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Sample records for larval chironomid communities

  1. The protective role of endogenous bacterial communities in chironomid egg masses and larvae

    PubMed Central

    Senderovich, Yigal; Halpern, Malka

    2013-01-01

    Insects of the family Chironomidae, also known as chironomids, are distributed worldwide in a variety of water habitats. These insects display a wide range of tolerance toward metals and organic pollutions. Bacterial species known for their ability to degrade toxicants were identified from chironomid egg masses, leading to the hypothesis that bacteria may contribute to the survival of chironomids in polluted environments. To gain a better understanding of the bacterial communities that inhabit chironomids, the endogenous bacteria of egg masses and larvae were studied by 454-pyrosequencing. The microbial community of the egg masses was distinct from that of the larval stage, most likely due to the presence of one dominant bacterial Firmicutes taxon, which consisted of 28% of the total sequence reads from the larvae. This taxon may be an insect symbiont. The bacterial communities of both the egg masses and the larvae were found to include operational taxonomic units, which were closely related to species known as toxicant degraders. Furthermore, various bacterial species with the ability to detoxify metals were isolated from egg masses and larvae. Koch-like postulates were applied to demonstrate that chironomid endogenous bacterial species protect the insect from toxic heavy metals. We conclude that chironomids, which are considered pollution tolerant, are inhabited by stable endogenous bacterial communities that have a role in protecting their hosts from toxicants. This phenomenon, in which bacteria enable the continued existence of their host in hostile environments, may not be restricted only to chironomids. PMID:23804150

  2. The vertical dynamics of larval chironomids on artificial substrates in lake lido (bogor, indonesia).

    PubMed

    Wardiatno, Yusli; Krisanti, Majariana

    2013-12-01

    The composition and abundance of chironomid larval communities was studied on artificial substrates in Lido Lake, located in Bogor, West Java, Indonesia. The lake is organically enriched as a result of fish farming activity. Seventy two artificial substrates were deployed at three depths (2.0, 3.5 and 5.0 m) at two sites: a cage culture site and a non-cage culture site (control). Larval chironomid larvae were collected 7, 14, 28 and 56 days after the artificial substrates were deployed. In addition, selected physical and chemical parameters of the water were simultaneously measured. Three chironomid subfamilies, the Chironominae, Tanypodinae and Orthocladiinae, were found at both sites. At the cage culture site, both diversity and total abundance were significantly higher at the 2.0 and 3.5 m depths than at the 5.0 m depth, but this was not the case at the non-cage culture site. Based on pooling of the data from all depths, a Mann-Whitney U test showed that the non-cage culture site had a significantly higher diversity and total abundance than the cage culture site. Dissolved oxygen (DO) and turbidity showed significant differences between the 2.0 m depth and the 2 greater depths at the cage culture site, whereas none of the environmental parameters showed significant differences among the three depths at the non-cage culture site. A comparison of the environmental parameters at the same depth at the two sites showed significant differences in turbidity, pH and DO. A Spearman rank correlation analysis at the cage culture site showed that abundance and DO were positively correlated, whereas abundance and turbidity were negatively correlated. However, only pH was negatively correlated with abundance at the non-cage culture site.

  3. The Vertical Dynamics of Larval Chironomids on Artificial Substrates in Lake Lido (Bogor, Indonesia)

    PubMed Central

    Wardiatno, Yusli; Krisanti, Majariana

    2013-01-01

    The composition and abundance of chironomid larval communities was studied on artificial substrates in Lido Lake, located in Bogor, West Java, Indonesia. The lake is organically enriched as a result of fish farming activity. Seventy two artificial substrates were deployed at three depths (2.0, 3.5 and 5.0 m) at two sites: a cage culture site and a non-cage culture site (control). Larval chironomid larvae were collected 7, 14, 28 and 56 days after the artificial substrates were deployed. In addition, selected physical and chemical parameters of the water were simultaneously measured. Three chironomid subfamilies, the Chironominae, Tanypodinae and Orthocladiinae, were found at both sites. At the cage culture site, both diversity and total abundance were significantly higher at the 2.0 and 3.5 m depths than at the 5.0 m depth, but this was not the case at the non-cage culture site. Based on pooling of the data from all depths, a Mann-Whitney U test showed that the non-cage culture site had a significantly higher diversity and total abundance than the cage culture site. Dissolved oxygen (DO) and turbidity showed significant differences between the 2.0 m depth and the 2 greater depths at the cage culture site, whereas none of the environmental parameters showed significant differences among the three depths at the non-cage culture site. A comparison of the environmental parameters at the same depth at the two sites showed significant differences in turbidity, pH and DO. A Spearman rank correlation analysis at the cage culture site showed that abundance and DO were positively correlated, whereas abundance and turbidity were negatively correlated. However, only pH was negatively correlated with abundance at the non-cage culture site. PMID:24575246

  4. Effects of summer drawdown on the fishes and larval chironomids in Beulah Reservoir, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, Brien P.; Mesa, Matthew G.

    2013-01-01

    Summer drawdown of Beulah Reservoir, Oregon, could adversely affect fish and invertebrate production, limit sport fishing opportunities, and hinder the recovery of threatened species. To assess the impacts of drawdown, we sampled fish and Chironomidae larvae in Beulah Reservoir in the springs of 2006 to 2008. The reservoir was reduced to 68% of full pool in 2006 and to run-of-river level in 2007. From spring 2006 to spring 2007, the catch per unit effort (CPUE) of fyke nets decreased significantly for dace [Rhinichthys spp.] and northern pikeminnow [Ptychocheilus oregonensis], increased significantly for suckers [Catastomus spp.] and white crappies [Pomoxis nigromaculatus], and was similar for redside shiners [Richardsonius balteatus]. CPUE of gillnets either increased significantly or remained similar depending on genera, and the size structure of redside shiners, suckers, and white crappies changed appreciably. From 2007 to 2008, the CPUE of northern pikeminnow, redside shiners, suckers, and white crappies decreased significantly depending on gear and the size structure of most fishes changed. Springtime densities of chironomid larvae in the water column were significantly higher in 2006 than in 2008, but other comparisons were similar. The densities of benthic chironomids were significantly lower in substrates that were frequently dewatered compared to areas that were partially or usually not dewatered. Individuals from frequently dewatered areas were significantly smaller than those from other areas and the densities of benthic chironomids in 2008 were significantly lower than other years. Summer drawdown can reduce the catch and alter the size structure of fishes and chironomid larvae in Beulah Reservoir.

  5. Spatial variation in incidence of mouthpart deformities in larval chironomids (Diptera) from western Lake Erie

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, L.A.; Ciborowski, J.J.H.; Corkum, L.D.

    1995-12-31

    The major source of contaminants to the sediments of the western basin of Lake Erie is the Detroit River. In order to determine if contaminant levels are reflected in incidences of genotoxicity of benthic invertebrates, the authors examined larvae of chironomids for mouthpart (mentum) deformities. Sediment genotoxicity is indicated when incidence of deformities in susceptible genera exceeds 5%. Samples were collected from three locations along the contaminant gradient extending from the Detroit River along the main shipping channel of the western basin. A composite sample was taken from several central locations in the western basin. Chironomids were hand-picked from ponar grab or box core samples. The heads were mounted, identified to genus and examined for mentum deformities (extra or missing teeth). Chironomus dominated all samples. The incidence of deformities ({+-}SE) in Chironomus was greatest in the Trenton Channel of the Detroit River (7.8 {+-} 2.2%, n = 153), declined to 5.2 {+-} 1.4% (n = 233) in the center of the basin and was the lowest off East Sister Island (1.9 {+-} 0.9%, n = 210). The incidence of deformities was 4.4 {+-} 0.8% (n = 610) at a reference site on the Canadian side of the Detroit River (Crystal Bay). The spatial pattern of chironomid mentum deformities suggests that sediment genotoxicity declines from west to east in western Lake Erie.

  6. The role of pH in structuring communities of Maine wetland macrophytes and chironomid larvae (Diptera)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodcock, T.S.; Longcore, J.R.; McAuley, D.G.; Mingo, T.M.; Bennatti, C.R.; Stromborg, K.L.

    2005-01-01

    Aquatic vascular plants, or macrophytes, are an important habitat component for many wetland organisms, and larvae of chironomid midges are ubiquitous components of wetland fauna. Many chironomids are primary consumers of algae and detritus and form an essential energetic link between allochthonous and autochthonous primary production and higher trophic levels, while others are predators and feed on smaller invertebrates. Live macrophytes serve mostly as habitat, whereas plant detritus serves as both habitat and as a food source. Assemblages of macrophytes and chironomid larvae were surveyed in ten Maine wetlands, five with low pH (5.5), and explained in terms of physical and chemical habitat variables. Macrophyte richness was significantly greater, and richness of chironomid larvae was lower, in low pH wetlands. There was no difference in chironomid abundance related to pH. However, community structure was related to pH, suggesting that competitive dominance of a few taxa was responsible for lower richness in low pH wetlands, whereas competition was weaker in high pH wetlands, making coexistence of more chironomid taxa possible. An examination of individual chironomid taxa by stepwise multiple regression showed that distribution of most taxa was controlled by water chemistry variables and macrophyte habit (i.e., floating, submergent).

  7. Predator-prey interactions and community structure: chironomids, mosquitoes and copepods in Heliconia imbricata (Musaceae).

    PubMed

    Naeem, Shahid

    1988-11-01

    Evidence from both field observations and experimental work indicates that predation by larvae of a midge, Pentaneura n. sp. (Chironomidae), causes the low densities of mosquito larvae (Culicidae) found in the water filled bracts of Heliconia imbricata (Musaceae), microhabitats typically colonized by mosquitoes. This predation affects 2 species of mosquitoes, Wyeomyia pseudopecten, a resident species, and Trichoprosopon digitatum, a non-resident species. Predation keeps resident mosquito densities low while completely excluding the nonresident mosquito from the habitat. Both these effects of predation depend on the presence of an abundant alternative prey, an undescribed species of harpacticoid copepod found in the bracts. These copepod prey sustain chironomids when resident mosquito densities are low, permiting predator densities to remain high enough to exclude the non-resident mosquito. I discuss the evolutionary and ecological implications of predation structuring communities.

  8. Metabolism and antioxidant defense in the larval chironomid Tanytarsus minutipalpus: adjustments to diel variations in the extreme conditions of Lake Magadi

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Chris M.; Bergman, Harold L.; Johannsson, Ora E.; Laurent, Pierre; Chevalier, Claudine; Kisipan, Mosiany L.; Kavembe, Geraldine D.; Papah, Michael B.; Brix, Kevin V.; De Boeck, Gudrun; Maina, John N.; Ojoo, Rodi O.; Bianchini, Adalto

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Insect larvae are reported to be a major component of the simple but highly productive trophic web found in Lake Magadi (Kenya, Africa), which is considered to be one of the most extreme aquatic environments on Earth. Previous studies show that fish must display biochemical and physiological adjustments to thrive under the extreme conditions of the lake. However, information for invertebrates is lacking. In the present study, the occurrence of the larval chironomid Tanytarsus minutipalpus is reported in Lake Magadi for the first time. Additionally, changes in larval metabolism and antioxidant defense correlated with diel variations in the extremely hostile environmental conditions of the lake are described. Wide variations in water temperature (20.2-29.3°C) and dissolved oxygen content (3.2-18.6 mg O2 l−1) were observed at different times of day, without significant change in water pH (10.0±0.03). Temperature and dissolved oxygen were higher at 13:00 h (29.3±0.4°C and 18.6±1.0 mg O2 l−1) and 19:00 h (29.3±0.8°C and 16.2±1.6 mg O2 l−1) and lower at 01:00 h (21.1±0.1°C and 10.7±0.03 mg O2 l−1) and 07:00 h (20.2±0.4°C and 3.2±0.7 mg O2 l−1). Significant and parallel increases in parameters related to metabolism (cholinesterase, glucose, cholesterol, urea, creatinine and hemoglobin) and the antioxidant system (SOD, GPx, GR, GSH and GSSG) were observed in larvae collected at 13:00 h. In contrast, no significant changes were observed in pro-oxidants (ROS and NO), TOSC and oxidative damage parameters (LPO and DNA damage). Therefore, the observed increases in temperature and dissolved O2 content in Lake Magadi were associated with changes in the antioxidant system of T. minutipalpus larvae. Adjustments performed by the chironomid larvae were efficient in maintaining body homeostasis, as well as protecting biomolecules against oxidative damage, so that oxidative stress did not occur. GSH-GSSG and GPx-GR systems appeared to

  9. Metabolism and antioxidant defense in the larval chironomid Tanytarsus minutipalpus: adjustments to diel variations in the extreme conditions of Lake Magadi.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, Lucas F; Wood, Chris M; Bergman, Harold L; Johannsson, Ora E; Laurent, Pierre; Chevalier, Claudine; Kisipan, Mosiany L; Kavembe, Geraldine D; Papah, Michael B; Brix, Kevin V; De Boeck, Gudrun; Maina, John N; Ojoo, Rodi O; Bianchini, Adalto

    2017-01-15

    Insect larvae are reported to be a major component of the simple but highly productive trophic web found in Lake Magadi (Kenya, Africa), which is considered to be one of the most extreme aquatic environments on Earth. Previous studies show that fish must display biochemical and physiological adjustments to thrive under the extreme conditions of the lake. However, information for invertebrates is lacking. In the present study, the occurrence of the larval chironomid Tanytarsus minutipalpus is reported in Lake Magadi for the first time. Additionally, changes in larval metabolism and antioxidant defense correlated with diel variations in the extremely hostile environmental conditions of the lake are described. Wide variations in water temperature (20.2-29.3°C) and dissolved oxygen content (3.2-18.6 mg O2 l(-1)) were observed at different times of day, without significant change in water pH (10.0±0.03). Temperature and dissolved oxygen were higher at 13:00 h (29.3±0.4°C and 18.6±1.0 mg O2 l(-1)) and 19:00 h (29.3±0.8°C and 16.2±1.6 mg O2 l(-1)) and lower at 01:00 h (21.1±0.1°C and 10.7±0.03 mg O2 l(-1)) and 07:00 h (20.2±0.4°C and 3.2±0.7 mg O2 l(-1)). Significant and parallel increases in parameters related to metabolism (cholinesterase, glucose, cholesterol, urea, creatinine and hemoglobin) and the antioxidant system (SOD, GPx, GR, GSH and GSSG) were observed in larvae collected at 13:00 h. In contrast, no significant changes were observed in pro-oxidants (ROS and NO), TOSC and oxidative damage parameters (LPO and DNA damage). Therefore, the observed increases in temperature and dissolved O2 content in Lake Magadi were associated with changes in the antioxidant system of T. minutipalpus larvae. Adjustments performed by the chironomid larvae were efficient in maintaining body homeostasis, as well as protecting biomolecules against oxidative damage, so that oxidative stress did not occur. GSH-GSSG and GPx-GR systems appeared to play an

  10. Morphological identification and COI barcodes of adult flies help determine species identities of chironomid larvae (Diptera, Chironomidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Failla, Andrew Joseph; Vasquez, Adrian Amelio; Hudson, Patrick L.; Fujimoto, Masanori; Ram, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Establishing reliable methods for the identification of benthic chironomid communities is important due to their significant contribution to biomass, ecology and the aquatic food web. Immature larval specimens are more difficult to identify to species level by traditional morphological methods than their fully developed adult counterparts, and few keys are available to identify the larval species. In order to develop molecular criteria to identify species of chironomid larvae, larval and adult chironomids from Western Lake Erie were subjected to both molecular and morphological taxonomic analysis. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) barcode sequences of 33 adults that were identified to species level by morphological methods were grouped with COI sequences of 189 larvae in a neighbor-joining taxon-ID tree. Most of these larvae could be identified only to genus level by morphological taxonomy (only 22 of the 189 sequenced larvae could be identified to species level). The taxon-ID tree of larval sequences had 45 operational taxonomic units (OTUs, defined as clusters with >97% identity or individual sequences differing from nearest neighbors by >3%; supported by analysis of all larval pairwise differences), of which seven could be identified to species or ‘species group’ level by larval morphology. Reference sequences from the GenBank and BOLD databases assigned six larval OTUs with presumptive species level identifications and confirmed one previously assigned species level identification. Sequences from morphologically identified adults in the present study grouped with and further classified the identity of 13 larval OTUs. The use of morphological identification and subsequent DNA barcoding of adult chironomids proved to be beneficial in revealing possible species level identifications of larval specimens. Sequence data from this study also contribute to currently inadequate public databases relevant to the Great Lakes region, while the neighbor

  11. FLUID AND ION SECRETION BY MALPIGHIAN TUBULES OF LARVAL CHIRONOMIDS, Chironomus riparius: EFFECTS OF REARING SALINITY, TRANSPORT INHIBITORS, AND SEROTONIN.

    PubMed

    Zadeh-Tahmasebi, Melika; Bui, Phuong; Donini, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    Larvae of Chironomus riparius respond to ion-poor and brackish water (IPW, BW) conditions by activating ion uptake mechanisms in the anal papillae and reducing ion absorption at the rectum, respectively. The role that the Malpighian tubules play in ion and osmoregulation under these conditions is not known in this species. This study examines rates of fluid secretion and major cation composition of secreted fluid from tubules of C. riparius reared in IPW, freshwater (FW) and BW. Fluid secretion of tubules from FW and BW larvae was similar but tubules from IPW larvae secrete fluid at higher rates, are more sensitive to serotonin stimulation, and the secreted fluid contains less Na(+) . Therefore in IPW, tubules work in concert with anal papillae to eliminate excess water while conserving Na(+) in the hemolymph. Tubules do not appear to play a significant role in ion/osmoregulation under BW. Serotonin immunoreactivity in the nervous system and gastrointestinal tract of larval C. riparius was similar to that seen in mosquito larvae with the exception that the hindgut was devoid of staining. Hemolymph serotonin titer was similar in FW and IPW; hence, serotonin is not responsible for the observed high rates of fluid secretion in IPW. Instead, it is suggested that serotonin may work in a synergistic manner with an unidentified hormonal factor in IPW. Ion transport mechanisms in the tubules of C. riparius are pharmacologically similar to those of other insects.

  12. New Records and Range Extensions for Several Chironomid Genera from Lake Superior

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five genera of chironomids have been reported for the first time in Lake Superior. Chironomids are small flying insects with a sediment-dwelling aquatic larval stage. The chironomids were collected by scientists at the Mid-Continent Ecology Division as part of a research program ...

  13. Feeding electivity of two epiphytic chironomids in a subtropical lake.

    PubMed

    Botts, P S; Cowell, B C

    1992-03-01

    Feeding electivity of two epiphytic orthoclad chironomid species, Psectrocladius sp. and Thienemanniella cf. fusca, was investigated using gut content analysis of larvae collected from Typha stems in Lake Padgett, Florida. Electivity values, computed using Strauss's Food Selection Index, were strongly positive for Cosmarium and negative for Oedogonium and Bulbochaete. Diatoms either were avoided or grazed in proportion to their abundance in the environment. Patterns of electivity were similar for both chrionomid species during all seasons studied. Pairwise food preference experiments were conducted in the laboratory using the algal species, Cosmarium impressulum, Navicula pelliculosa, Selenastrum capricornuatum, Oedogonium cardiacum, and Synedra sp. Preferences were hierarchical and consistent for both larval genera. Preference ranking for the algae offered were Cosmarium≥Synedra>Navicula>Oedogonium>Selenastrum. Larvae seemed to be feeding electively based upon algal genus, size, position in the epiphytic community, and possibly extracellular chemistry.

  14. Fossil chironomid d13C as a new proxy for past methanogenic contribution to benthic food-webs in lakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hardenbroek, M.; Heiri, O. M.; Grey, J.; Bodelier, P. L. E.; Lotter, A. F.

    2009-04-01

    Lake sediments are an important source of atmospheric methane. Methanogenic archaea in lake sediments produce 13C-depleted methane that is partly released to the water column and the atmosphere. Another part is utilized by methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB) that are an important food source for deposit-feeding chironomid larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae). If methane-derived carbon is a significant component of the chironomid diet this will lead to strongly negative d13C in the tissue and exoskeleton of chironomid larvae. Chironomid cuticles, especially the strongly sclerotized head capsules, are well preserved as fossils in lake sediments. If the relationship between modern methane fluxes in lakes and chironomid d13C can be established this would therefore provide an approach for estimating past methane fluxes based on d13C of fossil chironomid remains. Using culturing experiments we show that the stable carbon isotope signature of MOB and other food sources can be traced in chironomid muscle tissue as well as in the fossilizing exoskeleton. In addition we measured d13C in chironomid larval head capsules and other invertebrate remains from a range of surface and downcore sediment samples. Small intra-specific variability (-27.1 ± 0.08 permille) was measured in replicate samples of chironomid head capsules of Corynocera ambigua (n=7). d13C of chironomid head capsules from a several different taxa ranged from -28.0 to -25.8 permille, but in some instances we observed d13C values as low as -36.9 to -31.5 permille, suggesting that carbon from MOB can be successfully traced in fossil and subfossil chironomid remains. Our results demonstrate that the stable carbon isotope signature of MOB is incorporated into chironomid head capsules. Future research will focus on quantifying the relationship between methane fluxes, MOB, and head capsule d13C in order to reconstruct past methane fluxes based on the lake sediment record.

  15. CHIRONOMID EMERGENCE AND RELATIVE EMERGENT BIOMASS FROM TWO ALABAMA STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chironomid pupal exuviae were sampled monthly using drift nets and hand sieves over an annual cycle from Hendrick Mill Branch (HMB; Blount County, AL) and Payne Creek (PC; Hale County, AL). Taxon richness, community composition, and emergence phonologies were similar despite mar...

  16. Using larval fish community structure to guide long-term monitoring of fish spawning activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pritt, Jeremy J.; Roseman, Edward F.; Ross, Jason E.; DeBruyne, Robin L.

    2015-01-01

    Larval fishes provide a direct indication of spawning activity and may therefore be useful for long-term monitoring efforts in relation to spawning habitat restoration. However, larval fish sampling can be time intensive and costly. We sought to understand the spatial and temporal structure of larval fish communities in the St. Clair–Detroit River system, Michigan–Ontario, to determine whether targeted larval fish sampling can be made more efficient for long-term monitoring. We found that larval fish communities were highly nested, with lower river segments and late-spring samples containing the highest genus richness of larval fish. We created four sampling scenarios for each river system: (1) using all available data, (2) limiting temporal sampling to late spring, (3) limiting spatial sampling to lower river segments only, and (4) limiting both spatial and temporal sampling. By limiting the spatial extent of sampling to lower river sites and/or limiting the temporal extent to the late-spring period, we found that effort could be reduced by more than 50% while maintaining over 75% of the observed and estimated total genus richness. Similarly, limiting the sampling effort to lower river sites and/or the late-spring period maintained between 65% and 93% of the observed richness of lithophilic-spawning genera and invasive genera. In general, community composition remained consistent among sampling scenarios. Targeted sampling offers a lower-cost alternative to exhaustive spatial and temporal sampling and may be more readily incorporated into long-term monitoring.

  17. Positive feedback between chironomids and algae creates net mutualism between benthic primary consumers and producers.

    PubMed

    Herren, Cristina M; Webert, Kyle C; Drake, Michael D; Jake Vander Zanden, M; Einarsson, Árni; Ives, Anthony R; Gratton, Claudio

    2017-02-01

    The chironomids of Lake Mývatn show extreme population fluctuations that affect most aspects of the lake ecosystem. During periods of high chironomid densities, chironomid larvae comprise over 90% of aquatic secondary production. Here, we show that chironomid larvae substantially stimulate benthic gross primary production (GPP) and net primary production (NPP), despite consuming benthic algae. Benthic GPP in experimental mesocosms with 140,000 larvae/m(2) was 71% higher than in mesocosms with no larvae. Similarly, chlorophyll a concentrations in mesocosms increased significantly over the range of larval densities. Furthermore, larvae showed increased growth rates at higher densities, possibly due to greater benthic algal availability in these treatments. We investigated the hypothesis that larvae promote benthic algal growth by alleviating nutrient limitation, and found that (1) larvae have the potential to cycle the entire yearly external loadings of nitrogen and phosphorus during the growing season, and (2) chlorophyll a concentrations were significantly greater in close proximity to larvae (on larval tubes). The positive feedback between chironomid larvae and benthic algae generated a net mutualism between the primary consumer and primary producer trophic levels in the benthic ecosystem. Thus, our results give an example in which unexpected positive feedbacks can lead to both high primary and high secondary production.

  18. Unusual larval habitats and life history of chironomid (Diptera) genera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Patrick L.

    1987-01-01

    Ninety-three genera, representing all subfamilies of Chironomidae, are organized into 9 categories of unusual habitats or life history including hygropetric, riparian (bank, floodplain, upland), hyporheic, symbiotic, and intertidal; others live in water held in plants or mine into unusual substrates. In riparian zones precise location of optimum habitat is difficult to determine as is definition of habitat within the continuum from shoreline to upland areas. The ecological importance of the riparian group appears to lie in its processing of coarse particulate matter along the floodplain of streams and rivers. All riparian genera are zoogeographically useful and can be used in reconstructing evolutionary dispersal pathways because they are adapted to unique habits that have remained largely undisturbed by human activities.

  19. Impact of arachidonic acid enrichment of live rotifer prey on bacterial communities in rotifer and larval fish cultures.

    PubMed

    Seychelles, Laurent H; Doiron, Kim; Audet, Céline; Tremblay, Réjean; Pernet, Fabrice; Lemarchand, Karine

    2013-03-01

    Rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis), commonly used at first feeding in commercial fish hatcheries, carry a large bacteria load. Because they are relatively poor in essential fatty acids, it is common practice to enrich them with fatty acids, including arachidonic acid (AA). This study aims to determine whether prey enrichment with AA may act as a prebiotic and modify the microbial community composition either in AA-enriched rotifer cultures or in larval-rearing water using winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) as a larval fish model. AA enrichment modified the bacterial community composition in both the rotifer culture tanks and the larval-rearing tanks. We observed an increase in the number of cultivable bacteria on TCBS (thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose) agar, used as a proxy for the abundance of Vibrio sp. The results suggest that AA may also play an indirect role in larval health.

  20. Bacterial Community Structure in Tree Hole Habitats of Ochlerotatus Triseriatus: Influences of Larval Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Y.; Chen, S.; Kaufman, M. G.; Maknojia, S.; Bagdasarian, M.; Walker, E. D.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the bacterial community composition of tree holes in relation to the presence and absence of larvae of the mosquito Ochlerotatus triseriatus. Larvae were eliminated from a subset of natural tree holes with Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis, and total bacterial numbers, slow- and fast-growing colony-forming units on minimal media, and 16S rRNA gene sequence data from water column and leaf material were obtained. Total bacterial counts did not change significantly with treatment; however, the number of slow-growing cultivable bacteria significantly increased in the absence of larvae. Sequence classifications and comparisons of sequence libraries using LIBSHUFF indicated that the elimination of larvae significantly altered bacterial community composition. Major groups apparently affected by larvae were Flavobacteriaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, Comamonadaceae, and Sphingomonadaceae. A clear dominance of Flavobacteriaceae in the water column after larval removal suggests members of this group are a major bacterial food source. PMID:18666529

  1. [Seasonal succession of lotic epiphyton: effects of macrophyte cover and grazing by chironomid larvae].

    PubMed

    Rusanov, A G; Khromov, V M

    2005-01-01

    The epiphyton is a community of periphyton on the aquatic plants. The seasonal dynamics of biomass, production and community structure of epiphytic algae on Potamogeton perfoliatus was studied at the Moscow River reach with low flow velocity from May to October 2000. The relative importance of physical-chemical environmental variables and herbivorous pressure in structuring the epiphyton community was accessed using multivariate redundancy analysis. Algal composition was mainly determined by the macrophyte cover, suggestion the overriding importance of the underwater light availability in seasonal development of epiphyton. There was a significant positive relationship between biomass of attached diatom Cocconeis placentula and abundance of chironomid larvae (r = 0.57; p < 0.01). This indicates that increase in herbivorous pressure caused the shift in epiphyton community structure. However, the intensity of herbivorous impact on epiphyton was ultimately determined by light availability in macrophyte stands. At low irradiance level and consequent slow growth of algae the upper layer of epiphyton was seriously destroyed by chironomids that resulted in dominance of C. placentula. As irradiance level and epiphyton productivity increased chironomids were unable to prevent biomass accumulation of the upper layer thus inhibiting the growth of C. placentula. The high concentrations of nutrients and relatively stable discharge determined the crucial role of light regime in the regulation of trophic interactions between epiphyton and chironomid larvae.

  2. Decapod crustacean larval communities in the Balearic Sea (western Mediterranean): Seasonal composition, horizontal and vertical distribution patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Asvin P.; Dos Santos, Antonina; Balbín, Rosa; Alemany, Francisco; Massutí, Enric; Reglero, Patricia

    2014-10-01

    Decapod crustaceans are the main target species of deep water bottom trawl fisheries in the Balearic Sea but little is known about their larval stages. This work focuses on the species composition of the decapod larval community, describing the main spatio-temporal assemblages and assessing their vertical distribution. Mesozooplankton sampling was carried out using depth-stratified sampling devices at two stations located over the shelf break and the mid slope, in the north-western and southern Mallorca in late autumn 2009 and summer 2010. Differences among decapod larvae communities, in terms of composition, adult's habitat such as pelagic or benthic, and distribution patterns were observed between seasons, areas and station. Results showed that for both seasons most species and developmental stages aggregated within the upper water column (above 75 m depth) and showed higher biodiversity in summer compared to late autumn. Most abundant species were pelagic prawns (e.g., Sergestidae) occurring in both seasons and areas. The larval assemblages' distributions were different between seasonal hydrographic scenarios and during situations of stratified and non-stratified water column. The vertical distribution patterns of different larval developmental stages in respect to the adult's habitat were analyzed in relation to environmental variables. Fluorescence had the highest explanatory power. Four clearly different vertical patterns were identified: two corresponding to late autumn, which were common for all the main larval groups and other two in summer, one corresponding to larvae of coastal benthic and the second to pelagic species larvae.

  3. The community structure of over-wintering larval and small juvenile fish in a large estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munk, Peter; Cardinale, Massimiliano; Casini, Michele; Rudolphi, Ann-Christin

    2014-02-01

    The Skagerrak and Kattegat are estuarine straits of high hydrographical and ecological diversity, situated between the saline waters of the North Sea and the brackish waters of the Baltic Sea. These sustain important nursery grounds of many fish species, of which several overwinter during the larval and early juvenile stages. In order to give more insight into the communities of the overwintering ichthyoplankton in estuarine areas, we examine an annual series of observations from a standard survey carried out 1992-2010. Species differences and annual variability in distributions and abundances are described, and linkages between ichthyoplankton abundances and corresponding hydrographical information are analysed by GAM methods. Communities were dominated by herring, gobies, butterfish, sprat, pipefishes, lemon sole and European eel (i.e. glass eel), and all the sampled species showed large annual fluctuations in abundances. The species showed quite specific patterns of distribution although species assemblages with common distributional characteristics were identified. Within these assemblages, the ichthyoplankton abundances showed linkage to environmental characteristics described by bottom-depth and surface temperature and salinity. Hence the study points to a significant structuring of overwintering ichthyoplankton communities in large estuaries, based on the species habitat choice and its response to physical gradients.

  4. Visualizing the population dynamics of microbial communities in the larval zebrafish gut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathy, Raghuveer

    In each of our digestive tracts, trillions of microbes representing hundreds of different species colonize local environments, reproduce, and compete with one another. The resulting ecosystems influence many aspects their host's development and health. Little is known about how gut microbial communities vary in space and time: how they grow, fluctuate, and respond to various perturbations. To address this and investigate microbial colonization of the vertebrate gut, we apply light sheet fluorescence microscopy to a model system that combines a realistic in vivo environment with a high degree of experimental control: larval zebrafish with defined subsets of commensal bacterial species. Light sheet microscopy enables three-dimensional imaging with high resolution over the entire intestine, providing visualizations that would be difficult or impossible to achieve with other techniques. Quantitative analysis of image data enables measurement of bacterial abundances and distributions. I will describe this approach and focus especially on recent experiments in which a colonizing bacterial species is challenged by the invasion of a second species, which leads to the decline of the first group. Imaging reveals dramatic population collapses that differentially affect the two species due to their different biogeographies and morphologies. The collapses are driven by the peristaltic motion of the zebrafish intestine, indicating that the physical activity of the host environment can play a major role in mediating inter-species competition. role in mediating inter-species competition. Supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0922951 and the National Institutes of Health under Award Number 1P50GM098911.

  5. Chironomids as indicators of climate change: a temperature inference model for Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddison, Eleanor J.; Long, Antony J.; Woodroffe, Sarah A.; Ranner, P. Helen; Huntley, Brian

    2014-05-01

    Current climate warming is predicted to accelerate melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet and cause global sea level to rise, but there is uncertainty about whether changes will be abrupt or more gradual, and whether the key forcing will be air or ocean temperatures. Examining past ice sheet response to climate change is therefore important, yet only a few quantitative temperature reconstructions exist from the Greenland Ice Sheet margin. Subfossil chironomids are a widely used biological proxy, with modern calibration data-sets used to construct past temperature. Many chironomid-inferred temperature models exist in the northern hemisphere high latitudes, however, no model currently exists for Greenland. Here we present a new model from south-west Greenland which utilises 22 lakes from the Nuup Kangerlua area (samples collected in summer 2011) and 19 lakes from the Kangerlussuaq fjord area (part of a dataset reported in Brodersen and Anderson (2002)). Monthly mean air temperatures were modelled for each lake site from air temperature logger data, collected in 2011-2012 from the Nuup Kangerlua area, and meteorological station temperature data. In the field, lake physical parameters and environmental variables were measured. Collected lake water and sediment samples were analysed in the laboratory. Statistical analysis of air temperature, geographical information, lake water chemistry and contemporary chironomid assemblage data was subsequently undertaken on the 41 lake training set. Mean June air temperature was found to be the main environmental control on the chironomid community, although other factors, including sample depth, conductivity and total nitrogen water content, were also found to be important. Weighted averaging partial least squares (WA-PLS) analysis was used to develop a new mean June air temperature inference model. Analysis indicated that the best model was a two component WA-PLS with r2=0.77, r2boot=0.56 and root mean square error of prediction = 1

  6. Effect of host tree species on cellulase activity and bacterial community composition in the gut of larval Asian longhorned beetle.

    PubMed

    Geib, Scott M; Jimenez-Gasco, Maria Del Mar; Carlson, John E; Tien, Ming; Hoover, Kelli

    2009-06-01

    Anoplophora glabripennis, the Asian longhorned beetle, is a wood-boring insect that can develop in a wide range of healthy deciduous hosts and requires gut microbes to aid in wood degradation and digestion. Here we show that larval A. glabripennis harbor a diverse gut bacterial community, and this community can be extremely variable when reared in different host trees. A. glabripennis reared in a preferred host (Acer saccharum) had the highest gut bacterial diversity compared with larvae reared either in a secondary host (Quercus palustris), a resistant host (Pyrus calleryana), or on artificial diet. The gut microbial community of larval A. glabripennis collected from field populations on Brooklyn, NY, showed the highest degree of complexity among all samples in this study. Overall, when larvae fed on a preferred host, they harbored a broad diversity of gut bacteria spanning the alpha-, beta-, gamma-Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. Cellulase activities (beta-1,4-endoglucanase, beta-1,4-exoglucanase, and beta-1,4-glucosidase) in the guts of larvae fed in a preferred host (A. saccharum) or a secondary host (Q. palustris) were significantly higher than that of artificial diet fed larvae. Larvae that fed on wood from a resistant host (P. calleryana) showed suppressed total gut cellulase activity. Results show that the host tree can impact both gut microbial community complexity and cellulase activity in A. glabripennis.

  7. Characterization of bacterial communities associating with larval development of Yesso Scallop ( Patinopecten yessoensisis Jay, 1857) by high-throughput sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xueying; Liu, Jichen; Li, Ming; Zhao, Xuewei; Liang, Jun; Sun, Pihai; Ma, Yuexin

    2016-12-01

    Bacterial community presumably plays an essential role in inhibiting pathogen colonization and maintaining the health of scallop larvae, but limiting data are available for Yesso scallop ( Patinopecten yessoensisis Jay, 1857) larval development stages. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare the bacterial communities associating with Yesso scallop larval development at fertilized egg S1, trochophora S2, D-shaped larvae S3, umbo larvae S4, and juvenile scallop S5 stages by Illumina high-throughput sequencing. Genomic DNA was extracted from the larvae and their associating bactera, and a gene segment covering V3-V4 region of 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced using an Illumina Miseq sequencer. Overall, 106760 qualified sequences with an average length of 449 bp were obtained. Sequences were compared with those retrieved from 16S rRNA gene databases, and 4 phyla, 7 classes, 15 orders, 21 families, 31 genera were identified. Proteobacteria was predominant phylum, accounting for more than 99%, at all 5 larval development stages. At genus level, Pseudomonas was dominant at stages S1 (80.60%), S2 (87.77%) and S5 (68.71%), followed by Photobacterium (17.06%) and Aeromonas (1.64%) at stage S1, Serratia (6.94%), Stenotrophomonas (3.08%) and Acinetobacter (1.2%) at stage S2, Shewanella (25.95%) and Pseudoalteromonas (4.57%) at stage S5. Moreover, genus Pseudoalteromonas became dominant at stages S3 (44.85%) and S4 (56.02%), followed by Photobacterium (29.82%), Pseudomonas (11.86%), Aliivibrio (8.60%) and Shewanella (3.39%) at stage S3, Pseudomonas (18.16%), Aliivibrio (14.29%), Shewanella (4.11%), Psychromonas (4.04%) and Psychrobacter (1.81%) at stage S4. From the results, we concluded that the bacterial community changed significantly at different development stages of Yesso Scallop larvae.

  8. The effect of quorum-sensing blockers on the formation of marine microbial communities and larval attachment.

    PubMed

    Dobretsov, Sergey; Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Yili, Huang; Wahl, Martin; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2007-05-01

    We studied the effect of the quorum-sensing (QS) blockers 5-hydroxy-3[(1R)-1-hydroxypropyl]-4-methylfuran-2(5H)-one (FUR1), (5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-[(1S)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl]furan-2(5H)-one (FUR2) and triclosan (TRI) on the formation of bacterial biofilms, and the effect of these biofilms on the larval attachment of the polychaete Hydroides elegans and the bryozoan Bugula neritina. 14-day-old subtidal biofilms were harvested from artificial substrata and were allowed to develop in the laboratory with and without QS blockers. QS blockers inhibited the production of violacein by the QS reporter strain Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and did not affect the metabolic activity of bacteria in multispecies biofilms. At a concentration of 10(-3) M all three tested compounds inhibited the establishment of microbial communities, but at one of 10(-4) M only FUR2 inhibited establishment. The tested QS blockers caused changes in bacterial density and bacterial community structure, as revealed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and FISH. The groups most affected by QS blockers were Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and the Cytophagales. Larvae of H. elegans and B. neritina avoided settling on biofilms that had developed in the presence of QS blockers. Our results suggest that QS blockers directly control the formation of multi-species biofilms, and indirectly - by means of biofilm properties - affect larval attachment on these modified biofilms.

  9. Larval settlement rate: a leading determinant of structure in an ecological community of the marine intertidal zone

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, S.; Roughgarden, J.

    1985-06-01

    Field studies demonstrate that the population structure of the barnacle Balanus glandula differs between locations of high and low larval settlement rate. These observations, together with results from a model for the demography of an open, space-limited population, suggest that the settlement rate may be a more important determinant of rocky intertidal community structure than is presently realized. At the low-settlement location mortality of barnacles is independent of the area occupied by barnacles. At the high-settlement location mortality is cover-dependent due to increased predation by starfish on areas of high barnacle cover. In both locations the cover-independent component of mortality does not vary with age during the first 60 weeks. Generalizations that the highest species diversity in a rocky intertidal community is found at locations of intermediate disturbance, and that competition causes zonation between species of the barnacle genera Balanus and Chthamalus, seem to apply only to locations with high-settlement rates.

  10. Chironomids (Insecta: Diptera) as Indicators of Ecological Status in Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marziali, L.; Lencioni, V.; Rossaro, B.

    2005-05-01

    Benthic communities are used in biological assessment and monitoring in lakes. Chironomids are considered indicators of oxygen level and trophic state. The taxocoenosis of 42 Italian lakes with different volume, depth, annual minimum hypolimnetic oxygen concentration, transparency and phosphorous concentration were investigated. Larvae were collected with a Petersen grab at different depths, pupal exuviae with a drift net near the outlet of lakes and adults with a sweep net along the shore. 334 species were identified: 41 Tanypodinae, 17 Diamesinae, 3 Prodiamesinae, 118 Orthocladiinae, 155 Chironominae (61 Tanytarsini, 93 Chironomini and 1 Pseudochironomini). Drift samples included many more taxa than grab samples, adult samples often included terrestrial species. Lake Garda, Como and Maggiore were the richest in species (78, 72 and 66 respectively), as expected because of their large size. Species richness did not result as good indicator: both oligotrophic (Monate 52 species, Toblino 33) and eutrophic lakes (Annone 57, Pusiano 42) were characterized by similar species numbers. Different species were more suitable indicators of oxygen concentration rather than of nutrients. A comparison of different lakes is preliminary because of: 1. different morphometric and trophic conditions; 2. different sampling effort; 3. lack of knowledge of species optima and tolerance.

  11. Chironomids as indicators of natural and human impacts in a 700-yr record from the northern Patagonian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Natalia; Rieradevall, Maria; Añón Suárez, Diego; Rizzo, Andrea; Daga, Romina; Ribeiro Guevara, Sergio; Arribére, María Angélica

    2016-09-01

    Chironomid communities were studied in a sediment core collected from Lake Moreno Oeste, located in Nahuel Huapi National Park. A major change in midge assemblages occurred at ∼AD 1760, which was characterized by a decrease of "cold taxa" including Polypedilum sp.2 and Dicrotendipes, and an increase of "warm taxa" including Apsectrotanypus and Polypedilum sp.1. These taxa are likely related to climatic conditions concurrent with the end of a cold period at ∼AD 1500-1700 and the beginning of a drying climate at ∼AD 1740-1900 in northern Patagonia. Coarse tephra layers had low midge diversity; however they did not disrupt the climatic trend as the community recovered rapidly after the event. Since AD 1910, after the increase in suburban housing, fish introduction, and the construction of a road, there was an increase in the relative abundances of taxa typically associated with the littoral zone, such as Parapsectrocladius, Riethia, Apsectrotanypus, and some Tanytarsini morphotypes. The main change in the chironomid community appears to be associated with long-term climate change. At the beginning of the 20th century, other site-specific environmental factors (catchment change and fish introduction) altered the chironomid assemblages, making it more difficult to understand the relative importance of each driver of assemblage change.

  12. Anhydrobiosis vs. aging: comparative genomics of protein repair L-isoaspartyl methyltransferases in the sleeping chironomid. .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Oleg; Kikawada, Takahiro; Shagimardanova, Elena; Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Ayupov, Rustam

    and larval stages. Finally, the expression of Pimt1 gene in both chironomids was not changed in response to desiccation, while the clustered PvPimt2-12 showed strong up-regulation in response to water loss and other abiotic stresses. The abundance of PvPimt2-12 mRNAs was maximal in anhydrobiotic larvae, and it resembles the case of plant seeds where accumulation of PIMT provides additional protection for proteins during long dry storage. Predicted proteins of PvPimT2-12 contain conservative L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase functional domain. At the same time the length and structure of N- and C- terminals of the predicted proteins show significant variation, suggesting different substrate preferences or other specific properties of different Pv-PIMT Furthermore, the multi-member family in Pv is the first observation of drastic expansion and evolution of Pimt genes in general, and particularly in a single insect species. This work was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (№ 12-08-33157 mol_a_ved and № 14-04-01657_A).

  13. An Introduction to the Identification of Chironomid Larvae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, William T., Jr.

    This publication is an introductory guide to the identification of Chironomid (Midge) larvae. The larvae of these small flies are an important link in the food chain between algae and microinvertebrates. As a family, the larvae exhibit a wide range of tolerance to environmental factors such as amounts and types of pollutants. Much of this…

  14. Larval Mosquito Habitat Utilization and Community Dynamics of Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    along with buckets, trash cans, and plant receptacles. Although slightly less abundant, Ae. japonicus prefers similar habitats. Our data collec...midgeMetriocnemius knabi, and their carnivorous host Sarracenia purpurea, pp. 161Ð 189. In J. H. Frank and L. P. Lounibos (eds.), Phyto- telmata...Terrestrial Plants as Hosts for Aquatic Insect Communities. Plexus Publishing Inc., Medford, NJ. Campos, R. E., and L. P. Lounibos. 2000. Life tables of

  15. Microbial Communities of Lycaenid Butterflies Do Not Correlate with Larval Diet

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Melissa R. L.; Salzman, Shayla; Sanders, Jon; Kaltenpoth, Martin; Pierce, Naomi E.

    2016-01-01

    Herbivores possess many counteradaptations to plant defenses, and a growing body of research describes the role of symbiotic gut bacteria in mediating herbivorous diets among insects. However, persistent bacterial symbioses have not been found in Lepidoptera, despite the fact that perhaps 99% of the species in this order are herbivorous. We surveyed bacterial communities in the guts of larvae from 31 species of lycaenid butterflies whose caterpillars had diets ranging from obligate carnivory to strict herbivory. Contrary to our expectations, we found that the bacterial communities of carnivorous and herbivorous caterpillars do not differ in richness, diversity, or composition. Many of the observed bacterial genera are commonly found in soil and plant surfaces, and we detected known homopteran endosymbionts in the guts of homopterophagous species, suggesting that larvae acquire gut bacteria from their food and environment. These results indicate that lycaenid butterflies do not rely on specific bacterial symbioses to mediate their diverse diets, and provide further evidence of taxonomically depauperate bacterial communities among Lepidoptera. PMID:27965647

  16. Microbial Communities of Lycaenid Butterflies Do Not Correlate with Larval Diet.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Melissa R L; Salzman, Shayla; Sanders, Jon; Kaltenpoth, Martin; Pierce, Naomi E

    2016-01-01

    Herbivores possess many counteradaptations to plant defenses, and a growing body of research describes the role of symbiotic gut bacteria in mediating herbivorous diets among insects. However, persistent bacterial symbioses have not been found in Lepidoptera, despite the fact that perhaps 99% of the species in this order are herbivorous. We surveyed bacterial communities in the guts of larvae from 31 species of lycaenid butterflies whose caterpillars had diets ranging from obligate carnivory to strict herbivory. Contrary to our expectations, we found that the bacterial communities of carnivorous and herbivorous caterpillars do not differ in richness, diversity, or composition. Many of the observed bacterial genera are commonly found in soil and plant surfaces, and we detected known homopteran endosymbionts in the guts of homopterophagous species, suggesting that larvae acquire gut bacteria from their food and environment. These results indicate that lycaenid butterflies do not rely on specific bacterial symbioses to mediate their diverse diets, and provide further evidence of taxonomically depauperate bacterial communities among Lepidoptera.

  17. Toxicity of total dissolved solids associated with two mine effluents to chironomid larvae and early life stages of rainbow trout

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, P.M.; Bailey, H.; Canaria, E.

    2000-01-01

    Assessment of total dissolved solids (TDS) represents an integrated measure of the concentrations of common ions (e.g., sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate) in freshwaters. Toxicity related to these ions is due to the specific combination and concentration of ions and is not predictable from TDS concentrations. Short-term chronic toxicity tests were conducted with larval chironomids and trout (eggs and swim-up fry) to assess their TDS tolerance relative to effluents from two Alaskan mines. Both effluents are characterized by high TDS content but differ with respect to concentrations of specific ions and alkalinity. The toxicity tests were conducted with synthetic effluents formulated to match the ionic composition of each mine discharge. No toxicity was observed at 2,000 mg of TDS/L with embryos or developing fry, but chironomids exhibited effects above 1,100 mg of TDS/L. These tests, together with information on the health of field populations (fish and benthic invertebrates), are appropriate and relevant for determining site-specific whole effluent TDS concentrations.

  18. Vibrio cholerae Hemagglutinin/Protease Degrades Chironomid Egg Masses

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Malka; Gancz, Hanan; Broza, Meir; Kashi, Yechezkel

    2003-01-01

    Cholera is a severe diarrheal disease caused by specific serogroups of Vibrio cholerae that are pathogenic to humans. The disease does not persist in a chronic state in humans or animals. The pathogen is naturally present as a free-living organism in the environment. Recently, it was suggested that egg masses of the nonbiting midge Chironomus sp. (Diptera) harbor and serve as a nutritive source for V. cholerae, thereby providing a natural reservoir for the organism. Here we report that V. cholerae O9, O1, and O139 supernatants lysed the gelatinous matrix of the chironomid egg mass and inhibited eggs from hatching. The extracellular factor responsible for the degradation of chironomid egg masses (egg mass degrading factor) was purified from V. cholerae O9 and O139 and was identified as the major secreted hemagglutinin/protease (HA/P) of V. cholerae. The substrate in the egg mass was characterized as a glycoprotein. These findings show that HA/P plays an important role in the interaction of V. cholerae and chironomid egg masses. PMID:12839800

  19. Temporal changes in the bacterial community of animal feces and their correlation with stable fly oviposition, larval development, and adult fitness

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Thais A.; Zurek, Ludek

    2014-01-01

    Stable flies are blood-feeding insects with a great negative impact on animals world wide. Larvae develop primarily in animal manure and bacteria are essential for larval development; however, the principle of this dependence is not understood. We hypothesized that as the microbial community of animal manure changes over time, it plays an important role in stable fly fitness. Two-choice bioassays were conducted using 2 week old horse manure (control) and aging horse manure (fresh to 5 week old) to evaluate the effect of manure age on stable fly oviposition. Our data showed that fresh feces did not stimulate oviposition and that the attractiveness increased as manure aged but started to decline after 3 weeks. Bioassays assessing the effect of manure age at the time of oviposition on larval development demonstrated that 1–3 week old manure supported larval development significantly better than fresh, 4, and 5 week old manure. In addition, adult fitness (body size) was significantly higher in flies from 1 and 2 week old manure comparing to that of all other treatments. Analysis of the bacterial community of aging horse manure by 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA revealed a great reduction in bacterial diversity and richness from fresh to 1–5 week old manure and a major shift from strict anaerobes in fresh manure to facultative anaerobes and strict aerobes in aged manure. Overall, the microbial community of 2 and 3 week old horse manure with its dominant bacterial taxa Rhizobium, Devosia, and Brevundimonas stimulated stable fly oviposition the most and provided a suitable habitat for larval development. These bacteria represent the candidates for studies focused on better understanding of stable fly – microbial interactions. PMID:25426108

  20. Sediment chemistries and chironomid deformities in the Buffalo River (NY)

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, K.M.; Diggins, T.P.

    1994-12-31

    The authors examined the surficial sediment chemistry (heavy metals) and the frequency of chironomid (Diptera) larvae mouthpart deformities from multiple PONAR grabs samples at each of 20 sites along the Buffalo River (NY) area of concern (AOC). Because of the potential for patchy invertebrate distribution and high variance in sediment chemistry, repeated spatial and temporal sampling is important to obtain a better integrated picture of contamination in rivers. The findings suggest that the Buffalo River has one of the highest percentages of deformed chironomids in AOC`s of the Great Lakes basin. One river site that was traditionally thought to be a chemical hot spot was less contaminated than another downstream section. At another site, sediment concentrations for V., Mn and AS appeared to be strongly associated with the proximity of combined sewer overflows from a region which is primarily residential. Interestingly, a demonstration project of the US Army Corps of Engineers, during which three types of dredges were used to carefully remove upper sediments from two different short reaches along the river, seemed to have no significant impact on proximate sediment chemistries or biota.

  1. Achieving high coverage of larval-stage mosquito surveillance: challenges for a community-based mosquito control programme in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Preventing malaria by controlling mosquitoes in their larval stages requires regular sensitive monitoring of vector populations and intervention coverage. The study assessed the effectiveness of operational, community-based larval habitat surveillance systems within the Urban Malaria Control Programme (UMCP) in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were carried out to assess the ability of community-owned resource persons (CORPs) to detect mosquito breeding sites and larvae in areas with and without larviciding. Potential environmental and programmatic determinants of habitat detection coverage and detection sensitivity of mosquito larvae were recorded during guided walks with 64 different CORPs to assess the accuracy of data each had collected the previous day. Results CORPs reported the presence of 66.2% of all aquatic habitats (1,963/2,965), but only detected Anopheles larvae in 12.6% (29/230) of habitats that contained them. Detection sensitivity was particularly low for late-stage Anopheles (2.7%, 3/111), the most direct programmatic indicator of malaria vector productivity. Whether a CORP found a wet habitat or not was associated with his/her unfamiliarity with the area (Odds Ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] = 0.16 [0.130, 0.203], P < 0.001), the habitat type (P < 0.001) or a fence around the compound (OR [95%CI] = 0.50 [0.386, 0.646], P < 0.001). The majority of mosquito larvae (Anophelines 57.8% (133/230) and Culicines 55.9% (461/825) were not reported because their habitats were not found. The only factor affecting detection of Anopheline larvae in habitats that were reported by CORPs was larviciding, which reduced sensitivity (OR [95%CI] = 0.37 [0.142, 0.965], P = 0.042). Conclusions Accessibility of habitats in urban settings presents a major challenge because the majority of compounds are fenced for security reasons. Furthermore, CORPs under-reported larvae especially where larvicides were applied. This UMCP

  2. Bacterial fauna associating with chironomid larvae from lakes of Bengaluru city, India - A 16s rRNA gene based identification.

    PubMed

    Kuncham, Ramprasad; Sivaprakasam, Thiyagarajan; Puneeth Kumar, R; Sreenath, P; Nayak, Ravi; Thayumanavan, Tha; Subba Reddy, Gopireddy V

    2017-06-01

    Chironomid larvae that inhabit in aquatic sediments play an important role as vector for bacterial pathogens. Its life cycle consists of four stages i.e. eggs, larvae, pupae and adult. In the present study we identified bacterial species associated with whole larvae of chironomids from 11 lake sediments of Bangalore region using 16s rRNA gene Sanger sequencing. We found that larvae from all lake sediments associated with bacterial species which include key pathogens. Totally we identified 65 bacterial isolates and obtained GenBank accession numbers (KX980423 - KX980487). Phylogenetic tree constructed using MEGA 7 software and tree analysis highlight the predominant bacterial community associated with larvae which include Enterobacteriaceae (43.08%; 28 isolates) and Aeromonas (24.62%; 16 isolates), Shewanella, Delftia, Bacillus (6.15%; 4 isolates each), Pseudomonas (4.62%; 3 isolates) and Exiguobacterium (3.08%; 2 isolates). Current findings state that among bacterial population Aeromonas, Enterobacter and Escherichia with serotypes are commonly associated with larvae in maximum lake points. In other hand Vibrio, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Shigella, Bacillus, and other bacterial species were identified moderately in all lakes. Interestingly, we identified first time Shigella Gram negative, rod shaped pathogenic organism of Enterobacteriaceae and Rheinheimera Gram negative, rod shaped organism associating chironomid larvae.

  3. Environmental forcing and the larval fish community associated to the Atlantic bluefin tuna spawning habitat of the Balearic region (Western Mediterranean), in early summer 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, J. M.; Alvarez, I.; Lopez-Jurado, J. L.; Garcia, A.; Balbin, R.; Alvarez-Berastegui, D.; Torres, A. P.; Alemany, F.

    2013-07-01

    The Balearic region is a highly dynamic area located in the Western Mediterranean, straddling the transition between the Algerian and Provencal basins and constitutes one of the main spawning grounds for the large, migratory Atlantic bluefin (Thunnus thynnus) and other medium and small tuna species (Thunnus alalunga, Auxis rochei, Euthynnus alleteratus and Katsuwonus pelamis). In summer, despite been considered an oligotrophic region as the whole Mediterranean Sea, it harbors a relatively abundant and diverse larval fish community (LFC). In this study, we analyze the composition, abundance and the influence of abiotic and biotic factors on the horizontal structure of the LFC in the Balearic region, in early summer 2005, during the spawning season of Atlantic bluefin tuna. Hydrographically, 2005 was an unusual year with a summer situation of relatively lack of mesoscale features, weak surface currents and a general situation of high stability. A total of 128 taxa of fish larvae, belonging to 52 families, were identified. The average abundance was 1770 larvae 1000 m-3. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed LFC to have a strong horizontal structure. Cluster analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling ordination identified two larval fish assemblages. These assemblages were mainly delineated by depth and, therefore, by the spawning location of adult fish. Our results also suggest that anticyclonic eddy boundaries constitute favourable habitats for fish larvae. Also, the scenario of higher than unusual hydrographic stability found during the cruise would be responsible for the relatively lack of mesoscale features and, consequently, for the lack of influence of these features on the horizontal distribution of fish larvae and on the horizontal structure of the LFC.

  4. Institutional evolution of a community-based programme for malaria control through larval source management in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Community-based service delivery is vital to the effectiveness, affordability and sustainability of vector control generally, and to labour-intensive larval source management (LSM) programmes in particular. Case description The institutional evolution of a city-level, community-based LSM programme over 14 years in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, illustrates how operational research projects can contribute to public health governance and to the establishment of sustainable service delivery programmes. Implementation, management and governance of this LSM programme is framed within a nested set of spatially-defined relationships between mosquitoes, residents, government and research institutions that build upward from neighbourhood to city and national scales. Discussion and evaluation The clear hierarchical structure associated with vertical, centralized management of decentralized, community-based service delivery, as well as increasingly clear differentiation of partner roles and responsibilities across several spatial scales, contributed to the evolution and subsequent growth of the programme. Conclusions The UMCP was based on the principle of an integrated operational research project that evolved over time as the City Council gradually took more responsibility for management. The central role of Dar es Salaam’s City Council in coordinating LSM implementation enabled that flexibility; the institutionalization of management and planning in local administrative structures enhanced community-mobilization and funding possibilities at national and international levels. Ultimately, the high degree of program ownership by the City Council and three municipalities, coupled with catalytic donor funding and technical support from expert overseas partners have enabled establishment of a sustainable, internally-funded programme implemented by the National Ministry of Health and Social Welfare and supported by national research and training institutes. PMID

  5. Late Glacial climate and palaeoenvironment in the Southern Carpathian Mountains inferred by chironomid and pollen analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, M.; Heiri, O.; Magyari, E.; Braun, M.; Buczkó, K.; Bálint, M.; Jakab, G.

    2009-04-01

    The Southern Carpathian Mountains have several glacial lakes with their sediments extending back to the Late Glacial period (ca. 11,500-14,700 calibrated radiocarbon years BP). This area has so far missed quantitative palaeoclimate records that are however much needed in order to obtain a continental-scale picture of ecosystem reorganization in response to rapid climatic changes during the Late Glacial. High-resolution chironomid and pollen analyses can both provide such records. In this study these two methods are applied to the sediment sequence of a small sub-alpine lake, Taul dintre Brazi (Retezat Mts, 1740 m a.s.l., 0.5 ha). The lake is situated on base-poor, granite bedrock, within the Picea abies forest belt. Our aim was (1) to study changes in the chironomid fauna, (2) to obtain summer temperature estimates using a chironomid-mean July air temperature inference model, and finally (3) to compare the chironomid-inferred climate record with a pollen-based quantitative climate record (plant functional type method). Here we provide first results from this multi-proxy study. The Late Glacial and Early Holocene part of this core was analysed at 100-200 yr resolution. During the Oldest Dryas the chironomid fauna was dominated by Pseudodiamesa and Tanytarsini species; the start of the Lateglacial interstadial was marked by the diversification of Tanytarsini (Tanytarsus lugens-type, Tanytarsus pallidicornis-type, Paratanytarsus sp, Micropsectra insignilobus-type) and the disappearance of Pseudodiamesa suggesting a distinct increase in summer temperature. At the same time afforestation by Larix, Pinus cembra, Pinus mugo and Picea abies was signaled by the pollen, stomatal and plant macrofossil records. During the Younger Dryas reversal the chironomid fauna showed increasing abundance of Micropsectra insignilobus-type, a chironomid typical for cool, nutrient poor lakes whereas the pollen, plant macrofossil and stomatal records pointed to a decrease of Picea abies

  6. Northern Russian chironomid-based modern summer temperature data set and inference models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarova, Larisa; Self, Angela E.; Brooks, Stephen J.; van Hardenbroek, Maarten; Herzschuh, Ulrike; Diekmann, Bernhard

    2015-11-01

    West and East Siberian data sets and 55 new sites were merged based on the high taxonomic similarity, and the strong relationship between mean July air temperature and the distribution of chironomid taxa in both data sets compared with other environmental parameters. Multivariate statistical analysis of chironomid and environmental data from the combined data set consisting of 268 lakes, located in northern Russia, suggests that mean July air temperature explains the greatest amount of variance in chironomid distribution compared with other measured variables (latitude, longitude, altitude, water depth, lake surface area, pH, conductivity, mean January air temperature, mean July air temperature, and continentality). We established two robust inference models to reconstruct mean summer air temperatures from subfossil chironomids based on ecological and geographical approaches. The North Russian 2-component WA-PLS model (RMSEPJack = 1.35 °C, rJack2 = 0.87) can be recommended for application in palaeoclimatic studies in northern Russia. Based on distinctive chironomid fauna and climatic regimes of Kamchatka the Far East 2-component WAPLS model (RMSEPJack = 1.3 °C, rJack2 = 0.81) has potentially better applicability in Kamchatka.

  7. [Studies on the massive flights of chironomid midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) as nuisance insects and plans for their control in the Lake Suwa area, central Japan. 3. Some experimental trials for control of nuisance midges and proposed counterplans].

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, K

    1991-06-01

    In the present paper the author tried to forecast the massive emergence of adult Tokunagayusurika akamusi midges from Lake Suwa. Furthermore, several control measures for chironomids were examined. The results obtained are as follows: 1. The forecast for the emergence of adult midges from the lake. A survey of the chironomid larva population was carried out at three stations in the lake. T. akamusi emerged at about the tenth day after the decrease of the larval number and at this time the temperature of the bottom water was within the range of 11-18 degrees C. The flights of adult midges were closely related to environmental factors such as air temperature, the strength and the direction of the wind and the light conditions. 2. The attraction of adult midges to lamps of various colors and wattages was studied. A comparative study on various colors of lights of the same intensity (100 W) showed that white was more attractive to chironomids than yellow, and that both colors were preferred to red, green, or blue. The experiment on light intensity showed that 100 W was more effective than 40 W and 20 W and that no differences in preference were observed between 100 W and 60 W white lamps. Therefore, the light intensity was thought to be more important than color for the control of adult midges. 3. Cyprinus is the natural enemy of the larva and pupae of T. akamusi. The total numbers of adult T. akamusi emerging from Enclosure A (in which there were 10 times as many Cyprinus as in the natural lake water), Enclosure B (no predator was present), and Station C (the natural lake) were 458, 1108, and 684 ind./m2, respectively. It was estimated that 38% of larvae or pupae were eaten by the fish in the lake, and by putting Cyprinus into the water, the percentage increased to 58%. It seems that Cyprinus has a significant effect in reducing the number of midges in field trials. 4. The control of T. akamusi may also be achieved by employing general prevention, by physical and

  8. Chironomid δ 18O as a proxy for past lake water δ 18O: a Lateglacial record from Rotsee (Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbruggen, F.; Heiri, O.; Reichart, G.-J.; Lotter, A. F.

    2010-08-01

    We explored whether the stable oxygen isotope composition (δ 18O) of fossil chironomid remains can be used to reconstruct past variations in lake water δ 18O from Lateglacial and early Holocene sediments from Rotsee (Switzerland). A sediment core from the former littoral zone of the lake was examined since it contained both high concentrations of chironomid remains and abundant authigenic carbonates and therefore allowed a direct comparison of chironomid δ 18O with values measured on bulk carbonates. Since carbonate particles adhering to chironomid remains potentially affect 18O measurements we tested two methods to chemically remove residual carbonates. Trials with isotopically heavy and light acid solutions indicated that treatment with hydrochloric acid promoted oxygen exchange between chironomid remains and the water used during pretreatment. In contrast, a buffered 2 M ammonium chloride (NH 4Cl) solution did not seem to affect chironomid δ 18O to a significant extent. Fossil chironomid δ 18O was analyzed for the Rotsee record both using standard palaeoecological methods and after pretreatment with NH 4Cl. Samples prepared using standard techniques showed a poor correlation with δ 18O of bulk carbonate ( r2 = 0.14) suggesting that carbonate contamination of the chironomid samples obscured the chironomid δ 18O signature. Samples pretreated with NH 4Cl correlated well with bulk carbonate δ 18O ( r2 = 0.67) and successfully tracked the well-known Lateglacial changes in δ 18O. Chironomid δ 18O indicated depleted lake water δ 18O during the Oldest Dryas period, the Aegelsee and Gerzensee Oscillations, and the Younger Dryas, whereas enriched δ 18O values were associated with sediments deposited during the Lateglacial interstadial and the early Holocene. Differences in the amplitude of variations in bulk carbonate and chironomid δ 18O are attributed to differential temperature effects on oxygen isotope fractionation during the formation of carbonates and

  9. Larval mosquito communities in discarded vehicle tires in a forested and unforested site: detritus type, amount, and water nutrient differences.

    PubMed

    Kling, Lindsey J; Juliano, Steven A; Yee, Donald A

    2007-12-01

    Discarded tires are an important habitat for larvae of multiple species of disease-transmitting mosquitoes. Although tire locations likely influence composition and abundance of vectors, there are few data linking vector populations to the characteristics of the aquatic tire environment. We sampled water-filled tires at three times at a forested and an unforested site to evaluate how differences in detritus inputs or nutrients in these two macrohabitats may be associated with composition of mosquito-dominated invertebrate communities. The forested site had significantly greater inputs of leaves, twigs, seeds, and fine detritus at the first sampling, but subsequent sampling indicated no differences in inputs of any detritus type. Total phosphorous levels were significantly greater in the forested site, but there was no difference in total nitrogen or total ion concentrations during any sampling. Chlorophyll a levels were not different between sites, even though light levels were greater and canopy cover was less at the unforested site. Culex restuans dominated at the unforested site, and Ochlerotatus triseriatus, Anopheles barberi, and Orthopodomyia signifera were found primarily in the forest. Tires at the forested site had significantly more species but not more individuals than at the unforested site. Leaf amount was a good predictor of densities of Oc. triseriatus and overall abundance of mosquitoes in the forest, whereas the amount of seeds was a good predictor of overall invertebrate richness and of Oc. triseriatus numbers in the unforested site. Differences in mosquito assemblage composition between forested and unforested locations may be explained by greater inputs of plant-based detritus and some nutrients, but other factors, such as macrohabitat or host preferences of adult mosquitoes, also may be important.

  10. The sleeping chironomid: an insect survived 18 months of exposure to outer space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Oleg; Sakashita, Tetsuya; Sychev, Vladimir; Novikova, Nataliya; Sugimoto, Manabu; Malyutina, Ludmila; Kikawada, Takahiro; Okuda, Takashi

    Anhydrobiosis is an ametabolic state of life entered by an organism in response to desiccation. There are only few groups of higher invertebrates capable to survival complete water loss. An African chironomid Polypedilum vanderpalnki is the only anhydrobiotic insect. Larvae of this sleeping chironomid living in temporary pools in semi-arid areas on the African continent become completely desiccated upon drought, but can revive after water becomes available upon the next rain. Dry larvae can revive after several decades of anhydrobiosis and show cross-resistance to different environmental stresses, including temperature fluctuation, high doses of ionizing radiation and organic solvents. This enormous resistance of the sleeping chironomid to extreme environments points to the high probability of their survival and transfer across outer space and makes this species promising model organism for astrobiological studies. In period from 2005 to 2010 the sleeping chironomid was utilized as a model organism in experiments on resistance of resting stages of invertebrates to space environment both inside of ISS ("Aquarium" research program) and on the outer side of ISS ("Biorisk-2" and "EXPOSE-R" experiments) . In the present report we mainly focus on results of "Biorisk-2" experiment where there containers with anhydrobiotic larvae were continuously exposed to outer space environment. Container 1 (FC1) remained exposed to outer space for 405 days (from June 6, 2007 to July 15, 2008), Container 2 (FC2) for 566 days (from June 6, 2007 to December 23, 2008), and Container 3 (FC3) is expected to be returning to the Earth later this year. First analysis of the larvae from the first two containers FC1 and FC2 showed that the sleeping chironomid have succesfully survived the continous space exposure comparable with duration of interpanetary spaceflight and recovered both biomolecules and cells complexes upon rehydration

  11. Late Holocene climate and environmental changes in Kamchatka inferred from the subfossil chironomid record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarova, Larisa; de Hoog, Verena; Hoff, Ulrike; Dirksen, Oleg; Diekmann, Bernhard

    2013-05-01

    This study presents a reconstruction of the Late Holocene climate in Kamchatka based on chironomid remains from a 332 cm long composite sediment core recovered from Dvuyurtochnoe Lake (Two-Yurts Lake, TYL) in central Kamchatka. The oldest recovered sediments date to about 4500 cal years BP. Chironomid head capsules from TYL reflect a rich and diverse fauna. An unknown morphotype of Tanytarsini, Tanytarsus type klein, was found in the lake sediments. Our analysis reveals four chironomid assemblage zones reflecting four different climatic periods in the Late Holocene. Between 4500 and 4000 cal years BP, the chironomid composition indicates a high lake level, well-oxygenated lake water conditions and close to modern temperatures (˜13 °C). From 4000 to 1000 cal years BP, two consecutive warm intervals were recorded, with the highest reconstructed temperature reaching 16.8 °C between 3700 and 2800 cal years BP. Cooling trend, started around 1100 cal years BP led to low temperatures during the last stage of the Holocene. Comparison with other regional studies has shown that termination of cooling at the beginning of late Holocene is relatively synchronous in central Kamchatka, South Kurile, Bering and Japanese Islands and take place around 3700 cal years BP. From ca 3700 cal years BP to the last millennium, a newly strengthened climate continentality accompanied by general warming trend with minor cool excursions led to apparent spatial heterogeneity of climatic patterns in the region. Some timing differences in climatic changes reconstructed from chironomid record of TYL sediments and late Holocene events reconstructed from other sites and other proxies might be linked to differences in local forcing mechanisms or caused by the different degree of dating precision, the different temporal resolution, and the different sensitive responses of climate proxies to the climate variations. Further high-resolution stratigraphic studies in this region are needed to understand

  12. Holocene lake level fluctuations of a small alpine lake in the Qilian Mountains, NW China: a comparison of chironomid, ostracod, pollen and geochemistry data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mischke, S.; Herzschuh, U.

    2003-04-01

    A core of 14 m length was drilled in a small alpine lake in the Qilian Mountains, NW China. The lake Luanhaizi has a drainage area of about 30 km2 and is situated at an altitude of 3200 m which represents the altitude of the present regional upper timberline. Due to the small size of the open-basin lake (surface area about 1 km2) and the sharply outlined catchment area the lake is regarded as a very sensitively and rapidly responding ecosystem. Analyses of ostracod shells, head capsules of larval chironomids and pollen and spores were conducted and the organic and carbonate content (LOI), element concentrations and magnetic susceptibility of core samples determined. Ostracod taxa mainly comprise Candona candida, C. neglecta, C. rawsoni, Cyclocypris ovum, Cypridopsis vidua, Fabaeformiscandona caudata, F. danielopoli, F. hyalina, Herpetocypris chevreuxi, Heterocypris salina, Ilyocypris cf. bradyi, I. echinata, I. lacustris and Limnocythere inopinata. They may be used to distinguish periods of low lake levels corresponding to a dense cover of aquatic plants at the lake bottom from stages of higher lake levels and a corresponding decrease in macrophytes at the core site. Chironomid taxa belonging to Chironomus, Cladopelma, Glyptotendipes, Micropsectra, Paratanytarsus, Polypedilum, Psectrocladius and Tanytarsus further provide information on variations in benthic oxygen availability and lake level fluctuations. Several units of the core show high abundances of pollen and spores of higher aquatic and wetland plants and fungi (Cyperaceae, Hippuris, Myriophyllum and Glomus) indicating low lake levels. In contrast, algae such as Botryococcus, Pediastrum and Tetraedron were regarded to reflect higher water levels. Typha angustifolia-type, Typha latifolia, Alisma and Potamogeton were recorded in low abundances as well. The organic content of core samples averages 6 % displaying four alternating stages of distinct minima and maxima. Lowest values of about 1 % occur at the core

  13. Larvae of Chironomids (Insecta, Diptera) Encountered in the Mantle Cavity of Zebra Mussels, Dreissena polymorpha (Bivalvia, Dreissenidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastitsky, Sergey E.; Samoilenko, Vera M.

    2005-02-01

    The paper includes data on species composition of chironomid larvae which were encountered in the mantle cavity of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) within 7 waterbodies in the Republic of Belarus. All were found to be free-living species commonly present in periphyton and/or benthos. A long-term study of the seasonal dynamics of these larvae in Dreissena did not reveal any typical pattern. Our data suppose that chironomids do not have an obligate association with zebra mussels and possibly enter their mantle cavity inadvertently.

  14. Metacommunity patterns in larval odonates.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Shannon J; Davis, Christopher J; Relyea, Rick A; Yurewicz, Kerry L; Skelly, David K; Werner, Earl E

    2008-11-01

    The growth of metacommunity ecology as a subdiscipline has increased interest in how processes at different spatial scales structure communities. However, there is still a significant knowledge gap with respect to relating the action of niche- and dispersal-assembly mechanisms to observed species distributions across gradients. Surveys of the larval dragonfly community (Odonata: Anisoptera) in 57 lakes and ponds in southeast Michigan were used to evaluate hypotheses about the processes regulating community structure in this system. We considered the roles of both niche- and dispersal-assembly processes in determining patterns of species richness and composition across a habitat gradient involving changes in the extent of habitat permanence, canopy cover, area, and top predator type. We compared observed richness patterns and species distributions in this system to patterns predicted by four general community models: species sorting related to adaptive trade-offs, a developmental constraints hypothesis, dispersal assembly, and a neutral community assemblage. Our results supported neither the developmental constraints nor the neutral-assemblage models. Observed patterns of richness and species distributions were consistent with patterns expected when adaptive tradeoffs and dispersal-assembly mechanisms affect community structure. Adaptive trade-offs appeared to be important in limiting the distributions of species which segregate across the habitat gradient. However, dispersal was important in shaping the distributions of species that utilize habitats with a broad range of hydroperiods and alternative top predator types. Our results also suggest that the relative importance of these mechanisms may change across this habitat gradient and that a metacommunity perspective which incorporates both niche- and dispersal-assembly processes is necessary to understand how communities are organized.

  15. Chironomid larvae inhabiting bromeliad phytotelmata in a fragment of the Atlantic Rainforest in Rio de Janeiro State.

    PubMed

    Sodré, V M; Rocha, O; Messias, M C

    2010-08-01

    A study of chironomids (Diptera, Chironomidae) occurring in phytotelmata of Bromeliaceae was carried out in a fragment of the Atlantic Rain Forest in an area of the city of Magé, Pau Grande, one of the metropolitan areas of Rio de Janeiro City, during a period of 13 months between September 2006 and September 2007. Eight samplings were performed at intervals of 1 (1/2) months and the content of the phytotelmata of the bromeliad species Neoregelia concentrica (Vellozo) L.B. Smith, 1934 and Aechmea nudicaulis (Linnaeus) Grisebach, 1864, were examined. A taxonomical inventory and evaluation of the numerical abundance of Chironomidae larvae were performed in 50 specimens of the bromeliads, being 13 individuals of N. concentrica and 37 of A. nudicaulis. Three taxa of Chironomidae belonging to three distinct subfamilies were recorded: Polypedilum sp., Orthocladiinae genus A and Monopelopia sp. A total of 293 individuals of Chironomidae, were recorded, being 9 Polypedilum sp., 233 Orthocladiinae genus A, and 51 Monopelopia sp., the latter representing the first record of Monopelopia in phytotelmata in Rio de Janeiro State. Considering all samples, a mean density of 3.32 +/- 2.62 chironomid larvae per phytotelmata was recorded. There was a positive relationship between the chironomid abundance and both precipitation and the volume of water in the phytotelmata. Apparently there is no preference by the chironomids regarding the colonistion of the bromeliad species.

  16. A chironomid-based mean July temperature inference model from the south-east margin of the Tibetan Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Enlou; Chang, Jie; Cao, Yanmin; Tang, Hongqu; Langdon, Pete; Shulmeister, James; Wang, Rong; Yang, Xiangdong; Shen, Ji

    2017-03-01

    A chironomid-based calibration training set comprised of 100 lakes from south-western China was established. Multivariate ordination analyses were used to investigate the relationship between the distribution and abundance of chironomid species and 18 environmental variables from these lakes. Canonical correspondence analyses (CCAs) and partial CCAs showed that mean July temperature is one of the independent and significant variables explaining the second-largest amount of variance after potassium ions (K+) in 100 south-western Chinese lakes. Quantitative transfer functions were created using the chironomid assemblages for this calibration data set. The second component of the weighted-average partial least squares (WA-PLS) model produced a coefficient of determination (r2bootstrap) of 0.63, maximum bias (bootstrap) of 5.16 and root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 2.31 °C. We applied the transfer functions to a 150-year chironomid record from Tiancai Lake (26°38'3.8 N, 99°43' E; 3898 m a.s.l.), Yunnan, China, to obtain mean July temperature inferences. We validated these results by applying several reconstruction diagnostics and comparing them to a 50-year instrumental record from the nearest weather station (26°51'29.22'' N, 100°14'2.34'' E; 2390 m a.s.l.). The transfer function performs well in this comparison. We argue that this 100-lake large training set is suitable for reconstruction work despite the low explanatory power of mean July temperature because it contains a complete range of modern temperature and environmental data for the chironomid taxa observed and is therefore robust.

  17. A new species of mermithid (Nematoda) in chironomids eclosing from a northern Minnesota bog.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Arthur A; Kleve, Maurice G

    2008-12-01

    Hydromermis haggardi n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) is described from the hemocoel of chironomid imagos eclosing from Lake Alice Bog in northern Minnesota in June and July 2007. The species is distinguished from the other 27 described members of the genus by the subventral mouth, tulip shape to anterior end of esophagus, colorless vesicular trophosome, single nonbifurcated spicule, short body lengths of both males and females, structure of the S-shaped vagina, decrease in body width at vulva, brevity of postparasitic stage, and the greater development of a posterior ventral protractor muscle in the males. An anomalous adult male bearing large oval structures in the posterior testis is reported. Evidence is presented for the developmental interaction of the new species with Lanceimermis palustris Johnson and Kleve, 2004.

  18. Variation in salinity tolerance among larval anurans: implications for community composition and the spread of an invasive, non-native species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Mary E.; Walls, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians in freshwater coastal wetlands periodically experience acute exposure to salinity from hurricane-related overwash events, as well as chronic exposure associated with rising sea levels. In a comparative experimental approach, we examined whether seven species of anuran amphibians vary in their tolerance to changes in salinity. In a laboratory study, we exposed larval Hyla cinerea (Green Treefrog), H. squirella (Squirrel Treefrog), Lithobates catesbeianus (American Bullfrog), L. sphenocephalus (Southern Leopard Frog), Anaxyrus terrestris (Southern Toad), and Gastrophryne carolinensis (Eastern Narrow-mouthed Toad) from an inland population in north central Florida, USA, and Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban Treefrog) tadpoles from an inland population in southwest Florida, to acute salinity for 72 h. For each species, we replicated trials in which tadpoles were exposed to salinities of 0.2 (control), 5, 10, 12, 14, and 16 ppt. For all species, tadpoles reared in the control and 5 ppt treatments had 96.7–100% survival. No individuals of G. carolinensis survived at salinities exceeding 5 ppt and no individuals of any species survived in the 14 or 16 ppt treatments. For all other native species, survival at 10 ppt ranged from 46.7 to 80%, but declined to 0% at 12 ppt (except for H. cinerea, of which only 3.3% survived at 12 ppt). In contrast, all individuals of the invasive, non-native O. septentrionalis survived exposure to a salinity of 10 ppt, and survival in this species remained relatively high at 12 ppt. Our results illustrate that the non-native O. septentrionalis has a higher salinity tolerance than the native species tested, which may contribute to its invasion potential. Moreover, species commonly associated with coastal freshwater wetlands differ in their salinity tolerances, suggesting that salt water intrusion due to storm surges and sea level rise may affect the species composition of these ecosystems.

  19. Anhydrobiosis-Associated Nuclear DNA Damage and Repair in the Sleeping Chironomid: Linkage with Radioresistance

    PubMed Central

    Vanyagina, Veronica; Malutina, Ludmila; Cornette, Richard; Sakashita, Tetsuya; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Kikawada, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Okuda, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Anhydrobiotic chironomid larvae can withstand prolonged complete desiccation as well as other external stresses including ionizing radiation. To understand the cross-tolerance mechanism, we have analyzed the structural changes in the nuclear DNA using transmission electron microscopy and DNA comet assays in relation to anhydrobiosis and radiation. We found that dehydration causes alterations in chromatin structure and a severe fragmentation of nuclear DNA in the cells of the larvae despite successful anhydrobiosis. Furthermore, while the larvae had restored physiological activity within an hour following rehydration, nuclear DNA restoration typically took 72 to 96 h. The DNA fragmentation level and the recovery of DNA integrity in the rehydrated larvae after anhydrobiosis were similar to those of hydrated larvae irradiated with 70 Gy of high-linear energy transfer (LET) ions (4He). In contrast, low-LET radiation (gamma-rays) of the same dose caused less initial damage to the larvae, and DNA was completely repaired within within 24 h. The expression of genes encoding the DNA repair enzymes occurred upon entering anhydrobiosis and exposure to high- and low-LET radiations, indicative of DNA damage that includes double-strand breaks and their subsequent repair. The expression of antioxidant enzymes-coding genes was also elevated in the anhydrobiotic and the gamma-ray-irradiated larvae that probably functions to reduce the negative effect of reactive oxygen species upon exposure to these stresses. Indeed the mature antioxidant proteins accumulated in the dry larvae and the total activity of antioxidants increased by a 3–4 fold in association with anhydrobiosis. We conclude that one of the factors explaining the relationship between radioresistance and the ability to undergo anhydrobiosis in the sleeping chironomid could be an adaptation to desiccation-inflicted nuclear DNA damage. There were also similarities in the molecular response of the larvae to damage caused by

  20. Anhydrobiosis-associated nuclear DNA damage and repair in the sleeping chironomid: linkage with radioresistance.

    PubMed

    Gusev, Oleg; Nakahara, Yuichi; Vanyagina, Veronica; Malutina, Ludmila; Cornette, Richard; Sakashita, Tetsuya; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Kikawada, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Okuda, Takashi

    2010-11-16

    Anhydrobiotic chironomid larvae can withstand prolonged complete desiccation as well as other external stresses including ionizing radiation. To understand the cross-tolerance mechanism, we have analyzed the structural changes in the nuclear DNA using transmission electron microscopy and DNA comet assays in relation to anhydrobiosis and radiation. We found that dehydration causes alterations in chromatin structure and a severe fragmentation of nuclear DNA in the cells of the larvae despite successful anhydrobiosis. Furthermore, while the larvae had restored physiological activity within an hour following rehydration, nuclear DNA restoration typically took 72 to 96 h. The DNA fragmentation level and the recovery of DNA integrity in the rehydrated larvae after anhydrobiosis were similar to those of hydrated larvae irradiated with 70 Gy of high-linear energy transfer (LET) ions ((4)He). In contrast, low-LET radiation (gamma-rays) of the same dose caused less initial damage to the larvae, and DNA was completely repaired within within 24 h. The expression of genes encoding the DNA repair enzymes occurred upon entering anhydrobiosis and exposure to high- and low-LET radiations, indicative of DNA damage that includes double-strand breaks and their subsequent repair. The expression of antioxidant enzymes-coding genes was also elevated in the anhydrobiotic and the gamma-ray-irradiated larvae that probably functions to reduce the negative effect of reactive oxygen species upon exposure to these stresses. Indeed the mature antioxidant proteins accumulated in the dry larvae and the total activity of antioxidants increased by a 3-4 fold in association with anhydrobiosis. We conclude that one of the factors explaining the relationship between radioresistance and the ability to undergo anhydrobiosis in the sleeping chironomid could be an adaptation to desiccation-inflicted nuclear DNA damage. There were also similarities in the molecular response of the larvae to damage caused by

  1. Developing a chironomid training set for western South America (South-Central Chile): potential for quantitative temperature reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araneda, A.; Larocque-Tobler, I.; Torrejon, F.; Grosjean, M.; Jana-Pinninghoff, P.; Ortega, C.; Urrutia, R.

    2012-12-01

    Quantitative climate reconstructions of the last two millennia are a fundamental issue in order to compare the current trends in climate observed nowadays. At global scale most of the climate reconstructions have been developed for the Northern Hemisphere, while for the Southern Hemisphere quantitative reconstructions are very rare and very limited geographically. The recognition of such disparity has generated among other research initiatives the LOTRED-SA Long-Term climate Reconstruction and Dynamics of (southern) South America, a collaborative, high-resolution multi-proxy approach within the framework of the IGBP-PAGES program. In this context our work presents the results of a 50-lakes training set in Central-Southern Chile developed with the aim to generate a basis for quantitative chironomid-inferred temperature reconstructions for this part of the continent. Chironomids (Insecta: Diptera) are aquatic insects that develop a great proportion of their life cycle as larvae in aquatic ecosystems. Several studies, developed mainly in the Northern Hemisphere, have proven their usefulness in reconstructing past climate due to the larvae's relationship to temperature. The training set developed here includes lakes located between 34 and 48 S, covering a broad temperature (as latitudinal) gradient. The surface (0-1 cm) sediment of each lake was sampled and chironomids, organic matter and nutrient were analyzed. Water analyses included the measurement of 10 variables (AirT, WBT, WST, N-tot, P-tot, Fe, Na, pH among others). In order to identify the most important variables explaining the highest variance in the chironomid assemblages, ordinations analyses were performed. A preliminary DCA analysis indicated, according to the length of gradients smaller than 3 STD, that a linear model was more appropriate for further analysis. Hence a RDA analysis was applied to the environmental and species data, indicating that the most important variables to determine chironomid

  2. Using Chironomid-Based Transfer Function and Stable Isotopes for Reconstructing Past Climate in South Eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, J.; Shulmeister, J.; Woodward, C.

    2014-12-01

    A transfer-function based on chironomids was created to reconstruct past summer temperatures from a training set comprised of 33 south eastern Australian lakes. Statistical analyses show that mean February temperature (MFT) is the most robust and independent variable explaining chironomid species variability. The best MFT transfer function was a partial least squares (PLS) model with a coefficient of determination (r2Jackknifed) of 0.69, a root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) of 2.33˚C, and maximum bias of 2.15°C. The transfer function was tested by applying it to a Late Glacial to Holocene record from Blue Lake, New South Wales using published data. The reconstruction displays an overall pattern very similar to the Milankovitch driven summer insolation curve for 30°S and to the chironomid based summer temperature reconstruction from Eagle Tarn, Tasmania (Rees and Cwynar 2010) suggesting that the model is robust. The transfer function was also applied to reconstruct the Last Glacial Maxium (LGM) summer temperature from Welsby Lagoon, North Stradbroke Island (Queensland). Preliminary results show a c. 4.2~8.6˚C of cooling in summer temperatures during the LGM from south east Australia. Stable oxygen and deuterium isotope composition (δ18O and δD) of the chitnous subfossil head capsules from Australian chironomids were also measured to explore the opportunity developing them as an independent temperature proxy. This is the first application of this technique in the Southern Hemisphere. The modern range of chironomid δ18O values were measured based on the same 33 lakes sampled for the transfer function. For these lakes, head capsules of single genera were picked to avoid complications from 'vital effects'. The relationship of chironomid δ18O to modern lake temperatures has been investigated. Deuterium (δD) on the head capsules has been measured concurrently and the relationship to climate and environment will be explored based on the latest available

  3. Macroinvertebrate Community Responses to the Chemical Removal of Phragmites in a Lake Erie Coastal Wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulesza, A. E.; Holomuzki, J. R.; Klarer, D. M.

    2005-05-01

    The invasive giant reed, Phragmites australis, can quickly form near-monotypic stands in North American wetlands, and as a result, sometimes reduce system biodiversity. However, the effects of Phragmites, and of the glyphosate herbicides used to control it, on trophic structure in benthic communities in these systems are less well known. Our study compares macroinvertebrate, algal, and juvenile fish diversity in replicate 10 x 5 m stands of Typha angustifolia (narrow-leaf cattail), glyphosate-sprayed Phragmites, and unsprayed Phragmites in a Lake Erie coastal wetland in Huron, Ohio. Macroinvertebrate diversity and proportions of functional feeding groups did not differ among stand types. However, overall densities of macroinvertebrates did vary among stands. Snails and larval chironomids and odonates were typically higher in Phragmites than in Typha stands. Interactions between changing water levels, algal densities, and prevailing flow patterns partly explain these outcomes. Ovipositing adult odonates did not prefer a particular stand type. Similarly, captures of juvenile fish did not vary among stands. Our results suggest that Phragmites, at least in small to moderately sized-patches, and herbicide application to these patches, does not detrimentally affect diversity in wetland, benthic communities.

  4. Late Quaternary paleoclimate of western Alaska inferred from fossil chironomids and its relation to vegetation histories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurek, Joshua; Cwynar, Les C.; Ager, Thomas A.; Abbott, Mark B.; Edwards, Mary E.

    2009-01-01

    Fossil Chironomidae assemblages (with a few Chaoboridae and Ceratopogonidae) from Zagoskin and Burial Lakes in western Alaska provide quantitative reconstructions of mean July air temperatures for periods of the late-middle Wisconsin (~39,000-34,000 cal yr B.P.) to the present. Inferred temperatures are compared with previously analyzed pollen data from each site summarized here by indirect ordination. Paleotemperature trends reveal substantial differences in the timing of climatic warming following the late Wisconsin at each site, although chronological uncertainty exists. Zagoskin Lake shows early warming beginning at about 21,000 cal yr B.P., whereas warming at Burial Lake begins ~4000 years later. Summer climates during the last glacial maximum (LGM) were on average ~3.5C° below the modern temperatures at each site. Major shifts in vegetation occurred from ~19,000 to 10,000 cal yr B.P. at Zagoskin Lake and from ~17,000 to 10,000 cal yr B.P. at Burial Lake. Vegetation shifts followed climatic warming, when temperatures neared modern values. Both sites provide evidence of an early postglacial thermal maximum at ~12,300 cal yr B.P. These chironomid records, combined with other insect-based climatic reconstructions from Beringia, indicate that during the LGM: (1) greater continentality likely influenced regions adjacent to the Bering Land Bridge and (2) summer climates were, at times, not dominated by severe cold.

  5. Gene expression patterns and life cycle responses of toxicant-exposed chironomids.

    PubMed

    Marinković, Marino; de Leeuw, Wim C; Ensink, Wim A; de Jong, Mark; Breit, Timo M; Admiraal, Wim; Kraak, Michiel H S; Jonker, Martijs J

    2012-11-20

    Cellular stress responses are frequently presumed to be more sensitive than traditional ecotoxicological life cycle end points such as survival and growth. Yet, the focus to reduce test duration and to generate more sensitive end points has caused transcriptomics studies to be performed at low doses during short exposures, separately and independently from traditional ecotoxicity tests, making comparisons with life cycle end points indirect. Therefore we aimed to directly compare the effects on growth, survival, and gene expression of the nonbiting midge Chironomus riparius. To this purpose, we simultaneously analyzed life cycle and transcriptomics responses of chironomid larvae exposed to four model toxicants. We observed that already at the lowest test concentrations many transcripts were significantly differentially expressed, while the life cycle end points of C. riparius were hardly affected. Analysis of the differentially expressed transcripts showed that at the lowest test concentrations substantial and biologically relevant cellular stress was induced and that many transcripts responded already maximally at these lowest test concentrations. The direct comparison between molecular end life cycle responses after fourteen days of exposure revealed that gene expression is more sensitive to toxicant exposure than life cycle end points, underlining the potential of transcriptomics for ecotoxicity testing and environmental risk assessment.

  6. Deformities of chironomid larvae and heavy metal pollution: from laboratory to field studies.

    PubMed

    Di Veroli, A; Santoro, F; Pallottini, M; Selvaggi, R; Scardazza, F; Cappelletti, D; Goretti, E

    2014-10-01

    Mouthpart deformities of Chironomus riparius larvae (Diptera) have been investigated to evaluate the toxic effects of contamination by heavy metals in the Genna Stream (Central Italy), situated in an area subjected to intensive swine farms (40000 heads). The livestock farming (fertirrigation) contributes to metal pollution of the Genna Stream with an increase of copper, zinc, cadmium, chromium and nickel in the sediments of the downstream stations. The incidence of mentum deformities was very high at all sampling stations, about 56%. The highest values of deformities were found in the intermediate river reach (St. 3: 65%) and in March (66%), mainly due to an increase in severe deformities. The high incidence of severe deformities (30%) is attributed to the high pollution level by heavy metals in the sediments, in particular to copper and zinc, which showed the highest average value at St. 3 and in March. This field study reflected the relationships between sediment metal concentrations and chironomid mouthpart deformities, previously observed in laboratory tests, and highlighted these deformities as toxicity endpoints. This feature paves the way for their use as an effective tool in freshwater bioassessment monitoring programs to evaluate the toxic effects of metal contamination in freshwater ecosystems.

  7. Drosophila adult and larval pheromones modulate larval food choice

    PubMed Central

    Farine, Jean-Pierre; Cortot, Jérôme; Ferveur, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Insects use chemosensory cues to feed and mate. In Drosophila, the effect of pheromones has been extensively investigated in adults, but rarely in larvae. The colonization of natural food sources by Drosophila buzzatii and Drosophila simulans species may depend on species-specific chemical cues left in the food by larvae and adults. We identified such chemicals in both species and measured their influence on larval food preference and puparation behaviour. We also tested compounds that varied between these species: (i) two larval volatile compounds: hydroxy-3-butanone-2 and phenol (predominant in D. simulans and D. buzzatii, respectively), and (ii) adult cuticular hydrocarbons (CHs). Drosophila buzzatii larvae were rapidly attracted to non-CH adult conspecific cues, whereas D. simulans larvae were strongly repulsed by CHs of the two species and also by phenol. Larval cues from both species generally reduced larval attraction and pupariation on food, which was generally—but not always—low, and rarely reflected larval response. As these larval and adult pheromones specifically influence larval food search and the choice of a pupariation site, they may greatly affect the dispersion and survival of Drosophila species in nature. PMID:24741012

  8. Use of chironomid mentum deformities to assess environmental degradation: A perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, G.A.

    1995-12-31

    The frequency of chironomid mentum deformities was used to assess environmental degradation (ED) at 12 sites in the Yamaska River (YR), Quebec, that were known to be either impacted by agriculture or urban centers, or were relatively clean. Higher frequencies of deformities were associated with the level of pollution at the sites and were in general agreement with the total biotic index of ED. Temporal variation occurred in the incidence of deformities (a difficulty also encountered with other bioassays), including those at a clean site. In the laboratory, Chironomus tentans larvae reared in YR sediment had substantial wear of their mentum teeth compared to larvae reared in four reference substrates. Mentum deformities were observed in the cultured larvae, presumably because of inbreeding and not the effect of treatment. A subsequent study investigated whether exposure to ionizing radiation or a heavy metal would induce deformities. C. tentans larvae were exposed to {sup 210}Pb at 100, 1,000 and 2,000 Bq{center_dot}g{sup {minus}1} dry sediment. No effect was observed on survival, growth or frequency of deformities. Exposure to stable Pb at 0.5 and 5.0 mg{center_dot}g{sup {minus}1} dry sediment also had no effect, but higher concentrations resulted in 100% mortality. However, deformities were present in each treatment, including controls (1 to 8% deformed), and were confined to the median tooth. Similar deformities, as high as 16% of the population, were observed in five remote Canadian Shield lakes at the Experimental Lakes Area, northwestern Ontario. These deformities can be considered natural abnormalities and are of common occurrence. Natural abnormalities must be considered when using this system as an index of environmental degradation.

  9. Quantitative estimates of Mid- to late Holocene Climate Variability in northeastern Siberia inferred from chironomids in lake sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarova, Larisa; Diekmann, Bernhard; Pestrjakova, Ludmila; Herzschuh, Ulrike; Subetto, Dmitry

    2010-05-01

    Yakutia (Russia, northeastern part of Eurasia) represents one of Earths most extreme climatic settings in the world with deep-reaching frozen ground and a semiarid continental climate with highest seasonal temperature contrasts in the northern hemisphere. The amplitude of temperature variations around the year sometimes exceeds 100oC. There are few examples of quantitative palaeoecological studies in Siberia and these data have to be tested by quantitative studies from other sites in this region, inferred from different proxies and using regional calibration datasets and temperature models that are still lacking. Chironomid midges (Insecta, Diptera, Chironomidae) have been widely used to reconstruct past climate variability in many areas of Western Europe and North America. A chironomid-mean July air temperature inference model has been developed, based on a modern calibration set of 200 lakes sampled along a transect from 110° to 159° E and 61° to73° N in northern Russia. The inference model was applied to sediment cores from 2 lakes in the Central Yakutia in order to reconstruct past July air temperatures. The lacustrine records span mid- to late Holocene. The downcore variability in the chironomid assemblages and the composition of organic matter give evidence of climate-driven and interrelated changes in biological productivity, lacustrine trophic states, and lake-level fluctuations. Three phases of the climate development in Central Yakutia can be derived from the geochemical composition of the lake cores and according to the inferred from chironomid assemblages mean July air ToC. Content of organic matters reached maximal values in the period between 7000-4500 yBP. Sedimentation rate is especially high, numerous molluscs shells are found in sediments. All this along with the reconstructed air temperature confirmed that Mid Holocene optimum in Central Yakutia took place in this period with the maximal temperatures up to 4oC above present day ToC. Strong

  10. Design and Application of a Larval Fish Trap

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    ENTRANCE SLITS •\\ \\..• . •RUBBER STOPPER SCALES 2 0 2 4 IN. . S 0 5 10 MM Figure 1. Larval Fish Trap PURPOSE: This technical note describes construction...Arkansas FW-EV-2.2 A Guild for Monitoring and Zvaluating Fish Communities in Bottomland Hardwood Wetlands FW-EV-3.1 Design and Applicatior, s .val Fish...collection/sampling. REFERENCES: Floyd, K. B., R. D. Hoyt, and S . Pimbrook. 1984. Chronology of appearance and habitat partitioning by stream larval

  11. A new genus and species of mermithid (Nematoda) emerging from chironomid imagos eclosing from the Mississippi River headwaters area in northern Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Arthur A; Kleve, Maurice G

    2009-12-01

    Fibromermis roarki n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) is described from the hemocoel of chironomid imagos of Ablabesmyia monilis (L.) eclosing from the headwaters of the Mississippi River at Gulsvig Landing in northern Minnesota in the summer of 2007. The new genus is described, distinguished from the most closely related tetrapapillate aquatic mermithid genus, and the new species described. Intensity and sex specificity of infection are recorded from 28 host adult chironomids of a single cohort. The new species represents the fourth tetrapapillate mermithid species described from the area and the third tetrapapillate genus.

  12. Strelkovimermis rubtsovi n. sp. and Strelkovimermis ozawindibi n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) parasitizing chironomid (Insecta: Diptera) adults eclosing from northern Minnesota glacial lakes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Arthur A; Kleve, Maurice G

    2002-10-01

    Two new species of Strelkovimermis are described from chironomid imagoes eclosing from northern Minnesota glacial lakes. The 2 species are distinguished from the other 12 species in the genus by terminal mouths, rounded or nippled posterior ends, short buccal funnels, short terminal limbs of the S-shaped vagina, and presence of a bursal sleeve. Strelkovimermis rubtsovi n. sp. is distinguished from S. ozawindibi n. sp. by the presence of a dorsal protractor. Procladius (Psilotanypus) bellus (Loew) is the host of S. rubtsovi. The chironomid host of S. ozawindibi has not been determined. An artificial key is provided to distinguish the 14 species of the genus.

  13. Field assessment of reproduction-related traits of chironomids using a newly developed emergence platform (E-Board).

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Benoît J D; Faburé, Juliette

    2017-03-01

    Further progress in the development of reliable biomonitoring strategies requires to better link effects in aquatic ecological systems to ambient concentrations of chemical contaminants. Among existing tools, in situ bioassays using caging method represent an interesting way to achieve this challenge. However, elaboration of adapted exposure chambers and suitable operating procedures is still required, particularly to assess ecological relevant traits such as those related to the reproduction. In such context, we developed a new device (Emergence board - E-Board) which allows assessing in rivers the development of the Chironomus riparius species from the early fourth instar larvae to the adult stage. The system acts as a suspended matter trap floating in the subsurface of the water equipped of an emergence trap for catching adults. The system was tested in actual field conditions. Its easy handling allowed obtaining data which demonstrated its applicability for assessing the development of the chironomids. Moreover, by adapting energy-based models (DEB) specifically developed in the laboratory for the species C. riparius, we were able to predict the growth pattern and the emergence of chironomids in real environmental conditions. The E-Board represents thus a promising new in situ tool in perspective of evaluation of the quality of the ecosystems.

  14. An evaluation of benthic community measures using laboratory-derived sediment effect concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, F.J.; Canfield, T.J.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Kemble, N.E.; Mount, D.R.

    1995-12-31

    Sediment effect concentrations (SECs) are contaminant sediment concentrations which are frequently associated with sediment toxicity. Recently, a number of different SECs have been calculated from laboratory toxicity tests with field collected sediments using Chironomus tentans, Chironomus riparius, and Hyalella azteca. Toxicity endpoints included (depending upon species) lethality, growth and sexual maturation. The authors selected the Effect Range Median (ERM) calculated for 28-d Hyalella azteca as an SEC for evaluating six different benthic community measures as indicators of contaminated sediment. The benthic measures included: taxa richness, chironomid genera richness, percent chironomid deformity, chironomid biotic index, ratio of chironomids/oligochaetes, and oligochaete biotic index. Benthic measures were obtained for 31 stations from the Great Lakes and 13 stations from Milltown Reservoir and Clark Fork River, MT. Each benthic measure was ranked from 1 to 100 and individual ranks and various combinations of ranks were plotted against the ratio of chemical concentration at the site/ERM calculated for that chemical (similar to a toxic unit approach) and the sum of the ERM ratios (sum of toxic units). Preliminary analysis indicates that, in general, benthic measures varied widely in relatively uncontaminated stations, confounding any underlying relationship that may have existed. The absence of chironomids, in areas with suitable habitat, seems to be indicative of grossly contaminated stations, but not an endpoint useful for discriminating stations with contaminant concentrations closer to the SEC. The usefulness of benthic measures as diagnostic tools for contaminated sediments and potential ways to improve these measures will be discussed.

  15. Crustacean biodiversity as an important factor for mosquito larval control.

    PubMed

    Kroeger, Iris; Duquesne, Sabine; Liess, Matthias

    2013-12-01

    Newly established ponds, which are highly dynamic systems with changing levels of biological interactions among species, are common larval mosquito habitats. We investigated the impact of crustacean abundance and taxa diversity on mosquito oviposition and larval development. The effects of the biological larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) on mosquito larvae were monitored according to fluctuations in crustacean communities. Populations of the mosquito Culex pipiens colonized artificial ponds that contained crustacean communities at different time points of colonization by crustaceans: 1) 'no colonization' (no crustaceans), 2) 'simultaneous colonization' by crustaceans and mosquitoes, and 3) 'head-start colonization' by crustaceans (preceding colonization by mosquitoes). All types of ponds were treated with three concentrations of Bti (10, 100, or 1,000 µg/liter). Colonization of all ponds by Cx. pipiens (in terms of oviposition, larval abundance, and larval development) decreased significantly with increasing diversity of crustacean taxa. The total abundance of crustaceans had a minor effect on colonization by Cx. pipiens. The presence of crustaceans increased the sensitivity of Cx. pipiens larvae to Bti treatment by a factor of 10 and delayed the time of recolonization. This effect of Bti was relevant in the short term. In the long term, the presence of Cx. pipiens was determined by crustacean biodiversity.

  16. Influences of acid mine drainage and thermal enrichment on stream fish reproduction and larval survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hafs, Andrew W.; Horn, C.D.; Mazik, P.M.; Hartman, K.J.

    2010-01-01

    Potential effects of acid mine drainage (AMD) and thermal enrichment on the reproduction of fishes were investigated through a larval-trapping survey in the Stony River watershed, Grant County, WV. Trapping was conducted at seven sites from 26 March to 2 July 2004. Overall larval catch was low (379 individuals in 220 hours of trapping). More larval White Suckers were captured than all other species. Vectors fitted to nonparametric multidimensional scaling ordinations suggested that temperature was highly correlated to fish communities captured at our sites. Survival of larval Fathead Minnows was examined in situ at six sites from 13 May to 11 June 2004 in the same system. Larval survival was lower, but not significantly different between sites directly downstream of AMD-impacted tributaries (40% survival) and non-AMD sites (52% survival). The lower survival was caused by a significant mortality event at one site that coincided with acute pH depression in an AMD tributary immediately upstream of the site. Results from a Cox proportional hazard test suggests that low pH is having a significant negative influence on larval fish survival in this system. The results from this research indicate that the combination of low pH events and elevated temperature are negatively influencing the larval fish populations of the Stony River watershed. Management actions that address these problems would have the potential to substantially increase both reproduction rates and larval survival, therefore greatly enhancing the fishery.

  17. Production dynamics and life cycle of dominant chironomids (diptera, chironomidae) in a subtropical stream in China: adaptation to variable flow conditions in summer and autumn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yunjun; Li, Xiaoyu

    2007-07-01

    The production dynamics and trophic basis of 7 dominant species of chironomids were investigated in the area of a second-order river of the Hanjiang River basin, in central China from June 2003 to June 2004. The results showed that Tvetenia discoloripes was by far the most abundant chironomid, dominating the overall standing stock of the taxa. In terms of lif ecycle, Chaetocladius sp., Eukiefferiella potthasti and T. discoloripes developed 1 generation a year, whereas Microtendipes sp. and Pagastia sp. developed two, while Pentaneura sp. and Polypedilum sp. developed three. T. discoloripes was the most productive chironomid with 120.305 8 g/m2. a, Pentaneura sp. and E. potthasti had relatively high production values of >17 g/m2.a, and the rest were <10 g/m2.a. All the production temporal variation tended to follow biomass patterns. T. discoloripes, Chaetocladius sp. and Pagastia sp. concentrated most of their production in winter, whereas E. potthasti, Pentaneura sp. and Polypedilum sp. had relatively higher production throughout the year. Only Microtendipes sp. had a production that peaked in summer. The overlap in temporal distribution of production among the chironomid species was generally high (>0.5), especially for filter-collectors Microtendipes sp., Chaetocladius sp., Chaetocladius sp., T. discoloripes and Pagastia sp. All species except Pentaneura sp. consumed a large portion of amorphous detritus, constituting more than 90% of their diets, and contributing nearly 90% to their secondary production. All the 7 chironomids represent obvious adaptation to local highly variable climate in summer and autumn in life cycle pattern, production dynamics, and food type.

  18. Toxicity of CeO2 nanoparticles at different trophic levels--effects on diatoms, chironomids and amphibians.

    PubMed

    Bour, Agathe; Mouchet, Florence; Verneuil, Laurent; Evariste, Lauris; Silvestre, Jérôme; Pinelli, Eric; Gauthier, Laury

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present work is to provide wider information on the toxicity of cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) in aquatic environments, by studying the toxicity of two types of CeO2 NPs for four species (diatoms Nitzschia palea, the sediment-dwelling invertebrate Chironomus riparius, and the amphibian larvae Xenopus laevis and Pleurodeles waltl.). The two types of CeO2 NPs have different intrinsic properties: some of them are small citrate-coated spheres (2-5 nm), and the others are larger uncoated plates (20-60 nm). Acute toxicity (mortality at 48 or 96 h, depending on the test-organism) was assessed for the four species, from 0.1 to 100 mg L(-1) of NPs. Sub-lethal effects were assessed on chironomids exposed between 0.01 and 1 mg L(-1) of NPs. Mortality, growth inhibition and genotoxic effects were evaluated on amphibian larvae from 0.1 to 10 mg L(-1). Results reveal that no acute toxicity occurs on any species after short exposures, even at the highest concentrations. Mortality (35%) is observed on Xenopus larvae after 12d of exposure at the highest concentration of one type of NPs. No significant effects were observed on chironomids during chronic exposure. Xenopus larvae growth was inhibited from 1 mg L(-1) of both NPs while growth inhibition is observed on Pleurodeles only at the highest concentration of one type of NPs. No genotoxicity was observed on Xenopus but Pleurodeles exhibited dose-dependent genotoxic effects when exposed to one type of NPs. Observed differences in toxicity are discussed focusing on the studied compartment, routes of exposure, species and NPs.

  19. Diet of first-feeding larval and young-of-the-year white sturgeon in the lower Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muir, W.D.; McCabe, G.T.; Parsley, M.J.; Hinton, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    In some Snake and Columbia River reservoirs, adult white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are common but few juvenile fish are found, indicating a lack of spawning success or poor survival of larvae. In contrast, recruitment of young-of-the-year white sturgeon to juvenile and adult stages is successful in the unimpounded Columbia River downstream of Bonneville Dam. The availability and size of preferred prey during the period when white sturgeon larvae begin exogenous feeding could be an important determinant of year-class strength. To explore this issue, we examined the diet composition of 352 larval and young-of-the year white sturgeon collected from 1989 through 1991 in the lower Columbia River. Samples were collected downstream from Bonneville Dam and upstream from the dam in Bonneville and The Dalles Reservoirs. Fish that ranged in size from 15 to 290 mm in total length fed primarily on gammarid amphipods (Corophium spp.) during all months. This diet item became increasingly important to all sizes of white sturgeon examined as they grew. The length of Corophium spp. eaten by larval and young-of-the-year white sturgeon increased with increasing fish length (r2 = 45.6%, P < 0.0001). Copepods (Cyclopoida), Ceratopogonidae larvae, and Diptera pupae and larvae (primarily chironomids) were also consumed, especially at the onset of exogenous feeding. A small percentage of white sturgeon were found with empty stomachs during June (1.6% downstream from Bonneville Dam) and July (4.5% downstream and 2.6% in the reservoirs). Diets of larval and young-of-the year white sturgeon from both impounded and free-flowing sections of the Columbia River were similar and we found no evidence of larval starvation in the areas investigated, areas currently supporting healthy white sturgeon populations.

  20. Holocene temperature variations at a high-altitude site in the Eastern Alps: a chironomid record from Schwarzsee ob Sölden, Austria.

    PubMed

    Ilyashuk, Elena A; Koinig, Karin A; Heiri, Oliver; Ilyashuk, Boris P; Psenner, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Few well-dated, quantitative Holocene temperature reconstructions exist from high-altitude sites in the Central Eastern Alps. Here, we present a chironomid-based quantitative reconstruction of mean July air temperatures (T(July)) throughout the Holocene for a remote high-mountain lake, Schwarzsee ob Sölden, situated above the treeline at 2796 m a.s.l. in the Austrian Alps. Applying a chironomid-temperature inference model developed from lakes of the Alpine region to a high-resolution chironomid record from the lake provides evidence for early Holocene (ca 10000-8600 cal yr BP) T(July) of up to 8.5 °C, i.e. >4 °C above the modern (1977-2006) mean July temperature. The reconstruction reveals the so-called '8.2-ka cold event' centered at ca 8250-8000 cal yr BP with temperatures ca 3 °C below the early-Holocene thermal maximum. Rather warm (ca 6 °C) and productive conditions prevailed during ca 7900-4500 cal yr BP. The chironomid record suggests a climate transition between ca 5200 and 4500 cal yr BP to cooler T(July). A distinct cooling trend is evident from ca 4500 until ca 2500 cal yr BP. Thereafter, the study site experienced its coldest conditions (around 4 °C or less) throughout the rest of the Holocene, with the exception of the warming trend during the late 20th century. Beside other factors, the Northern Hemisphere summer insolation seems to be the major driving force for the long-term trends in T(July) at high altitudes in the Eastern Alps. Due to the extreme location of the lake and the limited temperature range represented by the applied calibration data set, the chironomid-based temperature reconstruction fails to track phases of the late-Holocene climatic history with T(July) cooler than 4 °C. Further chironomid-based palaeoclimate model and down-core studies are required to address this problem, provide more realistic T(July) estimates from undisturbed high-altitude lakes in the Alps, and extract a reliable regional

  1. Holocene temperature variations at a high-altitude site in the Eastern Alps: a chironomid record from Schwarzsee ob Sölden, Austria

    PubMed Central

    Ilyashuk, Elena A.; Koinig, Karin A.; Heiri, Oliver; Ilyashuk, Boris P.; Psenner, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Few well-dated, quantitative Holocene temperature reconstructions exist from high-altitude sites in the Central Eastern Alps. Here, we present a chironomid-based quantitative reconstruction of mean July air temperatures (TJuly) throughout the Holocene for a remote high-mountain lake, Schwarzsee ob Sölden, situated above the treeline at 2796 m a.s.l. in the Austrian Alps. Applying a chironomid-temperature inference model developed from lakes of the Alpine region to a high-resolution chironomid record from the lake provides evidence for early Holocene (ca 10000–8600 cal yr BP) TJuly of up to 8.5 °C, i.e. >4 °C above the modern (1977–2006) mean July temperature. The reconstruction reveals the so-called ‘8.2-ka cold event’ centered at ca 8250–8000 cal yr BP with temperatures ca 3 °C below the early-Holocene thermal maximum. Rather warm (ca 6 °C) and productive conditions prevailed during ca 7900–4500 cal yr BP. The chironomid record suggests a climate transition between ca 5200 and 4500 cal yr BP to cooler TJuly. A distinct cooling trend is evident from ca 4500 until ca 2500 cal yr BP. Thereafter, the study site experienced its coldest conditions (around 4 °C or less) throughout the rest of the Holocene, with the exception of the warming trend during the late 20th century. Beside other factors, the Northern Hemisphere summer insolation seems to be the major driving force for the long-term trends in TJuly at high altitudes in the Eastern Alps. Due to the extreme location of the lake and the limited temperature range represented by the applied calibration data set, the chironomid-based temperature reconstruction fails to track phases of the late-Holocene climatic history with TJuly cooler than 4 °C. Further chironomid-based palaeoclimate model and down-core studies are required to address this problem, provide more realistic TJuly estimates from undisturbed high-altitude lakes in the Alps, and extract a reliable regional

  2. 'Peer pressure' in larval Drosophila?

    PubMed

    Niewalda, Thomas; Jeske, Ines; Michels, Birgit; Gerber, Bertram

    2014-06-06

    Understanding social behaviour requires a study case that is simple enough to be tractable, yet complex enough to remain interesting. Do larval Drosophila meet these requirements? In a broad sense, this question can refer to effects of the mere presence of other larvae on the behaviour of a target individual. Here we focused in a more strict sense on 'peer pressure', that is on the question of whether the behaviour of a target individual larva is affected by what a surrounding group of larvae is doing. We found that innate olfactory preference of a target individual was neither affected (i) by the level of innate olfactory preference in the surrounding group nor (ii) by the expression of learned olfactory preference in the group. Likewise, learned olfactory preference of a target individual was neither affected (iii) by the level of innate olfactory preference of the surrounding group nor (iv) by the learned olfactory preference the group was expressing. We conclude that larval Drosophila thus do not take note of specifically what surrounding larvae are doing. This implies that in a strict sense, and to the extent tested, there is no social interaction between larvae. These results validate widely used en mass approaches to the behaviour of larval Drosophila.

  3. Traits, not origin, explain impacts of plants on larval amphibians.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jillian S; Maerz, John C; Blossey, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Managing habitats for the benefit of native fauna is a priority for many government and private agencies. Often, these agencies view nonnative plants as a threat to wildlife habitat, and they seek to control or eradicate nonnative plant populations. However, little is known about how nonnative plant invasions impact native fauna, and it is unclear whether managing these plants actually improves habitat quality for resident animals. Here, we compared the impacts of native and nonnative wetland plants on three species of native larval amphibians; we also examined whether plant traits explain the observed impacts. Specifically, we measured plant litter quality (carbon : nitrogen : phosphorus ratios, and percentages of lignin and soluble phenolics) and biomass, along with a suite of environmental conditions known to affect larval amphibians (hydroperiod, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH). Hydroperiod and plant traits, notably soluble phenolics, litter C:N ratio, and litter N:P ratio, impacted the likelihood that animals metamorphosed, the number of animals that metamorphosed, and the length of larval period. As hydroperiod decreased, the likelihood that amphibians achieved metamorphosis and the percentage of tadpoles that successfully metamorphosed also decreased. Increases in soluble phenolics, litter N:P ratio, and litter C:N ratio decreased the likelihood that tadpoles achieved metamorphosis, decreased the percentage of tadpoles metamorphosing, decreased metamorph production (total metamorph biomass), and increased the length of larval period. Interestingly, we found no difference in metamorphosis rates and length of larval period between habitats dominated by native and nonnative plants. Our findings have important implications for habitat management. We suggest that to improve habitats for native fauna, managers should focus on assembling a plant community with desirable traits rather than focusing only on plant origin.

  4. Quantitative summer and winter temperature reconstructions from pollen and chironomid data in the Baltic-Belarus area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veski, Siim; Seppä, Heikki; Stančikaitė, Migle; Zernitskaya, Valentina; Reitalu, Triin; Gryguc, Gražyna; Heinsalu, Atko; Stivrins, Normunds; Amon, Leeli; Vassiljev, Jüri; Heiri, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    Quantitative reconstructions based on fossil pollen and chironomids are widely used and useful for long-term climate variability estimations. The Lateglacial and early Holocene period (15-8 ka BP) in the Baltic-Belarus (BB) area between 60°-51° N was characterized by sudden shifts in climate due to various climate forcings affecting the climate of the northern hemisphere and North Atlantic, including the proximity of receding ice sheets. Climate variations in BB during the LG were eminent as the southern part of the region was ice free during the Last Glacial Maximum over 19 ka BP, whereas northern Estonia became ice free no sooner than 13 ka BP. New pollen based reconstructions of summer (May-to-August) and winter (December-to-February) temperatures between 15-8 ka BP along a S-N transect in the BB area display trends in temporal and spatial changes in climate variability. These results are completed by two chironomid-based July mean temperature reconstructions (Heiri et al. 2014). The magnitude of change compared with modern temperatures was more prominent in the northern part of BB area than in the southern part. The 4 °C winter and 2 °C summer warming at the start of GI-1 was delayed in the BB area and Lateglacial maximum temperatures were reached at ca 13.6 ka BP, being 4 °C colder than the modern mean. The Younger Dryas cooling in the area was 5 °C colder than present as inferred by all proxies (Veski et al. in press). In addition, our analyses show an early Holocene divergence in winter temperature trends with modern values reaching 1 ka earlier (10 ka BP) in southern BB compared to the northern part of the region (9 ka BP). Heiri, O., Brooks, S.J., Renssen, H., Bedford, A., Hazekamp, M., Ilyashuk, B., Jeffers, E.S., Lang, B., Kirilova, E., Kuiper, S., Millet, L., Samartin, S., Toth, M., Verbruggen, F., Watson, J.E., van Asch, N., Lammertsma, E., Amon, L., Birks, H.H., Birks, J.B., Mortensen, M.F., Hoek, W.Z., Magyari, E., Muñoz Sobrino, C., Seppä, H

  5. Effects of hypoxia on biofilms and subsequently larval settlement of benthic invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Cheung, S G; Chan, C Y S; Po, B H K; Li, A L; Leung, J Y S; Qiu, J W; Ang, P O; Thiyagarajan, V; Shin, P K S; Chiu, J M Y

    2014-08-30

    Biofilms on submerged surfaces are important in determining larval settlement of most marine benthic invertebrates. We investigated if exposure of biofilms to hypoxia would alter the larval settlement pattern and result in a shift in benthic invertebrate community structure in the field. Biofilms were first exposed to hypoxia or normoxia in laboratory microcosms for 7 days, and then deployed in the field for another 7 days to allow for larval settlement and recruitment to occur. Using terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism of the 16S rRNA gene, this study showed that hypoxia altered the biofilm bacterial community composition, and the difference between the hypoxic and normoxic treatments increased with the time of exposure period. This study also demonstrated significantly different benthic invertebrate community structures as a result of biofilm exposure to hypoxia and that the hypoxic and normoxic treatments were dominated by Hydroides sp. and Folliculina sp., respectively.

  6. Inferring late-Holocene climate in the Ecuadorian Andes using a chironomid-based temperature inference model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews-Bird, Frazer; Brooks, Stephen J.; Holden, Philip B.; Montoya, Encarni; Gosling, William D.

    2016-06-01

    Presented here is the first chironomid calibration data set for tropical South America. Surface sediments were collected from 59 lakes across Bolivia (15 lakes), Peru (32 lakes), and Ecuador (12 lakes) between 2004 and 2013 over an altitudinal gradient from 150 m above sea level (a.s.l) to 4655 m a.s.l, between 0-17° S and 64-78° W. The study sites cover a mean annual temperature (MAT) gradient of 25 °C. In total, 55 chironomid taxa were identified in the 59 calibration data set lakes. When used as a single explanatory variable, MAT explains 12.9 % of the variance (λ1/λ2 = 1.431). Two inference models were developed using weighted averaging (WA) and Bayesian methods. The best-performing model using conventional statistical methods was a WA (inverse) model (R2jack = 0.890; RMSEPjack = 2.404 °C, RMSEP - root mean squared error of prediction; mean biasjack = -0.017 °C; max biasjack = 4.665 °C). The Bayesian method produced a model with R2jack = 0.909, RMSEPjack = 2.373 °C, mean biasjack = 0.598 °C, and max biasjack = 3.158 °C. Both models were used to infer past temperatures from a ca. 3000-year record from the tropical Andes of Ecuador, Laguna Pindo. Inferred temperatures fluctuated around modern-day conditions but showed significant departures at certain intervals (ca. 1600 cal yr BP; ca. 3000-2500 cal yr BP). Both methods (WA and Bayesian) showed similar patterns of temperature variability; however, the magnitude of fluctuations differed. In general the WA method was more variable and often underestimated Holocene temperatures (by ca. -7 ± 2.5 °C relative to the modern period). The Bayesian method provided temperature anomaly estimates for cool periods that lay within the expected range of the Holocene (ca. -3 ± 3.4 °C). The error associated with both reconstructions is consistent with a constant temperature of 20 °C for the past 3000 years. We would caution, however, against an over-interpretation at this stage. The reconstruction can only

  7. Accumulation of microcystins in a dominant Chironomid Larvae (Tanypus chinensis) of a large, shallow and eutrophic Chinese lake, Lake Taihu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Qingju; Su, Xiaomei; Steinman, Alan D.; Cai, Yongjiu; Zhao, Yanyan; Xie, Liqiang

    2016-08-01

    Although there have been numerous studies on microcystin (MC) accumulation in aquatic organisms recently, the bioaccumulation of MCs in relatively small sized organisms, as well as potential influencing factors, has been rarely studied. Thus, in this study, we investigated the bioaccumulation of three MC congeners (-LR, -RR and -YR) in the chironomid larvae of Tanypus chinensis (an excellent food source for certain fishes), the potential sources of these MCs, and potentially relevant environmental parameters over the course of one year in Lake Taihu, China. MC concentrations in T. chinensis varied temporally with highest concentrations during the warmest months (except August 2013) and very low concentrations during the remaining months. Among the three potential MC sources, only intracellular MCs were significantly and positively correlated with MCs in T. chinensis. Although MC concentrations in T. chinensis significantly correlated with a series of physicochemical parameters of water column, cyanobacteria species explained the most variability of MC accumulation, with the rest primarily explained by extraMC-LR. These results indicated that ingestion of MC-producing algae of cyanobacteria accounted for most of the MC that accumulated in T. chinensis. The high MC concentrations in T. chinensis may pose a potential health threat to humans through trophic transfer.

  8. Accumulation of microcystins in a dominant Chironomid Larvae (Tanypus chinensis) of a large, shallow and eutrophic Chinese lake, Lake Taihu

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Qingju; Su, Xiaomei; Steinman, Alan D.; Cai, Yongjiu; Zhao, Yanyan; Xie, Liqiang

    2016-01-01

    Although there have been numerous studies on microcystin (MC) accumulation in aquatic organisms recently, the bioaccumulation of MCs in relatively small sized organisms, as well as potential influencing factors, has been rarely studied. Thus, in this study, we investigated the bioaccumulation of three MC congeners (-LR, -RR and -YR) in the chironomid larvae of Tanypus chinensis (an excellent food source for certain fishes), the potential sources of these MCs, and potentially relevant environmental parameters over the course of one year in Lake Taihu, China. MC concentrations in T. chinensis varied temporally with highest concentrations during the warmest months (except August 2013) and very low concentrations during the remaining months. Among the three potential MC sources, only intracellular MCs were significantly and positively correlated with MCs in T. chinensis. Although MC concentrations in T. chinensis significantly correlated with a series of physicochemical parameters of water column, cyanobacteria species explained the most variability of MC accumulation, with the rest primarily explained by extraMC-LR. These results indicated that ingestion of MC-producing algae of cyanobacteria accounted for most of the MC that accumulated in T. chinensis. The high MC concentrations in T. chinensis may pose a potential health threat to humans through trophic transfer. PMID:27499175

  9. Relationships among total recoverable and reactive metals and metalloid in St. Lawrence River sediment: bioaccumulation by chironomids and implications for ecological risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Desrosiers, Mélanie; Gagnon, Christian; Masson, Stéphane; Martel, Louis; Babut, Marc P

    2008-01-15

    The availability and bioaccumulation of metals and metalloids, and the geochemical interactions among them, are essential to developing an ecological risk assessment (ERA) framework and determining threshold concentrations for these elements. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among total recoverable and reactive metals and metalloid in sediment and their bioaccumulation by chironomids. In the fall of 2004 and 2005, 58 stations located in the three fluvial lakes of the St. Lawrence River and its largest harbour area in Montreal, Canada, were sampled. Nine total recoverable and reactive metals (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) and one metalloid (As) were measured in whole sediment using two extraction methods: HCl/HNO(3) and HCl 1N, respectively. The bioaccumulation of six metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) and As by chironomids was evaluated in a subset of 22 stations. Strong collinearities were observed between some total recoverable or reactive metal concentrations in sediment; two principal clusters, including collinear metals, were obtained. The first one included metals of mainly geological origin (Al, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni), while the second one included As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, which likely derive mainly from point sources of anthropogenic contamination. Each element also showed strong collinearity between their total recoverable and reactive forms (0.65< or =r < or =0.97). We can conclude that both chemical forms are equivalent for use in statistical models needed to explain biological responses and also in screening risk assessment. However, these relationships are not always proportional. Lower availability percentages were observed for Cd, Cu and Zn in the highly mixed-contaminated area of the Montreal Harbour, even though concentrations in sediment were higher. We observed a significant correlation (0.50< or =r < or =0.56) between concentrations in chironomids and concentrations of both total recoverable and reactive Cr and Pb in

  10. [Canine peritoneal larval cestodosis caused by Mesocestoides spp. larval stages].

    PubMed

    Häußler, T C; Peppler, C; Schmitz, S; Bauer, C; Hirzmann, J; Kramer, M

    2016-01-01

    In a female dog with unspecific clinical symptoms, sonography detected a hyperechoic mass in the middle abdomen and blood analysis a middle grade systemic inflammatory reaction. Laparotomy revealed a peritoneal larval cestodosis (PLC). The diagnosis of an infection with tetrathyridia of Mesocestoides spp. was confirmed by parasitological examination and molecularbiological analysis. Reduction of the intra-abdominal parasitic load as well as a high dose administration of fenbendazole over 3 months led to a successful treatment which could be documented sonographically and by decreased concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP). Seven months after discontinuation of fenbendazole administration, PLC recurred, pre-empted by an elevation of serum CRP values. According to the literature a life-long fenbendazole treatment was initiated. In cases of unclear chronic granulomatous inflammations in the abdominal cavity in dogs, PLC should be considered. CRP concentration and sonographic examinations are suitable to control for treatment success and a possibly occurring relapse.

  11. Integrated mosquito larval source management reduces larval numbers in two highland villages in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In western Kenya, malaria remains one of the major health problems and its control remains an important public health measure. Malaria control is by either use of drugs to treat patients infected with malaria parasites or by controlling the vectors. Vector control may target the free living adult or aquatic (larval) stages of mosquito. The most commonly applied control strategies target indoor resting mosquitoes. However, because mosquitoes spend a considerable time in water, targeting the aquatic stages can complement well with existing adult control measures. Methods Larval source management (LSM) of malaria vectors was examined in two villages i.e. Fort Ternan and Lunyerere, with the aim of testing strategies that can easily be accessed by the affected communities. Intervention strategies applied include environmental management through source reduction (drainage of canals, land levelling or by filling ditches with soil), habitat manipulation (by provision of shading from arrow root plant), application of Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis (Bti) and the use of predatory fish, Gambusia affinis. The abundance of immature stages of Anopheles and Culex within intervention habitats was compared to that within non-intervention habitats. Results The findings show that in Fort Ternan no significant differences were observed in the abundance of Anopheles early and late instars between intervention and non-intervention habitats. In Lunyerere, the abundance of Anopheles early instars was fifty five times more likely to be present within non-intervention habitats than in habitats under drainage. No differences in early instars abundance were observed between non-intervention and habitats applied with Bti. However, late instars had 89 % and 91 % chance of being sampled from non-intervention rather than habitats under drainage and those applied with Bti respectively. Conclusion Most of these interventions were applied in habitats that arose due to human

  12. Effect of Leaf Type and Pesticide Exposure on Abundance of Bacterial Taxa in Mosquito Larval Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Muturi, Ephantus J.; Orindi, Benedict O.; Kim, Chang-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Lentic freshwater systems including those inhabited by aquatic stages of mosquitoes derive most of their carbon inputs from terrestrial organic matter mainly leaf litter. The leaf litter is colonized by microbial communities that provide the resource base for mosquito larvae. While the microbial biomass associated with different leaf species in container aquatic habitats is well documented, the taxonomic composition of these microbes and their response to common environmental stressors is poorly understood. We used indoor aquatic microcosms to determine the abundances of major taxonomic groups of bacteria in leaf litters from seven plant species and their responses to low concentrations of four pesticides with different modes of action on the target organisms; permethrin, malathion, atrazine and glyphosate. We tested the hypotheses that leaf species support different quantities of major taxonomic groups of bacteria and that exposure to pesticides at environmentally relevant concentrations alters bacterial abundance and community structure in mosquito larval habitats. We found support for both hypotheses suggesting that leaf litter identity and chemical contamination may alter the quality and quantity of mosquito food base (microbial communities) in larval habitats. The effect of pesticides on microbial communities varied significantly among leaf types, suggesting that the impact of pesticides on natural microbial communities may be highly complex and difficult to predict. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the potential for detritus composition within mosquito larval habitats and exposure to pesticides to influence the quality of mosquito larval habitats. PMID:23940789

  13. Domestic Larval Control Practices and Malaria Prevalence among Under-Five Children in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Diabaté, Souleymane; Druetz, Thomas; Millogo, Tiéba; Ly, Antarou; Fregonese, Federica; Kouanda, Seni; Haddad, Slim

    2015-01-01

    malaria control programs to include or reinforce training activities for community health workers aimed at promoting domestic larval control practices. PMID:26517727

  14. Aquatic community response in a groundwater-fed desert lake to Holocene desiccation of the Sahara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggermont, Hilde; Verschuren, Dirk; Fagot, Maureen; Rumes, Bob; Van Bocxlaer, Bert; Kröpelin, Stefan

    2008-12-01

    The finely laminated sediment record of a permanent, hypersaline, desert oasis lake in the Ounianga region of northeastern Chad presents a unique opportunity to document the hydrological evolution of this groundwater-fed aquatic ecosystem during mid- and late-Holocene desiccation of the Sahara. In this study we reconstruct long-term changes in zoobenthos and zooplankton communities of Lake Yoa as their early-Holocene freshwater habitat changed into the hypersaline conditions prevailing today. Chironomid production peaked during the fresh-to-saline transition period, then stabilized at about half that of the earlier freshwater ecosystem. Quantitative salinity inferences based on fossil chironomid assemblages indicate that the fresh-to-saline transition occurred fairly abruptly between ˜4100 and 3400 cal yr BP, but that the ecosystem was buffered against shorter-term climate fluctuations due to continuous inflow of fossil groundwater. The mixture of tropical-African and southern Palaearctic chironomid faunas in the Lake Yoa fossil record required us to address several methodological issues concerning chironomid-based salinity reconstruction, and the applicability of a calibration dataset based on tropical East and West African lakes to this Sahara desert locality. The most coherent reconstruction was obtained with an inference model that applies a weighted best-modern-analogue (WMAT) transfer function to the African calibration dataset expanded with six Sahara lakes.

  15. Trace DNA from insect skins: a comparison of five extraction protocols and direct PCR on chironomid pupal exuviae.

    PubMed

    Kranzfelder, Petra; Ekrem, Torbjørn; Stur, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Insect skins (exuviae) are of extracellular origin and shed during moulting. The skins do not contain cells or DNA themselves, but epithelial cells and other cell-based structures might accidentally attach as they are shed. This source of trace DNA can be sufficient for PCR amplification and sequencing of target genes and aid in species identification through DNA barcoding or association of unknown life stages. Species identification is essential for biomonitoring programs, as species vary in sensitivities to environmental factors. However, it requires a DNA isolation protocol that optimizes the output of target DNA. Here, we compare the relative effectiveness of five different DNA extraction protocols and direct PCR in isolation of DNA from chironomid pupal exuviae. Chironomidae (Diptera) is a species-rich group of aquatic macroinvertebrates widely distributed in freshwater environments and considered a valuable bioindicator of water quality. Genomic DNA was extracted from 61.2% of 570 sampled pupal exuviae. There were significant differences in the methods with regard to cost, handling time, DNA quantity, PCR success, sequence success and the ability to sequence target taxa. The NucleoSpin(®) Tissue XS Kit, DNeasy(®) Blood and Tissue kit, and QuickExtract(™) DNA Extraction Solution provided the best results in isolating DNA from single pupal exuviae. Direct PCR and DTAB/CTAB methods gave poor results. While the observed differences in DNA isolation methods on trace DNA will be relevant to research that focuses on aquatic macroinvertebrate ecology, taxonomy and systematics, they should also be of interest for studies using environmental barcoding and metabarcoding of aquatic environments.

  16. Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Kit, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Art in context of community is the theme of this newsletter. The theme is introduced in an editorial "Community-Enlarging the Definition" (Kit Grauer). Related articles include: (1) "The Children's Bridge is not Destroyed: Heart in the Middle of the World" (Emil Robert Tanay); (2) "Making Bridges: The Sock Doll…

  17. Soundscapes and Larval Settlement: Larval Bivalve Responses to Habitat-Associated Underwater Sounds.

    PubMed

    Eggleston, David B; Lillis, Ashlee; Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R

    2016-01-01

    We quantified the effects of habitat-associated sounds on the settlement response of two species of bivalves with contrasting habitat preferences: (1) Crassostrea virginicia (oyster), which prefers to settle on other oysters, and (2) Mercenaria mercenaria (clam), which settles on unstructured habitats. Oyster larval settlement in the laboratory was significantly higher when exposed to oyster reef sound compared with either off-reef or no-sound treatments. Clam larval settlement did not vary according to sound treatments. Similar to laboratory results, field experiments showed that oyster larval settlement in "larval housings" suspended above oyster reefs was significantly higher compared with off-reef sites.

  18. Behavioral ecology of larval dragonflies and damselflies.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D M

    1991-01-01

    During the past decade, larval dragonflies and damselflies (Insecta: Odonata) have been the subjects for very productive ecological research. Descriptive field work, enclosure experiments and laboratory behavior studies have identified fish predation, intraguild predation (especially mutual predation among odonates, including cannibalism) and interference competition as particularly strong interactions influencing larval odonate assemblages. Behavioral differences among species suggest evolutionary adaptations for coexistence with different predators, and for winning intraspecific aggressive encounters.

  19. Larval nervous systems: true larval and precocious adult.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Claus

    2015-02-15

    The apical organ of ciliated larvae of cnidarians and bilaterians is a true larval organ that disappears before or at metamorphosis. It appears to be sensory, probably involved in metamorphosis, but knowledge is scant. The ciliated protostome larvae show ganglia/nerve cords that are retained as the adult central nervous system (CNS). Two structures can be recognized, viz. a pair of cerebral ganglia, which form the major part of the adult brain, and a blastoporal (circumblastoporal) nerve cord, which becomes differentiated into a perioral loop, paired or secondarily fused ventral nerve cords and a small perianal loop. The anterior loop becomes part of the brain. This has been well documented through cell-lineage studies in a number of spiralians, and homologies with similar structures in the ecdysozoans are strongly indicated. The deuterostomes are generally difficult to interpret, and the nervous systems of echinoderms and enteropneusts appear completely enigmatic. The ontogeny of the chordate CNS can perhaps be interpreted as a variation of the ontogeny of the blastoporal nerve cord of the protostomes, and this is strongly supported by patterns of gene expression. The presence of 'deuterostomian' blastopore fates both in an annelid and in a mollusk, which are both placed in families with the 'normal' spiralian gastrulation type, and in the chaetognaths demonstrates that the chordate type of gastrulation could easily have evolved from the spiralian type. This indicates that the latest common ancestor of the deuterostomes was very similar to the latest common pelago-benthic ancestor of the protostomes as described by the trochaea theory, and that the neural tube of the chordates is morphologically ventral.

  20. Detecting larval export from marine reserves

    PubMed Central

    Pelc, R. A.; Warner, R. R.; Gaines, S. D.; Paris, C. B.

    2010-01-01

    Marine reserve theory suggests that where large, productive populations are protected within no-take marine reserves, fished areas outside reserves will benefit through the spillover of larvae produced in the reserves. However, empirical evidence for larval export has been sparse. Here we use a simple idealized coastline model to estimate the expected magnitude and spatial scale of larval export from no-take marine reserves across a range of reserve sizes and larval dispersal scales. Results suggest that, given the magnitude of increased production typically found in marine reserves, benefits from larval export are nearly always large enough to offset increased mortality outside marine reserves due to displaced fishing effort. However, the proportional increase in recruitment at sites outside reserves is typically small, particularly for species with long-distance (on the order of hundreds of kilometers) larval dispersal distances, making it very difficult to detect in field studies. Enhanced recruitment due to export may be detected by sampling several sites at an appropriate range of distances from reserves or at sites downcurrent of reserves in systems with directional dispersal. A review of existing empirical evidence confirms the model's suggestion that detecting export may be difficult without an exceptionally large differential in production, short-distance larval dispersal relative to reserve size, directional dispersal, or a sampling scheme that encompasses a broad range of distances from the reserves. PMID:20181570

  1. Snail shells as larval habitat of Limatus durhamii (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Yungas of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Mangudo, Carolina; Campos, Raúl E; Rossi, Gustavo C; Gleiser, Raquel M

    2017-03-01

    The shells of dead snails collect water from rainfalls producing aquatic microenvironments called gastrotelmata. These habitats are small and hold simple detritus based on animal communities, being rotifers and culicids the most studied. Although a high diversity of aquatic microhabitats has been reported as larval habitats of mosquitoes in Argentina, the shell of snails has not been investigated yet. We report the shells of three species of native Megalobulimus genus as larval habitats of a neotropical mosquito and suspected vector of bunyaviruses, Limatus durhamii, and describe these microhabitats in the Yungas forest of Argentina.

  2. Patterns, causes, and consequences of marine larval dispersal.

    PubMed

    D'Aloia, Cassidy C; Bogdanowicz, Steven M; Francis, Robin K; Majoris, John E; Harrison, Richard G; Buston, Peter M

    2015-11-10

    Quantifying the probability of larval exchange among marine populations is key to predicting local population dynamics and optimizing networks of marine protected areas. The pattern of connectivity among populations can be described by the measurement of a dispersal kernel. However, a statistically robust, empirical dispersal kernel has been lacking for any marine species. Here, we use genetic parentage analysis to quantify a dispersal kernel for the reef fish Elacatinus lori, demonstrating that dispersal declines exponentially with distance. The spatial scale of dispersal is an order of magnitude less than previous estimates-the median dispersal distance is just 1.7 km and no dispersal events exceed 16.4 km despite intensive sampling out to 30 km from source. Overlaid on this strong pattern is subtle spatial variation, but neither pelagic larval duration nor direction is associated with the probability of successful dispersal. Given the strong relationship between distance and dispersal, we show that distance-driven logistic models have strong power to predict dispersal probabilities. Moreover, connectivity matrices generated from these models are congruent with empirical estimates of spatial genetic structure, suggesting that the pattern of dispersal we uncovered reflects long-term patterns of gene flow. These results challenge assumptions regarding the spatial scale and presumed predictors of marine population connectivity. We conclude that if marine reserve networks aim to connect whole communities of fishes and conserve biodiversity broadly, then reserves that are close in space (<10 km) will accommodate those members of the community that are short-distance dispersers.

  3. Patterns, causes, and consequences of marine larval dispersal

    PubMed Central

    D’Aloia, Cassidy C.; Bogdanowicz, Steven M.; Francis, Robin K.; Majoris, John E.; Harrison, Richard G.; Buston, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying the probability of larval exchange among marine populations is key to predicting local population dynamics and optimizing networks of marine protected areas. The pattern of connectivity among populations can be described by the measurement of a dispersal kernel. However, a statistically robust, empirical dispersal kernel has been lacking for any marine species. Here, we use genetic parentage analysis to quantify a dispersal kernel for the reef fish Elacatinus lori, demonstrating that dispersal declines exponentially with distance. The spatial scale of dispersal is an order of magnitude less than previous estimates—the median dispersal distance is just 1.7 km and no dispersal events exceed 16.4 km despite intensive sampling out to 30 km from source. Overlaid on this strong pattern is subtle spatial variation, but neither pelagic larval duration nor direction is associated with the probability of successful dispersal. Given the strong relationship between distance and dispersal, we show that distance-driven logistic models have strong power to predict dispersal probabilities. Moreover, connectivity matrices generated from these models are congruent with empirical estimates of spatial genetic structure, suggesting that the pattern of dispersal we uncovered reflects long-term patterns of gene flow. These results challenge assumptions regarding the spatial scale and presumed predictors of marine population connectivity. We conclude that if marine reserve networks aim to connect whole communities of fishes and conserve biodiversity broadly, then reserves that are close in space (<10 km) will accommodate those members of the community that are short-distance dispersers. PMID:26508628

  4. Larval development of Phoronis pallida (Phoronida): implications for morphological convergence and divergence among larval body plans.

    PubMed

    Santagata, Scott

    2004-03-01

    Morphological variation among larval body plans must be placed into a phylogenetic and ecological context to assess whether similar morphologies are the result of phylogenetic constraints or convergent selective pressures. Investigations are needed of the diverse larval forms within the Lophotrochozoa, especially the larvae of phoronids and brachiopods. The actinotroch larva of Phoronis pallida (Phoronida) was reared in the laboratory to metamorphic competence. Larval development and growth were followed with video microscopy, SEM, and confocal microscopy. Early developmental features were similar to other phoronid species. Gastrulation was accomplished by embolic invagination of the vegetal hemisphere. Mesenchymal cells were found in the remaining blastocoelic space after invagination began. Mesenchymal cells formed the body wall musculature during the differentiation of larval features. Body wall musculature served as the framework from which all other larval muscles proliferated. Larval growth correlated best with developmental stage rather than age. Consistent with other phoronid species, differentiation of juvenile tissues occurred most rapidly at the latest stages of larval development. The minimum precompetency period of P. pallida was estimated to be approximately 4-6 weeks. Previously published studies have documented that the planktonic embryos of P. pallida develop faster than the brooded embryos of P. vancouverensis. However, these data showed that the difference in developmental rate between the two species decreased in succeeding larval stages. There may be convergent selective pressures that result in similar timing to metamorphic competence among phoronid and brachiopod planktotrophic larval types. Morphological differences between these larval types result from heterochronic developmental shifts in the differentiation of juvenile tissue. Similarities in the larval morphology of phoronids and basal deuterostomes are likely the result of functional

  5. Co-option and dissociation in larval origins and evolution: the sea urchin larval gut.

    PubMed

    Love, Alan C; Lee, Abigail E; Andrews, Mary E; Raff, Rudolf A

    2008-01-01

    The origin of marine invertebrate larvae has been an area of controversy in developmental evolution for over a century. Here, we address the question of whether a pelagic "larval" or benthic "adult" morphology originated first in metazoan lineages by testing the hypothesis that particular gene co-option patterns will be associated with the origin of feeding, indirect developing larval forms. Empirical evidence bearing on this hypothesis is derivable from gene expression studies of the sea urchin larval gut of two closely related but differently developing congenerics, Heliocidaris tuberculata (feeding indirect-developing larva) and H. erythrogramma (nonfeeding direct developer), given two subsidiary hypotheses. (1) If larval gut gene expression in H. tuberculata was co-opted from an ancestral adult expression pattern, then the gut expression pattern will remain in adult H. erythrogramma despite its direct development. (2) Genes expressed in the larval gut of H. tuberculata will not have a coordinated expression pattern in H. erythrogramma larvae due to loss of a functional gut. Five structural genes expressed in the invaginating archenteron of H. tuberculata during gastrulation exhibit substantially different expression patterns in H. erythrogramma with only one remaining endoderm specific. Expression of these genes in the adult of H. erythrogramma and larval gut of H. tuberculata, but not in H. erythrogramma larval endoderm, supports the hypothesis that they first played roles in the formation of adult structures and were subsequently recruited into larval ontogeny during the origin and evolution of feeding planktotrophic deuterostome larvae.

  6. Feeding ecology of pelagic larval Burbot in Northern Lake Huron, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Ellen M.; Roseman, Edward F.; Davis, Bruce M.; O'Brien, Timothy P.

    2013-01-01

    Burbot Lota lota are a key demersal piscivore across the Laurentian Great Lakes whose populations have declined by about 90% in recent decades. Larval Burbot typically hatch in the early spring and rely on abundant crustacean zooplankton prey. We examined the stomach contents of larval Burbot from inshore (≤15 m) and offshore sites (37 and 91 m) in northern Lake Huron, Michigan. Concurrent zooplankton vertical tows at the same sites showed that the prey community was dominated by calanoid copepods, dreissenid mussel veligers, and rotifers. Burbot consumed mostly cyclopoid copepods, followed by copepod nauplii and calanoid copepods. Chesson's index of selectivity was calculated and compared among sites and months for individual Burbot. According to this index, larval Burbot exhibited positive selection for cyclopoid copepods and copepod nauplii and negative selection for calanoid copepods, cladocerans, rotifers, and dreissenid veligers. This selectivity was consistent across sites and throughout the sampling period. Burbot displayed little variation in their prey preferences during the larval stage, which suggests that the recent shifts in zooplankton abundance due to the invasion of the predatory zooplankter Bythotrephes longimanus and competition from invasive Rainbow Smelt Osmerus mordax could negatively impact larval Burbot populations.

  7. Factors associated with larval control practices in a dengue outbreak prone area.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Mariam; Selamat, Mohamad Ikhsan; Ismail, Zaliha

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce the risk of dengue outbreak recurrence in a dengue outbreak prone area, the members of the community need to sustain certain behavior to prevent mosquito from breeding. Our study aims to identify the factors associated with larval control practices in this particular community. A cross-sectional study involves 322 respondents living in a dengue outbreak prone area who were interviewed using a pretested questionnaire. The level of knowledge about Aedes mosquitoes, dengue transmission, its symptoms, and personal preventive measures ranges from fair to good. The level of attitude towards preventive measures was high. However, reported level of personal larval control practices was low (33.2%). Our multiple logistic regression analysis showed that only those with a good level of attitude towards personal preventive measure and frequent attendance to health campaigns were significantly associated with the good larval control practices. We conclude that, in a dengue outbreak prone area, having a good attitude towards preventive measures and frequent participation in health campaigns are important factors to sustain practices on larval control.

  8. Emergence flux declines disproportionately to larval density along a stream metals gradient.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Travis S; Kraus, Johanna M; Walters, David M; Wanty, Richard B

    2013-08-06

    Effects of contaminants on adult aquatic insect emergence are less well understood than effects on insect larvae. We compared responses of larval density and adult emergence along a metal contamination gradient. Nonlinear threshold responses were generally observed for larvae and emergers. Larval densities decreased significantly at low metal concentrations but precipitously at concentrations of metal mixtures above aquatic life criteria (cumulative criterion accumulation ratio (CCAR) ≥ 1). In contrast, adult emergence declined precipitously at low metal concentrations (CCAR ≤ 1), followed by a modest decline above this threshold. Adult emergence was a more sensitive indicator of the effect of low metals concentrations on aquatic insect communities compared to larvae, presumably because emergence is limited by a combination of larval survival and other factors limiting successful emergence. Thus effects of exposure to larvae are not manifest until later in life (during metamorphosis and emergence). This loss in emergence reduces prey subsidies to riparian communities at concentrations considered safe for aquatic life. Our results also challenge the widely held assumption that adult emergence is a constant proportion of larval densities in all streams.

  9. Emergence flux declines disproportionately to larval density along a stream metals gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Travis S.; Kraus, Johanna M.; Walters, David M.; Wanty, Richard B.

    2013-01-01

    Effects of contaminants on adult aquatic insect emergence are less well understood than effects on insect larvae. We compared responses of larval density and adult emergence along a metal contamination gradient. Nonlinear threshold responses were generally observed for larvae and emergers. Larval densities decreased significantly at low metal concentrations but precipitously at concentrations of metal mixtures above aquatic life criteria (Cumulative Criterion Accumulation Ratio (CCAR) ≥ 1). In contrast, adult emergence declined precipitously at low metal concentrations (CCAR ≤ 1), followed by a modest decline above this threshold. Adult emergence was a more sensitive indicator of the effect of low metals concentrations on aquatic insect communities compared to larvae, presumably because emergence is limited by a combination of larval survival and other factors limiting successful emergence. Thus effects of exposure to larvae are not manifest until later in life (during metamorphosis and emergence). This loss in emergence reduces prey subsidies to riparian communities at concentrations considered safe for aquatic life. Our results also challenge the widely held assumption that adult emergence is a constant proportion of larval densities in all streams.

  10. Quantitative Proteomics Study of Larval Settlement in the Barnacle Balanus amphitrite

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Matsumura, Kiyotaka; Wong, Yue Him; Ravasi, Timothy; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Barnacles are major sessile components of the intertidal areas worldwide, and also one of the most dominant fouling organisms in fouling communities. Larval settlement has a crucial ecological effect not only on the distribution of the barnacle population but also intertidal community structures. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the transition process from the larval to the juvenile stage remain largely unclear. In this study, we carried out comparative proteomic profiles of stage II nauplii, stage VI nauplii, cyprids, and juveniles of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite using label-free quantitative proteomics, followed by the measurement of the gene expression levels of candidate proteins. More than 700 proteins were identified at each stage; 80 were significantly up-regulated in cyprids and 95 in juveniles vs other stages. Specifically, proteins involved in energy and metabolism, the nervous system and signal transduction were significantly up-regulated in cyprids, whereas proteins involved in cytoskeletal remodeling, transcription and translation, cell proliferation and differentiation, and biomineralization were up-regulated in juveniles, consistent with changes associated with larval metamorphosis and tissue remodeling in juveniles. These findings provided molecular evidence for the morphological, physiological and biological changes that occur during the transition process from the larval to the juvenile stages in B. amphitrite. PMID:24551147

  11. Linking Planktonic Larval Abundance to Internal Bores at the Head of the Monterey Submarine Canyon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelan, J.; Walter, R. K.; Steinbeck, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Variability in the physical coastal environment can play an important role in determining the spatio-temporal variation in abundance of planktonic organisms. Combining planktonic larval abundance estimates over the course of a year with concurrent temperature and current data, this study provides empirical data linking a locally predominant internal tidal feature to patterns of biological abundance in the very nearshore environment at the head of Monterey Submarine Canyon. The physical observations indicate the presence of seasonally-variable semidiurnal internal bores that result in the pumping of cold (subthermocline) waters onto the adjacent shelf. Analysis of the larval abundance data indicates an assemblage shift from a relatively abundant shelf assemblage of larval fishes to a reduced abundance assemblage that is concurrent with the semidiurnal cold water intrusions driven by the tidal pumping. Results suggest that the tidal period pumping of subthermocline waters by internal bores dilutes or displaces shelf waters and their associated planktonic larval community. This could have important ecological implications at these scales and may also be of interest when siting industrial facilities that require seawater for cooling or desalination, as it would potentially reduce their impact on regional planktonic communities by diluting their rates of entrainment.

  12. Soundscapes and Larval Settlement: Characterizing the Stimulus from a Larval Perspective.

    PubMed

    Lillis, Ashlee; Eggleston, David B; Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that underwater sounds serve as a cue for the larvae of marine organisms to locate suitable settlement habitats; however, the relevant spatiotemporal scales of variability in habitat-related sounds and how this variation scales with larval settlement processes remain largely uncharacterized, particularly in estuarine habitats. Here, we provide an overview of the approaches we have developed to characterize an estuarine soundscape as it relates to larval processes, and a conceptual framework is provided for how habitat-related sounds may influence larval settlement, using oyster reef soundscapes as an example.

  13. Larval Environment Alters Amphibian Immune Defenses Differentially across Life Stages and Populations

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Recent global declines, extirpations and extinctions of wildlife caused by newly emergent diseases highlight the need to improve our knowledge of common environmental factors that affect the strength of immune defense traits. To achieve this goal, we examined the influence of acidification and shading of the larval environment on amphibian skin-associated innate immune defense traits, pre and post-metamorphosis, across two populations of American Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana), a species known for its wide-ranging environmental tolerance and introduced global distribution. We assessed treatment effects on 1) skin-associated microbial communities and 2) post-metamorphic antimicrobial peptide (AMP) production and 3) AMP bioactivity against the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). While habitat acidification did not affect survival, time to metamorphosis or juvenile mass, we found that a change in average pH from 7 to 6 caused a significant shift in the larval skin microbial community, an effect which disappeared after metamorphosis. Additionally, we found shifts in skin-associated microbial communities across life stages suggesting they are affected by the physiological or ecological changes associated with amphibian metamorphosis. Moreover, we found that post-metamorphic AMP production and bioactivity were significantly affected by the interactions between pH and shade treatments and interactive effects differed across populations. In contrast, there were no significant interactions between treatments on post-metamorphic microbial community structure suggesting that variation in AMPs did not affect microbial community structure within our study. Our findings indicate that commonly encountered variation in the larval environment (i.e. pond pH and degree of shading) can have both immediate and long-term effects on the amphibian innate immune defense traits. Our work suggests that the susceptibility of amphibians to emerging diseases could be related to

  14. Diversity and structure of Chironomidae communities in relation to water quality differences in the Swartkops River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odume, O. N.; Muller, W. J.

    The Swartkops River is an important freshwater ecosystem in South Africa. But owing to its location, it suffers varying degrees of human induced impacts which include industrial and domestic effluent discharges, deforestation as well as agricultural land use which have negatively impacted on the water quality. Diversity and community composition of aquatic insects are frequently used to assess environmental water quality status. Chironomids occupy extremely varied biotopes. Their extraordinary ecological range and environmental sensitivity make them particularly useful for assessing and interpreting changes in water quality of aquatic ecosystems. The community structure of chironomid larvae was investigated at four sites in the Swartkops River and effects of different chemical and physical variables on their distribution were explored. Chironomid larvae were collected using the South African Scoring System version 5 (SASS5) protocol. A total of 26 taxa from four sampling sites in the Swartkops River were identified. Margalef’s species richness index, equitability, Shannon and Simpson diversity indices were highest at site 1 (reference site). The downstream sites contained 6-20 taxa compared to the 25 taxa at site 1. Site 1 was characterised by the subfamilies Orthocladiinae, Tanypodinae and the tribe Tanytarsini while the impacted sites were characterised by Orthocladiinae and Chironomini. Chironomus spp., Dirotendipes sp., Kiefferulus sp. and Tanypus sp. seemed to be tolerant to pollution, occurring in high abundance at sites 2, 3 and 4. In contrast, Polypedilum sp., Tanytarsus sp., Orthocladius sp., Cricotopus spp. and Ablabesmyia sp. appeared to be more sensitive taxa, being less common at the impacted sites (sites 2, 3 and 4). Five days biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, orthophosphate-phosphorus and total inorganic nitrogen were among the important variables that determine the observed chironomid community structure

  15. A modeling approach of the influence of local hydrodynamic conditions on larval dispersal at hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Bailly-Bechet, Marc; Kerszberg, Michel; Gaill, Françoise; Pradillon, Florence

    2008-12-07

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vent animal communities along oceanic ridges are both patchy and transient. Larval dispersal is a key factor in understanding how these communities function and are maintained over generations. To date, numerical approaches simulating larval dispersal considered the effect of oceanic currents on larval transportation over hundreds of kilometers but very seldom looked at the effect of local conditions within meters around chimneys. However, small scale significant variations in the hydrodynamics may influence larval fate in its early stages after release, and hence have a knock-on effect on both dispersal and colonization processes. Here we present a new numerical approach to the study of larval dispersal, considering small scales within the range of the biological communities, called "bio-hydrodynamical" scale, and ranging from a few centimeters to a few meters around hydrothermal sources. We use a physical model for the vent based on jet theory and compute the turbulent velocity field around the smoker. Larvae are considered as passive particles whose trajectories are affected by hydrodynamics, topography of the vent chimney and larval biological properties. Our model predicts that bottom currents often dominate all other factors either by entraining all larvae away from the vent or enforcing strong colonization rates. When bottom currents are very slow (<1 mms(-1)), general larvae motion is upwards due to entrainment by the main smoker jet. In this context, smokers with vertical slopes favor retention of larvae because larval initial trajectory is nearly parallel to the smoker wall, which increases the chances to settle. This retention phenomenon is intensified with increasing velocity of the main smoker jet because entrainment in the high velocity plume is preceded by a phase when larvae are attracted towards the smoker wall, which occurs earlier with higher velocity of the main jet. Finally, the buoyancy rate of the larvae, measured to be

  16. Behavorial assessments of larval zebrafish neurotoxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fishes have long been a popular organism in ecotoxicology research, and are increasingly used in human health research as an alternative animal model for chemical screening. Our laboratory incorporates a zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo/larval assay to screen chemicals for developm...

  17. Spinal cord transection in the larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Briona, Lisa K; Dorsky, Richard I

    2014-05-21

    Mammals fail in sensory and motor recovery following spinal cord injury due to lack of axonal regrowth below the level of injury as well as an inability to reinitiate spinal neurogenesis. However, some anamniotes including the zebrafish Danio rerio exhibit both sensory and functional recovery even after complete transection of the spinal cord. The adult zebrafish is an established model organism for studying regeneration following spinal cord injury, with sensory and motor recovery by 6 weeks post-injury. To take advantage of in vivo analysis of the regenerative process available in the transparent larval zebrafish as well as genetic tools not accessible in the adult, we use the larval zebrafish to study regeneration after spinal cord transection. Here we demonstrate a method for reproducibly and verifiably transecting the larval spinal cord. After transection, our data shows sensory recovery beginning at 2 days post-injury (dpi), with the C-bend movement detectable by 3 dpi and resumption of free swimming by 5 dpi. Thus we propose the larval zebrafish as a companion tool to the adult zebrafish for the study of recovery after spinal cord injury.

  18. Two faces of agricultural intensification hanging over aquatic biodiversity: The case of chironomid diversity from farm ponds vs. natural wetlands in a coastal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenoy, Encarnación; Casas, J. Jesús

    2015-05-01

    Increasing agricultural land use and intensification have given rise to the loss and eutrophication of coastal wetlands worldwide. In Mediterranean coastal regions, irrigated agriculture, in turn, has prompted the proliferation of farm ponds which might compensate for wetland loss and degradation if their management regimen results are compatible with biodiversity conservation. Here, we studied regional (γ-), local (α-) and interlocal (β-) diversities of chironomids in coastal wetlands and irrigation ponds from a Mediterranean region, to determine the contribution of each habitat type to regional diversity, and to disentangle which environmental factors, anthropogenic or natural, contributed most to explain diversity patterns. Regional diversity was slightly, but still significantly, higher in natural wetlands than in farm ponds, which can be attributed to the significantly higher β-diversity in natural wetlands, since, despite the much larger surface area of wetlands, both habitat types did not differ in local diversity (α-diversity). In both habitats, however, the contribution of β-diversity to regional diversity was higher compared to that of α-diversity, and the component 'spatial species turnover' exceeded that of the component 'nestedness' of β-diversity. This, together with an outstanding assemblage complementarity (approx. 50%) between habitat types, emphasizes the vital contribution of farm ponds, together with natural wetlands, to regional diversity. Despite the higher salinity and eutrophication of natural wetlands that tended to reduce diversity in chironomid assemblages, their more heterogeneous shore line likely compensated somewhat for such negative effects. Unlike wetlands, the homogeneous and unvegetated shore of farm ponds, in conjunction with their intensive management, probably induced adverse effects on local and interlocal diversity. Specific recommendations are given in this regards to mitigate impacts and improve the value of both

  19. Detection, identification, and classification of mosquito larval habitats using remote sensing scanners in earth-orbiting satellites*

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Richard O.; Maxwell, Eugene L.; Mitchell, Carl J.; Woodzick, Thomas L.

    1985-01-01

    A method of identifying mosquito larval habitats associated with fresh-water plant communities, wetlands, and other aquatic locations at Lewis and Clark Lake in the states of Nebraska and South Dakota, USA, using remote sensing imagery obtained by multispectral scanners aboard earth-orbiting satellites (Landsat 1 and 2) is described. The advantages and limitations of this method are discussed. PMID:2861917

  20. Interactive effects of salinity and a predator on mosquito oviposition and larval performance.

    PubMed

    Silberbush, Alon; Tsurim, Ido; Margalith, Yoel; Blaustein, Leon

    2014-06-01

    Oviposition habitat selection (OHS) is increasingly being recognized as playing a large role in explaining mosquito distributions and community assemblages. Most studies have assessed the role of single factors affecting OHS, while in nature, oviposition patterns are most likely explained by multiple, interacting biotic and abiotic factors. Determining how various factors interact to affect OHS is important for understanding metapopulation and metacommunity dynamics. We investigated the individual and interactive effects of three water salinities (0, 15 and 30 p.p.t. NaCl added) and the aquatic predator Anisops debilis Perplexa (Hemiptera: Notonectidae) on OHS and larval performance of the mosquitoes Ochlerotatus caspius Pallas and Culiseta longiareolata Macquart (Diptera: Culicidae) in outdoor-artificial-pool and laboratory experiments. C. longiareolata inhabited only freshwater pools, strongly avoided pools containing A. debilis, and larvae experienced lower survival in the presence of A. debilis. Salinity concentration interacted strongly with the predator in affecting OHS and larval survival of O. caspius; oviposition increased with increasing salinity in the absence of the predator and decreased with increasing salinity in the presence of the predator. O. caspius larval survival in predator-free pools was lowest in freshwater and highest at intermediate salinity. In predator pools, survival was highest at high salinity, where predation rate was shown to be lowest in the laboratory. Our results highlight that assessing the role of single factors in affecting mosquito distributions can be misleading. Instead, multiple factors may interact to affect oviposition patterns and larval performance.

  1. Temperature control of larval dispersal and the implications for marine ecology, evolution, and conservation

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Mary I.; Bruno, John F.; Gaines, Steven D.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Lester, Sarah E.; Kinlan, Brian P.; Weiss, Jack M.

    2007-01-01

    Temperature controls the rate of fundamental biochemical processes and thereby regulates organismal attributes including development rate and survival. The increase in metabolic rate with temperature explains substantial among-species variation in life-history traits, population dynamics, and ecosystem processes. Temperature can also cause variability in metabolic rate within species. Here, we compare the effect of temperature on a key component of marine life cycles among a geographically and taxonomically diverse group of marine fish and invertebrates. Although innumerable lab studies document the negative effect of temperature on larval development time, little is known about the generality versus taxon-dependence of this relationship. We present a unified, parameterized model for the temperature dependence of larval development in marine animals. Because the duration of the larval period is known to influence larval dispersal distance and survival, changes in ocean temperature could have a direct and predictable influence on population connectivity, community structure, and regional-to-global scale patterns of biodiversity. PMID:17213327

  2. Microbial Gut Diversity of Africanized and European Honey Bee Larval Instars

    PubMed Central

    Vojvodic, Svjetlana; Rehan, Sandra M.; Anderson, Kirk E.

    2013-01-01

    The first step in understanding gut microbial ecology is determining the presence and potential niche breadth of associated microbes. While the core gut bacteria of adult honey bees is becoming increasingly apparent, there is very little and inconsistent information concerning symbiotic bacterial communities in honey bee larvae. The larval gut is the target of highly pathogenic bacteria and fungi, highlighting the need to understand interactions between typical larval gut flora, nutrition and disease progression. Here we show that the larval gut is colonized by a handful of bacterial groups previously described from guts of adult honey bees or other pollinators. First and second larval instars contained almost exclusively Alpha 2.2, a core Acetobacteraceae, while later instars were dominated by one of two very different Lactobacillus spp., depending on the sampled site. Royal jelly inhibition assays revealed that of seven bacteria occurring in larvae, only one Neisseriaceae and one Lactobacillus sp. were inhibited. We found both core and environmentally vectored bacteria with putatively beneficial functions. Our results suggest that early inoculation by Acetobacteraceae may be important for microbial succession in larvae. This assay is a starting point for more sophisticated in vitro models of nutrition and disease resistance in honey bee larvae. PMID:23991051

  3. Legacy of road salt: Apparent positive larval effects counteracted by negative postmetamorphic effects in wood frogs.

    PubMed

    Dananay, Kacey L; Krynak, Katherine L; Krynak, Timothy J; Benard, Michael F

    2015-10-01

    Road salt runoff has potentially large effects on wetland communities, but is typically investigated in short-term laboratory trials. The authors investigated effects of road salt contamination on wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) by combining a field survey with 2 separate experiments. The field survey tested whether wood frog larval traits were associated with road salt contamination in natural wetlands. As conductivity increased, wood frog larvae were less abundant, but those found were larger. In the first experiment of the present study, the authors raised larvae in outdoor artificial ponds under 4 salt concentrations and measured larval vital rates, algal biomass, and zooplankton abundance. Salt significantly increased larval growth, algal biomass, and decreased zooplankton abundance. In the second experiment, the authors raised larvae to metamorphosis in the presence and absence of salt contamination and followed resulting juvenile frogs in terrestrial pens at high and low densities. Exposure to road salt as larvae caused juvenile frogs to have greater mortality in low-density terrestrial environments, possibly because of altered energy allocation, changes in behavior, or reduced immune defenses. The present study suggests that low concentrations of road salt can have positive effects on larval growth yet negative effects on juvenile survival. These results emphasize the importance of testing for effects of contaminants acting through food webs and across multiple life stages as well as the potential for population-level consequences in natural environments.

  4. ‘Peer pressure’ in larval Drosophila?

    PubMed Central

    Niewalda, Thomas; Jeske, Ines; Michels, Birgit; Gerber, Bertram

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Understanding social behaviour requires a study case that is simple enough to be tractable, yet complex enough to remain interesting. Do larval Drosophila meet these requirements? In a broad sense, this question can refer to effects of the mere presence of other larvae on the behaviour of a target individual. Here we focused in a more strict sense on ‘peer pressure’, that is on the question of whether the behaviour of a target individual larva is affected by what a surrounding group of larvae is doing. We found that innate olfactory preference of a target individual was neither affected (i) by the level of innate olfactory preference in the surrounding group nor (ii) by the expression of learned olfactory preference in the group. Likewise, learned olfactory preference of a target individual was neither affected (iii) by the level of innate olfactory preference of the surrounding group nor (iv) by the learned olfactory preference the group was expressing. We conclude that larval Drosophila thus do not take note of specifically what surrounding larvae are doing. This implies that in a strict sense, and to the extent tested, there is no social interaction between larvae. These results validate widely used en mass approaches to the behaviour of larval Drosophila. PMID:24907371

  5. Evolution of increased larval competitive ability in Drosophila melanogaster without increased larval feeding rate.

    PubMed

    Sarangi, Manaswini; Nagarajan, Archana; Dey, Snigdhadip; Bose, Joy; Joshi, Amitabh

    2016-09-01

    Multiple experimental evolution studies on Drosophila melanogaster in the 1980s and 1990s indicated that enhanced competitive ability evolved primarily through increased larval tolerance to nitrogenous wastes and increased larval feeding and foraging rate, at the cost of efficiency of food conversion to biomass, and this became the widely accepted view of how adaptation to larval crowding evolves in fruitflies.We recently showed that populations of D. ananassae and D. n. nasuta subjected to extreme larval crowding evolved greater competitive ability without evolving higher feeding rates, primarily through a combination of reduced larval duration, faster attainment of minimum critical size for pupation, greater efficiency of food conversion to biomass, increased pupation height and, perhaps, greater urea/ammonia tolerance. This was a very different suite of traits than that seen to evolve under similar selection in D. melanogaster and was closer to the expectations from the theory of K-selection. At that time, we suggested two possible reasons for the differences in the phenotypic correlates of greater competitive ability seen in the studies with D. melanogaster and the other two species. First, that D. ananassae and D. n. nasuta had a very different genetic architecture of traits affecting competitive ability compared to the long-term laboratory populations of D. melanogaster used in the earlier studies, either because the populations of the former two species were relatively recently wild-caught, or by virtue of being different species. Second, that the different evolutionary trajectories in D. ananassae and D. n. nasuta versus D. melanogaster were a reflection of differences in the manner in which larval crowding was imposed in the two sets of selection experiments. The D. melanogaster studies used a higher absolute density of eggs per unit volume of food, and a substantially larger total volume of food, than the studies on D. ananassae and D. n. nasuta. Here, we

  6. Modern and fossilized biological communities from sediments of Bolshoy Harbei lake (Bolshezemelskaya tundra, Russia) and their response to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumanov, Oleg; Nazarova, Larisa; Fefilova, Elena; Baturina, Maria; Loskutova, Olga; Frolova, Larisa; Palagushkina, Olga

    2013-04-01

    High-altitude regions are subjected to the threats of global warming. During the last decade the depth of seasonal melting of permafrost in Northern Russia, significantly increased. Investigation of lake sediments from polar regions has an extreme importance for understanding of the modern environmental processes and their influence on northern ecosystems and biological diversity of these regions. Invertebrate communities are used for diagnostic of lake ecosystems because they have a great sensitivity to climatic changes (Andronnikova, 1996; Lazareva, 2008; O'Brien et al., 2005). The data can be used as well as a basis for inference models for reconstruction of the paleoclimatic conditions. Chironomid-based, Cladocera-based and diatom models have successfully been developed (Nazarova et al., 2008, 2011; Self et al., 2011) and can be used for precise paleotemperature reconstructions (Kienast et al., 2011). In summer 2012, we investigated complex of Kharbei lakes, located in the interfluve of Korotaiha and Bolshaya Rogovaya rivers in the east side of Bolshezemelskaya tundra, Russia (67°33'22″ N, 62°53'23″ E). Six different lakes were investigated using modern hydrobiological and palaeoecological methods. In total 9 cores were obtained, cut, dated and further investigated using sedimenthological, geochemical, and paleobiological methods. The standard hydrobiological methods have shown that the modern zooplankton communities did not change significantly during the last 40 years. Taxonomic composition and structure of planktonic communities didn't change, except for appearance of crustaceans Polyarthra euryptera and Daphnia cucullata. In planktonic communities of Bolshoy Harbei lake we revealed 39 species and forms of Rotifera, 19 - Cladocera and 11 - Copepoda. In zoobenthic communities we registered 24 taxonomical groups characteristic for large tundra lakes of the North East of Russia. Chironomids and Oligochaeta are dominant groups of invertebrates. 103 taxa of

  7. Small-scale to large-scale and back: larval trematodes in Lymnaea stagnalis and Planorbarius corneus in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rebecca; Soldánová, Miroslava; Barrett, John; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2011-01-01

    We examined the small-scale temporal and spatial variability in composition and structure of larval trematode communities in Lymnaea stagnalis and Planorbarius corneus in two fish ponds in the Czech Republic and compared the patterns of richness and similarity to continental and regional trematode faunas of these hosts. The levels of parasitism in the populations of both hosts were high, the former parasitized predominantly by allogenic species maturing in a wide range of birds and the latter infected by relatively more species completing their life cycles in micromammals. Communities in both hosts exhibited a congruent pattern of seasonal change in overall infection rates and community composition with lower levels of infection in spring. Both temporal and spatial variation was closely related to the structure of snail populations, and no significant differentiation of community composition with respect to pond was observed. Comparisons with large-scale inventories revealed overall congruent patterns of decreased richness and similarity and increased variability at the smaller scales in both host-parasite systems. The relative compositional homogeneity of larval communities in both snail hosts irrespective of scale suggests that historical data at small to medium regional scales may provide useful estimates of past richness and composition of larval trematode communities in these snail hosts.

  8. Climate change and larval transport in the ocean: fractional effects from physical and physiological factors.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Matthew S; Poti, Matt; Karnauskas, Kristopher B

    2016-04-01

    Changes in larval import, export, and self-seeding will affect the resilience of coral reef ecosystems. Climate change will alter the ocean currents that transport larvae and also increase sea surface temperatures (SST), hastening development, and shortening larval durations. Here, we use transport simulations to estimate future larval connectivity due to: (1) physical transport of larvae from altered circulation alone, and (2) the combined effects of altered currents plus physiological response to warming. Virtual larvae from islands throughout Micronesia were moved according to present-day and future ocean circulation models. The Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) spanning 2004-2012 represented present-day currents. For future currents, we altered HYCOM using analysis from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Earth System Model, version 1-Biogeochemistry, Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 experiment. Based on the NCAR model, regional SST is estimated to rise 2.74 °C which corresponds to a ~17% decline in larval duration for some taxa. This reduction was the basis for a separate set of simulations. Results predict an increase in self-seeding in 100 years such that 62-76% of islands experienced increased self-seeding, there was an average domainwide increase of ~1-3% points in self-seeding, and increases of up to 25% points for several individual islands. When changed currents alone were considered, approximately half (i.e., random) of all island pairs experienced decreased connectivity but when reduced PLD was added as an effect, ~65% of connections were weakened. Orientation of archipelagos relative to currents determined the directional bias in connectivity changes. There was no universal relationship between climate change and connectivity applicable to all taxa and settings. Islands that presently export large numbers of larvae but that also maintain or enhance this role into the future should be the focus of conservation

  9. Larval Connectivity and the International Management of Fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Kough, Andrew S.; Paris, Claire B.; Butler, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Predicting the oceanic dispersal of planktonic larvae that connect scattered marine animal populations is difficult, yet crucial for management of species whose movements transcend international boundaries. Using multi-scale biophysical modeling techniques coupled with empirical estimates of larval behavior and gamete production, we predict and empirically verify spatio-temporal patterns of larval supply and describe the Caribbean-wide pattern of larval connectivity for the Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus), an iconic coral reef species whose commercial value approaches $1 billion USD annually. Our results provide long sought information needed for international cooperation in the management of marine resources by identifying lobster larval connectivity and dispersal pathways throughout the Caribbean. Moreover, we outline how large-scale fishery management could explicitly recognize metapopulation structure by considering larval transport dynamics and pelagic larval sanctuaries. PMID:23762273

  10. Larval development and settlement of a whale barnacle.

    PubMed

    Nogata, Yasuyuki; Matsumura, Kiyotaka

    2006-03-22

    Larval development and settlement of whale barnacles have not previously been described, unlike intertidal barnacles. Indeed, the mechanisms of the association between barnacles and whales have not been studied. Here we describe the larval development and settlement of the whale barnacle, Coronula diadema, and possible involvement of a cue from the host in inducing larval settlement. Eight-cell stage embryos were collected from C. diadema on a stranded humpback whale, incubated in filtered seawater for 7 days, and nauplius larvae hatched out. When fed with Chaetoceros gracilis, the nauplii developed to stage VI, and finally metamorphosed to the cypris stage. The larval development looked similar to that of intertidal barnacles with planktotrophic larval stages. The cyprids did not settle in normal seawater, but did settle in polystyrene Petri dishes when incubated in seawater with a small piece of skin tissue from the host whale. This strongly suggests the involvement of a chemical cue from the host whale tissue to induce larval settlement.

  11. Larval connectivity and the international management of fisheries.

    PubMed

    Kough, Andrew S; Paris, Claire B; Butler, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    Predicting the oceanic dispersal of planktonic larvae that connect scattered marine animal populations is difficult, yet crucial for management of species whose movements transcend international boundaries. Using multi-scale biophysical modeling techniques coupled with empirical estimates of larval behavior and gamete production, we predict and empirically verify spatio-temporal patterns of larval supply and describe the Caribbean-wide pattern of larval connectivity for the Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus), an iconic coral reef species whose commercial value approaches $1 billion USD annually. Our results provide long sought information needed for international cooperation in the management of marine resources by identifying lobster larval connectivity and dispersal pathways throughout the Caribbean. Moreover, we outline how large-scale fishery management could explicitly recognize metapopulation structure by considering larval transport dynamics and pelagic larval sanctuaries.

  12. Evaluating sampling strategies for larval cisco (Coregonus artedi)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, J.T.; Stockwell, J.D.; Yule, D.L.; Black, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    To improve our ability to assess larval cisco (Coregonus artedi) populations in Lake Superior, we conducted a study to compare several sampling strategies. First, we compared density estimates of larval cisco concurrently captured in surface waters with a 2 x 1-m paired neuston net and a 0.5-m (diameter) conical net. Density estimates obtained from the two gear types were not significantly different, suggesting that the conical net is a reasonable alternative to the more cumbersome and costly neuston net. Next, we assessed the effect of tow pattern (sinusoidal versus straight tows) to examine if propeller wash affected larval density. We found no effect of propeller wash on the catchability of larval cisco. Given the availability of global positioning systems, we recommend sampling larval cisco using straight tows to simplify protocols and facilitate straightforward measurements of volume filtered. Finally, we investigated potential trends in larval cisco density estimates by sampling four time periods during the light period of a day at individual sites. Our results indicate no significant trends in larval density estimates during the day. We conclude estimates of larval cisco density across space are not confounded by time at a daily timescale. Well-designed, cost effective surveys of larval cisco abundance will help to further our understanding of this important Great Lakes forage species.

  13. Adaptive locomotor behavior in larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Portugues, Ruben; Engert, Florian

    2011-01-01

    In this study we report that larval zebrafish display adaptive locomotor output that can be driven by unexpected visual feedback. We develop a new assay that addresses visuomotor integration in restrained larval zebrafish. The assay involves a closed-loop environment in which the visual feedback a larva receives depends on its own motor output in a way that resembles freely swimming conditions. The experimenter can control the gain of this closed feedback loop, so that following a given motor output the larva experiences more or less visual feedback depending on whether the gain is high or low. We show that increases and decreases in this gain setting result in adaptive changes in behavior that lead to a generalized decrease or increase of motor output, respectively. Our behavioral analysis shows that both the duration and tail beat frequency of individual swim bouts can be modified, as well as the frequency with which bouts are elicited. These changes can be implemented rapidly, following an exposure to a new gain of just 175 ms. In addition, modifications in some behavioral parameters accumulate over tens of seconds and effects last for at least 30 s from trial to trial. These results suggest that larvae establish an internal representation of the visual feedback expected from a given motor output and that the behavioral modifications are driven by an error signal that arises from the discrepancy between this expectation and the actual visual feedback. The assay we develop presents a unique possibility for studying visuomotor integration using imaging techniques available in the larval zebrafish.

  14. Adaptive Locomotor Behavior in Larval Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Portugues, Ruben; Engert, Florian

    2011-01-01

    In this study we report that larval zebrafish display adaptive locomotor output that can be driven by unexpected visual feedback. We develop a new assay that addresses visuomotor integration in restrained larval zebrafish. The assay involves a closed-loop environment in which the visual feedback a larva receives depends on its own motor output in a way that resembles freely swimming conditions. The experimenter can control the gain of this closed feedback loop, so that following a given motor output the larva experiences more or less visual feedback depending on whether the gain is high or low. We show that increases and decreases in this gain setting result in adaptive changes in behavior that lead to a generalized decrease or increase of motor output, respectively. Our behavioral analysis shows that both the duration and tail beat frequency of individual swim bouts can be modified, as well as the frequency with which bouts are elicited. These changes can be implemented rapidly, following an exposure to a new gain of just 175 ms. In addition, modifications in some behavioral parameters accumulate over tens of seconds and effects last for at least 30 s from trial to trial. These results suggest that larvae establish an internal representation of the visual feedback expected from a given motor output and that the behavioral modifications are driven by an error signal that arises from the discrepancy between this expectation and the actual visual feedback. The assay we develop presents a unique possibility for studying visuomotor integration using imaging techniques available in the larval zebrafish. PMID:21909325

  15. Burrowing activities of the larval lamprey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sawyer, Philip J.

    1959-01-01

    Since the appearance in 1950 of Applegate's work on the sea lamprey in Michigan (U. S. Fish and Wildl. Serv., Spec. Sci. Rept.; Fish, No. 55) and the subsequent development of means to control lampreys in the Great Lakes, biologists have accumulated much additional information on adult lampreys. Larval lampreys, however, are difficult animals to observe in the field, and many facets of their behavior are still unknown. While working with the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, I kept ammocetes in captivity, and was able to observe their burrowing activities.

  16. Maternal diet and larval diet influence survival skills of larval red drum Sciaenops ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Perez, K O; Fuiman, L A

    2015-04-01

    Larval red drum Sciaenops ocellatus survival, turning rate, routine swimming speed, escape response latency and escape response distance were significantly correlated with essential fatty-acid (EFA) concentrations in eggs. Of the five traits that varied with egg EFA content, two (escape response latency and routine swimming speed) were significantly different when larvae were fed enriched diets compared with the low fatty-acid diet, indicating that the larval diet can compensate for some imbalances in egg composition. Turning rate during routine swimming and escape response distance, however, did not change when larvae predicted to have low performance (based on egg composition) were fed an enriched diet, indicating that these effects of egg composition may be irreversible. Escape response distances and survival rates of larvae predicted to perform well (based on egg composition) and fed highly enriched diets were lower than expected, suggesting that high levels of EFA intake can be detrimental. Altogether, these results suggest that both maternal diet, which is responsible for egg EFA composition, and larval diet may play a role in larval survivorship and recruitment.

  17. Larval morphology of Metaphycus flavus and its role in host attachment and larval cannibalism.

    PubMed

    Tena, A; Kapranas, A; Walker, G P; Garcia-Marí, F; Luck, R F

    2011-06-01

    Metaphycus flavus (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) is a facultatively gregarious endoparasitoid of soft scales (Hemiptera: Coccidae). When it develops in superparasitised hosts, the larvae often attack and consume brood mates six or more days post oviposition. Under our laboratory conditions (25±1°C and 14 hours of light followed by 18±1°C and ten hours of darkness in 50-70% R.H.), M. flavus eggs hatched three days after oviposition. Measurements of the mandibles and tentorium indicate there are four larval instars, and M. flavus reaches the fourth instar by day six post oviposition, and pupates on day eight. Thus, cannibalism among M. flavus larvae occurs during the fourth instar. During this instar, M. flavus larvae separate from their attachment to the scale cuticle, to which they were tethered by a respiratory structure during the previous three larval instars. Once detached, they are free to move within the scale, which increases the probability of larval encounters and aggressive behaviours. Moreover, the mandibles of the fourth instar are better adapted for fighting than are those of the first three larval instars, since they are larger and more sclerotized. The cranium and mouthparts of M. flavus have four different types of sensory organs, some of which are almost certainly olfactory, an unexpected function for a larva that presumably is surrounded by an aqueous medium where gustatory sensilla would seem to be more appropriate. The cranium also bears two pairs of what appear to be secretory pores.

  18. Effects of age and composition of field-produced biofilms on oyster larval setting.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Alaina H; Meritt, Donald W; Franklin, Rima B; Boone, Edward L; Nicely, Carol T; Brown, Bonnie L

    2011-03-01

    Lack of success in restoring the native Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, to Chesapeake Bay has been linked to the low occurrence of oyster larval setting in tributaries to the Bay. Among the many potential factors that could affect efforts to produce oysters through aquaculture or supplementation of shell beds is substratum condition. The present study examined larval setting on field-produced biofilms from Little Wicomico River (Virginia, USA) to assess whether bacterial community structure (examined by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, T-RFLP) or other characteristics of contemporary biofilms in this tributary (biofilm age and mass, algal abundance, and percentage organic matter) inhibited setting of larval oysters. The structure of the natural and heterogenous bacterial community in the biofilms and the success of oyster set were correlated, suggesting that specific microbial species may play a role in oyster setting. Larval set increased with biofilm age and mass, suggesting that established field-produced biofilms have no inhibitory effect. In contrast, the percentage of organic matter was negatively correlated with oyster set, whereas chlorophyll a concentration had no observed effect. The study expands prior knowledge by providing a more realistic timeframe for biofilm development (weeks as opposed to days), recounting effects of biofilms that are more representative of the natural dynamic and disturbance processes that would be expected to occur on submerged structures, and by incorporating seasonal and spatial variation. An important negative effect observed during the study period was heavy predation by Stylochus ellipticus on newly set oysters. Overall, the results of this study, which is the first assessment of the effects of biofilms produced naturally within a Chesapeake Bay tributary, suggest that the absence of large numbers of oysters in Little Wicomico River is not related to microbes or other specific characteristics of

  19. Relating actual with subfossil chironomid assemblages. Holocene habitat changes and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of Basa de la Mora Lake (Central Pyrenees)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarrats, Pol; Rieradevall, Maria; González-Sampériz, Penélope; Pérez-Sanz, Ana; Valero-Garcés, Blas; Moreno, Ana

    2014-05-01

    Analyses of subfossil and actual macroinvertebrate fauna and Chironomidae larvae (Insecta: Diptera) assemblages of Basa de la Mora Lake (Central Pyrenees, Spain, 1914 m a.s.l.) improves the environmental calibration for lake paleoreconstruction and allow to infer lake habitat changes throughout the Holocene. The results of the actual Chironomidae community are consistent with other mountain lake studies (either in the Pyrenees or other regions), with a few mismatching due to lake specific conditions. The actual and the subfossil Chironomidae taxa present in Basa de la Mora Lake are the same, which is an essential requirement to apply the analogue methods. Although we could not find habitat-specific taxa, significant differences between the different habitats present in the lake were found. This circumstance allowed applying the Modern Analogue Technique (MAT) to infer lake habitat changes. The MAT method relates the actual community, defined from the species abundance matrix and an environmental variable (which is the object of the inference), and the past community, defined from the species abundance matrix downcore. Because the first axis of DCA carried out for the study of the actual Chironomidae larvae explained the assemblage changes between the different habitats, the scores of this first axis were used as representative of the environmental variable (dominant habitat type) to be inferred. The application of the MAT has allowed identifying two periods of lake productivity increase through the Holocene: i) around 2800 cal. yrs BP, which coincides with the first documented human occupation of the area, and ii) the last four centuries, synchronous to the maximum population of mountain areas in the Pyrenees and development of stockbreeding activities.

  20. Phototaxis of larval and juvenile northern pike

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zigler, S.J.; Dewey, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    Age- Phi northern pike Esox lucius prefer vegetated habitats that are difficult to sample with standard towed gears. Light traps can be effective for sampling larval fishes in dense vegetation, given positive phototaxis of fish. We evaluated the phototactic response of young northern pike by comparing the catches of larvae and juveniles obtained with plexiglass traps deployed with a chemical light stick versus traps deployed without a light source (controls) in a laboratory raceway and in a vegetated pond. In the laboratory tests, catches of protolarvae and mesolarvae in lighted traps were 11-35 times greater than catches in control traps. The catches of juvenile northern pike in field and laboratory experiments were 3-15 times greater in lighted traps than in control traps, even though the maximum body width of the larger juveniles was similar to the width of the entrance slots of the traps (5 mm). Larval and juvenile northern pike were photopositive; thus, light traps should effectively sample age-0 northern pike for at least 6 weeks after hatching.

  1. Intraspecific larval competition in the olive fruit fly (Diptera: tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Burrack, Hannah Joy; Fornell, Angela M; Connell, Joseph H; O'Connell, Neil V; Phillips, Phil A; Vossen, Paul M; Zalom, Frank G

    2009-10-01

    Olive fruit flies [Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin)] occur at densities in California that can result in intraspecific larval competition within infested fruit. Larval B. oleae densities tracked in the field at six location were found to be highly variable and related to the proportion of fruit infested and adult densities. Egg and larval distribution within the field was generally aggregated early in the season and trended toward random and uniform as the season progressed. To determine whether B. oleae experienced fitness consequences at a range of larval densities observed in the field, olive fruits were infested with one, two, four, and six eggs, and larval and pupal developmental time, pupal weight, and pupal yield were compared. At the highest egg density, all measures of performance were negatively impacted, resulting in fewer and lighter pupae that took longer to pupate and emerge as adults, and even when only two larvae was present per olive, resulting pupae were significantly smaller. Density did not impact the sex ratio of the resulting flies or survive to adults. As field surveys showed, larval densities ranged from 1 to 11 B. oleae per fruit at some sites, and our results suggest that, at high densities, B. oleae do experience competition for larval resources. The impact of intraspecific larval competition North American in field populations of B. oleae is unknown, but the potential for competition is present.

  2. Larval fish distribution in the St. Louis River estuary

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective was to determine what study design, environmental, and habitat variables contribute to the distribution and abundance of larval fish in the St. Louis River estuary. Larval fish habitat associations are poorly understood in Great Lakes coastal wetlands, yet critical ...

  3. Similarities and Differences for Swimming in Larval and Adult Lampreys.

    PubMed

    McClellan, Andrew D; Pale, Timothée; Messina, J Alex; Buso, Scott; Shebib, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    The spinal locomotor networks controlling swimming behavior in larval and adult lampreys may have some important differences. As an initial step in comparing the locomotor systems in lampreys, in larval animals the relative timing of locomotor movements and muscle burst activity were determined and compared to those previously published for adults. In addition, the kinematics for free swimming in larval and adult lampreys was compared in detail for the first time. First, for swimming in larval animals, the neuromechanical phase lag between the onsets or terminations of muscle burst activity and maximum concave curvature of the body increased with increasing distance along the body, similar to that previously shown in adults. Second, in larval lampreys, but not adults, absolute swimming speed (U; mm s(-1)) increased with animal length (L). In contrast, normalized swimming speed (U'; body lengths [bl] s(-1)) did not increase with L in larval or adult animals. In both larval and adult lampreys, U' and normalized wave speed (V') increased with increasing tail-beat frequency. Wavelength and mechanical phase lag did not vary significantly with tail-beat frequency but were significantly different in larval and adult animals. Swimming in larval animals was characterized by a smaller U/V ratio, Froude efficiency, and Strouhal number than in adults, suggesting less efficient swimming for larval animals. In addition, during swimming in larval lampreys, normalized lateral head movements were larger and normalized lateral tail movements were smaller than for adults. Finally, larval animals had proportionally smaller lateral surface areas of the caudal body and fin areas than adults. These differences are well suited for larval sea lampreys that spend most of the time buried in mud/sand, in which swimming efficiency is not critical, compared to adults that would experience significant selection pressure to evolve higher-efficiency swimming to catch up to and attach to fish for

  4. Larval development of Evermannia zosterura (Perciformes: Gobiidae).

    PubMed

    González-Navarro, Enrique; Saldierna-Martínez, Ricardo Javier; Aceves-Medina, Gerardo

    2014-06-01

    Gobiidae is the most specious fish family in the world with almost 2 000 species, however only 11% of them have been described for their larval stages. The entire life cycle information is essential to understand the biology and ecology of this important fish group. Previous studies on zooplankton samples from Ensenada de La Paz, México, have shown the presence of several Gobiidae larvae and juveniles which were identified as Evermania zosterura. The main objective of this work was to describe the larval stages of this species, widely distributed in the Eastern tropical Pacific. The development of E. zosterura larvae was described based on 66 specimens. A total of 53 specimens were used to describe morphometrics and pigmentation patterns, while 13 specimens were cleared and stained, to obtain meristic characteristics. Cleared specimens had 30 to 31 total vertebrae; dorsal-fin elements: IV; 1, 13-14, anal-fin elements: 1, 13-14, and most had pterygiophore formula 4-111100. The combination of these characteristics confirmed these specimens as E. zosterura. The pigment pattern is similar throughout ontogeny. Larvae are characterized by having three to five dendritic melanophores along the post-anal ventral margin, four to nine smaller melanophores along the ventral margin between the isthmus and anus, and one on the midpoint of the dorsal margin of the tail. There is one small pigment spot on the angle of the jaw, and other on the tip of lower lip. There is an elongated internal pigment under the notochord, between the head and gas bladder. Notochord flexion starts near 3.5mm BL and ends at 4.6mm BL; transformalion to the juvenile stage is at about 13.6mm BL. Our conclusion is that the most useful characters to distinguish this species early-larval stages from those of similar species in the area, are the number of myomeres, the large melanophores (approximately uniformly in size) on the post anal ventral margin, and the elongate internal pigment under the notochord

  5. Effects of hatching time for larval ambystomatid salamanders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boone, M.D.; Scott, D.E.; Niewiarowski, P.H.

    2002-01-01

    In aquatic communities, the phenology of breeding may influence species interactions. In the early-breeding marbled salamander, Ambystoma opacum, timing of pond filling may determine whether interactions among larvae are competitive or predatory. The objectives of our studies were to determine how time of egg hatching affected size, larval period, and survival to metamorphosis in A. opacum, and if early-hatching in A. opacum influenced the competitive and predator-prey relationships with smaller larvae of the mole salamander, Ambystoma talpoideum. Salamander larvae were reared from hatching through metamorphosis in large, outdoor enclosures located in a natural temporary pond in Aiken County, South Carolina, in two experiments. In study 1, we reared early- and late-hatching A. opacum larvae separately from hatching through metamorphosis. In study 2, we examined how early- versus late-hatching A. opacum affected a syntopic species, A. talpoideum. In general, early-hatching A. opacum were larger and older at metamorphosis, had greater survival, and left the pond earlier than late-hatching larvae. Ambystoma talpoideum reared in the presence of early-hatching A. opacum had lower survival than in controls, suggesting that A. opacum may predate upon A. talpoideum when they gain a growth advantage over later-hatching larvae. Our studies demonstrate that time of pond filling and phenology of breeding may influence population dynamics and alter the nature of relationships that develop among species.

  6. Coastal pollution limits pelagic larval dispersal.

    PubMed

    Puritz, Jonathan B; Toonen, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    The ecological impact of large coastal human populations on marine ecosystems remains relatively unknown. Here, we examine the population structure of Patiria miniata, the bat star, and correlate genetic distances with a model based on flow rates and proximity to P. miniata populations for the four major stormwater runoff and wastewater effluent sources of the Southern California Bight. We show that overall genetic connectivity is high (F(ST)~0.005); however, multivariate analyses show that genetic structure is highly correlated with anthropogenic inputs. The best models included both stormwater and wastewater variables and explained between 26.55 and 93.69% of the observed structure. Additionally, regressions between allelic richness and distance to sources show that populations near anthropogenic pollution have reduced genetic diversity. Our results indicate that anthropogenic runoff and effluent are acting as barriers to larval dispersal, effectively isolating a high gene flow species that is virtually free of direct human impact.

  7. GROWTH AND BEHAVIOR OF LARVAL ZEBRAFISH Danio ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Because Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have become a popular and important model for scientific research, the capability to rear larval zebrafish to adulthood is of great importance. Recently research examining the effects of diet (live versus processed) have been published. In the current study we examined whether the larvae can be reared on a processed diet alone, live food alone, or the combination while maintaining normal locomotor behavior, and acceptable survival, length and weight at 14 dpf in a static system. A 14 day feeding trial was conducted in glass crystallizing dishes containing 500 ml of 4 ppt Instant Ocean. On day 0 pdf 450 embryos were selected as potential study subjects and placed in a 26○C incubator on a 14:10 (light:dark) light cycle. At 4 dpf 120 normally developing embryos were selected per treatment and divided into 3 bowls of 40 embryos (for an n=3 per treatment; 9 bowls total). Treatment groups were: G (Gemma Micro 75 only), R (L-type marine rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) only) or B (Gemma and rotifers). Growth (length), survival, water quality and rotifer density were monitored on days 5-14. On day 14, weight of larva in each bowl was measured and 8 larva per bowl were selected for use in locomotor testing. This behavior paradigm tests individual larval zebrafish under both light and dark conditions in a 24-well plate.After 14 dpf, survival among the groups was not different (92-98%). By days 7 -14 R and B larvae were ~2X longer

  8. Mosquito larval source management for controlling malaria

    PubMed Central

    Tusting, Lucy S; Thwing, Julie; Sinclair, David; Fillinger, Ulrike; Gimnig, John; Bonner, Kimberly E; Bottomley, Christian; Lindsay, Steven W

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria is an important cause of illness and death in people living in many parts of the world, especially sub-Saharan Africa. Long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) reduce malaria transmission by targeting the adult mosquito vector and are key components of malaria control programmes. However, mosquito numbers may also be reduced by larval source management (LSM), which targets mosquito larvae as they mature in aquatic habitats. This is conducted by permanently or temporarily reducing the availability of larval habitats (habitat modification and habitat manipulation), or by adding substances to standing water that either kill or inhibit the development of larvae (larviciding). Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of mosquito LSM for preventing malaria. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; CABS Abstracts; and LILACS up to 24 October 2012. We handsearched the Tropical Diseases Bulletin from 1900 to 2010, the archives of the World Health Organization (up to 11 February 2011), and the literature database of the Armed Forces Pest Management Board (up to 2 March 2011). We also contacted colleagues in the field for relevant articles. Selection criteria We included cluster randomized controlled trials (cluster-RCTs), controlled before-and-after trials with at least one year of baseline data, and randomized cross-over trials that compared LSM with no LSM for malaria control. We excluded trials that evaluated biological control of anopheline mosquitoes with larvivorous fish. Data collection and analysis At least two authors assessed each trial for eligibility. We extracted data and at least two authors independently determined the risk of bias in the included studies. We resolved all disagreements through discussion with a third author. We analyzed the data using Review Manager 5 software

  9. Bean Type Modifies Larval Competition in Zabrotes subfasciatus (Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, S O D; Rodrigues, A S; Vieira, J L; Rosi-Denadai, C A; Guedes, N M P; Guedes, R N C

    2015-08-01

    Larval competition is particularly prevalent among grain beetles that remain within their mother-selected grain throughout development, and the behavioral process of competition is usually inferred by the competition outcome. The Mexican bean weevil Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) is subjected to resource availability variation because of the diversity of common bean types and sizes, from small (e.g., kidney beans) to large (e.g., cranberry beans). The competition process was identified in the Mexican bean weevil reared on kidney and cranberry beans by inference from the competition outcome and by direct observation through digital X-ray imaging. Increased larval density negatively affected adult emergence in kidney beans and reduced adult body mass in both kidney and cranberry beans. Developmental time was faster in cranberry beans. The results allowed for increased larval fitness (i.e., higher larval biomass produced per grain), with larval density reaching a maximum plateau >5 hatched larvae per kidney bean, whereas in cranberry beans, larval fitness linearly increased with density to 13 hatched larvae per bean. These results, together with X-ray imaging without evidence of direct aggressive interaction among larvae, indicate scramble competition, with multiple larvae emerging per grain. However, higher reproductive output was detected for adults from lower density competition with better performance on cranberry beans. Larger populations and fitter adults are expected in intermediate larval densities primarily in cranberry beans where grain losses should be greater.

  10. A comparison of beating parameters in larval and post-larval locomotor systems of the lobster Homarus gammarus (L.).

    PubMed

    Laverack, M S; Macmillan, D L; Neil, D M

    1976-03-18

    A study has been made of the interrelations between rhythmical exopodite beating in different larval stages and swimmeret beating in poast-larval stages of the lobster Homarus gammarus. Data on exopodite beat cycle durations have been used for statistical comparisons of exopodite performance within one larva, and also between different stages of larval development. Inter-exopodite comparisons reveal clear bilateral differences (table 1), although there is no consistently favoured relationship (tables 2 and 3). There are significant differences in cycle duration between the first three developmental stages, with a slight increase at the first moult, and a marked decrease at the second (table 4). However, within each stage the repeat frequency exhibits little change (table 5). Therefore it appears that changes in swimming behaviour occur discontinuously in development, and are associated with the larval moults. It is suggested that changes in beat frequency, and especially the faster beating in stage III, may represent responses to changed loading conditions (table 7). Measurements of swimmeret beating in post-larval lobsters have been analysed in terms of cycle durations, and inter- and intra-segmental phase relations. Swimmeret beating patterns are very regular (figure 1), but not restricted to a narrow range of frequencies (table 6a). Intersegmental phase lag remains constant around 0.2 (figure 3) independent of beat frequency (figure 4). Similarly the powerstroke/returnstroke ratio of approximately 0.5 (figure 5) shows no significant correlation with cycle duration (figure 6). Differences emerge in the performance of larval exopodites and post-larval swimmerets (table 6b), although the possibility cannot be excluded that the larval exopodite oscillator in some way influences the developing action of the post-larval swimmeret system.

  11. Inter- and Intra-Specific Density-Dependent Effects on Life History and Development Strategies of Larval Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Tsurim, Ido; Silberbush, Alon; Ovadia, Ofer; Blaustein, Leon; Margalith, Yoel

    2013-01-01

    We explored how inter- and intra-specific competition among larvae of two temporary-pool mosquito species, Culiseta longiareolata and Ochlerotatus caspius, affect larval developmental strategy and life history traits. Given that their larvae have similar feeding habits, we expected negative reciprocal inter-specific interactions. In a microcosm experiment, we found sex-specific responses of larval survival and development to both intra- and inter-specific larval competition. C. longiareolata was the superior competitor, reducing adult size and modifying larval developmental time of O. caspius. We observed two distinct waves of adult emergence in O. caspius, with clear sex-specific responses to its inter-specific competitor. In males, this pattern was not affected by C. longiareolata, but in females, the timing and average body size of the second wave strongly varied with C. longiareolata density. Specifically, in the absence of C. longiareolata, the second wave immediately followed the first wave. However, as C. longiareolata abundance increased, the second wave was progressively delayed and the resulting females tended to be larger. This study improves our understanding of the way intra- and inter-specific competition combine to influence the life histories of species making up temporary pond communities. It also provides strong evidence that not all individuals of a cohort employ the same strategies in response to competition. PMID:23469250

  12. Significance of bacteria in oviposition and larval development of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Microbial ecology of phlebotomine sand flies is not well understood although bacteria likely play an important role in the sand fly biology and vector capacity for Leishmania parasites. In this study, we assessed the significance of the microbial community of rabbit feces in oviposition and larval development of Lutzomyia longipalpis as well as bacterial colonization of the gut of freshly emerged flies. Methods Sterile (by autoclaving) and non-sterile (control) rabbit feces were used in the two-choice assay to determine their oviposition attractiveness to sand fly females. Bacteria were identified by amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene with universal eubacterial primers. Sterile, control (non-sterile), and sterilized and inoculated rabbit feces were used to assess the significance of bacteria in L. longipalpis development. Newly emerged adult flies were surface-sterilized and screened for the bacterial population size and diversity by the culturing approach. The digestive tract of L4 sterile and control larvae was incubated with Phalloidin to visualize muscle tissues and DAPI to visualize nuclei. Results Two-choice behavioural assays revealed a great preference of L. longipalpis to lay eggs on rabbit feces with an active complex bacterial community (control) (85.8 % of eggs) in comparison to that of sterile (autoclaved) rabbit feces (14.2 %). Bioassays demonstrated that L. longipalpis larvae can develop in sterile rabbit feces although development time to adult stage was greatly extended (47 days) and survival of larvae was significantly lower (77.8 %) compared to that of larvae developing in the control rabbit feces (32 days and 91.7 %). Larval survival on sterilized rabbit feces inoculated with the individual bacterial isolates originating from this substrate varied greatly depending on a bacterial strain. Rhizobium radiobacter supported larval development to adult stage into the greatest extent (39 days, 88.0 %) in

  13. Evolved differences in larval social behavior mediated by novel pheromones.

    PubMed

    Mast, Joshua D; De Moraes, Consuelo M; Alborn, Hans T; Lavis, Luke D; Stern, David L

    2014-12-12

    Pheromones, chemical signals that convey social information, mediate many insect social behaviors, including navigation and aggregation. Several studies have suggested that behavior during the immature larval stages of Drosophila development is influenced by pheromones, but none of these compounds or the pheromone-receptor neurons that sense them have been identified. Here we report a larval pheromone-signaling pathway. We found that larvae produce two novel long-chain fatty acids that are attractive to other larvae. We identified a single larval chemosensory neuron that detects these molecules. Two members of the pickpocket family of DEG/ENaC channel subunits (ppk23 and ppk29) are required to respond to these pheromones. This pheromone system is evolving quickly, since the larval exudates of D. simulans, the sister species of D. melanogaster, are not attractive to other larvae. Our results define a new pheromone signaling system in Drosophila that shares characteristics with pheromone systems in a wide diversity of insects.

  14. Structure and function of a benthic invertebrate stream community as influenced by beaver (Castor canadensis).

    PubMed

    McDowell, Donald M; Naiman, Robert J

    1986-03-01

    Beaver (Castor canadensis) affect the benthic invertebrate community of small woodland streams in Quebec through habitat modifications. Their activities influence community structure through the replacement of lotic taxa by lentic forms and community function by increasing the absolute importance of collectors and predators while decreasing the relative importance of shredders and scrapers in impounded sites. At our study site during the 1983 ice-free season, standing stocks of coarse particulate organic matter (>1 mm) were 2-5 times greater (P<0.05) in impounded sites than riffle sites in spring and summer. Fine (212 μm-1 mm) and very fine (0.5 μm-212 μm) particulate organic matter were 3-10 times greater (P<0.05) in impounded sites in all seasons. Chlorophyll a standing stocks did not differ statistically among sites. Total density and biomass of invertebrates in impoundments were 2-5 times greater (P<0.05) than riffle sites in spring and summer, but statistically similar in autumn. Generic diversity (H') was greater (P<0.05) in unaltered sites in autumn. Non-impounded sites were dominated by Simuliidae, Tanytarsini chironomids, scraping mayflies and net spinning caddisflies while impounded sites were characterized by Tanypodinae and Chironomini chironomids, predacious odonates, Tubificidae, and filtering pelycopods. Our results suggest that current paradigms applied to lotic ecosystems need to be reevaluated to incorporate the influence of beaver upon invertebrate communities.

  15. The effect of nitrogen loading on a brackish estuarine faunal community: A stable isotope approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keats, R.A.; Osher, L.J.; Neckles, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems worldwide face increased nutrient enrichment from shoreline and watershed development and atmospheric pollution. We investigated the response of the faunal community of a small microtidal estuary dominated by Ruppia maritima (widgeon grass) in Maine, United States, to increased nitrogen loading using an in situ mesocosm enrichment experiment. Community response was characterized by assessing quantitative shifts in macroin-vertebrate community composition and identifying changes in food web structure using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of producers and consumers. The community was dominated by brackish water invertebrates including midge larvae, oligochaetes, damselfly larvae, amphipods, and ostracods. Experimental nutrient additions resulted in significantly lower densities of herbivorous chironomids and predatory damselflies and greater densities of deposit feeding oligochaetes. Grazing midge larvae (Chironomidae: Dicrotendipes, Cricotopus) consumed epiphytic algae under both natural and enriched conditions. Deposit feeding Chironomus was dependent on allochthonous sources of detritus under natural conditions and exhibited a shift to autochthonous sources of detritus under enriched conditions. Predatory Enallagma primarily consumed grazing chironomids under all but the highest loading conditions. Experimental nutrient loading resulted in an increase in generalist deposit feeders dependent on autochthonous sources of detritus.

  16. Evaluation of five antibiotics on larval gut bacterial diversity of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiao-Li; Kang, Zhi-Wei; Pan, Qin-Jian; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2015-10-01

    Larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), have rich microbial communities inhabiting the gut, and these bacteria contribute to the fitness of the pest. In this study we evaluated the effects of five antibiotics (rifampicin, ampicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin sulfate and chloramphenicol) on the gut bacterial diversity of P. xylostella larvae. We screened five different concentrations for each antibiotic in a leaf disc assay, and found that rifampicin and streptomycin sulfate at 3 mg/mL significantly reduced the diversity of the bacterial community, and some bacterial species could be rapidly eliminated. The number of gut bacteria in the rifampicin group and streptomycin sulfate group decreased more rapidly than the others. With the increase of antibiotic concentration, the removal efficiency was improved, whereas toxic effects became more apparent. All antibiotics reduced larval growth and development, and eventually caused high mortality, malformation of the prepupae, and hindered pupation and adult emergence. Among the five antibiotics, tetracycline was the most toxic and streptomycin sulfate was a relatively mild one. Some dominant bacteria were not affected by feeding antibiotics alone. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis graph showed that the most abundant and diverse bacteria in P. xylostella larval gut appeared in the cabbage feeding group, and diet change and antibiotics intake influenced gut flora abundance. Species diversity was significantly reduced in the artificial diet and antibiotics treatment groups. After feeding on the artificial diet with rifampicin, streptomycin sulfate and their mixture for 10 days, larval gut bacteria could not be completely removed as detected with the agarose gel electrophoresis method.

  17. Role of bacteria in the oviposition behaviour and larval development of stable flies.

    PubMed

    Romero, A; Broce, A; Zurek, L

    2006-03-01

    Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), are the most important pests of cattle in the United States. However, adequate management strategies for stable flies, especially for pastured cattle, are lacking. Microbial/symbiont-based approaches offer novel venues for management of insect pests and/or vector-borne human and animal pathogens. Unfortunately, the fundamental knowledge of stable fly-microbial associations and their effect on stable fly biology is lacking. In this study, stable flies laid greater numbers of eggs on a substrate with an active microbial community (> 95% of total eggs oviposited) than on a sterilized substrate. In addition, stable fly larvae could not develop in a sterilized natural or artificial substrate/medium. Bacteria were isolated and identified from a natural stable fly oviposition/developmental habitat and their individual effect on stable fly oviposition response and larval development was evaluated in laboratory bioassays. Of nine bacterial strains evaluated in the oviposition bioassays, Citrobacter freundii stimulated oviposition to the greatest extent. C. freundii also sustained stable fly development, but to a lesser degree than Serratia fanticola. Serratia marcescens and Aeromonas spp. neither stimulated oviposition nor supported stable fly development. These results demonstrate a stable fly bacterial symbiosis; stable fly larval development depends on a live microbial community in the natural habitat, and stable fly females are capable of selecting an oviposition site based on the microbially derived stimuli that indicate the suitability of the substrate for larval development. This study shows a promising starting point for exploiting stable fly-bacterial associations for development of novel approaches for stable fly management.

  18. Larval pufferfish protected by maternal tetrodotoxin.

    PubMed

    Itoi, Shiro; Yoshikawa, Saori; Asahina, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Miwa; Ishizuka, Kento; Takimoto, Narumi; Mitsuoka, Ryoko; Yokoyama, Naoto; Detake, Ayumi; Takayanagi, Chie; Eguchi, Miho; Tatsuno, Ryohei; Kawane, Mitsuo; Kokubo, Shota; Takanashi, Shihori; Miura, Ai; Suitoh, Katsuyoshi; Takatani, Tomohiro; Arakawa, Osamu; Sakakura, Yoshitaka; Sugita, Haruo

    2014-02-01

    Marine pufferfish contain tetrodotoxin (TTX), an extremely potent neurotoxin. All species of the genus Takifugu accumulate TTX in the liver and ovaries, although the tissue(s) in which it is localized can differ among species. TTX is the major defense strategy the pufferfish appears to use against predators. TTX is also used as a male-attracting pheromone during spawning. Here we demonstrate an additional (and unexpected) use of maternal TTX in the early larval stages of the Takifugu pufferfish. Predation experiments demonstrated that juveniles of all the species of fish used as predators ingested pufferfish larvae, but spat them out promptly. Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MSMS) analysis revealed that the pufferfish larvae contain a small quantity of TTX, which is not enough to be lethal to the predators. Immunohistochemical analysis with anti-TTX monoclonal antibody revealed that the TTX is primarily localized in the body surface of the larvae as a layer of protection. Our study showed the female parent of the Takifugu pufferfish vertically transfers TTX to the larvae through its accumulation in the ovaries, and subsequent localization on the body surface of the larvae.

  19. Live Imaging of Drosophila Larval Neuroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Lerit, Dorothy A.; Plevock, Karen M.; Rusan, Nasser M.

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells divide asymmetrically to generate two progeny cells with unequal fate potential: a self-renewing stem cell and a differentiating cell. Given their relevance to development and disease, understanding the mechanisms that govern asymmetric stem cell division has been a robust area of study. Because they are genetically tractable and undergo successive rounds of cell division about once every hour, the stem cells of the Drosophila central nervous system, or neuroblasts, are indispensable models for the study of stem cell division. About 100 neural stem cells are located near the surface of each of the two larval brain lobes, making this model system particularly useful for live imaging microscopy studies. In this work, we review several approaches widely used to visualize stem cell divisions, and we address the relative advantages and disadvantages of those techniques that employ dissociated versus intact brain tissues. We also detail our simplified protocol used to explant whole brains from third instar larvae for live cell imaging and fixed analysis applications. PMID:25046336

  20. Imaging fictive locomotor patterns in larval Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Bayley, Timothy G.; Taylor, Adam L.; Berni, Jimena; Bate, Michael; Hedwig, Berthold

    2015-01-01

    We have established a preparation in larval Drosophila to monitor fictive locomotion simultaneously across abdominal and thoracic segments of the isolated CNS with genetically encoded Ca2+ indicators. The Ca2+ signals closely followed spiking activity measured electrophysiologically in nerve roots. Three motor patterns are analyzed. Two comprise waves of Ca2+ signals that progress along the longitudinal body axis in a posterior-to-anterior or anterior-to-posterior direction. These waves had statistically indistinguishable intersegmental phase delays compared with segmental contractions during forward and backward crawling behavior, despite being ∼10 times slower. During these waves, motor neurons of the dorsal longitudinal and transverse muscles were active in the same order as the muscle groups are recruited during crawling behavior. A third fictive motor pattern exhibits a left-right asymmetry across segments and bears similarities with turning behavior in intact larvae, occurring equally frequently and involving asymmetry in the same segments. Ablation of the segments in which forward and backward waves of Ca2+ signals were normally initiated did not eliminate production of Ca2+ waves. When the brain and subesophageal ganglion (SOG) were removed, the remaining ganglia retained the ability to produce both forward and backward waves of motor activity, although the speed and frequency of waves changed. Bilateral asymmetry of activity was reduced when the brain was removed and abolished when the SOG was removed. This work paves the way to studying the neural and genetic underpinnings of segmentally coordinated motor pattern generation in Drosophila with imaging techniques. PMID:26311188

  1. Basic Gravitational Reflexes in the Larval Frog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, Stephen L.

    1996-01-01

    This investigation was designed to determine how a primitive vertebrate, the bullfrog tadpole, is able to sense and process gravitational stimuli. Because of the phylogenetic similarities of the vestibular systems in all vertebrates, the understanding of the gravitational reflexes in this relatively simple vertebrate should elucidate a skeletal framework on a elementary level, upon which the more elaborate reflexes of higher vertebrates may be constructed. The purpose of this study was to understand how the nervous system of the larval amphibian processes gravitational information. This study involved predominantly electrophysiological investigations of the isolated, alert (forebrain removed) bullfrog tadpole head. The focus of these experiments is threefold: (1) to understand from whole extraocular nerve recordings the signals sent to the eye following static gravitational tilt of the head; (2) to localize neuronal centers responsible for generating these signals through reversible pharmacological ablation of these centers; and (3) to record intracellularly from neurons within these centers in order to determine the single neuron's role in the overall processing of the center. This study has provided information on the mechanisms by which a primitive vertebrate processes gravitational reflexes.

  2. Suspended sediment prolongs larval development in a coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Wenger, Amelia S; McCormick, Mark I; Endo, Geoffrey G K; McLeod, Ian M; Kroon, Frederieke J; Jones, Geoffrey P

    2014-04-01

    Increasing sediment input into coastal environments is having a profound influence on shallow marine habitats and associated species. Coral reef ecosystems appear to be particularly sensitive, with increased sediment deposition and re-suspension being associated with declines in the abundance and diversity of coral reef fishes. While recent research has demonstrated that suspended sediment can have negative impacts on post-settlement coral reef fishes, its effect on larval development has not been investigated. In this study, we tested the effects of different levels of suspended sediment on larval growth and development time in Amphiprion percula, a coral reef damselfish. Larvae were subjected to four experimental concentrations of suspended sediment spanning the range found around coastal coral reefs (0-45 mg l(-1)). Larval duration was significantly longer in all sediment treatments (12 days) compared with the average larval duration in the control treatment (11 days). Approximately 75% of the fish in the control had settled by day 11, compared with only 40-46% among the sediment treatments. In the highest sediment treatment, some individuals had a larval duration twice that of the median duration in the control treatment. Unexpectedly, in the low sediment treatment, fish at settlement were significantly longer and heavier compared with fish in the other treatments, suggesting delayed development was independent of individual condition. A sediment-induced extension of the pelagic larval stage could significantly reduce numbers of larvae competent to settle and, in turn, have major effects on adult population dynamics.

  3. Spectral absorption of visual pigments in stomatopod larval photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Feller, Kathryn D; Cronin, Thomas W

    2016-03-01

    Larval stomatopod eyes appear to be much simpler versions of adult compound eyes, lacking most of the visual pigment diversity and photoreceptor specializations. Our understanding of the visual pigment diversity of larval stomatopods, however, is based on four species, which severely limits our understanding of stomatopod eye ontogeny. To investigate several poorly understood aspects of stomatopod larval eye function, we tested two hypotheses surrounding the spectral absorption of larval visual pigments. First, we examined a broad range of species to determine if stomatopod larvae generally express a single, spectral class of photoreceptor. Using microspectrophotometry (MSP) on larvae captured in the field, we found data which further support this long-standing hypothesis. MSP was also used to test whether larval species from the same geographical region express visual pigments with similar absorption spectra. Interestingly, despite occupation of the same geographical location, we did not find evidence to support our second hypothesis. Rather, there was significant variation in visual pigment absorption spectra among sympatric species. These data are important to further our understanding of larval photoreceptor spectral diversity, which is beneficial to ongoing investigations into the ontogeny, physiology, and molecular evolution of stomatopod eyes.

  4. Larval abundance and dispersal at deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the southern Mariana Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, S. E.; Watanabe, H.; Mills, S. W.; Pradillon, F.; Kojima, S.; Mullineaux, L. S.

    2010-12-01

    tectonic settings create different habitat conditions and support vent communities with different species composition. Will we collect larvae of species that are commonly found at (generally shallower) vents on the Mariana arc? The larval studies will help address the question of how populations of vent-endemic species are connected at hydrothermal vents within the new Marine National Monument.

  5. The relative importance and distribution of Aedes polynesiensis and Ae. aegypti larval habitats in Samoa.

    PubMed

    Samarawickrema, W A; Sone, F; Kimura, E; Self, L S; Cummings, R F; Paulson, G S

    1993-01-01

    In preparation for a Filariasis Control programme in Samoa, during 1978 monthly larval surveys of the vector mosquito Aedes polynesiensis were carried out in four study villages in the main island of Upolu. A more extensive survey of larval habitat distribution was then made in twenty-two villages of Upolu and eighteen of Savai'i island, to determine the importance of habitat types according to their abundance, volume of water and whether their productivity was permanent or seasonal. Ae.aegypti larval densities and habitat distribution were also monitored and the occurrence of predatory Toxorhynchites amboinensis larvae in northern Upolu was recorded from forty-one collections. Aedes Breteau and container indices fluctuated with the pattern of rainfall in two coastal villages and an inland bush village, but not in a coconut plantation community. The five main Aedes larval habitat types encountered were: 200 litre water-storage drums, discarded tins and bottles, coconut shells, automobile tyres and treeholes. Aedes immatures occurred perennially in drums and tree holes, but breeding discontinued in tins, bottles and coconut shells during the driest month of July. For Ae. polynesiensis in Upolu the Breteau and container indices of 104.5 +/- SD 80.9 and 35.3 +/- 12.4 respectively were significantly higher than those in Savai'i: 33.1 +/- 25.0 and 24.3 +/- 20.0 respectively. Likewise for Ae.aegypti the Breteau and container indices of 50.8 +/- 32.5 and 23.9 +/- 15.6, respectively, were also significantly higher than those in Savai'i: 12.7 +/- 17.1 and 9.4 +/- 13.2 respectively. Habitat types greater or lesser importance were determined by plotting the percentage of each type of cotnainer utilized for Aedes breeding against the percentage of ech type amongst all larva-positive containers. Ae.polynesiensis preferred tree-holes but not water-storage drums. Ae.aegypti preferred drums and tyres; mixed populations of larvae of both species were commonest in these two types of

  6. Temporal Patterns of Larval Fish Occurrence in a Large Subtropical River

    PubMed Central

    Shuai, Fangmin; Li, Xinhui; Li, Yuefei; Li, Jie; Yang, Jiping; Lek, Sovan

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of temporal patterns of larval fish occurrence is limited in south China, despite its ecological importance. This research examines the annual and seasonal patterns of fish larval presence in the large subtropical Pearl River. Data is based on samples collected every two days, from 2006 to 2013. In total, 45 taxa representing 13 families and eight orders were sampled. The dominant larval family was Cyprinidae, accounting for 27 taxa. Squaliobarbus curriculus was the most abundant species, followed by Megalobrama terminalis, Xenocypris davidi, Cirrhinus molitorella, Hemiculter leuscisculus and Squalidus argentatus. Fish larvae abundances varied significantly throughout the seasons (multivariate analyses: Cluster, SIMPROF and ANOSIM). The greatest numbers occurred between May and September, peaking from June through August, which corresponds to the reproductive season. In this study, redundancy analysis was used to describe the relationship between fish larval abundance and associated environmental factors. Mean water temperature, river discharge, atmospheric pressure, maximum temperature and precipitation play important roles in larval occurrence patterns. According to seasonal variations, fish larvae occurrence is mainly affected by water temperature. It was also noted that the occurrence of Salanx reevesii and Cyprinus carpio larvae is associated with higher dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations, higher atmospheric pressure and lower water temperatures which occur in the spring. On the other hand, M. terminalis, X. davidi, and C. molitorella are associated with high precipitation, high river discharge, low atmospheric pressure and low DO concentrations which featured during the summer months. S. curriculus also peaks in the summer and is associated with peak water temperatures and minimum NH3–N concentrations. Rhinogobius giurinus occur when higher atmospheric pressure, lower precipitation and lower river discharges occur in the autumn. Dominant fish

  7. Modeling larval connectivity of the Atlantic surfclams within the Middle Atlantic Bight: Model development, larval dispersal and metapopulation connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinzhong; Haidvogel, Dale; Munroe, Daphne; Powell, Eric N.; Klinck, John; Mann, Roger; Castruccio, Frederic S.

    2015-02-01

    To study the primary larval transport pathways and inter-population connectivity patterns of the Atlantic surfclam, Spisula solidissima, a coupled modeling system combining a physical circulation model of the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB), Georges Bank (GBK) and the Gulf of Maine (GoM), and an individual-based surfclam larval model was implemented, validated and applied. Model validation shows that the model can reproduce the observed physical circulation patterns and surface and bottom water temperature, and recreates the observed distributions of surfclam larvae during upwelling and downwelling events. The model results show a typical along-shore connectivity pattern from the northeast to the southwest among the surfclam populations distributed from Georges Bank west and south along the MAB shelf. Continuous surfclam larval input into regions off Delmarva (DMV) and New Jersey (NJ) suggests that insufficient larval supply is unlikely to be the factor causing the failure of the population to recover after the observed decline of the surfclam populations in DMV and NJ from 1997 to 2005. The GBK surfclam population is relatively more isolated than populations to the west and south in the MAB; model results suggest substantial inter-population connectivity from southern New England to the Delmarva region. Simulated surfclam larvae generally drift for over one hundred kilometers along the shelf, but the distance traveled is highly variable in space and over time. Surfclam larval growth and transport are strongly impacted by the physical environment. This suggests the need to further examine how the interaction between environment, behavior, and physiology affects inter-population connectivity. Larval vertical swimming and sinking behaviors have a significant net effect of increasing larval drifting distances when compared with a purely passive model, confirming the need to include larval behavior.

  8. Triterpene acids from apple peel inhibit lepidopteran larval midgut lipases and larval growth.

    PubMed

    Christeller, John T; McGhie, Tony K; Poulton, Joanne; Markwick, Ngaire P

    2014-07-01

    Fruit extracts from apple, kiwifruit, feijoa, boysenberry, and blueberry were screened for the presence of lipase inhibitory compounds against lepidopteran larval midgut crude extracts. From 120 extracts, six showed significant inhibition with an extract from the peel of Malus × domestica cv. "Big Red" showing highest levels of inhibition. Because this sample was the only apple peel sample in the initial screen, a survey of peels from seven apple cultivars was undertaken and showed that, despite considerable variation, all had inhibitory activity. Successive solvent fractionation and LC-MS of cv. "Big Red" apple peel extract identified triterpene acids as the most important inhibitory compounds, of which ursolic acid and oleanolic acid were the major components and oxo- and hydroxyl-triterpene acids were minor components. When ursolic acid was incorporated into artificial diet and fed to Epiphyas postvittana Walker (Tortricidae: Lepidoptera) larvae at 0.16% w/v, a significant decrease in larval weight was observed after 21 days. This concentration of ursolic acid is less than half the concentration reported in the skin of some apple cultivars.

  9. New classification of natural breeding habitats for Neotropical anophelines in the Yanomami Indian Reserve, Amazon Region, Brazil and a new larval sampling methodology.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ribas, Jordi; Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; Rosa-Freitas, Maria Goreti; Trilla, Lluís; Silva-do-Nascimento, Teresa Fernandes

    2015-09-01

    Here we present the first in a series of articles about the ecology of immature stages of anophelines in the Brazilian Yanomami area. We propose a new larval habitat classification and a new larval sampling methodology. We also report some preliminary results illustrating the applicability of the methodology based on data collected in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest in a longitudinal study of two remote Yanomami communities, Parafuri and Toototobi. In these areas, we mapped and classified 112 natural breeding habitats located in low-order river systems based on their association with river flood pulses, seasonality and exposure to sun. Our classification rendered seven types of larval habitats: lakes associated with the river, which are subdivided into oxbow lakes and nonoxbow lakes, flooded areas associated with the river, flooded areas not associated with the river, rainfall pools, small forest streams, medium forest streams and rivers. The methodology for larval sampling was based on the accurate quantification of the effective breeding area, taking into account the area of the perimeter and subtypes of microenvironments present per larval habitat type using a laser range finder and a small portable inflatable boat. The new classification and new sampling methodology proposed herein may be useful in vector control programs.

  10. New classification of natural breeding habitats for Neotropical anophelines in the Yanomami Indian Reserve, Amazon Region, Brazil and a new larval sampling methodology

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Ribas, Jordi; Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; Rosa-Freitas, Maria Goreti; Trilla, Lluís; Silva-do-Nascimento, Teresa Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the first in a series of articles about the ecology of immature stages of anophelines in the Brazilian Yanomami area. We propose a new larval habitat classification and a new larval sampling methodology. We also report some preliminary results illustrating the applicability of the methodology based on data collected in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest in a longitudinal study of two remote Yanomami communities, Parafuri and Toototobi. In these areas, we mapped and classified 112 natural breeding habitats located in low-order river systems based on their association with river flood pulses, seasonality and exposure to sun. Our classification rendered seven types of larval habitats: lakes associated with the river, which are subdivided into oxbow lakes and nonoxbow lakes, flooded areas associated with the river, flooded areas not associated with the river, rainfall pools, small forest streams, medium forest streams and rivers. The methodology for larval sampling was based on the accurate quantification of the effective breeding area, taking into account the area of the perimeter and subtypes of microenvironments present per larval habitat type using a laser range finder and a small portable inflatable boat. The new classification and new sampling methodology proposed herein may be useful in vector control programs. PMID:26517655

  11. Identification of mosquito larval habitats in high resolution satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiang, Richard K.; Hulina, Stephanie M.; Masuoka, Penny M.; Claborn, David M.

    2003-09-01

    Mosquito-born infectious diseases are a serious public health concern, not only for the less developed countries, but also for developed countries like the U.S. Larviciding is an effective method for vector control and adverse effects to non-target species are minimized when mosquito larval habitats are properly surveyed and treated. Remote sensing has proven to be a useful technique for large-area ground cover mapping, and hence, is an ideal tool for identifying potential larval habitats. Locating small larval habitats, however, requires data with very high spatial resolution. Textural and contextual characteristics become increasingly evident at higher spatial resolution. Per-pixel classification often leads to suboptimal results. In this study, we use pan-sharpened Ikonos data, with a spatial resolution approaching 1 meter, to classify potential mosquito larval habitats for a test site in South Korea. The test site is in a predominantly agricultural region. When spatial characteristics were used in conjunction with spectral data, reasonably good classification accuracy was obtained for the test site. In particular, irrigation and drainage ditches are important larval habitats but their footprints are too small to be detected with the original spectral data at 4-meter resolution. We show that the ditches are detectable using automated classification on pan-sharpened data.

  12. Transmembrane channel-like (tmc) gene regulates Drosophila larval locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanmeng; Wang, Yuping; Zhang, Wei; Meltzer, Shan; Zanini, Damiano; Yu, Yue; Li, Jiefu; Cheng, Tong; Guo, Zhenhao; Wang, Qingxiu; Jacobs, Julie S.; Sharma, Yashoda; Eberl, Daniel F.; Göpfert, Martin C.; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh Nung; Wang, Zuoren

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila larval locomotion, which entails rhythmic body contractions, is controlled by sensory feedback from proprioceptors. The molecular mechanisms mediating this feedback are little understood. By using genetic knock-in and immunostaining, we found that the Drosophila melanogaster transmembrane channel-like (tmc) gene is expressed in the larval class I and class II dendritic arborization (da) neurons and bipolar dendrite (bd) neurons, both of which are known to provide sensory feedback for larval locomotion. Larvae with knockdown or loss of tmc function displayed reduced crawling speeds, increased head cast frequencies, and enhanced backward locomotion. Expressing Drosophila TMC or mammalian TMC1 and/or TMC2 in the tmc-positive neurons rescued these mutant phenotypes. Bending of the larval body activated the tmc-positive neurons, and in tmc mutants this bending response was impaired. This implicates TMC’s roles in Drosophila proprioception and the sensory control of larval locomotion. It also provides evidence for a functional conservation between Drosophila and mammalian TMCs. PMID:27298354

  13. Using Linear Agarose Channels to Study Drosophila Larval Crawling Behavior.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao; Heckscher, Ellie S

    2016-11-26

    Drosophila larval crawling is emerging as a powerful model to study neural control of sensorimotor behavior. However, larval crawling behavior on flat open surfaces is complex, including: pausing, turning, and meandering. This complexity in the repertoire of movement hinders detailed analysis of the events occurring during a single crawl stride cycle. To overcome this obstacle, linear agarose channels were made that constrain larval behavior to straight, sustained, rhythmic crawling. In principle, because agarose channels and the Drosophila larval body are both optically clear, the movement of larval structures labeled by genetically-encoded fluorescent probes can be monitored in intact, freely-moving larvae. In the past, larvae were placed in linear channels and crawling at the level of whole organism, segment, and muscle were analyzed(1). In the future, larvae crawling in channels can be used for calcium imaging to monitor neuronal activity. Moreover, these methods can be used with larvae of any genotype and with any researcher-designed channel. Thus the protocol presented below is widely applicable for studies using the Drosophila larva as a model to understand motor control.

  14. Adaptation to divergent larval diets in the medfly, Ceratitis capitata.

    PubMed

    Leftwich, Philip T; Nash, William J; Friend, Lucy A; Chapman, Tracey

    2017-02-01

    Variation in diet can influence the timing of major life-history events and can drive population diversification and ultimately speciation. Proximate responses of life histories to diet have been well studied. However, there are scant experimental data on how organisms adapt to divergent diets over the longer term. We focused on this omission by testing the responses of a global pest, the Mediterranean fruitfly, to divergent selection on larval diets of different nutritional profiles. Tests conducted before and after 30 generations of nutritional selection revealed a complex interplay between the effects of novel larval dietary conditions on both plastic and evolved responses. There were proximate-only responses to the larval diet in adult male courtship and the frequency of copulation. Males on higher calorie larval diets consistently engaged in more bouts of energetic courtship. In contrast, following selection, larval development time, and egg to adult survival showed evidence of evolved divergence between diet regimes. Adult body size showed evidence for adaptation, with flies being significantly heavier when reared on their "own" diet. The results show the multifaceted responses of individuals to dietary selection and are important in understanding the extreme generalism exhibited by the medfly.

  15. Adaptation to divergent larval diets in the medfly, Ceratitis capitata

    PubMed Central

    Leftwich, Philip T.; Nash, William J.; Friend, Lucy A.; Chapman, Tracey

    2016-01-01

    Variation in diet can influence the timing of major life‐history events and can drive population diversification and ultimately speciation. Proximate responses of life histories to diet have been well studied. However, there are scant experimental data on how organisms adapt to divergent diets over the longer term. We focused on this omission by testing the responses of a global pest, the Mediterranean fruitfly, to divergent selection on larval diets of different nutritional profiles. Tests conducted before and after 30 generations of nutritional selection revealed a complex interplay between the effects of novel larval dietary conditions on both plastic and evolved responses. There were proximate‐only responses to the larval diet in adult male courtship and the frequency of copulation. Males on higher calorie larval diets consistently engaged in more bouts of energetic courtship. In contrast, following selection, larval development time, and egg to adult survival showed evidence of evolved divergence between diet regimes. Adult body size showed evidence for adaptation, with flies being significantly heavier when reared on their “own” diet. The results show the multifaceted responses of individuals to dietary selection and are important in understanding the extreme generalism exhibited by the medfly. PMID:27883361

  16. The larval stages of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.

    PubMed

    Smith, M Meighan; Cruz Smith, Luisa; Cameron, R Andrew; Urry, Lisa A

    2008-06-01

    The adult body plan of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus is established within the imaginal rudiment during the larval stages. To facilitate the study of these stages, we have defined a larval staging scheme, which consists of seven stages: Stage I, four-arm stage; Stage II, eight-arm stage; Stage III, vestibular invagination stage; Stage IV, rudiment initiation stage; Stage V, pentagonal disc stage; Stage VI, advanced rudiment stage; and Stage VI, tube-foot protrusion stage. Each stage is characterized by significant morphological features observed for the first time at that stage. This scheme is intended as a guide for determining the degree of larval development, and for identifying larval and adult structures. Larval anatomy was visualized using light and confocal microscopy as required on living material, whole mount fixed specimens, and serial sections. Antibody staining to localize specific gene products was also used. Detailed analysis of these data has furthered our understanding of the morphogenesis of the rudiment, and has suggested provocative questions regarding the molecular basis for these events. We intend this work to be of use to investigators studying gene expression and morphogenesis in postembryonic larvae.

  17. Septic tanks as larval habitats for the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus in Playa-Playita, Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Burke, R; Barrera, R; Lewis, M; Kluchinsky, T; Claborn, D

    2010-06-01

    Adult Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae) were previously recovered from emergence traps on septic tanks in southeastern Puerto Rico. In this study we quantified immature mosquito abundance and its relationship with structural variables of the septic tanks and chemical properties of the water containing raw sewage. A miniaturized floating funnel trap was used to sample 89 septic tanks for larvae in the Puerto Rican community of Playa-Playita. Aedes aegypti larvae were recovered from 18% of the sampled tanks (10.3 larvae per septic tank per day). Larval presence was positively associated with cracking of the septic tank walls and uncovered access ports. Larval abundance was positively associated with cracking of the septic tank walls and larger tank surface areas, and inversely associated with the total dissolved solids (TDS). Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) larvae were also recovered from 74% of the septic tanks (129.6 larvae per septic tank per day). Larval presence was negatively associated with TDS in the water and larval abundance was positively associated with cracking of the septic tank walls. A screened, plastic emergence trap was used to sample 93 septic tanks within the community for Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus adults. Aedes aegypti adults were recovered from 49% of the sampled tanks (8.7 adults per septic tank per day) and Cx. quinquefasciatus adults were recovered from 97% of the sampled tanks (155.5 adults per septic tank per day). Aedes aegypti adult presence was positively associated with cracking, uncapped openings and septic water pH. The Ae. aegypti adult counts were positively associated with cracking and inversely associated with TDS and conductivity. This study marks the first published record of the recovery of Ae. aegypti larvae from holding tanks containing raw sewage in the Caribbean region. Our study indicates that Ae. aegypti larvae are present in sewage water and that septic tanks have at least the potential to maintain

  18. Benthic community of the Savannah River below a peaking hydropower station

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Patrick L.; Nichols, S. Jerrine

    1986-01-01

    The Savannah River below Hartwell Dam, on the South Carolina-Georgia border, contains at least 206 benthic invertebrate taxa, even though this tailwater undergoes substantial daily fluctuations in water flow, temperature, and dissolved oxygen. Oligochaetes, chironomids, and amphipods dominate the community immediately below the dam. Farther downstream, larger organisms (i.e., Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, etc.) dominate the benthic community. The high diversity of this system is primarily attributed to the intensive effort we expended to identify invertebrates to species level. We conclude that tailwaters associated with peaking hydropower stations may in fact have the diverse community assemblages found in natural streams and that this has not been recognized by other investigators because the bulk of the fauna is made up of small forms that are easily overlooked. Comparisons of tailwater fauna communities with those in control areas should be limited to rivers of similar size.

  19. Egg hatching, larval movement and larval survival of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae in desiccating habitats

    PubMed Central

    Koenraadt, Constantianus JM; Paaijmans, Krijn P; Githeko, Andrew K; Knols, Bart GJ; Takken, Willem

    2003-01-01

    Background Although the effects of rainfall on the population dynamics of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae have been studied in great detail, the effects of dry periods on its survival remain less clear. Methods The effects of drying conditions were simulated by creating desiccated habitats, which consisted of trays filled with damp soil. Experiments were performed in these trays to (i) test the ability of An. gambiae sensu stricto eggs to hatch on damp soil and for larvae to reach an artificial breeding site at different distances of the site of hatching and (ii) to record survival of the four larval stages of An. gambiae s.s. when placed on damp soil. Results Eggs of An. gambiae s.s. hatched on damp soil and emerging larvae were capable of covering a distance of up to 10 cm to reach surface water enabling further development. However, proportions of larvae reaching the site decreased rapidly with increasing distance. First, second and third-instar larvae survived on damp soil for an estimated period of 64, 65 and 69 hrs, respectively. Fourth-instar larvae survived significantly longer and we estimated that the maximum survival time was 113 hrs. Conclusion Short-term survival of aquatic stages of An. gambiae on wet soil may be important and adaptive when considering the transient nature of breeding sites of this species in sub-Saharan Africa. In addition, the results suggest that, for larval vector control methods to be effective, habitats should remain drained for at least 5 days to kill all larvae (e.g. in rice fields) and habitats that recently dried up should be treated as well, if larvicidal agents are applied. PMID:12919636

  20. The Paleozoic evolution of the gastropod larval shell: larval armor and tight coiling as a result of predation-driven heterochronic character displacement.

    PubMed

    Seuss, Barbara; Nützel, Alexander; Scholz, Henning; Frýda, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Early and middle Paleozoic gastropod protoconchs generally differ strongly from their corresponding adult morphologies, that is, most known protoconchs are smooth and openly coiled, whereas the majority of adult shells are ornamented and tightly coiled. In contrast, larval and adult shells of late Paleozoic gastropods with planktotrophic larval development (Caenogastropoda, Neritimorpha) commonly resemble each other in shape and principle ornamentation. This is surprising because habitat and mode of life of planktonic larvae and benthic adults differ strongly from each other. Generally, late Paleozoic to Recent protoconchs are tightly coiled. This modern type of larval shell resembles the adult shell morphology and was obviously predisplaced onto the larval stage during the middle Paleozoic. The oldest known planktonic-armored (strongly ornamented) larval shells are known from the late Paleozoic. However, smooth larval shells are also common among the studied late Paleozoic gastropods. The appearance of larval armor at the beginning of the late Paleozoic could reflect an increase of predation pressure in the plankton. Although there are counter examples in which larval and adult shell morphology differ strongly from each other, there is statistical evidence for a heterochronic predisplacement of adult characters onto the larval stage. Larval and adult shells are built in the same way, by accretionary secretion at the mantle edge. It is likely that the same underlying gene expression is responsible for that. If so, similarities of larval and adult shell may be explained by gene sharing, whereas differences may be due to different (planktic vs. benthic life) epigenetic patterns.

  1. Phormidium animalis (Cyanobacteria: Oscillatoriaceae) supports larval development of Anopheles albimanus.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Martínez, M Guadalupe; Rodríguez, Mario H; Arredondo-Jiménez, Juan I; Méndez-Sánchez, José D

    2003-06-01

    The capability of Phormidium animalis, a cyanobacterium commonly found in larval habitats of Anopheles albimanus in southern Mexico, to support larval development of this mosquito was investigated. First-stage larvae were reared under insectary conditions with P. animalis ad libitum and their development was compared with larvae fed with wheat germ. The time of pupation and adult mosquito size, assessed by wing length, were similar in both groups, but fewer adult mosquitoes were obtained from larvae fed with the cyanobacteria. Nevertheless, these observations indicate that P. animalis is ingested and assimilated by larval An. albimanus, making this cyanobacterium a good candidate for genetic engineering for the introduction of mosquitocidal toxins for malaria control in the region.

  2. [Larval stages of Ascaris lumbricoides: hyaluronan-binding capacity].

    PubMed

    Ponce-León, Patricia; Foresto, Patricia; Valverde, Juana

    2009-03-01

    Hyaluronic acid has important functions in inflammatory and tissue reparation processes. Owing to the varied strategies of the parasites to evade the host's immune response, as well as the multiple functions and physiological importance of hyaluronic acid, the aim was to study the hyaluronan binding capacity by Ascaris lumbricoides larval stages. Larval concentrates were prepared by hatching A. lumbricoides eggs. The larvae were collected by the Baermann method. The test of serum soluble CD44 detection by Agregation Inhibition was modified. All the larval concentrates presented hyaluronan binding capacity. The obtained results allow to suppose the existence of an hyaluronic acid specific receptor in A. lumbricoides. This receptor eventually might compete with the usual receptors of the host. The parasite might use this mechanism to evade the immune response.

  3. Adult beetles compensate for poor larval food conditions.

    PubMed

    Müller, Thorben; Müller, Caroline

    2016-05-01

    Life history traits of herbivores are highly influenced by the quality of their hosts, i.e., the composition of primary and secondary plant metabolites. In holometabolous insects, larvae and adults may face different host plants, which differ in quality. It has been hypothesised that adult fitness is either highest when larval and adult environmental conditions match (environmental matching) or it may be mainly determined by optimal larval conditions (silver spoon effect). Alternatively, the adult stage may be most decisive for the actual fitness, independent of larval food exposure, due to adult compensation ability. To determine the influence of constant versus changing larval and adult host plant experiences on growth performance, fitness and feeding preferences, we carried out a match-mismatch experiment using the mustard leaf beetle, Phaedon cochleariae. Larvae and adults were either constantly reared on watercress (natural host) or cabbage (crop plant) or were switched after metamorphosis to the other host. Growth, reproductive traits and feeding preferences were determined repeatedly over lifetime and host plant quality traits analysed. Differences in the host quality led to differences in the development time and female reproduction. Egg numbers were significantly influenced by the host plant species experienced by the adults. Thus, adults were able to compensate for poor larval conditions. Likewise, the current host experience was most decisive for feeding preferences; in adult beetles a feeding preference was shaped regardless of the larval host plant. Larvae or adults reared on the more nutritious host, cabbage, showed a higher preference for this host. Hence, beetles most likely develop a preference when gaining a direct positive feedback in terms of an improved performance, whereby the current experience matters the most. Highly nutritious crop plants may be, in consequence, all the more exploited by potential pests that may show a high plasticity in

  4. Effects of beach morphology and waves on onshore larval transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimura, A.; Reniers, A.; Paris, C. B.; Shanks, A.; MacMahan, J.; Morgan, S.

    2015-12-01

    Larvae of intertidal species grow offshore, and migrate back to the shore when they are ready to settle on their adult substrates. In order to reach the habitat, they must cross the surf zone, which is characterized as a semi-permeable barrier. This is accomplished through physical forcing (i.e., waves and current) as well as their own behavior. Two possible scenarios of onshore larval transport are proposed: Negatively buoyant larvae stay in the bottom boundary layer because of turbulence-dependent sinking behavior, and are carried toward the shore by streaming of the bottom boundary layer; positively buoyant larvae move to the shore during onshore wind events, and sink to the bottom once they encounter high turbulence (i.e., surf zone edge), where they are carried by the bottom current toward the shore (Fujimura et al. 2014). Our biophysical Lagrangian particle tracking model helps to explain how beach morphology and wave conditions affect larval distribution patterns and abundance. Model results and field observations show that larval abundance in the surf zone is higher at mildly sloped, rip-channeled beaches than at steep pocket beaches. Beach attributes are broken up to examine which and how beach configuration factors affect larval abundance. Modeling with alongshore uniform beaches with variable slopes reveal that larval populations in the surf zone are negatively correlated with beach steepness. Alongshore variability enhances onshore larval transport because of increased cross-shore water exchange by rip currents. Wave groups produce transient rip currents and enhance cross-shore exchange. Effects of other wave components, such as wave height and breaking wave rollers are also considered.

  5. Effects of coastal transport on larval patches: Models and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilburg, Charles E.; Houser, Letise T.; Steppe, Cecily N.; Garvine, Richard W.; Epifanio, Charles E.

    2006-03-01

    We used a combination of field observations and numerical modeling to examine the physical mechanisms responsible for the evolution and transport of patches of blue crab larvae in the mouth of Delaware Bay. The observations consisted of larval collections and surface salinity measurements taken along a moving spatial grid whose origin was determined by a satellite-tracked drifter. Examination of field observations revealed a slender larval patch that was aligned with salinity contours. Measurement of the salting rate of the larval patch indicated that the patch moved through the offshore edge of a buoyant plume due to wind-driven upwelling circulation. A numerical model that provided realistic simulations of the flow field at the mouth of Delaware Bay and the adjoining coastal ocean was used to examine the physical mechanisms responsible for the movement and evolution of the patch. We conducted a series of simulations in which we separately examined the effects of tides, buoyancy-driven flow, and wind-driven transport. Results showed that both tides and buoyancy-driven flow tend to elongate an initially square fluid element. Although winds alone have little effect on the shape of a patch, wind-driven flow can effectively move a patch through a complex flow field in which the deformation by tides and buoyancy-driven circulation can have significant effects. This study represents the first observation and analysis of a larval patch that remains intact while moving through the edge of a buoyant plume. It provides new insight into the shape of larval patches in Delaware Bay and any region with strong buoyancy- and tidally-driven flow, suggesting that typical larval patches may not be characterized by equal across- and alongshelf dimensions but instead tend to be slender shapes that are aligned with the flow field.

  6. Same but different: Larval development and gall-inducing process of a non-pollinating fig wasp compared to that of pollinating fig-wasps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen-González, Sergio; Teixeira, Simone de Padua; Kjellberg, Finn; Pereira, Rodrigo A. Santinelo

    2014-05-01

    The receptacles of fig trees (Ficus spp.) can harbor a highly diversified and complex community of chalcid wasps. Functional groups of fig wasps (e.g. gallers, cleptoparasites and parasitoids) oviposit into the fig at different developmental stages, reflecting different feeding regimes for these insect larvae. There are few direct data available on larval feeding regimes and access to resources. We studied the gall induction and larval feeding strategy of an Idarnes (group flavicollis) species, a non-pollinating fig wasp (NPFW) associated to Ficus citrifolia P. Miller in Brazil. This Idarnes species shares with the pollinator characteristics such as time of oviposition, ovipositor insertion through flower and location of the egg inside plant ovaries. Nevertheless, we show that the gall induction differs considerably from that of the pollinating species. This Idarnes species relies on the induction of nucellus cell proliferation for gall formation and as the main larval resource. This strategy enables it to develop in both pollinated and unpollinated figs. The large differences between this NPFW and other fig wasps in how ovules are galled suggest that there are different ways to be a galler. A functional analysis of NPFW community structure may require descriptions of the histological processes associated with larval development.

  7. The neural basis of visual behaviors in the larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Portugues, Ruben; Engert, Florian

    2009-12-01

    We review visually guided behaviors in larval zebrafish and summarise what is known about the neural processing that results in these behaviors, paying particular attention to the progress made in the last 2 years. Using the examples of the optokinetic reflex, the optomotor response, prey tracking and the visual startle response, we illustrate how the larval zebrafish presents us with a very promising model vertebrate system that allows neurocientists to integrate functional and behavioral studies and from which we can expect illuminating insights in the near future.

  8. The neural basis of visual behaviors in the larval zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Portugues, Ruben; Engert, Florian

    2015-01-01

    We review visually guided behaviors in larval zebrafish and summarise what is known about the neural processing that results in these behaviors, paying particular attention to the progress made in the last 2 years. Using the examples of the optokinetic reflex, the optomotor response, prey tracking and the visual startle response, we illustrate how the larval zebrafish presents us with a very promising model vertebrate system that allows neurocientists to integrate functional and behavioral studies and from which we can expect illuminating insights in the near future. PMID:19896836

  9. Effects of Underwater Turbine Noise on Crab Larval Metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Pine, Matthew K; Jeffs, Andrew G; Radford, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    The development of marine tidal turbines has advanced at a rapid rate over the last decade but with little detailed understanding of the potential noise impacts on invertebrates. Previous research has shown that underwater reef noise plays an important role in mediating metamorphosis in many larval crabs and fishes. New research suggests that underwater estuarine noise may also mediate metamorphosis in estuarine crab larvae and that the noise emitted from underwater tidal and sea-based wind turbines may significantly influence larval metamorphosis in estuarine crabs.

  10. Larval development of Brachiopod Coptothyris grayi (Davidson, 1852) (Brachiopoda, Rhynchonelliformea).

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, T V; Temereva, E N; Malakhov, V V

    2016-11-01

    The larval development of the Brachiopod Coptothyris grayi (Davidson, 1852) from the Sea of Japan is described for the first time. Ciliated blastula proved to represent the first free-swimming stage. The blastopore is initially formed as a rounded hole stretching later along the anteroposterior axis. The larva is first divided into two lobes (the apical lobe and the trunk); the mantle lobe is formed later as two lateral folds. Two pairs of seta bundles appear in the late stage larvae. The apical larval lobe in brachiopods is supposed to match the pre-oral lobe and anterior part of the trunk with tentacles in phoronids.

  11. Larval and juvenile development of Tatia intermedia (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae).

    PubMed

    Pereira, L H A; Bialetzki, A; Bonecker, A C T

    2017-03-01

    This study describes the morphology, morphometry and meristic characters of larval and juvenile Tatia intermedia collected in the middle Tocantins River and some of its tributaries. Six larvae of T. intermedia were examined and they have a moderately elongate body, head slightly dorso-ventrally depressed with a convex snout, small and round eyes and a subterminal mouth. In five juvenile stages observed, the head and eye are relatively smaller than in the larval stage and the snout remains convex and mouth becomes terminal.

  12. Cryptic biodiversity in streams: a comparison of macroinvertebrate communities based on morphological and DNA barcode identifications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Species-level identifications are difficult or impossible for many larval aquatic macroinvertebrates. We described the taxonomic composition of macroinvertebrate communities from 5 coastal streams in 3 neighboring catchments in southern California. We compared taxonomic identific...

  13. Cryptic biodiversity in streams - a comparison of macroinvertebrate communities based on morphological and DNA barcode identifications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic ecologists and entomologists have long known that species-level identifications were difficult, if not impossible, for many larval macroinvertebrates collected in streams. This study describes macroinvertebrate (primarily insect) communities from five coastal streams dist...

  14. Lost at sea: ocean acidification undermines larval fish orientation via altered hearing and marine soundscape modification.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Tullio; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Pistevos, Jennifer C A; Connell, Sean D

    2016-01-01

    The dispersal of larvae and their settlement to suitable habitat is fundamental to the replenishment of marine populations and the communities in which they live. Sound plays an important role in this process because for larvae of various species, it acts as an orientational cue towards suitable settlement habitat. Because marine sounds are largely of biological origin, they not only carry information about the location of potential habitat, but also information about the quality of habitat. While ocean acidification is known to affect a wide range of marine organisms and processes, its effect on marine soundscapes and its reception by navigating oceanic larvae remains unknown. Here, we show that ocean acidification causes a switch in role of present-day soundscapes from attractor to repellent in the auditory preferences in a temperate larval fish. Using natural CO2 vents as analogues of future ocean conditions, we further reveal that ocean acidification can impact marine soundscapes by profoundly diminishing their biological sound production. An altered soundscape poorer in biological cues indirectly penalizes oceanic larvae at settlement stage because both control and CO2-treated fish larvae showed lack of any response to such future soundscapes. These indirect and direct effects of ocean acidification put at risk the complex processes of larval dispersal and settlement.

  15. Lost at sea: ocean acidification undermines larval fish orientation via altered hearing and marine soundscape modification

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Tullio; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Connell, Sean D.

    2016-01-01

    The dispersal of larvae and their settlement to suitable habitat is fundamental to the replenishment of marine populations and the communities in which they live. Sound plays an important role in this process because for larvae of various species, it acts as an orientational cue towards suitable settlement habitat. Because marine sounds are largely of biological origin, they not only carry information about the location of potential habitat, but also information about the quality of habitat. While ocean acidification is known to affect a wide range of marine organisms and processes, its effect on marine soundscapes and its reception by navigating oceanic larvae remains unknown. Here, we show that ocean acidification causes a switch in role of present-day soundscapes from attractor to repellent in the auditory preferences in a temperate larval fish. Using natural CO2 vents as analogues of future ocean conditions, we further reveal that ocean acidification can impact marine soundscapes by profoundly diminishing their biological sound production. An altered soundscape poorer in biological cues indirectly penalizes oceanic larvae at settlement stage because both control and CO2-treated fish larvae showed lack of any response to such future soundscapes. These indirect and direct effects of ocean acidification put at risk the complex processes of larval dispersal and settlement. PMID:26763221

  16. Do Larval Supply and Recruitment Vary among Chemosynthetic Environments of the Deep Sea?

    PubMed Central

    Metaxas, Anna; Kelly, Noreen E.

    2010-01-01

    Background The biological communities that inhabit chemosynthetic environments exist in an ephemeral and patchily distributed habitat with unique physicochemical properties that lead to high endemicity. Consequently, the maintenance and recovery from perturbation of the populations in these habitats is, arguably, mainly regulated by larval supply and recruitment. Methodology/Principal Findings We use data from the published scientific literature to: (1) compare the magnitudes of and variability in larval supply and settlement and recruitment at hydrothermal vents, seeps, and whale, wood and kelp falls; (2) explore factors that affect these life history processes, when information is available; and (3) explore taxonomic affinities in the recruit assemblages of the different chemosynthetic habitats, using multivariate statistical techniques. Larval supply at vents can vary across segments by several orders of magnitude for gastropods; for bivalves, supply is similar at vents on different segments, and at cold seeps. The limited information on larval development suggests that dispersal potential may be highest for molluscs from cold seeps, intermediate for siboglinids at vents and lowest for the whale-bone siboglinid Osedax. Settlement is poorly studied and only at vents and seeps, but tends to be highest near an active source of emanating fluid in both habitats. Rate of recruitment at vents is more variable among studies within a segment than among segments. Across different chemosynthetic habitats, recruitment rate of bivalves is much more variable than that of gastropods and polychaetes. Total recruitment rate ranges only between 0.1 and 1 ind dm−2 d−1 across all chemosynthetic habitats, falling above rates in the non-reducing deep sea. The recruit assemblages at vents, seeps and kelp falls have lower taxonomic breadth, and include more families and genera that have many species more closely related to each other than those at whale and wood falls. Vents also

  17. Larval myogenesis in Echinodermata: conserved features and morphological diversity between class-specific larval forms of Echinoidae, Asteroidea, and Holothuroidea.

    PubMed

    Dyachuk, Vyacheslav; Odintsova, Nelly

    2013-01-01

    The myogenesis of class-specific larval forms of three classes belonging to the phylum Echinodermata (Echinoidae, Asteroidea, and Holothuroidea) was investigated via gross-anatomy and comparative morphology of larval muscles. Using staining with phalloidin and antibodies against the muscle proteins, with subsequent CLSM and 3D imaging, we have examined myogenesis in the larvae from the gastrula stage to pre-metamorphosis larval stages. We have shown that temporal and spatial expression of muscle proteins is similar in echinoidea and asteroidea larvae but differs in holothuroidea larvae at early developmental stages. New insights regarding the protein composition of maturing muscular fibrils during development in echinoderm larvae were detected. The first differentiating muscle structures in all tested classes have been found to be circular esophageal muscles that are associated with larval feeding. During early differentiation of echinoderm larval muscle cells, we observed that the expression patterns of the muscle proteins were not uniform but with a characteristic diffuse distribution, which is typical for smooth muscle. An unusual pattern of expression of the muscle proteins was detected in larval sphincters: the thick muscle proteins were first expressed during the early developmental stages, whereas F-actin appeared at later stages. In addition, paired star-shaped muscles were revealed in the mature Echinoidae plutei, but were absent in the Asteroidea, and Holothuroidea larvae. All tested species of Echinodermata exhibited both conserved features of muscle morphology during development indicating a common life history strategy and a planktonic habitat, and also an extensive morphological diversity representing specific anatomical adaptations during development.

  18. Biological studies on the snail intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis with a special emphasis on using larval echinostomes as biocontrol agent against larval schistosomes and snails.

    PubMed

    Rashed, A A

    2002-12-01

    The present investigation deals with the infectivity of the two snail intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis, Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus collected from nine drains in Sharkia Governorate, Egypt. The rate of infection among the snails was general low being 0% in many drains. Regarding B. alexandrina, the rate of infection ranged from 4-16%, and in B. truncatus ranged from 4-8%. Infection with larval echinostomes was dominant over larval schistosomes in the two snail vectors. The distribution of larval schistosomes was restricted to the hepatopancreas of the two snail vectors, while larval echinostomes were distributed in head, foot, kidney, haemocoelic cavity, hepatopancreas...etc. The predation of larval schistosomes by larval echinostomes and the severe histopathological effects induced by larval ecbinostomes strongly enhances using them as biocontrol agent. The physico-chemical parameters and pollution condition in the drains seem to have no effect on the process of snails infectivity. It is concluded that larval echinostomes can resist the polluting conditions in the drain. The two snail vectors exhibit very minimal or rare host response against larval echinostomes. Probably, the toxicants and pollutants in the drain may act as stressor that makes the snails much more susceptible to infection by larval trematodes.

  19. Estimation of the size of molluscan larval settlement using the death assemblage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, E. N.; Cummins, H.; Stanton, R. J.; Staff, G.

    1984-04-01

    The death assemblage is an important source of information about temporal variability in community composition. The living community and the short-term death assemblage have been studied at a sandy-bottom station in the Laguna Madre, Texas. Abundance peaks of living species are usually followed by long-term abundance increases of the same species in the death assemblage. This phenomenon provides a tool for investigating between-sampling-occasion events in the preservable component of the living community. Given a six-week sampling regimen, approximately 90% of all individuals settle, live and die during the period between consecutive sampling occasions and are not collected alive. Thus, larval settlements are consistently underestimated by about 90% from data on the living community. Comparisons of year-to-year variability in settlement and survivorship of settled individuals in the youngest age classes may be considerably in error. Better estimations of actual settlement and survivorship can be made from the death assemblage provided that the rate of taphonomic loss can be quantified. The rate of taphonomic loss can be expressed as the species' half-life, the time required for the destruction of 50% of the individuals that were added to the death assemblage following settlement. Half-lives for the smallest size classes in the death assemblage at this site are about 100 days.

  20. Rapid recovery of genetic diversity of stomatopod populations on Krakatau: temporal and spatial scales of marine larval dispersal.

    PubMed Central

    Barber, P H; Moosa, M K; Palumbi, S R

    2002-01-01

    Although the recovery of terrestrial communities shattered by the massive eruption of Krakatau in 1883 has been well chronicled, the fate of marine populations has been largely ignored. We examined patterns of genetic diversity in populations of two coral reef-dwelling mantis shrimp, Haptosquilla pulchella and Haptosquilla glyptocercus (Stomatopoda: Protosquillidae), on the islands of Anak Krakatau and Rakata. Genetic surveys of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c (subunit 1) in these populations revealed remarkably high levels of haplotypic and nucleotide diversity that were comparable with undisturbed populations throughout the Indo-Pacific. Recolonization and rapid recovery of genetic diversity in the Krakatau populations indicates that larval dispersal from multiple and diverse source populations contributes substantially to the demographics of local populations over intermediate temporal (tens to hundreds of years) and spatial scales (tens to hundreds of kilometres). Natural experiments such as Krakatau provide an excellent mechanism to investigate marine larval dispersal and connectivity. Results from stomatopods indicate that marine reserves should be spaced no more than 50-100 km apart to facilitate ecological connectivity via larval dispersal. PMID:12184829

  1. Rapid recovery of genetic diversity of stomatopod populations on Krakatau: temporal and spatial scales of marine larval dispersal.

    PubMed

    Barber, P H; Moosa, M K; Palumbi, S R

    2002-08-07

    Although the recovery of terrestrial communities shattered by the massive eruption of Krakatau in 1883 has been well chronicled, the fate of marine populations has been largely ignored. We examined patterns of genetic diversity in populations of two coral reef-dwelling mantis shrimp, Haptosquilla pulchella and Haptosquilla glyptocercus (Stomatopoda: Protosquillidae), on the islands of Anak Krakatau and Rakata. Genetic surveys of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c (subunit 1) in these populations revealed remarkably high levels of haplotypic and nucleotide diversity that were comparable with undisturbed populations throughout the Indo-Pacific. Recolonization and rapid recovery of genetic diversity in the Krakatau populations indicates that larval dispersal from multiple and diverse source populations contributes substantially to the demographics of local populations over intermediate temporal (tens to hundreds of years) and spatial scales (tens to hundreds of kilometres). Natural experiments such as Krakatau provide an excellent mechanism to investigate marine larval dispersal and connectivity. Results from stomatopods indicate that marine reserves should be spaced no more than 50-100 km apart to facilitate ecological connectivity via larval dispersal.

  2. Environmental factors limiting fertilisation and larval success in corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Rachael M.; Baird, Andrew H.; Mizerek, Toni L.; Madin, Joshua S.

    2016-12-01

    Events in the early life history of reef-building corals, including fertilisation and larval survival, are susceptible to changes in the chemical and physical properties of sea water. Quantifying how changes in water quality affect these events is therefore important for understanding and predicting population establishment in novel and changing environments. A review of the literature identified that levels of salinity, temperature, pH, suspended sediment, nutrients and heavy metals affect coral early life-history stages to various degrees. In this study, we combined published experimental data to determine the relative importance of sea water properties for coral fertilisation success and larval survivorship. Of the water properties manipulated in experiments, fertilisation success was most sensitive to suspended sediment, copper, salinity, phosphate and ammonium. Larval survivorship was sensitive to copper, lead and salinity. A combined model was developed that estimated the joint probability of both fertilisation and larval survivorship in sea water with different chemical and physical properties. We demonstrated the combined model using water samples from Sydney and Lizard Island in Australia to estimate the likelihood of larvae surviving through both stages of development to settlement competency. Our combined model could be used to recommend targets for water quality in coastal waterways as well as to predict the potential for species to expand their geographical ranges in response to climate change.

  3. LARVAL FISH HABITAT QUALITY : THE EFFECTS OF FRESHWATER FLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    We sampled larval fish in Suisun Marsh, in the San Francisco Bay estuary from February to June 1994-1999. We used principal components analysis (PCA) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) on 13 taxonomic groups making up 99.7% of the catch and several environmental variable...

  4. Larval diet affects mosquito development and permissiveness to Plasmodium infection

    PubMed Central

    Linenberg, Inbar; Christophides, George K.; Gendrin, Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    The larval stages of malaria vector mosquitoes develop in water pools, feeding mostly on microorganisms and environmental detritus. Richness in the nutrient supply to larvae influences the development and metabolism of larvae and adults. Here, we investigated the effects of larval diet on the development, microbiota content and permissiveness to Plasmodium of Anopheles coluzzii. We tested three fish diets often used to rear mosquitoes in the laboratory, including two pelleted diets, Dr. Clarke’s Pool Pellets and Nishikoi Fish Pellets, and one flaked diet, Tetramin Fish-Flakes. Larvae grow and develop faster and produce bigger adults when feeding on both types of pellets compared with flakes. This correlates with a higher microbiota load in pellet-fed larvae, in agreement with the known positive effect of the microbiota on mosquito development. Larval diet also significantly influences the prevalence and intensity of Plasmodium berghei infection in adults, whereby Nishikoi Fish Pellets-fed larvae develop into adults that are highly permissive to parasites and survive longer after infection. This correlates with a lower amount of Enterobacteriaceae in the midgut microbiota. Together, our results shed light on the influence of larval feeding on mosquito development, microbiota and vector competence; they also provide useful data for mosquito rearing. PMID:27910908

  5. Rainbow smelt - larval lake herring interactions: competitors or casual acquaintances?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selgeby, James H.; MacCallum, Wayne R.; Hoff, Michael H.

    1994-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that competition for food between rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) and larval lake herring (Coregonus artedi) was a cause for the declines of lake herring stocks in Lake Superior. We studied the diet of larval lake herring and of larval, juvenile, and adult rainbow smelt during 1974 in Black Bay, Ontario, where both species were abundant, and in the Apostle Islands Region, Wisconsin, where rainbow smelt was abundant but lake herring was scarce. No evidence of competition for food was found between larval lake herring and rainbow smelt. Spawning and hatching times of the two species were separate enough that most larvae of the two species did not occupy the study areas simultaneously. Juvenile and adult rainbow smelt were found with lake herring larvae, but their diets differed. Therefore, we concluded that rainbow smelt did not compete with lake herring larvae for food and that competition for food between rainbow smelt and lake herring larvae was not the factor that caused lake herring population declines in Lake Superior.

  6. The saltatory search behavior of larval cod ( Gadus morhua)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzicka, James J.; Gallager, Scott M.

    2006-11-01

    Accurate descriptions of larval fish foraging behavior are necessary for modeling energy gain through prey encounter rates. Larval cod use a saltatory foraging strategy; they swim in discrete bursts and search for prey during the periods between bursts when speed is minimal. The goals of this research were: first, to observe the behavior of larval cod in large volumes to reduce confinement effects; second, to observe behavior throughout early development; and third, to observe if larval cod adjust their foraging effort in response to foraging conditions, in this case prey density. An observation system employing stereo-paired video cameras was developed that allowed recording of the behavior of individual larvae throughout a large volume in three dimensions. The observed behavior shows that the burst phase of the foraging cycle remains constant regardless of the presence or absence of prey while the duration of each search event becomes significantly longer when prey are absent, perhaps reflecting either a greater time investment to process each search volume more thoroughly or a response to hunger. Comparison of the behavior of larvae fasted 12 h to those fasted 36 h shows that hunger state has little effect on the burst phase of the foraging cycle, but hunger does have a significant effect on overall activity level and foraging capacity.

  7. Larval biology of the crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Gould): a synthesis.

    PubMed

    Forward, Richard B

    2009-06-01

    This synthesis reviews the physiological ecology and behavior of larvae of the benthic crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii, which occurs in low-salinity areas of estuaries. Larvae are released rhythmically around the time of high tide in tidal estuaries and in the 2-h interval after sunset in nontidal estuaries. As in most subtidal crustaceans, the timing of larval release is controlled by the developing embryos, which release peptide pheromones that stimulate larval release behavior by the female to synchronize the time of egg hatching. Larvae pass through four zoeal stages and a postlarval or megalopal stage that are planktonic before metamorphosis. They are retained near the adult population by means of an endogenous tidal rhythm in vertical migration. Larvae have several safeguards against predation: they undergo nocturnal diel vertical migration (DVM) and have a shadow response to avoid encountering predators, and they bear long spines as a deterrent. Photoresponses during DVM and the shadow response are enhanced by exposure to chemical cues from the mucus of predator fishes and ctenophores. The primary visual pigment has a spectral sensitivity maximum at about 500 nm, which is typical for zooplankton and matches the ambient spectrum at twilight. Larvae can detect vertical gradients in temperature, salinity, and hydrostatic pressure, which are used for depth regulation and avoidance of adverse environmental conditions. Characteristics that are related to the larval habitat and are common to other crab larval species are considered.

  8. [Larval development of Hypsophrys nicaraguensis (Pisces: Cichlidae) under laboratory conditions].

    PubMed

    Molina Arias, Alex

    2011-12-01

    The cichlid Hypsophrys nicaraguensis is a popular fish known as butterfly, and despite its widespread use as pets, little is known about its reproductive biology. In order to contribute to this knowledge, the study describes the relevant larval development characteristics, from adult and larval cultures in captivity. Every 12h, samples of larvae were collected and observed under the microscope for larval stage development, and every 24h morphometric measurements were taken. Observations showed that at 120h, some larvae had swimming activity and the pectoral fins development was visible; at 144h, the dorsal fin appear and all larvae started food intake; at 168h, the formation of anal fins begins, small rudiments of pelvic fins emerge, the separation of caudal fin from anal and dorsal fins starts, and the yolk sac is reabsorbed almost completely; at 288h, the pelvic fins starts to form; at 432h, the rays and spines of dorsal and anal fins can be distinguished, both the anal and the dorsal fins have the same number of spines and rays as in adults. After 480h larvae have the first scales, ending the larval stages and starting the transformation to fingerlings. Larvae were successfully fed with commercial diet.

  9. Investigating phenology of larval fishes in St. Louis River ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As part of the development of an early detection monitoring strategy for non-native fishes, larval fish surveys have been conducted since 2012 in the St. Louis River estuary. Survey data demonstrates there is considerable variability in fish abundance and species assemblages across different habitats and at multiple temporal scales. To optimize early detection monitoring we need to understand temporal and spatial patterns of larval fishes related to their development and dispersion, as well as the environmental factors that influence them. In 2016 we designed an experiment to assess the phenological variability in larval fish abundance and assemblages amongst shallow water habitats. Specifically, we sought to contrast different thermal environments and turbidity levels, as well as assess the importance of vegetation in these habitats. To evaluate phenological differences we sampled larval fish bi-weekly at nine locations from mid-May to mid-July. Sampling locations were split between upper estuary and lower estuary to contrast river versus seiche influenced habitats. To assess differences in thermal environments, temperature was monitored every 15 minutes at each sampling location throughout the study, beginning in early April. Our design also included sampling at both vegetated (or pre-vegetated) and non-vegetated stations within each sampling location throughout the study to assess the importance of this habitat variable. Hydroacoustic surveys (Biosonics) were

  10. Evolved differences in larval social behavior mediated by novel pheromones

    PubMed Central

    Mast, Joshua D; De Moraes, Consuelo M; Alborn, Hans T; Lavis, Luke D; Stern, David L

    2014-01-01

    Pheromones, chemical signals that convey social information, mediate many insect social behaviors, including navigation and aggregation. Several studies have suggested that behavior during the immature larval stages of Drosophila development is influenced by pheromones, but none of these compounds or the pheromone-receptor neurons that sense them have been identified. Here we report a larval pheromone-signaling pathway. We found that larvae produce two novel long-chain fatty acids that are attractive to other larvae. We identified a single larval chemosensory neuron that detects these molecules. Two members of the pickpocket family of DEG/ENaC channel subunits (ppk23 and ppk29) are required to respond to these pheromones. This pheromone system is evolving quickly, since the larval exudates of D. simulans, the sister species of D. melanogaster, are not attractive to other larvae. Our results define a new pheromone signaling system in Drosophila that shares characteristics with pheromone systems in a wide diversity of insects. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04205.001 PMID:25497433

  11. A sampler for capturing larval and juvenile Atlantic menhaden

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedrick, J.D.; Hedrick, L.R.; Margraf, F.J.

    2005-01-01

    Interest in capturing larval and juvenile Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus for use in laboratory studies required the design and construction of a sampling device that would allow us to make collections of live fish from open-water areas. Our device for capturing 1-2.5-in larval-juvenile fish was constructed of a stainless steel frame that supported a 9.84-ft-long (3-m-long)5 cone plankton net with a 3.28-ft-diameter (1-m-diameter) opening and a 0.04-in (1-mm) mesh size. Although the plankton net was similar to that used during typical larval fish collections, the cod end was constructed of Plexiglas and was nearly watertight; this prevented impingement and injury to larval fish and provided a calm-water environment. The cod end was designed for quick release from the plankton net, and the entire cod end could be submerged into a 75-gal onboard holding tank. This design and technique obviated the netting or emerging of fish from the water until they were returned to the laboratory. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  12. Larval fish dynamics in spring pools in middle Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettoli, Phillip William; Goldsworthy, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    We used lighted larval traps to assess reproduction by fishes inhabiting nine spring pools in the Barrens Plateau region of middle Tennessee between May and September 2004. The traps (n = 162 deployments) captured the larval or juvenile forms of Etheostoma crossopterum (Fringed Darter) (n = 188), Gambusia affinis (Western Mosquitofish) (n = 139), Hemitremia flammea (Flame Chub) (n = 55), the imperiled Fundulus julisia (Barrens Topminnow) (n = 10), and Forbesichthys agassizii (Spring Cavefish) (n = 1). The larval forms of four other species (Families Centrarchidae, Cyprinidae, and Cottidae) were not collected, despite the presence of adults. Larval Barrens Topminnow hatched over a protracted period (early June through late September); in contrast, hatching intervals were much shorter for Fringed Darter (mid-May through early June). Flame Chub hatching began before our first samples in early May and concluded by late-May. Juvenile Western Mosquitofish were collected between early June and late August. Our sampling revealed that at least two species (Flame Chub and Fringed Darter) were able to reproduce and recruit in habitats harboring the invasive Western Mosquitofish, while Barrens Topminnow could not.

  13. Managing Ammonia Emissions From Screwworm Larval Rearing Media.

    PubMed

    Sagel, Agustin; Phillips, Pamela; Chaudhury, Muhammad; Skoda, Steven

    2016-02-01

    Mass production, sterilization, and release of screwworms (Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel)) that were competitive in the field significantly contributed to the successful application of the sterile insect technique for eradication of screwworms from continental North America. Metabolic byproducts resulting from protein-rich diets required for larval screwworms lead to ammonia liberation, sometimes at high levels, within the mass rearing facility. Until recently a sodium polyacrylate gel bulking agent was used for the larval media and adsorbed much of the ammonia. A need to replace the gel with an environmentally "friendly" bulking agent, while not increasing ammonia levels in the rearing facility, led to a series of experiments with the objective of developing procedures to reduce ammonia emissions from the larval media bulked with cellulose fiber. Additives of ammonia-converting bacteria, potassium permanganate, and Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Otrgies powder extract, previously reported to reduce ammonia levels in organic environments, were evaluated. Ammonia-converting bacteria did not have a positive effect. Addition of Y. schidigera powder extract (∼1% of total volume), potassium permanganate (∼250 ppm), and a combination of these two additives (at these same concentrations) kept ammonia at equivalent levels as when larval media was bulked with gel. Potassium permanganate also had sufficient antimicrobial properties that the use of formaldehyde in the diet was not necessary. Further testing is needed, at a mass rearing level, before full implementation into the screwworm eradication program.

  14. Fruit Fly Liquid Larval Diet Technology Transfer and Update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since October 2006, USDA-ARS has been implementing a fruit fly liquid larval diet technology transfer, which has proceeded according to the following steps: (1) Recruitment of interested groups through request; (2) Establishment of the Material Transfer Agreement (MTA) with ARS; (3) Fruit fly liquid...

  15. Swimming behavior of larval Medaka fish under microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, R.; Ijiri, K.

    Fish exhibit looping and rolling behaviors when subjected to short periods of microgravity during parabolic flight. Strain-differences in the behavioral response of adult Medaka fish ( Oryzias latipes) were reported previously, however, there have been few studies of larval fish behavior under microgravity. In the present study, we investigated whether microgravity affects the swimming behavior of larvae at various ages (0 to 20 days after hatching), using different strains: HNI-II, HO5, ha strain, and variety of different strains (variety). The preliminary experiments were done in the ground laboratory: the development of eyesight was examined using optokinetic response for the different strains. The visual acuity of larvae improved drastically during 20 days after hatching. Strain differences of response were noted for the development of their visual acuity. In microgravity, the results were significantly different from those of adult Medaka. The larval fish appeared to maintain their orientation, except that a few of them exhibited looping and rolling behavior. Further, most larvae swam normally with their backs turning toward the light source (dorsal light response, DLR), and the rest of them stayed with their abdomen touching the surface of the container (ventral substrate response, VSR). For larval stages, strain-differences and age-differences in behavior were observed, but less pronounced than with adult fish under microgravity. Our observations suggest that adaptability of larval fish to the gravitational change and the mechanism of their postural control in microgravity are more variable than in adult fish.

  16. Phenology of larval fish in the St. Louis River estuary

    EPA Science Inventory

    Little work has been done on the phenology of fish larvae in Great Lakes coastal wetlands. As part of an aquatic invasive species early detection study, we conducted larval fish surveys in the St. Louis River estuary (SLRE) in 2012 and 2013. Using multiple gears in a spatially ba...

  17. Correlations between adult mimicry and larval host plants in ithomiine butterflies.

    PubMed

    Willmott, Keith R; Mallet, James

    2004-08-07

    The apparent paradox of multiple coexisting wing pattern mimicry 'rings' in tropical butterflies has been explained as a result of microhabitat partitioning in adults. However, very few studies have tested this hypothesis. In neotropical forests, ithomiine butterflies dominate and display the richest diversity of mimicry rings. We show that co-mimetic species occupy the same larval host-plant species significantly more often than expected in two out of five communities that we surveyed; in one of these, the effect remains significant after phylogenetic correction. This relationship is most probably a result of a third correlated variable, such as microhabitat. Host-plant microhabitat may constrain adult movement, or host-plant choice may depend on butterfly microhabitat preferences and mimicry associations. This link between mimicry and host plant could help explain some host-plant and mimicry shifts, which have been important in the radiation of this speciose tropical group.

  18. Community and Virtual Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, David; Oldridge, Rachel; Vasconcelos, Ana

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to virtual communities: (1) information and virtual community; (2) virtual communities and communities of practice; (3) virtual communities and virtual arenas, including virtual community networks; and (4) networked virtual communities. (Contains 175 references.) (MES)

  19. Food selection in larval fruit flies: dynamics and effects on larval development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Sebastian; Durisko, Zachary; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-01-01

    Selecting food items and attaining a nutritionally balanced diet is an important challenge for all animals including humans. We aimed to establish fruit fly larvae ( Drosophila melanogaster) as a simple yet powerful model system for examining the mechanisms of specific hunger and diet selection. In two lab experiments with artificial diets, we found that larvae deprived of either sucrose or protein later selectively fed on a diet providing the missing nutrient. When allowed to freely move between two adjacent food patches, larvae surprisingly preferred to settle on one patch containing yeast and ignored the patch providing sucrose. Moreover, when allowed to move freely between three patches, which provided either yeast only, sucrose only or a balanced mixture of yeast and sucrose, the majority of larvae settled on the yeast-plus-sucrose patch and about one third chose to feed on the yeast only food. While protein (yeast) is essential for development, we also quantified larval success on diets with or without sucrose and show that larvae develop faster on diets containing sucrose. Our data suggest that fruit fly larvae can quickly assess major nutrients in food and seek a diet providing a missing nutrient. The larvae, however, probably prefer to quickly dig into a single food substrate for enhanced protection over achieving an optimal diet.

  20. Remotely Sensing Larval Population Dynamics of Rice Field Anophelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Louisa R.; Dister, Sheri W.; Wood, Byron L.; Washino, Robert K.

    1997-01-01

    The primary objective of both studies was to determine if RS and GIS techniques could be used to distinguish between high and low larval-producing rice fields in California. Results of the first study suggested that early-season green-up and proximity to livestock pastures were positively correlated with high larval abundance. Based on the early-season spectral differences between high and low larval-producing fields, it appeared that canopy development and tillering influenced mosquito habitat quality. At that time, rice fields consisted of a mixture of plants and water, a combination that allowed An. freeborni females to lay eggs in partial sunlight, protected from both predators and wind. This established a population earlier in the season than in other, 'less-green' fields where tillering and plant emergence was too minimal for ovipositioning. The study also indicated the importance of the distance that a mosquito would have to fly in order to take a bloodmeal prior to ovipositing. These associations were fully explored in an expanded study two years later. The second study confirmed the positive relationship between early season canopy development and larval abundance, and also demonstrated the relationship between abundance and distance-to-pasture. The association between greenness (as measured using NDVI), distance-to-pasture, and abundance is illustrated. The second study also indicated the siginificance of the landscape context of rice fields for larval production. Fields that included opportunities for feeding and resting within the flight range of the mosquito had higher abundances than did fields that were in a homogeneous rice area.

  1. Stretch-activated cation channel from larval bullfrog skin

    PubMed Central

    Hillyard, Stanley D.; Willumsen, Niels J.; Marrero, Mario B.

    2010-01-01

    Cell-attached patches from isolated epithelial cells from larval bullfrog skin revealed a cation channel that was activated by applying suction (−1 kPa to −4.5 kPa) to the pipette. Activation was characterized by an initial large current spike that rapidly attenuated to a stable value and showed a variable pattern of opening and closing with continuing suction. Current–voltage plots demonstrated linear or inward rectification and single channel conductances of 44–56 pS with NaCl or KCl Ringer's solution as the pipette solution, and a reversal potential (−Vp) of 20–40 mV. The conductance was markedly reduced with N-methyl-D-glucamide (NMDG)-Cl Ringer's solution in the pipette. Neither amiloride nor ATP, which are known to stimulate an apical cation channel in Ussing chamber preparations of larval frog skin, produced channel activation nor did these compounds affect the response to suction. Stretch activation was not affected by varying the pipette concentrations of Ca2+ between 0 mmol l−1 and 4 mmol l−1 or by varying pH between 6.8 and 8.0. However, conductance was reduced with 4 mmol l−1 Ca2+. Western blot analysis of membrane homogenates from larval bullfrog and larval toad skin identified proteins that were immunoreactive with mammalian TRPC1 and TRPC5 (TRPC, canonical transient receptor potential channel) antibodies while homogenates of skin from newly metamorphosed bullfrogs were positive for TRPC1 and TRPC3/6/7 antibodies. The electrophysiological response of larval bullfrog skin resembles that of a stretch-activated cation channel characterized in Xenopus oocytes and proposed to be TRPC1. These results indicate this channel persists in all life stages of anurans and that TRP isoforms may be important for sensory functions of their skin. PMID:20435829

  2. Using larval trematodes that parasitize snails to evaluate a saltmarsh restoration project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huspeni, Todd C.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2004-01-01

    We conducted a Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) study using larval digeneans infecting the California horn snail, Cerithidea californica, to evaluate the success of an ecological restoration project at Carpinteria Salt Marsh in California, USA. Digenean trematodes are parasites with complex life cycles requiring birds and other vertebrates as final hosts. We tested two hypotheses for prevalence and species richness of larval trematodes in C. californica: (1) prior to the restoration, sites to be restored would have lower trematode prevalence and species richness relative to unimpacted control sites, and (2) that these differences would diminish after restoration. The sites to be restored were initially degraded for trematode species. They had a mean trematode prevalence (12%) and species richness (4.5 species) that were lower than control sites (28% trematode prevalence and 7 species). Despite the differences in prevalence, the proportional representation of each trematode species in the total community was similar between sites to be restored and control sites. Over the six years following restoration, trematode prevalence nearly quadrupled at restored sites (43%) while the prevalence at control sites (26%) remained unchanged. In addition, species richness at restored sites doubled (9 species), while species richness at the control sites (7.8 species) did not change. Immediately after restoration, the relative abundance of trematode species using fishes as second intermediate hosts declined while those using molluscs as second intermediate hosts increased. Trematode communities at restored and control sites gradually returned to being similar. We interpret the increase in trematode prevalence and species richness at restored sites to be a direct consequence of changes in bird use of the restored habitat. This study demonstrates a new comparative technique for assessing wetlands, and while it does not supplant biotic surveys, it informs such taxonomic lists. Most

  3. Fitness consequences of larval exposure to Beauveria bassiana on adults of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Vogels, Chantal B F; Bukhari, Tullu; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M

    2014-06-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi have shown to be effective in biological control of both larval and adult stages of malaria mosquitoes. However, a small fraction of mosquitoes is still able to emerge after treatment with fungus during the larval stage. It remains unclear whether fitness of these adults is affected by the treatment during the larval stage and whether they are still susceptible for another treatment during the adult stage. Therefore, we tested the effects of larval exposure to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana on fitness of surviving Anopheles stephensi females. Furthermore, we tested whether larval exposed females were still susceptible to re-exposure to the fungus during the adult stage. Sex ratio, survival and reproductive success were compared between non-exposed and larval exposed A. stephensi. Comparisons were also made between survival of non-exposed and larval exposed females that were re-exposed to B. bassiana during the adult stage. Larval treatment did not affect sex ratio of emerging mosquitoes. Larval exposed females that were infected died significantly faster and laid equal numbers of eggs from which equal numbers of larvae hatched, compared to non-exposed females. Larval exposed females that were uninfected had equal survival, but laid a significantly larger number of eggs from which a significantly higher number of larvae hatched, compared to non-exposed females. Larval exposed females which were re-exposed to B. bassiana during the adult stage had equal survival as females exposed only during the adult stage. Our results suggest that individual consequences for fitness of larval exposed females depended on whether a fungal infection was acquired during the larval stage. Larval exposed females remained susceptible to re-exposure with B. bassiana during the adult stage, indicating that larval and adult control of malaria mosquitoes with EF are compatible.

  4. Linking River Morphology to Larval Drift of an Endangered Sturgeon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazzetta, L.; Jacobson, R. B.; Braaten, P. J.; Elliott, C. M.; Reuter, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    Computational models developed to calculate longitudinal advection and dispersion of contaminants in rivers have potential application in predicting larval drift. A critical component of this family of models is the longitudinal dispersion coefficient which parameterizes the processes that retain and distribute a contaminant along the river. Here we evaluate the potential for longitudinal dispersion coefficients to characterize larval drift of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in various segments of the free-flowing Missouri River ranging from Missouri to Montana. We randomly selected transects of acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) flow velocity data from reach-scale datasets that were collected in the Missouri River from 2002-2008 under comparable discharge conditions. We used previously developed equations (Kim and others, 2007) to calculate a one-dimensional longitudinal dispersion coefficient for each ADCP transect. We compared the statistical distributions of these coefficients for 2 to 6 reaches chosen from each of six geomorphic segments of the Missouri. Distributional patterns indicate that dispersion coefficients relate to observed variation in hydrology and geomorphology of the channel at the segment scale. Although one-dimensional dispersion analysis demonstrates potential as a tool for estimating pallid sturgeon larval drift and habitat suitability in unchannelized portions of the Missouri River, the large spatial variation in calculated dispersion coefficients resulting from river-training structures (wing dikes) in the Lower Missouri complicates selection of appropriate values. Recent data indicating that pallid sturgeon larvae occur in greater concentration in the thalweg indicate that the majority of larvae may bypass these structures and their associated retentive eddies. A two-dimensional space-averaged dispersion calculation and analysis may more accurately characterize the potential drift times and distances of larval

  5. Top-down control of mesozooplankton by adult Mnemiopsis leidyi influences microplankton abundance and composition enhancing prey conditions for larval ctenophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Marianne E.; Lonsdale, Darcy J.; Cerrato, Robert M.

    2013-11-01

    The ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi is a gelatinous predator capable of exerting strong regulatory control on the zooplankton community. Mnemiopsis populations are comprised of lobate adults and cydippid larvae. Since the larvae depend on microplankton for prey, its availability may determine the magnitude of larval survivorship and growth, and their subsequent recruitment into mesozooplankton-feeding adults. Ctenophore population data were used alongside mesozooplankton and microplankton abundances to interpret predatory impacts of M. leidyi in a Long Island, New York estuary over two years. Field data suggested significant top-down control of mesozooplankton and microplankton during peak abundances of adult and larval ctenophores, respectively. Abundances of dinoflagellates and ciliates declined by 45-56% and 83-97%, respectively, during highest larval abundances in 2008 and 2009. Furthermore, the dramatic reduction of mesozooplankton by adult M. leidyi resulted in a cascading effect on microplankton. A relationship between high adult M. leidyi/low mesozooplankton with high microplankton abundances was identified, and preceded an increase in ctenophore larvae. These data suggest that blooms of M. leidyi result in a direct feedback system, wherein intense feeding activity by adults on mesozooplankton releases certain microplanktonic taxa from predation pressure, enhancing prey conditions for larval ctenophores.

  6. Changes in lipid and fatty acid composition of late larval and puerulus stages of the spiny lobster (Panulirus cygnus) across the continental shelf of Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Bruce F; Jeffs, Andrew G; Melville-Smith, Roy; Chubb, Chris F; Nelson, Matthew M; Nichols, Peter D

    2006-02-01

    The feeding of the late larval stages of the spiny lobster, Panulirus cygnus, and the energy reserves used by the non-feeding post-larvae for crossing the continental shelf of Western Australia were examined through their lipid composition. Lipid was a significant component of the biomass of all larval and post-larval samples (range 63-213 mg g(-1) of dry biomass). The fatty acid profiles of late stage larvae (8-9) suggest that they were feeding on salps and small crustaceans, such as euphausids, from oligotrophic pelagic communities where herbivorous and microbial grazing is an important basis to the food web. There was a marked decrease in lipid content of post-larvae progressively across the continental shelf, and this corresponded closely with decreasing dry mass, suggesting that post-larvae were using lipid as an energy source during cross-shelf movement at a rate of 1.6 J km(-1). This is considerably lower than for other spiny lobster species, suggesting that the post-larvae of the western rock lobster may use physical processes as well as active swimming for onshore transport. This may help to explain the large inter-annual variability in the post-larval settlement of this species, which is closely related to differences in weather patterns capable of greatly varying onshore advection processes.

  7. Numerical simulations of barnacle larval dispersion coupled with field observations on larval abundance, settlement and recruitment in a tropical monsoon influenced coastal marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaonkar, Chetan A.; Samiksha, S. V.; George, Grinson; Aboobacker, V. M.; Vethamony, P.; Anil, Arga Chandrashekar

    2012-06-01

    Larval abundance in an area depends on various factors which operate over different spatial and temporal scales. Identifying the factors responsible for variations in larval supply and abundance is important to understand the settlement and recruitment variability of their population in a particular area. In view of this, observations were carried out to monitor the larval abundance, settlement and recruitment of barnacles on a regular basis for a period of two years. The results were then compared with the numerical modelling studies carried out along the west coast of India. Field observations of larval abundance showed temporal variations. The least abundance of larvae was mostly observed during the monsoon season and the peak in abundance was mostly observed during the pre-monsoon season. Numerical simulations also showed a seasonal change in larval dispersion and retention patterns. During pre-monsoon season the larval movement was mostly found towards south and the larvae released from the northern release sites contributed to larval abundance within the estuaries, whereas during the monsoon season the larval movement was mostly found towards north and the larvae released from southern release sites contributed to larval abundance within the estuary. During post-monsoon season, the larval movement was found towards the north in the beginning of the season and is shifted towards the south at the end of the season, but the movement was mostly restricted near to the release sites. Larval supply from the adjacent rocky sites to the estuaries was higher during the pre-monsoon season and the retention of larvae released from different sites within the estuaries was found to be highest during the late post-monsoon and early pre-monsoon season. Maximum larval supply and retention during the pre-monsoon season coincided with maximum larval abundance, settlement and recruitment of barnacles observed in the field studies. These observations showed that the pattern of

  8. Learning the specific quality of taste reinforcement in larval Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Schleyer, Michael; Miura, Daisuke; Tanimura, Teiichi; Gerber, Bertram

    2015-01-27

    The only property of reinforcement insects are commonly thought to learn about is its value. We show that larval Drosophila not only remember the value of reinforcement (How much?), but also its quality (What?). This is demonstrated both within the appetitive domain by using sugar vs amino acid as different reward qualities, and within the aversive domain by using bitter vs high-concentration salt as different qualities of punishment. From the available literature, such nuanced memories for the quality of reinforcement are unexpected and pose a challenge to present models of how insect memory is organized. Given that animals as simple as larval Drosophila, endowed with but 10,000 neurons, operate with both reinforcement value and quality, we suggest that both are fundamental aspects of mnemonic processing-in any brain.

  9. Learning the specific quality of taste reinforcement in larval Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Schleyer, Michael; Miura, Daisuke; Tanimura, Teiichi; Gerber, Bertram

    2015-01-01

    The only property of reinforcement insects are commonly thought to learn about is its value. We show that larval Drosophila not only remember the value of reinforcement (How much?), but also its quality (What?). This is demonstrated both within the appetitive domain by using sugar vs amino acid as different reward qualities, and within the aversive domain by using bitter vs high-concentration salt as different qualities of punishment. From the available literature, such nuanced memories for the quality of reinforcement are unexpected and pose a challenge to present models of how insect memory is organized. Given that animals as simple as larval Drosophila, endowed with but 10,000 neurons, operate with both reinforcement value and quality, we suggest that both are fundamental aspects of mnemonic processing—in any brain. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04711.001 PMID:25622533

  10. Social coercion of larval development in an ant species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villalta, Irene; Amor, Fernando; Cerdá, Xim; Boulay, Raphaël

    2016-04-01

    Ants provide one of the best examples of the division of labor in animal societies. While the queens reproduce, workers generally refrain from laying eggs and dedicate themselves exclusively to domestic tasks. In many species, the small diploid larvae are bipotent and can develop either into workers or queens depending mostly on environmental cues. This generates a conflicting situation between the adults that tend to rear a majority of larvae into workers and the larvae whose individual interest may be to develop into reproductive queens. We tested the social regulation of larval caste fate in the fission-performing ant Aphaenogaster senilis. We first observed interactions between resident workers and queen- and worker-destined larvae in presence/absence of the queen. The results show that workers tend to specifically eliminate queen-destined larvae when the queen is present but not when she is absent or imprisoned in a small cage allowing for volatile pheromone exchanges. In addition, we found that the presence of already developed queen-destined larvae does not inhibit the development of younger still bipotent larvae into queens. Finally, we analyzed the cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of queen- and worker-destined larvae and found no significant quantitative or qualitative difference. Interestingly, the total amount of hydrocarbons on both larval castes is extremely low, which lends credence on the chemical insignificance hypothesis of larval ants. Overall, our results suggest that workers control larval development and police larvae that would develop into queens instead of workers. Such policing behavior is similar in many aspects to what is known of worker policing among adults.

  11. Rapid Effects of Marine Reserves via Larval Dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Cudney-Bueno, Richard; Lavín, Miguel F.; Marinone, Silvio G.; Raimondi, Peter T.; Shaw, William W.

    2009-01-01

    Marine reserves have been advocated worldwide as conservation and fishery management tools. It is argued that they can protect ecosystems and also benefit fisheries via density-dependent spillover of adults and enhanced larval dispersal into fishing areas. However, while evidence has shown that marine reserves can meet conservation targets, their effects on fisheries are less understood. In particular, the basic question of if and over what temporal and spatial scales reserves can benefit fished populations via larval dispersal remains unanswered. We tested predictions of a larval transport model for a marine reserve network in the Gulf of California, Mexico, via field oceanography and repeated density counts of recently settled juvenile commercial mollusks before and after reserve establishment. We show that local retention of larvae within a reserve network can take place with enhanced, but spatially-explicit, recruitment to local fisheries. Enhancement occurred rapidly (2 yrs), with up to a three-fold increase in density of juveniles found in fished areas at the downstream edge of the reserve network, but other fishing areas within the network were unaffected. These findings were consistent with our model predictions. Our findings underscore the potential benefits of protecting larval sources and show that enhancement in recruitment can be manifested rapidly. However, benefits can be markedly variable within a local seascape. Hence, effects of marine reserve networks, positive or negative, may be overlooked when only focusing on overall responses and not considering finer spatially-explicit responses within a reserve network and its adjacent fishing grounds. Our results therefore call for future research on marine reserves that addresses this variability in order to help frame appropriate scenarios for the spatial management scales of interest. PMID:19129910

  12. Hydrodynamic starvation in first-feeding larval fishes

    PubMed Central

    China, Victor; Holzman, Roi

    2014-01-01

    Larval fishes suffer prodigious mortality rates, eliminating 99% of the brood within a few days after first feeding. Hjort (1914) famously attributed this “critical period” of low survival to the larvae’s inability to obtain sufficient food [Hjort (1914) Rapp P-v Réun Cons Int Explor Mer 20:1–228]. However, the cause of this poor feeding success remains to be identified. Here, we show that hydrodynamic constraints on the ubiquitous suction mechanism in first-feeding larvae limit their ability to capture prey, thereby reducing their feeding rates. Dynamic-scaling experiments revealed that larval size is the primary determinant of feeding rate, independent of other ontogenetic effects. We conclude that first-feeding larvae experience “hydrodynamic starvation,” in which low Reynolds numbers mechanistically limit their feeding performance even under high prey densities. Our results provide a hydrodynamic perspective on feeding of larval fishes that focuses on the physical properties of the larvae and prey, rather than on prey concentration and the rate of encounters. PMID:24843180

  13. Embryogenesis, hatching and larval development of Artemia during orbital spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Spooner, B S; DeBell, L; Armbrust, L; Guikema, J A; Metcalf, J; Paulsen, A

    1994-01-01

    Developmental biology studies, using gastrula-arrested cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana, were conducted during two flights of the space shuttle Atlantis (missions STS-37 and STS-43) in 1991. Dehydrated cysts were activated, on orbit, by addition of salt water to the cysts, and then development was terminated by the addition of fixative. Development took place in 5 ml syringes, connected by tubing to activation syringes, containing salt water, and termination syringes, containing fixative. Comparison of space results with simultaneous ground control experiments showed that equivalent percentages of naupliar larvae hatched in the syringes (40%). Thus, reactivation of development, completion of embryogenesis, emergence and hatching took place, during spaceflight, without recognizable alteration in numbers of larvae produced. Post-hatching larval development was studied in experiments where development was terminated, by introduction of fixative, 2 days, 4 days, and 8 days after reinitiation of development. During spaceflight, successive larval instars or stages, interrupted by molts, occurred, generating brine shrimp at appropriate larval instars. Naupliar larvae possessed the single naupliar eye, and development of the lateral pair of adult eyes also took place in space. Transmission electron microscopy revealed extensive differentiation, including skeletal muscle and gut endoderm, as well as the eye tissues. These studies demonstrate the potential value of Artemia for developmental biology studies during spaceflight, and show that extensive degrees of development can take place in this microgravity environment.

  14. Larval Connectivity in an Effective Network of Marine Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Mark R.; Tissot, Brian N.; Albins, Mark A.; Beets, James P.; Jia, Yanli; Ortiz, Delisse M.; Thompson, Stephen E.; Hixon, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Acceptance of marine protected areas (MPAs) as fishery and conservation tools has been hampered by lack of direct evidence that MPAs successfully seed unprotected areas with larvae of targeted species. For the first time, we present direct evidence of large-scale population connectivity within an existing and effective network of MPAs. A new parentage analysis identified four parent-offspring pairs from a large, exploited population of the coral-reef fish Zebrasoma flavescens in Hawai'i, revealing larval dispersal distances ranging from 15 to 184 km. In two cases, successful dispersal was from an MPA to unprotected sites. Given high adult abundances, the documentation of any parent-offspring pairs demonstrates that ecologically-relevant larval connectivity between reefs is substantial. All offspring settled at sites to the north of where they were spawned. Satellite altimetry and oceanographic models from relevant time periods indicated a cyclonic eddy that created prevailing northward currents between sites where parents and offspring were found. These findings empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of MPAs as useful conservation and management tools and further highlight the importance of coupling oceanographic, genetic, and ecological data to predict, validate and quantify larval connectivity among marine populations. PMID:21203576

  15. Larval defense against attack from parasitoid wasps requires nociceptive neurons.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Jessica L; Tsubouchi, Asako; Tracey, W Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Parasitoid wasps are a fierce predator of Drosophila larvae. Female Leptopilina boulardi (LB) wasps use a sharp ovipositor to inject eggs into the bodies of Drosophila melanogaster larvae. The wasp then eats the Drosophila larva alive from the inside, and an adult wasp ecloses from the Drosophila pupal case instead of a fly. However, the Drosophila larvae are not defenseless as they may resist the attack of the wasps through somatosensory-triggered behavioral responses. Here we describe the full range of behaviors performed by the larval prey in immediate response to attacks by the wasps. Our results suggest that Drosophila larvae primarily sense the wasps using their mechanosensory systems. The range of behavioral responses included both "gentle touch" like responses as well as nociceptive responses. We found that the precise larval response depended on both the somatotopic location of the attack, and whether or not the larval cuticle was successfully penetrated during the course of the attack. Interestingly, nociceptive responses are more likely to be triggered by attacks in which the cuticle had been successfully penetrated by the wasp. Finally, we found that the class IV neurons, which are necessary for mechanical nociception, were also necessary for a nociceptive response to wasp attacks. Thus, the class IV neurons allow for a nociceptive behavioral response to a naturally occurring predator of Drosophila.

  16. Embryogenesis, hatching and larval development of Artemia during orbital spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spooner, B. S.; Debell, L.; Armbrust, L.; Guikema, J. A.; Metcalf, J.; Paulsen, A.

    1994-08-01

    Developmental biology studies, using gastrula-arrested cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana, were conducted during two flights of the space shuttle Atlantis (missions STS-37 and STS-43) in 1991. Dehydrated cysts were activated, on orbit, by addition of salt water to the cysts, and then development was terminated by the addition of fixative. Development took place in 5 ml syringes, connected by tubing to activation syringes, containing salt water, and termination syringes, containing fixative. Comparison of space results with simultaneous ground control experiments showed that equivalent percentages of naupliar larvae hatched in the syringes (40%). Thus, reactivation of development, completion of embryogenesis, emergence and hatching took place, during spaceflight, without recognizable alteration in numbers of larvae produced. Post-hatching larval development was studied in experiments where development was terminated, by intrduction of fixative, 2 days, 4 days, and 8 days after reinitiation of development. During spaceflight, successive larval instars or stages, interrupted by molts, occurred, generating brine shrimp at appropriate larval instars. Naupliar larvae possessed the single naupliar eye, and development of the lateral pair of adult eyes also took place in space. Transmission electron microscopy revealed extensive differentiation, including skeletal muscle and gut endoderm, as well as the eye tissues. These studies demonstrate the potential value of Artemia for developmental biology studies during spaceflight, and show that extensive degress of development can take place in this microgravity environment.

  17. Embryogenesis, hatching and larval development of Artemia during orbital spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spooner, B. S.; Debell, L.; Armbrust, L.; Guikema, J. A.; Metcalf, J.; Paulsen, A.

    1994-01-01

    Developmental biology studies, using gastrula-arrested cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana, were conducted during two flights of the space shuttle Atlantis (missions STS-37 and STS-43) in 1991. Dehydrated cysts were activated, on orbit, by addition of salt water to the cysts, and then development was terminated by the addition of fixative. Development took place in 5 ml syringes, connected by tubing to activation syringes, containing salt water, and termination syringes, containing fixative. Comparison of space results with simultaneous ground control experiments showed that equivalent percentages of naupliar larvae hatched in the syringes (40%). Thus, reactivation of development, completion of embryogenesis, emergence and hatching took place, during spaceflight, without recognizable alteration in numbers of larvae produced. Post-hatching larval development was studied in experiments where development was terminated, by introduction of fixative, 2 days, 4 days, and 8 days after reinitiation of development. During spaceflight, successive larval instars or stages, interrupted by molts, occurred, generating brine shrimp at appropriate larval instars. Naupliar larvae possessed the single naupliar eye, and development of the lateral pair of adult eyes also took place in space. Transmission electron microscopy revealed extensive differentiation, including skeletal muscle and gut endoderm, as well as the eye tissues. These studies demonstrate the potential value of Artemia for developmental biology studies during spa ceflight, and show that extensive degrees of development can take place in this microgravity environment.

  18. A subset of interneurons required for Drosophila larval locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Shingo; Long, Hong; Thomas, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to define the neural circuits generating locomotor behavior have produced an initial understanding of some of the components within the spinal cord, as well as a basic understanding of several invertebrate motor pattern generators. However, how these circuits are assembled during development is poorly understood. We are defining the neural circuit that generates larval locomotion in the genetically tractable fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to study locomotor circuit development. Forward larval locomotion involves a stereotyped posterior-to-anterior segmental translocation of body wall muscle contraction and is generated by a relatively small number of identified muscles, motor and sensory neurons, plus an unknown number of the ~270 bilaterally-paired interneurons per segment of the 1st instar larva. To begin identifying the relevant interneurons, we have conditionally inactivated synaptic transmission of interneuron subsets and assayed for the effects on locomotion. From this screen we have identified a subset of 25 interneurons per hemisegment, called the lateral locomotor neurons (LLNs), that are required for locomotion. Both inactivation and constitutive activation of the LLNs disrupt locomotion, indicating that patterned output of the LLNs is required. By expressing a calcium indicator in the LLNs, we found that they display a posterior-to-anterior wave of activity within the CNS corresponding to the segmental translocation of the muscle contraction wave. Identification of the LLNs represents the first step toward elucidating the circuit generating larval locomotion. PMID:26621406

  19. Developmental inflexibility of larval tapeworms in response to resource variation.

    PubMed

    Benesh, Daniel P

    2010-03-15

    The timing of habitat switching in organisms with complex life cycles is an important life history characteristic that is often influenced by the larval growth environment. Under starvation, longer developmental times are frequently observed, probably as a consequence of developmental thresholds, but prolonged ontogeny sometimes also occurs under good conditions, as organisms may take advantage of the large potential gains in body size. I investigated whether variation in growth conditions affects the larval development time of a complex life cycle tapeworm (Schistocephalus solidus) in its copepod first host. Moreover, I reviewed patterns of developmental plasticity in larval tapeworms to assess the generality of my findings. Copepod starvation weakly retarded parasite growth but did not affect development. Worms grew bigger in larger copepods, but they developed at a similar rate in large and small hosts. Thus, S. solidus does not delay ontogeny under good conditions nor does it fail to reach a developmental threshold under poor conditions. Although unusual in comparison to free-living organisms, such inflexibility is common in tapeworms. Plasticity, namely prolonged ontogeny, has been mainly observed at high infection intensities. For S. solidus, there were large cross-environment genetic correlations for development, suggesting there may be genetic constraints on the evolution of developmental plasticity.

  20. Oceanography promotes self-recruitment in a planktonic larval disperser

    PubMed Central

    Teske, Peter R.; Sandoval-Castillo, Jonathan; van Sebille, Erik; Waters, Jonathan; Beheregaray, Luciano B.

    2016-01-01

    The application of high-resolution genetic data has revealed that oceanographic connectivity in marine species with planktonic larvae can be surprisingly limited, even in the absence of major barriers to dispersal. Australia’s southern coast represents a particularly interesting system for studying planktonic larval dispersal, as the hydrodynamic regime of the wide continental shelf has potential to facilitate onshore retention of larvae. We used a seascape genetics approach (the joint analysis of genetic data and oceanographic connectivity simulations) to assess population genetic structure and self-recruitment in a broadcast-spawning marine gastropod that exists as a single meta-population throughout its temperate Australian range. Levels of self-recruitment were surprisingly high, and oceanographic connectivity simulations indicated that this was a result of low-velocity nearshore currents promoting the retention of planktonic larvae in the vicinity of natal sites. Even though the model applied here is comparatively simple and assumes that the dispersal of planktonic larvae is passive, we find that oceanography alone is sufficient to explain the high levels of genetic structure and self-recruitment. Our study contributes to growing evidence that sophisticated larval behaviour is not a prerequisite for larval retention in the nearshore region in planktonic-developing species. PMID:27687507

  1. A subset of interneurons required for Drosophila larval locomotion.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Shingo; Long, Hong; Thomas, John B

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to define the neural circuits generating locomotor behavior have produced an initial understanding of some of the components within the spinal cord, as well as a basic understanding of several invertebrate motor pattern generators. However, how these circuits are assembled during development is poorly understood. We are defining the neural circuit that generates larval locomotion in the genetically tractable fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to study locomotor circuit development. Forward larval locomotion involves a stereotyped posterior-to-anterior segmental translocation of body wall muscle contraction and is generated by a relatively small number of identified muscles, motor and sensory neurons, plus an unknown number of the ~270 bilaterally-paired interneurons per segment of the 1st instar larva. To begin identifying the relevant interneurons, we have conditionally inactivated synaptic transmission of interneuron subsets and assayed for the effects on locomotion. From this screen we have identified a subset of 25 interneurons per hemisegment, called the lateral locomotor neurons (LLNs), that are required for locomotion. Both inactivation and constitutive activation of the LLNs disrupt locomotion, indicating that patterned output of the LLNs is required. By expressing a calcium indicator in the LLNs, we found that they display a posterior-to-anterior wave of activity within the CNS corresponding to the segmental translocation of the muscle contraction wave. Identification of the LLNs represents the first step toward elucidating the circuit generating larval locomotion.

  2. Structural and ultrastructural description of larval development in Zungaro jahu.

    PubMed

    Marques, Camila; Faustino, Francine; Bertolucci, Bruno; Paes, Maria do Carmo Faria; Valentin, Fernanda Nogueira; Nakaghi, Laura Satiko Okada

    2017-01-31

    The Zungaro jahu is an important large catfish of the order Siluriformes that is in danger of extinction due to habitat destruction. Studies on its biology are scarce and the majority relates only to nutrition or parasitology. In order to provide greater information on its morphology and aid husbandry and larviculture studies, the aim of this study was to characterize larval development in Z. jahu from hatching to total yolk absorption. Samples were collected at pre-established times, processed, stained, and analyzed under stereomicroscopy, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Total yolk absorption was observed by 60 hours post-hatching (hph) at 28.75 ± 0.59°C. The newly hatched larvae showed slightly pigmented body, the outline of the digestive tract, evident eyes, and the first swimming movements. Mouth opening took place at 12 hph and the connection between the oral cavity and the rudimentary intestine was observed at 24 hph. Were analyzed the main larval organs and systems: digestive organs, heart, gill arches, sensory system, thyroid, kidney, and swim bladder. As the larvae grew, these organs became more mature and functional. The development of the sensory and feeding structures was observed at the start of larval development, and thus before depletion of endogenous energy reserves, the strategy for this species is to increase its chances of survival in the environment.

  3. Chemical modulation of memory formation in larval zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Wolman, Marc A.; Jain, Roshan A.; Liss, Laura; Granato, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Whole organism–based small-molecule screens have proven powerful in identifying novel therapeutic chemicals, yet this approach has not been exploited to identify new cognitive enhancers. Here we present an automated high-throughput system for measuring nonassociative learning behaviors in larval zebrafish. Using this system, we report that spaced training blocks of repetitive visual stimuli elicit protein synthesis–dependent long-term habituation in larval zebrafish, lasting up to 24 h. Moreover, repetitive acoustic stimulation induces robust short-term habituation that can be modulated by stimulation frequency and instantaneously dishabituated through cross-modal stimulation. To characterize the neurochemical pathways underlying short-term habituation, we screened 1,760 bioactive compounds with known targets. Although we found extensive functional conservation of short-term learning between larval zebrafish and mammalian models, we also discovered several compounds with previously unknown roles in learning. These compounds included a myristic acid analog known to interact with Src family kinases and an inhibitor of cyclin dependent kinase 2, demonstrating that high-throughput chemical screens combined with high-resolution behavioral assays provide a powerful approach for the discovery of novel cognitive modulators. PMID:21876167

  4. Characterisation of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) larval habitats at ground level and temporal fluctuations of larval abundance in Córdoba, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Grech, Marta; Sartor, Paolo; Estallo, Elizabet; Ludueña-Almeida, Francisco; Almirón, Walter

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to characterise the ground-level larval habitats of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus, to determine the relationships between habitat characteristics and larval abundance and to examine seasonal larval-stage variations in Córdoba city. Every two weeks for two years, 15 larval habitats (natural and artificial water bodies, including shallow wells, drains, retention ponds, canals and ditches) were visited and sampled for larval mosquitoes. Data regarding the water depth, temperature and pH, permanence, the presence of aquatic vegetation and the density of collected mosquito larvae were recorded. Data on the average air temperatures and accumulated precipitation during the 15 days prior to each sampling date were also obtained. Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae were collected throughout the study period and were generally most abundant in the summer season. Generalised linear mixed models indicated the average air temperature and presence of dicotyledonous aquatic vegetation as variables that served as important predictors of larval densities. Additionally, permanent breeding sites supported high larval densities. In Córdoba city and possibly in other highly populated cities at the same latitude with the same environmental conditions, control programs should focus on permanent larval habitats with aquatic vegetation during the early spring, when the Cx. quinquefasciatus population begins to increase. PMID:24037200

  5. Exploration of the “larval pool”: development and ground-truthing of a larval transport model off leeward Hawai‘i

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Donald R.

    2016-01-01

    Most adult reef fish show site fidelity thus dispersal is limited to the mobile larval stage of the fish, and effective management of such species requires an understanding of the patterns of larval dispersal. In this study, we assess larval reef fish distributions in the waters west of the Big Island of Hawai‘i using both in situ and model data. Catches from Cobb midwater trawls off west Hawai‘i show that reef fish larvae are most numerous in offshore waters deeper than 3,000 m and consist largely of pre-settlement Pomacanthids, Acanthurids and Chaetodontids. Utilizing a Lagrangian larval dispersal model, we were able to replicate the observed shore fish distributions from the trawl data and we identified the 100 m depth strata as the most likely depth of occupancy. Additionally, our model showed that for larval shore fish with a pelagic larval duration longer than 40 days there was no significant change in settlement success in our model. By creating a general additive model (GAM) incorporating lunar phase and angle we were able to explain 67.5% of the variance between modeled and in situ Acanthurid abundances. We took steps towards creating a predictive larval distribution model that will greatly aid in understanding the spatiotemporal nature of the larval pool in west Hawai‘i, and the dispersal of larvae throughout the Hawaiian archipelago. PMID:26855873

  6. Evolution of increased adult longevity in Drosophila melanogaster populations selected for adaptation to larval crowding.

    PubMed

    Shenoi, V N; Ali, S Z; Prasad, N G

    2016-02-01

    In holometabolous animals such as Drosophila melanogaster, larval crowding can affect a wide range of larval and adult traits. Adults emerging from high larval density cultures have smaller body size and increased mean life span compared to flies emerging from low larval density cultures. Therefore, adaptation to larval crowding could potentially affect adult longevity as a correlated response. We addressed this issue by studying a set of large, outbred populations of D. melanogaster, experimentally evolved for adaptation to larval crowding for 83 generations. We assayed longevity of adult flies from both selected (MCUs) and control populations (MBs) after growing them at different larval densities. We found that MCUs have evolved increased mean longevity compared to MBs at all larval densities. The interaction between selection regime and larval density was not significant, indicating that the density dependence of mean longevity had not evolved in the MCU populations. The increase in longevity in MCUs can be partially attributed to their lower rates of ageing. It is also noteworthy that reaction norm of dry body weight, a trait probably under direct selection in our populations, has indeed evolved in MCU populations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the evolution of adult longevity as a correlated response of adaptation to larval crowding.

  7. Larval and Post-Larval Stages of Pacific Oyster (Crassostrea gigas) Are Resistant to Elevated CO2

    PubMed Central

    R, Dineshram; Dennis, Choi K. S.; Adela, Li J.; Yu, Ziniu; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen

    2013-01-01

    The average pH of surface oceans has decreased by 0.1 unit since industrialization and is expected to decrease by another 0.3–0.7 units before the year 2300 due to the absorption of anthropogenic CO2. This human-caused pH change is posing serious threats and challenges to the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas), especially to their larval stages. Our knowledge of the effect of reduced pH on C. gigas larvae presently relies presumptively on four short-term (<4 days) survival and growth studies. Using multiple physiological measurements and life stages, the effects of long-term (40 days) exposure to pH 8.1, 7.7 and 7.4 on larval shell growth, metamorphosis, respiration and filtration rates at the time of metamorphosis, along with the juvenile shell growth and structure of the C. gigas, were examined in this study. The mean survival and growth rates were not affected by pH. The metabolic, feeding and metamorphosis rates of pediveliger larvae were similar, between pH 8.1 and 7.7. The pediveligers at pH 7.4 showed reduced weight-specific metabolic and filtration rates, yet were able to sustain a more rapid post-settlement growth rate. However, no evidence suggested that low pH treatments resulted in alterations to the shell ultrastructures (SEM images) or elemental compositions (i.e., Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios). Thus, larval and post-larval forms of the C. gigas in the Yellow Sea are probably resistant to elevated CO2 and decreased near-future pH scenarios. The pre-adapted ability to resist a wide range of decreased pH may provide C. gigas with the necessary tolerance to withstand rapid pH changes over the coming century. PMID:23724027

  8. Larval and post-larval stages of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) are resistant to elevated CO2.

    PubMed

    Ginger, Ko W K; Vera, Chan B S; R, Dineshram; Dennis, Choi K S; Adela, Li J; Yu, Ziniu; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen

    2013-01-01

    The average pH of surface oceans has decreased by 0.1 unit since industrialization and is expected to decrease by another 0.3-0.7 units before the year 2300 due to the absorption of anthropogenic CO2. This human-caused pH change is posing serious threats and challenges to the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas), especially to their larval stages. Our knowledge of the effect of reduced pH on C. gigas larvae presently relies presumptively on four short-term (<4 days) survival and growth studies. Using multiple physiological measurements and life stages, the effects of long-term (40 days) exposure to pH 8.1, 7.7 and 7.4 on larval shell growth, metamorphosis, respiration and filtration rates at the time of metamorphosis, along with the juvenile shell growth and structure of the C. gigas, were examined in this study. The mean survival and growth rates were not affected by pH. The metabolic, feeding and metamorphosis rates of pediveliger larvae were similar, between pH 8.1 and 7.7. The pediveligers at pH 7.4 showed reduced weight-specific metabolic and filtration rates, yet were able to sustain a more rapid post-settlement growth rate. However, no evidence suggested that low pH treatments resulted in alterations to the shell ultrastructures (SEM images) or elemental compositions (i.e., Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios). Thus, larval and post-larval forms of the C. gigas in the Yellow Sea are probably resistant to elevated CO2 and decreased near-future pH scenarios. The pre-adapted ability to resist a wide range of decreased pH may provide C. gigas with the necessary tolerance to withstand rapid pH changes over the coming century.

  9. Climate change and decadal shifts in the phenology of larval fishes in the California Current ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Asch, Rebecca G

    2015-07-28

    Climate change has prompted an earlier arrival of spring in numerous ecosystems. It is uncertain whether such changes are occurring in Eastern Boundary Current Upwelling ecosystems, because these regions are subject to natural decadal climate variability, and regional climate models predict seasonal delays in upwelling. To answer this question, the phenology of 43 species of larval fishes was investigated between 1951 and 2008 off southern California. Ordination of the fish community showed earlier phenological progression in more recent years. Thirty-nine percent of seasonal peaks in larval abundance occurred earlier in the year, whereas 18% were delayed. The species whose phenology became earlier were characterized by an offshore, pelagic distribution, whereas species with delayed phenology were more likely to reside in coastal, demersal habitats. Phenological changes were more closely associated with a trend toward earlier warming of surface waters rather than decadal climate cycles, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and North Pacific Gyre Oscillation. Species with long-term advances and delays in phenology reacted similarly to warming at the interannual time scale as demonstrated by responses to the El Niño Southern Oscillation. The trend toward earlier spawning was correlated with changes in sea surface temperature (SST) and mesozooplankton displacement volume, but not coastal upwelling. SST and upwelling were correlated with delays in fish phenology. For species with 20th century advances in phenology, future projections indicate that current trends will continue unabated. The fate of species with delayed phenology is less clear due to differences between Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change models in projected upwelling trends.

  10. Climate change and decadal shifts in the phenology of larval fishes in the California Current ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Asch, Rebecca G.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change has prompted an earlier arrival of spring in numerous ecosystems. It is uncertain whether such changes are occurring in Eastern Boundary Current Upwelling ecosystems, because these regions are subject to natural decadal climate variability, and regional climate models predict seasonal delays in upwelling. To answer this question, the phenology of 43 species of larval fishes was investigated between 1951 and 2008 off southern California. Ordination of the fish community showed earlier phenological progression in more recent years. Thirty-nine percent of seasonal peaks in larval abundance occurred earlier in the year, whereas 18% were delayed. The species whose phenology became earlier were characterized by an offshore, pelagic distribution, whereas species with delayed phenology were more likely to reside in coastal, demersal habitats. Phenological changes were more closely associated with a trend toward earlier warming of surface waters rather than decadal climate cycles, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and North Pacific Gyre Oscillation. Species with long-term advances and delays in phenology reacted similarly to warming at the interannual time scale as demonstrated by responses to the El Niño Southern Oscillation. The trend toward earlier spawning was correlated with changes in sea surface temperature (SST) and mesozooplankton displacement volume, but not coastal upwelling. SST and upwelling were correlated with delays in fish phenology. For species with 20th century advances in phenology, future projections indicate that current trends will continue unabated. The fate of species with delayed phenology is less clear due to differences between Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change models in projected upwelling trends. PMID:26159416

  11. Different key roles of mesoscale oceanographic structures and ocean bathymetry in shaping larval fish distribution pattern: A case study in Sicilian waters in summer 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuttitta, Angela; Quinci, Enza Maria; Patti, Bernardo; Bonomo, Sergio; Bonanno, Angelo; Musco, Marianna; Torri, Marco; Placenti, Francesco; Basilone, Gualtiero; Genovese, Simona; Armeri, Grazia Maria; Spanò, Antonina; Arculeo, Marco; Mazzola, Antonio; Mazzola, Salvatore

    2016-09-01

    Fish larvae data collected in year 2009 were used to examine the effects of particular environmental conditions on the structure of larval assemblages in two oligotrophic Mediterranean areas (the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea and the Strait of Sicily). For this purpose, relationships with environmental variables (temperature, salinity and fluorescence), zooplankton biomass, water circulation and bathymetry are discussed. Hydrodynamic conditions resulted very differently between two study areas. The Southern Tyrrhenian Sea was characterized by moderate shallow circulation compared to the Strait of Sicily. In this framework, distribution pattern of larval density in the Tyrrhenian Sea was mainly driven by bathymetry, due to spawning behavior of adult fish. There, results defined four assemblages: two coastal assemblages dominated by pelagic and demersal families and two oceanic assemblages dominated by mesopelagic species more abundant in western offshore and less abundant in eastern offshore. The assemblage variations in the western side was related to the presence of an anti-cyclonic gyre in the northern side of the Gulf of Palermo, while in the eastern side the effect of circulation was not very strong and the environmental conditions rather than the dispersal of species determined the larval fish communities structure. Otherwise in the Strait of Sicily the currents were the main factor governing the concentration and the assemblage structure. In fact, the distribution of larvae was largely consistent with the branch of the Atlantic Ionian Stream (AIS). Moreover, very complex oceanographic structures (two cyclonic circulations in the western part of the study area and one anti-cyclonic circulation in the eastern part) caused the formation of uncommon spatial distribution of larval fish assemblages, only partially linked to bathymetry of the study area. Typically coastal larvae (pelagic families: Engraulidae and Clupeidae) were mostly concentrated in the offshore areas

  12. Expression and light-triggered movement of rhodopsins in the larval visual system of mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Manuel; Kimler, Kyle J.; Leming, Matthew T.; Hu, Xiaobang; Whaley, Michelle A.; O'Tousa, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT During the larval stages, the visual system of the mosquito Aedes aegypti contains five stemmata, often referred to as larval ocelli, positioned laterally on each side of the larval head. Here we show that stemmata contain two photoreceptor types, distinguished by the expression of different rhodopsins. The rhodopsin Aaop3 (GPROP3) is expressed in the majority of the larval photoreceptors. There are two small clusters of photoreceptors located within the satellite and central stemmata that express the rhodopsin Aaop7 (GPROP7) instead of Aaop3. Electroretinogram analysis of transgenic Aaop7 Drosophila indicates that Aaop3 and Aaop7, both classified as long-wavelength rhodopsins, possess similar but not identical spectral properties. Light triggers an extensive translocation of Aaop3 from the photosensitive rhabdoms to the cytoplasmic compartment, whereas light-driven translocation of Aaop7 is limited. The results suggest that these photoreceptor cell types play distinct roles in larval vision. An additional component of the larval visual system is the adult compound eye, which starts to develop at the anterior face of the larval stemmata during the 1st instar stage. The photoreceptors of the developing compound eye show rhodopsin expression during the 4th larval instar stage, consistent with indications from previous reports that the adult compound eye contributes to larval and pupal visual capabilities. PMID:25750414

  13. Location Isn’t Everything: Timing of Spawning Aggregations Optimizes Larval Replenishment

    PubMed Central

    Donahue, Megan J.; Karnauskas, Mandy; Toews, Carl; Paris, Claire B.

    2015-01-01

    Many species of reef fishes form large spawning aggregations that are highly predictable in space and time. Prior research has suggested that aggregating fish derive fitness benefits not just from mating at high density but, also, from oceanographic features of the spatial locations where aggregations occur. Using a probabilistic biophysical model of larval dispersal coupled to a fine resolution hydrodynamic model of the Florida Straits, we develop a stochastic landscape of larval fitness. Tracking virtual larvae from release to settlement and incorporating changes in larval behavior through ontogeny, we found that larval success was sensitive to the timing of spawning. Indeed, propagules released during the observed spawning period had higher larval success rates than those released outside the observed spawning period. In contrast, larval success rates were relatively insensitive to the spatial position of the release site. In addition, minimum (rather than mean) larval survival was maximized during the observed spawning period, indicating a reproductive strategy that minimizes the probability of recruitment failure. Given this landscape of larval fitness, we take an inverse optimization approach to define a biological objective function that reflects a tradeoff between the mean and variance of larval success in a temporally variable environment. Using this objective function, we suggest that the length of the spawning period can provide insight into the tradeoff between reproductive risk and reward. PMID:26103162

  14. Butterfly oviposition preference is not related to larval performance on a polyploid herb.

    PubMed

    König, Malin A E; Wiklund, Christer; Ehrlén, Johan

    2016-05-01

    The preference-performance hypothesis predicts that female insects maximize their fitness by utilizing host plants which are associated with high larval performance. Still, studies with several insect species have failed to find a positive correlation between oviposition preference and larval performance. In the present study, we experimentally investigated the relationship between oviposition preferences and larval performance in the butterfly Anthocharis cardamines. Preferences were assessed using both cage experiments and field data on the proportion of host plant individuals utilized in natural populations. Larval performance was experimentally investigated using larvae descending from 419 oviposition events by 21 females on plants from 51 populations of two ploidy types of the perennial herb Cardamine pratensis. Neither ploidy type nor population identity influenced egg survival or larval development, but increased plant inflorescence size resulted in a larger final larval size. There was no correlation between female oviposition preference and egg survival or larval development under controlled conditions. Moreover, variation in larval performance among populations under controlled conditions was not correlated with the proportion of host plants utilized in the field. Lastly, first instar larvae added to plants rejected for oviposition by butterfly females during the preference experiment performed equally well as larvae growing on plants chosen for oviposition. The lack of a correlation between larval performance and oviposition preference for A. cardamines under both experimental and natural settings suggests that female host choice does not maximize the fitness of the individual offspring.

  15. Larval descriptions of the family Porcellanidae: A worldwide annotated compilation of the literature (Crustacea, Decapoda)

    PubMed Central

    Vela, María José; González-Gordillo, Juan Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract For most of the family Porcellanidae, which comprises 283 species, larval development remains to be described. Full development has been only described for 52 species, while part of the larval cycle has been described for 45 species. The importance of knowing the complete larval development of a species goes beyond allowing the identification of larval specimens collected in the plankton. Morphological larval data also constitute a support to cladistic techniques used in the establishment of the phylogenetic status (see Hiller et al. 2006, Marco-Herrero et al. 2013). Nevertheless, the literature on the larval development of this family is old and widely dispersed and in many cases it is difficult to collect the available information on a particular taxon. Towards the aim of facilitating future research, all information available on the larval development of porcellanids has been compiled. Following the taxonomic checklist of Porcellanidae proposed by Osawa and McLaughlin (2010), a checklist has been prepared that reflects the current knowledge about larval development of the group including larval stages and the method used to obtain the larvae, together with references. Those species for which the recognised names have been changed according to Osawa and McLaughlin (2010) are indicated. PMID:27081332

  16. Spatial and temporal heterogeneity of Larval Shad in a large impoundment

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.S.; DeVries, D.R. )

    1993-11-01

    Factors that affect recruitment of threadfin shad Dorosoma petenense and gizzard shad D. cepedianum, two important prey species in southern reservoirs, are not well understood. Larval shad typically have not been identified to species, though interactions between shad larvae likely affect their recruitment and that of their predators. Using myomere counts to identify larval shad to species, the authors quantified spatial and temporal variation in species distributions in West Point Reservoir, Alabama-Georgia. They sampled larvae every 3-4 at three distances from shore (inshore and 25 and 50 m offshore) at each of three sites. Larval threadfin shad migrated offshore in all three sites, whereas larval gizzard shad were evenly distributed across distances from shore. Because of these movement differences, larval gizzard shad and larval threadfin shad may encounter different habitat-specific predation rates, climatic effects, and food availability. In addition, larval gizzard shad were present before larval threadfin shad and grew beyond the size vulnerable to our capture techniques before threadfin shad abundance peaked. If zooplankton densities are reduced by young-of-year shad, as documented in other systems, later-hatched threadfin shad would encounter fewer zooplankton than were available to the earlier larval gizzard shad. Threadfin shad would have reduced growth and greater vulnerability to predation and starvation. 36 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Expression and light-triggered movement of rhodopsins in the larval visual system of mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Manuel; Kimler, Kyle J; Leming, Matthew T; Hu, Xiaobang; Whaley, Michelle A; O'Tousa, Joseph E

    2015-05-01

    During the larval stages, the visual system of the mosquito Aedes aegypti contains five stemmata, often referred to as larval ocelli, positioned laterally on each side of the larval head. Here we show that stemmata contain two photoreceptor types, distinguished by the expression of different rhodopsins. The rhodopsin Aaop3 (GPROP3) is expressed in the majority of the larval photoreceptors. There are two small clusters of photoreceptors located within the satellite and central stemmata that express the rhodopsin Aaop7 (GPROP7) instead of Aaop3. Electroretinogram analysis of transgenic Aaop7 Drosophila indicates that Aaop3 and Aaop7, both classified as long-wavelength rhodopsins, possess similar but not identical spectral properties. Light triggers an extensive translocation of Aaop3 from the photosensitive rhabdoms to the cytoplasmic compartment, whereas light-driven translocation of Aaop7 is limited. The results suggest that these photoreceptor cell types play distinct roles in larval vision. An additional component of the larval visual system is the adult compound eye, which starts to develop at the anterior face of the larval stemmata during the 1st instar stage. The photoreceptors of the developing compound eye show rhodopsin expression during the 4th larval instar stage, consistent with indications from previous reports that the adult compound eye contributes to larval and pupal visual capabilities.

  18. Cardiorespiratory ontogeny and response to environmental hypoxia of larval spiny lobster, Sagmariasus verreauxi.

    PubMed

    Fitzgibbon, Quinn P; Ruff, Nicole; Battaglene, Stephen C

    2015-06-01

    Cardiorespiratory function is vital to an organism's ability to respond to environmental stress and analysis of cardiorespiratory capacity of species or life stages can elucidate vulnerability to climate change. Spiny lobsters have one of the most complex pelagic larval life cycles of any invertebrate and recently there has been an unexplained decline in post-larval recruitment for a number of species. We conducted the first analysis of the larval ontogeny of oxygen consumption, heart rate, maxilla 2 ventilation rate and oxyregulatory capacity of the spiny lobster, Sagmariasus verreauxi, to gain insight into their vulnerability to ocean change and to investigate life stage specific sensitivity to temperature-dependent oxygen limitation. In normoxia, heart and maxilla 2 ventilation rates increased in early larval development before declining, which we hypothesise is related to the transition from myogenic to neurogenic cardiac control. Maxilla 2 ventilation rate was sensitive to hypoxia at all larval stages, while heart rate was only sensitive to hypoxia in the late phyllosoma stages. Oxygen consumption conformed to environmental hypoxia at all larval stages. Spiny lobster larvae have limited respiratory control due to immature gas exchange physiology, compounded by their exceptionally large size. The lack of oxyregulatory ability suggests that all development stages are vulnerable to changes in sea temperature and oxygen availability. The synergetic stressors of increased temperature and reduced dissolved oxygen in the marine environment will diminish spiny lobster larval performance, increasing the challenge to achieve their extended larval life cycle, which may contribute to declines in post-larval recruitment.

  19. Location Isn't Everything: Timing of Spawning Aggregations Optimizes Larval Replenishment.

    PubMed

    Donahue, Megan J; Karnauskas, Mandy; Toews, Carl; Paris, Claire B

    2015-01-01

    Many species of reef fishes form large spawning aggregations that are highly predictable in space and time. Prior research has suggested that aggregating fish derive fitness benefits not just from mating at high density but, also, from oceanographic features of the spatial locations where aggregations occur. Using a probabilistic biophysical model of larval dispersal coupled to a fine resolution hydrodynamic model of the Florida Straits, we develop a stochastic landscape of larval fitness. Tracking virtual larvae from release to settlement and incorporating changes in larval behavior through ontogeny, we found that larval success was sensitive to the timing of spawning. Indeed, propagules released during the observed spawning period had higher larval success rates than those released outside the observed spawning period. In contrast, larval success rates were relatively insensitive to the spatial position of the release site. In addition, minimum (rather than mean) larval survival was maximized during the observed spawning period, indicating a reproductive strategy that minimizes the probability of recruitment failure. Given this landscape of larval fitness, we take an inverse optimization approach to define a biological objective function that reflects a tradeoff between the mean and variance of larval success in a temporally variable environment. Using this objective function, we suggest that the length of the spawning period can provide insight into the tradeoff between reproductive risk and reward.

  20. Ocean acidification alters temperature and salinity preferences in larval fish.

    PubMed

    Pistevos, Jennifer C A; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Rossi, Tullio; Connell, Sean D

    2017-02-01

    Ocean acidification alters the way in which animals perceive and respond to their world by affecting a variety of senses such as audition, olfaction, vision and pH sensing. Marine species rely on other senses as well, but we know little of how these might be affected by ocean acidification. We tested whether ocean acidification can alter the preference for physicochemical cues used for dispersal between ocean and estuarine environments. We experimentally assessed the behavioural response of a larval fish (Lates calcarifer) to elevated temperature and reduced salinity, including estuarine water of multiple cues for detecting settlement habitat. Larval fish raised under elevated CO2 concentrations were attracted by warmer water, but temperature had no effect on fish raised in contemporary CO2 concentrations. In contrast, contemporary larvae were deterred by lower salinity water, where CO2-treated fish showed no such response. Natural estuarine water-of higher temperature, lower salinity, and containing estuarine olfactory cues-was only preferred by fish treated under forecasted high CO2 conditions. We show for the first time that attraction by larval fish towards physicochemical cues can be altered by ocean acidification. Such alterations to perception and evaluation of environmental cues during the critical process of dispersal can potentially have implications for ensuing recruitment and population replenishment. Our study not only shows that freshwater species that spend part of their life cycle in the ocean might also be affected by ocean acidification, but that behavioural responses towards key physicochemical cues can also be negated through elevated CO2 from human emissions.

  1. Integrin adhesions suppress syncytium formation in the Drosophila larval epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Antunes, Marco; Anderson, Aimee E.; Kadrmas, Julie L.; Jacinto, Antonio; Galko, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Integrins are critical for barrier epithelial architecture. Integrin loss in vertebrate skin leads to blistering and wound healing defects. However, how Integrins and associated proteins maintain the regular morphology of epithelia is not well understood. We found that targeted knockdown of the integrin focal adhesion (FA) complex components βIntegrin, PINCH, and Integrin-linked kinase (ILK), caused formation of multinucleate epidermal cells within the Drosophila larval epidermis. This phenotype was specific to the Integrin FA complex and not due to secondary effects on polarity or junctional structures. The multinucleate cells resembled the syncytia caused by physical wounding. Live imaging of wound-induced syncytium formation in the pupal epidermis suggested direct membrane breakdown leading to cell-cell fusion and consequent mixing of cytoplasmic contents. Activation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling, which occurs upon wounding, also correlated with syncytium formation induced by PINCH knockdown. Further, ectopic JNK activation directly caused epidermal syncytium formation. No mode of syncytium formation including that induced by wounding, genetic loss-of FA-proteins, or local JNK hyperactivation, involved misregulation of mitosis or apoptosis. Finally, the mechanism of epidermal syncytium formation following JNK hyperactivation and wounding appeared to be direct disassembly of FA complexes. In conclusion, the loss of function phenotype of Integrin FA components in the larval epidermis resembles a wound. Integrin FA loss in mouse and human skin also causes a wound-like appearance. Our results reveal a novel and unexpected role for proper Integrin-based adhesion in suppressing larval epidermal cell-cell fusion– a role that may be conserved in other epithelia. PMID:26255846

  2. Rising CO2 concentrations affect settlement behaviour of larval damselfishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devine, B. M.; Munday, P. L.; Jones, G. P.

    2012-03-01

    Reef fish larvae actively select preferred benthic habitat, relying on olfactory, visual and acoustic cues to discriminate between microhabitats at settlement. Recent studies show exposure to elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) impairs olfactory cue recognition in larval reef fishes. However, whether this alters the behaviour of settling fish or disrupts habitat selection is unknown. Here, the effect of elevated CO2 on larval behaviour and habitat selection at settlement was tested in three species of damselfishes (family Pomacentridae) that differ in their pattern of habitat use: Pomacentrus amboinensis (a habitat generalist), Pomacentrus chrysurus (a rubble specialist) and Pomacentrus moluccensis (a live coral specialist). Settlement-stage larvae were exposed to current-day CO2 levels or CO2 concentrations that could occur by 2100 (700 and 850 ppm) based on IPCC emission scenarios. First, pair-wise choice tests were performed using a two-channel flume chamber to test olfactory discrimination between hard coral, soft coral and coral rubble habitats. The habitat selected by settling fish was then compared among treatments using a multi-choice settlement experiment conducted overnight. Finally, settlement timing between treatments was compared across two lunar cycles for one of the species, P. chrysurus. Exposure to elevated CO2 disrupted the ability of larvae to discriminate between habitat odours in olfactory trials. However, this had no effect on the habitats selected at settlement when all sensory cues were available. The timing of settlement was dramatically altered by CO2 exposure, with control fish exhibiting peak settlement around the new moon, whereas fish exposed to 850 ppm CO2 displaying highest settlement rates around the full moon. These results suggest larvae can rely on other sensory information, such as visual cues, to compensate for impaired olfactory ability when selecting settlement habitat at small spatial scales. However, rising CO2 could cause larvae

  3. The use of immunostimulants in fish larval aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Bricknell, Ian; Dalmo, Roy A

    2005-11-01

    The production of fish larvae is often hampered by high mortality rates, and it is believed that most of this economic loss due to infectious diseases is ca. 10% in Western European aquaculture sector. The development of strategies to control the pathogen load and immuno-prophylactic measures must be addressed further to realise the economic "potential" production of marine fish larvae and thus improve the overall production of adult fish. The innate defence includes both humoral and cellular defence mechanisms such as the complement system and the processes played by granulocytes and macrophages. A set of different substances such as beta-glucans, bacterial products, and plant constituents may directly initiate activation of the innate defence mechanisms acting on receptors and triggering intracellular gene activation that may result in production of anti-microbial molecules. These immunostimulants are often obtained from bacterial sources, brown or red algae and terrestrial fungi are also exploited as source of novel potentiating substances. The use of immunostimulants, as dietary supplements, can improve the innate defence of animals providing resistance to pathogens during periods of high stress, such as grading, reproduction, sea transfer and vaccination. The immunomodulation of larval fish has been proposed as a potential method for improving larval survival by increasing the innate responses of the developing animals until its adaptive immune response is sufficiently developed to mount an effective response to the pathogen. To this end it has been proposed that the delivery of immunostimulants as a dietary supplement to larval fish could be of considerable benefit in boosting the animals innate defences with little detriment to the developing animal. Conversely, there is a school of thought that raises the concern of immunomodulating a neotanous animal before its immune system is fully formed as this may adversely affect the development of a normal immune

  4. Environmentally relevant concentrations of microplastic particles influence larval fish ecology.

    PubMed

    Lönnstedt, Oona M; Eklöv, Peter

    2016-06-03

    The widespread occurrence and accumulation of plastic waste in the environment have become a growing global concern over the past decade. Although some marine organisms have been shown to ingest plastic, few studies have investigated the ecological effects of plastic waste on animals. Here we show that exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of microplastic polystyrene particles (90 micrometers) inhibits hatching, decreases growth rates, and alters feeding preferences and innate behaviors of European perch (Perca fluviatilis) larvae. Furthermore, individuals exposed to microplastics do not respond to olfactory threat cues, which greatly increases predator-induced mortality rates. Our results demonstrate that microplastic particles operate both chemically and physically on larval fish performance and development.

  5. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Larval and juvenile red drum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckley, Jack

    1984-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a habitat model for larval and juvenile red drum. The model is scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for estuarine areas along the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coasts. Habitat suitability indices are designed for use with habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Guidelines for model application and techniques for estimating model variables are provided.

  6. Predictability of littoral-zone fish communities through ontogeny in Lake Texoma, Oklahoma-Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eggleton, M.A.; Ramirez, R.; Hargrave, C.W.; Gido, K.B.; Masoner, J.R.; Schnell, G.D.; Matthews, W.J.

    2005-01-01

    We sampled larval, juvenile and adult fishes from littoral-zone areas of a large reservoir (Lake Texoma, Oklahoma-Texas) (1) to characterize environmental factors that influenced fish community structure, (2) to examine how consistent fish-environment relationships were through ontogeny (i.e., larval vs. juvenile and adult), and (3) to measure the concordance of larval communities sampled during spring to juvenile and adult communities sampled at the same sites later in the year. Larval, juvenile and adult fish communities were dominated by Atherinidae (mainly inland silverside, Menidia beryllina) and Moronidae (mainly juvenile striped bass, Morone saxatilis) and were consistently structured along a gradient of site exposure to prevailing winds and waves. Larval, juvenile and adult communities along this gradient varied from atherinids and moronids at highly exposed sites to mostly centrarchids (primarily Lepomis and Micropterus spp.) at protected sites. Secondarily, zooplankton densities, water clarity, and land-use characteristics were related to fish community structure. Rank correlation analyses and Mantel tests indicated that the spatial consistency and predictability of fish communities was high as larval fishes sampled during spring were concordant with juvenile and adult fishes sampled at the same sites during summer and fall in terms of abundance, richness, and community structure. We propose that the high predictability and spatial consistency of littoral-zone fishes in Lake Texoma was a function of relatively simple communities (dominated by 1-2 species) that were structured by factors, such as site exposure to winds and waves, that varied little through time. ?? Springer 2005.

  7. Spatial variation in larval concentrations as a cause of spatial variation in settlement for the barnacle, Balanus glandula.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Steven; Brown, Stephen; Roughgarden, Jonathan

    1985-09-01

    Settlement rates of the high intertidal barnacle, Balanus glandula, were monitored at three sites in the rocky intertidal zone in Central California simultaneously with measurements of larval concentrations in the adjacent water column. In both 1983 and 1984, settlement rates onto vacant substrate differed among the sites by nearly two orders of magnitude. For all sampling dates, this spatial variation in settlement mirrored the spatial distribution of Balanus glandula cyprid concentration in the water column. A perfect rank correlation was found between cyprid concentrations near a site and subsequent settlement. A noteworthy observation was that the sites switched rank in their settlement rates from 1983 to 1984. This change in settlement rankings matched a switch in rankings for cyprid concentrations.Settlement itself appears to be an important cause of the spatial pattern of cyprid concentrations. Comparing the rates of settlement to estimates of the number of cyprids available at a site suggests that settlement causes a large drain on the cyprid population as a water mass passes over successive sites. No consistent spatial patterns were found in the distribution of other major plankton groups (calanoid copepods) that are similar in size to Balanus cyprids but do not settle.The large differences in settlement rates among these sites were previously shown to be a leading cause of large differences in the structure of benthic barnacle populations. The close correspondence shown here between these large differences in settlement and differences in larval concentrations suggests that nearshore oceanic processes affecting larval arrival contribute to the control of benthic community structure.

  8. Effect of Larval Density on Food Utilization Efficiency of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Morales-Ramos, Juan A; Rojas, M Guadalupe

    2015-10-01

    Crowding conditions of larvae may have a significant impact on commercial production efficiency of some insects, such as Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Although larval densities are known to affect developmental time and growth in T. molitor, no reports were found on the effects of crowding on food utilization. The effect of larval density on food utilization efficiency of T. molitor larvae was studied by measuring efficiency of ingested food conversion (ECI), efficiency of digested food conversion (EDC), and mg of larval weight gain per gram of food consumed (LWGpFC) at increasing larval densities (12, 24, 36, 48, 50, 62, 74, and 96 larvae per dm(2)) over four consecutive 3-wk periods. Individual larval weight gain and food consumption were negatively impacted by larval density. Similarly, ECI, ECD, and LWGpFC were negatively impacted by larval density. Larval ageing, measured as four consecutive 3-wk periods, significantly and independently impacted ECI, ECD, and LWGpFC in a negative way. General linear model analysis showed that age had a higher impact than density on food utilization parameters of T. molitor larvae. Larval growth was determined to be responsible for the age effects, as measurements of larval mass density (in grams of larvae per dm(2)) had a significant impact on food utilization parameters across ages and density treatments (in number of larvae per dm(2)). The importance of mass versus numbers per unit of area as measurements of larval density and the implications of negative effects of density on food utilization for insect biomass production are discussed.

  9. Development of the larval amphibian growth and development ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Larval Amphibian Growth and Development Assay (LAGDA) is a globally harmonized chemical testing guideline developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in collaboration with Japan’s Ministry of Environment to support risk assessment. The assay is employed as a higher tiered approach to evaluate effects of chronic chemical exposure throughout multiple life stages in model amphibian species Xenopus laevis. To evaluate the utility of the initial LAGDA design, the assay was performed using a mixed mode of action endocrine disrupting chemical, benzophenone-2 (BP-2). X. laevis embryos were exposed in flow-through conditions to 0, 1.5, 3.0 or 6.0 mg/L BP-2 until two months post-metamorphosis. Overt toxicity was evident throughout the exposure period in the 6.0 mg/L treatment due to elevated mortality rates and observed liver and kidney pathologies. Concentration-dependent increases in severity of thyroid follicular cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia occurred in larval tadpoles indicating BP-2-induced impacts on the thyroid axis. Additionally, gonads were impacted in all treatments with some genotypic males showing both testis and ovary tissues (1.5 mg/L) and 100% of the genotypic males in the higher treatments (3.0 and 6.0 mg/L) experiencing complete male-to-female sex reversal. Concentration-dependent vitellogenin (Vtg) induction occurred in both genders with associated accumulations of protein in the livers, kidneys and gonads, which was likely Vtg

  10. Hookworm (Necator americanus) larval enzymes disrupt human vascular endothelium.

    PubMed

    Souadkia, Nahed; Brown, Alan; Leach, Lopa; Pritchard, David I

    2010-09-01

    Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms used by Necator americanus larvae to penetrate the human skin and the vasculature would aid the development of effective vaccines against this important pathogen. In this work, the impact of N. americanus exsheathing fluid (EF) and excretory/secretory products (ES) on the endothelial barrier was examined using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Cellular responses were assessed by investigating molecular changes at cell-cell junctions and by determining levels of secreted IL-6, IL-8, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the culture medium. It would appear that a repertoire of larval proteases caused a dose-related increase in endothelial permeability as characterized by a decrease in monolayer resistance with increased permeation of tracer-albumin. These barrier changes were associated with disruption of junctional vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) and F-actin and an increase in endothelial secretion of IL-6 and IL-8. Our data suggest that larval proteases play an important role in negotiating the endothelium.

  11. Larval habitats of mosquito fauna in Osogbo metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adeleke, Monsuru Adebayo; Adebimpe, Wasiu Olalekan; Hassan, AbdulWasiu Oladele; Oladejo, Sunday Olukayode; Olaoye, Ismail; Olatunde, Ganiyu Olatunji; Adewole, Taiwo

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the larval habitats of mosquito fauna and possible impact of land use/ land cover changes on the epidemiology of mosquito-borne diseases in Osogbo metropolis, Southwestern, Nigeria. Methods All accessible larval habitats were surveyed between May and September, 2011 in Osogbo metropolis while Land Use/ Land cover of the city was analyzed using 2 Lansat Multispectral Scanner satellite imagery of SPOT 1986 and LANDSAT TM 2009. Results A total of six species namely, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Aedes vittatus, Anopheles gambiae complex, Culex quinquefasciatus and Eretmapodite chrysogaster were encountered during the study. The occurrence and contribution of disused tyres was significantly higher (P<0.05) than the other habitats encountered, while there were no significant differences in the contribution of gutters/run-offs, septic tanks/ drums, ground pools/open drains and discarded containers to the breeding of mosquitoes (P>0.05). The accessible land use/ land covered of the study area between 1986 and 2009 showed that the wet land coverage and settlement area increased from 0.19 to 9.09 hectare and 1.00 to 2.01 hectare respectively while the forest area decreased from 60.18 to 50.14 hectare. Conclusion The contribution of the habitats coupled with the increasing rate of flooded environment which could provide ample breeding sites for mosquitoes call for sustained environmental sanitation and management in Osogbo metropolis. PMID:23998005

  12. Standardized Laboratory Feeding of Larval Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Bock, Friederike; Kuch, Ulrich; Pfenninger, Markus; Müller, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The Asian bush mosquito (Aedes japonicus japonicus, Theobald 1901) is an invasive culicid species which originates in Asia but is nowadays present in northern America and Europe. It is a competent vector for several human disease pathogens. In addition to the public health threat, this invasive species may also be an ecological threat for native container-breeding mosquitoes which share a similar larval habitat. Therefore, it is of importance to gain knowledge on ecological and eco-toxicological features of the Asian bush mosquito. However, optimal laboratory feeding conditions have not yet been established. Standardized feeding methods will be needed in assessing the impact of insecticides or competitional strength of this species. To fill this gap, we performed experiments on food quality and quantity for Ae. j. japonicus larvae. We found out that the commercial fish food TetraMin (Tetra, Melle, Germany) in a dose of 10 mg per larva is the most suitable food tested. We also suggest a protocol with a feeding sequence of seven portions for all larval stages of this species.

  13. The larval alimentary canal of the Antarctic insect, Belgica antarctica.

    PubMed

    Nardi, James B; Miller, Lou Ann; Bee, Charles Mark; Lee, Richard E; Denlinger, David L

    2009-09-01

    On the Antarctica continent the wingless midge, Belgica antarctica (Diptera, Chironomidae) occurs further south than any other insect. The digestive tract of the larval stage of Belgica that inhabits this extreme environment and feeds in detritus of penguin rookeries has been described for the first time. Ingested food passes through a foregut lumen and into a stomodeal valve representing an intussusception of the foregut into the midgut. A sharp discontinuity in microvillar length occurs at an interface separating relatively long microvilli of the stomodeal midgut region, the site where peritrophic membrane originates, from the midgut epithelium lying posterior to this stomodeal region. Although shapes of cells along the length of this non-stomodeal midgut epithelium are similar, the lengths of their microvilli increase over two orders of magnitude from anterior midgut to posterior midgut. Infoldings of the basal membranes also account for a greatly expanded interface between midgut cells and the hemocoel. The epithelial cells of the hindgut seem to be specialized for exchange of water with their environment, with the anterior two-thirds of the hindgut showing highly convoluted luminal membranes and the posterior third having a highly convoluted basal surface. The lumen of the middle third of the hindgut has a dense population of resident bacteria. Regenerative cells are scattered throughout the larval midgut epithelium. These presumably represent stem cells for the adult midgut, while a ring of cells, marked by a discontinuity in nuclear size at the midgut-hindgut interface, presumably represents stem cells for the adult hindgut.

  14. Maternal cortisol stimulates neurogenesis and affects larval behaviour in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Best, Carol; Kurrasch, Deborah M.; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2017-01-01

    Excess glucocorticoid transferred from stressed mother to the embryo affects developing vertebrate offspring, but the underlying programming events are unclear. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that increased zygotic glucocorticoid deposition, mimicking a maternal stress scenario, modifies early brain development and larval behaviour in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Cortisol was microinjected into the yolk at one cell-stage, to mimic maternal transfer, and the larvae [96 hours post-fertilization (hpf)] displayed increased activity in light and a reduction in thigmotaxis, a behavioural model for anxiety, suggesting an increased propensity for boldness. This cortisol-mediated behavioural phenotype corresponded with an increase in primary neurogenesis, as measured by incorporation of EdU at 24 hpf, in a region-specific manner in the preoptic region and the pallium, the teleostean homolog of the hippocampus. Also, cortisol increased the expression of the proneural gene neurod4, a marker of neurogenesis, in a region- and development-specific manner in the embryos. Altogether, excess zygotic cortisol, mimicking maternal stress, affects early brain development and behavioural phenotype in larval zebrafish. We propose a key role for cortisol in altering brain development leading to enhanced boldness, which may be beneficial in preparing the offspring to a stressful environment and enhancing fitness. PMID:28098234

  15. Neuronal development in larval chiton Ischnochiton hakodadensis (Mollusca: Polyplacophora).

    PubMed

    Voronezhskaya, Elena E; Tyurin, Sergei A; Nezlin, Leonid P

    2002-02-25

    Chitons are the most primitive molluscs and, thus, a matter of considerable interest for understanding both basic principles of molluscan neurogenesis and phylogeny. The development of the nervous system in trochophores of the chiton Ischnochiton hakodadensis from hatching to metamorphosis is described in detail by using confocal laser scanning microscopy and antibodies raised against serotonin, FMRFamide, and acetylated alpha tubulin. The earliest nervous elements detected were peripheral neurons located in the frontal hemisphere of posthatching trochophores and projecting into the apical organ. Among them, two pairs of unique large lateral cells appear to pioneer the pathways of developing adult nervous system. Chitons possess an apical organ that contains the largest number of neurons among all molluscan larvae investigated so far. Besides, many pretrochal neurons are situated outside the apical organ. The prototroch is not innervated by larval neurons. The first neurons of the developing adult central nervous system (CNS) appear later in the cerebral ganglion and pedal cords. None of the neurons of the larval nervous system are retained in the adult CNS. They cease to express their transmitter content and disintegrate after settlement. Although the adult CNS of chitons resembles that of polychaetes, their general scenario of neuronal development resembles that of advanced molluscs and differs from annelids. Thus, our data demonstrate the conservative pattern of molluscan neurogenesis and suggest independent origin of molluscan and annelid trochophores.

  16. Chemical mediation of coral larval settlement by crustose coralline algae

    PubMed Central

    Tebben, J.; Motti, C. A; Siboni, Nahshon; Tapiolas, D. M.; Negri, A. P.; Schupp, P. J.; Kitamura, Makoto; Hatta, Masayuki; Steinberg, P. D.; Harder, T.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of marine invertebrates produce dispersive larvae which, in order to complete their life cycles, must attach and metamorphose into benthic forms. This process, collectively referred to as settlement, is often guided by habitat-specific cues. While the sources of such cues are well known, the links between their biological activity, chemical identity, presence and quantification in situ are largely missing. Previous work on coral larval settlement in vitro has shown widespread induction by crustose coralline algae (CCA) and in particular their associated bacteria. However, we found that bacterial biofilms on CCA did not initiate ecologically realistic settlement responses in larvae of 11 hard coral species from Australia, Guam, Singapore and Japan. We instead found that algal chemical cues induce identical behavioral responses of larvae as per live CCA. We identified two classes of CCA cell wall-associated compounds – glycoglycerolipids and polysaccharides – as the main constituents of settlement inducing fractions. These algae-derived fractions induce settlement and metamorphosis at equivalent concentrations as present in CCA, both in small scale laboratory assays and under flow-through conditions, suggesting their ability to act in an ecologically relevant fashion to steer larval settlement of corals. Both compound classes were readily detected in natural samples. PMID:26042834

  17. Resource Limitation, Controphic Ostracod Density and Larval Mosquito Development

    PubMed Central

    Rowbottom, Raylea; Carver, Scott; Barmuta, Leon A.; Weinstein, Philip; Foo, Dahlia; Allen, Geoff R.

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic environments can be restricted with the amount of available food resources especially with changes to both abiotic and biotic conditions. Mosquito larvae, in particular, are sensitive to changes in food resources. Resource limitation through inter-, and intra-specific competition among mosquitoes are known to affect both their development and survival. However, much less is understood about the effects of non-culicid controphic competitors (species that share the same trophic level). To address this knowledge gap, we investigated and compared mosquito larval development, survival and adult size in two experiments, one with different densities of non-culicid controphic conditions and the other with altered resource conditions. We used Aedes camptorhynchus, a salt marsh breeding mosquito and a prominent vector for Ross River virus in Australia. Aedes camptorhynchus usually has few competitors due to its halo-tolerance and distribution in salt marshes. However, sympatric ostracod micro-crustaceans often co-occur within these salt marshes and can be found in dense populations, with field evidence suggesting exploitative competition for resources. Our experiments demonstrate resource limiting conditions caused significant increases in mosquito developmental times, decreased adult survival and decreased adult size. Overall, non-culicid exploitation experiments showed little effect on larval development and survival, but similar effects on adult size. We suggest that the alterations of adult traits owing to non-culicid controphic competition has potential to extend to vector-borne disease transmission. PMID:26558896

  18. Proteomic analysis through larval development of Solea senegalensis flatfish.

    PubMed

    Chicano-Gálvez, Eduardo; Asensio, Esther; Cañavate, José Pedro; Alhama, José; López-Barea, Juan

    2015-12-01

    The post-embryonic development of the Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis, a flatfish of growing interest in fisheries and aquaculture, is associated with drastic morpho-physiological changes during metamorphosis. Although in the last two decades knowledge on sole culture has notably increased, especially in Southern Europe, its progress was restricted due to lack of methods to control reproduction, improve larval quality and increase juvenile disease resistance. A limited knowledge of the physiological, molecular and genetic mechanisms involved is at the base of such limitation. A proteomic study was carried out to explore the molecular events that occur during S. senegalensis ontogenesis. Protein expression changes were monitored in larvae from 5 to 21 dph by combining 2DE and protein identification with de novo MS/MS sequencing. An average of 6177 ± 282 spots was resolved in 2DE gels. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the 705 selected spots grouped them in eight patterns. Thirty-four proteins were identified and assigned biological functions including structure, metabolism highlighting energy metabolism, transport, protein folding, stress response, chromatin organization and regulation of gene expression. These changes provide a sequential description of the molecular events associated with the biochemical and biological transformations that occur during sole larval development.

  19. Chemical mediation of coral larval settlement by crustose coralline algae.

    PubMed

    Tebben, J; Motti, C A; Siboni, Nahshon; Tapiolas, D M; Negri, A P; Schupp, P J; Kitamura, Makoto; Hatta, Masayuki; Steinberg, P D; Harder, T

    2015-06-04

    The majority of marine invertebrates produce dispersive larvae which, in order to complete their life cycles, must attach and metamorphose into benthic forms. This process, collectively referred to as settlement, is often guided by habitat-specific cues. While the sources of such cues are well known, the links between their biological activity, chemical identity, presence and quantification in situ are largely missing. Previous work on coral larval settlement in vitro has shown widespread induction by crustose coralline algae (CCA) and in particular their associated bacteria. However, we found that bacterial biofilms on CCA did not initiate ecologically realistic settlement responses in larvae of 11 hard coral species from Australia, Guam, Singapore and Japan. We instead found that algal chemical cues induce identical behavioral responses of larvae as per live CCA. We identified two classes of CCA cell wall-associated compounds--glycoglycerolipids and polysaccharides--as the main constituents of settlement inducing fractions. These algae-derived fractions induce settlement and metamorphosis at equivalent concentrations as present in CCA, both in small scale laboratory assays and under flow-through conditions, suggesting their ability to act in an ecologically relevant fashion to steer larval settlement of corals. Both compound classes were readily detected in natural samples.

  20. Assessing larval connectivity for marine spatial planning in the Adriatic.

    PubMed

    Bray, L; Kassis, D; Hall-Spencer, J M

    2017-04-01

    There are plans to start building offshore marine renewable energy devices throughout the Mediterranean and the Adriatic has been identified as a key location for wind farm developments. The development of offshore wind farms in the area would provide hard substrata for the settlement of sessile benthos. Since the seafloor of the Adriatic is predominantly sedimentary this may alter the larval connectivity of benthic populations in the region. Here, we simulated the release of larvae from benthic populations along the coasts of the Adriatic Sea using coupled bio-physical models and investigated the effect of pelagic larval duration on dispersal. Our model simulations show that currents typically carry particles from east to west across the Adriatic, whereas particles released along western coasts tend to remain there with the Puglia coast of Italy acting as a sink for larvae from benthic populations. We identify areas of high connectivity, as well as areas that are much more isolated, and discuss how these results can be used to inform marine spatial planning and the licensing of offshore marine renewable energy developments.

  1. System for maintaining sediment suspensions during larval fish studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chilton, E.W.

    1991-01-01

    A new system was developed for maintaining suspensions of inorganic solids during laboratory studies on early life stages of fish. Microfine bentonite was successfully held in suspension in specially constructed units during a 21-d fishless test, a 28-d experiment with juvenile green sunfish (lepomis cyanellus), and four shorter experiments (5-9 d) with four species of larval fishes, white sucker (catostomus commersoni), northern pike (esox lucius), channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus), and walleye (stizostedion vitreum). Each experiment on larval fish was conducted until the yolk-sac had been absorbed. Concentrations of bentonite ranged from 0 to 728 mg/l. Each unit consisted of a holding chamber set in a stainless steel bowl and two submersible pumps that recirculated the suspension. Turbidity readings remained nearly constant throughout each experiment. Because the turbidity of suspensions was well correlated with bentonite concentration (r2 = 0.989) And easy to measure, turbidity was used as an indicator of concentration. The system is inexpensive, easy to assemble, and does not require a diluter system to maintain constant concentrations of suspended material.

  2. Small nonnative fishes as predators of larval razorback suckers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, J.; Mueller, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    The razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus), an endangered big-river fish of the Colorado River basin, has demonstrated no sustainable recruitment in 4 decades, despite presence of spawning adults and larvae. Lack of adequate recruitment has been attributed to several factors, including predation by nonnative fishes. Substantial funding and effort has been expended on mechanically removing nonnative game fishes, typically targeting large predators. As a result, abundance of larger predators has declined, but the abundance of small nonnative fishes has increased in some areas. We conducted laboratory experiments to determine if small nonnative fishes would consume larval razorback suckers. We tested adults of three small species (threadfin shad, Dorosoma petenense; red shiner, Cyprinella lutrensis; fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas) and juveniles of six larger species (common carp, Cyprinus carpio; yellow bullhead, Ameiurus natalis; channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus; rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss; green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus; bluegill, L. macrochirus). These nonnative fishes span a broad ecological range and are abundant within the historical range of the razorback sucker. All nine species fed on larval razorback suckers (total length, 9-16 mm). Our results suggest that predation by small nonnative fishes could be responsible for limiting recovery of this endangered species.

  3. Development of environmental tools for anopheline larval control

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Malaria mosquitoes spend a considerable part of their life in the aquatic stage, rendering them vulnerable to interventions directed to aquatic habitats. Recent successes of mosquito larval control have been reported using environmental and biological tools. Here, we report the effects of shading by plants and biological control agents on the development and survival of anopheline and culicine mosquito larvae in man-made natural habitats in western Kenya. Trials consisted of environmental manipulation using locally available plants, the introduction of predatory fish and/or the use of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) in various combinations. Results Man-made habitats provided with shade from different crop species produced significantly fewer larvae than those without shade especially for the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Larval control of the African malaria mosquito An. gambiae and other mosquito species was effective in habitats where both predatory fish and Bti were applied, than where the two biological control agents were administered independently. Conclusion We conclude that integration of environmental management techniques using shade-providing plants and predatory fish and/or Bti are effective and sustainable tools for the control of malaria and other mosquito-borne disease vectors. PMID:21733150

  4. Hysteresis in the production of force by larval Dipteran muscle.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Bethany A; Anikin, Ilya Marko; Krans, Jacob L

    2010-07-15

    We describe neuromuscular hysteresis - the dependence of muscle force on recent motoneuron activity - in the body wall muscles of larval Sarcophaga bullata and Drosophila melanogaster. In semi-intact preparations, isometric force produced by a train of nerve impulses at a constant rate was significantly less than that produced by the same train of stimuli with a brief (200 ms) high-frequency burst of impulses interspersed. Elevated force did not decay back to predicted values after the burst but instead remained high throughout the duration of the stimulus train. The increased force was not due to a change in excitatory junction potentials (EJPs); EJP voltage and time course before and after the high-frequency burst were not statistically different. Single muscle and semi-intact preparations exhibited hysteresis similarly, suggesting that connective tissues of the origin or insertion are not crucial to the mechanism of hysteresis. Hysteresis was greatest at low motoneuron rates - yielding a approximately 100% increase over predicted values based on constant-rate stimulation alone - and decreased as impulse rate increased. We modulated motoneuron frequency rhythmically across rates and cycle periods similar to those observed during kinematic analysis of larval crawling. Positive force hysteresis was also evident within these more physiological activation parameters.

  5. Participatory mapping of target areas to enable operational larval source management to suppress malaria vector mosquitoes in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Dongus, Stefan; Nyika, Dickson; Kannady, Khadija; Mtasiwa, Deo; Mshinda, Hassan; Fillinger, Ulrike; Drescher, Axel W; Tanner, Marcel; Castro, Marcia C; Killeen, Gerry F

    2007-01-01

    Background Half of the population of Africa will soon live in towns and cities where it can be protected from malaria by controlling aquatic stages of mosquitoes. Rigorous but affordable and scaleable methods for mapping and managing mosquito habitats are required to enable effective larval control in urban Africa. Methods A simple community-based mapping procedure that requires no electronic devices in the field was developed to facilitate routine larval surveillance in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The mapping procedure included (1) community-based development of sketch maps and (2) verification of sketch maps through technical teams using laminated aerial photographs in the field which were later digitized and analysed using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Results Three urban wards of Dar es Salaam were comprehensively mapped, covering an area of 16.8 km2. Over thirty percent of this area were not included in preliminary community-based sketch mapping, mostly because they were areas that do not appear on local government residential lists. The use of aerial photographs and basic GIS allowed rapid identification and inclusion of these key areas, as well as more equal distribution of the workload of malaria control field staff. Conclusion The procedure developed enables complete coverage of targeted areas with larval control through comprehensive spatial coverage with community-derived sketch maps. The procedure is practical, affordable, and requires minimal technical skills. This approach can be readily integrated into malaria vector control programmes, scaled up to towns and cities all over Tanzania and adapted to urban settings elsewhere in Africa. PMID:17784963

  6. Can parasites be indicators of free-living diversity? Relationships between species richness and the abundance of larval trematodes and of local benthos and fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hechinger, R.F.; Lafferty, K.D.; Huspeni, T.C.; Brooks, A.J.; Kuris, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Measuring biodiversity is difficult. This has led to efforts to seek taxa whose species richness correlates with the species richness of other taxa. Such indicator taxa could then reduce the time and cost of assessing the biodiversity of the more extensive community. The search for species richness correlations has yielded mixed results, however. This may be primarily because of the lack of functional relationships between the taxa studied. Trematode parasites are highly promising bioindicators. Diverse assemblages of larval trematode parasites are easily sampled in intermediate host snails. Through their life cycles these parasites are functionally coupled with the surrounding free-living diversity of vertebrate and invertebrate animals. It has been shown that larval trematodes in snails correlate positively with bird diversity and abundance. Here, we explore whether trematodes also correlate with standard measures of fishes, and large and small benthos, for 32 sites in three wetlands. We found associations between trematodes and benthic communities that were not consistent across wetlands. The associations were, however, consistently positive for large benthic species richness and density. Some of the contrasting associations between trematode and benthos may be explained by negative associations between large and small benthos. We found no associations with fish communities (probably because of the inadequacy of standard "snapshot" sampling methods for highly mobile fishes). The results support further exploration of trematodes as bioindicators of diversity and abundance of animal communities. ?? 2006 Springer-Verlag.

  7. Can parasites be indicators of free-living diversity? Relationships between species richness and the abundance of larval trematodes and of local benthos and fishes.

    PubMed

    Hechinger, Ryan F; Lafferty, Kevin D; Huspeni, Todd C; Brooks, Andrew J; Kuris, Armand M

    2007-02-01

    Measuring biodiversity is difficult. This has led to efforts to seek taxa whose species richness correlates with the species richness of other taxa. Such indicator taxa could then reduce the time and cost of assessing the biodiversity of the more extensive community. The search for species richness correlations has yielded mixed results, however. This may be primarily because of the lack of functional relationships between the taxa studied. Trematode parasites are highly promising bioindicators. Diverse assemblages of larval trematode parasites are easily sampled in intermediate host snails. Through their life cycles these parasites are functionally coupled with the surrounding free-living diversity of vertebrate and invertebrate animals. It has been shown that larval trematodes in snails correlate positively with bird diversity and abundance. Here, we explore whether trematodes also correlate with standard measures of fishes, and large and small benthos, for 32 sites in three wetlands. We found associations between trematodes and benthic communities that were not consistent across wetlands. The associations were, however, consistently positive for large benthic species richness and density. Some of the contrasting associations between trematode and benthos may be explained by negative associations between large and small benthos. We found no associations with fish communities (probably because of the inadequacy of standard "snapshot" sampling methods for highly mobile fishes). The results support further exploration of trematodes as bioindicators of diversity and abundance of animal communities.

  8. Microbial communities associated with stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae and their developmental substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacteria are essential for stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) larval survival and development, but little is known about the innate microbial communities of stable flies, and it is not known if their varied dietary substrates influence their gut microbial communities. This investigation utilized ...

  9. Experimental studies on the larval development of the shrimps Crangon crangon and C. allmanni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criales, M. M.; Anger, K.

    1986-09-01

    Larvae of the shrimps Crangon crangon L. and C. allmanni Kinahan were reared in the laboratory from hatching through metamorphosis. Effects of rearing methods (larval density, application of streptomycin, food) and of salinity on larval development were tested only in C. crangon, influence of temperature was studied in both species. Best results were obtained when larvae were reared individually, with a mixture of Artemia sp. and the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis as food. Streptomycin had partly negative effects and was thus not adopted for standard rearing techniques. All factors tested in this study influenced not only the rates of larval survival and moulting, but also morphogenesis. In both species, in particular in C. crangon, a high degree of variability in larval morphology and in developmental pathways was observed. Unsuitable conditions, e.g. crowding in mass culture, application of antibiotics, unsuitable food (rotifers, phytoplankton), extreme temperatures and salinities, tend to increase the number of larval instars and of morphological forms. The frequency of moulting is controlled mainly by temperature. Regression equations describing the relations between the durations of larval instars and temperature are given for both Crangon species. The number of moults is a linear function of larval age and a power function of temperature. There is high variation in growth (measured as carapace length), moulting frequency, morphogenesis, and survival among hatches originating from different females. The interrelations between these different measures of larval development in shrimps and prawns are discussed.

  10. Distribution and Larval Habitats of Anopheles Species in Northern Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    preferences for oviposition , extensive larval collections that identify breeding sites based on stages of larval development are...species composition and population densities, habitat preferences based on species composition and relative population densities, and...including habitat preferences . Anopheles sinensis, considered a secondary malaria vector by some (Lee et al. 2007, Joshi et al. 2009), is

  11. The effect of larval density on adult demographic traits in Ambystoma opacum

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, D.E. )

    1994-07-01

    Factors that affect traits of aquatic larvae of amphibians may have long-lasting effects on terrestrial juveniles and adults. I manipulated larval densities of marbled salamanders, Ambystoma opacum, in large-scale field enclosures during 2 yr, released the juveniles that metamorphosed from these enclosures, and tested for effects on adults that returned to the pond during 6-7 subsequent breeding seasons. Individuals from low larval density treatments tended to have greater lipid stores at metamorphosis than those from high densities and survived longer in a laboratory inanition study. In the field, individuals that experienced low larval density returned for their first reproductive bout as larger adults than those from high-density treatments. For 5-yr-old females released in 1986, low larval density was linked to greater clutch size; clutch size in 4-yr-old animals from the 1987 cohort did not differ between larval treatment groups. Larval density also influenced age at first reproduction, as animals rared at low densities returned to breed at younger ages. Averaged across both cohorts, the proportion of animals that returned to breed at least once was 21% for low-density groups compared to 6% for the high density groups. The larval environment exerted a strong influence on postmetamorphic traits, and thus larval density likely plays an important role of population regulation in both the aquatic and terrestrial phase of the life cycle. 81 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Effects of intraspecific larval competition on adult longevity in the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus

    PubMed Central

    LOUNIBOS, L. P.

    2009-01-01

    Larval competition is common in container-breeding mosquitoes. The impact of competition on larval growth has been thoroughly examined and findings that larval competition can lead to density-dependent effects on adult body size have been documented. The effects of larval competition on adult longevity have been less well explored. The effects of intraspecific larval densities on the longevity of adults maintained under relatively harsh environmental conditions were tested in the laboratory by measuring the longevity of adult Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) that had been reared under a range of larval densities and subsequently maintained in high- or low-humidity regimes (85% or 35% relative humidity [RH], respectively) as adults. We found significant negative effects of competition on adult longevity in Ae. aegypti, but not in Ae. albopictus. Multivariate analysis of variance suggested that the negative effect of the larval environment on the longevity of Ae. aegypti adults was most strongly associated with increased development time and decreased wing length as adults. Understanding how larval competition affects adult longevity under a range of environmental conditions is important in establishing the relationship between models of mosquito population regulation and epidemiological models of vector-borne disease transmission. PMID:19239615

  13. Evaluation of waste artificial larval rearing media as oviposition attractant for New World screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The waste artificial larval rearing media of the New World Screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) were evaluated to determine their effectiveness as oviposition attractants. Various concentrations of waste larval media resulting from rearing screwworm larvae in gel and cellulose fiber-based ...

  14. Biological Strategies of Dermestes maculatus DeGeer (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) at Larval Stages in Different Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, N I; Visciarelli, E C; Centeno, N D

    2016-12-01

    The intraspecific variation in larval instars is a widely distributed phenomenon amongst holometabolous insects. Several factors can affect the number of instars, such as temperature, humidity, and density. Only a few references could be found in the literature because the invariability in the number of larval instars is considered normal, and the issue has raised little to no interest. Despite this, no study to date has intended to assess or focus on the larval development. Here, we analyzed the effect of different rearing temperature on the larval stage of Dermestes maculatus DeGeer (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). The results indicated that at all temperatures, L5 represented a decisive point for individuals as well as the other later larval instars, because the next step to follow was to pupate or molt to the next larval instar. Furthermore, there were mainly two populations, L5 and L6, although in different proportions according to temperature. We also found that at a greater number of instars, the larval development at all temperatures lasted longer. Moreover, the exponential model was the best adjustment in the developmental time of all populations as well as for the accumulated developmental time of L1-L4. Thus, we conclude that random factors such as genetics could probably cause interspecific variability in D. maculatus larval development.

  15. A larval key to the Drusinae species (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae) of Austria, Germany, Switzerland and the dinaric western Balkan.

    PubMed

    Waringer, J; Graf, W; Pauls, S U; Previšić, A; Kučinić, M

    2010-07-17

    A larval key of the Drusinae of Central Europe and the dinaric western Balkan is presented. Phylogeographic relationships are discussed in the light of molecular genetics, feeding ecology and larval morphology.

  16. Soundscape manipulation enhances larval recruitment of a reef-building mollusk.

    PubMed

    Lillis, Ashlee; Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R; Eggleston, David B

    2015-01-01

    Marine seafloor ecosystems, and efforts to restore them, depend critically on the influx and settlement of larvae following their pelagic dispersal period. Larval dispersal and settlement patterns are driven by a combination of physical oceanography and behavioral responses of larvae to a suite of sensory cues both in the water column and at settlement sites. There is growing evidence that the biological and physical sounds associated with adult habitats (i.e., the "soundscape") influence larval settlement and habitat selection; however, the significance of acoustic cues is rarely tested. Here we show in a field experiment that the free-swimming larvae of an estuarine invertebrate, the eastern oyster, respond to the addition of replayed habitat-related sounds. Oyster larval recruitment was significantly higher on larval collectors exposed to oyster reef sounds compared to no-sound controls. These results provide the first field evidence that soundscape cues may attract the larval settlers of a reef-building estuarine invertebrate.

  17. Sequence studies of proteins from larval and pupal cuticle of the yellow meal worm, Tenebrio molitor.

    PubMed

    Andersen, S O; Rafn, K; Roepstorff, P

    1997-02-01

    Complete amino acid sequences have been determined for six larval-pupal cuticular proteins from Tenebrio molitor. The sequenced proteins are major components in both larval and pupal cuticle, and both basic and slightly acidic proteins are represented. The proteins show pronounced similarities to some of the proteins sequenced from other insect cuticles. Three slightly acidic larval-pupal Tenebrio cuticular proteins contain a 66-residue central, hydrophilic region, resembling regions in cuticular proteins from insect species of four different orders (Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera and Orthoptera), and three basic proteins from larval-pupal Tenebrio cuticle have a 51-residue hydrophilic region in common with two proteins from cuticle of pharate adult locusts (Locusta migratoria). The Tenebrio larval-pupal cuticular proteins are also similar to locust adult cuticular proteins, by frequent occurrence of the short sequence motif Ala-Ala-Pro-Ala/Val. The pronounced sequence similarities between cuticular proteins from different insect orders indicate that the conserved regions are functionally important.

  18. Larval therapy from antiquity to the present day: mechanisms of action, clinical applications and future potential

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Iain S; Twine, Christopher; Whitaker, Michael J; Welck, Mathew; Brown, Charles S; Shandall, Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    When modern medicine fails, it is often useful to draw ideas from ancient treatments. The therapeutic use of fly larvae to debride necrotic tissue, also known as larval therapy, maggot debridement therapy or biosurgery, dates back to the beginnings of civilisation. Despite repeatedly falling out of favour largely because of patient intolerance to the treatment, the practice of larval therapy is increasing around the world because of its efficacy, safety and simplicity. Clinical indications for larval treatment are varied, but, in particular, are wounds infected with multidrug‐resistant bacteria and the presence of significant co‐morbidities precluding surgical intervention. The flies most often used in larval therapy are the facultative calliphorids, with the greenbottle blowfly (Lucilia sericata) being the most widely used species. This review summarises the fascinating and turbulent history of larval therapy from its origin to the present day, including mechanisms of action and evidence for its clinical applications. It also explores future research directions. PMID:17551073

  19. Larval diapause termination in the bamboo borer, Omphisa fuscidentalis

    PubMed Central

    Suang, Suphawan; Manaboon, Manaporn; Singtripop, Tippawan; Hiruma, Kiyoshi; Kaneko, Yu; Tiansawat, Pimonrat; Neumann, Peter; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    2017-01-01

    In insects, juvenile hormone (JH) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) regulate larval growth and molting. However, little is known about how this cooperative control is terminating larval diapause especially in the bamboo borer, Omphisa fuscidentalis. In both in vivo and in vitro experiments, we here measured the expression levels of genes which were affected by juvenile hormone analogue (JHA: S-methoprene) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) in diapausing O. fuscidentalis larvae. Corresponding mRNA expression changes in the subesophageal ganglion (SG) and prothoracic gland (PG) were evaluated using qRT-PCR. The data showed similar response patterns of JH receptor gene (OfMet), diapause hormone gene (OfDH-PBAN), ecdysone receptor genes (OfEcR-A and OfEcR-B1) and ecdysone inducible genes (OfBr-C, OfE75A, OfE75B, OfE75C and OfHR3). JHA induced the expressions of OfMet and OfDH-PBAN in both SG and PG, whereas ecdysone receptor genes and ecdysone inducible genes were induced by JHA only in PG. For 20E treatment group, expressions of ecdysone receptor genes and ecdysone inducible genes in both SG and PG were increased by 20E injection. In addition, the in vitro experiments showed that OfMet and OfDH-PBAN were up-regulated by JHA alone, but ecdysone receptor genes and ecdysone inducible genes were up-regulated by JHA and 20E. However, OfMet and OfDH-PBAN in the SG was expressed faster than OfMet and OfDH-PBAN in the PG and the expression of ecdysone receptor genes and ecdysone inducible genes induced by JHA was much later than observed for 20E. These results indicate that JHA might stimulate the PG indirectly via factors (OfMet and OfDH-PBAN) in the SG, which might be a regulatory mechanism for larval diapause termination in O. fuscidentalis. PMID:28369111

  20. Modelling larval transport in a axial convergence front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robins, P.

    2010-12-01

    Marine larvae exhibit different vertical swimming behaviours, synchronised by factors such as tidal currents and daylight, in order to aid retention near the parent populations and hence promote production, avoid predation, or to stimulate digestion. This paper explores two types of larval migration in an estuarine axial convergent front which is an important circulatory mechanism in many coastal regions where larvae are concentrated. A parallelised, three-dimensional, ocean model was applied to an idealised estuarine channel which was parameterised from observations of an axial convergent front which occurs in the Conwy Estuary, U.K. (Nunes and Simpson, 1985). The model successfully simulates the bilateral cross-sectional recirculation of an axial convergent front, which has been attributed to lateral density gradients established by the interaction of the lateral shear of the longitudinal currents with the axial salinity gradients. On the flood tide, there is surface axial convergence whereas on the ebb tide, there is (weaker) surface divergence. Further simulations with increased/decreased tidal velocities and with stronger/weaker axial salinity gradients are planned so that the effects of a changing climate on the secondary flow can be understood. Three-dimensional Lagrangian Particle Tracking Models (PTMs) have been developed which use the simulated velocity fields to track larvae in the estuarine channel. The PTMs take into account the vertical migrations of two shellfish species that are commonly found in the Conwy Estuary: (i) tidal migration of the common shore crab (Carcinus maenas) and (ii), diel (daily) migration of the Great scallop (Pecten maximus). These migration behaviours are perhaps the most widespread amongst shellfish larvae and have been compared with passive (drifting) particles in order to assess their relative importance in terms of larval transport. Preliminary results suggest that the net along-estuary dispersal over a typical larval

  1. Biomechanics of larval morphology affect swimming: insights from the sand dollars Dendraster excentricus.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kit Yu Karen

    2012-10-01

    Most planktonic larvae of marine invertebrates are denser than sea water, and rely on swimming to locate food, navigate advective currents, and avoid predators. Therefore, swimming behaviors play important roles in larval survival and dispersal. Larval bodies are often complex and highly variable across developmental stages and environmental conditions. These complex morphologies reflect compromises among multiple evolutionary pressures, including maintaining the ability to swim. Here, I highlight metrics of swimming performance, their relationships with morphology, and the roles of behavior in modulating larval swimming within biomechanical limits. Sand dollars have a representative larval morphology using long ciliated projections for swimming and feeding. Observed larval sand dollars fell within a narrow range of key morphological parameters that maximized their abilities to maintain directed upward movement over the most diverse flow fields, outperforming hypothetical alternatives in a numerical model. Ontogenetic changes in larval morphology also led to different vertical movements in simulated flow fields, implying stage-dependent vertical distributions and lateral transport. These model outcomes suggest a tight coupling between larval morphology and swimming. Environmental stressors, such as changes in temperature and pH, can therefore affect larval swimming through short-term behavioral adjustments and long-term changes in morphology. Larval sand dollars reared under elevated pCO(2) conditions had significantly different morphology, but not swimming speeds or trajectories. Geometric morphometric analysis showed a pH-dependent, size-mediated change in shape, suggesting a coordinated morphological adjustment to maintain swimming performance under acidified conditions. Quantification of the biomechanics and behavioral aspects of swimming improves predictions of larval survival and dispersal under present-day and future environmental conditions.

  2. Correlated Evolution between Mode of Larval Development and Habitat in Muricid Gastropods

    PubMed Central

    Pappalardo, Paula; Rodríguez-Serrano, Enrique; Fernández, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Larval modes of development affect evolutionary processes and influence the distribution of marine invertebrates in the ocean. The decrease in pelagic development toward higher latitudes is one of the patterns of distribution most frequently discussed in marine organisms (Thorson's rule), which has been related to increased larval mortality associated with long pelagic durations in colder waters. However, the type of substrate occupied by adults has been suggested to influence the generality of the latitudinal patterns in larval development. To help understand how the environment affects the evolution of larval types we evaluated the association between larval development and habitat using gastropods of the Muricidae family as a model group. To achieve this goal, we collected information on latitudinal distribution, sea water temperature, larval development and type of substrate occupied by adults. We constructed a molecular phylogeny for 45 species of muricids to estimate the ancestral character states and to assess the relationship between traits using comparative methods in a Bayesian framework. Our results showed high probability for a common ancestor of the muricids with nonpelagic (and nonfeeding) development, that lived in hard bottoms and cold temperatures. From this ancestor, a pelagic feeding larva evolved three times, and some species shifted to warmer temperatures or sand bottoms. The evolution of larval development was not independent of habitat; the most probable evolutionary route reconstructed in the analysis of correlated evolution showed that type of larval development may change in soft bottoms but in hard bottoms this change is highly unlikely. Lower sea water temperatures were associated with nonpelagic modes of development, supporting Thorson's rule. We show how environmental pressures can favor a particular mode of larval development or transitions between larval modes and discuss the reacquisition of feeding larva in muricids

  3. Correlated evolution between mode of larval development and habitat in muricid gastropods.

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, Paula; Rodríguez-Serrano, Enrique; Fernández, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Larval modes of development affect evolutionary processes and influence the distribution of marine invertebrates in the ocean. The decrease in pelagic development toward higher latitudes is one of the patterns of distribution most frequently discussed in marine organisms (Thorson's rule), which has been related to increased larval mortality associated with long pelagic durations in colder waters. However, the type of substrate occupied by adults has been suggested to influence the generality of the latitudinal patterns in larval development. To help understand how the environment affects the evolution of larval types we evaluated the association between larval development and habitat using gastropods of the Muricidae family as a model group. To achieve this goal, we collected information on latitudinal distribution, sea water temperature, larval development and type of substrate occupied by adults. We constructed a molecular phylogeny for 45 species of muricids to estimate the ancestral character states and to assess the relationship between traits using comparative methods in a Bayesian framework. Our results showed high probability for a common ancestor of the muricids with nonpelagic (and nonfeeding) development, that lived in hard bottoms and cold temperatures. From this ancestor, a pelagic feeding larva evolved three times, and some species shifted to warmer temperatures or sand bottoms. The evolution of larval development was not independent of habitat; the most probable evolutionary route reconstructed in the analysis of correlated evolution showed that type of larval development may change in soft bottoms but in hard bottoms this change is highly unlikely. Lower sea water temperatures were associated with nonpelagic modes of development, supporting Thorson's rule. We show how environmental pressures can favor a particular mode of larval development or transitions between larval modes and discuss the reacquisition of feeding larva in muricids gastropods.

  4. Immediate and lag effects of pesticide exposure on parasite resistance in larval amphibians.

    PubMed

    Pochini, Katherine M; Hoverman, Jason T

    2017-01-11

    Across host-parasite systems, there is evidence that pesticide exposure increases parasite loads and mortality following infection. However, whether these effects are driven by reductions in host resistance to infection or slower rates of parasite clearance is often unclear. Using controlled laboratory experiments, we examined the ability of larval northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) and American toads (Anaxyrus americanus) to resist and clear trematode (Echinoparyphium sp.) infections following exposure to the insecticide carbaryl. Northern leopard frogs exposed to 1 mg L-1 of carbaryl had 61% higher parasite loads compared with unexposed individuals, while there was no immediate effect of carbaryl on parasite encystment in American toads. However, when tadpoles were exposed to carbaryl and moved to freshwater for 14 days before the parasite challenge, we recovered 37 and 63% more parasites from carbaryl-exposed northern leopard frogs and American toads, respectively, compared with the control. No effects on clearance were found for either species. Collectively, our results suggest that pesticide exposure can reduce the ability of amphibians to resist parasite infections and that these effects can persist weeks following exposure. It is critical for researchers to incorporate species interactions into toxicity studies to improve our understanding of how contaminants affect ecological communities.

  5. 'Like sugar and honey': the embedded ethics of a larval control project in The Gambia.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ann H; Ameh, David; Majambere, Silas; Lindsay, Steve; Pinder, Margaret

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes a malaria research project in The Gambia to provoke thinking on the social value of transnational research. The Larval Control Project (LCP) investigated the efficacy of a microbial insecticide to reduce vector density and, ultimately, clinical malaria in Gambian children. The LCP's protocol delineated a clinical surveillance scheme that involved Village Health Workers (VHWs) supported by project nurses. Combining insights from ethnographic fieldwork conducted at the Medical Research Council (MRC) Laboratories in Farafenni from 2005 to 2009, open-ended interviews with project nurses, and eight focus group discussions held with participant mothers in October 2007, we consider the social impact of the LCP's investigative method against the backdrop of several years of research activity. We found that while participants associated the LCP with the clinical care it provided, they also regarded the collaboration between the nurses and VHWs added additional benefits. Organised around the operational functions of the trial, small-scale collaborations provided the platform from which to build local capacity. While ethical guidelines emphasise the considerations that must be added to experimental endeavour in southern countries (e.g. elaborating processes of informed consent, developing strategies of community engagement or providing therapeutic access to participants after the trial concludes), these findings suggest that shifting attention from supplementing ethical protocols to the everyday work of research -embedding ethics through scientific activity - may provide a sounder basis to reinforce the relationship between scientific rigour and social value.

  6. Biochemical composition and fatty acid content of zooplankton from tropical lagoon for larval rearing.

    PubMed

    Lokman, H S

    1993-01-01

    Zooplankton samples were collected from the indigenous tropical brackish water lagoon during the wet monsoon (January and February 1990) and the dry monsoon (April and May 1990). The dominant copepod species in the zooplankton community comprising of Oithona sp (especially O. nana and O. robusta) accounted for more than 70% of the zooplankton in January and was gradually replaced by other zooplanktonic species later in the dry season. The lipid contents in zooplankton varied from 0.18 to 1.04% wet weight or 1.14 to 5.92% dry weight respectively. The major fatty acid contents of the zooplankton showed high concentration of 14:0, 16:0, 18:1, 20:5 omega 3 and 22:6 omega 3 especially in the wet season. It also contained high omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid series necessary for the growth of commercial fish larvae. It has a better food value than the normally use food organism, brine shrimp; thus reflecting its potential use as food organism for fish larval rearing.

  7. Larval habitat segregation between the molecular forms of the mosquito, Anopheles gambiae in a rice field area of Burkina Faso, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Gimonneau, Geoffrey; Pombi, Marco; Choisy, Marc; Morand, Serge; Dabiré, Roch K.; Simard, Frederic

    2011-01-01

    In West Africa, lineage splitting between the M and S molecular forms of the major Afro-tropical malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae is thought to be driven by ecological divergence, occurring mainly at the larval stage. Here, we present evidences for habitat segregation between the two molecular forms in and around irrigated rice-fields located within the humid savannahs background of western Burkina Faso. Longitudinal sampling of adult mosquitoes emerging from a range of breeding sites distributed along a transect extending from the heart of the rice-fields area into the surrounding savannahs was conducted from June to November 2009. Analysis revealed that the two molecular forms and their sibling species An. arabiensis are not randomly distributed in the area. A major ecological gradient was extracted, in relation to the rice-fields perimeter. The M form was associated with larger breeding sites, which were mainly represented by rice field paddies whereas the S form and An. arabiensis were found to depend upon temporary, rain-filled breeding sites. These results support hypotheses about larval habitat segregation and confirm that both forms have different larval habitat requirement. Segregation appears clearly linked to anthropogenic permanent habitats and the community structure they support. PMID:21501199

  8. The genus Odontophrynus (Anura: Odontophrynidae): a larval perspective.

    PubMed

    Filipe Augusto C, Do Nascimento; Tamí, Mott; José A, Langone; Christine A, Davis; Rafael O, De Sá

    2013-01-01

    The genus Odontophrynus consists of 11 species of medium-sized frogs distributed across south and east South America. This study examines and describes the chondrocrania and oral cavities of O. americanus, O. maisuma, O. carvalhoi, and O. cultripes, and review current knowledge about the larval external morphology of the genus. Twenty-one tadpoles were cleared and double-stained for chondrocranium description and five tadpoles were dissected for analysis in a scanning electron microscope. The presence of a tectum parientale may be considered here as a putative synapomorphy of the genus. The O. americanus and O. cultripes species groups were partially differentiated by the length of the processus pseudopterigoideus, shape of divergence of the hypobranchial plates, number of postnarial papillae, and number of projections of the lateral ridge papillae. The larvae of O. occidentalis species group, in turn, differed from others by presenting a greater total length.

  9. Feeding competition between larval lake whitefish and lake herring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Hudson, Patrick L.

    1995-01-01

    The potential for competition for food between larval lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and lake herring (C. artedi) 1- to 8-wk of age was explored in a series of 1-h laboratory feeding studies. Feeding started at 2-wk post-hatch. Learning and fish size appear to be more important than prey density at the onset of feeding. Species differed in their feeding behavior and consumption noticeably by 5-wk and substantially by 8-wk. Lake whitefish generally were more aggressive foragers than lake herring, attacking and capturing more prey. At high plankton density at 8-wk, lake herring feeding was depressed in mixed-fish treatments. This difference in competitive food consumption between the two coregonids occurs at a critical life stage, and when combined with other biotic and abiotic factors, may have a significant impact on recruitment.

  10. A molecular diffusion based utility model for Drosophila larval phototaxis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Generally, utility based decision making models focus on experimental outcomes. In this paper we propose a utility model based on molecular diffusion to simulate the choice behavior of Drosophila larvae exposed to different light conditions. Methods In this paper, light/dark choice-based Drosophila larval phototaxis is analyzed with our molecular diffusion based model. An ISCEM algorithm is developed to estimate the model parameters. Results By applying this behavioral utility model to light intensity and phototaxis data, we show that this model fits the experimental data very well. Conclusions Our model provides new insights into decision making mechanisms in general. From an engineering viewpoint, we propose that the model could be applied to a wider range of decision making practices. PMID:22300450

  11. Rapid declines in metabolism explain extended coral larval longevity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, E. M.; Baird, A. H.; Connolly, S. R.; Sewell, M. A.; Willis, B. L.

    2013-06-01

    Lecithotrophic, or non-feeding, marine invertebrate larvae generally have shorter pelagic larval durations (PLDs) than planktotrophic larvae. However, non-feeding larvae of scleractinian corals have PLDs far exceeding those of feeding larvae of other organisms and predictions of PLD based on energy reserves and metabolic rates, raising questions about how such longevity is achieved. Here, we measured temporal changes in metabolic rates and total lipid content of non-feeding larvae of four species of reef corals to determine whether changes in energy utilization through time contribute to extended larval durations. The temporal dynamics of both metabolic rates and lipid content were highly consistent among species. Prior to fertilization, metabolic rates were low (2.73-8.63 nmol O2 larva-1 h-1) before rapidly increasing to a peak during embryogenesis and early development 1-2 days after spawning. Metabolic rates remained high until shortly after larvae first became competent to metamorphose and then declined by up to two orders of magnitude to levels at or below rates seen in unfertilized eggs over the following week. Larvae remained in this state of low metabolic activity for up to 2 months. Consistent with temporal patterns in metabolic rates, depletion of lipids was extremely rapid during early development and then slowed dramatically from 1 week onward. Despite the very low metabolic rates in these species, larvae continued to swim and retained competence for at least 2 months. The capacity of non-feeding coral larvae to enter a state of low metabolism soon after becoming competent to metamorphose significantly extends dispersal potential, thereby accruing advantages typically associated with planktotrophy, notably enhanced population connectivity.

  12. Influence of Physiological Stress on Nutrient Stoichiometry in Larval Amphibians.

    PubMed

    Kirschman, Lucas J; Haslett, Savhannah; Fritz, Kelley A; Whiles, Matt R; Warne, Robin W

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to environmental stressors alters animal phenotypes as well as nutrient metabolism, assimilation, and excretion. While stress-induced shifts in nutrient processes are known to alter organismal carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stoichiometry, there has been little exploration of how environmental factors influence phosphorous (P). A better understanding of how P cycling varies with animal physiological state may provide insight into across-scale processes, because P is essential to animal function and ecological processes such as production and decomposition. We tested the effects of predator stress and exogenous glucocorticoids on C∶N∶P stoichiometry of larval amphibians. Glucocorticoids altered nutrient stoichiometry, apparently by modulating ossification and renal function. This reduced whole-body P and significantly increased N∶P. Additionally, elevated glucocorticoids caused a long-term reduction in P excretion. This reduction may reflect an initial unmeasured loss of P that glucocorticoids induce over acute timescales. In contrast, exposure to predator cues had no effect on larval C∶N∶P stoichiometry, which highlights that different stressors have varied effects on the endocrine stress response. Predation, in particular, is ubiquitous in the environment; thus, larvae responding to predators have conserved mechanisms that likely prevent or minimize physiological disruption. These results demonstrate the differing physiological roles of N and P, distinct nutrient demands associated with amphibian metamorphosis, and the contrasting effects that different environmental factors have on the physiological stress response. Our results also suggest that anthropogenic changes to the environment that induce chronic stress in amphibians could affect the biogeochemistry of nutrient-poor environments where they may act as keystone species.

  13. Divergent patterns of neural development in larval echinoids and asteroids.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Yoko; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Murray, Greg; Burke, Robert D

    2004-01-01

    The development and organization of the nervous systems of echinoderm larvae are incompletely described. We describe the development and organization of the larval nervous systems of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and Asterina pectinifera using a novel antibody, 1E11, that appears to be neuron specific. In the early pluteus, the antibody reveals all known neural structures: apical ganglion, oral ganglia, lateral ganglia, and an array of neurons and neurites in the ciliary band, the esophagus, and the intestine. The antibody also reveals several novel features, such as neurites that extend to the posterior end of the larva and additional neurons in the apical ganglion. Similarly, in asteroid larvae the antibody binds to all known neural structures and identifies novel features, including large numbers of neurons in the ciliary bands, a network of neurites under the oral epidermis, cell bodies in the esophagus, and a network of neurites in the intestine. The 1E11 antigen is expressed during gastrulation and can be used to trace the ontogenies of the nervous systems. In S. purpuratus, a small number of neuroblasts arise in the oral ectoderm in late gastrulae. The cells are adjacent to the presumptive ciliary bands, where they project neurites with growth cone-like endings that interconnect the neurons. In A. pectinifera, a large number of neuroblasts appear scattered throughout the ectoderm of gastrulae. The cells aggregate in the developing ciliary bands and then project neurites under the oral epidermis. Although there are several shared features of the larval nervous systems of echinoids and asteroids, the patterns of development reveal fundamental differences in neural ontogeny.

  14. Foraging rates of larval dragonfly colonists are positively related to habitat isolation: results from a landscape-level experiment.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Shannon J; Brodin, Tomas; Hammond, John

    2010-03-01

    There is increasing evidence of intraspecific variation in dispersal behavior. Individual differences in dispersal behavior may be correlated with other traits that determine the impact individuals have on patches they colonize. We established habitat patches-artificial pools-across a landscape, and these pools were naturally colonized by dragonfly larvae. Larvae were collected from pools at different levels of isolation and held under common lab conditions for 5 months. We then compared larval foraging rates. Foraging rate was positively related to habitat isolation, and colonists from the most isolated artificial pools had significantly higher foraging rates than individuals from the least isolated pools. Our results indicate that spatial patterns in colonist behavior can develop across a landscape independent of species-level dispersal limitation. This finding suggests that studies of community structure across space should include an assessment of the distribution of phenotypes as well as species-level dispersal limitation patterns.

  15. Community Links

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Mary

    1975-01-01

    At Moraine Valley Community College (Illinois), a chain of events, programs, activities, and services has linked the college and community in such areas as fine arts, ethnic groups, public services, community action, community service, and community education. (Author/NHM)

  16. Feedbacks between community assembly and habitat selection shape variation in local colonization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraus, J.M.; Vonesh, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    1. Non-consumptive effects of predators are increasingly recognized as important drivers of community assembly and structure. Specifically, habitat selection responses to top predators during colonization and oviposition can lead to large differences in aquatic community structure, composition and diversity. 2. These differences among communities due to predators may develop as communities assemble, potentially altering the relative quality of predator vs. predator-free habitats through time. If so, community assembly would be expected to modify the subsequent behavioural responses of colonists to habitats containing top predators. Here, we test this hypothesis by manipulating community assembly and the presence of fish in experimental ponds and measuring their independent and combined effects on patterns of colonization by insects and amphibians. 3. Assembly modified habitat selection of dytscid beetles and hylid frogs by decreasing or even reversing avoidance of pools containing blue-spotted sunfish (Enneacanthus gloriosus). However, not all habitat selection responses to fish depended on assembly history. Hydrophilid beetles and mosquitoes avoided fish while chironomids were attracted to fish pools, regardless of assembly history. 4. Our results show that community assembly causes taxa-dependent feedbacks that can modify avoidance of habitats containing a top predator. Thus, non-consumptive effects of a top predator on community structure change as communities assemble and effects of competitors and other predators combine with the direct effects of top predators to shape colonization. 5. This work reinforces the importance of habitat selection for community assembly in aquatic systems, while illustrating the range of factors that may influence colonization rates and resulting community structure. Directly manipulating communities both during colonization and post-colonization is critical for elucidating how sequential processes interact to shape communities.

  17. Larval development of Culex quinquefasciatus in water with low to moderate.

    PubMed

    Noori, Navideh; Lockaby, B Graeme; Kalin, Latif

    2015-12-01

    Population growth and urbanization have increased the potential habitats, and consequently the abundance of Culex quinquefasciatus, the southern house mosquito, a vector of West Nile Virus in urban areas. Water quality is critical in larval habitat distribution and in providing microbial food resources for larvae. A mesocosm experiment was designed to demonstrate which specific components of water chemistry are conducive to larval Culex mosquitoes. Dose-response relationships between larval development and NO3 , NH4 , and PO4 concentrations in stream water were developed through this experiment to describe the isolated effects of each nutrient on pre-adult development. The emergence pattern of Culex mosquitoes was found to be strongly related to certain nutrients, and results showed that breeding sites with higher PO4 or NO3 concentrations had higher larval survival rates. High NO3 concentrations favor the development of male mosquitoes and suppress the development of female mosquitoes, but those adult females that do emerge develop faster in containers with high NO3 levels compared to the reference group. The addition of PO4 in the absence of nitrogen sources to the larval habitat slowed larval development, however, it took fewer days for larvae to reach the pupal stage in containers with combinations of NO3 and PO4 or NH4 and PO4 nutrients. Results from this study may bolster efforts to control WNV in urban landscapes by exploring water quality conditions of Culex larval habitats that produce adult mosquitoes.

  18. Cyanobacteria associated with Anopheles albimanus (Diptera: Culicidae) larval habitats in southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Martínez, M Guadalupe; Rodríguez, Mario H; Arredondo-Jiménez, Juan I; Méndez-Sanchez, José D; Bond-Compeán, J Guillermo; Cold-Morgan, Michelle

    2002-11-01

    Cyanobacteria associated with Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann larval habitats from southern Chiapas, Mexico, were isolated and identified from water samples and larval midguts using selective medium BG-11. Larval breeding sites were classified according to their hydrology and dominant vegetation. Cyanobacteria isolated in water samples were recorded and analyzed according to hydrological and vegetation habitat breeding types, and mosquito larval abundance. In total, 19 cyanobacteria species were isolated from water samples. Overall, the most frequently isolated cyanobacterial taxa were Phormidium sp., Oscillatoria sp., Aphanocapsa cf. littoralis, Lyngbya lutea, P. animalis, and Anabaena cf. spiroides. Cyanobacteria were especially abundant in estuaries, irrigation canals, river margins and mangrove lagoons, and more cyanobacteria were isolated from Brachiaria mutica, Ceratophyllum demersum, and Hymenachne amplexicaulis habitats. Cyanobacteria were found in habitats with low to high An. albimanus larval abundance, but Aphanocapsa cf. littoralis was associated with habitats of low larval abundance. No correlation was found between water chemistry parameters and the presence of cyanobacteria, however, water temperature (29.2-29.4 degrees C) and phosphate concentration (79.8-136.5 ppb) were associated with medium and high mosquito larvae abundance. In An. albimanus larval midguts, only six species of cyanobacteria were isolated, the majority being from the most abundant cyanobacteria in water samples.

  19. Larval settlement and metamorphosis of the mussel Mytilus coruscus in response to monospecific bacterial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-Long; Shen, Pei-Jing; Liang, Xiao; Li, Yi-Feng; Bao, Wei-Yang; Li, Jia-Le

    2013-01-01

    The effects of bacterial biofilms (BFs) on larval settlement and metamorphosis of the mussel, Mytilus coruscus, were investigated in the laboratory. Of nine different isolates, Shewanella sp.1 BF induced the highest percentage of larval settlement and metamorphosis, whereas seven other isolates had a moderate inducing activity and one isolate, Pseudoalteromonas sp. 4, had a no inducing activity. The inducing activity of individual bacterial isolates was not correlated either with their phylogenetic relationship or with the surfaces from which they were isolated. Among the eight bacterial species that demonstrated inducing activity, bacterial density was significantly correlated with the inducing activity for each strain, with the exception of Vibrio sp. 1. The Shewanella sp. 1 BF cue that was responsible for inducing larval settlement and metamorphosis was further investigated. Treatment of the BFs with formalin, antibiotics, ultraviolet irradiation, heat, and ethanol resulted in a significant decrease in their inducing activities and cell survival. BF-conditioned water (CW) did not induce larval metamorphosis, but it triggered larval settlement behavior. A synergistic effect of CW with formalin-fixed Shewanella sp. 1 BF significantly promoted larval metamorphosis. Thus, a cocktail of chemical cues derived from bacteria may be necessary to stimulate larval settlement and metamorphosis in this species.

  20. Effects of larval density in Ambystoma opacum: An experiment in large-scale field enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, D.E. )

    1990-02-01

    This experiment was designed to measure the effects of larval density on larval traits in the salamander Ambystoma opacum, and to ascertain whether previous studies conducted at smaller spatial scales or higher densities produced artifactual results. Density effects on larval growth, body size at metamorphosis, length of larval period, and survival to metamorphosis were studied in A. opacum in large-scale (41 m{sup 2} and 23 m{sup 2}) field enclosures in two temporary ponds. Each enclosure contained indigenous populations of prey (zooplankton and insects) and predators, as well as the range of microhabitats present in these natural ponds. Initial larval densities were chosen to represent high and low levels of naturally occurring mean densities. The results suggest that, in natural ponds, the importance of intraspecific competition is dependent upon hydroperiod, and the intensity of competition influences predation risk. Thus, both density-dependent and density-independent factors affect body size and recruitment of larval A. opacum into the adult population. The use of large-scale field enclosures has advantages and disadvantages: it allows the examination of density-dependent processes under natural conditions and provides high statistical power because of low variability in larval traits; however, experimental designs must be simple and underlying mechanisms are difficult to identify.

  1. The effects of exposure in sandy beach surf zones on larval fishes.

    PubMed

    Pattrick, P; Strydom, N A

    2014-05-01

    The influence of wind and wave exposure on larval fish assemblages within a large bay system was investigated. Larval fishes were sampled from two areas with vastly different exposure to waves and wind, namely the windward and leeward sectors of Algoa Bay. In total, 5702 larval fishes were collected using a modified larval seine. Of these, 4391 were collected in the leeward and 1311 in the windward sector of the bay, representing a total of 23 families and 57 species. Dominant fish families included Clinidae, Engraulidae, Kyphosidae, Mugilidae, Soleidae and Sparidae, similar to the situation elsewhere, highlighting continuity in the composition of larval fish assemblages and the utilization of surf zones by a specific group of larval fishes. Nineteen estuary-associated marine species occurred within the surf zones of Algoa Bay and dominated catches (86·7%) in terms of abundance. Postflexion larvae comprised > 80% of the catch, indicating the importance of the seemingly inhospitable surf zone environment for the early life stages of many fish species. The greatest species diversity was observed within the windward sector of the bay. Distance-based linear modelling identified wave period as the environmental variable explaining the largest proportion of the significant variation in the larval fish assemblage. The physical disturbance generated by breaking waves could create a suitable environment for fish larvae, sheltered from predators and with an abundance of food resources.

  2. Optimizing larval assessment to support sea lamprey control in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.; Adams, Jean V.; Cuddy, Douglas W.; Richards, Jessica M.; Fodale, Michael F.; Larson, Geraldine L.; Ollila, Dale J.; Slade, Jeffrey W.; Steeves, Todd B.; Young, Robert J.; Zerrenner, Adam

    2003-01-01

    Elements of the larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) assessment program that most strongly influence the chemical treatment program were analyzed, including selection of streams for larval surveys, allocation of sampling effort among stream reaches, allocation of sampling effort among habitat types, estimation of daily growth rates, and estimation of metamorphosis rates, to determine how uncertainty in each element influenced the stream selection program. First, the stream selection model based on current larval assessment sampling protocol significantly underestimated transforming sea lam-prey abundance, transforming sea lampreys killed, and marginal costs per sea lamprey killed, compared to a protocol that included more years of data (especially for large streams). Second, larval density in streams varied significantly with Type-I habitat area, but not with total area or reach length. Third, the ratio of larval density between Type-I and Type-II habitat varied significantly among streams, and that the optimal allocation of sampling effort varied with the proportion of habitat types and variability of larval density within each habitat. Fourth, mean length varied significantly among streams and years. Last, size at metamorphosis varied more among years than within or among regions and that metamorphosis varied significantly among streams within regions. Study results indicate that: (1) the stream selection model should be used to identify streams with potentially high residual populations of larval sea lampreys; (2) larval sampling in Type-II habitat should be initiated in all streams by increasing sampling in Type-II habitat to 50% of the sampling effort in Type-I habitat; and (3) methods should be investigated to reduce uncertainty in estimates of sea lamprey production, with emphasis on those that reduce the uncertainty associated with larval length at the end of the growing season and those used to predict metamorphosis.

  3. Larval intraspecific competition for food in the European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana.

    PubMed

    Thiéry, D; Monceau, K; Moreau, J

    2014-08-01

    Effective pest management with lower amounts of pesticides relies on accurate prediction of insect pest growth rates. Knowledge of the factors governing this trait and the resulting fitness of individuals is thus necessary to refine predictions and make suitable decisions in crop protection. The European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana, the major pest of grapes in Europe, is responsible for huge economic losses. Larvae very rarely leave the grape bunch on which they were oviposited and thus cannot avoid intraspecific competition. In this study, we determined the impact of intraspecific competition during the larval stage on development and adult fitness in this species. This was tested by rearing different numbers of larvae on an artificial diet and measuring developmental and reproductive life history traits. We found that intraspecific competition during larval development has a slight impact on the fitness of L. botrana. The principal finding of this work is that larval density has little effect on the life history traits of survivors. Thus, the timing of eclosion, duration of subsequent oviposition, fecundity appears to be more uniform in L. botrana than in other species. The main effect of larval crowding was a strong increase of larval mortality at high densities whereas the probability of emergence, sex ratio, pupal mass, fecundity and longevity of mated females were not affected by larval crowding. Owing to increased larval mortality at high larval densities, we hypothesized that mortality of larvae at high densities provided better access to food for the survivors with the result that more food was available per capita and there were no effect on fitness of survivors. From our results, larval crowding alters the reproductive capacity of this pest less than expected but this single factor should now be tested in interaction with limited resources in the wild.

  4. Susceptibility of cat fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) to fipronil and imidacloprid using adult and larval bioassays.

    PubMed

    Rust, M K; Vetter, R; Denholm, I; Blagburn, B; Williamson, M S; Kopp, S; Coleman, G; Hostetler, J; Davis, W; Mencke, N; Rees, R; Foit, S; Tetzner, K

    2014-05-01

    The monitoring of the susceptibility offleas to insecticides has typically been conducted by exposing adults on treated surfaces. Other methods such as topical applications of insecticides to adults and larval bioassays on treated rearing media have been developed. Unfortunately, baseline responses of susceptible strains of cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouchè), except for imidacloprid, have not been determined for all on-animal therapies and new classes of chemistry now being used. However, the relationship between adult and larval bioassays of fleas has not been previously investigated. The adult and larval bioassays of fipronil and imidacloprid were compared for both field-collected isolates and laboratory strains. Adult topical bioassays of fipronil and imidacloprid to laboratory strains and field-collected isolates demonstrated that LD50s of fipronil and imidacloprid ranged from 0.11 to 0.40 nanograms per flea and 0.02 to 0.18 nanograms per flea, respectively. Resistance ratios for fipronil and imidacloprid ranged from 0.11 to 2.21. Based on the larval bioassay published for imidacloprid, a larval bioassay was established for fipronil and reported in this article. The ranges of the LC50s of fipronil and imidacloprid in the larval rearing media were 0.07-0.16 and 0.11-0.21 ppm, respectively. Resistance ratios for adult and larval bioassays ranged from 0.11 to 2.2 and 0.58 to 1.75, respectively. Both adult and larval bioassays provided similar patterns for fipronil and imidacloprid. Although the adult bioassays permitted a more precise dosage applied, the larval bioassays allowed for testing isolates without the need to maintain on synthetic or natural hosts.

  5. Expression of Calmodulin and Myosin Light Chain Kinase during Larval Settlement of the Barnacle Balanus amphitrite

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhang-Fan; Wang, Hao; Matsumura, Kiyotaka; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Barnacles are one of the most common organisms in intertidal areas. Their life cycle includes seven free-swimming larval stages and sessile juvenile and adult stages. The transition from the swimming to the sessile stages, referred to as larval settlement, is crucial for their survivor success and subsequent population distribution. In this study, we focused on the involvement of calmodulin (CaM) and its binding proteins in the larval settlement of the barnacle, Balanus ( = Amphibalanus) amphitrite. The full length of CaM gene was cloned from stage II nauplii of B. amphitrite (referred to as Ba-CaM), encoding 149 amino acid residues that share a high similarity with published CaMs in other organisms. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that Ba-CaM was highly expressed in cyprids, the stage at which swimming larvae are competent to attach and undergo metamorphosis. In situ hybridization revealed that the expressed Ba-CaM gene was localized in compound eyes, posterior ganglion and cement glands, all of which may have essential functions during larval settlement. Larval settlement assays showed that both the CaM inhibitor compound 48/80 and the CaM-dependent myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitor ML-7 effectively blocked barnacle larval settlement, whereas Ca2+/CaM-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitors did not show any clear effects. The subsequent real-time PCR assay showed a higher expression level of Ba-MLCK gene in larval stages than in adults, suggesting an important role of Ba-MLCK gene in larval development and competency. Overall, the results suggest that CaM and CaM-dependent MLCK function during larval settlement of B. amphitrite. PMID:22348072

  6. Community Regulation: The Relative Importance of Recruitment and Predation Intensity of an Intertidal Community Dominant in a Seascape Context

    PubMed Central

    Rilov, Gil; Schiel, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Predicting the strength and context-dependency of species interactions across multiple scales is a core area in ecology. This is especially challenging in the marine environment, where populations of most predators and prey are generally open, because of their pelagic larval phase, and recruitment of both is highly variable. In this study we use a comparative-experimental approach on small and large spatial scales to test the relationship between predation intensity and prey recruitment and their relative importance in shaping populations of a dominant rocky intertidal space occupier, mussels, in the context of seascape (availability of nearby subtidal reef habitat). Predation intensity on transplanted mussels was tested inside and outside cages and recruitment was measured with standard larval settlement collectors. We found that on intertidal rocky benches with contiguous subtidal reefs in New Zealand, mussel larval recruitment is usually low but predation on recruits by subtidal consumers (fish, crabs) is intense during high tide. On nearby intertidal rocky benches with adjacent sandy subtidal habitats, larval recruitment is usually greater but subtidal predators are typically rare and predation is weaker. Multiple regression analysis showed that predation intensity accounts for most of the variability in the abundance of adult mussels compared to recruitment. This seascape-dependent, predation-recruitment relationship could scale up to explain regional community variability. We argue that community ecology models should include seascape context-dependency and its effects on recruitment and species interactions for better predictions of coastal community dynamics and structure. PMID:21887351

  7. Catching prey with the antennae - The larval head of Corethrella appendiculata (Diptera: Corethrellidae).

    PubMed

    Förster, Maria; Beutel, Rolf G; Schneeberg, Katharina

    2016-11-01

    The larval cephalic morphology of Corethrella appendiculata Grabham, 1906 is described and documented in detail. The observed features are compared to conditions found in Chaoboridae, Culicidae, and other culicomorph families. The function of antennae, mouthparts and associated muscles is interpreted based on the morphological results. The prey catching mechanism is compared to what occurs in other predaceous larvae of Culicomorpha. The cephalic larval morphology is discussed with respect to homology and possible phylogenetic implications. The horizontal frontoclypeal antennal grooves and the lateral rows of strongly developed bristles are likely larval autapomorphies of Corethrellidae. The presence of raptorial antennae is a highly unusual apomorphy shared with Chaoboridae. The systematic position of Corethrellidae remains ambiguous.

  8. Does White Clover (Trifolium repens) Abundance in Temperate Pastures Determine Sitona obsoletus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Larval Populations?

    PubMed Central

    McNeill, Mark R.; van Koten, Chikako; Cave, Vanessa M.; Chapman, David; Hodgson, Hamish

    2016-01-01

    To determine if host plant abundance determined the size of clover root weevil (CRW) Sitona obsoletus larval populations, a study was conducted over 4 years in plots sown in ryegrass (Lolium perenne) (cv. Nui) sown at either 6 or 30 kg/ha and white clover (Trifolium repens) sown at a uniform rate of 8 kg/ha. This provided a range of % white clover content to investigate CRW population establishment and impacts on white clover survival. Larval sampling was carried out in spring (October) when larval densities are near their spring peak at Lincoln (Canterbury, New Zealand) with % clover measured in autumn (April) and spring (September) of each year. Overall, mean larval densities measured in spring 2012–2015 were 310, 38, 59, and 31 larvae m-2, respectively. There was a significant decline in larval populations between 2012 and 2013, but spring populations were relatively uniform thereafter. The mean % white clover measured in autumns of 2012 to 2015 was 17, 10, 3, and 11%, respectively. In comparison, mean spring % white clover from 2012 to 2015, averaged c. 5% each year. Analysis relating spring (October) larval populations to % white clover measured in each plot in autumn (April) found the 2012 larval population to be statistically significantly larger in the ryegrass 6 kg/ha plots than 30 kg/ha plots. Thereafter, sowing rate had no significant effect on larval populations. From 2013 to 2015, spring larval populations had a negative relationship with the previous autumn % white clover with the relationship highly significant for the 2014 data. When CRW larval populations in spring 2013 to 2015 were predicted from the 2013 to 2015 autumn % white clover, respectively, based on their positive relationship in 2012, the predicted densities were substantially larger than those observed. Conversely, when 2015 spring larval data and % clover was regressed against 2012–2014 larval populations, observed densities tended to be higher than predicted, but the numbers came

  9. Does White Clover (Trifolium repens) Abundance in Temperate Pastures Determine Sitona obsoletus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Larval Populations?

    PubMed

    McNeill, Mark R; van Koten, Chikako; Cave, Vanessa M; Chapman, David; Hodgson, Hamish

    2016-01-01

    To determine if host plant abundance determined the size of clover root weevil (CRW) Sitona obsoletus larval populations, a study was conducted over 4 years in plots sown in ryegrass (Lolium perenne) (cv. Nui) sown at either 6 or 30 kg/ha and white clover (Trifolium repens) sown at a uniform rate of 8 kg/ha. This provided a range of % white clover content to investigate CRW population establishment and impacts on white clover survival. Larval sampling was carried out in spring (October) when larval densities are near their spring peak at Lincoln (Canterbury, New Zealand) with % clover measured in autumn (April) and spring (September) of each year. Overall, mean larval densities measured in spring 2012-2015 were 310, 38, 59, and 31 larvae m(-2), respectively. There was a significant decline in larval populations between 2012 and 2013, but spring populations were relatively uniform thereafter. The mean % white clover measured in autumns of 2012 to 2015 was 17, 10, 3, and 11%, respectively. In comparison, mean spring % white clover from 2012 to 2015, averaged c. 5% each year. Analysis relating spring (October) larval populations to % white clover measured in each plot in autumn (April) found the 2012 larval population to be statistically significantly larger in the ryegrass 6 kg/ha plots than 30 kg/ha plots. Thereafter, sowing rate had no significant effect on larval populations. From 2013 to 2015, spring larval populations had a negative relationship with the previous autumn % white clover with the relationship highly significant for the 2014 data. When CRW larval populations in spring 2013 to 2015 were predicted from the 2013 to 2015 autumn % white clover, respectively, based on their positive relationship in 2012, the predicted densities were substantially larger than those observed. Conversely, when 2015 spring larval data and % clover was regressed against 2012-2014 larval populations, observed densities tended to be higher than predicted, but the numbers came

  10. Larval fish assemblages across an upwelling front: Indication for active and passive retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiedemann, Maik; Brehmer, Patrice

    2017-03-01

    In upwelling areas, enrichment, concentration and retention are physical processes that have major consequences for larval fish survival. While these processes generally increase larval survival, strong upwelling can also increase mortality due to an offshore transport of larvae towards unfavorable habitats. In 2013 a survey was conducted along the Senegalese coast to investigate the upwelling effect with regard to larval fish assemblages and possible larval fish retention. According to water column characteristics two distinct habitats during an upwelling event were discriminated, i.e. the inshore upwelled water and the transition area over the deepest part of the Senegalese shelf. Along the two areas 42,162 fish larvae were collected representing 133 species within 40 families. Highest larval fish abundances were observed in the inshore area and decreasing abundances towards the transition, indicating that certain fish species make use of the retentive function of the inner shelf area as spawning grounds. Two larval fish assemblages overlap both habitats, which are sharply delimited by a strong upwelling front. One assemblage inhabited the inshore/upwelling area characterized by majorly neritic and pelagic species (Sparidae spp., Sardinella aurita), that seem to take the advantage of a passive retention on the shelf. The second assemblage consisted of a mix of pelagic and mesopelagic species (Engraulis encrasicolus, Carangidae spp. and Myctophidae spp.). Some species of the second assemblage, e.g. horse mackerels (Trachurus trachurus and Trachurus trecae), large finned-lantern fish (Hygophum macrochir) and foureyed sole (Microchirus ocellatus), revealed larval peak occurrences at intermediate and deep water layers, where the near-ground upwelling layer is able to transport larvae back to the shelf. This indicates active larval retention for species that are dominant in the transition area. Diel vertical migration patterns of S. aurita, E. encrasicolus and M

  11. Bacterial communities associated with larval development of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Adult stable flies are hematophagous parasites that preferentially feed on cattle. Persistent attacks and painful bites of the adults contribute to an economic impact of ~$2 billion/yr on the US cattle industry. Although stable flies are important livestock pests, relatively little is ...

  12. Interactions between fungi and bacteria influence microbial community structure in the Megachile rotundata larval gut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent declines in bee populations coupled with advances in DNA-sequencing technology have sparked a renaissance in studies of bee-associated microbes. Megachile rotundata is the second, only to honey bees, as a crop pollinator, but is stricken by chalkbrood, a disease caused by the fungus Ascosphae...

  13. Assessing sediments from Upper Mississippi River navigational pools using a benthic invertebrate community evaluation and the sediment quality triad approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Canfield, T.J.; Brunson, E.L.; Dwyer, F.J.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Kemble, N.E.

    1998-01-01

    Benthic invertebrate samples were collected from 23 pools in the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) and from one station in the Saint Croix River (SCR) as part of a study to assess the effects of the extensive flooding of 1993 on sediment contamination in the UMR system. Sediment contaminants of concern included both organic and inorganic compounds. Oligochaetes and chironomids constituted over 80% of the total abundance in samples from 14 of 23 pools in the UMR and SCR samples. Fingernail clams comprised a large portion of the community in three of 23 UMR pools and exceeded abundances of 1,000/m2 in five of 23 pools. Total abundance ranged from 250/m2 in samples from pool 1 to 22,389/m2 in samples from pool 19. Abundance values are comparable with levels previously reported in the literature for the UMR. Overall frequency of chironomid mouthpart deformities was 3% (range 0-13%), which is comparable to reported incidence of deformities in uncontaminated sediments previously evaluated. Sediment contamination was generally low in the UMR pools and the SCR site. Correlations between benthic measures and sediment chemistry and other abiotic parameters exhibited few significant or strong correlations. The sediment quality triad (Triad) approach was used to evaluate data from laboratory toxicity tests, sediment chemistry, and benthic community analyses; it showed that 88% of the samples were not scored as impacted based on sediment toxicity, chemistry, and benthic measures. Benthic invertebrate distributions and community structure within the UMR in the samples evaluated in the present study were most likely controlled by factors independent of contaminant concentrations in the sediments.

  14. The complete larval development of Pagurus lanuginosus De Haan, 1849 (Decapoda, Anomura, Paguridae) reared in the laboratory, with emphasis on the post-larval stage.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Zakea; Asakura, Akira

    2015-02-03

    The complete larval development of Pagurus lanuginosus is described and illustrated including the first description of the post-larval stage. Specimens were reared in the laboratory at 15°C and 33.5-35.02 PSU. Newly hatched larvae passed through a short prezoeal stage (10 minutes to 2 hours), four zoeal stages (6, 6, 6, 8 days), and one megalopal stage (10 days). We compared the morphological features of each larval stage with those of the preceding two descriptions on the same species, and found many differences in morphology and the duration between zoeal stages. We concluded that significant diagnostic characters separating this species from other congeners in Japanese waters include the presence of two pairs of yellowish chromatophores on the carapace in the zoeal stages, a translucent body flecked with red chromatophores, and two pairs of red chromatophores on the carapace in the megalopal stage. 

  15. Teratogenic and genotoxic responses of larval Chironomus (Diptera) to contaminated sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, L.A.; Muir, K.; Ciborowski, J.J.H.

    1994-12-31

    Sediment-associated contaminants can produce developmental or genotoxic stresses independently of their cytotoxic effects. In the laboratory, the authors exposed Chironomus larvae to mixtures of polluted (either Detroit R., MI, or cadmium or benzo-[a]-pyrene-spiked) sediment diluted with uncontaminated, formulated sediment. Second-instar Chironomus nr. salinarius were grown to 4th star in water filled 1-L jars containing 300 mL of contaminated:formulated sediment mixture in ratios of 1:0, 1:1, 1:3, 1:7, 1:15 or 0:1. Surviving larvae were preserved in Carnoy`s solution. Each larva`s head was slide-mounted and examined for deformities of the mentum. Polytene chromosome preparations were made from salivary glands of the same animals using acid fuschin staining and examined for reduced relative size of the nuclear organizer (NO) indicative of inhibition of RNA synthesis activity. Incidence of chironomid deformities from control (0:1) sediments ({plus_minus}I SE) was 7.9 {plus_minus} 1.6% (N = 268): 4.0 {plus_minus} 1.5% of 178 control larvae examined displayed NO reduction. Incidence of mentum deformities and of NO reduction increased linearly with each doubling of Detroit R. concentration at 1:0 for deformities; 12.2 {plus_minus} 3.5% (N = 149) for NO reductions. Reduction of NO in a larva was unrelated to mentum condition, indicating that these are independent responses to contaminant stress. Equivalent results were obtained for exposure to single-compound sediments. This is the first documentation of controlled dose-response effects of contaminants on chironomid deformities.

  16. Metamorphosis of a butterfly-associated bacterial community.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Tobin J; McMillan, W Owen; Fierer, Noah

    2014-01-01

    Butterflies are charismatic insects that have long been a focus of biological research. They are also habitats for microorganisms, yet these microbial symbionts are little-studied, despite their likely importance to butterfly ecology and evolution. In particular, the diversity and composition of the microbial communities inhabiting adult butterflies remain uncharacterized, and it is unknown how the larval (caterpillar) and adult microbiota compare. To address these knowledge gaps, we used Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from internal bacterial communities associated with multiple life stages of the neotropical butterfly Heliconius erato. We found that the leaf-chewing larvae and nectar- and pollen-feeding adults of H. erato contain markedly distinct bacterial communities, a pattern presumably rooted in their distinct diets. Larvae and adult butterflies host relatively small and similar numbers of bacterial phylotypes, but few are common to both stages. The larval microbiota clearly simplifies and reorganizes during metamorphosis; thus, structural changes in a butterfly's bacterial community parallel those in its own morphology. We furthermore identify specific bacterial taxa that may mediate larval and adult feeding biology in Heliconius and other butterflies. Although male and female Heliconius adults differ in reproductive physiology and degree of pollen feeding, bacterial communities associated with H. erato are not sexually dimorphic. Lastly, we show that captive and wild individuals host different microbiota, a finding that may have important implications for the relevance of experimental studies using captive butterflies.

  17. Metamorphosis of a Butterfly-Associated Bacterial Community

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Tobin J.; McMillan, W. Owen; Fierer, Noah

    2014-01-01

    Butterflies are charismatic insects that have long been a focus of biological research. They are also habitats for microorganisms, yet these microbial symbionts are little-studied, despite their likely importance to butterfly ecology and evolution. In particular, the diversity and composition of the microbial communities inhabiting adult butterflies remain uncharacterized, and it is unknown how the larval (caterpillar) and adult microbiota compare. To address these knowledge gaps, we used Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from internal bacterial communities associated with multiple life stages of the neotropical butterfly Heliconius erato. We found that the leaf-chewing larvae and nectar- and pollen-feeding adults of H. erato contain markedly distinct bacterial communities, a pattern presumably rooted in their distinct diets. Larvae and adult butterflies host relatively small and similar numbers of bacterial phylotypes, but few are common to both stages. The larval microbiota clearly simplifies and reorganizes during metamorphosis; thus, structural changes in a butterfly's bacterial community parallel those in its own morphology. We furthermore identify specific bacterial taxa that may mediate larval and adult feeding biology in Heliconius and other butterflies. Although male and female Heliconius adults differ in reproductive physiology and degree of pollen feeding, bacterial communities associated with H. erato are not sexually dimorphic. Lastly, we show that captive and wild individuals host different microbiota, a finding that may have important implications for the relevance of experimental studies using captive butterflies. PMID:24466308

  18. Stock-specific advection of larval walleye (Sander vitreus) in western Lake Erie: Implications for larval growth, mixing, and stock discrimination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michael Fraker,; Eric J. Anderson,; Cassandra J. May,; Kuan-Yu Chen,; Jeremiah J. Davis,; Kristen M. DeVanna,; Mark R. DuFour,; Elizabeth A. Marschall,; Christine M. Mayer,; Jeffrey G. Miner,; Kevin L. Pangle,; Jeremy J. Pritt,; Roseman, Edward F.; Jeffrey T. Tyson,; Yingming Zhao,; Stuart Ludsin,

    2015-01-01

    Physical processes can generate spatiotemporal heterogeneity in habitat quality for fish and also influence the overlap of pre-recruit individuals (e.g., larvae) with high-quality habitat through hydrodynamic advection. In turn, individuals from different stocks that are produced in different spawning locations or at different times may experience dissimilar habitat conditions, which can underlie within- and among-stock variability in larval growth and survival. While such physically-mediated variation has been shown to be important in driving intra- and inter-annual patterns in recruitment in marine ecosystems, its role in governing larval advection, growth, survival, and recruitment has received less attention in large lake ecosystems such as the Laurentian Great Lakes. Herein, we used a hydrodynamic model linked to a larval walleye (Sander vitreus) individual-based model to explore how the timing and location of larval walleye emergence from several spawning sites in western Lake Erie (Maumee, Sandusky, and Detroit rivers; Ohio reef complex) can influence advection pathways and mixing among these local spawning populations (stocks), and how spatiotemporal variation in thermal habitat can influence stock-specific larval growth. While basin-wide advection patterns were fairly similar during 2011 and 2012, smaller scale advection patterns and the degree of stock mixing varied both within and between years. Additionally, differences in larval growth were evident among stocks and among cohorts within stocks which were attributed to spatiotemporal differences in water temperature. Using these findings, we discuss the value of linked physical–biological models for understanding the recruitment process and addressing fisheries management problems in the world's Great Lakes.

  19. Larval salamanders and channel geomorphology are indicators of hydrologic permanence in forested headwater streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regulatory agencies need rapid indicators of hydrologic permanence for jurisdictional determinations of headwater streams. Our study objective was to assess the utility of larval salamander presence and assemblage structure and habitat variables for determining stream permanence ...

  20. Predicting developmental neurotoxicity in rodents from larval zebrafish - - and vice versa

    EPA Science Inventory

    The complexity of standard mammalian developmental neurotoxicity tests limits evaluation of large numbers of chemicals. Less complex, more rapid assays using larval zebrafish are gaining popularity for evaluating the developmental neurotoxicity of chemicals; there remains, howeve...

  1. Oviposition deterrence associated with larval frass of the Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Anbutsu, H; Togashi, K

    2002-04-01

    To determine the effect of larval frass of Monochamus alternatus on oviposition preference of the female adults, three tests were performed in the laboratory. Individual females were provided with a frass-coated, Pinus densiflora bolt and an untreated bolt simultaneously and were allowed to oviposit for 24 h. They deposited a significantly smaller number of eggs on frass-coated bolts. The females supplied with frass-coated bolts deposited no eggs on them, indicating that the larval frass deterred the females from oviposition. When individual females were provided simultaneously with a pine bolt applied with a methanol extract of larval frass and another bolt applied with methanol alone, they deposited a significantly smaller number of eggs on frass extract-applied bolts for 24 h. These results suggest the presence of a putative oviposition deterrent in larval frass of M. alternatus. Each test was replicated 19-20 times using different females.

  2. Larval nutritional stress affects vector life history traits and human malaria transmission

    PubMed Central

    Vantaux, Amélie; Lefèvre, Thierry; Cohuet, Anna; Dabiré, Kounbobr Roch; Roche, Benjamin; Roux, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to stress during an insect’s larval development can have carry-over effects on adult life history traits and susceptibility to pathogens. We investigated the effects of larval nutritional stress for the first time using field mosquito vectors and malaria parasites. In contrast to previous studies, we show that larval nutritional stress may affect human to mosquito transmission antagonistically: nutritionally deprived larvae showed lower parasite prevalence for only one gametocyte carrier; they also had lower fecundity. However, they had greater survival rates that were even higher when infected. When combining these opposing effects into epidemiological models, we show that larval nutritional stress induced a decrease in malaria transmission at low mosquito densities and an increase in transmission at high mosquito densities, whereas transmission by mosquitoes from well-fed larvae was stable. Our work underscores the importance of including environmental stressors towards understanding host–parasite dynamics to improve disease transmission models and control. PMID:27827429

  3. Larval nutritional stress affects vector life history traits and human malaria transmission.

    PubMed

    Vantaux, Amélie; Lefèvre, Thierry; Cohuet, Anna; Dabiré, Kounbobr Roch; Roche, Benjamin; Roux, Olivier

    2016-11-09

    Exposure to stress during an insect's larval development can have carry-over effects on adult life history traits and susceptibility to pathogens. We investigated the effects of larval nutritional stress for the first time using field mosquito vectors and malaria parasites. In contrast to previous studies, we show that larval nutritional stress may affect human to mosquito transmission antagonistically: nutritionally deprived larvae showed lower parasite prevalence for only one gametocyte carrier; they also had lower fecundity. However, they had greater survival rates that were even higher when infected. When combining these opposing effects into epidemiological models, we show that larval nutritional stress induced a decrease in malaria transmission at low mosquito densities and an increase in transmission at high mosquito densities, whereas transmission by mosquitoes from well-fed larvae was stable. Our work underscores the importance of including environmental stressors towards understanding host-parasite dynamics to improve disease transmission models and control.

  4. Larval cannibalism and pupal defense against cannibalism in two species of tenebrionid beetles.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Toshio; Kurauchi, Toshiaki

    2009-08-01

    Cannibalism of pupae by larvae has been documented In many species of Insects, but the features of larval cannibalism and pupal defensive mechanisms against larval cannibalism have been largely Ignored. Pupae of tenebrionld beetles rotate their abdominal segments in a circular motion in response to the tactile stimulation of appendages, including legs, antennae, maxillary pulps, and wings. When the pupal abdominal rotation responses of Tenebrio molitor and Zophobas atratus were completely blocked by transecting the ventral nerve cord (VNC) of the pupae, the appendages of the paralytic pupae became initial, major targets for attack by larval cannibals. The majority of 20 paralytic pupae was cannibalized by 100 larvae within 6 h, and almost all the pupae were killed within 2-3 days. In contrast, only a few pupae of Z. atratus and several pupae of T. molitor were cannibalized when the VNC was Intact. The abdominal rotation response of the pupae thus functions as an effective defense against larval cannibalism.

  5. A High-Throughput Method for the Analysis of Larval Developmental Phenotypes in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Olmedo, María; Geibel, Mirjam; Artal-Sanz, Marta; Merrow, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans postembryonic development consists of four discrete larval stages separated by molts. Typically, the speed of progression through these larval stages is investigated by visual inspection of the molting process. Here, we describe an automated method to monitor the timing of these discrete phases of C. elegans maturation, from the first larval stage through adulthood, using bioluminescence. The method was validated with a lin-42 mutant strain that shows delayed development relative to wild-type animals and with a daf-2 mutant that shows an extended second larval stage. This new method is inherently high-throughput and will finally allow dissecting the molecular machinery governing the speed of the developmental clock, which has so far been hampered by the lack of a method suitable for genetic screens. PMID:26294666

  6. A High-Throughput Method for the Analysis of Larval Developmental Phenotypes in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, María; Geibel, Mirjam; Artal-Sanz, Marta; Merrow, Martha

    2015-10-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans postembryonic development consists of four discrete larval stages separated by molts. Typically, the speed of progression through these larval stages is investigated by visual inspection of the molting process. Here, we describe an automated method to monitor the timing of these discrete phases of C. elegans maturation, from the first larval stage through adulthood, using bioluminescence. The method was validated with a lin-42 mutant strain that shows delayed development relative to wild-type animals and with a daf-2 mutant that shows an extended second larval stage. This new method is inherently high-throughput and will finally allow dissecting the molecular machinery governing the speed of the developmental clock, which has so far been hampered by the lack of a method suitable for genetic screens.

  7. Morphological features to distinguish the larval stage of invasive Ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus) from native fish species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Larval fish surveys are used in a variety of research and monitoring activities, including identification of nursery habitat and invasive species early detection. Morphologically-based taxonomic identification of larvae collected from these surveys, however, is often challenging....

  8. Morphological features to distinguish the larval stage of invasive Ruffe from native fish species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Larval fish surveys are used in a variety of research and monitoring activities, including identification of nursery habitat and invasive species early detection. Morphologically-based taxonomic identification of larvae collected from these surveys, however, is often challenging....

  9. Plastic Hatching Timing by Red-Eyed Treefrog Embryos Interacts with Larval Predator Identity and Sublethal Predation to Affect Prey Morphology but Not Performance

    PubMed Central

    Touchon, Justin C.; Wojdak, Jeremy M.

    2014-01-01

    Many animals respond to predation risk by altering their morphology, behavior, or life-history. We know a great deal about the cues prey respond to and the changes to prey that can be induced by predation risk, but less is known about how plastic responses to predators may be affected by separate plastic responses occurring earlier in life, particularly during the embryonic period. Embryos of a broad array of taxa can respond to egg- or larval-stage risks by altering hatching timing, which may alter the way organisms respond to future predators. Using the red-eyed treefrog (Agalychnis callidryas), a model for understanding the effects of plasticity across life-stages, we assessed how the combined effects of induced variation in the timing of embryo hatching and variation in the larval predator community impacted tadpole morphology, pigmentation and swimming performance. We found that A. callidryas tadpoles developed deeper tail muscles and fins and darker pigmentation in response to fish predators, either when alone or in diverse community with other predators. Tadpoles altered morphology much less so to dragonfly naiads or water bugs. Interestingly, morphological responses to predators were also affected by induced differences in hatching age, with early and late-hatched tadpoles exhibiting different allometric relationships between tail height and body length in different predator environments. Beyond induced morphological changes, fish predators often damaged tadpoles’ tails without killing them (i.e., sublethal predation), but these tadpoles swam equally quickly to those with fully intact tails. This was due to the fact that tadpoles with more damaged tails increased tail beats to achieve equal swimming speed. This study demonstrates that plastic phenotypic responses to predation risk can be influenced by a complex combination of responses to both the embryo and larval environments, but also that prey performance can be highly resilient to sublethal predation

  10. Interactions between introduced trout and larval salamanders (Ambystoma macrodactylum) in high-elevation lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tyler, T.; Liss, W.J.; Ganio, L.; Larson, Gary L.; Hoffman, Robert L.; Deimling, E.; Lomnicky, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    The larval stage of the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) is the top vertebrate predator in high-elevation fishless lakes in the North Cascades National Park Service Complex, Washington (U.S.A.). Although most of these high-elevation lakes were naturally fishless, trout have been stocked in many of them. We sought to determine the effects of physicochemical factors and introduced trout on abundance and behavior of A. macrodactylum larvae. Larval salamander densities were estimated by snorkeling. Snorkelers carefully searched through substrate materials within 2 m of the shoreline and recorded the number of larvae observed and if larvae were hidden in benthic substrates. Physicochemical factors were measured in each lake on the same day that snorkel surveys were conducted. In fishless lakes, larval salamander densities were positively related to total Kjeldahl-N concentration and negatively related to lake elevation. Crustacean zooplankton, especially cladocerans, were important food resources for larval A. macrodactylum. Crustacean zooplankton and cladoceran densities were positively related to total Kjeldahl-N, suggesting that increased food resources contributed to increased densities of larval A. macrodactylum. Differences in larval salamander densities between fish and fishless lakes were related to total Kjeldahl-N concentrations and the reproductive status of trout. Mean larval salamander densities for fishless lakes with total Kjeldahl-N < 0.045 mg/L were not significantly different from mean larval densities in lakes with reproducing trout or in lakes with nonreproducing trout. In fishless lakes with total Kjeldahl-N a?Y 0.045 mg/L, however, mean larval densities were significantly higher than in lakes with reproducing trout where fish reached high densities. In fishless lakes with total Kjeldahl-N a?Y 0.095 mg/L, mean larval densities were significantly higher than in lakes with nonreproducing trout where trout fry were stocked at low

  11. Development of the larval amphibian growth and development ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Larval Amphibian Growth and Development Assay (LAGDA) is a Tier II test guideline being developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency under the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. The LAGDA was designed to evaluate effects of chronic chemical exposure on growth, thyroid-mediated amphibian metamorphosis and reproductive development. To evaluate the assay’s performance, two model chemicals targeting the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis were tested; a weak estrogen receptor agonist, 4-tert-octylphenol (tOP), and an androgen receptor agonist, 17β-trenbolone (TB). Xenopus laevis embryos were constantly exposed in flow-through conditions to various test concentrations of tOP (nominal: 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 μg/L) or TB (nominal: 12.5, 25, 50, 100 ng/L) and clean water controls until 8 weeks post-metamorphosis, at which time growth measurements were taken and histopathology assessments were made on gonads, reproductive ducts, liver and kidneys. There were no effects on growth in either study and no signs of overt toxicity, sex reversal or gonad dysgenesis at the concentrations tested. Exposure to tOP caused a treatment-related decrease in circulating thyroxine and an increase in thyroid follicular cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia (25, 50 μg/L). Müllerian duct development was clearly affected following exposure to both chemicals; tOP exposure caused dose-dependent maturation of oviducts in both male and female frogs, whereas TB exposure ca

  12. Distribution of ferric iron in larval lampreys, Petromyzon marinus L.

    PubMed

    Hall, S J; Youson, J H

    1988-01-01

    The distribution and abundance of ferric iron in larval lampreys (Petromyzon marinus L.) were investigated using light microscopy and the Prussian blue stain. Animals from various watersheds contained different concentrations of iron, although the sites of deposition were the same for all animals. A major portion of iron is within adipose tissue, while the liver, and cartilage contain predominantly low to trace amounts of iron, respectively. Iron is associated with fibrous connective tissue in several places in the body, and this association may have particular significance in the inner ear. Iron is also located in cells of the meninges. The presence of iron in the epithelial cells of the posterior intestine may reflect elimination of the metal through the extrusion of iron-loaded cells into the intestinal lumen. Iron within mucous cells of the epidermis, suggest elimination of iron during mucous secretion. Iron-loaded cells of bipolar shape are also present in the epidermis, but are particularly prominent around the branchiopore. Low concentrations of iron are observed within in melanin-containing macrophages (melano-macrophages) in regions of iron absorption, erythrophagocytosis, and haemopoiesis. High levels of iron in the epithelia and lumina of pronephric tubules are concomitant with degeneration of this organ. These data are evidence of the wide spread distribution of iron in lamprey tissues and additional evidence for the potential value of lampreys for the study of iron metabolism in vertebrates.

  13. Connectivity dominates larval replenishment in a coastal reef fish metapopulation.

    PubMed

    Saenz-Agudelo, Pablo; Jones, Geoffrey P; Thorrold, Simon R; Planes, Serge

    2011-10-07

    Direct estimates of larval retention and connectivity are essential to understand the structure and dynamics of marine metapopulations, and optimize the size and spacing of reserves within networks of marine-protected areas (MPAs). For coral reef fishes, while there are some empirical estimates of self-recruitment at isolated populations, exchange among sub-populations has been rarely quantified. Here, we used microsatellite DNA markers and a likelihood-based parentage analysis to assess the relative magnitude of self-recruitment and exchange among eight geographically distinct sub-populations of the panda clownfish Amphiprion polymnus along 30 km of coastline near Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. In addition, we used an assignment/exclusion test to identify immigrants arriving from genetically distinct sources. Overall, 82 per cent of the juveniles were immigrants while 18 per cent were progeny of parents genotyped in our focal metapopulation. Of the immigrants, only 6 per cent were likely to be genetically distinct from the focal metapopulation, suggesting most of the connectivity is among sub-populations from a rather homogeneous genetic pool. Of the 18 per cent that were progeny of known adults, two-thirds dispersed among the eight sub-populations and only one-third settled back into natal sub-populations. Comparison of our data with previous studies suggested that variation in dispersal distances is likely to be influenced by the geographical setting and spacing of sub-populations.

  14. Dietary phosphorus affects the growth of larval Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Marc C; Woods, H Arthur; Harrison, Jon F; Elser, James J

    2004-03-01

    Although phosphorus has long been considered an important factor in the growth of diverse biota such as bacteria, algae, and zooplankton, insect nutrition has classically focused on dietary protein and energy content. However, research in elemental stoichiometry has suggested that primary producer biomass has similar N:P ratios in aquatic and terrestrial systems, and phosphorus-rich herbivores in freshwater systems frequently face phosphorus-limited nutritional conditions. Therefore, herbivorous insects should also be prone to phosphorus limitation. We tested this prediction by rearing Manduca sexta larvae on artificial and natural (Datura wrightii leaves) diets containing varying levels of phosphorus (approximately 0.20, 0.55, or 1.2% phosphorus by dry weight). For both artificial and natural diets, increased dietary phosphorus significantly increased growth rates and body phosphorus contents, and shortened the time to the final instar molt. Caterpillars did not consistently exhibit compensatory feeding for phosphorus on either type of diet. The growth and body phosphorus responses were not explicable by changes in amounts of potassium or calcium, which co-varied with phosphorus in the diets. Concentrations of phosphorus in D. wrightii leaves collected in the field varied over a range in which leaf phosphorus is predicted to affect M. sexta's growth rates. These results suggest that natural variation in dietary phosphorus is likely to affect the growth rate and population dynamics of M. sexta, and perhaps larval insects more generally.

  15. Population admixture and high larval viability among urban toads

    PubMed Central

    Hase, Kazuko; Nikoh, Naruo; Shimada, Masakazu

    2013-01-01

    In terms of evolutionary biology, a population admixture of more than two distinct lineages may lead to strengthened genetic variation through hybridization. However, a population admixture arising from artificial secondary contact poses significant problems in conservation biology. In urban Tokyo, a population admixture has emerged from two lineages of Japanese common toad: native Bufo japonicus formosus and nonnative B. japonicus japonicus, of which the latter was introduced in the early 20th century. To evaluate the degree of genetic disturbance in the admixed population of these two subspecies, we analyzed genotypes of toads distributed within and outside Tokyo by assessing mtDNA and seven microsatellite loci. We found that the introduced B. japonicus japonicus genotype dominates six local populations in the Tokyo admixture zone and was clearly derived from past introgressive hybridization between the two subspecies. These observations were supported by morphological assessments. Furthermore, the average larval survival rate in Tokyo was significantly higher than that outside Tokyo, suggesting that the temporary contribution of introduced toads occurred through introgression. The fitness of toads in urban Tokyo may thus be increasing with the assistance of nonnative individuals. PMID:23789077

  16. Tissue migration capability of larval and adult Brugia pahangi.

    PubMed

    Chirgwin, Sharon R; Coleman, Sharon U; Porthouse, Kristina H; Klei, Thomas R

    2006-02-01

    Infection with mosquito-born filarial nematodes occurs when hosts are bitten by a vector carrying the infective third stage larvae (L3) of the parasites. These larvae, deposited on the skin by the feeding mosquito, are presumed to enter the skin via the vector-induced puncture wound. Larvae of Brugia spp. must then migrate from the entry site, penetrate various skin layers, and locate a lymphatic vessel that leads to their lymphatic predilection site. We have recently established an intradermal (ID) infection model using B. pahangi and the Mongolian gerbil, allowing us to investigate the migratory capability ofB. pahangi. Larval and adult parasites recovered from the peritoneal cavities of gerbils were capable of establishing an infection following ID (larvae) or subcutaneous (adult) injection. Third and fourth stage larvae both migrated away from the injection site within hours, although data suggest they localize to different lymphatic tissues at 3 days postinfection (DPI). Immature adult (28 day) B. pahangi also migrated away from their SC inoculation site within 7 DPI. Mature (45 day) adult B. pahangi displayed little migration away from the SC infection site, suggesting tissue migration may be limited to developing stages of the parasite.

  17. Whole-central nervous system functional imaging in larval Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Lemon, William C.; Pulver, Stefan R.; Höckendorf, Burkhard; McDole, Katie; Branson, Kristin; Freeman, Jeremy; Keller, Philipp J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how the brain works in tight concert with the rest of the central nervous system (CNS) hinges upon knowledge of coordinated activity patterns across the whole CNS. We present a method for measuring activity in an entire, non-transparent CNS with high spatiotemporal resolution. We combine a light-sheet microscope capable of simultaneous multi-view imaging at volumetric speeds 25-fold faster than the state-of-the-art, a whole-CNS imaging assay for the isolated Drosophila larval CNS and a computational framework for analysing multi-view, whole-CNS calcium imaging data. We image both brain and ventral nerve cord, covering the entire CNS at 2 or 5 Hz with two- or one-photon excitation, respectively. By mapping network activity during fictive behaviours and quantitatively comparing high-resolution whole-CNS activity maps across individuals, we predict functional connections between CNS regions and reveal neurons in the brain that identify type and temporal state of motor programs executed in the ventral nerve cord. PMID:26263051

  18. Plant-specific expression of antipredator behaviour by larval damselflies.

    PubMed

    Dionne, Michele; Butler, Mari; Folt, Carol

    1990-06-01

    In this study of interactions between larval damselflies (Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae) and pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus) we focus on the behaviour of the damselfly prey. First we document a prey behaviour in which damselflies use plant stems or leaves to hide from pumpkinseeds. We then test two hypotheses: (1) that damselfly 'hiding' is a specific antipredator behaviour and (2) that 'hiding' occurs more frequently in plant habitats where damselflies experience greater risk of predation. Since plant species growth forms can influence predation risk, our second hypothesis implies that hiding behaviour is conditional upon the type of vegetation providing habitat structure. Conditional expression of antipredator behaviour according to vegetation type may be important in littoral environments, since predator-prey interactions can occur in habitats with a wide range of macrophyte growth forms. The first hypothesis was supported by our findings that damselfly hiding increased in frequency in the presence of pumpkinseeds, that it was related to the frequency of predator approaches, and that its use reduced damselfly predation risk in high risk habitats. The second hypothesis was supported by our results that damselfly hiding rates were greater in the high risk Scirpus habitats than in the lower risk Potamogeton habitats. These results indicate that prey behaviour can influence predator-prey interactions, and that variation in plant growth form can influence prey behaviour, thus contributing to the impact of habitat structure on predator-prey dynamics.

  19. Infectious personalities: behavioural syndromes and disease risk in larval amphibians.

    PubMed

    Koprivnikar, Janet; Gibson, Chris H; Redfern, Julia C

    2012-04-22

    Behavioural consistency or predictability through time and/or different contexts ('syndromes' or 'personality types') is likely to have substantial influence on animal life histories and fitness. Consequently, there is much interest in the forces driving and maintaining various syndromes. Individual host behaviours have been associated with susceptibility to parasitism, yet the role of pre-existing personality types in acquiring infections has not been investigated experimentally. Using a larval amphibian-trematode parasite model system, we report that tadpoles generally showed consistency in their activity level in response to both novel food and parasite exposure. Not only were individual activity level and exploration in the novel food context correlated with each other and with anti-parasite behaviour, all three were significant predictors of host parasite load. This is the first empirical demonstration that host behaviours in other contexts are related to behaviours mitigating infection risk and, ultimately, host parasite load. We suggest that this system illustrates how reliably high levels of activity and exploratory behaviour in different contexts might maximize both energy acquisition and resistance to trematode parasites. Such benefits could drive selection for the behavioural syndrome seen here owing to the life histories and ecological circumstances typical of wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) larvae.

  20. Growth and mortality of larval Myctophum affine (Myctophidae, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Namiki, C; Katsuragawa, M; Zani-Teixeira, M L

    2015-04-01

    The growth and mortality rates of Myctophum affine larvae were analysed based on samples collected during the austral summer and winter of 2002 from south-eastern Brazilian waters. The larvae ranged in size from 2·75 to 14·00 mm standard length (L(S)). Daily increment counts from 82 sagittal otoliths showed that the age of M. affine ranged from 2 to 28 days. Three models were applied to estimate the growth rate: linear regression, exponential model and Laird-Gompertz model. The exponential model best fitted the data, and L(0) values from exponential and Laird-Gompertz models were close to the smallest larva reported in the literature (c. 2·5 mm L(S)). The average growth rate (0·33 mm day(-1)) was intermediate among lanternfishes. The mortality rate (12%) during the larval period was below average compared with other marine fish species but similar to some epipelagic fishes that occur in the area.

  1. The evolution of larval morphology and swimming performance in ascidians.

    PubMed

    McHenry, Matthew J; Patek, Sheila N

    2004-06-01

    The complexity of organismal function challenges our ability to understand the evolution of animal locomotion. To meet this challenge, we used a combination of biomechanics, phylogenetic comparative analyses, and theoretical morphology to examine evolutionary changes in body shape and how those changes affected swimming performance in ascidian larvae. Results of phylogenetic comparative analyses suggest that coloniality evolved at least three times among ascidians and that colonial species have a convergent larval morphology characterized by a large trunk volume and shorter tail length in proportion to the trunk. To explore the functional significance of this evolutionary change, we first verified the accuracy of a mathematical model of swimming biomechanics in a solitary (C. intestinalis) and a colonial (D. occidentalis) species and then ran numerous simulations of the model that varied in tail length and trunk volume. The results of these simulations were used to construct landscapes of speed and cost of transport predictions within a trunk volume/tail length morphospace. Our results suggest that the reduction of proportionate tail length in colonial species resulted in improved energetic economy of swimming. The increase in the size of larvae with the origin of coloniality facilitated faster swimming with negligible energetic cost, but may have required a reduction in adult fecundity. Therefore, the evolution of ascidians appears to be influenced by a trade-off between the fecundity of the adult stage and the swimming performance of larvae.

  2. Immunostaining of the developing embryonic and larval Drosophila brain.

    PubMed

    Diaper, Danielle C; Hirth, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Immunostaining is used to visualize the spatiotemporal expression pattern of developmental control genes that regulate the genesis and specification of the embryonic and larval brain of Drosophila. Immunostaining uses specific antibodies to mark expressed proteins and allows their localization to be traced throughout development. This method reveals insights into gene regulation, cell-type specification, neuron and glial differentiation, and posttranslational protein modifications underlying the patterning and specification of the maturing brain. Depending on the targeted protein, it is possible to visualize a multitude of regions of the Drosophila brain, such as small groups of neurons or glia, defined subcomponents of the brain's axon scaffold, or pre- and postsynaptic structures of neurons. Thus, antibody probes that recognize defined tissues, cells, or subcellular structures like axons or synaptic terminals can be used as markers to identify and analyze phenotypes in mutant embryos and larvae. Several antibodies, combined with different labels, can be used concurrently to examine protein co-localization. This protocol spans over 3-4 days.

  3. Preference for and learning of amino acids in larval Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kudow, Nana; Miura, Daisuke; Schleyer, Michael; Toshima, Naoko; Gerber, Bertram

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Relative to other nutrients, less is known about how animals sense amino acids and how behaviour is organized accordingly. This is a significant gap in our knowledge because amino acids are required for protein synthesis − and hence for life as we know it. Choosing Drosophila larvae as a case study, we provide the first systematic analysis of both the preference behaviour for, and the learning of, all 20 canonical amino acids in Drosophila. We report that preference for individual amino acids differs according to the kind of amino acid, both in first-instar and in third-instar larvae. Our data suggest that this preference profile changes across larval instars, and that starvation during the third instar also alters this profile. Only aspartic acid turns out to be robustly attractive across all our experiments. The essentiality of amino acids does not appear to be a determinant of preference. Interestingly, although amino acids thus differ in their innate attractiveness, we find that all amino acids are equally rewarding. Similar discrepancies between innate attractiveness and reinforcing effect have previously been reported for other tastants, including sugars, bitter substances and salt. The present analyses will facilitate the ongoing search for the receptors, sensory neurons, and internal, homeostatic amino acid sensors in Drosophila. PMID:28193602

  4. Cannibalistic feeding of larval Trichogramma carverae parasitoids in moth eggs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heslin, Leeane M.; Merritt, David J.

    2005-09-01

    Wasps of the genus Trichogramma parasitise the eggs of Lepidoptera. They may deposit one or many eggs in each host. Survival is high at low density but reaches a plateau as density increases. To reveal the mechanism by which excess larvae die we chose a lepidopteran host that has flattened, transparent eggs and used video microscopy to record novel feeding behaviours and interactions of larval Trichogramma carverae (Oatman and Pinto) at different densities. Single larvae show a rapid food ingestion phase, followed by a period of extensive saliva release. Ultimately the host egg is completely consumed. The larva then extracts excess moisture from the egg, providing a dry environment for pupation. When multiple larvae are present, the initial scramble for food results in the larvae consuming all of the egg contents early in development. All larvae survive if there is sufficient food for all to reach a threshold developmental stage. If not, physical proximity results in attack and consumption of others, continuing until the surviving larvae reach the threshold stage beyond which attacks seem to be no longer effective. The number of larvae remaining at the end of rapid ingestion dictates how many will survive to emerge as adults.

  5. Preference for and learning of amino acids in larval Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kudow, Nana; Miura, Daisuke; Schleyer, Michael; Toshima, Naoko; Gerber, Bertram; Tanimura, Teiichi

    2017-03-15

    Relative to other nutrients, less is known about how animals sense amino acids and how behaviour is organized accordingly. This is a significant gap in our knowledge because amino acids are required for protein synthesis - and hence for life as we know it. Choosing Drosophila larvae as a case study, we provide the first systematic analysis of both the preference behaviour for, and the learning of, all 20 canonical amino acids in Drosophila We report that preference for individual amino acids differs according to the kind of amino acid, both in first-instar and in third-instar larvae. Our data suggest that this preference profile changes across larval instars, and that starvation during the third instar also alters this profile. Only aspartic acid turns out to be robustly attractive across all our experiments. The essentiality of amino acids does not appear to be a determinant of preference. Interestingly, although amino acids thus differ in their innate attractiveness, we find that all amino acids are equally rewarding. Similar discrepancies between innate attractiveness and reinforcing effect have previously been reported for other tastants, including sugars, bitter substances and salt. The present analyses will facilitate the ongoing search for the receptors, sensory neurons, and internal, homeostatic amino acid sensors in Drosophila.

  6. Microarray Noninvasive Neuronal Seizure Recordings from Intact Larval Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Michaela; Dhamne, Sameer C.; LaCoursiere, Christopher M.; Tambunan, Dimira; Poduri, Annapurna; Rotenberg, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish epilepsy models are emerging tools in experimental epilepsy. Zebrafish larvae, in particular, are advantageous because they can be easily genetically altered and used for developmental and drug studies since agents applied to the bath penetrate the organism easily. Methods for electrophysiological recordings in zebrafish are new and evolving. We present a novel multi-electrode array method to non-invasively record electrical activity from up to 61 locations of an intact larval zebrafish head. This method enables transcranial noninvasive recording of extracellular field potentials (which include multi-unit activity and EEG) to identify epileptic seizures. To record from the brains of zebrafish larvae, the dorsum of the head of an intact larva was secured onto a multi-electrode array. We recorded from individual electrodes for at least three hours and quantified neuronal firing frequency, spike patterns (continuous or bursting), and synchrony of neuronal firing. Following 15 mM potassium chloride- or pentylenetetrazole-infusion into the bath, spike and burst rate increased significantly. Additionally, synchrony of neuronal firing across channels, a hallmark of epileptic seizures, also increased. Notably, the fish survived the experiment. This non-invasive method complements present invasive zebrafish neurophysiological techniques: it affords the advantages of high spatial and temporal resolution, a capacity to measure multiregional activity and neuronal synchrony in seizures, and fish survival for future experiments, such as studies of epileptogenesis and development. PMID:27281339

  7. Elevated major ion concentrations inhibit larval mayfly growth and development.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Brent R; Weaver, Paul C; Nietch, Christopher T; Lazorchak, James M; Struewing, Katherine A; Funk, David H

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances, including those from developing energy resources, can alter stream chemistry significantly by elevating total dissolved solids. Field studies have indicated that mayflies (Order Ephemeroptera) are particularly sensitive to high total dissolved solids. In the present study, the authors measured 20-d growth and survivorship of larval Neocloeon triangulifer exposed to a gradient of brine salt (mixed NaCl and CaCl2 ) concentrations. Daily growth rates were reduced significantly in all salt concentrations above the control (363 µS cm(-1) ) and larvae in treatments with specific conductance >812 µS cm(-1) were in comparatively earlier developmental stages (instars) at the end of the experiment. Survivorship declined significantly when specific conductance was >1513 µS cm(-1) and the calculated 20-d 50% lethal concentration was 2866 µS cm(-1) . The present study's results provide strong experimental evidence that elevated ion concentrations similar to those observed in developing energy resources, such as oil and gas drilling or coal mining, can adversely affect sensitive aquatic insect species.

  8. Effects of Disinfectants on Larval Development of Ascaris suum Eggs.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ki-Seok; Kim, Geon-Tae; Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Shin, Sung-Shik

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of several different commercial disinfectants on the embryogenic development of Ascaris suum eggs. A 1-ml aliquot of each disinfectant was mixed with approximately 40,000 decorticated or intact A. suum eggs in sterile tubes. After each treatment time (at 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 30, and 60 min), disinfectants were washed away, and egg suspensions were incubated at 25˚C in distilled water for development of larvae inside. At 3 weeks of incubation after exposure, ethanol, methanol, and chlorohexidin treatments did not affect the larval development of A. suum eggs, regardless of their concentration and treatment time. Among disinfectants tested in this study, 3% cresol, 0.2% sodium hypochlorite and 0.02% sodium hypochlorite delayed but not inactivated the embryonation of decorticated eggs at 3 weeks of incubation, because at 6 weeks of incubation, undeveloped eggs completed embryonation regardless of exposure time, except for 10% povidone iodine. When the albumin layer of A. suum eggs remained intact, however, even the 10% povidone iodine solution took at least 5 min to reasonably inactivate most eggs, but never completely kill them with even 60 min of exposure. This study demonstrated that the treatment of A. suum eggs with many commercially available disinfectants does not affect the embryonation. Although some disinfectants may delay or stop the embryonation of A. suum eggs, they can hardly kill them completely.

  9. Induction of Invertebrate Larval Settlement; Different Bacteria, Different Mechanisms?

    PubMed Central

    Freckelton, Marnie L.; Nedved, Brian T.; Hadfield, Michael G.

    2017-01-01

    Recruitment via settlement of pelagic larvae is critical for the persistence of benthic marine populations. For many benthic invertebrates, larval settlement occurs in response to surface microbial films. Larvae of the serpulid polychaete Hydroides elegans can be induced to settle by single bacterial species. Until now, only Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea had been subjected to detailed genetic and mechanistic studies. To determine if the complex structures, termed tailocins, derived from phage-tail gene assemblies and hypothesized to be the settlement cue in P. luteoviolacea were present in all inductive bacteria, genomic comparisons with inductive strains of Cellulophaga lytica, Bacillus aquimaris and Staphylococcus warneri were undertaken. They revealed that the gene assemblies for tailocins are lacking in these other bacteria. Negatively stained TEM images confirmed the absence of tailocins and revealed instead large numbers of extracellular vesicles in settlement-inductive fractions from all three bacteria. TEM imaging confirmed for C. lytica that the vesicles are budded from cell surfaces in a manner consistent with the production of outer membrane vesicles. Finding multiple bacteria settlement cues highlights the importance of further studies into the role of bacterial extracellular vesicles in eliciting settlement and metamorphosis of benthic marine larvae. PMID:28195220

  10. The larval parasitoid Microplitis croceipes oviposits in conspecific adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takasu, Keiji; Hoang Le, K.

    2007-03-01

    Microplitis croceipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a larval parasitoid of Helicoverpa/Heliothis spp. In the course of mass rearing of M. croceipes, we found that females oviposited in the conspecific adults in rearing cages. When 20 pairs of inexperienced females and males or of experienced females and males were reared in a cage, the males lived for 14-15 days and the females for 18-20 days on average. At their death, 37-42% of the males and 50-57% of the females contained conspecific eggs or first instar larvae in their abdominal cavity. When two of inexperienced females met on a host-infested leaf of soybean, they attempted to sting each other. Of the attacked females, 30% contained a conspecific egg laid in their abdomen. In abdominal cavity of the adults parasitized by a conspecific female, the majority of the parasitoid eggs laid disappeared within 1 day after oviposition. Only 10-30% of the parasitoid eggs laid in conspecific adults hatched 3-4 days after oviposition, but those larvae never molted to second instar. When the adults were stung by one or two conspecific females, their subsequent longevity was significantly shorter than that for the control adults. Oviposition in conspecific adults may be prevalent in other parasitic wasps that quickly oviposit without intensive host examination, and have cuticle and size of abdomen to be stung by conspeicifcs.

  11. Optogenetic elevation of endogenous glucocorticoid level in larval zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    De Marco, Rodrigo J.; Groneberg, Antonia H.; Yeh, Chen-Min; Castillo Ramírez, Luis A.; Ryu, Soojin

    2013-01-01

    The stress response is a suite of physiological and behavioral processes that help to maintain or reestablish homeostasis. Central to the stress response is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, as it releases crucial hormones in response to stress. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are the final effector hormones of the HPA axis, and exert a variety of actions under both basal and stress conditions. Despite their far-reaching importance for health, specific GC effects have been difficult to pin-down due to a lack of methods for selectively manipulating endogenous GC levels. Hence, in order to study stress-induced GC effects, we developed a novel optogenetic approach to selectively manipulate the rise of GCs triggered by stress. Using this approach, we could induce both transient hypercortisolic states and persistent forms of hypercortisolaemia in freely behaving larval zebrafish. Our results also established that transient hypercortisolism leads to enhanced locomotion shortly after stressor exposure. Altogether, we present a highly specific method for manipulating the gain of the stress axis with high temporal accuracy, altering endocrine and behavioral responses to stress as well as basal GC levels. Our study offers a powerful tool for the analysis of rapid (non-genomic) and delayed (genomic) GC effects on brain function and behavior, feedbacks within the stress axis and developmental programming by GCs. PMID:23653595

  12. Whole-central nervous system functional imaging in larval Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Lemon, William C; Pulver, Stefan R; Höckendorf, Burkhard; McDole, Katie; Branson, Kristin; Freeman, Jeremy; Keller, Philipp J

    2015-08-11

    Understanding how the brain works in tight concert with the rest of the central nervous system (CNS) hinges upon knowledge of coordinated activity patterns across the whole CNS. We present a method for measuring activity in an entire, non-transparent CNS with high spatiotemporal resolution. We combine a light-sheet microscope capable of simultaneous multi-view imaging at volumetric speeds 25-fold faster than the state-of-the-art, a whole-CNS imaging assay for the isolated Drosophila larval CNS and a computational framework for analysing multi-view, whole-CNS calcium imaging data. We image both brain and ventral nerve cord, covering the entire CNS at 2 or 5 Hz with two- or one-photon excitation, respectively. By mapping network activity during fictive behaviours and quantitatively comparing high-resolution whole-CNS activity maps across individuals, we predict functional connections between CNS regions and reveal neurons in the brain that identify type and temporal state of motor programs executed in the ventral nerve cord.

  13. Turbulent shear spurs settlement in larval sea urchins.

    PubMed

    Gaylord, Brian; Hodin, Jason; Ferner, Matthew C

    2013-04-23

    Marine invertebrates commonly produce larvae that disperse in ocean waters before settling into adult shoreline habitat. Chemical and other seafloor-associated cues often facilitate this latter transition. However, the range of effectiveness of such cues is limited to small spatial scales, creating challenges for larvae in finding suitable sites at which to settle, especially given that they may be carried many kilometers by currents during their planktonic phase. One possible solution is for larvae to use additional, broader-scale environmental signposts to first narrow their search to the general vicinity of a candidate settlement location. Here we demonstrate strong effects of just such a habitat-scale cue, one with the potential to signal larvae that they have arrived in appropriate coastal areas. Larvae of the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) exhibit dramatic enhancement in settlement following stimulation by turbulent shear typical of wave-swept shores where adults of this species live. This response manifests in an unprecedented fashion relative to previously identified cues. Turbulent shear does not boost settlement by itself. Instead, it drives a marked developmental acceleration that causes "precompetent" larvae refractory to chemical settlement inducers to immediately become "competent" and thereby reactive to such inducers. These findings reveal an unrecognized ability of larval invertebrates to shift the trajectory of a major life history event in response to fluid-dynamic attributes of a target environment. Such an ability may improve performance and survival in marine organisms by encouraging completion of their life cycle in advantageous locations.

  14. Effects of Disinfectants on Larval Development of Ascaris suum Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Ki-Seok; Kim, Geon-Tae; Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Shin, Sung-Shik

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of several different commercial disinfectants on the embryogenic development of Ascaris suum eggs. A 1-ml aliquot of each disinfectant was mixed with approximately 40,000 decorticated or intact A. suum eggs in sterile tubes. After each treatment time (at 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 30, and 60 min), disinfectants were washed away, and egg suspensions were incubated at 25˚C in distilled water for development of larvae inside. At 3 weeks of incubation after exposure, ethanol, methanol, and chlorohexidin treatments did not affect the larval development of A. suum eggs, regardless of their concentration and treatment time. Among disinfectants tested in this study, 3% cresol, 0.2% sodium hypochlorite and 0.02% sodium hypochlorite delayed but not inactivated the embryonation of decorticated eggs at 3 weeks of incubation, because at 6 weeks of incubation, undeveloped eggs completed embryonation regardless of exposure time, except for 10% povidone iodine. When the albumin layer of A. suum eggs remained intact, however, even the 10% povidone iodine solution took at least 5 min to reasonably inactivate most eggs, but never completely kill them with even 60 min of exposure. This study demonstrated that the treatment of A. suum eggs with many commercially available disinfectants does not affect the embryonation. Although some disinfectants may delay or stop the embryonation of A. suum eggs, they can hardly kill them completely. PMID:26951988

  15. Costs and benefits of larval jumping behaviour of Bathyplectes anurus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeki, Yoriko; Tani, Soichiro; Fukuda, Katsuto; Iwase, Shun-ichiro; Sugawara, Yuma; Tuda, Midori; Takagi, Masami

    2016-02-01

    Bathyplectes anurus, a parasitoid of the alfalfa weevils, forms a cocoon in the late larval stage and exhibits jumping behaviour. Adaptive significance and costs of the cocoon jumping have not been thoroughly studied. We hypothesised that jumping has the fitness benefits of enabling habitat selection by avoiding unfavourable environments. We conducted laboratory experiments, which demonstrated that jumping frequencies increased in the presence of light, with greater magnitudes of temperature increase and at lower relative humidity. In addition, when B. anurus individuals were allowed to freely jump in an arena with a light gradient, more cocoons were found in the shady area, suggesting microhabitat selection. In a field experiment, mortality of cocoons placed in the sun was significantly higher than for cocoons placed in the shade. B. anurus cocoons respond to environmental stress by jumping, resulting in habitat selection. In the presence of potential predators (ants), jumping frequencies were higher than in the control (no ant) arenas, though jumping frequencies decreased after direct contact with the predators. Body mass of B. anurus cocoons induced to jump significantly decreased over time than cocoons that did not jump, suggesting a cost to jumping. We discuss the benefits and costs of jumping behaviour and potential evolutionary advantages of this peculiar trait, which is present in a limited number of species.

  16. Replenishment success linked to fluctuating asymmetry in larval fish.

    PubMed

    Lemberget, Tove; McCormick, Mark I

    2009-02-01

    Fluctuating asymmetry (FA), defined as random deviations from perfect symmetry, has become a popular tool with which to examine the effects of stress during the development of bilaterally symmetrical organisms. Recent studies have suggested that FA in otoliths may serve as an indicator of stress in fish larvae. We examined the relationship between otolith asymmetry and temporal patterns in the occurrence of late-stage larvae to a tropical reef (i.e. replenishment) for the Caribbean lizardfish, Saurida suspicio (family Synodontidae). Late-stage larvae were collected in light traps over a period of 18 consecutive lunar months in the San Blas Archipelago, Panama. Asymmetry within otolith pairs was calculated from 24 variables: area, perimeter, longest and shortest axis of the otolith and 20 shape descriptors (Fourier harmonics). Otolith asymmetry was correlated strongly with fluctuations in lunar light trap catches. Two measured variables, otolith area and one of the 20 shape descriptors, accounted for 60% of the variability in lunar replenishment of S. suspicio. Individuals from small replenishment pulses exhibited higher levels of asymmetry compared to larvae from large pulses. When dry and wet seasons were analysed separately, otolith asymmetry explained a surprising 70 and 97% of the variation, respectively. Although the generality of these results remain to be tested among other populations and species, otolith asymmetry may be an important indicator, and potentially a predictor, of larval quality and replenishment success.

  17. Mechanistic insights into the effects of climate change on larval cod.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, Trond; Stock, Charles; Drinkwater, Kenneth F; Curchitser, Enrique N

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the biophysical mechanisms that shape variability in fisheries recruitment is critical for estimating the effects of climate change on fisheries. In this study, we used an Earth System Model (ESM) and a mechanistic individual-based model (IBM) for larval fish to analyze how climate change may impact the growth and survival of larval cod in the North Atlantic. We focused our analysis on five regions that span the current geographical range of cod and are known to contain important spawning populations. Under the SRES A2 (high emissions) scenario, the ESM-projected surface ocean temperatures are expected to increase by >1 °C for 3 of the 5 regions, and stratification is expected to increase at all sites between 1950-1999 and 2050-2099. This enhanced stratification is projected to decrease large (>5 μm ESD) phytoplankton productivity and mesozooplankton biomass at all 5 sites. Higher temperatures are projected to increase larval metabolic costs, which combined with decreased food resources will reduce larval weight, increase the probability of larvae dying from starvation and increase larval exposure to visual and invertebrate predators at most sites. If current concentrations of piscivore and invertebrate predators are maintained, larval survival is projected to decrease at all five sites by 2050-2099. In contrast to past observed responses to climate variability in which warm anomalies led to better recruitment in cold-water stocks, our simulations indicated that reduced prey availability under climate change may cause a reduction in larval survival despite higher temperatures in these regions. In the lower prey environment projected under climate change, higher metabolic costs due to higher temperatures outweigh the advantages of higher growth potential, leading to negative effects on northern cod stocks. Our results provide an important first large-scale assessment of the impacts of climate change on larval cod in the North Atlantic.

  18. Larval and metamorphic development of the foregut and proboscis in the caenogastropod Marsenina (Lamellaria) stearnsii.

    PubMed

    Page, L R

    2002-05-01

    The specialized, postmetamorphic feeding structures of predatory caenogastropods evolved by changes to an ancestral caenogastropod developmental program that generated a planktotrophic larval stage followed by a herbivorous postmetamorphic stage. As part of a program of comparative studies aimed at reconstructing these developmental changes, I studied the development of the postmetamorphic feeding system of Marsenina stearnsii using histological sections for light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The feeding system of this species has two very different designs during ontogeny. The larval system uses ciliary effectors to capture and ingest microalgae, whereas the juvenile/adult system includes a proboscis, jaws, and radular apparatus for predation on ascidian zooids. The postmetamorphic foregut begins to develop during the early larval phase, but the anlagen does not interfere with larval feeding because it develops as an increasingly elaborate outpocketing from the ventral wall of the larval esophagus. At metamorphosis, an opening is created in the anterior tip of the prospective, postmetamorphic buccal cavity and the margins of this opening anneal with the metamorphically remodeled lips of the larval mouth. This process exposes the jaws, which differentiate within the buccal cavity prior to metamorphosis. As a working hypothesis, I suggest that rupture of the buccal cavity to the outside at metamorphosis was selected as a mechanism to allow precocious development of jaws in species where jaws enhanced feeding performance by young juveniles. The larval esophagus of M. stearnsii appears to be completely destroyed at metamorphosis. Larval esophageal cells have distinctive apical characteristics (cilia, blebbed microvilli, stacks of lamellae within the glycocalyx) and no cells having this signature persist through metamorphosis. Development of the proboscis and proboscis sac, which begins prior to metamorphosis, conforms to previous

  19. Using post-settlement demography to estimate larval survivorship: a coral reef fish example.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D W; Christie, M R; Stallings, C D; Pusack, T J; Hixon, M A

    2015-11-01

    Many species have multi-stage life cycles in which the youngest stages (e.g., larvae) are small, dispersive, and abundant, whereas later stages are sessile or sedentary. Quantifying survival throughout such early stages is critical for understanding dispersal, population dynamics, and life history evolution. However, dispersive stages can be very difficult to sample in situ, and estimates of survival through the entire duration of these stages are typically poor. Here we describe how demographic information from juveniles and adults can be used to estimate survival throughout a dispersive larval stage that was not sampled directly. Using field measurements of demography, we show that detailed information on post-settlement growth, survival, and reproduction can be used to estimate average larval survivorship under the assumption that a typical individual replaces itself over its lifetime. Applying this approach to a common coral reef fish (bicolor damselfish, Stegastes partitus), we estimated average larval survivorship to be 0.108% (95% CI 0.025-0.484). We next compared this demography-based estimate to an expected value derived from published estimates of larval mortality rates. Our estimate of larval survivorship for bicolor damselfish was approximately two orders of magnitude greater than what would be expected if larval mortality of this species followed the average, size-dependent pattern of mortality inferred from a published sample of marine fishes. Our results highlight the importance of understanding mortality during the earliest phases of larval life, which are typically not sampled, as well as the need to understand the details of how larval mortality scales with body size.

  20. Experimental Approach Reveals the Role of alx1 in the Evolution of the Echinoderm Larval Skeleton.

    PubMed

    Koga, Hiroyuki; Fujitani, Haruka; Morino, Yoshiaki; Miyamoto, Norio; Tsuchimoto, Jun; Shibata, Tomoko F; Nozawa, Masafumi; Shigenobu, Shuji; Ogura, Atsushi; Tachibana, Kazunori; Kiyomoto, Masato; Amemiya, Shonan; Wada, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Over the course of evolution, the acquisition of novel structures has ultimately led to wide variation in morphology among extant multicellular organisms. Thus, the origins of genetic systems for new morphological structures are a subject of great interest in evolutionary biology. The larval skeleton is a novel structure acquired in some echinoderm lineages via the activation of the adult skeletogenic machinery. Previously, VEGF signaling was suggested to have played an important role in the acquisition of the larval skeleton. In the present study, we compared expression patterns of Alx genes among echinoderm classes to further explore the factors involved in the acquisition of a larval skeleton. We found that the alx1 gene, originally described as crucial for sea urchin skeletogenesis, may have also played an essential role in the evolution of the larval skeleton. Unlike those echinoderms that have a larval skeleton, we found that alx1 of starfish was barely expressed in early larvae that have no skeleton. When alx1 overexpression was induced via injection of alx1 mRNA into starfish eggs, the expression patterns of certain genes, including those possibly involved in skeletogenesis, were altered. This suggested that a portion of the skeletogenic program was induced solely by alx1. However, we observed no obvious external phenotype or skeleton. We concluded that alx1 was necessary but not sufficient for the acquisition of the larval skeleton, which, in fact, requires several genetic events. Based on these results, we discuss how the larval expression of alx1 contributed to the acquisition of the larval skeleton in the putative ancestral lineage of echinoderms.

  1. Modeling larval malaria vector habitat locations using landscape features and cumulative precipitation measures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Predictive models of malaria vector larval habitat locations may provide a basis for understanding the spatial determinants of malaria transmission. Methods We used four landscape variables (topographic wetness index [TWI], soil type, land use-land cover, and distance to stream) and accumulated precipitation to model larval habitat locations in a region of western Kenya through two methods: logistic regression and random forest. Additionally, we used two separate data sets to account for variation in habitat locations across space and over time. Results Larval habitats were more likely to be present in locations with a lower slope to contributing area ratio (i.e. TWI), closer to streams, with agricultural land use relative to nonagricultural land use, and in friable clay/sandy clay loam soil and firm, silty clay/clay soil relative to friable clay soil. The probability of larval habitat presence increased with increasing accumulated precipitation. The random forest models were more accurate than the logistic regression models, especially when accumulated precipitation was included to account for seasonal differences in precipitation. The most accurate models for the two data sets had area under the curve (AUC) values of 0.864 and 0.871, respectively. TWI, distance to the nearest stream, and precipitation had the greatest mean decrease in Gini impurity criteria in these models. Conclusions This study demonstrates the usefulness of random forest models for larval malaria vector habitat modeling. TWI and distance to the nearest stream were the two most important landscape variables in these models. Including accumulated precipitation in our models improved the accuracy of larval habitat location predictions by accounting for seasonal variation in the precipitation. Finally, the sampling strategy employed here for model parameterization could serve as a framework for creating predictive larval habitat models to assist in larval control efforts. PMID:24903736

  2. Functional evolution of Ets in echinoderms with focus on the evolution of echinoderm larval skeletons.

    PubMed

    Koga, Hiroyuki; Matsubara, Mioko; Fujitani, Haruka; Miyamoto, Norio; Komatsu, Miéko; Kiyomoto, Masato; Akasaka, Koji; Wada, Hiroshi

    2010-09-01

    Convergent evolution of echinoderm pluteus larva was examined from the standpoint of functional evolution of a transcription factor Ets1/2. In sea urchins, Ets1/2 plays a central role in the differentiation of larval skeletogenic mesenchyme cells. In addition, Ets1/2 is suggested to be involved in adult skeletogenesis. Conversely, in starfish, although no skeletogenic cells differentiate during larval development, Ets1/2 is also expressed in the larval mesoderm. Here, we confirmed that the starfish Ets1/2 is indispensable for the differentiation of the larval mesoderm. This result led us to assume that, in the common ancestors of echinoderms, Ets1/2 activates the transcription of distinct gene sets, one for the differentiation of the larval mesoderm and the other for the development of the adult skeleton. Thus, the acquisition of the larval skeleton involved target switching of Ets1/2. Specifically, in the sea urchin lineage, Ets1/2 activated a downstream target gene set for skeletogenesis during larval development in addition to a mesoderm target set. We examined whether this heterochronic activation of the skeletogenic target set was achieved by the molecular evolution of the Ets1/2 transcription factor itself. We tested whether starfish Ets1/2 induced skeletogenesis when injected into sea urchin eggs. We found that, in addition to ectopic induction of mesenchyme cells, starfish Ets1/2 can activate some parts of the skeletogenic pathway in these mesenchyme cells. Thus, we suggest that the nature of the transcription factor Ets1/2 did not change, but rather that some unidentified co-factor(s) for Ets1/2 may distinguish between targets for the larval mesoderm and for skeletogenesis. Identification of the co-factor(s) will be key to understanding the molecular evolution underlying the evolution of the pluteus larvae.

  3. Weak and habitat-dependent effects of nutrient pollution on macrofaunal communities of southeast Australian estuaries.

    PubMed

    Nicastro, Andrea; Bishop, Melanie J

    2013-01-01

    Among the impacts of coastal settlements to estuaries, nutrient pollution is often singled out as a leading cause of modification to the ecological communities of soft sediments. Through sampling of 48 sites, distributed among 16 estuaries of New South Wales, Australia, we tested the hypotheses that (1) anthropogenic nutrient loads would be a better predictor of macrofaunal communities than estuarine geomorphology or local sediment characteristics; and (2) local environmental context, as determined largely by sediment characteristics, would modify the relationship between nutrient loading and community composition. Contrary to the hypothesis, multivariate multiple regression analyses revealed that sediment grain size was the best predictor of macrofaunal assemblage composition. When samples were stratified according to median grain size, relationships between faunal communities and nitrogen loading and latitude emerged, but only among estuaries with sandier sediments. In these estuaries, capitellid and nereid polychaetes and chironomid larvae were the taxa that showed the strongest correlations with nutrient loading. Overall, this study failed to provide evidence of a differential relationship between diffuse nutrient enrichment and benthic macrofauna across a gradient of 7° of latitude and 4°C temperature. Nevertheless, as human population growth continues to place increasing pressure on southeast Australian estuaries, manipulative field studies examining when and where nutrient loading will lead to significant changes in estuarine community structure are needed.

  4. Weak and Habitat-Dependent Effects of Nutrient Pollution on Macrofaunal Communities of Southeast Australian Estuaries

    PubMed Central

    Nicastro, Andrea; Bishop, Melanie J.

    2013-01-01

    Among the impacts of coastal settlements to estuaries, nutrient pollution is often singled out as a leading cause of modification to the ecological communities of soft sediments. Through sampling of 48 sites, distributed among 16 estuaries of New South Wales, Australia, we tested the hypotheses that (1) anthropogenic nutrient loads would be a better predictor of macrofaunal communities than estuarine geomorphology or local sediment characteristics; and (2) local environmental context, as determined largely by sediment characteristics, would modify the relationship between nutrient loading and community composition. Contrary to the hypothesis, multivariate multiple regression analyses revealed that sediment grain size was the best predictor of macrofaunal assemblage composition. When samples were stratified according to median grain size, relationships between faunal communities and nitrogen loading and latitude emerged, but only among estuaries with sandier sediments. In these estuaries, capitellid and nereid polychaetes and chironomid larvae were the taxa that showed the strongest correlations with nutrient loading. Overall, this study failed to provide evidence of a differential relationship between diffuse nutrient enrichment and benthic macrofauna across a gradient of 7° of latitude and 4°C temperature. Nevertheless, as human population growth continues to place increasing pressure on southeast Australian estuaries, manipulative field studies examining when and where nutrient loading will lead to significant changes in estuarine community structure are needed. PMID:23799037

  5. Incorporating larval dispersal into MPA design for both conservation and fisheries.

    PubMed

    Krueck, Nils C; Ahmadia, Gabby N; Green, Alison; Jones, Geoffrey P; Possingham, Hugh P; Riginos, Cynthia; Treml, Eric A; Mumby, Peter J

    2017-04-01

    Larval dispersal by ocean currents is a critical component of systematic marine protected area (MPA) design. However, there is a lack of quantitative methods to incorporate larval dispersal in support of increasingly diverse management objectives, including local population persistence under multiple types of threats (primarily focused on larval retention within and dispersal between protected locations) and benefits to unprotected populations and fisheries (primarily focused on larval export from protected locations to fishing grounds). Here, we present a flexible MPA design approach that can reconcile multiple such potentially conflicting management objectives by balancing various associated treatments of larval dispersal information. We demonstrate our approach based on alternative dispersal patterns, combinations of threats to populations, management objectives, and two different optimization strategies (site vs. network-based). Our outcomes highlight a consistently high effectiveness in selecting priority locations that are self-replenishing, inter-connected, and/or important larval sources. We find that the opportunity to balance these three dispersal attributes flexibly can help not only to prevent meta-population collapse, but also to ensure effective fisheries recovery, with average increases in the number of recruits at fishing grounds at least two times higher than achieved by standard habitat-based or ad-hoc MPA designs. Future applications of our MPA design approach should therefore be encouraged, specifically where management tools other than MPAs are not feasible.

  6. Larval connectivity of pearl oyster through biophysical modelling; evidence of food limitation and broodstock effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Yoann; Dumas, Franck; Andréfouët, Serge

    2016-12-01

    The black-lip pearl oyster (Pinctada margaritifera) is cultured extensively to produce black pearls, especially in French Polynesia atoll lagoons. This aquaculture relies on spat collection, a process that experiences spatial and temporal variability and needs to be optimized by understanding which factors influence recruitment. Here, we investigate the sensitivity of P. margaritifera larval dispersal to both physical and biological factors in the lagoon of Ahe atoll. Coupling a validated 3D larval dispersal model, a bioenergetics larval growth model following the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory, and a population dynamics model, the variability of lagoon-scale connectivity patterns and recruitment potential is investigated. The relative contribution of reared and wild broodstock to the lagoon-scale recruitment potential is also investigated. Sensitivity analyses pointed out the major effect of the broodstock population structure as well as the sensitivity to larval mortality rate and inter-individual growth variability to larval supply and to the subsequent settlement potential. The application of the growth model clarifies how trophic conditions determine the larval supply and connectivity patterns. These results provide new cues to understand the dynamics of bottom-dwelling populations in atoll lagoons, their recruitment, and discuss how to take advantage of these findings and numerical models for pearl oyster management.

  7. Influence of generation and photoperiod on larval development of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Pavan, Francesco; Floreani, Chiara; Barro, Paola; Zandigiacomo, Pietro; Montà, Laura Dalla

    2010-10-01

    The influence of generation (under field conditions) and photoperiod (under laboratory conditions) on Lobesia botrana larvae development was studied. Some larvae were collected during three annual generations in two grape-growing areas of northeastern Italy, and others were individually reared in the laboratory from egg to pupa on an artificial diet under two different photoperiod conditions (respectively, daylight 16 h/d [long day {LD}] and 14 h/d [short day {SD}]). The mandible lengths of collected larvae were measured and the data analyzed morphometrically to determine the number of larval instars. In the laboratory study, the number of larval moultings, the mandible length of each instar, the development time from hatching larva to pupa, and the pupal weight were considered. The measurement of mandible lengths of larvae collected in the field indicated the existence of five larval instars in all three annual generations, but the size of the two oldest larval instars was significantly higher for third-generation larvae than for the previous generations. Under laboratory conditions, the larvae usually exhibited five instars, but the mandible lengths of larvae and the pupa size were greater for individuals reared under SD. These also took a greater number of days to develop from hatching larvae to pupae. Because a larger size of the final larval instar occurs in individuals that produce diapausing pupae under SD in both the laboratory and the field, a positive association between larval size and the probability of surviving the winter can be inferred.

  8. Larval density dependence in Anopheles gambiae s.s., the major African vector of malaria.

    PubMed

    Muriu, Simon M; Coulson, Tim; Mbogo, Charles M; Godfray, H Charles J

    2013-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto is the most important vector of malaria in Africa although relatively little is known about the density-dependent processes determining its population size. Mosquito larval density was manipulated under semi-natural conditions using artificial larval breeding sites placed in the field in coastal Kenya; two experiments were conducted: one manipulating the density of a single cohort of larvae across a range of densities and the other employing fewer densities but with the treatments crossed with four treatments manipulating predator access. In the first experiment, larval survival, development rate and the size of the adult mosquito all decreased with larval density (controlling for block effects between 23% and 31% of the variance in the data could be explained by density). In the second experiment, the effects of predator manipulation were not significant, but again we observed strong density dependence in larval survival (explaining 30% of the variance). The results are compared with laboratory studies of A. gambiae larval competition and the few other studies conducted in the field, and the consequences for malaria control are discussed.

  9. Development and functional morphology of the larval foregut of two brachyuran species from Northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Abrunhosa, Fernando A; Simith, Darlan J B; Monteiro, Joely R C; Souza Junior, Antonio N de; Oliva, Pedro A C

    2011-12-01

    Feeding is an important factor for the successful rearing of larvae of the crab species. Further information on the morphological features of the foregut may to reveal larval feeding behaviour and or/whether there is a lecithotrophy in some or even in all stages of the larval cycle. In the present study, the structural development of the foregut and their digestive functions were examined in larvae of two brachyurans, Uca vocator and Panopeus occidentalis, reared in the laboratory. During larval development, the foreguts of the larvae in the first and last zoeal stages and in the megalopa stage were microscopically examined, described and illustrated. The zoeal foreguts of both species were well developed, showing specialization with a functional cardiopyloric valve and a filter press. The megalopa stage had a complex and specialized gastric mill similar to that found in adult crabs with the appearance of rigidly calcified structures. These results support the hypothesis that the feeding behaviour of each larval stage is directly related to the morphological structure of the foregut. Such facts strongly indicate that all larval stages of both U. vocator and P. occidentalis need an external food source before completing the larval development in a planktonic environment.

  10. Relative impacts of adult movement, larval dispersal and harvester movement on the effectiveness of reserve networks.

    PubMed

    Grüss, Arnaud; Kaplan, David M; Hart, Deborah R

    2011-01-01

    Movement of individuals is a critical factor determining the effectiveness of reserve networks. Marine reserves have historically been used for the management of species that are sedentary as adults, and, therefore, larval dispersal has been a major focus of marine-reserve research. The push to use marine reserves for managing pelagic and demersal species poses significant questions regarding their utility for highly-mobile species. Here, a simple conceptual metapopulation model is developed to provide a rigorous comparison of the functioning of reserve networks for populations with different admixtures of larval dispersal and adult movement in a home range. We find that adult movement produces significantly lower persistence than larval dispersal, all other factors being equal. Furthermore, redistribution of harvest effort previously in reserves to remaining fished areas ('fishery squeeze') and fishing along reserve borders ('fishing-the-line') considerably reduce persistence and harvests for populations mobile as adults, while they only marginally changes results for populations with dispersing larvae. Our results also indicate that adult home-range movement and larval dispersal are not simply additive processes, but rather that populations possessing both modes of movement have lower persistence than equivalent populations having the same amount of 'total movement' (sum of larval and adult movement spatial scales) in either larval dispersal or adult movement alone.

  11. Integration of complex larval chemosensory organs into the adult nervous system of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Gendre, Nanaë; Lüer, Karin; Friche, Sandrine; Grillenzoni, Nicola; Ramaekers, Ariane; Technau, Gerhard M; Stocker, Reinhard F

    2004-01-01

    The sense organs of adult Drosophila, and holometabolous insects in general, derive essentially from imaginal discs and hence are adult specific. Experimental evidence presented here, however, suggests a different developmental design for the three largely gustatory sense organs located along the pharynx. In a comprehensive cellular analysis, we show that the posteriormost of the three organs derives directly from a similar larval organ and that the two other organs arise by splitting of a second larval organ. Interestingly, these two larval organs persist despite extensive reorganization of the pharynx. Thus, most of the neurons of the three adult organs are surviving larval neurons. However, the anterior organ includes some sensilla that are generated during pupal stages. Also, we observe apoptosis in a third larval pharyngeal organ. Hence, our experimental data show for the first time the integration of complex, fully differentiated larval sense organs into the nervous system of the adult fly and demonstrate the embryonic origin of their neurons. Moreover, they identify metamorphosis of this sensory system as a complex process involving neuronal persistence, generation of additional neurons and neuronal death. Our conclusions are based on combined analysis of reporter expression from P[GAL4] driver lines, horseradish peroxidase injections into blastoderm stage embryos, cell labeling via heat-shock-induced flip-out in the embryo, bromodeoxyuridine birth dating and staining for programmed cell death. They challenge the general view that sense organs are replaced during metamorphosis.

  12. Larval density dependence in Anopheles gambiae s.s., the major African vector of malaria

    PubMed Central

    Muriu, Simon M.; Coulson, Tim; Mbogo, Charles M.; Godfray, H. Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto is the most important vector of malaria in Africa although relatively little is known about the density-dependent processes determining its population size.Mosquito larval density was manipulated under semi-natural conditions using artificial larval breeding sites placed in the field in coastal Kenya; two experiments were conducted: one manipulating the density of a single cohort of larvae across a range of densities and the other employing fewer densities but with the treatments crossed with four treatments manipulating predator access.In the first experiment, larval survival, development rate and the size of the adult mosquito all decreased with larval density (controlling for block effects between 23% and 31% of the variance in the data could be explained by density).In the second experiment, the effects of predator manipulation were not significant, but again we observed strong density dependence in larval survival (explaining 30% of the variance).The results are compared with laboratory studies of A. gambiae larval competition and the few other studies conducted in the field, and the consequences for malaria control are discussed PMID:23163565

  13. Major muscle systems in the larval caenogastropod, Ilyanassa obsoleta, display different patterns of development.

    PubMed

    Evans, Carol C E; Dickinson, Amanda J G; Croll, Roger P

    2009-10-01

    This study describes the anatomical and developmental aspects of muscular development from the early embryo to competent larval stage in the gastropod Ilyanassa obsoleta. Staining of F-actin revealed differential spatial and temporal patterns of several muscles. In particular, two major muscles, the larval retractor and pedal retractor muscles originate independently and display distinct developmental patterns similar to observations in other gastropod species. Additionally, together with the larval retractor muscle, the accessory larval muscle developed in the embryo at the trochophore stage. Therefore, both these muscles develop prior to ontogenetic torsion. The pedal retractor muscle marked the most abundant growth in the mid veliger stage. Also during the middle stage, the metapodial retractor muscle and opercular retractor muscle grew concurrently with development of the foot. We show evidence that juvenile muscles, such as the buccal mass muscle and siphon muscle develop initially during the late veliger stage. Collectively, these findings substantiate that larval myogenesis involves a complex sequence of events that appear evolutionary conserved within the gastropods, and set the stage for future studies using this model species to address issues concerning the evolution and eventual fates of larval musculature in molluscs.

  14. Drosophila Food-Associated Pheromones: Effect of Experience, Genotype and Antibiotics on Larval Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Thibert, Julien; Farine, Jean-Pierre; Cortot, Jérôme; Ferveur, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Animals ubiquitously use chemical signals to communicate many aspects of their social life. These chemical signals often consist of environmental cues mixed with species-specific signals—pheromones—emitted by conspecifics. During their life, insects can use pheromones to aggregate, disperse, choose a mate, or find the most suitable food source on which to lay eggs. Before pupariation, larvae of several Drosophila species migrate to food sources depending on their composition and the presence of pheromones. Some pheromones derive from microbiota gut activity and these food-associated cues can enhance larval attraction or repulsion. To explore the mechanisms underlying the preference (attraction/repulsion) to these cues and clarify their effect, we manipulated factors potentially involved in larval response. In particular, we found that the (i) early exposure to conspecifics, (ii) genotype, and (iii) antibiotic treatment changed D. melanogaster larval behavior. Generally, larvae—tested either individually or in groups—strongly avoided food processed by other larvae. Compared to previous reports on larval attractive pheromones, our data suggest that such attractive effects are largely masked by food-associated compounds eliciting larval aversion. The antagonistic effect of attractive vs. aversive compounds could modulate larval choice of a pupariation site and impact the dispersion of individuals in nature. PMID:26987117

  15. Larval development of the subantarctic king crabs Lithodes santolla and Paralomis granulosa reared in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcagno, J. A.; Anger, K.; Lovrich, G. A.; Thatje, S.; Kaffenberger, A.

    2004-02-01

    The larval development and survival in the two subantarctic lithodid crabs Lithodes santolla (Jaquinot) and Paralomis granulosa (Molina) from the Argentine Beagle Channel were studied in laboratory cultures. In L. santolla, larval development lasted about 70 days, passing through three zoeal stages and the megalopa stage, with a duration of approximately 4, 7, 11 and 48 days, respectively. The larval development in P. granulosa is more abbreviated, comprising only two zoeal stages and the megalopa stage, with 6, 11 and 43 days' duration, respectively. In both species, we tested for effects of presence versus absence of food (Artemia nauplii) on larval development duration and survival rate. In P. granulosa, we also studied effects of different rearing conditions, such as individual versus mass cultures, as well as aerated versus unaerated cultures. No differences in larval development duration and survival were observed between animals subjected to those different rearing conditions. The lack of response to the presence or absence of potential food confirms, in both species, a complete lecithotrophic mode of larval development. Since lithodid crabs are of high economic importance in the artisanal fishery in the southernmost parts of South America, the knowledge of optimal rearing conditions for lithodid larvae is essential for future attempts at repopulating the collapsing natural stocks off Tierra del Fuego.

  16. Relative Impacts of Adult Movement, Larval Dispersal and Harvester Movement on the Effectiveness of Reserve Networks

    PubMed Central

    Grüss, Arnaud; Kaplan, David M.; Hart, Deborah R.

    2011-01-01

    Movement of individuals is a critical factor determining the effectiveness of reserve networks. Marine reserves have historically been used for the management of species that are sedentary as adults, and, therefore, larval dispersal has been a major focus of marine-reserve research. The push to use marine reserves for managing pelagic and demersal species poses significant questions regarding their utility for highly-mobile species. Here, a simple conceptual metapopulation model is developed to provide a rigorous comparison of the functioning of reserve networks for populations with different admixtures of larval dispersal and adult movement in a home range. We find that adult movement produces significantly lower persistence than larval dispersal, all other factors being equal. Furthermore, redistribution of harvest effort previously in reserves to remaining fished areas (‘fishery squeeze’) and fishing along reserve borders (‘fishing-the-line’) considerably reduce persistence and harvests for populations mobile as adults, while they only marginally changes results for populations with dispersing larvae. Our results also indicate that adult home-range movement and larval dispersal are not simply additive processes, but rather that populations possessing both modes of movement have lower persistence than equivalent populations having the same amount of ‘total movement’ (sum of larval and adult movement spatial scales) in either larval dispersal or adult movement alone. PMID:21611148

  17. Enhancement of larval RNAi efficiency by over-expressing Argonaute2 in Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiqian; Zeng, Baosheng; Ling, Lin; Xu, Jun; You, Lang; Aslam, Abu F M; Tan, Anjiang; Huang, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference has been described as a powerful genetic tool for gene functional analysis and a promising approach for pest management. However, RNAi efficiency varies significantly among insect species due to distinct RNAi machineries. Lepidopteran insects include a large number of pests as well as model insects, such as the silkworm, Bombyx mori. However, only limited success of in vivo RNAi has been reported in lepidoptera, particularly during the larval stages when the worms feed the most and do the most harm to the host plant. Enhancing the efficiency of larval RNAi in lepidoptera is urgently needed to develop RNAi-based pest management strategies. In the present study, we investigate the function of the conserved RNAi core factor, Argonaute2 (Ago2), in mediating B. mori RNAi efficiency. We demonstrate that introducing BmAgo2 dsRNA inhibits the RNAi response in both BmN cells and embryos. Furthermore, we establish several transgenic silkworm lines to assess the roles of BmAgo2 in larval RNAi. Over-expressing BmAgo2 significantly facilitated both dsRNA-mediated larval RNAi when targeting DsRed using dsRNA injection and shRNA-mediated larval RNAi when targeting BmBlos2 using transgenic shRNA expression. Our results show that BmAgo2 is involved in RNAi in B. mori and provides a promising approach for improving larval RNAi efficiency in B. mori and in lepidopteran insects in general.

  18. The role of internal waves in larval fish interactions with potential predators and prey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Adam T.; Cowen, Robert K.; Guigand, Cedric M.; Hare, Jonathan A.; Tang, Dorothy

    2014-09-01

    Tidally driven internal wave packets in coastal environments have the potential to influence patchiness of larval fishes, prey, and gelatinous predators. We used the In Situ Ichthyoplankton Imaging System (ISIIS) to synoptically sample larval fishes, copepods, and planktonic predators (ctenophores, hydromedusae, chaetognaths, and polychaetes) across these predictable features in the summer near Stellwagen Bank, Massachusetts, USA. Full water column profiles and fixed depth transects (∼10 m depth) were used to quantify vertical and horizontal components of the fish and invertebrate distributions during stable and vertically mixed conditions associated with tidally generated internal waves. Larval fishes, consisting mostly of Urophycis spp., Merluccius bilinearis, and Labridae, were concentrated near the surface, with larger sizes generally occupying greater depths. During stable water column conditions, copepods formed a near surface thin layer several meters above the chlorophyll-a maximum that was absent when internal waves were propagating. In contrast, ctenophores and other predators were much more abundant at depth, but concentrations near 10 m increased immediately after the internal hydraulic jump mixed the water column. During the propagation of internal waves, the fine-scale abundance of larval fishes was more correlated with the abundance of gelatinous predators and less correlated with copepods compared to the stable conditions. Vertical oscillations caused by the internal hydraulic jump can disperse patches of zooplankton and force surface dwelling larval fishes into deeper water where probability of predator contact is increased, creating conditions potentially less favorable for larval fish growth and survival on short time scales.

  19. Larval development and emergence sites of farm-associated Culicoides in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Harrup, L E; Purse, B V; Golding, N; Mellor, P S; Carpenter, S

    2013-12-01

    Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are the biological vectors of internationally important arboviruses of livestock including bluetongue virus (BTV). Information on the habitats used by Culicoides for larval development is valuable for establishing targeted vector control strategies and for improving local scale models of vector abundance. This study combines emergence trap collections of adult Culicoides identified using molecular markers and physiochemical measurements of habitats to investigate larval development sites of Palaearctic Culicoides in South East England. The known range of larval habitats for several Culicoides species is extended and the potential BTV vector species C. obsoletus and C. scoticus are confirmed to co-occur in many larval habitats. The presence of emerging C. obsoletus was favoured by increasing substrate moisture level [odds ratio (OR) 6.94 (2.30; 20.90)] and substrate pH [OR 4.80 (1.66; 13.90)] [bias-corrected Dxy : 0.68; area under the curve (AUC): 0.86] rather than any particular larval habitat type, as expected for a species with relatively wide larval habitat preference. Of the newly emerged sub-genus Avaritia individuals collected, 23% were observed to have a degree of abdominal pigmentation commonly inferred to indicate parity. If consistent across species and locations, this observation represents a potential source of error for age structure analyses of Culicoides populations.

  20. Climate change and the performance of larval coral reef fishes: the interaction between temperature and food availability

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Ian M.; Rummer, Jodie L.; Clark, Timothy D.; Jones, Geoffrey P.; McCormick, Mark I.; Wenger, Amelia S.; Munday, Philip L.

    2013-01-01

    Climate-change models predict that tropical ocean temperatures will increase by 2–3°C this century and affect plankton communities that are food for marine fish larvae. Both temperature and food supply can influence development time, growth, and metabolism of marine fishes, particularly during larval stages. However, little is known of the relative importance and potential interacting effects of ocean warming and changes to food supply on the performance of larval fishes. We tested this for larvae of the coral reef anemonefish, Amphiprion percula, in an orthogonal experiment comprising three temperatures and three feeding schedules. Temperatures were chosen to represent present-day summer averages (29.2°C) and end-of-century climate change projections of +1.5°C (30.7°C) and +3°C (32.2°C). Feeding schedules were chosen to represent a reduction in access to food (fed daily, every 2 days, or every 3 days). Overall, larvae took longer to settle at higher temperatures and with less frequent feeding, and there was a significant interaction between these factors. Time to metamorphosis was fastest in the 30.7oC and high food availability treatment (10.5 ± 0.2 days) and slowest in the 32.2oC and low food availability treatment (15.6 ± 0.5 days; i.e. 50% faster). Fish from the lower feeding regimens had a lower body condition and decreased survivorship to metamorphosis. Routine oxygen consumption rates were highest for fish raised at 32.2°C and fed every third day (162 ± 107 mg O2  kg−1 h−1) and lowest for fish raised at 29.2°C and fed daily (122 ± 101 mg O2 kg−1 h−1; i.e. 35% lower). The elevated routine oxygen consumption rate, and therefore greater energy use at higher temperatures, may leave less energy available for growth and development, resulting in the longer time to metamorphosis. Overall, these results suggest that larval fishes will be severely impacted by climate-change scenarios that predict both

  1. Role of larval host plants in the climate-driven range expansion of the butterfly Polygonia c-album.

    PubMed

    Braschler, Brigitte; Hill, Jane K

    2007-05-01

    1. Some species have expanded their ranges during recent climate warming and the availability of breeding habitat and species' dispersal ability are two important factors determining expansions. The exploitation of a wide range of larval host plants should increase an herbivorous insect species' ability to track climate by increasing habitat availability. Therefore we investigated whether the performance of a species on different host plants changed towards its range boundary, and under warmer temperatures. 2. We studied the polyphagous butterfly Polygonia c-album, which is currently expanding its range in Britain and apparently has altered its host plant preference from Humulus lupulus to include other hosts (particularly Ulmus glabra and Urtica dioica). We investigated insect performance (development time, larval growth rate, adult size, survival) and adult flight morphology on these host plants under four rearing temperatures (18-28.5 degrees C) in populations from core and range margin sites. 3. In general, differences between core and margin populations were small compared with effects of rearing temperature and host plant. In terms of insect performance, host plants were generally ranked U. glabra > or = U. dioica > H. lupulus at all temperatures. Adult P. c-album can either enter diapause or develop directly and higher temperatures resulted in more directly developing adults, but lower survival rates (particularly on the original host H. lupulus) and smaller adult size. 4. Adult flight morphology of wild-caught individuals from range margin populations appeared to be related to increased dispersal potential relative to core populations. However, there was no difference in laboratory reared individuals, and conflicting results were obtained for different measures of flight morphology in relation to larval host plant and temperature effects, making conclusions about dispersal potential difficult. 5. Current range expansion of P. c-album is associated with the

  2. Quantifying the "bio-" components in biophysical models of larval transport in marine benthic invertebrates: advances and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Metaxas, Anna; Saunders, Megan

    2009-06-01

    Biophysical models are being used increasingly, both as predictive tools of larval dispersal for a particular system and for general evaluation of the role of different factors in larval transport. In the results of such models, larval duration, mortality, and behavior in the water column have exhibited pronounced effects on larval dispersal of marine benthic invertebrates. The parameterization of these processes has broadly reflected values from laboratory experiments, but the accuracy of these values is unknown. The pelagic larval duration used in models should be determined by laboratory, or preferably field, studies and should incorporate environmentally dependent variability. For mortality, in situ estimates are now feasible and, likely, more accurate than the currently used values. Larval behavior can be measured in the field, by high-frequency sampling of distributional changes relative to features in the water column or by controlled larval releases in tractable systems. To successfully validate the outcomes of these models, we must either improve our techniques for measuring larval abundance at the end of larval transport immediately before settlement, or incorporate components for settlement into the models. We must also address the mismatch in sampling resolution between biological and physical processes. If used with caution, this powerful approach can significantly advance our understanding of larval transport.

  3. Draft Test Guideline: Chironomid Sediment Toxicity Test

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following draft test guideline is part of a series of test guidelines that have been developed by EPA for use in the testing of pesticides and toxic substances, and the development of test data for submission to the Agency for review.

  4. Response of macroinvertebrate communities to remediation-simulating conditions in Pennsylvania streams influenced by acid mine drainage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, R.M.; Long, E.S.; Dropkin, D.S.

    2008-01-01

    We compared naturally alkaline streams with limestone lithology to freestone streams with and without acid mine drainage (AMD) to predict benthic macroinvertebrate community recovery from AMD in limestone-treated watersheds. Surrogate-recovered (limestone) and, in many cases, freestone systems had significantly higher macroinvertebrate densities; diversity; taxa richness; Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) taxa; EPT/chironomid ratios; scraper/collector - gatherer ratios; herbivores; collector - filterers; and scrapers. AMD-influenced systems had significantly greater numbers of Diptera and collector - gatherers. An entire trophic level (herbivores) was 'restored' in surrogate-recovered streams, which also showed greater trophic specialization. Indicator analysis identified seven taxa (within Crustacea, Diptera, Nematoda, Trichoptera, and Ephemeroptera) as significant indicators of limestone systems and six taxa (within Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Tricoptera, Coleoptera, and Mollusca) as significant freestone indicators, all useful as biological indicators of recovery from AMD. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007.

  5. Life history, larval dispersal, and connectivity in coral reef fish among the Scattered Islands of the Mozambique Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, James L.; Beldade, Ricardo; Mills, Suzanne C.; Williams, Hannah E.; Bernardi, Giacomo

    2017-03-01

    The Western Indian Ocean harbors one of the world's most diverse marine biota yet is threatened by exploitation with few conservation measures in place. Primary candidates for conservation in the region are the Scattered Islands (Îles Éparses), a group of relatively pristine and uninhabited islands in the Mozambique Channel. However, while optimal conservation strategies depend on the degree of population connectivity among spatially isolated habitats, very few studies have been conducted in the area. Here, we use highly variable microsatellite markers from two damselfishes ( Amphiprion akallopisos and Dascyllus trimaculatus) with differing life history traits [pelagic larval duration (PLD), adult habitat] to compare genetic structure and connectivity among these islands using classic population structure indices as well as Bayesian clustering methods. All classical fixation indexes F ST, R ST, G'ST, and Jost's D show stronger genetic differentiation among islands for A. akallopisos compared to D. trimaculatus, consistent with the former species' shorter PLD and stronger adult site attachment, which may restrict larval dispersal potential. In agreement with these results, the Bayesian analysis revealed clear genetic differentiation among the islands in A. akallopisos, separating the southern group (Bassas da India and Europa) from the center (Juan de Nova) and northern (Îles Glorieuses) islands, but not for D. trimaculatus. Local oceanographic patterns such as eddies that occur along the Mozambique Channel appear to parallel the results reported for A. akallopisos, but such features seem to have little effect on the genetic differentiation of D. trimaculatus. The contrasting patterns of genetic differentiation between species within the same family highlight the importance of accounting for diverse life history traits when assessing community-wide connectivity, an increasingly common consideration in conservation planning.

  6. Characterization of potential larval habitats for Anopheles mosquitoes in relation to urban land-use in Malindi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Keating, Joseph; Macintyre, Kate; Mbogo, Charles M; Githure, John I; Beier, John C

    2004-05-04

    BACKGROUND: This study characterized Anopheles mosquito larval habitats in relation to ecological attributes about the habitat and community-level drainage potential, and investigated whether agricultural activities within or around urban households increased the probability of water body occurrence. Malindi, a city on the coast of Kenya, was mapped using global positioning system (GPS) technology, and a geographic information system (GIS) was used to overlay a measured grid, which served as a sampling frame. Grid cells were stratified according to the level of drainage in the area, and 50 cells were randomly selected for the study. Cross-sectional household and entomological surveys were conducted during November and December 2002 within the 50 grid cells. Chi-square analysis was used to test whether water bodies differed fundamentally between well and poorly drained areas, and multi-level logistic regression was used to test whether household-level agricultural activity increased the probability of water body occurrence in the grid cell. RESULTS: Interviews were conducted with one adult in 629 households. A total of 29 water bodies were identified within the sampled areas. This study found that characteristics of water bodies were fundamentally the same in well and poorly drained areas. This study also demonstrated that household-level urban agriculture was not associated with the occurrence of water bodies in the grid cell, after controlling for potential confounders associated with distance to the city center, drainage, access to resources, and population density. CONCLUSIONS: Household-level urban agricultural activity may be less important than the other types of human perturbation in terms of mosquito larval habitat creation. The fact that many larvae were coming from few sites, and few sites in general were found under relatively dry conditions suggests that mosquito habitat reduction is a reasonable and attainable goal in Malindi.

  7. Effects of pulse and press drying disturbance on benthic stream communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lynch, Dustin T.; Magoulick, Daniel D.

    2016-01-01

    Natural disturbance is an integral component of most ecosystems and occurs in 3 different forms: pulse, press, and ramp. In lotic ecosystems, seasonal drought is a major form of disturbance, particularly in intermittent headwater streams, which often are reduced to pools that serve as refuges for biota. We used simulated intermittent stream pools to compare the effects of control, pulse, and press drying on growth and survival in 3 fish species (Lepomis megalotis, Campostoma anomalum, and Etheostoma spectabile) commonly found together in drought-prone streams in the Ozark Highlands, USA. We also compared effects on benthic community structure, including periphyton and chironomid density and sediment in deep (permanently watered) and shallow (intermittently dewatered) habitat. Only one species, L. megalotis, showed a significant reduction in length and mass growth in press drying compared with control treatments. Drying and type of drying had no effect on survival of any fish species. Drying and type of drying had strong overall effects on periphyton growth in shallow habitats, where ash-free dry mass decreased and the autotrophic index (the ratio of chlorophyll a to total biomass) increased significantly in drying relative to control and in press relative to pulse treatments. Drying negatively affected sediment accumulation in shallow habitat and chironomid density in deep habitat. Drying in intermittent streams has species-dependent effects on fish growth and benthic structure, and pulse and press drying differ in their effects on periphyton in these systems. These effects may have important consequences in seasonally drying streams as anthropogenic influence on stream drying increases.

  8. Bacterial communities associated with culex mosquito larvae and two emergent aquatic plants of bioremediation importance.

    PubMed

    Duguma, Dagne; Rugman-Jones, Paul; Kaufman, Michael G; Hall, Michael W; Neufeld, Josh D; Stouthamer, Richard; Walton, William E

    2013-01-01

    Microbes are important for mosquito nutrition, growth, reproduction and control. In this study, we examined bacterial communities associated with larval mosquitoes and their habitats. Specifically, we characterized bacterial communities associated with late larval instars of the western encephalitis mosquito (Culextarsalis), the submerged portions of two emergent macrophytes (California bulrush, Schoenoplectuscalifornicus and alkali bulrush, Schoenoplectusmaritimus), and the associated water columns to investigate potential differential use of resources by mosquitoes in different wetland habitats. Using next-generation sequence data from 16S rRNA gene hypervariable regions, the alpha diversity of mosquito gut microbial communities did not differ between pond mesocosms containing distinct monotypic plants. Proteobacteria, dominated by the genus Thorsellia (Enterobacteriaceae), was the most abundant phylum recovered from C. tarsalis larvae. Approximately 49% of bacterial OTUs found in larval mosquitoes were identical to OTUs recovered from the water column and submerged portions of the two bulrushes. Plant and water samples were similar to one another, both being dominated by Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia phyla. Overall, the bacterial communities within C. tarsalis larvae were conserved and did not change across sampling dates and between two distinct plant habitats. Although Thorsellia spp. dominated mosquito gut communities, overlap of mosquito gut, plant and water-column OTUs likely reveal the effects of larval feeding. Future research will investigate the role of the key indicator groups of bacteria across the different developmental stages of this mosquito species.

  9. Currents connecting communities: nearshore community similarity and ocean circulation.

    PubMed

    Watson, J R; Hays, C G; Raimondi, P T; Mitarai, S; Dong, C; McWilliams, J C; Blanchette, C A; Caselle, J E; Siegel, D A

    2011-06-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that create spatial heterogeneity in species distributions is fundamental to ecology. For nearshore marine systems, most species have a pelagic larval stage where dispersal is strongly influenced by patterns of ocean circulation. Concomitantly, nearshore habitats and the local environment are also influenced by ocean circulation. Because of the shared dependence on the seascape, distinguishing the relative importance of the local environment from regional patterns of dispersal for community structure remains a challenge. Here, we quantify the "oceanographic distance" and "oceanographic asymmetry" between nearshore sites using ocean circulation modeling results. These novel metrics quantify spatial separation based on realistic patterns of ocean circulation, and we explore their explanatory power for intertidal and subtidal community similarity in the Southern California Bight. We find that these metrics show significant correspondence with patterns of community similarity and that their combined explanatory power exceeds that of the thermal structure of the domain. Our approach identifies the unique influence of ocean circulation on community structure and provides evidence for oceanographically mediated dispersal limitation in nearshore marine communities.

  10. Larval traits carry over to affect post-settlement behaviour in a common coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Dingeldein, Andrea L; White, J Wilson

    2016-07-01

    Most reef fishes begin life as planktonic larvae before settling to the reef, metamorphosing and entering the benthic adult population. Different selective forces determine survival in the planktonic and benthic life stages, but traits established in the larval stage may carry over to affect post-settlement performance. We tested the hypothesis that larval traits affect two key post-settlement fish behaviours: social group-joining and foraging. Certain larval traits of reef fishes are permanently recorded in the rings in their otoliths. In the bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum), prior work has shown that key larval traits recorded in otoliths (growth rate, energetic condition at settlement) carry over to affect post-settlement survival on the reef, with higher-larval-condition fish experiencing less post-settlement mortality. We hypothesized that this selective mortality is mediated by carry-over effects on post-settlement antipredator behaviours. We predicted that better-condition fish would forage less and be more likely to join groups, both behaviours that would reduce predation risk. We collected 550 recently settled bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum) from three reef sites off St. Croix (USVI) and performed two analyses. First, we compared each settler's larval traits to the size of its social group to determine whether larval traits influenced group-joining behaviour. Secondly, we observed foraging behaviour in a subset of grouped and solitary fish (n = 14) for 1-4 days post-settlement. We then collected the fish and tested whether larval traits influenced the proportion of time spent foraging. Body length at settlement, but not condition, affected group-joining behaviour; smaller fish were more likely to remain solitary or in smaller groups. However, both greater length and better condition were associated with greater proportions of time spent foraging over four consecutive days post-settlement. Larval traits carry over to affect post

  11. Factors affecting fungus-induced larval mortality in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Entomopathogenic fungi have shown great potential for the control of adult malaria vectors. However, their ability to control aquatic stages of anopheline vectors remains largely unexplored. Therefore, how larval characteristics (Anopheles species, age and larval density), fungus (species and concentration) and environmental effects (exposure duration and food availability) influence larval mortality caused by fungus, was studied. Methods Laboratory bioassays were performed on the larval stages of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi with spores of two fungus species, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana. For various larval and fungal characteristics and environmental effects the time to death was determined and survival curves established. These curves were compared by Kaplan Meier and Cox regression analyses. Results Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae caused high mortality of An. gambiae and An. stephensi larvae. However, Beauveria bassiana was less effective (Hazard ratio (HR) <1) compared to Metarhizium anisopliae. Anopheles stephensi and An. gambiae were equally susceptible to each fungus. Older larvae were less likely to die than young larvae (HR < 1). The effect of increase in fungus concentration on larval mortality was influenced by spore clumping. One day exposure to fungal spores was found to be equally effective as seven days exposure. In different exposure time treatments 0 - 4.9% of the total larvae, exposed to fungus, showed infection at either the pupal or adult stage. Mortality rate increased with increasing larval density and amount of available food. Conclusions This study shows that both fungus species have potential to kill mosquitoes in the larval stage, and that mortality rate depends on fungus species itself, larval stage targeted, larval density and amount of nutrients available to the larvae. Increasing the concentration of fungal spores or reducing the exposure time to spores did not show a proportional

  12. Complete larval development of the hermit crabs Clibanarius aequabilis and Clibanarius erythropus (Decapoda: Anomura: Diogenidae), under laboratory conditions, with a revision of the larval features of genus Clibanarius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartilotti, Cátia; Calado, Ricardo; Dos Santos, Antonina

    2008-06-01

    The complete larval development (four zoeae and one megalopa) of Clibanarius aequabilis and C. erythropus, reared under laboratory conditions, is described and illustrated. The larval stages of the two northeastern Atlantic Clibanarius species cannot be easily differentiated. Their morphological characters are compared with those of other known Clibanarius larvae. The genus Clibanarius is very homogeneous with respect to larval characters. All Clibanarius zoeae display a broad and blunt rostrum, smooth abdominal segments and an antennal scale without a terminal spine. Beyond the second zoeal stage, the fourth telson process is present as a fused spine, and the uropods are biramous. In the fourth larval stage all species display a mandibular palp. The Clibanarius megalopa presents weakly developed or no ocular scales, symmetrical chelipeds, apically curved corneous dactylus in the second and third pereiopods, and 5-11 setae on the posterior margin of the telson. Apart from the number of zoeal stages, Clibanarius species may be separated, beyond the second zoeal stage, by the telson formula and the morphology of the fourth telson process.

  13. Is the Schwabe Organ a Retained Larval Eye? Anatomical and Behavioural Studies of a Novel Sense Organ in Adult Leptochiton asellus (Mollusca, Polyplacophora) Indicate Links to Larval Photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Sumner-Rooney, Lauren H.; Sigwart, Julia D.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of a sensory organ, the Schwabe organ, was recently reported as a unifying feature of chitons in the order Lepidopleurida. It is a patch of pigmented tissue located on the roof of the pallial cavity, beneath the velum on either side of the mouth. The epithelium is densely innervated and contains two types of potential sensory cells. As the function of the Schwabe organ remains unknown, we have taken a cross-disciplinary approach, using anatomical, histological and behavioural techniques to understand it. In general, the pigmentation that characterises this sensory structure gradually fades after death; however, one particular concentrated pigment dot persists. This dot is positionally homologous to the larval eye in chiton trochophores, found in the same neuroanatomical location, and furthermore the metamorphic migration of the larval eye is ventral in species known to possess Schwabe organs. Here we report the presence of a discrete subsurface epithelial structure in the region of the Schwabe organ in Leptochiton asellus that histologically resembles the chiton larval eye. Behavioural experiments demonstrate that Leptochiton asellus with intact Schwabe organs actively avoid an upwelling light source, while Leptochiton asellus with surgically ablated Schwabe organs and a control species lacking the organ (members of the other extant order, Chitonida) do not (Kruskal-Wallis, H = 24.82, df = 3, p < 0.0001). We propose that the Schwabe organ represents the adult expression of the chiton larval eye, being retained and elaborated in adult lepidopleurans. PMID:26366861

  14. Is the Schwabe Organ a Retained Larval Eye? Anatomical and Behavioural Studies of a Novel Sense Organ in Adult Leptochiton asellus (Mollusca, Polyplacophora) Indicate Links to Larval Photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Sumner-Rooney, Lauren H; Sigwart, Julia D

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of a sensory organ, the Schwabe organ, was recently reported as a unifying feature of chitons in the order Lepidopleurida. It is a patch of pigmented tissue located on the roof of the pallial cavity, beneath the velum on either side of the mouth. The epithelium is densely innervated and contains two types of potential sensory cells. As the function of the Schwabe organ remains unknown, we have taken a cross-disciplinary approach, using anatomical, histological and behavioural techniques to understand it. In general, the pigmentation that characterises this sensory structure gradually fades after death; however, one particular concentrated pigment dot persists. This dot is positionally homologous to the larval eye in chiton trochophores, found in the same neuroanatomical location, and furthermore the metamorphic migration of the larval eye is ventral in species known to possess Schwabe organs. Here we report the presence of a discrete subsurface epithelial structure in the region of the Schwabe organ in Leptochiton asellus that histologically resembles the chiton larval eye. Behavioural experiments demonstrate that Leptochiton asellus with intact Schwabe organs actively avoid an upwelling light source, while Leptochiton asellus with surgically ablated Schwabe organs and a control species lacking the organ (members of the other extant order, Chitonida) do not (Kruskal-Wallis, H = 24.82, df = 3, p < 0.0001). We propose that the Schwabe organ represents the adult expression of the chiton larval eye, being retained and elaborated in adult lepidopleurans.

  15. Genetic analysis of Eclosion hormone action during Drosophila larval ecdysis.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Eileen; Mena, Wilson; Lahr, Eleanor C; Johnson, Erik C; Ewer, John

    2015-12-15

    Insect growth is punctuated by molts, during which the animal produces a new exoskeleton. The molt culminates in ecdysis, an ordered sequence of behaviors that causes the old cuticle to be shed. This sequence is activated by Ecdysis triggering hormone (ETH), which acts on the CNS to activate neurons that produce neuropeptides implicated in ecdysis, including Eclosion hormone (EH), Crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) and Bursicon. Despite more than 40 years of research on ecdysis, our understanding of the precise roles of these neurohormones remains rudimentary. Of particular interest is EH; although it is known to upregulate ETH release, other roles for EH have remained elusive. We isolated an Eh null mutant in Drosophila and used it to investigate the role of EH in larval ecdysis. We found that null mutant animals invariably died at around the time of ecdysis, revealing an essential role in its control. Further analyses showed that these animals failed to express the preparatory behavior of pre-ecdysis while directly expressing the motor program of ecdysis. Although ETH release could not be detected, the lack of pre-ecdysis could not be rescued by injections of ETH, suggesting that EH is required within the CNS for ETH to trigger the normal ecdysial sequence. Using a genetically encoded calcium probe, we showed that EH configured the response of the CNS to ETH. These findings show that EH plays an essential role in the Drosophila CNS in the control of ecdysis, in addition to its known role in the periphery of triggering ETH release.

  16. Larval and nurse worker control of developmental plasticity and the evolution of honey bee queen-worker dimorphism

    PubMed Central

    Linksvayer, Timothy A.; Kaftanoglu, Osman; Akyol, Ethem; Blatch, Sydella; Amdam, Gro V.; Page, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Social evolution in honey bees has produced strong queen-worker dimorphism for plastic traits that depend on larval nutrition. The honey bee developmental program includes both larval components that determine plastic growth responses to larval nutrition and nurse components that regulate larval nutrition. We studied how these two components contribute to variation in worker and queen body size and ovary size for two pairs of honey bee lineages that show similar differences in worker body-ovary size allometry but have diverged over different evolutionary time scales. Our results indicate: that the lineages have diverged for both nurse and larval developmental components, that rapid changes in worker body-ovary allometry may disrupt queen development, and that queen-worker dimorphism arises mainly from discrete nurse-provided nutritional environments, not from a developmental switch that converts variable nutritional environments into discrete phenotypes. Both larval and nurse components have likely contributed to the evolution of queen-worker dimorphism. PMID:21696476

  17. Larval habitat dynamics and diversity of Culex mosquitoes in rice agro-ecosystem in Mwea, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Shililu, Josephat I; Gu, Weidong; Jacob, Benjamin G; Githure, John I; Novak, Robert J

    2007-01-01

    Introduction of irrigation projects in developing nations has often been blamed for aggravating the problem of mosquito-borne diseases by creating ideal larval habitats for vector mosquitoes. However, whereas several studies have demonstrated the relationship between malaria vectors and irrigation, little work has been done on culicine mosquitoes despite their potential in transmission of filariasis and arboviruses and their significant biting nuisance in these areas. This study examined the diversity of Culex mosquito fauna and their larval habitats at two sites (Murinduko and Kiamachiri) in Mwea, Kenya over a 12-month period. The habitat types present at each site within a 200-meter radius around the study village, including randomly selected paddies and canals, were sampled every two weeks to examine the relationship between vegetation cover, water depth, turbidity, and Culex larval counts. Ten culicine species belonging to four genera were identified, with 73.1% of the total collection comprising of Culex duttoni and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Other species collected included Cx. annulioris, Cx. poicilipes, Cx. cinereus, Cx. tigripes, Cx. trifilatus, Aedes spp., Coquilettidia fuscopennata, and Ficalbia splendens. Murinduko was more diverse than Kiamachiri in terms of species richness (10 versus 7 species) and larval habitat diversity (11 versus 8 habitat types). Paddies, canals, and rain pools were the most diverse habitats in terms of species richness, and ditches, rock pools, and tree holes were the least diverse. Principal component and correlation analyses showed a strong association between three Culex species and the measured habitat characteristics. Culex poicilipes was strongly associated with floating vegetation, Cx. annulioris with clean water containing emergent vegetation, and Cx. quinquefasciatus was associated with turbid water. Seasonal changes in larval counts in water reservoirs and pool and ditch habitats were closely associated with rainfall

  18. Soil nutrient effects on oviposition preference, larval performance, and chemical defense of a specialist insect herbivore.

    PubMed

    Prudic, Kathleen L; Oliver, Jeffrey C; Bowers, M Deane

    2005-05-01

    This study examined the effects of increased leaf nitrogen in natural host-plants (Plantago spp.) on female oviposition preference, larval performance, and larval chemical defense of the butterfly Junonia coenia. Increased availability of soil nutrients caused the host-plant's foliar nitrogen to increase and its chemical defense to decrease. Larval performance did not correlate with increases in foliar nitrogen. Larval growth rate and survival were equivalent across host-plant treatments. However, larvae raised on fertilized host-plants showed concomitant decreases in chemical defense as compared to larvae reared on unfertilized host-plants. Since most butterfly larvae cannot move long distances during their first few instars and are forced to feed upon the plant on which they hatched, J. coenia larval chemical defense is determined, in large part, by female oviposition choice. Female butterflies preferred host-plants with high nitrogen over host-plants with low nitrogen; however, this preference was also mediated by plant chemical defense. Female butterflies preferred more chemically defended host-plants when foliar nitrogen was equivalent between host-plants. J. coenia larvae experience intense predation in the field, especially when larvae are not chemically well defended. Any qualitative or quantitative variation in plant allelochemical defense has fitness consequences on these larvae. Thus, these results indicate that females may be making sub-optimal oviposition decisions under a nutrient-enriched regime, when predators are present. Given the recent increase in fertilizer application and nitrogen deposition on the terrestrial landscape, these interactions between female preference, larval performance, and larval chemical defense may result in long-term changes in population dynamics and persistence of specialist insects.

  19. Muscle organizers in Drosophila: the role of persistent larval fibers in adult flight muscle development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, E. R.; Fernandes, J.; Keshishian, H.

    1996-01-01

    In many organisms muscle formation depends on specialized cells that prefigure the pattern of the musculature and serve as templates for myoblast organization and fusion. These include muscle pioneers in insects and muscle organizing cells in leech. In Drosophila, muscle founder cells have been proposed to play a similar role in organizing larval muscle development during embryogenesis. During metamorphosis in Drosophila, following histolysis of most of the larval musculature, there is a second round of myogenesis that gives rise to the adult muscles. It is not known whether muscle founder cells organize the development of these muscles. However, in the thorax specific larval muscle fibers do not histolyze at the onset of metamorphosis, but instead serve as templates for the formation of a subset of adult muscles, the dorsal longitudinal flight muscles (DLMs). Because these persistent larval muscle fibers appear to be functioning in many respects like muscle founder cells, we investigated whether they were necessary for DLM development by using a microbeam laser to ablate them singly and in combination. We found that, in the absence of the larval muscle fibers, DLMs nonetheless develop. Our results show that the persistent larval muscle fibers are not required to initiate myoblast fusion, to determine DLM identity, to locate the DLMs in the thorax, or to specify the total DLM fiber volume. However, they are required to regulate the number of DLM fibers generated. Thus, while the persistent larval muscle fibers are not obligatory for DLM fiber formation and differentiation, they are necessary to ensure the development of the correct number of fibers.

  20. Larval retention and connectivity among populations of corals and reef fishes: history, advances and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, G. P.; Almany, G. R.; Russ, G. R.; Sale, P. F.; Steneck, R. S.; van Oppen, M. J. H.; Willis, B. L.

    2009-06-01

    The extent of larval dispersal on coral reefs has important implications for the persistence of coral reef metapopulations, their resilience and recovery from an increasing array of threats, and the success of protective measures. This article highlights a recent dramatic increase in research effort and a growing diversity of approaches to the study of larval retention within (self-recruitment) and dispersal among (connectivity) isolated coral reef populations. Historically, researchers were motivated by alternative hypotheses concerning the processes limiting populations and structuring coral reef assemblages, whereas the recent impetus has come largely from the need to incorporate dispersal information into the design of no-take marine protected area (MPA) networks. Although the majority of studies continue to rely on population genetic approaches to make inferences about dispersal, a wide range of techniques are now being employed, from small-scale larval tagging and paternity analyses, to large-scale biophysical circulation models. Multiple approaches are increasingly being applied to cross-validate and provide more realistic estimates of larval dispersal. The vast majority of empirical studies have focused on corals and fishes, where evidence for both extremely local scale patterns of self-recruitment and ecologically significant connectivity among reefs at scales of tens of kilometers (and in some cases hundreds of kilometers) is accumulating. Levels of larval retention and the spatial extent of connectivity in both corals and fishes appear to be largely independent of larval duration or reef size, but may be strongly influenced by geographic setting. It is argued that high levels of both self-recruitment and larval import can contribute to the resilience of reef populations and MPA networks, but these benefits will erode in degrading reef environments.

  1. Do larval fishes exhibit diel drift patterns in a large, turbid river?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, K.S.; Galat, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research suggested larval fishes do not exhibit a diel drift cycle in turbid rivers (transparency <30 cm). We evaluated this hypothesis in the turbid, lower Missouri River, Missouri. We also reviewed diel patterns of larval drift over a range of transparencies in rivers worldwide. Larval fishes were collected from the Missouri River primary channel every 4 h per 24-h period during spring-summer 2002. Water transparency was measured during this period and summarized for previous years. Diel drift patterns were analyzed at the assemblage level and lower taxonomic levels for abundant groups. Day and night larval fish catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) was compared for the entire May through August sampling period and spring (May - June) and summer (July - August) seasons separately. There were no significant differences between day and night CPUE at the assemblage level for the entire sampling period or for the spring and summer seasons. However, Hiodon alosoides, Carpiodes/Ictiobus spp. and Macrhybopsis spp. exhibited a diel cycle of abundance within the drift. This pattern was evident although mean Secchi depth (transparency) ranged from 4 to 25 cm during the study and was <30 cm from May through August over the previous nine years. Larval diel drift studies from 48 rivers excluding the Missouri River indicated the primary drift period for larval fishes was at night in 38 rivers and during the day for five, with the remaining rivers showing no pattern. Water transparency was reported for 10 rivers with six being <30 cm or 'low'. Two of these six turbid rivers exhibited significant diel drift patterns. The effect of water transparency on diel drift of larval fishes appears taxa-specific and patterns of abundant taxa could mask patterns of rare taxa when analyzed only at the assemblage level. ?? 2010 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  2. Chronic toxicity of azo and anthracenedione dyes to embryo-larval fathead minnow.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Joanne L; Bartlett, Adrienne J; Balakrishnan, Vimal K

    2016-03-01

    The toxicity of selected azo and anthracenedione dyes was studied using chronic exposures of embryo-larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Newly fertilized fathead minnow embryos were exposed through the egg stage, past hatching, through the larval stage (until 14 days post-hatch), with dye solutions renewed daily. The anthracenedione dyes Acid Blue 80 (AB80) and Acid Blue 129 (AB129) caused no effects in larval fish at the highest measured concentrations tested of 7700 and 6700 μg/L, respectively. Both azo dyes Disperse Yellow 7 (DY7) and Sudan Red G (SRG) decreased survival of larval fish, with LC50s (based on measured concentrations of dyes in fish exposure water) of 25.4 μg/L for DY7 and 16.7 μg/L for SRG. Exposure to both azo dyes caused a delayed response, with larval fish succumbing 4-10 days after hatch. If the exposures were ended at the embryo stage or just after hatch, the potency of these two dyes would be greatly underestimated. Concentrations of dyes that we measured entering the Canadian environment were much lower than those that affected larval fish survival in the current tests. In a total of 162 samples of different municipal wastewater effluents from across Canada assessed for these dyes, all were below detection limits. The similarities of the structures and larval fish responses for the two azo and two anthracenedione dyes in this study support the use of read-across data for risk assessment of these classes of compounds.

  3. Eggshells as an index of aedine mosquito production. 2: Relationship of Aedes taeniorhynchus eggshell density to larval production.

    PubMed

    Addison, D S; Ritchie, S A; Webber, L A; Van Essen, F

    1992-03-01

    To test if eggshell density could be used as an index of aedine mosquito production, we compared eggshell density with the larval production of Aedes taeniorhynchus in Florida mangrove basin forests. Quantitative (n = 7) and categorical (n = 34) estimates of annual larval production were regressed against the number of eggshells per cc of soil. Significant regressions were obtained in both instances. Larval production was concentrated in zones with the highest eggshell density. We suggest that eggshell density and distribution can be used to identify oviposition sites and the sequence of larval appearance.

  4. Condition of larval red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) relative to environmental variability and the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, F. J., Jr.; Filbrun, J. E.; Fang, J.; Ransom, J. T.

    2016-09-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWHOS) spatially and temporally overlapped with the spawning of many fish species, including Red Snapper, one of the most economically important reef fish in the Gulf of Mexico. To investigate potential impacts of the DWHOS on larval Red Snapper, data from a long-term ichthyoplankton survey off the coast of Alabama were used to examine: (1) larval abundances among pre-impact (2007-2009), impact (2010), and post-impact (2011, 2013) periods; (2) proxies for larval condition (size-adjusted morphometric relationships and dry weight) among the same periods; and (3) the effects of background environmental variation on larval condition. We found that larval Red Snapper were in poorer body condition during 2010, 2011, and 2013 as compared to the 2007-2009 period, a trend that was strongly (and negatively) related to variation in Mobile Bay freshwater discharge. However, larvae collected during and after 2010 were in relatively poor condition even after accounting for variation in freshwater discharge and other environmental variables. By contrast, no differences in larval abundance were detected during these survey years. Taken together, larval supply did not change relative to the timing of the DWHOS, but larval condition was negatively impacted. Even small changes in condition can affect larval survival, so these trends may have consequences for recruitment of larvae to juvenile and adult life stages.

  5. Larval cells become imaginal cells under the control of homothorax prior to metamorphosis in the Drosophila tracheal system.

    PubMed

    Sato, Makoto; Kitada, Yusuke; Tabata, Tetsuya

    2008-06-15

    In Drosophila melanogaster, one of the most derived species among holometabolous insects, undifferentiated imaginal cells that are set-aside during larval development are thought to proliferate and replace terminally differentiated larval cells to constitute adult structures. Essentially all tissues that undergo extensive proliferation and drastic morphological changes during metamorphosis are thought to derive from these imaginal cells and not from differentiated larval cells. The results of studies on metamorphosis of the Drosophila tracheal system suggested that large larval tracheal cells that are thought to be terminally differentiated may be eliminated via apoptosis and rapidly replaced by small imaginal cells that go on to form the adult tracheal system. However, the origin of the small imaginal tracheal cells has not been clear. Here, we show that large larval cells in tracheal metamere 2 (Tr2) divide and produce small imaginal cells prior to metamorphosis. In the absence of homothorax gene activity, larval cells in Tr2 become non-proliferative and small imaginal cells are not produced, indicating that homothorax is necessary for proliferation of Tr2 larval cells. These unexpected results suggest that larval cells can become imaginal cells and directly contribute to the adult tissue in the Drosophila tracheal system. During metamorphosis of less derived species of holometabolous insects, adult structures are known to be formed via cells constituting larval structures. Thus, the Drosophila tracheal system may utilize ancestral mode of metamorphosis.

  6. Role of circulation scales and water mass distributions on larval fish habitats in the Eastern Tropical Pacific off Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León-Chávez, Cristina A.; Beier, Emilio; Sánchez-Velasco, Laura; Barton, Eric Desmond; Godínez, Victor M.

    2015-06-01

    On the basis of five oceanographic cruises carried out in the Eastern Tropical Pacific off Mexico, relationships between the larval fish habitats (areas inhabited by larval fish assemblages) and the environmental circulation scales (mesoscale, seasonal, and interannual) were examined. Analysis of in situ data over a grid of hydrographic stations and oblique zooplankton hauls with bongo net (505 µm) was combined with orthogonal robust functions decomposition applied to altimetry anomalies obtained from satellite. During both cool (March and June) and warm (August and November) periods, Bray-Curtis dissimilarity Index defined three recurrent larval fish habitats which varied in species composition and extent as a function of the environmental scales. The variability of the Tropical larval fish habitat (characterized by high species richness, and dominated by Vinciguerria lucetia, Diogenichthys laternatus, and Diaphus pacificus) was associated with the seasonal changes. The Transitional-California Current larval fish habitat (dominated by V. lucetia and D. laternatus, with lower mean abundance and lower species richness than in the Tropical habitat) and Coastal-and-Upwelling larval fish habitat (dominated by Bregmaceros bathymaster) was associated mainly with mesoscale activity induced by eddies and with coastal upwelling. During February 2010, the Tropical larval fish habitat predominated offshore and the Transitional-California Current larval fish habitat was not present, which we attribute to the effect of El Niño conditions. Thus, the mesoscale, seasonal, and interannual environmental scales affect the composition and extension of larval fish habitats.

  7. A review of spinosad as a natural product for larval mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Hertlein, Mark B; Mavrotas, Costas; Jousseaume, Christian; Lysandrou, Michael; Thompson, Gary D; Jany, William; Ritchie, Scott A

    2010-03-01

    The effectiveness of spinosad for larval mosquito control is summarized based on available published literature and some heretofore unpublished studies. Spinosad is highly active against larvae of all mosquito species tested thus far. It is effective at similar dosages for all larval mosquito instars, with peak cumulative mortality occurring at 72 h posttreatment. More studies are needed to fully define spinosad's ovicidal properties and its impact on the pupal stage. High levels of organic matter and full sunlight are both factors that can negatively impact spinosad efficacy and longevity and should be considered when making use rate and retreatment decisions. Studies clearly show that spinosad technical active ingredient and current crop formulations are suboptimal for larval mosquito control and underrepresent spinosad's true activity. A series of spinosad formulations specialized for larval mosquito control will be sold commercially. Prior to its launch and widespread use, there is a need for additional baseline studies to clarify the natural geographic variation in susceptibility of field mosquito populations. Spinosad represents a new and effective natural product for the integrated management of larval mosquitoes. It possesses a unique mode of action not shared by any other insecticide and is shown to be minimally disruptive to most nontarget species tested thus far at its proposed field use rates.

  8. Larval starvation reduces responsiveness to feeding stimuli and does not affect feeding preferences in a butterfly.

    PubMed

    Kehl, Tobias; Fischer, Klaus

    2012-07-01

    It is commonly assumed that holometabolic insects such as Lepidoptera rely primarily on larval storage reserves for reproduction. Recent studies though have documented a prominent role of adult-derived carbohydrates for butterfly reproduction. Moreover, a few studies have shown that adult butterflies may also benefit from adult-derived amino acids, at least when larval storage reserves are reduced. Given that in holometabolous insects larval deficiencies are carried over into the adult stage, reduced storage reserves have the potential to modulate adult feeding preferences and responses in order to allow for a successful compensation. We tested this hypothesis here in the fruit-feeding butterfly Bicyclus anynana using larval food stress to manipulate storage reserves. Alcohols (methanol, ethanol, butanol, propanol), sugars (maltose, glucose, fructose, sucrose), and acetic acid acted as feeding stimuli, while butterflies did not respond to other substances such as amino acids, yeast, salts, or vitamins. Contrary to expectations, stressed butterflies showed a weaker response than controls to several feeding stimuli. In preference tests, butterflies preferred sugar solutions containing proline, arginine, glutamic acid, acetic acid, or ethanol over plain sugar solutions, but discriminated against salts. However, there were no general differences among starved and control butterflies. We conclude that larval food-stress does not elicit compensatory feeding behavior such as a stronger preference for amino acids or other essential nutrients in B. anynana. Instead, the stress imposed by a period of starvation yielded negative effects.

  9. Larval nutritional stress affects vector immune traits in adult yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti).

    PubMed

    Telang, A; Qayum, A A; Parker, A; Sacchetta, B R; Byrnes, G R

    2012-09-01

    We report key physiological traits that link larval nutritional experience to adult immune status in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Stegomyia aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae). Many lines of defence make up the innate immune system of mosquitoes. Among defences, the epithelium-lined midgut is the first barrier, circulating haemocytes are cellular components of innate immunity and, when triggered, the Toll and Imd pathways signal production of antimicrobial peptides (AMP) as part of humoral defences. We quantified three lines of defence in Ae. aegypti in response to larval nutritional stress, and our data show that important female immune functions are modified by the larval rearing environment. Adult midgut basal lamina thickness was not affected by larval nutrient stress as has been observed in another Aedes sp. However, nutrient stresses experienced by larvae lead to a reduced number of haemocytes in females. Transcripts of Spaetzle (upstream regulator of Toll pathway that leads to induction of AMPs) and some immune-related genes were less abundant in stressed larvae but showed increased expression in females derived from stressed larvae. Results indicate a potential for compensation by the humoral branch for a reduced cellular branch of innate immunity in adults in response to larval nutrient stress.

  10. Hiding opaque eyes in transparent organisms: a potential role for larval eyeshine in stomatopod crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Feller, K D; Cronin, T W

    2014-09-15

    Opaque screening pigments are a fundamental requisite for preserving resolution in image-forming eyes. Possession of any type of image-forming eye in a transparent, pelagic animal will thus undermine the ability of that animal to be invisible in the water column. Transparent, pelagic animals must therefore deal with the trade-off between the ability to see and the ability of other animals to see them. Stomatopod larvae, like many transparent crustaceans, possess specialized optics in their compound eyes that minimize the volume of the opaque retina. Though the volumes of these retinas are reduced, their opacity remains conspicuous to an observer. The light reflected from structures overlying the retinas of stomatopod crustacean larval eyes, referred to here as eyeshine, is hypothesized to further reduce the visibility of opaque retinas. Blue or green wavelengths of light are most strongly reflected in stomatopod larval eyeshine, suggesting a putative spectral matching to the light environment against which the larval eyes are viewed. We tested the efficacy of stomatopod crustacean larval eyeshine as an ocular camouflaging mechanism by photographing larvae in their natural light environment and analysing the contrast of eyes with the background light. To test for spectral matching between stomatopod larval eyeshine and the background light environment, we characterized the spectrum of eyeshine and calculated its performance using radiometric measurements collected at the time of each photographic series. These results are the first to demonstrate an operative mirror camouflage matched in both spectrum and radiance to the pelagic background light environment.

  11. Building a Beetle: How Larval Environment Leads to Adult Performance in a Horned Beetle

    PubMed Central

    Reaney, Leeann T.; Knell, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    The link between the expression of the signals used by male animals in contests with the traits which determine success in those contests is poorly understood. This is particularly true in holometabolous insects such as horned beetles where signal expression is determined during metamorphosis and is fixed during adulthood, whereas performance is influenced by post-eclosion feeding. We used path analysis to investigate the relationships between larval and adult nutrition, horn and body size and fitness-related traits such as strength and testes mass in the horned beetle Euoniticellus intermedius. In males weight gain post-eclosion had a central role in determining both testes mass and strength. Weight gain was unaffected by adult nutrition but was strongly correlated with by horn length, itself determined by larval resource availability, indicating strong indirect effects of larval nutrition on the adult beetle’s ability to assimilate food and grow tissues. Female strength was predicted by a simple path diagram where strength was determined by eclosion weight, itself determined by larval nutrition: weight gain post-eclosion was not a predictor of strength in this sex. Based on earlier findings we discuss the insulin-like signalling pathway as a possible mechanism by which larval nutrition could affect adult weight gain and thence traits such as strength. PMID:26244874

  12. Taenia taeniaeformis larval product induces gastric mucosal hyperplasia in SCID mice.

    PubMed

    Lagapa, Jose Trinipil G; Oku, Yuzaburo; Nonaka, Nariaki; Kamiya, Masao

    2002-02-01

    The effects of intraperitoneal implantation of Taenia taeniaeformis larvae and inoculation of in vitro larval products on gastric mucosa of SCID mice were investigated in this study. Mice surgically implanted with T. taeniaeformis larvae developed slight and moderate gastric hyperplasia. When in vitro cultured T. taeniaeformis larval excretory-secretory (TtLES) products containing 1 mg of protein were injected daily into mice, they caused gastropathy after 5-7 days. Mice injected daily with 0.5 mg of TtLES products also showed slight gastric hyperplasia after day 14 and 28. The gastropathy was characterized by reduction of both parietal and zymogenic cell number and increased number of alcian blue-periodic acid Schiff (AB-PAS)-positive cells and by two-fold extension of proliferative zone of gastric units. Larval implantation demonstrated a more potent effect in inducing gastropathy than did in vitro larval culture products. Significant decrease in number of parietal cells with concomitant increase of proliferative zone and AB-PAS-positive cell number indicated their important roles in inducing the hyperplastic lesion. Similarities with other gastropathies indicated that there is a common fundamental regulatory mechanism involved, and that the host response may not be specific to parasites. Present study validated the induction of gastric mucosal hyperplasia by larval ES products of T. taeniaeformis. This proved the hypothesis of previous studies suggesting the role of larvae-derived products in inducing gastric mucosal hyperplasia in T. taeniaeformis-infected rats.

  13. Fast versus slow larval growth in an invasive marine mollusc: does paternity matter?

    PubMed

    Le Cam, Sabrina; Pechenik, Jan A; Cagnon, Mathilde; Viard, Frédérique

    2009-01-01

    Reproductive strategies and parental effects play a major role in shaping early life-history traits. Although polyandry is a common reproductive strategy, its role is still poorly documented in relation to paternal effects. Here, we used as a case study the invasive sessile marine gastropod Crepidula fornicata, a mollusc with polyandry and extreme larval growth variation among sibling larvae. Based on paternity analyses, the relationships between paternal identity and the variations in a major early life-history trait in marine organisms, that is, larval growth, were investigated. Using microsatellite markers, paternities of 437 fast- and slow-growing larvae from 6 broods were reliably assigned to a set of 20 fathers. No particular fathers were found responsible for the specific growth performances of their offspring. However, the range of larval growth rates within a brood was significantly correlated to 1) an index of sire diversity and 2) the degree of larvae relatedness within broods. Multiple paternity could thus play an important role in determining the extent of pelagic larval duration and consequently the range of dispersal distances achieved during larval life. This study also highlighted the usefulness of using indices based on fathers' relative contribution to the progeny in paternity studies.

  14. Soundscape manipulation enhances larval recruitment of a reef-building mollusk

    PubMed Central

    Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R.; Eggleston, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Marine seafloor ecosystems, and efforts to restore them, depend critically on the influx and settlement of larvae following their pelagic dispersal period. Larval dispersal and settlement patterns are driven by a combination of physical oceanography and behavioral responses of larvae to a suite of sensory cues both in the water column and at settlement sites. There is growing evidence that the biological and physical sounds associated with adult habitats (i.e., the “soundscape”) influence larval settlement and habitat selection; however, the significance of acoustic cues is rarely tested. Here we show in a field experiment that the free-swimming larvae of an estuarine invertebrate, the eastern oyster, respond to the addition of replayed habitat-related sounds. Oyster larval recruitment was significantly higher on larval collectors exposed to oyster reef sounds compared to no-sound controls. These results provide the first field evidence that soundscape cues may attract the larval settlers of a reef-building estuarine invertebrate. PMID:26056624

  15. Larval Settlement: The Role of Surface Topography for Sessile Coral Reef Invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Whalan, Steve; Abdul Wahab, Muhammad A.; Sprungala, Susanne; Poole, Andrew J.; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-01-01

    For sessile marine invertebrates with complex life cycles, habitat choice is directed by the larval phase. Defining which habitat-linked cues are implicated in sessile invertebrate larval settlement has largely concentrated on chemical cues which are thought to signal optimal habitat. There has been less effort establishing physical settlement cues, including the role of surface microtopography. This laboratory based study tested whether surface microtopography alone (without chemical cues) plays an important contributing role in the settlement of larvae of coral reef sessile invertebrates. We measured settlement to tiles, engineered with surface microtopography (holes) that closely matched the sizes (width) of larvae of a range of corals and sponges, in addition to surfaces with holes that were markedly larger than larvae. Larvae from two species of scleractinian corals (Acropora millepora and Ctenactis crassa) and three species of coral reef sponges (Luffariella variabilis, Carteriospongia foliascens and Ircinia sp.,) were used in experiments. L. variabilis, A. millepora and C. crassa showed markedly higher settlement to surface microtopography that closely matched their larval width. C. foliascens and Ircinia sp., showed no specificity to surface microtopography, settling just as often to microtopography as to flat surfaces. The findings of this study question the sole reliance on chemical based larval settlement cues, previously established for some coral and sponge species, and demonstrate that specific physical cues (surface complexity) can also play an important role in larval settlement of coral reef sessile invertebrates. PMID:25671562

  16. Efficiency of three diets for larval development in mass rearing Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Puggioli, Arianna; Balestrino, F; Damiens, D; Lees, R S; Soliban, S M; Madakacherry, O; Dindo, M L; Bellini, R; Gilles, J R L

    2013-07-01

    A fundamental step in establishing a mass production system is the development of a larval diet that promotes high adult performance at a reasonable cost. To identify a suitable larval diet for Aedes albopictus (Skuse), three diets were compared: a standard laboratory diet used at the Centro Agricoltura Ambiente, Italy (CAA) and two diets developed specifically for mosquito mass rearing at the FAO/IAEA Laboratory, Austria. The two IAEA diets, without affecting survival to the pupal stage, resulted in a shorter time to pupation and to emergence when compared with the CAA diet. At 24 h from pupation onset, 50 and 90% of the male pupae produced on the CAA and IAEA diets, respectively, had formed and could be collected. The diet received during the larval stage affected the longevity of adult males with access to water only, with best results observed when using the CAA larval diet. However, similar longevity among diet treatments was observed when males were supplied with sucrose solution. No differences were observed in the effects of larval diet on adult male size or female fecundity and fertility. Considering these results, along with the relative costs of the three diets, the IAEA 2 diet is found to be the preferred choice for mass rearing of Aedes albopictus, particularly if a sugar meal can be given to adult males before release, to ensure their teneral reserves are sufficient for survival, dispersal, and mating in the field.

  17. Patterning the dorsal longitudinal flight muscles (DLM) of Drosophila: insights from the ablation of larval scaffolds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandes, J. J.; Keshishian, H.

    1996-01-01

    The six Dorsal Longitudinal flight Muscles (DLMs) of Drosophila develop from three larval muscles that persist into metamorphosis and serve as scaffolds for the formation of the adult fibers. We have examined the effect of muscle scaffold ablation on the development of DLMs during metamorphosis. Using markers that are specific to muscle and myoblasts we show that in response to the ablation, myoblasts which would normally fuse with the larval muscle, fuse with each other instead, to generate the adult fibers in the appropriate regions of the thorax. The development of these de novo DLMs is delayed and is reflected in the delayed expression of erect wing, a transcription factor thought to control differentiation events associated with myoblast fusion. The newly arising muscles express the appropriate adult-specific Actin isoform (88F), indicating that they have the correct muscle identity. However, there are frequent errors in the number of muscle fibers generated. Ablation of the larval scaffolds for the DLMs has revealed an underlying potential of the DLM myoblasts to initiate de novo myogenesis in a manner that resembles the mode of formation of the Dorso-Ventral Muscles, DVMs, which are the other group of indirect flight muscles. Therefore, it appears that the use of larval scaffolds is a superimposition on a commonly used mechanism of myogenesis in Drosophila. Our results show that the role of the persistent larval muscles in muscle patterning involves the partitioning of DLM myoblasts, and in doing so, they regulate formation of the correct number of DLM fibers.

  18. Functional genomics identifies regulators of the phototransduction machinery in the Drosophila larval eye and adult ocelli.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Abhishek Kumar; Bargmann, Bastiaan O R; Tsachaki, Maria; Fritsch, Cornelia; Sprecher, Simon G

    2016-02-15

    Sensory perception of light is mediated by specialized Photoreceptor neurons (PRs) in the eye. During development all PRs are genetically determined to express a specific Rhodopsin (Rh) gene and genes mediating a functional phototransduction pathway. While the genetic and molecular mechanisms of PR development is well described in the adult compound eye, it remains unclear how the expression of Rhodopsins and the phototransduction cascade is regulated in other visual organs in Drosophila, such as the larval eye and adult ocelli. Using transcriptome analysis of larval PR-subtypes and ocellar PRs we identify and study new regulators required during PR differentiation or necessary for the expression of specific signaling molecules of the functional phototransduction pathway. We found that the transcription factor Krüppel (Kr) is enriched in the larval eye and controls PR differentiation by promoting Rh5 and Rh6 expression. We also identified Camta, Lola, Dve and Hazy as key genes acting during ocellar PR differentiation. Further we show that these transcriptional regulators control gene expression of the phototransduction cascade in both larval eye and adult ocelli. Our results show that PR cell type-specific transcriptome profiling is a powerful tool to identify key transcriptional regulators involved during several aspects of PR development and differentiation. Our findings greatly contribute to the understanding of how combinatorial action of key transcriptional regulators control PR development and the regulation of a functional phototransduction pathway in both larval eye and adult ocelli.

  19. Circulation constrains the evolution of larval development modes and life histories in the coastal ocean.

    PubMed

    Pringle, James M; Byers, James E; Pappalardo, Paula; Wares, John P; Marshall, Dustin

    2014-04-01

    The evolutionary pressures that drive long larval planktonic durations in some coastal marine organisms, while allowing direct development in others, have been vigorously debated. We introduce into the argument the asymmetric dispersal of larvae by coastal currents and find that the strength of the currents helps determine which dispersal strategies are evolutionarily stable. In a spatially and temporally uniform coastal ocean of finite extent, direct development is always evolutionarily stable. For passively drifting larvae, long planktonic durations are stable when the ratio of mean to fluctuating currents is small and the rate at which larvae increase in size in the plankton is greater than the mortality rate (both in units of per time). However, larval behavior that reduces downstream larval dispersal for a given time in plankton will be selected for, consistent with widespread observations of behaviors that reduce dispersal of marine larvae. Larvae with long planktonic durations are shown to be favored not for the additional dispersal they allow, but for the additional fecundity that larval feeding in the plankton enables. We analyzed the spatial distribution of larval life histories in a large database of coastal marine benthic invertebrates and documented a link between ocean circulation and the frequency of planktotrophy in the coastal ocean. The spatial variation in the frequency of species with planktotrophic larvae is largely consistent with our theory; increases in mean currents lead to a decrease in the fraction of species with planktotrophic larvae over a broad range of temperatures.

  20. Nutritional value-dependent and nutritional value-independent effects on Drosophila melanogaster larval behavior.

    PubMed

    Rohwedder, Astrid; Pfitzenmaier, Johanna E; Ramsperger, Noel; Apostolopoulou, Anthi A; Widmann, Annekathrin; Thum, Andreas S

    2012-10-01

    Gustatory stimuli allow an organism not only to orient in its environment toward energy-rich food sources to maintain nutrition but also to avoid unpleasant or even poisonous substrates. For both mammals and insects, sugars-perceived as "sweet"-potentially predict nutritional benefit. Interestingly, even Drosophila adult flies are attracted to most high-potency sweeteners preferred by humans. However, the gustatory information of a sugar may be misleading as some sugars, although perceived as "sweet," cannot be metabolized. Accordingly, in adult Drosophila, a postingestive system that additionally evaluates the nutritional benefit of an ingested sugar has been shown to exist. By using a set of seven different sugars, which either offer (fructose, sucrose, glucose, maltodextrin, and sorbitol) or lack (xylose and arabinose) nutritional benefit, we show that Drosophila, at the larval stage, can perceive and evaluate sugars based on both nutrition-dependent and -independent qualities. In detail, we find that larval survival and feeding mainly depend on the nutritional value of a particular sugar. In contrast, larval choice behavior and learning are regulated in a more complex way by nutrition value-dependent and nutrition value-independent information. The simplicity of the larval neuronal circuits and their accessibility to genetic manipulation may ultimately allow one to identify the neuronal and molecular basis of the larval sugar perception systems described here behaviorally.

  1. Larval food quantity affects the capacity of adult mosquitoes to transmit human malaria

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Lillian L. M.; Murdock, Courtney C.; Jacobs, Gregory R.; Thomas, Rachel J.; Thomas, Matthew B.

    2016-01-01

    Adult traits of holometabolous insects are shaped by conditions experienced during larval development, which might impact interactions between adult insect hosts and parasites. However, the ecology of larval insects that vector disease remains poorly understood. Here, we used Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes and the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, to investigate whether larval conditions affect the capacity of adult mosquitoes to transmit malaria. We reared larvae in two groups; one group received a standard laboratory rearing diet, whereas the other received a reduced diet. Emerging adult females were then provided an infectious blood meal. We assessed mosquito longevity, parasite development rate and prevalence of infectious mosquitoes over time. Reduced larval food led to increased adult mortality and caused a delay in parasite development and a slowing in the rate at which parasites invaded the mosquito salivary glands, extending the time it took for mosquitoes to become infectious. Together, these effects increased transmission potential of mosquitoes in the high food regime by 260–330%. Such effects have not, to our knowledge, been shown previously for human malaria and highlight the importance of improving knowledge of larval ecology to better understand vector-borne disease transmission dynamics. PMID:27412284

  2. Larval settlement: the role of surface topography for sessile coral reef invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Whalan, Steve; Wahab, Muhammad A Abdul; Sprungala, Susanne; Poole, Andrew J; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-01-01

    For sessile marine invertebrates with complex life cycles, habitat choice is directed by the larval phase. Defining which habitat-linked cues are implicated in sessile invertebrate larval settlement has largely concentrated on chemical cues which are thought to signal optimal habitat. There has been less effort establishing physical settlement cues, including the role of surface microtopography. This laboratory based study tested whether surface microtopography alone (without chemical cues) plays an important contributing role in the settlement of larvae of coral reef sessile invertebrates. We measured settlement to tiles, engineered with surface microtopography (holes) that closely matched the sizes (width) of larvae of a range of corals and sponges, in addition to surfaces with holes that were markedly larger than larvae. Larvae from two species of scleractinian corals (Acropora millepora and Ctenactis crassa) and three species of coral reef sponges (Luffariella variabilis, Carteriospongia foliascens and Ircinia sp.,) were used in experiments. L. variabilis, A. millepora and C. crassa showed markedly higher settlement to surface microtopography that closely matched their larval width. C. foliascens and Ircinia sp., showed no specificity to surface microtopography, settling just as often to microtopography as to flat surfaces. The findings of this study question the sole reliance on chemical based larval settlement cues, previously established for some coral and sponge species, and demonstrate that specific physical cues (surface complexity) can also play an important role in larval settlement of coral reef sessile invertebrates.

  3. Can salinity-induced mortality explain larval vertical distribution with respect to a halocline?

    PubMed

    Sameoto, Jessica A; Metaxas, Anna

    2008-06-01

    For the larvae of two echinoderm species that coexist in Atlantic Canada (bipinnaria of the sea star Asterias rubens and 4- and 6-arm echinoplutei of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis), we examined the effect of short- and long-term exposure to salinity (ranging from 18 to 35) on the probability of larval survival in laboratory experiments. We also related larval vertical distributions in response to sharp haloclines generated in the laboratory to survival probability in the salinity of different layers in the water column. For both species and developmental stages, survival probability decreased with decreasing salinity, and a salinity range of 24-27 emerged as the critical threshold for larval tolerance. The relationship between the proportion of larvae that crossed a halocline into the top water layer and the survival probability of larvae in the salinity of that layer was significant for both species. Interestingly, the shape of this response was species-specific but not stage-specific for S. droebachiensis. Our findings suggest that larval avoidance of low-salinity water layers may be an adaptive behavior that increases survival and indirectly influences larval distribution.