of graphene, no enhancement of EELS signal is found in the usual experimental conditions, as graphene is not thick enough to present channeling effects. Interestingly, though it is found that precession makes it possible to increase the collection angle, and, thus, the overall signal, without a loss of signal-to-background ratio.
Geodesic and Lense-Thirring precessions effects on the near earth artificial satellites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radwan, M.; El-Salam, F. A. A.; El-Bar, S. E. A.
2013-02-01
The present work deals with the effect of the geodesic and Lense-Thirring precessions in a near Earth artificial satellite orbit. The effects of the geodesic and Lense-Thirring precessions on the orbit evolution are surveyed. The Picard method of successive approximation is described. The canonical equations of motion including forces non-derivable from a potential are presented. The acceleration components coming from the geodesic and Lense-Thirring precessions are first obtained, then, the images of these accelerations are evaluated. The integrations are effected using the method of Picard successive iteration.
Modeling of magnetization precession in spin-torque nano-oscillators with a tilted polarizer
Lv, Gang; Zhang, Hong E-mail: yaowen@tongji.edu.cn; Cao, Xuecheng; Qin, Yufeng; Li, Guihua; Wang, Linhui; Liu, Yaowen E-mail: yaowen@tongji.edu.cn; Hou, Zhiwei
2015-07-15
The spin-torque induced magnetization precession dynamics are studied in a spin-valve with a tilted spin polarizer. Macrospin simulations demonstrate that the frequency of precession state depends both on the external DC current and the intrinsic parameters of devices such as the tilted angle of spin polarizer, the damping factor and saturation magnetization of the free layer. The dependence role of those parameters is characterized by phase diagrams. An analytical model is presented, which can successfully interpret the features of precession frequency.
First-order finite-Larmor-radius fluid modeling of tearing and relaxation in a plasma pincha)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
King, J. R.; Sovinec, C. R.; Mirnov, V. V.
2012-05-01
Drift and Hall effects on magnetic tearing, island evolution, and relaxation in pinch configurations are investigated using a non-reduced first-order finite-Larmor-radius (FLR) fluid model with the nonideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) with rotation, open discussion (NIMROD) code [C.R. Sovinec and J. R. King, J. Comput. Phys. 229, 5803 (2010)]. An unexpected result with a uniform pressure profile is a drift effect that reduces the growth rate when the ion sound gyroradius (ρs) is smaller than the tearing-layer width. This drift is present only with warm-ion FLR modeling, and analytics show that it arises from ∇B and poloidal curvature represented in the Braginskii gyroviscous stress. Nonlinear single-helicity computations with experimentally relevant ρs values show that the warm-ion gyroviscous effects reduce saturated-island widths. Computations with multiple nonlinearly interacting tearing fluctuations find that m = 1 core-resonant-fluctuation amplitudes are reduced by a factor of two relative to single-fluid modeling by the warm-ion effects. These reduced core-resonant-fluctuation amplitudes compare favorably to edge coil measurements in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed-field pinch [R. N. Dexter et al., Fusion Technol. 19, 131 (1991)]. The computations demonstrate that fluctuations induce both MHD- and Hall-dynamo emfs during relaxation events. The presence of a Hall-dynamo emf implies a fluctuation-induced Maxwell stress, and the simulation results show net transport of parallel momentum. The computed magnitude of force densities from the Maxwell and competing Reynolds stresses, and changes in the parallel flow profile, are qualitatively and semi-quantitatively similar to measurements during relaxation in MST.
The Precession Index and a Nonlinear Energy Balance Climate Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubincam, David
2004-01-01
A simple nonlinear energy balance climate model yields a precession index-like term in the temperature. Despite its importance in the geologic record, the precession index e sin (Omega)S, where e is the Earth's orbital eccentricity and (Omega)S is the Sun's perigee in the geocentric frame, is not present in the insolation at the top of the atmosphere. Hence there is no one-for-one mapping of 23,000 and 19,000 year periodicities from the insolation to the paleoclimate record; a nonlinear climate model is needed to produce these long periods. A nonlinear energy balance climate model with radiative terms of form T n, where T is surface temperature and n less than 1, does produce e sin (omega)S terms in temperature; the e sin (omega)S terms are called Seversmith psychroterms. Without feedback mechanisms, the model achieves extreme values of 0.64 K at the maximum orbital eccentricity of 0.06, cooling one hemisphere while simultaneously warming the other; the hemisphere over which perihelion occurs is the cooler. In other words, the nonlinear energy balance model produces long-term cooling in the northern hemisphere when the Sun's perihelion is near northern summer solstice and long-term warming in the northern hemisphere when the aphelion is near northern summer solstice. (This behavior is similar to the inertialess gray body which radiates like T 4, but the amplitude is much lower for the energy balance model because of its thermal inertia.) This seemingly paradoxical behavior works against the standard Milankovitch model, which requires cool northern summers (Sun far from Earth in northern summer) to build up northern ice sheets, so that if the standard model is correct it must be more efficient than previously thought. Alternatively, the new mechanism could possibly be dominant and indicate southern hemisphere control of the northern ice sheets, wherein the southern oceans undergo a long-term cooling when the Sun is far from the Earth during northern summer. The cold
Wid, O.; Wahler, M.; Homonnay, N.; Richter, T.; Schmidt, G.
2015-11-15
We demonstrate coherent control of time domain ferromagnetic resonance by all electrical excitation and detection. Using two ultrashort magnetic field steps with variable time delay we control the induction decay in yttrium iron garnet (YIG). By setting suitable delay times between the two steps the precession of the magnetization can either be enhanced or completely stopped. The method allows for a determination of the precession frequency within a few precession periods and with an accuracy much higher than can be achieved using fast fourier transformation. Moreover it holds the promise to massively increase precession amplitudes in pulsed inductive microwave magnetometry (PIMM) using low amplitude finite pulse trains. Our experiments are supported by micromagnetic simulations which nicely confirm the experimental results.
Refinements on precession, nutation, and wobble of the Earth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dehant, V. Folgueira M.; Puica, M.; Van Hoolst, T.
2015-08-01
Most of the essential elements of the theory of nutation of the nonrigid Earth have been presented in the IAU adopted model MHB2000 (Mathews et al., 2002) considering an ellipsoidal rotating Earth, with a solid inner core, a liquid outer core, and an ellipsoidal inelastic mantle, and with a magnetic field. However in the meantime, the observed nutation amplitudes have been redetermined with a better precision. A number of relatively small significant effects have to be taken into account before one can expect to have a theoretical framework that can yield numerical results matching the precession and nutation observations. The adopted model already accounts for the existence of a geomagnetic field passing through the mantle and the fluid core regions and beyond. The model MHB2000 considers an electromagnetic torque generated by this field when the core and the mantle are moving relative to each other, which can in turn affect some nutation amplitudes (both in phase and out-of-phase) to the extent of a few hundreds of microarcsecond (μas), playing thus a significant role. The paper revisits the last adopted model in order to incorporate potential additional coupling effects at the core-mantle boundary, that can be at an observable level, such as the existence of a non-hydrostatic core-mantle boundary topography, the viscosity of the liquid core, the existence of stratification in the core, the existence of boundary layers at both sides of the core-mantle boundary.
SR calculation of the geodetic precession of gpb.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Collins, Russell
2003-03-01
The gpb satellite, see http://www.nas.edu/ssb/gpb.html, should enter a low circular polar orbit about earth July 2003. Its near-perfect gyroscopes will probe the metric of space near the earth. An in-plane precession is expected, termed the geodetic effect, because measured distance is not Euclidean in the presence of gravity. The circumference of a circle tangent to the outside of the gyroscope is, by SR, shortened slightly more than a circle tangent to the inside. The gyroscope axis is slowly tilted backward (counter to the orbital direction) by this geodetic effect, ΔΘ = -3π GM/r c^2 = -3π v^2/c^2 rad/rev = -6.55467 arcsec/year. This is identical to the GR result, arXiv:gr-qc/9909054 v2 21 Sep 1999, except for the sign. After including small perturbations due to the sun and the earth's oblateness, GR expects +6.58048 and SR expects - 6.56124 arcsec/yr. The predicted precision of the experiment is 0.00045 arcsec/yr. Let the experiment decide.
Tidal-Force-Induced Precessions of Accretion Disks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inoue, Hajime
2012-04-01
The preccession of an accretion disk around a compact star in a close binary has been studied. When the accretion disk tilts, the tidal force from the companion star induces a torque on it, which causes a preccession of the disk. We firstly consider the properties of a preccessing motion of a ring, which is circularly rotating around a compact star, and is preccessing with a slightly tilting angle under the influence of a tidal force from a companion star. We next compare the predicted behaviors of the preccessing ring with observations, and find that several observational facts from Her X-1, SS 433, and some other X-ray binaries can be explained by a tidal-force-induced precession scheme quite reasonably. We further examine the energetics of the preccessing ring as a function of the tilting angle. It is shown that the kinetic and potential energies of the orbiting motions of the ring matter around the compact star increases as the tilting angle increases, while the thermal and effective potential energies for hydro-static balance in the meridian cross section of the ring decreases through adiabatic expansion. Quantitative estimations have shown that when the ring has sufficient thermal energy, the decrease of the energy for the hydro-static balance can be larger than the increase of the energy for circular motion around the compact star until the tilting angle reaches a certain value. It is strongly suggested that preccessions of accretion disks are often realized in close binaries.
Exact solution for spin precession in the radiationless relativistic Kepler problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mane, S. R.
2014-11-01
There is interest in circulating beams of polarized particles in all-electric storage rings to search for nonzero permanent electric dipole moments of subatomic particles. To this end, it is helpful to derive exact analytical solutions of the spin precession in idealized models, both for pedagogical reasons and to serve as benchmark tests for analysis and design of experiments. This paper derives exact solutions for the spin precession in the relativistic Kepler problem. Some counterintuitive properties of the solutions are pointed out.
Reifenstein, Eric; Stemmler, Martin; Herz, Andreas V M; Kempter, Richard; Schreiber, Susanne
2014-01-01
As a rat moves, grid cells in its entorhinal cortex (EC) discharge at multiple locations of the external world, and the firing fields of each grid cell span a hexagonal lattice. For movements on linear tracks, spikes tend to occur at successively earlier phases of the theta-band filtered local field potential during the traversal of a firing field - a phenomenon termed phase precession. The complex movement patterns observed in two-dimensional (2D) open-field environments may fundamentally alter phase precession. To study this question at the behaviorally relevant single-run level, we analyzed EC spike patterns as a function of the distance traveled by the rat along each trajectory. This analysis revealed that cells across all EC layers fire spikes that phase-precess; indeed, the rate and extent of phase precession were the same, only the correlation between spike phase and path length was weaker in EC layer III. Both slope and correlation of phase precession were surprisingly similar on linear tracks and in 2D open-field environments despite strong differences in the movement statistics, including running speed. While the phase-precession slope did not correlate with the average running speed, it did depend on specific properties of the animal's path. The longer a curving path through a grid-field in a 2D environment, the shallower was the rate of phase precession, while runs that grazed a grid field tangentially led to a steeper phase-precession slope than runs through the field center. Oscillatory interference models for grid cells do not reproduce the observed phenomena. PMID:24959748
Reifenstein, Eric; Stemmler, Martin; Herz, Andreas V. M.; Kempter, Richard; Schreiber, Susanne
2014-01-01
As a rat moves, grid cells in its entorhinal cortex (EC) discharge at multiple locations of the external world, and the firing fields of each grid cell span a hexagonal lattice. For movements on linear tracks, spikes tend to occur at successively earlier phases of the theta-band filtered local field potential during the traversal of a firing field – a phenomenon termed phase precession. The complex movement patterns observed in two-dimensional (2D) open-field environments may fundamentally alter phase precession. To study this question at the behaviorally relevant single-run level, we analyzed EC spike patterns as a function of the distance traveled by the rat along each trajectory. This analysis revealed that cells across all EC layers fire spikes that phase-precess; indeed, the rate and extent of phase precession were the same, only the correlation between spike phase and path length was weaker in EC layer III. Both slope and correlation of phase precession were surprisingly similar on linear tracks and in 2D open-field environments despite strong differences in the movement statistics, including running speed. While the phase-precession slope did not correlate with the average running speed, it did depend on specific properties of the animal's path. The longer a curving path through a grid-field in a 2D environment, the shallower was the rate of phase precession, while runs that grazed a grid field tangentially led to a steeper phase-precession slope than runs through the field center. Oscillatory interference models for grid cells do not reproduce the observed phenomena. PMID:24959748
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pál, András; Kocsis, Bence
2008-09-01
Transiting exoplanetary systems are surpassingly important among the planetary systems since they provide the widest spectrum of information for both the planet and the host star. If a transiting planet is on an eccentric orbit, the duration of transits TD is sensitive to the orientation of the orbital ellipse relative to the line of sight. The precession of the orbit results in a systematic variation in both the duration of individual transit events and the observed period between successive transits, Pobs. The periastron of the ellipse slowly precesses due to general relativity and possibly the presence of other planets in the system. This secular precession can be detected through the long-term change in Pobs (transit timing variations, TTV) or in TD (transit duration variations, TDV). We estimate the corresponding precession measurement precision for repeated future observations of the known eccentric transiting exoplanetary systems (XO-3b, HD 147506b, GJ 436b and HD 17156b) using existing or planned space-borne instruments. The TDV measurement improves the precession detection sensitivity by orders of magnitude over the TTV measurement. We find that TDV measurements over a approximately 4yr period can typically detect the precession rate to a precision well exceeding the level predicted by general relativity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
DeHart, Russell; Smith, Eric; Lakin, John
2015-01-01
The spin period to precession period ratio of a non-axisymmetric spin-stabilized spacecraft, the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), was used to estimate the remaining mass and distribution of fuel within its propulsion system. This analysis was undertaken once telemetry suggested that two of the four fuel tanks had no propellant remaining, contrary to pre-launch expectations of the propulsion system performance. Numerical integration of possible fuel distributions was used to calculate moments of inertia for the spinning spacecraft. A Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of output from a dynamics simulation was employed to relate calculated moments of inertia to spin and precession periods. The resulting modeled ratios were compared to the actual spin period to precession period ratio derived from the effect of post-maneuver nutation angle on sun sensor measurements. A Monte Carlo search was performed to tune free parameters using the observed spin period to precession period ratio over the life of the mission. This novel analysis of spin and precession periods indicates that at the time of launch, propellant was distributed unevenly between the two pairs of fuel tanks, with one pair having approximately 20% more propellant than the other pair. Furthermore, it indicates the pair of the tanks with less fuel expelled all of its propellant by 2014 and that approximately 46 kg of propellant remains in the other two tanks, an amount that closely matches the operational fuel accounting estimate. Keywords: Fuel Distribution, Moments of Inertia, Precession, Spin, Nutation
Gerhardt, S. P.; Belova, E. V.; Yamada, M.; Ji, H.; Jacobson, C. M.; McGeehan, B.; Ren, Y.; Inomoto, M.; Maqueda, R.
2008-02-15
Oblate field-reversed configurations (FRCs) have been sustained for >300 {mu}s, or >15 magnetic diffusion times, through the use of an inductive solenoid. These argon FRCs can have their poloidal flux sustained or increased, depending on the timing and strength of the induction. An inward pinch is observed during sustainment, leading to a peaking of the pressure profile and maintenance of the FRC equilibrium. The good stability observed in argon (and krypton) does not transfer to lighter gases, which develop terminal co-interchange instabilities. The stability in argon and krypton is attributed to a combination of external field shaping, magnetic diffusion, and finite-Larmor radius effects.
Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Gen
2011-02-15
First-order quantum correction to the Larmor radiation is investigated on the basis of the scalar QED on a homogeneous background of a time-dependent electric field, which is a generalization of a recent work by Higuchi and Walker so as to be extended for an accelerated charged particle in a relativistic motion. We obtain a simple approximate formula for the quantum correction in the limit of the relativistic motion when the direction of the particle motion is parallel to that of the electric field.
Millennial scale climatic responses through a Late Miocene precession cycle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marzocchi, Alice; Lunt, Dan; Flecker, Rachel; Bradshaw, Catherine
2014-05-01
Late Miocene (11.61-5.33 Ma) climate is thought to have been warmer and wetter than the present, with nearly ice-free conditions over the Northern Hemisphere, and significant differences in vegetation distribution. There still is considerable uncertainty in the reconstructed CO2 levels for this time period, fostered by the temporally and spatially biased distribution of the available proxy record. Previous model-data comparison studies (i.e. Bradshaw et al., 2012; Pound et al., 2011) highlighted the mismatch between model results and proxy data for this time period. Here, we investigate how taking into account the variability due to changes in orbital forcing can account for some of these differences. We also explore the orbital control on the monsoonal systems at millennial scale resolution, as well as the impact of background CO2 on orbital sensitivity. Long-term changes in seasonal and latitudinal solar insolation are generated by periodic oscillations in the Earth's orbit and tilt relative to the Sun. These cycles have a modulating effect on climate and ocean circulation patterns. A record of this signal can be found in a number of terrestrial and marine sedimentary sequences. A series of 22 fully coupled atmosphere-ocean-vegetation simulations has been run through an entire precession cycle during the Late Miocene (~6.5 Ma). These experiments were performed using HadCM3L (Hadley Centre Coupled Model, Version 3 - Low resolution ocean) with TRIFFID (Top-down Representation of Interactive Foliage and Flora Including Dynamics) to test the climatic response to changes in orbital forcing. The Mediterranean Sea provides a remarkable geological record for this time slice. Several sequences around the basin margins have been astronomically tuned so that high resolution geological data can be directly compared with our model results. However, this is not the case for the rest of the world, where the distribution of climate proxy data for the Late Miocene is sparse
Global temperatures, precession, and CO{sub 2}
Thomson, D.J.
1995-12-31
Despite much work, the effects of the increasing quantities of carbon dioxide and other so-called {open_quotes}greenhouse gases{close_quotes} on the earth`s climate remain controversial. I show that previous statistical analyses of the climate time series are flawed due to inappropriate assumptions about the timing of the seasons and that the seasonal cycle appears to be changing at an unprecedented rate as a result of greenhouse forcing. Writing the dominant component of the annual seasonal temperature cycle as A(t) cos(2{pi}t + {theta}(t)) where t time in years, and the phase, {theta}(t), describes the timing of the seasons, I show that: From the start of the instrumental series in 1659, up to about 1940, the phase of the Northern Hemisphere temperature {theta}(t) has a decreasing linear trend of about 50 arc-seconds per year. Since about 1940 the phase of the annual cycle has increased rapidly at an average rate of 300 arc-seconds per year with even more rapid changes at many individual stations. From these observations I conclude: (1) From 1669 to 1940 the temperature cycle usually follows perihelion rather the equinoxes. (2) The change after 1940 may be accounted for as a result in the increase in the direct radiation component of temperature by CO{sub 2} relative to transport. (3) The apparent seasonal dependence of the slope of the hemispheric temperature records over the last century noted by several researchers is an artifact of ignoring precession. (4) Changes in CO{sub 2} resulting from human activities are causing large, and readily observable, changes both in the average temperature and in the seasonal cycle.
Influence of orbital precession on the polar methane accumulation on Titan
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, J.; Schneider, T.
2014-12-01
Data collected by Cassini Spacecraft indicate that lakes on Titan are primarily found in the polar regions, preferentially in the north. It has been suggested that the hemispherical asymmetry in lake distribution is related to Saturn's orbital precession, which changes the seasonal distribution of solar radiation on Titan, but not the annual mean (Aharonson et al., 2009; Schneider et al., 2012). Saturn's current longitude of perihelion is near northern winter solstice. Hence, the northern summer on Titan is longer and less intense than the southern summer. The longer northern summer leads to greater net precipitation in the annual mean and the methane accumulation over the northern polar region (Schneider et al. 2012). Saturn's perihelion precesses over an approximately 45-kyr period, so the solar radiation at the top of Titan's atmosphere varies on this time scale. Here we investigate how the orbital precession influences the polar methane accumulation with a three-dimensional atmospheric model coupled to a dynamic surface reservoir of methane (Schneider et al. 2012). We find that methane accumulation is closely tied to Saturn's orbital precession. At the time when Saturn's longitude of perihelion is 180 degree away from the present day value, methane is mainly accumulated in the southern polar region due to the stronger annual-mean precipitation there induced by the longer southern summer. The annual-mean evaporation is largely unchanged with orbital precession, since it scales with the annual-mean insolation, which does not change under orbital precession. When Saturn's longitude of perihelion is close to equinox, methane is approximately evenly distributed in the northern and southern polar regions, and the lake dichotomy disappears. The timescale of methane redistribution from one pole to the other is short compared with the timescale of orbital precession, so the surface methane distribution can be viewed as being approximately in equilibrium with the solar
Precession and accretion in circumbinary discs: the case of HD 104237
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dunhill, A. C.; Cuadra, J.; Dougados, C.
2015-04-01
We present the results of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of the disc around the young, eccentric stellar binary HD 104237. We find that the binary clears out a large cavity in the disc, driving a significant eccentricity at the cavity edge. This then precesses around the binary at a rate of dot{\\varpi } = 0.48°Tb^{-1}, which for HD 104237 corresponds to a precession period of 40 years. We find that the accretion pattern into the cavity and on to the binary changes with this precession, resulting in a periodic accretion variability driven purely by the physical parameters of the binary and its orbit. For each star we find that this results in order of magnitude changes in the accretion rate. We also find that the accretion variability allows the primary to accrete gas at a higher rate than the secondary for approximately half of each precession period. Using a large number of three-body integrations of test particles orbiting different binaries, we find good agreement between the precession rate of a test particle and our SPH disc precession. These rates also agree very well with the precession rates predicted by the analytic theory of Leung & Lee, showing that their prescription can be accurately used to predict long-term accretion variability time-scales for eccentric binaries accreting from a disc. We discuss the implications of our result, and suggest that this process provides a viable way of preserving unequal-mass ratios in accreting eccentric binaries in both the stellar and supermassive black hole regimes.
Spectral element simulation of precession driven flows in the outer cores of spheroidal planets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vormann, Jan; Hansen, Ulrich
2015-04-01
A common feature of the planets in the solar system is the precession of the rotation axes, driven by the gravitational influence of another body (e.g. the Earth's moon). In a precessing body, the rotation axis itself is rotating around another axis, describing a cone during one precession period. Similar to the coriolis and centrifugal force appearing from the transformation to a rotating system, the addition of precession adds another term to the Navier-Stokes equation, the so called Poincaré force. The main geophysical motivation in studying precession driven flows comes from their ability to act as magnetohydrodynamic dynamos in planets and moons. Precession may either act as the only driving force or operate together with other forces such as thermochemical convection. One of the challenges in direct numerical simulations of such flows lies in the spheroidal shape of the fluid volume, which should not be neglected since it contributes an additional forcing trough pressure torques. Codes developed for the simulation of flows in spheres mostly use efficient global spectral algorithms that converge fast, but lack geometric flexibility, while local methods are usable in more complex shapes, but often lack high accuracy. We therefore adapted the spectral element code Nek5000, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, to the problem. The spectral element method is capable of solving for the flow in arbitrary geometries while still offering spectral convergence. We present first results for the simulation of a purely hydrodynamic, precession-driven flow in a spheroid with no-slip boundaries and an inner core. The driving by the Poincaré force is in a range where theoretical work predicts multiple solutions for a laminar flow. Our simulations indicate a transition to turbulent flows for Ekman numbers of 10-6 and lower.
Understanding the Effect of Precession on South American Climate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, X.; Battisti, D. S.
2014-12-01
The oxygen isotope concentration in calcite (δ18Oc) in speleothems over South America shows a distinct spatial pattern of change for the past 250,000 years orchestrated by precessional forcing. Using an isotope-enabled model (ECHAM4.6) coupled to a slab ocean model, we study how and why precession changes the climate of South America. Two experiments, called the "low insolation" experiment and "high insolation" experiment, were performed with the same modern boundary conditions, but forced with the extreme minimum and maximum of Southern Hemisphere (SH) summer insolation, respectively. Differences between these two experiments ("low" minus "high") display as a dipole pattern: less precipitation and heavier precipitation-weighted δ18O (δ18Op) along the Andes, and more precipitation and lighter δ18Op in northeastern Brazil. The differences in δ18Op are consistent with δ18Oc of speleothems, in terms of both sign and magnitude. Further analysis of the δ18O of precipitation, the δ18O of water vapor and the probability distribution function (pdf) of precipitation intensity reveals that changes in both the seasonality of precipitation and the "amount effect" contribute to the heavier δ18Op along the Andes, while the "amount effect" almost exclusively contributes to the lighter δ18Op in northeastern Brazil. To identify the causes of precipitation response, three additional experiments are performed with localized albedo increase over South America and/or Africa. These show that the decrease in precipitation along the Andes is caused by cooling of South American continent, whereas the increase in precipitation over northeastern Brazil is associated with cooling of northern Africa. Reduction of SH summer insolation cools both South America and northern Africa. Cooling of South America weakens the South American summer monsoon (SASM) and changes the pdf of precipitation intensity over tropical South America and along the Andes; contrary to previous suggestions
Effective potentials and morphological transitions for binary black hole spin precession.
Kesden, Michael; Gerosa, Davide; O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Berti, Emanuele; Sperhake, Ulrich
2015-02-27
We derive an effective potential for binary black hole (BBH) spin precession at second post-Newtonian order. This effective potential allows us to solve the orbit-averaged spin-precession equations analytically for arbitrary mass ratios and spins. These solutions are quasiperiodic functions of time: after a fixed period, the BBH spins return to their initial relative orientations and jointly precess about the total angular momentum by a fixed angle. Using these solutions, we classify BBH spin precession into three distinct morphologies between which BBHs can transition during their inspiral. We also derive a precession-averaged evolution equation for the total angular momentum that can be integrated on the radiation-reaction time and identify a new class of spin-orbit resonances that can tilt the direction of the total angular momentum during the inspiral. Our new results will help efforts to model and interpret gravitational waves from generic BBH mergers and predict the distributions of final spins and gravitational recoils. PMID:25768748
Theta Phase Precession in Rat Ventral Striatum Links Place and Reward Information
Redish, A. David
2011-01-01
A functional interaction between the hippocampal formation and the ventral striatum is thought to contribute to the learning and expression of associations between places and rewards. However, the mechanism of how such associations may be learned and used is currently unknown. We recorded neural ensembles and local field potentials from the ventral striatum and CA1 simultaneously as rats ran a modified T-maze. Theta-modulated cells in ventral striatum almost invariably showed firing phase precession relative to the hippocampal theta rhythm. Across the population of ventral striatal cells, phase precession was preferentially associated with an anticipatory ramping of activity up to the reward sites. In contrast, CA1 population activity and phase precession were distributed more uniformly. Ventral striatal phase precession was stronger to hippocampal than ventral striatal theta and was accompanied by increased theta coherence with hippocampus, suggesting that this effect is hippocampally derived. These results suggest that the firing phase of ventral striatal neurons contains motivationally relevant information and that phase precession serves to bind hippocampal place representations to ventral striatal representations of reward. PMID:21414906
Misaligned Spin and Orbital Axes Cause the Anomalous Precession of DI Herculis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Albrecht, Simon; Reffert, Sabine; Snellen, Ignas A. G.; Winn, Joshua N.
2009-01-01
In this case we applied our Rossiter-McLaughlin methodology to a binary star, rather than a star-planet system. The orbits of binary stars precess as a result of general relativistic effects, forces arising from the asphericity of the stars, and forces from any additional stars or planets in the system. For most binaries, the theoretical and observed precession rates are in agreement. However, one system known as DI Herculis has resisted explanation for 30 years. The observed precession rate is a factor of four slower than the theoretical rate, a disagreement that once was interpreted as evidence for a failure of general relativity. Among the contemporary explanations are the existence of a circumbinary planet and a large tilt of the stellar spin axes with respect to the orbit. In this paper we reported that both stars of DI Herculis rotate with their spin axes nearly perpendicular to the orbital axis (contrary to the usual assumption for close binary stars). The rotationally induced stellar oblateness causes precession in the direction opposite to that of relativistic precession, thereby reconciling the theoretical and observed rates.
Precession-tracking coordinates for simulations of compact-object binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ossokine, Serguei; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Pfeiffer, Harald P.
2013-10-01
Binary black hole simulations with black hole excision using spectral methods require a coordinate transformation into a corotating coordinate system where the black holes are essentially at rest. This paper presents and discusses two coordinate transformations that are applicable to precessing binary systems, one based on Euler angles, the other on quaternions. Both approaches are found to work well for binaries with moderate precession, i.e., for cases where the orientation of the orbital plane changes by ≪90°. For strong precession, performance of the Euler-angle parametrization deteriorates, eventually failing for a 90° change in orientation because of singularities in the parametrization (“gimbal lock”). In contrast, the quaternion representation is invariant under an overall rotation and handles any orientation of the orbital plane as well as the Euler-angle technique handles nonprecessing binaries.
Simulation of Statistical Fluctuations in the Spin Precession Measurements at RHIC
Poblaguev, A. A.
2014-02-25
Measurements of the driven spin coherent precession S_{x}(t)=S_{x}^{(0)} - S_{x}^{(1)} sin(ωt+φ_{0}) were initiated in RHIC Run13. The expected value of the precession amplitude S_{x}^{(1)} ~ 2 x 10^{-4} is about the statistical error in a single measurement and data fit gives a biased estimate of the S_{x}^{(1)}. For a proper statistical interpretation of the results of the several measurements, statistical fluctuations were studied using Monte-Carlo simulation. Preliminary results of the spin precession measurements in RHIC Run13 are presented.
Nonsingular modeling of the equinoctial precession of planets using the Euler parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gurfil, Pini; Klein, Itzik
2007-01-01
This paper develops a nonsingular model for the effect of equinoctial precession on natural and artificial satellite orbits based on the Euler parameters instead of the Euler angles. The use of Euler parameters removes the zero-inclination singularity in the variational equations, thus facilitating numerical integration of low-inclination orbits. Euler-parameter-based planetary and variational equations are developed. These equations are subsequently used for modeling the long-periodic effect of a uniformly precessing reference frame on a given orbit. The Euler parameter-based model is used for simulating the orbit of Deimos, taking into account the Martian oblateness and precession of the spin axis. It is shown that the new model yields an order-of-magnitude faster simulation than the classical element-based model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Newman, William I.
2012-05-01
Precession of the equinoxes and of satellite orbits for axisymmetric bodies is a celebrated part of the classical and orbital mechanics literature. The theory underlying the behavior of triaxial bodies, particularly when synchronous phase locking is present, has proven to be difficult to evaluate and controversial. We perform a first-principles derivation where we incorporate triaxial geometry into the analysis using a straightforward description of the configuration. We calculate the effect of triaxiality and phase locking upon precession rates by using multiple time scales techniques. This is required to make possible the direct numerical integration of the kinematic equations of motion over solar system time scales. In so doing, we provide a simple derivation of the time-averaged gravitational potential and the associated torque that drives precession, and resolve an outstanding controversy emerging from its calculation.
CYCLIC TRANSIT PROBABILITIES OF LONG-PERIOD ECCENTRIC PLANETS DUE TO PERIASTRON PRECESSION
Kane, Stephen R.; Von Braun, Kaspar; Horner, Jonathan
2012-09-20
The observed properties of transiting exoplanets are an exceptionally rich source of information that allows us to understand and characterize their physical properties. Unfortunately, only a relatively small fraction of the known exoplanets discovered using the radial velocity technique are known to transit their host due to the stringent orbital geometry requirements. For each target, the transit probability and predicted transit time can be calculated to great accuracy with refinement of the orbital parameters. However, the transit probability of short period and eccentric orbits can have a reasonable time dependence due to the effects of apsidal and nodal precession, thus altering their transit potential and predicted transit time. Here we investigate the magnitude of these precession effects on transit probabilities and apply this to the known radial velocity exoplanets. We assess the refinement of orbital parameters as a path to measuring these precessions and cyclic transit probabilities.
Park, Youn Ho; Kim, Hyung-Jun; Chang, Joonyeon; Choi, Heon-Jin; Koo, Hyun Cheol
2015-10-01
In a semiconductor channel, spin-orbit interaction is divided into two terms, Rashba and Dresselhaus effects, which are key phenomena for modulating spin precession angles. The direction of Rashba field is always perpendicular to the wavevector but that of Dresselhaus field depends on the crystal orientation. Based on the individual Rashba and Dresselhaus strengths, we calculate spin precession angles for various crystal orientations in an InAs quantum well structure. When the channel length is 1 μm, the precession angle is 550° for the [110] direction and 460° for the [1-10] direction, respectively. Using the two spin transistors with different crystal directions, which play roles of n- and p-type transistors in conventional charge transistors, we propose a complementary logic device. PMID:26726362
The Origin of Warped, Precessing Accretion Disks in X-ray Binaries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maloney, Philip R.; Begelman, Mitchell C.
1997-01-01
The radiation-driven warping instability discovered by Pringle holds considerable promise as the mechanism responsible for producing warped, precessing accretion disks in X-ray binaries. This instability is an inherently global mode of the disk, thereby avoiding the difficulties with earlier models for the precession. Here we follow up on earlier work to study the linear behavior of the instability in the specific context of a binary system. We treat the influence of the companion as an orbit-averaged quadrupole torque on the disk. The presence of this external torque allows the existence of solutions in which the direction of precession of the warp is retrograde with respect to disk rotation, in addition to the prograde solutions that exist in the absence of external torques.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zimmermann, M.; Szedenits, E., Jr.
1979-01-01
An axially symmetric, torque-free rigid body, rotating and precessing, emits gravitational quadrupole radiation at two frequencies, omega and 2 omega, corresponding to the l = 2, m = 1,2 spherical harmonics. The paper presents explicitly the waveforms of the two polarizations at both frequencies. From observations of gravitational waves, one can derive information about the body's orientation and its precession amplitude. Electromagnetic radiation emitted by a spot fixed on the surface of the body arrives in pulses at a mean frequency Omega which is typically different from omega. If the body is not axially symmetric but the amplitude of the precession is small, the gravitational radiation at the lower frequency omega is split into two frequencies on either side of the electromagnetic pulse frequency. Explicit waveforms for the two polarizations in this case are also presented.
Origin of light-induced precession of magnetization in ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rozkotova, Eva; Nemec, Petr; Sprinzl, Daniel; Tesarova, Nada; Maly, Petr; Novak, Vit; Olejnik, Kamil; Zemen, Jan; Cukr, Miroslav; Jungwirth, Tomas; Wunderlich, Joerg
2009-03-01
The impact of femtosecond laser pulse leads to the precession of magnetization in (Ga,Mn)As, which can be detected by the time- resolved Kerr rotation (KR) technique. Even though this phenomenon is known for several years [1], the exact physical mechanism inducing the precession is still not clear [2,3]. We show, by a detailed comparison of the KR experimental results and the microscopic calculations of the magnetic anisotropy, that the precession is a consequence of the anisotropy field modification due to the laser pulse-induced change of hole concentration and lattice temperature. [1] A. Oiwa, H. Takechi, H. Munekata, J. Supercond. 18, 9 (2005).[2] Y. Hashimoto, S. Kobayashi, H. Munekata, PRL 100, 067202 (2008).[3] E. Rozkotova, P. Nemec, P. Horodyska, D. Sprinzl, F. Trojanek, P. Maly, V. Novak, K. Olejnik, M. Cukr, T. Jungwirth, Appl. Phys. Lett 92, 122507 (2008).
Subcritical transition to turbulence of a precessing flow in a cylindrical vessel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herault, Johann; Gundrum, Thomas; Giesecke, André; Stefani, Frank
2015-12-01
The transition to turbulence in a precessing cylindrical vessel is experimentally investigated. Our measurements are performed for a nearly resonant configuration with an initially laminar flow dominated by an inertial mode with azimuthal wave number m = 1 superimposed on a solid body rotation. By increasing the precession ratio, we observe a transition from the laminar to a non-linear regime, which then breakdowns to turbulence for larger precession ratio. Our measurements show that the transition to turbulence is subcritical, with a discontinuity of the wall-pressure and the power consumption at the threshold ɛLT. The turbulence is self-sustained below this threshold, describing a bifurcation diagram with a hysteresis. In this range of the control parameters, the turbulent flows can suddenly collapse after a finite duration, leading to a definitive relaminarization of the flow. The average lifetime <τ> of the turbulence increases rapidly when ɛ tends to ɛLT.
On the three-dimensional precessing jet flow past a sudden expansion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cafiero, Gioacchino; Ceglia, Giuseppe; Discetti, Stefano; Ianiro, Andrea; Astarita, Tommaso; Cardone, Gennaro
2014-02-01
A circular jet flow past an abrupt expansion under some conditions switches intermittently between two states: quasi-axisymmetric expansion and gyroscopic-like precessing motion. In this work, an experimental investigation into the self-excited precessing flow generated by a 5:1 expansion of a round jet in a coaxial cylindrical chamber is carried out by means of tomographic particle image velocimetry. The experiments are performed on a jet issued from a short pipe at a Reynolds number equal to 150,000. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is applied to extract information on the organization of the large coherent structures of the precessing motion. The application of this technique highlights the dominance of three modes: the most energetic two are associated with the jet precession; the third one is representative of the axial motion. An estimate of the precession probability based on the modal energy obtained from the application of POD is proposed. The precession frequency is extracted using a low-order reconstruction (LOR) of a subset of the POD modes. The reconstructed flow field topology obtained by the LOR highlights an underlying mechanism of swirl generation in proximity of the inlet nozzle; the phenomenon is closely related to the interaction between the entrainment in the far field and the recirculation regions in the near field. The application of a stability criterion shows that the self-induced swirl flow results to be unstable. The instability is responsible for the generation of helical-shaped vortices in the near field, even though the dominant feature for the unconfined jet issued from the same nozzle is the axisymmetric ring-vortices generation.
Jupiter spin-pole precession rate and moment of inertia from Juno radio-science observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le Maistre, S.; Folkner, W. M.; Jacobson, R. A.; Serra, D.
2016-07-01
Through detailed and realistic numerical simulations, the present paper assesses the precision with which the Juno spacecraft can measure the normalized polar moment of inertia (MOI) of Jupiter. Based on Ka-band Earth-based Doppler data, created with realistic 10 μm/s of white noise at 60 s of integration, this analysis shows that the determination of the precession rate of Jupiter is by far more efficient than the Lense-Thirring effect previously proposed to determine the moment of inertia and therefore to constrain the internal structure of the giant planet with Juno. We show that the Juno mission will allow the estimation of the precession rate of Jupiter's pole with an accuracy better than 0.1%. We provide an equation relating the pole precession rate and the normalized polar moment of inertia of Jupiter. Accounting for the uncertainty in the parameters affecting precession, we show that the accuracy of the MOI inferred from the precession rate is also better than 0.1%, and at least 50 times better than inferred from the Lense-Thirring acceleration undergone by Juno. This accuracy of the MOI determination should provide tight constraints on the interior structure of Jupiter, especially the core size and mass, helping to distinguish among competing scenarios of formation and evolution of the giant planet. In addition, though the Juno mission operations are already defined, the exact duration of the tracking and its occurrence with respect to the spacecraft pericenter pass are not definitely scheduled. The simulations performed here quantify the impact of this aspect of the mission on the Juno sensitivity to (in particular) the spin-pole precession rate of Jupiter. Finally, additional simulations have been performed to test the usefulness of combining Doppler data with VLBI data, showing the latter measurements to be 104-105 times less sensitive than the former to our parameters of interest and therefore, obviously, totally needless.
Predicting Precession Rates from Secular Dynamics for Extra-solar Multi-planet Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Van Laerhoven, Christa
2015-12-01
Considering the secular dynamics of multi-planet systems provides substantial insight into the interactions between planets in those systems. Secular interactions are those that don't involve knowing where a planet is along its orbit, and they dominate when planets are not involved in mean motion resonances. These interactions exchange angular momentum among the planets, evolving their eccentricities and inclinations. To second order in the planets' eccentricities and inclinations, the eccentricity and inclination perturbations are decoupled. Given the right variable choice, the relevant differential equations are linear and thus the eccentricity and inclination behaviors can be described as a sum of eigenmodes. Since the underlying structure of the secular eigenmodes can be calculated using only the planets' masses and semi-major axes, one can elucidate the eccentricity and inclination behavior of planets in exoplanet systems even without knowing the planets' current eccentricities and inclinations. I have calculated both the eccentricity and inclination secular eigenmodes for the population of known multi-planet systems whose planets have well determined masses and periods and have used this to predict what range of pericenter precession (and nodal regression) rates the planets may have. One might have assumed that in any given system the planets with shorter periods would have faster precession rates, but I show that this is not necessarily the case. Planets that are 'loners' have narrow ranges of possible precession rates, while planets that are 'groupies' can have a wider range of possible precession rates. Several planets are expected to undergo significant precession on few-year timescales and many planets (though not the majority of planets) will undergo significant precession on decade timescales.
Lyutyy, T V; Denisov, S I; Reva, V V; Bystrik, Yu S
2015-10-01
We study the deterministic and stochastic rotational dynamics of ferromagnetic nanoparticles in a precessing magnetic field. Our approach is based on the system of effective Langevin equations and on the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation. Two key characteristics of the rotational dynamics, namely the average angular frequency of precession of nanoparticles and their average magnetization, are of interest. Using the Langevin and Fokker-Planck equations, we calculate both analytically and numerically these characteristics in the deterministic and stochastic cases, determine their dependence on the model parameters, and analyze in detail the role of thermal fluctuations. PMID:26565245
Precession Constant Correction and Proper Motion Systems of FK5 and Hipparcos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Zi
2007-07-01
Results of many researches have shown that the relation between the proper motion systems of FK5 and Hipparcos is not consistent with the precession constant corrections determined by VLBI and LLR. We analysed proper motion data of PPM and ACRS based on the FK5 system for many different sub-samples and found that consistent values of the precession correction and equinox motion correction can not be given by either PPM or ACRS proper motion data, thereby indicating that the internal systematic error of the FK5 proper motion is the main underlying factor of the inconsistency.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyutyy, T. V.; Denisov, S. I.; Reva, V. V.; Bystrik, Yu. S.
2015-10-01
We study the deterministic and stochastic rotational dynamics of ferromagnetic nanoparticles in a precessing magnetic field. Our approach is based on the system of effective Langevin equations and on the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation. Two key characteristics of the rotational dynamics, namely the average angular frequency of precession of nanoparticles and their average magnetization, are of interest. Using the Langevin and Fokker-Planck equations, we calculate both analytically and numerically these characteristics in the deterministic and stochastic cases, determine their dependence on the model parameters, and analyze in detail the role of thermal fluctuations.
New test of general relativity - Measurement of de Sitter geodetic precession rate for lunar perigee
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bertotti, Bruno; Ciufolini, Ignazio; Bender, Peter L.
1987-01-01
According to general relativity, the calculated rate of motion of lunar perigee should include a contribution of 19.2 msec/yr from geodetic precession. It is shown that existing analyses of lunar-laser-ranging data confirm the general-relativistic rate for geodetic precession with respect to the planetary dynamical frame. In addition, the comparison of earth-rotation results from lunar laser ranging and from VLBI shows that the relative drift of the planetary dynamical frame and the extragalactic VLBI reference frame is small. The estimated accuracy is about 10 percent.
Regular and chaotic precession of magnetization in magnetic films with a stripe domain structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shutyĭ, A. M.
2008-12-01
Based on a numerical solution of the equations of motion found over a wide range of frequencies of an alternating magnetic field, the nonlinear precession dynamics of magnetization are studied in thin-film structures of the (100) type with a stripe domain structure in a perpendicular bias field. The conditions are determined under which high-amplitude regular and chaotic dynamic regimes occur. Bifurcational variations in the precession of coupled magnetic moments and dynamic-bistability states are detected. The specific features of the spectrum of Lyapunov exponents and of time analogs of Poincaré cross sections of trajectories in chaotic regimes are considered.
Current-Controlled Spin Precession of Quasistationary Electrons in a Cubic Spin-Orbit Field.
Altmann, P; Hernandez, F G G; Ferreira, G J; Kohda, M; Reichl, C; Wegscheider, W; Salis, G
2016-05-13
Space- and time-resolved measurements of spin drift and diffusion are performed on a GaAs-hosted two-dimensional electron gas. For spins where forward drift is compensated by backward diffusion, we find a precession frequency in the absence of an external magnetic field. The frequency depends linearly on the drift velocity and is explained by the cubic Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction, for which drift leads to a spin precession angle twice that of spins that diffuse the same distance. PMID:27232032
Current-Controlled Spin Precession of Quasistationary Electrons in a Cubic Spin-Orbit Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Altmann, P.; Hernandez, F. G. G.; Ferreira, G. J.; Kohda, M.; Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W.; Salis, G.
2016-05-01
Space- and time-resolved measurements of spin drift and diffusion are performed on a GaAs-hosted two-dimensional electron gas. For spins where forward drift is compensated by backward diffusion, we find a precession frequency in the absence of an external magnetic field. The frequency depends linearly on the drift velocity and is explained by the cubic Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction, for which drift leads to a spin precession angle twice that of spins that diffuse the same distance.
The evolution of adopted values for precession. [historical survey of reference systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lieske, J. H.
1985-01-01
The history of astronomical longitude precession determination is reviewed. Consideration is given to the work of Hipparchus and Ptolemy, the definition of rotation axes, the major 19th-century determinations, and 20th-century studies (using the data of Newcomb; based on PGC, GC, and McCormick/Cape catalogs; using FK3, FK4, and AGK3; involving galaxies; and using the dynamical method). Laser ranging and VLBI are seen as the most promising techniques for future precession measurements. Diagrams, graphs, and tables of numerical data are provided.
Magnetization switching by microwaves initially rotating in opposite direction to precession
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taniguchi, Tomohiro
2015-12-01
A common understanding of magnetization switching in microwave-assisted magnetization reversal is that the rotation direction of the microwaves should be the same as the precession direction of the magnetization. In this letter, however, we show that microwaves initially rotating opposite to the magnetization precession destabilize the magnetization at an equilibrium and induce switching more efficiently when the microwave frequency depends on time. This argument is analytically deduced from an energy balance equation. We also establish a model satisfying this condition and confirm magnetization switching solely by microwaves by using numerical simulation.
Probing white dwarf interiors with LISA: periastron precession in eccentric double white dwarfs.
Willems, B; Vecchio, A; Kalogera, V
2008-02-01
In globular clusters, dynamical interactions give rise to a population of eccentric double white dwarfs detectable by the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) up to the Large Magellanic Cloud. In this Letter, we explore the detectability of periastron precession in these systems with LISA. Unlike previous investigations, we consider contributions due to tidal and rotational distortions of the binary components in addition to general relativistic contributions to the periastron precession. At orbital frequencies above a few mHz, we find that tides and stellar rotation dominate, opening up a possibly unique window to the study of the interior and structure of white dwarfs. PMID:18352253
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Borsody, J.
1976-01-01
Equations are derived by using the maximum principle to maximize the payload of a reusable tug for planetary missions. The analysis includes a correction for precession of the space shuttle orbit. The tug returns to this precessed orbit (within a specified time) and makes the required nodal correction. A sample case is analyzed that represents an inner planet mission as specified by a fixed declination and right ascension of the outgoing asymptote and the mission energy. The reusable stage performance corresponds to that of a typical cryogenic tug. Effects of space shuttle orbital inclination, several trajectory parameters, and tug thrust on payload are also investigated.
Niklowitz, P G; Pfleiderer, C; Keller, T; Vojta, M; Huang, Y-K; Mydosh, J A
2010-03-12
We report for the first time simultaneous microscopic measurements of the lattice constants, the distribution of the lattice constants, and the antiferromagnetic moment in high-purity URu(2)Si(2), combining Larmor and conventional neutron diffraction at low temperatures and pressures up to 18 kbar. Our data demonstrate quantitatively that the small moment in the hidden order (HO) of URu(2)Si(2) is purely parasitic. The excellent experimental conditions we achieve allow us to resolve that the transition line between HO and large-moment antiferromagnetism (LMAF), which stabilizes under pressure, is intrinsically first order and ends in a bicritical point. Therefore, the HO and LMAF must have different symmetry, which supports exotic scenarios of the HO such as orbital currents, helicity order, or multipolar order. PMID:20366444
Pure collective precession motion of a high-spin torus isomer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ichikawa, T.; Matsuyanagi, K.; Maruhn, J. A.; Itagaki, N.
2014-01-01
We investigate the precession motion of the exotic torus configuration in high-spin excited states of 40Ca. For this aim, we use the three-dimensional time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) method. Although the high-spin torus isomer is a unique quantum object characterized by the alignment of angular momenta of independent single-particle motions, we find that the obtained moment of inertia for rotations about an axis perpendicular to the symmetry axis is close to the rigid-body value. We also analyze the microscopic structure of the precession motion using the random-phase approximation (RPA) method for high-spin states. In the RPA calculation, the precession motion of the torus isomer is generated by coherent superposition of many one-particle-one-hole excitations across the sloping Fermi surface that strongly violates the time-reversal symmetry. By comparing results of the TDHF and the RPA calculations, we find that the precession motion obtained by the TDHF calculation is a pure collective motion well decoupled from other collective modes.
THE DETECTABILITY OF TRANSIT DEPTH VARIATIONS DUE TO EXOPLANETARY OBLATENESS AND SPIN PRECESSION
Carter, Joshua A.; Winn, Joshua N.
2010-06-10
Knowledge of an exoplanet's oblateness and obliquity would give clues about its formation and internal structure. In principle, a light curve of a transiting planet bears information about the planet's shape, but previous work has shown that the oblateness-induced signal will be extremely difficult to detect. Here, we investigate the potentially larger signals due to planetary spin precession. The most readily detectable effects are transit depth variations (T{delta}V's) in a sequence of light curves. For a planet as oblate as Jupiter or Saturn, the transit depth will undergo fractional variations of order 1%. The most promising systems are those with orbital periods of approximately 15-30 days, which are short enough for the precession period to be less than about 40 yr and long enough to avoid spin-down due to tidal friction. The detectability of the T{delta}V signal would be enhanced by moons (which would decrease the precession period) or planetary rings (which would increase the amplitude). The Kepler mission should find several planets for which precession-induced T{delta}V signals will be detectable. Due to modeling degeneracies, Kepler photometry would yield only a lower bound on oblateness. The degeneracy could be lifted by observing the oblateness-induced asymmetry in at least one transit light curve or by making assumptions about the planetary interior.
Measurement of the Nodal Precession of WASP-33 b via Doppler Tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Marshall C.; Cochran, William D.; Collier Cameron, Andrew; Bayliss, Daniel
2015-09-01
We have analyzed new and archival time series spectra taken six years apart during transits of the hot Jupiter WASP-33 b, and spectroscopically resolved the line profile perturbation caused by the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. The motion of this line profile perturbation is determined by the path of the planet across the stellar disk, which we show to have changed between the two epochs due to nodal precession of the planetary orbit. We measured rates of change of the impact parameter and the sky-projected spin-orbit misalignment of {db}/{dt}={-0.0228}-0.0018+0.0050 {{yr}}-1 and dλ /{dt}={-0\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 487}-0.076+0.089 {{yr}}-1, respectively, corresponding to a rate of nodal precession of d{{Ω }}/{dt}=0\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} {373}-0.083+0.031 {{yr}}-1. This is only the second measurement of nodal precession for a confirmed exoplanet transiting a single star. Finally, we used the rate of precession to set limits on the stellar gravitational quadrupole moment of 0.0054≤slant {J}2≤slant 0.035.
Numerical expressions for precession formulae and mean elements for the Moon and the planets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simon, J. L.; Bretagnon, P.; Chapront, J.; Chapront-Touze, M.; Francou, G.; Laskar, J.
1994-02-01
We present, in this paper, a coherent set of formula giving numerical expressions for precession quantities and mean elements of the Moon and the planets. First, using the notations of Lieske et al. (1977), we construct expressions for the precession quantities based upon the use of the secular variations of the ecliptic pole from the planetary theories built at the Bureau des Longitudes and taking into account recent determinations of the precession constant and of the obliquity in J2000. Also we give the derivatives of these expressions with respect to the masses of the planets, to the precession constant and to the obliquity. So, this set of formulas is applicable whenever the values of the planetary masses and of the constants are improved. Afterwards, we give the mean elements of the Moon and the planets connected to the fixed J2000 ecliptic and connected to the ecliptic of date. At last, we give formula which enable one to compute approximate ephemerides of the Moon and the planets from mean elements.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
O'Donnell, Kane; Visser, Matt
2011-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to provide an elementary introduction to the qualitative and quantitative results of velocity combination in special relativity, including the Wigner rotation and Thomas precession. We utilize only the most familiar tools of special relativity, in arguments presented at three differing levels: (1) utterly elementary,…
Zhang, Shi-Chang
2013-10-15
Analytical formulas of the Larmor rotation are derived in detail for the equilibrium electrons motion in a free-electron laser with combination of a three-dimensional (3-D) helical wiggler and a positive or a reversed guide magnetic field. Generally, the Larmor radius in the configuration of a reversed guide field is much smaller than that in a positive guide field. At non-resonance, a helical orbit governed by the zero-order component of a 3-D wiggler field could hold; meanwhile, the higher-harmonic effect definitely influences those electrons with off-axis guiding centers and induces the electron-beam spreads. At resonance, the Larmor radius in the configuration of a positive guide field has a singularity with a limit tending to infinite, which causes all the electrons to hit the waveguide wall before the exit of the wiggler. Although Larmor-radius singularity does not exist in the configuration of a reversed guide field, at anti-resonance, the first-order harmonic of a 3-D wiggler field induces a transverse displacement which rapidly grows in proportion to a square of time, and leads part of the electron beam to hit the waveguide wall before reaching the wiggler exit, which depends on the specific parameters of the individual electrons. The analytical conclusions derived in the present paper are examined by the nonlinear simulations and the experimental observation. Disagreement with the previous literatures is discussed in detail.
Relativistic 3D precessing jet simulations for the X-ray binary SS433
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monceau-Baroux, Rémi; Porth, Oliver; Meliani, Zakaria; Keppens, Rony
2014-01-01
Context. Modern high-resolution radio observations allow us a closer look into the objects that power relativistic jets. This is especially the case for SS433, an X-ray binary that emits a precessing jet that is observed down to the subparsec scale. Aims: We aim to study full 3D dynamics of relativistic jets associated with active galactic nuclei or X-ray binaries (XRB). In particular, we incorporate the precessing motion of a jet into a model for the jet associated with the XRB SS433. Our study of the jet dynamics in this system focuses on the subparsec scales. We investigate the impact of jet precession and the variation of the Lorentz factor of the injected matter on the general 3D jet dynamics and its energy transfer to the surrounding medium. After visualizing and quantifying jet dynamics, we aim to realize synthetic radio mapping of the data, to compare our results with observations. Methods: For our study we used a block-tree adaptive mesh refinement scheme and an inner time-dependent boundary prescription to inject precessing bipolar supersonic jets. Parameters extracted from observations were used. Different 3D jet realizations that match the kinetic flux of the SS433 jet were intercompared, which vary in density contrast and jet beam velocity. We tracked the energy content deposited in different regions of the domain affected by the jet. Our code allows us to follow the adiabatic cooling of a population of relativistic particles injected by the jet. This evolving energy spectrum of accelerated electrons, using a pressure-based proxy for the magnetic field, allowed us to obtain the radio emission from our simulation. Results: We find a higher energy transfer for a precessing jet than for standing jets with otherwise identical parameters as a result of the effectively increased interaction area. We obtain synthetic radio maps for all jets, from which one can see that dynamical flow features are clearly linked with enhanced emission sites. Conclusions: The
The impact of precession and obliquity on the Late-Devonian greenhouse climate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Vleeschouwer, D.; Crucifix, M.; Bounceur, N.; Claeys, P. F.
2012-12-01
To date, only few general circulation model (GCM) have been used to simulate the extremely warm greenhouse climate of the Late-Devonian (~370 Ma). As a consequence, the current knowledge on Devonian climate dynamics comes almost exclusively from geological proxy data. Given the fragmentary nature of these data sources, the understanding of the Devonian climate is rather limited. Nonetheless, the Late-Devonian is a key-period in the evolution of life on Earth: the continents were no longer bare but were invaded by land plants, the first forests appeared, soils were formed, fish evolved to amphibians and 70-80% of all animal species were wiped out during the Late Devonian extinction (~376 Ma). In order to better understand the functioning of the climate system during this highly important period in Earth's history, we applied the HadSM3 climate model to the Devonian period under different astronomical configurations. This approach provides insight into the response of Late-Devonian climate to astronomical forcing due to precession and obliquity. Moreover, the assessment of the sensitivity of the Late-Devonian climate to astronomical forcing, presented here, will allow cyclostratigraphers to make better and more detailed interpretations of recurring patterns often observed in Late-Devonian sections. We simulated Late-Devonian climates by prescribing palaeogeography, vegetation distribution and pCO2 concentration (2180 ppm). Different experiments were carried out under 31 different astronomical configurations: three levels for obliquity (ɛ = 22°; 23.5° and 24.5°) and eccentricity (e = 0; 0.03 and 0.07) were chosen. For precession, 8 levels were considered (longitude of the perihelion= 0°; 45°; 90°; 135°; 180°; 235°; 270°). First results suggest that the intensity of precipitation on the tropical Euramerican continent (also known as Laurussia) is highly dependent on changes in precession: During precession maxima (= maximal insolation in SH during winter
Analysis of spin precession in binary black hole systems including quadrupole-monopole interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Racine, Étienne
2008-08-01
We analyze in detail the spin precession equations in binary black hole systems, when the tidal torque on a Kerr black hole due to quadrupole-monopole coupling is taken into account. We show that completing the precession equations with this term reveals the existence of a conserved quantity at 2PN order when averaging over orbital motion. This quantity allows one to solve the (orbit-averaged) precession equations exactly in the case of equal masses and arbitrary spins, neglecting radiation reaction. For unequal masses, an exact solution does not exist in closed form, but we are still able to derive accurate approximate analytic solutions. We also show how to incorporate radiation-reaction effects into our analytic solutions adiabatically, and compare the results to solutions obtained numerically. For various configurations of the binary, the relative difference in the accumulated orbital phase computed using our analytic solutions versus a full numerical solution varies from ˜0.3% to ˜1.8% over ˜80 140 orbital cycles accumulated while sweeping over the orbital frequency range ˜20 300Hz. This typically corresponds to a discrepancy of order ˜5 6 radians. While this may not be accurate enough for implementation in LIGO template banks, we still believe that our new solutions are potentially quite useful for comparing numerical relativity simulations of spinning binary black hole systems with post-Newtonian theory. They can also be used to gain more understanding of precession effects, with potential application to the gravitational recoil problem, and to provide semianalytical templates for spinning, precessing binaries.
Effects of the observed J2 variations on the Earth's precession and nutation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferrándiz, José M.; Baenas, Tomás; Belda, Santiago
2016-04-01
The Earth's oblateness parameter J2 is closely related to the dynamical ellipticity H, which factorizes the main components of the precession and the different nutation terms. In most theoretical approaches to the Earth's rotation, with IAU2000 nutation theory among them, H is assumed to be constant. The precession model IAU2006 supposes H to have a conventional linear variation, based on the J2 time series derived mainly from satellite laser ranging (SLR) data for decades, which gives rise to an additional quadratic term of the precession in longitude and some corrections of the nutation terms. The time evolution of J2 is, however, too complex to be well approximated by a simple linear model. The effect of more general models including periodic terms and closer to the observed time series, although still unable to reproduce a significant part of the signal, has been seldom investigated. In this work we address the problem of deriving the effect of the observed J2 variations without resorting to such simplified models. The Hamiltonian approach to the Earth rotation is extended to allow the McCullagh's term of the potential to depend on a time-varying oblateness. An analytical solution is derived by means of a suitable perturbation method in the case of the time series provided by the Center for Space Research (CSR) of the University of Texas, which results in non-negligible contributions to the precession-nutation angles. The presentation focuses on the main effects on the longitude of the equator; a noticeable non-linear trend is superimposed to the linear main precession term, along with some periodic and decadal variations.
Magnetization precession of magnetic thin films studied by all optical pump-probe technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michalski, Steven A.
The study of magnetization dynamics such as magnetization precession and precessional damping provides insights into the behavior of complex magnetic systems, and indeed may lead to a better understanding of the fundamental limits of magnetic reversal process. In this work, a time-resolved magneto-optic Kerr effect system (TRMOKE) was developed to study magnetization dynamics: Precession and damping. The system uses a femtosecond laser in a pump-probe experiment with direct optical excitation, very similar to the method introduced by Ganping Ju and coworkers. Also, a model based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation (LLG) was developed and used to interpret and analyze the experimental magnetization precession data of a single magnetic layer. The model can be used to predict the precession frequencies with and without damping, the eigenvectors of the magnetization and allows the Gilbert damping parameter (alpha) to be determined. The model is extended to a system of two magnetic layers coupled through a nonmagnetic spacer layer. The capabilities of the TRMOKE system and the LLG models, were demonstrated by studying the magnetization dynamics of Ni/Pt bilayers. Static and dynamic magnetic properties of exchange-coupled magnetic layers have been investigated by magneto-optical measurements. The samples are [Pt/Co] multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) exchange-coupled to a Co layer with in-plane magnetic anisotropy. The exchange is indirect, realized and tuned by an intervening Pt layer of varying thickness. Both the strength and the angle of an external applied magnetic field were varied and for many samples, two modes with two distinct precession frequencies were observed in the precession measurements. The frequencies of both modes depend on the strength and the angle of the applied magnetic field. The LLG model predicts two precessional modes ("acoustic" and "optic") whose behaviors depend on the strength and sign of the exchange coupling
Turbulence driven by precession in spherical and slightly elongated spheroidal cavities
Goto, Susumu; Matsunaga, Arihiro; Tsuda, Shinya; Fujiwara, Masahiro; Yamato, Masahiro; Nishioka, Michio; Kida, Shigeo
2014-05-15
Motivated by the fascinating fact that strong turbulence can be sustained in a weakly precessing container, we conducted a series of laboratory experiments on the flow in a precessing spherical cavity, and in a slightly elongated prolate spheroidal cavity with a minor-to-major axis ratio of 0.9. In order to determine the conditions required to sustain turbulence in these cavities, and to investigate the statistics of the sustained turbulence, we developed an experimental technique to conduct high-quality flow visualizations as well as measurements via particle image velocimetry on a turntable and by using an intense laser. In general, flows in a precessing cavity are controlled by two non-dimensional parameters: the Reynolds number Re (or its reciprocal, the Ekman number) which is defined by the cavity size, spin angular velocity, and the kinematic viscosity of the confined fluid, and the Poincaré number Po, which is defined by the ratio of the magnitude of the precession angular velocity to that of the spin angular velocity. However, our experiments show that the global flow statistics, such as the mean velocity field and the spatial distribution of the intensity of the turbulence, are almost independent of Re, and they are determined predominantly by Po, whereas the instability of these global flow structures is governed by Re. It is also shown that the turbulence statistics are most likely similar in the two cavities due to the slight difference between their shapes. However, the condition to sustain the unsteady flows, and therefore the turbulence, differs drastically depending on the cavity shape. Interestingly, the asymmetric cavity, i.e., the spheroid, requires a much stronger precession than a sphere to sustain such unsteady flows. The most developed turbulence for a given Re is generated in these cavities when 0.04 ≲ Po ≲ 0.1. In such cases, the sustained turbulence is always accompanied by vigorous large-scale vortical structures, and shearing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mueller, R. S.
1991-02-01
The electromagnetic fields inside and outside a steadily rotating, magnetized, conducting sphere are determined for the cases of nonprecession and precession. In both cases the spin rotational axis is aligned with the magnetic axis of the sphere. The field expressions are those measured in the laboratory reference frame. For a nonprecessing sphere the magnetic fields are identical to the fields of a stationary sphere, but in addition there is an induced induction of order v-squared/c-squared whose lines of force radiate in loops above and below the equator. The electric and magnetic induction field expressions were derived into static and dynamic parts. The amplitudes of these parts were plotted as functions of the angle of inclination of the polar axis. The dynamic parts are circularly and elliptically polarized. The pivot point of the precessing sphere was chosen off center. The only two stable positions are at theta = 0 deg and 180 deg for a center pivot.
Measuring the Lense-Thirring precession using a second Lageos satellite
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tapley, B. D.; Ciufolini, I.
1989-01-01
A complete numerical simulation and error analysis was performed for the proposed experiment with the objective of establishing an accurate assessment of the feasibility and the potential accuracy of the measurement of the Lense-Thirring precession. Consideration was given to identifying the error sources which limit the accuracy of the experiment and proposing procedures for eliminating or reducing the effect of these errors. Analytic investigations were conducted to study the effects of major error sources with the objective of providing error bounds on the experiment. The analysis of realistic simulated data is used to demonstrate that satellite laser ranging of two Lageos satellites, orbiting with supplemental inclinations, collected for a period of 3 years or more, can be used to verify the Lense-Thirring precession. A comprehensive covariance analysis for the solution was also developed.
Self-precession and frequency shift for electromagnetic waves in homogeneous plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arons, J.; Max, C. E.
1974-01-01
The nonlinear propagation of an arbitrarily polarized electromagnetic wave in a uniform plasma is studied. It is shown that nonlinear effects cause precession of the polarization ellipse as the wave propagates. The ellipticity remains constant, but the orientation of the principal axes is rotated relative to its initial value. A relativistic Vlasov model is used to study nonlinear frequency shifts as well as self-precession, in a plasma of arbitrary temperature. Even when the electron temperature is much greater than the product of the electron mass times the square of the velocity of light, the qualitative nature of these two processes remains unchanged, although their dependence on the plasma density is altered in significant ways. Implications of these effects for plasma instabilities driven by strong electromagnetic waves are briefly discussed.
Eggeman, Alexander S; Krakow, Robert; Midgley, Paul A
2015-01-01
Three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions from electron tomography provide important morphological, compositional, optical and electro-magnetic information across a wide range of materials and devices. Precession electron diffraction, in combination with scanning transmission electron microscopy, can be used to elucidate the local orientation of crystalline materials. Here we show, using the example of a Ni-base superalloy, that combining these techniques and extending them to three dimensions, to produce scanning precession electron tomography, enables the 3D orientation of nanoscale sub-volumes to be determined and provides a one-to-one correspondence between 3D real space and 3D reciprocal space for almost any polycrystalline or multi-phase material. PMID:26028514
Eggeman, Alexander S.; Krakow, Robert; Midgley, Paul A.
2015-01-01
Three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions from electron tomography provide important morphological, compositional, optical and electro-magnetic information across a wide range of materials and devices. Precession electron diffraction, in combination with scanning transmission electron microscopy, can be used to elucidate the local orientation of crystalline materials. Here we show, using the example of a Ni-base superalloy, that combining these techniques and extending them to three dimensions, to produce scanning precession electron tomography, enables the 3D orientation of nanoscale sub-volumes to be determined and provides a one-to-one correspondence between 3D real space and 3D reciprocal space for almost any polycrystalline or multi-phase material. PMID:26028514
Laser induced spin precession in highly anisotropic granular L1{sub 0} FePt
Becker, J.; Mosendz, O.; Weller, D.; Kirilyuk, A.; Rasing, Th.; Kimel, A.; Maan, J. C.; Christianen, P. C. M.
2014-04-14
The dynamic magnetic properties of a highly anisotropic, granular L1{sub 0} FePt thin film in magnetic fields up to 7 T are investigated using time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements. We find that ultrashort laser pulses induce coherent spin precession in the granular FePt sample. Frequencies of spin precession up to over 400 GHz are observed, which are strongly field and temperature dependent. The high frequencies can be ascribed to the high value of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant K{sub u} leading to large anisotropy fields H{sub a} of up to 10.7 T at 170 K. A Gilbert damping parameter of α ∼ 0.1 was derived from the lifetimes of the oscillations.
Non-ballistic motion and precessing helical trajectory in quasar NRAO 150
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qian, Shan-Jie
2016-01-01
NRAO 150 is a very special radio quasar in which prominent non-ballistic superluminal motion has been observed in its inner-jet region. We apply model-fittings to the kinematics of the superluminal knots (trajectory, distance from the core and apparent velocity) in terms of a helical precessing jet-nozzle model. Five cases are considered in which the angle between the jet axis and the line of sight is assumed to be 6°, 3°, 1°, 0.6° and 0.12°, respectively. It is shown that the superluminal components have intrinsic acceleration in the innermost regions (≲ 0.2 mas from the core). The phenomenon of precessing nozzle/trajectory can be understood on the basis of relativistic magnetohydrodynamic theories for relativistic jets.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1974-01-01
The survey of negative pion absorption reactions on light and medium nuclei was continued. Muon spin precession was studied using an iron target. An impulse approximation model of the pion absorption process implied that the ion will absorb almost exclusively on nucleon pairs, single nucleon absorption being suppressed by energy and momentum conservation requirements. For measurements on both paramagnetic and ferromagnetic iron, the external magnetic field was supplied by a large C-type electromagnet carrying a current of about 100 amperes.
Forcing and feedbacks: the role of obliquity and precession in past climate change
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erb, M. P.; Broccoli, A. J.; Clement, A. C.
2011-12-01
Over long periods of time, changes in Earth's obliquity and precession alter the seasonal and latitudinal distribution of insolation. Milankovitch theory states that these changes, amplified by internal climate feedbacks, are responsible for the glacial-interglacial cycles of the Pleistocene and some features of the Holocene, though the exact interplay of how these forcing and feedbacks led to the changes observed in the proxy record is still not fully understood. To better understand the sensitivity of Earth's climate to orbital forcing, idealized runs have been conducted with the GFDL CM2.1 coupled atmosphere-ocean GCM. In one set of experiments, obliquity is set to the high and low values of the past 600 kyr, while in the other, the longitude of perihelion is set to four key times in the precession cycle. In these experiments, non-orbital values are set to preindustrial levels in order to isolate the climate effects of obliquity and precession alone. Because changes in precession and obliquity result in zero annual, global-mean change in insolation, feedbacks are expected to play a large role in determining the response to this forcing. Preliminary efforts to quantify and explore the effects of the lapse rate, water vapor, albedo, and cloud feedbacks confirm that they are important to explaining the magnitude and, in places, even the sign, of climate response to orbital forcing. Cloud feedbacks tend to oppose radiative forcing in northern high latitudes in summer, which can be regarded as a negative feedback relative to the forcing and would discourage large changes in snow and ice cover. Ongoing research will explore the sensitivity of cloud feedback processes to the state of the underlying surface, which may be important when considering feedbacks involving ice sheet growth and decay.
Precession of orbits around the stellar-mass black hole in H 1743-322
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ingram, Adam
2016-07-01
Accreting stellar-mass black holes often show a quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) in their X-ray flux with a period that slowly drifts from ~10s to ~0.05s, and an iron emission line in their X-ray spectrum. The iron line is generated by fluorescent re-emission, by the accretion disk, of X-ray photons originating in the innermost hot flow. The line shape is distorted by relativistic motion of the orbiting plasma and the gravitational pull of the black hole. The QPO arises from the immediate vicinity of the black hole, but its physical origin has long been debated. It has been suggested that the QPO originates via Lense-Thirring precession, a General Relativistic effect causing the inner flow to precess as the spinning black hole twists up the surrounding space-time. This predicts a characteristic rocking of the iron line between red and blue shift as the receding and approaching sides of the disk are respectively illuminated. I will talk about our observations of the black hole binary H 1743-322 in which the line energy varies in step with the ~4.5s QPO cycle, providing strong evidence that such QPOs originate via Lense-Thirring precession. This effect has previously been measured in our Solar System but our detection is in the strong field regime of General Relativity, at a precession rate 14 orders of magnitude faster than possible in the Earth's gravitational field. Our result enables the application of tomographic techniques to map the motion of matter in the strong gravity near black hole event horizons.
Precession of the isolated neutron star PSR B1828-11
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akgün, Taner; Link, Bennett; Wasserman, Ira
2006-01-01
Stairs, Lyne & Shemar have found that the arrival-time residuals from PSR B1828-11 vary periodically with a period ~500 d. This behaviour can be accounted for by precession of the radio pulsar, an interpretation that is reinforced by the detection of variations in its pulse profile on the same time-scale. Here, we model the period residuals from PSR B1828-11 in terms of precession of a triaxial rigid body. We include two contributions to the residuals: (i) the geometric effect, which arises because the times at which the pulsar emission beam points towards the observer varies with precession phase; and (ii) the spin-down contribution, which arises from any dependence of the spin-down torque acting on the pulsar on the angle between its spin and magnetic axes. We use the data to probe numerous properties of the pulsar, most notably its shape, and the dependence of its spin-down torque on , for which we assume the sum of a spin-aligned component (with a weight 1 -a) and a dipolar component perpendicular to the magnetic beam axis (weight a), rather than the vacuum dipole torque (a= 1). We find that a variety of shapes are consistent with the residuals, with a slight statistical preference for a prolate star. Moreover, a range of torque possibilities fit the data equally well, with no strong preference for the vacuum model. In the case of a prolate star, we find evidence for an angle-dependent spin-down torque. Our results show that the combination of geometrical and spin-down effects associated with precession can account for the principal features of the timing behaviour of PSR B1828-11, without fine tuning of the parameters.
Precessing cylinders at the second and third resonance: Turbulence controlled by geostrophic flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Jianfei; Kong, Dali; Zhu, Rixiang; Zhang, Keke
2015-09-01
We investigate, via both asymptotic analysis and direct numerical simulation, precessionally driven flow of a homogeneous fluid confined in fluid-filled circular cylinders that rotate rapidly about their symmetry axis and precess about a different axis and that are marked by radius-height aspect ratios Γ =1.045 945 and Γ =1.611 089 . At these radius-height aspect ratios, the Poincaré force resonates directly with the two special inertial modes that have the simplest vertical structure. An asymptotic analytical solution in closed form describing weakly precessing flow is derived in the mantle frame of reference for asymptotically small Ekman numbers, showing quantitative agreement with the result of direct nonlinear numerical simulation. Our numerical simulation makes use of a finite-element method with the three-dimensional tetrahedralization of a cylindrical cavity that allows the construction of dense nodes in the vicinity of the bounding surface of the cavity for resolving the thin viscous boundary layer. It is found that axisymmetric geostrophic flow in the alternating eastward and westward direction can be generated and maintained by nonlinear and viscous effects in the viscous boundary layer. It is also found that, when the precessing rate is moderate and, consequently, the geostrophic flow is weak, nonlinear interaction between the resonant inertial mode and the nonesonant inertial modes driven by the Poincaré force and the boundary-layer influx leads to strongly turbulent flow with irregular temporal-spatial fluctuation. When the cylinders are strongly precessing such that the geostrophic flow becomes predominant, however, the effect of the geostrophic flow controls/stabilizes its nonlinear dynamics, leading to weakly turbulent flow that can be largely described by a dominant quasisteady geostrophic component and a weak nonaxisymmetric component localized in the region where the geostrophic flow is weak.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Chang-Jun; Fan, Xiao-Long; Xue, De-Sheng
2015-05-01
We focus on the ferromagnetic thin films and review progress in understanding the magnetization dynamic of coherent precession, its application in seeking better high frequency magnetic properties for magnetic materials at GHz frequency, as well as new approaches to these materials’ characterization. High frequency magnetic properties of magnetic materials determined by the magnetization dynamics of coherent precession are described by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. However, the complexity of the equation results in a lack of analytically universal information between the high frequency magnetic properties and the magnetization dynamics of coherent precession. Consequently, searching for magnetic materials with higher permeability at higher working frequency is still done case by case. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB933101), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11034004 and 51371093), the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University, China (Grant No. IRT1251), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education, China (Grant No. 20130211130003).
Resonantly exited precession motion of three-dimensional vortex core in magnetic nanospheres
Kim, Sang-Koog; Yoo, Myoung-Woo; Lee, Jehyun; Lee, Ha-Youn; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Gaididei, Yuri; Kravchuk, Volodymyr P.; Sheka, Denis D.
2015-01-01
We found resonantly excited precession motions of a three-dimensional vortex core in soft magnetic nanospheres and controllable precession frequency with the sphere diameter 2R, as studied by micromagnetic numerical and analytical calculations. The precession angular frequency for an applied static field HDC is given as ωMV = γeffHDC, where γeff = γ〈mΓ〉 is the effective gyromagnetic ratio in collective vortex dynamics, with the gyromagnetic ratio γ and the average magnetization component 〈mΓ〉 of the ground-state vortex in the core direction. Fitting to the micromagnetic simulation data for 〈mΓ〉 yields a simple explicit form of 〈mΓ〉 ≈ (73.6 ± 3.4)(lex/2R)2.20±0.14, where lex is the exchange length of a given material. This dynamic behavior might serve as a foundation for potential bio-applications of size-specific resonant excitation of magnetic vortex-state nanoparticles, for example, magnetic particle resonance imaging. PMID:26079895
Relativistic precessing jets in quasars and radio galaxies - Models to fit high resolution data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gower, A. C.; Gregory, P. C.; Unruh, W. G.; Hutchings, J. B.
1982-01-01
The formulation of generalized models tracing the geometry and intensity of the synchrotron emission from precessing, twin, relativistic jets as projected on the plane of the sky is presented. It is shown that neither the shape of the image nor its relative intensities are altered by including the effects of a cosmological redshift and a relative velocity between the source and observer. The models are fitted to the available data for several quasars and radio galaxies and demonstrate the plausibility of the phenomenon. Probable selection effects are considered and diagnostics given for recognizing objects showing this behavior. In the radio galaxies considered, velocities up to about 0.2c and precession periods of 1,000,000 yr are deduced. In the QSOs investigated, velocities of 0.7c and greater are found and periods of order 10,000 yr. In some cases precession cone angles increase with time. Consequences in terms of lifetimes of QSO behavior and binary supermassive objects are discussed.
An Apparent Precessing Helical Outflow from a Massive Evolved Star: Evidence for Binary Interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lau, R. M.; Hankins, M. J.; Herter, T. L.; Morris, M. R.; Mills, E. A. C.; Ressler, M. E.
2016-02-01
Massive, evolved stars play a crucial role in the metal enrichment, dust budget, and energetics of the interstellar medium; however, the details of their evolution are uncertain because of their rarity and short lifetimes before exploding as supernovae. Discrepancies between theoretical predictions from single-star evolutionary models and observations of massive stars have evoked a shifting paradigm that implicates the importance of binary interaction. We present mid- to far-infrared observations from the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy of a conical “helix” of warm dust (˜180 K) that appears to extend from the Wolf-Rayet star WR102c. Our interpretation of the helix is a precessing, collimated outflow that emerged from WR102c during a previous evolutionary phase as a rapidly rotating luminous blue variable. We attribute the precession of WR102c to gravitational interactions with an unseen compact binary companion whose orbital period can be constrained to 800 days < P < 1400 days from the inferred precession period, τp ˜ 1.4 × 104 yr, and limits imposed on the stellar and orbital parameters of the system. Our results concur with the range of orbital periods (P ≲ 1500 days) where spin-up via mass exchange is expected to occur for massive binary systems.
Kim, Sang-Koog; Yoo, Myoung-Woo; Lee, Jehyun; Lee, Ha-Youn; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Gaididei, Yuri; Kravchuk, Volodymyr P; Sheka, Denis D
2015-01-01
We found resonantly excited precession motions of a three-dimensional vortex core in soft magnetic nanospheres and controllable precession frequency with the sphere diameter 2R, as studied by micromagnetic numerical and analytical calculations. The precession angular frequency for an applied static field HDC is given as ωMV = γeffHDC, where γeff = γ〈mΓ〉 is the effective gyromagnetic ratio in collective vortex dynamics, with the gyromagnetic ratio γ and the average magnetization component 〈mΓ〉 of the ground-state vortex in the core direction. Fitting to the micromagnetic simulation data for 〈mΓ〉 yields a simple explicit form of 〈mΓ〉 ≈ (73.6 ± 3.4)(lex/2R)(2.20±0.14), where lex is the exchange length of a given material. This dynamic behavior might serve as a foundation for potential bio-applications of size-specific resonant excitation of magnetic vortex-state nanoparticles, for example, magnetic particle resonance imaging. PMID:26079895
Lense-Thirring precession around supermassive black holes during tidal disruption events
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franchini, Alessia; Lodato, Giuseppe; Facchini, Stefano
2016-01-01
A tidal disruption event occurs when a star wanders close enough to a black hole to be disrupted by its tidal force. The debris of a tidally disrupted star are expected to form an accretion disc around the supermassive black hole. The light curves of these events sometimes show a quasi-periodic modulation of the flux that can be associated with the precession of the accretion disc due to the Lense-Thirring (`frame-dragging') effect. Since the initial star orbit is in general inclined with respect to the black hole spin, this misalignment combined with the Lense-Thirring effect leads to a warp in the disc. In this paper, we provide a simple model of the system composed by a thick and narrow accretion disc surrounding a spinning supermassive black hole, with the aim to: (a) compute the expected precession period as a function of the system parameters, (b) discuss the conditions that have to be satisfied in order to have rigid precession, (c) investigate the alignment process, highlighting how different mechanisms play a role leading the disc and the black hole angular momenta into alignment.
Resonantly exited precession motion of three-dimensional vortex core in magnetic nanospheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Sang-Koog; Yoo, Myoung-Woo; Lee, Jehyun; Lee, Ha-Youn; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Gaididei, Yuri; Kravchuk, Volodymyr P.; Sheka, Denis D.
2015-06-01
We found resonantly excited precession motions of a three-dimensional vortex core in soft magnetic nanospheres and controllable precession frequency with the sphere diameter 2R, as studied by micromagnetic numerical and analytical calculations. The precession angular frequency for an applied static field HDC is given as ωMV = γeffHDC, where γeff = γ
Shaping the Red Rectangle Proto-planetary Nebula by a Precessing Jet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Velázquez, Pablo F.; Steffen, Wolfgang; Raga, Alejandro C.; Haro-Corzo, Sinhué; Esquivel, Alejandro; Cantó, Jorge; Riera, Angels
2011-06-01
We carried out three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations (employing the YGUAZÚ-A code) of a precessing jet launched by a star in a binary system. Synthetic scattered light intensity maps were generated in order to compare them with images of the Red Rectangle proto-planetary nebula (PPN), which contains the binary system HD 44179. Our results show that the angular size, the global biconical or hourglass morphology, and the existence of its "ladder rungs" features can be explained in terms of a jet precessing with a period 20 times the orbital period of the HD 44179 system, a semi-angle of 30° (of the precession cone), and a velocity of 300 km s-1. In addition, we calculated the flux predicted from the models, which is of the same order of magnitude as the observed flux in the outer regions of the nebula. Finally, the orbital motion was found to have a negligible influence on the large-scale morphology of the PPN.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaothekar, Sachin
2016-09-01
The effects of finite ion Larmor radius (FLR) corrections, Hall current and radiative heat-loss function on the thermal instability of an infinite homogeneous, viscous plasma incorporating the effects of finite electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity and permeability for star formation in interstellar medium have been investigated. A general dispersion relation is derived using the normal mode analysis method with the help of relevant linearized perturbation equations of the problem. The wave propagation is discussed for longitudinal and transverse directions to the external magnetic field and the conditions of modified thermal instabilities and stabilities are discussed in different cases. We find that the thermal instability criterion gets modified into radiative instability criterion. The finite electrical resistivity removes the effect of magnetic field and the viscosity of the medium removes the effect of FLR from the condition of radiative instability. The Hall parameter affects only the longitudinal mode of propagation and it has no effect on the transverse mode of propagation. Numerical calculation shows stabilizing effect of viscosity, heat-loss function and FLR corrections, and destabilizing effect of finite resistivity and permeability on the thermal instability. The outcome of the problem discussed the formation of star in the interstellar medium.
Modeling North American Ice Sheet Response to Changes in Precession and Obliquity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tabor, C.; Poulsen, C. J.; Pollard, D.
2012-12-01
precession on the Laurentide and Cordillera ice sheets of North America. Preliminary model results show that the ice sheet response to changes in obliquity are larger than for precession despite providing a smaller direct insolation variation in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes. A combination of enhanced Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude temperature gradient and longer cycle duration allow for a larger ice sheet response to obliquity than would be expected from insolation forcing alone. Conversely, a shorter duration dampens the ice sheet response to precession. Nevertheless, the precession cycle does cause significant changes in ice volume, a feature not observed in the Early Pleistocene δ18O records (Raymo and Nisancioglu, 2003). Future work will examine the climate response to an idealized transient orbit that includes concurrent variations in obliquity, precession, and eccentricity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Escapa, Alberto; Ferrándiz, José M.; Baenas, Tomás; Getino, Juan; Navarro, Juan F.; Belda-Palazón, Santiago
2016-03-01
The complexity of the modeling of the rotational motion of the Earth in space has produced that no single theory has been adopted to describe it in full. Hence, it is customary using at least a theory for precession and another one for nutation. The classic approach proceeds by deriving some of the fundamental parameters from the precession theory, like, e.g., the dynamical ellipticity Hd, and then using those values in the nutation theory. The former IAU 1976 precession and IAU 1980 nutation theories followed that scheme. Along with the improvement of the accuracy of the determination of Earth orientation parameters, IAU 1980 was superseded by IAU2000, based on the application of the MHB2000 transfer function to the previous rigid Earth analytical theory REN2000. The latter was derived while the precession model IAU 1976 was still in force, therefore it used the corresponding values for some of the fundamental parameters, as the precession rate, associated to the dynamical ellipticity. The new precession model P03 was adopted as IAU 2006. That change introduced some inconsistency since P03 used different values for some of the fundamental parameters that MHB2000 inherited from REN2000. Besides, the derivation of the basic Earth parameters of MHB2000 itself comprised a fitted variation of the dynamical ellipticity adopted in the background rigid theory. Due to the strict requirements of accuracy of the present and coming times, the magnitude of the inconsistencies originated by this twofold approach is no longer negligible as earlier, hence the need of discussing the effects of considering slightly different values for H_d in precession and nutation theories.
A Statistical Approach to Determine the Values of the Correction for the Precession
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marco, F. J.; Martinez, M. J.; Lopez, J. A.
2010-10-01
The Hipparcos catalogue [1] provides a reference frame at optical wavelengths for the new ICRS. The adoption of this new reference system was decided following a resolution that was agreed at the 23rd IAU assembly held in Kyoto in 1997. Differences in the Hipparcos system of proper motions and the previous materialization of the reference frame, the FK5, are expected to be caused only by the combined effects of the motion of the equinox of the FK5 and the Luni-solar and planetary precession. Several authors have, however, pointed out an inconsistency in the differences in proper motion of the FK5-Hipparcos with the Δp of the Luni-solar precession as determined from VLBI and LLR, and most of them have claimed that these discrepancies are due to slightly biased proper motions in the FK5 catalogue [3], [5]. The different mathematical models employed to explain these errors have not completely accounted for the previous discrepancies in the precessional parameters. Our goal is to offer an explanation for this fact. To this end and according to [2] we propose the use of independent parametric and non-parametric methods. Thus, the introduction of a non-parametric method, combined with the inner product in L2 over S2, would give us values which do not depend on the possible interdependencies existing in the data-set. In addition, the evidence shows that zonal studies are needed. This would lead us to introduce a local non-parametric model [4]. All these models will provide independent precessional values which could be compared in order to study their reliability. Finally, we obtain values for the precession corrections that are very consistent with those that are currently adopted.
Theta phase precession and phase selectivity: a cognitive device description of neural coding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zalay, Osbert C.; Bardakjian, Berj L.
2009-06-01
Information in neural systems is carried by way of phase and rate codes. Neuronal signals are processed through transformative biophysical mechanisms at the cellular and network levels. Neural coding transformations can be represented mathematically in a device called the cognitive rhythm generator (CRG). Incoming signals to the CRG are parsed through a bank of neuronal modes that orchestrate proportional, integrative and derivative transformations associated with neural coding. Mode outputs are then mixed through static nonlinearities to encode (spatio) temporal phase relationships. The static nonlinear outputs feed and modulate a ring device (limit cycle) encoding output dynamics. Small coupled CRG networks were created to investigate coding functionality associated with neuronal phase preference and theta precession in the hippocampus. Phase selectivity was found to be dependent on mode shape and polarity, while phase precession was a product of modal mixing (i.e. changes in the relative contribution or amplitude of mode outputs resulted in shifting phase preference). Nonlinear system identification was implemented to help validate the model and explain response characteristics associated with modal mixing; in particular, principal dynamic modes experimentally derived from a hippocampal neuron were inserted into a CRG and the neuron's dynamic response was successfully cloned. From our results, small CRG networks possessing disynaptic feedforward inhibition in combination with feedforward excitation exhibited frequency-dependent inhibitory-to-excitatory and excitatory-to-inhibitory transitions that were similar to transitions seen in a single CRG with quadratic modal mixing. This suggests nonlinear modal mixing to be a coding manifestation of the effect of network connectivity in shaping system dynamic behavior. We hypothesize that circuits containing disynaptic feedforward inhibition in the nervous system may be candidates for interpreting upstream rate codes to
Triadic resonances in nonlinear simulations of a fluid flow in a precessing cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giesecke, André; Albrecht, Thomas; Gundrum, Thomas; Herault, Johann; Stefani, Frank
2015-11-01
We present results from three-dimensional nonlinear hydrodynamic simulations of a precession driven flow in cylindrical geometry. The simulations are motivated by a dynamo experiment currently under development at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf in which the possibility of generating a magnetohydrodynamic dynamo will be investigated in a cylinder filled with liquid sodium and simultaneously rotating around two axes. In this study, we focus on the emergence of non-axisymmetric time-dependent flow structures in terms of inertial waves which—in cylindrical geometry—form so-called Kelvin modes. For a precession ratio (Poincaré number) {{Po}}={{{Ω }}}{{p}}/{{{Ω }}}{{c}}=0.014 considered by us, the amplitude of the forced Kelvin mode reaches up to one fourth of the rotation velocity of the cylindrical container confirming that precession provides a rather efficient flow driving mechanism even at moderate values of Po. More relevant for dynamo action might be free Kelvin modes with higher azimuthal wave number. These free Kelvin modes are triggered by nonlinear interactions and may constitute a triadic resonance with the fundamental forced mode when the height of the container matches their axial wave lengths. Our simulations reveal triadic resonances at aspect ratios close to those predicted by the linear theory except around the primary resonance of the forced mode. In that regime we still identify various free Kelvin modes, however, all of them exhibit a retrograde drift around the symmetry axis of the cylinder and none of them can be assigned to a triadic resonance. The amplitudes of the free Kelvin modes always remain below the forced mode but may reach up to 6% of the of the container’s angular velocity. The properties of the free Kelvin modes, namely their amplitude and their frequency, will be used in future simulations of the magnetic induction equation to investigate their ability to provide for dynamo action.
Hysteresis and precession of a swirling jet normal to a wall.
Shtern, V; Mi, J
2004-01-01
Interaction of a swirling jet with a no-slip surface has striking features of fundamental and practical interest. Different flow states and transitions among them occur at the same conditions in combustors, vortex tubes, and tornadoes. The jet axis can undergo precession and bending in combustors; this precession enhances large-scale mixing and reduces emissions of NOx. To explore the mechanisms of these phenomena, we address conically similar swirling jets normal to a wall. In addition to the Serrin model of tornadolike flows, a new model is developed where the flow is singularity free on the axis. New analytical and numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations explain occurrence of multiple states and show that hysteresis is a common feature of wall-normal vortices or swirling jets no matter where sources of motion are located. Then we study the jet stability with the aid of a new approach accounting for deceleration and nonparallelism of the base flow. An appropriate transformation of variables reduces the stability problem for this strongly nonparallel flow to a set of ordinary differential equations. A particular flow whose stability is studied in detail is a half-line vortex normal to a rigid plane-a model of a tornado and of a swirling jet issuing from a nozzle in a combustor. Helical counter-rotating disturbances appear to be first growing as Reynolds number increases. Disturbance frequency changes its sign along the neutral curve while the wave number remains positive. Short disturbance waves propagate downstream and long waves propagate upstream. This helical instability causes bending of the vortex axis and its precession-the effects observed in technological flows and in tornadoes. PMID:14995717
Spin transport and precession in graphene measured by nonlocal and three-terminal methods
Dankert, André Kamalakar, Mutta Venkata; Bergsten, Johan; Dash, Saroj P.
2014-05-12
We investigate the spin transport and precession in graphene by using the Hanle effect in nonlocal and three-terminal measurement geometries. Identical spin lifetimes, spin diffusion lengths, and spin polarizations are observed in graphene devices for both techniques over a wide range of temperatures. The magnitude of the spin signals is well explained by spin transport models. These observations rules out any signal enhancements or additional scattering mechanisms at the interfaces for both geometries. This validates the applicability of both the measurement methods for graphene based spintronics devices and their reliable extractions of spin parameters.
Magnetohydrodynamic instabilities in rotating and precessing sheared flows: An asymptotic analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salhi, A.; Lehner, T.; Cambon, C.
2010-07-01
Linear magnetohydrodynamic instabilities are studied analytically in the case of unbounded inviscid and electrically conducting flows that are submitted to both rotation and precession with shear in an external magnetic field. For given rotation and precession the possible configurations of the shear and of the magnetic field and their interplay are imposed by the “admissibility” condition (i.e., the base flow must be a solution of the magnetohydrodynamic Euler equations): we show that an “admissible” basic magnetic field must align with the basic absolute vorticity. For these flows with elliptical streamlines due to precession we undertake an analytical stability analysis for the corresponding Floquet system, by using an asymptotic expansion into the small parameter ɛ (ratio of precession to rotation frequencies) by a method first developed in the magnetoelliptical instabilities study by Lebovitz and Zweibel [Astrophys. J. 609, 301 (2004)]10.1086/420972. The present stability analysis is performed into a suitable frame that is obtained by a systematic change of variables guided by symmetry and the existence of invariants of motion. The obtained Floquet system depends on three parameters: ɛ , η (ratio of the cyclotron frequency to the rotation frequency) and χ=cosα , with α being a characteristic angle which, for circular streamlines, ɛ=0 , identifies with the angle between the wave vector and the axis of the solid body rotation. We look at the various (centrifugal or precessional) resonant couplings between the three present modes: hydrodynamical (inertial), magnetic (Alfvén), and mixed (magnetoinertial) modes by computing analytically to leading order in ɛ the instabilities by estimating their threshold, growth rate, and maximum growth rate and their bandwidths as functions of ɛ , η , and χ . We show that the subharmonic “magnetic” mode appears only for η>5/2 and at large η (≫1) the maximal growth rate of both the
4C 18.68 - A QSO with precessing radio jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gower, A. C.; Hutchings, J. B.
1982-01-01
High-resolution VLA radio maps at 20 cm and 6 cm wavelengths of the quasar 4C 18.68 reveal an extended halo of about 20 arcsec containing complex curved structures extending east and west from the central source. The central source has a flat spectrum, while the spectrum generally steepens with distance from the center of the structure. The details of the structure and polarization of the emission suggest relativistic ejection in opposing directions by a precessing or rotating double jet with a period of about 50,000 years, consistent with the presence of two interacting massive bodies in the central source.
An Interacting Binary System Powers Precessing Outflows of an Evolved Star
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boffin, Henri M. J.; Miszalski, Brent; Rauch, Thomas; Jones, David; Corradi, Romano L. M.; Napiwotzki, Ralf; Day-Jones, Avril C.; Köppen, Joachim
2012-11-01
Stars are generally spherical, yet their gaseous envelopes often appear nonspherical when ejected near the end of their lives. This quirk is most notable during the planetary nebula phase, when these envelopes become ionized. Interactions among stars in a binary system are suspected to cause the asymmetry. In particular, a precessing accretion disk around a companion is believed to launch point-symmetric jets, as seen in the prototype Fleming 1. Our finding of a post-common-envelope binary nucleus in Fleming 1 confirms that this scenario is highly favorable. Similar binary interactions are therefore likely to explain these kinds of outflows in a large variety of systems.
An interacting binary system powers precessing outflows of an evolved star.
Boffin, Henri M J; Miszalski, Brent; Rauch, Thomas; Jones, David; Corradi, Romano L M; Napiwotzki, Ralf; Day-Jones, Avril C; Köppen, Joachim
2012-11-01
Stars are generally spherical, yet their gaseous envelopes often appear nonspherical when ejected near the end of their lives. This quirk is most notable during the planetary nebula phase, when these envelopes become ionized. Interactions among stars in a binary system are suspected to cause the asymmetry. In particular, a precessing accretion disk around a companion is believed to launch point-symmetric jets, as seen in the prototype Fleming 1. Our finding of a post-common-envelope binary nucleus in Fleming 1 confirms that this scenario is highly favorable. Similar binary interactions are therefore likely to explain these kinds of outflows in a large variety of systems. PMID:23139326
Balanced steady state-free precession (b-SSFP) imaging for MRCP: techniques and applications.
Glockner, James F; Lee, Christine U
2014-12-01
Balanced steady state-free precession (b-SSFP) pulse sequences have a number of properties which can be useful in magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), including short acquisition times, high signal-to-noise ratios, and T2/T1 contrast weighting. The utility and versatility of b-SSFP sequences for MRCP imaging are probably underappreciated, and this pictorial essay briefly discusses benefits and limitations of 2D and 3D b-SSFP techniques used in place of or in addition to conventional single-shot fast spin echo or 3D fast spin echo acquisitions and illustrates their appearance in several clinical cases. PMID:24811765
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marzocchi, Alice; Flecker, Rachel; Lunt, Dan; Gladstone, Rupert; Hilgen, Frits; Krijgsman, Wout; Sierro, Francisco; Ivanovic, Ruza
2014-05-01
The Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) drastically modified the environment of the Mediterranean Sea. The large signal-noise ratio preserved in the geological record for this extreme event makes it a perfect target for exploring the biogeochemical processes involved through palaeoclimate modelling. In addition, Late Miocene sequences in the Mediterranean have been astronomically tuned, providing a very high-resolution age model that resolves sediment data on a millennial timescale or shorter. Consequently it is possible to carry out robust model-data comparison where the precise orbital phasing is equivalent. Sequences of laminated sapropelitic beds interbedded within homogeneous marls are frequently found in Late Miocene sections in the Mediterranean and have been associated with orbitally-driven climate responses. In fact, the deposition of these sediments has been linked to freshwater input causing both stratification of the water column and increased surface productivity, at times of high summer insolation. Most of the hypotheses relating the phasing of the sedimentary record to the orbital forcing are, however, still untested. Insight can therefore be gained by investigating the impact of varying orbital parameters on the Mediterranean's hydrologic budget using global climate models. A series of 22 fully coupled atmosphere-ocean-vegetation snap-shot simulations have been run at evenly spaced intervals (1kyr) through an entire precession cycle during the pre-evaporite stage of the MSC (~6.5 Ma). In our simulations, the Mediterranean Sea's hydrologic budget exhibits high seasonal variability. Model results can be directly compared with high-resolution geological data that is available for our selected time slice; for instance, cyclic changes in microfaunal assemblages that have a strong seasonal bias can be compared with our model output. This allows us to test the biogeochemical phasing of Mediterranean successions in relation to orbital forcing. Our simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murdin, P.
2000-11-01
Physicist, born in Magheragall, County Antrim, Ireland, became Lucasian professor in Cambridge, working on electricity, dynamics and thermodynamics, and especially the ether, the postulated material which pervades space and in which electromagnetic radiation travels. Finding no evidence that the ether existed, he was led to some of the results inherent in EINSTEIN's theory of relativity, giving a...
Fischetti, Sebastian; Cadonati, Laura; Mohapatra, Satyanarayan R. P.; Healy, James; London, Lionel; Shoemaker, Deirdre
2011-02-15
Recent years have witnessed tremendous progress in numerical relativity and an ever improving performance of ground-based interferometric gravitational wave detectors. In preparation for the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (Advanced LIGO) and a new era in gravitational wave astronomy, the numerical relativity and gravitational wave data analysis communities are collaborating to ascertain the most useful role for numerical relativity waveforms in the detection and characterization of binary black hole coalescences. In this paper, we explore the detectability of equal mass, merging black hole binaries with precessing spins and total mass M{sub T}(set-membership sign)[80,350]M{sub {center_dot}}, using numerical relativity waveforms and templateless search algorithms designed for gravitational wave bursts. In particular, we present a systematic study using waveforms produced by the MayaKranc code that are added to colored, Gaussian noise and analyzed with the Omega burst search algorithm. Detection efficiency is weighed against the orientation of one of the black-hole's spin axes. We find a strong correlation between the detection efficiency and the radiated energy and angular momentum, and that the inclusion of the l=2, m={+-}1, 0 modes, at a minimum, is necessary to account for the full dynamics of precessing systems.
Precession, nutation, and variation of UT1 due to the Sun's post-Newtonian torque
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukushima, Toshio
We derived the post-Newtonian transformation laws of the coordinate velocity and the coordinate acceleration between a global and a body-centric coordinate system, which is related to each other by a kinematically non-rotating coordinate transformation. Next, by using the latter transformation, we obtained an explicit expression of the post-Newtonian tidal acceleration. Then, by conducting a special volume integral of torque element on an equal body-centric coordinate time hypersurface, we computed the post-Newtonian form of the gravitational torque. Finally, by integrating the Poisson approximation of the post-Newtonian extension of the Eulerian equation of rotational motion of the Earth moving along an elliptic orbit around the Sun and suffering the Sun's torque only, we evaluated post-Newtonian corrections to the precession, the nutation, and the variation of UT1. Except the geodesic precession and the geodesic nutation (Fukushima 1991), the largest effects are those related to the rotation angle of the Earth, UT1, as much as ΔUT1 = 10.50 sin l' + 0.09 sin 2l' where the unit is millisecond and l' denotes the mean anomaly of the Sun. The associated variation of the angular velocity of the Earth rotation becomes ΔΩ = 2.4 cos l' in the unit of 10-14rad/s. These are comparable with the tidal effects due to the nonrigidity of the Earth.
THE EVOLUTION OF PSR J0737-3039B AND A MODEL FOR RELATIVISTIC SPIN PRECESSION
Perera, B. B. P.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Kramer, M.; Lyne, A. G.; Stairs, I. H.; Ferdman, R. D.; Freire, P. C. C.; Possenti, A.; Burgay, M.; Breton, R. P.; Manchester, R. N.; Camilo, F.
2010-10-01
We present the evolution of the radio emission from the 2.8 s pulsar of the double pulsar system PSR J0737- 3039A/B. We provide an update on the Burgay et al. analysis by describing the changes in the pulse profile and flux density over five years of observations, culminating in the B pulsar's radio disappearance in 2008 March. Over this time, the flux density decreases by 0.177 mJy yr{sup -1} at the brightest orbital phases and the pulse profile evolves from a single to a double peak, with a separation rate of 2.{sup 0}6 yr{sup -1}. The pulse profile changes are most likely caused by relativistic spin precession but cannot be easily explained with a circular hollow-cone beam as in the model of Clifton and Weisberg. Relativistic spin precession, coupled with an elliptical beam, can model the pulse profile evolution well and the reappearance is expected to happen in {approx}2035 with the same part of the beam or in {approx}2014 if we assume a symmetric beam shape. This particular beam shape predicts geometrical parameters for the two bright orbital phases which are consistent with and similar to those derived by Breton et al. However, the observed decrease in flux over time and B's eventual disappearance cannot be easily explained by the model and may be due to the changing influence of A on B.
The three-fold theoretical basis of the Gravity Probe B gyro precession calculation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adler, Ronald J.
2015-11-01
The Gravity Probe B (GP-B) experiment is complete and the results are in agreement with the predictions of general relativity (GR) for both the geodetic precession, 6.6 arcsec yr-1 to about 0.3%, and the Lense-Thirring precession, 39 marcsec to about 19%. This note is concerned with the theoretical basis for the predictions. The predictions depend on three elements of gravity theory, firstly that macroscopic gravity is described by a metric theory such as GR, secondly that the Lense-Thirring metric provides an approximate description of the gravitational field of the spinning Earth, and thirdly that the spin axis of a gyroscope is parallel displaced in spacetime, which gives its equation of motion. We look at each of these three elements to show how each is solidly based on previous experiments and well-tested theory. The agreement of GP-B with theory strengthens our belief that all three elements are correct and increases our confidence in applying GR to astrophysical phenomena. Conversely, if GP-B had not verified the predictions a major theoretical quandary would have occurred.
Metal Oxide Growth, Characterization and Spin Precession Measurements in CVD Graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsubayashi, Akitomo; Nolting, Westly; Sinha, Dhiraj Prasad; Jayanthinarasimham, Avyaya; Lee, Ji Ung; Labella, Vincent
2014-03-01
Thin metal oxide layers deposited on graphene can be utilized as dielectric barriers between metals and graphene to help isolate a metal contact from the graphene channel. This is important for graphene based spintronic devices as dielectric layers between the ferromagnetic electrode and graphene have been shown to increase the spin relaxation time measured utilizing non-local detection and spin precession measurements by avoiding the conductivity mismatch problem. However, simply depositing metal oxide layers such as aluminum oxide on graphene results in non-uniform film lowering the quality of the interface barrier. We will present a systematic study of aluminum oxide layers grown on CVD (chemical vapor deposition) graphene under ultra-high vacuum conditions with and without titanium seed layers. The aluminum oxide layers with the 0.2 nm titanium seed layers showed reduced surface roughness. The chemical and structural composition determined by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) will be also presented that shows full oxidation of the aluminum and partial oxidation of the titanium. The results on the I-V and spin precession measurements in CVD graphene will be also presented.
A model for precessing helical vortex in the turbine discharge cone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuibin, P. A.; Susan-Resiga, R. F.; Muntean, S.
2014-03-01
The decelerated swirling flow in the discharge cone of hydraulic turbine develops various self-induced instabilities and associated low frequency phenomena when the turbine is operated far from the best efficiency regime. In particular, the precessing helical vortex ("vortex rope") developed at part-load regimes is notoriously difficult and expensive to be computed using full three-dimensional turbulent unsteady flow models. On the other hand, modern design and optimization techniques require robust, tractable and accurate a-priori assessment of the turbine flow unsteadiness level within a wide operating range before actually knowing the runner geometry details. This paper presents the development and validation of a quasi-analytical model of the vortex rope in the discharge cone. The first stage is the computing of the axisymmetrical swirling flow at runner outlet with input information related only to the operating point and to the blade outlet angle. Then, the swirling flow profile further downstream is computed in successive cross-sections through the discharge cone. The second stage is the reconstruction of the precessing vortex core parameters in successive cross-sections of the discharge cone. The final stage lies in assembling 3D unsteady flow field in the discharge cone. The end result is validated against both experimental and numerical data.
High Velocity Precessing Jet from the Water Fountain IRAS 18286-0959 Revealed by VLBA Observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yung, Bosco; Nakashima, J.; Imai, H.; Deguchi, S.; Diamond, P. J.; Kwok, S.
2011-05-01
We report the multi-epoch VLBA observations of 22.2GHz water maser emission associated with the "water fountain" star IRAS 18286-0959. The detected maser emission are distributed in the velocity range from -50km/s to 150km/s. The spatial distribution of over 70% of the identified maser features is found to be highly collimated along a spiral jet (namely, jet 1) extended from southeast to northwest direction, and the rest of the features appear to trace another spiral jet (jet 2) with a different orientation. The two jets form a "double-helix" pattern which lies across 200 milliarcseconds (mas). The maser features are reasonably fit by a model consisting of two precessing jets. The velocities of jet 1 and jet 2 are derived to be 138km/s and 99km/s, respectively. The precession period of jet 1 is about 56 years, and for jet 2 it is about 73 years. We propose that the appearance of two jets observed are the result of a single driving source with a significant proper motion. This research was supported by grants from the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China, the Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research of the University of Hong Kong, Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists from the Ministry 9 of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology, and Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from Japan Society for Promotion Science.
Precessing Gamma Jets in the extended and evaporating galactic halo as the sources of GRBs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fargion, Daniele; Salis, Andrea
1996-08-01
Precessing Gamma Jets (GJ) in binary systems located in extended or evaporating galactic halos should be the sources of GRBs. The GJ are born by Inverse Compton Scattering (ICS) of thermal photons (optical, infrared,...) onto (power law) electron jets (from GeV energies and above) produced by spinning pulsars or black holes. The thermal photons are emitted by the binary companion (or by their nearby accreting disk). The collimated GJ beam is trembling with the characteristic pulsar millisecond period and it is bent by the companion magnetic field interactions, as a lighthouse, in a nearly conical shape within the characteristic Keplerian period; an additional nutation due to the asymmetric inertial momentum may lead, in general, to aperiodic behaviour of GRB signals. SGRs are GRBs seen at the periphery of the hard energy GJ beam core. The original birth locations of GJ (SNRs, planetary nebulae, globular clusters,...) are smeared out by the high escape velocity of the system; the Neutron Star (NS) high velocity is possibly due to the asymmetric jet precession, and consequent ``rowing'' acceleration, related to the eccentricity of the binary system. The GJ power is, for realistic parameters, comparable to that needed for GRBs in an extended or evaporating galactic halo. Their detailed spectra and time evolution fit the observed data. The expected GRB source number (within present BATSE sensitivity) is tens of thousands, compatible with the allowed presence of 10-20% GRB repeaters.
Determination of the spin-lifetime anisotropy in graphene using oblique spin precession
Raes, Bart; Scheerder, Jeroen E.; Costache, Marius V.; Bonell, Frédéric; Sierra, Juan F.; Cuppens, Jo; Van de Vondel, Joris; Valenzuela, Sergio O.
2016-01-01
We determine the spin-lifetime anisotropy of spin-polarized carriers in graphene. In contrast to prior approaches, our method does not require large out-of-plane magnetic fields and thus it is reliable for both low- and high-carrier densities. We first determine the in-plane spin lifetime by conventional spin precession measurements with magnetic fields perpendicular to the graphene plane. Then, to evaluate the out-of-plane spin lifetime, we implement spin precession measurements under oblique magnetic fields that generate an out-of-plane spin population. We find that the spin-lifetime anisotropy of graphene on silicon oxide is independent of carrier density and temperature down to 150 K, and much weaker than previously reported. Indeed, within the experimental uncertainty, the spin relaxation is isotropic. Altogether with the gate dependence of the spin lifetime, this indicates that the spin relaxation is driven by magnetic impurities or random spin-orbit or gauge fields. PMID:27157318
Sculpting a Pre-Planetary Nebula with a Precessing Jet: IRAS 16342-3814
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sahai, R.; Le Mignant, D.; Sanchez Contreras, C.; Campbell, R. D.; Chaffee, F. H.
2005-01-01
We have imaged the bipolar pre-planetary nebula IRAS 16342-3814 with the Keck adaptive optics (AO) system in four near-infrared bands in the 1.6-4.7 (micro)m range. The lobes, which showed smoothly varying brightness distributions in previous optical images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope, have a limb-brightened appearance in the AO images, with a remarkable corkscrew structure inscribed on the lobe walls. A well-collimated, precessing jet with a diameter less than or approximately equal to 100 AU and a precession period less than or approximately equal to 50 yr, interacting with ambient circumstellar material, is most likely responsible for the corkscrew structure and the lobes, as indicated by a detailed comparison of our observations with published numerical simulations. The very red colors of the lobes in the near-infrared, coupled with their visibility at optical wavelengths, require that at least half, but not all, of the light of the central star be trapped by a compact circumstellar dust cloud heated to approximately 600-700 K and reradiated in the infrared. The lobes are thus illuminated both by the infrared light from this dust cloud as well as by the optical light from the central star.
Constraints on Galileon-induced precessions from solar system orbital motions
Iorio, L.
2012-07-01
We use latest data from solar system planetary orbital motions to put constraints on some Galileon-induced precessional effects. Due to the Vainshtein mechanism, the Galileon-type spherically symmetric field of a monopole induces a small, screened correction ∝(r){sup 1/2} to the r{sup −1} Newtonian potential which causes a secular precession of the pericenter of a test particle. In the case of our solar system, latest data from Mars allow to constrain the magnitude of such an interaction down to α ≤ 0.3 level, where α corresponds to the non minimal coupling of the Galileon to matter. Another Galileon-type effect which might impact solar system dynamics is due to an unscreened constant gradient induced by the peculiar motion of the Galaxy. The magnitude of such an effect, depending on the different gravitational binding energies of the Sun and the planets, taken into account by ξ, is ξ ≤ 0.004 from the latest bounds on the supplementary perihelion precession of Saturn.
Electrical detection of coherent spin precession using the ballistic intrinsic spin Hall effect.
Choi, Won Young; Kim, Hyung-jun; Chang, Joonyeon; Han, Suk Hee; Koo, Hyun Cheol; Johnson, Mark
2015-08-01
The spin-orbit interaction in two-dimensional electron systems provides an exceptionally rich area of research. Coherent spin precession in a Rashba effective magnetic field in the channel of a spin field-effect transistor and the spin Hall effect are the two most compelling topics in this area. Here, we combine these effects to provide a direct demonstration of the ballistic intrinsic spin Hall effect and to demonstrate a technique for an all-electric measurement of the Datta-Das conductance oscillation, that is, the oscillation in the source-drain conductance due to spin precession. Our hybrid device has a ferromagnet electrode as a spin injector and a spin Hall detector. Results from multiple devices with different channel lengths map out two full wavelengths of the Datta-Das oscillation. We also use the original Datta-Das technique with a single device of fixed length and measure the channel conductance as the gate voltage is varied. Our experiments show that the ballistic spin Hall effect can be used for efficient injection or detection of spin polarized electrons, thereby enabling the development of an integrated spin transistor. PMID:26005997
Capua, Amir; Rettner, Charles; Parkin, Stuart S P
2016-01-29
We study the parametric excitation of high orders of magnetization precession in ultrathin films having perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. We observe that for a given driving field amplitude the harmonic generation can be increased by lowering the barrier with the application of an in-plane magnetic field in the manner of the Smit-Beljers effect. In this effect, the magnetic stiffness is reduced not by lowering the magnitude of the magnetic field upon which the spins precess, but rather by effectively releasing the field's "anchoring" point. This results in a shallow energy barrier where the electrons' spin is locally unconstrained. While the observation is unveiled in the form of nonlinear high harmonic generation, we believe that the physics whereby the barrier is suppressed by an external magnetic field may apply to other phenomena associated with ultrathin films. In these cases, such unconstrained motion may serve as a sensitive probe of the torques associated with proximate spin currents. Moreover, our approach may be used as a model system for the study of phase transitions in the field of nonlinear dynamics. PMID:26871356
Constraints on Non-Standard Gravitomagnetism by the Anomalous Perihelion Precession of the Planets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Acedo, Luis
2014-09-01
A team of astronomers has recently reported an anomalous retrograde precession of the perihelion of Saturn amounting to Δω SATURN = -0.006(2) arcsec per century (arcsec cy-1). This unexplained precession was obtained after taking into account all classical and relativistic effects in the context of the highly refined EPM2008 ephemerides. More recent analyzes have not confirmed this effect, but they have found similar discrepancies in other planets. Our objective in this paper is to discuss a non-standard model involving transversal gravitomagnetism generated by the Sun as a possible source of these anomalies. In order to compute the Lense-Thirring perturbations induced by the suggested interaction, we should consider the orientation of the Sun's rotational axis in Carrington elements and the inclination of the planetary orbits with respect to the ecliptic plane. We find that an extra component of the gravitomagnetic field not predicted by General Relativity could explain the reported anomalies without conflicting with the Gravity Probe B experiment and the orbits of the geodynamics satellites.
Determination of the spin-lifetime anisotropy in graphene using oblique spin precession.
Raes, Bart; Scheerder, Jeroen E; Costache, Marius V; Bonell, Frédéric; Sierra, Juan F; Cuppens, Jo; Van de Vondel, Joris; Valenzuela, Sergio O
2016-01-01
We determine the spin-lifetime anisotropy of spin-polarized carriers in graphene. In contrast to prior approaches, our method does not require large out-of-plane magnetic fields and thus it is reliable for both low- and high-carrier densities. We first determine the in-plane spin lifetime by conventional spin precession measurements with magnetic fields perpendicular to the graphene plane. Then, to evaluate the out-of-plane spin lifetime, we implement spin precession measurements under oblique magnetic fields that generate an out-of-plane spin population. We find that the spin-lifetime anisotropy of graphene on silicon oxide is independent of carrier density and temperature down to 150 K, and much weaker than previously reported. Indeed, within the experimental uncertainty, the spin relaxation is isotropic. Altogether with the gate dependence of the spin lifetime, this indicates that the spin relaxation is driven by magnetic impurities or random spin-orbit or gauge fields. PMID:27157318
High-frequency and type-C QPOs from oscillating, precessing hot, thick flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fragile, P. Chris; Straub, Odele; Blaes, Omer
2016-09-01
Motivated by recent studies showing an apparent correlation between the high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) and the low-frequency, type-C QPO in black hole low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), we explore a model that explains all three QPOs in terms of an oscillating, precessing hot flow in the truncated-disc geometry. Our model favours attributing the two high-frequency QPOs, often occurring in a near 3:2 frequency ratio, to the breathing and vertical epicyclic frequency modes of the hot, thick flow, although we cannot rule out the Keplerian and m = -1 radial epicyclic modes. In either case, the type-C QPO is attributed to precession. The correlation of the QPOs comes from the fact that all three frequencies are associated with the same geometrical structure. While the exact QPO frequencies are sensitive to the black hole mass and spin, their evolution over the course of an outburst is mainly tied to the truncation radius between the geometrically thin, optically thick disc and the inner, hot flow. We show that, in the case of the LMXB GRO J1655-40, this model can explain the one simultaneous observation of all three QPOs and that an extrapolation of the model appears to match lower frequency observations where only two of the three components are seen. Thus, this model may be able to unify multiple QPO observations using the properties of a single, simple, geometrical model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gurfil, Pini; Lainey, Valéry; Efroimsky, Michael
2007-12-01
Construction of an accurate theory of orbits about a precessing and nutating oblate planet, in terms of osculating elements defined in a frame associated with the equator of date, was started in Efroimsky and Goldreich (2004) and Efroimsky (2004, 2005, 2006a, b). Here we continue this line of research by combining that analytical machinery with numerical tools. Our model includes three factors: the J 2 of the planet, its nonuniform equinoctial precession described by the Colombo formalism, and the gravitational pull of the Sun. This semianalytical and seminumerical theory, based on the Lagrange planetary equations for the Keplerian elements, is then applied to Deimos on very long time scales (up to 1 billion years). In parallel with the said semianalytical theory for the Keplerian elements defined in the co-precessing equatorial frame, we have also carried out a completely independent, purely numerical, integration in a quasi-inertial Cartesian frame. The results agree to within fractions of a percent, thus demonstrating the applicability of our semianalytical model over long timescales. Another goal of this work was to make an independent check of whether the equinoctial-precession variations predicted for a rigid Mars by the Colombo model could have been sufficient to repel its moons away from the equator. An answer to this question, in combination with our knowledge of the current position of Phobos and Deimos, will help us to understand whether the Martian obliquity could have undergone the large changes ensuing from the said model (Ward 1973; Touma and Wisdom 1993, 1994; Laskar and Robutel 1993), or whether the changes ought to have been less intensive (Bills 2006; Paige et al. 2007). It has turned out that, for low initial inclinations, the orbit inclination reckoned from the precessing equator of date is subject only to small variations. This is an extension, to non-uniform equinoctial precession given by the Colombo model, of an old result obtained by
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kondo, Y.; Wolff, C. L.; Van Flandern, T. C.
1983-01-01
The concept of the precessing accretion disk in HZ Her/Her X-1 in its varied forms, to account for the 35 day periodicity in the X-ray flux, has met many objections from a number of workers on various grounds, but it is still being invoked in current publications. These objections are reviewed and additional arguments are presented against the precessing accretion disk model. The implausibility of the disk models is demonstrated. An alternate clock mechanism, based on nonlinear oscillations in the normal star, which provides the modulation of the mass flow is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dobson, G. J.
1998-07-01
Newton's treatment of the precession of the equinoxes in his Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica was recognised by d'Alembert in 1749 as being faulty, despite the very close agreement between Newton's calculated value for the rate of precesion and the observed value. Here, the author presents an analysis of Newton's geometrical methods applied in his treatment of precession and claims that it was basically flawed because Newton lacked knowledge of the principles of rigid body dynamics and, in particular, was unaware of the idea of angular momentum.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kupryaev, N. V.
2015-05-01
The precession of the perihelion of Mercury's orbit in the gravitational field of the Sun and planets has been numerically modeled within the framework of Newton's law of universal gravitation. The calculations were performed with enhanced calculational accuracy and with an iteration step of 0.0005 s. It has been shown that the average precession of Mercury's orbit after 100 years within the framework of Newton's law of universal gravitation comprises +553''. This is 21'' greater than the generally accepted value of +532''.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharya, Aniruddha; Baten, Md Zunaid; Bhattacharya, Pallab
2016-01-01
We report the measurement of diffusive electronic spin transport characteristics in an epitaxial wurtzite GaN lateral spin valve at room temperature. Hanle spin precession and non-local spin accumulation measurements have been performed with the spin valves fabricated with FeCo/MgO spin contacts. Electron spin relaxation length and spin-flip lifetime of 176 nm and 37 ps, respectively, are derived from analysis of results obtained from four-terminal Hanle spin precession measurements at 300 K. The role of dislocations and defects in bulk GaN has also been examined in the context of electronic spin relaxation dynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hiramatsu, Ryo; Kubota, Hitoshi; Tsunegi, Sumito; Tamaru, Shingo; Yakushiji, Kay; Fukushima, Akio; Matsumoto, Rie; Imamura, Hiroshi; Yuasa, Shinji
2016-05-01
Out-of-plane (OP) precession in spin torque oscillators having an in-plane (IP) magnetized free layer and a perpendicularly magnetized reference layer was studied. The bias voltage (V B) and magnetic field angle (θ) dependence of the OP precession were investigated. The absolute values of the critical magnetic fields (H\\text{B}\\text{c - } and H\\text{B}\\text{c + }) between which OP precession is excited increased as V B increased and as θ changed from the IP to the OP direction. The IP components of H\\text{B}\\text{c +/- } converged to a constant value regardless of θ. This result indicates that excitation of OP precession is suppressed entirely by the IP component of the magnetic field, and the contribution of the OP component can be ignored. The experimentally observed precession behavior was successfully modeled by macrospin simulations.
Impact of Precession On Monsoon Characteristics From Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braconnot, Pascale; Marti, Olivier
Precession cycle modulates the seasonal distribution of the incoming solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere with a periodicity of about 23 kyr. Summer insolation is the largest for periods during which the Earth is near the perihelion of its orbit dur- ing summer. The associated continental warming favours the deepening of the sum- mer thermal low over the Northern Hemisphere continents and the inland advection of moist air from the tropical oceans, strengthening the monsoon activity. Different orbital configurations (precession) can lead to large June-July-August (summer) inso- lation forcing. Amongst these, the maximum insolation can occur between the vernal equinox and the summer solstice or between the summer solstice and the autumnal equinox. Using a fully coupled ocean-atmosphere model we investigate the response of the Indian and southeast monsoons to changes in precession and we explore the differences between periods where the monsoon activity is strong compared to the period of reference but the seasonal timing of the insolation forcing is different. Our aim is to determine if extreme phases in the seasonal forcing can lead to different signatures in the monsoon response. We focus on the Asian monsoon and on the at- mospheric and oceanic circulation in the Indian Ocean. Our results show that, even though the changes in the land-sea contrast that drives the monsoon flow follows quite well the differences in the insolation forcing, the regional distribution over the con- tinental regions affected by the monsoon and the ocean substantially varies from one simulation to the other. Large differences are found in the simulated surface temper- ature and salinity in the Indian Ocean. They are related to various feedbacks, where the changes in the hydrological cycle over the basin through precipitation, evapora- tion and river runoff play and important role. Our results strongly emphasize that the timing of the seasonal cycle need to be considered in
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alfonso, W. D.; Sánchez, L. A.; Mosquera, H. J.
2015-11-01
The electromagnetic radiation emitted from some astrophysical objects such as active galactic nuclei (AGN), micro-quasars (M-QSRs), and central engines of gamma-ray burst (GRBs), seems to have a similar physical origin: a powerful jet of plasma ejected from a localized system, presumably composed of an accretion disk encircling a compact object. This radiation is generally beamed in the polar directions and in some cases, it appears to have a spiral-like structure that could be explained if the central system itself precesses. In this work, we use the slim disk accretion model, presented by Popham et al. (1999), to studying the gravitational waves (GWs) emitted by the precession of the accretion disk around a solar-mass Kerr black hole (KBH). For practical purposes, this model describes the central engine of a class of GRBs when some astrophysical constrains are fulfilled. The induced precession considered here is driven by the Bardeen-Petterson effect, which results from the combination of viscous effects in such disks and the relativistic frame-dragging effect. We evaluate the feasibility of direct detection of the GWs computed for such a model and show that the precession of this kind of systems could be detected by gravitational wave observatories like DECIGO, ultimate-DECIGO, and BBO, with higher probability if such a class of sources are placed at distances less than 1 Mpc.
The Periodicity Analysis of the Light Curve of 3C 279 and Implications for the Precession Jet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, H. Z.; Xie, G. Z.; Chen, L. E.; Dai, H.; Lei, B. Y.; Yi, T. F.; Ren, J. Y.
2009-11-01
We have analyzed the light curves of 3C 279 at 22 GHz, 37 GHz, optical R band, and X-ray (2-10 KeV), and found evidence of quasi-periodic outbusts. The light curves show that 3C 279 is an extremely active object. A period of P = 130.6 ± 1.3 days was consistently confirmed by three methods: the power-spectrum method, the discrete correlation function (DCF) method, and the Jurkevich method. Based on the relationship between observed period Pobs and the precession period Pp given by Rieger and our result, the precession period of jet in 3C 279 is Pp sime 29.6 yr, which is completely consistent with the precession period of jet of about 30 yr obtained by Carrara et al.. This suggests that there is a precession jet in 3C 279 and the variability period of about 130.6 days that we obtained is most likely caused by the helical motion of the jet.
Thermal convection in a rotating fluid sphere with self gravity, uniform heat source and precession
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avila, Ruben
2014-11-01
The natural convection of a rotating fluid sphere with a self gravity field (which is proportional to the radius of the sphere) and with precessional motion is presented. The spherical bounding surface is maintained at a constant and uniform temperature which is lower than the temperature of the fluid. A constant and uniform heat source increases the temperature of the fluid confined in the sphere. The fluid sphere rotates and precesses with angular velocity vectors that form a certain inclination angle between them. The governing non-steady, three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations for an incompressible fluid, formulated in a Cartesian coordinate system (in the mantle reference frame) are solved by using the spectral element method. The influence of the Rayleigh number, the Ekman number and the Poincare number on the flow patterns, the temperature field and the heat transfer rate from the fluid sphere is presented. DGAPA-PAPIIT Project: IN117314-3.
Confinement and precession of vortex pairs in coherently coupled Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tylutki, Marek; Pitaevskii, Lev P.; Recati, Alessio; Stringari, Sandro
2016-04-01
The dynamic behavior of vortex pairs in two-component coherently (Rabi) coupled Bose-Einstein condensates is investigated in the presence of harmonic trapping. We discuss the role of the surface tension associated with the domain wall connecting two vortices in condensates of atoms occupying different spin states and its effect on the precession of the vortex pair. The results, based on the numerical solution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equations, are compared with the predictions of an analytical macroscopic model and are discussed as a function of the size of the pair, the Rabi coupling, and the intercomponent interaction. We show that the increase of the Rabi coupling results in the disintegration of the domain wall into smaller pieces, connecting vortices of newly created vortex pairs. The resulting scenario is the analog of quark confinement and string breaking in quantum chromodynamics.
Against Chandrasekhar's interpretation of Newton's treatment of the precession of the equinoxes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dobson, G. J.
1999-02-01
The author examines the interpretation of Newton's theory of the precession of the equinoxes presented by Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar in his book "Newton's Principia for the common reader" (Clarendon Press, 1995; see abstr. 63.003.040). Based on his own analysis of the respective chapters of the "Principia" published in a recent paper (see abstr. 70.004.121), the author ventures to show that Chandrasekhar has seriously misunderstood Newton's procedure. Specifically, the author expounds his own interpretation of the meaning of Lemmas 1, 2, and 3, and of Proposition 39 of the "Principia", and compares this meaning with Chandrasekhar's interpretation. He argues that Chandrasekhar's interpretation of Proposition 39 is based on modern concepts of rigid body dynamics and does not provide a satisfactory representation of Newton's method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kerr, M.; Hobbs, G.; Johnston, S.; Shannon, R. M.
2016-01-01
In a search for periodic variation in the arrival times of pulses from 151 young, energetic pulsars, we have identified seven cases of modulation consistent with one or two harmonics of a single fundamental with time-scale 0.5-1.5 yr. We use simulations to show that these modulations are statistically significant and of high quality (sinusoidal) even when contaminated by the strong stochastic timing noise common to young pulsars. Although planetary companions could induce such modulation, the large implied masses and 2:1 mean motion resonances challenge such an explanation. Instead, the modulation is likely to be intrinsic to the pulsar, arising from quasi-periodic switching between stable magnetospheric states, and we propose that precession of the neutron star may regulate this switching.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borzdov, G. N.
2016-06-01
The fundamental solution of the Dirac equation for an electron in an electromagnetic field with harmonic dependence on space-time coordinates is obtained. The field is composed of three standing plane harmonic waves with mutually orthogonal phase planes and the same frequency. Each standing wave consists of two eigenwaves with different complex amplitudes and opposite directions of propagation. The fundamental solution is obtained in the form of the projection operator defining the subspace of solutions to the Dirac equation. It is illustrated by the analysis of the ground state and the spin precession of the Dirac electron in the field of two counterpropagating plane waves with left and right circular polarizations. Interrelations between the fundamental solution and approximate partial solutions is discussed and a criterion for evaluating the accuracy of approximate solutions is suggested.
S5FP: Spectrally Selective Suppression with Steady State Free Precession
Derbyshire, J. A.; Herzka, D. A.; McVeigh, E. R.
2007-01-01
A method is presented that employs the inherent spectral selectivity of the Steady-State Free Precession (SSFP) pulse sequence to provide a spectral band of suppression. At TE = TR/2, SSFP partitions the magnetization into two phase-opposed spectral components. Z-storing one of these components simultaneously further excites the other, which is then suppressed by gradient crushing and RF spoiling. The Spectrally Selective Suppression with SSFP (S5FP) method is shown to provide significant attenuation of fat signals, while the water signals are essentially unaffected and provide the normal SSFP contrast. Fat suppression is achieved with relatively little temporal overhead (less than 10% reduction in temporal resolution). S5FP was validated using simulations, phantoms, and human studies. Published 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.† PMID:16155880
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhu, S. Y.; Mueller, I. I.
1982-01-01
The effect of adopting definitive precession and equinox corrections on the terrestrial reference frame was investigated. It is noted that the effect on polar motion is a diurnal periodic term with an amplitude increasing linearly in time whole on UT1 it is a linear term: general principles are given to determine the effects of small rotations of the frame of a conventional inertial reference system (CIS) on the frame of the conventional terrestrial reference system (CTS); seven CTS options are presented, one of which is necessary to accommodate such rotation. Accommodating possible future changes in the astronomical nutation is discussed. The effects of differences which may exist between the various CTS's and CIS's on Earth rotation parameters (ERP) and how these differences can be determined are examined. It is shown that the CTS differences can be determined from observations made at the same site. The CIS differences by comparing the ERP's are determined by the different techniques during the same time period.
SPIN-PRECESSION: BREAKING THE BLACK HOLE-NEUTRON STAR DEGENERACY
Chatziioannou, Katerina; Cornish, Neil; Klein, Antoine; Yunes, Nicolás
2015-01-01
Mergers of compact stellar remnants are prime targets for the LIGO/Virgo gravitational wave detectors. The gravitational wave signals from these merger events can be used to study the mass and spin distribution of stellar remnants, and provide information about black hole horizons and the material properties of neutron stars. However, it has been suggested that degeneracies in the way that the star's mass and spin are imprinted in the waveforms may make it impossible to distinguish between black holes and neutron stars. Here we show that the precession of the orbital plane due to spin-orbit coupling breaks the mass-spin degeneracy, and allows us to distinguish between standard neutron stars and alternative possibilities, such as black holes or exotic neutron stars with large masses and spins.
Topological currents in neutron stars: kicks, precession, toroidal fields, and magnetic helicity
Charbonneau, James; Zhitnitsky, Ariel E-mail: arz@phas.ubc.ca
2010-08-01
The effects of anomalies in high density QCD are striking. We consider a direct application of one of these effects, namely topological currents, on the physics of neutron stars. All the elements required for topological currents are present in neutron stars: degenerate matter, large magnetic fields, and parity violating processes. These conditions lead to the creation of vector currents capable of carrying momentum and inducing magnetic fields. We estimate the size of these currents for many representative states of dense matter in the neutron star and argue that they could be responsible for the large proper motion of neutron stars (kicks), the toroidal magnetic field and finite magnetic helicity needed for stability of the poloidal field, and the resolution of the conflict between type-II superconductivity and precession. Though these observational effects appear unrelated, they likely originate from the same physics — they are all P-odd phenomena that stem from a topological current generated by parity violation.
Conductance dips and spin precession in a nonuniform waveguide with spin–orbit coupling
Malyshev, A. I. Kozulin, A. S.
2015-07-15
An infinite waveguide with a nonuniformity, a segment of finite length with spin–orbit coupling, is considered in the case when the Rashba and Dresselhaus parameters are identical. Analytical expressions have been derived in the single-mode approximation for the conductance of the system for an arbitrary initial spin state. Based on numerical calculations with several size quantization modes, we have detected and described the conductance dips arising when the waves are localized in the nonuniformity due to the formation of an effective potential well in it. We show that allowance for the evanescent modes under carrier spin precession in an effective magnetic field does not lead to a change in the direction of the average spin vector at the output of the system.
K2 and MAXI observations of Sco X-1 - evidence for disc precession?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hakala, Pasi; Ramsay, Gavin; Barclay, Thomas; Charles, Phil
2015-10-01
Sco X-1 is the archetypal low-mass X-ray binary and the brightest persistent extrasolar X-ray source in the sky. It was included in the K2 Campaign 2 field and was observed continuously for 71 d with 1 min time resolution. In this Letter, we report these results and underline the potential of K2 for similar observations of other accreting compact binaries. We reconfirm that Sco X-1 shows a bimodal distribution of optical `high' and `low' states and rapid transitions between them on time-scales less than 3 h (or 0.15 orbits). We also find evidence that this behaviour has a typical systemic time-scale of 4.8 d, which we interpret as a possible disc precession period in the system. Finally, we confirm the complex optical versus X-ray correlation/anticorrelation behaviour for `high' and `low' optical states, respectively.
Experiments and models of low Reynolds number flows generated by a precessing rod over a plane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martindale, James; Camassa, Roberto; McLaughlin, Richard M.; Vicci, Leandra; Zhao, Longhua; UNC NSF RTG Fluids Team Collaboration
2012-11-01
Slender body asymptotics and experiments are developed to emulate dynamics biological interest such as primary cilia in developing embryos. Experiments are performed using high viscosity silicon oil with magnetically actuated precessing rod in a table-top setup. Stereoscopic Lagrangian tracking show quantified long-time agreement with an appropriately imaged slender body theory to enforce the no-slip boundary condition of the floor. In contrast, breaking symmetry by a bent rod creates additional flow components which destroy quantitative short time agreement with the theory while maintaining its qualitative features including the creation of large scale Lagrangian tori. Higher order asymptotic corrections are implemented and compared in an attempt to restore quantitative predictability. Direct comparison with 3D stereoscopic PIV measurements will be presented. NSF RTG DMS-0502266, NSF RTG DMS-0943851, and NSF DMS-1009750.
Light-induced collective pseudospin precession resonating with Higgs mode in a superconductor.
Matsunaga, Ryusuke; Tsuji, Naoto; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Sugioka, Arata; Makise, Kazumasa; Uzawa, Yoshinori; Terai, Hirotaka; Wang, Zhen; Aoki, Hideo; Shimano, Ryo
2014-09-01
Superconductors host collective modes that can be manipulated with light. We show that a strong terahertz light field can induce oscillations of the superconducting order parameter in NbN with twice the frequency of the terahertz field. The result can be captured as a collective precession of Anderson's pseudospins in ac driving fields. A resonance between the field and the Higgs amplitude mode of the superconductor then results in large terahertz third-harmonic generation. The method we present here paves a way toward nonlinear quantum optics in superconductors with driving the pseudospins collectively and can be potentially extended to exotic superconductors for shedding light on the character of order parameters and their coupling to other degrees of freedom. PMID:25011555
Emergence of electromotive force in precession-less rigid motion of deformed domain wall
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farajollahpour, Tohid; Darmiani, Narges; Phirouznia, Arash
2016-08-01
Recently it has been recognized that the electromotive force (emf) can be induced just by the spin precession where the generation of the electromotive force has been considered as a real-space topological pumping effect. It has been shown that the amount of the electromotive force is independent of the functionality of the localized moments. It was also demonstrated that the rigid domain wall (DW) motion cannot generate electromotive force in the system. Based on real-space topological pumping approach in the current study we show that the electromotive force can be induced by rigid motion of a deformed DW. We also demonstrate that the generated electromotive force strongly depends on the DW bulging. Meanwhile results show that the DW bulging leads to generation of the electromotive force both along the axis of the DW motion and normal to the direction of motion.
Angular velocity of gravitational radiation from precessing binaries and the corotating frame
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boyle, Michael
2013-05-01
This paper defines an angular velocity for time-dependent functions on the sphere and applies it to gravitational waveforms from compact binaries. Because it is geometrically meaningful and has a clear physical motivation, the angular velocity is uniquely useful in helping to solve an important—and largely ignored—problem in models of compact binaries: the inverse problem of deducing the physical parameters of a system from the gravitational waves alone. It is also used to define the corotating frame of the waveform. When decomposed in this frame, the waveform has no rotational dynamics and is therefore as slowly evolving as possible. The resulting simplifications lead to straightforward methods for accurately comparing waveforms and constructing hybrids. As formulated in this paper, the methods can be applied robustly to both precessing and nonprecessing waveforms, providing a clear, comprehensive, and consistent framework for waveform analysis. Explicit implementations of all these methods are provided in accompanying computer code.
Nutation and precession control of the High Energy Solar Physics (HESP) satellite
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jayaraman, C. P.; Robertson, B. P.
1993-01-01
The High Energy Solar Physics (HESP) spacecraft is an intermediate class satellite proposed by NASA to study solar high-energy phenomena during the next cycle of high solar activity in the 1998 to 2005 time frame. The HESP spacecraft is a spinning satellite which points to the sun with stringent pointing requirements. The natural dynamics of a spinning satellite includes an undesirable effect: nutation, which is due to the presence of disturbances and offsets of the spin axis from the angular momentum vector. The proposed Attitude Control System (ACS) attenuates nutation with reaction wheels. Precessing the spacecraft to track the sun in the north-south and east-west directions is accomplished with the use of torques from magnetic torquer bars. In this paper, the basic dynamics of a spinning spacecraft are derived, control algorithms to meet HESP science requirements are discussed and simulation results to demonstrate feasibility of the ACS concept are presented.
Coherent spin-transfer precession switching in orthogonal spin-torque devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryan, Colm; Rowlands, Graham; Pinna, Daniele; Ye, Li; Rehm, Laura; Sluka, Volker; Kent, Andy; Ohki, Thomas
We present experimental results in concert with macrospin simulations of the switching characteristics of orthogonal spin-transfer devices incorporating an out-of-plane magnetized polarizing layer and an in-plane magnetized spin valve device at cryogenic temperatures. Switching at 3.4K between parallel and anti-parallel spin-valve states is investigated for current pulses with varying durations from 0.1 to 1.4ns to observe the averaged response of the time dependent dynamics of the spin-transfer induced precession of the magnetization. We demonstrate high speed switching at short pulse lengths, down to 100ps, and also observe ensemble decoherence effects with longer pulses. The results show that even at cryogenic temperatures finite temperature noise is still important in the dynamics of precessional switching.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Camassa, Roberto; Martindale, J. D.; McLaughlin, Richard; Vicci, Leandra; Zhao, Longhua; UNC Joint Fluids Lab Team
2013-11-01
The precessing motion of a bent rod over a plane in viscous dominated regimes can generate global fluid flow structures in the form of recirculating tori. Such motion can play an important role in the development of multicellular organisms, where primary cilia are the main agent for the embryonic forms of nutrient circulation. Results from an experimental investigation using PIV techniques to analyze the flow field will be presented and compared with a first principle theory based on slender body approximations. While good qualitative agreement can be achieved with Blake images enforcing the no-slip condition at the plane, quantitative agreement requires a more sophisticated approach, which will be outlined. We acknowledge funding received from the following NSF grants: RTG DMS-0943851 and DMS-1009750.
Inspiralling, spinning, non-precessing binary black hole spacetime via asymptotic matching
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ireland, Brennan; Mundim, Bruno; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Campanelli, Manuela
2016-03-01
We construct and present a new global, fully analytic, approximate spacetime which accurately describes the dynamics of non-precessing, spinning black hole binaries during the inspiral phase of the relativistic merger process. This approximate solution of the vacuum Einstein's equations can be obtained by asymptotically matching perturbed Kerr solutions near the two black holes to a post-Newtonian metric valid far from the two black holes. This metric is then matched to a post-Minkowskian metric even farther out in the wave zone. The procedure of asymptotic matching is generalized to be valid on all spatial hypersurfaces, instead of a small group of initial hypersurfaces discussed in previous works. This metric is well suited for long term dynamical simulations of spinning black hole binary spacetimes prior to merger, such as studies of circumbinary gas accretion which requires hundreds of binary orbits.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Efroimsky, M.; Lainey, V.; Gurfil, P.
2005-12-01
Construction of an accurate theory of orbits about a precessing and nutating oblate planet, in terms of osculating elements defined in a frame associated with the equator of date, was started in Efroimsky & Goldreich (2004) and Efroimsky (2005a,b). Here we continue this line of research by combining those analytics with numerical tools. This semianalytical and seminumerical theory, based on the Lagrange-type planetary equations for the Keplerian elements, is then applied to Deimos at very large time scales. In parallel with the said semianalytical-seminumerical theory for the Keplerian elements, we have also carried out a completely independent, purely numerical, integration in a fixed inertial Cartesian frame. These parallel efforts were taken to make sure that the results are reliable and robust. One goal of this work was to make an independent check of whether the equinoctial precession predicted for a rigid Mars could have been sufficient to repel the orbits away from the equator, on a billion-year time scale. The answer to this question, in combination with our knowledge of the current position of Phobos and Deimos, will help us to understand whether this precession could indeed be as large as predicted or whether it ought to have been less. Another goal was to trace the history of a hypothetical satellite captured at a high inclination and to see if its inclination could decrease through aeons. The latter numerical experiment was motivated by the ongoing discussion on the possible scenarios of the Martian satellites capture. It has turned out that, both for high and low initial inclinations, the orbit inclination, reckoned from the precessing equator of date, is subject only to extremely small variations. This is an extension, to non-uniform equinoctial precession given by the Colombo model, of an old result obtained by Goldreich (1965) for the case of uniform precession. Such ``inclination locking" confirms that an oblate planet can, indeed, afford a large
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fontana, A.; Marzari, F.
2016-05-01
Context. Planetesimals and planets embedded in a circumstellar disk are dynamically perturbed by the disk gravity. It causes an apsidal line precession at a rate that depends on the disk density profile and on the distance of the massive body from the star. Aims: Different analytical models are exploited to compute the precession rate of the perihelion ϖ˙. We compare them to verify their equivalence, in particular after analytical manipulations performed to derive handy formulas, and test their predictions against numerical models in some selected cases. Methods: The theoretical precession rates were computed with analytical algorithms found in the literature using the Mathematica symbolic code, while the numerical simulations were performed with the hydrodynamical code FARGO. Results: For low-mass bodies (planetesimals) the analytical approaches described in Binney & Tremaine (2008, Galactic Dynamics, p. 96), Ward (1981, Icarus, 47, 234), and Silsbee & Rafikov (2015a, ApJ, 798, 71) are equivalent under the same initial conditions for the disk in terms of mass, density profile, and inner and outer borders. They also match the numerical values computed with FARGO away from the outer border of the disk reasonably well. On the other hand, the predictions of the classical Mestel disk (Mestel 1963, MNRAS, 126, 553) for disks with p = 1 significantly depart from the numerical solution for radial distances beyond one-third of the disk extension because of the underlying assumption of the Mestel disk is that the outer disk border is equal to infinity. For massive bodies such as terrestrial and giant planets, the agreement of the analytical approaches is progressively poorer because of the changes in the disk structure that are induced by the planet gravity. For giant planets the precession rate changes sign and is higher than the modulus of the theoretical value by a factor ranging from 1.5 to 1.8. In this case, the correction of the formula proposed by Ward (1981) to
Precession of a two-layer Earth: contributions of the core and elasticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baenas, Tomás; Ferrándiz, José M.; Escapa, Alberto; Getino, Juan; Navarro, Juan F.
2016-04-01
The Earth's internal structure contributes to the precession rate in a small but non-negligible amount, given the current accuracy goals demanded by IAG/GGOS to the reference frames, namely 30 μas and 3 μas/yr. These contributions come from a variety of sources. One of those not yet accounted for in current IAU models is associated to the crossed effects of certain nutation-rising terms of a two-layer Earth model; intuitively, it gathers an 'indirect' effect of the core via the NDFW, or FCN, resonance as well as a 'direct' effect arising from terms that account for energy variations depending on the elasticity of the core. Similar order of magnitude reaches the direct effect of the departure of the Earth's rheology from linear elasticity. To compute those effects we work out the problem in a unified way within the Hamiltonian framework developed by Getino and Ferrándiz (2001). It allows a consistent treatment of the problem since all the perturbations are derived from the same tide generating expansion and the crossing effects are rigorously obtained through Hori's canonical perturbation method. The problem admits an asymptotic analytical solution. The Hamiltonian is constructed by considering a two-layer Earth model made up of an anelastic mantle and a fluid core, perturbed by the gravitational action of the Moon and the Sun. The former effects reach some tens of μas/yr in the longitude rate, hence above the target accuracy level. We outline their influence in the estimation of the Earth's dynamical ellipticity, a main parameter factorizing both precession and nutation.
Kim, Steve M.; Ganguli, Surya; Frank, Loren M.
2012-01-01
Hippocampal place cells convey spatial information through a combination of spatially-selective firing and theta phase precession. The way in which this information influences regions like the subiculum that receive input from the hippocampus remains unclear. The subiculum receives direct inputs from area CA1 of the hippocampus and sends divergent output projections to many other parts of the brain, so we examined the firing patterns of rat subicular neurons. We found a substantial transformation in the subicular code for space from sparse to dense firing rate representations along a proximal-distal anatomical gradient: neurons in the proximal subiculum are more similar to canonical, sparsely firing hippocampal place cells, whereas neurons in the distal subiculum have higher firing rates and more distributed spatial firing patterns. Using information theory, we found that the more distributed spatial representation in the subiculum carries, on average, more information about spatial location and context than the sparse spatial representation in CA1. Remarkably, despite the disparate firing rate properties of subicular neurons, we found that neurons at all proximal-distal locations exhibit robust theta phase precession, with similar spiking oscillation frequencies as neurons in area CA1. Our findings suggest that the subiculum is specialized to compress sparse hippocampal spatial codes into highly informative distributed codes suitable for efficient communication to other brain regions. Moreover, despite this substantial compression, the subiculum maintains finer scale temporal properties that may allow it to participate in oscillatory phase coding and spike timing-dependent plasticity in coordination with other regions of the hippocampal circuit. PMID:22915100
Constraining the String Gauge Field by Galaxy Rotation Curves and Perihelion Precession of Planets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheung, Yeuk-Kwan E.; Xu, Feng
2013-09-01
We discuss a cosmological model in which the string gauge field coupled universally to matter gives rise to an extra centripetal force and will have observable signatures on cosmological and astronomical observations. Several tests are performed using data including galaxy rotation curves of 22 spiral galaxies of varied luminosities and sizes and perihelion precessions of planets in the solar system. The rotation curves of the same group of galaxies are independently fit using a dark matter model with the generalized Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile and the string model. A remarkable fit of galaxy rotation curves is achieved using the one-parameter string model as compared to the three-parameter dark matter model with the NFW profile. The average χ2 value of the NFW fit is 9% better than that of the string model at a price of two more free parameters. Furthermore, from the string model, we can give a dynamical explanation for the phenomenological Tully-Fisher relation. We are able to derive a relation between field strength, galaxy size, and luminosity, which can be verified with data from the 22 galaxies. To further test the hypothesis of the universal existence of the string gauge field, we apply our string model to the solar system. Constraint on the magnitude of the string field in the solar system is deduced from the current ranges for any anomalous perihelion precession of planets allowed by the latest observations. The field distribution resembles a dipole field originating from the Sun. The string field strength deduced from the solar system observations is of a similar magnitude as the field strength needed to sustain the rotational speed of the Sun inside the Milky Way. This hypothesis can be tested further by future observations with higher precision.
CONSTRAINING THE STRING GAUGE FIELD BY GALAXY ROTATION CURVES AND PERIHELION PRECESSION OF PLANETS
Cheung, Yeuk-Kwan E.; Xu Feng
2013-09-01
We discuss a cosmological model in which the string gauge field coupled universally to matter gives rise to an extra centripetal force and will have observable signatures on cosmological and astronomical observations. Several tests are performed using data including galaxy rotation curves of 22 spiral galaxies of varied luminosities and sizes and perihelion precessions of planets in the solar system. The rotation curves of the same group of galaxies are independently fit using a dark matter model with the generalized Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile and the string model. A remarkable fit of galaxy rotation curves is achieved using the one-parameter string model as compared to the three-parameter dark matter model with the NFW profile. The average {chi}{sup 2} value of the NFW fit is 9% better than that of the string model at a price of two more free parameters. Furthermore, from the string model, we can give a dynamical explanation for the phenomenological Tully-Fisher relation. We are able to derive a relation between field strength, galaxy size, and luminosity, which can be verified with data from the 22 galaxies. To further test the hypothesis of the universal existence of the string gauge field, we apply our string model to the solar system. Constraint on the magnitude of the string field in the solar system is deduced from the current ranges for any anomalous perihelion precession of planets allowed by the latest observations. The field distribution resembles a dipole field originating from the Sun. The string field strength deduced from the solar system observations is of a similar magnitude as the field strength needed to sustain the rotational speed of the Sun inside the Milky Way. This hypothesis can be tested further by future observations with higher precision.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bosmans, J. H. C.; Drijfhout, S. S.; Tuenter, E.; Hilgen, F. J.; Lourens, L. J.
2015-01-01
We investigate, for the first time, the response of the North African summer monsoon to separate precession and obliquity forcings using a high-resolution state-of-the-art coupled general circulation model, EC-Earth. Our aim is to better understand the mechanisms underlying the astronomical forcing of this low-latitude climate system in detail. The North African monsoon is strengthened when northern hemisphere summer insolation is higher, as is the case in the minimum precession and maximum obliquity experiments. In these experiments, the low surface pressure areas over the Sahara are intensified and located farther north, and the meridional pressure gradient is further enhanced by a stronger South Atlantic high pressure area. As a result, the southwesterly monsoon winds are stronger and bring more moisture into the monsoon region from both the northern and southern tropical Atlantic. The monsoon winds, precipitation and convection also extend farther north into North Africa. The precession-induced changes are much larger than those induced by obliquity, but the latter are remarkable because obliquity-induced changes in summer insolation over the tropics are nearly zero. Our results provide a different explanation than previously proposed for mechanisms underlying the precession- and, especially, obliquity-related signals in paleoclimate proxy records of the North African monsoon. The EC-Earth experiments reveal that, instead of higher latitude mechanisms, increased moisture transport from both the northern and southern tropical Atlantic is responsible for the precession and obliquity signals in the North African monsoon. This increased moisture transport results from both increased insolation and an increased tropical insolation gradient.
Goto, R.; Hatori, T.; Miura, H. Ito, A.; Sato, M.
2015-03-15
Two-fluid and the finite Larmor effects on linear and nonlinear growth of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in a two-dimensional slab are studied numerically with special attention to high-wave-number dynamics and nonlinear structure formation at a low β-value. The two effects stabilize the unstable high wave number modes for a certain range of the β-value. In nonlinear simulations, the absence of the high wave number modes in the linear stage leads to the formation of the density field structure much larger than that in the single-fluid magnetohydrodynamic simulation, together with a sharp density gradient as well as a large velocity difference. The formation of the sharp velocity difference leads to a subsequent Kelvin-Helmholtz-type instability only when both the two-fluid and finite Larmor radius terms are incorporated, whereas it is not observed otherwise. It is shown that the emergence of the secondary instability can modify the outline of the turbulent structures associated with the primary Rayleigh-Taylor instability.
Precessão do jato de 3C120: simulações hidrodinâmicas 3D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caproni, A.; de Gouveia dal Pino, E. M.; Abraham, Z.; Raga, A. C.
2003-08-01
Observações com técnicas de interferometria com longa linha de base têm mostrado a existência de um jato relativístico com componentes superluminais na região central de 3C 120. Estas componentes são ejetadas em distintas direções no plano do céu e com diferentes velocidades aparentes. Estas características foram interpretadas em trabalhos anteriores como efeitos da precessão do jato relativístico. Neste trabalho, realizamos simulações tri-dimensionais do jato de 3C 120 utilizando os parâmetros de precessão determinados em trabalhos anteriores e variando as características iniciais do jato e meio ambiente, tais como densidade numérica e temperatura. Todas as simulações foram feitas com o código hidrodinâmico YGUAZÚ-A, assumindo-se um jato adiabático descrito por uma equação de estado relativística. Pelo fato de estarmos utilizando um código hidrodinâmico, nós assumimos que a intensidade do campo magnético e a distribuição de partículas, necessários para se calcular a emissão sincrotron, são proporcionais à pressão hidrodinâmica. Comparação entre dois cenários distintos, nos quais o material do jato é ejetado com velocidade constante (jato contínuo) e com velocidade modulada por um padrão sinusoidal no tempo (jato intermitente), é apresentada e discutida. Para jatos que apresentam fenômenos de precessão e intermitência, com amplitude de variação na velocidade de injeção maior que dez por cento da velocidade média de injeção, a hipótese balística, controlada pela intermitencia, é mais provável. Por outro lado, para jatos com precessão mas sem intermitência (ou com amplitude de variabilidade em velocidade mais baixa que no caso anterior), o efeito da precessão na morfologia do jato não é desprezível. Portanto, de um modo geral, ambos efeitos (precessão e movimentos balísticos) devem estar concorrendo para afetar a morfologia dos jatos superluminais.
Possible interpretation of the precession of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gutiérrez, P. J.; Jorda, L.; Gaskell, R. W.; Davidsson, B. J. R.; Capanna, C.; Hviid, S. F.; Keller, H. U.; Maquet, L.; Mottola, S.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Lara, L. M.; Moreno, F.; Rodrigo, R.; Sierks, H.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P.; Koschny, D.; Rickman, H.; Agarwal, J.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Auger, A. T.; Barucci, M. A.; Bertaux, J. L.; Bertini, I.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; El-Maarry, M. R.; Fornasier, S.; Fulle, M.; Groussin, O.; Gutiérrez-Marques, P.; Güttler, C.; Ip, W. H.; Knollenberg, J.; Kramm, J. R.; Kührt, E.; Küppers, M.; La Forgia, F.; Lazzarin, M.; López-Moreno, J. J.; Magrin, S.; Marchi, S.; Marzari, F.; Naletto, G.; Oklay, N.; Pajola, M.; Pommerol, A.; Sabau, D.; Thomas, N.; Toth, I.; Tubiana, C.; Vincent, J. B.
2016-05-01
Context. Data derived from the reconstruction of the nucleus shape of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) from images of the OSIRIS camera onboard ROSETTA show evidence that the nucleus rotates in complex mode. First, the orientation of the spin axis is not fixed in an inertial reference frame, which suggests a precessing motion around the angular momentum vector with a periodicity of approximately 257 h ± 12 h.Second, periodograms of the right ascension and declination (RA/Dec) coordinates of the body-frame Z axis show a very significant (higher than 99.99%) periodicity at 276 h ± 12 h, different from the rotational period of 12.40 h as previously determined from light-curve analysis. Aims: The main goal is to interpret the data and associated periodicities of the spin axis orientation in space. Methods: We analyzed the spin axis orientation in space and associated periodicities and compared them with solutions of Euler equations under the assumption that the body rotates in torque-free conditions. Statistical tests comparing the observationally derived spin axis orientation with the outcome from simulations were applied to determine the most likely inertia moments, excitation level, and periods. Results: Under the assumption that the body is solid-rigid and rotates in torque-free conditions, the most likely interpretation is that 67P is spinning around the principal axis with the highest inertia moment with a period of about 13 h. At the same time, the comet precesses around the angular momentum vector with a period of about 6.35 h. While the rotating period of such a body would be about 12.4 h, RA/Dec coordinates of the spin axis would have a periodicity of about 270 h as a result of the combination of the two aforementioned motions. Conclusions: The most direct and simple interpretation of the complex rotation of 67P requires a ratio of inertia moments significantly higher than that of a homogeneous body.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khodri, Myriam; Cane, Mark A.; Kukla, George; Gavin, Joyce; Braconnot, Pascale
2005-07-01
Three sensitivity experiments using an Ocean Atmosphere General Circulation Model (OAGCM) are conducted to simulate the climate impact of precession. The relative contributions of components of the hydrological cycle including the albedo of Arctic sea ice, advection of atmospheric water vapor and sea surface temperature to the summer Arctic melt process are evaluated. Timing of the perihelion is varied in each experiment with meteorological spring (SP), winter (WP) and autumn (AP) perihelion corresponding to conditions at 110, 115 and 120 ky BP, respectively. Obliquity is unchanged at the 115 ky level which is lower than today. The experiments are assessed relative to the present day control, which has been shown to simulate current conditions based on observations. In the SP experiment, top of the atmosphere (TOA) insolation is weaker than today between the summer solstice and autumnal equinox. In the AP case representing the interglacial, it is less intense between vernal equinox and summer solstice but stronger during the remainder of the year. Although the incident solar radiation is reduced in summer in the SP experiment, increased melting of snow is found primarily as a result of feedbacks from the delayed seasonal cycle of hydrologic components. This is in contrast to both the WP and AP cases in which the perennial snow cover is simulated. At the time of the last glacial inception, 115 ky BP, the WP experiment shows lower insolation to the high northern latitudes in late spring and summer mainly as a result of lower obliquity than today. Dynamical ocean-atmosphere interactions in response to precession maintain the reduced sea ice melting in late spring, strengthen the annual equator-to-pole sea surface temperature (SST) gradient and increase atmospheric moisture convergence in glaciation-sensitive regions. In both the WP and AP experiments seasonal sea ice melting is weakened resulting in pronounced outgoing radiative flux at the locations of expanded sea
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Husar, Ladislav
2013-01-01
The article analyzes the precession-nutation variations in right ascension of stars after the introduction Celestial Intermediate Origin (CIO) as a new origin of the right ascensions. It points out that changes in right ascension depend not only on the motion of the origin, but also on the changes of the pole and hour circles, depending on the position of stars. This explains the apparent paradox that, for certain groups of stars, despite the almost complete elimination of the precession and nutation motion of the CIO on the equator, the magnitude of the variations in right ascension related to the CIO can exceed the magnitude of the classic variations referred to the equinox.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Howarth, Ian D.
2016-04-01
Published photometry of fading events in the PTFO8-8695 system is modelled using improved treatments of stellar geometry, surface intensities, and, particularly, gravity darkening, with a view to testing the planetary-transit hypothesis. Variability in the morphology of fading events can be reproduced by adopting convective-envelope gravity darkening, but near-critical stellar rotation is required. This leads to inconsistencies with spectroscopic observations; the model also predicts substantial photometric variability associated with stellar precession, contrary to observations. Furthermore, the empirical ratio of orbital to rotational angular momenta is at odds with physically plausible values. An exoplanet transiting a precessing, gravity-darkened star may not be the correct explanation of periodic fading events in this system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schempp, Walter J.
2013-09-01
Based on projective geometry, a quantum holographic approach to the orbiton / spinon dynamics of quantum blackholography and clinical magnetic resonance tomography is mathematically described. Crucial applications of the conformal steady-state free-precession modality and automorphic scattering theory are the evidence for a supermassive central black hole in the Milky Way galaxy and the modalities of clinical cardiovascular magnetic resonance tomography and diffusion weighted magnetic resonance tomography of non-invasive radiological diagnostics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belyanin, S.; Gurfil, P.
2009-03-01
Previous studies of geosynchronous orbits indicated that the equinoctial precession (EP) of the Earth affects the long-term behavior of geosynchronous satellites for missions exceeding ten years. However, these studies did not include the lunisolar gravitation and tesseral resonance. In the present study, a model that includes the latter effects is developed. In particular, it is shown that the EP affects motion in the vicinity of the stable and unstable geostationary points. This effect is pronounced in the vicinity of the unstable points, shifting the satellite away from the geosynchronous altitude. Moreover, it is shown that secular inclination growth on time scales of 10-20 years is induced by the EP. This requires additional stationkeeping maneuvers that may increase the overall fuel usage by about 1%. An additional contribution of the present study is an analysis of EP-perturbed orbits with free inclination drift. An optimal initial node location, minimizing the inclination drift, is calculated while taking into account the effect of the EP. It is shown that the classical optimal initial node locations are changed due to the effect of the EP. A maneuvering program in the presence of EP is developed. It is shown that the timing and number of stationkeeping maneuvers is affected by the EP. The models developed herein utilize non-singular orbital elements.
Fast and accurate inference on gravitational waves from precessing compact binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Rory; Field, Scott E.; Blackburn, Kent; Haster, Carl-Johan; Pürrer, Michael; Raymond, Vivien; Schmidt, Patricia
2016-08-01
Inferring astrophysical information from gravitational waves emitted by compact binaries is one of the key science goals of gravitational-wave astronomy. In order to reach the full scientific potential of gravitational-wave experiments, we require techniques to mitigate the cost of Bayesian inference, especially as gravitational-wave signal models and analyses become increasingly sophisticated and detailed. Reduced-order models (ROMs) of gravitational waveforms can significantly reduce the computational cost of inference by removing redundant computations. In this paper, we construct the first reduced-order models of gravitational-wave signals that include the effects of spin precession, inspiral, merger, and ringdown in compact object binaries and that are valid for component masses describing binary neutron star, binary black hole, and mixed binary systems. This work utilizes the waveform model known as "IMRPhenomPv2." Our ROM enables the use of a fast reduced-order quadrature (ROQ) integration rule which allows us to approximate Bayesian probability density functions at a greatly reduced computational cost. We find that the ROQ rule can be used to speed-up inference by factors as high as 300 without introducing systematic bias. This corresponds to a reduction in computational time from around half a year to half a day for the longest duration and lowest mass signals. The ROM and ROQ rules are available with the main inference library of the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, LALInference.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frederick, Sara; Privitera, Stephen; Weinstein, Alan J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration
2015-01-01
The Advanced LIGO and Virgo gravitational wave detectors will come online within the year and are expected to outperform the strain sensitivity of initial LIGO/Virgo detectors by an order of magnitude and operate with greater bandwidth, possibly to frequencies as low as 10 Hz. Coalescing binary black holes (BBH) are anticipated to be among the most likely sources of gravitational radiation observable by the detectors. Searches for such systems benefit greatly from the use of accurate predictions for the gravitational wave signal to filter the data. The component black holes of these systems are predicted to have substantial spin, which greatly influences the gravitational waveforms from these sources; however, recent LIGO/Virgo searches have made use of banks of waveform models which neglect the effects of the component spins. The inclusion of spinning components is relatively simplified when the spins are taken to be aligned with the orbital angular momentum, though the difficult task of including precession (allowing for mis-aligned component spins) remains a goal of this work. We aim to assess the ability of the GSTLAL gravitational wave search pipeline using IMR aligned-spin template waveforms to recover signals from generically spinning black hole binaries injected into simulated Advanced LIGO and Virgo detector noise. If black holes are highly spinning as predicted, use of aligned-spin template banks in upcoming searches could increase the detection rate of these systems in Advanced LIGO and Virgo data, providing the opportunity for a deeper understanding of the sources.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhu, S. Y.; Mueller, I. I.
1982-01-01
The effects of adopting new definitive precession and equinox corrections on the terrestrial reference frame was investigated. It is noted that: (1) the effect on polar motion is a diurnal periodic term with an amplitude increasing linearly in time whole on UT1 it is a linear term; (2) general principles are given to determine the effects of small rotations of the frame of a conventional inertial reference system (CIS) on the frame of the conventional terrestrial reference system (CTS); (3) seven CTS options are presented, one of which is necessary to accommodate such rotation. Accommodating possible future changes in the astronomical nutation is discussed. The effects of differences which may exist between the various CTS's and CIS's on Earth rotation parameters (ERP) and how these differences can be determined are examined. It is shown that the CTS differences can be determined from observations made at the same site, while the CIS differences by comparing the ERP's determined by the different techniques during the same time period.
Robust energy transfer mechanism via precession resonance in nonlinear turbulent wave systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lucas, Dan; Bustamante, Miguel; Quinn, Brenda
2014-11-01
The precise mechanisms by which energy is most efficiently transferred in a turbulent system remain an important open question for the fluid mechanics community. In this talk we present a newly discovered resonance which is found to drive transfers across the spectrum of Fourier modes in a nonlinear wave system. Quadratic nonlinearity results in modes interacting in triads and, by considering the ``truly dynamical degrees of freedom'' (amplitudes and triad phases) and the precessional frequencies of the triads, we show transfers are maximal when the precession resonates with the nonlinear temporal frequencies. This can lead to a collective state of synchronised triads with intense cascades at intermediate nonlinearity; we find greatest transfer between the traditional weak and strong turbulence regimes and discover that this new mechanism is dominant here. We present the effect in a hierarchy of models including a full DNS of the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima equation and confirm analytical predictions. Supported by Science Foundation Ireland (SFI) under Grant Number 12/IP/1491.
Black hole - neutron star merger simulations: Precessing binaries with neutrino treatment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Desai, Dhruv; Foucart, Francois; Kasen, Daniel
2016-06-01
Black hole-neutron star (BH-NS) mergers are exciting events to model, as they are a source of gravitational waves, like those discovered for the first time by Advanced LIGO earlier this year. These mergers are also the source of gamma-ray bursts and radioactively powered transients. We present here an outline of our entire research process. We first display results of general relativistic-hydrodynamic simulations using the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC). We ran a set of BH-NS merger simulations varying three of the initial parameters of the black hole: mass, spin magnitude, and spin inclination (relative to the orbital angular momentum of the binary system). The code factors in neutrino cooling and use a temperature dependent, nuclear theory based equation of state, as opposed to simpler equations of state previously used. Though systems which treat precession and neutrino cooling have been simulated individually, the systems we analyzed are the first to take both into account. Once a disk has formed and settled down, we take data from the GR simulations and input it into the particle evolution code, which reads in the positions/velocities and further evolves the system in a Newtonian potential. We then present the fallback rate of bound particles throughout this period of evolution, the approximate density evolution, and the spatial distribution of ejecta.
2012-01-01
Hydrophobic helical peptides interact with lipid bilayers in various modes, determined by the match between the length of the helix’s hydrophobic core and the thickness of the hydrocarbon region of the bilayer. For example, long helices may tilt with respect to the membrane normal to bury their hydrophobic cores in the membrane, and the lipid bilayer may stretch to match the helix length. Recent molecular dynamics simulations and potential of mean force calculations have shown that some TM helices whose lengths are equal to, or even shorter than, the bilayer thickness may also tilt. The tilt is driven by a gain in the helix precession entropy, which compensates for the free energy penalty resulting from membrane deformation. Using this free energy balance, we derived theoretically an equation of state, describing the dependence of the tilt on the helix length and membrane thickness. To this end, we conducted coarse-grained Monte Carlo simulations of the interaction of helices of various lengths with lipid bilayers of various thicknesses, reproducing and expanding the previous molecular dynamics simulations. Insight from the simulations facilitated the derivation of the theoretical model. The tilt angles calculated using the theoretical model agree well with our simulations and with previous calculations and measurements. PMID:24932138
The BANANA project. V. Misaligned and precessing stellar rotation axes in CV Velorum
Albrecht, Simon; Winn, Joshua N.; Triaud, Amaury; Torres, Guillermo; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Setiawan, Johny; Gillon, Michaël; Jehin, Emmanuel; Queloz, Didier; Snellen, Ignas; Eggleton, Peter
2014-04-20
As part of the Binaries Are Not Always Neatly Aligned project (BANANA), we have found that the eclipsing binary CV Velorum has misaligned rotation axes. Based on our analysis of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, we find sky-projected spin-orbit angles of β{sub p} = –52° ± 6° and β{sub s} = 3° ± 7° for the primary and secondary stars (B2.5V + B2.5V, P = 6.9 days). We combine this information with several measurements of changing projected stellar rotation speeds (vsin i {sub *}) over the last 30 yr, leading to a model in which the primary star's obliquity is ≈65°, and its spin axis precesses around the total angular momentum vector with a period of about 140 yr. The geometry of the secondary star is less clear, although a significant obliquity is also implicated by the observed time variations in the vsin i {sub *}. By integrating the secular tidal evolution equations backward in time, we find that the system could have evolved from a state of even stronger misalignment similar to DI Herculis, a younger but otherwise comparable binary.
Laboratory Simulation of the Effect of Rocket Thrust on a Precessing Space Vehicle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alvarez, Oscar; Bausley, Henry; Cohen, Sam; Falcon-Martin, Miguel; Furumoto, Gary (Editor); Horio, Asikin; Levitt, David; Walsh, Amy
1990-01-01
Ground tests of solid propellant rocket motors have shown that metal-containing propellants produce various amounts of slag (primarily aluminum oxide) which is trapped in the motor case, causing a loss of specific impulse. Although not yet definitely established, the presence of a liquid pool of slag also may contribute to nutational instabilities that have been observed with certain spin-stabilized, upper-stage vehicles. Because of the rocket's axial acceleration, absent in the ground tests, estimates of in-flight slag mass have been very uncertain. Yet such estimates are needed to determine the magnitude of the control authority of the systems required for eliminating the instability. A test rig with an eccentrically mounted hemispherical bowl was designed and built which incorporates a follower force that properly aligns the thrust vector along the axis of spin. A program that computes the motion of a point mass in the spinning and precessing bowl was written. Using various RPMs, friction factors, and initial starting conditions, plots were generated showing the trace of the point mass around the inside of the fuel tank. The apparatus will incorporate future design features such as a variable nutation angle and a film height measuring instrument. Data obtained on the nutational instability characteristics will be used to determine order of magnitude estimates of control authority needed to minimize the sloshing effect.
Impaired spatial selectivity and intact phase precession in two-dimensional virtual reality.
Aghajan, Zahra M; Acharya, Lavanya; Moore, Jason J; Cushman, Jesse D; Vuong, Cliff; Mehta, Mayank R
2015-01-01
During real-world (RW) exploration, rodent hippocampal activity shows robust spatial selectivity, which is hypothesized to be governed largely by distal visual cues, although other sensory-motor cues also contribute. Indeed, hippocampal spatial selectivity is weak in primate and human studies that use only visual cues. To determine the contribution of distal visual cues only, we measured hippocampal activity from body-fixed rodents exploring a two-dimensional virtual reality (VR). Compared to that in RW, spatial selectivity was markedly reduced during random foraging and goal-directed tasks in VR. Instead we found small but significant selectivity to distance traveled. Despite impaired spatial selectivity in VR, most spikes occurred within ∼2-s-long hippocampal motifs in both RW and VR that had similar structure, including phase precession within motif fields. Selectivity to space and distance traveled were greatly enhanced in VR tasks with stereotypical trajectories. Thus, distal visual cues alone are insufficient to generate a robust hippocampal rate code for space but are sufficient for a temporal code. PMID:25420065
Investigating relativity using lunar laser ranging - Geodetic precession and the Nordtvedt effect
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dickey, J. O.; Newhall, X. X.; Williams, J. G.
1989-01-01
The emplacement of retroreflectors on the moon by Apollo astronauts and the Russian Lunakhod spacecraft marked the inception of lunar laser ranging (LLR) and provided a natural laboratory for the study of general relativity. Continuing acquisition of increasingly accurate LLR data has provided enhanced sensitivity to general relativity parameters. Two relativistic effects are investigated in this paper: (1) the Nordtvedt effect, yielding a test of the strong equivalence principle, would appear as a distortion of the geocentric lunar orbit in the direction of the sun. The inclusion of recent LLR data limits the size of any such effect to 3 + or - 4 cm. The sensitivities to the various PPN quantities are also highlighted. (2) the geodetic precession of the lunar perigee is predicted by general relativity as a consequence of the motion of the earth-moon system about the sun; its theoretical magnitude is 19.2 mas/yr. Analysis presented here confirms this value and determines this quality to a 2 percent level.
Active edge control in the precessions polishing process for manufacturing large mirror segments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Hongyu; Zhang, Wei; Walker, David; Yu, Gouyo
2014-09-01
The segmentation of the primary mirror is the only promising solution for building the next generation of ground telescopes. However, manufacturing segmented mirrors presents its own challenges. The edge mis-figure impacts directly on the telescope's scientific output. The `Edge effect' significantly dominates the polishing precision. Therefore, the edge control is regarded as one of the most difficult technical issues in the segment production that needs to be addressed urgently. This paper reports an active edge control technique for the mirror segments fabrication using the Precession's polishing technique. The strategy in this technique requires that the large spot be selected on the bulk area for fast polishing, and the small spot is used for edge figuring. This can be performed by tool lift and optimizing the dell time to compensate for non-uniform material removal at the edge zone. This requires accurate and stable edge tool influence functions. To obtain the full tool influence function at the edge, we have demonstrated in previous work a novel hybrid-measurement method which uses both simultaneous phase interferometry and profilometry. In this paper, the edge effect under `Bonnet tool' polishing is investigated. The pressure distribution is analyzed by means of finite element analysis (FEA). According to the `Preston' equation, the shape of the edge tool influence functions is predicted. With this help, the multiple process parameters at the edge zone are optimized. This is demonstrated on a 200mm crosscorners hexagonal part with a result of PV less than 200nm for entire surface.
Targeted vessel reconstruction in non-contrast-enhanced steady-state free precession angiography.
Ilicak, Efe; Cetin, Suheyla; Bulut, Elif; Oguz, Kader Karli; Saritas, Emine Ulku; Unal, Gozde; Çukur, Tolga
2016-05-01
Image quality in non-contrast-enhanced (NCE) angiograms is often limited by scan time constraints. An effective solution is to undersample angiographic acquisitions and to recover vessel images with penalized reconstructions. However, conventional methods leverage penalty terms with uniform spatial weighting, which typically yield insufficient suppression of aliasing interference and suboptimal blood/background contrast. Here we propose a two-stage strategy where a tractographic segmentation is employed to auto-extract vasculature maps from undersampled data. These maps are then used to incur spatially adaptive sparsity penalties on vascular and background regions. In vivo steady-state free precession angiograms were acquired in the hand, lower leg and foot. Compared with regular non-adaptive compressed sensing (CS) reconstructions (CSlow ), the proposed strategy improves blood/background contrast by 71.3 ± 28.9% in the hand (mean ± s.d. across acceleration factors 1-8), 30.6 ± 11.3% in the lower leg and 28.1 ± 7.0% in the foot (signed-rank test, P < 0.05 at each acceleration). The proposed targeted reconstruction can relax trade-offs between image contrast, resolution and scan efficiency without compromising vessel depiction. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26854004
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blackman, Jonathan; Field, Scott; Galley, Chad; Hemberger, Daniel; Scheel, Mark; Schmidt, Patricia; Smith, Rory; SXS Collaboration Collaboration
2016-03-01
We are now in the advanced detector era of gravitational wave astronomy, and the merger of two black holes (BHs) is one of the most promising sources of gravitational waves that could be detected on earth. To infer the BH masses and spins, the observed signal must be compared to waveforms predicted by general relativity for millions of binary configurations. Numerical relativity (NR) simulations can produce accurate waveforms, but are prohibitively expensive to use for parameter estimation. Other waveform models are fast enough but may lack accuracy in portions of the parameter space. Numerical relativity surrogate models attempt to rapidly predict the results of a NR code with a small or negligible modeling error, after being trained on a set of input waveforms. Such surrogate models are ideal for parameter estimation, as they are both fast and accurate, and have already been built for the case of non-spinning BHs. Using 250 input waveforms, we build a surrogate model for waveforms from the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC) for a subspace of precessing systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Driben, R.; Konotop, V. V.; Meier, T.
2016-03-01
Nonlinearity is the driving force for numerous important effects in nature typically showing transitions between different regimes, regular, chaotic or catastrophic behavior. Localized nonlinear modes have been the focus of intense research in areas such as fluid and gas dynamics, photonics, atomic and solid state physics etc. Due to the richness of the behavior of nonlinear systems and due to the severe numerical demands of accurate three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations presently only little knowledge is available on the dynamics of complex nonlinear modes in 3D. Here, we investigate the dynamics of 3D non-coaxial matter wave vortices that are trapped in a parabolic potential and interact via a repulsive nonlinearity. Our numerical simulations demonstrate the existence of an unexpected and fascinating nonlinear regime that starts immediately when the nonlinearity is switched-on and is characterized by a smooth dynamics representing torque-free precession with nutations. The reported motion is proven to be robust regarding various effects such as the number of particles, dissipation and trap deformations and thus should be observable in suitably designed experiments. Since our theoretical approach, i.e., coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations, is quite generic, we expect that the obtained novel dynamical behavior should also exist in other nonlinear systems.
Pachon, Leonardo A.; Rueda, Jorge A.; Valenzuela-Toledo, Cesar A. E-mail: jorge.rueda@icra.it
2012-09-01
Whether or not analytic exact vacuum (electrovacuum) solutions of the Einstein (Einstein-Maxwell) field equations can accurately describe the exterior space-time of compact stars still remains an interesting open question in relativistic astrophysics. As an attempt to establish their level of accuracy, the radii of the innermost stable circular orbits (ISCOs) of test particles given by analytic exterior space-time geometries have been compared with those given by numerical solutions for neutron stars (NSs) obeying a realistic equation of state (EOS). It has been so shown that the six-parametric solution of Pachon et al. (PRS) more accurately describes the NS ISCO radii than other analytic models do. We propose here an additional test of accuracy for analytic exterior geometries based on the comparison of orbital frequencies of neutral test particles. We compute the Keplerian, frame-dragging, and precession and oscillation frequencies of the radial and vertical motions of neutral test particles for the Kerr and PRS geometries and then compare them with the numerical values obtained by Morsink and Stella for realistic NSs. We identify the role of high-order multipole moments such as the mass quadrupole and current octupole in the determination of the orbital frequencies, especially in the rapid rotation regime. The results of this work are relevant to cast a separatrix between black hole and NS signatures and to probe the nuclear-matter EOS and NS parameters from the quasi-periodic oscillations observed in low-mass X-ray binaries.
Driben, R.; Konotop, V. V.; Meier, T.
2016-01-01
Nonlinearity is the driving force for numerous important effects in nature typically showing transitions between different regimes, regular, chaotic or catastrophic behavior. Localized nonlinear modes have been the focus of intense research in areas such as fluid and gas dynamics, photonics, atomic and solid state physics etc. Due to the richness of the behavior of nonlinear systems and due to the severe numerical demands of accurate three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations presently only little knowledge is available on the dynamics of complex nonlinear modes in 3D. Here, we investigate the dynamics of 3D non-coaxial matter wave vortices that are trapped in a parabolic potential and interact via a repulsive nonlinearity. Our numerical simulations demonstrate the existence of an unexpected and fascinating nonlinear regime that starts immediately when the nonlinearity is switched-on and is characterized by a smooth dynamics representing torque-free precession with nutations. The reported motion is proven to be robust regarding various effects such as the number of particles, dissipation and trap deformations and thus should be observable in suitably designed experiments. Since our theoretical approach, i.e., coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations, is quite generic, we expect that the obtained novel dynamical behavior should also exist in other nonlinear systems. PMID:26964759
Yung, Bosco H. K.; Nakashima, Jun-ichi; Kwok, Sun; Imai, Hiroshi; Deguchi, Shuji; Diamond, Philip J.
2011-11-10
We report the results of multi-epoch Very Long Baseline Array observations of the 22.2 GHz H{sub 2}O maser emission associated with the 'water fountain' IRAS 18286-0959. We suggest that this object is the second example of a highly collimated bipolar precessing outflow traced by H{sub 2}O maser emission, the other is W 43A. The detected H{sub 2}O emission peaks are distributed over a velocity range from -50 km s{sup -1} to 150 km s{sup -1}. The spatial distribution of over 70% of the identified maser features is found to be highly collimated along a spiral jet (jet 1) extended southeast to northwest; the remaining features appear to trace another spiral jet (jet 2) with a different orientation. The two jets form a 'double-helix' pattern which lies across {approx}200 mas. The maser distribution is reasonably fit by a model consisting of two bipolar precessing jets. The three-dimensional velocities of jet 1 and jet 2 are derived to be 138 km s{sup -1} and 99 km s{sup -1}, respectively. The precession period of jet 1 is about 56 years. For jet 2, three possible models are tested and they give different values for the kinematic parameters. We propose that the appearance of two jets is the result of a single driving source with significant proper motion.
Goulon, Jośe; Rogalev, Andrei; Goujon, Gérard; Wilhelm, Fabrice; Ben Youssef, Jamal; Gros, Claude; Barbe, Jean-Michel; Guilard, Roger
2011-01-01
X-ray Detected Magnetic Resonance (XDMR) is a novel spectroscopy in which X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD) is used to probe the resonant precession of local magnetization components in a strong microwave pump field. We review the conceptual bases of XDMR and recast them in the general framework of the linear and nonlinear theories of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR). Emphasis is laid on the information content of XDMR spectra which offer a unique opportunity to disentangle the precession dynamics of spin and orbital magnetization components at given absorbing sites. For the sake of illustration, we focus on selected examples in which marked differences were found between FMR and XDMR spectra simultaneously recorded on ferrimagnetically ordered iron garnets. With pumping capabilities extended up to sub-THz frequencies, high-field XDMR should allow us to probe the precession of orbital magnetization components in paramagnetic organometallic complexes with large zero-field splitting. Even more challenging, we suggest that XDMR spectra might be recorded on selected antiferromagnetic crystals for which orbital magnetism is most often ignored in the absence of any supporting experimental evidence. PMID:22272105
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, C. M.; Dolgov, A.
We ascribe the twin kilohertz Quasi Periodic Oscillations (kHz QPOs) of X-ray spectra of Low Mass X-Ray Binaries (LMXBs) to the pseudo-Newtonian Keplerian frequency and the apogee and perigee precession frequency of the same matter in the inner disk, and ascribe 15-60 ,Hz QPO (HBO) to the apogee (or perigee) precession and its second harmonic frequency to both apogee and perigee precession in the outer disk boundary of the neutron star (NS) magnetosphere. The radii of the inner and outer disks are correlated each other by a factor of two is assumed. The obtained conclusions include: all QPO frequencies increase and frequency difference of twin kHz QPOs decreases with increasing the accretion rate. The obtained theoretical relations between HBO frequency and twin kHz QPOs are simlilar to the measured empirical formula. Further, the theo-retical formula to calculate the NS mass by the twin kHz QPOs is proposed, and the resultant values are in the range of 1.4 to 1.8 Msolar. QPOs from LMXBs likely provide an accurate laboratory for a strong gravitational field, by which a new method to determine the NS masses of LMXBs is suggested.
A precessing molecular jet signaling an obscured, growing supermassive black hole in NGC 1377?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aalto, S.; Costagliola, F.; Muller, S.; Sakamoto, K.; Gallagher, J. S.; Dasyra, K.; Wada, K.; Combes, F.; García-Burillo, S.; Kristensen, L. E.; Martín, S.; van der Werf, P.; Evans, A. S.; Kotilainen, J.
2016-05-01
With high resolution (0.̋25 × 0.̋18) ALMA CO 3-2 (345 GHz) observations of the nearby (D = 21 Mpc, 1'' = 102 pc), extremely radio-quiet galaxy NGC 1377, we have discovered a high-velocity, very collimated nuclear outflow which we interpret as a molecular jet with a projected length of ±150 pc. The launch region is unresolved and lies inside a radius r< 10 pc. Along the jet axis we find strong velocity reversals where the projected velocity swings from -150km s-1 to +150 km s-1. A simple model of a molecular jet precessing around an axis close to the plane of the sky can reproduce the observations. The velocity of the outflowing gas is difficult to constrain due to the velocity reversals but we estimate it to be between 240 and 850 km s-1 and the jet to precess with a period P = 0.3-1.1 Myr. The CO emission is clumpy along the jet and the total molecular mass in the high-velocity (±(60 to 150 km s-1)) gas lies between 2 × 106M⊙ (light jet) and 2 × 107M⊙ (massive jet). There is also CO emission extending along the minor axis of NGC 1377. It holds > 40% of the flux in NGC 1377 and may be a slower, wide-angle molecular outflow which is partially entrained by the molecular jet. We discuss the driving mechanism of the molecular jet and suggest that it is either powered by a (faint) radio jet or by an accretion disk-wind similar to those found towards protostars. It seems unlikely that a massive jet could have been driven out by the current level of nuclear activity which should then have undergone rapid quenching. The light jet would only have expelled 10% of the inner gas and may facilitate nuclear activity instead of suppressing it. The nucleus of NGC 1377 harbours intense embedded activity and we detect emission from vibrationally excited HCN J = 4-3ν2 = 1f which is consistent with hot gas and dust. We find large columns of H2 in the centre of NGC 1377 which may be a sign of a high rate of recent gas infall. The dynamical age ofthe molecular jet is short
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanov, A. N.; Wellenzohn, M.
2016-02-01
We analyze a spin precession of slow neutrons in the Einstein-Cartan gravity with torsion, chameleon and magnetic field. For the derivation of the Heisenberg equation of motion of the neutron spin we use the effective low-energy potential, derived by Ivanov and Wellenzohn [Phys. Rev. D 92, 125004 (2015)] for slow neutrons, coupled to gravitational, chameleon, and torsion fields to order 1 /m , where m is the neutron mass. In addition to these low-energy interactions we switch on the interaction of slow neutrons with a magnetic field. We show that to linear order approximation with respect to gravitational, chameleon, and torsion fields the Dirac Hamilton operator for fermions (neutrons), moving in spacetimes created by rotating coordinate systems, contains the anti-Hermitian operators of torsion-fermion (neutron) interactions, caused by torsion scalar and tensor space-space-time and time-space-space degrees of freedom. Such anti-Hermitian operators violate C P and T invariance. In the low-energy approximation the C P and T violating torsion-fermion (neutron) interactions appear only to order O (1 /m ). One may assume that in the rotating Universe and galaxies the obtained anti-Hermitian torsion-fermion interactions might be an origin of (i) violation of C P and T invariance in the Universe and (ii) of baryon asymmetry. We show that anti-Hermitian torsion-fermion interactions of relativistic fermions, violating C P and T invariance, (i) cannot be removed by nonunitary transformations of the Dirac fermion wave functions and (ii) are conformal invariant. According to general requirements of conformal invariance of massive particle theories in gravitational fields [see R. H. Dicke, Phys. Rev. 125, 2163 (1962) and A. J. Silenko, Phys. Rev. D 91, 065012 (2015)], conformal invariance of anti-Hermitian torsion-fermion interactions is valid only if the fermion mass is changed by a conformal factor.
Wuest, Wolfgang; Lell, Michael; May, Matthias; Scharf, Michael; Schlundt, Christian; Achenbach, Stephan; Uder, Michael; Schmid, Axel
2015-01-01
Purpose In cardiac MRI (cMRI) injection of contrast medium may be performed prior to the acquisition of cine steady-state free precession (SSFP) imaging to speed up the protocol and avoid delay before late Gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging. Aim of this study was to evaluate whether a condensed clinical protocol with contrast cine SSFP imaging is able to detect early microvascular obstruction (MO) and determine the infarct size compared to the findings of LGE inversion recovery sequences. Materials and Methods The study complies with the Declaration of Helsinki and was performed following approval by the ethic committee of the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg. Written informed consent was obtained from every patient. 68 consecutive patients (14 females/54 males) with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated by percutaneous coronary revascularization were included in this study. CMRI was performed 6.6±2 days after symptom onset and MO and infarct size in early contrast SSFP cine imaging were compared to LGE imaging. Results MO was detected in 47/68 (69%) patients on cine SSFP and in 41/68 (60%) patients on LGE imaging. In 6 patients MO was found on cine SSFP imaging but was not detectable on LGE imaging. Infarct size on cine SSFP showed a strong agreement to LGE imaging (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] of 0.96 for enddiastolic, p<0.001 and 0.96 for endsystolic, p<0.001 respectively). Significant interobserver agreement was found measuring enddiastolic and endsystolic infarct size on cine SSFP imaging (p<0.01). Conclusions In patients after STEMI infarct size and presence of MO can be detected with contrast cine SSFP imaging. This could be an option in patients who are limited in their ability to comply with the demands of a cMRI protocol. PMID:25793609
MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATION OF A DISK SUBJECTED TO LENSE-THIRRING PRECESSION
Sorathia, Kareem A.; Krolik, Julian H.; Hawley, John F.
2013-11-01
When matter orbits around a central mass obliquely with respect to the mass's spin axis, the Lense-Thirring effect causes it to precess at a rate declining sharply with radius. Ever since the work of Bardeen and Petterson, it has been expected that when a fluid fills an orbiting disk, the orbital angular momentum at small radii should then align with the mass's spin. Nearly all previous work has studied this alignment under the assumption that a phenomenological 'viscosity' isotropically degrades fluid shears in accretion disks, even though it is now understood that internal stress in flat disks is due to anisotropic MHD turbulence. In this paper we report a pair of matched simulations, one in MHD and one in pure (non-viscous) HD in order to clarify the specific mechanisms of alignment. As in the previous work, we find that disk warps induce radial flows that mix angular momentum of different orientation; however, we also show that the speeds of these flows are generically transonic and are only very weakly influenced by internal stresses other than pressure. In particular, MHD turbulence does not act in a manner consistent with an isotropic viscosity. When MHD effects are present, the disk aligns, first at small radii and then at large; alignment is only partial in the HD case. We identify the specific angular momentum transport mechanisms causing alignment and show how MHD effects permit them to operate more efficiently. Last, we relate the speed at which an alignment front propagates outward (in the MHD case) to the rate at which Lense-Thirring torques deliver angular momentum at smaller radii.
Coupling between corotation and Lindblad resonances in the presence of secular precession rates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El Moutamid, Maryame; Sicardy, Bruno; Renner, Stéfan
2014-03-01
We investigate the dynamics of two satellites with masses and orbiting a massive central planet in a common plane, near a first order mean motion resonance ( m integer). We consider only the resonant terms of first order in eccentricity in the disturbing potential of the satellites, plus the secular terms causing the orbital apsidal precessions. We obtain a two-degrees-of-freedom system, associated with the two critical resonant angles and , where and are the mean longitude and longitude of periapsis of , respectively, and where the primed quantities apply to . We consider the special case where (restricted problem). The symmetry between the two angles and is then broken, leading to two different kinds of resonances, classically referred to as corotation eccentric resonance (CER) and Lindblad eccentric Resonance (LER), respectively. We write the four reduced equations of motion near the CER and LER, that form what we call the CoraLin model. This model depends upon only two dimensionless parameters that control the dynamics of the system: the distance between the CER and LER, and a forcing parameter that includes both the mass and the orbital eccentricity of the disturbing satellite. Three regimes are found: for the system is integrable, for of order unity, it exhibits prominent chaotic regions, while for large compared to 2, the behavior of the system is regular and can be qualitatively described using simple adiabatic invariant arguments. We apply this model to three recently discovered small Saturnian satellites dynamically linked to Mimas through first order mean motion resonances: Aegaeon, Methone and Anthe. Poincaré surfaces of section reveal the dynamical structure of each orbit, and their proximity to chaotic regions. This work may be useful to explore various scenarii of resonant capture for those satellites.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamazaki, T.
2014-12-01
The Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) has highest water temperature in the global ocean, and its spatiotemporal variations have significant impacts on large-scale atmospheric circulation and global hydrology. An environmental magnetic study was conducted on sediment cores of late Pleistocene age taken from the West Caroline Basin (WCB) offshore northern New Guinea in order to constrain hydrological variability over the WPWP on orbital timescales. Magnetite dominates magnetic mineral assemblages of the sediments. This is evidenced by that IRM acquisition curves are mostly explained by a low-coercivity component, and that the Verwey transition was obvious in low-temperature measurements. Existence of the sharp central ridges on FORC diagrams and TEM images indicate the occurrence of biogenic magnetite. Compared with pelagic sediments from other regions, however, FORC diagrams show a larger contribution of an interacting PSD and MD component, and the ratios of ARM susceptibility to SIRM (kARM/SIRM) are lower, which suggests a larger proportion of the terrigenous component. This is probably due to a large terrigenous sediment input from nearby land, New Guinea, induced by high precipitation in the intertropical convergence zone. Magnetic susceptibility (k) and kARM/SIRM well correlate with northern-hemisphere summer insolation. Maxima in k and minima in kARM/SIRM correspond to insolation minima, which suggests a larger terrigenous input caused by higher precipitation at these times. Interestingly, in the western part of WCB, k variations are dominated by the eccentricity periodicity and mimic δ18O curves, but the precession periodicity prevails in kARM/SIRM. These cores were taken at depths close to the CCD, and thus the k variations cannot be explained by dilution with carbonates. Sedimentation influenced by global sea-level changes may control the k variations; this part of the basin is adjacent to a wider continental shelf compared with the eastern part of WCB.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lhotka, C.; Reimond, S.; Souchay, J.; Baur, O.
2016-02-01
The aim of this study is first to determine the gravity field of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and second to derive the solar component of the precession rate and nutation coefficients of the spin-axis of the comet nucleus, i.e. without the direct, usually larger, effect of outgassing. The gravity field and related moments of inertia are obtained from two polyhedra, which are provided by the Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System (OSIRIS) and NAVigation CAMera (NAVCAM) experiments on Rosetta, and are based on the assumption of uniform density for the comet nucleus. We also calculate the forced precession rate as well as the nutation coefficients on the basis of Kinoshita's theory of rotation of the rigid Earth and adapted it to be able to indirectly include the effect of outgassing on the rotational parameters. The second degree denormalized Stokes coefficients of comet 67P/C-G turn out to be (bracketed numbers refer to second shape model) C20 ≃ -6.74 [-7.93] × 10-2, C22 ≃ 2.60 [2.71] × 10-2, consistent with normalized principal moments of inertia A/MR2 ≃ 0.13 [0.11], B/MR2 ≃ 0.23 [0.22], with polar moment c = C/MR2 ≃ 0.25, depending on the choice of the polyhedron model. The obliquity between the rotation axis and the mean orbit normal is ε ≃ 52°, and the precession rate only due to solar torques becomes dot{ψ }in [20,30] arcsec yr^{-1}. Oscillations in longitude caused by the gravitational pull of the Sun turn out to be of the order of Δψ ≃ 1 arcmin, and oscillations in obliquity can be estimated to be of the order of Δε ≃ 0.5 arcmin.
SS 433: Total Coverage of 162-Day Precession Phase in Four Years
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Band, David L.
1997-01-01
The observations prior to AO-4 covered a number of precession phases, leaving a gap at phase 0.8. In addition, ASCA and previous observations of SS 433 did not observe the spectrum above approx. 10 keV, and consequently the continuum underlying the spectral lines was poorly constrained. Therefore RXTE observations were scheduled for April 1997 to extend the observed spectrum to higher energies; these observations were planned to sample the X-ray lightcurve during the 13.08 day binary period, concentrating on the eclipse of the compact object which emits the jets. We proposed and were awarded ASCA observations simultaneous with the RXTE observations; the purpose of the ASCA observations was to provide greater spectral resolution at the low end of the spectrum observed by RXTE, and to complete the phase coverage of SS 433. As a result of scheduling difficulties early in the mission the RXTE observations were confined to a much shorter time range than originally planned, April 18-91 1997. Optical observations of SS 433 were performed at a number of observatories. The ASCA observations occurred from April 18 13:10 (UT) to April 21 13:20 (UT) for a total effective exposure of 120 ks. The continuum X-ray light curve shows that the ASCA observations started shortly before the ingress into the X-ray partial eclipse, and ended approximately at the time of the egress. Light curves were also obtained for the prominent Fe emission lines in the blue-shifted frame (approaching jet), red-shifted frame (receding jet), and the stationary frame (fluorescent line from the ambient matter). Through the eclipse mapping technique using the light curves, the parameters of the jet emission model were constrained, showing that the kinetic power in the jet exceeds 104? erg s-l. If the energy source is gravitational accretion, as is commonly believed, the derived l;inetic power implies extremely supercritical accretion even for a black; hole with 10M. These results will be described more
Wu, Pei-Hsin; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Tsai, Ping-Huei; Wu, Ming-Long; Chuang, Tzu-Chao; Shih, Yi-Yu; Huang, Teng-Yi
2013-12-15
Purpose: One of the technical advantages of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is its precise localization of changes from neuronal activities. While current practice of fMRI acquisition at voxel size around 3 × 3 × 3 mm{sup 3} achieves satisfactory results in studies of basic brain functions, higher spatial resolution is required in order to resolve finer cortical structures. This study investigated spatial resolution effects on brain fMRI experiments using balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) imaging with 0.37 mm{sup 3} voxel volume at 3.0 T. Methods: In fMRI experiments, full and unilateral visual field 5 Hz flashing checkerboard stimulations were given to healthy subjects. The bSSFP imaging experiments were performed at three different frequency offsets to widen the coverage, with functional activations in the primary visual cortex analyzed using the general linear model. Variations of the spatial resolution were achieved by removing outerk-space data components. Results: Results show that a reduction in voxel volume from 3.44 × 3.44 × 2 mm{sup 3} to 0.43 × 0.43 × 2 mm{sup 3} has resulted in an increase of the functional activation signals from (7.7 ± 1.7)% to (20.9 ± 2.0)% at 3.0 T, despite of the threefold SNR decreases in the original images, leading to nearly invariant functional contrast-to-noise ratios (fCNR) even at high spatial resolution. Activation signals aligning nicely with gray matter sulci at high spatial resolution would, on the other hand, have possibly been mistaken as noise at low spatial resolution. Conclusions: It is concluded that the bSSFP sequence is a plausible technique for fMRI investigations at submillimeter voxel widths without compromising fCNR. The reduction of partial volume averaging with nonactivated brain tissues to retain fCNR is uniquely suitable for high spatial resolution applications such as the resolving of columnar organization in the brain.
Metal oxide growth, spin precession measurements and Raman spectroscopy of CVD graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsubayashi, Akitomo
The focus of this dissertation is to explore the possibility of wafer scale graphene-based spintronics. Graphene is a single atomic layer of sp 2 bonded carbon atoms that has attracted much attention as a new type of electronic material due to its high carrier mobilities, superior mechanical properties and extremely high thermal conductivity. In addition, it has become an attractive material for use in spintronic devices owing to its long electron spin relaxation time at room temperature. This arises in part from its low spin-orbit coupling and negligible nuclear hyperfine interaction. In order to realize wafer scale graphene spintronics, utilization of CVD grown graphene is crytical due to its scalability. In this thesis, a unique fabrication method of the metal oxide layers on CVD graphene is presented. This is motivated by theoretical work showing that an ultra thin metal oxide film used as a tunnel barrier improves the spin injection efficiency. Introducing a titanium seed layer prior to the aluminum oxide growth showed improved surface and film uniformity and resulted in a completely oxidized film. Utilizing this unique metal oxide film growth process, lateral spin valve devices using CVD graphene as a channel are successfully fabricated. Hanle spin precession measurements are demonstrated on these CVD graphene spin devices. A non-local Hanle voltage model based upon the diffusive spin transport in a solid is utilized to find the spin diffusion length and spin relaxation time of CVD graphene. The measured spin relaxation times in CVD graphene were compatible with the values found in the literature. However, they are an order of magnitude shorter than the theoretical values expected in graphene. To investigate possible origins of this order of magnitude shorter spin relaxation time in graphene, crystal and electrical modifications in CVD graphene are studied throughout the entire device fabrication process. Raman spectroscopy is utilized to track CVD graphene
GRBs by thin persistent precessing lepton Jets: the long life GRB110328 and the Neutrino signal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fargion, D.
Gamma Ray Burst sources are apparently evolving around us in a harder and brighter samples at far and far redshift. The average output may range from a near Supernova (nearest events) output to a billion time that power for most distant events. Such a tuned evolution around us is not an anti-copernican signature. It is a clear imprint of a off-axis (nearest sources) beaming versus a rarest in-axis blazing (far redshift sources) by a thin relativistic beam (Lorentz factor up 104 or above, micro-nano steradian solid angle). The main consequence is the rarer and rarer presences of hardest gamma events (hundreds MeV, GeVs, tens GeVs), nearly one over a twenty, observed with difficulty at largest redshift inside their thinner beamed jets. For this reason these rarest tens GeV beamed events, even observed by EGRET and Fermi, are hardly seen at hundred GeV by Cherenkov telescope (Magic,Hess,Veritas) on Earth. For the same reason and because tens GeV neutrino energy is below Icecube thresholds (threshold to hundreds GeV) we have not been observed yet a neutrino GRB. However if the GRBs primaries contains tens GeV neutrino traces (at comparable GRB gamma rate) their presence may rise in few years at Deep Core (a more dense array inside ICECUBE) detector whose lower threshold, ranges just one or few tens GeV energy. Moreover the very recent X ray persistent GRB110328 or( J164449.3 transient event), whose understanding was first associated to a cannibal star AGN eating \\cite{Shao}, but now \\cite{Bloom},\\cite{Zauderer} , to a cannibal AGN feeding beamed jet, it is, more naturally consistent to our GRB (by few solar mass compact source, not an AGN) spinning, precessing and blazing model jet, whose geometry is more aligned and stable (than other GRBs) to us: its decay law and its average output is fully consistent with our earliest proposals.
Vigouroux, M. P.; Delaye, V.; Bernier, N.; Lafond, D.; Audoit, G.; Bertin, F.; Cipro, R.; Baron, T.; Martin, M.; Rouvière, J. L.; Chenevier, B.
2014-11-10
Precession electron diffraction is an efficient technique to measure strain in nanostructures by precessing the electron beam, while maintaining a few nanometre probe size. Here, we show that an advanced diffraction pattern treatment allows reproducible and precise strain measurements to be obtained using a default 512 × 512 DigiSTAR off-axis camera both in advanced or non-corrected transmission electron microscopes. This treatment consists in both projective geometry correction of diffraction pattern distortions and strain Delaunay triangulation based analysis. Precision in the strain measurement is improved and reached 2.7 × 10{sup −4} with a probe size approaching 4.2 nm in diameter. This method is applied to the study of the strain state in InGaAs quantum-well (QW) devices elaborated on Si substrate. Results show that the GaAs/Si mismatch does not induce in-plane strain fluctuations in the InGaAs QW region.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barnard, R.; Garcia, M. R.; Murray, S. S.
2015-06-01
The transient X-ray source CXOM31 004205.77+411330.43 exhibited several outbursts during our long-term monitoring campaign of approximately monthly observations of the M31 centre with Chandra. However, the decay profile appears to be unlike those observed from Galactic transients. We followed up the 2011 outburst with two ˜B band HST/ACS observations, one in outburst and the other in quiescence, and used difference imaging to search for a counterpart; this would be dominated by reprocessed X-ray emission from the disc. We found a counterpart with B = 28.21 ± 0.16. An XMM-Newton observation from a previous outburst yielded a spectrum that is well described by an absorbed power law with absorption equivalent to ˜2.6 × 1021 H atom cm-2 and photon index ˜1.8; the highest quality Chandra spectrum yielded only ˜130 counts, and best fits consistent with the XMM-Newton results. We calculated an absolute V magnitude of +1.9 during outburst for a typical disc spectrum. An empirical relation between the ratio of X-ray to optical flux and orbital period suggests a period ≲ 4 h for a black hole accretor. Such a short period is expected to yield an asymmetric, precessing disc, and we propose that the observed decay light curve is due to modulation of the mass transfer rate due to the disc precession.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Borsody, J.
1976-01-01
Equations are derived by using branched trajectory optimization techniques and the maximum principle to maximize the payload capability of a reusable tug/expendable kickstage vehicle configuration for planetary missions. The two stages and the payload are launched into a low earth orbit by a single space shuttle. The analysis includes correction for precession of the orbit. This correction is done by the tug. The tug propels the payload and the kickstage to an energy beyond earth escape and returns within a specified time to the precessed orbit. After separating from the tug, the kickstage accelerates the payload to the required injection conditions. Planetary injection conditions are specified by the mission energy and a fixed declination and right ascension of the outgoing asymptote. The multipoint boundary value problem resulting from the analysis is solved by a Newton-Raphson iteration technique. Partial derivatives of the boundary conditions are obtained by perturbing the initial conditions one at a time, integrating the trajectory and adjoint equations, and observing the changes in boundary conditions. Maximum payload capability is derived for two typical mission energies. In addition, the variations of several mission and stage parameters are also examined.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahfouzi, Farzad; Nagaosa, Naoto; Nikolić, Branislav K.
2014-09-01
Using the charge-conserving Floquet-Green function approach to open quantum systems driven by an external time-periodic potential, we analyze how spin current pumped by the precessing magnetization of a ferromagnetic (F) layer is injected laterally into the interface with strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and converted into charge current flowing in the same direction. In the case of a metallic interface with the Rashba SOC used in recent experiments [J. C. R. Sánchez, L. Vila, G. Desfonds, S. Gambarelli, J. P. Attané, J. M. De Teresa, C. Magén, and A. Fert, Nat. Commun. 4, 2944 (2013), 10.1038/ncomms3944], both spin ISα and charge I current flow within the interface where I /ISα≃ 2-8% (depending on the precession cone angle), while for a F/topological-insulator (F/TI) interface employed in related experiments [Y. Shiomi, K. Nomura, Y. Kajiwara, K. Eto, M. Novak, K. Segawa, Y. Ando, and E. Saitoh, arXiv:1312.7091] the conversion efficiency is greatly enhanced (I /ISα≃ 40-60%) due to perfect spin-momentum locking on the surface of a TI. The spin-to-charge conversion occurs also when spin current is pumped vertically through the F/TI interface with smaller efficiency (I /ISα˜0.001%), but with the charge current signal being sensitive to whether the Dirac fermions at the interface are massive or massless.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, C. C.; Yi, L.; Lo, L.; Shi, Z.; Wei, K. Y.; Chou, C. J.; Chen, Y. C.; Chuang, C. K.; WU, C. C.; Mii, H. S.; Amakawa, H.; Burr, G.; Lee, S. Y.; DeLong, K. L.; Elderfield, H.
2015-12-01
The Intertropical convergence Zone (ITCZ) encompasses the heaviest rain belt on Earth. Few direct long-term records, especially in the Pacific, limit our understanding of long-term natural variability necessary to predict future ITCZ changes. Here we present a tropical precipitation record from the Southern Hemisphere covering the past 282,000 years, inferred from of rare earth elements (REEs) to Ca ratios in the planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber shell calcite, of a marine sedimentary core MD05-2925 (9o20.60'S, 151o27.54'E; water depth 1661 m), collected off the eastern coast of Papua New Guinea. Unlike the precession paradigm expressed in its East Asian counterpart, our record shows that the western Pacific ITCZ migration was influenced by combined precession and obliquity changes. This obliquity forcing could be primarily delivered by a cross-hemispherical thermal/pressure contrast, resulting from the asymmetric continental configuration between Asia and Australia in a coupled East Asian-Australian circulation system, supported by model simulations. Our finding suggests that the obliquity forcing may play a more important role in global hydroclimate cycles than previously thought.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Postnov, K.; Shakura, N.; Staubert, R.; Kochetkova, A.; Klochkov, D.; Wilms, J.
2013-10-01
Accretion of matter on to the surface of a freely precessing neutron star (NS) with a complex non-dipole magnetic field can explain the change of X-ray pulse profiles of Her X-1 observed by RXTE with the phase of the 35-d cycle. We demonstrate this using all available measurements of X-ray pulse profiles in the 9-13 keV energy range obtained with the RXTE/Proportional Counter Array (PCA). The measured profiles guided the elaboration of a geometrical model and the definition of locations of emitting poles, arcs and spots on the NS surface which satisfactorily reproduce the observed pulse profiles and their dependence on free precession phase. We have found that the observed trend of the times of the 35-d turn-ons on the O-C diagram, which can be approximated by a collection of consecutive linear segments around the mean value, can be described by our model by assuming a variable free precession period, with a fractional period change of about a few per cent. Under this assumption and using our model, we have found that the times of phase zero of the NS free precession (which we identify with the maximum separation of the brightest spot on the NS surface with the NS spin axis) occur about 1.6 d after the mean turn-on times inside each `stable' epoch, producing a linear trend on the O-C diagram with the same slope as the observed times of turn-ons. We propose that the 2.5 per cent changes in the free precession period that occur on time scales of several to tens of 35-d cycles can be related to wandering of the principal inertia axis of the NS body due to variations in the patterns of accretion on to the NS surface. The closeness of periods of the disc precession and the NS free precession can be explained by the presence of a synchronization mechanism in the system, which modulates the dynamical interaction of the gas streams and the accretion disc with the NS free precession period.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harry, Ian W.; Nitz, Alexander H.; Brown, Duncan A.; Lundgren, Andrew P.; Ochsner, Evan; Keppel, Drew
2014-01-01
The first direct detection of neutron-star- black-hole binaries will likely be made with gravitational-wave observatories. Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo will be able to observe neutron-star- black-hole mergers at a maximum distance of 900 Mpc. To achieve this sensitivity, gravitational-wave searches will rely on using a bank of filter waveforms that accurately model the expected gravitational-wave signal. The emitted signal will depend on the masses of the black hole and the neutron star and also the angular momentum of both components. The angular momentum of the black hole is expected to be comparable to the orbital angular momentum when the system is emitting gravitational waves in Advanced LIGO's and Advanced Virgo's sensitive band. This angular momentum will affect the dynamics of the inspiralling system and alter the phase evolution of the emitted gravitational-wave signal. In addition, if the black hole's angular momentum is not aligned with the orbital angular momentum, it will cause the orbital plane of the system to precess. In this work we demonstrate that if the effect of the black hole's angular momentum is neglected in the waveform models used in gravitational-wave searches, the detection rate of (10+1.4)M⊙ neutron-star- black-hole systems with isotropic spin distributions would be reduced by 33%-37% in comparison to a hypothetical perfect search at a fixed signal-to-noise ratio threshold. The error in this measurement is due to uncertainty in the post-Newtonian approximations that are used to model the gravitational-wave signal of neutron-star- black-hole inspiralling binaries. We describe a new method for creating a bank of filter waveforms where the black hole has nonzero angular momentum that is aligned with the orbital angular momentum. With this bank we find that the detection rate of (10+1.4)M⊙ neutron-star- black-hole systems would be reduced by 26%-33%. Systems that will not be detected are ones where the precession of the orbital
Malkus, W V
1968-04-19
I have proposed that the precessional torques acting on the earth can sustain a turbulent hydromagnetic flow in the molten core. A gross balance of the Coriolis force, the Lorentz force, and the precessional force in the core fluid provided estimates of the fluid velocity and the interior magnetic field characteristic of such flow. Then these numbers and a balance of the processes responsible for the decay and regeneration of the magnetic field provided an estimate of the magnetic field external to the core. This external field is in keeping with the observations, but its value is dependent upon the speculative value for the electrical conductivity of core material. The proposal that turbulent flow due to precession can occur in the core was tested in a study of nonmagnetic laboratory flows induced by the steady precession of fluid-filled rotating spheroids. It was found that these flows exhibit both small wavelike instabilities and violent finite-amplitude instability to turbulent motion above critical values of the precession rate. The observed critical parameters indicate that a laminar flow in the core, due to the earth's precession, would have weak hydrodynamic instabilities at most, but that finite-amplitude hydromagnetic instability could lead to fully turbulent flow. PMID:17788230
Homan, Jeroen
2012-12-01
Relativistic Lense-Thirring precession of a tilted inner accretion disk around a compact object has been proposed as a mechanism for low-frequency ({approx}0.01-70 Hz) quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in the light curves of X-ray binaries. A substantial misalignment angle ({approx}15 Degree-Sign -20 Degree-Sign ) between the inner-disk rotation axis and the compact-object spin axis is required for the effects of this precession to produce observable modulations in the X-ray light curve. A consequence of this misalignment is that in high-inclination X-ray binaries the precessing inner disk will quasi-periodically intercept our line of sight to the compact object. In the case of neutron-star systems, this should have a significant observational effect, since a large fraction of the accretion energy is released on or near the neutron-star surface. In this Letter, I suggest that this specific effect of Lense-Thirring precession may already have been observed as {approx}1 Hz QPOs in several dipping/eclipsing neutron-star X-ray binaries.
Makishima, K; Enoto, T; Hiraga, J S; Nakano, T; Nakazawa, K; Sakurai, S; Sasano, M; Murakami, H
2014-05-01
Magnetars are a special type of neutron stars, considered to have extreme dipole magnetic fields reaching ∼ 10(11) T. The magnetar 4 U 0142+61, one of the prototypes of this class, was studied in broadband x rays (0.5-70 keV) with the Suzaku observatory. In hard x rays (15-40 keV), its 8.69 sec pulsations suffered slow phase modulations by ± 0.7 sec, with a period of ∼ 15 h. When this effect is interpreted as free precession of the neutron star, the object is inferred to deviate from spherical symmetry by ∼ 1.6 × 10(-4) in its moments of inertia. This deformation, when ascribed to magnetic pressure, suggests a strong toroidal magnetic field, ∼ 10(12) T, residing inside the object. This provides one of the first observational approaches towards toroidal magnetic fields of magnetars. PMID:24836230
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stefanov, I. Zh.
2016-03-01
The observation of a pair of simultaneous twin kHz QPOs in the power density spectrum of a neutron star or a black hole allows its mass-angular-momentum relation to be constrained. Situations in which the observed simultaneous pairs are more than one allow the different models of the kHz QPOs to be falsified. Discrepancy between the estimates coming from the different pairs would call the used model into question. In the current paper, the relativistic precession model is applied to the twin kHz QPOs that appear in the light curves of three groups of observations of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar IGR J17511-3057. It was found that the predictions of one of the groups are practically in conflict with the other two. Another interesting result is that the region in which the kHz QPOs have been born is rather broad and extends quite far from the ISCO.
Froud, D.; O`Doherty, T.; Syred, N.
1995-02-01
The flow patterns produced in and past the exhaust of a 100-KW swirl burner have been investigated experimentally under piloted premixed combustion conditions. The well-known three-dimensional time-dependent instability called the precessing vortex core (PVC) dominates the flow and mixing patterns. The PVC and its associated cycle time were used to trigger a three-component laser anemometry system. Successive cycles were overlaid and phase averaged to give a three-dimensional picture of the rotating flow fields. Measurements were obtained over successive slices of the flow, extending to X/De = 2.5 past the burner exit. A description of the flow was thus obtained in terms of phase averaged tangential, axial and radial velocities in tangential/radial and axial/radial planes. The results confirm previous reported work on the same burner operated isothermally and show that the center of the vortex flow is displaced from the central axis of the burner, creating the PVC phenomena as the center of the vortex precesses around the central axis of symmetry. As a consequence of this displacement the reverse flow zone (RFZ) is also displaced, while also partially lagging behind the PVC by up to 180{degree}. The RFZ acts as a feedback mechanism for the PVC phenomena. As a consequence of the displaced vortex center, flow between the PVC center and the wall is squeezed. Thus, due to angular momentum flux consideration, it produces a considerable increase in tangential velocity and gives the characteristic PVC signal. The displaced RFZ is both rotating through a region of forward flow while also being of an intermittent nature, giving rise to the excellent flame stabilization and mixing characteristics of these types of burners. Similar results were obtained for isothermal and premixed combustion conditions providing the flame was stabilized close to the burner exit nozzle.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maslin, M. A.; Brierley, C. M.
2015-12-01
The Early-Middle Pleistocene Transition (EMPT) is the term used to describe the prolongation and intensification of glacial-interglacial climate cycles that initiated after 900,000 years ago. During the transition glacial-interglacial cycles shift from lasting 41,000 years to an average of 100,000 years. The structure of these glacial-interglacial cycles shifts from smooth to more abrupt 'saw-toothed' like transitions. In fact we argue there is shift from a bimodal climate to a tripartite climate system (see Figure). Despite eccentricity having by far the weakest influence on insolation received at the Earth's surface of any of the orbital parameters; it is often assumed to be the primary driver of the post-EMPT 100,000 years climate cycles because of the similarity in duration. The traditional solution to this is to call for a highly nonlinear response by the global climate system to eccentricity. This 'eccentricity myth' is due to an artefact of spectral analysis which means that the last 8 glacial-interglacial average out at about 100,000 years in length despite ranging from 80,000 to 120,000 years. With the realisation that eccentricity is not the major driving force a debate has emerged as to whether precession or obliquity controlled the timing of the most recent glacial-interglacial cycles. Some argue that post-EMPT deglaciations occurred every four or five precessional cycle while others argue it is every second or third obliquity cycle. We review these current theories and suggest that though phase-locking between orbital forcing and global ice volume may occur and seem to primarily driven by the timing of precession; the chaotic nature of the climate system response means the relationship is not consistent through the last 900,000 years.
FRAME DRAGGING, DISK WARPING, JET PRECESSING, AND DIPPED X-RAY LIGHT CURVE OF Sw J1644+57
Lei, Wei-Hua; Zhang, Bing; Gao, He E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu
2013-01-10
The X-ray transient source Sw J1644+57 recently discovered by Swift is believed to be triggered by tidal disruption of a star by a rapidly spinning supermassive black hole (SMBH). For such events, the outer disk is very likely misaligned with respect to the equatorial plane of the spinning SMBH, since the incoming star before disruption most likely has an inclined orbital plane. The tilted disk is subject to the Lense-Thirring torque, which tends to twist and warp due to the Bardeen-Petterson effect. The inner disk tends to align with the SMBH spin, while the outer region tends to remain in the stellar orbital plane, with a transition zone around the Bardeen-Petterson radius. The relativistic jet launched from the spinning SMBH would undergo precession. The 5-30 day X-ray light curve of Sw J1644+57 shows a quasi-periodic (2.7 day) variation with noticeable narrow dips. We numerically solve a warped disk and propose a jet-precessing model by invoking a Blandford-Znajek jet collimated by a wind launched near the Bardeen-Petterson radius. Through simulations, we show that the narrow dips in the X-ray light curve can be reproduced for a range of geometric configurations. From the data we infer that the inclination angle of the initial stellar orbit is in the range of 10 Degree-Sign -20 Degree-Sign from the SMBH equatorial plane, that the jet should have a moderately high Lorentz factor, and that the inclination angle, jet opening angle, and observer's viewing angle are such that the duty cycle of the line of sight sweeping the jet cone is somewhat less than 0.5.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le Maistre, Sebastien; Folkner, William M.; Jacobson, Robert A.
2014-11-01
Numerical simulations have been performed to assess the accuracy with which the precession rate of Jupiter’s pole of rotation can be measured by Juno. These simulations extend those published by Helled et al., [2011] by separating the effects of precession from Lense-Thirring effect and by quantifying the impact of the variation in tracking duration. Using the JPL Orbit Determination Program, we carried out a detailed and realistic variance/covariance analysis based on simulated Ka-band Doppler measurements from the Juno mission. We account here for a large number (>300) of parameters that will affect the orbital motion of Juno, including Jupiter’s mass parameter (GM) and gravity field coefficients through degree 12, as well as several non-gravitational acceleration parameters (solar pressure, Jupiter infrared radiation, outgassing) and of course the Jupiter orientation parameters.The analysis shows that the precession rate of Jupiter’s pole can be estimated with accuracy better than 0.1%. Accounting for the lack of knowledge in the different parameters relating the pole precession rate and the normalized polar moment of inertia (NPMOI) of Jupiter, we show that the accuracy of the NPMOI inferred from the precession rate is better than 0.1%, and 50 times better than inferred from the Lense-Thirring. Such a strong improvement in the precision of the NMOI determination should also tighten the constraints on the interior structure of Jupiter, especially the core size and mass, which are key parameters to distinguish among competing scenarios of formation and evolution of the giant planet.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Favrel, A.; Landry, C.; Müller, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Avellan, F.
2014-03-01
Francis turbines operating at part load condition experience the development of a cavitating helical vortex rope in the draft tube cone at the runner outlet. The precession movement of this vortex rope induces local convective pressure fluctuations and a synchronous pressure pulsation acting as a forced excitation for the hydraulic system, propagating in the entire system. In the draft tube, synchronous pressure fluctuations with a frequency different to the precession frequency may also be observed in presence of cavitation. In the case of a matching between the precession frequency and the synchronous surge frequency, hydro-acoustic resonance occurs in the draft tube inducing high pressure fluctuations throughout the entire hydraulic system, causing torque and power pulsations. The risk of such resonances limits the possible extension of the Francis turbine operating range. A more precise knowledge of the phenomenon occurring at such resonance conditions and prediction capabilities of the induced pressure pulsations needs therefore to be developed. This paper proposes a detailed study of the occurrence of hydro-acoustic resonance for one particular part load operating point featuring a well-developed precessing vortex rope and corresponding to 64% of the BEP. It focuses particularly on the evolution of the local interaction between the pressure fluctuations at the precession frequency and the synchronous surge mode passing through the resonance condition. For this purpose, an experimental investigation is performed on a reduced scale model of a Francis turbine, including pressure fluctuation measurements in the draft tube and in the upstream piping system. Changing the pressure level in the draft tube, resonance occurrences are highlighted for different Froude numbers. The evolution of the hydro-acoustic response of the system suggests that a lock-in effect between the excitation frequency and the natural frequency may occur at low Froude number, inducing a hydro
Liu, Xianyin; Zhu, Qiyuan; Zhang, Senfu; Liu, Qingfang E-mail: wangjb@lzu.edu.cn; Wang, Jianbo E-mail: wangjb@lzu.edu.cn
2015-08-15
An interesting type of skyrmion-like spin texture, 2π-vortex, is obtained in a thin nano-disk with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. We have simulated the existence of 2π-vortex by micromagnetic method. Furthermore, the spin polarized current is introduced in order to drive the motion of 2π-vortex in a nano-disk with diameter 2 R = 140 nm. When the current density matches with the current injection area, 2π-vortex soon reaches a stable precession (3∼4 ns). The relationship between the precession frequency of 2π-vortex and the current density is almost linear. It may have potential use in spin torque nano-oscillators.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kupryaev, N. V.
2016-07-01
The precession of the perihelion of Mercury's orbit for 100 years in the gravitational field of the Sun and the planets has been numerically modeled within the framework of a generalized law of universal gravitation with refined data on the parameters of the orbits of the planets (including the asteroid belt and Pluto), and also the gravitational constant and with a smaller iteration step (0.0002 s). The calculations were performed with enhanced computational accuracy. It has been shown that the average precession of Mercury's orbit in 100 years within the framework of the generalized law of universal gravitation comprises ~565.3''. This is less than the observed shift of the perihelion by about 8.8''. The observed shift of the perihelion, as is well known, comprises ~574.1''. It is not ruled out that inside Mercury's orbit some unknown undetected object (or several such objects) of small size remains to be found.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stumpff, P.; Lieske, J. H.
1984-01-01
Properties of astronomical time scales (ET and UT) are considered, with particular emphasis on correctly determining of-date longitude as the sum of inertial mean longitude of the sun relative to the mean equinox of a fixed epoch (1950.0), and the general precession in longitude accumulated since the epoch. The inertial mean longitude and motion (relative to the mean equinox) are derived from tabular ephemerides such as the Jet Propulsion Laboratories' DE 102 and DE 96, by comparisons with subroutines based on Newcomb's perturbation theory. An unresolved inconsistency of approximately 1 second per century among the mean inertial motion of DE 102, IAU precession speed (1976), and the classical Newcomb of-date mean motion is found. Interpretation difficulties arising from the use of different systems of Ephemeris Time are also discussed.
Dreher, Wolfgang; Erhard, Peter; Leibfritz, Dieter
2011-12-01
The combination of the principles of two fast spectroscopic imaging (SI) methods, spectroscopic missing pulse steady-state free precession and echo planar SI (EPSI) is described as an approach toward fast 3D SI. This method, termed missing pulse steady-state free precession echo planar SI, exhibits a considerably reduced minimum total measurement time T(min), allowing a higher temporal resolution, a larger spatial matrix size, and the use of k-space weighted averaging and phase cycling, while maintaining all advantages of the original spectroscopic missing pulse steady-state free precession sequence. The minor signal-to-noise ratio loss caused by using oscillating read gradients can be compensated by applying k-space weighted averaging. The missing pulse steady-state free precession echo planar SI sequence was implemented on a 3 T head scanner, tested on phantoms and applied to healthy volunteers. PMID:21574181
Wang, Y. Y.; Cooper, D.; Bernier, N.; Rouviere, J.; Murray, C. E.; Bruley, J.
2015-01-26
The detailed strain distributions produced by embedded SiGe stressor structures are measured at high spatial resolution with high precision, with dual lens dark field electron holography and precession electron diffraction. Shear strain and lattice rotation within the crystalline lattice are observed at the boundaries between the SiGe and Si regions. The experimental results are compared to micromechanical modeling simulations to understand the mechanisms of elastic relaxation on all the modes of deformation at a sub-micron length scale.
Precession of Fast S0 Stars in the Vicinity of Supermassive Black Hole in the Galactic Center
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dokuchaev, V. I.; Eroshenko, Yu. N.; Klimkov, K. S.
2015-09-01
We elaborate the model of the influence of the diffuse dark matter, invisible stars or stellar mass black holes on the motion of the observed fast moving S0 stars [1-4] around the supermassive black hole SgrA* in the Galactic center with a mass MBH = 4×10^6 Full-size image (<1 K). We will call all this invisible mass as a dark matter. The additional mass perturbs the elliptical orbits of the S0 mass resulting in the so called Newtonian precession of the elliptical orbits. The major aim of our research is the fitting of the published dates on the observed orbital positions of the S0 stars by the theoretically modeling orbit with a power-law profile of the additional (dark matter) mass. Nowadays the observational data provide only the upper limit on the additional mass. In the nearest years the observations of the S0 stars may provide the real weighing of the dark matter inside the orbits of these S0 stars in the Galactic center. This method is a very perspective for the elucidation of the formation and evolution of the dark matter in the Galactic nucleus.
Cona, Filippo; Ursino, Mauro
2015-02-01
Recent results on hippocampal place cells show that the replay of behavioral sequences does not simply reflect previously experienced trajectories, but may also occur in the reverse direction, or may even include never experienced paths. In order to elucidate the possible mechanisms at the basis of this phenomenon, we have developed a model of sequence learning. The present model consists of two layers of place cell units. Long-range connections among units implement heteroassociation between the two layers, trained with a temporal Hebb rule. The network was trained assuming that a virtual rat moves within a virtual maze. This training leads to the formation of bidirectional synapses between the two layers, i.e. synapses connecting a neuron both with its previous and subsequent element in the path. Subsequently, two distinct conditions were simulated with the trained network. During an exploratory phase, characterized by a similar consideration to the external environment and to the internal representation, the model simulates the occurrence of theta precession in the forward path and the temporal compression. During an imagination phase, when there is no consideration to the external location, the model produces trains of gamma oscillations, without the presence of a theta rhythm, and simulates the occurrence of both direct and reverse replay, and the imagination of never experienced paths. The new paths are built by combining bunches of previous trajectories. The main mechanisms at the basis of this behavior are explained in detail, and lines for future improvements (e.g., to simulate preplay) are discussed. PMID:25284339
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alomar, M. I.; Serra, Llorenç; Sánchez, David
2016-08-01
We investigate the transmission properties of a spin transistor coupled to two quantum point contacts acting as a spin injector and detector. In the Fabry-Pérot regime, transport is mediated by quasibound states formed between tunnel barriers. Interestingly, the spin-orbit interaction of the Rashba type can be tuned in such a way that nonuniform spin-orbit fields can point along distinct directions at different points of the sample. We discuss both spin-conserving and spin-flipping transitions as the spin-orbit angle of orientation increases from parallel to antiparallel configurations. Spin precession oscillations are clearly seen as a function of the length of the central channel. Remarkably, we find that these oscillations combine with the Fabry-Pérot motion, giving rise to quasiperiodic transmissions in the purely one-dimensional case. Furthermore, we consider the more realistic case of a finite width in the transverse direction and find that the coherent oscillations become deteriorated for moderate values of the spin-orbit strength. Our results then determine the precise role of the spin-orbit intersubband coupling potential in the Fabry-Pérot-Datta-Das intermixed oscillations.
Moraes, Tiago Bueno; Monaretto, Tatiana; Colnago, Luiz Alberto
2016-09-01
Longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) relaxation times have been widely used in time-domain NMR (TD-NMR) to determine several physicochemical properties of petroleum, polymers, and food products. The measurement of T2 through the CPMG pulse sequence has been used in most of these applications because it denotes a rapid, robust method. On the other hand, T1 has been occasionally used in TD-NMR due to the long measurement time required to collect multiple points along the T1 relaxation curve. Recently, several rapid methods to measure T1 have been proposed. Those methods based upon single shot, known as Continuous Wave Free Precession (CWFP) pulse sequences, have been employed in the simultaneous measurement of T1 and T2 in a rapid fashion. However, these sequences can be used exclusively in instrument featuring short dead time because the magnitude of the signal at thermal equilibrium is required. In this paper, we demonstrate that a special CWFP sequence with a low flip angle can be a simple and rapid method to measure T1 regardless of instruments dead time. Experimental results confirmed that the method called CWFP-T1 may be used to measure both single T1 value and T1 distribution in heterogeneous samples. Therefore, CWFP-T1 sequence can be a feasible alternative to CPMG in the determination of physicochemical properties, particularly in processes where fast protocols are requested such as industrial applications. PMID:27376553
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Lin-Jia; Qian, Sheng-Bang
2013-12-01
We determined forty-two new times of light maximum from our photometry observations and WASP project, and collected all times of light maximum observed between 1961 and 2013 in order to calculate the orbital elements of the SZ Lyncis system and the secular change of the pulsation period with the classical O - C method. We confirmed the decrease of the longitude of the periastron passage with a rate of (-1.˚15 ±0.˚25) yr-1 , and discussed the causative mechanism. The results show that the precession of the star's orbit might be due to a close binary system, which means that the companion of SZ Lyncis is actually a binary system. We used the Hipparcos Intermediate Astrometric Data to obtain the complete orbital elements of the SZ Lyncis system, and found that the inclination, i, and parallax, πt , are 39.˚5 ± 17.˚7 and 2.61 ± 0.98 mas (corresponds to 380 ± 140 pc), respectively. We reanalyzed the mean radial velocities of SZ Lyncis given by Bardin and Imbert (1984), and noticed a weak variation existing in the residuals from a single-Keplerian fit. We suggest that more detailed high-precision spectroscopic observations are definitely needed in the future to check this short periodic change.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heisterkamp, F.; Kirstein, E.; Greilich, A.; Zhukov, E. A.; Kazimierczuk, T.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Pawlis, A.; Bayer, M.
2016-02-01
We study the dynamics of optically induced nuclear spin polarization in a fluorine-doped ZnSe epilayer via time-resolved Kerr rotation. The nuclear polarization in the vicinity of a fluorine donor is induced by interaction with coherently precessing electron spins in a magnetic field applied in the Voigt geometry. It is detected by nuclei-induced changes in the electron spin coherence signal. This all-optical technique allows us to measure the longitudinal spin relaxation time T1 of the 77Se isotope in a magnetic field range from 10 to 130 mT under illumination. We combine the optical technique with radio frequency methods to address the coherent spin dynamics of the nuclei and measure Rabi oscillations, Ramsey fringes, and the nuclear spin echo. The inhomogeneous spin dephasing time T2* and the spin coherence time T2 of the 77Se isotope are measured. While the T1 time is on the order of several milliseconds, the T2 time is several hundred microseconds. The experimentally determined condition T1≫T2 verifies the validity of the classical model of nuclear spin cooling for describing the optically induced nuclear spin polarization.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moraes, Tiago Bueno; Monaretto, Tatiana; Colnago, Luiz Alberto
2016-09-01
Longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) relaxation times have been widely used in time-domain NMR (TD-NMR) to determine several physicochemical properties of petroleum, polymers, and food products. The measurement of T2 through the CPMG pulse sequence has been used in most of these applications because it denotes a rapid, robust method. On the other hand, T1 has been occasionally used in TD-NMR due to the long measurement time required to collect multiple points along the T1 relaxation curve. Recently, several rapid methods to measure T1 have been proposed. Those methods based upon single shot, known as Continuous Wave Free Precession (CWFP) pulse sequences, have been employed in the simultaneous measurement of T1 and T2 in a rapid fashion. However, these sequences can be used exclusively in instrument featuring short dead time because the magnitude of the signal at thermal equilibrium is required. In this paper, we demonstrate that a special CWFP sequence with a low flip angle can be a simple and rapid method to measure T1 regardless of instruments dead time. Experimental results confirmed that the method called CWFP-T1 may be used to measure both single T1 value and T1 distribution in heterogeneous samples. Therefore, CWFP-T1 sequence can be a feasible alternative to CPMG in the determination of physicochemical properties, particularly in processes where fast protocols are requested such as industrial applications.
Martay, Hugo E. L.; England, Duncan G.; McCabe, David J.; Walmsley, Ian A.
2011-04-15
The complexity of ultrafast molecular photoionization presents an obstacle to the modeling of pump-probe experiments. Here, a simple optimized model of atomic rubidium is combined with a molecular dynamics model to predict quantitatively the results of a pump-probe experiment in which long-range rubidium dimers are first excited, then ionized after a variable delay. The method is illustrated by the outline of two proposed feasible experiments and the calculation of their outcomes. Both of these proposals use Feshbach {sup 87}Rb{sub 2} molecules. We show that long-range molecular pump-probe experiments should observe spin-orbit precession given a suitable pump pulse, and that the associated high-frequency beat signal in the ionization probability decays after a few tens of picoseconds. If the molecule was to be excited to only a single fine-structure state, then a low-frequency oscillation in the internuclear separation would be detectable through the time-dependent ionization cross section, giving a mechanism that would enable observation of coherent vibrational motion in this molecule.
Li, A E; Wilkinson, M D; McGrillen, K M; Stoodley, M A; Magnussen, J S
2015-12-01
The purpose of this article is to review the physiology of normal brain and spinal cord motion in the subarachnoid space, principles of cine balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), clinical applications, and the pitfalls encountered with this technique. The brain and spinal cord are dynamic structures that move with each heartbeat due to transmitted arterial pulse waves. Conventional MRI sequences do not allow anatomic evaluation of the pulsatile movement of the neural structures in the subarachnoid space due to limitations in temporal resolution. Cine bSSFP MRI uses cardiac gating to evaluate dynamically the brain and spinal cord with high contrast and temporal resolution.Cine bSSFP can be used in the evaluation of idiopathic syringomyelia to assess an underlying treatable cause, including arachnoid bands, which are usually not well visualized with conventional MR sequences due to motion artifact. This MRI technique is also useful in the evaluation of intraspinal and intracranial arachnoid cysts and the degree of mass effect on the cord. Other applications include preoperative and postoperative evaluation of Chiari I malformation and the evaluation of lateral ventricular asymmetry. The major limitation of cine bSSFP is the presence of banding artifacts, which can be reduced by shimming and modifying other scan parameters. PMID:25854921
O’Halloran, R; Aksoy, M; Aboussouan, E; Peterson, E; Van, A; Bammer, R
2014-01-01
Purpose Diffusion contrast in diffusion-weighted steady state free precession MRI is generated through the constructive addition of signal from many coherence pathways. Motion-induced phase causes destructive interference which results in loss of signal magnitude and diffusion contrast. In this work, a 3D navigator-based real-time correction of the rigid-body-motion-induced phase errors is developed for diffusion-weighted steady state free precession MRI. Methods The efficacy of the real-time prospective correction method in preserving phase coherence of the steady-state is tested in 3D phantom experiments and 3D scans of healthy human subjects. Results In nearly all experiments, the signal magnitude in images obtained with proposed prospective correction was higher than the signal magnitude in images obtained with no correction. In the human subjects the mean magnitude signal in the data was up to 30 percent higher with prospective motion correction than without. Prospective correction never resulted in a decrease in mean signal magnitude in either the data or in the images. Conclusions The proposed prospective motion correction method is shown to preserve the phase coherence of the steady state in diffusion-weighted steady state free precession MRI, thus mitigating signal magnitude losses that would confound the desired diffusion contrast. PMID:24715414
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruangsri, Uchupol; Vigeland, Sarah J.; Hughes, Scott A.
2016-08-01
A small body orbiting a black hole follows a trajectory that, at leading order, is a geodesic of the black hole spacetime. Much effort has gone into computing "self-force" corrections to this motion, arising from the small body's own contributions to the system's spacetime. Another correction to the motion arises from coupling of the small body's spin to the black hole's spacetime curvature. Spin-curvature coupling drives a precession of the small body, and introduces a "force" (relative to the geodesic) which shifts the small body's worldline. These effects scale with the small body's spin at leading order. In this paper, we show that the equations which govern spin-curvature coupling can be analyzed with a frequency-domain decomposition, at least to leading order in the small body's spin. We show how to compute the frequency of precession along generic orbits, and how to describe the small body's precession and motion in the frequency domain. We illustrate this approach with a number of examples. This approach is likely to be useful for understanding spin coupling effects in the extreme mass ratio limit, and may provide insight into modeling spin effects in the strong field for nonextreme mass ratios.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Uemaatsu, Hirohiko; Parkinson, Bradford W.; Lockhart, James M.; Muhlfelder, Barry
1993-01-01
Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is a relatively gyroscope experiment begun at Stanford University in 1960 and supported by NASA since 1963. This experiment will check, for the first time, the relativistic precession of an Earth-orbiting gyroscope that was predicted by Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, to an accuracy of 1 milliarcsecond per year or better. A drag-free satellite will carry four gyroscopes in a polar orbit to observe their relativistic precession. The primary sensor for measuring the direction of gyroscope spin axis is the SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) magnetometer. The data reduction scheme designed for the GP-B program processes the signal from the SQUID magnetometer and estimates the relativistic precession rates. We formulated the data reduction scheme and designed the Niobium bird experiment to verify the performance of the data reduction scheme experimentally with an actual SQUID magnetometer within the test loop. This paper reports the results from the first phase of the Niobium bird experiment, which used a commercially available SQUID magnetometer as its primary sensor, and adresses the issues they raised. The first phase resulted in a large, temperature-dependent bias drift in the insensitive design and a temperature regulation scheme.
Reifenstein, Eric T.; Kempter, Richard; Schreiber, Susanne; Stemmler, Martin B.; Herz, Andreas V. M.
2012-01-01
When a rat moves, grid cells in its entorhinal cortex become active in multiple regions of the external world that form a hexagonal lattice. As the animal traverses one such “firing field,” spikes tend to occur at successively earlier theta phases of the local field potential. This phenomenon is called phase precession. Here, we show that spike phases provide 80% more spatial information than spike counts and that they improve position estimates from single neurons down to a few centimeters. To understand what limits the resolution and how variable spike phases are across different field traversals, we analyze spike trains run by run. We find that the multiple firing fields of a grid cell operate as independent elements for encoding physical space. In addition, phase precession is significantly stronger than the pooled-run data suggest. Despite the inherent stochasticity of grid-cell firing, phase precession is therefore a robust phenomenon at the single-trial level, making a theta-phase code for spatial navigation feasible. PMID:22474395
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Yi
This thesis deals with the detection of gravitational-wave signals from the inspiral of precessing, compact binaries using interferometric gravitational- wave detectors (e.g., LIGO), and the design of the signal-recycling cavity for Advanced LIGO (the second generation LIGO). The detection of complicated signals from the inspiral of precessing binaries using the standard matched filter technique requires a computational cost far exceeding what is available with current technology. Alessandra Buonanno, Yanbei Chen, and Michele Vallisneri (BCV) proposed the use of detection template families (DTFs)---phenomenological templates capable of mimicking inspiral waveforms while having simpler functional forms. In Chapter 2 (in collaboration with BCV, and Hideyuki Tagoshi), a BCV2 DTF suggested by BCV is studied. We show a good signal-matching performance of this DTF, propose a template-placement strategy, and estimate that the computational cost required by this DTF is feasible. We also propose a BCV2P DTF to estimate binary parameters. In Chapters 3 and 4 (in collaboration with BCV), I investigate a physical template family (PTF) suggested by BCV. This PTF uses the most accurate known waveforms for inspiraling, precessing binaries with one spinning component, formulated using a new precessing convention to reduce computational cost. PTF has the obvious advantages of a perfect signal snatching, a lower false-alarm rate, and direct estimates of binary parameters. We show how this PTF can be used to detect inspiral waveforms from general precessing binaries. The second part of this thesis concerns a potential problem in the current design of the signal-recycling cavity (SRC) for Advanced LIGO: The SRC is nearly degenerate. In Chapter 5, I show with a numerical simulation that if the current design is used, there will be a serious constraint on the magnitude of mirror deformations, in order to keep the reduction of the signal-to-noise ratio below a few percent. This
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Gang; Ni, Wei-Tou
2015-05-01
ASTROD-GW (ASTROD [astrodynamical space test of relativity using optical devices] optimized for gravitational wave detection) is a gravitational-wave mission with the aim of detecting gravitational waves from massive black holes, extreme mass ratio inspirals (EMRIs) and galactic compact binaries together with testing relativistic gravity and probing dark energy and cosmology. Mission orbits of the 3 spacecrafts forming a nearly equilateral triangular array are chosen to be near the Sun-Earth Lagrange points L3, L4, and L5. The 3 spacecrafts range interferometrically with one another with arm length about 260 million kilometers. For 260 times longer arm length, the detection sensitivity of ASTROD-GW is 260 fold better than that of eLISA/NGO in the lower frequency region by assuming the same acceleration noise. Therefore, ASTROD-GW will be a better cosmological probe. In previous papers, we have worked out the time delay interferometry (TDI) for the ecliptic formation. To resolve the reflection ambiguity about the ecliptic plane in source position determination, we have changed the basic formation into slightly inclined formation with half-year precession-period. In this paper, we optimize a set of 10-year inclined ASTROD-GW mission orbits numerically using ephemeris framework starting at June 21, 2035, including cases of inclination angle with 0° (no inclination), 0.5°, 1.0°, 1.5°, 2.0°, 2.5°, and 3.0°. We simulate the time delays of the first and second generation TDI configurations for the different inclinations, and compare/analyse the numerical results to attain the requisite sensitivity of ASTROD-GW by suppressing laser frequency noise below the secondary noises. To explicate our calculation process for different inclination cases, we take the 1.0° as an example to show the orbit optimization and TDI simulation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsuda, T.; Munekata, H.
2016-02-01
In order to investigate the mechanism of photoexcited precession of magnetization in ferromagnetic G a1 -xM nxAs , magneto-optical (MO) and differential reflectivity (Δ R /R ; DR) temporal profiles are studied at relatively long (picosecond to nanosecond) and ultrashort (1 ps or less) time scales for samples with different Mn content (x =0.01 -0.11 ) . As to the oscillatory MO profiles observed in the long time scale, simulation based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation combined with two different MO effects confirms photoinducement of the perpendicular anisotropy component Δ Heff ,⊥ . As for the profiles observed in the ultrashort time scale, they are consistently explained in terms of the dynamics of photogenerated carriers, but not by the sudden reduction in magnetization (the ultrafast demagnetization). In light of these experimental results and analyses, a mechanism that accounts for the photoinduced Δ Heff ,⊥ is addressed: namely, photoionizationlike excitation of M n2 + , M n2 ++h ν →M n2 +,*=M n3++e- . That such excitation tips magnetic anisotropy toward the out-of-plane direction through the inducement of orbital angular momentum and the gradient ∂ (M n2 +,* )/∂ z is discussed. The validity of the proposed mechanism is examined by estimating the efficiency of excitation on the basis of the Lambert-Beer law and the experimental Δ Heff ,⊥ values, through which an efficiency of 1-10 ppm with a nominal optical cross section of around 5 ×10-12m2 is obtained.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barker, Adrian J.
2016-08-01
The spin axis of a rotationally deformed planet is forced to precess about its orbital angular momentum vector, due to the tidal gravity of its host star, if these directions are misaligned. This induces internal fluid motions inside the planet that are subject to a hydrodynamic instability. We study the turbulent damping of precessional fluid motions, as a result of this instability, in the simplest local computational model of a giant planet (or star), with and without a weak internal magnetic field. Our aim is to determine the outcome of this instability, and its importance in driving tidal evolution of the spin-orbit angle in precessing planets (and stars). We find that this instability produces turbulent dissipation that is sufficiently strong that it could drive significant tidal evolution of the spin-orbit angle for hot Jupiters with orbital periods shorter than about 10-18 days. If this mechanism acts in isolation, this evolution would be towards alignment or anti-alignment, depending on the initial angle, but the ultimate evolution (if other tidal mechanisms also contribute) is expected to be towards alignment. The turbulent dissipation is proportional to the cube of the precession frequency, so it leads to much slower damping of stellar spin-orbit angles, implying that this instability is unlikely to drive evolution of the spin-orbit angle in stars (either in planetary or close binary systems). We also find that the instability-driven flow can act as a system-scale dynamo, which may play a role in producing magnetic fields in short-period planets.
Variabilidade óptica de longo período e precessão de jato: o caso de BL Lacertae
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caproni, A.; Abraham, Z.
2003-08-01
Variabilidade é tipicamente uma característica de AGNs, sendo observada em toda a faixa eletromagnética. Em relação às escalas de tempo, variações desde horas até de algumas décadas foram encontradas por vários autores. Em alguns casos, análises temporais de curvas de luz mostram a existência de periodicidade nas variações observadas. Um exemplo de objeto que preenche as características mencionadas acima é BL Lacertae, o protótipo da classe BL Lac dos AGNs. Neste trabalho, nós interpretamos a variabilidade periódica de longo período detectada na curva de luz na banda B (~7,5 anos) como o resultado da periodicidade na amplificação da radiação oriunda do jato relativístico. Neste cenário, a amplificação periódica seria induzida pela precessão, que muda o ângulo entre o jato e a linha de visada. Com esta abordagem e vínculos adicionais fornecidos por observações em altas energias, nós podemos impor limites para os parâmetros do modelo de precessão, tais como o fator de Lorentz associado ao movimento global do jato, o ângulo de abertura do cone de precessão e o ângulo entre o eixo do cone e a linha de visada.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barker, Adrian J.
2016-08-01
The spin axis of a rotationally deformed planet is forced to precess about its orbital angular momentum vector, due to the tidal gravity of its host star, if these directions are misaligned. This induces internal fluid motions inside the planet that are subject to a hydrodynamic instability. We study the turbulent damping of precessional fluid motions, as a result of this instability, in the simplest local computational model of a giant planet (or star), with and without a weak internal magnetic field. Our aim is to determine the outcome of this instability, and its importance in driving tidal evolution of the spin-orbit angle in precessing planets (and stars). We find that this instability produces turbulent dissipation that is sufficiently strong that it could drive significant tidal evolution of the spin-orbit angle for hot Jupiters with orbital periods shorter than about 10-18 d. If this mechanism acts in isolation, this evolution would be towards alignment or anti-alignment, depending on the initial angle, but the ultimate evolution (if other tidal mechanisms also contribute) is expected to be towards alignment. The turbulent dissipation is proportional to the cube of the precession frequency, so it leads to much slower damping of stellar spin-orbit angles, implying that this instability is unlikely to drive evolution of the spin-orbit angle in stars (either in planetary or close binary systems). We also find that the instability-driven flow can act as a system-scale dynamo, which may play a role in producing magnetic fields in short-period planets.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sentyabov, A. V.; Gavrilov, A. A.; Dekterev, A. A.; Minakov, A. V.
2014-12-01
Numerical modeling of the unsteady flow in the draft tube of the test bench hydro turbine is conducted. The hybrid RANS-LES methods for modeling turbulent flows are compared. The intensity and frequency of pressure fluctuations, which are induced by the vortex core precession under the runner, and the integral characteristics are considered. An analysis of the synchronous and asynchronous parts of pressure fluctuations is done; the generating and influence of the synchronous component of fluctuations are considered. The vortex core interaction with the draft tube elbow is considered.
Surovtsev, E. V. Fomin, I. A.
2010-08-15
The magnetic-field dependences of the threshold temperature of the low-temperature instability of uniform spin precession in pure {sup 3}He-B and {sup 3}He-B in an aerogel have been determined for the bulk mechanism. These dependences appear to be different. The theoretical dependence of the threshold temperature for the pure case has been compared with the experimental dependence. The threshold temperature of the instability for {sup 3}He in the aerogel has been estimated for typical experimental conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boulila, Slah; Charbonnier, Guillaume; Galbrun, Bruno; Gardin, Silvia
2015-07-01
The Valanginian sediments outcropping in the Vocontian Basin (SE France) exhibit striking marl-limestone alternations, which were formed under the influence of orbital forcing and which have served for geochronological and paleoenvironmental studies. Previous studies have suggested an obliquity forcing during the Late Valanginian interval, reflecting specific environmental conditions such as polar ice. Using a cyclostratigraphic correlation of previously studied sections and performing time-series analysis on the most complete Late Valanginian interval we argue that the climatic precession cycle is the primary driver of these marl-limestone alternations. In addition, we highlight the modulation of the precession by the ~ 100 and 405 kyr eccentricity cycles. We suggest that the cyclostratigraphic misinterpretation (i.e., obliquity-forcing hypothesis) results mainly from poorly preserved 405 kyr eccentricity cycles, due to local hiatuses and/or "missed beats". This study shows the potential of cyclostratigraphic correlations for the detection and quantification of differential hiatuses and/or "missed beats" within intrabasinal sequences, hence providing constraints on cyclostratigraphic interpretations. The recorded 405 kyr eccentricity cycle is of prominent amplitude, and controlled the fourth-order sea-level sequences. These latter are faithfully detected through cyclostratigraphically inferred sedimentation rate. Finally, we show that the well-known, pronounced lithostratigraphic markers/intervals in the basin were orbitally paced by the 405 kyr eccentricity extrema. This is a good argument for the strong impact of this cyclicity on the sedimentary processes, especially during greenhouse periods.
Glockner, James F; Saranathan, Manojkumar; Bayram, Ersin; Lee, Christine U
2013-10-01
A novel 3D breath-held Dixon fat-water separated balanced steady state free precession (b-SSFP) sequence for MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is described and its potential clinical utility assessed in a series of patients. The main motivation is to develop a robust breath-held alternative to the respiratory gated 3D Fast Spin Echo (FSE) sequence, the current clinical sequence of choice for MRCP. Respiratory gated acquisitions are susceptible to motion artifacts and blurring in patients with significant diaphragmatic drift, erratic respiratory rhythms or sleep apnea. A two point Dixon fat-water separation scheme was developed which eliminates signal loss arising from B0 inhomogeneity effects and minimizes artifacts from perturbation of the b-SSFP steady state. Preliminary results from qualitative analysis of 49 patients demonstrate robust performance of the 3D Dixon b-SSFP sequence with diagnostic image quality acquired in a 20-24s breath-hold. PMID:23876262
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodríguez-Tovar, F. J.; Sánchez-Almazo, I.; Pardo-Igúzquiza, E.; Braga, J. C.; Martín, J. M.
2013-09-01
Spectral analysis of the Messinian Abad marls in the Cariatiz section (Sorbas Basin, south-eastern Spain) reveals three relevant orders of cyclicity. The most significant cycle is in the lowest frequency (average thickness of 365 cm, 4-5 cycles in the section). It is recorded in the composition of planktic foraminiferal assemblages indicative of surface-water temperature, planktic and benthic stable isotope signals, and carbonate proportions. The planktic assemblages, isotope values and carbonate proportions also record a middle-frequency cycle with an average of 177 cm (9-10 cycles in the section). The highest frequency cycle (average of 132 cm, 12-13 cycles in the section) is mainly reflected in siliciclastic and calcite proportions. Age constraints and cycle patterns suggest that the lowest frequency cycle was forced by orbital obliquity, whereas the two higher-frequency ones are related to precession. Obliquity seems to have controlled major changes in surface-water temperature in the Sorbas Basin during the early Messinian. Surface-water temperature was also affected by precession, with changes in weathering and run-off. Spectral analysis has also been applied to vertical shifts of reef facies throughout the progradation of the Cariatiz reef. This reef is coeval with the Cariatiz section. Vertical shifts of reef talus breccias point to the existence of 4-5 major cycles of sea-level change, whereas 7-9 higher-frequency cycles are reflected in the repeated occurrence of lowstand, non-reefal deposits. Correlation with the cycles observed at the Cariatiz section suggests that obliquity forced glacio-eustatic sea-level oscillations in the western Mediterranean during the Late Miocene.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burlak, N.; Koshkin, N.; Korobeynikova, E.; Melikyants, S.; Shakun, L.; Strakhova, S.
The light curves of EGS Ajisai with temporal resolution of 20 ms referred to the time scale UTC (GPS) with an error of at most 0.1 ms were obtained. The observed flashes are produced when the mirrors which cover the spinning satellite's surface reflect off the sunlight. In previous paper the analysis of sequence of flashes allowed of reconstructing the arrangement and orientation of the mirrors, i.e. developing an optogeometric model of the satellite (Korobeynikova et al., 2012), and to apply that model along with new photometric observations to determine the satellite's sidereal rotational period with an accuracy that was previously unachievable. A new technique for determination of the spin-axis orientation during each passage of the satellite over an observation site was developed. The secular slowdown of the satellite's spin rate (Psid = 1.4858*EXP(0.000041099*T), where T is measured in days counted from the date of the satellite launch) and its variations correlating with the average duration of the satellite orbit out of the Earth's shadow were refined. New parameters of the spin-axis precession were estimated: the period Pprec = 116.44 days, αprec = 18.0h, δprec = 87.66°, the nutation angle θ = 1.78°.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shah, Abhay G.; Pound, Adam
2015-06-01
Using black hole perturbation theory and arbitrary-precision computer algebra, we obtain the post-Newtonian expansions of the linear-in-mass-ratio corrections to the spin-precession angle and tidal invariants for a particle in circular orbit around a Schwarzschild black hole. We extract coefficients up to 20 post-Newtonian order from numerical results that are calculated with an accuracy greater than 1 part in 10500. These results can be used to calibrate parameters in effective-one-body models of compact binaries, specifically the spin-orbit part of the effective Hamiltonian and the dynamically significant tidal part of the main radial potential of the effective metric. Our calculations are performed in a radiation gauge, which is known to be singular away from the particle. To overcome this irregularity, we define suitable Detweiler-Whiting singular and regular fields in this gauge, and we compute the invariants using mode-sum regularization in combination with averaging from two sides of the particle. The detailed justification of this regularization procedure will be presented in a forthcoming companion paper.
Toeroek, Gabriel; Bakala, Pavel; Sramkova, Eva; StuchlIk, Zdenek; Urbanec, Martin E-mail: pavel.bakala@fpf.slu.c E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@fpf.slu.c
2010-05-01
Boutloukos et al. discovered twin-peak quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in 11 observations of the peculiar Z-source Circinus X-1. Among several other conjunctions the authors briefly discussed the related estimate of the compact object mass following from the geodesic relativistic precession model for kHz QPOs. Neglecting the neutron star rotation they reported the inferred mass M{sub 0} = 2.2 {+-} 0.3 M{sub sun}. We present a more detailed analysis of the estimate which involves the frame-dragging effects associated with rotating spacetimes. For a free mass we find acceptable fits of the model to data for (any) small dimensionless compact object angular momentum j = cJ/GM {sup 2}. Moreover, quality of the fit tends to increase very gently with rising j. Good fits are reached when M {approx} M{sub 0}[1 + 0.55(j + j {sup 2})]. It is therefore impossible to estimate the mass without independent knowledge of the angular momentum and vice versa. Considering j up to 0.3 the range of the feasible values of mass extends up to 3 M{sub sun}. We suggest that similar increase of estimated mass due to rotational effects can be relevant for several other sources.
Atanasova, Iliyana P.; Kim, Daniel; Lim, Ruth P.; Storey, Pippa; Kim, Sooah; Guo, Hua; Lee, Vivian S.
2011-01-01
Purpose To develop a non-contrast MR angiography (MRA) method for comprehensive evaluation of abdominopelvic arteries in a single 3D acquisition. Materials and Methods A non-contrast MRA (NC MRA) pulse sequence was developed using 4 inversion-recovery (IR) pulses and 3D balanced steady-state free precession (b-SSFP) readout to provide arterial imaging from renal to external iliac arteries. Respiratory triggered, high spatial resolution (1.3 × 1.3 × 1.7 mm3) non-contrast angiograms were obtained in seven volunteers and ten patients referred for gadolinium-enhanced MRA (CE MRA). Images were assessed for diagnostic quality by two radiologists. Quantitative measurements of arterial signal contrast were also performed. Results NC MRA imaging was successfully completed in all subjects in 7.0 ± 2.3 minutes. In controls, image quality of NC MRA averaged 2.79 ± 0.39 on a scale of 0 to 3, where 3 is maximum. Image quality of NC MRA (2.65 ± 0.41) was comparable to that of CE MRA (2.9 ± 0.32) in all patients. Contrast ratio measurements in patients demonstrated that NC MRA provides arterial contrast comparable to source CE MRA images with adequate venous and excellent background tissue suppression. Conclusion The proposed non-contrast MRA pulse sequence provides high quality visualization of abdominopelvic arteries within clinically feasible scan times. PMID:21591013
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masago, Bruna Yukiko Pinheiro Lopes; Prado, A. F. B. A.; Chiaradia, Ana Paula Marins; Gomes, Vivian Martins
2016-02-01
Space missions to visit small bodies of the Solar System are important steps to improve our knowledge of the Solar System. Usually those bodies do not have well known characteristics, as their gravity field, which make the mission planning a difficult task. The present paper has the goal of studying orbits around the triple asteroid 2001SN263, a Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA). A mission to this system allows the exploration of three bodies in the same trip. The distances reached by the spacecraft from those three bodies have fundamental importance in the quality of their observations. Therefore, the present research has two main goals: (i) to develop a semi-analytical mathematical model, which is simple, but able to represent the main characteristics of that system; (ii) to use this model to find orbits for a spacecraft with the goal of remaining the maximum possible time near the three bodies of the system, without the need of space maneuvers. This model is called "Precessing Inclined Bi-Elliptical Problem with Radiation Pressure" (PIBEPRP). The use of this model allow us to find important natural orbits for the exploration of one, two or even the three bodies of the system. These trajectories can be used individually or combined in two or more parts using orbital maneuvers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schunck, Thérèse; Darée, Karl; Krüger, Denis; Himmelsbach, Ralf; Merlat, Lionel
2012-06-01
Nuclear quadrupole resonance is a promising technique for the detection of illicit substances. It relies on the magnetic properties of some specific nuclei, such as nitrogen and chlorine, widely spread among explosives, narcotics or counterfeit medicines. In the basic NQR experiment, the signal (Free Induction Decay (FID)) is generated by a single radio frequency pulse. Because of its small amplitude, the signal is enhanced by averaging several measurements. However, the excitation cannot be repeated until the spin system relaxes back towards equilibrium and this recovery depends on the spin-lattice relaxation time (T1). This can be sorted out by using multi-pulse sequences. One type of multi-pulse sequence, Steady State Free Precession (SSFP), could be used when the spin-spin relaxation time (T2) of the compound is of the same order as T1. It has been claimed that SSFP is a more efficient acquisition sequence than the accumulation of ordinary FIDs. The present study will show, by using simulations and experimental data, that SSFP is a useful sequence for RDX measurements at 5.192 MHz, but is not more effective than a series of well-separated FIDs with a repetition rate lower than 1/T1.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Török, Gabriel; Bakala, Pavel; Šrámková, Eva; Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Urbanec, Martin
2010-05-01
Boutloukos et al. discovered twin-peak quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in 11 observations of the peculiar Z-source Circinus X-1. Among several other conjunctions the authors briefly discussed the related estimate of the compact object mass following from the geodesic relativistic precession model for kHz QPOs. Neglecting the neutron star rotation they reported the inferred mass M 0 = 2.2 ± 0.3 M sun. We present a more detailed analysis of the estimate which involves the frame-dragging effects associated with rotating spacetimes. For a free mass we find acceptable fits of the model to data for (any) small dimensionless compact object angular momentum j = cJ/GM 2. Moreover, quality of the fit tends to increase very gently with rising j. Good fits are reached when M ~ M 0[1 + 0.55(j + j 2)]. It is therefore impossible to estimate the mass without independent knowledge of the angular momentum and vice versa. Considering j up to 0.3 the range of the feasible values of mass extends up to 3 M sun. We suggest that similar increase of estimated mass due to rotational effects can be relevant for several other sources.
Roussel, Pascal; Palatinus, Lukas; Belva, Frédéric; Daviero-Minaud, Sylvie; Mentre, Olivier; Huve, Marielle
2014-04-01
The crystal structure of Sr{sub 4}Ru{sub 6}ClO{sub 18}, a new Ru{sup 4+/5+} oxo-chloride, has been determined from Precession Electron Diffraction (PED) data acquired on a nanocrystal in a transmission electron microscope using the technique of electron diffraction tomography. This approach is described in details following a pedagogic route and a systematic comparison is made of this rather new method with other experimental methods of electron diffraction, and with the standard single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. Both transport and magnetic measurements, showed a transition at low temperature that may be correlated to Ru{sup 4+}/Ru{sup 5+} charge ordering. - Graphical abstract: Structure of Sr{sub 4}Ru{sub 6}ClO{sub 18}, determined using Precession Electron Diffraction data. - Highlights: • Structure of Sr{sub 4}Ru{sub 6}ClO{sub 18} was solved ab initio using precession electron diffraction. • This was done both on a nanometric sample and on a micrometric one. • Different type of experimental methods of electron diffraction are compared. • Single crystal X-ray diffraction was used to confirm the results. • Transport properties were characterized and show “exotic” behavior.
2010-01-01
Background Left ventricular mass (LVM) is used when expressing infarct or fibrosis as a percentage of the left ventricle (LV). Quantification of LVM is interchangeably carried out in cine steady state free precession (SSFP) and delayed enhancement (DE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, these techniques may yield different LVM. Therefore, the aim of the study was to compare LVM determined by SSFP and DE MRI in patients and determine the agreement with these sequences with ex vivo data in an experimental animal model. Methods Ethics committees approved human and animal studies. Informed written consent was obtained from all patients. SSFP and DE images were acquired in 60 patients (20 with infarction, 20 without infarction and 20 pediatric patients). Ex vivo MRI was used as reference method for LVM in 19 pigs and compared to in vivo SSFP and DE. Results LVM was greater in SSFP than in DE (p < 0.001) with a bias of 5.0 ± 6.7% in humans (r2 = 0.98), and a bias of 7.3 ± 6.7% (p < 0.001) in pigs (r2 = 0.83). Bias for SSFP and DE images compared to ex vivo LVM was -0.2 ± 9.0% and -7.7 ± 8.5% respectively. Conclusions LVM was higher when measured with SSFP compared to DE. Thus, the percentage infarction of the LV will differ if SSFP or DE is used to determine LVM. There was no significant difference between SSFP and ex vivo LVM suggesting that SSFP is more accurate for LVM quantification. To avoid intrinsic error due to the differences between the sequences, we suggest using DE when expressing infarct as a percentage of LVM. PMID:20096134
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chernyshev, I. V.; Chugaev, A. V.; Safonov, Yu. G.; Saroyan, M. R.; Yudovskaya, M. A.; Eremina, A. V.
2009-12-01
The lead isotopic composition of 33 sulfide samples from orebodies of the Sukhoi Log deposit was studied by high-precession MC-ICP-MS with a precision of ±0.02% (±2SD from 120 analyses of the SRM 981 standard sample). The deposit is located in the Bodaibo gold mining district in the northern Baikal-Patom Highland. Gold mineralization is hosted in Neoproterosoic black slates. Variations of lead isotope ratios of the Sukhoi Log sulfides are generally typical of Phanerozoic deposits and ore fields. They are significant for 206Pb/204Pb (17.903-18.674), moderate for 208Pb/204Pb (37.822-38.457), and relatively narrow for 207Pb/204Pb (15.555-15.679). In the Pb-Pb isotope diagrams, the data points of pyrite and galena constitute a linear trend. The points corresponding to pyrite from metasomatic ore occupy the left lower part of the trend. Galena from late gold-quartz veins shows more radiogenic Pb, and corresponding data points are located in the upper part of the trend. According to the Stacey-Kramers model, the end points of the trend, which is regarded as a mixing line, have μ2 = 9.6 and μ2 = 13.2 and model Pb-Pb ages 455 and 130 Ma, respectively. The isotope characteristics of ore lead, their relationships in pyrite and galena, and the mixing trend of Pb isotopic compositions are clearly tied to two Paleozoic stages in the formation of the Sukhoi Log deposit (447 ± 6 and 321 ± 14Ma) and testify to the leading role of crustal sources, which are suggested as being the Neoproterozoic black-shale terrigenous-carbonate rocks.
Can the 62 Day X-ray Period of ULX M82 X-1 Be Due to a Precessing Accretion Disk?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pasham, Dheeraj R.; Strohmayer, Tod E.
2013-01-01
We have analyzed all the archival RXTE/PCA monitoring observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) M82 X-1 in order to study the properties of its previously discovered 62 day X-ray period (Kaaret & Feng 2007). Based on the high coherence of the modulation it has been argued that the observed period is the orbital period of the binary. Utilizing a much longer data set than in previous studies we find: (1) The phase-resolved X-ray (3-15 keV) energy spectra - modeled with a thermal accretion disk and a power-law corona - suggest that the accretion disk's contribution to the total flux is responsible for the overall periodic modulation while the power-law flux remains approximately constant with phase. (2) Suggestive evidence for a sudden phase shift-of approximately 0.3 in phase (20 days)-between the first and the second halves of the light curve separated by roughly 1000 days. If confirmed, the implied timescale to change the period is approx. = 10 yrs, which is exceptionally fast for an orbital phenomenon. These independent pieces of evidence are consistent with the 62 day period being due to a precessing accretion disk, similar to the so-called super-orbital periods observed in systems like Her X-1, LMC X-4, and SS433. However, the timing evidence for a change in the period needs to be confirmed with additional observations. This should be possible with further monitoring of M82 with instruments such as the X-ray telescope (XRT) on board Swift.
Peters, Dana C.; Ennis, Daniel B.; Rohatgi, Pratik; Syed, Mushabbar A.; McVeigh, Elliot R.; Arai, Andrew E.
2007-01-01
Purpose: To develop and validate a three-dimensional (3D) single breath-hold, projection reconstruction (PR), balanced steady state free precession (SSFP) method for cardiac function evaluation against a two-dimensional (2D) multislice Fourier (Cartesian) transform (FT) SSFP method. Materials and Methods: The 3D PR SSFP sequence used projections in the x-y plane and partitions in z, providing 70–80 msec temporal resolution and 1.7 × 1.7 × 8–10 mm in a 24-heartbeat breath hold. A total of 10 volunteers were imaged with both methods, and the measurements of global cardiac function were compared. Results: Mean signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) for the blood and myocardium were 114 and 42 (2D) and 59 and 21 (3D). Bland-Altman analysis comparing the 2D and 3D ejection fraction (EF), left ventricular end diastolic volume (LVEDV) and end systolic volume (LVESV), and end diastolic myocardial mass (LVEDM) provided values of bias ±2 SD of 0.6% ± 7.7 % for LVEF, 5.9 mL ± 20 mL for LVEDV, −2.8 mL ± 12 mL for LVESV, and −0.61 g ± 13 g for LVEDM. 3D interobserver variability was greater than 2D for LVEDM and LVESV. Conclusion: In a single breath hold, the 3D PR method provides comparable information to the standard 2D FT method, which employs 10–12 breath holds. PMID:15332248
Radiative diagnostics for sub-Larmor scale magnetic turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reynolds, Sarah J.; Medvedev, Mikhail V.
2012-02-01
Radiative diagnostics of high-energy density plasmas is addressed in this paper. We propose that the radiation produced by energetic particles in small-scale magnetic field turbulence, which can occur in laser-plasma experiments, collisionless shocks, and during magnetic reconnection, can be used to deduce some properties of the turbulent magnetic field. Particles propagating through such turbulence encounter locally strong magnetic fields but over lengths much shorter than a particle gyroradius (that is λB<<γmν/q). Consequently, the particle does not gyrate but undergoes a series of transverse accelerations reflective of the magnetic field variations it encounters.In the limit of small deflection angle, the particle is accelerated but never substantially deviated from a straight line path. We develop the general jitter radiation solutions for this case and show that the resulting radiation is directly dependent upon the spectral distribution of the magnetic field through which the particle propagates. We demonstrate the power of this approach in considering the radiation produced by particles moving through a region in which a (Weibel-like) filamentation instability grows magnetic fields randomly oriented in a plane transverse to counterstreaming particle populations. We calculate the spectrum as would be seen from the original particle population and as could be seen by using a quasi-monoenergetic electron beam to probe the turbulent region at various angles to the filamentation axis.
Larmor and the Prehistory of the Lorentz Transformations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kittel, C.
1974-01-01
A historical analysis is given of the development in 1900 of the Lorentz transformation of coordinates and time, and of electric and magnetic field components. The earlier work of Voight is discussed. (RH)
Okell, Thomas W; Schmitt, Peter; Bi, Xiaoming; Chappell, Michael A; Tijssen, Rob H N; Sheerin, Fintan; Miller, Karla L; Jezzard, Peter
2016-06-01
Vessel-selective dynamic angiograms provide a wealth of useful information about the anatomical and functional status of arteries, including information about collateral flow and blood supply to lesions. Conventional x-ray techniques are invasive and carry some risks to the patient, so non-invasive alternatives are desirable. Previously, non-contrast dynamic MRI angiograms based on arterial spin labeling (ASL) have been demonstrated using both spoiled gradient echo (SPGR) and balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) readout modules, but no direct comparison has been made, and bSSFP optimization over a long readout period has not been fully explored. In this study bSSFP and SPGR are theoretically and experimentally compared for dynamic ASL angiography. Unlike SPGR, bSSFP was found to have a very low ASL signal attenuation rate, even when a relatively large flip angle and short repetition time were used, leading to a threefold improvement in the measured signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) efficiency compared with SPGR. For vessel-selective applications, SNR efficiency can be further improved over single-artery labeling methods by using a vessel-encoded pseudo-continuous ASL (VEPCASL) approach. The combination of a VEPCASL preparation with a time-resolved bSSFP readout allowed the generation of four-dimensional (4D; time-resolved three-dimensional, 3D) vessel-selective cerebral angiograms in healthy volunteers with 59 ms temporal resolution. Good quality 4D angiograms were obtained in all subjects, providing comparable structural information to 3D time-of-flight images, as well as dynamic information and vessel selectivity, which was shown to be high. A rapid 1.5 min dynamic two-dimensional version of the sequence yielded similar image features and would be suitable for a busy clinical protocol. Preliminary experiments with bSSFP that included the extracranial vessels showed signal loss in regions of poor magnetic field homogeneity. However, for intracranial vessel
Schmitt, Peter; Bi, Xiaoming; Chappell, Michael A.; Tijssen, Rob H. N.; Sheerin, Fintan; Miller, Karla L.; Jezzard, Peter
2016-01-01
Vessel‐selective dynamic angiograms provide a wealth of useful information about the anatomical and functional status of arteries, including information about collateral flow and blood supply to lesions. Conventional x‐ray techniques are invasive and carry some risks to the patient, so non‐invasive alternatives are desirable. Previously, non‐contrast dynamic MRI angiograms based on arterial spin labeling (ASL) have been demonstrated using both spoiled gradient echo (SPGR) and balanced steady‐state free precession (bSSFP) readout modules, but no direct comparison has been made, and bSSFP optimization over a long readout period has not been fully explored. In this study bSSFP and SPGR are theoretically and experimentally compared for dynamic ASL angiography. Unlike SPGR, bSSFP was found to have a very low ASL signal attenuation rate, even when a relatively large flip angle and short repetition time were used, leading to a threefold improvement in the measured signal‐to‐noise ratio (SNR) efficiency compared with SPGR. For vessel‐selective applications, SNR efficiency can be further improved over single‐artery labeling methods by using a vessel‐encoded pseudo‐continuous ASL (VEPCASL) approach. The combination of a VEPCASL preparation with a time‐resolved bSSFP readout allowed the generation of four‐dimensional (4D; time‐resolved three‐dimensional, 3D) vessel‐selective cerebral angiograms in healthy volunteers with 59 ms temporal resolution. Good quality 4D angiograms were obtained in all subjects, providing comparable structural information to 3D time‐of‐flight images, as well as dynamic information and vessel selectivity, which was shown to be high. A rapid 1.5 min dynamic two‐dimensional version of the sequence yielded similar image features and would be suitable for a busy clinical protocol. Preliminary experiments with bSSFP that included the extracranial vessels showed signal loss in regions of poor magnetic field
2016-01-01
For spintronic devices excited by a sudden magnetic or optical perturbation, the torque acting on the magnetization plays a key role in its precession and damping. However, the torque itself can be a dynamical quantity via the time-dependent anisotropies of the system. A challenging problem for applications is then to disentangle the relative importance of various sources of anisotropies in the dynamical torque, such as the dipolar field, the crystal structure or the shape of the particular interacting magnetic nanostructures. Here, we take advantage of a range of colloidal cobalt ferrite nanocubes assembled in 2D thin films under controlled magnetic fields to demonstrate that the phase, ϕPrec, of the precession carries a strong signature of the dynamical anisotropies. Performing femtosecond magneto-optics, we show that ϕPrec displays a π-shift for a particular angle θH of an external static magnetic field, H. θH is controlled with the cobalt concentration, the laser intensity, as well as the interparticle interactions. Importantly, it is shown that the shape anisotropy, which strongly departs from those of equivalent bulk thin films or individual noninteracting nanoparticles, reveals the essential role played by the interparticle collective effects. This work shows the reliability of a noninvasive optical approach to characterize the dynamical torque in high density magnetic recording media made of organized and interacting nanoparticles. PMID:27398653
Vomir, Mircea; Turnbull, Robin; Birced, Ipek; Parreira, Pedro; MacLaren, Donald A; Lee, Stephen L; André, Pascal; Bigot, Jean-Yves
2016-08-10
For spintronic devices excited by a sudden magnetic or optical perturbation, the torque acting on the magnetization plays a key role in its precession and damping. However, the torque itself can be a dynamical quantity via the time-dependent anisotropies of the system. A challenging problem for applications is then to disentangle the relative importance of various sources of anisotropies in the dynamical torque, such as the dipolar field, the crystal structure or the shape of the particular interacting magnetic nanostructures. Here, we take advantage of a range of colloidal cobalt ferrite nanocubes assembled in 2D thin films under controlled magnetic fields to demonstrate that the phase, ϕPrec, of the precession carries a strong signature of the dynamical anisotropies. Performing femtosecond magneto-optics, we show that ϕPrec displays a π-shift for a particular angle θH of an external static magnetic field, H. θH is controlled with the cobalt concentration, the laser intensity, as well as the interparticle interactions. Importantly, it is shown that the shape anisotropy, which strongly departs from those of equivalent bulk thin films or individual noninteracting nanoparticles, reveals the essential role played by the interparticle collective effects. This work shows the reliability of a noninvasive optical approach to characterize the dynamical torque in high density magnetic recording media made of organized and interacting nanoparticles. PMID:27398653
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van den Berg, Bas; Sierro, Francisco Javier; Abel Flores, Jose; Civis, Jorge; González-Delgado, Jose Angel; Mata, Pilar; Cruz Larrasoaña, Juan
2014-05-01
The volume of evaporite deposits in the Mediterranean during the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) requires an on-going supply of sea water from the Atlantic. The location of the connecting corridor(s) at this time however remains elusive. One possibility is that the Guadalquivir Basin at the western end of the Betic Strait linked the Atlantic and Mediterranean during the MSC. The Messinian sediments deposited here are largely preserved in the sub-surface. Recent results based on paleobathymetric and magnetostratigraphic data from two boreholes indicate that this region accumulated marine sediments continuously, right up until the Miocene-Pliocene boundary (Larrasoaña et al., 2008; Pérez-Asensio et al., 2012a). These boreholes, located at the north-western margin of the Guadalquivir Basin, have been dated in a low resolution chronostratigraphic framework using magneto- and biostratigraphy (Larrasoaña et al., 2008) and by extrapolation using global, obliquity-driven, glacial records (Pérez-Asensio et al., 2012b). We hereby present a high-resolution chronostratigraphic framework for these two boreholes (Montemayor and Huelva) using cyclostratigraphy and additional bio-events. Cyclostratigraphic results were obtained using high resolution XRF data. We correlate patterns in the elemental composition of the sediments between the two boreholes and subsequently tune them to the astronomical solution. From these results we have interpreted that the cyclic sedimentary features are the result of oscillations in carbonate input and dilution, forced by precession and obliquity. Remarkably, we see the phase relation between various proxies change throughout the core, which we try to explain by a gradual change in the sedimentary setting. Besides, we can accurately locate the position of the Miocene-Pliocene boundary within these boreholes, and relate changes in sedimentation rate and phase relation to major events within the Mediterranean Basin (e.g. onset of the MSC and
Teleportation and spin squeezing utilizing multimode entanglement of light with atoms
Hammerer, K.; Cirac, J. I.; Polzik, E. S.
2005-11-15
We present a protocol for the teleportation of the quantum state of a pulse of light onto the collective spin state of an atomic ensemble. The entangled state of light and atoms employed as a resource in this protocol is created by probing the collective atomic spin, Larmor precessing in an external magnetic field, off resonantly with a coherent pulse of light. We take here full account of the effects of Larmor precession and show that it gives rise to a qualitatively different type of multimode entangled state of light and atoms. The protocol is shown to be robust against the dominating sources of noise and can be implemented with an atomic ensemble at room temperature interacting with free-space light. We also provide a scheme to perform the readout of the Larmor precessing spin state enabling the verification of successful teleportation as well as the creation of spin squeezing.
Conformal Weyl Gravity and Perihelion Precession
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sultana, Joseph; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Said, Jakson, Levi
2012-01-01
We investigate the perihelion shift of planetary motion in conformal Weyl gravity using the metric of the static, spherically symmetric solution discovered by Mannheim and Kazanas. To this end we employ a procedure similar to that used by Weinberg for the Schwarzschild solution, which has also been used recently to study the solar system effects of the cosmological constant Lambda. We show that besides the general relativistic terms obtained earlier from the Schwarzschild-de Sitter solution, the expression for the perihelion shift includes a negative contribution which arises from the linear term gamma ray in the metric. Using data for perihelion shift observations, we obtain constraints on the value of the constant gammma similar to that obtained earlier using galactic rotational curves.
Rotating turbulence under "precession-like" perturbation.
Iyer, Kartik P; Mazzitelli, Irene; Bonaccorso, Fabio; Pouquet, Annick; Biferale, Luca
2015-12-01
The effects of changing the orientation of the rotation axis on homogeneous turbulence is considered. We perform direct numerical simulations on a periodic box of 1024(3) grid points, where the orientation of the rotation axis is changed (a) at a fixed time instant (b) regularly at time intervals commensurate with the rotation time scale. The former is characterized by a dominant inverse energy cascade whereas in the latter, the inverse cascade is stymied due to the recurrent changes in the rotation axis resulting in a strong forward energy transfer and large-scale structures that resemble those of isotropic turbulence. PMID:26637337
The seasons, global temperature, and precession
Thomson, D.J.
1995-04-07
Analysis of instrumental temperature records beginning in 1659 shows that in much of the world the dominant frequency of the seasons is one cycle per anomalistic year (the time from perihelion to perihelion, 365.25964 days), not one cycle per tropical year (the time from equinox to equinox, 365.24220 days), and that the timing of the annual temperature cycle is controlled by perihelion. The assumption that the seasons were timed by the equinoxes has caused many statistical analyses of climate data to be badly biased. Coherence between changes in the amplitude of the annual cycle and those in the average temperature show that between 1854 and 1922 there were small temperature variations, probably of solar origin. Since 1922, the phase of the Northern Hemisphere coherence between these quantities switched from 0{degrees} to 180{degrees} and implies that solar variability cannot be the sole cause of the increasing temperature over the last century. About 1940, the phase patterns of the previous 300 years began to change and now appear to be changing at an unprecedented rate. The average change in phase is now coherent with the logarithm of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration. 80 refs., 13 figs.
The seasons, global temperature, and precession
Thompson, D.J.
1995-12-31
Analysis of instrumental temperature records beginning in 1659 shows that in much of the world the dominant frequency of the seasons is one cycle per anomalistic year (the time from perihelion to perihelion, 265.25964 days), not one cycle per tropical year (the time from equinox to equinox, 265.24220 days), and that the timing of the annual temperature cycle is controlled by perihelion. The assumption that the seasons were timed by the equinoxes has caused many statistical analyses of climate data to be badly biased. Coherence between changes in the amplitude of the annual cycle and those in the average temperature show that between 1854 and 1922 there were small temperature variations, probable of solar origin. Since 1922, the phase of the Northern Hemisphere coherence between these quantities switched from 0{degrees} to 180{degrees} and implies that solar variability cannot be the sole cause of the increasing temperature over the last century. About 1940, the phase patterns of the previous 300 years began to change and now appear to be changing at an unprecendented rate. The average change in phase is not coherent with the logarithm of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration.
Thermally driven magnetic precession in spin valves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luc, David; Waintal, Xavier
2014-10-01
We investigate the angular dependence of the spin torque generated when applying a temperature difference across a spin valve. Our study shows the presence of a nontrivial fixed point in this angular dependence. This fixed point opens the possibility for a temperature gradient to stabilize radio frequency oscillations without the need for an external magnetic field. This so-called "wavy" behavior can already be found upon applying a voltage difference across a spin valve but we find that this effect is much more pronounced with a temperature difference. We find that a spin asymmetry of the Seebeck coefficient of the order of 20 μ VK -1 should be large enough for a temperature gradient of a few degrees to trigger the radio-frequency oscillations. Our semiclassical theory is fully parametrized with experimentally measured(able) parameters and allows one to quantitatively predict the amplitude of the torque.
Formulas for precession. [motion of mean equator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kinoshita, H.
1975-01-01
Literal expressions for the precessional motion of the mean equator referred to an arbitrary epoch are constructed. Their numerical representations, based on numerical values recommended at the working meeting of the International Astronomical Union Commission held in Washington in September 1974, are obtained. In constructing the equations of motion, the second-order secular perturbation and the secular perturbation due to the long-periodic terms in the motions of the moon and the sun are taken into account. These perturbations contribute more to the motion of the mean equator than does the term due to the secular perturbation of the orbital eccentricity of the sun.
Absence of Complete Finite-Larmor-Radius Stabilization in Extended MHD
Zhu, P.; Schnack, D. D.; Ebrahimi, F.; Zweibel, E. G.; Suzuki, M.; Hegna, C. C.; Sovinec, C. R.
2008-08-22
The dominant finite-Larmour-radius (FLR) stabilization effects on interchange instability can be retained by taking into account the ion gyroviscosity or the generalized Ohm's law in an extended MHD model. However, recent simulations and theoretical calculations indicate that complete FLR stabilization of the interchange mode may not be attainable by ion gyroviscosity or the two-fluid effect alone in the framework of extended MHD. For a class of plasma equilibria in certain finite-{beta} or nonisentropic regimes, the critical wave number for complete FLR stabilization tends toward infinity.
Ion temperature gradient instability at sub-Larmor radius scales with non-zero ballooning angle
Migliano, P.; Hornsby, W. A.; Peeters, A. G.; Camenen, Y.; Casson, F. J.
2013-02-15
Linear gyro-kinetic stability calculations predict unstable toroidal ion temperature gradient modes (ITGs) with normalised poloidal wave vectors well above one (k{sub {theta}}{rho}{sub i}>1) for standard tokamak parameters with adiabatic electron response. These modes have a maximum amplitude at a poloidal angle {theta} that is shifted away from the low field side ({theta}{ne}0). The physical mechanism is clarified through the use of a fluid model. It is shown that the shift of the mode away from the low field side reduces the effective drift frequency which allows for the instability to develop. Numerical tests using the gyro-kinetic model confirm this physical mechanism. Furthermore, it is shown that modes localized away from the low field side can be important also for k{sub {theta}}{rho}{sub i}<1 close to the threshold of the ITG. In fact, modes with maximum amplitude at {theta}{ne}0 can exist for normalised temperature gradient lengths below the threshold of the ITG obtained for the case with the maximum at {theta}=0.
Absence of complete finite-Larmor-radius stabilization in extended MHD.
Zhu, P; Schnack, D D; Ebrahimi, F; Zweibel, E G; Suzuki, M; Hegna, C C; Sovinec, C R
2008-08-22
The dominant finite-Larmour-radius (FLR) stabilization effects on interchange instability can be retained by taking into account the ion gyroviscosity or the generalized Ohm's law in an extended MHD model. However, recent simulations and theoretical calculations indicate that complete FLR stabilization of the interchange mode may not be attainable by ion gyroviscosity or the two-fluid effect alone in the framework of extended MHD. For a class of plasma equilibria in certain finite-beta or nonisentropic regimes, the critical wave number for complete FLR stabilization tends toward infinity. PMID:18764628
Nonlinear magneto-optical rotation with modulated light in tilted magnetic fields
Pustelny, S.; Gawlik, W.; Rochester, S. M.; Kimball, D. F. Jackson; Yashchuk, V. V.; Budker, D.
2006-12-15
Larmor precession of laser-polarized atoms contained in antirelaxation-coated cells, detected via nonlinear magneto-optical rotation (NMOR), is a promising technique for a new generation of ultrasensitive atomic magnetometers. For magnetic fields directed along the light propagation direction, resonances in NMOR appear when linearly polarized light is frequency or amplitude modulated at twice the Larmor frequency. Because the frequency of these resonances depends on the magnitude but not the direction of the field, they are useful for scalar magnetometry. Additional NMOR resonances at the Larmor frequency appear when the magnetic field is tilted away from the light propagation direction in the plane defined by the light propagation and polarization vectors. These resonances, studied both experimentally and with a density matrix calculation in the present work, offer a convenient method of achieving additional information about a direction of the magnetic field.
Search For The Electric Dipole Moment Of The Neutron
Grinten, Maurits van der
2006-07-11
We report on the nEDM experiment at the Institut Laue Langevin (ILL), based on a precision measurement of the Larmor precession frequency of polarised ultra-cold neutrons stored in a cell in a magnetic field. An EDM would reveal itself by a response of the Larmor precession frequency of the neutron to an electric field applied over the storage volume. The experiment has been taking data over a period of six years and has subsequently been running for one year devoted to systematic studies related to the experiment. These systematic studies have now been completed. This experiment will result in an EDM measurement with a sensitivity of the order of 10-26 e cm. The experimental techniques used in the experiment are presented as well as the systematic studies and results of the data analysis of the experiment.
Vector magnetic field sensing by a single nitrogen vacancy center in diamond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, X.-D.; Sun, F.-W.; Zou, C.-L.; Cui, J.-M.; Zhou, L.-M.; Guo, G.-C.
2013-03-01
In this letter, we proposed and experimentally demonstrated a method to detect the vector magnetic field with a single nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in diamond. The magnetic field in parallel with the axis of the NV center can be obtained by detecting the electron Zeeman shift, while the Larmor precession of an ancillary nuclear spin close to the NV center can be used to measure the field perpendicular to the axis. Experimentally, both the Zeeman shift and Larmor precession can be measured through the fluorescence from the NV center. By applying additional calibrated magnetic fields, complete information on the vector magnetic field can be achieved with such a method. This vector magnetic-field detection method is insensitive to temperature fluctuation and it can be applied to nanoscale magnetic measurements.
A self-sustaining atomic magnetometer with τ(-1) averaging property.
Xu, C; Wang, S G; Feng, Y Y; Zhao, L; Wang, L J
2016-01-01
Quantum measurement using coherent superposition of intrinsic atomic states has the advantage of being absolute measurement and can form metrological standards. One example is the absolute measurement of magnetic field by monitoring the Larmor precession of atomic spins whilst another being the Ramsey type atomic clock. Yet, in almost all coherent quantum measurement, the precision is limited by the coherence time beyond which, the uncertainty decreases only as τ(-1/2). Here we show that by non-destructively measuring the phase of the Larmor precession and regenerating the coherence via optical pumping, the self-sustaining Larmor precession signal can persist indefinitely. Consequently, the precision of the magnetometer increases with time following a much faster τ(-1) rule. A mean sensitivity of 240 from 1 Hz to 10 Hz is realized, being close to the shot noise level. This method of coherence regeneration may also find important applications in improving the performance of atomic clocks. PMID:27357490
A self-sustaining atomic magnetometer with τ‑1 averaging property
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, C.; Wang, S. G.; Feng, Y. Y.; Zhao, L.; Wang, L. J.
2016-06-01
Quantum measurement using coherent superposition of intrinsic atomic states has the advantage of being absolute measurement and can form metrological standards. One example is the absolute measurement of magnetic field by monitoring the Larmor precession of atomic spins whilst another being the Ramsey type atomic clock. Yet, in almost all coherent quantum measurement, the precision is limited by the coherence time beyond which, the uncertainty decreases only as τ‑1/2. Here we show that by non-destructively measuring the phase of the Larmor precession and regenerating the coherence via optical pumping, the self-sustaining Larmor precession signal can persist indefinitely. Consequently, the precision of the magnetometer increases with time following a much faster τ‑1 rule. A mean sensitivity of 240 from 1 Hz to 10 Hz is realized, being close to the shot noise level. This method of coherence regeneration may also find important applications in improving the performance of atomic clocks.
A self-sustaining atomic magnetometer with τ−1 averaging property
Xu, C.; Wang, S. G.; Feng, Y. Y.; Zhao, L.; Wang, L. J.
2016-01-01
Quantum measurement using coherent superposition of intrinsic atomic states has the advantage of being absolute measurement and can form metrological standards. One example is the absolute measurement of magnetic field by monitoring the Larmor precession of atomic spins whilst another being the Ramsey type atomic clock. Yet, in almost all coherent quantum measurement, the precision is limited by the coherence time beyond which, the uncertainty decreases only as τ−1/2. Here we show that by non-destructively measuring the phase of the Larmor precession and regenerating the coherence via optical pumping, the self-sustaining Larmor precession signal can persist indefinitely. Consequently, the precision of the magnetometer increases with time following a much faster τ−1 rule. A mean sensitivity of 240 from 1 Hz to 10 Hz is realized, being close to the shot noise level. This method of coherence regeneration may also find important applications in improving the performance of atomic clocks. PMID:27357490
Liu, Changjiang; Patel, Sahil J.; Peterson, Timothy A.; Geppert, Chad C.; Christie, Kevin D.; Stecklein, Gordon; Palmstrøm, Chris J.; Crowell, Paul A.
2016-01-01
A distinguishing feature of spin accumulation in ferromagnet–semiconductor devices is its precession in a magnetic field. This is the basis for detection techniques such as the Hanle effect, but these approaches become ineffective as the spin lifetime in the semiconductor decreases. For this reason, no electrical Hanle measurement has been demonstrated in GaAs at room temperature. We show here that by forcing the magnetization in the ferromagnet to precess at resonance instead of relying only on the Larmor precession of the spin accumulation in the semiconductor, an electrically generated spin accumulation can be detected up to 300 K. The injection bias and temperature dependence of the measured spin signal agree with those obtained using traditional methods. We further show that this approach enables a measurement of short spin lifetimes (<100 ps), a regime that is not accessible in semiconductors using traditional Hanle techniques. PMID:26777243
Experimental demonstration of scanned spin-precession microscopy.
Bhallamudi, V P; Wolfe, C S; Amin, V P; Labanowski, D E; Berger, A J; Stroud, D; Sinova, J; Hammel, P C
2013-09-13
We present a new tool for imaging spin properties. We show that a spatially averaged spin signal, measured as a function of a scanned magnetic probe's position, contains information about the local spin properties. In this first demonstration we map the injected spin density in GaAs by measuring spin photoluminescence with a resolution of 1.2 μm. The ultimate limit of the technique is set by the gradient of the probe's field, allowing for a resolution beyond the optical diffraction limit. Such probes can also be integrated with other detection methods. This generality allows the technique to be extended to buried interfaces and optically inactive materials. PMID:24074116
Spin precession by pulsed inductive magnetometry in thin amorphous plates
Magni, Alessandro; Bottauscio, Oriano; Caprile, Ambra Celegato, Federica; Ferrara, Enzo; Fiorillo, Fausto
2014-05-07
Broadband magnetic loss and damping behavior of Co-based amorphous ribbons and thin films have been investigated. The permeability and loss response of the transverse anisotropy ribbon samples in the frequency range DC to 1 GHz is interpreted in terms of combined and distinguishable contributions to the magnetization process by domain wall displacements and magnetization rotations. The latter alone are shown to survive at the highest frequencies, where the losses are calculated via coupled Maxwell and Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert (LLG) equations. Remarkably high values of the LLG damping coefficient α = 0.1–0.2 are invoked in this theoretical prediction. Direct measurements of α by pulsed inductive microwave magnetometry are thus performed, both in these laminae and in amorphous films of identical composition, obtaining about one order of magnitude increase of the α value upon the 100 nm÷10 μm thickness range. This confirms that dissipation by eddy currents enters the LLG equation via large increase of the damping coefficient.
Spin precession by pulsed inductive magnetometry in thin amorphous plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Magni, Alessandro; Bottauscio, Oriano; Caprile, Ambra; Celegato, Federica; Ferrara, Enzo; Fiorillo, Fausto
2014-05-01
Broadband magnetic loss and damping behavior of Co-based amorphous ribbons and thin films have been investigated. The permeability and loss response of the transverse anisotropy ribbon samples in the frequency range DC to 1 GHz is interpreted in terms of combined and distinguishable contributions to the magnetization process by domain wall displacements and magnetization rotations. The latter alone are shown to survive at the highest frequencies, where the losses are calculated via coupled Maxwell and Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equations. Remarkably high values of the LLG damping coefficient α = 0.1-0.2 are invoked in this theoretical prediction. Direct measurements of α by pulsed inductive microwave magnetometry are thus performed, both in these laminae and in amorphous films of identical composition, obtaining about one order of magnitude increase of the α value upon the 100 nm÷10 μm thickness range. This confirms that dissipation by eddy currents enters the LLG equation via large increase of the damping coefficient.
Precession of Uranus and Neptune and their magnetic field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dolginov, Sh. SH.
1993-01-01
The strength of the dipole magnetic field of a planet, H(sub p), can be estimated relative to that of the Earth at the epoch of the observation. The generation of magnetic fields in Uranus and Neptune occurs at very different depths for different values of sigma. This assertion is confirmed by the estimation of the Reynolds number (R(sub m)) and agrees with the difference of the contributions of the Joule heat losses into the observed heat fluxes of Uranus and Neptune.
Precession of a Spinning Ball Rolling down an Inclined Plane
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cross, Rod
2015-01-01
A routine problem in an introductory physics course considers a rectangular block at rest on a plane inclined at angle a to the horizontal. In order for the block not to slide down the incline, the coefficient of sliding friction, µ, must be at least tan a. The situation is similar for the case of a ball rolling down an inclined plane. In order…
The Equivalence of Precession Phenomena in Metric Theories of Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krisher, Timothy P.
1996-01-01
The requirement of general covariance imparts to metric theories of gravity, such as general relativity, important structural features. A precise mathematical form results, ensuring that computation of observable physical effects in the theory gives the same answers independently of the chosen system of coordinates. This coordinate independence property, in turn, can lead to an equivalence of apparently different physical effects.
Stochastic precession of the polarization in a polariton laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sala, V. G.; Marsault, F.; Wouters, M.; Galopin, E.; Sagnes, I.; Lemaître, A.; Bloch, J.; Amo, A.
2016-03-01
Microcavity polaritons in the lasing regime undergo a spontaneous symmetry-breaking transition resulting in coherent emission with a well-defined polarization. The order parameter is thus a vector describing both the laser global phase and its polarization. Using an ultrafast single-shot detection technique, we show that polariton lasing in GaAs-based microcavities presents a high degree of second-order coherence [g(2 )(τ =0 ) ≈1 ] above threshold, and that the initial polarization is stochastic, taking any possible direction in the Poincaré sphere (linear, elliptical, or circular). Once the polarization direction is established, subsequent oscillations of the emission probability witness the presence of an intrinsic polarization splitting. These results show the intricate polarization dynamics in the onset of polariton lasers.
Precession of a rapidly rotating cylinder flow: traverse through resonance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lopez, Juan; Marques, Francisco
2014-11-01
The flow in a rapidly rotating cylinder that is titled and also rotating around another axis can undergo sudden transitions to turbulence. Experimental observations of this have been associated with triadic resonances. The experimental and theoretical results are well-established in the literature, but there remains a lack of understanding of the physical mechanisms at play in the sudden transition from laminar to turbulent flow with very small variations in the governing parameters. Here, we present direct numerical simulations of a traverse in parameter space through an isolated resonance, and describe in detail the bifurcations involved in the sudden transition. U.S. National Science Foundation Grant CBET-1336410 and Spanish Ministry of Education and Science Grant (with FEDER funds) FIS2013-40880.
Magnetic moment of the 3/2 + state in 165Ho
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanigaki, M.; Ohkubo, Y.; Taniguchi, A.; Izumi, S.; Shinozuka, T.
2010-06-01
The Larmor precession for the 362 keV state in 165Ho( I π = 3/2 + , T 1/2 = 1.512 μs) in Dy2O3 with an external magnetic field of 0.3 T was determined to be - 32.3 ± 0.6 MHz by use of the perturbed angular correlation technique, intending to determine the magnetic moment and apply it to the measurement of the hyperfine field at Ho in Fe. The magnetic moment for this state was tentatively deduced under the assumption that the paramagnetic correction factor for a free Ho3 + ion is applicable to the present case. The independent A 22 measurement for the 633 - 362 keV γ cascade for the sign assignment of the Larmor frequency is inconsistent with that from known multipolarities and mixing ratios for this cascade, implying that the mixing ratios may be different from the reported values.
Characterization of S -T+ transition dynamics via correlation measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dickel, Christian; Foletti, Sandra; Umansky, Vladimir; Bluhm, Hendrik
2015-09-01
Nuclear spins are an important source of dephasing for electron spin qubits in GaAs quantum dots. Most studies of their dynamics have focused on the relatively slow longitudinal polarization. We present a semiclassical model and experimental data showing that the dynamics of the transverse hyperfine field can be probed by correlating individual Landau-Zener sweeps across the S -T+ transition of a two-electron spin qubit. The relative Larmor precession of different nuclear spin species leads to oscillations in these correlations, which decay due to dephasing of the nuclei. In the presence of spin-orbit coupling, oscillations with the absolute Larmor frequencies whose amplitude depends on the spin-orbit coupling strength are expected. These oscillations reflect rapid dynamics of the transverse hyperfine field, which are relevant for several qubit control schemes.
Low Temperature and Neutron Physics Studies: Final Progress Report, March 1, 1986--May 31, 1987
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Shull, C.G.
1989-07-27
A search for a novel coupling interaction between the Pendelloesung periodicity which is formed in a diffracting crystal and the Larmor precession of neutrons in a magnetic field has been carried out. This interaction is expected to exhibit a resonant behavior when the two spatial periodicities become matched upon scanning the magnetic field being applied to the crystal. Observations on a diffracting, perfect crystal of silicon with neutrons of wavelength 1 Angstrom show the expected resonant action but some discrepancy between the observed magnitude of the resonance effects remains for interpretation.
Langer, L; Poltavtsev, S V; Yugova, I A; Yakovlev, D R; Karczewski, G; Wojtowicz, T; Kossut, J; Akimov, I A; Bayer, M
2012-10-12
We report on magnetic field-induced oscillations of the photon echo signal from negatively charged excitons in a CdTe/(Cd,Mg)Te semiconductor quantum well. The oscillatory signal is due to Larmor precession of the electron spin about a transverse magnetic field and depends sensitively on the polarization configuration of the exciting and refocusing pulses. The echo amplitude can be fully tuned from the maximum down to zero depending on the time delay between the two pulses and the magnetic-field strength. The results are explained in terms of the optical Bloch equations accounting for the spin level structure of electrons and trions. PMID:23102368
Coherent optical control of the spin of a single hole in an InAs/GaAs quantum dot.
Godden, T M; Quilter, J H; Ramsay, A J; Wu, Yanwen; Brereton, P; Boyle, S J; Luxmoore, I J; Puebla-Nunez, J; Fox, A M; Skolnick, M S
2012-01-01
We demonstrate coherent optical control of a single hole spin confined to an InAs/GaAs quantum dot. A superposition of hole-spin states is created by fast (10-100 ps) dissociation of a spin-polarized electron-hole pair. Full control of the hole spin is achieved by combining coherent rotations about two axes: Larmor precession of the hole spin about an external Voigt geometry magnetic field, and rotation about the optical axis due to the geometric phase shift induced by a picosecond laser pulse resonant with the hole-trion transition. PMID:22304289
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Appelbaum, Ian
2011-03-01
I will discuss the results of our recent spin injection experiments using long-distance non-degenerate undoped (and n-type doped) Si devices. We have a unique capability to recover the details of electron transport on a sub-ns timescale through a ``Larmor clock'' transformation of spin precession data, despite using only quasistatic current measurements. I suggest that this is potentially a new tool for probing non-equilibrium phenomena in semiconductors, revealing both intrinsic and extrinsic materials properties through sensitivity to subtleties of the bandstructure and impurity spectrum. Supported by ONR and NSF.
Collective atomic motion and spin dynamics in a driven optical cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stamper-Kurn, Dan
2016-05-01
Cavity quantum electrodynamics generally highlights the interchange of quantum noise and information between light and matter. I will discuss experiments in which the collective motion and spin of a trapped gas of ultracold atoms interact with and are detected by light in a single mode of a high-finesse optical cavity. I will present recent results on quantum-limited force detection, on the damping and amplification of Larmor precession through dynamical backaction, and on cavity-induced coupling between mechanical oscillators and between spin and motional degrees of freedom.
Coherent transfer of light polarization to electron spins in a semiconductor.
Kosaka, Hideo; Shigyou, Hideki; Mitsumori, Yasuyoshi; Rikitake, Yoshiaki; Imamura, Hiroshi; Kutsuwa, Takeshi; Arai, Koichiro; Edamatsu, Keiichi
2008-03-01
We demonstrate that the superposition of light polarization states is coherently transferred to electron spins in a semiconductor quantum well. By using time-resolved Kerr rotation, we observe the initial phase of Larmor precession of electron spins whose coherence is transferred from light. To break the electron-hole spin entanglement, we utilized the big discrepancy between the transverse g factors of electrons and light-holes. The result encourages us to make a quantum media converter between flying photon qubits and stationary electron-spin qubits in semiconductors. PMID:18352739
Laser cooling of an indium atomic beam enabled by magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klöter, B.; Weber, C.; Haubrich, D.; Meschede, D.; Metcalf, H.
2008-03-01
We demonstrate magnetic field enabled optical forces on a neutral indium atomic beam in a light field consisting of five frequencies. The role of dark magnetic ground state sublevels is studied and enables us to cool the atomic beam transversely to near the Doppler limit with laser frequencies tuned above the atomic resonance. The effect of laser cooling can be explained with transient effects in the light potential created by the standing wave light field where the atoms are optically pumped into the dark states and recycled by Larmor precession.
Multipulse operation and optical detection of nuclear spin coherence in a GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well.
Kondo, Y; Ono, M; Matsuzaka, S; Morita, K; Sanada, H; Ohno, Y; Ohno, H
2008-11-14
We demonstrate manipulation of nuclear spin coherence in a GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well by optically detected nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). A phase shift of the Larmor precession of photoexcited electron spins is detected to read out the hyperfine-coupled nuclear spin polarization. Multipulse NMR sequences are generated to control the population and examine the phase coherence in quadrupolar-split spin-3/2 75As nuclei. The phase coherence among the multilevel nuclear spin states is addressed by application of pulse sequences that are used in quantum gate operations. PMID:19113379
Optical pump-probe measurements of local nuclear spin coherence in semiconductor quantum wells.
Sanada, H; Kondo, Y; Matsuzaka, S; Morita, K; Hu, C Y; Ohno, Y; Ohno, H
2006-02-17
We demonstrate local manipulation and detection of nuclear spin coherence in semiconductor quantum wells by an optical pump-probe technique combined with pulse rf NMR. The Larmor precession of photoexcited electron spins is monitored by time-resolved Kerr rotation (TRKR) as a measure of nuclear magnetic field. Under the irradiation of resonant pulsed rf magnetic fields, Rabi oscillations of nuclear spins are traced by TRKR signals. The intrinsic coherence time evaluated by a spin-echo technique reveals the dependence on the orientation of the magnetic field with respect to the crystalline axis as expected by the nearest neighbor dipole-dipole interaction. PMID:16606048
Tunable Hybrid Qubit in a GaAs Double Quantum Dot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Gang; Li, Hai-Ou; Yu, Guo-Dong; Wang, Bao-Chuan; Chen, Bao-Bao; Song, Xiang-Xiang; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Jiang, Hong-Wen; Hu, Xuedong; Guo, Guo-Ping
2016-02-01
We experimentally demonstrate a tunable hybrid qubit in a five-electron GaAs double quantum dot. The qubit is encoded in the (1,4) charge regime of the double dot and can be manipulated completely electrically. More importantly, dot anharmonicity leads to quasiparallel energy levels and a new anticrossing, which help preserve quantum coherence of the qubit and yield a useful working point. We have performed Larmor precession and Ramsey fringe experiments near the new working point and find that the qubit decoherence time is significantly improved over a charge qubit. This work shows a new way to encode a semiconductor qubit that is controllable and coherent.
Coherent manipulation of spin-wave vector for polarization of photons in an atomic ensemble
Li Shujing; Xu Zhongxiao; Zheng Haiyan; Zhao Xingbo; Wu Yuelong; Wang Hai; Xie Changde; Peng Kunchi
2011-10-15
We experimentally demonstrate the manipulation of two orthogonal components of a spin wave in an atomic ensemble. Based on Raman two-photon transition and Larmor spin precession induced by magnetic field pulses, the coherent rotations between the two components of the spin wave are controllably achieved. Successively, the two manipulated spin-wave components are mapped into two orthogonal polarized optical emissions. By measuring Ramsey fringes of the retrieved optical signals, the {pi}/2-pulse fidelity of {approx}96% is obtained. The presented manipulation scheme can be used to build an arbitrary rotation for qubit operations in quantum information processing based on atomic ensembles.
Dynamics of magnetic bubbles in a Skyrme model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papanicolaou, N.; Zakrzewski, W. J.
1996-01-01
The dynamics of magnetic bubbles is studied within a strictly 2D model in which a Skyrme-like term is included to ensure stability. We calculate the profile of static bubbles with unit winding number and then examine two basic dynamical questions. First, we demonstrate that magnetic bubbles exhibit skew deflection in an applied magnetic-field gradient where the semi-empirical golden rule of bubble dynamics is verified in its gross features but not its finer details. Second, we show that two interacting magnetic bubbles with the same winding number orbit around each other while undergoing a mild Larmor precession.
One- and Two-Dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy with a Diamond Quantum Sensor.
Boss, J M; Chang, K; Armijo, J; Cujia, K; Rosskopf, T; Maze, J R; Degen, C L
2016-05-13
We report on Fourier spectroscopy experiments performed with near-surface nitrogen-vacancy centers in a diamond chip. By detecting the free precession of nuclear spins rather than applying a multipulse quantum sensing protocol, we are able to unambiguously identify the NMR species devoid of harmonics. We further show that, by engineering different Hamiltonians during free precession, the hyperfine coupling parameters as well as the nuclear Larmor frequency can be selectively measured with up to five digits of precision. The protocols can be combined to demonstrate two-dimensional Fourier spectroscopy. Presented techniques will be useful for mapping nuclear coordinates in molecules deposited on diamond sensor chips, en route to imaging their atomic structure. PMID:27232045
One- and Two-Dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy with a Diamond Quantum Sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boss, J. M.; Chang, K.; Armijo, J.; Cujia, K.; Rosskopf, T.; Maze, J. R.; Degen, C. L.
2016-05-01
We report on Fourier spectroscopy experiments performed with near-surface nitrogen-vacancy centers in a diamond chip. By detecting the free precession of nuclear spins rather than applying a multipulse quantum sensing protocol, we are able to unambiguously identify the NMR species devoid of harmonics. We further show that, by engineering different Hamiltonians during free precession, the hyperfine coupling parameters as well as the nuclear Larmor frequency can be selectively measured with up to five digits of precision. The protocols can be combined to demonstrate two-dimensional Fourier spectroscopy. Presented techniques will be useful for mapping nuclear coordinates in molecules deposited on diamond sensor chips, en route to imaging their atomic structure.
Glazov, M. M. Ivchenko, E. L.
2008-08-15
Spin dynamics of electrons in semiconductors and structures with quantum wells under conditions where pumping and probing are performed in the form of a periodical series of pulses is theoretically studied. It is shown that, at a fixed delay between the pump and probe pulses, the signal of spin amplification as a function of the magnetic field consists of a series of narrow peaks conditioned by commensurability of the period of spin precession and pulse repetition interval. In the case of anisotropic spin relaxation, the peak centered at the zero magnetic field is suppressed compared with the neighboring peaks. The role of inhomogeneous broadening of the frequency of the Larmor precession in the formation of the spin amplification signal is analyzed.
Synchronously pumped nuclear magnetic oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korver, Anna; Thrasher, Daniel; Bulatowicz, Michael; Walker, Thad
2015-05-01
We present progress towards a synchronously pumped nuclear magnetic oscillator. Alkali frequency shifts and quadrupole shifts are the dominant systematic effects in dual Xe isotope co-magnetometers. By synchronously pumping the Xe nuclei using spin-exchange with an oscillating Rb polarization, the Rb and Xe spins precess transverse to the longitudinal bias field. This configuration is predicted to be insensitive to first order quadrupole interactions and alkali spin-exchange frequency shifts. A key feature that allows co-precession of the Rb and Xe spins, despite a ~ 1000 fold ratio of their gyromagnetic ratios, is to apply the bias field in the form of a sequence of Rb 2 π pulses whose repetition frequency is equal to the Rb Larmor frequency. The 2 π pulses result in an effective Rb magnetic moment of zero, while the Xe precession depends only on the time average of the pulsed field amplitude. Polarization modulation of the pumping light at the Xe NMR frequency allows co-precession of the Rb and Xe spins. We will present our preliminary experimental studies of this new approach to NMR of spin-exchange pumped Xe. Support by the NSF and Northrop Grumman Co.
Search for a Permanent Electric Dipole Moment of 225Ra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalita, Mukut Ranjan
The observation of a permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) in a non-degenerate system would indicate the violation of discrete symmetries of Time reversal (T) or combined application of Charge (C) and Parity (P) symmetry violation through the CPT theorem. The diamagnetic 225Ra atom with nuclear spin I=1/2 is a favorable candidate for an EDM search. Experimental sensitivity to its EDM is enhanced due to its high atomic mass and the increased Schiff moment of its octupole deformed nucleus. An experimental setup is developed where laser cooled neutral radium atoms are collected in a magneto-optical trap (MOT). The collected atoms are transported 1 meter with a far off-resonant optical dipole trap (ODT) and then the atoms are transferred to a second standing-wave ODT in an experimental chamber. The atoms are then optically polarized and allowed to Larmor precess in parallel and antiparallel electric and magnetic fields. The difference between the Larmor precession frequency for parallel and antiparallel fields is experimentally determined to measure the EDM. This thesis is about the first measurement of the EDM of the 225Ra atom where an upper limit of |d(225Ra)| < 5.0 x 10-22 e·cm (95% confidence) is reached. Keywords: Permanent EDM, CP violation, laser cooling and trapping, rare isotopes, radium.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avdeev, M. V.; Bodnarchuk, V. I.; Lauter-Pasyuk, V. V.; Lauter, H.; Aksenov, V. L.; Yaradaikin, S. P.; Ulyanov, V. A.; Trounov, V. A.; Kalinin, S. I.
2010-11-01
The new multifunctional reflectometer GRAINS is under construction at the modernized high flux IBR-2 pulsed reactor (IBR-2M) of the FLNP JINR (Dubna, Russia). The principal feature of this reflectometer, the horizontal sample plane (or vertical scattering plane), enables the study of liquid-containing interfaces. The reflectometer will operate in the time-of-flight regime with constant sample illumination during measurements. The important advantage is the constant angular resolution with unvaried background. The additional modes of the GRAINS reflectometer comprise (1) off-specular scattering and GISANS, which are measured simultaneously in the TOF regime at a 2D position-sensitive detector; (2) angular encoding in the horizontal plane, which is provided by a Larmor precession region limited by current sheets in front of the sample; (3) 3D polarimetry in reflection, which is provided by a Larmor precession region around the sample position. The design of the reflectometer is optimised to take better advantage of an exceptionally broad wavelength band of the new cold moderator at the IBR-2M. The set-up will open up principally new possibilities for investigations in the field of interface nano-science at the IBR-2M reactor.
Constraining interactions mediated by axion-like particles with ultracold neutrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afach, S.; Ban, G.; Bison, G.; Bodek, K.; Burghoff, M.; Daum, M.; Fertl, M.; Franke, B.; Grujić, Z. D.; Hélaine, V.; Kasprzak, M.; Kermaïdic, Y.; Kirch, K.; Knowles, P.; Koch, H.-C.; Komposch, S.; Kozela, A.; Krempel, J.; Lauss, B.; Lefort, T.; Lemière, Y.; Mtchedlishvili, A.; Naviliat-Cuncic, O.; Piegsa, F. M.; Pignol, G.; Prashanth, P. N.; Quéméner, G.; Rebreyend, D.; Ries, D.; Roccia, S.; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P.; Schnabel, A.; Severijns, N.; Voigt, J.; Weis, A.; Wyszynski, G.; Zejma, J.; Zenner, J.; Zsigmond, G.
2015-05-01
We report a new limit on a possible short range spin-dependent interaction from the precise measurement of the ratio of Larmor precession frequencies of stored ultracold neutrons and 199Hg atoms confined in the same volume. The measurement was performed in a ∼ 1μT vertical magnetic holding field with the apparatus searching for a permanent electric dipole moment of the neutron at the Paul Scherrer Institute. A possible coupling between freely precessing polarized neutron spins and unpolarized nucleons of the wall material can be investigated by searching for a tiny change of the precession frequencies of neutron and mercury spins. Such a frequency change can be interpreted as a consequence of a short range spin-dependent interaction that could possibly be mediated by axions or axion-like particles. The interaction strength is proportional to the CP violating product of scalar and pseudoscalar coupling constants gSgP. Our result confirms limits from complementary experiments with spin-polarized nuclei in a model-independent way. Limits from other neutron experiments are improved by up to two orders of magnitude in the interaction range of 10-6 < λ <10-4m.
Nutations and precession of elastic Earth in angle-action variables
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferrandiz, J. M.; Barkin, Yu. V.
2006-10-01
Since the classical works of Laplace, Tisserand or Pontecoulant till the modern solutions of the Earth rotation (Kinoshita, 1977), most of the theories of the rotation of solar system bodies assume the simplest unperturbed motion, a steady rotation around the axis of largest inertia so that the angle θ between the angular momentum and the polar axis of inertia vanishes in the zeroth order approximation. Such an assumption is accurate enough in the Earth case, which justifies the usual approaches to the Earth rotation, although it is worth to remark that allowing a non-zero value of the angle θ can bring into light new dynamical effects. As an example, we can point out the paper (Barkin, 2000) in which an initial value of the angle θ = 0''175 has been used to investigate long-periodic variations in the Earth pole motion. However, the motion of some celestial bodies does not satisfy that condition. Namely, the observed orientation of the Venus pole reveals a large value of the free obliquity amplitude θ = 2.1° compared to the nominal forced amplitude of 0.5 ° (Yoder, 1995). The motion of irregular asteroids or spacecrafts requires the Euler-Poinsot representation even in the zeroth approximation. Therefore, to study the later problems or enhance the available solutions to the Earth, Venus or Mars rotation, it becomes necessary or useful the development of analytical perturbation theories relying on the unperturbed Euler-Poinsot motion of a triaxial rigid body, with arbitrary tensor of inertia and initial conditions. Convenient expressions for such a solution can be found in (Kinoshita, 1977; Barkin, 1992, 1998). A generalization to the case of a body weakly deformed by its own rotation was presented in the paper (Barkin et al., 1996) and we will refer to it as Euler-Chandler motion. A perturbation solution using the angle-action variables associated to the Chandler-Euler problem was developed in (Barkin, 1998). In this presentation we report on the main effects on the free Earth rotation and the solution of the forced Earth rotation based on the said Chandler-Euler unperturbed motion.
Passing particle toroidal precession induced by electric field in a tokamak
Andreev, V. V.; Ilgisonis, V. I.; Sorokina, E. A.; NRC “Kurchatov Institute”, Kurchatov Sq. 1, Moscow 123182
2013-12-15
Characteristics of a rotation of passing particles in a tokamak with radial electric field are calculated. The expression for time-averaged toroidal velocity of the passing particle induced by the electric field is derived. The electric-field-induced additive to the toroidal velocity of the passing particle appears to be much smaller than the velocity of the electric drift calculated for the poloidal magnetic field typical for the trapped particle. This quantity can even have the different sign depending on the azimuthal position of the particle starting point. The unified approach for the calculation of the bounce period and of the time-averaged toroidal velocity of both trapped and passing particles in the whole volume of plasma column is presented. The results are obtained analytically and are confirmed by 3D numerical calculations of the trajectories of charged particles.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jakeman, Hali L.
2013-01-01
The Ka-Band Object Observation and Monitoring, or KaBOOM, project is designed mainly to track and characterize near Earth objects. However, a smaller goal of the project would be to monitor pulsars and study their radio frequency signals for use as a clock in interstellar travel. The use of pulsars and their timing accuracy has been studied for decades, but never in the Ka-band of the radio frequency spectrum. In order to begin the use of KaBOOM for this research, the control systems need to be analyzed to ensure its capability. Flaws in the control documentation leave it unclear as to whether the control software processes coordinates from the J200 epoch. This experiment will examine the control software of the Intertronic 12m antennas used for the KaBOOM project and detail its capabilities in its "equatorial mode." The antennas will be pointed at 4 chosen points in the sky on several days while probing the virtual azimuth and elevation (horizon coordinate) registers. The input right ascension and declination coordinates will then be converted separately from the control software to horizontal coordinates and compared, thus determining the ability of the control software to process equatorial coordinates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lucchesi, David M.; Peron, Roberto
2014-04-01
The aim of this paper is to extend, clarify, and deepen the results of our previous work [D. M. Lucchesi and R. Peron, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 231103 (2010)], related to the precise measurement of LAGEOS (LAser GEOdynamics Satellite) II pericenter shift. A 13-year time span of LAGEOS satellites' laser tracking data has been considered, obtaining a very precise orbit and correspondingly residuals time series from which to extract the relevant signals. A thorough description is provided of the data analysis strategy and the dynamical models employed, along with a detailed discussion of the known sources of error in the experiment, both statistical and systematic. From this analysis, a confirmation of the predictions of Einstein's general relativity, as well as strong bounds on alternative theories of gravitation, clearly emerge. In particular, taking conservatively into account the stricter error bound due to systematic effects, general relativity has been confirmed in the Earth's field at the 98% level (meaning the measurement of a suitable combination of β and γ PPN parameters in weak-field conditions). This bound has been used to constrain possible deviations from the inverse-square law parameterized by a Yukawa-like new long range interaction with strength |α|≲1×10-10 at a characteristic range λ ≃1 Earth radius, a possible nonsymmetric gravitation theory with the interaction parameter C⊕LAGEOS II≲(9 × 10-2 km)4, and a possible spacetime torsion with a characteristic parameter combination |2t2+t3|≲7×10-2. Conversely, if we consider the results obtained from our best fit of the LAGEOS II orbit, the constraints in fundamental physics improve by at least 2 orders of magnitude.
Dynamics of precessing binary black holes using the post-Newtonian approximation
Hartl, Michael D.; Buonanno, Alessandra
2005-01-15
We investigate the (conservative) dynamics of binary black holes using the Hamiltonian formulation of the post-Newtonian (PN) equations of motion. The Hamiltonian we use includes spin-orbit coupling, spin-spin coupling, and mass monopole/spin-induced quadrupole interaction terms. We investigate the qualitative effects of these terms on the orbits; in the case of both quasicircular and eccentric orbits, we search for the presence of chaos (using the method of Lyapunov exponents) for a large variety of initial conditions. For quasicircular orbits, we find no chaotic behavior for black holes with total mass 10-40M{sub {center_dot}} when initially at a separation corresponding to a Newtonian gravitational-wave (GW) frequency less than {approx}150 Hz. Only for rather small initial radial distances (corresponding to a GW frequency larger than {approx}150 Hz), for which spin-spin induced oscillations in the radial separation are rather important, do we find chaotic solutions, and even then they are rare. Moreover, these chaotic quasicircular orbits are of questionable astrophysical significance, since they originate from direct parametrization of the equations of motion rather than from widely separated binaries evolving to small separations under gravitational radiation reaction. In the case of highly eccentric orbits, which for ground-based interferometers are not astrophysically favored, we again find chaotic solutions, but only at pericenters so small that higher order PN corrections, especially higher spin PN corrections, should also be taken into account. Taken together, our surveys of quasicircular and eccentric orbits find chaos only for orbits that are either of dubious astrophysical interest for ground-based interferometers or which violate the approximations required for the equations of motion to be physically valid at the post-Newtonian order considered.
Realizations of magnetic-monopole gauge fields - Diatoms and spin precession
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moody, J.; Shapere, A.; Wilczek, F.
1986-01-01
It is found that the effective Hamiltonian for nuclear rotation in a diatom is equivalent to that of a charged particle in a background magnetic-monopole field. In certain cases, half-integer orbital angular momentum or non-Abelian fields occur. Furthermore, the effects of magnetic-monopole-like gauge fields can be experimentally observed in spin-resonance experiments with variable magnetic fields.
Slow-light propagation using mode locking of spin precession in quantum dots
Shabaev, A.; Dutton, Z.; Kennedy, T. A.; Efros, Al. L.
2010-11-15
We propose using mode locking to enable coherent nonlinear optical effects in inhomogenously broadened spin ensembles. We carry out detailed calculations for quantum dot systems in which increased spin coherence via mode locking has been recently observed [A. Greilich et al., Science 313, 341 (2006); 317, 1896 (2007)]. We show how, in the presence of spin locking, a strong pulse-matching effect occurs, providing a powerful tool for high-bandwidth linear optical processing. We then go on to study 'slow light' in this system and show that high-bandwidth pulses can be controllably delayed by a time comparable to the pulse width.
Digital data-acquisition system for use with a proton-precession base-station magnetometer
McPherron, R.L.
1982-08-26
At UCLA the base station magnetometer is a Scintrex MB -2 which uses a two inch wide chart record scaled to 100 nT. The magnetometer is also equipped with a digital readout. This is available in BCD format on a 37 pin connector at the back of the instrument. This reading may be recorded digitally if an appropriate data acquisition and storage system is available. The recent development of inexpensive microcomputers and audio cassette recorders provided motivation for our exploration group to develop a digital data acquisition system for the existing base station magnetometer. A block diagram of the data acquisition system is presented. The microcomputer utilizes a R6502 as the central processor. Data are entered into the computer via a 12 key keypad and are displayed on a 6 digit liquid crystal display. Data from the Scintrex base magnetometer is passed to the microcomputer via a 37 line connector. One line of this connector is used to signal the status of the internally controlled sampling circuit in the base station magnetometer. Digital data are stored temporarily in RAM memory until an output buffer is filled. When this occurs power is applied to the audio cassette tape transport mechanism and after a short delay a block of data is written onto tape. The tape interface implements the Kansas City standard which is nearly universally used for microcomputer recording on audio cassette recorders. The entire system is powered by the same 12V dc battery used by the base station magnetometer. (WHK)
Numerical investigation of the Earth's rotation during a complete precession cycle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Richardson, David L.
1992-01-01
A theory for the long-term rotational motion of the quasi-rigid Earth was constructed by numerical integration. The theory spans 72,000 years centered about 1968 A.D., and provides accurate rotational and positional data for the Earth in the recent past and the near future. The physical model is termed dynamically consistent because developments for the active forces and torques are truncated based solely on their magnitudes regardless of their origin. The model includes all appropriate forces and torques due to the geopotential and tidal effects as well as lunisolar and planetary contributions. The elastic and inelastic deformations due to tidal action were too small to affect the mass properties of the Earth at the truncation level of the model. However, long-term dissipative effects of the tidal forces and torques were not negligible. These considerations gave the model its quasi-rigid characterization. The numerical output provided both rotational and orbital-element data. The data were fitted throughout the 72,000-year range using Chebyshev polynomial series.
Confronting models for the high-frequency QPOs with Lense-Thirring precession
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stefanov, Ivan Zh.
2014-11-01
Quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) have been observed in the power-density spectra (PDS) of some low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) containing a black hole. The two major groups of QPOs - low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) - have rather different properties. That is why they are usually studied separately. In the literature, one can find a large number of models for the HF QPOs but not so many for the LF ones. HF QPOs have attracted significant research efforts due to their potential to provide indispensable information for the properties of the black hole, for its accretion disc and for strong field gravity in general. However, in order to interpret the data for the HF QPOs of the observed objects, we have to fix a model. Here, we propose a simple test which could allow us to sift the models. The test is based on five rather general assumptions concerning the nature of the central object in black hole binaries and the mechanism for the generation of the LF QPOs observed in the PDS of such objects. In other words, we combine facts that we know about the LF and the HF QPOs of several objects and search for conflicts. As a result, we single out a model for the HF QPOs - the 3: 2 non-linear resonance model. As a byproduct of this study, we propose loose constraints on the mass of the LMXB H 1743-322.
Evidence from a precessing pulsar orbit for a neutron-star birth kick
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaspi, V. M.; Bailes, M.; Manchester, R. N.; Stappers, B. W.; Bell, J. F.
1996-06-01
BIRTH 'kicks' to neutron stars, resulting from asymmetric supernova explosions, have been proposed to explain the high velocities of pulsars1,2, the existence of companionless, high-velocity massive stars3,4, and a putative Galactic halo of neutron stars5. The kick hypothesis has been controversial, because most of the evidence for kicks is indirect, and a physical mechanism to produce asymmetric explosions is as yet unknown6. Here we report five years of radio observations of the pulsar PSR J0045 - 7319, which is in an eccentric orbit around a B star7. The data show significant deviations from a simple keplerian orbit, which we interpret as arising from advance of the pulsar's periastron and spin-orbiting coupling8. Both effects arise because of the B star's rotationally induced equatorial bulge, however spin-orbit coupling requires the B star's spin axis to be inclined with respect to the orbital angular momentum vector; we find that the inclination angle is between 25 and 41 degrees. In the likely event that the angular momenta were aligned before the supernova explosion, this misalignment provides direct evidence that the neutron star received a kick at birth.
Light sterile neutrinos, spin flavor precession, and the solar neutrino experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, C. R.; Pulido, João; Picariello, Marco
2009-04-01
We generalize to three active flavors a previous two-flavor model for the resonant spin flavor conversion of solar neutrinos to sterile ones, a mechanism which is added to the well-known large mixing angle (LMA) one. The transition magnetic moments from the muon and tau neutrinos to the sterile play the dominant role in fixing the amount of active flavor suppression. We also show, through numerical integration of the evolution equations, that the data from all solar neutrino experiments except Borexino exhibit a clear preference for a sizable magnetic field either in the convection zone or in the core and radiation zone. This is possibly related to the fact that the data from the first set are average ones taken during a period of mostly intense solar activity, whereas in contrast Borexino data were taken during a period of quiet Sun. We argue that the solar neutrino experiments are capable of tracing the possible modulation of the solar magnetic field. Those monitoring the high-energy neutrinos, namely, the B8 flux, appear to be sensitive to a field modulation either in the convection zone or in the core and radiation zone. Those monitoring the low-energy fluxes will be sensitive to the second type of solar field profiles only. In this way Borexino alone may play an essential role, since it examines both energy sectors, although experimental redundancy from other experiments will be most important.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hell, M.; Wegewijs, M. R.; DiVincenzo, D. P.
2016-01-01
We theoretically investigate the backaction of a sensor quantum dot with strong local Coulomb repulsion on the transient dynamics of a qubit that is probed capacitively. We show that the measurement backaction induced by the noise of electron cotunneling through the sensor is surprisingly mitigated by the recently identified coherent backaction [M. Hell, M. R. Wegewijs, and D. P. DiVincenzo, Phys. Rev. B 89, 195405 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.89.195405] arising from quantum fluctuations. This indicates that a sensor with quantized states may be switched off better than naively expected. This renormalization effect is missing in semiclassical stochastic fluctuator models and typically also in Born-Markov approaches, which try to avoid the calculation of the nonstationary, nonequilibrium state of the qubit plus sensor. Technically, we integrate out the current-carrying electrodes to obtain kinetic equations for the joint, nonequilibrium detector-qubit dynamics. We show that the sensor current response, level renormalization, cotunneling broadening, and leading non-Markovian corrections always appear together and cannot be turned off individually in an experiment or ignored theoretically. We analyze the backaction on the reduced qubit state—capturing the full non-Markovian effects imposed by the sensor quantum dot on the qubit—by applying a Liouville-space decomposition into quasistationary and rapidly decaying modes. Importantly, the sensor cannot be eliminated completely even in the simplest high-temperature, weak-measurement limit since the qubit state experiences an initial slip depending on the initial preparation of qubit plus sensor quantum dot. The slip persists over many qubit cycles, i.e., also on the time scale of the qubit decoherence induced by the backaction. A quantum-dot sensor can thus not be modeled as usual as a "black box" without accounting for its dynamical variables; it is part of the quantum circuit. We furthermore find that the Bloch vector relaxes (rate 1 /T1 ) along an axis that is not orthogonal to the plane in which the Bloch vector dephases (rate 1 /T2 ), blurring the notions of relaxation and dephasing times. Moreover, the precessional motion of the Bloch vector is distorted into an ellipse in the tilted dephasing plane.
Velocity and pressure fluctuations induced by the precessing helical vortex in a conical diffuser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Javadi, A.; Bosioc, A.; Nilsson, H.; Muntean, S.; Susan-Resiga, R.
2014-03-01
The flow unsteadiness generated in the draft tube cone of hydraulic turbines affects the turbine operation. Therefore, several swirling flow configurations are investigated using a swirling apparatus in order to explore the unsteady phenomena. The swirl apparatus has two parts: the swirl generator and the test section. The swirl generator includes two blade rows being designed such that the exit velocity profile resembles that of a turbine with fixed pitch. The test section includes a divergent part similar to the draft tube cone of a Francis turbine. A new control method based on a magneto rheological brake is used in order to produce several swirling flow configurations. As a result, the investigations are performed for six operating regimes in order to quantify the flow from part load operation, corresponding to runaway speed, to overload operation, corresponding to minimum speed, at constant guide vane opening. The part load operation corresponds to 0.7 times the best efficiency discharge, while the overload operation corresponds to 1.54 times the best efficiency discharge. LDV measurements are performed along three survey axes in the test section. The first survey axis is located just downstream the runner in order to check the velocity field at the swirl generator exit, while the next two survey axes are located at the inlet and at the outlet of the draft tube cone. Two velocity components are simultaneously measured on each survey axis. The measured unsteady velocity components are used to validate the results of unsteady numerical simulations, conducted using the OpenFOAM CFD code. The computational domain covers the entire swirling apparatus, including strouts, guide vanes, runner, and the conical diffuser. A dynamic mesh is used together with sliding GGI interfaces to include the effect of the rotating runner. The Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the RNG k-ε turbulence model are utilized to simulate the unsteady turbulent flow throughout the swirl generator.
Past dynamics of the Australian monsoon: precession, phase and links to the global monsoon concept
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beaufort, L.; van der Kaars, S.; Bassinot, F. C.; Moron, V.
2010-10-01
Past variations in the dynamics of the Australian monsoon have been estimated from multi-proxy analysis of a core retrieved in the Eastern Banda Sea. Records of coccolith and pollen assemblages, spanning the last 150 000 years, allow reconstruction of past primary production in the Banda Sea, summer moisture availability, and the length of the dry season in northern Australia and southeastern Indonesia. The amount of moisture available during the summer monsoon follows typical glacial/interglacial dynamics with a broad asymmetrical 100-kyr cycle. Primary production and length of the dry season appear to be closely related, given that they follow the precessional cycle with the same phase. This indicates their independence from ice-volume variations. The present inter-annual variability of both parameters is related to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which modulates the Australian Winter Monsoon (AWM). The precessional pattern observed in the past dynamics of the AWM is found in ENSO and monsoon records of other regions. A marked shift in the monsoon intensity occurring during the mid Holocene during a period of constant ice volume, suggests that low latitude climatic variation precedes increases in global ice volume. This precessional pattern suggests that a common forcing mechanism underlies low latitude climate dynamics, acting specifically and synchronously on the different monsoon systems.
Past dynamics of the Australian monsoon: precession, phase and links to the global monsoon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beaufort, L.; van der Kaars, S.; Bassinot, F. C.; Moron, V.
2010-06-01
Past variations in the dynamics of the Australian monsoon have been estimated from multi-proxy analysis of a core retrieved in the Eastern Banda Sea. Records of coccolith and pollen assemblages, spanning the last 150,000 years, allow reconstruction of past primary production in the Banda Sea, summer moisture availability, and the length of the dry season in Northern Australia and Southeastern Indonesia. The amount of moisture available during the summer monsoon follows typical glacial/interglacial dynamics with a broad asymmetrical 100-kyr cycle. Primary production and length of the dry season appear to be closely related, given that they follow the precessional cycle with the same phase (August insolation). This indicates their independence from ice-volume variations. The present inter-annual variability of both parameters is related to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which modulates the Australian Winter Monsoon (AWM). The precessional pattern observed in the past dynamics of the AWM is found in ENSO and monsoon records of other regions. A marked shift in the monsoon intensity occurring during the mid Holocene during a period of constant ice volume, suggest that low latitude climatic variation precedes global ice volume. This precessional pattern suggests that a common forcing mechanism underlies low latitude climate dynamics, acting specifically and synchronically on the different monsoon systems.
NMR imaging of cell phone radiation absorption in brain tissue
Gultekin, David H.; Moeller, Lothar
2013-01-01
A method is described for measuring absorbed electromagnetic energy radiated from cell phone antennae into ex vivo brain tissue. NMR images the 3D thermal dynamics inside ex vivo bovine brain tissue and equivalent gel under exposure to power and irradiation time-varying radio frequency (RF) fields. The absorbed RF energy in brain tissue converts into Joule heat and affects the nuclear magnetic shielding and the Larmor precession. The resultant temperature increase is measured by the resonance frequency shift of hydrogen protons in brain tissue. This proposed application of NMR thermometry offers sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to characterize the hot spots from absorbed cell phone radiation in aqueous media and biological tissues. Specific absorption rate measurements averaged over 1 mg and 10 s in the brain tissue cover the total absorption volume. Reference measurements with fiber optic temperature sensors confirm the accuracy of the NMR thermometry. PMID:23248293
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishmuratov, I. K.; Baibekov, E. I.
2015-12-01
We investigate the possibility to restore transient nutations of electron spin centers embedded in the solid using specific composite pulse sequences developed previously for the application in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We treat two types of systematic errors simultaneously: (i) rotation angle errors related to the spatial distribution of microwave field amplitude in the sample volume, and (ii) off-resonance errors related to the spectral distribution of Larmor precession frequencies of the electron spin centers. Our direct simulations of the transient signal in erbium- and chromium-doped CaWO4 crystal samples with and without error corrections show that the application of the selected composite pulse sequences can substantially increase the lifetime of Rabi oscillations. Finally, we discuss the applicability limitations of the studied pulse sequences for the use in solid-state electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.
Observation on the Visibility Decrease in a VCN Spin Resonator Interferometry
Utsuro, M.; Hino, M.; Geltenbort, P.; Butterworth, J.
2005-01-01
The present paper reports on the detailed studies concerning the neutron spin interference visibility observed after transmitting through multilayer magnetic resonators in a spin echo condition with very cold neutrons from a high flux reactor. The observed visibility of the interference between upward and downward spin components perpendicular to the Larmor precession plane of the neutron spin are compared with the numerical simulations in the plane wave theory and also in the Schrödinger wave-packet model. The comparison revealed the instructive characteristic features of obvious additional visibility decrease observed in the interference between the tunnelling and refractive transmissions of each spin components in a single as well as a couple of multilayer magnetic resonators.
Quadrupolar and anisotropy effects on dephasing in two-electron spin qubits in GaAs
Botzem, Tim; McNeil, Robert P. G.; Mol, Jan-Michael; Schuh, Dieter; Bougeard, Dominique; Bluhm, Hendrik
2016-01-01
Understanding the decoherence of electron spins in semiconductors due to their interaction with nuclear spins is of fundamental interest as they realize the central spin model and of practical importance for using them as qubits. Interesting effects arise from the quadrupolar interaction of nuclear spins with electric field gradients, which have been shown to suppress diffusive nuclear spin dynamics and might thus enhance electron spin coherence. Here we show experimentally that for gate-defined GaAs quantum dots, quadrupolar broadening of the nuclear Larmor precession reduces electron spin coherence by causing faster decorrelation of transverse nuclear fields. However, this effect disappears for appropriate field directions. Furthermore, we observe an additional modulation of coherence attributed to an anisotropic electronic g-tensor. These results complete our understanding of dephasing in gated quantum dots and point to mitigation strategies. They may also help to unravel unexplained behaviour in self-assembled quantum dots and III–V nanowires. PMID:27079269
Quadrupolar and anisotropy effects on dephasing in two-electron spin qubits in GaAs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Botzem, Tim; McNeil, Robert P. G.; Mol, Jan-Michael; Schuh, Dieter; Bougeard, Dominique; Bluhm, Hendrik
2016-04-01
Understanding the decoherence of electron spins in semiconductors due to their interaction with nuclear spins is of fundamental interest as they realize the central spin model and of practical importance for using them as qubits. Interesting effects arise from the quadrupolar interaction of nuclear spins with electric field gradients, which have been shown to suppress diffusive nuclear spin dynamics and might thus enhance electron spin coherence. Here we show experimentally that for gate-defined GaAs quantum dots, quadrupolar broadening of the nuclear Larmor precession reduces electron spin coherence by causing faster decorrelation of transverse nuclear fields. However, this effect disappears for appropriate field directions. Furthermore, we observe an additional modulation of coherence attributed to an anisotropic electronic g-tensor. These results complete our understanding of dephasing in gated quantum dots and point to mitigation strategies. They may also help to unravel unexplained behaviour in self-assembled quantum dots and III-V nanowires.
Quadrupolar and anisotropy effects on dephasing in two-electron spin qubits in GaAs.
Botzem, Tim; McNeil, Robert P G; Mol, Jan-Michael; Schuh, Dieter; Bougeard, Dominique; Bluhm, Hendrik
2016-01-01
Understanding the decoherence of electron spins in semiconductors due to their interaction with nuclear spins is of fundamental interest as they realize the central spin model and of practical importance for using them as qubits. Interesting effects arise from the quadrupolar interaction of nuclear spins with electric field gradients, which have been shown to suppress diffusive nuclear spin dynamics and might thus enhance electron spin coherence. Here we show experimentally that for gate-defined GaAs quantum dots, quadrupolar broadening of the nuclear Larmor precession reduces electron spin coherence by causing faster decorrelation of transverse nuclear fields. However, this effect disappears for appropriate field directions. Furthermore, we observe an additional modulation of coherence attributed to an anisotropic electronic g-tensor. These results complete our understanding of dephasing in gated quantum dots and point to mitigation strategies. They may also help to unravel unexplained behaviour in self-assembled quantum dots and III-V nanowires. PMID:27079269
Improving sodium laser guide star brightness by polarization switching
Fan, Tingwei; Zhou, Tianhua; Feng, Yan
2016-01-01
Optical pumping with circularly polarized light has been used to enhance the brightness of sodium laser guide star. But the benefit is reduced substantially due to the precession of sodium atoms in geomagnetic field. Switching the laser between left and right circular polarization at the Larmor frequency is proposed to improve the return. With ESO’s laser guide star system at Paranal as example, numerical simulation shows that the return flux is increased when the angle between geomagnetic field and laser beam is larger than 60°, as much as 50% at 90°. The proposal is significant since most astronomical observation is at angle between 60° and 90° and it only requires a minor addition to the delivery optics of present laser system. PMID:26797503
Search for Electric dipole moment (EDM) in laser cooled and trapped 225Ra atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalita, Mukut; Bailey, Kevin; Dietrich, Matthew; Green, John; Holt, Roy; Korsch, Wolfgang; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Lemke, Nathan; Mueller, Peter; O'Connor, Tom; Parker, Richard; Singh, Jaideep; Trimble, Will; Argonne National Laboratory Collaboration; University Of Chicago Collabration; University Of Kentucky Collaboration
2014-05-01
We are searching for an EDM of the diamagnetic 225Ra atom. 225Ra has nuclear spin I =1/2. Experimental sensitivity to its EDM is enhanced due to its heavy mass and the increased Schiff moment of its octupole deformed nucleus. Our experiment involves collecting laser cooled Ra atoms in a magneto-optical trap (MOT), transporting them 1 meter with a far off-resonant optical dipole trap (ODT) and then transferring the atoms to a second standing-wave ODT in our experimental chamber. We will report our recent experiences in polarizing and observing Larmor precession of 225Ra atoms in parallel electric and magnetic fields in a magnetically shielded region and progress towards a first measurement of the EDM of 225Ra. This work is supported by DOE, Office of Nuclear Physics, under contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 and contract No. DE-FG02-99ER41101.
Space Time Reversal Experiment by Use of Pulsed Neutron Ramsey Resonance
Masuda, Y.; Jeong, S. C.; Watanabe, Y.; Skoy, V.; Ino, T.
2007-06-13
We have developed a pulsed neutron Ramsey resonance for a T-violation experiment on polarized neutron transmission through a polarized nuclear target. Two separated oscillatory fields were placed in a pulsed neutron beam line, which were synchronized with a neutron pulse for precision neutron spin manipulation. We observed neutron Larmor precession between the two oscillatory fields as a function of a neutron time of flight (TOF). We modulated the phase of the second oscillatory field with respect to the first oscillatory field. The effect of the phase modulation was found in a neutron intensity modulation as a function of the TOF. From the neutron intensity modulation, the neutron spin direction as well as the neutron velocity between the two oscillatory fields was precisely obtained.