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Sample records for larval development evidence

  1. Development of the larval amphibian growth and development ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Larval Amphibian Growth and Development Assay (LAGDA) is a globally harmonized chemical testing guideline developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in collaboration with Japan’s Ministry of Environment to support risk assessment. The assay is employed as a higher tiered approach to evaluate effects of chronic chemical exposure throughout multiple life stages in model amphibian species Xenopus laevis. To evaluate the utility of the initial LAGDA design, the assay was performed using a mixed mode of action endocrine disrupting chemical, benzophenone-2 (BP-2). X. laevis embryos were exposed in flow-through conditions to 0, 1.5, 3.0 or 6.0 mg/L BP-2 until two months post-metamorphosis. Overt toxicity was evident throughout the exposure period in the 6.0 mg/L treatment due to elevated mortality rates and observed liver and kidney pathologies. Concentration-dependent increases in severity of thyroid follicular cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia occurred in larval tadpoles indicating BP-2-induced impacts on the thyroid axis. Additionally, gonads were impacted in all treatments with some genotypic males showing both testis and ovary tissues (1.5 mg/L) and 100% of the genotypic males in the higher treatments (3.0 and 6.0 mg/L) experiencing complete male-to-female sex reversal. Concentration-dependent vitellogenin (Vtg) induction occurred in both genders with associated accumulations of protein in the livers, kidneys and gonads, which was likely Vtg

  2. Larval development of Phoronis pallida (Phoronida): implications for morphological convergence and divergence among larval body plans.

    PubMed

    Santagata, Scott

    2004-03-01

    Morphological variation among larval body plans must be placed into a phylogenetic and ecological context to assess whether similar morphologies are the result of phylogenetic constraints or convergent selective pressures. Investigations are needed of the diverse larval forms within the Lophotrochozoa, especially the larvae of phoronids and brachiopods. The actinotroch larva of Phoronis pallida (Phoronida) was reared in the laboratory to metamorphic competence. Larval development and growth were followed with video microscopy, SEM, and confocal microscopy. Early developmental features were similar to other phoronid species. Gastrulation was accomplished by embolic invagination of the vegetal hemisphere. Mesenchymal cells were found in the remaining blastocoelic space after invagination began. Mesenchymal cells formed the body wall musculature during the differentiation of larval features. Body wall musculature served as the framework from which all other larval muscles proliferated. Larval growth correlated best with developmental stage rather than age. Consistent with other phoronid species, differentiation of juvenile tissues occurred most rapidly at the latest stages of larval development. The minimum precompetency period of P. pallida was estimated to be approximately 4-6 weeks. Previously published studies have documented that the planktonic embryos of P. pallida develop faster than the brooded embryos of P. vancouverensis. However, these data showed that the difference in developmental rate between the two species decreased in succeeding larval stages. There may be convergent selective pressures that result in similar timing to metamorphic competence among phoronid and brachiopod planktotrophic larval types. Morphological differences between these larval types result from heterochronic developmental shifts in the differentiation of juvenile tissue. Similarities in the larval morphology of phoronids and basal deuterostomes are likely the result of functional

  3. Structural and ultrastructural description of larval development in Zungaro jahu.

    PubMed

    Marques, Camila; Faustino, Francine; Bertolucci, Bruno; Paes, Maria do Carmo Faria; Valentin, Fernanda Nogueira; Nakaghi, Laura Satiko Okada

    2017-01-31

    The Zungaro jahu is an important large catfish of the order Siluriformes that is in danger of extinction due to habitat destruction. Studies on its biology are scarce and the majority relates only to nutrition or parasitology. In order to provide greater information on its morphology and aid husbandry and larviculture studies, the aim of this study was to characterize larval development in Z. jahu from hatching to total yolk absorption. Samples were collected at pre-established times, processed, stained, and analyzed under stereomicroscopy, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Total yolk absorption was observed by 60 hours post-hatching (hph) at 28.75 ± 0.59°C. The newly hatched larvae showed slightly pigmented body, the outline of the digestive tract, evident eyes, and the first swimming movements. Mouth opening took place at 12 hph and the connection between the oral cavity and the rudimentary intestine was observed at 24 hph. Were analyzed the main larval organs and systems: digestive organs, heart, gill arches, sensory system, thyroid, kidney, and swim bladder. As the larvae grew, these organs became more mature and functional. The development of the sensory and feeding structures was observed at the start of larval development, and thus before depletion of endogenous energy reserves, the strategy for this species is to increase its chances of survival in the environment.

  4. Larval development and settlement of a whale barnacle.

    PubMed

    Nogata, Yasuyuki; Matsumura, Kiyotaka

    2006-03-22

    Larval development and settlement of whale barnacles have not previously been described, unlike intertidal barnacles. Indeed, the mechanisms of the association between barnacles and whales have not been studied. Here we describe the larval development and settlement of the whale barnacle, Coronula diadema, and possible involvement of a cue from the host in inducing larval settlement. Eight-cell stage embryos were collected from C. diadema on a stranded humpback whale, incubated in filtered seawater for 7 days, and nauplius larvae hatched out. When fed with Chaetoceros gracilis, the nauplii developed to stage VI, and finally metamorphosed to the cypris stage. The larval development looked similar to that of intertidal barnacles with planktotrophic larval stages. The cyprids did not settle in normal seawater, but did settle in polystyrene Petri dishes when incubated in seawater with a small piece of skin tissue from the host whale. This strongly suggests the involvement of a chemical cue from the host whale tissue to induce larval settlement.

  5. Larval development of Evermannia zosterura (Perciformes: Gobiidae).

    PubMed

    González-Navarro, Enrique; Saldierna-Martínez, Ricardo Javier; Aceves-Medina, Gerardo

    2014-06-01

    Gobiidae is the most specious fish family in the world with almost 2 000 species, however only 11% of them have been described for their larval stages. The entire life cycle information is essential to understand the biology and ecology of this important fish group. Previous studies on zooplankton samples from Ensenada de La Paz, México, have shown the presence of several Gobiidae larvae and juveniles which were identified as Evermania zosterura. The main objective of this work was to describe the larval stages of this species, widely distributed in the Eastern tropical Pacific. The development of E. zosterura larvae was described based on 66 specimens. A total of 53 specimens were used to describe morphometrics and pigmentation patterns, while 13 specimens were cleared and stained, to obtain meristic characteristics. Cleared specimens had 30 to 31 total vertebrae; dorsal-fin elements: IV; 1, 13-14, anal-fin elements: 1, 13-14, and most had pterygiophore formula 4-111100. The combination of these characteristics confirmed these specimens as E. zosterura. The pigment pattern is similar throughout ontogeny. Larvae are characterized by having three to five dendritic melanophores along the post-anal ventral margin, four to nine smaller melanophores along the ventral margin between the isthmus and anus, and one on the midpoint of the dorsal margin of the tail. There is one small pigment spot on the angle of the jaw, and other on the tip of lower lip. There is an elongated internal pigment under the notochord, between the head and gas bladder. Notochord flexion starts near 3.5mm BL and ends at 4.6mm BL; transformalion to the juvenile stage is at about 13.6mm BL. Our conclusion is that the most useful characters to distinguish this species early-larval stages from those of similar species in the area, are the number of myomeres, the large melanophores (approximately uniformly in size) on the post anal ventral margin, and the elongate internal pigment under the notochord

  6. Resource Limitation, Controphic Ostracod Density and Larval Mosquito Development

    PubMed Central

    Rowbottom, Raylea; Carver, Scott; Barmuta, Leon A.; Weinstein, Philip; Foo, Dahlia; Allen, Geoff R.

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic environments can be restricted with the amount of available food resources especially with changes to both abiotic and biotic conditions. Mosquito larvae, in particular, are sensitive to changes in food resources. Resource limitation through inter-, and intra-specific competition among mosquitoes are known to affect both their development and survival. However, much less is understood about the effects of non-culicid controphic competitors (species that share the same trophic level). To address this knowledge gap, we investigated and compared mosquito larval development, survival and adult size in two experiments, one with different densities of non-culicid controphic conditions and the other with altered resource conditions. We used Aedes camptorhynchus, a salt marsh breeding mosquito and a prominent vector for Ross River virus in Australia. Aedes camptorhynchus usually has few competitors due to its halo-tolerance and distribution in salt marshes. However, sympatric ostracod micro-crustaceans often co-occur within these salt marshes and can be found in dense populations, with field evidence suggesting exploitative competition for resources. Our experiments demonstrate resource limiting conditions caused significant increases in mosquito developmental times, decreased adult survival and decreased adult size. Overall, non-culicid exploitation experiments showed little effect on larval development and survival, but similar effects on adult size. We suggest that the alterations of adult traits owing to non-culicid controphic competition has potential to extend to vector-borne disease transmission. PMID:26558896

  7. Major muscle systems in the larval caenogastropod, Ilyanassa obsoleta, display different patterns of development.

    PubMed

    Evans, Carol C E; Dickinson, Amanda J G; Croll, Roger P

    2009-10-01

    This study describes the anatomical and developmental aspects of muscular development from the early embryo to competent larval stage in the gastropod Ilyanassa obsoleta. Staining of F-actin revealed differential spatial and temporal patterns of several muscles. In particular, two major muscles, the larval retractor and pedal retractor muscles originate independently and display distinct developmental patterns similar to observations in other gastropod species. Additionally, together with the larval retractor muscle, the accessory larval muscle developed in the embryo at the trochophore stage. Therefore, both these muscles develop prior to ontogenetic torsion. The pedal retractor muscle marked the most abundant growth in the mid veliger stage. Also during the middle stage, the metapodial retractor muscle and opercular retractor muscle grew concurrently with development of the foot. We show evidence that juvenile muscles, such as the buccal mass muscle and siphon muscle develop initially during the late veliger stage. Collectively, these findings substantiate that larval myogenesis involves a complex sequence of events that appear evolutionary conserved within the gastropods, and set the stage for future studies using this model species to address issues concerning the evolution and eventual fates of larval musculature in molluscs.

  8. Suspended sediment prolongs larval development in a coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Wenger, Amelia S; McCormick, Mark I; Endo, Geoffrey G K; McLeod, Ian M; Kroon, Frederieke J; Jones, Geoffrey P

    2014-04-01

    Increasing sediment input into coastal environments is having a profound influence on shallow marine habitats and associated species. Coral reef ecosystems appear to be particularly sensitive, with increased sediment deposition and re-suspension being associated with declines in the abundance and diversity of coral reef fishes. While recent research has demonstrated that suspended sediment can have negative impacts on post-settlement coral reef fishes, its effect on larval development has not been investigated. In this study, we tested the effects of different levels of suspended sediment on larval growth and development time in Amphiprion percula, a coral reef damselfish. Larvae were subjected to four experimental concentrations of suspended sediment spanning the range found around coastal coral reefs (0-45 mg l(-1)). Larval duration was significantly longer in all sediment treatments (12 days) compared with the average larval duration in the control treatment (11 days). Approximately 75% of the fish in the control had settled by day 11, compared with only 40-46% among the sediment treatments. In the highest sediment treatment, some individuals had a larval duration twice that of the median duration in the control treatment. Unexpectedly, in the low sediment treatment, fish at settlement were significantly longer and heavier compared with fish in the other treatments, suggesting delayed development was independent of individual condition. A sediment-induced extension of the pelagic larval stage could significantly reduce numbers of larvae competent to settle and, in turn, have major effects on adult population dynamics.

  9. Phormidium animalis (Cyanobacteria: Oscillatoriaceae) supports larval development of Anopheles albimanus.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Martínez, M Guadalupe; Rodríguez, Mario H; Arredondo-Jiménez, Juan I; Méndez-Sánchez, José D

    2003-06-01

    The capability of Phormidium animalis, a cyanobacterium commonly found in larval habitats of Anopheles albimanus in southern Mexico, to support larval development of this mosquito was investigated. First-stage larvae were reared under insectary conditions with P. animalis ad libitum and their development was compared with larvae fed with wheat germ. The time of pupation and adult mosquito size, assessed by wing length, were similar in both groups, but fewer adult mosquitoes were obtained from larvae fed with the cyanobacteria. Nevertheless, these observations indicate that P. animalis is ingested and assimilated by larval An. albimanus, making this cyanobacterium a good candidate for genetic engineering for the introduction of mosquitocidal toxins for malaria control in the region.

  10. Larval diet affects mosquito development and permissiveness to Plasmodium infection

    PubMed Central

    Linenberg, Inbar; Christophides, George K.; Gendrin, Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    The larval stages of malaria vector mosquitoes develop in water pools, feeding mostly on microorganisms and environmental detritus. Richness in the nutrient supply to larvae influences the development and metabolism of larvae and adults. Here, we investigated the effects of larval diet on the development, microbiota content and permissiveness to Plasmodium of Anopheles coluzzii. We tested three fish diets often used to rear mosquitoes in the laboratory, including two pelleted diets, Dr. Clarke’s Pool Pellets and Nishikoi Fish Pellets, and one flaked diet, Tetramin Fish-Flakes. Larvae grow and develop faster and produce bigger adults when feeding on both types of pellets compared with flakes. This correlates with a higher microbiota load in pellet-fed larvae, in agreement with the known positive effect of the microbiota on mosquito development. Larval diet also significantly influences the prevalence and intensity of Plasmodium berghei infection in adults, whereby Nishikoi Fish Pellets-fed larvae develop into adults that are highly permissive to parasites and survive longer after infection. This correlates with a lower amount of Enterobacteriaceae in the midgut microbiota. Together, our results shed light on the influence of larval feeding on mosquito development, microbiota and vector competence; they also provide useful data for mosquito rearing. PMID:27910908

  11. Larval development of Brachiopod Coptothyris grayi (Davidson, 1852) (Brachiopoda, Rhynchonelliformea).

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, T V; Temereva, E N; Malakhov, V V

    2016-11-01

    The larval development of the Brachiopod Coptothyris grayi (Davidson, 1852) from the Sea of Japan is described for the first time. Ciliated blastula proved to represent the first free-swimming stage. The blastopore is initially formed as a rounded hole stretching later along the anteroposterior axis. The larva is first divided into two lobes (the apical lobe and the trunk); the mantle lobe is formed later as two lateral folds. Two pairs of seta bundles appear in the late stage larvae. The apical larval lobe in brachiopods is supposed to match the pre-oral lobe and anterior part of the trunk with tentacles in phoronids.

  12. Elevated major ion concentrations inhibit larval mayfly growth and development.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Brent R; Weaver, Paul C; Nietch, Christopher T; Lazorchak, James M; Struewing, Katherine A; Funk, David H

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances, including those from developing energy resources, can alter stream chemistry significantly by elevating total dissolved solids. Field studies have indicated that mayflies (Order Ephemeroptera) are particularly sensitive to high total dissolved solids. In the present study, the authors measured 20-d growth and survivorship of larval Neocloeon triangulifer exposed to a gradient of brine salt (mixed NaCl and CaCl2 ) concentrations. Daily growth rates were reduced significantly in all salt concentrations above the control (363 µS cm(-1) ) and larvae in treatments with specific conductance >812 µS cm(-1) were in comparatively earlier developmental stages (instars) at the end of the experiment. Survivorship declined significantly when specific conductance was >1513 µS cm(-1) and the calculated 20-d 50% lethal concentration was 2866 µS cm(-1) . The present study's results provide strong experimental evidence that elevated ion concentrations similar to those observed in developing energy resources, such as oil and gas drilling or coal mining, can adversely affect sensitive aquatic insect species.

  13. [Larval development of Hypsophrys nicaraguensis (Pisces: Cichlidae) under laboratory conditions].

    PubMed

    Molina Arias, Alex

    2011-12-01

    The cichlid Hypsophrys nicaraguensis is a popular fish known as butterfly, and despite its widespread use as pets, little is known about its reproductive biology. In order to contribute to this knowledge, the study describes the relevant larval development characteristics, from adult and larval cultures in captivity. Every 12h, samples of larvae were collected and observed under the microscope for larval stage development, and every 24h morphometric measurements were taken. Observations showed that at 120h, some larvae had swimming activity and the pectoral fins development was visible; at 144h, the dorsal fin appear and all larvae started food intake; at 168h, the formation of anal fins begins, small rudiments of pelvic fins emerge, the separation of caudal fin from anal and dorsal fins starts, and the yolk sac is reabsorbed almost completely; at 288h, the pelvic fins starts to form; at 432h, the rays and spines of dorsal and anal fins can be distinguished, both the anal and the dorsal fins have the same number of spines and rays as in adults. After 480h larvae have the first scales, ending the larval stages and starting the transformation to fingerlings. Larvae were successfully fed with commercial diet.

  14. Embryogenesis, hatching and larval development of Artemia during orbital spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Spooner, B S; DeBell, L; Armbrust, L; Guikema, J A; Metcalf, J; Paulsen, A

    1994-01-01

    Developmental biology studies, using gastrula-arrested cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana, were conducted during two flights of the space shuttle Atlantis (missions STS-37 and STS-43) in 1991. Dehydrated cysts were activated, on orbit, by addition of salt water to the cysts, and then development was terminated by the addition of fixative. Development took place in 5 ml syringes, connected by tubing to activation syringes, containing salt water, and termination syringes, containing fixative. Comparison of space results with simultaneous ground control experiments showed that equivalent percentages of naupliar larvae hatched in the syringes (40%). Thus, reactivation of development, completion of embryogenesis, emergence and hatching took place, during spaceflight, without recognizable alteration in numbers of larvae produced. Post-hatching larval development was studied in experiments where development was terminated, by introduction of fixative, 2 days, 4 days, and 8 days after reinitiation of development. During spaceflight, successive larval instars or stages, interrupted by molts, occurred, generating brine shrimp at appropriate larval instars. Naupliar larvae possessed the single naupliar eye, and development of the lateral pair of adult eyes also took place in space. Transmission electron microscopy revealed extensive differentiation, including skeletal muscle and gut endoderm, as well as the eye tissues. These studies demonstrate the potential value of Artemia for developmental biology studies during spaceflight, and show that extensive degrees of development can take place in this microgravity environment.

  15. Embryogenesis, hatching and larval development of Artemia during orbital spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spooner, B. S.; Debell, L.; Armbrust, L.; Guikema, J. A.; Metcalf, J.; Paulsen, A.

    1994-08-01

    Developmental biology studies, using gastrula-arrested cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana, were conducted during two flights of the space shuttle Atlantis (missions STS-37 and STS-43) in 1991. Dehydrated cysts were activated, on orbit, by addition of salt water to the cysts, and then development was terminated by the addition of fixative. Development took place in 5 ml syringes, connected by tubing to activation syringes, containing salt water, and termination syringes, containing fixative. Comparison of space results with simultaneous ground control experiments showed that equivalent percentages of naupliar larvae hatched in the syringes (40%). Thus, reactivation of development, completion of embryogenesis, emergence and hatching took place, during spaceflight, without recognizable alteration in numbers of larvae produced. Post-hatching larval development was studied in experiments where development was terminated, by intrduction of fixative, 2 days, 4 days, and 8 days after reinitiation of development. During spaceflight, successive larval instars or stages, interrupted by molts, occurred, generating brine shrimp at appropriate larval instars. Naupliar larvae possessed the single naupliar eye, and development of the lateral pair of adult eyes also took place in space. Transmission electron microscopy revealed extensive differentiation, including skeletal muscle and gut endoderm, as well as the eye tissues. These studies demonstrate the potential value of Artemia for developmental biology studies during spaceflight, and show that extensive degress of development can take place in this microgravity environment.

  16. Embryogenesis, hatching and larval development of Artemia during orbital spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spooner, B. S.; Debell, L.; Armbrust, L.; Guikema, J. A.; Metcalf, J.; Paulsen, A.

    1994-01-01

    Developmental biology studies, using gastrula-arrested cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana, were conducted during two flights of the space shuttle Atlantis (missions STS-37 and STS-43) in 1991. Dehydrated cysts were activated, on orbit, by addition of salt water to the cysts, and then development was terminated by the addition of fixative. Development took place in 5 ml syringes, connected by tubing to activation syringes, containing salt water, and termination syringes, containing fixative. Comparison of space results with simultaneous ground control experiments showed that equivalent percentages of naupliar larvae hatched in the syringes (40%). Thus, reactivation of development, completion of embryogenesis, emergence and hatching took place, during spaceflight, without recognizable alteration in numbers of larvae produced. Post-hatching larval development was studied in experiments where development was terminated, by introduction of fixative, 2 days, 4 days, and 8 days after reinitiation of development. During spaceflight, successive larval instars or stages, interrupted by molts, occurred, generating brine shrimp at appropriate larval instars. Naupliar larvae possessed the single naupliar eye, and development of the lateral pair of adult eyes also took place in space. Transmission electron microscopy revealed extensive differentiation, including skeletal muscle and gut endoderm, as well as the eye tissues. These studies demonstrate the potential value of Artemia for developmental biology studies during spa ceflight, and show that extensive degrees of development can take place in this microgravity environment.

  17. Development of the larval amphibian growth and development ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Larval Amphibian Growth and Development Assay (LAGDA) is a Tier II test guideline being developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency under the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. The LAGDA was designed to evaluate effects of chronic chemical exposure on growth, thyroid-mediated amphibian metamorphosis and reproductive development. To evaluate the assay’s performance, two model chemicals targeting the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis were tested; a weak estrogen receptor agonist, 4-tert-octylphenol (tOP), and an androgen receptor agonist, 17β-trenbolone (TB). Xenopus laevis embryos were constantly exposed in flow-through conditions to various test concentrations of tOP (nominal: 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 μg/L) or TB (nominal: 12.5, 25, 50, 100 ng/L) and clean water controls until 8 weeks post-metamorphosis, at which time growth measurements were taken and histopathology assessments were made on gonads, reproductive ducts, liver and kidneys. There were no effects on growth in either study and no signs of overt toxicity, sex reversal or gonad dysgenesis at the concentrations tested. Exposure to tOP caused a treatment-related decrease in circulating thyroxine and an increase in thyroid follicular cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia (25, 50 μg/L). Müllerian duct development was clearly affected following exposure to both chemicals; tOP exposure caused dose-dependent maturation of oviducts in both male and female frogs, whereas TB exposure ca

  18. Larval development with transitory epidermis in Paranemertes peregrina and other hoplonemerteans.

    PubMed

    Maslakova, Svetlana A; von Döhren, Jörn

    2009-06-01

    We describe development of the hoplonemertean Paranemertes peregrina from fertilization to juvenile, using light, confocal, and electron microscopy. We discovered that the uniformly ciliated lecithotrophic larva of this species has a transitory epidermis, which is gradually replaced by the definitive epidermis during the course of planktonic development. The approximately 90 large multiciliated cleavage-arrested cells of the transitory larval epidermis become separated from each other by intercalating cells of the definitive epidermis, then gradually diminish in size and disappear more or less simultaneously. Rudiments of all major adult structures-the gut, proboscis, cerebral ganglia, lateral nerve cords, and cerebral organs-are already present in 4-day-old larvae. Replacement of the epidermis is the only overt metamorphic transformation of larval tissue; larval structures otherwise prefigure the juvenile body, which is complete in about 10 days at 7-10 degrees C. Our findings on development of digestive system, nervous system, and proboscis differ in several ways from previous descriptions of hoplonemertean development. We report development with transitory epidermis in two other species, review evidence from the literature, and suggest that this developmental type is the rule for hoplonemerteans. The hoplonemertean planuliform larva is fundamentally different both from the pilidium larva of the sister group to the Hoplonemertea, the Pilidiophora, and from the hidden trochophore of palaeonemerteans. We discuss the possible function and homology of the larval epidermis in development of other nemerteans and spiralians in general.

  19. Development of larval motor circuits in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kohsaka, Hiroshi; Okusawa, Satoko; Itakura, Yuki; Fushiki, Akira; Nose, Akinao

    2012-04-01

    How are functional neural circuits formed during development? Despite recent advances in our understanding of the development of individual neurons, little is known about how complex circuits are assembled to generate specific behaviors. Here, we describe the ways in which Drosophila motor circuits serve as an excellent model system to tackle this problem. We first summarize what has been learned during the past decades on the connectivity and development of component neurons, in particular motor neurons and sensory feedback neurons. We then review recent progress in our understanding of the development of the circuits as well as studies that apply optogenetics and other innovative techniques to dissect the circuit diagram. New approaches using Drosophila as a model system are now making it possible to search for developmental rules that regulate the construction of neural circuits.

  20. Social coercion of larval development in an ant species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villalta, Irene; Amor, Fernando; Cerdá, Xim; Boulay, Raphaël

    2016-04-01

    Ants provide one of the best examples of the division of labor in animal societies. While the queens reproduce, workers generally refrain from laying eggs and dedicate themselves exclusively to domestic tasks. In many species, the small diploid larvae are bipotent and can develop either into workers or queens depending mostly on environmental cues. This generates a conflicting situation between the adults that tend to rear a majority of larvae into workers and the larvae whose individual interest may be to develop into reproductive queens. We tested the social regulation of larval caste fate in the fission-performing ant Aphaenogaster senilis. We first observed interactions between resident workers and queen- and worker-destined larvae in presence/absence of the queen. The results show that workers tend to specifically eliminate queen-destined larvae when the queen is present but not when she is absent or imprisoned in a small cage allowing for volatile pheromone exchanges. In addition, we found that the presence of already developed queen-destined larvae does not inhibit the development of younger still bipotent larvae into queens. Finally, we analyzed the cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of queen- and worker-destined larvae and found no significant quantitative or qualitative difference. Interestingly, the total amount of hydrocarbons on both larval castes is extremely low, which lends credence on the chemical insignificance hypothesis of larval ants. Overall, our results suggest that workers control larval development and police larvae that would develop into queens instead of workers. Such policing behavior is similar in many aspects to what is known of worker policing among adults.

  1. Temperature- and sex-related effects of serine protease alleles on larval development in the Glanville fritillary butterfly.

    PubMed

    Ahola, V; Koskinen, P; Wong, S C; Kvist, J; Paulin, L; Auvinen, P; Saastamoinen, M; Frilander, M J; Lehtonen, R; Hanski, I

    2015-12-01

    The body reserves of adult Lepidoptera are accumulated during larval development. In the Glanville fritillary butterfly, larger body size increases female fecundity, but in males fast larval development and early eclosion, rather than large body size, increase mating success and hence fitness. Larval growth rate is highly heritable, but genetic variation associated with larval development is largely unknown. By comparing the Glanville fritillary population living in the Åland Islands in northern Europe with a population in Nantaizi in China, within the source of the post-glacial range expansion, we identified candidate genes with reduced variation in Åland, potentially affected by selection under cooler climatic conditions than in Nantaizi. We conducted an association study of larval growth traits by genotyping the extremes of phenotypic trait distributions for 23 SNPs in 10 genes. Three genes in clip-domain serine protease family were associated with larval growth rate, development time and pupal weight. Additive effects of two SNPs in the prophenoloxidase-activating proteinase-3 (ProPO3) gene, related to melanization, showed elevated growth rate in high temperature but reduced growth rate in moderate temperature. The allelic effects of the vitellin-degrading protease precursor gene on development time were opposite in the two sexes, one genotype being associated with long development time and heavy larvae in females but short development time in males. Sexually antagonistic selection is here evident in spite of sexual size dimorphism.

  2. Food selection in larval fruit flies: dynamics and effects on larval development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Sebastian; Durisko, Zachary; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-01-01

    Selecting food items and attaining a nutritionally balanced diet is an important challenge for all animals including humans. We aimed to establish fruit fly larvae ( Drosophila melanogaster) as a simple yet powerful model system for examining the mechanisms of specific hunger and diet selection. In two lab experiments with artificial diets, we found that larvae deprived of either sucrose or protein later selectively fed on a diet providing the missing nutrient. When allowed to freely move between two adjacent food patches, larvae surprisingly preferred to settle on one patch containing yeast and ignored the patch providing sucrose. Moreover, when allowed to move freely between three patches, which provided either yeast only, sucrose only or a balanced mixture of yeast and sucrose, the majority of larvae settled on the yeast-plus-sucrose patch and about one third chose to feed on the yeast only food. While protein (yeast) is essential for development, we also quantified larval success on diets with or without sucrose and show that larvae develop faster on diets containing sucrose. Our data suggest that fruit fly larvae can quickly assess major nutrients in food and seek a diet providing a missing nutrient. The larvae, however, probably prefer to quickly dig into a single food substrate for enhanced protection over achieving an optimal diet.

  3. Neuronal development in larval chiton Ischnochiton hakodadensis (Mollusca: Polyplacophora).

    PubMed

    Voronezhskaya, Elena E; Tyurin, Sergei A; Nezlin, Leonid P

    2002-02-25

    Chitons are the most primitive molluscs and, thus, a matter of considerable interest for understanding both basic principles of molluscan neurogenesis and phylogeny. The development of the nervous system in trochophores of the chiton Ischnochiton hakodadensis from hatching to metamorphosis is described in detail by using confocal laser scanning microscopy and antibodies raised against serotonin, FMRFamide, and acetylated alpha tubulin. The earliest nervous elements detected were peripheral neurons located in the frontal hemisphere of posthatching trochophores and projecting into the apical organ. Among them, two pairs of unique large lateral cells appear to pioneer the pathways of developing adult nervous system. Chitons possess an apical organ that contains the largest number of neurons among all molluscan larvae investigated so far. Besides, many pretrochal neurons are situated outside the apical organ. The prototroch is not innervated by larval neurons. The first neurons of the developing adult central nervous system (CNS) appear later in the cerebral ganglion and pedal cords. None of the neurons of the larval nervous system are retained in the adult CNS. They cease to express their transmitter content and disintegrate after settlement. Although the adult CNS of chitons resembles that of polychaetes, their general scenario of neuronal development resembles that of advanced molluscs and differs from annelids. Thus, our data demonstrate the conservative pattern of molluscan neurogenesis and suggest independent origin of molluscan and annelid trochophores.

  4. Proteomic analysis through larval development of Solea senegalensis flatfish.

    PubMed

    Chicano-Gálvez, Eduardo; Asensio, Esther; Cañavate, José Pedro; Alhama, José; López-Barea, Juan

    2015-12-01

    The post-embryonic development of the Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis, a flatfish of growing interest in fisheries and aquaculture, is associated with drastic morpho-physiological changes during metamorphosis. Although in the last two decades knowledge on sole culture has notably increased, especially in Southern Europe, its progress was restricted due to lack of methods to control reproduction, improve larval quality and increase juvenile disease resistance. A limited knowledge of the physiological, molecular and genetic mechanisms involved is at the base of such limitation. A proteomic study was carried out to explore the molecular events that occur during S. senegalensis ontogenesis. Protein expression changes were monitored in larvae from 5 to 21 dph by combining 2DE and protein identification with de novo MS/MS sequencing. An average of 6177 ± 282 spots was resolved in 2DE gels. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the 705 selected spots grouped them in eight patterns. Thirty-four proteins were identified and assigned biological functions including structure, metabolism highlighting energy metabolism, transport, protein folding, stress response, chromatin organization and regulation of gene expression. These changes provide a sequential description of the molecular events associated with the biochemical and biological transformations that occur during sole larval development.

  5. Development of environmental tools for anopheline larval control

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Malaria mosquitoes spend a considerable part of their life in the aquatic stage, rendering them vulnerable to interventions directed to aquatic habitats. Recent successes of mosquito larval control have been reported using environmental and biological tools. Here, we report the effects of shading by plants and biological control agents on the development and survival of anopheline and culicine mosquito larvae in man-made natural habitats in western Kenya. Trials consisted of environmental manipulation using locally available plants, the introduction of predatory fish and/or the use of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) in various combinations. Results Man-made habitats provided with shade from different crop species produced significantly fewer larvae than those without shade especially for the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Larval control of the African malaria mosquito An. gambiae and other mosquito species was effective in habitats where both predatory fish and Bti were applied, than where the two biological control agents were administered independently. Conclusion We conclude that integration of environmental management techniques using shade-providing plants and predatory fish and/or Bti are effective and sustainable tools for the control of malaria and other mosquito-borne disease vectors. PMID:21733150

  6. Superstars: Assessing nutrient thresholds for enhanced larval success of Acanthaster planci, a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Kennedy; Graba-Landry, Alexia; Dworjanyn, Symon A; Byrne, Maria

    2017-03-15

    Crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci (COTS), predation is a major cause of coral reef decline, but the factors behind their population outbreaks remain unclear. Increased phytoplankton food resulting from eutrophication is suggested to enhance larval survival. We addressed the hypothesis that larval success is associated with particular chl-a levels in tightly controlled larval:algal conditions. We used chl-a conditions found on coral reefs (0.1-5.0μgchl-aL(-1)), including nominal threshold levels for disproportionate larval success (≥1.0μgchl-aL(-1)). High success to the juvenile occurred across an order of magnitude of chl-a concentrations (0.5-5.0μgchl-aL(-1)), suggesting there may not be a narrow value for optimal success. Oligotrophic conditions (0.1μgchl-aL(-1)) appeared to be a critical limit. With a review of the evidence, we suggest that opportunistic COTS larvae may be more resilient to low food levels than previously appreciated. Initiation of outbreak populations need not require eutrophic conditions.

  7. Divergent patterns of neural development in larval echinoids and asteroids.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Yoko; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Murray, Greg; Burke, Robert D

    2004-01-01

    The development and organization of the nervous systems of echinoderm larvae are incompletely described. We describe the development and organization of the larval nervous systems of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and Asterina pectinifera using a novel antibody, 1E11, that appears to be neuron specific. In the early pluteus, the antibody reveals all known neural structures: apical ganglion, oral ganglia, lateral ganglia, and an array of neurons and neurites in the ciliary band, the esophagus, and the intestine. The antibody also reveals several novel features, such as neurites that extend to the posterior end of the larva and additional neurons in the apical ganglion. Similarly, in asteroid larvae the antibody binds to all known neural structures and identifies novel features, including large numbers of neurons in the ciliary bands, a network of neurites under the oral epidermis, cell bodies in the esophagus, and a network of neurites in the intestine. The 1E11 antigen is expressed during gastrulation and can be used to trace the ontogenies of the nervous systems. In S. purpuratus, a small number of neuroblasts arise in the oral ectoderm in late gastrulae. The cells are adjacent to the presumptive ciliary bands, where they project neurites with growth cone-like endings that interconnect the neurons. In A. pectinifera, a large number of neuroblasts appear scattered throughout the ectoderm of gastrulae. The cells aggregate in the developing ciliary bands and then project neurites under the oral epidermis. Although there are several shared features of the larval nervous systems of echinoids and asteroids, the patterns of development reveal fundamental differences in neural ontogeny.

  8. Correlated Evolution between Mode of Larval Development and Habitat in Muricid Gastropods

    PubMed Central

    Pappalardo, Paula; Rodríguez-Serrano, Enrique; Fernández, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Larval modes of development affect evolutionary processes and influence the distribution of marine invertebrates in the ocean. The decrease in pelagic development toward higher latitudes is one of the patterns of distribution most frequently discussed in marine organisms (Thorson's rule), which has been related to increased larval mortality associated with long pelagic durations in colder waters. However, the type of substrate occupied by adults has been suggested to influence the generality of the latitudinal patterns in larval development. To help understand how the environment affects the evolution of larval types we evaluated the association between larval development and habitat using gastropods of the Muricidae family as a model group. To achieve this goal, we collected information on latitudinal distribution, sea water temperature, larval development and type of substrate occupied by adults. We constructed a molecular phylogeny for 45 species of muricids to estimate the ancestral character states and to assess the relationship between traits using comparative methods in a Bayesian framework. Our results showed high probability for a common ancestor of the muricids with nonpelagic (and nonfeeding) development, that lived in hard bottoms and cold temperatures. From this ancestor, a pelagic feeding larva evolved three times, and some species shifted to warmer temperatures or sand bottoms. The evolution of larval development was not independent of habitat; the most probable evolutionary route reconstructed in the analysis of correlated evolution showed that type of larval development may change in soft bottoms but in hard bottoms this change is highly unlikely. Lower sea water temperatures were associated with nonpelagic modes of development, supporting Thorson's rule. We show how environmental pressures can favor a particular mode of larval development or transitions between larval modes and discuss the reacquisition of feeding larva in muricids

  9. Correlated evolution between mode of larval development and habitat in muricid gastropods.

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, Paula; Rodríguez-Serrano, Enrique; Fernández, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Larval modes of development affect evolutionary processes and influence the distribution of marine invertebrates in the ocean. The decrease in pelagic development toward higher latitudes is one of the patterns of distribution most frequently discussed in marine organisms (Thorson's rule), which has been related to increased larval mortality associated with long pelagic durations in colder waters. However, the type of substrate occupied by adults has been suggested to influence the generality of the latitudinal patterns in larval development. To help understand how the environment affects the evolution of larval types we evaluated the association between larval development and habitat using gastropods of the Muricidae family as a model group. To achieve this goal, we collected information on latitudinal distribution, sea water temperature, larval development and type of substrate occupied by adults. We constructed a molecular phylogeny for 45 species of muricids to estimate the ancestral character states and to assess the relationship between traits using comparative methods in a Bayesian framework. Our results showed high probability for a common ancestor of the muricids with nonpelagic (and nonfeeding) development, that lived in hard bottoms and cold temperatures. From this ancestor, a pelagic feeding larva evolved three times, and some species shifted to warmer temperatures or sand bottoms. The evolution of larval development was not independent of habitat; the most probable evolutionary route reconstructed in the analysis of correlated evolution showed that type of larval development may change in soft bottoms but in hard bottoms this change is highly unlikely. Lower sea water temperatures were associated with nonpelagic modes of development, supporting Thorson's rule. We show how environmental pressures can favor a particular mode of larval development or transitions between larval modes and discuss the reacquisition of feeding larva in muricids gastropods.

  10. Effects of Disinfectants on Larval Development of Ascaris suum Eggs.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ki-Seok; Kim, Geon-Tae; Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Shin, Sung-Shik

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of several different commercial disinfectants on the embryogenic development of Ascaris suum eggs. A 1-ml aliquot of each disinfectant was mixed with approximately 40,000 decorticated or intact A. suum eggs in sterile tubes. After each treatment time (at 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 30, and 60 min), disinfectants were washed away, and egg suspensions were incubated at 25˚C in distilled water for development of larvae inside. At 3 weeks of incubation after exposure, ethanol, methanol, and chlorohexidin treatments did not affect the larval development of A. suum eggs, regardless of their concentration and treatment time. Among disinfectants tested in this study, 3% cresol, 0.2% sodium hypochlorite and 0.02% sodium hypochlorite delayed but not inactivated the embryonation of decorticated eggs at 3 weeks of incubation, because at 6 weeks of incubation, undeveloped eggs completed embryonation regardless of exposure time, except for 10% povidone iodine. When the albumin layer of A. suum eggs remained intact, however, even the 10% povidone iodine solution took at least 5 min to reasonably inactivate most eggs, but never completely kill them with even 60 min of exposure. This study demonstrated that the treatment of A. suum eggs with many commercially available disinfectants does not affect the embryonation. Although some disinfectants may delay or stop the embryonation of A. suum eggs, they can hardly kill them completely.

  11. Effects of Disinfectants on Larval Development of Ascaris suum Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Ki-Seok; Kim, Geon-Tae; Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Shin, Sung-Shik

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of several different commercial disinfectants on the embryogenic development of Ascaris suum eggs. A 1-ml aliquot of each disinfectant was mixed with approximately 40,000 decorticated or intact A. suum eggs in sterile tubes. After each treatment time (at 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 30, and 60 min), disinfectants were washed away, and egg suspensions were incubated at 25˚C in distilled water for development of larvae inside. At 3 weeks of incubation after exposure, ethanol, methanol, and chlorohexidin treatments did not affect the larval development of A. suum eggs, regardless of their concentration and treatment time. Among disinfectants tested in this study, 3% cresol, 0.2% sodium hypochlorite and 0.02% sodium hypochlorite delayed but not inactivated the embryonation of decorticated eggs at 3 weeks of incubation, because at 6 weeks of incubation, undeveloped eggs completed embryonation regardless of exposure time, except for 10% povidone iodine. When the albumin layer of A. suum eggs remained intact, however, even the 10% povidone iodine solution took at least 5 min to reasonably inactivate most eggs, but never completely kill them with even 60 min of exposure. This study demonstrated that the treatment of A. suum eggs with many commercially available disinfectants does not affect the embryonation. Although some disinfectants may delay or stop the embryonation of A. suum eggs, they can hardly kill them completely. PMID:26951988

  12. Experimental studies on the larval development of the shrimps Crangon crangon and C. allmanni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criales, M. M.; Anger, K.

    1986-09-01

    Larvae of the shrimps Crangon crangon L. and C. allmanni Kinahan were reared in the laboratory from hatching through metamorphosis. Effects of rearing methods (larval density, application of streptomycin, food) and of salinity on larval development were tested only in C. crangon, influence of temperature was studied in both species. Best results were obtained when larvae were reared individually, with a mixture of Artemia sp. and the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis as food. Streptomycin had partly negative effects and was thus not adopted for standard rearing techniques. All factors tested in this study influenced not only the rates of larval survival and moulting, but also morphogenesis. In both species, in particular in C. crangon, a high degree of variability in larval morphology and in developmental pathways was observed. Unsuitable conditions, e.g. crowding in mass culture, application of antibiotics, unsuitable food (rotifers, phytoplankton), extreme temperatures and salinities, tend to increase the number of larval instars and of morphological forms. The frequency of moulting is controlled mainly by temperature. Regression equations describing the relations between the durations of larval instars and temperature are given for both Crangon species. The number of moults is a linear function of larval age and a power function of temperature. There is high variation in growth (measured as carapace length), moulting frequency, morphogenesis, and survival among hatches originating from different females. The interrelations between these different measures of larval development in shrimps and prawns are discussed.

  13. Immunostaining of the developing embryonic and larval Drosophila brain.

    PubMed

    Diaper, Danielle C; Hirth, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Immunostaining is used to visualize the spatiotemporal expression pattern of developmental control genes that regulate the genesis and specification of the embryonic and larval brain of Drosophila. Immunostaining uses specific antibodies to mark expressed proteins and allows their localization to be traced throughout development. This method reveals insights into gene regulation, cell-type specification, neuron and glial differentiation, and posttranslational protein modifications underlying the patterning and specification of the maturing brain. Depending on the targeted protein, it is possible to visualize a multitude of regions of the Drosophila brain, such as small groups of neurons or glia, defined subcomponents of the brain's axon scaffold, or pre- and postsynaptic structures of neurons. Thus, antibody probes that recognize defined tissues, cells, or subcellular structures like axons or synaptic terminals can be used as markers to identify and analyze phenotypes in mutant embryos and larvae. Several antibodies, combined with different labels, can be used concurrently to examine protein co-localization. This protocol spans over 3-4 days.

  14. Larval development of Culex quinquefasciatus in water with low to moderate.

    PubMed

    Noori, Navideh; Lockaby, B Graeme; Kalin, Latif

    2015-12-01

    Population growth and urbanization have increased the potential habitats, and consequently the abundance of Culex quinquefasciatus, the southern house mosquito, a vector of West Nile Virus in urban areas. Water quality is critical in larval habitat distribution and in providing microbial food resources for larvae. A mesocosm experiment was designed to demonstrate which specific components of water chemistry are conducive to larval Culex mosquitoes. Dose-response relationships between larval development and NO3 , NH4 , and PO4 concentrations in stream water were developed through this experiment to describe the isolated effects of each nutrient on pre-adult development. The emergence pattern of Culex mosquitoes was found to be strongly related to certain nutrients, and results showed that breeding sites with higher PO4 or NO3 concentrations had higher larval survival rates. High NO3 concentrations favor the development of male mosquitoes and suppress the development of female mosquitoes, but those adult females that do emerge develop faster in containers with high NO3 levels compared to the reference group. The addition of PO4 in the absence of nitrogen sources to the larval habitat slowed larval development, however, it took fewer days for larvae to reach the pupal stage in containers with combinations of NO3 and PO4 or NH4 and PO4 nutrients. Results from this study may bolster efforts to control WNV in urban landscapes by exploring water quality conditions of Culex larval habitats that produce adult mosquitoes.

  15. Embryonic and larval development of the sonic motor nucleus in the oyster toadfish

    SciTech Connect

    Galeo, A.J.; Fine, M.L.; Stevenson, J.A.

    1987-07-01

    The sonic motor nucleus (SMN), a likely homologue of the hypoglossal nucleus, provides the final common pathway for sound production in the oyster toadfish (Opsanus tau). SMN neurons increase in size and number for 7-8 years postnatally, and the swimbladder-sonic muscle complex grows throughout life. This study describes the normal embryonic and larval development of the SMN from its initial differentiation on about day 19 through day 40, when the yolk sac is resorbed and the fish is free swimming. In contrast to the rapid development of CNS nuclei in mammals, the SMN gradually increased in maturity with more active growth at the beginning and end of the observation period and a relatively static period in the middle. Consistent with a hypoglossal homology, the SMN differentiated within the spinal cord, added cells rostrally, and eventually extended into the medulla. Immature neurons appeared to originate from precursor cells in the ventral portion of the ventricular zone of the central canal. Such cells were initially round with little cytoplasmic development and later added processes and Nissl substance. The number of neurons increased 10-fold from a median of 35 to 322 cells, and no evidence of cell death was observed. Soma area approximately doubled from 20.6 to 41.2 micron 2, and cell nucleus area followed a similar pattern. (/sup 3/H)-thymidine autoradiography demonstrated that neurons were added continuously throughout the nucleus during embryonic and larval development.

  16. Delayed larval development in Anopheles mosquitoes deprived of Asaia bacterial symbionts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In recent years, acetic acid bacteria have been shown to be frequently associated with insects, but knowledge on their biological role in the arthropod host is limited. The discovery that acetic acid bacteria of the genus Asaia are a main component of the microbiota of Anopheles stephensi makes this mosquito a useful model for studies on this novel group of symbionts. Here we present experimental results that provide a first evidence for a beneficial role of Asaia in An. stephensi. Results Larvae of An. stephensi at different stages were treated with rifampicin, an antibiotic effective on wild-type Asaia spp., and the effects on the larval development were evaluated. Larvae treated with the antibiotic showed a delay in the development and an asynchrony in the appearance of later instars. In larvae treated with rifampicin, but supplemented with a rifampicin-resistant mutant strain of Asaia, larval development was comparable to that of control larvae not exposed to the antibiotic. Analysis of the bacterial diversity of the three mosquito populations confirmed that the level of Asaia was strongly decreased in the antibiotic-treated larvae, since the symbiont was not detectable by PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis), while Asaia was consistently found in insects supplemented with rifampicin plus the antibiotic-resistant mutant in the diet, and in those not exposed to the antibiotic. Conclusions The results here reported indicate that Asaia symbionts play a beneficial role in the normal development of An. stephensi larvae. PMID:22375964

  17. Larval and juvenile development of Tatia intermedia (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae).

    PubMed

    Pereira, L H A; Bialetzki, A; Bonecker, A C T

    2017-03-01

    This study describes the morphology, morphometry and meristic characters of larval and juvenile Tatia intermedia collected in the middle Tocantins River and some of its tributaries. Six larvae of T. intermedia were examined and they have a moderately elongate body, head slightly dorso-ventrally depressed with a convex snout, small and round eyes and a subterminal mouth. In five juvenile stages observed, the head and eye are relatively smaller than in the larval stage and the snout remains convex and mouth becomes terminal.

  18. Anatomy and development of the larval nervous system in Echinococcus multilocularis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The metacestode larva of Echinococcus multilocularis (Cestoda: Taeniidae) develops in the liver of intermediate hosts (typically rodents, or accidentally in humans) as a labyrinth of interconnected cysts that infiltrate the host tissue, causing the disease alveolar echinococcosis. Within the cysts, protoscoleces (the infective stage for the definitive canid host) arise by asexual multiplication. These consist of a scolex similar to that of the adult, invaginated within a small posterior body. Despite the importance of alveolar echinococcosis for human health, relatively little is known about the basic biology, anatomy and development of E. multilocularis larvae, particularly with regard to their nervous system. Results We describe the existence of a subtegumental nerve net in the metacestode cysts, which is immunoreactive for acetylated tubulin-α and contains small populations of nerve cells that are labeled by antibodies raised against several invertebrate neuropeptides. However, no evidence was found for the existence of cholinergic or serotoninergic elements in the cyst wall. Muscle fibers occur without any specific arrangement in the subtegumental layer, and accumulate during the invaginations of the cyst wall that form brood capsules, where protoscoleces develop. The nervous system of the protoscolex develops independently of that of the metacestode cyst, with an antero-posterior developmental gradient. The combination of antibodies against several nervous system markers resulted in a detailed description of the protoscolex nervous system, which is remarkably complex and already similar to that of the adult worm. Conclusions We provide evidence for the first time of the existence of a nervous system in the metacestode cyst wall, which is remarkable given the lack of motility of this larval stage, and the lack of serotoninergic and cholinergic elements. We propose that it could function as a neuroendocrine system, derived from the nervous system

  19. The behavior of larval zebrafish reveals stressor-mediated anorexia during early vertebrate development

    PubMed Central

    De Marco, Rodrigo J.; Groneberg, Antonia H.; Yeh, Chen-Min; Treviño, Mario; Ryu, Soojin

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between stress and food consumption has been well documented in adults but less so in developing vertebrates. Here we demonstrate that an encounter with a stressor can suppress food consumption in larval zebrafish. Furthermore, we provide indication that food intake suppression cannot be accounted for by changes in locomotion, oxygen consumption and visual responses, as they remain unaffected after exposure to a potent stressor. We also show that feeding reoccurs when basal levels of cortisol (stress hormone in humans and teleosts) are re-established. The results present evidence that the onset of stress can switch off the drive for feeding very early in vertebrate development, and add a novel endpoint for analyses of metabolic and behavioral disorders in an organism suitable for high-throughput genetics and non-invasive brain imaging. PMID:25368561

  20. Post-larval development of the commercial sponge Spongia officinalis L. (Porifera, Demospongiae).

    PubMed

    Gaino, E; Baldacconi, R; Corriero, G

    2007-10-01

    This study investigated the development of the larvae of Spongia officinalis in experimental conditions, after settlement on plastic substrates, using electron and light microscopy. The released larvae show a dark pigmented ring distinguishes the posterior larval pole. The youngest larvae, covered with a flagellate epithelium, move onwards by rotating on their longitudinal axis. Over time a creeping-like motion prevails, probably linked to the need for settlement. After a free-swimming period of 24-48 h, larvae settle on the artificial substrate by the anterior pole. At settlement, the flagellate epithelium is substituted by flattened cells, which delimit the outermost surface. Post-larvae were reared to about three months. The early phase of post-larval differentiation shows a solid interior mainly consisting of granular cells varying in shape and size. They are included in a dense collagen matrix that contains a conspicuous amount of bacteria. Lacunae are already evident in the initial phase of metamorphosis. In several of them, cell debris and nucleate cells are visible. This feature is consistent with a progressive reduction of the cell mass (autolysis). Neither choanocyte chambers nor canals differentiate. The morphogenetic process leads to a metamorph only consisting of vacuolated cells and collagen fibrils included in a thin fibrous coat.

  1. Larval development of the subantarctic king crabs Lithodes santolla and Paralomis granulosa reared in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcagno, J. A.; Anger, K.; Lovrich, G. A.; Thatje, S.; Kaffenberger, A.

    2004-02-01

    The larval development and survival in the two subantarctic lithodid crabs Lithodes santolla (Jaquinot) and Paralomis granulosa (Molina) from the Argentine Beagle Channel were studied in laboratory cultures. In L. santolla, larval development lasted about 70 days, passing through three zoeal stages and the megalopa stage, with a duration of approximately 4, 7, 11 and 48 days, respectively. The larval development in P. granulosa is more abbreviated, comprising only two zoeal stages and the megalopa stage, with 6, 11 and 43 days' duration, respectively. In both species, we tested for effects of presence versus absence of food (Artemia nauplii) on larval development duration and survival rate. In P. granulosa, we also studied effects of different rearing conditions, such as individual versus mass cultures, as well as aerated versus unaerated cultures. No differences in larval development duration and survival were observed between animals subjected to those different rearing conditions. The lack of response to the presence or absence of potential food confirms, in both species, a complete lecithotrophic mode of larval development. Since lithodid crabs are of high economic importance in the artisanal fishery in the southernmost parts of South America, the knowledge of optimal rearing conditions for lithodid larvae is essential for future attempts at repopulating the collapsing natural stocks off Tierra del Fuego.

  2. Larval and metamorphic development of the foregut and proboscis in the caenogastropod Marsenina (Lamellaria) stearnsii.

    PubMed

    Page, L R

    2002-05-01

    The specialized, postmetamorphic feeding structures of predatory caenogastropods evolved by changes to an ancestral caenogastropod developmental program that generated a planktotrophic larval stage followed by a herbivorous postmetamorphic stage. As part of a program of comparative studies aimed at reconstructing these developmental changes, I studied the development of the postmetamorphic feeding system of Marsenina stearnsii using histological sections for light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The feeding system of this species has two very different designs during ontogeny. The larval system uses ciliary effectors to capture and ingest microalgae, whereas the juvenile/adult system includes a proboscis, jaws, and radular apparatus for predation on ascidian zooids. The postmetamorphic foregut begins to develop during the early larval phase, but the anlagen does not interfere with larval feeding because it develops as an increasingly elaborate outpocketing from the ventral wall of the larval esophagus. At metamorphosis, an opening is created in the anterior tip of the prospective, postmetamorphic buccal cavity and the margins of this opening anneal with the metamorphically remodeled lips of the larval mouth. This process exposes the jaws, which differentiate within the buccal cavity prior to metamorphosis. As a working hypothesis, I suggest that rupture of the buccal cavity to the outside at metamorphosis was selected as a mechanism to allow precocious development of jaws in species where jaws enhanced feeding performance by young juveniles. The larval esophagus of M. stearnsii appears to be completely destroyed at metamorphosis. Larval esophageal cells have distinctive apical characteristics (cilia, blebbed microvilli, stacks of lamellae within the glycocalyx) and no cells having this signature persist through metamorphosis. Development of the proboscis and proboscis sac, which begins prior to metamorphosis, conforms to previous

  3. Inter- and Intra-Specific Density-Dependent Effects on Life History and Development Strategies of Larval Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Tsurim, Ido; Silberbush, Alon; Ovadia, Ofer; Blaustein, Leon; Margalith, Yoel

    2013-01-01

    We explored how inter- and intra-specific competition among larvae of two temporary-pool mosquito species, Culiseta longiareolata and Ochlerotatus caspius, affect larval developmental strategy and life history traits. Given that their larvae have similar feeding habits, we expected negative reciprocal inter-specific interactions. In a microcosm experiment, we found sex-specific responses of larval survival and development to both intra- and inter-specific larval competition. C. longiareolata was the superior competitor, reducing adult size and modifying larval developmental time of O. caspius. We observed two distinct waves of adult emergence in O. caspius, with clear sex-specific responses to its inter-specific competitor. In males, this pattern was not affected by C. longiareolata, but in females, the timing and average body size of the second wave strongly varied with C. longiareolata density. Specifically, in the absence of C. longiareolata, the second wave immediately followed the first wave. However, as C. longiareolata abundance increased, the second wave was progressively delayed and the resulting females tended to be larger. This study improves our understanding of the way intra- and inter-specific competition combine to influence the life histories of species making up temporary pond communities. It also provides strong evidence that not all individuals of a cohort employ the same strategies in response to competition. PMID:23469250

  4. Development and functional morphology of the larval foregut of two brachyuran species from Northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Abrunhosa, Fernando A; Simith, Darlan J B; Monteiro, Joely R C; Souza Junior, Antonio N de; Oliva, Pedro A C

    2011-12-01

    Feeding is an important factor for the successful rearing of larvae of the crab species. Further information on the morphological features of the foregut may to reveal larval feeding behaviour and or/whether there is a lecithotrophy in some or even in all stages of the larval cycle. In the present study, the structural development of the foregut and their digestive functions were examined in larvae of two brachyurans, Uca vocator and Panopeus occidentalis, reared in the laboratory. During larval development, the foreguts of the larvae in the first and last zoeal stages and in the megalopa stage were microscopically examined, described and illustrated. The zoeal foreguts of both species were well developed, showing specialization with a functional cardiopyloric valve and a filter press. The megalopa stage had a complex and specialized gastric mill similar to that found in adult crabs with the appearance of rigidly calcified structures. These results support the hypothesis that the feeding behaviour of each larval stage is directly related to the morphological structure of the foregut. Such facts strongly indicate that all larval stages of both U. vocator and P. occidentalis need an external food source before completing the larval development in a planktonic environment.

  5. Influence of generation and photoperiod on larval development of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Pavan, Francesco; Floreani, Chiara; Barro, Paola; Zandigiacomo, Pietro; Montà, Laura Dalla

    2010-10-01

    The influence of generation (under field conditions) and photoperiod (under laboratory conditions) on Lobesia botrana larvae development was studied. Some larvae were collected during three annual generations in two grape-growing areas of northeastern Italy, and others were individually reared in the laboratory from egg to pupa on an artificial diet under two different photoperiod conditions (respectively, daylight 16 h/d [long day {LD}] and 14 h/d [short day {SD}]). The mandible lengths of collected larvae were measured and the data analyzed morphometrically to determine the number of larval instars. In the laboratory study, the number of larval moultings, the mandible length of each instar, the development time from hatching larva to pupa, and the pupal weight were considered. The measurement of mandible lengths of larvae collected in the field indicated the existence of five larval instars in all three annual generations, but the size of the two oldest larval instars was significantly higher for third-generation larvae than for the previous generations. Under laboratory conditions, the larvae usually exhibited five instars, but the mandible lengths of larvae and the pupa size were greater for individuals reared under SD. These also took a greater number of days to develop from hatching larvae to pupae. Because a larger size of the final larval instar occurs in individuals that produce diapausing pupae under SD in both the laboratory and the field, a positive association between larval size and the probability of surviving the winter can be inferred.

  6. Larval development and emergence sites of farm-associated Culicoides in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Harrup, L E; Purse, B V; Golding, N; Mellor, P S; Carpenter, S

    2013-12-01

    Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are the biological vectors of internationally important arboviruses of livestock including bluetongue virus (BTV). Information on the habitats used by Culicoides for larval development is valuable for establishing targeted vector control strategies and for improving local scale models of vector abundance. This study combines emergence trap collections of adult Culicoides identified using molecular markers and physiochemical measurements of habitats to investigate larval development sites of Palaearctic Culicoides in South East England. The known range of larval habitats for several Culicoides species is extended and the potential BTV vector species C. obsoletus and C. scoticus are confirmed to co-occur in many larval habitats. The presence of emerging C. obsoletus was favoured by increasing substrate moisture level [odds ratio (OR) 6.94 (2.30; 20.90)] and substrate pH [OR 4.80 (1.66; 13.90)] [bias-corrected Dxy : 0.68; area under the curve (AUC): 0.86] rather than any particular larval habitat type, as expected for a species with relatively wide larval habitat preference. Of the newly emerged sub-genus Avaritia individuals collected, 23% were observed to have a degree of abdominal pigmentation commonly inferred to indicate parity. If consistent across species and locations, this observation represents a potential source of error for age structure analyses of Culicoides populations.

  7. Stage-Specific Changes in Physiological and Life-History Responses to Elevated Temperature and Pco2 during the Larval Development of the European Lobster Homarus gammarus (L.).

    PubMed

    Small, Daniel P; Calosi, Piero; Boothroyd, Dominic; Widdicombe, Steve; Spicer, John I

    2015-01-01

    An organism's physiological processes form the link between its life-history traits and the prevailing environmental conditions, especially in species with complex life cycles. Understanding how these processes respond to changing environmental conditions, thereby affecting organismal development, is critical if we are to predict the biological implications of current and future global climate change. However, much of our knowledge is derived from adults or single developmental stages. Consequently, we investigated the metabolic rate, organic content, carapace mineralization, growth, and survival across each larval stage of the European lobster Homarus gammarus, reared under current and predicted future ocean warming and acidification scenarios. Larvae exhibited stage-specific changes in the temperature sensitivity of their metabolic rate. Elevated Pco2 increased C∶N ratios and interacted with elevated temperature to affect carapace mineralization. These changes were linked to concomitant changes in survivorship and growth, from which it was concluded that bottlenecks were evident during H. gammarus larval development in stages I and IV, the transition phases between the embryonic and pelagic larval stages and between the larval and megalopa stages, respectively. We therefore suggest that natural changes in optimum temperature during ontogeny will be key to larvae survival in a future warmer ocean. The interactions of these natural changes with elevated temperature and Pco2 significantly alter physiological condition and body size of the last larval stage before the transition from a planktonic to a benthic life style. Thus, living and growing in warm, hypercapnic waters could compromise larval lobster growth, development, and recruitment.

  8. Sternopleural is a regulatory mutation of wingless with both dominant and recessive effects on larval development of Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Neumann, C.J.; Cohen, S.M.

    1996-04-01

    The Drosophila wingless (wg) gene encodes a secreted signaling protein that is required for many separate patterning events in both embryonic and larval development. wg functions in the development of the adult structures have been studied using the conditional mutant wg{sup ts} and also using regulatory mutations of wg that reduce larval functions. Here we present evidence that Sternopleural (Sp) is another regulatory allele of wg that affects a subset of larval functions. Sp has both a recessive loss-of-function component and a gain-of-function component. The loss-of-function component reflects a reduction of wg activity in the notum and in the antenna. The gain-of-function component apparently leads to ectopic wg activity in the dorsal first and second leg disc and thereby generates the dominant Sp phenotype. Sp and other wg alleles show a complex pattern of complementation. We present evidence that these genetic properties are due to transvection. These results have implications for the genetic definition of a null allele at loci subject to transvection. 31 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Muscle organizers in Drosophila: the role of persistent larval fibers in adult flight muscle development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, E. R.; Fernandes, J.; Keshishian, H.

    1996-01-01

    In many organisms muscle formation depends on specialized cells that prefigure the pattern of the musculature and serve as templates for myoblast organization and fusion. These include muscle pioneers in insects and muscle organizing cells in leech. In Drosophila, muscle founder cells have been proposed to play a similar role in organizing larval muscle development during embryogenesis. During metamorphosis in Drosophila, following histolysis of most of the larval musculature, there is a second round of myogenesis that gives rise to the adult muscles. It is not known whether muscle founder cells organize the development of these muscles. However, in the thorax specific larval muscle fibers do not histolyze at the onset of metamorphosis, but instead serve as templates for the formation of a subset of adult muscles, the dorsal longitudinal flight muscles (DLMs). Because these persistent larval muscle fibers appear to be functioning in many respects like muscle founder cells, we investigated whether they were necessary for DLM development by using a microbeam laser to ablate them singly and in combination. We found that, in the absence of the larval muscle fibers, DLMs nonetheless develop. Our results show that the persistent larval muscle fibers are not required to initiate myoblast fusion, to determine DLM identity, to locate the DLMs in the thorax, or to specify the total DLM fiber volume. However, they are required to regulate the number of DLM fibers generated. Thus, while the persistent larval muscle fibers are not obligatory for DLM fiber formation and differentiation, they are necessary to ensure the development of the correct number of fibers.

  10. Testing the effect of dietary carotenoids on larval survival, growth and development in the critically endangered southern corroboree frog.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Phillip G; Silla, Aimee J

    2017-03-01

    The success of captive breeding programs (CBPs) for threatened species is often limited due to a lack of knowledge of the nutritional conditions required for optimal growth and survival. Carotenoids are powerful antioxidants known to accelerate vertebrate growth and reduce mortality. However, the effect of carotenoids on amphibian life-history traits remains poorly understood. The aim of our study was to use a manipulative laboratory experiment to test the effect of dietary-carotenoid supplementation during the larval life stage on the survival, growth and development of the critically endangered southern corroboree frog (Pseudophryne corroboree). Larvae were fed either a carotenoid supplemented diet or an unsupplemented diet and the survival, growth and development of individuals was monitored and compared. There was no significant effect of dietary treatment on larval survival, growth rate, time taken to reach metamorphosis, or body size at metamorphosis. Our findings provide no evidence that carotenoid supplementation during the larval life stage improves the growth and development of southern corroboree frogs. However, because the carotenoid dose used in our study did not have any detrimental effects on P. corroboree larvae, but has previously been shown to improve adult coloration, immunity, and exercise performance, carotenoid supplementation should be considered when evaluating the nutritional requirements of P. corroboree in captivity. Carotenoid supplementation studies are now required for a diversity of anuran species to determine the effects of carotenoids on amphibian survival, growth and development. Understanding the effects of dietary carotenoids on different life-history traits may assist with amphibian captive breeding and conservation.

  11. Expression of two actin genes during larval development in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.

    PubMed

    Cameron, R A; Britten, R J; Davidson, E H

    1989-01-01

    We report the first measurements of cell number, total RNA, and transcript accumulations for two actin genes during larval development of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. At 5 weeks of feeding, when development of laboratory-raised larvae is completed, the cell number has increased about 100-fold with respect to the pluteus-stage embryo to about 150,000 +/- 50,000, and the total RNA has increased 46-fold to about 130 ng per larva. The transcripts of the Cylla cytoskeletal actin gene, which is expressed in adult tissues, continue to accumulate throughout larval development. A contrasting pattern of transcript accumulation is observed for Cyllla, a different cytoskeletal actin gene that in the embryo is expressed only in aboral ectoderm. These transcripts increase in number early in larval development, when the larval epidermis is differentiating, and then decline in quantity. It is known that at metamorphosis the larval epidermis is largely histolyzed and that the Cyllla gene is not expressed in the juvenile or adult.

  12. Hox C6 expression during development and regeneration of forelimbs in larval Notophthalmus viridescens.

    PubMed

    Khan, P A; Tsilfidis, C; Liversage, R A

    1999-06-01

    A central theme concerning the epimorphic regenerative potential of urodele amphibian appendages is that limb regeneration in the adult parallels larval limb development. Results of previous research have led to the suggestion that homeobox containing genes are "re-expressed" during the epimorphic regeneration of forelimbs of adult Notophthalmus viridescens in patterns which retrace larval limb development. However, to date no literature exists concerning expression patterns of any homeobox containing genes during larval development of this species. The lack of such information has been a hindrance in exploring the similarities as well as differences which exist between limb regeneration in adults and limb development in larvae. Here we report the first such results of the localization of Hox C6 (formerly, NvHBox-1) in developing and regenerating forelimbs of N. viridescens larvae as demonstrated by whole-mount in situ hybridization. Inasmuch as the pattern of Hox C6 expression is similar in developing forelimb buds of larvae and epimorphically regenerating forelimb blastemata of both adults and larvae, our results support the paradigm that epimorphic regeneration in adult newts parallels larval forelimb development. However, in contrast with observations which document the presence of Hox C6 in both intact, as well as regenerating hindlimbs and tails of adult newts, our results reveal no such Hox C6 expression during larval development of hindlimbs or the tail. As such, our findings indicate that critical differences in larval hindlimb and tail development versus adult expression patterns of this gene in these two appendages may be due primarily to differences in gene regulation as opposed to gene function. Thus, the apparent ability of urodeles to regulate genes in such a highly co-ordinated fashion so as to replace lost, differentiated, appendicular structures in adult animals may assist, at least in part, in better elucidating the phenomenon of epimorphic

  13. Modeling larval connectivity of the Atlantic surfclams within the Middle Atlantic Bight: Model development, larval dispersal and metapopulation connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinzhong; Haidvogel, Dale; Munroe, Daphne; Powell, Eric N.; Klinck, John; Mann, Roger; Castruccio, Frederic S.

    2015-02-01

    To study the primary larval transport pathways and inter-population connectivity patterns of the Atlantic surfclam, Spisula solidissima, a coupled modeling system combining a physical circulation model of the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB), Georges Bank (GBK) and the Gulf of Maine (GoM), and an individual-based surfclam larval model was implemented, validated and applied. Model validation shows that the model can reproduce the observed physical circulation patterns and surface and bottom water temperature, and recreates the observed distributions of surfclam larvae during upwelling and downwelling events. The model results show a typical along-shore connectivity pattern from the northeast to the southwest among the surfclam populations distributed from Georges Bank west and south along the MAB shelf. Continuous surfclam larval input into regions off Delmarva (DMV) and New Jersey (NJ) suggests that insufficient larval supply is unlikely to be the factor causing the failure of the population to recover after the observed decline of the surfclam populations in DMV and NJ from 1997 to 2005. The GBK surfclam population is relatively more isolated than populations to the west and south in the MAB; model results suggest substantial inter-population connectivity from southern New England to the Delmarva region. Simulated surfclam larvae generally drift for over one hundred kilometers along the shelf, but the distance traveled is highly variable in space and over time. Surfclam larval growth and transport are strongly impacted by the physical environment. This suggests the need to further examine how the interaction between environment, behavior, and physiology affects inter-population connectivity. Larval vertical swimming and sinking behaviors have a significant net effect of increasing larval drifting distances when compared with a purely passive model, confirming the need to include larval behavior.

  14. Efficiency of three diets for larval development in mass rearing Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Puggioli, Arianna; Balestrino, F; Damiens, D; Lees, R S; Soliban, S M; Madakacherry, O; Dindo, M L; Bellini, R; Gilles, J R L

    2013-07-01

    A fundamental step in establishing a mass production system is the development of a larval diet that promotes high adult performance at a reasonable cost. To identify a suitable larval diet for Aedes albopictus (Skuse), three diets were compared: a standard laboratory diet used at the Centro Agricoltura Ambiente, Italy (CAA) and two diets developed specifically for mosquito mass rearing at the FAO/IAEA Laboratory, Austria. The two IAEA diets, without affecting survival to the pupal stage, resulted in a shorter time to pupation and to emergence when compared with the CAA diet. At 24 h from pupation onset, 50 and 90% of the male pupae produced on the CAA and IAEA diets, respectively, had formed and could be collected. The diet received during the larval stage affected the longevity of adult males with access to water only, with best results observed when using the CAA larval diet. However, similar longevity among diet treatments was observed when males were supplied with sucrose solution. No differences were observed in the effects of larval diet on adult male size or female fecundity and fertility. Considering these results, along with the relative costs of the three diets, the IAEA 2 diet is found to be the preferred choice for mass rearing of Aedes albopictus, particularly if a sugar meal can be given to adult males before release, to ensure their teneral reserves are sufficient for survival, dispersal, and mating in the field.

  15. Circulation constrains the evolution of larval development modes and life histories in the coastal ocean.

    PubMed

    Pringle, James M; Byers, James E; Pappalardo, Paula; Wares, John P; Marshall, Dustin

    2014-04-01

    The evolutionary pressures that drive long larval planktonic durations in some coastal marine organisms, while allowing direct development in others, have been vigorously debated. We introduce into the argument the asymmetric dispersal of larvae by coastal currents and find that the strength of the currents helps determine which dispersal strategies are evolutionarily stable. In a spatially and temporally uniform coastal ocean of finite extent, direct development is always evolutionarily stable. For passively drifting larvae, long planktonic durations are stable when the ratio of mean to fluctuating currents is small and the rate at which larvae increase in size in the plankton is greater than the mortality rate (both in units of per time). However, larval behavior that reduces downstream larval dispersal for a given time in plankton will be selected for, consistent with widespread observations of behaviors that reduce dispersal of marine larvae. Larvae with long planktonic durations are shown to be favored not for the additional dispersal they allow, but for the additional fecundity that larval feeding in the plankton enables. We analyzed the spatial distribution of larval life histories in a large database of coastal marine benthic invertebrates and documented a link between ocean circulation and the frequency of planktotrophy in the coastal ocean. The spatial variation in the frequency of species with planktotrophic larvae is largely consistent with our theory; increases in mean currents lead to a decrease in the fraction of species with planktotrophic larvae over a broad range of temperatures.

  16. Comparison of two versions of larval development test to detect anthelmintic resistance in Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Várady, Marián; Corba, Július; Letková, Valéria; Kovác, Gabriel

    2009-03-23

    Larval development (LDT) and micro-agar larval development tests (MALDT) were used to compare the reliability and sensitivity of two methods for detecting anthelmintic resistance in Haemonchus contortus. The tests were conducted using three resistant and four susceptible isolates of H. contortus. Both versions of the tests provided comparable results with regard to the characterization of benzimidazole and levamisole susceptibility but neither test was sufficiently sensitive to discrimination between an ivermectin (IVM) susceptible and an IVM resistant isolate. Each test has its own merits with the LDT having the advantage of being less time-consuming.

  17. Exploring Larval Development and Applications in Marine Fish Aquaculture Using Pink Snapper Embryos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamaru, Clyde; Haverkort-Yeh, Roxanne D.; Gorospe, Kelvin D.; Rivera, Malia Ana J.

    2014-01-01

    This biology investigation on "Pristipomoides filamentosus" larval development, survival, and aquaculture research was developed with three educational objectives: to provide high school students with (1) a scientific background on the biology and science of fisheries as well as overfishing, its consequences, and possible mitigations;…

  18. Larval development of Japanese "conchostracans": Part 3, larval development of Lynceus biformis (crustacea, branchiopoda, laevicaudata) based on scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Jørgen; Fritsch, Martin; Grygier, Mark J

    2013-02-01

    For comparison with the remarkable larvae of the laevicaudatan (clam shrimp) Lynceus brachyurus, a basic description of the larval sequence of another laevicaudatan branchiopod, the Japanese Lynceus biformis, is provided. Four larval stages have been identified, ranging in size from 258 to 560 μm in length. The first stage has no flattened dorsal shield, in contrast to the three following stages, in which such a shield is present. During development, the only significant changes to the naupliar appendages occur in the antenna at the molt from stage 1 to 2, with the addition of a fourth apical seta to the endopod and a change in the form of the naupliar process, used for food manipulation, from a long, unbranched, pointed spine to a bifid structure. In addition, buds of trunk limbs (five pairs) first appear externally in stage 4 but can be recognized through the cuticle in the previous stage. The larval sequence and larval morphology of L. biformis differ from those of L. brachyurus in at least two respects. L. brachyurus has a dorsal shield in the earliest known stages, but such a shield is lacking in the first stage of L. biformis. Another difference is that L. brachyurus has a huge, flattened, kidney-shaped labrum, whereas that of L. biformis is smaller and bears four robust, denticulate spines on the distal margin. Based on out-group comparison, the morphology of L. biformis, at least in these respects, is likely to represent the ancestral morphology. Despite the partly peculiar morphology of the larvae of Lynceus species, they share many similarities with other branchiopod larvae, at least two of which, the naupliar swimming/feeding apparatus and the mode of development of the trunk limbs, could be considered synapomorphies for the Branchiopoda.

  19. Larval connectivity of pearl oyster through biophysical modelling; evidence of food limitation and broodstock effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Yoann; Dumas, Franck; Andréfouët, Serge

    2016-12-01

    The black-lip pearl oyster (Pinctada margaritifera) is cultured extensively to produce black pearls, especially in French Polynesia atoll lagoons. This aquaculture relies on spat collection, a process that experiences spatial and temporal variability and needs to be optimized by understanding which factors influence recruitment. Here, we investigate the sensitivity of P. margaritifera larval dispersal to both physical and biological factors in the lagoon of Ahe atoll. Coupling a validated 3D larval dispersal model, a bioenergetics larval growth model following the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory, and a population dynamics model, the variability of lagoon-scale connectivity patterns and recruitment potential is investigated. The relative contribution of reared and wild broodstock to the lagoon-scale recruitment potential is also investigated. Sensitivity analyses pointed out the major effect of the broodstock population structure as well as the sensitivity to larval mortality rate and inter-individual growth variability to larval supply and to the subsequent settlement potential. The application of the growth model clarifies how trophic conditions determine the larval supply and connectivity patterns. These results provide new cues to understand the dynamics of bottom-dwelling populations in atoll lagoons, their recruitment, and discuss how to take advantage of these findings and numerical models for pearl oyster management.

  20. The larval development of Habronema muscae (Nematoda: Habronematidae) affects its intermediate host, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Schuster, Rolf Karl; Sivakumar, Saritha

    2017-02-01

    Although the life cycle of the equid stomach parasite Habronema muscae was disclosed more than 100 years ago, little is known about the effect of the developing nematode larvae in its intermediate host, Musca domestica. In a series of experiments, freshly hatched M. domestica larvae were exposed to H. muscae eggs contained in a faecal sample of a naturally infected horse. In daily intervals, 50 fly larvae were removed and transferred on a parasite-free larval rearing medium where they completed their development. Hatched flies were examined for the presence of Habronema third-stage larvae. In two subsequent control groups, flies spend their entire larval life in contaminated horse faeces and in a parasite-free larval rearing medium, respectively. Out of the 700 fly larvae used in the infection experiments, 304 developed into adult flies of which 281 were infected. The average nematode larval burden rose from 3.6 in the group with the shortest exposure to more than 25 in the groups with the longest exposure. The proportion of larvae that developed into the adult insect fell from 82 % in the uninfected control group to 27 % in the positive control group. The pupae of the positive control group were smaller and lighter than those of the uninfected control group. Lower pupal size and weight in the positive control group as well as a lower insect developing rate might be attributed to the destruction of adipose cells in the maggots by Habronema larvae.

  1. The complete larval development of Pagurus lanuginosus De Haan, 1849 (Decapoda, Anomura, Paguridae) reared in the laboratory, with emphasis on the post-larval stage.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Zakea; Asakura, Akira

    2015-02-03

    The complete larval development of Pagurus lanuginosus is described and illustrated including the first description of the post-larval stage. Specimens were reared in the laboratory at 15°C and 33.5-35.02 PSU. Newly hatched larvae passed through a short prezoeal stage (10 minutes to 2 hours), four zoeal stages (6, 6, 6, 8 days), and one megalopal stage (10 days). We compared the morphological features of each larval stage with those of the preceding two descriptions on the same species, and found many differences in morphology and the duration between zoeal stages. We concluded that significant diagnostic characters separating this species from other congeners in Japanese waters include the presence of two pairs of yellowish chromatophores on the carapace in the zoeal stages, a translucent body flecked with red chromatophores, and two pairs of red chromatophores on the carapace in the megalopal stage. 

  2. Development of a larval diet for the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mass-rearing protocols must be developed. In particular, a cost-effective larval diet, to implement the sterile insect technique against Anastrepha fratercculus (Wiedemann). The key elements of this diet are the optimal nutrients and their concentrations, diet supports or bulking agents, and the pH ...

  3. Low larval abundance in the Sargasso Sea: new evidence about reduced recruitment of the Atlantic eels.

    PubMed

    Hanel, Reinhold; Stepputtis, Daniel; Bonhommeau, Sylvain; Castonguay, Martin; Schaber, Matthias; Wysujack, Klaus; Vobach, Michael; Miller, Michael J

    2014-12-01

    The European eel Anguilla anguilla has shown decreased recruitment in recent decades. Despite increasing efforts to establish species recovery measures, it is unclear if the decline was caused by reduced numbers of reproductive-stage silver eels reaching the spawning area, low early larval survival, or increased larval mortality during migration to recruitment areas. To determine if larval abundances in the spawning area significantly changed over the past three decades, a plankton trawl sampling survey for anguillid leptocephali was conducted in March and April 2011 in the spawning area of the European eel that was designed to directly compare to collections made in the same way in 1983 and 1985. The catch rates of most anguilliform leptocephali were lower in 2011, possibly because of the slightly smaller plankton trawl used, but the relative abundances of European eel and American eel, Anguilla rostrata, leptocephali were much lower in 2011 than in 1983 and 1985 when compared to catches of other common leptocephali. The leptocephali assemblage was the same in 2011 as in previous years, but small larvae of mesopelagic snipe eels, Nemichthys scolopaceus, which spawn sympatrically with anguillid eels, were less abundant. Temperature fronts in the spawning area were also poorly defined compared to previous years. Although the causes for low anguillid larval abundances in 2011 are unclear, the fact that there are presently fewer European and American eel larvae in the spawning area than during previous time periods indicates that decreased larval abundance and lower eventual recruitment begin within the spawning area.

  4. Low larval abundance in the Sargasso Sea: new evidence about reduced recruitment of the Atlantic eels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanel, Reinhold; Stepputtis, Daniel; Bonhommeau, Sylvain; Castonguay, Martin; Schaber, Matthias; Wysujack, Klaus; Vobach, Michael; Miller, Michael J.

    2014-12-01

    The European eel Anguilla anguilla has shown decreased recruitment in recent decades. Despite increasing efforts to establish species recovery measures, it is unclear if the decline was caused by reduced numbers of reproductive-stage silver eels reaching the spawning area, low early larval survival, or increased larval mortality during migration to recruitment areas. To determine if larval abundances in the spawning area significantly changed over the past three decades, a plankton trawl sampling survey for anguillid leptocephali was conducted in March and April 2011 in the spawning area of the European eel that was designed to directly compare to collections made in the same way in 1983 and 1985. The catch rates of most anguilliform leptocephali were lower in 2011, possibly because of the slightly smaller plankton trawl used, but the relative abundances of European eel and American eel, Anguilla rostrata, leptocephali were much lower in 2011 than in 1983 and 1985 when compared to catches of other common leptocephali. The leptocephali assemblage was the same in 2011 as in previous years, but small larvae of mesopelagic snipe eels, Nemichthys scolopaceus, which spawn sympatrically with anguillid eels, were less abundant. Temperature fronts in the spawning area were also poorly defined compared to previous years. Although the causes for low anguillid larval abundances in 2011 are unclear, the fact that there are presently fewer European and American eel larvae in the spawning area than during previous time periods indicates that decreased larval abundance and lower eventual recruitment begin within the spawning area.

  5. Development of the Acoustically Evoked Behavioral Response in Larval Plainfin Midshipman Fish, Porichthys notatus

    PubMed Central

    Alderks, Peter W.; Sisneros, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    The ontogeny of hearing in fishes has become a major interest among bioacoustics researchers studying fish behavior and sensory ecology. Most fish begin to detect acoustic stimuli during the larval stage which can be important for navigation, predator avoidance and settlement, however relatively little is known about the hearing capabilities of larval fishes. We characterized the acoustically evoked behavioral response (AEBR) in the plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, and used this innate startle-like response to characterize this species' auditory capability during larval development. Age and size of larval midshipman were highly correlated (r2 = 0.92). The AEBR was first observed in larvae at 1.4 cm TL. At a size ≥1.8 cm TL, all larvae responded to a broadband stimulus of 154 dB re1 µPa or −15.2 dB re 1 g (z-axis). Lowest AEBR thresholds were 140–150 dB re 1 µPa or −33 to −23 dB re 1 g for frequencies below 225 Hz. Larval fish with size ranges of 1.9–2.4 cm TL had significantly lower best evoked frequencies than the other tested size groups. We also investigated the development of the lateral line organ and its function in mediating the AEBR. The lateral line organ is likely involved in mediating the AEBR but not necessary to evoke the startle-like response. The midshipman auditory and lateral line systems are functional during early development when the larvae are in the nest and the auditory system appears to have similar tuning characteristics throughout all life history stages. PMID:24340003

  6. Positive effects of cyanogenic glycosides in food plants on larval development of the common blue butterfly.

    PubMed

    Goverde, Marcel; Bazin, Alain; Kéry, Marc; Shykoff, Jacqui A; Erhardt, Andreas

    2008-09-01

    Cyanogenesis is a widespread chemical defence mechanism in plants against herbivory. However, some specialised herbivores overcome this protection by different behavioural or metabolic mechanisms. In the present study, we investigated the effect of presence or absence of cyanogenic glycosides in birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus, Fabaceae) on oviposition behaviour, larval preference, larval development, adult weight and nectar preference of the common blue butterfly (Polyommatus icarus, Lycaenidae). For oviposition behaviour there was a female-specific reaction to cyanogenic glycoside content; i.e. some females preferred to oviposit on cyanogenic over acyanogenic plants, while other females behaved in the opposite way. Freshly hatched larvae did not discriminate between the two plant morphs. Since the two plant morphs differed not only in their content of cyanogenic glycoside, but also in N and water content, we expected these differences to affect larval growth. Contrary to our expectations, larvae feeding on cyanogenic plants showed a faster development and stronger weight gain than larvae feeding on acyanogenic plants. Furthermore, female genotype affected development time, larval and pupal weight of the common blue butterfly. However, most effects detected in the larval phase disappeared for adult weight, indicating compensatory feeding of larvae. Adult butterflies reared on the two cyanogenic glycoside plant morphs did not differ in their nectar preference. But a gender-specific effect was found, where females preferred amino acid-rich nectar while males did not discriminate between the two nectar mimics. The presented results indicate that larvae of the common blue butterfly can metabolise the surplus of N in cyanogenic plants for growth. Additionally, the female-specific behaviour to oviposit preferably on cyanogenic or acyanogenic plant morphs and the female-genotype-specific responses in life history traits indicate the genetic flexibility of this

  7. Complete larval development of the hermit crabs Clibanarius aequabilis and Clibanarius erythropus (Decapoda: Anomura: Diogenidae), under laboratory conditions, with a revision of the larval features of genus Clibanarius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartilotti, Cátia; Calado, Ricardo; Dos Santos, Antonina

    2008-06-01

    The complete larval development (four zoeae and one megalopa) of Clibanarius aequabilis and C. erythropus, reared under laboratory conditions, is described and illustrated. The larval stages of the two northeastern Atlantic Clibanarius species cannot be easily differentiated. Their morphological characters are compared with those of other known Clibanarius larvae. The genus Clibanarius is very homogeneous with respect to larval characters. All Clibanarius zoeae display a broad and blunt rostrum, smooth abdominal segments and an antennal scale without a terminal spine. Beyond the second zoeal stage, the fourth telson process is present as a fused spine, and the uropods are biramous. In the fourth larval stage all species display a mandibular palp. The Clibanarius megalopa presents weakly developed or no ocular scales, symmetrical chelipeds, apically curved corneous dactylus in the second and third pereiopods, and 5-11 setae on the posterior margin of the telson. Apart from the number of zoeal stages, Clibanarius species may be separated, beyond the second zoeal stage, by the telson formula and the morphology of the fourth telson process.

  8. Experimental study of Lucilia sericata (Diptera Calliphoridae) larval development on rat cadavers: Effects of climate and chemical contamination.

    PubMed

    Aubernon, Cindy; Charabidzé, Damien; Devigne, Cédric; Delannoy, Yann; Gosset, Didier

    2015-08-01

    Household products such as bleach, gasoline or hydrochloric acid have been used to mask the presence of a cadaver or to prevent the colonization of insects. These types of chemicals affect insect development and alter the forensic entomology analysis. This study was designed to test the effects of six household products (bleach, mosquito repellent, perfume, caustic soda, insecticide and unleaded gasoline) on blowfly (Lucilia sericata, Diptera: Calliphoridae) larval development. Furthermore, the effects of climate (rain or dry conditions) on larval development were analyzed. For each replication, 100 first instars were placed on a rat cadaver on which one household product was spilled. We observed a decrease in the survival rates of the larvae but no significant effect on their development times or the adult size. The same trends were observed under rainy conditions. However, the rain altered the effects of some tested household products, especially gasoline. These results demonstrate for the first time the successful development of necrophagous larvae on chemically contaminated cadavers, and provide evidence for the range of possible effects to expect.

  9. Evidence for the Involvement of p38 MAPK Activation in Barnacle Larval Settlement

    PubMed Central

    He, Li-Sheng; Xu, Ying; Matsumura, Kiyotaka; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Gen; Qi, Shu-Hua; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    The barnacle Balanus ( = Amphibalanus) amphitrite is a major marine fouling animal. Understanding the molecular mechanism of larval settlement in this species is critical for anti-fouling research. In this study, we cloned one isoform of p38 MAPK (Bar-p38 MAPK) from this species, which shares the significant characteristic of containing a TGY motif with other species such as yeast, Drosophila and humans. The activation of p38 MAPK was detected by an antibody that recognizes the conserved dual phosphorylation sites of TGY. The results showed that phospho-p38 MAPK (pp38 MAPK) was more highly expressed at the cyprid stage, particularly in aged cyprids, in comparison to other stages, including the nauplius and juvenile stages. Immunostaining showed that Bar-p38 MAPK and pp38 MAPK were mainly located at the cyprid antennules, and especially the third and fourth segments, which are responsible for substratum exploration during settlement. The expression and localization patterns of Bar-p38 MAPK suggest its involvement in larval settlement. This postulation was also supported by the larval settlement bioassay with the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. Behavioral analysis by live imaging revealed that the larvae were still capable of exploring the surface of the substratum after SB203580 treatment. This shows that the effect of p38 MAPK on larval settlement might be by regulating the secretion of permanent proteinaceous substances. Furthermore, the level of pp38 MAPK dramatically decreased after full settlement, suggesting that Bar-p38 MAPK maybe plays a role in larval settlement rather than metamorphosis. Finally, we found that Bar-p38 MAPK was highly activated when larvae confronted extracts of adult barnacle containing settlement cues, whereas larvae pre-treated with SB203580 failed to respond to the crude adult extracts. PMID:23115639

  10. Influence of resources on Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larval development.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trinh T X; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah

    2013-07-01

    Arthropod development can be used to determine the time of colonization of human remains to infer a minimum postmortem interval. The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera. Stratiomyidae) is native to North America and is unique in that its larvae can consume a wide range of decomposing organic material, including carrion. Larvae development was observed on six resources: control poultry feed, liver, manure, kitchen waste, fruits and vegetables, and fish rendering. Larvae fed manure were shorter, weighed less, and took longer to develop. Kitchen waste produced longer and heavier larvae, whereas larvae fed fish had almost 100% mortality. Black soldier flies can colonize human remains, which in many instances can coincide with food and organic wastes. Therefore, it is necessary to understand black soldier fly development on different food resources other than carrion tissue to properly estimate their age when recovered from human remains.

  11. Energy metabolism during larval development of green and white abalone, Haliotis fulgens and H. sorenseni.

    PubMed

    Moran, Amy L; Manahan, Donal T

    2003-06-01

    An understanding of the biochemical and physiological energetics of lecithotrophic development is useful for interpreting patterns of larval development, dispersal potential, and life-history evolution. This study investigated the metabolic rates and use of biochemical reserves in two species of abalone, Haliotis fulgens (the green abalone) and H. sorenseni (the white abalone). Larvae of H. fulgens utilized triacylglycerol as a primary source of endogenous energy reserves for development ( approximately 50% depletion from egg to metamorphic competence). Amounts of phospholipid remained constant, and protein dropped by about 30%. After embryogenesis, larvae of H. fulgens had oxygen consumption rates of 81.7 +/- 5.9 (SE) pmol larva(-1) h(-1) at 15 degrees C through subsequent development. The loss of biochemical reserves fully met the needs of metabolism, as measured by oxygen consumption. Larvae of H. sorenseni were examined during later larval development and were metabolically and biochemically similar to H. fulgens larvae at a comparable stage. Metabolic rates of both species were very similar to previous data for a congener, H. rufescens, suggesting that larval metabolism and energy utilization may be conserved among closely related species that also share similar developmental morphology and feeding modes.

  12. Effects of Larval Density and Habitat Drying on Developmental Success of Ochlerotatus albifasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Urban Rain Pools: Evidence From Field and Experimental Studies.

    PubMed

    Fischer, S; Sy, V; Campos, R E; Otero, M

    2014-11-01

    Ochlerotatus albifasciatus (Macquart) (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae develop synchronously after rainfall events in ephemeral or temporary pools, where they occasionally attain very high abundance. The aims of the current study were to analyze the response of life history parameters such as daily larval mortality, time to pupation, and adult size of Oc. albifasciatus to increasing larval density under controlled conditions, and to analyze the relationships of daily larval mortality with density and environmental variables (drying rate, temperature, and season) in urban rain pools in Buenos Aires, Argentina. An exponential increase in mortality was observed at high larval densities under controlled conditions. Development times and adult size (wing length) differed between males and females, and were also affected by density. Development times extended for 0.36 d for each order of magnitude of increase in larval density, and wing length decreased 0.0021 mm per additional larva in 600 cm(2). Larval density in the field varied from <1 larva per square meter to nearly 1100 larvae per square meter. Daily larval mortality values in the field were variable (0.02-0.91), positively related to the drying rate, and exhibited seasonal differences. No significant relation with larval density or temperature was found in the field. It remains to be established whether the density-independent mortality observed in this study is a generalized pattern of Oc. albifasciatus populations in Buenos Aires Province or a pattern restricted only to urban habitats.

  13. Individual and mixture effects of selected pharmaceuticals on larval development of the estuarine shrimp Palaemon longirostris.

    PubMed

    González-Ortegón, Enrique; Blasco, Julian; Nieto, Elena; Hampel, Miriam; Le Vay, Lewis; Giménez, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Few ecotoxicological studies incorporate within the experimental design environmental variability and mixture effects when assessing the impact of pollutants on organisms. We have studied the combined effects of selected pharmaceutical compounds and environmental variability in terms of salinity and temperature on survival, development and body mass of larvae of the estuarine shrimp Palaemon longirostris. Drug residues found in coastal waters occur as mixture, and the evaluation of combined effects of simultaneously occurring compounds is indispensable for their environmental risk assessment. All larval stages of P. longirostris were exposed to the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diclofenac sodium (DS: 40 and 750 μg L(-1)), the lipid regulator clofibric acid (CA: 17 and 361 μg L(-1)) and the fungicide clotrimazole (CLZ: 0.14 and 4 μg L(-1)). We observed no effect on larval survival of P. longirostris with the tested pharmaceuticals. However, and in contrast to previous studies on larvae of the related marine species Palaemon serratus, CA affected development through an increase in intermoult duration and reduced growth without affecting larval body mass. These developmental effects in P. longirostris larvae were similar to those observed in the mixture of DS and CA confirming the toxic effects of CA. In the case of CLZ, its effects were similar to those observed previously in P. serratus: high doses affected development altering intermoult duration, tended to reduce the number of larval instars and decreased significantly the growth rate. This study suggests that an inter-specific life histories approach should be taken into account to assess the effect of emergent compounds in coastal waters.

  14. Leachate from microplastics impairs larval development in brown mussels.

    PubMed

    Gandara E Silva, Pablo Pena; Nobre, Caio Rodrigues; Resaffe, Pryscila; Pereira, Camilo Dias Seabra; Gusmão, Felipe

    2016-12-01

    Microplastic debris is a pervasive type of contaminant in marine ecosystems, being considered a major threat to marine biota. One of the problems of microplastics is that they can adsorb contaminants in extremely high concentrations. When released from the particle, these contaminants have the potential to cause toxic effects in the biota. So far, reports of toxic effects are mostly linked with the direct exposure of organisms through ingestion of contaminated microplastics. There is little information on the toxicity of leachates from microplastics to marine organisms. In this study, we conducted experiments to evaluate the toxicity of leachates from virgin and beached plastic pellets to embryo development of the brown mussel (Perna perna). We compared the efficiency of two test procedures, and evaluated the toxicity of beached pellets collected in a coastal marine protected area. We observed that mussel embryo is sensitive to leachate from both virgin and beached pellets. However, the toxicity of the leachate from beached pellets was much higher than that of virgin pellets. We suggest contaminants adsorbed onto the surface of beached pellets were responsible for the high toxicity of leachate from beached pellets, while the toxicity of leachate from virgin pellets was mainly due to plastic additives. Our results suggest microplastic debris may be harmful even if ingestion is not the only or main pathway of interaction of marine organisms with contaminated plastic debris.

  15. UV wavelengths experienced during development affect larval newt visual sensitivity and predation efficiency.

    PubMed

    Martin, Mélissa; Théry, Marc; Rodgers, Gwendolen; Goven, Delphine; Sourice, Stéphane; Mège, Pascal; Secondi, Jean

    2016-02-01

    We experimentally investigated the influence of developmental plasticity of ultraviolet (UV) visual sensitivity on predation efficiency of the larval smooth newt, Lissotriton vulgaris. We quantified expression of SWS1 opsin gene (UV-sensitive protein of photoreceptor cells) in the retinas of individuals who had developed in the presence (UV+) or absence (UV-) of UV light (developmental treatments), and tested their predation efficiency under UV+ and UV- light (testing treatments). We found that both SWS1 opsin expression and predation efficiency were significantly reduced in the UV- developmental group. Larvae in the UV- testing environment displayed consistently lower predation efficiency regardless of their developmental treatment. These results prove for the first time, we believe, functional UV vision and developmental plasticity of UV sensitivity in an amphibian at the larval stage. They also demonstrate that UV wavelengths enhance predation efficiency and suggest that the magnitude of the behavioural response depends on retinal properties induced by the developmental lighting environment.

  16. Larval development of the oriental lancelet, Branchiostoma belcheri, in laboratory mass culture.

    PubMed

    Urata, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Nobuo; Henmi, Yasuhisa; Yasui, Kinya

    2007-08-01

    We are successfully maintaining a laboratory colony of the lancelet Branchiostoma belcheri bred in the laboratory. Based on living individuals in this mass culture, morphological characteristics from the seven-day larval to benthic juvenile stages have been studied. Most striking was that later larval development of B. belcheri showed great individual variation even in a rather stable culture environment. Metamorphosis first occurred on 60 days post fertilization (dpf) and was continuously observed throughout the present study up to 100 dpf. Morphological traits such as the number of primary gill slits and body size at the start of metamorphosis are apparently affected by culture condition. Body size measured in the largest individuals showed nearly linear growth at 0.087 mm/day. The variability found in larval development calls for caution when developmental stages and chronological ages are compared between populations. However, the developmental flexibility of this animal also raises the possibility that growth and sexual maturation could be controlled artificially in captivity.

  17. Spawning, fertilization, and larval development of Potamocorbula amurensis (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicolini, M.H.; Penry, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    In Potamocorbula amurensis time for development to the straight-hinge larval stage is 48 hr at 15??C. Potamocorbula amurensis settles at a shell length of approximately 135 ??m 17 to 19 days after fertilization. Our observations of timing of larval devdlopment in P. amurensis support the hypothesis of earlier workers that its route of initial introduction to San Francisco Bay was as veliger larvae transported in ballast water by trans-Pacific cargo ships. The length of the larval period of P. amurensis relative to water mass residence times in San Francisco Bay suggests that it is sufficient to allow substantial dispersal from North Bay to South Bay populations in concordance with previous observations that genetic differentiation among populations of P. amurensis in San Francisco Bay is low. Potamocorbula amurensis is markedly euryhaline at all stages of development. Spawning and fertilization can occur at salinities from 5 to 25 psu, and eggs and sperms can each tolerance at least a 10-psu step increase or decrease in salinity. Embryos that are 2 hr old can tolerate the same range of salinities from (10 to 30 psu), and by the time they are 24 hr old they can tolerate the same range of salinities (2 to 30 psu) that adult clams can. The ability of P. amurensis larvae to tolerate substantial step changes in salinity suggests a strong potential to survive incomplete oceanic exchanges of ballast water and subsequent discharge into receiving waters across a broad range of salinities.

  18. Development of the compound eyes of dragonflies (Odonata). II. Development of the larval compound eyes.

    PubMed

    Sherk, T E

    1978-01-01

    The development of the compound eye was analyzed by marking individual ommatidia and by studying naturally occurring pigment band patterns. New ommatidia are added to the eye along its anterior margin. This changes the directions of view of the older ommatidia with the greatest change occurring in the fovea. New ommatidia are added to the fovea medially, and old ones are removed laterally as their interommatidial angles and directions of view in the visual field change. Over one-third of the aeshnid ommatidia are foveal during at least one of the early larval instars, and are then used for peripheral vision later in development. The design of each ommatidium is a compromise so that it is adapted for all stages of development, but sometimes better adapted for one instar than for others. Factors which are balanced for best vision are lens diameter, facet admission function, interommatidial angle, and inclination of the optic axis to the eye surface. Ommatidia are described in terms of these factors throughout their life history, from initial differentiation anteriorly, through passage through the fovea, to their final relatively posterior location.

  19. Effect of Salinity on Embryo and Larval Development of Oyster Crassostrea iredalei

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Amelia Ng Phei; Peng, Teh Chiew; Yen, Poi Khoy; Yasin, Zulfigar; Hwai, Aileen Tan Shau

    2016-01-01

    The effects of salinity on the embryonic and larvae stage of Crassostrea iredalei were investigated. Fertilised eggs and one day old D-larvae were subjected to salinities ranging from 0 to 30 ppt at temperature of 30±2°C. At salinity lower than 10 ppt, 100% mortality was observed. For embryo development, the highest survival was observed at salinity 25 ppt with 80.9±2.2% survival with no significant difference compared to 15 and 30 ppt. Shell height and length were both greatest at salinity 30 ppt. Throughout the 11 days culture, the highest larval survival occurred at salinity 15 ppt with no significant difference compared to all other salinities except 10 ppt. Larval shell sizes showed no significant differences between salinities, except for 10 ppt. Optimum culture condition for larvae growth are salinities ranging from 15 to 30 ppt whereby the larval of this species can tolerate wider range of salinity compared to other oyster species and thus, making it a competitive species to be cultured. PMID:27965737

  20. Artificial substrates for oviposition and larval development of the pepper weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Addesso, K M; McAuslane, H J; Stansly, P A; Slansky, F; Schuster, D J

    2009-02-01

    The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a major pest of cultivated peppers (Capsicum spp.) and other cultivated and wild species within the family Solanaceae. Laboratory study of this insect, as well as its biological control agents, will be greatly facilitated by an artificial rearing system that does not rely on pepper fruit. An egg collection method and amendments to a standard larval diet were investigated for use in the rearing of this weevil. Spherical sachets made of Parafilm or netting enclosing leaves of pepper, American black nightshade, eggplant, tomato, potato, and jasmine tobacco induced oviposition. Tomato, potato, and jasmine tobacco leaves were accepted despite the fact that these are not oviposition hosts for pepper weevils in the wild. A standard larval diet formula was modified in an attempt to improve egg hatch, larval survival, developmental time, and adult mass. The diet formula was modified with the addition of freeze-dried jalapeño pepper powder, an additional lipid source, alternate protein sources, and the removal of methyl paraben. None of the aforementioned treatments resulted in a significant improvement over the standard diet. Egg hatch was greater when eggs were incubated on moist paper towels rather than in diet; thus, placement of neonates rather than eggs into diet improved production of adults. Suggestions for more efficient rearing of weevils on the currently available diet and future directions for the development of an artificial rearing system for pepper weevil are discussed.

  1. Development of the larval anterior neurogenic domains of Terebratalia transversa (Brachiopoda) provides insights into the diversification of larval apical organs and the spiralian nervous system

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Larval features such as the apical organ, apical ciliary tuft, and ciliated bands often complicate the evaluation of hypotheses regarding the origin of the adult bilaterian nervous system. Understanding how neurogenic domains form within the bilaterian head and larval apical organ requires expression data from animals that exhibit aspects of both centralized and diffuse nervous systems at different life history stages. Here, we describe the expression of eight neural-related genes during the larval development of the brachiopod, Terebratalia transversa. Results Radially symmetric gastrulae broadly express Tt-Six3/6 and Tt-hbn in the animal cap ectoderm. Tt-NK2.1 and Tt-otp are restricted to a central subset of these cells, and Tt-fez and Tt-FoxQ2 expression domains are already asymmetric at this stage. As gastrulation proceeds, the spatial expression of these genes is split between two anterior ectodermal domains, a more dorsal region comprised of Tt-Six3/6, Tt-fez, Tt-FoxQ2, and Tt-otp expression domains, and an anterior ventral domain demarcated by Tt-hbn and Tt-NK2.1 expression. More posteriorly, the latter domains are bordered by Tt-FoxG expression in the region of the transverse ciliated band. Tt-synaptotagmin 1 is expressed throughout the anterior neural ectoderm. All genes are expressed late into larval development. The basiepithelial larval nervous system includes three neurogenic domains comprised of the more dorsal apical organ and a ventral cell cluster in the apical lobe as well as a mid-ventral band of neurons in the mantle lobe. Tt-otp is the only gene expressed in numerous flask-shaped cells of the apical organ and in a subset of neurons in the mantle lobe. Conclusions Our expression data for Tt-Six3/6, Tt-FoxQ2, and Tt-otp confirm some aspects of bilaterian-wide conservation of spatial partitioning within anterior neurogenic domains and also suggest a common origin for central otp-positive cell types within the larval apical organs of

  2. Role of bacteria in the oviposition behaviour and larval development of stable flies.

    PubMed

    Romero, A; Broce, A; Zurek, L

    2006-03-01

    Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), are the most important pests of cattle in the United States. However, adequate management strategies for stable flies, especially for pastured cattle, are lacking. Microbial/symbiont-based approaches offer novel venues for management of insect pests and/or vector-borne human and animal pathogens. Unfortunately, the fundamental knowledge of stable fly-microbial associations and their effect on stable fly biology is lacking. In this study, stable flies laid greater numbers of eggs on a substrate with an active microbial community (> 95% of total eggs oviposited) than on a sterilized substrate. In addition, stable fly larvae could not develop in a sterilized natural or artificial substrate/medium. Bacteria were isolated and identified from a natural stable fly oviposition/developmental habitat and their individual effect on stable fly oviposition response and larval development was evaluated in laboratory bioassays. Of nine bacterial strains evaluated in the oviposition bioassays, Citrobacter freundii stimulated oviposition to the greatest extent. C. freundii also sustained stable fly development, but to a lesser degree than Serratia fanticola. Serratia marcescens and Aeromonas spp. neither stimulated oviposition nor supported stable fly development. These results demonstrate a stable fly bacterial symbiosis; stable fly larval development depends on a live microbial community in the natural habitat, and stable fly females are capable of selecting an oviposition site based on the microbially derived stimuli that indicate the suitability of the substrate for larval development. This study shows a promising starting point for exploiting stable fly-bacterial associations for development of novel approaches for stable fly management.

  3. Co-option and dissociation in larval origins and evolution: the sea urchin larval gut.

    PubMed

    Love, Alan C; Lee, Abigail E; Andrews, Mary E; Raff, Rudolf A

    2008-01-01

    The origin of marine invertebrate larvae has been an area of controversy in developmental evolution for over a century. Here, we address the question of whether a pelagic "larval" or benthic "adult" morphology originated first in metazoan lineages by testing the hypothesis that particular gene co-option patterns will be associated with the origin of feeding, indirect developing larval forms. Empirical evidence bearing on this hypothesis is derivable from gene expression studies of the sea urchin larval gut of two closely related but differently developing congenerics, Heliocidaris tuberculata (feeding indirect-developing larva) and H. erythrogramma (nonfeeding direct developer), given two subsidiary hypotheses. (1) If larval gut gene expression in H. tuberculata was co-opted from an ancestral adult expression pattern, then the gut expression pattern will remain in adult H. erythrogramma despite its direct development. (2) Genes expressed in the larval gut of H. tuberculata will not have a coordinated expression pattern in H. erythrogramma larvae due to loss of a functional gut. Five structural genes expressed in the invaginating archenteron of H. tuberculata during gastrulation exhibit substantially different expression patterns in H. erythrogramma with only one remaining endoderm specific. Expression of these genes in the adult of H. erythrogramma and larval gut of H. tuberculata, but not in H. erythrogramma larval endoderm, supports the hypothesis that they first played roles in the formation of adult structures and were subsequently recruited into larval ontogeny during the origin and evolution of feeding planktotrophic deuterostome larvae.

  4. Significance of bacteria in oviposition and larval development of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Microbial ecology of phlebotomine sand flies is not well understood although bacteria likely play an important role in the sand fly biology and vector capacity for Leishmania parasites. In this study, we assessed the significance of the microbial community of rabbit feces in oviposition and larval development of Lutzomyia longipalpis as well as bacterial colonization of the gut of freshly emerged flies. Methods Sterile (by autoclaving) and non-sterile (control) rabbit feces were used in the two-choice assay to determine their oviposition attractiveness to sand fly females. Bacteria were identified by amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene with universal eubacterial primers. Sterile, control (non-sterile), and sterilized and inoculated rabbit feces were used to assess the significance of bacteria in L. longipalpis development. Newly emerged adult flies were surface-sterilized and screened for the bacterial population size and diversity by the culturing approach. The digestive tract of L4 sterile and control larvae was incubated with Phalloidin to visualize muscle tissues and DAPI to visualize nuclei. Results Two-choice behavioural assays revealed a great preference of L. longipalpis to lay eggs on rabbit feces with an active complex bacterial community (control) (85.8 % of eggs) in comparison to that of sterile (autoclaved) rabbit feces (14.2 %). Bioassays demonstrated that L. longipalpis larvae can develop in sterile rabbit feces although development time to adult stage was greatly extended (47 days) and survival of larvae was significantly lower (77.8 %) compared to that of larvae developing in the control rabbit feces (32 days and 91.7 %). Larval survival on sterilized rabbit feces inoculated with the individual bacterial isolates originating from this substrate varied greatly depending on a bacterial strain. Rhizobium radiobacter supported larval development to adult stage into the greatest extent (39 days, 88.0 %) in

  5. Direct behavioral evidence that unique bile acids released by larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) function as a migratory pheromone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bjerselius , Rickard; Li, Weiming; Teeter, John H.; Seelye, James G.; Johnson, Peter B.; Maniak, Peter J.; Grant, Gerold C.; Polkinghorne, Christine N.; Sorensen, Peter W.

    2000-01-01

    Four behavioral experiments conducted in both the laboratory and the field provide evidence that adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) select spawning rivers based on the odor of larvae that they contain and that bile acids released by the larvae are part of this pheromonal odor. First, when tested in a recirculating maze, migratory adult lamprey spent more time in water scented with larvae. However, when fully mature, adults lost their responsiveness to larvae and preferred instead the odor of mature individuals. Second, when tested in a flowing stream, migratory adults swam upstream more actively when the water was scented with larvae. Third, when migratory adults were tested in a laboratory maze containing still water, they exhibited enhanced swimming activity in the presence of a 0.1 nM concentration of the two unique bile acids released by larvae and detected by adult lamprey. Fourth, when adults were exposed to this bile acid mixture within flowing waters, they actively swam into it. Taken together, these data suggest that adult lamprey use a bile acid based larval pheromone to help them locate spawning rivers and that responsiveness to this cue is influenced by current flow, maturity, and time of day. Although the precise identity and function of the larval pheromone remain to be fully elucidated, we believe that this cue will ultimately prove useful as an attractant in sea lamprey control.

  6. Suitability of monotypic and mixed diets for Anopheles hermsi larval development.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Donald A; Walton, William E

    2016-06-01

    The developmental time and survival to eclosion of Anopheles hermsi Barr & Guptavanij fed monotypic and mixed diets of ten food types were examined in laboratory studies. Larvae fed monotypic diets containing animal detritus (freeze-dried rotifers, freeze-dried Daphnia pulicaria, and TetraMin® fish food flakes) and the mixotrophic protistan Cryptomonas ovata developed faster and survived better than larvae that were fed other monotypic diets. Survival to adulthood of larvae fed several concentrations of the diatom Planothidium (=Achnanthes) lanceolatum was poor (<13%) and larval development time was approximately twice that of larvae fed TetraMin® fish food flakes, the standard laboratory diet. Larvae fed monotypic diets containing prokaryotes (bacteria [Bacillus cereus] and cyanobacteria [Oscillatoria prolifera]) and brewer's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) failed to survive beyond the 1(st) and 2(nd) instar, respectively. Larvae fed only chlorophytes, single-celled Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and filamentous Spirogyra communis, failed to complete larval development, regardless of the concentration tested. Cohorts fed a combination of food types (mixed diets) usually developed better than cohorts fed monotypic diets. Food types that failed to support complete development when fed alone often facilitated development to adulthood when fed in combination with food types containing >1% C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids as total fat, but regardless of essential fatty acid content, algae that produced mucilage and filaments that sank out of the feeding zone were poor quality diets.

  7. Does Atrazine Influence Larval Development and Sexual Differentiation in Xenopus laevis?

    PubMed Central

    Kloas, Werner; Lutz, Ilka; Springer, Timothy; Krueger, Henry; Wolf, Jeff; Holden, Larry; Hosmer, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Debate and controversy exists concerning the potential for the herbicide atrazine to cause gonadal malformations in developing Xenopus laevis. Following review of the existing literature the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency required a rigorous investigation conducted under standardized procedures. X. laevis tadpoles were exposed to atrazine at concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, 1, 25, or 100 μg/l from day 8 postfertilization (dpf) until completion of metamorphosis or dpf 83, whichever came first. Nearly identical experiments were performed in two independent laboratories: experiment 1 at Wildlife International, Ltd. and experiment 2 at the Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB). Both experiments employed optimized animal husbandry procedures and environmental conditions in validated flow-through exposure systems. The two experiments demonstrated consistent survival, growth, and development of X. laevis tadpoles, and all measured parameters were within the expected ranges and were comparable in negative control and atrazine-treated groups. Atrazine, at concentrations up to 100 μg/l, had no effect in either experiment on the percentage of males or the incidence of mixed sex as determined by histological evaluation. In contrast, exposure of larval X. laevis to 0.2 μg 17β-estradiol/l as the positive control resulted in gonadal feminization. Instead of an even distribution of male and female phenotypes, percentages of males:females:mixed sex were 19:75:6 and 22:60:18 in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. These studies demonstrate that long-term exposure of larval X. laevis to atrazine at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 100 μg/l does not affect growth, larval development, or sexual differentiation. PMID:19008211

  8. Hox gene expression in larval development of the polychaetes Nereis virens and Platynereis dumerilii (Annelida, Lophotrochozoa).

    PubMed

    Kulakova, Milana; Bakalenko, Nadezhda; Novikova, Elena; Cook, Charles E; Eliseeva, Elena; Steinmetz, Patrick R H; Kostyuchenko, Roman P; Dondua, Archil; Arendt, Detlev; Akam, Michael; Andreeva, Tatiana

    2007-01-01

    The bilaterian animals are divided into three great branches: the Deuterostomia, Ecdysozoa, and Lophotrochozoa. The evolution of developmental mechanisms is less studied in the Lophotrochozoa than in the other two clades. We have studied the expression of Hox genes during larval development of two lophotrochozoans, the polychaete annelids Nereis virens and Platynereis dumerilii. As reported previously, the Hox cluster of N. virens consists of at least 11 genes (de Rosa R, Grenier JK, Andreeva T, Cook CE, Adoutte A, Akam M, Carroll SB, Balavoine G, Nature, 399:772-776, 1999; Andreeva TF, Cook C, Korchagina NM, Akam M, Dondua AK, Ontogenez 32:225-233, 2001); we have also cloned nine Hox genes of P. dumerilii. Hox genes are mainly expressed in the descendants of the 2d blastomere, which form the integument of segments, ventral neural ganglia, pre-pygidial growth zone, and the pygidial lobe. Patterns of expression are similar for orthologous genes of both nereids. In Nereis, Hox2, and Hox3 are activated before the blastopore closure, while Hox1 and Hox4 are activated just after this. Hox5 and Post2 are first active during the metatrochophore stage, and Hox7, Lox4, and Lox2 at the late nectochaete stage only. During larval stages, Hox genes are expressed in staggered domains in the developing segments and pygidial lobe. The pattern of expression of Hox cluster genes suggests their involvement in the vectorial regionalization of the larval body along the antero-posterior axis. Hox gene expression in nereids conforms to the canonical patterns postulated for the two other evolutionary branches of the Bilateria, the Ecdysozoa and the Deuterostomia, thus supporting the evolutionary conservatism of the function of Hox genes in development.

  9. Development of the embryonic and larval peripheral nervous system of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Singhania, Aditi; Grueber, Wesley B

    2014-01-01

    The peripheral nervous system (PNS) of embryonic and larval stage Drosophila consists of diverse types of sensory neurons positioned along the body wall. Sensory neurons, and associated end organs, show highly stereotyped locations and morphologies. Many powerful genetic tools for gene manipulation available in Drosophila make the PNS an advantageous system for elucidating basic principles of neural development. Studies of the Drosophila PNS have provided key insights into molecular mechanisms of cell fate specification, asymmetric cell division, and dendritic morphogenesis. A canonical lineage gives rise to sensory neurons and associated organs, and cells within this lineage are diversified through asymmetric cell divisions. Newly specified sensory neurons develop specific dendritic patterns, which are controlled by numerous factors including transcriptional regulators, interactions with neighboring neurons, and intracellular trafficking systems. In addition, sensory axons show modality specific terminations in the central nervous system, which are patterned by secreted ligands and their receptors expressed by sensory axons. Modality-specific axon projections are critical for coordinated larval behaviors. We review the molecular basis for PNS development and address some of the instances in which the mechanisms and molecules identified are conserved in vertebrate development.

  10. Development of the embryonic and larval peripheral nervous system of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Singhania, Aditi; Grueber, Wesley B.

    2014-01-01

    The peripheral nervous system (PNS) of embryonic and larval stage Drosophila consists of diverse types of sensory neurons positioned along the body wall. Sensory neurons, and associated end organs, show highly stereotyped locations and morphologies. The many powerful genetic tools for gene manipulation available in Drosophila make the PNS an advantageous system for elucidating basic principles of neural development. Studies of the Drosophila PNS have provided key insights into molecular mechanisms of cell fate specification, asymmetric cell division, and dendritic morphogenesis. A canonical lineage gives rise to sensory neurons and associated organs, and cells within this lineage are diversified through asymmetric cell divisions. Newly specified sensory neurons develop specific dendritic patterns, which are controlled by numerous factors including transcriptional regulators, interactions with neighboring neurons, and intracellular trafficking systems. In addition, sensory axons show modality specific terminations in the central nervous system, which are patterned by secreted ligands and their receptors expressed by sensory axons. Modality-specific axon projections are critical for coordinated larval behaviors. We review the molecular basis for PNS development and address some of the instances in which the mechanisms and molecules identified are conserved in vertebrate development. PMID:24896657

  11. Urbanization Increases Aedes albopictus Larval Habitats and Accelerates Mosquito Development and Survivorship

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yiji; Kamara, Fatmata; Zhou, Guofa; Puthiyakunnon, Santhosh; Li, Chunyuan; Liu, Yanxia; Zhou, Yanhe; Yao, Lijie; Yan, Guiyun; Chen, Xiao-Guang

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Aedes albopictus is a very invasive and aggressive insect vector that causes outbreaks of dengue fever, chikungunya disease, and yellow fever in many countries. Vector ecology and disease epidemiology are strongly affected by environmental changes. Urbanization is a worldwide trend and is one of the most ecologically modifying phenomena. The purpose of this study is to determine how environmental changes due to urbanization affect the ecology of Aedes albopictus. Methods Aquatic habitats and Aedes albopictus larval population surveys were conducted from May to November 2013 in three areas representing rural, suburban, and urban settings in Guangzhou, China. Ae. albopictus adults were collected monthly using BG-Sentinel traps. Ae. albopictus larva and adult life-table experiments were conducted with 20 replicates in each of the three study areas. Results The urban area had the highest and the rural area had the lowest number of aquatic habitats that tested positive for Ae. albopictus larvae. Densities in the larval stages varied among the areas, but the urban area had almost two-fold higher densities in pupae and three-fold higher in adult populations compared with the suburban and rural areas. Larvae developed faster and the adult emergence rate was higher in the urban area than in suburban and rural areas. The survival time of adult mosquitoes was also longer in the urban area than it was in suburban and rural areas. Study regions, surface area, water depth, water clearance, surface type, and canopy coverage were important factors associated with the presence of Ae. albopictus larvae. Conclusions Urbanization substantially increased the density, larval development rate, and adult survival time of Ae. albopictus, which in turn potentially increased the vector capacity, and therefore, disease transmissibility. Mosquito ecology and its correlation with dengue virus transmission should be compared in different environmental settings. PMID:25393814

  12. Growth and development of larval green frogs (Rana clamitans) exposed to multiple doses of an insecticide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boone, M.D.; Bridges, C.M.; Rothermel, B.B.

    2001-01-01

    Our objective was to determine how green frogs (Rana clamitans) are affected by multiple exposures to a sublethal level of the carbamate insecticide, carbaryl, in outdoor ponds. Tadpoles were added to 1,000-1 ponds at a low or high density which were exposed to carbaryl 0, 1, 2, or 3 times. Length of the larval period, mass, developmental stage, tadpole survival, and proportion metamorphosed were used to determine treatment effects. The frequency of dosing affected the proportion of green frogs that reached metamorphosis and the developmental stage of tadpoles. Generally, exposure to carbaryl increased rates of metamorphosis and development. The effect of the frequency of carbaryl exposure on development varied with the density treatment; the majority of metamorphs and the most developed tadpoles came from high-density ponds exposed to carbaryl 3 times. This interaction suggests that exposure to carbaryl later in the larval period stimulated metamorphosis, directly or indirectly, under high-density conditions. Our study indicates that exposure to a contaminant can lead to early initiation of metamorphosis and that natural biotic factors can mediate the effects of a contaminant in the environment.

  13. Effect of Two Oil Dispersants on Larval Grass Shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) Development.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betancourt, P.; Key, P. B.; Chung, K. W.; DeLorenzo, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    The study focused on the effects that two oil dispersants, Corexit® EC9500A and Finasol® OSR52, have on the development of larval grass shrimp, (Palaemonetes pugio). The hypothesis was that Finasol would have a greater effect on larval grass shrimp development than Corexit. The experiment was conducted using 300 grass shrimp larvae that were 24 hours old. Each larva was exposed individually. In total, five sub-lethal concentrations were tested for each dispersant (control, 1.25, 2.50, 5.0,10.0 mg/L). The larvae were exposed for five days then transferred to clean seawater until metamorphosis into the juvenile stage. Key data measurements recorded included number of days to become juveniles, number of instars, length, dry weight, and mortality. Data from exposed shrimp was compared to the results of the control for each dispersant concentration. Corexit and Finasol exposure treatments of 5 mg/L and 10 mg/L showed significantly higher values for number of days and number of instars to reach juvenile status than values obtained from unexposed, control shrimp. Overall, mortality was higher in the Finasol treatments but the two dispersants did not respond significantly different from one another. Future studies are needed to determine the long term effects of dispersant exposure on all grass shrimp life stages and how any dispersant exposure impacts grass shrimp populations. Grass shrimp serve as excellent toxicity indicators of estuaries, and further studies will help to develop better oil spill mitigation techniques.

  14. Aspects of embryonic and larval development in bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

    2013-01-01

    As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region’s economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”. Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and “warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river.

  15. Rearing Tenebrio molitor in BLSS: Dietary fiber affects larval growth, development, and respiration characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Leyuan; Stasiak, Michael; Li, Liang; Xie, Beizhen; Fu, Yuming; Gidzinski, Danuta; Dixon, Mike; Liu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Rearing of yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.) will provide good animal nutrition for astronauts in a bioregenerative life support system. In this study, growth and biomass conversion data of T. molitor larvae were tested for calculating the stoichiometric equation of its growth. Result of a respiratory quotient test proved the validity of the equation. Fiber had the most reduction in mass during T. molitor‧s consumption, and thus it is speculated that fiber is an important factor affecting larval growth of T. molitor. In order to further confirm this hypothesis and find out a proper feed fiber content, T. molitor larvae were fed on diets with 4 levels of fiber. Larval growth, development and respiration in each group were compared and analyzed. Results showed that crude-fiber content of 5% had a significant promoting effect on larvae in early instars, and is beneficial for pupa eclosion. When fed on feed of 5-10% crude-fiber, larvae in later instars reached optimal levels in growth, development and respiration. Therefore, we suggest that crude fiber content in feed can be controlled within 5-10%, and with the consideration of food palatability, a crude fiber of 5% is advisable.

  16. Temperature treatments during larval development reveal extensive heritable and plastic variation in gene expression and life history traits.

    PubMed

    Kvist, Jouni; Wheat, Christopher W; Kallioniemi, Eveliina; Saastamoinen, Marjo; Hanski, Ilkka; Frilander, Mikko J

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about variation in gene expression that affects life history traits in wild populations of outcrossing species. Here, we analyse heritability of larval development traits and associated variation in gene expression in the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia) across three ecologically relevant temperatures. We studied the development of final-instar larvae, which is greatly affected by temperature, and during which stage larvae build up most of the resources for adult life. Larval development time and weight gain varied significantly among families sampled from hundreds of local populations, indicating substantial heritable variation segregating in the large metapopulation. Global gene expression analysis using common garden-reared F2 families revealed that 42% of the >8000 genes surveyed exhibited significant variation among families, 39% of the genes showed significant variation between the temperature treatments, and 18% showed a significant genotype-by-environment interaction. Genes with large family and temperature effects included larval serum protein and cuticle-binding protein genes, and the expression of these genes was closely correlated with the rate of larval development. Significant expression variation in these same categories of genes has previously been reported among adult butterflies originating from newly established versus old local populations, supporting the notion of a life history syndrome put forward based on ecological studies and involving larval development and adult dispersal capacity. These findings suggest that metapopulation dynamics in heterogeneous environments maintain heritable gene expression variation that affects the regulation of life history traits.

  17. Soundscapes and Larval Settlement: Characterizing the Stimulus from a Larval Perspective.

    PubMed

    Lillis, Ashlee; Eggleston, David B; Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that underwater sounds serve as a cue for the larvae of marine organisms to locate suitable settlement habitats; however, the relevant spatiotemporal scales of variability in habitat-related sounds and how this variation scales with larval settlement processes remain largely uncharacterized, particularly in estuarine habitats. Here, we provide an overview of the approaches we have developed to characterize an estuarine soundscape as it relates to larval processes, and a conceptual framework is provided for how habitat-related sounds may influence larval settlement, using oyster reef soundscapes as an example.

  18. Particle motion is broadly represented in the vestibular medulla of the bullfrog across larval development.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Andrea Megela; Flores, Victoria

    2012-04-01

    In their shallow-water habitats, bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) tadpoles are exposed to both underwater and airborne sources of acoustic stimulation. We probed the representation of underwater particle motion throughout the tadpole's dorsal medulla to determine its spatial extent over larval life. Using neurobiotin-filled micropipettes, we recorded neural activity to z-axis particle motion (frequencies of 40-200 Hz) in the medial vestibular nucleus, lateral vestibular nucleus, dorsal medullary nucleus (DMN), and along the dorsal arcuate pathway. Sensitivity was comparable in the medial and lateral vestibular nuclei, with estimated thresholds between 0.016 and 12.5 μm displacement. Neither best responding frequency nor estimated threshold varied significantly over larval stage. Transport of neurobiotin from active recording sites was also stable over development. The DMN responded poorly to z-axis particle motion, but did respond to low-frequency pressure stimulation. These data suggest that particle motion is represented widely and stably in the tadpole's vestibular medulla. This is in marked contrast to the representation of pressure stimulation in the auditory midbrain, where a transient "deaf period" of non-responsiveness and decreased connectivity occurs immediately prior to metamorphic climax. We suggest that, in bullfrogs, sensitivity to particle motion and to pressure follows different developmental trajectories.

  19. Chiton myogenesis: perspectives for the development and evolution of larval and adult muscle systems in molluscs.

    PubMed

    Wanninger, Andreas; Haszprunar, Gerhard

    2002-02-01

    We investigated muscle development in two chiton species, Mopalia muscosa and Chiton olivaceus, from embryo hatching until 10 days after metamorphosis. The anlagen of the dorsal longitudinal rectus muscle and a larval prototroch muscle ring are the first detectable muscle structures in the early trochophore-like larva. Slightly later, a ventrolaterally situated pair of longitudinal muscles appears, which persists through metamorphosis. In addition, the anlagen of the putative dorsoventral shell musculature and the first fibers of a muscular grid, which is restricted to the pretrochal region and consists of outer ring and inner diagonal muscle fibers, are generated. Subsequently, transversal muscle fibers form underneath each future shell plate and the ventrolateral enrolling muscle is established. At metamorphic competence, the dorsoventral shell musculature consists of numerous serially repeated, intercrossing muscle fibers. Their concentration into seven (and later eight) functional shell plate muscle bundles starts after the completion of metamorphosis. The larval prototroch ring and the pretrochal muscle grid are lost at metamorphosis. The structure of the apical grid and its atrophy during metamorphosis suggests ontogenetic repetition of (parts of) the original body-wall musculature of a proposed worm-shaped molluscan ancestor. Moreover, our data show that the "segmented" character of the polyplacophoran shell musculature is a secondary condition, thus contradicting earlier theories that regarded the Polyplacophora (and thus the entire phylum Mollusca) as primarily eumetameric (annelid-like). Instead, we propose an unsegmented trochozoan ancestor at the base of molluscan evolution.

  20. Inner Ear Formation during the Early Larval Development of Xenopus Laevis

    PubMed Central

    Quick, Quincy A.; Serrano, Elba E.

    2010-01-01

    The formation of the eight independent endorgan compartments (sacculus, utricle, horizontal canal, anterior canal, posterior canal, lagena, amphibian papilla, and basilar papilla) of the Xenopus laevis inner ear is illlustrated as the otic vesicle develops into a complex labyrinthine structure. The morphology of transverse sections and whole mounts of the inner ear was assessed in seven developmental stages (28, 31, 37, 42, 45, 47, 50) using brightfield and laser scanning confocal microscopy. The presence of mechanosensory hair cells in the sensory epithelia was determined by identification of stereociliary bundles in cryosectioned tissue and whole mounts of the inner ear labeled with the fluorescent F-actin probe, Alexa-488 phalloidin. Between stages 28 and 45 the otic vesicle grows in size, stereociliary bundles appear and increase in number, and the pars inferior and pars superior become visible. The initial formation of vestibular compartments with their nascent stereociliary bundles is seen by larval stage 47, and all eight vestibular and auditory compartments with their characteristic sensory fields are present by larval stage 50. Thus in Xenopus, inner ear compartments are established between stages 45 and 50, a two week period during which the ear quadruples in length in the anteroposterior dimension. The anatomical images presented here demonstrate the morphological changes that occur as the otic vesicle forms the auditory and vestibular endorgans of the inner ear. These images provide a resource for investigations of gene expression patterns in Xenopus during inner ear compartmentalization and morphogenesis. PMID:16217737

  1. Toxicity of endosulfan on embryo-larval development of the South American toad Rhinella arenarum.

    PubMed

    Svartz, Gabriela V; Wolkowicz, Ianina R Hutler; Coll, Cristina S Pérez

    2014-04-01

    Endosulfan is a widely used pesticide despite its extreme toxicity to a variety of taxa and its worldwide ban. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of endosulfan on the embryonic-larval development of the common South American toad Rhinella arenarum. The results showed that lethal and sublethal effects increased with concentration and exposure time. The sensitivity to endosulfan increased during the larval period, the complete operculum stage (S.25) being the most sensitive (504-h median lethal concentration [LC50] = 0.01 mg endosulfan/L; 10% lethal concentration [LC10] = 0.004 mg endosulfan/L). Endosulfan exposure caused morphological abnormalities such as general underdevelopment, edema, gill malformations, and cellular dissociation as well as neurotoxicity. Our results also showed that larvae exposed to concentrations of 0.005 mg endosulfan/L and 0.01 mg endosulfan/L completed metamorphosis earlier than controls, but with underdevelopment. The 240-h teratogenic index was 6.13, implying a high risk for embryos to be malformed in the absence of significant embryonic lethality. Because the hazard quotients for chronic exposure were over 1, the level of concern value and toxicity endpoints obtained in the present study for R. arenarum occurred at concentrations lower than the levels of endosulfan reported in the environment, this pesticide should be considered a potential risk for this species.

  2. Particle motion is broadly represented in the vestibular medulla of the bullfrog across larval development

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    In their shallow-water habitats, bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) tadpoles are exposed to both underwater and airborne sources of acoustic stimulation. We probed the representation of underwater particle motion throughout the tadpole’s dorsal medulla to determine its spatial extent over larval life. Using neurobiotin-filled micropipettes, we recorded neural activity to z-axis particle motion (frequencies of 40–200 Hz) in the medial vestibular nucleus, lateral vestibular nucleus, dorsal medullary nucleus (DMN), and along the dorsal arcuate pathway. Sensitivity was comparable in the medial and lateral vestibular nuclei, with estimated thresholds between 0.016 and 12.5 μm displacement. Neither best responding frequency nor estimated threshold varied significantly over larval stage. Transport of neurobiotin from active recording sites was also stable over development. The DMN responded poorly to z-axis particle motion, but did respond to low-frequency pressure stimulation. These data suggest that particle motion is represented widely and stably in the tadpole’s vestibular medulla. This is in marked contrast to the representation of pressure stimulation in the auditory midbrain, where a transient “deaf period” of non-responsiveness and decreased connectivity occurs immediately prior to metamorphic climax. We suggest that, in bullfrogs, sensitivity to particle motion and to pressure follows different developmental trajectories. PMID:22198742

  3. Tcmof regulates larval/pupal development and female fecundity in red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanyun; Li, Chengjun; Sang, Ming; Li, Bin

    2015-02-01

    Males absent on the first (MOF) was originally identified as an essential component of the X chromosome dosage compensation system in Drosophila melanogaster, and is also a member of the MYST family of histone acetyltransferases. MOF has been extensively studied in D. melanogaster and mammals. However, whether MOF is involved in dosage compensation and/or other vital functions for newly emerging model insects such as Tribolium castaneum, is unclear. We cloned the mof from T. castaneum, named Tcmof. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that mof is highly conserved in eukaryotes but lost in birds. qPCR showed that Tcmof was most highly expressed in the early embryo stage and equally expressed in males and females. Treating larvae with ds-Tcmof led 79.1% of the insects to arrest during its eclosion; the remaining insects died either in the larval stage or immediately following eclosion. Treating pupae with the same construct eliminated the fertility of T. castaneum. This effect was rescued by reciprocal crosses with wild-type females, but not males. We infer that the mof gene is essential for larval/pupal development and female fertility in T. castaneum.

  4. Growth and Development of Larval Bay Scallops (Argopecten irradians) in Response to Early Exposure to High CO2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    S .  Peck.  2009.  Early  larval   development  of  the  Sydney...Kurihara,  H.,   S .  Kato,  and  A.  Ishimatsu.  2007.  Effects  of  increased  seawater  pCO2  on   early   development ...and  L.   S .  Peck.  2009.  Early  larval   development  of  the  Sydney  rock  oyster  Saccostrea  glomerata

  5. Effects of temperature on embryonic and early larval growth and development in the rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa).

    PubMed

    Smith, Geoffrey D; Hopkins, Gareth R; Mohammadi, Shabnam; M Skinner, Heather; Hansen, Tyler; Brodie, Edmund D; French, Susannah S

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the effects of temperature on the growth and development of embryonic and early larval stages of a western North American amphibian, the rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa). We assigned newt eggs to different temperatures (7, 14, or 21°C); after hatching, we re-assigned the newt larvae into the three different temperatures. Over the course of three to four weeks, we measured total length and developmental stage of the larvae. Our results indicated a strong positive relationship over time between temperature and both length and developmental stage. Importantly, individuals assigned to cooler embryonic temperatures did not achieve the larval sizes of individuals from the warmer embryonic treatments, regardless of larval temperature. Our investigation of growth and development at different temperatures demonstrates carry-over effects and provides a more comprehensive understanding of how organisms respond to temperature changes during early development.

  6. Embryonic, Larval, and Juvenile Development of the Sea Biscuit Clypeaster subdepressus (Echinodermata: Clypeasteroida)

    PubMed Central

    Vellutini, Bruno C.; Migotto, Alvaro E.

    2010-01-01

    Sea biscuits and sand dollars diverged from other irregular echinoids approximately 55 million years ago and rapidly dispersed to oceans worldwide. A series of morphological changes were associated with the occupation of sand beds such as flattening of the body, shortening of primary spines, multiplication of podia, and retention of the lantern of Aristotle into adulthood. To investigate the developmental basis of such morphological changes we documented the ontogeny of Clypeaster subdepressus. We obtained gametes from adult specimens by KCl injection and raised the embryos at 26C. Ciliated blastulae hatched 7.5 h after sperm entry. During gastrulation the archenteron elongated continuously while ectodermal red-pigmented cells migrated synchronously to the apical plate. Pluteus larvae began to feed in 3 d and were 20 d old at metamorphosis; starved larvae died 17 d after fertilization. Postlarval juveniles had neither mouth nor anus nor plates on the aboral side, except for the remnants of larval spicules, but their bilateral symmetry became evident after the resorption of larval tissues. Ossicles of the lantern were present and organized in 5 groups. Each group had 1 tooth, 2 demipyramids, and 2 epiphyses with a rotula in between. Early appendages consisted of 15 spines, 15 podia (2 types), and 5 sphaeridia. Podial types were distributed in accordance to Lovén's rule and the first podium of each ambulacrum was not encircled by the skeleton. Seven days after metamorphosis juveniles began to feed by rasping sand grains with the lantern. Juveniles survived in laboratory cultures for 9 months and died with wide, a single open sphaeridium per ambulacrum, aboral anus, and no differentiated food grooves or petaloids. Tracking the morphogenesis of early juveniles is a necessary step to elucidate the developmental mechanisms of echinoid growth and important groundwork to clarify homologies between irregular urchins. PMID:20339592

  7. Neural development in Eucidaris tribuloides and the evolutionary history of the echinoid larval nervous system.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Cory D; MacNeil, Katelyn E A; Patel, Digna; Taylor, Valerie J; Burke, Robert D

    2013-05-01

    The structure and development of the larval nervous systems of all classes of echinoderms have been described and details of embryonic signaling mechanisms patterning neurogenesis have been revealed experimentally in sea urchins. Several features of neuroanatomy and neural development indicate that echinoids are the most derived group. Here we describe the development and organization of the nervous system of a cidaroid, Eucidaris tribuloides. The cidaroids are one of two major clades of echinoids, and are considered to have features of anatomy and development that represent the common ancestor to all echinoids. The embryos of E. tribuloides lack a thickened animal plate and serotonergic neurons arise laterally, associated with the ciliary band. Although lacking a discrete apical organ, plutei have serotonergic neurons associated with the pre-oral ciliary band joined by a few diffusely arranged connecting axons. Chordin and Hnf6, early markers for oral ectoderm and ciliary band, are expressed in similar patterns to euechinoids. However, an animal pole domain marker, Nk2.1, is expressed in a broader region of anterior ectoderm than in euechinoids. Six3, a proneural marker that is restricted to the animal plate of euechinoids, is expressed laterally in the preoral ciliary band at the same location as the serotonergic neurons. We conclude that the organization and development of the larval nervous system of E. tribuloides retains features shared with other echinoderm larvae, but not with euechinoids. These data support a model in which several distinctive features of euechinoid neural organization are derived, having arisen after the divergence of the two clades of echinoids about 265 million years ago. We hypothesize that differences in the developmental mechanisms that restrict neurogenesis to the animal pole forms the basis for the distinctive neuroanatomy of euechinoids.

  8. The importance of feeding in the larval development of the ghost shrimp Callichirus major (Decapoda: Callianassidae).

    PubMed

    Abrunhosa, Fernando A; Arruda, Danielle C B; Simith, Darlan J B; Palmeira, Carlos A M

    2008-09-01

    The present study investigated whether the callianassid Callichirus major shows a lecithotrophic behaviour during larval development. Two experiments were carried out. In the first experiment, larvae were subjected to an initial period of feeding, while in the second they were subjected to an initial period of starvation. In Experiment 1, 80% of C. major larvae succeeded moulting to juvenile stage in treatment with larvae fed every day. In the treatments with larvae fed for 1, 2 and 3 days there was total mortality before they reached the megalopal stage. In Experiment 2, zoea larvae showed more resistance when subjected to an initial period of starvation in which larvae starved for 1, 2 and 3 days and had survival rates of 100, 60 and 80%, respectively. But, a delay in the development duration of the zoeal stages was observed. Total mortality was observed for larvae reared in the treatment with entire starvation. The results suggest that zoeal stages of C. major are not lecithotrophic.

  9. [Larval development of some Bregmaceros species (Pisces: Bregmacerotidae) from the southeast Gulf of Mexico].

    PubMed

    Blas-Cabrera, Jorge; Sánchez-Ramírez, Marina; Ocaña-Luna, Alberto

    2006-06-01

    We redescribe the larval development of Bregmaceros cantori based on 925 specimens ranging from 1.1 to 20.2 mm in standard length (SL), and describe the larvae of B. atlanticus (27 larvae, 1.7-7.5 mm), B. houdei (six, 1.5-1.9 mm) and B. macclellandi (three, 2.4, 3.4 and 5.4 mm). All specimens were collected in the southern Gulf of Mexico from November 27 through December 6, 1998. Larvae were identified to species, and descriptions were made based on pigmentation, and morphometric and meristic characteristics. We defined five development stages: preflexion, flexion, postflexion, transformation and juvenile. In the preflexion stage B. cantori displayed a greater growth in mouth size and head length relative to SL (positive allometry); there was negative allometry from the flexion to juvenile stage. B. cantori have the shortest body height and head length, thus being the thinnest; whereas B. macclellandi larvae are the most robust ones. From the four species reported from the southern Gulf of Mexico, B. atlanticus larvae are the most pigmented in both head and body, with an homogeneous pattern; B. macclellandi presents a different pigmentation pattern consisting in large melanophore groups with a body arrangement that changes from one stage to the next; additionally, from the preflexion stage it develops both the occipital radius and pelvic fins. B. houdei larvae measuring 1.5 to 1.9 mm have melanophores at the tip of the lower jaw and the head, as well as at the pectoral fin base. Larval development was more pronounced in this B. cantori and B. atlanticus than in specimens from higher latitudes.

  10. Embryonic, larval, and early juvenile development of the tropical sea urchin, Salmacis sphaeroides (Echinodermata: Echinoidea).

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Aminur; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Arshad, A; Shamsudin, Mariana Nor; Amin, S M N

    2012-01-01

    Salmacis sphaeroides (Linnaeus, 1758) is one of the regular echinoids, occuring in the warm Indo-West Pacific, including Johor Straits, between Malaysia and Singapore. In order to investigate the developmental basis of morphological changes in embryos and larvae, we documented the ontogeny of S. sphaeroides in laboratory condition. Gametes were obtained from adult individuals by 0.5 M KCl injection into the coelomic cavity. Fertilization rate at limited sperm concentration (10(-5) dilution) was 96.6 ± 1.4% and the resulting embryos were reared at 24°C. First cleavage (2-cell), 4-cell, 8-cell, 16-cell, 32-cell, and multicell (Morulla) stages were achieved 01.12, 02.03, 02.28, 02.51, 03.12, and 03.32 h postfertilization. Ciliated blastulae with a mean length of 174.72 ± 4.43 μm hatched 08.45 h after sperm entry. The gastrulae formed 16.15 h postfertilization and the archenteron elongated constantly while ectodermal red-pigmented cells migrated synchronously to the apical plate. Pluteus larva started to feed unicellular algae in 2 d, grew continuously, and finally attained metamorphic competence in 35 d after fertilization. Metamorphosis took approximately 1 h 30 min from attachment to the complete resorption of larval tissues and the development of complete juvenile structure with adult spines, extended tubefeet and well-developed pedicellaria, the whole event of which usually took place within 1 d postsettlement. This study represents the first successful investigation on embryonic, larval, and early juvenile development of S. sphaeroides. The findings would greatly be helpful towards the understanding of ontogeny and life-history strategies, which will facilitate us to develop the breeding, seed production, and culture techniques of sea urchins in captive condition.

  11. Proteomic Analysis of Oesophagostomum dentatum (Nematoda) during Larval Transition, and the Effects of Hydrolase Inhibitors on Development

    PubMed Central

    Ondrovics, Martina; Silbermayr, Katja; Mitreva, Makedonka; Young, Neil D.; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Gasser, Robin B.; Joachim, Anja

    2013-01-01

    In this study, in vitro drug testing was combined with proteomic and bioinformatic analyses to identify and characterize proteins involved in larval development of Oesophagostomum dentatum, an economically important parasitic nematode. Four hydrolase inhibitors ο-phenanthroline, sodium fluoride, iodoacetamide and 1,2-epoxy-3-(pnitrophenoxy)-propane (EPNP) significantly inhibited (≥90%) larval development. Comparison of the proteomic profiles of the development-inhibited larvae with those of uninhibited control larvae using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and subsequent MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis identified a down-regulation of 12 proteins inferred to be involved in various larval developmental processes, including post-embryonic development and growth. Furthermore, three proteins (i.e. intermediate filament protein B, tropomyosin and peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase) inferred to be involved in the moulting process were down-regulated in moulting- and development-inhibited O. dentatum larvae. This first proteomic map of O. dentatum larvae provides insights in the protein profile of larval development in this parasitic nematode, and significantly improves our understanding of the fundamental biology of its development. The results and the approach used might assist in developing new interventions against parasitic nematodes by blocking or disrupting their key biological pathways. PMID:23717515

  12. Combined endosulfan and cypermethrin-induced toxicity to embryo-larval development of Rhinella arenarum.

    PubMed

    Svartz, Gabriela V; Aronzon, Carolina M; Pérez Coll, Cristina S

    2016-01-01

    The combined effects of two widely used pesticides, endosulfan and cypermethrin, on survival of embryo-larval development of the South American toad (Rhinella arenarum) were examined. The toxicity bioassays were performed according to the AMPHITOX test. Embryos and larvae were exposed to mixtures of these pesticides at equitoxic ratios from acute or chronic exposure to evaluate interaction effects. The results were analyzed using both Marking's additive index and combination index (CI)-isobologram methods. Acute (96-h) and intermediate (168-h) toxicity of endosulfan-cypermethrin mixtures remained almost constant for larvae and embryos, but when exposure duration was increased, there was a significant elevation in toxicity, obtaining chronic (240-h) no-observed-effect concentrations (NOEC) values of 0.045 and 0.16 mg/L for embryos and larvae, respectively. These are environmentally relevant concentrations that reflect a realistic risk of this pesticide mixture to this native amphibian species. The toxicity increment with the exposure duration was coincident with the central nervous system development on embryos reaching the larval period, the main target organ of these pesticides. The interactions of the pesticide mixtures at acute and chronic exposure were antagonistic for embryo development (CI > 1), and additive (CI = 1) for larvae, while chronic exposure interactions were synergistic (CI < 1) for both developmental periods. Data indicated that endosulfan-cypermethrin mixtures resulted in different interaction types depending on duration and developmental stage exposed. As a general pattern and considering conditions of overall developmental period and chronic exposure, this pesticide mixture usually applied in Argentine crop fields is synergistic with respect to toxicity for this native amphibian species.

  13. Effects of food limitation and pharmaceutical compounds on the larval development and morphology of Palaemon serratus.

    PubMed

    González-Ortegón, Enrique; Giménez, Luis; Blasco, Julian; Le Vay, Lewis

    2015-01-15

    Few ecotoxicological studies consider the roles of maternal influences and suboptimal environmental conditions when assessing the impact of pollutants on organisms. We studied the combined effects of pharmaceutical compounds, food condition and maternal body size on growth, development, body mass and morphology of larvae of the marine shrimp Palaemon serratus. Limited food availability is considered a factor leading to reduced survival and growth in marine crustacean larvae. It is known that P. serratus responses to food limitation vary among larvae hatched from females of different body length. The pharmaceuticals tested were the anti-inflammatory and analgesic diclofenac sodium (DS: at 77 μg L-1 and 720 μg L-1) the lipid regulator clofibric acid (CA: at 42 μg L-1 and 394 μg L-1) and the fungicide clotrimazole (CLZ: at 0.07 μg L-1 and 3.16 μg L-1). We observed morphological abnormalities in larvae exposed to CLZ. In addition, effects of this compound were stronger under food limitation leading to (1) reduced survival by 30%, (2) reduced juvenile body mass (22%) and (3) reduction in the number of molt stages (from 13 to 9) during larval development. This latter effect may indicate that CLZ reduced the larval capacity to respond to food limitation because development through a longer route, with additional stages, is considered an adaptive response to prioritize maintenance over morphogenesis. CA and DS affected developmental rate under food limitation but not growth or body mass. The toxic effects of CLZ, at lower concentrations than CA and DS, were stronger in larvae with higher body mass, hatched from the largest females. This suggests that maternal influences and suboptimal environmental conditions should be further studied to inform modeling of the effects of emergent compounds on larvae of marine coastal species.

  14. Ocean warming ameliorates the negative effects of ocean acidification on Paracentrotus lividus larval development and settlement.

    PubMed

    García, Eliseba; Clemente, Sabrina; Hernández, José Carlos

    2015-09-01

    Ocean warming and acidification both impact marine ecosystems. All organisms have a limited body temperature range, outside of which they become functionally constrained. Beyond the absolute extremes of this range, they cannot survive. It is hypothesized that some stressors can present effects that interact with other environmental variables, such as ocean acidification (OA) that have the potential to narrow the thermal range where marine species are functional. An organism's response to ocean acidification can therefore be highly dependent on thermal conditions. This study evaluated the combined effects of predicted ocean warming conditions and acidification, on survival, development, and settlement, of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Nine combined treatments of temperature (19.0, 20.5 and 22.5 °C) and pH (8.1, 7.7 and 7.4 units) were carried out. All of the conditions tested were either within the current natural ranges of seawater pH and temperature or are within the ranges that have been predicted for the end of the century, in the sampling region (Canary Islands). Our results indicated that the negative effects of low pH on P. lividus larval development and settlement will be mitigated by a rise in seawater temperature, up to a thermotolerance threshold. Larval development and settlement performance of the sea urchin P. lividus was enhanced by a slight increase in temperature, even under lowered pH conditions. However, the species did show negative responses to the levels of ocean warming and acidification that have been predicted for the turn of the century.

  15. Temperature, Larval Diet, and Density Effects on Development Rate and Survival of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Couret, Jannelle; Dotson, Ellen; Benedict, Mark Q.

    2014-01-01

    Many environmental factors, biotic and abiotic interact to influence organismal development. Given the importance of Aedes aegypti as a vector of human pathogens including dengue and yellow fever, understanding the impact of environmental factors such as temperature, resource availability, and intraspecific competition during development is critical for population control purposes. Despite known associations between developmental traits and factors of diet and density, temperature has been considered the primary driver of development rate and survival. To determine the relative importance of these critical factors, wide gradients of conditions must be considered. We hypothesize that 1) diet and density, as well as temperature influence the variation in development rate and survival, 2) that these factors interact, and this interaction is also necessary to understand variation in developmental traits. Temperature, diet, density, and their two-way interactions are significant factors in explaining development rate variation of the larval stages of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. These factors as well as two and three-way interactions are significantly associated with the development rate from hatch to emergence. Temperature, but not diet or density, significantly impacted juvenile mortality. Development time was heteroskedastic with the highest variation occurring at the extremes of diet and density conditions. All three factors significantly impacted survival curves of experimental larvae that died during development. Complex interactions may contribute to variation in development rate. To better predict variation in development rate and survival in Ae. aegypti, factors of resource availability and intraspecific density must be considered in addition, but never to the exclusion of temperature. PMID:24498328

  16. The formation of the nervous system during larval development in Triops cancriformis (Bosc) (crustacea, Branchiopoda): An immunohistochemical survey.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, Martin; Richter, Stefan

    2010-12-01

    We provide data of the development of thenervous system during the first five larval stages of Triops cancriformis. We use immunohistochemical labeling (against acetylated α-tubulin, serotonin, histamine, and FMRFamide), confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis, and 3D-reconstruction. The development of the nervous system corresponds with the general anamorphic development in T. cancriformis. In larval stage I (L I), all brain parts (proto-, deuto-, and tritocerebrum), the circumoral connectives, and the mandibular neuromere are already present. Also, the frontal filaments and the developing nauplius eye are already present. However, until stage L III, the nauplius eye only consists of three cups. Throughout larval development, the protocerebral network differentiates into distinct subdivisions. In the postnaupliar region, additional neuromeres and their commissures emerge in an anteroposterior gradient. The larval nervous system in L V consists of a differentiated protocerebrum including a central body, a nauplius eye comprising four cups, a circumoral nerve ring, mandibular- and postnaupliar neuromeres up to the seventh thoracic segment, each featuring an anterior and a posterior commissure, and two parallel connectives. The presence of a protocerebral bridge is questionable. The distribution of neurotransmitters in L I is restricted to the naupliar nervous system. Over the course of the five stages of development, neurotransmitter distribution also follows an anteroposterior gradient. Each neuromere is equipped with two ganglia innervating the locomotional appendages and possesses a specific neurotransmitter distribution pattern. We suggest a correlation between neurotransmitter expression and locomotion.

  17. Exploration of the “larval pool”: development and ground-truthing of a larval transport model off leeward Hawai‘i

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Donald R.

    2016-01-01

    Most adult reef fish show site fidelity thus dispersal is limited to the mobile larval stage of the fish, and effective management of such species requires an understanding of the patterns of larval dispersal. In this study, we assess larval reef fish distributions in the waters west of the Big Island of Hawai‘i using both in situ and model data. Catches from Cobb midwater trawls off west Hawai‘i show that reef fish larvae are most numerous in offshore waters deeper than 3,000 m and consist largely of pre-settlement Pomacanthids, Acanthurids and Chaetodontids. Utilizing a Lagrangian larval dispersal model, we were able to replicate the observed shore fish distributions from the trawl data and we identified the 100 m depth strata as the most likely depth of occupancy. Additionally, our model showed that for larval shore fish with a pelagic larval duration longer than 40 days there was no significant change in settlement success in our model. By creating a general additive model (GAM) incorporating lunar phase and angle we were able to explain 67.5% of the variance between modeled and in situ Acanthurid abundances. We took steps towards creating a predictive larval distribution model that will greatly aid in understanding the spatiotemporal nature of the larval pool in west Hawai‘i, and the dispersal of larvae throughout the Hawaiian archipelago. PMID:26855873

  18. Effects of a fungicide formulation on embryo-larval development, metamorphosis, and gonadogenesis of the South American toad Rhinella arenarum.

    PubMed

    Svartz, Gabriela; Meijide, Fernando; Pérez Coll, Cristina

    2016-07-01

    Sublethal toxicity of the formulated fungicide Maxim(®) XL on embryonic, larval and juvenile development of Rhinella arenarum was evaluated by means of standardized bioassays. Maxim(®) XL, one of the most used fungicides in Argentina, is based on a mixture of two active ingredients: Fludioxonil and Metalaxyl-M. Maxim(®) XL exposure induced severe sublethal effects on the embryos, expressed as general underdevelopment, axial flexures, microcephaly, cellular dissociation, abnormal pigmentation, underdeveloped gills, marked edema and wavy tail. As the embryo development advanced, alterations in behavior as spasmodic contractions, general weakness and inanition were observed. Maxim(®) XL did not affect neither the time required to complete metamorphosis nor sex proportions, but gonadal development and differentiation were impaired. Gross gonadal analysis revealed a significant proportion of exposed individuals with underdevelopment of one or both gonads. Histological analysis confirmed that 18% and 10% of the individuals exposed to 0.25 and 2mg/L Maxim(®) XL, respectively, exhibited undifferentiated gonads characterized by a reduced number (or absence) of germ cells. Taking into account the risk evaluation performed by means of Hazard Quotients, this fungicide could be a threat to R. arenarum populations under chronic exposure. This study represents the first evidence of toxic effects exerted by Maxim(®) XL on amphibians. Finally, our findings highlight the properties of this fungicide that might jeopardize non-target living species exposed to it in agricultural environments.

  19. Abbreviation of larval development and extension of brood care as key features of the evolution of freshwater Decapoda.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Günter

    2013-02-01

    The transition from marine to freshwater habitats is one of the major steps in the evolution of life. In the decapod crustaceans, four groups have colonized fresh water at different geological times since the Triassic, the freshwater shrimps, freshwater crayfish, freshwater crabs and freshwater anomurans. Some families have even colonized terrestrial habitats via the freshwater route or directly via the sea shore. Since none of these taxa has ever reinvaded its environment of origin the Decapoda appear particularly suitable to investigate life-history adaptations to fresh water. Evolutionary comparison of marine, freshwater and terrestrial decapods suggests that the reduction of egg number, abbreviation of larval development, extension of brood care and lecithotrophy of the first posthatching life stages are key adaptations to fresh water. Marine decapods usually have high numbers of small eggs and develop through a prolonged planktonic larval cycle, whereas the production of small numbers of large eggs, direct development and extended brood care until the juvenile stage is the rule in freshwater crayfish, primary freshwater crabs and aeglid anomurans. The amphidromous freshwater shrimp and freshwater crab species and all terrestrial decapods that invaded land via the sea shore have retained ocean-type planktonic development. Abbreviation of larval development and extension of brood care are interpreted as adaptations to the particularly strong variations of hydrodynamic parameters, physico-chemical factors and phytoplankton availability in freshwater habitats. These life-history changes increase fitness of the offspring and are obviously favoured by natural selection, explaining their multiple origins in fresh water. There is no evidence for their early evolution in the marine ancestors of the extant freshwater groups and a preadaptive role for the conquest of fresh water. The costs of the shift from relative r- to K-strategy in freshwater decapods are traded

  20. Transient expression of specific Cotesia plutellae bracoviral segments induces prolonged larval development of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Bowon; Song, Seongbaeck; Choi, Jae Young; Je, Yeon Ho; Kim, Yonggyun

    2010-06-01

    A polydnavirus, Cotesia plutellae bracovirus (CpBV), possesses a segmented and dispersed genome that is located on chromosome(s) of its symbiotic endoparasitic wasp, C. plutellae. When the host wasp parasitizes larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, at least 27 viral genome segments are delivered to the parasitized host along with the wasp egg. The parasitized P. xylostella exhibits significant immunosuppression and a prolonged larval development. Parasitized larvae take about 2 days longer than nonparasitized larvae to develop until the wandering stage of the final larval instar, and die after egress of the full grown wasp larvae. Developmental analysis using juvenile hormone and ecdysteroid analogs suggests that altering endocrine signals could induce the retardation of larval developmental rate in P. xylostella. In this study we used a transient expression technique to micro-inject individual CpBV genome segments, and tested their ability to induce delayed larval development of P. xylostella. We demonstrated that a CpBV segment was able to express its own encoded genes when it was injected into nonparasitized larvae, in which the expression patterns of the segment genes were similar to those in the larvae parasitized by C. plutellae. Twenty three CpBV genome segments were individually cloned and injected into the second instar larvae of P. xylostella and their effects assessed by measuring the time taken for host development to the cocooning stage. Three CpBV genome segments markedly interfered with the host larval development. When the putative genes of these segments were analyzed, it was found that they did not share any common genes. Among these segments able to delay host development, segment S27 was predicted to encode seven protein tyrosine phosphatases (CpBV-PTPs), some of which were mutated by insertional inactivation with transposons, while other encoded gene expressions were unaffected. The mutant segments were unable to induce prolonged

  1. Oviposition and larval development of a stem borer, Eoreuma loftini, on rice and non-crop grass hosts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A greenhouse study compared oviposition preference and larval development duration of a stem borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), on rice, Oryza sativa L. (cv. Cocodrie), and four primary non-crop hosts of Gulf Coast Texas rice agroecosystems. Rice and two perennials, johnsongrass...

  2. GROWTH AND CHANGES IN BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION DURING LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE STONE CRAB, MENIPPE ADINA WILLIAMS AND FELDER, 1986

    EPA Science Inventory

    Larval development in Menippe adina was associated with changes in weight and biochemical composition. Larvae of the stone crab, M. adina, were mass-reared under laboratory conditions (28|C; 20o/ooS) from hatching to the megalopal stage. Growth in M. adina is exponential througho...

  3. Embryonic and larval development in the caecilian Ichthyophis kohtaoensis (Amphibia, gymnophiona): a staging table.

    PubMed

    Dünker, N; Wake, M H; Olson, W M

    2000-01-01

    Little is known about the developmental biology of caecilians-tropical, elongate, limbless, mostly fossorial amphibians that are members of the Order Gymnophiona. Ichthyophis kohtaoensis (Family Ichthyophiidae; southeast Asia) is an oviparous species in which maternal care of the clutch is provided. The clutch is laid in a burrow on land, and the embryos develop in their egg membranes, curved around a large yolk mass. Larvae are aquatic and exhibit characteristic features that are not present in the terrestrial adults. Because accurate descriptions of ontogenies and the establishment of standardized stages of embryonic and larval development are useful for both experimental and comparative embryology, a staging table for I.kohtaoensis was developed based on external morphological features. Development from the end of neurulation to metamorphosis was divided into 20 stages. Principal diagnostic features include development of the lateral line organs, formation of three pairs of external gills, development of the eyes, changes in yolk structure, changes in the structure of the cloacal aperture and growth of the tail, including the formation and regression of the tail fin. This study provides a comparison with descriptions of embryonic stages of I.glutinosus and Hypogeophis rostratus and with a recent staging table for the aquatic, viviparous caecilian Typhlonectes compressicauda, the only other caecilians for which reasonably complete ontogenetic information exists in the literature. Comparisons with established staging tables for selected frogs and salamanders are also presented.

  4. Evolution and plasticity of anuran larval development in response to desiccation. A comparative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Richter-Boix, Alex; Tejedo, Miguel; Rezende, Enrico L

    2011-01-01

    Anurans breed in a variety of aquatic habitats with contrasting levels of desiccation risk, which may result in selection for faster development during larval stages. Previous studies suggest that species in ephemeral ponds reduce their developmental times to minimize desiccation risks, although it is not clear how variation in desiccation risk affects developmental strategies in different species. Employing a comparative phylogenetic approach including data from published and unpublished studies encompassing 62 observations across 30 species, we tested if species breeding in ephemeral ponds (High risk) develop faster than those from permanent ponds (Low risk) and/or show increased developmental plasticity in response to drying conditions. Our analyses support shorter developmental times in High risk, primarily by decreasing body mass at metamorphosis. Plasticity in developmental times was small and did not differ between groups. However, accelerated development in High risk species generally resulted in reduced sizes at metamorphosis, while some Low risk species were able compensate this effect by increasing mean growth rates. Taken together, our results suggest that plastic responses in species breeding in ephemeral ponds are constrained by a general trade-off between development and growth rates. PMID:22393479

  5. A Novel Forward Genetic Screen for Identifying Mutations Affecting Larval Neuronal Dendrite Development in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Paul Mark B.; Swick, Lance L.; Andersen, Ryan; Blalock, Zachary; Brenman, Jay E.

    2006-01-01

    Vertebrate and invertebrate dendrites are information-processing compartments that can be found on both central and peripheral neurons. Elucidating the molecular underpinnings of information processing in the nervous system ultimately requires an understanding of the genetic pathways that regulate dendrite formation and maintenance. Despite the importance of dendrite development, few forward genetic approaches have been used to analyze the latest stages of dendrite development, including the formation of F-actin-rich dendritic filopodia or dendritic spines. We developed a forward genetic screen utilizing transgenic Drosophila second instar larvae expressing an actin, green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein (actin∷GFP) in subsets of sensory neurons. Utilizing this fluorescent transgenic reporter, we conducted a forward genetic screen of >4000 mutagenized chromosomes bearing lethal mutations that affected multiple aspects of larval dendrite development. We isolated 13 mutations on the X and second chromosomes composing 11 complementation groups affecting dendrite outgrowth/branching, dendritic filopodia formation, or actin∷GFP localization within dendrites in vivo. In a fortuitous observation, we observed that the structure of dendritic arborization (da) neuron dendritic filopodia changes in response to a changing environment. PMID:16415365

  6. The Paleozoic evolution of the gastropod larval shell: larval armor and tight coiling as a result of predation-driven heterochronic character displacement.

    PubMed

    Seuss, Barbara; Nützel, Alexander; Scholz, Henning; Frýda, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Early and middle Paleozoic gastropod protoconchs generally differ strongly from their corresponding adult morphologies, that is, most known protoconchs are smooth and openly coiled, whereas the majority of adult shells are ornamented and tightly coiled. In contrast, larval and adult shells of late Paleozoic gastropods with planktotrophic larval development (Caenogastropoda, Neritimorpha) commonly resemble each other in shape and principle ornamentation. This is surprising because habitat and mode of life of planktonic larvae and benthic adults differ strongly from each other. Generally, late Paleozoic to Recent protoconchs are tightly coiled. This modern type of larval shell resembles the adult shell morphology and was obviously predisplaced onto the larval stage during the middle Paleozoic. The oldest known planktonic-armored (strongly ornamented) larval shells are known from the late Paleozoic. However, smooth larval shells are also common among the studied late Paleozoic gastropods. The appearance of larval armor at the beginning of the late Paleozoic could reflect an increase of predation pressure in the plankton. Although there are counter examples in which larval and adult shell morphology differ strongly from each other, there is statistical evidence for a heterochronic predisplacement of adult characters onto the larval stage. Larval and adult shells are built in the same way, by accretionary secretion at the mantle edge. It is likely that the same underlying gene expression is responsible for that. If so, similarities of larval and adult shell may be explained by gene sharing, whereas differences may be due to different (planktic vs. benthic life) epigenetic patterns.

  7. Influence of starvation on the larval development of Hyas araneus (Decapoda, Majidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anger, K.; Dawirs, R. R.

    1981-09-01

    The influence of starvation on larval development of the spider crab Hyas araneus (L.) was studied in laboratory experiments. No larval stage suffering from continual lack of food had sufficient energy reserves to reach the next instar. Maximal survival times were observed at four different constant temperatures (2°, 6°, 12° and 18 °C). In general, starvation resistance decreased as temperatures increased: from 72 to 12days in the zoea-1, from 48 to 18 days in the zoea-2, and from 48 to 15 days in the megalopa stage. The length of maximal survival is of the same order of magnitude as the duration of each instar at a given temperature. “Sublethal limits” of early starvation periods were investigated at 12 °C: Zoea larvae must feed right from the beginning of their stage (at high food concentration) and for more than one fifth, approximately, of that stage to have at least some chance of surviving to the next instar, independent of further prey availability. The minimum time in which enough reserves are accumulated for successfully completing the instar without food is called “point-of-reserve-saturation” (PRS). If only this minimum period of essential initial feeding precedes starvation, development in both zoeal stages is delayed and mortality is greater, when compared to the fed control. Starvation periods beginning right after hatching of the first zoea cause a prolongation of this instar and, surprisingly, a slight shortening of the second stage. The delay in the zoea-1 increases proportionally to the length of the initial fasting period. If more than approximately 70 % of the maximum possible survival time has elapsed without food supply, the larvae become unable to recover and to moult to the second stage even when re-fed (“point-of-no-return”, PNR). The conclusion, based on own observations and on literature data, is that initial feeding is of paramount importance in the early development of planktotrophic decapod larvae. Taking into account

  8. Larval serum proteins of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar: Allometric changes during development suggest several functions for arylphorin and lipophorin

    SciTech Connect

    Karpells, S.T.

    1989-01-01

    Storage proteins are the major nutritive intermediates in insects and although the serum storage proteins are relatively well studied, definitive roles for many of them have yet to be established. To further characterize their roles in development and to establish quantitative baselines for future studies, two serum proteins, arylphorin (Ap) and lipophorin (Lp), of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, were studied. Ap and Lp, isolated from larval hemolymph, were partially characterized biochemically and immunologically. Hemolymph concentrations throughout larval development were determined using quantitative immunoelectrophoresis and absolute hemolymph amounts of protein were determined by measuring hemolymph volume. Cyclic fluctuations in hemolymph concentrations of Ap in particular correlated with each molting cycle and an increase in Lp levels just prior to pupation suggest a metamorphic change in the role or demand for the protein. Sexual dimorphism in protein concentrations are explained in part by the sexual dimorphism in the number of larval instars. In fact, an additional instar of Ap accumulation in the female gypsy moth is suggested to compensate for the lack of a female-specific storage protein in this species. The last two days of each instar were found to be the optimum time to sample protein concentration with minimum variance. Allometric relationships among Ap accumulation, Lp accumulation and weight gain were uncovered. Ap labelled with ({sup 14}C)-N-ethylmaleimide was shown to be incorporated into newly synthesized cuticle and setae during a larval-larval molt. The antiserum developed against L. dispar Ap was used to identify the Ap of Trichoplusia in and study Ap titers in parasitized T. in larvae. The antiserum was also used to determine the immunological relatedness of 5 species of Lepidoptera.

  9. VARIATION IN GROWTH, LIPID CLASS AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF THE MUD CRAB, RHITHROPANOPEUS HARRISII (GOULD) DURING LARVAL DEVELOPMENT FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO AN INSECT JUVENILE HORMONE ANALOG (FENOXYCARB)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examines the effects of fenoxycarb?, an insect juvenile hormone analog, on larval growth, and lipid class and fatty acid composition in first crabs of the mud crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii reared through total larval development in nominal water concentrations from 1 ...

  10. Early embryo and larval development of inviable intergeneric hybrids derived from Crassostrea angulata and Saccostrea cucullata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jiaqi; Wang, Zhaoping; Zhang, Yuehuan; Yan, Xiwu; Li, Qiongzhen; Yu, Ruihai

    2016-06-01

    To detect the intergeneric hybridization between the oyster Crassostrea angulata and Saccostrea cucullata coexisting along the southern coast of China, reciprocal crosses were conducted between the two species. Barriers for sperm recognizing, binding, penetrating the egg, and forming the pronucleus were detected by fluorescence staining. From the results, although fertilization success was observed in hybrid crosses, the overall fertilization rate was lower than that of intraspecific crosses. A large number of hybrid larvae died at 6-8 d after hatching, and those survived could not complete metamorphosis. C. angulata ♀× S. cucullata ♂ larvae had a growth rate similar to that of the maternal species, whereas S. cucullata ♀ × C. angulata ♂ larvae grew the slowest among all crosses. Molecular genetics analysis revealed that hybrid progeny were amphimixis hybrids. This study demonstrated that hybrid embryos generated by crossing C. angulata and S. cucullata could develop normally to the larval state, but could not complete metamorphosis and then develop to the spat stage. Thus, there is a post-reproductive isolation between C. angulata and S. cucullata.

  11. The development of the digestive tract in larval European catfish (Silurus glanis L.).

    PubMed

    Kozarić, Z; Kuzir, S; Petrinec, Z; Gjurcević, E; Bozić, M

    2008-04-01

    The European catfish, Silurus glanis L., has become an important aqua cultural fish in Croatia, and it is cultivated extensively in ponds in polyculture with carps. The development of the digestive tract in S. glanis was studied with the aim of improving intensive fish production. Research was carried out on S. glanis larval stadium from 1- to 19-day post-hatching (DPH). The main histological methods used were: haematoxylin and eosin staining, periodic acid Schiff staining (PAS), Alcian blue (AB) and toluidin blue staining (TB). A yolk sac was present during the first 5 days (1-5-DPH). During the initial 3-DPH period, there was no trace PAS and AB activity in the digestive tract. Differentiation of the digestive tract began at 3- to 5-DPH. The oesophagus was positive for AB at 5-DPH, PAS and TB after 7-DPH. Differentiation of enterocytes began at 5-DPG and the intestines were complete at 11-DPH. Development of liver and pancreas was also studied. The analysis of data obtained in this study suggests that after 5-DPH catfish larvae have morphologically completed digestive tracts.

  12. Silver Exposure in Developing Zebrafish (Danio rerio): Persistent Effects on Larval Behavior and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Christina M.; Yen, Jerry; Linney, Elwood A.; Seidler, Frederic J.; Slotkin, Theodore A.

    2010-01-01

    The increased use of silver nanoparticles in consumer and medical products has led to elevated human and environmental exposures. Silver nanoparticles act as antibacterial/antifungal agents by releasing Ag+ and recent studies show that Ag+ impairs neural cell replication and differentiation in culture, suggesting that in vivo exposures could compromise neurodevelopment. To determine whether Ag+ impairs development in vivo, we examined the effects of exposure on survival, morphological, and behavioral parameters in zebrafish embryos and larvae. Methods We exposed zebrafish from 0–5 days post-fertilization to concentrations of Ag+ ranging from 10 nM to 100 µM in order to assess effects on survival and early embryonic development. We then tested whether concentrations below the threshold for dysmorphology altered larval behavior and subsequent survival. Ag+ concentrations ≥3 µM significantly reduced embryonic survival, whereas 1 µM delayed hatching with no effect on survival. Reducing the concentration to as low as 0.1 µM delayed the inflation of the swim bladder without causing gross dysmorphology or affecting hatching. At this concentration, swimming activity was impaired, an effect that persisted past the point where swim bladder inflation became normal; in contrast, general motor function was unaffected. The early behavioral impairment was then predictive of subsequent decreases in survival. Ag+ is a developmental toxicant within concentrations only slightly above allowable levels. At low concentrations, Ag+ acts as a neurobehavioral toxicant even in the absence of dysmorphology. PMID:20116428

  13. In vitro detection of benzimidazole resistance in Haemonchus contortus: egg hatch test versus larval development test.

    PubMed

    Várady, M; Cudeková, P; Corba, J

    2007-10-21

    The present study was designed to compare the egg hatch test (EHT) and the larval development test (LDT) as in vitro tools for detection of benzimidazole (BZ) resistance in Haemonchus contortus, a nematode parasite of small ruminants. Comparisons were made during a course of infection and changes in both EHT and LDT were monitored to measure the correlation between resistance and susceptibility in different parasite stages (eggs and larvae). In addition, mixed doses of known numbers of susceptible and BZ-resistant H. contortus eggs were used to assess the sensitivity of LDT for the detection of low levels of resistance. The degree of resistance for each test was expressed as resistance factor (RF). The LDT showed a greater ability to distinguish between four susceptible and four resistant isolates of H. contortus with higher resistance factors compared to the EHT. For the EHT the RF by using ED(50) criterion ranged from 3.2 to 13.3 and from 7.4 to 25.2 by using LC(99). For LDT the resistant isolates were 4.3-63.1 times more tolerant than the susceptible isolates using the ED(50) criterion and 91.1-1411.0 times more tolerant using the LC(99) criterion. The LDT was also able to clearly indicate the presence of low level (4%) of resistant larvae amongst a susceptible background population.

  14. Influence of salinity on fertilization and larval development toxicity tests with two species of sea urchin.

    PubMed

    Carballeira, C; Martín-Díaz, L; Delvalls, T A

    2011-10-01

    Sea urchin embryo-larval development (ELD) and fertilization tests have been widely used in ecotoxicity studies and are included in regulatory frameworks. Biological processes occur naturally within a range of salinity that depends on the species considered. In an attempt to determine the optimum range of salinity, ELD and fertilization bioassays were performed at different salinities (15-40.5‰) with two species of Atlantic sea urchin: Arbacia lixula and Paracentrotus lividus. In the ELD assay, the optimum range of salinity was wider for A. lixula (29-35.5‰) than for P. lividus (29-33‰). In the fertilization assay with P. lividus as a bioindicator species, the highest percentage of fertilization (90%) was obtained at salinities of between 29 and 33‰. More research on A. lixula is required, since the fertilization success was below 60%. The results of the present study demonstrate that salinity may be a confounding factor in interpreting ELD test results.

  15. Megalodicopia hians in the Monterey submarine canyon: Distribution, larval development, and culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havenhand, Jon. N.; Matsumoto, George I.; Seidel, Ed

    2006-02-01

    The exclusively deep-sea ascidian family Octacnemidae comprises several genera in which the oral siphon has hypertrophied to form two large lips which create an "oral hood" capable of capturing motile prey. Megalodicopia hians is typical of this carnivorous family and has been reported to prey upon small epibenthic crustaceans. Distribution of M. hians in the Monterey Canyon system (36°45'N, 122°00'W) (California) was determined with remotely operated vehicles. M. hians was found sparsely to depths of at least 3800 m throughout the canyon; however, abundance was greatest within the oxygen-minimum zone (400-800 m). Eggs, sperm, and recently fertilized embryos were obtained repeatedly from adults returned to the laboratory in vivo, indicating that this species free-spawns routinely. Overall egg diameter (ovum plus chorion, plus follicle cells) was 175-190 μm—considerably smaller than previously reported for this species. Embryonic development at temperature and oxygen concentrations equivalent to the oxygen-minimum zone was 2-4 d and, embryos gave rise to typical phlebobranch "simple" tadpole larvae. Larval period was extremely variable, and settlement/metamorphosis occurred up to 3 months post-hatching. These results are discussed within the context of settlement-site selection and fertilization ecology of the species.

  16. Development of the Larval Amphibian Growth and Development Assay: Effects of benzophenone-2 exposure in Xenopus laevis from embryo to juvenile.

    PubMed

    Haselman, Jonathan T; Sakurai, Maki; Watanabe, Naoko; Goto, Yasushi; Onishi, Yuta; Ito, Yuki; Onoda, Yu; Kosian, Patricia A; Korte, Joseph J; Johnson, Rodney D; Iguchi, Taisen; Degitz, Sigmund J

    2016-12-01

    The Larval Amphibian Growth and Development Assay (LAGDA) is a globally harmonized chemical testing guideline developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in collaboration with Japan's Ministry of Environment to support risk assessment. The assay is employed as a higher tiered approach to evaluate effects of chronic chemical exposure throughout multiple life stages in a model amphibian species, Xenopus laevis. To evaluate the utility of the initial LAGDA design, the assay was performed using a mixed mode of action endocrine disrupting chemical, benzophenone-2 (BP-2). X. laevis embryos were exposed in flow-through conditions to 0, 1.5, 3.0 or 6.0 mg l(-1) BP-2 until 2 months post-metamorphosis. Overt toxicity was evident throughout the exposure period in the 6.0 mg l(-1) treatment due to elevated mortality rates and observed liver and kidney pathologies. Concentration-dependent increases in severity of thyroid follicular cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia occurred in larval tadpoles indicating BP-2-induced impacts on the thyroid axis. Additionally, gonads were impacted in all treatments with some genetic males showing both testis and ovary tissues (1.5 mg l(-1) ) and 100% of the genetic males in the 3.0 and 6.0 mg l(-1) treatments experiencing complete male-to-female sex reversal. Concentration-dependent vitellogenin induction occurred in both genders with associated accumulations of protein in the livers, kidneys and gonads, which was likely vitellogenin and other estrogen-responsive yolk proteins. This is the first study that demonstrates the endocrine effects of this mixed mode of action chemical in an amphibian species and demonstrates the utility of the LAGDA design for supporting chemical risk assessment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Bt Maize Seed Mixtures for Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Larval Movement, Development, and Survival on Non-transgenic Maize.

    PubMed

    Burkness, Eric C; Cira, T M; Moser, S E; Hutchison, W D

    2015-12-01

    In 2012 and 2013, field trials were conducted near Rosemount, MN, to assess the movement and development of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) larvae on non-Bt refuge corn plants within a seed mixture of non-Bt and Bt corn. The Bt corn hybrid expressed three Bt toxins-Cry1Ab, Cry1F, and Vip3A. As the use of seed mixtures for insect resistance management (IRM) continues to be implemented, it is necessary to further characterize how this IRM approach impacts resistance development in ear-feeding Lepidopteran pests. The potential for Bt pollen movement and cross pollination of the non-Bt ears in a seed mixture may lead to Bt toxin exposure to larvae developing on those refuge ears. Larval movement and development by H. zea, feeding on non-Bt refuge plants adjacent to either transgenic Bt or non-Bt plants, were measured to investigate the potential for unintended Bt exposure. Non-Bt plants were infested with H. zea eggs and subplots were destructively sampled twice per week within each treatment to assess larval development, location, and kernel injury. Results indicate that H. zea larval movement between plants is relatively low, ranging from 2-16% of larvae, and occurs mainly after reaching the second instar. Refuge plants in seed mixtures did not produce equivalent numbers of H. zea larvae, kernel injury, and larval development differed as compared with a pure stand of non-Bt plants. This suggests that there may be costs to larvae developing on refuge plants within seed mixtures and additional studies are warranted to define potential impacts.

  18. Ocean acidification boosts larval fish development but reduces the window of opportunity for successful settlement

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Tullio; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Simpson, Stephen D.; Watson, Sue-Ann; Merillet, Laurene; Fraser, Peter; Munday, Philip L.; Connell, Sean D.

    2015-01-01

    Locating appropriate settlement habitat is a crucial step in the life cycle of most benthic marine animals. In marine fish, this step involves the use of multiple senses, including audition, olfaction and vision. To date, most investigations of larval fish audition focus on the hearing thresholds to various frequencies of sounds without testing an ecological response to such sounds. Identifying responses to biologically relevant sounds at the development stage in which orientation is most relevant is fundamental. We tested for the existence of ontogenetic windows of reception to sounds that could act as orientation cues with a focus on vulnerability to alteration by human impacts. Here we show that larvae of a catadromous fish species (barramundi, Lates calcarifer) were attracted towards sounds from settlement habitat during a surprisingly short ontogenetic window of approximately 3 days. Yet, this auditory preference was reversed in larvae reared under end-of-century levels of elevated CO2, such that larvae are repelled from cues of settlement habitat. These future conditions also reduced the swimming speeds and heightened the anxiety levels of barramundi. Unexpectedly, an acceleration of development and onset of metamorphosis caused by elevated CO2 were not accompanied by the earlier onset of attraction towards habitat sounds. This mismatch between ontogenetic development and the timing of orientation behaviour may reduce the ability of larvae to locate habitat or lead to settlement in unsuitable habitats. The misinterpretation of key orientation cues can have implications for population replenishment, which are only exacerbated when ontogenetic development decouples from the specific behaviours required for location of settlement habitats. PMID:26674946

  19. Investigation of the effects of estrogen on skeletal gene expression during zebrafish larval head development

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Benjamin S.; Lassiter, Christopher S.; Jónsson, Zophonías O.

    2016-01-01

    The development of craniofacial skeletal structures requires well-orchestrated tissue interactions controlled by distinct molecular signals. Disruptions in normal function of these molecular signals have been associated with a wide range of craniofacial malformations. A pathway mediated by estrogens is one of those molecular signals that plays role in formation of bone and cartilage including craniofacial skeletogenesis. Studies in zebrafish have shown that while higher concentrations of 17-β estradiol (E2) cause severe craniofacial defects, treatment with lower concentrations result in subtle changes in head morphology characterized with shorter snouts and flatter faces. The molecular basis for these morphological changes, particularly the subtle skeletal effects mediated by lower E2 concentrations, remains unexplored. In the present study we address these effects at a molecular level by quantitative expression analysis of sets of candidate genes in developing heads of zebrafish larvae treated with two different E2 concentrations. To this end, we first validated three suitable reference genes, ppia2, rpl8 and tbp, to permit sensitive quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Next, we profiled the expression of 28 skeletogenesis-associated genes that potentially respond to estrogen signals and play role in craniofacial development. We found E2 mediated differential expression of genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling, mmp2/9/13, sparc and timp2a, as well as components of skeletogenic pathways, bmp2a, erf, ptch1/2, rankl, rarab and sfrp1a. Furthermore, we identified a co-expressed network of genes, including cpn1, dnajc3, esr1, lman1, rrbp1a, ssr1 and tram1 with a stronger inductive response to a lower dose of E2 during larval head development. PMID:27069811

  20. New species of Scalibregmatidae (Annelida, Polychaeta) from the East Antarctic Peninsula including a description of the ecology and post-larval development of species of Scalibregma and Oligobregma.

    PubMed

    Blake, James A

    2015-10-21

    A large collection of scalibregmatid polychaetes from the east Antarctic Peninsula in May 2000 has yielded specimens of three new species of Scalibregma, Pseudoscalibregma, and Oligobregma. The new species of Scalibregma is represented by more than 400 specimens that include post-larval and juvenile forms which, for the first time, provide data on the sequence of development of key characters of a scalibregmatid. These data demonstrate that taxonomic characters including the form of the prostomium and presence of branchiae develop late in ontogeny and that small specimens cannot be reliably referred to a species or genus without a growth sequence. Juvenile morphology is also presented for the new species of Oligobregma. The new species of Scalibregma is compared with five northern hemisphere species and differs in details of the peristomium, upper and lower lips of the mouth, dorsal and ventral cirri, and nature of the short spinous setae of setiger 1. The new species of Pseudoscalibregma is unique in the nature of asymmetrical ventral cirri of posterior setigers. The new species of Oligobregma has large acicular spines in both noto- and neuropodia and these are present in juveniles. However, the final adult configuration of the prostomium is not evident until late in development. The taxonomic significance of the timing of development of post-larval and juvenile morphology elucidated in this study is discussed in relation to the validity of certain taxa and the current system of genera used in the family.

  1. Spawning, development, and the duration of larval life in a deep-sea cold-seep mussel.

    PubMed

    Arellano, Shawn M; Young, Craig M

    2009-04-01

    We describe culturing techniques and development for the cold-seep mussel "Bathymodiolus" childressi, the only deep-sea bivalve for which development has been detailed. Spawning was induced in mature mussels by injection of 2 mmol l(-1) serotonin into the anterior adductor muscle. The mean egg diameter is 69.15 +/- 2.36 microm (+/-S.D.; n = 50) and eggs are negatively buoyant. Cleavages are spiral and at 7-8 degrees C occur at a rate of one per 3-9 h through hatching, with free-swimming blastulae hatching by 40 h and shells beginning to develop by day 12. When temperature was raised to 12-14 degrees C after hatching, larvae developed to D-shell veligers by day 8 without being fed. Egg size and larval shell morphology indicate that "B." childressi has a planktotrophic larva, but we did not observe feeding in culture. Wide distribution of this species throughout the Gulf of Mexico and amphi-Atlantic distributions of closely related congeners suggest that larvae may spend extended periods in the plankton. Duration of larval life was estimated for "B." childressi by comparing calculated settlement times to known spawning seasons. These estimates suggest variability in the larval duration, with individuals spending more than a year in the plankton.

  2. Reproduction and development in Halocaridina rubra Holthuis, 1963 (Crustacea: Atyidae) clarifies larval ecology in the Hawaiian anchialine ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Havird, Justin C; Vaught, Rebecca C; Weese, David A; Santos, Scott R

    2015-10-01

    Larvae in aquatic habitats often develop in environments different from those they inhabit as adults. Shrimp in the Atyidae exemplify this trend, as larvae of many species require salt or brackish water for development, while adults are freshwater-adapted. An exception within the Atyidae family is the "anchialine clade," which are euryhaline as adults and endemic to habitats with subterranean fresh and marine water influences. Although the Hawaiian anchialine atyid Halocaridina rubra is a strong osmoregulator, its larvae have never been observed in nature. Moreover, larval development in anchialine species is poorly studied. Here, reproductive trends in laboratory colonies over a 5-y period are presented from seven genetic lineages and one mixed population of H. rubra; larval survivorship under varying salinities is also discussed. The presence and number of larvae differed significantly among lineages, with the mixed population being the most prolific. Statistical differences in reproduction attributable to seasonality also were identified. Larval survivorship was lowest (12% settlement rate) at a salinity approaching fresh water and significantly higher in brackish and seawater (88% and 72%, respectively). Correlated with this finding, identifiable gills capable of ion transport did not develop until metamorphosis into juveniles. Thus, early life stages of H. rubra are apparently excluded from surface waters, which are characterized by lower and fluctuating salinities. Instead, these stages are restricted to the subterranean (where there is higher and more stable salinity) portion of Hawaii's anchialine habitats due to their inability to tolerate low salinities. Taken together, these data contribute to the understudied area of larval ecology in the anchialine ecosystem.

  3. Hypoxia tolerance of common sole juveniles depends on dietary regime and temperature at the larval stage: evidence for environmental conditioning.

    PubMed

    Zambonino-Infante, José L; Claireaux, Guy; Ernande, Bruno; Jolivet, Aurélie; Quazuguel, Patrick; Sévère, Armelle; Huelvan, Christine; Mazurais, David

    2013-05-07

    An individual's environmental history may have delayed effects on its physiology and life history at later stages in life because of irreversible plastic responses of early ontogenesis to environmental conditions. We chose a marine fish, the common sole, as a model species to study these effects, because it inhabits shallow marine areas highly exposed to environmental changes. We tested whether temperature and trophic conditions experienced during the larval stage had delayed effects on life-history traits and resistance to hypoxia at the juvenile stage. We thus examined the combined effect of global warming and hypoxia in coastal waters, which are potential stressors to many estuarine and coastal marine fishes. Elevated temperature and better trophic conditions had a positive effect on larval growth and developmental rates; warmer larval temperature had a delayed positive effect on body mass and resistance to hypoxia at the juvenile stage. The latter suggests a lower oxygen demand of individuals that had experienced elevated temperatures during larval stages. We hypothesize that an irreversible plastic response to temperature occurred during early ontogeny that allowed adaptive regulation of metabolic rates and/or oxygen demand with long-lasting effects. These results could deeply affect predictions about impacts of global warming and eutrophication on marine organisms.

  4. Yolk-sac larval development of the substrate-brooding cichlid Archocentrus nigrofasciatus in relation to temperature.

    PubMed

    Vlahos, Nikolaos; Vasilopoulos, Michael; Mente, Eleni; Hotos, George; Katselis, George; Vidalis, Kosmas

    2015-09-01

    In order to conserve and culture the cichlid fish Archocentrus nigrofasciatus, more information about its reproductive biology and its larval behavior and morphogenesis is necessary. Currently, temperatures ranging from 21 to 27 °C are used in ornamental aquaculture hatcheries. Lower temperatures are preferred to reduce the costs of water heating, and 23 °C is usually the selected temperature. However, there is limited information on culturing protocols for ornamental species and most of the information generated on this topic remains scarce. Thus, the present study examines the morphological development of Archocentrus nigrofasciatus during the yolk-sac period up to the age of 100 h post-hatching in relation to 2 temperature regimes used in ornamental aquaculture: a temperature of 27 °C (thermal optimum) and a decreased temperature of 23 °C (thermal tolerance). The results of this study suggest that the 27 °C temperature generates intense morphological changes in yolk-sac development in a shorter period. This has advantages as it reduces the time of yolk-sac larval development, and, thus, minimizes the transition phase to exogenous feeding and maximizes the efficiency at which yolk is converted into body tissues. The present paper provides necessary information to produce freshwater ornamental fish with better practices so as to increase larval survival and capitalize on time for growth.

  5. Differential Gene Expression during Larval Metamorphic Development in the Pearl Oyster, Pinctada fucata, Based on Transcriptome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bo; Huang, Guiju; Liu, Baosuo; Fan, Sigang; Zhang, Dongling

    2016-01-01

    P. fucata experiences a series of transformations in appearance, from swimming larvae to sessile juveniles, during which significant changes in gene expression likely occur. Thus, P. fucata could be an ideal model in which to study the molecular mechanisms of larval metamorphosis during development in invertebrates. To study the molecular driving force behind metamorphic development in larvae of P. fucata, transcriptomes of five larval stages (trochophore, D-shape, umbonal, eyespots, and spats) were sequenced using an Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 system and assembled and characterized with the transcripts of six tissues. As a result, a total of 174,126 unique transcripts were assembled and 60,999 were annotated. The number of unigenes varied among the five larval stages. Expression profiles were distinctly different between trochophore, D-shape, umbonal, eyespots, and spats larvae. As a result, 29 expression trends were sorted, of which eight were significant. Among others, 80 development-related, differentially expressed unigenes (DEGs) were identified, of which the majority were homeobox-containing genes. Most DEGs occurred among trochophore, D-shaped, and UES (umbonal, eyespots, and spats) larvae as verified by qPCR. Principal component analysis (PCA) also revealed significant differences in expression among trochophore, D-shaped, and UES larvae with ten transcripts identified but no matching annotations. PMID:27843935

  6. The silkworm glutathione S-transferase gene noppera-bo is required for ecdysteroid biosynthesis and larval development.

    PubMed

    Enya, Sora; Daimon, Takaaki; Igarashi, Fumihiko; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Uchibori, Miwa; Sezutsu, Hideki; Shinoda, Tetsuro; Niwa, Ryusuke

    2015-06-01

    Insect molting and metamorphosis are tightly controlled by ecdysteroids, which are important steroid hormones that are synthesized from dietary sterols in the prothoracic gland. One of the ecdysteroidogenic genes in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is noppera-bo (nobo), also known as GSTe14, which encodes a member of the epsilon class of glutathione S-transferases. In D. melanogaster, nobo plays a crucial role in utilizing cholesterol via regulating its transport and/or metabolism in the prothoracic gland. However, it is still not known whether the orthologs of nobo from other insects are also involved in ecdysteroid biosynthesis via cholesterol transport and/or metabolism in the prothoracic gland. Here we report genetic evidence showing that the silkworm Bombyx mori ortholog of nobo (nobo-Bm; GSTe7) is essential for silkworm development. nobo-Bm is predominantly expressed in the prothoracic gland. To assess the functional importance of nobo-Bm, we generated a B. mori genetic mutant of nobo-Bm using TALEN-mediated genome editing. We show that loss of nobo-Bm function causes larval arrest and a glossy cuticle phenotype, which are rescued by the application of 20-hydroxyecdysone. Moreover, the prothoracic gland cells isolated from the nobo-Bm mutant exhibit an abnormal accumulation of 7-dehydrocholesterol, a cholesterol metabolite. These results suggest that the nobo family of glutathione S-transferases is essential for development and for the regulation of sterol utilization in the prothoracic gland in not only the Diptera but also the Lepidoptera. On the other hand, loss of nobo function mutants of D. melanogaster and B. mori abnormally accumulates different sterols, implying that the sterol utilization in the PG is somewhat different between these two insect species.

  7. Impact of Ocean Warming and Ocean Acidification on Larval Development and Calcification in the Sea Urchin Tripneustes gratilla

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard Brennand, Hannah; Soars, Natalie; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Davis, Andrew R.; Byrne, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Background As the oceans simultaneously warm, acidify and increase in PCO2, prospects for marine biota are of concern. Calcifying species may find it difficult to produce their skeleton because ocean acidification decreases calcium carbonate saturation and accompanying hypercapnia suppresses metabolism. However, this may be buffered by enhanced growth and metabolism due to warming. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined the interactive effects of near-future ocean warming and increased acidification/PCO2 on larval development in the tropical sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla. Larvae were reared in multifactorial experiments in flow-through conditions in all combinations of three temperature and three pH/PCO2 treatments. Experiments were placed in the setting of projected near future conditions for SE Australia, a global change hot spot. Increased acidity/PCO2 and decreased carbonate mineral saturation significantly reduced larval growth resulting in decreased skeletal length. Increased temperature (+3°C) stimulated growth, producing significantly bigger larvae across all pH/PCO2 treatments up to a thermal threshold (+6°C). Increased acidity (-0.3-0.5 pH units) and hypercapnia significantly reduced larval calcification. A +3°C warming diminished the negative effects of acidification and hypercapnia on larval growth. Conclusions and Significance This study of the effects of ocean warming and CO2 driven acidification on development and calcification of marine invertebrate larvae reared in experimental conditions from the outset of development (fertilization) shows the positive and negative effects of these stressors. In simultaneous exposure to stressors the dwarfing effects of acidification were dominant. Reduction in size of sea urchin larvae in a high PCO2 ocean would likely impair their performance with negative consequent effects for benthic adult populations. PMID:20613879

  8. Spatial and temporal patterns of larval dispersal in a coral-reef fish metapopulation: evidence of variable reproductive success.

    PubMed

    Pusack, Timothy J; Christie, Mark R; Johnson, Darren W; Stallings, Christopher D; Hixon, Mark A

    2014-07-01

    Many marine organisms can be transported hundreds of kilometres during their pelagic larval stage, yet little is known about spatial and temporal patterns of larval dispersal. Although traditional population-genetic tools can be applied to infer movement of larvae on an evolutionary timescale, large effective population sizes and high rates of gene flow present serious challenges to documenting dispersal patterns over shorter, ecologically relevant, timescales. Here, we address these challenges by combining direct parentage analysis and indirect genetic analyses over a 4-year period to document spatial and temporal patterns of larval dispersal in a common coral-reef fish: the bicolour damselfish (Stegastes partitus). At four island locations surrounding Exuma Sound, Bahamas, including a long-established marine reserve, we collected 3278 individuals and genotyped them at 10 microsatellite loci. Using Bayesian parentage analysis, we identified eight parent-offspring pairs, thereby directly documenting dispersal distances ranging from 0 km (i.e., self-recruitment) to 129 km (i.e., larval connectivity). Despite documenting substantial dispersal and gene flow between islands, we observed more self-recruitment events than expected if the larvae were drawn from a common, well-mixed pool (i.e., a completely open population). Additionally, we detected both spatial and temporal variation in signatures of sweepstakes and Wahlund effects. The high variance in reproductive success (i.e., 'sweepstakes') we observed may be influenced by seasonal mesoscale gyres present in the Exuma Sound, which play a prominent role in shaping local oceanographic patterns. This study documents the complex nature of larval dispersal in a coral-reef fish, and highlights the importance of sampling multiple cohorts and coupling both direct and indirect genetic methods in order disentangle patterns of dispersal, gene flow and variable reproductive success.

  9. Development of the larval amphibian growth and development assay: Effects of benzophenone-2 exposure in Xenopus laevis from embryo to juvenile

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Larval Amphibian Growth and Development Assay (LAGDA) is a globally harmonized chemical testing guideline developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in collaboration with Japan’s Ministry of Environment to support risk assessment. The assay is employed as a ...

  10. Inbreeding Effects in Families of Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): Larval Development in Laboratory Bioassays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inbreeding depression of laboratory-reared insects has the potential to affect their larval performance and reproductive output. Two studies of laboratory-reared colonies of Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) were conducted to assess whether inbreeding affected a laboratory bioass...

  11. Efficacy and longevity of newly developed catnip oil microcapsules against stable fly oviposition and larval growth.

    PubMed

    Zhu, J J; Wienhold, B J; Wehrle, J; Davis, D; Chen, H; Taylor, D; Friesen, K; Zurek, L

    2014-06-01

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae), is one of the most important pests of cattle and costs U.S. cattle producers billions of dollars in losses annually. In this study, the efficacy of catnip oil encapsulated in gelatin in oviposition deterrence and larval growth inhibition in stable flies was examined under laboratory conditions. More than 98% inhibition of stable fly larval growth and female oviposition was observed in larval and oviposition media treated with encapsulated catnip oil (0.5 g). Further, dose-response tests showed that as little as 0.1 g of encapsulated catnip oil provided > 85% oviposition deterrence. The release of nepetalactones from the capsules was more rapid when the capsules were placed on a moist substrate rather than a dry substrate. Encapsulated catnip oil also exhibited antibacterial activity, supporting the hypothesis that its inhibition of larval growth may be based on its killing of the bacteria on which larvae feed. The use of encapsulated catnip oil can provide an alternative control strategy for stable fly management.

  12. Efficacy and longevity of the newly developed catnip oil microcapsules against stable fly oviposition larval growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae), is one of the most important pests of cattle and costs U.S. cattle producers billions of dollars in losses annually. In this study, the efficacy of catnip oil encapsulated in gelatin in oviposition deterrence and larval growth inhibition in st...

  13. Gonadosomatic mosaicism for lethal mutations in Drosophila lethal mutations disturbing larval development

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, A.I.; Sakharova, N.Yu.

    1988-11-01

    Phenogenetic analysis of autonomous lethal mutations obtained by the method of gonadosomatic mosaicism which manifested during larval stages, established that the nuclei of hypodermal cells, salivary glands suprapharyngeal ganglion, pharynx, esophagus, gizzard, and hindgut are the derivatives of the same nucleus (from the first two nuclei of cleavage) as the nuclei of the cells of the imaginal-somatic tissues.

  14. Silver Nanoparticles Alter Zebrafish Development and Larval Behavior: Distinct Roles for Particle Size, Coating and Composition

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Christina M.; Slotkin, Theodore A.; Seidler, Frederic J.; Badireddy, Appala R.; Padilla, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) act as antibacterials by releasing monovalent silver (Ag+) and are increasingly used in consumer products, thus elevating exposures in human and wildlife populations. In vitro models indicate that AgNPs are likely to be developmental neurotoxicants with actions distinct from those of Ag+. We exposed developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) to Ag+ or AgNPs on days 0–5 post-fertilization and evaluated hatching, morphology, survival and swim bladder inflation. Larval swimming behavior and responses to different lighting conditions were assessed 24 hr after the termination of exposure. Comparisons were made with AgNPs of different sizes and coatings: 10 nm citrate-coated AgNP (AgNP-C), and 10 or 50 nm polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated AgNPs (AgNP-PVP). Ag+ and AgNP-C delayed hatching to a similar extent but Ag+ was more effective in slowing swim bladder inflation, and elicited greater dysmorphology and mortality. In behavioral assessments, Ag+ exposed fish were hyperresponsive to light changes, whereas AgNP-C exposed fish showed normal responses. Neither of the AgNP-PVPs affected survival or morphology but both evoked significant changes in swimming responses to light in ways that were distinct from Ag+ and each other. The smaller AgNP-PVP caused overall hypoactivity whereas the larger caused hyperactivity. AgNPs are less potent than Ag+ with respect to dysmorphology and loss of viability, but nevertheless produce neurobehavioral effects that highly depend on particle coating and size, rather than just reflecting the release of Ag+. Different AgNP formulations are thus likely to produce distinct patterns of developmental neurotoxicity. PMID:21315816

  15. CO2 induced seawater acidification impacts sea urchin larval development I: elevated metabolic rates decrease scope for growth and induce developmental delay.

    PubMed

    Stumpp, M; Wren, J; Melzner, F; Thorndyke, M C; Dupont, S T

    2011-11-01

    Anthropogenic CO(2) emissions are acidifying the world's oceans. A growing body of evidence is showing that ocean acidification impacts growth and developmental rates of marine invertebrates. Here we test the impact of elevated seawater pCO(2) (129 Pa, 1271 μatm) on early development, larval metabolic and feeding rates in a marine model organism, the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Growth and development was assessed by measuring total body length, body rod length, postoral rod length and posterolateral rod length. Comparing these parameters between treatments suggests that larvae suffer from a developmental delay (by ca. 8%) rather than from the previously postulated reductions in size at comparable developmental stages. Further, we found maximum increases in respiration rates of +100% under elevated pCO(2), while body length corrected feeding rates did not differ between larvae from both treatments. Calculating scope for growth illustrates that larvae raised under high pCO(2) spent an average of 39 to 45% of the available energy for somatic growth, while control larvae could allocate between 78 and 80% of the available energy into growth processes. Our results highlight the importance of defining a standard frame of reference when comparing a given parameter between treatments, as observed differences can be easily due to comparison of different larval ages with their specific set of biological characters.

  16. Control of larval and egg development in Aedes aegypti with RNA interference against juvenile hormone acid methyl transferase.

    PubMed

    Van Ekert, Evelien; Powell, Charles A; Shatters, Robert G; Borovsky, Dov

    2014-11-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful approach for elucidating gene functions in a variety of organisms, including mosquitoes and many other insects. Little has been done, however, to harness this approach in order to control adult and larval mosquitoes. Juvenile hormone (JH) plays a pivotal role in the control of reproduction in adults and metamorphism in larval mosquitoes. This report describes an approach to control Aedes aegypti using RNAi against JH acid methyl transferase (AeaJHAMT), the ultimate enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of JH III that converts JH acid III (JHA III) into JH III. In female A. aegypti that were injected or fed jmtA dsRNA targeting the AeaJHAMT gene (jmtA) transcript, egg development was inhibited in 50% of the treated females. In mosquito larvae that were fed transgenic Pichia pastoris cells expressing long hair pin (LHP) RNA, adult eclosion was delayed by 3 weeks causing high mortality. Northern blot analyses and qPCR studies show that jmtA dsRNA causes inhibition of jmtA transcript in adults and larvae, which is consistent with the observed inhibition of egg maturation and larval development. Taken together, these results suggest that jmtA LHP RNA expressed in heat inactivated genetically modified P. pastoris cells could be used to control mosquito populations in the marsh.

  17. Effect of CO2-related acidification on aspects of the larval development of the European lobster, Homarus gammarus (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, K. E.; Findlay, H. S.; Spicer, J. I.; Daniels, C. L.; Boothroyd, D.

    2009-03-01

    Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 results in a reduction in pH termed "Ocean Acidification" (OA). Comparatively little attention has been given to the effect of OA on the early life history stages of marine animals. Consequently, we investigated the effect of culture in CO2-acidified sea water (approx. 1200 ppm, i.e. average values predicted using IPCC 2007 A1F1 emissions scenarios for year 2100) on early larval stages of an economically important crustacean, the European lobster Homarus gammarus. Culture in CO2-acidified sea water did not significantly affect carapace length or development of H. gammarus. However, there was a reduction in carapace mass during the final stage of larval development in CO2-acidified sea water. This co-occurred with a reduction in exoskeletal mineral (calcium and magnesium) content of the carapace. As the control and high CO2 treatments were not undersaturated with respect to any of the calcium carbonate polymorphs measured, the physiological alterations we record are most likely the result of acidosis or hypercapnia interfering with normal homeostatic function, and not a direct impact on the carbonate supply-side of calcification per se. Thus despite there being no observed effect on survival, carapace length, or zoeal progression, OA related (indirect) disruption of calcification and carapace mass might still adversely affect the competitive fitness and recruitment success of larval lobsters with serious consequences for population dynamics and marine ecosystem function.

  18. The Implications of Temperature-Mediated Plasticity in Larval Instar Number for Development within a Marine Invertebrate, the Shrimp Palaemonetes varians

    PubMed Central

    Oliphant, Andrew; Hauton, Chris; Thatje, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Variations in larval instar number are common among arthropods. Here, we assess the implications of temperature-mediated variations in larval instar number for larval development time, larval growth rates, and juvenile dry weight within the palaemonid shrimp, Palaemonetes varians. In contrast with previous literature, which focuses on terrestrial arthropods, particularly model and pest species often of laboratory lines, we use wild shrimp, which differ in their life history from previous models. Newly-hatched P. varians larvae were first reared at 5, 10, 17, 25, and 30°C to assess their thermal scope for development. Larvae developed at 17, 25, and 30°C. At higher temperatures, larvae developed through fewer larval instars. Two dominant developmental pathways were observed; a short pathway of four instars and a long pathway of five instars. Longer developmental pathways of six to seven instars were rarely observed (mostly at lower temperatures) and consisted of additional instars as ‘repeat’ instars; i.e. little developmental advance over the preceding instar. To assess the implications of temperature-mediated variation in larval instar number, newly-hatched larvae were then reared at 15, 20, and 25°C. Again, the proportion of larvae developing through four instars increased with temperature. At all temperatures, larval development time and juvenile dry weight were greater for larvae developing through five instars. Importantly, because of the increasing proportion of larvae developing through four instars with increasing temperature, larval traits associated with this pathway (reduced development time and juvenile dry weight) became more dominant. As a consequence of increasing growth rate with temperature, and the shift in the proportion of larvae developing through four instars, juvenile dry weight was greatest at intermediate temperatures (20°C). We conclude that at settlement P. varians juveniles do not follow the temperature-size rule; this is of

  19. Mosquito larval habitat mapping using remote sensing and GIS: Implications of coalbed methane development and West Nile virus

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, L.; Miller, S.N.; Schmidtmann, E.T.

    2006-09-15

    Potential larval habitats of the mosquito Culex tarsalis (Coquillett), implicated as a primary vector of West Nile virus in Wyoming, were identified using integrated remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) analyses. The study area is in the Powder River Basin of north central Wyoming, an area that has been undergoing a significant increase in coalbed methane gas extractions since the late 1990s. Large volumes of water are discharged, impounded, and released during the extraction of methane gas, creating aquatic habitats that have the potential to support immature mosquito development. Landsat TM and ETM + data were initially classified into spectrally distinct water and vegetation classes, which were in turn used to identify suitable larval habitat sites. This initial habitat classification was refined using knowledge-based GIS techniques requiring spatial data layers for topography, streams, and soils to reduce the potential for overestimation of habitat. Accuracy assessment was carried out using field data and high-resolution aerial photography commensurate with one of the Landsat images. The classifier can identify likely habitat for ponds larger than 0.8 ha (2 acres) with generally satisfactory results (72.1%) with a lower detection limit of approximate to 0.4 ha (1 acre). Results show a 75% increase in potential larval habitats from 1999 to 2004 in the study area, primarily because of the large increase in small coalbed methane water discharge ponds. These results may facilitate mosquito abatement programs in the Powder River Basin with the potential for application throughout the state and region.

  20. Effect of CO2-related acidification on aspects of the larval development of the European lobster, Homarus gammarus (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, K. E.; Findlay, H. S.; Spicer, J. I.; Daniels, C. L.; Boothroyd, D.

    2009-08-01

    Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 results in a reduction in pH termed "Ocean Acidification" (OA). Comparatively little attention has been given to the effect of OA on the early life history stages of marine animals. Consequently, we investigated the effect of culture in CO2-acidified sea water (approx. 1200 ppm, i.e. average values predicted using IPCC 2007 A1F1 emissions scenarios for year 2100) on early larval stages of an economically important crustacean, the European lobster Homarus gammarus. Culture in CO2-acidified sea water did not significantly affect carapace length of H. gammarus. However, there was a reduction in carapace mass during the final stage of larval development in CO2-acidified sea water. This co-occurred with a reduction in exoskeletal mineral (calcium and magnesium) content of the carapace. As the control and high CO2 treatments were not undersaturated with respect to any of the calcium carbonate polymorphs measured, the physiological alterations we record are most likely the result of acidosis or hypercapnia interfering with normal homeostatic function, and not a direct impact on the carbonate supply-side of calcification per se. Thus despite there being no observed effect on survival, carapace length, or zoeal progression, OA related (indirect) disruption of calcification and carapace mass might still adversely affect the competitive fitness and recruitment success of larval lobsters with serious consequences for population dynamics and marine ecosystem function.

  1. A new species of bromeliad-feeding Cephaloleia Chevrolat (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae) from Costa Rica: evidence from DNA barcodes, larval and adult morphology and insect diets

    PubMed Central

    García-Robledo, Carlos; Staines, Charles L.; Kress, W. John

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Neotropical genus Cephaloleia Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae) includes 214 species distributed from the south of Mexico to Argentina. Cephaloleia beetles feed mostly on plants from the order Zingiberales. The interactions between Cephaloleia beetles and their Zingiberales host plants is proposed as one of the oldest and most conservative associations. Here we describe a new species of Cephaloleia (Cephaloleia kuprewiczae sp. n.) that feeds on two species of bromeliads (Pitcairnia arcuata and Pitcairnia brittoniana, Bromeliaceae: Pitcairnioideae). Cephaloleia kuprewiczae was previously described as Cephaloleia histrionica. This study includes evidence from DNA barcodes (COI), larval and adult morphology and insect diets that separates Cephaloleia kuprewiczae from Cephaloleia histrionica as a new species. PMID:25685006

  2. Development and organization of the larval nervous system in Phoronopsis harmeri: new insights into phoronid phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The organization and development of the nervous system has traditionally been used as an important character for establishing the relationships among large groups of animals. According to this criterion, phoronids were initially regarded as deuterostomian but have more recently been regarded as protostomian. The resolving of this conflict requires detailed information from poorly investigated members of phoronids, such as Phoronopsis harmeri. Results The serotonin-like immunoreactive part of the P. harmeri nervous system changes during larval development. These changes mostly concern the nervous system of the hood and correlate with the appearance of the median and two marginal neurite bundles, the frontal organ, and the sensory field. The apical organ has bilateral symmetry. The tentacular neurite bundle passes under the tentacles, contains several types of perikarya, and gives rise to intertentacular bundles, which branch in the tentacle base and penetrate into adjacent tentacles by two lateroabfrontal bundles. There are two groups of dorsolateral perikarya, which exhibit serotonin-like immunoreactivity, contact the tentacular neurite bundle, and are located near the youngest tentacles. Larvae have a minor nerve ring, which originates from the posterior marginal neurite bundle of the hood, passes above the tentacle base, and gives rise to the mediofrontal neurite bundle in each tentacle. Paired laterofrontal neurite bundles of tentacles form a continuous nerve tract that conducts to the postoral ciliated band. Discussion The organization of the nervous system differs among the planktotrophic larvae of phoronid species. These differences may correlate with differences in phoronid biology. Data concerning the innervation of tentacles in different phoronid larvae are conflicting and require careful reinvestigation. The overall organization of the nervous system in phoronid larvae has more in common with the deuterostomian than with the protostomian

  3. Developing methods based on light sheet fluorescence microscopy for biophysical investigations of larval zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taormina, Michael J.

    Adapting the tools of optical microscopy to the large-scale dynamic systems encountered in the development of multicellular organisms provides a path toward understanding the physical processes necessary for complex life to form and function. Obtaining quantitatively meaningful results from such systems has been challenging due to difficulty spanning the spatial and temporal scales representative of the whole, while also observing the many individual members from which complex and collective behavior emerges. A three-dimensional imaging technique known as light sheet fluorescence microscopy provides a number of significant benefits for surmounting these challenges and studying developmental systems. A thin plane of fluorescence excitation light is produced such that it coincides with the focal plane of an imaging system, providing rapid acquisition of optically sectioned images that can be used to construct a three-dimensional rendition of a sample. I discuss the implementation of this technique for use in larva of the model vertebrate Danio rerio (zebrafish). The nature of light sheet imaging makes it especially well suited to the study of large systems while maintaining good spatial resolution and minimizing damage to the specimen from excessive exposure to excitation light. I show the results from a comparative study that demonstrates the ability to image certain developmental processes non-destructively, while in contrast confocal microscopy results in abnormal growth due to phototoxicity. I develop the application of light sheet microscopy to the study of a previously inaccessible system: the bacterial colonization of a host organism. Using the technique, we are able to obtain a survey of the intestinal tract of a larval zebrafish and observe the location of microbes as they grow and establish a stable population in an initially germ free fish. Finally, I describe a new technique to measure the fluid viscosity of this intestinal environment in vivo using

  4. Development of Erythroid Progenitors under Erythropoietin Stimulation in Xenopus laevis Larval Liver.

    PubMed

    Okui, Takehito; Hosozawa, Sakiko; Kohama, Satoka; Fujiyama, Shingo; Maekawa, Shun; Muto, Hiroshi; Kato, Takashi

    2016-12-01

    Erythroid progenitors that respond to erythropoietin (Epo) are present in the liver of adult Xenopus laevis. However, cells responding to Epo in the larval liver and through the metamorphosis period under hepatic remodeling have not been characterized. In this study, tadpoles were staged using the tables of Nieuwkoop and Faber (NF). Liver cells from pre- (NF56) or post- (NF66) metamorphic stage were cultured in the presence of Epo. β2-globin mRNA expression peaked at day 7 after the start of culture. Larval β2-globin was highly expressed in NF56-derived cells, while adult β2-globinwas detected in those of NF66. In both NF56- and NF66-derived cells, mRNA expression of eporand gata2 peaked at day 5 and days 3-4, respectively. In contrast, gata1 expression peaked at day 6 in NF56 cells and at day 5 in NF66 cells. Half maximal proliferation of erythrocytic blast cells derived from the liver at NF66 was observed at day 3, which was earlier than that of NF56. These results indicate that erythroid progenitors that respond to Xenopus laevis Epo are maintained in pre- and post-metamorphic liver, although the tissue architecture changes dramatically during metamorphosis. Additionally, the globin switching occurred, and/or the erythroid progenitors for larval erythrocytes were replaced by those for adult erythrocytes in the metamorphic liver.

  5. Is Palaeospondylus gunni a fossil larval lungfish? Insights from Neoceratodus forsteri development.

    PubMed

    Joss, Jean; Johanson, Zerina

    2007-03-15

    The enigmatic Devonian fossil Palaeospondylus gunni was identified as a larval form, metamorphosing into the lungfish Dipterus valenciennesi. Morphological features used to identify P. gunni as a larval lungfish include enlarged cranial ribs, rudimentary limb girdles, and absence of teeth. However, this combination of features does not characterize the extant lungfish Neoceratodus forsteri, even at very young stages, nor early stages of Devonian and younger fossil lungfish. Absence of teeth is problematic because early ontogenetic stages of fossil and living lungfish possess full dentitions including marginal teeth. Also problematic are cranial ribs as a defining character of lungfish, as these also occur in certain actinopterygians. It is argued that Neoceratodus is an obligate neotene (reproductively mature larva), with the implication that metamorphosis was a feature of the ontogeny of early lungfish. Pedomorphic characters have been recognized in Neoceratodus and other post-Devonian lungfish, including large cells and correspondingly large genome size; these latter characters correlate with neoteny in salamanders. Small cells preserved in fossil bone suggest that Devonian lungfish had a smaller genome than post-Devonian lungfish, implying that they were not neotenic. As fossil lungfish cell sizes (and genomes) increased in the late Paleozoic, the diversity of lungfish morphologies decreased, so that taxa like Sagenodus and Conchopoma show morphological similarity to Neoceratodus, marking a point in phylogeny at which metamorphosis was potentially lost. Since ancestral larval characters are retained in neotenic adults, we predict that Devonian larvae should resemble these post-Devonian taxa, a prediction which Palaeospondylus does not fulfill.

  6. Characterization of bacterial communities associating with larval development of Yesso Scallop ( Patinopecten yessoensisis Jay, 1857) by high-throughput sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xueying; Liu, Jichen; Li, Ming; Zhao, Xuewei; Liang, Jun; Sun, Pihai; Ma, Yuexin

    2016-12-01

    Bacterial community presumably plays an essential role in inhibiting pathogen colonization and maintaining the health of scallop larvae, but limiting data are available for Yesso scallop ( Patinopecten yessoensisis Jay, 1857) larval development stages. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare the bacterial communities associating with Yesso scallop larval development at fertilized egg S1, trochophora S2, D-shaped larvae S3, umbo larvae S4, and juvenile scallop S5 stages by Illumina high-throughput sequencing. Genomic DNA was extracted from the larvae and their associating bactera, and a gene segment covering V3-V4 region of 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced using an Illumina Miseq sequencer. Overall, 106760 qualified sequences with an average length of 449 bp were obtained. Sequences were compared with those retrieved from 16S rRNA gene databases, and 4 phyla, 7 classes, 15 orders, 21 families, 31 genera were identified. Proteobacteria was predominant phylum, accounting for more than 99%, at all 5 larval development stages. At genus level, Pseudomonas was dominant at stages S1 (80.60%), S2 (87.77%) and S5 (68.71%), followed by Photobacterium (17.06%) and Aeromonas (1.64%) at stage S1, Serratia (6.94%), Stenotrophomonas (3.08%) and Acinetobacter (1.2%) at stage S2, Shewanella (25.95%) and Pseudoalteromonas (4.57%) at stage S5. Moreover, genus Pseudoalteromonas became dominant at stages S3 (44.85%) and S4 (56.02%), followed by Photobacterium (29.82%), Pseudomonas (11.86%), Aliivibrio (8.60%) and Shewanella (3.39%) at stage S3, Pseudomonas (18.16%), Aliivibrio (14.29%), Shewanella (4.11%), Psychromonas (4.04%) and Psychrobacter (1.81%) at stage S4. From the results, we concluded that the bacterial community changed significantly at different development stages of Yesso Scallop larvae.

  7. Bean Type Modifies Larval Competition in Zabrotes subfasciatus (Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, S O D; Rodrigues, A S; Vieira, J L; Rosi-Denadai, C A; Guedes, N M P; Guedes, R N C

    2015-08-01

    Larval competition is particularly prevalent among grain beetles that remain within their mother-selected grain throughout development, and the behavioral process of competition is usually inferred by the competition outcome. The Mexican bean weevil Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) is subjected to resource availability variation because of the diversity of common bean types and sizes, from small (e.g., kidney beans) to large (e.g., cranberry beans). The competition process was identified in the Mexican bean weevil reared on kidney and cranberry beans by inference from the competition outcome and by direct observation through digital X-ray imaging. Increased larval density negatively affected adult emergence in kidney beans and reduced adult body mass in both kidney and cranberry beans. Developmental time was faster in cranberry beans. The results allowed for increased larval fitness (i.e., higher larval biomass produced per grain), with larval density reaching a maximum plateau >5 hatched larvae per kidney bean, whereas in cranberry beans, larval fitness linearly increased with density to 13 hatched larvae per bean. These results, together with X-ray imaging without evidence of direct aggressive interaction among larvae, indicate scramble competition, with multiple larvae emerging per grain. However, higher reproductive output was detected for adults from lower density competition with better performance on cranberry beans. Larger populations and fitter adults are expected in intermediate larval densities primarily in cranberry beans where grain losses should be greater.

  8. Embryonic development of the larval eyes of the Sunburst Diving Beetle, Thermonectus marmoratus (Insecta: Dytiscidae): a morphological study.

    PubMed

    Stecher, Nadine; Stowasser, Annette; Stahl, Aaron; Buschbeck, Elke K

    2016-07-01

    Stemmata, the larval eyes of holometabolous insects are extremely diverse, ranging from full compound eyes, to a few ommatidial units as are typical in compound eyes, to sophisticated and functionally specialized image-forming camera-type eyes. Stemmata evolved from a compound eye ommatidial ancestor, an eye type that is morphologically well conserved in regards to cellular composition, and well studied in regards to development. However, despite this evolutionary origin it remains largely unknown how stemmata develop. In addition, it is completely unclear how development is altered to give rise to some of the functionally most complex stemmata, such as those of the sunburst diving beetle, Thermonectus marmoratus. In this study, we used histological methods to investigate the embryonic development of the functionally complex principal stemmata Eye 1 and Eye 2 of the larval visual system of T. marmoratus. To gain insights into how cellular components of their sophisticated camera-type eyes might have evolved from the cellular components of ommatidial ancestors, we contrast our findings against known features of ommatidia development, which are particularly well understood in Drosophila. We find many similarities, such as the early presence of a pseudostratified epithelium, and the order in which specific cell types are recruited. However, in Thermonectus each cell type is represented by a large number of cells from early on and major tissue re-orientation occurs as eye development progresses. This study provides insights into the timing of morphological features and represents the basis for future molecular studies.

  9. Expression profile of heat shock response factors during hookworm larval activation and parasitic development.

    PubMed

    Gelmedin, Verena; Delaney, Angela; Jennelle, Lucas; Hawdon, John M

    2015-07-01

    protein expression, slightly down regulated both genes under similar conditions. Both modulators inhibited activation-associated feeding, but neither had an effect on hsp-1 levels in activated L3 at 16h. Both celastrol and KNK437 prevent the up-regulation of daf-21 and hsf-1 seen in non-activated control larvae during activation, and significantly down regulated expression of the HSF-1 negative regulator Aca-hsb-1 in activated larvae. Expression levels of heat shock response factors were examined in developing Ancylostoma ceylanicum larvae recovered from infected hosts and found to differ significantly from the expression profile of activated L3, suggesting that feeding during in vitro activation is regulated differently than parasitic development. Our results indicate that a classical heat shock response is not induced at host temperature and is suppressed during larval recovery and parasitic development in the host, but a partial heat shock response is induced after extended incubation at host temperature in the absence of a developmental signal, possibly to protect against heat stress.

  10. Effects of sub-lethal teratogen exposure during larval development on egg laying and egg quality in adult Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Killeen, Alexis; Marin de Evsikova, Caralina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acute high dose exposure to teratogenic chemicals alters the proper development of an embryo leading to infertility, impaired fecundity, and few viable offspring. However, chronic exposure to sub-toxic doses of teratogens during early development may also have long-term impacts on egg quality and embryo viability. Methods: To test the hypothesis that low dose exposure during early development can impact long-term reproductive health, Caenorhabditis elegans larvae were exposed to 10 teratogens during larval development, and subsequently were examined for the pattern of egg-laying and egg quality (hatched larvae and embryo viability) as gravid adults.  After the exposure, adult gravid worms were transferred to untreated plates and the numbers of eggs laid were recorded every 3 hours, and the day following exposure the numbers of hatched larvae were counted. Re sults: While fecundity and fertility were typically impaired by teratogens, unexpectedly, many teratogens initially increased egg-laying at the earliest interval compared to control but not at later intervals. However, egg quality, as assessed by embryo viability, remained the same because many of the eggs (<50%) did not hatch. Conclusions: Chronic, low dose exposures to teratogens during early larval development have subtle, long-term effects on egg laying and egg quality. PMID:28163903

  11. Larval food quantity affects development time, survival and adult biological traits that influence the vectorial capacity of Anopheles darlingi under laboratory conditions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence of malaria in the Amazon is seasonal and mosquito vectorial capacity parameters, including abundance and longevity, depend on quantitative and qualitative aspects of the larval diet. Anopheles darlingi is a major malaria vector in the Amazon, representing >95% of total Anopheles population present in the Porto Velho region. Despite its importance in the transmission of the Plasmodium parasite, knowledge of the larval biology and ecology is limited. Studies regarding aspects of adult population ecology are more common than studies on larval ecology. However, in order develop effective control strategies and laboratory breeding conditions for this species, more data on the factors affecting vector biology is needed. The aim of the present study is to assess the effects of larval food quantity on the vectorial capacity of An. darling under laboratory conditions. Methods Anopheles darlingi was maintained at 28°C, 80% humidity and exposed to a daily photoperiod of 12 h. Larvae were divided into three experimental groups that were fed either a low, medium, or high food supply (based on the food amounts consumed by other species of culicids). Each experiment was replicated for six times. A cohort of adults were also exposed to each type of diet and assessed for several biological characteristics (e.g. longevity, bite frequency and survivorship), which were used to estimate the vectorial capacity of each experimental group. Results The group supplied with higher food amounts observed a reduction in development time while larval survival increased. In addition to enhanced longevity, increasing larval food quantity was positively correlated with increasing frequency of bites, longer blood meal duration and wing length, resulting in greater vectorial capacity. However, females had greater longevity than males despite having smaller wings. Conclusions Overall, several larval and adult biological traits were significantly affected by larval food

  12. Effect of mercuric chloride on fertilization and larval development in the River Frog, Rana heckscheri (Wright) (Anura: Ranidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Punzo, F. )

    1993-10-01

    Previous investigations have indicated that heavy metals such as copper, cadmium, lead and mercury can act as systemic toxicants in many species of wildlife. Although numerous studies have emphasized the effects of metals and pesticides on metabolism, growth, survivorship, neural processes and reproduction in a number of taxa, little information is available on the effects of sublethal concentrations of metals on the reproductive physiology of amphibians. Industrial processes and mining activities can release substantial concentrations of heavy metals such as mercury into aquatic habitats. Since most amphibians have obligate aquatic larval stages, they are exposed to pollutants discharged into the aquatic environment. Amphibians can act as accumulators of heavy metals and their larval stages are useful indicators of pollution levels in the field. What little data are available, indicate that metals can significantly reduce viability in amphibians through their actions on metabolism, development and gametogenesis. The recent concerns over worldwide declines in amphibian populations and the susceptibility of amphibian populations to environmental toxicants, led me to assess the effect of mercuric chloride, one of the most common and persistent toxicants in aquatic environments, on fertilization and larval development in the river frog, Rana heckscheri (Wright). Although there is some information on fish, very little data are available on the effects of mercury on fertilization in amphibians generally, and no published data exist for R. heckscheri. This species is a conspicuous component of the aquatic fauna of parts of the southeastern United States where mercury levels have increased significantly over the last two decades. 22 refs., 2 tabs.

  13. Patterns of growth and tract formation during the early development of secondary lineages in the Drosophila larval brain.

    PubMed

    Lovick, Jennifer K; Kong, Angel; Omoto, Jaison J; Ngo, Kathy T; Younossi-Hartenstein, Amelia; Hartenstein, Volker

    2016-04-01

    The Drosophila brain consists of a relatively small number of invariant, genetically determined lineages which provide a model to study the relationship between gene function and neuronal architecture. In following this long-term goal, we reconstruct the morphology (projection pattern and connectivity) and gene expression patterns of brain lineages throughout development. In this article, we focus on the secondary phase of lineage morphogenesis, from the reactivation of neuroblast proliferation in the first larval instar to the time when proliferation ends and secondary axon tracts have fully extended in the late third larval instar. We have reconstructed the location and projection of secondary lineages at close (4 h) intervals and produced a detailed map in the form of confocal z-projections and digital three-dimensional models of all lineages at successive larval stages. Based on these reconstructions, we could compare the spatio-temporal pattern of axon formation and morphogenetic movements of different lineages in normal brain development. In addition to wild type, we reconstructed lineage morphology in two mutant conditions. (1) Expressing the construct UAS-p35 which rescues programmed cell death we could systematically determine which lineages normally lose hemilineages to apoptosis. (2) so-Gal4-driven expression of dominant-negative EGFR ablated the optic lobe, which allowed us to conclude that the global centrifugal movement normally affecting the cell bodies of lateral lineages in the late larva is causally related to the expansion of the optic lobe, and that the central pattern of axonal projections of these lineages is independent of the presence or absence of the optic lobe.

  14. Patterns of growth and tract formation during the early development of secondary lineages in the Drosophila larval brain

    PubMed Central

    Lovick, Jennifer K.; Kong, Angel; Omoto, Jaison J.; Ngo, Kathy T.; Younossi-Hartenstein, Amelia; Hartenstein, Volker

    2015-01-01

    The Drosophila brain consists of a relatively small number of invariant, genetically determined lineages which provide a model to study the relationship between gene function and neuronal architecture. In following this long-term goal we reconstruct the morphology (projection pattern and connectivity) and gene expression patterns of brain lineages throughout development. In the present paper, we focus on the secondary phase of lineage morphogenesis, from the reactivation of neuroblast proliferation in the first larval instar to the time when proliferation ends and secondary axon tracts have fully extended in the late third larval instar. We have reconstructed the location and projection of secondary lineages at close (4h) intervals and produced a detailed map in the form of confocal z-projections and digital 3D models of all lineages at successive larval stages. Based on these reconstructions we could compare the spatio-temporal pattern of axon formation and morphogenetic movements of different lineages in normal brain development. In addition to wild type, we reconstructed lineage morphology in two mutant conditions. (1) Expressing the construct UAS-p35 which rescues programmed cell death we could systematically determine which lineages normally lose hemilineages to apoptosis. (2) so-Gal4-driven expression of dominant-negative EGFR ablated the optic lobe, which allowed us to conclude that the global centrifugal movement normally affecting the cell bodies of lateral lineages in the late larva is causally related to the expansion of the optic lobe, and that the central pattern of axonal projections of these lineages is independent of the presence or absence of the optic lobe. PMID:26178322

  15. Evidence of the St. Clair-Detroit River system as a dispersal corridor and nursery habitat for transient larval burbot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCullough, Darrin E.; Roseman, Edward F.; Keeler, Kevin M.; DeBruyne, Robin L.; Pritt, Jeremy J.; Thompson, Patricia A.; Ireland, Stacey A.; Ross, Jason E.; Bowser, Dustin; Hunter, Robert D.; Castle, Dana Kristina; Fischer, Jason; Provo, Stacy A.

    2015-01-01

    Burbot Lota lota are distributed across the Laurentian Great Lakes where they occupy a top piscivore role. The St. Clair-Detroit River System is known to provide a migration corridor as well as spawning and nursery habitat for many indigenous fishes of economic and ecological significance. However, knowledge is scant of the early life history of burbot and the importance of this system in their dispersal, survival, and recruitment. In order to assess the role of the St. Clair-Detroit River System to burbot ecology, we collected larval burbot during ichthyoplankton surveys in this system from 2010 to 2013 as part of a habitat restoration monitoring program. More and larger burbot larvae were found in the St. Clair River than in the lower Detroit River, although this may be due to differences in sampling methods between the two rivers. Consistent with existing studies, larval burbot exhibited ontogenesis with a distinct transition from a pelagic zooplankton-based diet to a benthic macroinvertebrate-based diet. Our results demonstrate that the St. Clair-Detroit Rivers provide food resources, required habitat, and a migration conduit between the upper and lower Great Lakes, but the contribution of these fish to the lower lakes requires further examination.

  16. Overcrowding-mediated stress alters cell proliferation in key neuroendocrine areas during larval development in Rhinella arenarum.

    PubMed

    Distler, Mijal J; Jungblut, Lucas D; Ceballos, Nora R; Paz, Dante A; Pozzi, Andrea G

    2016-02-01

    Exposure to adverse environmental conditions can elicit a stress response, which results in an increase in endogenous corticosterone levels. In early life stages, it has been thoroughly demonstrated that amphibian larval growth and development is altered as a consequence of chronic stress by interfering with the metamorphic process, however, the underlying mechanisms involved have only been partially disentangled. We examined the effect of intraspecific competition on corticosterone levels during larval development of the toad Rhinella arenarum and its ultimate effects on cell proliferation in particular brain areas as well as the pituitary gland. While overcrowding altered the number of proliferating cells in the pituitary gland, hypothalamus, and third ventricle of the brain, no differences were observed in areas which are less associated with neuroendocrine processes, such as the first ventricle of the brain. Apoptosis was increased in hypothalamic regions but not in the pituitary. With regards to pituitary cell populations, thyrotrophs but not somatoatrophs and corticotrophs showed a decrease in the cell number in overcrowded larvae. Our study shows that alterations in growth and development, produced by stress, results from an imbalance in the neuroendocrine systems implicated in orchestrating the timing of metamorphosis.

  17. Patterns of Cranial Development in Larval Rana macrocnemis: Chondrocranial Size and Shape Relationship With Pelophylax bedriagae (Anura: Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Elıf; Kaya, Uğur

    2016-06-01

    Notwithstanding the abundance of amphibians, there are few descriptions about ranid cranial development. Herein, larval chondrocranial development of Uludağ frog, Rana macrocnemis (Boulenger, 1885), is described on cleared and double-stained specimens. Descriptions are related with the ontogeny of the chondrocranium and osteogenesis of the cranial skeleton. The larval chondrocranial development of R. macrocnemis is compared to those of Rana and Pelophylax larvae (Pelophylax bedriagae, Rana pipiens, R. palustris, R. sphenocephala, R. catesbeiana, R. clamitans and R. sylvatica). In R. macrocnemis, the first bones to ossify are the parasphenoid and exoccipital (Stage 33), followed by the frontoparietal and prootic (stages 35 and 40, respectively). The major reconstruction of the chondrocranium begins at Stage 41. The ossification sequence of R. macrocnemis is distinguished from other ranids. Adult cranial osteology of R. macrocnemis is compared to that of P. bedriagae. Osteologically, R. macrocnemis is different from P. bedriagae by the shape and size of the vomer and number of teeth. Additionally, geometric morphometric methods are used to analyze chondrocranial size and shape changes of ranid larva of R. macrocnemis and P. bedriagae. Anat Rec, 299:711-721, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Interactions of environmental stressors impact survival and development of parasitized larval amphibians.

    PubMed

    Koprivnikar, J

    2010-12-01

    Infected hosts are exposed to many environmental stressors that must be taken into account in order to determine the importance of disease, as various combinations can interact in unpredictable ways. Here, northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) tadpoles, a species in decline, were exposed to stressors singly or in combination. Stressors included infection by Echinostoma trivolvis (a trematode parasite), exposure to predator chemical cues (larval dragonflies), and exposure to varying concentrations of the herbicide atrazine. Parasitism decreased survival only in combination with exposure to 3 microg/L atrazine, with a negative interaction observed for mass as well. Similarly, a negative interaction of parasitism and predation on survival occurred. However, atrazine exposure alone negatively affected the survival, mass, and developmental stage of tadpoles. These results indicate that certain stressor combinations are particularly deleterious for young parasitized tadpoles. Notably, very common low-intensity parasite infection can be particularly harmful in certain situations. Such negative impacts on larval amphibians in certain scenarios may contribute to ongoing amphibian population declines, emphasizing that the combination of environmental stressors must be considered when evaluating the general role of disease in species extinctions.

  19. Developing optimum sample size and multistage sampling plans for Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larval infestation and injury in northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Ifoulis, A A; Savopoulou-Soultani, M

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this research was to quantify the spatial pattern and develop a sampling program for larvae of Lobesia botrana Denis and Schiffermüller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), an important vineyard pest in northern Greece. Taylor's power law and Iwao's patchiness regression were used to model the relationship between the mean and the variance of larval counts. Analysis of covariance was carried out, separately for infestation and injury, with combined second and third generation data, for vine and half-vine sample units. Common regression coefficients were estimated to permit use of the sampling plan over a wide range of conditions. Optimum sample sizes for infestation and injury, at three levels of precision, were developed. An investigation of a multistage sampling plan with a nested analysis of variance showed that if the goal of sampling is focusing on larval infestation, three grape clusters should be sampled in a half-vine; if the goal of sampling is focusing on injury, then two grape clusters per half-vine are recommended.

  20. Anisakis simplex: CO(2)-fixing enzymes and development throughout the in vitro cultivation from third larval stage to adult.

    PubMed

    Dávila, Cristina; Malagón, David; Valero, Adela; Benítez, Rocío; Adroher, Francisco Javier

    2006-09-01

    We studied the effect of CO(2) on the in vitro cultivation of Anisakis simplex, an aquatic parasitic nematode of cetaceans (final hosts) and fish, squid, crustaceans and other invertebrates (intermediate/paratenic hosts), and, occasionally, of man (accidental host). The results showed that a high pCO(2), at a suitable temperature, is vital for the optimum development of these nematodes, at least from the third larval stage (L3) to adult. After 30 days cultivation in air, molting to L4 (fourth larval stage) was reduced to 1/3, while survival was about 1/3 of that when cultivated in air + 5% CO(2). The activity of the CO(2)-fixing enzymes, PEPCK and PEPC, was also studied. Throughout the development of the worms studied, PEPCK activity was much higher than that of PEPC (e.g., 305 vs. 6.8 nmol/min.mg protein, respectively, in L3 collected from the host fish). The activity of these enzymes in the worms cultivated in air + 5% CO(2) was highest during M3, and was also generally higher than that of those cultivated in air only, especially during molting from L3 to L4 (e.g., in recently molted L4, PEPCK activity was 3.7 times greater than that of PEPC 2.9 times greater than when cultivated in air).

  1. Genetic studies of spectrin in the larval fat body of Drosophila melanogaster: evidence for a novel lipid uptake apparatus.

    PubMed

    Diaconeasa, Bianca; Mazock, G Harper; Mahowald, Anthony P; Dubreuil, Ronald R

    2013-11-01

    Spectrin cytoskeleton defects produce a host of phenotypes affecting the plasma membrane, cell polarity, and secretory membrane traffic. However, many of the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unexplained by prevailing models. Here we used the larval fat body of Drosophila melanogaster as a genetic model system to further elucidate mechanisms of αβ-spectrin function. The results provide unexpected new insights into spectrin function as well as mechanisms of dietary fat uptake and storage. We show that loss of α- or β-spectrin in the fat body eliminated a population of small cortical lipid droplets and altered plasma membrane architecture, but did not affect viability of the organism. We present a novel model in which αβ-spectrin directly couples lipid uptake at the plasma membrane to lipid droplet growth in the cytoplasm. In contrast, strong overexpression of β-spectrin caused fat body atrophy and larval lethality. Overexpression of β-spectrin also perturbed transport of dietary fat from the midgut to the fat body. This hypermorphic phenotype appears to be the result of blocking secretion of the lipid carrier lipophorin from fat cells. However, this midgut phenotype was never seen with spectrin loss of function, suggesting that spectrin is not normally required for lipophorin secretion or function. The β-spectrin hypermorphic phenotype was ameliorated by co-overexpression of α-spectrin. Based on the overexpression results here, we propose that β-spectrin family members may be prone to hypermorphic effects (including effects on secretion) if their activity is not properly regulated.

  2. Wnt signaling controls the stem cell-like asymmetric division of the epithelial seam cells during C. elegans larval development.

    PubMed

    Gleason, Julie E; Eisenmann, David M

    2010-12-01

    Metazoan stem cells repopulate tissues during adult life by dividing asymmetrically to generate another stem cell and a cell that terminally differentiates. Wnt signaling regulates the division pattern of stem cells in flies and vertebrates. While the short-lived nematode C. elegans has no adult somatic stem cells, the lateral epithelial seam cells divide in a stem cell-like manner in each larval stage, usually generating a posterior daughter that retains the seam cell fate and an anterior daughter that terminally differentiates. We show that while wild-type adult animals have 16 seam cells per side, animals with reduced function of the TCF homolog POP-1 have as many as 67 seam cells, and animals with reduced function of the β-catenins SYS-1 and WRM-1 have as few as three. Analysis of seam cell division patterns showed alterations in their stem cell-like divisions in the L2-L4 stages: reduced Wnt signaling caused both daughters to adopt non-seam fates, while activated Wnt signaling caused both daughters to adopt the seam fate. Therefore, our results indicate that Wnt signaling globally regulates the asymmetric, stem cell-like division of most or all somatic seam cells during C. elegans larval development, and that Wnt pathway regulation of stem cell-like behavior is conserved in nematodes.

  3. Plastic larval development in a butterfly has complex environmental and genetic causes and consequences for population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Saastamoinen, Marjo; Ikonen, Suvi; Wong, Swee C; Lehtonen, Rainer; Hanski, Ilkka

    2013-05-01

    1. In insects, the length of larval development time typically influences adult body size and individual fitness, and hence development time can be expected to respond in an adaptive manner to variation in environmental conditions. In the wild, larval growth may be influenced by individual condition, which can be affected by population-level parameters such as population density and abundance and quality of resources. 2. We sampled larvae of the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia) from 514 local populations across a large metapopulation before the winter diapause and reared the larvae in common garden conditions after diapause. Here, we report that small post-diapause larvae prolonged their development via an extra larval instar, apparently to compensate for their 'bad start' after diapause. The number of instars was additionally a plastic response to environmental conditions, as the frequency of the extra instar increased under cooler thermal conditions. 3. The benefit of the extra instar is clear, as it allows individuals to develop into larger adults, but the cost is delayed adult eclosion, which is likely to select against the extra instar especially in males, in which early eclosion is critical for mating success. In support of this, the frequency of the extra instar was significantly lower in males (7%) than in females (42%). 4. Polymorphisms in three genes, serpin-1, vitellin-degrading protease precursor and phosphoglucose isomerase, which are known to influence development in insects, were associated with the occurrence of the extra instar. 5. At the level of local populations, the frequency of the extra instar was higher in newly established populations than that in old local ones, possibly reflecting maternal effects, as new populations are often established by females with heavy investment in dispersal. The frequency of the extra instar in turn correlated with the change in population size over 1 year and the risk of local extinction in the

  4. Effects of glyphosate-based herbicides on embryo-larval development and metamorphosis in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Mottier, Antoine; Kientz-Bouchart, Valérie; Serpentini, Antoine; Lebel, Jean Marc; Jha, Awadhesh N; Costil, Katherine

    2013-03-15

    Pesticides may be involved in oyster summer mortality events, not necessarily as a single causative agent but as an additional stressor. In this context, the present study aimed to assess the toxicity of glyphosate, its by-product, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and two commercial formulations, Roundup Express(®) (R(EX)) and Roundup Allées et Terrasses(®) (R(AT)), containing glyphosate as the active ingredient, on the early life stages of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. The embryotoxicity of these chemicals were quantified by considering both the rates of abnormalities and the arrested development or types of abnormalities in D-shaped larvae after 48 h exposure. The success of metamorphosis was examined in pediveliger larvae exposed for 24 h. Experiments involving both endpoints included range finding experiments for herbicide concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 100,000 μg L(-1). This range was then narrowed down in order to determine precise EC(50) values. Actual concentrations of the herbicide were determined at the beginning and after 48 h (embryotoxicity) and 24 h (metamorphosis) to evaluate the potential temporal variation in the concentrations. During embryo-larval development, no mortalities were recorded at any of the concentrations of glyphosate and AMPA, whereas no embryos or D-shaped larvae could be observed after exposure to 10,000 μg L(-1) of R(EX) or R(AT). Compared with the controls, no effects on embryo-larval development were recorded between 0.1 and 1000 μg L(-1), regardless of the chemical tested. Above a threshold, which varied according to the chemical used, the gradient of herbicide concentrations correlated with a gradient of severity of abnormality ranging from normal larvae to arrested development (an "old embryo" stage). The EC(50) values were 28,315 and 40,617 μg L(-1) for glyphosate and its metabolite, respectively, but much lowered values of 1133 and 1675 μg L(-1) for R(EX) and R(AT), respectively. Metamorphosis tests

  5. Immunocytochemical studies reveal novel neural structures in nemertean pilidium larvae and provide evidence for incorporation of larval components into the juvenile nervous system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Nemertea is one of the least studied lophotrochozoan phyla concerning neurogenesis. The sparse data available do not unambiguously allow for answering questions with respect to the neural groundplan of the phylum or the fate of larval neural structures during metamorphosis. In order to contribute to this issue, we studied neurotransmitter distribution during development of the pilidiophoran Lineus albocinctus Verrill, 1900. Results Two serotonin-like immunoreactive (lir) neurons are present in the anterior part of the apical plate. They send numerous processes into the four lobes of the pilidium larva, where they form a complex subepithelial nerve net. All four larval lobes are underlain by a marginal neurite bundle, which is associated with numerous serotonin-lir monociliated perikarya. A serotonin-lir oral nerve ring encircles the stomach sphincter and is associated with few serotonin-lir conical cells. Two suboral neurites descend from the oral nerve ring and merge with the marginal neurite bundle. The oral nerve ring and the suboral neurites contain the mollusk-specific VD1/RPD2 α-neuropeptide. The lateral lobes of the larva have three and the anterior and the posterior lobes two VD1/RPD2-lir marginal neurite bundles. The lobar FMRFamide-lir plexus of Lineus albocinctus is much more complex than previously described for any pilidium larva. It includes a circumesophageal neurite that descends along each side of the larval esophagus and together with the inner marginal neurite bundle gives rise to the lobar plexus of the lateral lobes. An outer FMRFamide-lir marginal neurite bundle with numerous associated FMRFamide-lir marginal sensory cells surrounds all four lobes. FMRFamide-lir structures are absent in the larval apical region. The oral nerve ring and the two suboral serotonin-lir neurites are incorporated into the juvenile nervous system. Conclusion Our study confirms the presence of serotonin-lir components in the apical region of the pilidium

  6. Post-embryonic larval development and metamorphosis of the hydroid Eudendrium racemosum (Cavolini) (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, C.

    1990-09-01

    The morphology and histology of the planula larva of Eudendrium racemosum (Cavolini) and its metamorphosis into the primary polyp are described from light microscopic observations. The planula hatches as a differentiated gastrula. During the lecithotrophic larval period, large ectodermal mucous cells, embedded between epitheliomuscular cells, secrete a sticky slime. Two granulated cell types occur in the ectoderm that are interpreted as secretory and sensorynervous cells, but might also be representatives of only one cell type with a multiple function. The entoderm consists of yolk-storing gastrodermal cells, digestive gland cells, interstitial cells, cnidoblasts, and premature cnidocytes. The larva starts metamorphosis by affixing its blunt aboral pole to a substratum. While the planula flattens down, the mucous cells penetrate the mesolamella and migrate through the entoderm into the gastral cavity where they are lysed. Subsequently, interstitial cells, cnidoblasts, and premature cnidocytes migrate in the opposite direction, i.e. from entoderm to ectoderm. Then, the polypoid body organization, comprising head (hydranth), stem and foot, all covered by peridermal secretion, becomes recognisable. An oral constriction divides the hypostomal portion of the gastral cavity from the stomachic portion. Within the hypostomal entoderm, cells containing secretory granules differentiate. Following growth and the multiplication of tentacles, the head periderm disappears. A ring of gland cells differentiates at the hydranth's base. The positioning of cnidae in the tentacle ectoderm, penetration of the mouth opening and the multiplication of digestive gland cells enable the polyp to change from lecithotrophic to planktotrophic nutrition.

  7. Looming detection by identified visual interneurons during larval development of the locust Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Peter J; Sztarker, Julieta; Rind, F Claire

    2013-06-15

    Insect larvae clearly react to visual stimuli, but the ability of any visual neuron in a newly hatched insect to respond selectively to particular stimuli has not been directly tested. We characterised a pair of neurons in locust larvae that have been extensively studied in adults, where they are known to respond selectively to objects approaching on a collision course: the lobula giant motion detector (LGMD) and its postsynaptic partner, the descending contralateral motion detector (DCMD). Our physiological recordings of DCMD axon spikes reveal that at the time of hatching, the neurons already respond selectively to objects approaching the locust and they discriminate between stimulus approach speeds with differences in spike frequency. For a particular approaching stimulus, both the number and peak frequency of spikes increase with instar. In contrast, the number of spikes in responses to receding stimuli decreases with instar, so performance in discriminating approaching from receding stimuli improves as the locust goes through successive moults. In all instars, visual movement over one part of the visual field suppresses a response to movement over another part. Electron microscopy demonstrates that the anatomical substrate for the selective response to approaching stimuli is present in all larval instars: small neuronal processes carrying information from the eye make synapses both onto LGMD dendrites and with each other, providing pathways for lateral inhibition that shape selectivity for approaching objects.

  8. Effects of Madagascar yam extracts, Dioscorea antaly, on embryo-larval development of medaka fish, Oryzias latipes.

    PubMed

    Rakotobe, Lolona; Berkal, Miassa; Huet, Hélène; Djediat, Chakib; Jeannoda, Victor; Bodo, Bernard; Mambu, Lengo; Crespeau, François; Edery, Marc

    2010-01-01

    The yams edible starchy tubers, are of cultural, economic and nutritional importance in tropical and subtropical regions. The present study concerns the analysis at different levels of Dioscorea antaly toxicity to medaka embryo-larval development. The incubation of medaka fish embryos in a medium containing Dioscorea antaly extract resulted in a dose dependent reduction in survival rate. Survival rates were reduced up to 100% with extract concentrations of 4mg mL(-1). The LD(50) was estimated to be 0.86mg mL(-1)Dioscorea antaly. Anatomopathological studies did not show any caustic effects, irritation to mouth, throat or intestinal tract in surviving embryos but rather an inflammatory reaction in the liver. The data presented in this paper thus extends the use of medaka embryos as a valuable model to analyze the effects of food toxins.

  9. Larval organogenesis of Pagrus pagrus L., 1758 with special attention to the digestive system development.

    PubMed

    Darias, M J; Ortiz-Delgado, J B; Sarasquete, C; Martínez-Rodríguez, G; Yúfera, M

    2007-07-01

    Organogenesis of the red porgy (Pagrus pagrus L., 1758) was examined from hatching until 63 days post-hatching (dph) using histological and histochemical techniques. At hatching, the heart appeared as a tubular structure which progressively developed into four differentiated regions at 2 dph: bulbus arteriosus, atrium, ventricle and sinus venosus. First ventricle and atrium trabeculae were appreciated at 6 and 26 dph, respectively. Primordial gill arches were evident at 2 dph. Primordial filaments and first lamellae were observed at 6 and 15 dph, respectively. At mouth opening (3dph), larvae exhausted their yolk-sac reserves. The pancreatic zymogen granules appeared at 6 dph. Glycogen granules, proteins and neutral lipids (vacuoles in paraffin sections) were detected in the cytoplasm of the hepatocytes from 4-6 dph. Hepatic sinusoids could be observed from 9 dph. Pharyngeal and buccal teeth were observed at 9 and 15 dph, respectively. Oesophageal goblet cells appeared around 6 dph, containing neutral and acid mucosubstances. An incipient stomach could be distinguished at 2 dph. The first signs of gastric gland development were detected at 26 dph, increasing in number and size by 35-40 dph. Gastric glands were concentrated in the cardiac stomach region and presented a high content of protein rich in tyrosine, arginine and tryptophan. The intestinal mucous cells appeared at 15 dph and contained neutral and acid glycoconjugates, the carboxylated mucins being more abundant than the sulphated ones. Acidophilic supranuclear inclusions in the intestinal cells of the posterior intestine, related to pynocitosis of proteins, were observed at 4-6 dph.

  10. Genome-wide identification and characterization of long intergenic noncoding RNAs and their potential association with larval development in the Pacific oyster

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hong; Zhao, Xuelin; Li, Qi

    2016-01-01

    An increasing amount of evidence suggests that long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) may play diverse roles in many cellular processes. However, little is known about lincRNAs in marine invertebrates. Here, we presented the first identification and characterization of lincRNAs in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas). We developed a pipeline and identified 11,668 lincRNAs in C. gigas based on RNA-Seq resources available. These lincRNAs exhibited many common characteristics with vertebrate lincRNAs: relatively short length, low exon numbers, low expression, and low sequence conservation. 1,175 lincRNAs were expressed in a tissue-specific manner, with 35.2% preferentially expressed in male gonad. 776 lincRNAs were specifically expressed in juvenile during different developmental stages. In addition, 47 lincRNAs were found to be potentially related to oyster settlement and metamorphosis. Such diverse temporal and spatial patterns of expression suggest that these lincRNAs might function in cell differentiation during early development, as well as sex differentiation and reproduction. Based on a co-expression network analysis, five lincRNAs were detected that have an expression correlation with key hub genes in four modules significantly correlated with larval development. Our study provides the first large-scale identification of lincRNAs in molluscs and offers new insights into potential functions of lincRNAs in marine invertebrates. PMID:26861843

  11. GROWTH AND VARIATIONS IN LIPID CLASS AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION DURING LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE STONE CRAB, MENIPPE ADINA WILLIAMS AND FELDER, 1986

    EPA Science Inventory

    Larval development in decapod crustaceans is marked by variable growth patterns and changes in weight and biochemical composition. Larvae of the stone crab, Menippe adina, were mass-reared under laboratory conditions (28|C; 20o/ooS) from hatching to the megalopal stage. Growth in...

  12. GROWTH AND VARIATIONS IN LIPID CLASS AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION DURING LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE STONE CRAB, MENIPPE ADINA WILLIAMS AND FELDER, 1986.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Larval development in decapod crustaceans is marked by variable growth patterns and changes in weight and biochemical composition. Larvae of the stone crab, Menippe adina, were mass-reared under laboratory conditions (28?C; 20o/ooS) from hatching to the megalopa stage. Growth in...

  13. The potential of ocean acidification on suppressing larval development in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and blood cockle Arca inflata Reeve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiaqi; Jiang, Zengjie; Zhang, Jihong; Mao, Yuze; Bian, Dapeng; Fang, Jianguang

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated the effect of pH on larval development in larval Pacific oyster ( Crassostrea gigas) and blood cockle ( Arca inflata Reeve). The larvae were reared at pH 8.2 (control), 7.9, 7.6, or 7.3 beginning 30 min or 24 h post fertilization. Exposure to lower pH during early embryonic development inhibited larval shell formation in both species. Compared with the control, larvae took longer to reach the D-veliger stage when reared under pH 7.6 and 7.3. Exposure to lower pH immediately after fertilization resulted in significantly delayed shell formation in the Pacific oyster larvae at pH 7.3 and blood cockle larvae at pH 7.6 and 7.3. However, when exposure was delayed until 24 h post fertilization, shell formation was only inhibited in blood cockle larvae reared at pH 7.3. Thus, the early embryonic stages were more sensitive to acidified conditions. Our results suggest that ocean acidification will have an adverse effect on embryonic development in bivalves. Although the effects appear subtle, they may accumulate and lead to subsequent issues during later larval development.

  14. Complete larval development of Thor amboinensis (De Man, 1888) Decapoda: Thoridae) described from laboratory-reared material
    and identified by DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Bartilotti, Cátia; Salabert, Joana; Santos, Antonina Dos

    2016-01-18

    Of the 12 species of Thor described until present date, only three (25%) have their complete larval development known. Present work describes the complete larval development of Thor amboinensis, based on laboratory-reared material. The spent females were identified through the analysis of the partial sequences of the mitochondrial DNA barcode, also used for the reconstruction of the phylogenetic relationships within the recently resurrected and recognized family Thoridae Kingsley, 1879. Eight zoeal stages and one decapodid complete this species larval development. In the genus Thor, the number of zoeal stages varies greatly from two (T. dobkini) to eight (T. amboinensis and T. floridanus). The larvae of T. ambionensis and T. floridanus are readily distinguished from each other by the ornamentation of the ventral margin of the carapace and the pereiopods development. The first zoeal stage of T. amboinensis described by Yang & Okuno (2004) and the one described in present study are very similar. A brief discussion on the morphological characters and on the number of zoeal stages of the genus, as well as of the previous larval descriptions is made. The phylogenetic analysis suggest cryptic speciation for geographical separated populations of T. amboinensis, paraphyly of the genus Eualus, and the reassignment of E. cranchii to a different genus.

  15. Development of liquid larval diet with modified rearing system for Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera:Tephritidae) for the application of sterile insect technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A liquid larval diet and its rearing system have been developed for mass rearing of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in Hawaii. Rearing facility in Institute of Food and Radiation Biology, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Dhaka, Bangladesh, modified protein source from brewer's yeast to a combinat...

  16. Adaptation to divergent larval diets in the medfly, Ceratitis capitata.

    PubMed

    Leftwich, Philip T; Nash, William J; Friend, Lucy A; Chapman, Tracey

    2017-02-01

    Variation in diet can influence the timing of major life-history events and can drive population diversification and ultimately speciation. Proximate responses of life histories to diet have been well studied. However, there are scant experimental data on how organisms adapt to divergent diets over the longer term. We focused on this omission by testing the responses of a global pest, the Mediterranean fruitfly, to divergent selection on larval diets of different nutritional profiles. Tests conducted before and after 30 generations of nutritional selection revealed a complex interplay between the effects of novel larval dietary conditions on both plastic and evolved responses. There were proximate-only responses to the larval diet in adult male courtship and the frequency of copulation. Males on higher calorie larval diets consistently engaged in more bouts of energetic courtship. In contrast, following selection, larval development time, and egg to adult survival showed evidence of evolved divergence between diet regimes. Adult body size showed evidence for adaptation, with flies being significantly heavier when reared on their "own" diet. The results show the multifaceted responses of individuals to dietary selection and are important in understanding the extreme generalism exhibited by the medfly.

  17. Adaptation to divergent larval diets in the medfly, Ceratitis capitata

    PubMed Central

    Leftwich, Philip T.; Nash, William J.; Friend, Lucy A.; Chapman, Tracey

    2016-01-01

    Variation in diet can influence the timing of major life‐history events and can drive population diversification and ultimately speciation. Proximate responses of life histories to diet have been well studied. However, there are scant experimental data on how organisms adapt to divergent diets over the longer term. We focused on this omission by testing the responses of a global pest, the Mediterranean fruitfly, to divergent selection on larval diets of different nutritional profiles. Tests conducted before and after 30 generations of nutritional selection revealed a complex interplay between the effects of novel larval dietary conditions on both plastic and evolved responses. There were proximate‐only responses to the larval diet in adult male courtship and the frequency of copulation. Males on higher calorie larval diets consistently engaged in more bouts of energetic courtship. In contrast, following selection, larval development time, and egg to adult survival showed evidence of evolved divergence between diet regimes. Adult body size showed evidence for adaptation, with flies being significantly heavier when reared on their “own” diet. The results show the multifaceted responses of individuals to dietary selection and are important in understanding the extreme generalism exhibited by the medfly. PMID:27883361

  18. Transcriptomic Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes During Larval Development of Rapana venosa by Digital Gene Expression Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hao; Yu, Zheng-Lin; Sun, Li-Na; Xue, Dong-Xiu; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Hai-Yan

    2016-01-01

    During the life cycle of shellfish, larval development, especially metamorphosis, has a vital influence on the dynamics, distribution, and recruitment of natural populations, as well as seed breeding. Rapana venosa, a carnivorous gastropod, is an important commercial shellfish in China, and is an ecological invader in the United States, Argentina, and France. However, information about the mechanism of its early development is still limited, because research in this area has long suffered from a lack of genomic resources. In this study, 15 digital gene expression (DGE) libraries from five developmental stages of R. venosa were constructed and sequenced on the IIIumina Hi-Sequation 2500 platform. Bioinformaticsanalysis identified numerous differentially and specifically expressed genes, which revealed that genes associated with growth, nervous system, digestive system, immune system, and apoptosis participate in important developmental processes. The functional analysis of differentially expressed genes was further implemented by gene ontology, and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes enrichment. DGE profiling provided a general picture of the transcriptomic activities during the early development of R. venosa, which may provide interesting hints for further study. Our data represent the first comparative transcriptomic information available for the early development of R. venosa, which is a prerequisite for a better understanding of the physiological traits controlling development. PMID:27194808

  19. Transcriptomic Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes During Larval Development of Rapana venosa by Digital Gene Expression Profiling.

    PubMed

    Song, Hao; Yu, Zheng-Lin; Sun, Li-Na; Xue, Dong-Xiu; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Hai-Yan

    2016-07-07

    During the life cycle of shellfish, larval development, especially metamorphosis, has a vital influence on the dynamics, distribution, and recruitment of natural populations, as well as seed breeding. Rapana venosa, a carnivorous gastropod, is an important commercial shellfish in China, and is an ecological invader in the United States, Argentina, and France. However, information about the mechanism of its early development is still limited, because research in this area has long suffered from a lack of genomic resources. In this study, 15 digital gene expression (DGE) libraries from five developmental stages of R. venosa were constructed and sequenced on the IIIumina Hi-Sequation 2500 platform. Bioinformaticsanalysis identified numerous differentially and specifically expressed genes, which revealed that genes associated with growth, nervous system, digestive system, immune system, and apoptosis participate in important developmental processes. The functional analysis of differentially expressed genes was further implemented by gene ontology, and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes enrichment. DGE profiling provided a general picture of the transcriptomic activities during the early development of R. venosa, which may provide interesting hints for further study. Our data represent the first comparative transcriptomic information available for the early development of R. venosa, which is a prerequisite for a better understanding of the physiological traits controlling development.

  20. Effects of temperature and salinity on larval survival and development in the invasive shrimp Palaemon macrodactylus (Caridea: Palaemonidae) along the reproductive season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guadalupe Vázquez, M.; Bas, Claudia C.; Kittlein, Marcelo; Spivak, Eduardo D.

    2015-05-01

    The invasive shrimp Palaemon macrodactylus is associated mainly with brackish waters. Previous studies raised the question if tolerance to low salinities differs between larvae and adults. To answer this question, the combined effects of two temperatures (20 and 25 °C) and four salinities (5, 12, 23 and 34 psu) on survival and development of larvae that hatched at the beginning, in the midpoint and near the end of a reproductive season (denoted early, middle season and late larvae respectively) were examined. The three types of larvae were able to survive and reach juvenile phase at salinities between 12 and 34 psu and at both temperatures. At 5 psu all larvae died, but 45% molted at least once. Temperature and salinity to a lesser extent, had effects on the duration of development and on the number of larval stages in all larval types. Development was longer at the lower temperature, especially in middle season and late larvae. Most early larvae reached the juvenile phase through 5 larval stages; the number of larval stages of middle season and late larvae was higher at 20 °C and in late larvae also low salinity produced extra stages. Low salinity (12 psu) and, in early and middle season larvae, low temperature produced lighter and smaller individuals. Response of larvae to environmental factors seems to be related in part to the previous conditions (maternal effects and/or embryo development conditions). The narrower salinity tolerance of larvae compared to adults and the ability of zoea I to survive at least some days at 5 psu may be related with an export larval strategy.

  1. Same but different: Larval development and gall-inducing process of a non-pollinating fig wasp compared to that of pollinating fig-wasps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen-González, Sergio; Teixeira, Simone de Padua; Kjellberg, Finn; Pereira, Rodrigo A. Santinelo

    2014-05-01

    The receptacles of fig trees (Ficus spp.) can harbor a highly diversified and complex community of chalcid wasps. Functional groups of fig wasps (e.g. gallers, cleptoparasites and parasitoids) oviposit into the fig at different developmental stages, reflecting different feeding regimes for these insect larvae. There are few direct data available on larval feeding regimes and access to resources. We studied the gall induction and larval feeding strategy of an Idarnes (group flavicollis) species, a non-pollinating fig wasp (NPFW) associated to Ficus citrifolia P. Miller in Brazil. This Idarnes species shares with the pollinator characteristics such as time of oviposition, ovipositor insertion through flower and location of the egg inside plant ovaries. Nevertheless, we show that the gall induction differs considerably from that of the pollinating species. This Idarnes species relies on the induction of nucellus cell proliferation for gall formation and as the main larval resource. This strategy enables it to develop in both pollinated and unpollinated figs. The large differences between this NPFW and other fig wasps in how ovules are galled suggest that there are different ways to be a galler. A functional analysis of NPFW community structure may require descriptions of the histological processes associated with larval development.

  2. Heterochrony in mandible development of larval shrimp (Decapoda: Caridea)--a comparative morphological SEM study of two carideans.

    PubMed

    Batel, Annika; Melzer, Roland R; Anger, Klaus; Geiselbrecht, Hannes

    2014-11-01

    Mandible development in the larval stages I-V of two palaemonid shrimp species, Palaemon elegans and Macrobrachium amazonicum, was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, light microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. In contrast to the zoea I of P. elegans, first-stage larvae of M. amazonicum are nonfeeding. At hatching, the morphology of the mandibles is fully expressed in P. elegans, while it appears underdeveloped in M. amazonicum, presenting only small precursors of typical caridean features. In successive zoeal stages, both species show similar developmental changes, but the mandibular characters of the larvae in M. amazonicum were delayed compared to the equivalent stages in P. elegans, especially in the development of submarginal setae and mandible size. In conclusion, our results indicate heterochrony (postdisplacement) of mandible development in M. amazonicum compared to that in P. elegans, which is related to initial lack of mandible functionality or planktivorous feeding at hatching, respectively. This conclusion is supported by comparison with other palaemonid zoeae exhibiting different feeding modes. Our data suggest that an evolutionary ground pattern of mandible morphology is present even in species with nonfeeding first-stage larvae.

  3. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5B activity regulates larval growth rate and germline development in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiang; Vought, Valarie E; Conradt, Barbara; Maine, Eleanor M

    2006-09-01

    In C. elegans, a population of proliferating germ cells is maintained via GLP-1/Notch signaling; in the absence of GLP-1 signaling, germ cells prematurely enter meiosis and differentiate. We previously identified ego (enhancer of glp-1) genes that promote germline proliferation and interact genetically with the GLP-1 signaling pathway. Here, we report that iffb-1 (initiation factor five B) is an ego gene. iffb-1 encodes the sole C. elegans isoform of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5B, a protein essential for translation. We have used RNA interference and a deletion mutation to determine the developmental consequences of reduced iffb-1 activity. Our data indicate that maternal iffb-1 gene expression is sufficient for embryogenesis, and zygotic iffb-1 expression is required for development beyond late L1/early L2 stage. Partial reduction in iffb-1 expression delays larval development and can severely disrupt proliferation and differentiation of germ cells. We hypothesize that germline development is particularly sensitive to iffb-1 expression level.

  4. The morphogenic features of otoconia during larval development of Cynops pyrrhogaster, the Japanese red-bellied newt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steyger, P. S.; Wiederhold, M. L.; Batten, J.

    1995-01-01

    Otoconia are calcified protein matrices within the gravity-sensing organs of the vertebrate vestibular system. Mammalian otoconia are barrel-shaped with triplanar facets at each end. Reptilian otoconia are commonly prismatic or fusiform in shape. Amphibians have all three otoconial morphologies, barrel-shaped otoconia within the utricle, with prismatic and fusiform otoconia in the saccule. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a sequential appearance of all three otoconial morphologies during larval development of the newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster. The first otoconia appear within a single, developing otolith, and some resemble adult barrel-shaped otoconia. As the larvae hatch, around stages 39-42, the single otolith divides into two anatomically separate regions, the utricle and saccule, and both contain otoconia similar to those seen in the single otolith. Throughout development, these otoconia may have variable morphologies, with serrated surfaces, or circumferential striations with either separated facets or adjacent facets in the triplanar end-regions. Small fusiform otoconia occur later, at stage 51, and only in the saccule. Prismatic otoconia appear later still, at stage 55, and again only in the saccule. Thus, although prismatic otoconia are the most numerous in adult newts, it is the last vestibular otoconial morphology to be expressed.

  5. VARIATION IN GROWTH, LIPID CLASS AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF THE MUD CRAB, RHITHROPANOPEUS HARRISII (GOULD) DURING LARVAL DEVELOPMENT FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO AN INSECT JUVENILE HORMONE ANALOG (FENOXYCARB(R))

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examines the effects of fenoxycarb?, an insect juvenile hormone (JH) analog, on larval growth, and lipid class and fatty acid composition in first crabs of the mud crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii reared through total larval development in nominal water concentrations fr...

  6. Identification of mosquito larval habitats in high resolution satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiang, Richard K.; Hulina, Stephanie M.; Masuoka, Penny M.; Claborn, David M.

    2003-09-01

    Mosquito-born infectious diseases are a serious public health concern, not only for the less developed countries, but also for developed countries like the U.S. Larviciding is an effective method for vector control and adverse effects to non-target species are minimized when mosquito larval habitats are properly surveyed and treated. Remote sensing has proven to be a useful technique for large-area ground cover mapping, and hence, is an ideal tool for identifying potential larval habitats. Locating small larval habitats, however, requires data with very high spatial resolution. Textural and contextual characteristics become increasingly evident at higher spatial resolution. Per-pixel classification often leads to suboptimal results. In this study, we use pan-sharpened Ikonos data, with a spatial resolution approaching 1 meter, to classify potential mosquito larval habitats for a test site in South Korea. The test site is in a predominantly agricultural region. When spatial characteristics were used in conjunction with spectral data, reasonably good classification accuracy was obtained for the test site. In particular, irrigation and drainage ditches are important larval habitats but their footprints are too small to be detected with the original spectral data at 4-meter resolution. We show that the ditches are detectable using automated classification on pan-sharpened data.

  7. Impacts of regular and random noise on the behaviour, growth and development of larval Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Nedelec, Sophie L; Simpson, Stephen D; Morley, Erica L; Nedelec, Brendan; Radford, Andrew N

    2015-10-22

    Anthropogenic noise impacts behaviour and physiology in many species, but responses could change with repeat exposures. As repeat exposures can vary in regularity, identifying regimes with less impact is important for regulation. We use a 16-day split-brood experiment to compare effects of regular and random acoustic noise (playbacks of recordings of ships), relative to ambient-noise controls, on behaviour, growth and development of larval Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Short-term noise caused startle responses in newly hatched fish, irrespective of rearing noise. Two days of both regular and random noise regimes reduced growth, while regular noise led to faster yolk sac use. After 16 days, growth in all three sound treatments converged, although fish exposed to regular noise had lower body width-length ratios. Larvae with lower body width-length ratios were easier to catch in a predator-avoidance experiment. Our results demonstrate that the timing of acoustic disturbances can impact survival-related measures during development. Much current work focuses on sound levels, but future studies should consider the role of noise regularity and its importance for noise management and mitigation measures.

  8. The spawning, embryonic and early larval development of the green wrasse Labrus viridis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Labridae) in controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Kožul, V; Glavić, N; Tutman, P; Bolotin, J; Onofri, V

    2011-05-01

    Green wrasse, Labrus viridis (Linnaeus, 1758), is an endangered species in the southern Adriatic Sea, but it is also of interest for potential rearing in polyculture with other commercial species for the repopulation of areas where it is endangered or as a new aquaculture species. A parental stock of the green wrasse was kept in aquaria for six years. The spawning, embryonic and early larval development maintained under controlled laboratory conditions are described and illustrated. The average diameter of newly spawned eggs was 1.01±0.03 mm. Mature and fertilized eggs were attached to the tank bottom by mucus. Hatching started after 127 h at a mean temperature of 14.4±0.8°C. The average total length of newly hatched larvae was 4.80±0.22 mm. Absorption of the yolk-sac was completed after the 5th day when larvae reached 5.87±0.28 mm. Larvae were fed with the rotifers Brachionus plicatilis. The pigmentation of L. viridis larvae is similar to that of Labrus merula and Labrus bergylta, but the main differences between these species are in the size of larvae and the development time of the melanophores on the anal fin-fold (five days later than with L. merula) and on top of the head (nine days earlier than with L. merula).

  9. Impacts of regular and random noise on the behaviour, growth and development of larval Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    PubMed Central

    Nedelec, Sophie L.; Simpson, Stephen D.; Morley, Erica L.; Nedelec, Brendan; Radford, Andrew N.

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise impacts behaviour and physiology in many species, but responses could change with repeat exposures. As repeat exposures can vary in regularity, identifying regimes with less impact is important for regulation. We use a 16-day split-brood experiment to compare effects of regular and random acoustic noise (playbacks of recordings of ships), relative to ambient-noise controls, on behaviour, growth and development of larval Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Short-term noise caused startle responses in newly hatched fish, irrespective of rearing noise. Two days of both regular and random noise regimes reduced growth, while regular noise led to faster yolk sac use. After 16 days, growth in all three sound treatments converged, although fish exposed to regular noise had lower body width–length ratios. Larvae with lower body width–length ratios were easier to catch in a predator-avoidance experiment. Our results demonstrate that the timing of acoustic disturbances can impact survival-related measures during development. Much current work focuses on sound levels, but future studies should consider the role of noise regularity and its importance for noise management and mitigation measures. PMID:26468248

  10. The Effect of Macrocyclic Lactones-Ivermectin Exposure on Egg Hatching and Larval Development of Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Zain, Mariani Mohd; Yahaya, Zary Shariman; Him, Nik Ahmad Irwan Izzauddin Nik

    2016-01-01

    To date, the ivermectin resistance in nematode parasites has been reported and many studies are carried out to determine the causes of this problem. A free-living Caenorhabditis elegans is used as a model system for this study to investigate the response of C. elegans to ivermectin exposure by using larval development assay. Worms were exposed to ivermectin at concentration from 1 ng/mL to 10 ng/mL and dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) as a control. The developments of the worms were monitored for 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours until the worms become adults. Results indicated that worms’ growth began to be affected by ivermectin at a concentration of 5 ng/mL, while at the concentration of 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 ng/mL, the growth of worms were inhibited compared to control worms. Further study of the protein expression in C. elegans should be done to investigate the up-regulated and down-regulated proteins involve in ivermectin resistance. PMID:27965734

  11. Starvation stress during larval development facilitates an adaptive response in adult worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Kaftanoglu, Osman; Brent, Colin S; Page, Robert E; Amdam, Gro V

    2016-04-01

    Most organisms are constantly faced with environmental changes and stressors. In diverse organisms, there is an anticipatory mechanism during development that can program adult phenotypes. The adult phenotype would be adapted to the predicted environment that occurred during organism maturation. However, whether this anticipatory mechanism is present in eusocial species is questionable because eusocial organisms are largely shielded from exogenous conditions by their stable nest environment. In this study, we tested whether food deprivation during development of the honey bee (Apis mellifera), a eusocial insect model, can shift adult phenotypes to better cope with nutritional stress. After subjecting fifth instar worker larvae to short-term starvation, we measured nutrition-related morphology, starvation resistance, physiology, endocrinology and behavior in the adults. We found that the larval starvation caused adult honey bees to become more resilient toward starvation. Moreover, the adult bees were characterized by reduced ovary size, elevated glycogen stores and juvenile hormone (JH) titers, and decreased sugar sensitivity. These changes, in general, can help adult insects survive and reproduce in food-poor environments. Overall, we found for the first time support for an anticipatory mechanism in a eusocial species, the honey bee. Our results suggest that this mechanism may play a role in honey bee queen-worker differentiation and worker division of labor, both of which are related to the responses to nutritional stress.

  12. Primary alveolar echinococcosis: course of larval development and antibody responses in intermediate host rodents with different genetic backgrounds after oral infection with eggs of Echinococcus multilocularis.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Jun; Kouguchi, Hirokazu; Oku, Yuzaburo; Yagi, Kinpei

    2010-09-01

    We investigated parasite establishment, subsequent larval development and antibody responses in gerbils, cotton rats and 4 inbred mouse strains until 16 weeks post inoculation (p.i.) with 200 eggs of Echinococcus multilocularis. The rate of parasite establishment in the liver determined at 4 weeks p.i. was highest in DBA/2, followed by AKR/N, C57BL/10 and C57BL/6 mice, whereas gerbils harboured few parasite foci. The accurate number of liver lesions in cotton rats could not be determined due to rapid growth and advanced multivesiculation of the parasite observed at 2 weeks p.i. The course of larval development was most advanced in DBA/2 mice with mature protoscolex formation at 16 weeks p.i., followed by AKR/N harbouring metacestodes with sparsely distributed immature protoscoleces. On the other hand, C57BL/6 and C57BL/10 mice had infertile metacestodes without any protoscolex formation. The parasite growth in mice was totally slower than those in gerbils and cotton rats. Specific IgG and IgM responses against 3 types of native crude antigens of larval E. multilocularis were evaluated using somatic extracts of and vesicle fluid of metacestode, and somatic extracts from purified protoscoleces. The 4 mouse strains demonstrated basically similar kinetics with apparent IgG and IgM increases at 9 weeks p.i. and thereafter, except C57BL/10, exhibited higher levels of IgM against crude antigens at some time point of infection. On the other hand, a follow-up determination of specific IgG and IgM levels against recombinant antigens from larval E. multilocularis revealed that each mouse strain showed different antibody-level kinetics. The findings in the present study demonstrate that the course of host-parasite interactions in primary alveolar echinococcosis, caused by larval E. multilocularis, clearly varies among intermediate host rodents with different genetic backgrounds.

  13. Effects of proteinase inhibitor from Adenanthera pavonina seeds on short- and long term larval development of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Daniele Yumi; Jacobowski, Ana Cristina; de Souza, Antônio Pancrácio; Cardoso, Marlon Henrique; Franco, Octávio Luiz; Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues

    2015-05-01

    Currently, one of the major global public health concerns is related to the transmission of dengue/yellow fever virus by the vector Aedes aegypti. The most abundant digestive enzymes in Ae. aegypti midgut larvae are trypsin and chymotrypsin. Since protease inhibitors have the capacity to bind to and inhibit the action of insect digestive proteinases, we investigated the short- and long-term effects of Adenanthera pavonina seed proteinase inhibitor (ApTI) on Ae. aegypti larvae, as well as a possible mechanism of adaptation. ApTI had a significant effect on Ae. aegypti larvae exposed to a non-lethal concentration of ApTI during short- and long-duration assays, decreasing survival, weight and proteinase activities of midgut extracts of larvae. The zymographic profile of ApTI demonstrated seven bands; three bands apparently have trypsin-like activity. Moreover, the peritrophic membrane was not disrupted. The enzymes of ApTI-fed larvae were found to be sensitive to ApTI and to have a normal feedback mechanism; also, the larval digestive enzymes were not able to degrade the inhibitor. In addition, ApTI delayed larval development time. Histological studies demonstrated a degeneration of the microvilli of the posterior midgut region epithelium cells, hypertrophy of the gastric caeca cells and an augmented ectoperitrophic space in larvae. Moreover, Ae. aegypti larvae were incapable of overcoming the negative effects of ApTI, indicating that this inhibitor might be used as a promising agent against Ae. aegypti. In addition, molecular modeling and molecular docking studies were also performed in order to construct three-dimensional theoretical models for ApTI, trypsin and chymotrypsin from Ae. aegypti, as well as to predict the possible interactions and affinity values for the complexes ApTI/trypsin and ApTI/chymotrypsin. In this context, this study broadens the base of our understanding about the modes of action of proteinase inhibitors in insects, as well as the way insects

  14. Growth and apoptosis during larval forelimb development and adult forelimb regeneration in the newt ( Notophthalmus viridescens).

    PubMed

    Vlaskalin, Tatjana; Wong, Christine J; Tsilfidis, Catherine

    2004-09-01

    Many of the genes involved in the initial development of the limb in higher vertebrates are also expressed during regeneration of the limb in urodeles such as Notophthalmus viridescens. These similarities have led researchers to conclude that the regeneration process is a recapitulation of development, and that patterning of the regenerate mimics pattern formation in development. However, the developing limb and the regenerating limb do not look similar. In developing urodele forelimbs, digits appear sequentially as outgrowths from the limb palette. In regeneration, all the digits appear at once. In this work, we address the issue of whether regeneration and development are similar by examining growth and apoptosis patterns. In contrast to higher vertebrates, forelimb development in the newt, N. viridescens, does not use interdigital apoptosis as the method of digit separation. During adult forelimb regeneration, apoptosis seems to play an important role in wound healing and again during cartilage to bone turnover in the advanced digits and radius/ulna. However, similar to forelimb development, demarcation of the digits in adult forelimb regeneration does not involve interdigital apoptosis. Outgrowth, rather than regression of the interdigital mesenchyme, leads to the individualization of forelimb digits in both newt development and regeneration.

  15. The effects of food shortage during larval development on adult body size, body mass, physiology and developmental time in a tropical damselfly.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Cortés, J Guillermo; Serrano-Meneses, Martín Alejandro; Córdoba-Aguilar, Alex

    2012-03-01

    Few studies have looked jointly at the effects of larval stressors on life history and physiology across metamorphosis, especially in tropical insects. Here we investigated how the variation of food availability during the larval stage of the tropical and territorial American rubyspot damselfly (Hetaerina americana) affects adult body size and body mass, and two physiological indicators of condition--phenoloxidase activity (an indicator of immune ability) and protein concentration. We also investigated whether larval developmental time is prolonged when food is scarce, an expected situation for tropical species whose larval time is less constrained, compared to temperate species. Second instar larvae were collected from their natural environments and reared in one of two diet regimes: (i) "rich" provided with five Artemia salina prey every day, and (ii) "poor" provided with two A. salina prey every day. In order to compare how distinct our treatments were from natural conditions, a second set of last-instar larvae were also collected and allowed to emerge. Only body size and phenoloxidase increased in the rich regime, possibly to prioritize investment on sexually selected traits (which increase mating opportunities), and immune ability, given pathogen pressure. The sexes did not differ in body size in relation to food regimes but they did differ in body mass and protein concentration; this can be explained on the basis of the energetically demanding territorial activities by males (for the case of body mass), and female allocation to egg production (for the case of protein). Finally, animals delayed larval development when food was scarce, which is coherent for tropical environments. These findings provide key insights in the role of food availability in a tropical species.

  16. Development of ovary structures in the last larval and adult stages of psyllids (Insecta, Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha: Psylloidea).

    PubMed

    Kot, Marta; Büning, Jürgen; Jankowska, Władysława; Drohojowska, Jowita; Szklarzewicz, Teresa

    2016-07-01

    The development and organization of the ovaries of ten species from four Psylloidea families (Psyllidae, Triozidae, Aphalaridae and Liviidae) have been investigated. The ovaries of the last larval stage (i.e. fifth instar) of all examined species are filled with numerous clusters of cystocytes which undergo synchronous incomplete mitotic division. Cystocytes of the given cluster are arranged into a rosette with polyfusome in the centre. These clusters are associated with single somatic cells. At the end of the fifth instar, the clusters begin to separate from each other, forming spherical ovarioles which are surrounded by a single layer of somatic cells. In the ovarioles of very young females all cystocytes enter the prophase of meiosis and differentiate shortly thereafter into oocytes and trophocytes (nurse cells). Meanwhile, somatic cells differentiate into cells of the inner epithelial sheath surrounding the trophocytes and into the prefollicular cells that encompass the oocytes. During this final differentiation, the trophocytes lose their cell membranes and become syncytial. Oocytes remain cellular and most of them (termed arrested oocytes) do not grow. In the ovarioles of older females, one oocyte encompassed by its follicle cells starts growing, still connected to the syncytial tropharium by a nutritive cord. After the short phase of previtellogenesis alone, the oocyte enters its vitellogenic the growth phase in the vitellarium. At that time, the second oocyte may enter the vitellarium and start its previtellogenic growth. In the light of the obtained results, the phylogeny of psyllids, as well as phylogenetic relationships between taxa of Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha are discussed.

  17. Genetic evidence supports larval retention in the Western Caribbean for an invertebrate with high dispersal capability ( Ophiothrix suensonii: Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, V. P.; DeBiasse, M. B.; Shivji, M. S.

    2015-03-01

    The brittle star Ophiothrix suensonii is a common coral reef sponge commensal with high dispersal potential. Here, we utilize COI sequence data from 264 O. suensonii individuals collected from 10 locations throughout Florida and the Caribbean to investigate dispersal dynamics and demographic history. Locations separated by up to 1,700 km lacked genetic differentiation, confirming the ability for long-range dispersal. However, significant differentiation was detected among other regions. Samples from Utila, Honduras showed the greatest differentiation, suggesting that the circulation of the Mesoamerican gyre could be a significant factor restricting gene flow in this region. Demographic analyses provided strong evidence for a population expansion, possibly out of Florida, through the Caribbean, and into Honduras, which commenced in the early Pleistocene. However, the presence of a clade of rare haplotypes, which split much earlier (mid-Pliocene), indicates that O. suensonii persisted long before its recent expansion, suggesting a cyclic history of population contraction and expansion. Finally, patterns of gene flow are not concordant with contemporary surface currents; rather, they reflect historical movements possibly linked with changes in circulation during periods of Pleistocene climate change.

  18. [Embryonic and Larval Development of the Asian Seabass Lates calcarifer (Pisces: Perciformes: Latidae) under Thermostatically Controlled Conditions].

    PubMed

    Shadrin, A M; Pavlov, D S

    2015-01-01

    Material for this study was obtained from the hatchery with brood stock of Lates calcarifer that originated from a natural population living in inshore waters off Central Vietnam. Commercial interest in L. calcarifer as an object of mariculture and wildstock fishery has resulted in several publications on its early life history; nevertheless, comprehensive description of early development of L. calcarifer based on controlled incubation of embryos and larvae has remained absent. In the present paper embryonic and larval development to the stage of anlage of pelvic fins is described in detail and illustrated with original drawings of live material on the basis of thermostatically controlled incubation of embryos at 27°C and larvae at 26.8°C (26.5-28.0°C). The first cleavage furrow appeared at the age of 33.5 min. The duration of synchronous cleavage cycle was 16 min. About 80% of all embryos hatched at the age of 18 h. The length of newly hatched larva during the first hour after emergence from the egg shell was 1.63 ± 0.016 mm (1.50-1.75 mm). Chronology of development of the organs, early circulatory system, and pigmentation pattern is given. The dynamics of change in the trunk and caudal body segment number in larva from hatching to the moment of anlage of pelvic fins is shown. The total number of body segments reached the maximum value of 26-27 soon after hatching and then decreased to 20-21 segments. Newly received data are discussed in a comparative context of development of some other teleosts.

  19. Comparison of larval development and overwintering stages of the spotted knapweed biological control agents Agapeta zoegana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Cyphocleonus achates (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Montana versus Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Corn, Janelle G; Story, Jim M; White, Linda J

    2009-08-01

    Larval development of insects introduced for biological control of invasive weeds may be constrained if the new climate is more extreme than in their native range. We surveyed larval development in Agapeta zoegana L. and Cyphocleonus achates (Fahraeus), two species of biological control insects introduced from eastern Europe against spotted knapweed in western North America. We dissected spotted knapweed roots collected from five sites in western Montana over 6 yr either in late fall or early spring and measured larval head capsule size to determine the overwintering instar stage. Development of A. zoegana was estimated equally well with late fall or early spring root collections, but C. achates rate of development may be underestimated using fall samples. The larvae of neither species entered diapause in as advanced an instar in western Montana as reported for their native range. Most A. zoegana larvae reached the third (26%) or fourth (20%) instar at diapause, with only 15% reaching sixth instars, as they typically do in their native Eurasia. Almost all (94%) C. achates overwintered as first instars, with most of the remaining (4%) being eggs, some of which were viable in the spring. Only a small number (2%) of C. achates larvae overwintered as second instars, the common overwintering stage in their native range. Slower development may explain, in part, why A. zoegana only has one generation per year in Montana compared with two to three generations per year in Europe.

  20. Effects of microgravity on the larval development, metamorphosis and reproduction of the urodele amphibian Pleurodeles waltl.

    PubMed

    Dournon, C; Durand, D; Tankosic, C; Membre, H; Gualandris-Parisot, L; Bautz, A

    2001-06-01

    The FERTILE experiment was twice performed onboard the Mir space station during the Cassiopée and Pégase French space missions. The goal was to analyze the effects of microgravity on fertilization and embryonic development, and then on further development on the ground in the amphibian Pleurodeles waltl. The present paper reports development that occurred in the laboratory after landing. Recovered on the ground at the hatching stage, young larvae reared at room temperature underwent metamorphosis and became adults without obvious abnormalities. Of particular interest was the rearing temperature that induced a delayed metamorphosis for animals from the Cassiopée space mission, but not for animals from the Pégase mission. The rate of development and the morphology were analogous in these animals and in ground controls reared in a similar annual period. Analysis of offspring was performed using these animals. Males born in space were first mated with control ground-born females and then with females born in space. The mating gave progeny that developed normally. Depending on the methods used and on the limits of the analyses, the results clearly demonstrated that animals born in space were able to live and reproduce after return to the ground.

  1. Effects of an ascovirus (HvAV-3e) on diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, and evidence for virus transmission by a larval parasitoid.

    PubMed

    Furlong, Michael J; Asgari, Sassan

    2010-02-01

    Ascoviruses (AVs) are pathogenic to lepidopteran larvae, and most commonly attack species in the Noctuidae. The unique pathology includes cleavage of host cells into virion-containing vesicles which leads to the milky white colouration of the hemolymph as opposed to the clear hemolymph of healthy larvae. Recently, we showed that a Heliothis virescens AV (HvAV-3e) isolate is able to induce disease in Crocidolomia pavonana F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), affecting feeding, growth and survival of infected larvae. In this study, we investigated the effect of different variants of HvAV-3e on diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) larvae, another non-noctuid host. In hemolymph inoculation bioassays fourth instar larvae showed a significant dose response to each of the HvAV-3e variants and significant differences between the virulence of the three variants were detected. Both second and fourth instars were readily infected with the virus and infected individuals demonstrated significant reductions in food consumption and growth. The majority of infected individuals died at the larval or pupal stage and individuals which developed into adults were usually deformed, less fecund than non-infected controls and died shortly after emergence. In transmission studies, Diadegmasemiclausum (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), a key parasitoid of diamondback moth, infected healthy host larvae during oviposition following previous attack of HvAV-3e infected hosts. In choice tests D. semiclausum did not discriminate between infected individuals but host infection had no detectable impact on the development of immature D. semiclausum or on subsequent adults.

  2. Temporal changes in the bacterial community of animal feces and their correlation with stable fly oviposition, larval development, and adult fitness

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Thais A.; Zurek, Ludek

    2014-01-01

    Stable flies are blood-feeding insects with a great negative impact on animals world wide. Larvae develop primarily in animal manure and bacteria are essential for larval development; however, the principle of this dependence is not understood. We hypothesized that as the microbial community of animal manure changes over time, it plays an important role in stable fly fitness. Two-choice bioassays were conducted using 2 week old horse manure (control) and aging horse manure (fresh to 5 week old) to evaluate the effect of manure age on stable fly oviposition. Our data showed that fresh feces did not stimulate oviposition and that the attractiveness increased as manure aged but started to decline after 3 weeks. Bioassays assessing the effect of manure age at the time of oviposition on larval development demonstrated that 1–3 week old manure supported larval development significantly better than fresh, 4, and 5 week old manure. In addition, adult fitness (body size) was significantly higher in flies from 1 and 2 week old manure comparing to that of all other treatments. Analysis of the bacterial community of aging horse manure by 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA revealed a great reduction in bacterial diversity and richness from fresh to 1–5 week old manure and a major shift from strict anaerobes in fresh manure to facultative anaerobes and strict aerobes in aged manure. Overall, the microbial community of 2 and 3 week old horse manure with its dominant bacterial taxa Rhizobium, Devosia, and Brevundimonas stimulated stable fly oviposition the most and provided a suitable habitat for larval development. These bacteria represent the candidates for studies focused on better understanding of stable fly – microbial interactions. PMID:25426108

  3. Compensatory Development and Costs of Plasticity: Larval Responses to Desiccated Conspecifics

    PubMed Central

    Sadeh, Asaf; Truskanov, Noa; Mangel, Marc; Blaustein, Leon

    2011-01-01

    Understanding constraints on phenotypic plasticity is central to explaining its evolution and the evolution of phenotypes in general, yet there is an ongoing debate on the classification and relationships among types of constraints. Since plasticity is often a developmental process, studies that consider the ontogeny of traits and their developmental mechanisms are beneficial. We manipulated the timing and reliability of cues perceived by fire salamander larvae for the future desiccation of their ephemeral pools to determine whether flexibility in developmental rates is constrained to early ontogeny. We hypothesized that higher rates of development, and particularly compensation for contradictory cues, would incur greater endogenous costs. We found that larvae respond early in ontogeny to dried conspecifics as a cue for future desiccation, but can fully compensate for this response in case more reliable but contradictory cues are later perceived. Patterns of mortality suggested that endogenous costs may depend on instantaneous rates of development, and revealed asymmetrical costs of compensatory development between false positive and false negative early information. Based on the results, we suggest a simple model of costs of development that implies a tradeoff between production costs of plasticity and phenotype-environment mismatch costs, which may potentially underlie the phenomenon of ontogenetic windows constraining plasticity. PMID:21246048

  4. Eugregarines reduce susceptibility of the hide beetle, Dermestes maculatus, to apicomplexan pathogens and retard larval development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eugregarines are abundant in a great diversity of invertebrates, and yet their relationships with their hosts are subject to controversy and confusion. We tested the effect of the eugregarine, Pyxinia crystalligera, on growth, development, and susceptibility to two Apicomplexa pathogens of the hide ...

  5. Otolith development in larval and juvenile Schizothorax davidi: ontogeny and growth increment characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Taiming; Hu, Jiaxiang; Cai, Yueping; Xiong, Sen; Yang, Shiyong; Wang, Xiongyan; He, Zhi

    2016-09-01

    Laboratory-reared Schizothorax davidi larvae and juveniles were examined to assess the formation and characteristics of David's schizothoracin otoliths. Otolith development was observed and their formation period was verified by monitoring larvae and juveniles of known age. The results revealed that lapilli and sagittae developed before hatching, and the first otolith increment was identified at 2 days post hatching in both. The shape of lapilli was relatively stable during development compared with that of sagittae; however, growth of four sagittae and lapilli areas was consistent, but the posterior area grew faster than the anterior area and the ventral surface grew faster than the dorsal surface. Similarly, the sum length of the radius of the anterior and posterior areas on sagittae and lapilli were linearly and binomially related to total fish length, respectively. Moreover, daily deposition rates were validated by monitoring known-age larvae and juveniles. The increase in lapilli width was 1.88±0.080 0 μm at the ninth increment, which reached a maximum and the decreased gradually toward the otolith edge, whereas that of sagittae increased more slowly. These results illustrate the developmental biology of S. davidi, which will aid in population conservation and fish stock management.

  6. Effects of multi-well plate incubation on embryo-larval development in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    PubMed

    Marentette, Julie R; Sullivan, Cheryl A; Lavalle, Christine; Shires, Kallie; Parrott, Joanne L

    2015-01-01

    Fathead minnow embryos and larvae are frequently used in toxicology, including short-term embryo-only tests which often use small volumes of test solution. The effect that such conditions may have on fathead minnow development has yet to be explicitly described. Here we compared rates of embryonic development in fathead minnow embryos reared under standard light and temperature conditions with a range of possible methods. All methods yielded excellent control survival. We demonstrated that fathead minnow embryos incubated in a range of small volumes in multi-well plates (500 μL to 2 mL per embryo) did not substantially vary in developmental rate, but flexed less frequently as embryos, hatched smaller, later and with larger yolk-sacs, and initiated feeding later than embryos reared in an excess of solution (20 mL per embryo) with or without supplemental aeration. Faster hatch and growth were promoted with an orbital shaker, but growth benefits were not sustained into the larval stage. Developmental differences persisted in larvae reared to 20 days post-fertilization when monitoring ceased, but growth differences did not magnify and in some measurements partially resolved. To our knowledge we are the first to report effects of incubation in multi-well plates in any fish taxa. As our data revealed that the eleutheroembryonic stage for fathead minnow may be prolonged in multi-well plates, this may allow the use of longer toxicity tests using fathead minnow embryos without conflicting with existing animal welfare legislation in many countries.

  7. A Binding Site for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab Toxin Is Lost during Larval Development in Two Forest Pests

    PubMed Central

    Rausell, Carolina; Martínez-Ramírez, Amparo Consuelo; García-Robles, Inmaculada; Real, María Dolores

    2000-01-01

    The insecticidal activity and receptor binding properties of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxins towards the forest pests Thaumetopoea pityocampa (processionary moth) and Lymantria monacha (nun moth) were investigated. Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Ac were highly toxic (corresponding 50% lethal concentration values: 956, 895, and 379 pg/μl, respectively) to first-instar T. pityocampa larvae. During larval development, Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac toxicity decreased with increasing age, although the loss of activity was more pronounced for Cry1Ab. Binding assays with 125I-labelled Cry1Ab and brush border membrane vesicles from T. pityocampa first- and last-instar larvae detected a remarkable decrease in the overall Cry1Ab binding affinity in last-instar larvae, although saturable Cry1Ab binding to both instars was observed. Homologous competition experiments demonstrated the loss of one of the two Cry1Ab high-affinity binding sites detected in first-instar larvae. Growth inhibition assays with sublethal doses of Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Ac in L. monacha showed that all three toxins were able to delay molting from second instar to third instar. Specific saturable binding of Cry1Ab was detected only in first- and second-instar larvae. Cry1Ab binding was not detected in last-instar larvae, although specific binding of Cry1Aa and Cry1Ac was observed. These results demonstrate a loss of Cry1Ab binding sites during development on the midgut epithelium of T. pityocampa and L. monacha, correlating in T. pityocampa with a decrease in Cry1Ab toxicity with increasing age. PMID:10742241

  8. Gregariousness and protandry promote reproductive insurance in the invasive gastropod Crepidula fornicata: evidence from assignment of larval paternity.

    PubMed

    Dupont, L; Richard, J; Paulet, Y-M; Thouzeau, G; Viard, F

    2006-09-01

    According to the size-advantage hypothesis, protandric sequential hermaphroditism is expected when the increase in reproductive success with age or size is small for males but large for females. Interestingly, some protandrous molluscs have developed gregarious strategies that might enhance male reproductive success but at the cost of intraspecific competition. The gastropod Crepidula fornicata, a European invading species, is ideal for investigating mating patterns in a sequential hermaphrodite in relation to grouping behaviour because individuals of different size (age) live in perennial stacks, fertilization is internal and embryos are brooded. Paternity analyses were undertaken in stacks sampled in three close and recently invaded sites in Brittany, France. Paternity assignment of 239 larvae, sampled from a set of 18 brooding females and carried out using five microsatellite loci, revealed that 92% of the crosses occurred between individuals located in the same stack. These stacks thus function as independent mating groups in which individuals may reproduce consecutively as male and female over a short time period, a pattern explained by sperm storage capacity. Gregariousness and sex reversal are promoting reproductive insurance in this species. In addition, females are usually fertilized by several males (78% of the broods were multiply sired) occupying any position within the stack, a result reinforcing the hypothesis of sperm competition. Our study pointed out that mating behaviours and patterns of gender allocation varied in concert across sites suggesting that multiple paternities might enhance sex reversal depending on sperm competition intensity.

  9. Gonadal development of larval male Xenopus laevis exposed to atrazine in outdoor microcosms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jooste, A.M.; Du Preez, L.H.; Carr, J.A.; Giesy, J.P.; Gross, T.S.; Kendall, R.J.; Smith, E.E.; Van Der Kraak, G. L.; Solomon, K.R.

    2005-01-01

    The potential effects of atrazine on gonadal development in metamorphs and subadults of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) were studied under conditions of natural photoperiod and temperatures in outdoor microcosms from August 2002 to June 2003 in South Africa. Triplicate 1100 L microcosms for each nominal concentration of 0.0, 1, 10, and 25 ??g of atrazine/L were used. Measured atrazine concentrations varied <25% throughout the study, and no atrazine was detected in the control microcosms. Tadpoles developed well at all concentrations. On the basis of histological examination of testes of recently metamorphosed stage 66 frogs, 57% of the individuals in the reference group exhibited testicular oocytes as compared with 57, 59, and 39% of the 1, 10, and 25 ??g/L atrazine groups, respectively. The average prevalence of testicular oocytes for all of the treatments including the controls was 54% in a single testis, while, in 35% of individuals, testicular oocytes were observed in both testes. The number of testicular oocytes per individual ranged from 0 to 58 with means of 9.5, 9.8, 8.5, and 11.1 for the 0.0, 1, 10, and 25 ??g of atrazine/L groups, respectively. Ten months after metamorphosis, another subset of juveniles was examined, and the maximum number of testicular oocytes observed was five in one animal. The presence of testicular oocytes was not related to exposure to atrazine and may be a natural phenomenon during ontogeny. ?? 2005 American Chemical Society.

  10. Gregarine infection accelerates larval development of the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché).

    PubMed

    Alarcón, M E; Jara-F, A; Briones, R C; Dubey, A K; Slamovits, C H

    2017-04-01

    A high degree of specialization between host and parasite is a well-known outcome of a long history of coevolution, and it is strikingly illustrated in a coordination of their life cycles. In some cases, the arms race ensued at the establishment of a symbiotic relationship results in the adoption of manipulative strategies by the parasite. We have already learned that Steinina ctenocephali, a gregarine living in the alimentary canal of cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis follows its phenology and metamorphosis. Despite these findings the outcome of their symbiotic partnership (mutualist, parasitic or commensal) remains unclear. To address this important question, we measured life history parameters of the flea in the presence of varying infection intensities of gregarine oocysts in laboratory conditions. We found that neither the emergence nor survival rate of fleas was affected by harbouring the gregarines. More surprisingly, our results show that flea larvae infected with gregarines developed faster and emerged earlier than the control group. This gregarine therefore joins the selected group of protists that can modify physiological host traits and provides not only new model taxa to be explored in an evolutionary scenario, but also potential development of control strategies of cat flea.

  11. Expression of Immune-Related Genes during Loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) Embryonic and Early Larval Development

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jang Wook; Kim, Jung Eun; Goo, In Bon; Hwang, Ju-Ae; Im, Jea Hyun; Choi, Hye-Sung; Lee, Jeong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Early life stage mortality in fish is one of the problems faced by loach aquaculture. However, our understanding of immune system in early life stage fish is still incomplete, and the information available is restricted to a few fish species. In the present work, we investigated the expression of immune-related transcripts in loach during early development. In fishes, recombination-activating gene 1 (RAG-1) and sacsin (SACS) have been considered as immunological function. In this study, the expression of the both genes was assessed throughout the early developmental stages of loach using real-time PCR method. maRAG-1 mRNA was first detected in 0 dph, observed the increased mostly until 40 dph. Significant expression of maRAG-1 was detected in 0 to 40 dph. These patterns of expression may suggest that the loach start to develop its function after hatching. On the other hand, maSACS was detected in unfertilized oocyte to molura stages and 0 to 40 dph. maSACS mRNA transcripts were detected in unfertilized oocytes, suggesting that they are maternally transferred. PMID:26973969

  12. Effects of chlorpyrifos on in vitro sex steroid production and thyroid follicular development in adult and larval Lake Sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Catherine; Burnett, Duncan C; Arcinas, Liane; Palace, Vince; Gary Anderson, W

    2015-08-01

    Chlorpyrifos is a widely used organophosphate pesticide that has previously been shown to enter waterways in biologically relevant concentrations and has the potential to disrupt both thyroid hormone and sex steroid biosynthesis in vertebrates. Because gonadal maturation and larval development in Lake Sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens, potentially coincide with the application of chlorpyrifos we examined the effects of chlorpyrifos on both thyroid follicular development in larval Lake Sturgeon, and sex hormone synthesis in adult Lake Sturgeon. For the first time, the present study reports steroidogenesis from testicular and ovarian tissue in Lake Sturgeon using an established in vitro bioassay. Furthermore, incubating gonad tissue with 5, 500 or 2000ngmL(-1) chlorpyrifos revealed an inhibitory effect on testosterone synthesis in both testicular (control, 40.29pgmg(-1) tissue wet weight(-1)h(-1) compared to experimental, 21.84pgmg(-1) tissue wet weight(-1)h(-1)) and ovarian (control, 33.83pgmg(-1) tissue wet weight(-1)h(-1) compared to experimental, 15.19pgmg(-1) tissue wet weight(-1)h(-1)) tissue. In a second series of experiments, larval Lake Sturgeon were exposed to equivalent concentrations of chlorpyrifos as above for 10days (d) between hatch and the onset of exogenous feeding. Larvae from each treatment group were raised until 67days post hatch (dph) and growth rates were compared alongside key indicators of thyroid follicle growth. Chlorpyrifos treatment had no effect on the measured indicators of thyroid follicular development.

  13. The toxicity of a lipid transfer protein (Cc-LTP1) from Coffea canephora Seeds on the larval development of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Zottich, Umberto; Da Cunha, Maura; Dias, Germana B; Rabelo, Guilherme R; Oliveira, Antonia Elenir A; Carvalho, André O; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski S; do Nascimento, Viviane V; Gomes, Valdirene M

    2014-10-01

    In this work, we analyzed the effects of coffee seed proteins, especially Cc-LTP1 on the larval development of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), a bruchid pest of beans and the most important insect pest of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. Artificial seed assay, which incorporated the F/0-90 fraction from Coffea canephora seeds, resulted in the reduction of oviposition and caused an inhibition of C. maculatus larval development in a dose-dependent manner. The F/0-90 fraction used at a 4 % concentration resulted in the survival of no larvae. The purified Cc-LTP1, at a concentration of 0.5 %, also demonstrated effective inhibition of larval development, reducing both females oviposition and the weight and number of larvae. Cc-LTP1 was also able to inhibit the C. maculatus gut α-amylase activity, and immunolabeling by an anti-LTP serum was observed in the midgut tissues of the C. maculatus larvae. Cc-LTP1 has shown binding affinity towards microvillar cells, endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, as demonstrated by micrographic images taken by a transmission electron microscope. The results from this study indicate that Cc-LTP1 has insecticidal actions toward C. maculatus and exerts anti-nutritional effects with direct actions on intestinal tissues.

  14. Embryonic and larval development of Eugerres mexicanus (Perciformes: Gerreidae) in Tenosique, Tabasco, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Raúl E; Perera, Martha A; Castillo, Alfonso; Luna, Emiliano; de la Cruz, José A; Gómez, Luis M; Valdez Zenil, José

    2012-03-01

    Most studies on Eugerres mexicanus mainly consider biogeographic and systematic aspects and rarely address reproductive characteristics, which are useful for fishery population management plans. This study aimed at evaluating the ontogeny of E. mexicanus, based on 30 embryos and 30 larvae sampled by induced spawning of breeders, taken in February 2009 from the Usumacinta River in Tenosique, Tabasco, Mexico. All descriptions of the embryonic development were based on morphometric and meristic data and followed standard methods. Eggs, recovered at the gastrula stage, had an average diameter of 1.17mm (SD=0.08). The bud stage appeared during the first three hours of development, in which the posterior side was adhered to the vitellus; Kupffer's vesicle was visible. Yolk-sac larvae hatched 18 hours after fertilization, exhibiting a light brown color and an average total length of 2.94mm (SD=0.70); the preflexion stage was reached eight days after hatching, with a total average length of 4.67mm (SD=0.50) and a total notochord length of 4.45mm (SD=0.50). The flexion stage was reached on the 16th day, with an average total length of 6.66mm (SD=1.53), while postflexion was reached on the 24th day, with 10.33mm (SD=1.45). The pre-juvenile stage was reached on the 33rd day, with a total length of 14.30mm (SD=0.93), showing IX spines and 10 rays and III spines and eight rays in the dorsal and anal fins, respectively. The juvenile stage was reached by the 45th day, with an average length of 28.16mm (SD=1.93) and average weight of 4.75g (SD=1.49). Prejuveniles showed an initial pigmentation with dark colored dots in the superior and inferior jaw and dispersed on the head, while juveniles presented the same pigmentation pattern, decreasing towards the margin of the caudal peduncle. In conclusion, the embryonic developmental stages of E. mexicanus were typical for the Gerreidae group. However, their morphometric characters were slightly different since the diameter and size of

  15. The development of evidence-based nursing.

    PubMed

    French, P

    1999-01-01

    This paper argues that the current conception of evidence-based medicine has its limitations in the promotion of research which effects the quality of service in any health care system. It also poses something of a difficulty for the development of evidence-based nursing in particular. This paper advocates the more broad based concept of evidence-based practice and discusses its potential for addressing theory/practice problems and the uptake of nursing research. The broader conceptualization of evidence-based practice focuses on the integration of available evidence and the tacit knowledge of the investigator. An evidence-based practice project undertaken in Hong Kong is outlined as this provided the basis of many of the conclusions made in this paper. Three vignettes are given in order to demonstrate the nature of the evidence-based practice projects which have been conducted. The critical elements of evidence-based practice projects are outlined. Finally issues concerning the process of generating evidence, the relationship to continuous quality improvement and the cost effectiveness of evidence-based practice are discussed in more detail.

  16. Development of a forensic evidence protection kit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acton, Brian; Kelly, Roy

    1999-02-01

    A kit has been developed for the preservation of vital forensic evidence on a suspect following a serious assault, murder or other offense where contamination may occur. This also includes the handling of firearms, explosives and/or drugs.

  17. In vitro development of the fish parasite Hysterothylacium aduncum from the third larval stage recovered from a host to the third larval stage hatched from the egg.

    PubMed

    Adroher, F J; Malagón, D; Valero, A; Benítez, R

    2004-01-28

    Anisakids are parasitic nematodes of fish worldwide, producing economic and human health concerns. It is thus important to ascertain their in vitro life cycle in laboratory studies. Here we describe the in vitro development of third-stage larvae (L3) of Hysterothylacium aduncum isolated from blue whiting Micromesistius poutassou, to the hatching of L3 from eggs obtained from H. aduncum worms grown in GLIT medium (a modified mixture of Yaeger's LIT [Liver Infusion Tryptose] and Grace's media) at pH 4.0, 13 degrees C and with 5% CO2 in air. Under these conditions, L3 recovered from fish developed to mature adults (3.4 to 6.2 cm in length), with oviposition starting from Day 26 in culture. Fertilized eggs (mean size 64 x 52 microm) had a thick, rugose eggshell and were larger than unfertilized ones (mean size 49 x 42 microm), whose eggshells were thin and smooth. Eggs laid during the first and second week of oviposition, and maintained in 2.8% NaCl solution at 13 degrees C, developed to L3. Under these maintenance conditions, between 20.6 and 52.5% of the eggs laid during the first week developed into larvae. Motile larvae, enclosed in a sheath, hatched from between 2 and 11% of these eggs. The larvae started to hatch 23 d after deposition. These larvae were 144 to 215 microm in length, enclosed in a 237 to 305 microm-long sheath. This GLIT culture medium may help to study the biology of this and other anisakids.

  18. Evidence development and publication planning: strategic process.

    PubMed

    Wittek, Michael R; Jo Williams, Mary; Carlson, Angeline M

    2009-11-01

    A number of decisions in the health care field rely heavily on published clinical evidence. A systematic approach to evidence development and publication planning is required to develop a portfolio of evidence that includes at minimum information on efficacy, safety, durability of effect, quality of life, and economic outcomes. The approach requires a critical assessment of available literature, identification of gaps in the literature, and a strategic plan to fill the gaps to ensure the availability of evidence demanded for clinical decisions, coverage/payment decisions and health technology assessments. The purpose of this manuscript is to offer a six-step strategic process leading to a portfolio of evidence that meets the informational needs of providers, payers, and governmental agencies concerning patient access to a therapy.

  19. Control of larval and egg development in Aedes aegypti with Ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi) against juvenile hormone acid methyl transferase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi) is a powerful approach for elucidating gene functions in a variety of organisms, including mosquitoes and many other insects. Little has been done, however, to harness this approach in order to control adult and larval mosquitoes. Juvenile hormone (JH) plays a pi...

  20. Differential toxicity and uptake of Diazinon on embryo-larval development of Rhinella arenarum.

    PubMed

    Aronzon, Carolina Mariel; Marino, Damián J G; Ronco, Alicia E; Pérez Coll, Cristina Silvia

    2014-04-01

    Diazinon, an anti-cholinesterase organophosphate, is an extensively used pesticide. The main objective of this work was to assess the lethal and sublethal effects of Diazinon and its comparison with the uptake by embryos and larvae of the common South American toad Rhinella arenarum by means of standardized bioassays during acute (96 h), short-term chronic (168 h) and chronic (504 h) exposures. Toxicity resulted time- and stage-dependent, thus the lethal concentration 50 for 96 h, 168 h and 504 h were 27.2; 20.1 and 6.8 mg Diazinon L(-1) for embryos and 8, 6.7 and 1.9 mg Diazinon L(-1) for larvae. It is noteworthy the remarkable differences found in the concentration which caused lethality with those causing adverse effects on development such as malformations (teratogenic effects). Therefore, the teratogenic index from 144 h was greater than two; the main adverse effects were axial flexures, irregular borders, wavy tail, microcephaly, malformed mouth and adhesive structures, gut miscoiling, underdeveloped gills, cloacal edema, desquamation and severe hydropsy. Moreover, the characteristic sublethal effect of Diazinon on larvae was abnormal behavior related to neurotoxicity with a NOEC-168 h of 4.5 mg Diazinon L(-1). Diazinon contents in R. arenarum were time-dependent and significantly related to exposure concentration for both embryos and larvae. Diazinon contents were also stage-dependent, as it was up to 27 times higher for organisms exposed from blastula stage onwards than early larvae. These facts and the Hazard Quotients, a numerical expression of ecological risk, of 2.73, which is above USEPA's Level of Concern, showed the threat that Diazinon represents for R. arenarum populations.

  1. Development of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive systems in the brain of the larval lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis.

    PubMed

    Pierre-Simons, Jacqueline; Repérant, Jacques; Mahouche, Mohamed; Ward, Roger

    2002-05-27

    The development of the catecholaminergic system of the brain of the lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis) was studied with immunocytochemistry in a series of larvae of different sizes by using two different antibodies directed against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme of catecholamine synthesis. In group 1 larvae (length: 29-54 mm, ages: 8 months to 1.5 years), the only TH-immunoreactive somata observed were located in the caudal wall of the recessus praeopticus (RP) and in the nucleus tuberculi posterioris (NTP). In group 2 larvae (length: 55-80 mm, ages: 1.5-2.5 years), the somata of immunolabeled cells of the NTP give rise to fibers, most of which are ascending and terminate in the corpus striatum. Additional immunoreactive cells are observed in the nucleus praeopticus (NP), which has differentiated, and in the spinal cord. In group 3 larvae (length: 81-110 mm, ages: 2.5-4 years), the spatial distribution of TH-immunoreactive elements (somata, fibers, and terminals) bears many resemblances to that seen in the adult. Immunolabeled cells may be observed in the olfactory bulb, in the nucleus commissurae postopticae (NCP), and in the nucleus dorsalis hypothalami (NDH). Nevertheless, some groups of TH-immunoreactive cells found in the adult are not observed in group 3 larvae; these may appear during the metamorphic phase. By comparative analysis, we show that, in spite of several differences, the spatiotemporal sequence of appearance of TH-immunoreactive cell bodies and fibers in the lamprey presents many similarities to that described in gnathostomes.

  2. Effects of Sediment Containing Coal Ash from the Kingston Ash Release on Embryo-Larval Development in the Fathead Minnow, Pimephales promelas (Rafinesque, 1820)

    SciTech Connect

    Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen; Elmore, Logan R; McCracken, Kitty; Sherrard, Rick

    2014-01-01

    The largest environmental release of coal ash in U.S. history occurred in December 2008 with the failure of a retention structure at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant in East Tennessee. A byproduct of coal-burning power plants, coal ash is enriched in metals and metalloids such as selenium and arsenic with known toxicity to fish including embryonic and larval stages. The effects of contact exposure to sediments containing up to 78 % coal ash from the Kingston spill on the early development of fish embryos and larvae were examined in 7-day laboratory tests with the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). No significant effects were observed on hatching success, incidences of gross developmental abnormalities, or embryo-larval survival. Results suggest that direct exposures to sediment containing residual coal ash from the Kingston ash release may not present significant risks to fish eggs and larvae in waterways affected by the spill.

  3. Tyrosine pathway regulation is host-mediated in the pea aphid symbiosis during late embryonic and early larval development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nutritional symbioses play a central role in insects’ adaptation to specialized diets and in their evolutionary success. The obligatory symbiosis between the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and the bacterium, Buchnera aphidicola, is no exception as it enables this important agricultural pest insect to develop on a diet exclusively based on plant phloem sap. The symbiotic bacteria provide the host with essential amino acids lacking in its diet but necessary for the rapid embryonic growth seen in the parthenogenetic viviparous reproduction of aphids. The aphid furnishes, in exchange, non-essential amino acids and other important metabolites. Understanding the regulations acting on this integrated metabolic system during the development of this insect is essential in elucidating aphid biology. Results We used a microarray-based approach to analyse gene expression in the late embryonic and the early larval stages of the pea aphid, characterizing, for the first time, the transcriptional profiles in these developmental phases. Our analyses allowed us to identify key genes in the phenylalanine, tyrosine and dopamine pathways and we identified ACYPI004243, one of the four genes encoding for the aspartate transaminase (E.C. 2.6.1.1), as specifically regulated during development. Indeed, the tyrosine biosynthetic pathway is crucial for the symbiotic metabolism as it is shared between the two partners, all the precursors being produced by B. aphidicola. Our microarray data are supported by HPLC amino acid analyses demonstrating an accumulation of tyrosine at the same developmental stages, with an up-regulation of the tyrosine biosynthetic genes. Tyrosine is also essential for the synthesis of cuticular proteins and it is an important precursor for cuticle maturation: together with the up-regulation of tyrosine biosynthesis, we observed an up-regulation of cuticular genes expression. We were also able to identify some amino acid transporter genes which are

  4. Evaluation of anthelmintic activity in captive wild ruminants by fecal egg reduction tests and a larval development assay.

    PubMed

    Young, K E; Jensen, J M; Craig, T M

    2000-09-01

    The effectiveness of anthelmintics was evaluated in four herds of captive ruminants, wapiti (Cervus elaphus), Armenian red sheep (Ovis orientalis), giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), and pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), by the use of fecal egg reduction tests (FERTs) and a commercial larval development assay (LDA) designed to evaluate susceptibility or resistance of nematodes to anthelmintics. Haemonchus sp. was the predominant nematode in the red sheep, giraffe, and pronghorn herds, whereas Ostertagia sp. and Trichostrongylus sp. were predominant in the wapiti. The LDA data indicated susceptibility by the worms to benzimidazoles except in the red sheep flock, which showed a high level of resistance. High levels of resistance to levamisole were seen in the worm populations from the wapiti and red sheep, moderate resistance in the pronghorn herd, and susceptibility in the giraffe herd. Worms were susceptible in all four herds to a combination of benzimidazole/levamisole. There was suspected avermectin resistance by Trichostrongylus sp. in the wapiti herd and by Haemonchus sp. in the giraffe. The FERTs agreed with the LDA in showing the Haemonchus in the giraffe was susceptible to fenbendazole and had suspected resistance to ivermectin, whereas Haemonchus in the red sheep and pronghorn were susceptible to ivermectin. There was correlation between the tests evaluating anthelmintics. The LDA is useful as a screening test in the selection of an anthelmintic for use in grazing ruminants, but the effectiveness of a drug in a host species may depend as much on the dose used, and the method of administration, as it does on the parasite's sensitivity to the anthelmintic.

  5. Effects of Three Volatile Oxylipins on Colony Development in Two Species of Fungi and on Drosophila Larval Metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guohua; Padhi, Sally; Lee, Samantha; Hung, Richard; Zhao, Guozhu; Bennett, Joan W

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of three volatile oxylipins on colony development in two fungi and on Drosophila larval metamorphosis. Using an airborne exposure technique, three common and volatile oxylipins (1-octen-3-ol, (E)-2-hexenal, and 1-hexanol) were compared for their effects on spore germination and colony growth in Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum, as well as for their effects on the morphogenesis of larvae of Drosophila melanogaster. Conidia of both A. niger and P. chrysogenum plated in the presence of low concentrations (50 ppm) of these three volatile organic compounds (VOCs) formed fewer colony-forming units (CFUs) and exhibited reduced radial growth of colonies as compared to controls. When A. niger and P. chrysogenum spores were germinated in the presence of the enantiomers of 1-octen-3-ol, (R)-(-)-1-octen-3-ol had the greatest impact on colony morphology (decreased sporulation and colony diameter), while (S)-(+)-1-octen-3-ol and the racemic form yielded similar morphological changes but to a lesser extent. In addition, Drosophila larvae exposed to vapors of these oxylipins exhibited serious delays in metamorphosis and toxic effects on pupae and adult stages. Low concentration of these three VOCs can significantly inhibit the formation of CFUs and the growth of fungi. (R)-(-)-1-octen-3-ol imposed the greatest impact on fungal morphology compared to (S)-(+)-1-octen-3-ol and the racemic form. The three volatile oxylipins could also delay the metamorphosis of Drosophila and impose toxic effects on its pupae and adult stages.

  6. Toxicity evaluation of β-diketone antibiotics on the development of embryo-larval zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Wang, Huili; Che, Baoguang; Duan, Ailian; Mao, Jingwen; Dahlgren, Randy A; Zhang, Minghua; Zhang, Hongqin; Zeng, Aibing; Wang, Xuedong

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the effects of β-diketone antibiotics (DKAs) on the development of embryo-larval zebrafish (Danio rerio). When exposure to DKAs, developmental malformations, such as hatching delay, curved body axis, pericardial edema, uninflated swim bladder and yolk sac edema, were observed at 120 h postfertilization (hpf). The estimated 120 hpf nominal concentrations of no observed effect concentration and lowest observed effect concentration for DKAs were 18.75 and 37.50 mg/L, respectively, suggesting that DKAs have much lower toxicity than other persistent pollutants. Following DKA exposure, embryonic heart rates were significantly reduced as compared to the controls at 48 and 60 hpf. The peak bending motion frequency appeared 1 h earlier than in control embryos. The 2.34 and 9.38-mg/L treatment groups had a higher basal swim rate than control groups at 120 hpf in both light and light-to-dark photoperiod experiments. The occurrence of high speed swim rates was enhanced approximately threefold to sevenfold in the 2.34 and 9.38 mg/L treatments compared to the control. Glutathione (GSH) concentrations in the 2.34 and 9.38-mg/L treatments were significantly higher than the control at 72 hpf, suggesting that GSH production was induced at the end of the hatching period. When exposed to DKAs, zebrafish superoxide dismutase enzyme (SOD) activities were significantly inhibited in the early embryonic period, demonstrating that the clearing ability in zebrafish was lower than the generation rate of free radicals. In summary, the combined DKAs were developmentally toxic to zebrafish in their early life stages and had the ability to impair individual behaviors that are of great importance in the assessment of their ecological fitness.

  7. Differences in heat shock protein 70 expression during larval and early spat development in the Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, 1791).

    PubMed

    Ueda, Nobuo; Boettcher, Anne

    2009-07-01

    For a variety of species, changes in the expression of heat shock proteins (HSP) have been linked to key developmental changes, i.e., gametogenesis, embryogenesis, and metamorphosis. Many marine invertebrates are known to have a biphasic life cycle where pelagic larvae go through settlement and metamorphosis as they transition to the benthic life stage. A series of experiments were run to examine the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) during larval and early spat (initial benthic phase) development in the Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica. In addition, the impact of thermal stress on HSP 70 expression during these early stages was studied. C. virginica larvae and spat expressed three HSP 70 isoforms, two constitutive, HSC 77 and HSC 72, and one inducible, HSP 69. We found differences in the expression of both the constitutive and inducible forms of HSP 70 among larval and early juvenile stages and in response to thermal stress. Low expression of HSP 69 during early larval and spat development may be associated with the susceptibility of these stages to environmental stress. Although developmental regulation of HSP 70 expression has been widely recognized, changes in its expression during settlement and metamorphosis of marine invertebrates are still unknown. The results of the current study demonstrated a reduction of HSP 70 expression during settlement and metamorphosis in the Eastern oyster, C. virginica.

  8. Larval development of Lynceus brachyurus (Crustacea, Branchiopoda, Laevicaudata): redescription of unusual crustacean nauplii, with special attention to the molt between last nauplius and first juvenile.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Jørgen

    2005-05-01

    The larval development of "conchostracans" has received only scattered attention. Here I present the results of a study on the larval (naupliar) development and the metamorphosis of Lynceus brachyurus, a member of the bivalved branchiopod order the Laevicaudata. Lynceus brachyurus is the only species of the "Conchostraca" in Denmark. The phylogenetic position of the Laevicaudata has traditionally been a source of controversy, and this study does not solve the question completely. This work focuses on features potentially important for phylogeny. The general appearance of the larvae of L. brachyurus has been known for more than a century and a half, and some of its unique features include a large, larval dorsal shield; a huge, plate-like labrum; and a pair of immovable, horn-like antennules. However, many details relating to limb morphology, potentially important for phylogeny, have not been studied previously. Based on size categories, five or six larval stages can be recognized. The larvae approximately double their length and width during development (length: 230-520 microm). Most morphological features stay largely unchanged during development, but the antennal coxal masticatory spines are significant exceptions: they become bifid after one of the first molts. In all larval stages only the antennae and the mandibles actively move. In late naupliar stages the trunk limbs become visible as rows of laterally placed, undeveloped, and still immovable lobes. Swimming is performed by the antennae, whereas the mandibles appear to be involved mainly in feeding, as in other branchiopod larvae. The last naupliar stage undergoes a small metamorphosis to the first juvenile stage, the details of which in part were studied by following the premolt juvenile condition through the cuticle of the last stage nauplius. Among other changes there is a characteristic change in the shape and morphology of the univalved dorsal naupliar shield to a bivalved juvenile carapace. The general

  9. Interrenal and thyroid development in red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus): effects of nursery environment on larval growth and cortisol concentration during settlement.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Domínguez, Rafael; Holt, G Joan

    2006-04-01

    Red drum settle into shallow seagrass meadows during the larval stage. Day-night cycles in these habitats result in marked diel temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) cycles, and it is possible that extreme fluctuations influence endocrine development and growth of larvae. Here, we described red drum interrenal and thyroid ontogeny and determine responses to environmental stimuli with special emphasis on settlement to explore possible role of hormones as mediator of directive environmental factors. This study detected an early activation of thyroid and interrenal axis during the yolk-sac phase and a second activation of the thyroid starting at settlement size to the end of the larval period. Whole-body l-thyroxine (T4) and 3-5-3'-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3) showed a sharp decline at the juvenile stage. In contrast, cortisol steadily declines during the larval phase to a minimum before the end of the larval period. Older settlement-size larvae exposed to a strong stimulus increased whole body cortisol. In contrast, new settlers showed a minor cortisol rise suggesting changes on stress responsiveness during the ontogeny of the species. Additionally, settlement-size larvae exposed to various environmentally realistic temperature or DO fluctuations showed no difference in growth compared to fish grown under stable conditions (control). However, growth rate was significantly reduced in DO cycled fish with prolonged exposure to hypoxia. No differences were found in whole-body cortisol levels in the reduced growth treatment groups, suggesting that growth retardation was not related to a cortisol-mediated stress response. In moderate DO and temperature treatment groups, cortisol showed wider fluctuations than control groups during the night time that were not related to stress.

  10. Development of the larval amphibian growth and development assay: Effects of chronic 4-tert-octylphenol or 17ß-trenbolone exposure in Xenopus laevis from embryo to juvenile

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Larval Amphibian Growth and Development Assay (LAGDA) is a Tier II test guideline being developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency under the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. The LAGDA was designed to evaluate effects of chronic chemical exposure on growth, thy...

  11. CO2 induced seawater acidification impacts sea urchin larval development II: gene expression patterns in pluteus larvae.

    PubMed

    Stumpp, M; Dupont, S; Thorndyke, M C; Melzner, F

    2011-11-01

    Extensive use of fossil fuels is leading to increasing CO(2) concentrations in the atmosphere and causes changes in the carbonate chemistry of the oceans which represents a major sink for anthropogenic CO(2). As a result, the oceans' surface pH is expected to decrease by ca. 0.4 units by the year 2100, a major change with potentially negative consequences for some marine species. Because of their carbonate skeleton, sea urchins and their larval stages are regarded as likely to be one of the more sensitive taxa. In order to investigate sensitivity of pre-feeding (2 days post-fertilization) and feeding (4 and 7 days post-fertilization) pluteus larvae, we raised Strongylocentrotus purpuratus embryos in control (pH 8.1 and pCO(2) 41 Pa e.g. 399 μatm) and CO(2) acidified seawater with pH of 7.7 (pCO(2) 134 Pa e.g. 1318 μatm) and investigated growth, calcification and survival. At three time points (day 2, day 4 and day 7 post-fertilization), we measured the expression of 26 representative genes important for metabolism, calcification and ion regulation using RT-qPCR. After one week of development, we observed a significant difference in growth. Maximum differences in size were detected at day 4 (ca. 10% reduction in body length). A comparison of gene expression patterns using PCA and ANOSIM clearly distinguished between the different age groups (two-way ANOSIM: Global R=1) while acidification effects were less pronounced (Global R=0.518). Significant differences in gene expression patterns (ANOSIM R=0.938, SIMPER: 4.3% difference) were also detected at day 4 leading to the hypothesis that differences between CO(2) treatments could reflect patterns of expression seen in control experiments of a younger larva and thus a developmental artifact rather than a direct CO(2) effect. We found an up regulation of metabolic genes (between 10%and 20% in ATP-synthase, citrate synthase, pyruvate kinase and thiolase at day 4) and down regulation of calcification related genes

  12. Expression analysis of the insulin-like growth factors I and II during embryonic and early larval development of turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Haishen; Qi, Qian; Hu, Jian; Si, Yufeng; He, Feng; Li, Jifang

    2015-04-01

    The insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) are important proteins involved in fish growth and development. Here, we report the isolation of IGF-II and expression analysis of IGFs in turbot Scophthalmus maximus, aiming to clarify their function in embryonic and larval development of fish. The deduced IGF-II gene is 808 bp in full length, which encodes a protein of 219 amino acids and is 93% similar with that of Paralichthys olicaceus in amino acid sequence. The tissue abundance and the expression pattern of IGFs in a turbot at early development stages were investigated via reverse transcription-polymer chain reaction. Result showed that the IGF-I and IGF-II genes were widely expressed in tissues of S. maximus. IGF-I was detected in all tissues except intestines with the highest level in liver, while IGF-II transcript presented in all tissues except muscle. At the stages of embryonic and larval development, the mRNA levels of IGFs sharply increased from the stage of unfertilized egg to post larva, followed by a decrease with larval development. However, there was an increase in IGF-I at the embryonic stage and IGF-II at the gastrula stage, respectively. These results suggested that IGFs play important roles in cell growth and division of the turbot. Our study provides reference data for further investigation of growth regulation in turbot, which can guarantee better understanding of the physiological role that IGFs play in fish.

  13. Effects of chronic exposure to soft, acidic water on gill development and chloride cell numbers in embryo-larval brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conklin, D.J.; Mowbray, R.C.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1992-01-01

    Recruitment failure is considered to be a major factor contributing to the decline of fish populations in soft, acidic waters; direct mortality of embryo-larval fishes has been postulated as a major cause of the decline. Little is understood of the physiological consequences to embryo-larval fishes of prolonged exposure to soft, acidic waters; however, dysfunction of respiratory and ionoregulatory processes is suspected. In order to evaluate the effects of acid exposure on the respiratory and ionoregulatory systems of developing brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, differences in gill morphology and numbers of chloride cells were compared between groups cf developing embryo-larval fish continuously exposed to moderately hard well water (130.0 mg.l-1 as CaCO3, pH 7.94) or to reconstituted soft, acidic water (4.4 mg.l-1 as CaCO3, pH 5.25) designed to mimic acidic waters of northern Wisconsin acidified lakes. Exposures were maintained for up to 48 days (82 days after fertilization) during critical periods of growth and differentiation of branchial structures. The second right gill arch of each fish was examined for changes in the development of filaments and lamellae and for differences in numbers of chloride cells. Gills of fish that developed in soft, acidic water contained greater numbers of normal and degenerating chloride cells, exhibited hyperplasia of primary epithelium and multiple fusions of adjacent filaments and lamellar epithelium than the gills of control fish. Filament and lamellar lengths and numbers of lamellae per filament were significantly less (P< 0.05) in fish that developed in soft, acidic water than in fish exposed to well water.

  14. The Role of Maternal Nutrition on Oocyte Size and Quality, with Respect to Early Larval Development in The Coral-Eating Starfish, Acanthaster planci

    PubMed Central

    Pratchett, Morgan S.; Kerr, Alexander M.; Rivera-Posada, Jairo A.

    2016-01-01

    Variation in local environmental conditions can have pronounced effects on the population structure and dynamics of marine organisms. Previous studies on crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci, have primarily focused on effects of water quality and nutrient availability on larval growth and survival, while the role of maternal nutrition on reproduction and larval development has been overlooked. To examine the effects of maternal nutrition on oocyte size and early larval development in A. planci, we pre-conditioned females for 60 days on alternative diets of preferred coral prey (Acropora abrotanoides) versus non-preferred coral prey (Porites rus) and compared resulting gametes and progeny to those produced by females that were starved over the same period. Females fed ad libitum with Acropora increased in weight, produced heavier gonads and produced larger oocytes compared to Porites-fed and starved females. Fed starfish (regardless of whether it was Acropora or Porites) produced bigger larvae with larger stomachs and had a higher frequency of normal larvae that reached the late bipinnaria / early brachiolaria stage compared to starved starfish. Females on Acropora diet also produced a higher proportion of larvae that progressed to more advanced stages faster compared to Porites-fed starfish, which progressed faster than starved starfish. These results suggest that maternal provisioning can have important consequences for the quality and quantity of progeny. Because food quality (coral community structure) and quantity (coral abundance) varies widely among reef locations and habitats, local variation in maternal nutrition of A. planci is likely to moderate reproductive success and may explain temporal and spatial fluctuations in abundance of this species. PMID:27327627

  15. Detecting larval export from marine reserves

    PubMed Central

    Pelc, R. A.; Warner, R. R.; Gaines, S. D.; Paris, C. B.

    2010-01-01

    Marine reserve theory suggests that where large, productive populations are protected within no-take marine reserves, fished areas outside reserves will benefit through the spillover of larvae produced in the reserves. However, empirical evidence for larval export has been sparse. Here we use a simple idealized coastline model to estimate the expected magnitude and spatial scale of larval export from no-take marine reserves across a range of reserve sizes and larval dispersal scales. Results suggest that, given the magnitude of increased production typically found in marine reserves, benefits from larval export are nearly always large enough to offset increased mortality outside marine reserves due to displaced fishing effort. However, the proportional increase in recruitment at sites outside reserves is typically small, particularly for species with long-distance (on the order of hundreds of kilometers) larval dispersal distances, making it very difficult to detect in field studies. Enhanced recruitment due to export may be detected by sampling several sites at an appropriate range of distances from reserves or at sites downcurrent of reserves in systems with directional dispersal. A review of existing empirical evidence confirms the model's suggestion that detecting export may be difficult without an exceptionally large differential in production, short-distance larval dispersal relative to reserve size, directional dispersal, or a sampling scheme that encompasses a broad range of distances from the reserves. PMID:20181570

  16. Defining the chronic impacts of atenolol on embryo-larval development and reproduction in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    PubMed

    Winter, Matthew J; Lillicrap, Adam D; Caunter, John E; Schaffner, Christian; Alder, Alfredo C; Ramil, Maria; Ternes, Thomas A; Giltrow, Emma; Sumpter, John P; Hutchinson, Thomas H

    2008-02-18

    Atenolol is a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist ('beta-blocker') widely used for the treatment of angina, glaucoma, high blood pressure and other related conditions. Since atenolol is not appreciably metabolized in humans, the parent compound is the predominant excretory product, and has been detected in sewage effluent discharges and surface waters. Consequently, atenolol has been chosen as a reference pharmaceutical for a European Union-funded research consortium, known as ERAPharm (http://www.erapharm.org), which focused on the fate and effects of pharmaceuticals in the environment. Here, we present data generated within this project from studies assessing population-relevant effects in a freshwater fish species. Using fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) as a standard OECD test species, embryo-larval development (early life stage or ELS) and short-term (21 d) adult reproduction studies were undertaken. In the ELS study, the 4d embryo NOEC(hatching) and LOEC(hatching) values were 10 and >10mg/L, respectively, and after 28 d, NOEC(growth) and LOEC(growth) values were 3.2 and 10mg/L, respectively (arithmetic mean measured atenolol concentrations were >90% of these nominal values). In the short-term reproduction study, NOEC(reproduction) and LOEC(reproduction) values were 10 and >10mg/L, respectively (mean measured concentrations were 77-96% of nominal values), while the most sensitive endpoint was an increase in male fish condition index, giving NOEC(condition index) and LOEC(condition index) values of 1.0 and 3.2mg/L, respectively. The corresponding measured plasma concentration of atenolol in these fish was 0.0518 mg/L. These data collectively suggest that atenolol has low chronic toxicity to fish under the conditions described, particularly considering the low environmental concentrations reported. These data also allowed the assessment of two theoretical approaches proposed as predictors of the environmental impact of human pharmaceuticals: the Huggett

  17. Developmental and hormone-induced changes of mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme activities during the last instar larval development of maize stem borer, Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    VenkatRao, V; Chaitanya, R K; Naresh Kumar, D; Bramhaiah, M; Dutta-Gupta, A

    2016-12-01

    The energy demand for structural remodelling in holometabolous insects is met by cellular mitochondria. Developmental and hormone-induced changes in the mitochondrial respiratory activity during insect metamorphosis are not well documented. The present study investigates activities of enzymes of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) namely, NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase or complex I, Succinate: ubiquinone oxidoreductase or complex II, Ubiquinol:ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase or complex III, cytochrome c oxidase or complex IV and F1F0ATPase (ATPase), during Chilo partellus development. Further, the effect of juvenile hormone (JH) analog, methoprene, and brain and corpora-allata-corpora-cardiaca (CC-CA) homogenates that represent neurohormones, on the ETC enzyme activities was monitored. The enzymatic activities increased from penultimate to last larval stage and thereafter declined during pupal development with an exception of ATPase which showed high enzyme activity during last larval and pupal stages compared to the penultimate stage. JH analog, methoprene differentially modulated ETC enzyme activities. It stimulated complex I and IV enzyme activities, but did not alter the activities of complex II, III and ATPase. On the other hand, brain homogenate declined the ATPase activity while the injected CC-CA homogenate stimulated complex I and IV enzyme activities. Cumulatively, the present study is the first to show that mitochondrial ETC enzyme system is under hormone control, particularly of JH and neurohormones during insect development.

  18. Embryonic and Larval Development and Early Behavior in Grass Carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella: Implications for Recruitment in Rivers

    PubMed Central

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

    2015-01-01

    With recent findings of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in tributaries of the Great Lakes, information on developmental rate and larval behavior is critical to efforts to assess the potential for establishment within the tributaries of that region. In laboratory experiments, grass carp were spawned and eggs and larvae reared at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”, and tracked for developmental rate, egg size, and behavior. Developmental rate was quantified using Yi’s (1988) developmental stages and the cumulative thermal units method. Grass carp had a thermal minimum of 13.5°C for embryonic stages and 13.3°C for larval stages. Egg size was related to temperature and maternal size, with the largest eggs coming from the largest females, and eggs were generally larger in warmer treatments. Young grass carp larvae exhibited upward and downward swimming interspersed with long periods of lying on the bottom. Swimming capacity increased with ontogeny, and larvae were capable of horizontal swimming and position holding with gas bladder emergence. Developmental rates, behavior, and egg attributes can be used in combination with physical parameters of a river to assess the risk that grass carp are capable of reproduction and recruitment in rivers. PMID:25822837

  19. Milt characteristics, reproductive performance, and larval survival and development of white sucker exposed to bleached kraft mill effluent

    SciTech Connect

    McMaster, M.E.; Portt, C.B.; Munkittrick, K.R.; Dixon, D.G. )

    1992-02-01

    White sucker from a Lake Superior bay which receives bleached kraft mill effluent (BKME) show increased hepatic mixed-function oxygenase (MFO) activity, reduced plasma sex steroid levels, decreased egg and gonad size, a decrease in the occurrence of secondary sexual characteristics, and an increased age to maturation. This study evaluated the reproductive performance of that white sucker population relative to a similar reference population. Spawning male white sucker from the BKME site had reduced spermatozoan motility but no significant differences in milt volume, spermatocrit levels, or seminal plasma constituents. BKME male and female fish had equal or greater fertilization potential compared to both male and female fish at the reference site. There was no difference either in the hatchability of the eggs or in larval size at hatch. BKME larvae did show reduced growth rates by 24 days posthatch but showed equal rates of yolk utilization. No difference in larval MFO activity was detected between sites at 21 days posthatch, indicating no parental transfer of induction to the progeny.

  20. Embryonic and larval development and early behavior in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella: implications for recruitment in rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

    2015-01-01

    With recent findings of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in tributaries of the Great Lakes, information on developmental rate and larval behavior is critical to efforts to assess the potential for establishment within the tributaries of that region. In laboratory experiments, grass carp were spawned and eggs and larvae reared at two temperature treatments, one "cold" and one "warm", and tracked for developmental rate, egg size, and behavior. Developmental rate was quantified using Yi's (1988) developmental stages and the cumulative thermal units method. Grass carp had a thermal minimum of 13.5°C for embryonic stages and 13.3°C for larval stages. Egg size was related to temperature and maternal size, with the largest eggs coming from the largest females, and eggs were generally larger in warmer treatments. Young grass carp larvae exhibited upward and downward swimming interspersed with long periods of lying on the bottom. Swimming capacity increased with ontogeny, and larvae were capable of horizontal swimming and position holding with gas bladder emergence. Developmental rates, behavior, and egg attributes can be used in combination with physical parameters of a river to assess the risk that grass carp are capable of reproduction and recruitment in rivers.

  1. Milt characteristics, reproductive performance, and larval survival and development of white sucker exposed to bleached kraft mill effluent.

    PubMed

    McMaster, M E; Portt, C B; Munkittrick, K R; Dixon, D G

    1992-02-01

    White sucker from a Lake Superior bay which receives bleached kraft mill effluent (BKME) show increased hepatic mixed-function oxygenase (MFO) activity, reduced plasma sex steroid levels, decreased egg and gonad size, a decrease in the occurrence of secondary sexual characteristics, and an increased age to maturation. This study evaluated the reproductive performance of that white sucker population relative to a similar reference population. Spawning male white sucker from the BKME site had reduced spermatozoan motility but no significant differences in milt volume, spermatocrit levels, or seminal plasma constituents. BKME male and female fish had equal or greater fertilization potential compared to both male and female fish at the reference site. There was no difference either in the hatchability of the eggs or in larval size at hatch. BKME larvae did show reduced growth rates by 24 days posthatch but showed equal rates of yolk utilization. No difference in larval MFO activity was detected between sites at 21 days posthatch, indicating no parental transfer of induction to the progeny.

  2. Differential patterns of accumulation and retention of dietary trace elements associated with coal ash during larval development and metamorphosis of an amphibian.

    PubMed

    Heyes, Andrew; Rowe, Christopher L; Conrad, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    We performed an experiment in which larval gray tree frogs (Hyla chrysoscelis) were raised through metamorphosis on diets increased with a suite of elements associated with coal combustion residues (silver [Ag], arsenic [As], cadmium [Cd], chromium [Cr], copper [Cu], mercury [Hg], lead [Pb], selenium [Se], vanadium [V], and zinc [Zn]) at "low" and "high" concentrations. We quantified accumulation of metals at three life stages (mid-larval development, initiation of metamorphosis, and completion of metamorphosis) as well as effects on survival, metabolic rate, size at metamorphosis, and duration and loss of weight during metamorphosis. Most elements were accumulated in a dose-dependent pattern by some or all life stages, although this was not the case for Hg. For most elements, larval body burdens exceeded those of later life stages in some or all treatments (control, low, or high). However for Se, As, and Hg, body burdens in control and low concentrations were increased in later compared with earlier life stages. A lack of dose-dependent accumulation of Hg suggests that the presence of high concentrations of other elements (possibly Se) either inhibited accumulation or increased depuration of Hg. The duration of metamorphosis (forelimb emergence through tail resorption) was lengthened in individuals exposed to the highest concentrations of elements, but there were no other statistically significant biological effects. This study shows that patterns of accumulation and possibly depuration of metals and trace elements are complex in animals possessing complex life cycles. Further study is required to determine specific interactions affecting these patterns, in particular which elements may be responsible for affecting accumulation or retention of Hg when organisms are exposed to complex mixtures of elements.

  3. Incidence and impact of axial malformations in larval bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) developing in sites polluted by a coal-burning power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, W.A.; Congdon, J.; Ray, J.K.

    2000-04-01

    Amphibian malformations have recently received much attention from the scientific community, but few studies have provided evidence linking environmental pollution to larval amphibian malformations in the field. The authors document an increased incidence of axial malformations in bullfrog larvae (Rana catesbeiana) inhabiting two sites contaminated with coal combustion wastes. In the polluted sites, 18 and 37% of larvae exhibited lateral curvatures of the spine, whereas zero and 4% of larvae from two reference sites had similar malformations. Larvae from the most heavily polluted site had significantly higher tissue concentrations of potentially toxic trace elements, including As, Cd, Se, Cu, Cr, and V, compared with conspecifics from the reference sites. In addition, malformed larvae from the cost contaminated site had decreased swimming speeds compared with those of normal larvae from the same site. The authors hypothesize that the complex mixture of contaminants produced by coal combustion is responsible for the high incidence of malformations and associated effects on swimming performance.

  4. EGF-mediated EGFR/ERK signaling pathway promotes germinative cell proliferation in Echinococcus multilocularis that contributes to larval growth and development

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiu; Dai, Mengya; Wu, Jianjian; Guo, Xinrui; Tian, Huimin; Heng, Zhijie; Lu, Ying; Chai, Xiaoli

    2017-01-01

    Background Larvae of the tapeworm E. multilocularis cause alveolar echinococcosis (AE), one of the most lethal helminthic infections in humans. A population of stem cell-like cells, the germinative cells, is considered to drive the larval growth and development within the host. The molecular mechanisms controlling the behavior of germinative cells are largely unknown. Methodology/Principal findings Using in vitro cultivation systems we show here that the EGFR/ERK signaling in the parasite can promote germinative cell proliferation in response to addition of human EGF, resulting in stimulated growth and development of the metacestode larvae. Inhibition of the signaling by either the EGFR inhibitors CI-1033 and BIBW2992 or the MEK/ERK inhibitor U0126 impairs germinative cell proliferation and larval growth. Conclusions/Significance These data demonstrate the contribution of EGF-mediated EGFR/ERK signaling to the regulation of germinative cells in E. multilocularis, and suggest the EGFR/ERK signaling as a potential therapeutic target for AE and perhaps other human cestodiasis. PMID:28241017

  5. Nitric oxide affects ERK signaling through down-regulation of MAP kinase phosphatase levels during larval development of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Castellano, Immacolata; Ercolesi, Elena; Palumbo, Anna

    2014-01-01

    In the ascidian Ciona intestinalis larval development and metamorphosis require a complex interplay of events, including nitric oxide (NO) production, MAP kinases (ERK, JNK) and caspase-3 activation. We have previously shown that NO levels affect the rate of metamorphosis, regulate caspase activity and promote an oxidative stress pathway, resulting in protein nitration. Here, we report that NO down-regulates MAP kinase phosphatases (mkps) expression affecting positively ERK signaling. By pharmacological approach, we observed that the reduction of endogenous NO levels caused a decrease of ERK phosphorylation, whereas increasing levels of NO induced ERK activation. We have also identified the ERK gene network affected by NO, including mpk1, mpk3 and some key developmental genes by quantitative gene expression analysis. We demonstrate that NO induces an ERK-independent down-regulation of mkp1 and mkp3, responsible for maintaining the ERK phosphorylation levels necessary for transcription of key metamorphic genes, such as the hormone receptor rev-erb and the van willebrand protein vwa1c. These results add new insights into the role played by NO during larval development and metamorphosis in Ciona, highlighting the cross-talk between different signaling pathways.

  6. Differential cytokine and antibody responses to adult and larval stages of Onchocerca volvulus consistent with the development of concomitant immunity.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Angus J; Turaga, Prasad S D; Harmon-Brown, Carolyn; Tierney, Tracy J; Bennett, Kristine E; McCarthy, Maggie C; Simonek, Scott C; Enyong, Peter A; Moukatte, Daniel W; Lustigman, Sara

    2002-06-01

    The possibility of concomitant immunity and its potential mechanisms in Onchocerca volvulus infection were examined by analyzing cytokine and antibody responses to infective larval (third-stage larvae [L3] and molting L3 [mL3]), adult female worm (F-OvAg), and skin microfilaria (Smf) antigens in infected individuals in a region of hyperendemicity in Cameroon as a function of age. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell interleukin 5 (IL-5) responses to F-OvAg and Smf declined significantly with age (equivalent to years of exposure to O. volvulus). In contrast, IL-5 secretion in response to L3 and mL3 remained elevated with increasing age. Gamma interferon responses to L3, mL3, and F-OvAg were low or suppressed and unrelated to age, except for responses to Smf in older subjects. IL-10 levels were uniformly elevated, regardless of age, in response to L3, mL3, and F-OvAg but not to Smf, for which levels declined with age. A total of 49 to 60% of subjects had granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor responses to all O. volvulus antigens unrelated to age. Analysis of levels of stage-specific immunoglobulin G3 (IgG3) and IgE revealed a striking, age-dependent dissociation between antibody responses to larval antigens (L3 and a recombinant L3-specific protein, O. volvulus ALT-1) which were significantly increased or maintained with age and antibody responses to F-OvAg, which decreased. Levels of IgG1 to L3 and F-OvAg were elevated regardless of age, and levels of IgG4 increased significantly with age, although not to O. volvulus ALT-1, which may have unique L3-specific epitopes. Immunofluorescence staining of whole larvae showed that total anti-L3 immunoglobulin levels also increased with the age of the serum donor. The separate and distinct cytokine and antibody responses to adult and infective larval stages of O. volvulus which are age related are consistent with the acquisition of concomitant immunity in infected individuals.

  7. Identification of the essential protein domains for Mib2 function during the development of the Drosophila larval musculature and adult flight muscles

    PubMed Central

    Domsch, Katrin; Acs, Andreas; Obermeier, Claudia; Nguyen, Hanh T.

    2017-01-01

    The proper differentiation and maintenance of myofibers is fundamental to a functional musculature. Disruption of numerous mostly structural factors leads to perturbations of these processes. Among the limited number of known regulatory factors for these processes is Mind bomb2 (Mib2), a muscle-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase, which was previously established to be required for maintaining the integrity of larval muscles. In this study, we have examined the mechanistic aspects of Mib2 function by performing a detailed functional dissection of the Mib2 protein. We show that the ankyrin repeats, in its entirety, and the hitherto uncharacterized Mib-specific domains (MIB), are important for the major function of Mib2 in skeletal and visceral muscles in the Drosophila embryo. Furthermore, we characterize novel mib2 alleles that have arisen from a forward genetic screen aimed at identifying regulators of myogenesis. Two of these alleles are viable, but flightless hypomorphic mib2 mutants, and harbor missense mutations in the MIB domain and RING finger, respectively. Functional analysis of these new alleles, including in vivo imaging, demonstrates that Mib2 plays an additional important role in the development of adult thorax muscles, particularly in maintaining the larval templates for the dorsal longitudinal indirect flight muscles during metamorphosis. PMID:28282454

  8. Metamorphosis of a clock: remodeling of the circadian timing system in the brain of Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera) during larval-adult development.

    PubMed

    Vafopoulou, Xanthe; Steel, Colin G H

    2012-04-15

    The rhythmic phenomena expressed by organisms change over their lifetimes, but little is known of accompanying reorganization of the central circadian timing system in the brain. Especially dramatic changes in overt rhythms and morphology occur during transformation of larval insects into the adult form (metamorphosis). In Rhodnius prolixus, both the physiology of metamorphosis and its hormonal control are known in detail. Here we report changes in the brain timing system as revealed by pigment dispersing factor immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. Most of the features of the larval system are retained, but new clock cells differentiate and the arborizations of their axons increase in complexity, as do pathways connecting the lateral (LNs) and dorsal (DNs) groups of clock neurons. Early in metamorphosis, the LNs increase from 8 to 11 in number, becoming five small and six large LNs. Two large LNs then migrate to new positions in the protocerebrum. Another clock cell differentiates in the posterior protocerebrum. Each change occurs at a characteristic concentration of the ecdysteroid molting hormones that regulate metamorphosis. Clock cell axons invade the mushroom body and corpus allatum and travel down the ventral nerve cord. New overt rhythms develop during metamorphosis, in which these structures participate. The neuroendocrine cells of the brain receive more extensive branches of clock cell axons than in larvae. These increases in size and complexity of the circadian system during metamorphosis imply a greater complexity and diversity of outputs from it to both behavioral and hormonal rhythms in the adult.

  9. Environmental concentrations of the cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine induced sublethal toxicity in the development of plants but not in a zebrafish embryo-larval model.

    PubMed

    García-Cambero, J P; García-Cortés, H; Valcárcel, Y; Catalá, M

    2015-12-30

    Several studies have found cocaine and its main active metabolite benzoylecgonine (BE) in the aquatic environment and drinking water, derived from its consumption by humans as well as the inability of water treatment processes to eliminate it. A few studies have already investigated the ecotoxicology of BE to aquatic invertebrates, but none has still addressed the effects of BE on aquatic vertebrates or vascular plants. The goal of this publication is to provide information on the toxicity of environmental concentrations of BE during animal and vascular plant development, in order to contribute to a better understanding of the potential risk of this substance for the environment. BE induced alterations in mitochondrial activity and DNA levels of fern spores at environmental concentrations (1 ng L(-1)), which could disrupt gametophyte germination. However, BE at concentrations ranging from 1 ng L(-1) to 1 mg L(-1) did not disturb morphogenesis, hatching, heartbeat rate or larval motility in a zebrafish embryo-larval model. Adverse effects on ferns agree with the allelophathic role described for alkaloids and their unspecific interference with plant germination. Therefore, the anthropogenic dispersion of alkaloid allelochemicals may pose a risk for biodiversity and irrigated food production that should be further investigated.

  10. Effects of Phaseolus vulgaris (Fabaceae) seed coat on the embryonic and larval development of the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    de Sá, Leonardo Figueira Reis; Wermelinger, Tierry Torres; Ribeiro, Elane da Silva; Gravina, Geraldo de Amaral; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales; Xavier-Filho, José; Venancio, Thiago Motta; Rezende, Gustavo Lazzaro; Oliveira, Antonia Elenir Amancio

    2014-01-01

    Bruchid beetles infest various seeds. The seed coat is the first protective barrier against bruchid infestation. Although non-host seed coats often impair the oviposition, eclosion and survival of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus larvae, morphological and biochemical aspects of this phenomenon remain unclear. Here we show that Phaseolus vulgaris (non-host) seed coat reduced C. maculatus female oviposition about 48%, increased 83% the seed penetration time, reduced larval mass and survival about 62 % and 40 % respectively. Interestingly, we found no visible effect on the major events of insect embryogenesis, namely the formation of the cellular blastoderm, germ band extension/retraction, embryo segmentation, appendage formation and dorsal closure. Larvae fed on P. vulgaris seed coat have greater FITC fluorescence signal in the midgut than in the feces, as opposed to what is observed in control larvae fed on Vigna unguiculata. Cysteine protease, α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities were reduced in larvae fed on P. vulgaris natural seed coat. Taken together, our results suggest that although P. vulgaris seed coat does not interfere with C. maculatus embryonic development, food digestion was clearly compromised, impacting larval fitness (e.g. body mass and survivability).

  11. EVIDENCE THAT ECDYSIS IN THE LARVAL COCKROACH, Periplaneta americana L. IS TRIGGERED BY AN INCREASE IN THE CONCENTRATION OF HEMOLYMPH SUGAR.

    PubMed

    Steele, John E

    2016-07-01

    Ecdysis in insects can be defined as shedding of the cuticle at the end of a larval stadium. This event can only occur after the peak titer of ecdysteroid in the hemolymph has returned to a low level. In the cockroach Periplaneta americana, ecdysis is strongly correlated with a rise in the concentration of trehalose and glucose in the hemolymph, leading to the idea that a causal relationship may exist between both events. The objective in this study was to determine if an increase in hemolymph sugar level would shorten the time to ecdysis in cockroach larvae with experimentally delayed ecdysis. The last larval stadium of P. americana averages 33.5 days but this increases significantly if the larva is injected with a small volume of saline. Injection of 10 μl of saline on day 20 and on four successive days lengthened the stadium by as much as 2 weeks. If, however, trehalose or glucose is incorporated into the saline, approximately 40% of the treated larvae undergo ecdysis at the same time as uninjected larvae. Injection of Peram-AKH, the hypertrehalosemic hormone, also decreases the time for ecdysis to occur. This suggests that peak levels of ecdysteroid trigger the release of Peram-AKH, which then leads to activation of trehalose synthesis. The results support the hypothesis that elevated hemolymph sugar is a contributing factor in the removal of ecdysteroid from the hemolymph.

  12. Regional distribution of calretinin and calbindin-D28k expression in the brain of the urodele amphibian Pleurodeles waltl during embryonic and larval development.

    PubMed

    Joven, Alberto; Morona, Ruth; Moreno, Nerea; González, Agustín

    2013-07-01

    The sequence of appearance of calretinin and calbindin-D28k immunoreactive (CRir and CBir, respectively) cells and fibers has been studied in the brain of the urodele amphibian Pleurodeles waltl. Embryonic, larval and juvenile stages were studied. The early expression and the dynamics of the distribution of CBir and CRir structures have been used as markers for developmental aspects of distinct neuronal populations, highlighting the accurate extent of many regions in the developing brain, not observed on the basis of cytoarchitecture alone. CR and, to a lesser extent, CB are expressed early in the central nervous system and show a progressively increasing expression from the embryonic stages throughout the larval life and, in general, the labeled structures in the developing brain retain their ability to express these proteins in the adult brain. The onset of CRir cells primarily served to follow the development of the olfactory bulbs, subpallium, thalamus, alar hypothalamus, mesencephalic tegmentum, and distinct cell populations in the rhombencephalic reticular formation. CBir cells highlighted the development of, among others, the pallidum, hypothalamus, dorsal habenula, midbrain tegmentum, cerebellum, and central gray of the rostral rhombencephalon. However, it was the relative and mostly segregated distribution of both proteins in distinct cell populations which evidenced the developing regionalization of the brain. The results have shown the usefulness in neuroanatomy of the analysis during development of the onset of CBir and CRir structures, but the comparison with previous data has shown extensive variability across vertebrate classes. Therefore, one should be cautious when comparing possible homologue structures across species only on the basis of the expression of these proteins, due to the variation of the content of calcium-binding proteins observed in well-established homologous regions in the brain of different vertebrates.

  13. Influence of salinity on the larval development of the fiddler crab Uca vocator (Ocypodidae) as an indicator of ontogenetic migration towards offshore waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jesus de Brito Simith, Darlan; de Souza, Adelson Silva; Maciel, Cristiana Ramalho; Abrunhosa, Fernando Araújo; Diele, Karen

    2012-03-01

    Larvae of many marine decapod crustaceans are released in unpredictable habitats with strong salinity fluctuations during the breeding season. In an experimental laboratory study, we investigated the influence of seven different salinities (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30) on the survival and development time of fiddler crab zoea larvae, Uca vocator, from northern Brazilian mangroves. The species reproduces during the rainy season when estuarine salinity strongly fluctuates and often reaches values below 10 and even 5. Salinity significantly affected the survival rate and development period from hatching to megalopa, while the number of zoeal stages remained constant. In salinities 0 and 5, no larvae reached the second zoeal stage, but they managed to survive for up to 3 (average of 2.3 days) and 7 days (average of 5.1 days), respectively. From salinity 10 onwards, the larvae developed to the megalopal stage. However, the survival rate was significantly lower (5-15%) and development took more time (average of 13.5 days) in salinity 10 than in the remaining salinities (15-30). In the latter, survival ranged from 80-95% and development took 10-11 days. Given the 100% larval mortality in extremely low salinities and their increased survival in intermediate and higher salinities, we conclude that U. vocator has a larval `export' strategy with its larvae developing in offshore waters where salinity conditions are more stable and higher than in mangrove estuaries. Thus, by means of ontogenetic migration, osmotic stress and resulting mortality in estuarine waters can be avoided.

  14. Electron microscopic analysis of Drosophila midline glia during embryogenesis and larval development using beta-galactosidase expression as endogenous cell marker.

    PubMed

    Stollewerk, A; Klămbt, C; Cantera, R

    1996-10-15

    To thoroughly study developmental problems it is often desirable to identify specific cells at the resolution of the electron microscope (TEM). Specific antibodies, and immunogold and other antibody labelling techniques can be successfully used with the TEM. But for these techniques to be successful there must be substantial adjustments for each antibody and tissue analyzed. To develop a more generally applicable labelling method we took advantage of the enhancer trap technique in Drosophila. Enhancer trap fly strains show cell- and/or tissue-specific beta-galactosidase expression which can be visualized by a simple X-gal staining procedure. To combine the power of the enhancer trap approach with electron microscopy, we have improved the fixation and staining conditions, which allow detection of X-gal crystals (by TEM) and thus provide precise information on ultrastructural morphology. We have tested our technique using the well-known midline glial cells and examined these cells between late embryonic and pupal developmental stages. The four embryonic midline glial cells found in each neuromere reside ventrally and dorsally to the midline of the neuropile and are closely associated with unpaired neurons, major commissures, and other types of glial cells. During larval and pupal life dramatic cell growth and endomitotic nuclear replication occur in midline glial cells. By the end of larval life, the giant midline glial cells fragment to give rise to a variable number of small midline glial cells. Here we show that the combination of transmission electron microscopy with cytochemical detection of beta-galactosidase expression represents a promising and valuable tool for the study of the morphology and development of specific cell types.

  15. Expression patterns of two heat-shock cognate 70 genes during immune responses and larval development of the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis.

    PubMed

    Li, P; Jiang, X F; Guo, W B; Yan, J; Zhou, K Y

    2016-09-16

    Two heat-shock protein (HSP) 70 family transcripts, heat-shock protein 70 cognate 5 and heat-shock protein 70 cognate 3 (designated as EsHSC70-5 and EsHSC70-3, respectively), were isolated from the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis and their expression profiles were evaluated for their responsiveness to larval development and immune challenge in adult crabs. The HSPs exhibited 45-89% identity with other heat-shock proteins, and they shared similar structural features. EsHSC70 mRNA expression was detected not only during infection but also during the developmental larval stages. The EsHSC70s were enriched, and their expression fluctuated during early development. EsHSC70 mRNA expression was significantly induced by Vibrio parahaemolyticus challenge in all of the tissues studied (P < 0.05). Expression of EsHSC70 mRNA in the hepatopancreas and at the early zoeal stages was particularly pronounced, and the two EsHSC70s exhibited differential expression patterns both chronologically and spatially. The EsHSC70-5 mRNA level was significantly downregulated in the intestine and gills compared to that in controls at nearly all time points, and was expressed at a lower level after the bacterial challenge, indicating that EsHSC70-5 and EsHSC70-3 respond to immune challenges. The stage-specific enrichment of EsHSC70 transcripts in crabs suggests that these stress proteins play an essential role during brachyurization events.

  16. Larval development and morphogenesis of the sea spider Pycnogonum litorale (Ström, 1762) and the tagmosis of the body of Pantopoda.

    PubMed

    Vilpoux, Kathia; Waloszek, Dieter

    2003-12-01

    Aspects of pantopod ontogeny have been known for a long time, but specific information is available for only a few species. Our account of the postembryonic development of Pycnogonum litorale is based on laboratory-reared individuals and SEM studies. We documented particularly all early developmental stages, with emphasis on morphogenetic changes of head structures and appendages. In P. litorale the protonymphal limbs, the chelicerae and two more uniramous legs, degenerate already during the larval phase; only the third one, the ovigers, reappears in male juveniles. Other Pantopoda vary in this aspect from retention of all three protonymphal appendages to their complete reduction, as in P. litorale. Accordingly, the two post-cheliceral larval appendages are separate legs in front of the walking legs in the adults, the 'parapalps' and the 'ovigers', but they do not occur in all pantopods. The scarcity of studies of the ontogeny of Pantopoda prevents us from a more conclusive picture, but our data are promising to state that additional such studies will increase the usability of ontogenetic data for a phylogenetic analysis of Pantopoda, the crown group of the Pycnogonida. We also discuss the phylogenetic implications of our data in the light of new information from Hox genes and developmental-biological data on body segmentation and tagmosis of the Chelicerata. These suggest the homology of chelicerae and antenn(ul)ae of other euarthropods. Accepting this, we conclude that the adult pycnogonid/pantopod head, the cephalosoma, corresponds to the euarthropod head and that the protonymph with three appendage-bearing segments may represent an even shorter, possibly phylogenetically older larval type than the euarthropod 'head larva' bearing four pairs of appendages. In further consequence, the fourth walking legs of Pycnogonida/Pantopoda should correspond to the first opisthosomal appendages, the chilaria, of euchelicerates. This implies that within Pycnogonida the post

  17. Effect of juvenile hormone analog, methoprene on H-fibroin regulation during the last instar larval development of Corcyra cephalonica.

    PubMed

    Chaitanya, R K; Sridevi, P; Senthilkumaran, B; Dutta Gupta, Aparna

    2013-01-15

    Juvenile hormone (JH) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), co-ordinately orchestrate insect growth and development. The process of silk synthesis and secretion in lepidopteran insects is known to be under hormonal control. However, the role of JH in this process has not been demonstrated hitherto. The present study is aimed to elucidate the role of JH in H-fibroin regulation in Corcyra cephalonica, a serious lepidopteran pest. Reiterated amino acid stretches and the large molecular weight of H-fibroin render its cloning and characterization cumbersome. To address this, a commercially synthesized short amino acid peptide conjugated with a carrier protein was used to generate antibodies against the N-terminal region of H-fibroin. ELISA and immunoblot experiments demonstrated the sensitivity and specificity of antibody. Further, immunohistochemical analyses revealed the antibody's cross-reactivity with H-fibroins of C. cephalonica and Bombyx mori in the silk gland lumen. Quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analysis demonstrated the tissue-specificity and developmental expression of H-fibroin. Hormonal studies revealed that JH alone does not alter the expression of H-fibroin. However, in the presence 20E, JH reverses the declined expression caused by 20E administration to normal levels. This study provides molecular evidence for the regulation of H-fibroin by the cumulative action of JH and 20E.

  18. Oceanography promotes self-recruitment in a planktonic larval disperser

    PubMed Central

    Teske, Peter R.; Sandoval-Castillo, Jonathan; van Sebille, Erik; Waters, Jonathan; Beheregaray, Luciano B.

    2016-01-01

    The application of high-resolution genetic data has revealed that oceanographic connectivity in marine species with planktonic larvae can be surprisingly limited, even in the absence of major barriers to dispersal. Australia’s southern coast represents a particularly interesting system for studying planktonic larval dispersal, as the hydrodynamic regime of the wide continental shelf has potential to facilitate onshore retention of larvae. We used a seascape genetics approach (the joint analysis of genetic data and oceanographic connectivity simulations) to assess population genetic structure and self-recruitment in a broadcast-spawning marine gastropod that exists as a single meta-population throughout its temperate Australian range. Levels of self-recruitment were surprisingly high, and oceanographic connectivity simulations indicated that this was a result of low-velocity nearshore currents promoting the retention of planktonic larvae in the vicinity of natal sites. Even though the model applied here is comparatively simple and assumes that the dispersal of planktonic larvae is passive, we find that oceanography alone is sufficient to explain the high levels of genetic structure and self-recruitment. Our study contributes to growing evidence that sophisticated larval behaviour is not a prerequisite for larval retention in the nearshore region in planktonic-developing species. PMID:27687507

  19. Post-larval development of the microcotylid monogenean Sparicotyle chrysophrii (Van Beneden and Hesse, 1863): comparison with species of Microcotylidae and Heteraxinidae.

    PubMed

    Repullés-Albelda, Aigües; Raga, Juan A; Montero, Francisco E

    2011-12-01

    The chronology of post-larval development in S. chrysophrii, a polyopisthocotylean monogenean parasite of the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.), was experimentally studied. It is compared with other species within the Microcotylidae and the Heteraxinidae, including an analysis of the changes in attachment and the growth rate. Gilthead seabreams infected by larvae of S. chrysophrii were killed periodically in order to collect the different developmental stages. Parasite total body length, haptor length, largest clamp width, and total number of clamps were recorded. Specimens of S. chrysophrii in culture conditions at 20°C became gravid after 26-30 days, with 37 pairs of clamps. The S. chrysophrii growth curve appears to be sigmoid with 3 growth periods (slow-fast-slow). The haptor of S. chrysophrii grows linearly with total body length, but the main contribution to total body length growth is that of the non-haptoral body. The relationship between number of clamps and total body length during development can be fitted to an exponential curve for all the reviewed species, i.e.: Microcotyle spinicirrus, Microcotyle donavini, Microcotyle gotoi, Microcotyle sebastis, Microcotyle hiatulae, Polylabroides multispinosus, Bivagina tai, Heteraxinoides xanthophilis, Heteraxine heterocerca, and Zeuxapta seriolae. The sequence of events was common for all of the species compared: terminal lappet is lost when about 15% of clamps were developed; primordia of testes at approximately 30% of clamps developed, and maturity (as first egg appearance) at about 65% of clamps developed.

  20. Liganded thyroid hormone receptor induces nucleosome removal and histone modifications to activate transcription during larval intestinal cell death and adult stem cell development.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Kazuo; Fujimoto, Kenta; Fu, Liezhen; Shi, Yun-Bo

    2012-02-01

    Thyroid hormone (T(3)) plays an important role in regulating multiple cellular and metabolic processes, including cell proliferation, cell death, and energy metabolism, in vertebrates. Dysregulation of T(3) signaling results in developmental abnormalities, metabolic defects, and even cancer. We used T(3)-dependent Xenopus metamorphosis as a model to study how T(3) regulates transcription during vertebrate development. T(3) exerts its metamorphic effects through T(3) receptors (TR). TR recruits, in a T(3)-dependent manner, cofactor complexes that can carry out chromatin remodeling/histone modifications. Whether and how histone modifications change upon gene regulation by TR during vertebrate development is largely unknown. Here we analyzed histone modifications at T(3) target genes during intestinal metamorphosis, a process that involves essentially total apoptotic degeneration of the simple larval epithelium and de novo development of the adult epithelial stem cells, followed by their proliferation and differentiation into the complex adult epithelium. We demonstrated for the first time in vivo during vertebrate development that TR induces the removal of core histones at the promoter region and the recruitment of RNA polymerase. Furthermore, a number of histone activation and repression marks have been defined based on correlations with mRNA levels in cell cultures. Most but not all correlate with gene expression induced by liganded TR during development, suggesting that tissue and developmental context influences the roles of histone modifications in gene regulation. Our findings provide important mechanistic insights on how chromatin remodeling affects developmental gene regulation in vivo.

  1. The Drosophila melanogaster importin alpha3 locus encodes an essential gene required for the development of both larval and adult tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Mason, D Adam; Máthé, Endre; Fleming, Robert J; Goldfarb, David S

    2003-01-01

    The nuclear transport of classical nuclear localization signal (cNLS)-containing proteins is mediated by the cNLS receptor importin alpha. The conventional importin alpha gene family in metazoan animals is composed of three clades that are conserved between flies and mammals and are referred to here as alpha1, alpha2, and alpha3. In contrast, plants and fungi contain only alpha1 genes. In this study we report that Drosophila importin alpha3 is required for the development of both larval and adult tissues. Importin alpha3 mutant flies die around the transition from first to second instar larvae, and homozygous importin alpha3 mutant eyes are defective. The transition to second instar larvae was rescued with importin alpha1, alpha2, or alpha3 transgenes, indicating that Importin alpha3 is normally required at this stage for an activity shared by all three importin alpha's. In contrast, an alpha3-specific biochemical activity(s) of Importin alpha3 is probably required for development to adults and photoreceptor cell development, since only an importin alpha3 transgene rescued these processes. These results are consistent with the view that the importin alpha's have both overlapping and distinct functions and that their role in animal development involves the spatial and temporal control of their expression. PMID:14704178

  2. Larval development of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in peri-urban brackish water and its implications for transmission of arboviral diseases.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Ranjan; Surendran, Sinnathamby N; Jude, Pavilupillai J; Dharshini, Sangaralingam; Vinobaba, Muthuladchumy

    2011-11-01

    Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Aedes albopictus Skuse mosquitoes transmit serious human arboviral diseases including yellow fever, dengue and chikungunya in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. Females of the two species have adapted to undergo preimaginal development in natural or artificial collections of freshwater near human habitations and feed on human blood. While there is an effective vaccine against yellow fever, the control of dengue and chikungunya is mainly dependent on reducing freshwater preimaginal development habitats of the two vectors. We show here that Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus lay eggs and their larvae survive to emerge as adults in brackish water (water with <0.5 ppt or parts per thousand, 0.5-30 ppt and >30 ppt salt are termed fresh, brackish and saline respectively). Brackish water with salinity of 2 to 15 ppt in discarded plastic and glass containers, abandoned fishing boats and unused wells in coastal peri-urban environment were found to contain Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus larvae. Relatively high incidence of dengue in Jaffna city, Sri Lanka was observed in the vicinity of brackish water habitats containing Ae. aegypti larvae. These observations raise the possibility that brackish water-adapted Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus may play a hitherto unrecognized role in transmitting dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever in coastal urban areas. National and international health authorities therefore need to take the findings into consideration and extend their vector control efforts, which are presently focused on urban freshwater habitats, to include brackish water larval development habitats.

  3. Ancient mechanisms of visual sense organ development based on comparison of the gene networks controlling larval eye, ocellus, and compound eye specification in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Markus

    2006-12-01

    Key mechanisms of development are strongly constrained, and hence often shared in the formation of highly diversified homologous organs. This diagnostic is applied to uncovering ancient gene activities in the control of visual sense organ development by comparing the gene networks, which regulate larval eye, ocellus and compound eye specification in Drosophila. The comparison reveals a suite of shared aspects that are likely to predate the diversification of arthropod visual sense organs and, consistent with this, have notable similarities in the developing vertebrate visual system: (I) Pax-6 genes participate in the patterning of primordia of complex visual organs. (II) Primordium determination and differentiation depends on formation of a transcription factor complex that contains the products of the selector genes Eyes absent and Sine oculis. (III) The TGF-beta signaling factor Decapentaplegic exerts transcriptional activation of eyes absent and sine oculis. (IV) Canonical Wnt signaling contributes to primordium patterning by repression of eyes absent and sine oculis. (V) Initiation of determination and differentiation is controlled by hedgehog signaling. (VI) Egfr signaling drives retinal cell fate specification. (VII) The proneural transcription factor atonal regulates photoreceptor specification. (VII) The zinc finger gene glass regulates photoreceptor specification and differentiation.

  4. Larval development of the pedunculate barnacles Octolasmis angulata Aurivillius 1894 and Octolasmis cor Aurivillius 1892 (Cirripedia: Thoracica: Poecilasmatidae) from the gills of the mud crab, Scylla tranquebarica Fabricius, 1798.

    PubMed

    Yap, F C; Wong, W L; Maule, A G; Brennan, G P; Lim, L H S

    2015-05-01

    Detailed studies of larval development of Octolasmis angulata and Octolasmis cor are pivotal in understanding the larval morphological evolution as well as enhancing the functional ecology. Six planktotrophic naupliar stages and one non-feeding cyprid stage are documented in details for the first time for the two species of Octolasmis. Morphologically, the larvae of O. angulata and O. cor are similar in body size, setation patterns on the naupliar appendages, labrum, dorsal setae-pores, frontal horns, cyprid carapace, fronto-lateral gland pores, and lattice organs. Numbers of peculiarities were observed on the gnathobases of the antennae and mandible throughout the naupliar life-cycle. The setation pattern on the naupliar appendages are classified based on the segmentation on the naupliar appendages. The nauplius VI of both species undergoes a conspicuous change before metamorphosis into cyprid stage. The cyprid structures begin to form and modify beneath the naupliar body towards the end of stage VI. This study emphasises the importance of the pedunculate barnacle larval developmental studies not only to comprehend the larval morphological evolution but also to fill in the gaps in understanding the modification of the naupliar structures to adapt into the cyprid life-style.

  5. Mosquito larval source management for controlling malaria

    PubMed Central

    Tusting, Lucy S; Thwing, Julie; Sinclair, David; Fillinger, Ulrike; Gimnig, John; Bonner, Kimberly E; Bottomley, Christian; Lindsay, Steven W

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria is an important cause of illness and death in people living in many parts of the world, especially sub-Saharan Africa. Long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) reduce malaria transmission by targeting the adult mosquito vector and are key components of malaria control programmes. However, mosquito numbers may also be reduced by larval source management (LSM), which targets mosquito larvae as they mature in aquatic habitats. This is conducted by permanently or temporarily reducing the availability of larval habitats (habitat modification and habitat manipulation), or by adding substances to standing water that either kill or inhibit the development of larvae (larviciding). Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of mosquito LSM for preventing malaria. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; CABS Abstracts; and LILACS up to 24 October 2012. We handsearched the Tropical Diseases Bulletin from 1900 to 2010, the archives of the World Health Organization (up to 11 February 2011), and the literature database of the Armed Forces Pest Management Board (up to 2 March 2011). We also contacted colleagues in the field for relevant articles. Selection criteria We included cluster randomized controlled trials (cluster-RCTs), controlled before-and-after trials with at least one year of baseline data, and randomized cross-over trials that compared LSM with no LSM for malaria control. We excluded trials that evaluated biological control of anopheline mosquitoes with larvivorous fish. Data collection and analysis At least two authors assessed each trial for eligibility. We extracted data and at least two authors independently determined the risk of bias in the included studies. We resolved all disagreements through discussion with a third author. We analyzed the data using Review Manager 5 software

  6. The effect of silencing 20E biosynthesis relative genes by feeding bacterially expressed dsRNA on the larval development of Chilo suppressalis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jian; Dong, Yong-Cheng; Li, Ping; Niu, Chang-Ying

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a robust tool to study gene functions as well as potential for insect pest control. Finding suitable target genes is the key step in the development of an efficient RNAi-mediated pest control technique. Based on the transcriptome of Chilo suppressalis, 24 unigenes which putatively associated with insect hormone biosynthesis were identified. Amongst these, four genes involved in ecdysteroidogenesis i.e., ptth, torso, spook and nm-g were evaluated as candidate targets for function study. The partial cDNA of these four genes were cloned and their bacterially expressed dsRNA were fed to the insects. Results revealed a significant reduction in mRNA abundance of target genes after 3 days. Furthermore, knocked down of these four genes resulted in abnormal phenotypes and high larval mortality. After 15 days, the survival rates of insects in dsspook, dsptth, dstorso, and dsnm-g groups were significantly reduced by 32%, 38%, 56%, and 67% respectively, compared with control. Moreover, about 80% of surviving larvae showed retarded development in dsRNA-treated groups. These results suggest that oral ingestion of bacterially expressed dsRNA in C. suppressalis could silence ptth, torso, spook and nm-g. Oral delivery of bacterially expressed dsRNA provides a simple and potential management scheme against C. suppressalis. PMID:27352880

  7. The effects of larval nutrition on reproductive performance in a food-limited adult environment.

    PubMed

    Dmitriew, Caitlin; Rowe, Locke

    2011-03-30

    It is often assumed that larval food stress reduces lifetime fitness regardless of the conditions subsequently faced by adults. However, according to the environment-matching hypothesis, a plastic developmental response to poor nutrition results in an adult phenotype that is better adapted to restricted food conditions than one having developed in high food conditions. Such a strategy might evolve when current conditions are a reliable predictor of future conditions. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the effects of larval food conditions (low, improving and high food) on reproductive fitness in both low and high food adults environments. Contrary to this hypothesis, we found no evidence that food restriction in larval ladybird beetles produced adults that were better suited to continuing food stress. In fact, reproductive rate was invariably lower in females that were reared at low food, regardless of whether adults were well fed or food stressed. Juveniles that encountered improving conditions during the larval stage compensated for delayed growth by accelerating subsequent growth, and thus showed no evidence of a reduced reproductive rate. However, these same individuals lost more mass during the period of starvation in adults, which indicates that accelerated growth results in an increased risk of starvation during subsequent periods of food stress.

  8. Morphology of First Zoeal Stage of Four Genera of Alvinocaridid Shrimps from Hydrothermal Vents and Cold Seeps: Implications for Ecology, Larval Biology and Phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ávila, Iván; Cambon-Bonavita, Marie-Anne; Pradillon, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Alvinocaridid shrimps are endemic species inhabiting hydrothermal vents and/or cold seeps. Although indirect evidences (genetic and lipid markers) suggest that their larval stages disperse widely and support large scale connectivity, larval life and mechanisms underlying dispersal are unknown in alvinocaridids. Here we provide for the first time detailed descriptions of the first larval stage (zoea I) of four alvinocaridid species: Rimicaris exoculata and Mirocaris fortunata from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Alvinocaris muricola from the Congo Basin and Nautilocaris saintlaurentae from the Western Pacific. The larvae were obtained from onboard hatching of brooding females (either at atmospheric pressure or at habitat pressure in hyperbaric chambers) and from the water column near adult habitats, sampled with plankton pumps or sediment traps. Major characteristics of the alvinocaridid larvae include undeveloped mandible and almost complete absence of setation in the inner margin of the mouth parts and maxillipeds. Although the larvae are very similar between the four species studied, some morphological features could be used for species identification. In addition, undeveloped mouthparts and the large amount of lipid reserves strongly support the occurrence of primary lecithotrophy in the early stage of alvinocaridids. Although lecithotrophy in decapod crustaceans is usually associated with abbreviated larval development, as a mechanism of larval retention, morphological and physiological evidences suggest the occurrence of an extended and lecithotrophic larval stage in the Alvinocarididae. These traits permit the colonization of widely dispersed and fragmented environments of hydrothermal vents and cold seeps. Distribution of larval traits along the phylogenetic reconstruction of the Alvinocarididae and related families suggest that lecithotrophy/planktotrophy and extended/abbreviated development have evolved independently along related families in all potential

  9. Morphology of First Zoeal Stage of Four Genera of Alvinocaridid Shrimps from Hydrothermal Vents and Cold Seeps: Implications for Ecology, Larval Biology and Phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Ávila, Iván; Cambon-Bonavita, Marie-Anne; Pradillon, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Alvinocaridid shrimps are endemic species inhabiting hydrothermal vents and/or cold seeps. Although indirect evidences (genetic and lipid markers) suggest that their larval stages disperse widely and support large scale connectivity, larval life and mechanisms underlying dispersal are unknown in alvinocaridids. Here we provide for the first time detailed descriptions of the first larval stage (zoea I) of four alvinocaridid species: Rimicaris exoculata and Mirocaris fortunata from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Alvinocaris muricola from the Congo Basin and Nautilocaris saintlaurentae from the Western Pacific. The larvae were obtained from onboard hatching of brooding females (either at atmospheric pressure or at habitat pressure in hyperbaric chambers) and from the water column near adult habitats, sampled with plankton pumps or sediment traps. Major characteristics of the alvinocaridid larvae include undeveloped mandible and almost complete absence of setation in the inner margin of the mouth parts and maxillipeds. Although the larvae are very similar between the four species studied, some morphological features could be used for species identification. In addition, undeveloped mouthparts and the large amount of lipid reserves strongly support the occurrence of primary lecithotrophy in the early stage of alvinocaridids. Although lecithotrophy in decapod crustaceans is usually associated with abbreviated larval development, as a mechanism of larval retention, morphological and physiological evidences suggest the occurrence of an extended and lecithotrophic larval stage in the Alvinocarididae. These traits permit the colonization of widely dispersed and fragmented environments of hydrothermal vents and cold seeps. Distribution of larval traits along the phylogenetic reconstruction of the Alvinocarididae and related families suggest that lecithotrophy/planktotrophy and extended/abbreviated development have evolved independently along related families in all potential

  10. Inquiry and Developing Interpretations from Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternadel, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author analyzes an inquiry-based project in order to examine students' efforts to build interpretations from evidence. This project fits within the Standards definition of scientific inquiry in several ways: (1) Students used previously learned biological concepts and principles to guide their inquiries; (2) Students relied on…

  11. Influence of metal(loid) bioaccumulation and maternal transfer on embryo-larval development in fish exposed to a major coal ash spill

    SciTech Connect

    Greeley, Jr., Mark Stephen; Adams, S. Marshall; Elmore, Logan R.; McCracken, Mary Kitty

    2016-01-03

    In December 2008, an earthen retaining wall at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Fuel Plant failed and released 4.1 million m3 of coal ash to rivers flowing into Watts Bar Reservoir in east Tennessee, United States (U.S.). As part of a comprehensive effort to evaluate the risks to aquatic resources from this spill – the largest in U.S. history – we compared bioaccumulation and maternal transfer of selenium (Se), arsenic (As), and mercury (Hg) in adult redear sunfish (Lepomis macrolophus), collected two years after the spill from both coal-ash exposed and non-exposed areas of the Emory and Clinch Rivers, with the success of embryo-larval development in their offspring. Whole body and ovary concentrations of Se in female sunfish at three study sites downstream of the spill were significantly elevated (site means = 4.9–5.3 and 6.7–9.0 mg/kg d.w. whole body and ovary concentrations, respectively) compared with concentrations in fish from reference sites upstream of the spill site (2.2–3.2 mg/kg d.w. for whole bodies and 3.6–4.8 mg/kg d.w. for ovaries). However, Se concentrations in coal ash-exposed areas remain below proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) criteria for the protection of aquatic life. Site-to-site variation in fish concentrations of As and Hg were not well-correlated with ash-exposure, reflecting the multiple sources of these metal(loid)s in the affected watersheds. In 7-day laboratory tests of embryos and larvae derived from in vitro crosses of eggs and sperm from these field-collected sunfish, fertilization success, hatching success, embryo-larval survival, and incidences of developmental abnormalities did not differ significantly between ash-exposed and non-exposed fish. Furthermore, these developmental endpoints were not correlated with whole body or ovary concentrations of Se, As, or Hg in the maternal fish, or with fish size, ovary weight, or gonadal-somatic indices. Furthermore

  12. Influence of metal(loid) bioaccumulation and maternal transfer on embryo-larval development in fish exposed to a major coal ash spill.

    PubMed

    Greeley, Mark S; Adams, S Marshall; Elmore, Logan R; McCracken, Mary K

    2016-04-01

    In December 2008, an earthen retaining wall at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Fuel Plant failed and released 4.1 millionm(3) of coal ash to rivers flowing into Watts Bar Reservoir in east Tennessee, United States (U.S.). As part of a comprehensive effort to evaluate the risks to aquatic resources from this spill - the largest in U.S. history - we compared bioaccumulation and maternal transfer of selenium (Se), arsenic (As), and mercury (Hg) in adult redear sunfish (Lepomis macrolophus), collected two years after the spill from both coal-ash exposed and non-exposed areas of the Emory and Clinch Rivers, with the success of embryo-larval development in their offspring. Whole body and ovary concentrations of Se in female sunfish at three study sites downstream of the spill were significantly elevated (site means=4.9-5.3 and 6.7-9.0mg/kg d.w. whole body and ovary concentrations, respectively) compared with concentrations in fish from reference sites upstream of the spill site (2.2-3.2mg/kg d.w. for whole bodies and 3.6-4.8mg/kg d.w. for ovaries). However, Se concentrations in coal ash-exposed areas remain below proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) criteria for the protection of aquatic life. Site-to-site variation in fish concentrations of As and Hg were not well-correlated with ash-exposure, reflecting the multiple sources of these metal(loid)s in the affected watersheds. In 7-day laboratory tests of embryos and larvae derived from in vitro crosses of eggs and sperm from these field-collected sunfish, fertilization success, hatching success, embryo-larval survival, and incidences of developmental abnormalities did not differ significantly between ash-exposed and non-exposed fish. Furthermore, these developmental endpoints were not correlated with whole body or ovary concentrations of Se, As, or Hg in the maternal fish, or with fish size, ovary weight, or gonadal-somatic indices. Results from this and related studies associated

  13. Influence of metal(loid) bioaccumulation and maternal transfer on embryo-larval development in fish exposed to a major coal ash spill

    DOE PAGES

    Greeley, Jr., Mark Stephen; Adams, S. Marshall; Elmore, Logan R.; ...

    2016-01-03

    In December 2008, an earthen retaining wall at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Fuel Plant failed and released 4.1 million m3 of coal ash to rivers flowing into Watts Bar Reservoir in east Tennessee, United States (U.S.). As part of a comprehensive effort to evaluate the risks to aquatic resources from this spill – the largest in U.S. history – we compared bioaccumulation and maternal transfer of selenium (Se), arsenic (As), and mercury (Hg) in adult redear sunfish (Lepomis macrolophus), collected two years after the spill from both coal-ash exposed and non-exposed areas of the Emory and Clinchmore » Rivers, with the success of embryo-larval development in their offspring. Whole body and ovary concentrations of Se in female sunfish at three study sites downstream of the spill were significantly elevated (site means = 4.9–5.3 and 6.7–9.0 mg/kg d.w. whole body and ovary concentrations, respectively) compared with concentrations in fish from reference sites upstream of the spill site (2.2–3.2 mg/kg d.w. for whole bodies and 3.6–4.8 mg/kg d.w. for ovaries). However, Se concentrations in coal ash-exposed areas remain below proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) criteria for the protection of aquatic life. Site-to-site variation in fish concentrations of As and Hg were not well-correlated with ash-exposure, reflecting the multiple sources of these metal(loid)s in the affected watersheds. In 7-day laboratory tests of embryos and larvae derived from in vitro crosses of eggs and sperm from these field-collected sunfish, fertilization success, hatching success, embryo-larval survival, and incidences of developmental abnormalities did not differ significantly between ash-exposed and non-exposed fish. Furthermore, these developmental endpoints were not correlated with whole body or ovary concentrations of Se, As, or Hg in the maternal fish, or with fish size, ovary weight, or gonadal-somatic indices. Furthermore, results from

  14. Assessment of the individual and mixture toxicity of cadmium, copper and oxytetracycline, on the embryo-larval development of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    PubMed

    Gharred, Tahar; Jebali, Jamel; Belgacem, Mariem; Mannai, Rabeb; Achour, Sami

    2016-09-01

    Multiple pollutions by trace metals and pharmaceuticals have become one of the most important problems in marine coastal areas because of its excessive toxicity on organisms living in this area. This study aimed to assess the individual and mixture toxicity of Cu, Cd, and oxytetracycline frequently existing in the contaminated marine areas and the embryo-larval development of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. The individual contamination of the spermatozoid for 1 h with the increasing concentrations of Cd, Cu, and OTC decreases the fertility rate and increases larvae anomalies in the order Cu > Cd > OTC. Moreover, the normal larva frequency and the length of spicules were more sensitive than the fertilization rate and normal gastrula frequency endpoints. The mixture toxicity assessed by multiple experimental designs showed clearly that concentrations of Cd, Cu, and OTC superior to 338 μg/L, 0.56 μg/L, and 0.83 mg/L, respectively, cause significant larva malformations.

  15. Silencing of ecdysone receptor, insect intestinal mucin and sericotropin genes by bacterially produced double-stranded RNA affects larval growth and development in Plutella xylostella and Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Israni, B; Rajam, M V

    2017-04-01

    RNA interference mediated gene silencing, which is triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), has become a important tool for functional genomics studies in various systems, including insects. Bacterially produced dsRNA employs the use of a bacterial strain lacking in RNaseIII activity and harbouring a vector with dual T7 promoter sites, which allow the production of intact dsRNA molecules. Here, we report an assessment of the functional relevance of the ecdysone receptor, insect intestinal mucin and sericotropin genes through silencing by dsRNA in two lepidopteran insect pests, Helicoverpa armigera and Plutella xylostella, both of which cause serious crop losses. Oral feeding of dsRNA led to significant reduction in transcripts of the target insect genes, which caused significant larval mortality with various moulting anomalies and an overall developmental delay. We also found a significant decrease in reproductive potential in female moths, with a drop in egg laying and compromised egg hatching from treated larvae as compared to controls. dsRNA was stable in the insect gut and was efficiently processed into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), thus accounting for the phenotypes observed in the present work. The study revealed the importance of these genes in core insect processes, which are essential for insect development and survival.

  16. Cofactor Independent Phosphoglycerate Mutase of Brugia malayi Induces a Mixed Th1/Th2 Type Immune Response and Inhibits Larval Development in the Host

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Prashant K.; Kushwaha, Susheela; Rana, Ajay K.; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja

    2014-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is a major debilitating disease, endemic in 72 countries putting more than 1.39 billion people at risk and 120 million are already infected. Despite the significant progress in chemotherapeutic advancements, there is still need for other measures like development of an effective vaccine or discovery of novel drug targets. In this study, structural and immunological characterization of independent phosphoglycerate mutase of filarial parasite Brugia malayi was carried out. Protein was found to be expressed in all major parasite life stages and as an excretory secretory product of adult parasites. Bm-iPGM also reacted to all the categories of human bancroftian patient's sera including endemic normals. In vivo immunological behaviour of protein was determined in immunized BALB/c mice followed by prophylactic analysis in BALB/c mice and Mastomys coucha. Immunization with Bm-iPGM led to generation of a mixed Th1/Th2 type immune response offering 58.2% protection against larval challenge in BALB/c and 65–68% protection in M. coucha. In vitro studies confirmed participation of anti-Bm-iPGM antibodies in killing of B. malayi infective larvae and microfilariae through ADCC mechanism. The present findings reveal potential immunoprotective nature of Bm-iPGM advocating its worth as an antifilarial vaccine candidate. PMID:25061608

  17. Transcriptome Analysis of Drosophila melanogaster Third Instar Larval Ring Glands Points to Novel Functions and Uncovers a Cytochrome p450 Required for Development

    PubMed Central

    Christesen, Danielle; Yang, Ying Ting; Somers, Jason; Robin, Charles; Sztal, Tamar; Batterham, Philip; Perry, Trent

    2016-01-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster larvae, the ring gland (RG) is a control center that orchestrates major developmental transitions. It is a composite organ, consisting of the prothoracic gland, the corpus allatum, and the corpora cardiaca, each of which synthesizes and secretes a different hormone. Until now, the RG’s broader developmental roles beyond endocrine secretion have not been explored. RNA sequencing and analysis of a new transcriptome resource from D. melanogaster wandering third instar larval RGs has provided a fascinating insight into the diversity of developmental signaling in this organ. We have found strong enrichment of expression of two gene pathways not previously associated with the RG: immune response and fatty acid metabolism. We have also uncovered strong expression for many uncharacterized genes. Additionally, RNA interference against RG-enriched cytochrome p450s Cyp6u1 and Cyp6g2 produced a lethal ecdysone deficiency and a juvenile hormone deficiency, respectively, flagging a critical role for these genes in hormone synthesis. This transcriptome provides a valuable new resource for investigation of roles played by the RG in governing insect development. PMID:27974438

  18. Prorenin Receptor Homologue VHA-20 is Critical for Intestinal pH Regulation, Ion and Water Management and Larval Development in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Zima, V; Šebková, K; Šimečková, K; Dvořák, T; Saudek, V; Kostrouchová, M

    2015-01-01

    The prorenin receptor (ATP6AP2) is a multifunctional transmembrane protein; it is a constituent of proton-translocating V-ATPase, a non-proteolytic activator of renin and an adaptor in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Here, we studied vha-20, one of the two prorenin receptor homologues that are identified by sequence similarity in the C. elegans genome. We show that vha-20 (R03E1.2) is prominently expressed in the intestine, in the excretory cell and in amphid neurons, tissues critical for regulation of ion and water management. The expression of vha-20 in the intestine is dependent on NHR-31, a nuclear receptor related to HNF4. VHA-20 is indispensable for normal larval development, acidification of the intestine, and is required for nutrient uptake. Inhibition of vha-20 by RNAi leads to complex deterioration of water and pH gradients at the level of the whole organism including distention of pseudocoelome cavity. This suggests new roles of prorenin receptor in the regulation of body ion and water management and in acidification of intestinal lumen in nematodes.

  19. Effects of cysteine proteinase inhibitors scN and E-64 on southern corn rootworm larval development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The southern corn rootworm (SCRW) can be a serious pest of peanut pods. A laboratory bioassay was developed to test feeding cysteine proteinase inhibitors soyacystatin N (scN) and E-64 against southern corn rootworm reared on artificial diet to determine the effects on larvae development and mortal...

  20. Evidence in the development of health policy.

    PubMed

    Macintyre, Sally

    2012-03-01

    For over a century and a half, reformers, researchers and politicians have complained that social and public health policy is not based on evidence. Linear models of knowledge transfer gaps are consistently shown to be poor predictors of research uptake. Public health research, in particular, involves more elements than the linear biomedical model of translation into healthcare products or interventions. Policy makers certainly need to be more sophisticated in understanding and commissioning different types of research and acting on it. However, researchers also need to be much more sophisticated and less naive in understanding how research does and does not influence policy, and how to go about helping policy makers to interpret the jigsaw of evidence, and its relevance and usability.

  1. The development of the larval nervous system, musculature and ciliary bands of Pomatoceros lamarckii (Annelida): heterochrony in polychaetes

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Carmel; Chen, Wei-Chung; Shimeld, Sebastian M; Ferrier, David EK

    2006-01-01

    Background To understand the evolution of animals it is essential to have taxon sampling across a representative spread of the animal kingdom. With the recent rearrangement of most of the Bilateria into three major clades (Ecdysozoa, Lophotrochozoa and Deuterostomia) it has become clear that the Lophotrochozoa are relatively poorly represented in our knowledge of animal development, compared to the Ecdysozoa and Deuterostomia. We aim to contribute towards redressing this balance with data on the development of the muscular, nervous and ciliary systems of the annelid Pomatoceros lamarckii (Serpulidae). We compare our data with other lophotrochozoans. Results P. lamarckii develops locomotory and feeding structures that enable it to become a swimming, planktotrophic larva within 24 hours. Formation of the trochophore includes development of a prototroch, metatroch and neurotroch, development of apical and posterior nervous elements at similar times, and development of musculature around the ciliary bands and digestive tract prior to development of any body wall muscles. The adult nervous and muscular systems are essentially preformed in the late larva. Interestingly, the muscular systems of the larvae and juvenile worms do not include the circular muscles of the body wall, which are considered to be plesiomorphic for annelids, although the possibility that circular muscles develop after these stages cannot be ruled out at this point. Conclusion A comparison between polychaetes shows variability in the timing (heterochrony) of development of body wall muscles and elements of the nervous system. These heterochronies are one route for evolution of different life history strategies, such as adaptations to feeding requirements. PMID:17032451

  2. Heavy metal effects on cellular shape changes, cleavage, and larval development of the marine gastropod mollusk, (Ilyanassa obsoleta Say)

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, G.W.

    1988-07-01

    The spawning areas for many marine invertebrates are in intertidal zones which can be exposed to surface water run-off containing heavy metals. The cellular shape changes and cleavage patterns of Ilyanassa embryos greatly resemble those of bivalve mollusks, such as Mytilus edulis, that occur in the same intertidal areas. Determining the concentrations of heavy metals tolerated by the molluscan embryos inhabiting such clam and mussel beds therefore is of some economic significance. Moreover, such research may providedata on the heavy metal effects on the cytoskeleton. There is increasing evidence that components of the cytoskeleton, directly or indirectly, are targets for toxic agents. Polar lobe formation is a cellular shape change that resembles cytokinesis. It is seen in the fertilized eggs of many marine mollusks. Recent data with inorganic and organic Ca/sup 2 +/ antagonists suggest that both polar lobe formation and cytokinesis utilize Ca/sup 2 +/ released from sequestered, intracellular sites. Both of these cellular constrictions are associated with microfilaments and are preceded by activation steps requiring microtubules. The data presented below suggest that several heavy metals affect the microfilament-dependent steps.

  3. Functional morphology of mouthparts and digestive system during larval development of the cleaner shrimp Lysmata amboinensis (de Man, 1888).

    PubMed

    Tziouveli, Vasiliki; Bastos Gomes, Giana; Bastos-Gomez, Giana; Bellwood, Orpha

    2011-09-01

    Mouthpart and alimentary canal development was examined in Lysmata amboinensis larvae using scanning electron microscopy and histology. The gross morphological features of external mouthparts and internal digestive tract structures of larvae at different developmental stages indicate that ingestive and digestive capabilities are well developed from early on. With increasing age of the larvae the mouthpart appendages increased in size, the hepatopancreas in tubular density and the midgut in length. The density of setae and robustness of teeth and spines of individual structures increased. The most pronounced changes from early to late stage larvae involved formation of pores on the paragnaths and labrum, transformation of the mandibular spine-like teeth to molar cusps, development of the filter press in the proventriculus and of infoldings in the previously straight hindgut. The results suggest that early stage L. amboinensis larvae may benefit from soft, perhaps gelatinous prey, whereas later stages are better equipped to handle larger, muscular or more fibrous foods.

  4. Evidence-based practice. The role of staff development.

    PubMed

    Krugman, Mary

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge and use of evidence-based practice are essential to ensure best practices and safe patient outcomes. Staff development specialists must be leaders in this initiative to support clinical nurses toward improved practice outcomes. This article describes the background for understanding the historical evolution from research utilization to evidence-based practice, defines some key concepts related to evidence-based practice, and suggests essential components for building evidence-based practice programs in healthcare institutions.

  5. Larval Development of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Peri-Urban Brackish Water and Its Implications for Transmission of Arboviral Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Ranjan; Surendran, Sinnathamby N.; Jude, Pavilupillai J.; Dharshini, Sangaralingam; Vinobaba, Muthuladchumy

    2011-01-01

    Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Aedes albopictus Skuse mosquitoes transmit serious human arboviral diseases including yellow fever, dengue and chikungunya in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. Females of the two species have adapted to undergo preimaginal development in natural or artificial collections of freshwater near human habitations and feed on human blood. While there is an effective vaccine against yellow fever, the control of dengue and chikungunya is mainly dependent on reducing freshwater preimaginal development habitats of the two vectors. We show here that Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus lay eggs and their larvae survive to emerge as adults in brackish water (water with <0.5 ppt or parts per thousand, 0.5–30 ppt and >30 ppt salt are termed fresh, brackish and saline respectively). Brackish water with salinity of 2 to 15 ppt in discarded plastic and glass containers, abandoned fishing boats and unused wells in coastal peri-urban environment were found to contain Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus larvae. Relatively high incidence of dengue in Jaffna city, Sri Lanka was observed in the vicinity of brackish water habitats containing Ae. aegypti larvae. These observations raise the possibility that brackish water-adapted Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus may play a hitherto unrecognized role in transmitting dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever in coastal urban areas. National and international health authorities therefore need to take the findings into consideration and extend their vector control efforts, which are presently focused on urban freshwater habitats, to include brackish water larval development habitats. PMID:22132243

  6. Efficacy of fenvalerate as contact poison against the larval development and viability of mutant form (Sepia) of Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen).

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Shamim

    2004-01-01

    Fenvalerate, a synthetic pyrethroid, was analysed for its toxic effects on Drosophila melanogaster. It has been estimated that LC50 0.0166 micro 1/100 ml food is threshold of lethality. These studies have also revealed that fenvalerate is toxic as it had a pronounced effect on the rate of development and viability.

  7. House and stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) seasonal abundance, larval development substrates, and natural parasitism on small equine farms in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This 1-year study was designed to determine adult fly population levels and development substrates on four small equine farms. Results showed that pest flies were present year-round, but differences existed in population levels among farms and seasons. Fly larvae were not found on two of the farms, ...

  8. Effects of temperature on energy cost and timing of embryonic and larval development of the terrestrially breeding moss frog, Bryobatrachus nimbus.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, N J; Seymour, R S

    2000-01-01

    The Australian moss frog, Bryobatrachus nimbus, oviposits four to 16 large eggs in terrestrial nests constructed in moss or lichen in subalpine regions of southern Tasmania. Nidicolous larvae overwinter beneath snow, reaching metamorphosis without feeding after 395 d, the longest development time known for an endotrophic anuran. However, a few clutches develop more quickly and metamorphose before winter. This study examines the effect of temperature on development time and energy expenditure by measuring temperatures and developmental stages in field nests as well as rates of oxygen consumption (Vo2), developmental stage, body mass, and energy content in the laboratory at three relevant temperatures (5 degrees, 10 degrees, 15 degrees C). Eggs and larvae reared at 5 degrees C differentiated very slowly, and their development time far exceeded those in natural nests, but development times at 10 degrees and 15 degrees C averaged 277 and 149 d, respectively, and were shorter than field incubation times. Generally, respiration rates of aquatic hatchlings were low in comparison with other species but increased with larval age and jumped about 25% higher near metamorphosis when larvae were able to air breathe. The mean energy density was 26.0 J mg(-1) for the dry ova and 20.6 J mg(-1) for a dry gut-free froglet, and total production efficiency was 61.5%. We developed a model based on the relationships between incubation temperature and V&d2;o2 to estimate the respiratory cost of development to metamorphosis, the first such study for an amphibian. The cost was 177 J at 15 degrees C, 199 J at 10 degrees C, and at least 249 J at 5 degrees C, and we predicted that continual development at 5 degrees C would lead to premature yolk depletion because it equalled the 249 J contained in fresh ova. Continuously logged field-nest temperatures and interpolation of laboratory data provided estimates of development rates, Vo2, and respiratory energy costs in field nests. Development to

  9. Professional Development Schools: Weighing the Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdal-Haqq, Ismat

    This book examines U.S. progress in revitalizing teacher education and reforming K-12 education via Professional Development Schools (PDS's). The book discusses whether PDS's are: improving K-12 curriculum and instruction through faculty development; making substantive, positive differences in students' learning levels; addressing the needs of…

  10. Effects of simulated microgravity on the development of the swimbladder and buoyancy control in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Benjamin W; Dumbarton, Tristan C; Moorman, Stephen J; Smith, Frank M; Croll, Roger P

    2011-06-01

    The gas-filled swimbladder of teleost fishes provides hydrodynamic lift which counteracts the high density of other body tissues, and thereby allows the fish to achieve neutral buoyancy with minimal energy expenditure. In this study, we examined whether the absence of a constant direction gravitational vector affects the ontogeny of the swimbladder and buoyancy control in zebrafish (Danio rerio). We exposed fertilized eggs to simulated microgravity (SMG) in a closed rotating wall vessel with control eggs placed in a similar but nonrotating container. All eggs hatched in both groups. At 96 hr of postfertilization (hpf), all larvae were removed from the experimental and control vessels. At this point, 62% of the control larvae, but only 14% of SMG-exposed larvae, were observed to have inflated their swimbladder. In addition, the mean volume of the inflated swimbladders was significantly greater in the control larvae compared with larvae raised in SMG. After transfer to open stationary observation tanks, larvae with uninflated swimbladders in both groups swam to the surface to complete inflation, but this process was significantly delayed in larvae exposed to SMG. Initial differences in swimbladder inflation and volume between groups disappeared by 144 hpf. Furthermore, there were no apparent changes in patterns of development and maturation of swimbladder musculature, vasculature, or innervation resulting from SMG exposure at later stages of ontogeny. These data indicate that, despite a transient delay in swimbladder inflation in zebrafish larvae exposed to SMG, subsequent swimbladder development in these animals proceeded similarly to that in normal larvae.

  11. Octylphenol and UV-B radiation alter larval development and hypothalamic gene expression in the leopard frog (Rana pipiens).

    PubMed Central

    Crump, Douglas; Lean, David; Trudeau, Vance L

    2002-01-01

    We assessed octylphenol (OP), an estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemical, and UV-B radiation, a known stressor in amphibian development, for their effects on hypothalamic gene expression and premetamorphic development in the leopard frog Rana pipiens. Newly hatched tadpoles were exposed for 10 days to OP alone at two different dose levels; to subambient UV-B radiation alone; and to two combinations of OP and UV-B. Control animals were exposed to ethanol vehicle (0.01%) exposure, a subset of tadpoles from each treatment group was raised to metamorphosis to assess differences in body weight and time required for hindlimb emergence. Tadpoles from one of the OP/UV-B combination groups had greater body weight and earlier hindlimb emergence (p < 0.05), but neither OP nor UV-B alone produced significant changes in body weight or hindlimb emergence, indicating a potential mechanism of interaction between OP and UV-B. We hypothesized that the developing hypothalamus might be a potential environmental sensor for neurotoxicologic studies because of its role in the endocrine control of metamorphosis. We used a differential display strategy to identify candidate genes differentially expressed in the hypothalamic region of the exposed tadpoles. Homology cloning was performed to obtain R. pipiens glutamate decarboxylases--GAD65 and GAD67, enzymes involved in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). cDNA expression profiles revealed that OP and UV-B affected the levels of several candidate transcripts in tadpole (i.e., Nck, Ash, and phospholipase C gamma-binding protein 4 and brain angiogenesis inhibitor-3) and metamorph (i.e., GAD67, cytochrome C oxidase, and brain angiogenesis inhibitor-2 and -3) brains. This study represents a novel approach in toxicology that combines physiologic and molecular end points and indicates that levels of OP commonly found in the environment and subambient levels of UV-B alter the expression of important hypothalamic

  12. Immature development of the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae S.L. (Diptera: Culicidae), in relation to soil-substrate organic matter content of larval habitats in northcentral Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olayemi, I K; Ojo, V O

    2013-02-01

    This study elucidated the relationships between larval habitat soil-substrate Organic Matter Content (OMC) and immature development of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae S.L. Day-old larvae of the mosquito were reared in media substrated with typical soil samples (i.e., sandy, silt, clayey and loamy soils), from established anopheline breeding sites, to provide a gradient in soil-substrate OMC. The OMC of the soil samples were determined by ignition to a constant weight; while the developing A. gambiae mosquitoes in the culture media were monitored daily for survivorship and duration of immature life stages. The results indicated significant (p < 0.05) variation in OMC of the soil types (range = 11.21 +/- 2.91% in sandy to 29.83 +/- 2.96% in loamy soils). However, though Daily Larval Survival Rates (DLSR) were relatively high (range = 95.21 +/- 2.96 to 96.70 +/- 1.44%), as influenced by OMC, such values were not significantly different (p > 0.05) among the soil-substrate types; results contrary to those of Larval Success Rates (LSR) (i.e., range = 52.07 +/- 13.64 to 74.39 +/- 6.60%). Daily Pupation Rate (DPR) of the mosquitoes varied significantly among the soil-substrates, ranging from 13.87 +/- 2.39% in clayey to 25.00 +/- 4.30% in loamy substrates. Soil-substrate OMC significantly extended the Duration of Immature Life Stages (DILS) of the mosquitoes only in the sandy soil type (range = 12.76 +/- 1.74 to 15.81 +/- 2.40 days). On the whole, DILS was inversely related to soil-substrate OMC. Cross-correlational analysis revealed significant positive association among most of the variables tested. The findings of this study should serve as baseline information for the development of effective environmental management strategies for malaria larval-vector control.

  13. Mixed effects of elevated pCO2 on fertilisation, larval and juvenile development and adult responses in the mobile subtidal scallop Mimachlamys asperrima (Lamarck, 1819).

    PubMed

    Scanes, Elliot; Parker, Laura M; O'Connor, Wayne A; Ross, Pauline M

    2014-01-01

    Ocean acidification is predicted to have severe consequences for calcifying marine organisms especially molluscs. Recent studies, however, have found that molluscs in marine environments with naturally elevated or fluctuating CO2 or with an active, high metabolic rate lifestyle may have a capacity to acclimate and be resilient to exposures of elevated environmental pCO2. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of near future concentrations of elevated pCO2 on the larval and adult stages of the mobile doughboy scallop, Mimachlamys asperrima from a subtidal and stable physio-chemical environment. It was found that fertilisation and the shell length of early larval stages of M. asperrima decreased as pCO2 increased, however, there were less pronounced effects of elevated pCO2 on the shell length of later larval stages, with high pCO2 enhancing growth in some instances. Byssal attachment and condition index of adult M. asperrima decreased with elevated pCO2, while in contrast there was no effect on standard metabolic rate or pHe. The responses of larval and adult M. asperrima to elevated pCO2 measured in this study were more moderate than responses previously reported for intertidal oysters and mussels. Even this more moderate set of responses are still likely to reduce the abundance of M. asperrima and potentially other scallop species in the world's oceans at predicted future pCO2 levels.

  14. Mixed Effects of Elevated pCO2 on Fertilisation, Larval and Juvenile Development and Adult Responses in the Mobile Subtidal Scallop Mimachlamys asperrima (Lamarck, 1819)

    PubMed Central

    Scanes, Elliot; Parker, Laura M.; O’Connor, Wayne A.; Ross, Pauline M.

    2014-01-01

    Ocean acidification is predicted to have severe consequences for calcifying marine organisms especially molluscs. Recent studies, however, have found that molluscs in marine environments with naturally elevated or fluctuating CO2 or with an active, high metabolic rate lifestyle may have a capacity to acclimate and be resilient to exposures of elevated environmental pCO2. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of near future concentrations of elevated pCO2 on the larval and adult stages of the mobile doughboy scallop, Mimachlamys asperrima from a subtidal and stable physio-chemical environment. It was found that fertilisation and the shell length of early larval stages of M. asperrima decreased as pCO2 increased, however, there were less pronounced effects of elevated pCO2 on the shell length of later larval stages, with high pCO2 enhancing growth in some instances. Byssal attachment and condition index of adult M. asperrima decreased with elevated pCO2, while in contrast there was no effect on standard metabolic rate or pHe. The responses of larval and adult M. asperrima to elevated pCO2 measured in this study were more moderate than responses previously reported for intertidal oysters and mussels. Even this more moderate set of responses are still likely to reduce the abundance of M. asperrima and potentially other scallop species in the world’s oceans at predicted future pCO2 levels. PMID:24733125

  15. Development of blastomere clones in the Ilyanassa embryo: transformation of the spiralian blastula into the larval body plan.

    PubMed

    Chan, Xin Yi; Lambert, J David

    2014-06-01

    Spiralian embryogenesis is deeply conserved and seems to have been in place in the last common ancestor of the large assemblage of protostome phyla known as the Lophotrochozoa. While the blastula fate maps of several spiralian embryos have been determined, little is known about the events that link the early embryo and the larva. For all cells in the Ilyanassa blastula, we determined the clonal morphology at four time points between the blastula and veliger stages. We found that ectomesoderm comes mostly from 3a and 3b, but also from 2c and 2b. We also observed the ingression and early proliferation of 3a- and 3b-derived ectomesoderm. We found cells in the 2b clone that marked the anterior edge of the blastopore and later the mouth and cells in the 3c/3d clones that marked the posterior edges of these structures. This demonstrates directly that the mouth forms in the same location as the blastopore. In the development of the shell field, we observed dramatic cell migration events that invert the positions of the 2b and 2d clones that contribute to the shell. Using time-lapse imaging, we followed and described the cleavage pattern of the conserved endomesodermal blast cell, 4d, up to 4d + 45 h, when there were 52 cells in the clone. Our results show the growth and movement of clones derived from cells of the spiralian blastula as they transform into the trochophore-like and veliger stages. They have implications for the evolution of the shell in gastropods, the origins of mesoderm in spiralians, and the evolution of mouth formation in metazoans.

  16. The Importance of Drains for the Larval Development of Lymphatic Filariasis and Malaria Vectors in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Marcia C.; Kanamori, Shogo; Kannady, Khadija; Mkude, Sigsbert; Killeen, Gerry F.; Fillinger, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Background Dar es Salaam has an extensive drain network, mostly with inadequate water flow, blocked by waste, causing flooding after rainfall. The presence of Anopheles and Culex larvae is common, which is likely to impact the transmission of lymphatic filariasis and malaria by the resulting adult mosquito populations. However, the importance of drains as larval habitats remains unknown. Methodology Data on mosquito larval habitats routinely collected by the Urban Malaria Control Program (UMCP) and a special drain survey conducted in 2006 were used to obtain a typology of habitats. Focusing on drains, logistic regression was used to evaluate potential factors impacting the presence of mosquito larvae. Spatial variation in the proportion of habitats that contained larvae was assessed through the local Moran's I indicator of spatial association. Principal Findings More than 70% of larval habitats in Dar es Salaam were human-made. Aquatic habitats associated with agriculture had the highest proportion of Anopheles larvae presence and the second highest of Culex larvae presence. However, the majority of aquatic habitats were drains (42%), and therefore, 43% (1,364/3,149) of all culicine and 33% (320/976) of all anopheline positive habitats were drains. Compared with drains where water was flowing at normal velocity, the odds of finding Anopheles and Culex larvae were 8.8 and 6.3 (p<0.001) times larger, respectively, in drains with stagnant water. There was a positive association between vegetation and the presence of mosquito larvae (p<0.001). The proportion of habitats with mosquito larvae was spatially correlated. Conclusion Restoring and maintaining drains in Dar es Salaam has the potential to eliminate more than 40% of all potential mosquito larval habitats that are currently treated with larvicides by the UMCP. The importance of human-made larval habitats for both lymphatic filariasis and malaria vectors underscores the need for a synergy between on-going control

  17. Beliefs about language development: construct validity evidence.

    PubMed

    Donahue, Mavis L; Fu, Qiong; Smith, Everett V

    2012-01-01

    Understanding language development is incomplete without recognizing children's sociocultural environments, including adult beliefs about language development. Yet there is a need for data supporting valid inferences to assess these beliefs. The current study investigated the psychometric properties of data from a survey (MODeL) designed to explore beliefs in the popular culture, and their alignment with more formal theories. Support for the content, substantive, structural, generalizability, and external aspects of construct validity of the data were investigated. Subscales representing Behaviorist, Cognitive, Nativist, and Sociolinguistic models were identified as dimensions of beliefs. More than half of the items showed a high degree of consensus, suggesting culturally-transmitted beliefs. Behaviorist ideas were most popular. Bilingualism and ethnicity were related to Cognitive and Sociolinguistic beliefs. Identifying these beliefs may clarify the nature of child-directed speech, and enable the design of language intervention programs that are congruent with family and cultural expectations.

  18. Coverage with evidence development: ethical issues and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Miller, Franklin G; Pearson, Steven D

    2008-07-01

    Coverage with evidence development (CED) is an evolving method of providing provisional access to novel medical interventions while generating the evidence needed to determine whether unconditional coverage is warranted. In this article we review the policy rationale for CED and present a normative analysis that addresses ethical concerns and policy implications.

  19. Drosophila adult and larval pheromones modulate larval food choice

    PubMed Central

    Farine, Jean-Pierre; Cortot, Jérôme; Ferveur, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Insects use chemosensory cues to feed and mate. In Drosophila, the effect of pheromones has been extensively investigated in adults, but rarely in larvae. The colonization of natural food sources by Drosophila buzzatii and Drosophila simulans species may depend on species-specific chemical cues left in the food by larvae and adults. We identified such chemicals in both species and measured their influence on larval food preference and puparation behaviour. We also tested compounds that varied between these species: (i) two larval volatile compounds: hydroxy-3-butanone-2 and phenol (predominant in D. simulans and D. buzzatii, respectively), and (ii) adult cuticular hydrocarbons (CHs). Drosophila buzzatii larvae were rapidly attracted to non-CH adult conspecific cues, whereas D. simulans larvae were strongly repulsed by CHs of the two species and also by phenol. Larval cues from both species generally reduced larval attraction and pupariation on food, which was generally—but not always—low, and rarely reflected larval response. As these larval and adult pheromones specifically influence larval food search and the choice of a pupariation site, they may greatly affect the dispersion and survival of Drosophila species in nature. PMID:24741012

  20. A comparison of beating parameters in larval and post-larval locomotor systems of the lobster Homarus gammarus (L.).

    PubMed

    Laverack, M S; Macmillan, D L; Neil, D M

    1976-03-18

    A study has been made of the interrelations between rhythmical exopodite beating in different larval stages and swimmeret beating in poast-larval stages of the lobster Homarus gammarus. Data on exopodite beat cycle durations have been used for statistical comparisons of exopodite performance within one larva, and also between different stages of larval development. Inter-exopodite comparisons reveal clear bilateral differences (table 1), although there is no consistently favoured relationship (tables 2 and 3). There are significant differences in cycle duration between the first three developmental stages, with a slight increase at the first moult, and a marked decrease at the second (table 4). However, within each stage the repeat frequency exhibits little change (table 5). Therefore it appears that changes in swimming behaviour occur discontinuously in development, and are associated with the larval moults. It is suggested that changes in beat frequency, and especially the faster beating in stage III, may represent responses to changed loading conditions (table 7). Measurements of swimmeret beating in post-larval lobsters have been analysed in terms of cycle durations, and inter- and intra-segmental phase relations. Swimmeret beating patterns are very regular (figure 1), but not restricted to a narrow range of frequencies (table 6a). Intersegmental phase lag remains constant around 0.2 (figure 3) independent of beat frequency (figure 4). Similarly the powerstroke/returnstroke ratio of approximately 0.5 (figure 5) shows no significant correlation with cycle duration (figure 6). Differences emerge in the performance of larval exopodites and post-larval swimmerets (table 6b), although the possibility cannot be excluded that the larval exopodite oscillator in some way influences the developing action of the post-larval swimmeret system.

  1. Spectral absorption of visual pigments in stomatopod larval photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Feller, Kathryn D; Cronin, Thomas W

    2016-03-01

    Larval stomatopod eyes appear to be much simpler versions of adult compound eyes, lacking most of the visual pigment diversity and photoreceptor specializations. Our understanding of the visual pigment diversity of larval stomatopods, however, is based on four species, which severely limits our understanding of stomatopod eye ontogeny. To investigate several poorly understood aspects of stomatopod larval eye function, we tested two hypotheses surrounding the spectral absorption of larval visual pigments. First, we examined a broad range of species to determine if stomatopod larvae generally express a single, spectral class of photoreceptor. Using microspectrophotometry (MSP) on larvae captured in the field, we found data which further support this long-standing hypothesis. MSP was also used to test whether larval species from the same geographical region express visual pigments with similar absorption spectra. Interestingly, despite occupation of the same geographical location, we did not find evidence to support our second hypothesis. Rather, there was significant variation in visual pigment absorption spectra among sympatric species. These data are important to further our understanding of larval photoreceptor spectral diversity, which is beneficial to ongoing investigations into the ontogeny, physiology, and molecular evolution of stomatopod eyes.

  2. Evolved differences in larval social behavior mediated by novel pheromones.

    PubMed

    Mast, Joshua D; De Moraes, Consuelo M; Alborn, Hans T; Lavis, Luke D; Stern, David L

    2014-12-12

    Pheromones, chemical signals that convey social information, mediate many insect social behaviors, including navigation and aggregation. Several studies have suggested that behavior during the immature larval stages of Drosophila development is influenced by pheromones, but none of these compounds or the pheromone-receptor neurons that sense them have been identified. Here we report a larval pheromone-signaling pathway. We found that larvae produce two novel long-chain fatty acids that are attractive to other larvae. We identified a single larval chemosensory neuron that detects these molecules. Two members of the pickpocket family of DEG/ENaC channel subunits (ppk23 and ppk29) are required to respond to these pheromones. This pheromone system is evolving quickly, since the larval exudates of D. simulans, the sister species of D. melanogaster, are not attractive to other larvae. Our results define a new pheromone signaling system in Drosophila that shares characteristics with pheromone systems in a wide diversity of insects.

  3. Implementing an evidence-informed faculty development program

    PubMed Central

    Danilkewich, Alanna D.; Kuzmicz, Jennifer; Greenberg, Gail; Gruszczynski, Adam; Hosain, Jason; McKague, Meredith; Bonnycastle, Deidre; McKay, Shari; Ramsden, Vivian R.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To establish an evidence-informed faculty development program. Design Survey derived from a needs-assessment tool. Setting Department of Academic Family Medicine at the University of Saskatchewan, which is geographically dispersed across the province. Participants Full-time faculty members in the Department of Academic Family Medicine at the University of Saskatchewan. Main outcome measures Creation of an evidence-informed faculty development program. Results The response rate was 77.3% (17 of 22). The data were stratified by 2 groups: faculty members with less than 5 years of experience and those with 5 or more years of experience. Those with less than 5 years of experience rated the following as their top priorities: teaching, developing scholarly activities, and career development. Those with 5 or more years of experience rated the following as their top priorities: administration and leadership, teaching, and information technology. Although there were differences in overall priorities, the 2 groups identified 17 out of 54 skills as important to faculty development. Conclusion The results of the needs-assessment tool were used to shape a dynamic, evidence-informed faculty development program with full-time faculty in the Department of Academic Family Medicine at the University of Saskatchewan. Future programs will continue to be dynamic, faculty-centred, and evidence-informed. PMID:22859632

  4. Insecticidal effects of extracts of seven plant species on larval development, alpha-amylase activity and offspring production of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Insecta: Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Jbilou, R; Amri, H; Bouayad, N; Ghailani, N; Ennabili, A; Sayah, F

    2008-03-01

    Bioinsecticidal effects of methanol extracts from seven plant species on Tribolium castaneum were investigated. Centaurium erythraea, Peganum harmala, Ajuga iva, Aristolochia baetica, Pteridium aquilinum and Raphanus raphanistrum extracts inhibit growth of larvae. C. erythraea was the most toxic with 63% mortality 10 days after treatment, followed by P. harmala with 58%. C. erythraea and P. aquilinum reduce the emergence rate respectively of 66% and 19%. The duration of larval period was shortened by Launaea arborescens, P. aquilinum and A. iva extracts, whereas R. raphanistrum and P. harmala extracts extend the larval period when compared to the control. Extracts of C. erythraea, P. harmala, A. iva and A. baetica inhibited F1 progeny production. Larvae possess three alpha-amylase isoforms as determined by SDS-PAGE. Larvae fed on treated diet had lower alpha-amylase activity than larvae feed on untreated diet. C. erythraea and P. harmala are the most potent extracts. These plant extracts could be useful to reduce seed damage caused by this pest species.

  5. Operationalizing Evidence-Based Practice: The Development of an Institute for Evidence-Based Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regehr, Cheryl; Stern, Susan; Shlonsky, Aron

    2007-01-01

    Although evidence-based practice (EBP) has received increasing attention in social work in the past few years, there has been limited success in moving from academic discussion to engaging social workers in the process of implementing EBP in practice. This article describes the challenges, successes, and future aims in the process of developing a…

  6. Larval morphology of Metaphycus flavus and its role in host attachment and larval cannibalism.

    PubMed

    Tena, A; Kapranas, A; Walker, G P; Garcia-Marí, F; Luck, R F

    2011-06-01

    Metaphycus flavus (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) is a facultatively gregarious endoparasitoid of soft scales (Hemiptera: Coccidae). When it develops in superparasitised hosts, the larvae often attack and consume brood mates six or more days post oviposition. Under our laboratory conditions (25±1°C and 14 hours of light followed by 18±1°C and ten hours of darkness in 50-70% R.H.), M. flavus eggs hatched three days after oviposition. Measurements of the mandibles and tentorium indicate there are four larval instars, and M. flavus reaches the fourth instar by day six post oviposition, and pupates on day eight. Thus, cannibalism among M. flavus larvae occurs during the fourth instar. During this instar, M. flavus larvae separate from their attachment to the scale cuticle, to which they were tethered by a respiratory structure during the previous three larval instars. Once detached, they are free to move within the scale, which increases the probability of larval encounters and aggressive behaviours. Moreover, the mandibles of the fourth instar are better adapted for fighting than are those of the first three larval instars, since they are larger and more sclerotized. The cranium and mouthparts of M. flavus have four different types of sensory organs, some of which are almost certainly olfactory, an unexpected function for a larva that presumably is surrounded by an aqueous medium where gustatory sensilla would seem to be more appropriate. The cranium also bears two pairs of what appear to be secretory pores.

  7. An age-size reaction norm yields insight into environmental interactions affecting life-history traits: a factorial study of larval development in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Conan; Rotiberg, Bernard D

    2013-07-01

    Environmental factors frequently act nonindependently to determine growth and development of insects. Because age and size at maturity strongly influence population dynamics, interaction effects among environmental variables complicate the task of predicting dynamics of insect populations under novel conditions. We reared larvae of the African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) under three factors relevant to changes in climate and land use: food level, water depth, and temperature. Each factor was held at two levels in a fully crossed design, for eight experimental treatments. Larval survival, larval development time, and adult size (wing length) were measured to indicate the importance of interaction effects upon population-level processes. For age and size at emergence, but not survival, significant interaction effects were detected for all three factors, in addition to sex. Some of these interaction effects can be understood as consequences of how the different factors influence energy usage in the context of a nonindependent relationship between age and size. Experimentally assessing interaction effects for all potential future sets of conditions is intractable. However, considering how different factors affect energy usage within the context of an insect's evolved developmental program can provide insight into the causes of complex environmental effects on populations.

  8. Evidence-Centered Design as a Foundation for ALD Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plake, Barbara S.; Huff, Kristen; Reshetar, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    [Slides] presented at the Annual Meeting of National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME) in San Diego, CA in April 2009. This presentation discusses a methodology for directly connecting evidence-centered assessment design (ECD) to score interpretation and use through the development of Achievement level descriptors.

  9. Soundscape manipulation enhances larval recruitment of a reef-building mollusk.

    PubMed

    Lillis, Ashlee; Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R; Eggleston, David B

    2015-01-01

    Marine seafloor ecosystems, and efforts to restore them, depend critically on the influx and settlement of larvae following their pelagic dispersal period. Larval dispersal and settlement patterns are driven by a combination of physical oceanography and behavioral responses of larvae to a suite of sensory cues both in the water column and at settlement sites. There is growing evidence that the biological and physical sounds associated with adult habitats (i.e., the "soundscape") influence larval settlement and habitat selection; however, the significance of acoustic cues is rarely tested. Here we show in a field experiment that the free-swimming larvae of an estuarine invertebrate, the eastern oyster, respond to the addition of replayed habitat-related sounds. Oyster larval recruitment was significantly higher on larval collectors exposed to oyster reef sounds compared to no-sound controls. These results provide the first field evidence that soundscape cues may attract the larval settlers of a reef-building estuarine invertebrate.

  10. Muscle development and body growth in larvae and early post-larvae of shi drum, Umbrina cirrosa L., reared under different larval photoperiod: muscle structural and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Maria D; Abellán, Emilia; Arizcun, Marta; García-Alcázar, Alicia; Navarro, F; Blanco, Alfonso; López-Albors, Octavio M

    2013-08-01

    Shi drum specimens were maintained under four different photoperiod regimes: a natural photoperiod regime (16L:8D), constant light (24L), equal durations of light and dark (12L:12D) and a reduced number of daylight hours (6L:18D) from hatching until the end of larval metamorphosis. Specimens were then kept under natural photoperiod conditions until 111 days post-hatching. Muscle and body parameters were studied. During the vitelline phase, there was little muscle growth and no photoperiod effects were reported; however, a monolayer of red muscle and immature white muscle fibres were observed in the myotome. At hatching, external cells (presumptive myogenic cells) were already present on the surface of the red muscle. At the mouth opening, some presumptive myogenic cells appeared between the red and white muscles. At 20 days, new germinal areas were observed in the apical extremes of the myotome. At this stage, the 16L:8D group (followed by the 24L group) had the longest body length, the largest cross-sectional area of white muscle and the largest white muscle fibres. Conversely, white muscle hyperplasia was most pronounced in the 24L group. Metamorphosis was complete at 33 days in the 24L and 12L:12D groups. At this moment, both groups showed numerous myogenic precursors on the surface of the myotome as well as among the adult muscle fibres (mosaic hyperplastic growth). The 16L:8D group completed metamorphosis at 50 days, showing a similar degree of structural maturity in the myotome to that described in the 24L and 12L:12D groups at 33 days. When comparing muscle growth at the end of the larval period, hypertrophy was highest in the 16L:8D group, whereas hyperplasia was higher in the 24L and 16L:8D groups. At 111 days, all groups showed the adult muscle pattern typical of teleosts; however, the cross-sectional area of white muscle, white muscle fibre hyperplasia, body length and body weight were highest in the 24L group, followed by the 12L:12D group; white muscle

  11. Larval descriptions of the family Porcellanidae: A worldwide annotated compilation of the literature (Crustacea, Decapoda)

    PubMed Central

    Vela, María José; González-Gordillo, Juan Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract For most of the family Porcellanidae, which comprises 283 species, larval development remains to be described. Full development has been only described for 52 species, while part of the larval cycle has been described for 45 species. The importance of knowing the complete larval development of a species goes beyond allowing the identification of larval specimens collected in the plankton. Morphological larval data also constitute a support to cladistic techniques used in the establishment of the phylogenetic status (see Hiller et al. 2006, Marco-Herrero et al. 2013). Nevertheless, the literature on the larval development of this family is old and widely dispersed and in many cases it is difficult to collect the available information on a particular taxon. Towards the aim of facilitating future research, all information available on the larval development of porcellanids has been compiled. Following the taxonomic checklist of Porcellanidae proposed by Osawa and McLaughlin (2010), a checklist has been prepared that reflects the current knowledge about larval development of the group including larval stages and the method used to obtain the larvae, together with references. Those species for which the recognised names have been changed according to Osawa and McLaughlin (2010) are indicated. PMID:27081332

  12. Transmembrane channel-like (tmc) gene regulates Drosophila larval locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanmeng; Wang, Yuping; Zhang, Wei; Meltzer, Shan; Zanini, Damiano; Yu, Yue; Li, Jiefu; Cheng, Tong; Guo, Zhenhao; Wang, Qingxiu; Jacobs, Julie S.; Sharma, Yashoda; Eberl, Daniel F.; Göpfert, Martin C.; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh Nung; Wang, Zuoren

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila larval locomotion, which entails rhythmic body contractions, is controlled by sensory feedback from proprioceptors. The molecular mechanisms mediating this feedback are little understood. By using genetic knock-in and immunostaining, we found that the Drosophila melanogaster transmembrane channel-like (tmc) gene is expressed in the larval class I and class II dendritic arborization (da) neurons and bipolar dendrite (bd) neurons, both of which are known to provide sensory feedback for larval locomotion. Larvae with knockdown or loss of tmc function displayed reduced crawling speeds, increased head cast frequencies, and enhanced backward locomotion. Expressing Drosophila TMC or mammalian TMC1 and/or TMC2 in the tmc-positive neurons rescued these mutant phenotypes. Bending of the larval body activated the tmc-positive neurons, and in tmc mutants this bending response was impaired. This implicates TMC’s roles in Drosophila proprioception and the sensory control of larval locomotion. It also provides evidence for a functional conservation between Drosophila and mammalian TMCs. PMID:27298354

  13. Low level exposure to weathered crude oil causes genetic damage and malformations in larval herring

    SciTech Connect

    Carls, M.; Rice, S.D.; Hose, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    An initial concentration of 0.7 ppb polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in weathered Alaska North Slope crude oil caused genetic damage in newly hatched Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) exposed for 16 days during incubation. The endpoint for genetic damage was a significant increase in the percentage of anaphase aberrations in pectoral fin cells, a response that has been previously shown to be a highly sensitive indicator of crude oil exposure in larval herring. At this exposure level, there were also significant decreases in the percentages of larval survival, normal development and competent swimming, and increased percentages of yolk sac edema. Composition of the PAH, which ranged from naphthalenes through chrysenes, was weighted toward the larger ring compounds, particularly phenanthrenes. Genetic response was not as sensitive an indicator of oil exposure as yolk sac edema, jaw size, and formation of pectoral fin rays. The consequences of chromosomal aberrations in larval herring are not clear. Other experiments have shown that although the frequency of genetic damage decreases with age, malformations persist and are coupled with growth reductions. It is likely that malformed larvae die; evidence for this comes from simultaneous measurements of mortality, malformations and genetic damage in the field.

  14. Low dose exposure to Bisphenol A alters development of gonadotropin-releasing hormone 3 neurons and larval locomotor behavior in Japanese Medaka.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, T; Smith, N; Lee, E K; Ramakrishnan, S

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that chronic low dose exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor, may disrupt normal brain development and behavior mediated by the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pathways. While it is known that GnRH neurons in the hypothalamus regulate reproductive physiology and behavior, functional roles of extra-hypothalamic GnRH neurons remain unclear. Furthermore, little is known whether BPA interacts with extra-hypothalamic GnRH3 neural systems in vulnerable developing brains. Here we examined the impact of low dose BPA exposure on the developing GnRH3 neural system, eye and brain growth, and locomotor activity in transgenic medaka embryos and larvae with GnRH3 neurons tagged with GFP. Fertilized eggs were collected daily and embryos/larvae were chronically exposed to 200ng/ml of BPA, starting at 1 day post fertilization (dpf). BPA significantly increased fluorescence intensity of the GnRH3-GFP neural population in the terminal nerve (TN) of the forebrain at 3dpf, but decreased the intensity at 5dpf, compared with controls. BPA advanced eye pigmentation without affecting eye and brain size development, and accelerated times to hatch. Following chronic BPA exposure, 20dpf larvae showed suppression of locomotion, both in distance covered and speed of movement (47% and 43% reduction, respectively). BPA-induced hypoactivity was accompanied by decreased cell body sizes of individual TN-GnRH3 neurons (14% smaller than those of controls), but not of non-GnRH3 neurons. These novel data demonstrate complex neurobehavioral effects of BPA on the development of extra-hypothalamic GnRH3 neurons in teleost fish.

  15. Larval feeding substrate and species significantly influence the effect of a juvenile hormone analog on sexual development/performance in four tropical tephritid flies.

    PubMed

    Aluja, Martín; Ordano, Mariano; Teal, Peter E A; Sivinski, John; García-Medel, Darío; Anzures-Dadda, Alberto

    2009-03-01

    The juvenile hormone (JH) analog methoprene reduces the amount of time it takes laboratory-reared Anastrepha suspensa (Caribbean fruit fly) males to reach sexual maturity by almost half. Here, we examined if methoprene exerted a similar effect on four other tropical Anastrepha species (Anastrepha ludens, Anastrepha obliqua, Anastrepha serpentina and Anastrepha striata) reared on natural hosts and exhibiting contrasting life histories. In the case of A. ludens, we worked with two populations that derived from Casimiroa greggii (ancestral host, larvae feed on seeds) and Citrus paradisi (exotic host, larvae feed on pulp). We found that the effects of methoprene, when they occurred, varied according to species and, in the case of A. ludens, according to larval host. For example, in the case of the two A. ludens populations the effect of methoprene on first appearance of male calling behavior and number of copulations was only apparent in flies derived from C. greggii. In contrast, males derived from C. paradisi called and mated almost twice as often and females started to lay eggs almost 1 day earlier than individuals derived from C. greggii, but in this case there was no significant effect of treatment (methoprene) only a significant host effect. There were also significant host and host by treatment interactions with respect to egg clutch size. A. ludens females derived from C. paradisi laid significantly more eggs per clutch and total number of eggs than females derived from C. greggii. With respect to the multiple species comparisons, the treatment effect was consistent for A. ludens, occasional in A. serpentina (e.g., calling by males, clutch size), and not apparent in the cases of A. obliqua and A. striata. Interestingly, with respect to clutch size, in the cases of A. ludens and A. serpentina, the treatment effect followed opposite directions: positive in the case of A. ludens and negative in the case of A. serpentina. We center our discussion on two hypotheses

  16. Expression and light-triggered movement of rhodopsins in the larval visual system of mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Manuel; Kimler, Kyle J.; Leming, Matthew T.; Hu, Xiaobang; Whaley, Michelle A.; O'Tousa, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT During the larval stages, the visual system of the mosquito Aedes aegypti contains five stemmata, often referred to as larval ocelli, positioned laterally on each side of the larval head. Here we show that stemmata contain two photoreceptor types, distinguished by the expression of different rhodopsins. The rhodopsin Aaop3 (GPROP3) is expressed in the majority of the larval photoreceptors. There are two small clusters of photoreceptors located within the satellite and central stemmata that express the rhodopsin Aaop7 (GPROP7) instead of Aaop3. Electroretinogram analysis of transgenic Aaop7 Drosophila indicates that Aaop3 and Aaop7, both classified as long-wavelength rhodopsins, possess similar but not identical spectral properties. Light triggers an extensive translocation of Aaop3 from the photosensitive rhabdoms to the cytoplasmic compartment, whereas light-driven translocation of Aaop7 is limited. The results suggest that these photoreceptor cell types play distinct roles in larval vision. An additional component of the larval visual system is the adult compound eye, which starts to develop at the anterior face of the larval stemmata during the 1st instar stage. The photoreceptors of the developing compound eye show rhodopsin expression during the 4th larval instar stage, consistent with indications from previous reports that the adult compound eye contributes to larval and pupal visual capabilities. PMID:25750414

  17. Butterfly oviposition preference is not related to larval performance on a polyploid herb.

    PubMed

    König, Malin A E; Wiklund, Christer; Ehrlén, Johan

    2016-05-01

    The preference-performance hypothesis predicts that female insects maximize their fitness by utilizing host plants which are associated with high larval performance. Still, studies with several insect species have failed to find a positive correlation between oviposition preference and larval performance. In the present study, we experimentally investigated the relationship between oviposition preferences and larval performance in the butterfly Anthocharis cardamines. Preferences were assessed using both cage experiments and field data on the proportion of host plant individuals utilized in natural populations. Larval performance was experimentally investigated using larvae descending from 419 oviposition events by 21 females on plants from 51 populations of two ploidy types of the perennial herb Cardamine pratensis. Neither ploidy type nor population identity influenced egg survival or larval development, but increased plant inflorescence size resulted in a larger final larval size. There was no correlation between female oviposition preference and egg survival or larval development under controlled conditions. Moreover, variation in larval performance among populations under controlled conditions was not correlated with the proportion of host plants utilized in the field. Lastly, first instar larvae added to plants rejected for oviposition by butterfly females during the preference experiment performed equally well as larvae growing on plants chosen for oviposition. The lack of a correlation between larval performance and oviposition preference for A. cardamines under both experimental and natural settings suggests that female host choice does not maximize the fitness of the individual offspring.

  18. Expression and light-triggered movement of rhodopsins in the larval visual system of mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Manuel; Kimler, Kyle J; Leming, Matthew T; Hu, Xiaobang; Whaley, Michelle A; O'Tousa, Joseph E

    2015-05-01

    During the larval stages, the visual system of the mosquito Aedes aegypti contains five stemmata, often referred to as larval ocelli, positioned laterally on each side of the larval head. Here we show that stemmata contain two photoreceptor types, distinguished by the expression of different rhodopsins. The rhodopsin Aaop3 (GPROP3) is expressed in the majority of the larval photoreceptors. There are two small clusters of photoreceptors located within the satellite and central stemmata that express the rhodopsin Aaop7 (GPROP7) instead of Aaop3. Electroretinogram analysis of transgenic Aaop7 Drosophila indicates that Aaop3 and Aaop7, both classified as long-wavelength rhodopsins, possess similar but not identical spectral properties. Light triggers an extensive translocation of Aaop3 from the photosensitive rhabdoms to the cytoplasmic compartment, whereas light-driven translocation of Aaop7 is limited. The results suggest that these photoreceptor cell types play distinct roles in larval vision. An additional component of the larval visual system is the adult compound eye, which starts to develop at the anterior face of the larval stemmata during the 1st instar stage. The photoreceptors of the developing compound eye show rhodopsin expression during the 4th larval instar stage, consistent with indications from previous reports that the adult compound eye contributes to larval and pupal visual capabilities.

  19. Cardiorespiratory ontogeny and response to environmental hypoxia of larval spiny lobster, Sagmariasus verreauxi.

    PubMed

    Fitzgibbon, Quinn P; Ruff, Nicole; Battaglene, Stephen C

    2015-06-01

    Cardiorespiratory function is vital to an organism's ability to respond to environmental stress and analysis of cardiorespiratory capacity of species or life stages can elucidate vulnerability to climate change. Spiny lobsters have one of the most complex pelagic larval life cycles of any invertebrate and recently there has been an unexplained decline in post-larval recruitment for a number of species. We conducted the first analysis of the larval ontogeny of oxygen consumption, heart rate, maxilla 2 ventilation rate and oxyregulatory capacity of the spiny lobster, Sagmariasus verreauxi, to gain insight into their vulnerability to ocean change and to investigate life stage specific sensitivity to temperature-dependent oxygen limitation. In normoxia, heart and maxilla 2 ventilation rates increased in early larval development before declining, which we hypothesise is related to the transition from myogenic to neurogenic cardiac control. Maxilla 2 ventilation rate was sensitive to hypoxia at all larval stages, while heart rate was only sensitive to hypoxia in the late phyllosoma stages. Oxygen consumption conformed to environmental hypoxia at all larval stages. Spiny lobster larvae have limited respiratory control due to immature gas exchange physiology, compounded by their exceptionally large size. The lack of oxyregulatory ability suggests that all development stages are vulnerable to changes in sea temperature and oxygen availability. The synergetic stressors of increased temperature and reduced dissolved oxygen in the marine environment will diminish spiny lobster larval performance, increasing the challenge to achieve their extended larval life cycle, which may contribute to declines in post-larval recruitment.

  20. Embryonic and larval development of jundiá (Rhamdia quelen, Quoy and Gaimard, 1824, Pisces, TeleosteI), a South American catfish.

    PubMed

    Pereira, C R; Barcellos, L J G; Kreutz, L C; Quevedo, R M; Ritter, F; Silva, L B

    2006-11-01

    The jundiá (Rhamdia quelen, Quoy and Gaimard) is an endemic South American fish species. Because this species supports cold winters and grows faster during warm months, it has begun to be viewed as an ideal species for fish production in southern South America. In the present study, jundiá oocytes used were obtained by extrusion from females after hormone injection. Soon after hydration, the eggs were transferred to 50 L conic glass incubators, with constant and controlled water influx. Samples of fertilized eggs were transferred to Petri dishes and, examined under a stereoscopic microscope, were spherical, demersal, and non-adhesive with defined perivitelline space and resistant chorion. Cleavage stages occurred during the first 3.5 h. After hatching, larvae were transferred to 200 L glass fiber incubators. First signs of embryo movement were observed 21 h after fertilization; larval eclosion occurred 30.5 h after fertilization. Present findings may provide a basis for studies aimed at determining the complete ontogeny of jundiá and may be useful in eco-toxicological studies.

  1. Larval therapy from antiquity to the present day: mechanisms of action, clinical applications and future potential

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Iain S; Twine, Christopher; Whitaker, Michael J; Welck, Mathew; Brown, Charles S; Shandall, Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    When modern medicine fails, it is often useful to draw ideas from ancient treatments. The therapeutic use of fly larvae to debride necrotic tissue, also known as larval therapy, maggot debridement therapy or biosurgery, dates back to the beginnings of civilisation. Despite repeatedly falling out of favour largely because of patient intolerance to the treatment, the practice of larval therapy is increasing around the world because of its efficacy, safety and simplicity. Clinical indications for larval treatment are varied, but, in particular, are wounds infected with multidrug‐resistant bacteria and the presence of significant co‐morbidities precluding surgical intervention. The flies most often used in larval therapy are the facultative calliphorids, with the greenbottle blowfly (Lucilia sericata) being the most widely used species. This review summarises the fascinating and turbulent history of larval therapy from its origin to the present day, including mechanisms of action and evidence for its clinical applications. It also explores future research directions. PMID:17551073

  2. Burrowing activities of the larval lamprey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sawyer, Philip J.

    1959-01-01

    Since the appearance in 1950 of Applegate's work on the sea lamprey in Michigan (U. S. Fish and Wildl. Serv., Spec. Sci. Rept.; Fish, No. 55) and the subsequent development of means to control lampreys in the Great Lakes, biologists have accumulated much additional information on adult lampreys. Larval lampreys, however, are difficult animals to observe in the field, and many facets of their behavior are still unknown. While working with the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, I kept ammocetes in captivity, and was able to observe their burrowing activities.

  3. Developing research competence to support evidence-based practice.

    PubMed

    Burke, Lora E; Schlenk, Elizabeth A; Sereika, Susan M; Cohen, Susan M; Happ, Mary Beth; Dorman, Janice S

    2005-01-01

    This article describes one step in the process that was undertaken to prepare for the introduction of evidence-based practice (EBP) into the curriculum across the Bachelor of Science in Nursing, Master of Science in Nursing, and Doctor of Philosophy programs, as well as the programs that were under development, Clinical Nurse Leader and Doctor of Nursing Practice, at the University of Pittsburgh School of Nursing. Expected research competencies were identified for each level or academic year within each program. Based on these competencies, recommendations on how to modify the curriculum into one that would support students' acquisition and development of the skills necessary to be successful in matriculating through an EBP curriculum were developed. Evaluation mechanisms for the achievement of these competencies vary across the academic programs and will include performance on capstone projects, comprehensive examinations, and program milestones for doctoral students. The establishment of evidence-based competencies provided a foundation for the development of new teaching approaches and the curricular revisions across the three academic programs. Thus, the University of Pittsburgh model of educating for EBP is based on a sequential layering of research competencies throughout the curriculum.

  4. Adaptive locomotor behavior in larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Portugues, Ruben; Engert, Florian

    2011-01-01

    In this study we report that larval zebrafish display adaptive locomotor output that can be driven by unexpected visual feedback. We develop a new assay that addresses visuomotor integration in restrained larval zebrafish. The assay involves a closed-loop environment in which the visual feedback a larva receives depends on its own motor output in a way that resembles freely swimming conditions. The experimenter can control the gain of this closed feedback loop, so that following a given motor output the larva experiences more or less visual feedback depending on whether the gain is high or low. We show that increases and decreases in this gain setting result in adaptive changes in behavior that lead to a generalized decrease or increase of motor output, respectively. Our behavioral analysis shows that both the duration and tail beat frequency of individual swim bouts can be modified, as well as the frequency with which bouts are elicited. These changes can be implemented rapidly, following an exposure to a new gain of just 175 ms. In addition, modifications in some behavioral parameters accumulate over tens of seconds and effects last for at least 30 s from trial to trial. These results suggest that larvae establish an internal representation of the visual feedback expected from a given motor output and that the behavioral modifications are driven by an error signal that arises from the discrepancy between this expectation and the actual visual feedback. The assay we develop presents a unique possibility for studying visuomotor integration using imaging techniques available in the larval zebrafish.

  5. Adaptive Locomotor Behavior in Larval Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Portugues, Ruben; Engert, Florian

    2011-01-01

    In this study we report that larval zebrafish display adaptive locomotor output that can be driven by unexpected visual feedback. We develop a new assay that addresses visuomotor integration in restrained larval zebrafish. The assay involves a closed-loop environment in which the visual feedback a larva receives depends on its own motor output in a way that resembles freely swimming conditions. The experimenter can control the gain of this closed feedback loop, so that following a given motor output the larva experiences more or less visual feedback depending on whether the gain is high or low. We show that increases and decreases in this gain setting result in adaptive changes in behavior that lead to a generalized decrease or increase of motor output, respectively. Our behavioral analysis shows that both the duration and tail beat frequency of individual swim bouts can be modified, as well as the frequency with which bouts are elicited. These changes can be implemented rapidly, following an exposure to a new gain of just 175 ms. In addition, modifications in some behavioral parameters accumulate over tens of seconds and effects last for at least 30 s from trial to trial. These results suggest that larvae establish an internal representation of the visual feedback expected from a given motor output and that the behavioral modifications are driven by an error signal that arises from the discrepancy between this expectation and the actual visual feedback. The assay we develop presents a unique possibility for studying visuomotor integration using imaging techniques available in the larval zebrafish. PMID:21909325

  6. Insulin-like and testis ecdysiotropin neuropeptides are regulated by the circadian timing system in the brain during larval-adult development in the insect Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera).

    PubMed

    Vafopoulou, Xanthe; Steel, Colin G H

    2012-11-01

    Insulin-like peptides (ILPs) regulate numerous functions in insects including growth, development, carbohydrate metabolism and female reproduction. This paper reports the immunohistochemical localization of ILPs in brain neurons of Rhodnius prolixus and their intimate associations with the brain circadian clock system. In larvae, three groups of neurons in the protocerebrum are ILP-positive, and testis ecdysiotropin (TE) is co-localized in two of them. During adult development, the number of ILP groups increased to four. A blood meal initiates transport and release of ILPs, indicating that release is nutrient dependent. Both production and axonal transport of ILPs continue during adult development with clear cytological evidence of a daily rhythm that closely correlates with the daily rhythm of ILPs release from brains in vitro. The same phenomena were observed with TE previously. Double labeling for ILPs and pigment dispersing factor (PDF) (contained in the brain lateral clock cells, LNs) revealed intimate associations between axons of the ILP/TE cells and PDF-positive axons in both central brain and retrocerebral complex, revealing potential neuronal pathways for circadian regulation of ILPs and TE. Similar close associations were found previously between LN axons and axons of the brain neurons producing the neuropeptide prothoracicotropic hormone. Thus, the brain clock system controls rhythmicity in multiple brain neurohormones. It is suggested that rhythms in circulating ILPs and TE act in concert with known rhythms of circulating ecdysteroids in both larvae and adults to orchestrate the timing of cellular responses in diverse tissues of the animal, thereby generating internal temporal order within it.

  7. Location Isn’t Everything: Timing of Spawning Aggregations Optimizes Larval Replenishment

    PubMed Central

    Donahue, Megan J.; Karnauskas, Mandy; Toews, Carl; Paris, Claire B.

    2015-01-01

    Many species of reef fishes form large spawning aggregations that are highly predictable in space and time. Prior research has suggested that aggregating fish derive fitness benefits not just from mating at high density but, also, from oceanographic features of the spatial locations where aggregations occur. Using a probabilistic biophysical model of larval dispersal coupled to a fine resolution hydrodynamic model of the Florida Straits, we develop a stochastic landscape of larval fitness. Tracking virtual larvae from release to settlement and incorporating changes in larval behavior through ontogeny, we found that larval success was sensitive to the timing of spawning. Indeed, propagules released during the observed spawning period had higher larval success rates than those released outside the observed spawning period. In contrast, larval success rates were relatively insensitive to the spatial position of the release site. In addition, minimum (rather than mean) larval survival was maximized during the observed spawning period, indicating a reproductive strategy that minimizes the probability of recruitment failure. Given this landscape of larval fitness, we take an inverse optimization approach to define a biological objective function that reflects a tradeoff between the mean and variance of larval success in a temporally variable environment. Using this objective function, we suggest that the length of the spawning period can provide insight into the tradeoff between reproductive risk and reward. PMID:26103162

  8. Location Isn't Everything: Timing of Spawning Aggregations Optimizes Larval Replenishment.

    PubMed

    Donahue, Megan J; Karnauskas, Mandy; Toews, Carl; Paris, Claire B

    2015-01-01

    Many species of reef fishes form large spawning aggregations that are highly predictable in space and time. Prior research has suggested that aggregating fish derive fitness benefits not just from mating at high density but, also, from oceanographic features of the spatial locations where aggregations occur. Using a probabilistic biophysical model of larval dispersal coupled to a fine resolution hydrodynamic model of the Florida Straits, we develop a stochastic landscape of larval fitness. Tracking virtual larvae from release to settlement and incorporating changes in larval behavior through ontogeny, we found that larval success was sensitive to the timing of spawning. Indeed, propagules released during the observed spawning period had higher larval success rates than those released outside the observed spawning period. In contrast, larval success rates were relatively insensitive to the spatial position of the release site. In addition, minimum (rather than mean) larval survival was maximized during the observed spawning period, indicating a reproductive strategy that minimizes the probability of recruitment failure. Given this landscape of larval fitness, we take an inverse optimization approach to define a biological objective function that reflects a tradeoff between the mean and variance of larval success in a temporally variable environment. Using this objective function, we suggest that the length of the spawning period can provide insight into the tradeoff between reproductive risk and reward.

  9. Longitudinal evidence linking processing speed to the development of reasoning.

    PubMed

    Kail, Robert V; Lervåg, Arne; Hulme, Charles

    2016-11-01

    Age-related change in processing speed has been linked directly to increases in reasoning as well as indirectly via increases in the capacity of working memory (WM). Most of the evidence linking change in speed to reasoning has come from cross-sectional research; in this article we present the findings from a 2½-year longitudinal study of 277 6- to-13-year-olds. On three occasions, speed of information processing was assessed with Visual Matching and Cross Out; WM was assessed with reading, listening, backward digit, alphabet, and operation span tasks; and nonverbal reasoning was assessed with Raven's progressive matrices. The results provided consistent evidence of direct links from processing speed to reasoning but inconsistent evidence for indirect links from speed to WM to reasoning. These findings suggest that variations in processing speed may constrain the development of reasoning, directly and perhaps indirectly. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://youtu.be/nc0VlFdi468.

  10. Effects of embryonic ethanol exposure at low doses on neuronal development, voluntary ethanol consumption and related behaviors in larval and adult zebrafish: Role of hypothalamic orexigenic peptides.

    PubMed

    Sterling, M E; Chang, G-Q; Karatayev, O; Chang, S Y; Leibowitz, S F

    2016-05-01

    Embryonic exposure to ethanol is known to affect neurochemical systems in rodents and increase alcohol drinking and related behaviors in humans and rodents. With zebrafish emerging as a powerful tool for uncovering neural mechanisms of numerous diseases and exhibiting similarities to rodents, the present report building on our rat studies examined in zebrafish the effects of embryonic ethanol exposure on hypothalamic neurogenesis, expression of orexigenic neuropeptides, and voluntary ethanol consumption and locomotor behaviors in larval and adult zebrafish, and also effects of central neuropeptide injections on these behaviors affected by ethanol. At 24h post-fertilization, zebrafish embryos were exposed for 2h to ethanol, at low concentrations of 0.25% and 0.5%, in the tank water. Embryonic ethanol compared to control dose-dependently increased hypothalamic neurogenesis and the proliferation and expression of the orexigenic peptides, galanin (GAL) and orexin (OX), in the anterior hypothalamus. These changes in hypothalamic peptide neurons were accompanied by an increase in voluntary consumption of 10% ethanol-gelatin and in novelty-induced locomotor and exploratory behavior in adult zebrafish and locomotor activity in larvae. After intracerebroventricular injection, these peptides compared to vehicle had specific effects on these behaviors altered by ethanol, with GAL stimulating consumption of 10% ethanol-gelatin more than plain gelatin food and OX stimulating novelty-induced locomotor behavior while increasing intake of food and ethanol equally. These results, similar to those obtained in rats, suggest that the ethanol-induced increase in genesis and expression of these hypothalamic peptide neurons contribute to the behavioral changes induced by embryonic exposure to ethanol.

  11. Developing an evidence-based list of journals for nursing.

    PubMed

    Sherwill-Navarro, Pamela; Kennedy, Joy C; Allen, Margaret Peg

    2014-04-01

    The Nursing and Allied Health Resources Section (NAHRS) of the Medical Library Association created the 2012 NAHRS Selected List of Nursing Journals to assist librarians with collection development and to provide nurses and librarians with data on nursing and interdisciplinary journals to assist their decisions about where to submit articles for publication. This list is a continuation and expansion of a list initially known as the Key Nursing Journals list. It compares database coverage and full-text options for each title and includes an analysis of the number of evidence-based, research, and continuing education articles.

  12. Developing an evidence-based list of journals for nursing

    PubMed Central

    Sherwill-Navarro, Pamela; Kennedy, Joy C.; Allen, Margaret (Peg)

    2014-01-01

    The Nursing and Allied Health Resources Section (NAHRS) of the Medical Library Association created the 2012 NAHRS Selected List of Nursing Journals to assist librarians with collection development and to provide nurses and librarians with data on nursing and interdisciplinary journals to assist their decisions about where to submit articles for publication. This list is a continuation and expansion of a list initially known as the Key Nursing Journals list. It compares database coverage and full-text options for each title and includes an analysis of the number of evidence-based, research, and continuing education articles. PMID:24860267

  13. Development of the Larval Amphibian Growth and Development Assay: effects of chronic 4-tert-octylphenol or 17β-trenbolone exposure in Xenopus laevis from embryo to juvenile.

    PubMed

    Haselman, Jonathan T; Kosian, Patricia A; Korte, Joseph J; Olmstead, Allen W; Iguchi, Taisen; Johnson, Rodney D; Degitz, Sigmund J

    2016-12-01

    The Larval Amphibian Growth and Development Assay (LAGDA) is a globally harmonized test guideline developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in collaboration with Japan's Ministry of the Environment. The LAGDA was designed to evaluate apical effects of chronic chemical exposure on growth, thyroid-mediated amphibian metamorphosis and reproductive development. During the validation phase, two well-characterized endocrine-disrupting chemicals were tested to evaluate the performance of the initial assay design: xenoestrogen 4-tert-octylphenol (tOP) and xenoandrogen 17β-trenbolone (TB). Xenopus laevis embryos were exposed, in flow-through conditions, to tOP (nominal concentrations: 0.0, 6.25, 12.5, 25 and 50 µg l(-1) ) or TB (nominal concentrations: 0.0, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 ng l(-1) ) until 8 weeks post-metamorphosis, at which time growth measurements were taken, and histopathology assessments were made of the gonads, reproductive ducts, liver and kidneys. There were no effects on growth in either study and no signs of overt toxicity, sex reversal or gonad dysgenesis. Exposure to tOP caused a treatment-related decrease in circulating thyroxine and an increase in thyroid follicular cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia (25 and 50 µg l(-1) ) during metamorphosis. Müllerian duct development was affected after exposure to both chemicals; tOP exposure caused dose-dependent maturation of oviducts in both male and female frogs, whereas TB exposure caused accelerated Müllerian duct regression in males and complete regression in >50% of the females in the 100 ng l(-1) treatment. Based on these results, the LAGDA performed adequately to evaluate apical effects of chronic exposure to two endocrine-active compounds and is the first standardized amphibian multiple life stage toxicity test to date. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. The larval stages of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.

    PubMed

    Smith, M Meighan; Cruz Smith, Luisa; Cameron, R Andrew; Urry, Lisa A

    2008-06-01

    The adult body plan of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus is established within the imaginal rudiment during the larval stages. To facilitate the study of these stages, we have defined a larval staging scheme, which consists of seven stages: Stage I, four-arm stage; Stage II, eight-arm stage; Stage III, vestibular invagination stage; Stage IV, rudiment initiation stage; Stage V, pentagonal disc stage; Stage VI, advanced rudiment stage; and Stage VI, tube-foot protrusion stage. Each stage is characterized by significant morphological features observed for the first time at that stage. This scheme is intended as a guide for determining the degree of larval development, and for identifying larval and adult structures. Larval anatomy was visualized using light and confocal microscopy as required on living material, whole mount fixed specimens, and serial sections. Antibody staining to localize specific gene products was also used. Detailed analysis of these data has furthered our understanding of the morphogenesis of the rudiment, and has suggested provocative questions regarding the molecular basis for these events. We intend this work to be of use to investigators studying gene expression and morphogenesis in postembryonic larvae.

  15. Continuous illumination through larval development suppresses dopamine synthesis in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, causing activation of α-MSH synthesis in the pituitary and abnormal metamorphic skin pigmentation in flounder.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Kae; Washio, Youhei; Fujinami, Yuichiro; Shimizu, Daisuke; Uji, Susumu; Yokoi, Hayato; Suzuki, Tohru

    2012-04-01

    In order to better understand the endocrine aberrations related to abnormal metamorphic pigmentation that appear in flounder larvae reared in tanks, this study examined the effects of continuous 24-h illumination (LL) through larval development on the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase-1 (th1), proopiomelanocortin (pomc), α-melanophore-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and melanin concentrating hormone (MCH), which are known to participate in the control of background adaptation of body color. We observed two conspicuous deviations in the endocrine system under LL when compared with natural light conditions (LD). First, LL severely suppressed th1 expression in the dopaminergic neurons in the anterior diencephalon, including the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Second, pomc and α-MSH expression in the pars intermedia melanotrophs was enhanced by LL. Skin color was paler under LL than LD before metamorphic pigmentation, and abnormal metamorphic pigmentation occurred at a higher ratio in LL. We therefore hypothesize that continuous LL inhibited dopamine synthesis in the SCN, which resulted in up-regulation of pomc mRNA expression in the melanotrophs. In spite of the up-regulation of pomc in the melanotrophs, larval skin was adjusted to be pale by MCH which was not affected by LL. Accumulation of α-MSH in the melanotrophs is caused by uncoupling of α-MSH synthesis and secretion due to inhibitory role of MCH on α-MSH secretion, which results in abnormal metamorphic pigmentation by affecting differentiation of adult-type melanophores. Our data demonstrate that continuous illumination at the post-embryonic stage has negative effects on the neuroendocrine system and pituitary in flounder.

  16. Distribution and Larval Habitats of Anopheles Species in Northern Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    preferences for oviposition , extensive larval collections that identify breeding sites based on stages of larval development are...species composition and population densities, habitat preferences based on species composition and relative population densities, and...including habitat preferences . Anopheles sinensis, considered a secondary malaria vector by some (Lee et al. 2007, Joshi et al. 2009), is

  17. 'Peer pressure' in larval Drosophila?

    PubMed

    Niewalda, Thomas; Jeske, Ines; Michels, Birgit; Gerber, Bertram

    2014-06-06

    Understanding social behaviour requires a study case that is simple enough to be tractable, yet complex enough to remain interesting. Do larval Drosophila meet these requirements? In a broad sense, this question can refer to effects of the mere presence of other larvae on the behaviour of a target individual. Here we focused in a more strict sense on 'peer pressure', that is on the question of whether the behaviour of a target individual larva is affected by what a surrounding group of larvae is doing. We found that innate olfactory preference of a target individual was neither affected (i) by the level of innate olfactory preference in the surrounding group nor (ii) by the expression of learned olfactory preference in the group. Likewise, learned olfactory preference of a target individual was neither affected (iii) by the level of innate olfactory preference of the surrounding group nor (iv) by the learned olfactory preference the group was expressing. We conclude that larval Drosophila thus do not take note of specifically what surrounding larvae are doing. This implies that in a strict sense, and to the extent tested, there is no social interaction between larvae. These results validate widely used en mass approaches to the behaviour of larval Drosophila.

  18. Economic Development and Forest Cover: Evidence from Satellite Data

    PubMed Central

    Crespo Cuaresma, Jesús; Danylo, Olha; Fritz, Steffen; McCallum, Ian; Obersteiner, Michael; See, Linda; Walsh, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Ongoing deforestation is a pressing, global environmental issue with direct impacts on climate change, carbon emissions, and biodiversity. There is an intuitive link between economic development and overexploitation of natural resources including forests, but this relationship has proven difficult to establish empirically due to both inadequate data and convoluting geo-climactic factors. In this analysis, we use satellite data on forest cover along national borders in order to study the determinants of deforestation differences across countries. Controlling for trans-border geo-climactic differences, we find that income per capita is the most robust determinant of differences in cross-border forest cover. We show that the marginal effect of per capita income growth on forest cover is strongest at the earliest stages of economic development, and weakens in more advanced economies, presenting some of the strongest evidence to date for the existence of at least half of an environmental Kuznets curve for deforestation. PMID:28091593

  19. Economic Development and Forest Cover: Evidence from Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo Cuaresma, Jesús; Danylo, Olha; Fritz, Steffen; McCallum, Ian; Obersteiner, Michael; See, Linda; Walsh, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Ongoing deforestation is a pressing, global environmental issue with direct impacts on climate change, carbon emissions, and biodiversity. There is an intuitive link between economic development and overexploitation of natural resources including forests, but this relationship has proven difficult to establish empirically due to both inadequate data and convoluting geo-climactic factors. In this analysis, we use satellite data on forest cover along national borders in order to study the determinants of deforestation differences across countries. Controlling for trans-border geo-climactic differences, we find that income per capita is the most robust determinant of differences in cross-border forest cover. We show that the marginal effect of per capita income growth on forest cover is strongest at the earliest stages of economic development, and weakens in more advanced economies, presenting some of the strongest evidence to date for the existence of at least half of an environmental Kuznets curve for deforestation.

  20. Economic Development and Forest Cover: Evidence from Satellite Data.

    PubMed

    Crespo Cuaresma, Jesús; Danylo, Olha; Fritz, Steffen; McCallum, Ian; Obersteiner, Michael; See, Linda; Walsh, Brian

    2017-01-16

    Ongoing deforestation is a pressing, global environmental issue with direct impacts on climate change, carbon emissions, and biodiversity. There is an intuitive link between economic development and overexploitation of natural resources including forests, but this relationship has proven difficult to establish empirically due to both inadequate data and convoluting geo-climactic factors. In this analysis, we use satellite data on forest cover along national borders in order to study the determinants of deforestation differences across countries. Controlling for trans-border geo-climactic differences, we find that income per capita is the most robust determinant of differences in cross-border forest cover. We show that the marginal effect of per capita income growth on forest cover is strongest at the earliest stages of economic development, and weakens in more advanced economies, presenting some of the strongest evidence to date for the existence of at least half of an environmental Kuznets curve for deforestation.

  1. Biological Strategies of Dermestes maculatus DeGeer (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) at Larval Stages in Different Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, N I; Visciarelli, E C; Centeno, N D

    2016-12-01

    The intraspecific variation in larval instars is a widely distributed phenomenon amongst holometabolous insects. Several factors can affect the number of instars, such as temperature, humidity, and density. Only a few references could be found in the literature because the invariability in the number of larval instars is considered normal, and the issue has raised little to no interest. Despite this, no study to date has intended to assess or focus on the larval development. Here, we analyzed the effect of different rearing temperature on the larval stage of Dermestes maculatus DeGeer (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). The results indicated that at all temperatures, L5 represented a decisive point for individuals as well as the other later larval instars, because the next step to follow was to pupate or molt to the next larval instar. Furthermore, there were mainly two populations, L5 and L6, although in different proportions according to temperature. We also found that at a greater number of instars, the larval development at all temperatures lasted longer. Moreover, the exponential model was the best adjustment in the developmental time of all populations as well as for the accumulated developmental time of L1-L4. Thus, we conclude that random factors such as genetics could probably cause interspecific variability in D. maculatus larval development.

  2. Effects of Underwater Turbine Noise on Crab Larval Metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Pine, Matthew K; Jeffs, Andrew G; Radford, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    The development of marine tidal turbines has advanced at a rapid rate over the last decade but with little detailed understanding of the potential noise impacts on invertebrates. Previous research has shown that underwater reef noise plays an important role in mediating metamorphosis in many larval crabs and fishes. New research suggests that underwater estuarine noise may also mediate metamorphosis in estuarine crab larvae and that the noise emitted from underwater tidal and sea-based wind turbines may significantly influence larval metamorphosis in estuarine crabs.

  3. Larval myogenesis in Echinodermata: conserved features and morphological diversity between class-specific larval forms of Echinoidae, Asteroidea, and Holothuroidea.

    PubMed

    Dyachuk, Vyacheslav; Odintsova, Nelly

    2013-01-01

    The myogenesis of class-specific larval forms of three classes belonging to the phylum Echinodermata (Echinoidae, Asteroidea, and Holothuroidea) was investigated via gross-anatomy and comparative morphology of larval muscles. Using staining with phalloidin and antibodies against the muscle proteins, with subsequent CLSM and 3D imaging, we have examined myogenesis in the larvae from the gastrula stage to pre-metamorphosis larval stages. We have shown that temporal and spatial expression of muscle proteins is similar in echinoidea and asteroidea larvae but differs in holothuroidea larvae at early developmental stages. New insights regarding the protein composition of maturing muscular fibrils during development in echinoderm larvae were detected. The first differentiating muscle structures in all tested classes have been found to be circular esophageal muscles that are associated with larval feeding. During early differentiation of echinoderm larval muscle cells, we observed that the expression patterns of the muscle proteins were not uniform but with a characteristic diffuse distribution, which is typical for smooth muscle. An unusual pattern of expression of the muscle proteins was detected in larval sphincters: the thick muscle proteins were first expressed during the early developmental stages, whereas F-actin appeared at later stages. In addition, paired star-shaped muscles were revealed in the mature Echinoidae plutei, but were absent in the Asteroidea, and Holothuroidea larvae. All tested species of Echinodermata exhibited both conserved features of muscle morphology during development indicating a common life history strategy and a planktonic habitat, and also an extensive morphological diversity representing specific anatomical adaptations during development.

  4. Adult beetles compensate for poor larval food conditions.

    PubMed

    Müller, Thorben; Müller, Caroline

    2016-05-01

    Life history traits of herbivores are highly influenced by the quality of their hosts, i.e., the composition of primary and secondary plant metabolites. In holometabolous insects, larvae and adults may face different host plants, which differ in quality. It has been hypothesised that adult fitness is either highest when larval and adult environmental conditions match (environmental matching) or it may be mainly determined by optimal larval conditions (silver spoon effect). Alternatively, the adult stage may be most decisive for the actual fitness, independent of larval food exposure, due to adult compensation ability. To determine the influence of constant versus changing larval and adult host plant experiences on growth performance, fitness and feeding preferences, we carried out a match-mismatch experiment using the mustard leaf beetle, Phaedon cochleariae. Larvae and adults were either constantly reared on watercress (natural host) or cabbage (crop plant) or were switched after metamorphosis to the other host. Growth, reproductive traits and feeding preferences were determined repeatedly over lifetime and host plant quality traits analysed. Differences in the host quality led to differences in the development time and female reproduction. Egg numbers were significantly influenced by the host plant species experienced by the adults. Thus, adults were able to compensate for poor larval conditions. Likewise, the current host experience was most decisive for feeding preferences; in adult beetles a feeding preference was shaped regardless of the larval host plant. Larvae or adults reared on the more nutritious host, cabbage, showed a higher preference for this host. Hence, beetles most likely develop a preference when gaining a direct positive feedback in terms of an improved performance, whereby the current experience matters the most. Highly nutritious crop plants may be, in consequence, all the more exploited by potential pests that may show a high plasticity in

  5. Rainbow smelt - larval lake herring interactions: competitors or casual acquaintances?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selgeby, James H.; MacCallum, Wayne R.; Hoff, Michael H.

    1994-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that competition for food between rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) and larval lake herring (Coregonus artedi) was a cause for the declines of lake herring stocks in Lake Superior. We studied the diet of larval lake herring and of larval, juvenile, and adult rainbow smelt during 1974 in Black Bay, Ontario, where both species were abundant, and in the Apostle Islands Region, Wisconsin, where rainbow smelt was abundant but lake herring was scarce. No evidence of competition for food was found between larval lake herring and rainbow smelt. Spawning and hatching times of the two species were separate enough that most larvae of the two species did not occupy the study areas simultaneously. Juvenile and adult rainbow smelt were found with lake herring larvae, but their diets differed. Therefore, we concluded that rainbow smelt did not compete with lake herring larvae for food and that competition for food between rainbow smelt and lake herring larvae was not the factor that caused lake herring population declines in Lake Superior.

  6. Larval starvation improves metabolic response to adult starvation in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Campbell, Jacob B; Kaftanoglu, Osman; Page, Robert E; Amdam, Gro V; Harrison, Jon F

    2016-04-01

    Environmental changes during development have long-term effects on adult phenotypes in diverse organisms. Some of the effects play important roles in helping organisms adapt to different environments, such as insect polymorphism. Others, especially those resulting from an adverse developmental environment, have a negative effect on adult health and fitness. However, recent studies have shown that those phenotypes influenced by early environmental adversity have adaptive value under certain (anticipatory) conditions that are similar to the developmental environment, though evidence is mostly from morphological and behavioral observations and it is still rare at physiological and molecular levels. In the companion study, we applied a short-term starvation treatment to fifth instar honey bee larvae and measured changes in adult morphology, starvation resistance, hormonal and metabolic physiology and gene expression. Our results suggest that honey bees can adaptively respond to the predicted nutritional stress. In the present study, we further hypothesized that developmental starvation specifically improves the metabolic response of adult bees to starvation instead of globally affecting metabolism under well-fed conditions. Here, we produced adult honey bees that had experienced a short-term larval starvation, then we starved them for 12 h and monitored metabolic rate, blood sugar concentrations and metabolic reserves. We found that the bees that experienced larval starvation were able to shift to other fuels faster and better maintain stable blood sugar levels during starvation. However, developmental nutritional stress did not change metabolic rates or blood sugar levels in adult bees under normal conditions. Overall, our study provides further evidence that early larval starvation specifically improves the metabolic responses to adult starvation in honey bees.

  7. Inflammation in the development of lung cancer: epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Engels, Eric A

    2008-04-01

    The lung is a site for repeated or chronic inflammatory insults. Epidemiologic research has provided evidence to support the hypothesis that tissue damage caused by inflammation can initiate or promote the development of lung cancer, possibly in conjunction with tobacco use. For example, some studies suggest an increased risk of lung cancer among persons with lung infections, such as tuberculosis, bacterial pneumonia, or inflammatory lung diseases. Elevated serum levels of C-reactive protein, an inflammation marker, are associated with heightened lung cancer risk. Recent studies also demonstrate increased lung cancer risk among immunosuppressed individuals infected with HIV. Other research indicates an association between genetic polymorphisms in the inflammation pathway, which might modulate the inflammatory response and lung cancer risk.

  8. The midgut of the silkmoth Bombyx mori is able to recycle molecules derived from degeneration of the larval midgut epithelium.

    PubMed

    Franzetti, Eleonora; Romanelli, Davide; Caccia, Silvia; Cappellozza, Silvia; Congiu, Terenzio; Rajagopalan, Muthukumaran; Grimaldi, Annalisa; de Eguileor, Magda; Casartelli, Morena; Tettamanti, Gianluca

    2015-08-01

    The midgut represents the middle part of the alimentary canal and is responsible for nutrient digestion and absorption in insect larva. Despite the growing interest in this organ for different purposes, such as studies on morphogenesis and differentiation, stem cell biology, cell death processes and transport mechanisms, basic information on midgut development is still lacking for a large proportion of insect species. Undoubtedly, this lack of data could hinder the full exploitation of practical applications that involve midgut as their primary target. This may represent in particular a significant problem for Lepidoptera, an insect order that includes some of the most important species of high economic importance. With the aim of overcoming this fragmentation of knowledge, we performed a detailed morphofunctional analysis of the midgut of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, a representative model among Lepidoptera, during its development from the larval up to the adult stage, focusing attention on stem cells. Our data demonstrate stem cell proliferation and differentiation, not only in the larval midgut but also in the pupal and adult midgut epithelium. Moreover, we present evidence for a complex trophic relationship between the dying larval epithelium and the new adult one, which is established during metamorphosis. This study, besides representing the first morphological and functional characterization of the changes that occur in the midgut of a lepidopteron during the transition from the larva to the moth, provides a detailed analysis of the midgut of the adult insect, a stage that has been neglected up to now.

  9. Effects of intraspecific larval competition on adult longevity in the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus

    PubMed Central

    LOUNIBOS, L. P.

    2009-01-01

    Larval competition is common in container-breeding mosquitoes. The impact of competition on larval growth has been thoroughly examined and findings that larval competition can lead to density-dependent effects on adult body size have been documented. The effects of larval competition on adult longevity have been less well explored. The effects of intraspecific larval densities on the longevity of adults maintained under relatively harsh environmental conditions were tested in the laboratory by measuring the longevity of adult Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) that had been reared under a range of larval densities and subsequently maintained in high- or low-humidity regimes (85% or 35% relative humidity [RH], respectively) as adults. We found significant negative effects of competition on adult longevity in Ae. aegypti, but not in Ae. albopictus. Multivariate analysis of variance suggested that the negative effect of the larval environment on the longevity of Ae. aegypti adults was most strongly associated with increased development time and decreased wing length as adults. Understanding how larval competition affects adult longevity under a range of environmental conditions is important in establishing the relationship between models of mosquito population regulation and epidemiological models of vector-borne disease transmission. PMID:19239615

  10. Manpower export and economic development: evidence from the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Stahl, C W

    1988-06-01

    The Philippines has actively pursued a policy of labor export with the expectation that it would relieve unemployment, augment the supply of skills, and relieve pressure on the balance of payments. It was also anticipated that the inflow of overseas workers' remittances would translate into increased investment, the sine qua non for economic development. However, recent evidence casts some doubt on the extent to which these goals have been achieved. Particularly in the areas of skill formation, there appears to be a significant discrepancy between anticipated and actual outcomes. Indeed, it appears that the labor export may reduce the supply of skills available since 1) many skilled and educated workers are taking jobs requiring skill levels lower than they possess, and 2) a large majority of returning workers do not want to take up employment in those occupations reliant on the skills they used abroad. There is conflicting evidence regarding the impact of labor export on Philippine industries. There is some anecdotal evidence that a few industries have suffered because of a loss of key workers. In general, however, it appears that unemployment is still quite significant in those occupations most heavily represented in labor export. Despite this observation, it may still be true that labor emigration is selective of only the best workers, implying a decline in quality of the work force and possibly productivity in certain industries. The export of professional, technical, and managerial workers is another issue. Unless it can be shown that these workers are in excess supply, it is not advisable to expand the number going abroad. Although their salaries may be higher, and hence their remittances greater, their loss can impose costs on indigenous industries well in excess of a any marginal gains. Remittances from overseas workers do constitute a relatively significant source of foreign exchange. However, the translation of remittances into investment has been

  11. Evidence for Apoplasmic Phloem Unloading in Developing Apple Fruit1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling-Yun; Peng, Yi-Ben; Pelleschi-Travier, Sandrine; Fan, Ying; Lu, Yan-Fen; Lu, Ying-Min; Gao, Xiu-Ping; Shen, Yuan-Yue; Delrot, Serge; Zhang, Da-Peng

    2004-01-01

    The phloem unloading pathway remains unclear in fleshy fruits accumulating a high level of soluble sugars. A structural investigation in apple fruit (Malus domestica Borkh. cv Golden Delicious) showed that the sieve element-companion cell complex of the sepal bundles feeding the fruit flesh is symplasmically isolated over fruit development. 14C-autoradiography indicated that the phloem of the sepal bundles was functional for unloading. Confocal laser scanning microscopy imaging of carboxyfluorescein unloading showed that the dye remained confined to the phloem strands of the sepal bundles from the basal to the apical region of the fruit. A 52-kD putative monosaccharide transporter was immunolocalized predominantly in the plasma membrane of both the sieve elements and parenchyma cells and its amount increased during fruit development. A 90-kD plasma membrane H+-ATPase was also localized in the plasma membrane of the sieve element-companion cell complex. Studies of [14C]sorbitol unloading suggested that an energy-driven monosaccharide transporter may be functional in phloem unloading. These data provide clear evidence for an apoplasmic phloem unloading pathway in apple fruit and give information on the structural and molecular features involved in this process. PMID:15122035

  12. Environmental factors limiting fertilisation and larval success in corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Rachael M.; Baird, Andrew H.; Mizerek, Toni L.; Madin, Joshua S.

    2016-12-01

    Events in the early life history of reef-building corals, including fertilisation and larval survival, are susceptible to changes in the chemical and physical properties of sea water. Quantifying how changes in water quality affect these events is therefore important for understanding and predicting population establishment in novel and changing environments. A review of the literature identified that levels of salinity, temperature, pH, suspended sediment, nutrients and heavy metals affect coral early life-history stages to various degrees. In this study, we combined published experimental data to determine the relative importance of sea water properties for coral fertilisation success and larval survivorship. Of the water properties manipulated in experiments, fertilisation success was most sensitive to suspended sediment, copper, salinity, phosphate and ammonium. Larval survivorship was sensitive to copper, lead and salinity. A combined model was developed that estimated the joint probability of both fertilisation and larval survivorship in sea water with different chemical and physical properties. We demonstrated the combined model using water samples from Sydney and Lizard Island in Australia to estimate the likelihood of larvae surviving through both stages of development to settlement competency. Our combined model could be used to recommend targets for water quality in coastal waterways as well as to predict the potential for species to expand their geographical ranges in response to climate change.

  13. The saltatory search behavior of larval cod ( Gadus morhua)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzicka, James J.; Gallager, Scott M.

    2006-11-01

    Accurate descriptions of larval fish foraging behavior are necessary for modeling energy gain through prey encounter rates. Larval cod use a saltatory foraging strategy; they swim in discrete bursts and search for prey during the periods between bursts when speed is minimal. The goals of this research were: first, to observe the behavior of larval cod in large volumes to reduce confinement effects; second, to observe behavior throughout early development; and third, to observe if larval cod adjust their foraging effort in response to foraging conditions, in this case prey density. An observation system employing stereo-paired video cameras was developed that allowed recording of the behavior of individual larvae throughout a large volume in three dimensions. The observed behavior shows that the burst phase of the foraging cycle remains constant regardless of the presence or absence of prey while the duration of each search event becomes significantly longer when prey are absent, perhaps reflecting either a greater time investment to process each search volume more thoroughly or a response to hunger. Comparison of the behavior of larvae fasted 12 h to those fasted 36 h shows that hunger state has little effect on the burst phase of the foraging cycle, but hunger does have a significant effect on overall activity level and foraging capacity.

  14. Investigating phenology of larval fishes in St. Louis River ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As part of the development of an early detection monitoring strategy for non-native fishes, larval fish surveys have been conducted since 2012 in the St. Louis River estuary. Survey data demonstrates there is considerable variability in fish abundance and species assemblages across different habitats and at multiple temporal scales. To optimize early detection monitoring we need to understand temporal and spatial patterns of larval fishes related to their development and dispersion, as well as the environmental factors that influence them. In 2016 we designed an experiment to assess the phenological variability in larval fish abundance and assemblages amongst shallow water habitats. Specifically, we sought to contrast different thermal environments and turbidity levels, as well as assess the importance of vegetation in these habitats. To evaluate phenological differences we sampled larval fish bi-weekly at nine locations from mid-May to mid-July. Sampling locations were split between upper estuary and lower estuary to contrast river versus seiche influenced habitats. To assess differences in thermal environments, temperature was monitored every 15 minutes at each sampling location throughout the study, beginning in early April. Our design also included sampling at both vegetated (or pre-vegetated) and non-vegetated stations within each sampling location throughout the study to assess the importance of this habitat variable. Hydroacoustic surveys (Biosonics) were

  15. Crustacean biodiversity as an important factor for mosquito larval control.

    PubMed

    Kroeger, Iris; Duquesne, Sabine; Liess, Matthias

    2013-12-01

    Newly established ponds, which are highly dynamic systems with changing levels of biological interactions among species, are common larval mosquito habitats. We investigated the impact of crustacean abundance and taxa diversity on mosquito oviposition and larval development. The effects of the biological larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) on mosquito larvae were monitored according to fluctuations in crustacean communities. Populations of the mosquito Culex pipiens colonized artificial ponds that contained crustacean communities at different time points of colonization by crustaceans: 1) 'no colonization' (no crustaceans), 2) 'simultaneous colonization' by crustaceans and mosquitoes, and 3) 'head-start colonization' by crustaceans (preceding colonization by mosquitoes). All types of ponds were treated with three concentrations of Bti (10, 100, or 1,000 µg/liter). Colonization of all ponds by Cx. pipiens (in terms of oviposition, larval abundance, and larval development) decreased significantly with increasing diversity of crustacean taxa. The total abundance of crustaceans had a minor effect on colonization by Cx. pipiens. The presence of crustaceans increased the sensitivity of Cx. pipiens larvae to Bti treatment by a factor of 10 and delayed the time of recolonization. This effect of Bti was relevant in the short term. In the long term, the presence of Cx. pipiens was determined by crustacean biodiversity.

  16. Swimming behavior of larval Medaka fish under microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, R.; Ijiri, K.

    Fish exhibit looping and rolling behaviors when subjected to short periods of microgravity during parabolic flight. Strain-differences in the behavioral response of adult Medaka fish ( Oryzias latipes) were reported previously, however, there have been few studies of larval fish behavior under microgravity. In the present study, we investigated whether microgravity affects the swimming behavior of larvae at various ages (0 to 20 days after hatching), using different strains: HNI-II, HO5, ha strain, and variety of different strains (variety). The preliminary experiments were done in the ground laboratory: the development of eyesight was examined using optokinetic response for the different strains. The visual acuity of larvae improved drastically during 20 days after hatching. Strain differences of response were noted for the development of their visual acuity. In microgravity, the results were significantly different from those of adult Medaka. The larval fish appeared to maintain their orientation, except that a few of them exhibited looping and rolling behavior. Further, most larvae swam normally with their backs turning toward the light source (dorsal light response, DLR), and the rest of them stayed with their abdomen touching the surface of the container (ventral substrate response, VSR). For larval stages, strain-differences and age-differences in behavior were observed, but less pronounced than with adult fish under microgravity. Our observations suggest that adaptability of larval fish to the gravitational change and the mechanism of their postural control in microgravity are more variable than in adult fish.

  17. Larval Connectivity in an Effective Network of Marine Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Mark R.; Tissot, Brian N.; Albins, Mark A.; Beets, James P.; Jia, Yanli; Ortiz, Delisse M.; Thompson, Stephen E.; Hixon, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Acceptance of marine protected areas (MPAs) as fishery and conservation tools has been hampered by lack of direct evidence that MPAs successfully seed unprotected areas with larvae of targeted species. For the first time, we present direct evidence of large-scale population connectivity within an existing and effective network of MPAs. A new parentage analysis identified four parent-offspring pairs from a large, exploited population of the coral-reef fish Zebrasoma flavescens in Hawai'i, revealing larval dispersal distances ranging from 15 to 184 km. In two cases, successful dispersal was from an MPA to unprotected sites. Given high adult abundances, the documentation of any parent-offspring pairs demonstrates that ecologically-relevant larval connectivity between reefs is substantial. All offspring settled at sites to the north of where they were spawned. Satellite altimetry and oceanographic models from relevant time periods indicated a cyclonic eddy that created prevailing northward currents between sites where parents and offspring were found. These findings empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of MPAs as useful conservation and management tools and further highlight the importance of coupling oceanographic, genetic, and ecological data to predict, validate and quantify larval connectivity among marine populations. PMID:21203576

  18. 20 CFR 725.415 - Action by the district director after development of evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... development of evidence. 725.415 Section 725.415 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION... District Director § 725.415 Action by the district director after development of evidence. (a) At the end... development or submission of any additional medical evidence until after he has made a final determination...

  19. Decompressive craniectomy following traumatic brain injury: developing the evidence base

    PubMed Central

    Kolias, Angelos G.; Adams, Hadie; Timofeev, Ivan; Czosnyka, Marek; Corteen, Elizabeth A.; Pickard, John D.; Turner, Carole; Gregson, Barbara A.; Kirkpatrick, Peter J.; Murray, Gordon D.; Menon, David K.; Hutchinson, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the context of traumatic brain injury (TBI), decompressive craniectomy (DC) is used as part of tiered therapeutic protocols for patients with intracranial hypertension (secondary or protocol-driven DC). In addition, the bone flap can be left out when evacuating a mass lesion, usually an acute subdural haematoma (ASDH), in the acute phase (primary DC). Even though, the principle of “opening the skull” in order to control brain oedema and raised intracranial pressure has been practised since the beginning of the 20th century, the last 20 years have been marked by efforts to develop the evidence base with the conduct of randomised trials. This article discusses the merits and challenges of this approach and provides an overview of randomised trials of DC following TBI. An update on the RESCUEicp study, a randomised trial of DC versus advanced medical management (including barbiturates) for severe and refractory post-traumatic intracranial hypertension is provided. In addition, the rationale for the RESCUE-ASDH study, the first randomised trial of primary DC versus craniotomy for adult head-injured patients with an ASDH, is presented. PMID:26972805

  20. Decompressive craniectomy following traumatic brain injury: developing the evidence base.

    PubMed

    Kolias, Angelos G; Adams, Hadie; Timofeev, Ivan; Czosnyka, Marek; Corteen, Elizabeth A; Pickard, John D; Turner, Carole; Gregson, Barbara A; Kirkpatrick, Peter J; Murray, Gordon D; Menon, David K; Hutchinson, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    In the context of traumatic brain injury (TBI), decompressive craniectomy (DC) is used as part of tiered therapeutic protocols for patients with intracranial hypertension (secondary or protocol-driven DC). In addition, the bone flap can be left out when evacuating a mass lesion, usually an acute subdural haematoma (ASDH), in the acute phase (primary DC). Even though, the principle of "opening the skull" in order to control brain oedema and raised intracranial pressure has been practised since the beginning of the 20th century, the last 20 years have been marked by efforts to develop the evidence base with the conduct of randomised trials. This article discusses the merits and challenges of this approach and provides an overview of randomised trials of DC following TBI. An update on the RESCUEicp study, a randomised trial of DC versus advanced medical management (including barbiturates) for severe and refractory post-traumatic intracranial hypertension is provided. In addition, the rationale for the RESCUE-ASDH study, the first randomised trial of primary DC versus craniotomy for adult head-injured patients with an ASDH, is presented.

  1. [Canine peritoneal larval cestodosis caused by Mesocestoides spp. larval stages].

    PubMed

    Häußler, T C; Peppler, C; Schmitz, S; Bauer, C; Hirzmann, J; Kramer, M

    2016-01-01

    In a female dog with unspecific clinical symptoms, sonography detected a hyperechoic mass in the middle abdomen and blood analysis a middle grade systemic inflammatory reaction. Laparotomy revealed a peritoneal larval cestodosis (PLC). The diagnosis of an infection with tetrathyridia of Mesocestoides spp. was confirmed by parasitological examination and molecularbiological analysis. Reduction of the intra-abdominal parasitic load as well as a high dose administration of fenbendazole over 3 months led to a successful treatment which could be documented sonographically and by decreased concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP). Seven months after discontinuation of fenbendazole administration, PLC recurred, pre-empted by an elevation of serum CRP values. According to the literature a life-long fenbendazole treatment was initiated. In cases of unclear chronic granulomatous inflammations in the abdominal cavity in dogs, PLC should be considered. CRP concentration and sonographic examinations are suitable to control for treatment success and a possibly occurring relapse.

  2. Energy demand, energy substitution and economic growth : Evidence from developed and developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd Aziz, Azlina

    This thesis contributes to the literature on energy demand in three ways. Firstly, it examines the major determinants of energy demand using a panel of 23 developed countries and 16 developing countries during 1978 to 2003. Secondly, it examines the demand for energy in the industrial sector and the extent of inter-fuel substitution, as well as substitution between energy and non-energy inputs, using data from 5 advanced countries and 5 energy producer's developing countries. Third, the thesis investigates empirically the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth for these groups of countries over a 26-year period. The empirical results of this study confirm the majority of the findings in energy demand analysis. Income and price have shown to be important determinants for energy consumption in both developed and developing countries. Moreover, both economic structure and technical progress appear to exert significant impacts on energy consumption. Income has a positive impact on energy demand and the effect is larger in developing countries. In both developed and developing countries, price has a negative impact but these effects are larger in developed countries than in developing countries. The share of industry in GDP is positive and has a greater impact on energy demand in developing countries, whereas technological progress is found to be energy using in developed countries and energy saving in developing countries. With respect to the analysis of inter-factor and inter-fuel substitution in industrial energy demand, the results provide evidence for substitution possibilities between factor inputs and fuels. Substitutability is observed between capital and energy, capital and labour and labour and energy. These findings confirm previous evidence that production technologies in these countries allow flexibility in the capital-energy, capital-labour and labour-energy mix. In the energy sub-model, the elasticities of substitution show that large

  3. Nutritional interventions in primary mitochondrial disorders: Developing an evidence base.

    PubMed

    Camp, Kathryn M; Krotoski, Danuta; Parisi, Melissa A; Gwinn, Katrina A; Cohen, Bruce H; Cox, Christine S; Enns, Gregory M; Falk, Marni J; Goldstein, Amy C; Gopal-Srivastava, Rashmi; Gorman, Gráinne S; Hersh, Stephen P; Hirano, Michio; Hoffman, Freddie Ann; Karaa, Amel; MacLeod, Erin L; McFarland, Robert; Mohan, Charles; Mulberg, Andrew E; Odenkirchen, Joanne C; Parikh, Sumit; Rutherford, Patricia J; Suggs-Anderson, Shawne K; Tang, W H Wilson; Vockley, Jerry; Wolfe, Lynne A; Yannicelli, Steven; Yeske, Philip E; Coates, Paul M

    2016-11-01

    In December 2014, a workshop entitled "Nutritional Interventions in Primary Mitochondrial Disorders: Developing an Evidence Base" was convened at the NIH with the goals of exploring the use of nutritional interventions in primary mitochondrial disorders (PMD) and identifying knowledge gaps regarding their safety and efficacy; identifying research opportunities; and forging collaborations among researchers, clinicians, patient advocacy groups, and federal partners. Sponsors included the NIH, the Wellcome Trust, and the United Mitochondrial Diseases Foundation. Dietary supplements have historically been used in the management of PMD due to their potential benefits and perceived low risk, even though little evidence exists regarding their effectiveness. PMD are rare and clinically, phenotypically, and genetically heterogeneous. Thus patient recruitment for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) has proven to be challenging. Only a few RCTs examining dietary supplements, singly or in combination with other vitamins and cofactors, are reported in the literature. Regulatory issues pertaining to the use of dietary supplements as treatment modalities further complicate the research and patient access landscape. As a preface to exploring a research agenda, the workshop included presentations and discussions on what PMD are; how nutritional interventions are used in PMD; challenges and barriers to their use; new technologies and approaches to diagnosis and treatment; research opportunities and resources; and perspectives from patient advocacy, industry, and professional organizations. Seven key areas were identified during the workshop. These areas were: 1) defining the disease, 2) clinical trial design, 3) biomarker selection, 4) mechanistic approaches, 5) challenges in using dietary supplements, 6) standards of clinical care, and 7) collaboration issues. Short- and long-term goals within each of these areas were identified. An example of an overarching goal is the enrollment

  4. The ortholog of human solute carrier family 35 member B1 (UDP-galactose transporter-related protein 1) is involved in maintenance of ER homeostasis and essential for larval development in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Dejima, Katsufumi; Murata, Daisuke; Mizuguchi, Souhei; Nomura, Kazuko H; Gengyo-Ando, Keiko; Mitani, Shohei; Kamiyama, Shin; Nishihara, Shoko; Nomura, Kazuya

    2009-07-01

    Although the solute carrier 35B1 (SLC35B1) is evolutionarily conserved, its functions in metazoans remain unknown. To elucidate its function, we examined developmental roles of an SLC35B1 family gene (HUT-1: homolog of UDP-Gal transporter) in Caenorhabditis elegans. We isolated a deletion mutant of the gene and characterized phenotypes of the mutant and hut-1 RNAi-treated worms. GFP-HUT-1 reporter analysis was performed to examine gene expression patterns. We also tested whether several nucleotide sugar transporters can compensate for hut-1 deficiency. The hut-1 deletion mutant and RNAi worms showed larval growth defect and lethality with disrupted intestinal morphology. Inactivation of hut-1 induced chronic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and hut-1 showed genetic interactions with the atf-6, pek-1, and ire-1 genes involved in unfolded protein response signaling. ER ultrastructure and ER marker distribution in hut-1-deficient animals showed that HUT-1 is required for maintenance of ER structure. Reporter analysis revealed that HUT-1 is an ER protein ubiquitously expressed in tissues, including the intestine. Lethality and the ER stress phenotype of the mutant were rescued with the human hut-1 ortholog UGTrel1. These results indicate important roles for hut-1 in development and maintenance of ER homeostasis in C. elegans.

  5. Larval biology of the crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Gould): a synthesis.

    PubMed

    Forward, Richard B

    2009-06-01

    This synthesis reviews the physiological ecology and behavior of larvae of the benthic crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii, which occurs in low-salinity areas of estuaries. Larvae are released rhythmically around the time of high tide in tidal estuaries and in the 2-h interval after sunset in nontidal estuaries. As in most subtidal crustaceans, the timing of larval release is controlled by the developing embryos, which release peptide pheromones that stimulate larval release behavior by the female to synchronize the time of egg hatching. Larvae pass through four zoeal stages and a postlarval or megalopal stage that are planktonic before metamorphosis. They are retained near the adult population by means of an endogenous tidal rhythm in vertical migration. Larvae have several safeguards against predation: they undergo nocturnal diel vertical migration (DVM) and have a shadow response to avoid encountering predators, and they bear long spines as a deterrent. Photoresponses during DVM and the shadow response are enhanced by exposure to chemical cues from the mucus of predator fishes and ctenophores. The primary visual pigment has a spectral sensitivity maximum at about 500 nm, which is typical for zooplankton and matches the ambient spectrum at twilight. Larvae can detect vertical gradients in temperature, salinity, and hydrostatic pressure, which are used for depth regulation and avoidance of adverse environmental conditions. Characteristics that are related to the larval habitat and are common to other crab larval species are considered.

  6. Evolved differences in larval social behavior mediated by novel pheromones

    PubMed Central

    Mast, Joshua D; De Moraes, Consuelo M; Alborn, Hans T; Lavis, Luke D; Stern, David L

    2014-01-01

    Pheromones, chemical signals that convey social information, mediate many insect social behaviors, including navigation and aggregation. Several studies have suggested that behavior during the immature larval stages of Drosophila development is influenced by pheromones, but none of these compounds or the pheromone-receptor neurons that sense them have been identified. Here we report a larval pheromone-signaling pathway. We found that larvae produce two novel long-chain fatty acids that are attractive to other larvae. We identified a single larval chemosensory neuron that detects these molecules. Two members of the pickpocket family of DEG/ENaC channel subunits (ppk23 and ppk29) are required to respond to these pheromones. This pheromone system is evolving quickly, since the larval exudates of D. simulans, the sister species of D. melanogaster, are not attractive to other larvae. Our results define a new pheromone signaling system in Drosophila that shares characteristics with pheromone systems in a wide diversity of insects. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04205.001 PMID:25497433

  7. Managing Ammonia Emissions From Screwworm Larval Rearing Media.

    PubMed

    Sagel, Agustin; Phillips, Pamela; Chaudhury, Muhammad; Skoda, Steven

    2016-02-01

    Mass production, sterilization, and release of screwworms (Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel)) that were competitive in the field significantly contributed to the successful application of the sterile insect technique for eradication of screwworms from continental North America. Metabolic byproducts resulting from protein-rich diets required for larval screwworms lead to ammonia liberation, sometimes at high levels, within the mass rearing facility. Until recently a sodium polyacrylate gel bulking agent was used for the larval media and adsorbed much of the ammonia. A need to replace the gel with an environmentally "friendly" bulking agent, while not increasing ammonia levels in the rearing facility, led to a series of experiments with the objective of developing procedures to reduce ammonia emissions from the larval media bulked with cellulose fiber. Additives of ammonia-converting bacteria, potassium permanganate, and Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Otrgies powder extract, previously reported to reduce ammonia levels in organic environments, were evaluated. Ammonia-converting bacteria did not have a positive effect. Addition of Y. schidigera powder extract (∼1% of total volume), potassium permanganate (∼250 ppm), and a combination of these two additives (at these same concentrations) kept ammonia at equivalent levels as when larval media was bulked with gel. Potassium permanganate also had sufficient antimicrobial properties that the use of formaldehyde in the diet was not necessary. Further testing is needed, at a mass rearing level, before full implementation into the screwworm eradication program.

  8. Larval exposure to azadirachtin affects fitness and oviposition site preference of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Bezzar-Bendjazia, Radia; Kilani-Morakchi, Samira; Aribi, Nadia

    2016-10-01

    Azadirachtin, a biorational insecticide, is one of the prominent biopesticide commercialized today and represent an alternative to conventional insecticides. The current study examined the lethal and sublethal effects of azadirachtin on Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830 (Diptera: Drosophilidae) as biological model. Various doses ranging from 0.1 to 2μg were applied topically on early third instar larvae and the cumulative mortality of immature stage was determined. In second series of experiments, azadirachtin was applied at its LD25 (0.28μg) and LD50 (0.67μg) and evaluated on fitness (development duration, fecundity, adult survival) and oviposition site preference with and without choice. Results showed that azadirachtin increased significantly at the two tested doses the duration of larval and pupal development. Moreover, azadirachtin treatment reduced significantly adult's survival of both sex as compared to control. In addition, azadirachtin affected fecundity of flies by a significant reduction of the number of eggs laid. Finally results showed that females present clear preference for oviposition in control medium. Pre-imaginal exposure (L3) to azadirachtin increased aversion to this substance suggesting a memorability of the learned avoidance. The results provide some evidence that larval exposure to azadirachtin altered adult oviposition preference as well as major fitness traits of D. melanogaster. Theses finding may reinforce behavioural avoidance of azadirachtin and contribute as repellent strategies in integrated pest management programmes.

  9. Larval and nurse worker control of developmental plasticity and the evolution of honey bee queen-worker dimorphism

    PubMed Central

    Linksvayer, Timothy A.; Kaftanoglu, Osman; Akyol, Ethem; Blatch, Sydella; Amdam, Gro V.; Page, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Social evolution in honey bees has produced strong queen-worker dimorphism for plastic traits that depend on larval nutrition. The honey bee developmental program includes both larval components that determine plastic growth responses to larval nutrition and nurse components that regulate larval nutrition. We studied how these two components contribute to variation in worker and queen body size and ovary size for two pairs of honey bee lineages that show similar differences in worker body-ovary size allometry but have diverged over different evolutionary time scales. Our results indicate: that the lineages have diverged for both nurse and larval developmental components, that rapid changes in worker body-ovary allometry may disrupt queen development, and that queen-worker dimorphism arises mainly from discrete nurse-provided nutritional environments, not from a developmental switch that converts variable nutritional environments into discrete phenotypes. Both larval and nurse components have likely contributed to the evolution of queen-worker dimorphism. PMID:21696476

  10. Remotely Sensing Larval Population Dynamics of Rice Field Anophelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Louisa R.; Dister, Sheri W.; Wood, Byron L.; Washino, Robert K.

    1997-01-01

    The primary objective of both studies was to determine if RS and GIS techniques could be used to distinguish between high and low larval-producing rice fields in California. Results of the first study suggested that early-season green-up and proximity to livestock pastures were positively correlated with high larval abundance. Based on the early-season spectral differences between high and low larval-producing fields, it appeared that canopy development and tillering influenced mosquito habitat quality. At that time, rice fields consisted of a mixture of plants and water, a combination that allowed An. freeborni females to lay eggs in partial sunlight, protected from both predators and wind. This established a population earlier in the season than in other, 'less-green' fields where tillering and plant emergence was too minimal for ovipositioning. The study also indicated the importance of the distance that a mosquito would have to fly in order to take a bloodmeal prior to ovipositing. These associations were fully explored in an expanded study two years later. The second study confirmed the positive relationship between early season canopy development and larval abundance, and also demonstrated the relationship between abundance and distance-to-pasture. The association between greenness (as measured using NDVI), distance-to-pasture, and abundance is illustrated. The second study also indicated the siginificance of the landscape context of rice fields for larval production. Fields that included opportunities for feeding and resting within the flight range of the mosquito had higher abundances than did fields that were in a homogeneous rice area.

  11. Embryonic development of Carabus insulicola (Insecta, Coleoptera, Carabidae) with special reference to external morphology and tangible evidence for the subcoxal theory.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yukimasa; Niikura, Kazuhiro; Oosawa, Yuuki; Takami, Yasuoki

    2013-12-01

    The egg morphology and successive changes in the developing embryos of the carabid ground beetle Carabus insulicola (Carabidae) are described based on light and scanning electron microscopy observations. Newly laid eggs of this species are ellipsoid and measure approximately 6.1 × 2.9 mm, before increasing to 6.6 × 3.4 mm at hatching. The egg period is about 11 days at 23°C. The egg shell is characterized by a thin fragile chorion covering a hard serosal cuticle. The embryo forms on the ventral egg surface, where it develops for the duration of the egg period. During the process of thoracic leg formation, two subcoxal rings, subcoxae-1 and 2, are clearly discernible at the basalmost region of the leg rudiments, and these subcoxae participate in the formation of the larval pleura and sterna. The result thus provides tangible evidence for the subcoxal theory, that is, that thoracic pleura and sterna are derived from subcoxal regions. Despite the complete absence of abdominal appendages in the larvae of this species, two pairs of appendage-like swellings, the medial and lateral ones, temporarily arise in the first eight abdominal segments during the middle of embryonic development. The medial swellings are assumed to be serially homologous with the coxal part of the thoracic leg, and they later flatten out and participate in the formation of the larval pleura (hypopleurites). In the light of the serially homologous relationships among gnathal appendages, thoracic legs, and abdominal appendage-like swellings, we identified the subcoxal regions in both the gnathal and abdominal segments. Although, the lateral swellings soon degenerate and disappear, it is considered that the swellings originate in the abdominal subcoxae-2 and may be homologous to the tracheal gills of larvae of Gyrinidae. Based on the embryological results, new interpretations for the constituent of gnathal appendages are proposed.

  12. Pattern of calbindin-D28k and calretinin immunoreactivity in the brain of Xenopus laevis during embryonic and larval development.

    PubMed

    Morona, Ruth; González, Agustín

    2013-01-01

    The present study represents a detailed spatiotemporal analysis of the localization of calbindin-D28k (CB) and calretinin (CR) immunoreactive structures in the brain of Xenopus laevis throughout development, conducted with the aim to correlate the onset of the immunoreactivity with the development of compartmentalization of distinct subdivisions recently identified in the brain of adult amphibians and primarily highlighted when analyzed within a segmental paradigm. CR and CB are expressed early in the brain and showed a progressively increasing expression throughout development, although transient expression in some neuronal subpopulations was also noted. Common and distinct characteristics in Xenopus, as compared with reported features during development in the brain of mammals, were observed. The development of specific regions in the forebrain such as the olfactory bulbs, the components of the basal ganglia and the amygdaloid complex, the alar and basal hypothalamic regions, and the distinct diencephalic neuromeres could be analyzed on the basis of the distinct expression of CB and CR in subregions. Similarly, the compartments of the mesencephalon and the main rhombencephalic regions, including the cerebellum, were differently highlighted by their specific content in CB and CR throughout development. Our results show the usefulness of the analysis of the distribution of these proteins as a tool in neuroanatomy to interpret developmental aspects of many brain regions.

  13. Developing Traditional Chinese Medicine in the Era of Evidence-Based Medicine: Current Evidences and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Foon Yin; Linn, Yeh Ching

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM), by integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available clinical evidence from systematic research, has in recent years been established as the standard of modern medical practice for greater treatment efficacy and safety. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), on the other hand, evolved as a system of medical practice from ancient China more than 2000 years ago based on empirical knowledge as well as theories and concepts which are yet to be mapped by scientific equivalents. Despite the expanding TCM usage and the recognition of its therapeutic benefits worldwide, the lack of robust evidence from the EBM perspective is hindering acceptance of TCM by the Western medicine community and its integration into mainstream healthcare. For TCM to become an integral component of the healthcare system so that its benefits can be rationally harnessed in the best interests of patients, it is essential for TCM to demonstrate its efficacy and safety by high-level evidence in accordance with EBM, though much debate remains on the validity and feasibility of applying the EBM model on this traditional practice. This review aims to discuss the current status of research in TCM, explore the evidences available on its efficacy and safety, and highlight the issues and challenges faced in applying EBM to TCM. PMID:25949261

  14. GROWTH AND BEHAVIOR OF LARVAL ZEBRAFISH Danio ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Because Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have become a popular and important model for scientific research, the capability to rear larval zebrafish to adulthood is of great importance. Recently research examining the effects of diet (live versus processed) have been published. In the current study we examined whether the larvae can be reared on a processed diet alone, live food alone, or the combination while maintaining normal locomotor behavior, and acceptable survival, length and weight at 14 dpf in a static system. A 14 day feeding trial was conducted in glass crystallizing dishes containing 500 ml of 4 ppt Instant Ocean. On day 0 pdf 450 embryos were selected as potential study subjects and placed in a 26○C incubator on a 14:10 (light:dark) light cycle. At 4 dpf 120 normally developing embryos were selected per treatment and divided into 3 bowls of 40 embryos (for an n=3 per treatment; 9 bowls total). Treatment groups were: G (Gemma Micro 75 only), R (L-type marine rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) only) or B (Gemma and rotifers). Growth (length), survival, water quality and rotifer density were monitored on days 5-14. On day 14, weight of larva in each bowl was measured and 8 larva per bowl were selected for use in locomotor testing. This behavior paradigm tests individual larval zebrafish under both light and dark conditions in a 24-well plate.After 14 dpf, survival among the groups was not different (92-98%). By days 7 -14 R and B larvae were ~2X longer

  15. Isolation and nucleotide sequence analysis of the of Rhinella arenarum β-catenin: an mRNA and protein expression study during the larval stages of the digestive tract development.

    PubMed

    Galetto, C D; Izaguirre, M F; Bessone, V; Casco, V H

    2012-12-15

    β-catenin interacts with several proteins mediating key biological processes, such as cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion as well as signal transduction. This work was done to establish the molecular basis and regulation of the formation pattern of cadherin/β-catenin-mediated adherens junctions, using an animal model of unknown gene sequence, the toad Rhinella arenarum. A Rhinella arenarum β-catenin homolog was isolated from larval tissue, their sequence compared and analyzed with those of eight other vertebrates using bioinformatics tools. The mRNA and protein expression levels of β-catenin were determined during the development of Rhinella arenarum digestive tract both by Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry-morphometry respectively. Using Xenopus laevis frog specific primers, a fragment 539 bp of Rhinella arenarum toad β-catenin cDNA was obtained and sequenced. The resulting putative sequence of 177 amino acids showed high similarity at the amino acid level (97%) when compared to other six vertebrates (Xenopus laevis, Xenopus tropicalis, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Bos taurus and Homo sapiens), with sequences and structural domains characteristic of catenins. Subsequently, using primers specifically designed for Rhinella arenarum nucleotide sequence, β-catenin-mRNA increasing levels were found during the Rhinella arenarum metamorphosis. Finally, increasing β-catenin protein expression during development has confirmed the specificity the detection of Rhinella arenarum β-catenin. Summarizing, we have isolated and sequenced a β-catenin-homologue sequence from the Rhinella arenarum toad, which is highly conserved between species, and following we have detected β-catenin mRNA and protein levels during their digestive tract development.

  16. New threshold temperatures for the development of a North American diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) population and its larval parasitoid, Diadegma insulare (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae).

    PubMed

    Bahar, M H; Soroka, J J; Grenkow, L; Dosdall, L M

    2014-10-01

    The currently accepted lower threshold temperature for the development of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), the world's most destructive insect pest of cruciferous crops, is around 6.0°C, and there is no known upper threshold temperature. Neither are there established threshold temperatures for diamondback moth's major natural enemy, Diadegma insulare (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Laboratory studies were undertaken to determine the survival and development of a North American diamondback moth population and its parasitoid D. insulare at 20 constant temperatures ranging from 2.0 to 38.0°C. Diamondback moth completed development from second instar to adult within a temperature range of 4.0-37°C, and D. insulare completed its life cycle from egg to adult within a temperature range of 4.0-33°C. The developmental data were fitted into one linear and four nonlinear models. Using goodness-of-fit and the ability to estimate parameters of biological significance as selection criteria, the Wang model was the most acceptable among the nonlinear models to describe the relationship between temperature and development of both species. According to this model, the lower and upper threshold temperatures for diamondback moth were 2.1 and 38.0°C, respectively, and for D. insulare they were 2.1 and 34.0°C, respectively. Based on the Degree Day model, diamondback moth required 143 d above the lower threshold of 4.23°C to complete the life cycle, while D. insulare required 286 d above the lower threshold of 2.57°C. This study suggests that temperatures during the crop-growing seasons in North America are not limiting factors for development of either diamondback moth or D. insulare.

  17. Catching prey with the antennae - The larval head of Corethrella appendiculata (Diptera: Corethrellidae).

    PubMed

    Förster, Maria; Beutel, Rolf G; Schneeberg, Katharina

    2016-11-01

    The larval cephalic morphology of Corethrella appendiculata Grabham, 1906 is described and documented in detail. The observed features are compared to conditions found in Chaoboridae, Culicidae, and other culicomorph families. The function of antennae, mouthparts and associated muscles is interpreted based on the morphological results. The prey catching mechanism is compared to what occurs in other predaceous larvae of Culicomorpha. The cephalic larval morphology is discussed with respect to homology and possible phylogenetic implications. The horizontal frontoclypeal antennal grooves and the lateral rows of strongly developed bristles are likely larval autapomorphies of Corethrellidae. The presence of raptorial antennae is a highly unusual apomorphy shared with Chaoboridae. The systematic position of Corethrellidae remains ambiguous.

  18. Evolutionary and experimental change in egg volume, heterochrony of larval body and juvenile rudiment, and evolutionary reversibility in pluteus form.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Douglas F; Phillips, Nicole E; Strathmann, Richard R

    2009-01-01

    Heterochronic developmental plasticity of the juvenile rudiment and larval body of sea urchin larvae occurs in response to supply of food. Evolutionary increase in egg size can also be associated with earlier development of the juvenile rudiment. We examined effects of egg volume of feeding larvae on this heterochrony and other changes in larval form. (1) Evolutionary and experimental enlargements of egg volume did not accelerate formation of the rudiment relative to the larval body. Development of the larval body and juvenile rudiment was compared for the echinoids Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (with an egg of 78-82 microm) and Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (with an egg of 150-160 microm diameter). Development of both larval body and rudiment were accelerated in S. droebachiensis relative to S. purpuratus but with greater acceleration of the larval body, so that the rudiment of S. droebachiensis was initiated at a later larval stage even though at an earlier age. Also, experimentally doubling the egg volume of S. purpuratus did not accelerate development of the juvenile rudiment relative to the larval body. (2) Both species exhibited similar plasticity in timing of rudiment development in response to food supplies. (3) Doubling egg volume of S. purpuratus produced a larval form more similar to that of S. droebachiensis. This result mirrors previous experiments in which larvae from half embryos of S. droebachiensis were more similar to larvae of S. purpuratus. Many of the effects of egg volume on larval form are similar against either species' genetic background and are thus evolutionarily reversible effects on larval form.

  19. Larval intraspecific competition for food in the European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana.

    PubMed

    Thiéry, D; Monceau, K; Moreau, J

    2014-08-01

    Effective pest management with lower amounts of pesticides relies on accurate prediction of insect pest growth rates. Knowledge of the factors governing this trait and the resulting fitness of individuals is thus necessary to refine predictions and make suitable decisions in crop protection. The European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana, the major pest of grapes in Europe, is responsible for huge economic losses. Larvae very rarely leave the grape bunch on which they were oviposited and thus cannot avoid intraspecific competition. In this study, we determined the impact of intraspecific competition during the larval stage on development and adult fitness in this species. This was tested by rearing different numbers of larvae on an artificial diet and measuring developmental and reproductive life history traits. We found that intraspecific competition during larval development has a slight impact on the fitness of L. botrana. The principal finding of this work is that larval density has little effect on the life history traits of survivors. Thus, the timing of eclosion, duration of subsequent oviposition, fecundity appears to be more uniform in L. botrana than in other species. The main effect of larval crowding was a strong increase of larval mortality at high densities whereas the probability of emergence, sex ratio, pupal mass, fecundity and longevity of mated females were not affected by larval crowding. Owing to increased larval mortality at high larval densities, we hypothesized that mortality of larvae at high densities provided better access to food for the survivors with the result that more food was available per capita and there were no effect on fitness of survivors. From our results, larval crowding alters the reproductive capacity of this pest less than expected but this single factor should now be tested in interaction with limited resources in the wild.

  20. Molecular Characterization of Larval Peripheral Thermosensory Responses of the Malaria Vector Mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chao; Zwiebel, Laurence J.

    2013-01-01

    Thermosensation provides vital inputs for the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae which utilizes heat-sensitivity within a broad spectrum of behaviors, most notably, the localization of human hosts for blood feeding. In this study, we examine thermosensory behaviors in larval-stage An. gambiae, which as a result of their obligate aquatic habitats and importance for vectorial capacity, represents an opportunistic target for vector control as part of the global campaign to eliminate malaria. As is the case for adults, immature mosquitoes respond differentially to a diverse array of external heat stimuli. In addition, larvae exhibit a striking phenotypic plasticity in thermal-driven behaviors that are established by temperature at which embryonic development occurs. Within this spectrum, RNAi-directed gene-silencing studies provide evidence for the essential role of the Transient Receptor Potential sub-family A1 (TRPA1) channel in mediating larval thermal-induced locomotion and thermal preference within a discrete upper range of ambient temperatures. PMID:23940815

  1. Pharmacological identification of cholinergic receptor subtypes on Drosophila melanogaster larval heart.

    PubMed

    Malloy, Cole A; Ritter, Kyle; Robinson, Jonathan; English, Connor; Cooper, Robin L

    2016-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster heart is a popular model in which to study cardiac physiology and development. Progress has been made in understanding the role of endogenous compounds in regulating cardiac function in this model. It is well characterized that common neurotransmitters act on many peripheral and non-neuronal tissues as they flow through the hemolymph of insects. Many of these neuromodulators, including acetylcholine (ACh), have been shown to act directly on the D. melanogaster larval heart. ACh is a primary neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS) of vertebrates and at the neuromuscular junctions on skeletal and cardiac tissue. In insects, ACh is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter of sensory neurons and is also prominent in the CNS. A full understanding regarding the regulation of the Drosophila cardiac physiology by the cholinergic system remains poorly understood. Here we use semi-intact D. melanogaster larvae to study the pharmacological profile of cholinergic receptor subtypes, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs), in modulating heart rate (HR). Cholinergic receptor agonists, nicotine and muscarine both increase HR, while nAChR agonist clothianidin exhibits no significant effect when exposed to an open preparation at concentrations as low as 100 nM. In addition, both nAChR and mAChR antagonists increase HR as well but also display capabilities of blocking agonist actions. These results provide evidence that both of these receptor subtypes display functional significance in regulating the larval heart's pacemaker activity.

  2. Distribution pattern of neuropeptide Y in the brain, pituitary and olfactory system during the larval development of the toad Rhinella arenarum (Amphibia: Anura).

    PubMed

    Heer, T; Pozzi, A G; Yovanovich, C A; Paz, D A

    2009-04-01

    The first NPY-immunoreactivity (ir) in the central nervous system of Rhinella arenarum was obtained just after hatching in the pre-optic area, ventral thalamus and rostral rhombencephalon. During pre-metamorphosis, new NPY-ir cells were observed in other brain areas such as pallium, septum and striatum, infundibulum and pars intermedia of the pituitary. Further maturation continued through pro-metamorphosis with the appearance of cell groups in the diagonal band, amygdala, pre-optic nucleus, dorsal nucleus of the habenula, anterior ventral and dorsal thalamus, suprachiasmatic nucleus, tuberculum posterior, tectum, torus semicircularis, inter-peduncular nucleus and median eminence. During the metamorphic climax and soon after, the relative abundance of NPY-ir fibres decreased in all hypothalamic areas and the staining intensity and number of NPY-ir cells in the pallium also decreased, whereas no cells were found in the striatum, dorsal nucleus of the habenula and tectum. In the olfactory epithelium, nerve or bulb, neither cells nor NPY-ir fibres were found during the stages of development analysed. The ontogeny pattern of the NPY-ir neuronal system in the brain of Rh. arenarum is more similar to the spatiotemporal appearance reported for Rana esculenta than to that reported for Xenopus laevis. Many NPY-ir fibres were found in the median eminence and in the pars intermedia of the pituitary, supporting the idea that this neuropeptide may play a role in the modulation of hypophyseal secretion during development.

  3. Larval cells become imaginal cells under the control of homothorax prior to metamorphosis in the Drosophila tracheal system.

    PubMed

    Sato, Makoto; Kitada, Yusuke; Tabata, Tetsuya

    2008-06-15

    In Drosophila melanogaster, one of the most derived species among holometabolous insects, undifferentiated imaginal cells that are set-aside during larval development are thought to proliferate and replace terminally differentiated larval cells to constitute adult structures. Essentially all tissues that undergo extensive proliferation and drastic morphological changes during metamorphosis are thought to derive from these imaginal cells and not from differentiated larval cells. The results of studies on metamorphosis of the Drosophila tracheal system suggested that large larval tracheal cells that are thought to be terminally differentiated may be eliminated via apoptosis and rapidly replaced by small imaginal cells that go on to form the adult tracheal system. However, the origin of the small imaginal tracheal cells has not been clear. Here, we show that large larval cells in tracheal metamere 2 (Tr2) divide and produce small imaginal cells prior to metamorphosis. In the absence of homothorax gene activity, larval cells in Tr2 become non-proliferative and small imaginal cells are not produced, indicating that homothorax is necessary for proliferation of Tr2 larval cells. These unexpected results suggest that larval cells can become imaginal cells and directly contribute to the adult tissue in the Drosophila tracheal system. During metamorphosis of less derived species of holometabolous insects, adult structures are known to be formed via cells constituting larval structures. Thus, the Drosophila tracheal system may utilize ancestral mode of metamorphosis.

  4. A hemocyte-expressed fibrinogen-related protein gene (LvFrep) from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: Expression analysis after microbial infection and during larval development.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Jaqueline da Rosa; Barreto, Cairé; Silveira, Amanda da Silva; Vieira, Graziela Cleusa; Rosa, Rafael Diego; Perazzolo, Luciane Maria

    2016-09-01

    Fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs) comprise a large family of microbial recognition proteins involved in many biological functions in both vertebrate and invertebrate animals. By taking advantage of publicly accessible databases, we have identified a FREP-like homolog in the most cultivated penaeid shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (LvFrep). The obtained sequence showed a conserved fibrinogen-related domain (FReD) and displayed significant similarities to FREP-like proteins from other invertebrates and to ficolins from crustaceans. The expression of LvFrep appeared to be limited to circulating hemocytes. Interestingly, LvFrep gene expression was induced in shrimp hemocytes only in response to a Vibrio infection but not to the White spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Moreover, LvFrep transcript levels were detected early in fertilized eggs, suggesting the participation of this immune-related gene in the antimicrobial defenses during shrimp development.

  5. Preliminary observations on the effects of vector-averaged gravity on the embryonic and larval development of the gastropod mollusk, Ilyanassa obsoleta Stimpson

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, G. W.; Stephens, A. P.; Conrad, A. H.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Fertilized eggs of Ilyanassa obsoleta Stimpson were collected immediately after their deposition in egg capsules. Unopened egg capsules then were affixed to glass slides, and incubated either statically (controls) or on a clinostat (experimentals). After incubation for 9-14 days, hatching occurred sooner and in a higher percentage of clinostated capsules than in controls. Embryos that hatched while undergoing clinostat incubation were abnormal in morphology, whereas other embryos present in non-hatched capsules in the same tubes appeared normal, as did embryos in the control tubes. Although the results are compatible with a conclusion that vector-averaged gravity in the experimental tubes caused the altered development, some other aspects of how the incubations were done may have contributed to the differences between the control and experimental results.

  6. Longitudinal Evidence Linking Processing Speed to the Development of Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kail, Robert V.; Lervåg, Arne; Hulme, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Age-related change in processing speed has been linked directly to increases in reasoning as well as indirectly via increases in the capacity of working memory (WM). Most of the evidence linking change in speed to reasoning has come from cross-sectional research; in this article we present the findings from a 2½-year longitudinal study of 277 6-…

  7. 20 CFR 725.414 - Development of evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... evidence. A physician's written assessment of a single objective test, such as a chest X-ray or a pulmonary... shall be entitled to submit, in support of his affirmative case, no more than two chest X-ray..., and no more than two medical reports. Any chest X-ray interpretations, pulmonary function test...

  8. 20 CFR 725.414 - Development of evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... evidence. A physician's written assessment of a single objective test, such as a chest X-ray or a pulmonary... shall be entitled to submit, in support of his affirmative case, no more than two chest X-ray..., and no more than two medical reports. Any chest X-ray interpretations, pulmonary function test...

  9. 20 CFR 725.414 - Development of evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... evidence. A physician's written assessment of a single objective test, such as a chest X-ray or a pulmonary... shall be entitled to submit, in support of his affirmative case, no more than two chest X-ray..., and no more than two medical reports. Any chest X-ray interpretations, pulmonary function test...

  10. Rapid Effects of Marine Reserves via Larval Dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Cudney-Bueno, Richard; Lavín, Miguel F.; Marinone, Silvio G.; Raimondi, Peter T.; Shaw, William W.

    2009-01-01

    Marine reserves have been advocated worldwide as conservation and fishery management tools. It is argued that they can protect ecosystems and also benefit fisheries via density-dependent spillover of adults and enhanced larval dispersal into fishing areas. However, while evidence has shown that marine reserves can meet conservation targets, their effects on fisheries are less understood. In particular, the basic question of if and over what temporal and spatial scales reserves can benefit fished populations via larval dispersal remains unanswered. We tested predictions of a larval transport model for a marine reserve network in the Gulf of California, Mexico, via field oceanography and repeated density counts of recently settled juvenile commercial mollusks before and after reserve establishment. We show that local retention of larvae within a reserve network can take place with enhanced, but spatially-explicit, recruitment to local fisheries. Enhancement occurred rapidly (2 yrs), with up to a three-fold increase in density of juveniles found in fished areas at the downstream edge of the reserve network, but other fishing areas within the network were unaffected. These findings were consistent with our model predictions. Our findings underscore the potential benefits of protecting larval sources and show that enhancement in recruitment can be manifested rapidly. However, benefits can be markedly variable within a local seascape. Hence, effects of marine reserve networks, positive or negative, may be overlooked when only focusing on overall responses and not considering finer spatially-explicit responses within a reserve network and its adjacent fishing grounds. Our results therefore call for future research on marine reserves that addresses this variability in order to help frame appropriate scenarios for the spatial management scales of interest. PMID:19129910

  11. Integration of complex larval chemosensory organs into the adult nervous system of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Gendre, Nanaë; Lüer, Karin; Friche, Sandrine; Grillenzoni, Nicola; Ramaekers, Ariane; Technau, Gerhard M; Stocker, Reinhard F

    2004-01-01

    The sense organs of adult Drosophila, and holometabolous insects in general, derive essentially from imaginal discs and hence are adult specific. Experimental evidence presented here, however, suggests a different developmental design for the three largely gustatory sense organs located along the pharynx. In a comprehensive cellular analysis, we show that the posteriormost of the three organs derives directly from a similar larval organ and that the two other organs arise by splitting of a second larval organ. Interestingly, these two larval organs persist despite extensive reorganization of the pharynx. Thus, most of the neurons of the three adult organs are surviving larval neurons. However, the anterior organ includes some sensilla that are generated during pupal stages. Also, we observe apoptosis in a third larval pharyngeal organ. Hence, our experimental data show for the first time the integration of complex, fully differentiated larval sense organs into the nervous system of the adult fly and demonstrate the embryonic origin of their neurons. Moreover, they identify metamorphosis of this sensory system as a complex process involving neuronal persistence, generation of additional neurons and neuronal death. Our conclusions are based on combined analysis of reporter expression from P[GAL4] driver lines, horseradish peroxidase injections into blastoderm stage embryos, cell labeling via heat-shock-induced flip-out in the embryo, bromodeoxyuridine birth dating and staining for programmed cell death. They challenge the general view that sense organs are replaced during metamorphosis.

  12. Steroid exposure during larval development of Xenopus laevis affects mRNA expression of the reproductive pituitary-gonadal axis in a sex- and stage-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Urbatzka, Ralph; Lorenz, Claudia; Wiedemann, Caterina; Lutz, Ilka; Kloas, Werner

    2014-03-01

    Steroids are known to influence the reproductive pituitary-gonadal axis in adult amphibians. Here, we studied the effects of hormones on pituitary and gonadal mRNA expression during the development of Xenopus laevis. Tadpoles at NF 58 (prometamorphosis) and at NF 66 (freshly metamorphosed) were exposed for three days to 17β-estradiol (E2), tamoxifen (TAM), testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) at 10(-7)M, and flutamide (FLU) at 10(-6)M. In both genders at NF 58 and 66, T and DHT decreased luteinizing hormone beta (lhβ), but increased follicle stimulating hormone beta (fshβ), while FLU induced lhβ specifically in males. In the testis steroidogenic genes (p450 side chain cleavage enzyme, p450scc; steroid acute regulatory protein, star) at NF 58 showed a similar pattern as for lhβ, while the response at NF 66 was only partially present. In females, TAM induced lhβ at NF 58, while E2 decreased lhβ and increased fshβ at NF 66. In the ovaries, no alterations were observed for the steroidogenic genes. Summarizing, gonadotropic and steroidogenic mRNA expression may indicate control of androgen level during testis differentiation in male tadpoles at NF 58. In females the non-responsiveness of steroidogenic genes could be a sign of gonadal quiescence during pre-pubertal stages.

  13. Irish psychiatric nurses' self-reported barriers, facilitators and skills for developing evidence-based practice.

    PubMed

    Yadav, B L; Fealy, G M

    2012-03-01

    Evidence-based practice places an emphasis on integration of clinical expertise with available best evidence, patient's clinical information and preferences, and with local health resources. This paper reports the findings of a study that investigated the barriers, facilitators and skills in developing evidence-based practice among psychiatric nurses in Ireland. A postal survey was conducted among a random sample of Irish psychiatric nurses and survey data were collected using the Development of Evidence-Based Practice Questionnaire. Respondents reported that insufficient time to find and read research reports and insufficient resources to change practice were the greatest barriers to the development of evidence-based practice. Practice development coordinators were perceived as the most supportive resource for changing practice. Using the Internet to search for information was the highest-rated skill and using research evidence to change practice was the lowest-rated skill for developing evidence-based practice. Nurses' precursor skills for developing evidence-based practice, such as database searching and information retrieval, may be insufficient in themselves for promoting evidence-based practice if they cannot find evidence relating to their particular field of practice or if they do not have the time, resources and supports to develop their practice in response to evidence.

  14. Susceptibility of cat fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) to fipronil and imidacloprid using adult and larval bioassays.

    PubMed

    Rust, M K; Vetter, R; Denholm, I; Blagburn, B; Williamson, M S; Kopp, S; Coleman, G; Hostetler, J; Davis, W; Mencke, N; Rees, R; Foit, S; Tetzner, K

    2014-05-01

    The monitoring of the susceptibility offleas to insecticides has typically been conducted by exposing adults on treated surfaces. Other methods such as topical applications of insecticides to adults and larval bioassays on treated rearing media have been developed. Unfortunately, baseline responses of susceptible strains of cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouchè), except for imidacloprid, have not been determined for all on-animal therapies and new classes of chemistry now being used. However, the relationship between adult and larval bioassays of fleas has not been previously investigated. The adult and larval bioassays of fipronil and imidacloprid were compared for both field-collected isolates and laboratory strains. Adult topical bioassays of fipronil and imidacloprid to laboratory strains and field-collected isolates demonstrated that LD50s of fipronil and imidacloprid ranged from 0.11 to 0.40 nanograms per flea and 0.02 to 0.18 nanograms per flea, respectively. Resistance ratios for fipronil and imidacloprid ranged from 0.11 to 2.21. Based on the larval bioassay published for imidacloprid, a larval bioassay was established for fipronil and reported in this article. The ranges of the LC50s of fipronil and imidacloprid in the larval rearing media were 0.07-0.16 and 0.11-0.21 ppm, respectively. Resistance ratios for adult and larval bioassays ranged from 0.11 to 2.2 and 0.58 to 1.75, respectively. Both adult and larval bioassays provided similar patterns for fipronil and imidacloprid. Although the adult bioassays permitted a more precise dosage applied, the larval bioassays allowed for testing isolates without the need to maintain on synthetic or natural hosts.

  15. Expression of Calmodulin and Myosin Light Chain Kinase during Larval Settlement of the Barnacle Balanus amphitrite

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhang-Fan; Wang, Hao; Matsumura, Kiyotaka; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Barnacles are one of the most common organisms in intertidal areas. Their life cycle includes seven free-swimming larval stages and sessile juvenile and adult stages. The transition from the swimming to the sessile stages, referred to as larval settlement, is crucial for their survivor success and subsequent population distribution. In this study, we focused on the involvement of calmodulin (CaM) and its binding proteins in the larval settlement of the barnacle, Balanus ( = Amphibalanus) amphitrite. The full length of CaM gene was cloned from stage II nauplii of B. amphitrite (referred to as Ba-CaM), encoding 149 amino acid residues that share a high similarity with published CaMs in other organisms. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that Ba-CaM was highly expressed in cyprids, the stage at which swimming larvae are competent to attach and undergo metamorphosis. In situ hybridization revealed that the expressed Ba-CaM gene was localized in compound eyes, posterior ganglion and cement glands, all of which may have essential functions during larval settlement. Larval settlement assays showed that both the CaM inhibitor compound 48/80 and the CaM-dependent myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitor ML-7 effectively blocked barnacle larval settlement, whereas Ca2+/CaM-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitors did not show any clear effects. The subsequent real-time PCR assay showed a higher expression level of Ba-MLCK gene in larval stages than in adults, suggesting an important role of Ba-MLCK gene in larval development and competency. Overall, the results suggest that CaM and CaM-dependent MLCK function during larval settlement of B. amphitrite. PMID:22348072

  16. Larval development and settling of Macoma balthica in a large-scale mesocosm experiment at different fCO2 levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansson, A.; Lischka, S.; Boxhammer, T.; Schulz, K. G.; Norkko, J.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are causing severe changes in the global inorganic carbon balance of the oceans. Associated ocean acidification is expected to impose a major threat to marine ecosystems worldwide, and it is also expected to be amplified in the Baltic Sea where the system is already at present exposed to relatively large natural seasonal and diel pH fluctuations. The response of organisms to future ocean acidification has primarily been studied in single-species experiments, whereas the knowledge of community-wide responses is still limited. To study responses of the Baltic Sea pelagic community to a range of future CO2-scenarios, six ∼ 55 m3 pelagic mesocosms were deployed in the northern Baltic Sea in June 2012. In this specific study we focused on the tolerance, development and subsequent settlement process of the larvae of the benthic key-species Macoma balthica when exposed to different levels of future CO2. We found that the settling of M. balthica was delayed along the increasing CO2 gradient of the mesocosms. Also, when exposed to increasing CO2 levels larvae settled at a larger size, indicating a developmental delay. With on-going climate change, both the frequency and extent of regularly occurring high CO2 conditions is likely to increase, and a permanent pH decrease will likely occur. The strong impact of increasing CO2 levels on early-stage bivalves is alarming as these stages are crucial for sustaining viable populations, and a failure in their recruitment would ultimately lead to negative effects on the population.

  17. Larval exposure to 4-nonylphenol and 17β-estradiol affects physiological and behavioral development of seawater adaptation in Atlantic salmon smolts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lerner, Darrren T.; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2007-01-01

    Population declines of anadromous salmonids are attributed to anthropogenic disturbances including dams, commercial and recreational fisheries, and pollutants, such as estrogenic compounds. Nonylphenol (NP), a xenoestrogen, is widespread in the aquatic environment due to its use in agricultural, industrial, and household products. We exposed Atlantic salmon yolk-sac larvae to waterborne 10 or 100 μg L-1 NP (NP-L or NP-H, respectively), 2 μg L-1 17β-estradiol (E2), or vehicle, for 21 days to investigate their effects on smolt physiology and behavior 1 year later. NP-H caused approximately 50% mortality during exposure, 30 days after exposure, and 60 days after exposure. Mortality rates of NP-L and E2 fish were not affected until 60 days after treatment, when they were 4-fold greater than those of controls. Treatment with NP-L or E2 as yolk-sac larvae decreased gill sodium-potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase (Na+,K+-ATPase) activity and seawater (SW) tolerance during smolt development, 1 year after exposure. Exposure to NP-L and E2 resulted in a latency to enter SW and reduced preference for SW approximately 2- and 5-fold, respectively. NP-L-exposed fish had 20% lower plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels and 35% lower plasma triiodothyronine (T3). Plasma growth hormone and thyroxine (T4) were unaffected. Exposure to E2 did not affect plasma levels of IGF-I, GH, T3, or T4. Both treatment groups exhibited increased plasma cortisol and decreased osmoregulatory capacity in response to a handling stressor. These results suggest that early exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of NP, and other estrogenic compounds, can cause direct and delayed mortalities and that this exposure can have long term, “organizational” effects on life-history events in salmonids.

  18. Developmental inflexibility of larval tapeworms in response to resource variation.

    PubMed

    Benesh, Daniel P

    2010-03-15

    The timing of habitat switching in organisms with complex life cycles is an important life history characteristic that is often influenced by the larval growth environment. Under starvation, longer developmental times are frequently observed, probably as a consequence of developmental thresholds, but prolonged ontogeny sometimes also occurs under good conditions, as organisms may take advantage of the large potential gains in body size. I investigated whether variation in growth conditions affects the larval development time of a complex life cycle tapeworm (Schistocephalus solidus) in its copepod first host. Moreover, I reviewed patterns of developmental plasticity in larval tapeworms to assess the generality of my findings. Copepod starvation weakly retarded parasite growth but did not affect development. Worms grew bigger in larger copepods, but they developed at a similar rate in large and small hosts. Thus, S. solidus does not delay ontogeny under good conditions nor does it fail to reach a developmental threshold under poor conditions. Although unusual in comparison to free-living organisms, such inflexibility is common in tapeworms. Plasticity, namely prolonged ontogeny, has been mainly observed at high infection intensities. For S. solidus, there were large cross-environment genetic correlations for development, suggesting there may be genetic constraints on the evolution of developmental plasticity.

  19. A High-Throughput Method for the Analysis of Larval Developmental Phenotypes in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Olmedo, María; Geibel, Mirjam; Artal-Sanz, Marta; Merrow, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans postembryonic development consists of four discrete larval stages separated by molts. Typically, the speed of progression through these larval stages is investigated by visual inspection of the molting process. Here, we describe an automated method to monitor the timing of these discrete phases of C. elegans maturation, from the first larval stage through adulthood, using bioluminescence. The method was validated with a lin-42 mutant strain that shows delayed development relative to wild-type animals and with a daf-2 mutant that shows an extended second larval stage. This new method is inherently high-throughput and will finally allow dissecting the molecular machinery governing the speed of the developmental clock, which has so far been hampered by the lack of a method suitable for genetic screens. PMID:26294666

  20. A High-Throughput Method for the Analysis of Larval Developmental Phenotypes in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, María; Geibel, Mirjam; Artal-Sanz, Marta; Merrow, Martha

    2015-10-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans postembryonic development consists of four discrete larval stages separated by molts. Typically, the speed of progression through these larval stages is investigated by visual inspection of the molting process. Here, we describe an automated method to monitor the timing of these discrete phases of C. elegans maturation, from the first larval stage through adulthood, using bioluminescence. The method was validated with a lin-42 mutant strain that shows delayed development relative to wild-type animals and with a daf-2 mutant that shows an extended second larval stage. This new method is inherently high-throughput and will finally allow dissecting the molecular machinery governing the speed of the developmental clock, which has so far been hampered by the lack of a method suitable for genetic screens.

  1. Soundscapes and Larval Settlement: Larval Bivalve Responses to Habitat-Associated Underwater Sounds.

    PubMed

    Eggleston, David B; Lillis, Ashlee; Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R

    2016-01-01

    We quantified the effects of habitat-associated sounds on the settlement response of two species of bivalves with contrasting habitat preferences: (1) Crassostrea virginicia (oyster), which prefers to settle on other oysters, and (2) Mercenaria mercenaria (clam), which settles on unstructured habitats. Oyster larval settlement in the laboratory was significantly higher when exposed to oyster reef sound compared with either off-reef or no-sound treatments. Clam larval settlement did not vary according to sound treatments. Similar to laboratory results, field experiments showed that oyster larval settlement in "larval housings" suspended above oyster reefs was significantly higher compared with off-reef sites.

  2. Larval and Post-Larval Stages of Pacific Oyster (Crassostrea gigas) Are Resistant to Elevated CO2

    PubMed Central

    R, Dineshram; Dennis, Choi K. S.; Adela, Li J.; Yu, Ziniu; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen

    2013-01-01

    The average pH of surface oceans has decreased by 0.1 unit since industrialization and is expected to decrease by another 0.3–0.7 units before the year 2300 due to the absorption of anthropogenic CO2. This human-caused pH change is posing serious threats and challenges to the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas), especially to their larval stages. Our knowledge of the effect of reduced pH on C. gigas larvae presently relies presumptively on four short-term (<4 days) survival and growth studies. Using multiple physiological measurements and life stages, the effects of long-term (40 days) exposure to pH 8.1, 7.7 and 7.4 on larval shell growth, metamorphosis, respiration and filtration rates at the time of metamorphosis, along with the juvenile shell growth and structure of the C. gigas, were examined in this study. The mean survival and growth rates were not affected by pH. The metabolic, feeding and metamorphosis rates of pediveliger larvae were similar, between pH 8.1 and 7.7. The pediveligers at pH 7.4 showed reduced weight-specific metabolic and filtration rates, yet were able to sustain a more rapid post-settlement growth rate. However, no evidence suggested that low pH treatments resulted in alterations to the shell ultrastructures (SEM images) or elemental compositions (i.e., Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios). Thus, larval and post-larval forms of the C. gigas in the Yellow Sea are probably resistant to elevated CO2 and decreased near-future pH scenarios. The pre-adapted ability to resist a wide range of decreased pH may provide C. gigas with the necessary tolerance to withstand rapid pH changes over the coming century. PMID:23724027

  3. Larval and post-larval stages of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) are resistant to elevated CO2.

    PubMed

    Ginger, Ko W K; Vera, Chan B S; R, Dineshram; Dennis, Choi K S; Adela, Li J; Yu, Ziniu; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen

    2013-01-01

    The average pH of surface oceans has decreased by 0.1 unit since industrialization and is expected to decrease by another 0.3-0.7 units before the year 2300 due to the absorption of anthropogenic CO2. This human-caused pH change is posing serious threats and challenges to the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas), especially to their larval stages. Our knowledge of the effect of reduced pH on C. gigas larvae presently relies presumptively on four short-term (<4 days) survival and growth studies. Using multiple physiological measurements and life stages, the effects of long-term (40 days) exposure to pH 8.1, 7.7 and 7.4 on larval shell growth, metamorphosis, respiration and filtration rates at the time of metamorphosis, along with the juvenile shell growth and structure of the C. gigas, were examined in this study. The mean survival and growth rates were not affected by pH. The metabolic, feeding and metamorphosis rates of pediveliger larvae were similar, between pH 8.1 and 7.7. The pediveligers at pH 7.4 showed reduced weight-specific metabolic and filtration rates, yet were able to sustain a more rapid post-settlement growth rate. However, no evidence suggested that low pH treatments resulted in alterations to the shell ultrastructures (SEM images) or elemental compositions (i.e., Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios). Thus, larval and post-larval forms of the C. gigas in the Yellow Sea are probably resistant to elevated CO2 and decreased near-future pH scenarios. The pre-adapted ability to resist a wide range of decreased pH may provide C. gigas with the necessary tolerance to withstand rapid pH changes over the coming century.

  4. Linking River Morphology to Larval Drift of an Endangered Sturgeon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazzetta, L.; Jacobson, R. B.; Braaten, P. J.; Elliott, C. M.; Reuter, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    Computational models developed to calculate longitudinal advection and dispersion of contaminants in rivers have potential application in predicting larval drift. A critical component of this family of models is the longitudinal dispersion coefficient which parameterizes the processes that retain and distribute a contaminant along the river. Here we evaluate the potential for longitudinal dispersion coefficients to characterize larval drift of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in various segments of the free-flowing Missouri River ranging from Missouri to Montana. We randomly selected transects of acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) flow velocity data from reach-scale datasets that were collected in the Missouri River from 2002-2008 under comparable discharge conditions. We used previously developed equations (Kim and others, 2007) to calculate a one-dimensional longitudinal dispersion coefficient for each ADCP transect. We compared the statistical distributions of these coefficients for 2 to 6 reaches chosen from each of six geomorphic segments of the Missouri. Distributional patterns indicate that dispersion coefficients relate to observed variation in hydrology and geomorphology of the channel at the segment scale. Although one-dimensional dispersion analysis demonstrates potential as a tool for estimating pallid sturgeon larval drift and habitat suitability in unchannelized portions of the Missouri River, the large spatial variation in calculated dispersion coefficients resulting from river-training structures (wing dikes) in the Lower Missouri complicates selection of appropriate values. Recent data indicating that pallid sturgeon larvae occur in greater concentration in the thalweg indicate that the majority of larvae may bypass these structures and their associated retentive eddies. A two-dimensional space-averaged dispersion calculation and analysis may more accurately characterize the potential drift times and distances of larval

  5. Behavioral ecology of larval dragonflies and damselflies.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D M

    1991-01-01

    During the past decade, larval dragonflies and damselflies (Insecta: Odonata) have been the subjects for very productive ecological research. Descriptive field work, enclosure experiments and laboratory behavior studies have identified fish predation, intraguild predation (especially mutual predation among odonates, including cannibalism) and interference competition as particularly strong interactions influencing larval odonate assemblages. Behavioral differences among species suggest evolutionary adaptations for coexistence with different predators, and for winning intraspecific aggressive encounters.

  6. Temporal genetic homogeneity among shore crab (Carcinus maenas) larval events supplied to an estuarine system on the Portuguese northwest coast

    PubMed Central

    Domingues, C P; Creer, S; Taylor, M I; Queiroga, H; Carvalho, G R

    2011-01-01

    Despite the importance of larval biology in the life histories of many marine animals, relatively little information exists on the dynamics and genetic composition of larval cohorts. The supply of megalopae larvae of the shore crab, Carcinus maenas, was measured on a daily basis during 8 months spread along two larval periods (2006 and 2007) at the Ria de Aveiro estuary, on the Portuguese northwest coast. A total of 10 microsatellite DNA loci were employed to explore the genetic structure, variability and relatedness of temporally distinct megalopal events, selected from the major pulses of supply. Larval variation was also compared genetically with that of a previously studied adult crabs sample, at the same loci, collected in 2006 and 2007 along the Iberian Peninsula. Results revealed a lack of genetic differentiation and identical diversity levels among larval events over time. No evidence of reduced genetic diversity between megalopae relative to the diversity assessed from the pooled sample of adults was found. Moreover, there was no evidence of any family relatedness among larvae from temporal events. The results obtained for C. maenas contradict predictions made by the sweepstakes reproduction hypothesis, in which large variance in reproductive success is expected, which is presumably detectable as sharp genetic discontinuities among separate larval events. Data here indicate conversely a high degree of temporal genetic stability among larval supply to a given estuary under variable oceanographic conditions, consistent with the hypothesis that sampled larvae were drawn from a large number of adults that do not differ in reproductive success. PMID:20959862

  7. The Impact of Pretend Play on Children's Development: A Review of the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillard, Angeline S.; Lerner, Matthew D.; Hopkins, Emily J.; Dore, Rebecca A.; Smith, Eric D.; Palmquist, Carolyn M.

    2013-01-01

    Pretend play has been claimed to be crucial to children's healthy development. Here we examine evidence for this position versus 2 alternatives: Pretend play is 1 of many routes to positive developments (equifinality), and pretend play is an epiphenomenon of other factors that drive development. Evidence from several domains is considered. For…

  8. Larval nervous systems: true larval and precocious adult.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Claus

    2015-02-15

    The apical organ of ciliated larvae of cnidarians and bilaterians is a true larval organ that disappears before or at metamorphosis. It appears to be sensory, probably involved in metamorphosis, but knowledge is scant. The ciliated protostome larvae show ganglia/nerve cords that are retained as the adult central nervous system (CNS). Two structures can be recognized, viz. a pair of cerebral ganglia, which form the major part of the adult brain, and a blastoporal (circumblastoporal) nerve cord, which becomes differentiated into a perioral loop, paired or secondarily fused ventral nerve cords and a small perianal loop. The anterior loop becomes part of the brain. This has been well documented through cell-lineage studies in a number of spiralians, and homologies with similar structures in the ecdysozoans are strongly indicated. The deuterostomes are generally difficult to interpret, and the nervous systems of echinoderms and enteropneusts appear completely enigmatic. The ontogeny of the chordate CNS can perhaps be interpreted as a variation of the ontogeny of the blastoporal nerve cord of the protostomes, and this is strongly supported by patterns of gene expression. The presence of 'deuterostomian' blastopore fates both in an annelid and in a mollusk, which are both placed in families with the 'normal' spiralian gastrulation type, and in the chaetognaths demonstrates that the chordate type of gastrulation could easily have evolved from the spiralian type. This indicates that the latest common ancestor of the deuterostomes was very similar to the latest common pelago-benthic ancestor of the protostomes as described by the trochaea theory, and that the neural tube of the chordates is morphologically ventral.

  9. Functional evolution of Ets in echinoderms with focus on the evolution of echinoderm larval skeletons.

    PubMed

    Koga, Hiroyuki; Matsubara, Mioko; Fujitani, Haruka; Miyamoto, Norio; Komatsu, Miéko; Kiyomoto, Masato; Akasaka, Koji; Wada, Hiroshi

    2010-09-01

    Convergent evolution of echinoderm pluteus larva was examined from the standpoint of functional evolution of a transcription factor Ets1/2. In sea urchins, Ets1/2 plays a central role in the differentiation of larval skeletogenic mesenchyme cells. In addition, Ets1/2 is suggested to be involved in adult skeletogenesis. Conversely, in starfish, although no skeletogenic cells differentiate during larval development, Ets1/2 is also expressed in the larval mesoderm. Here, we confirmed that the starfish Ets1/2 is indispensable for the differentiation of the larval mesoderm. This result led us to assume that, in the common ancestors of echinoderms, Ets1/2 activates the transcription of distinct gene sets, one for the differentiation of the larval mesoderm and the other for the development of the adult skeleton. Thus, the acquisition of the larval skeleton involved target switching of Ets1/2. Specifically, in the sea urchin lineage, Ets1/2 activated a downstream target gene set for skeletogenesis during larval development in addition to a mesoderm target set. We examined whether this heterochronic activation of the skeletogenic target set was achieved by the molecular evolution of the Ets1/2 transcription factor itself. We tested whether starfish Ets1/2 induced skeletogenesis when injected into sea urchin eggs. We found that, in addition to ectopic induction of mesenchyme cells, starfish Ets1/2 can activate some parts of the skeletogenic pathway in these mesenchyme cells. Thus, we suggest that the nature of the transcription factor Ets1/2 did not change, but rather that some unidentified co-factor(s) for Ets1/2 may distinguish between targets for the larval mesoderm and for skeletogenesis. Identification of the co-factor(s) will be key to understanding the molecular evolution underlying the evolution of the pluteus larvae.

  10. Municipal solid waste development phases: Evidence from EU27.

    PubMed

    Vujić, Goran; Gonzalez-Roof, Alvaro; Stanisavljević, Nemanja; Ragossnig, Arne M

    2015-12-01

    Many countries in the European Union (EU) have very developed waste management systems. Some of its members have managed to reduce their landfilled waste to values close to zero during the last decade. Thus, European Union legislation is very stringent regarding waste management for their members and candidate countries, too. This raises the following questions: Is it possible for developing and developed countries to comply with the European Union waste legislation, and under what conditions? How did waste management develop in relation to the economic development in the countries of the European Union? The correlation between waste management practices and economic development was analysed for 27 of the European Union Member States for the time period between 1995 and 2007. In addition, a regression analysis was performed to estimate landfilling of waste in relation to gross domestic product for every country. The results showed a strong correlation between the waste management variables and the gross domestic product of the EU27 members. The definition of the municipal solid waste management development phases followed a closer analysis of the relation between gross domestic product and landfilled waste. The municipal solid waste management phases are characterised by high landfilling rates at low gross domestic product levels, and landfilling rates near zero at high gross domestic product levels. Hence the results emphasize the importance of wider understanding of what is required for developing countries to comply with the European Union initiatives, and highlight the importance of allowing developing countries to make their own paths of waste management development.

  11. Soundscape manipulation enhances larval recruitment of a reef-building mollusk

    PubMed Central

    Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R.; Eggleston, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Marine seafloor ecosystems, and efforts to restore them, depend critically on the influx and settlement of larvae following their pelagic dispersal period. Larval dispersal and settlement patterns are driven by a combination of physical oceanography and behavioral responses of larvae to a suite of sensory cues both in the water column and at settlement sites. There is growing evidence that the biological and physical sounds associated with adult habitats (i.e., the “soundscape”) influence larval settlement and habitat selection; however, the significance of acoustic cues is rarely tested. Here we show in a field experiment that the free-swimming larvae of an estuarine invertebrate, the eastern oyster, respond to the addition of replayed habitat-related sounds. Oyster larval recruitment was significantly higher on larval collectors exposed to oyster reef sounds compared to no-sound controls. These results provide the first field evidence that soundscape cues may attract the larval settlers of a reef-building estuarine invertebrate. PMID:26056624

  12. Larval nutritional stress affects vector life history traits and human malaria transmission

    PubMed Central

    Vantaux, Amélie; Lefèvre, Thierry; Cohuet, Anna; Dabiré, Kounbobr Roch; Roche, Benjamin; Roux, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to stress during an insect’s larval development can have carry-over effects on adult life history traits and susceptibility to pathogens. We investigated the effects of larval nutritional stress for the first time using field mosquito vectors and malaria parasites. In contrast to previous studies, we show that larval nutritional stress may affect human to mosquito transmission antagonistically: nutritionally deprived larvae showed lower parasite prevalence for only one gametocyte carrier; they also had lower fecundity. However, they had greater survival rates that were even higher when infected. When combining these opposing effects into epidemiological models, we show that larval nutritional stress induced a decrease in malaria transmission at low mosquito densities and an increase in transmission at high mosquito densities, whereas transmission by mosquitoes from well-fed larvae was stable. Our work underscores the importance of including environmental stressors towards understanding host–parasite dynamics to improve disease transmission models and control. PMID:27827429

  13. Larval nutritional stress affects vector life history traits and human malaria transmission.

    PubMed

    Vantaux, Amélie; Lefèvre, Thierry; Cohuet, Anna; Dabiré, Kounbobr Roch; Roche, Benjamin; Roux, Olivier

    2016-11-09

    Exposure to stress during an insect's larval development can have carry-over effects on adult life history traits and susceptibility to pathogens. We investigated the effects of larval nutritional stress for the first time using field mosquito vectors and malaria parasites. In contrast to previous studies, we show that larval nutritional stress may affect human to mosquito transmission antagonistically: nutritionally deprived larvae showed lower parasite prevalence for only one gametocyte carrier; they also had lower fecundity. However, they had greater survival rates that were even higher when infected. When combining these opposing effects into epidemiological models, we show that larval nutritional stress induced a decrease in malaria transmission at low mosquito densities and an increase in transmission at high mosquito densities, whereas transmission by mosquitoes from well-fed larvae was stable. Our work underscores the importance of including environmental stressors towards understanding host-parasite dynamics to improve disease transmission models and control.

  14. A subset of interneurons required for Drosophila larval locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Shingo; Long, Hong; Thomas, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to define the neural circuits generating locomotor behavior have produced an initial understanding of some of the components within the spinal cord, as well as a basic understanding of several invertebrate motor pattern generators. However, how these circuits are assembled during development is poorly understood. We are defining the neural circuit that generates larval locomotion in the genetically tractable fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to study locomotor circuit development. Forward larval locomotion involves a stereotyped posterior-to-anterior segmental translocation of body wall muscle contraction and is generated by a relatively small number of identified muscles, motor and sensory neurons, plus an unknown number of the ~270 bilaterally-paired interneurons per segment of the 1st instar larva. To begin identifying the relevant interneurons, we have conditionally inactivated synaptic transmission of interneuron subsets and assayed for the effects on locomotion. From this screen we have identified a subset of 25 interneurons per hemisegment, called the lateral locomotor neurons (LLNs), that are required for locomotion. Both inactivation and constitutive activation of the LLNs disrupt locomotion, indicating that patterned output of the LLNs is required. By expressing a calcium indicator in the LLNs, we found that they display a posterior-to-anterior wave of activity within the CNS corresponding to the segmental translocation of the muscle contraction wave. Identification of the LLNs represents the first step toward elucidating the circuit generating larval locomotion. PMID:26621406

  15. A subset of interneurons required for Drosophila larval locomotion.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Shingo; Long, Hong; Thomas, John B

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to define the neural circuits generating locomotor behavior have produced an initial understanding of some of the components within the spinal cord, as well as a basic understanding of several invertebrate motor pattern generators. However, how these circuits are assembled during development is poorly understood. We are defining the neural circuit that generates larval locomotion in the genetically tractable fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to study locomotor circuit development. Forward larval locomotion involves a stereotyped posterior-to-anterior segmental translocation of body wall muscle contraction and is generated by a relatively small number of identified muscles, motor and sensory neurons, plus an unknown number of the ~270 bilaterally-paired interneurons per segment of the 1st instar larva. To begin identifying the relevant interneurons, we have conditionally inactivated synaptic transmission of interneuron subsets and assayed for the effects on locomotion. From this screen we have identified a subset of 25 interneurons per hemisegment, called the lateral locomotor neurons (LLNs), that are required for locomotion. Both inactivation and constitutive activation of the LLNs disrupt locomotion, indicating that patterned output of the LLNs is required. By expressing a calcium indicator in the LLNs, we found that they display a posterior-to-anterior wave of activity within the CNS corresponding to the segmental translocation of the muscle contraction wave. Identification of the LLNs represents the first step toward elucidating the circuit generating larval locomotion.

  16. Metacommunity patterns in larval odonates.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Shannon J; Davis, Christopher J; Relyea, Rick A; Yurewicz, Kerry L; Skelly, David K; Werner, Earl E

    2008-11-01

    The growth of metacommunity ecology as a subdiscipline has increased interest in how processes at different spatial scales structure communities. However, there is still a significant knowledge gap with respect to relating the action of niche- and dispersal-assembly mechanisms to observed species distributions across gradients. Surveys of the larval dragonfly community (Odonata: Anisoptera) in 57 lakes and ponds in southeast Michigan were used to evaluate hypotheses about the processes regulating community structure in this system. We considered the roles of both niche- and dispersal-assembly processes in determining patterns of species richness and composition across a habitat gradient involving changes in the extent of habitat permanence, canopy cover, area, and top predator type. We compared observed richness patterns and species distributions in this system to patterns predicted by four general community models: species sorting related to adaptive trade-offs, a developmental constraints hypothesis, dispersal assembly, and a neutral community assemblage. Our results supported neither the developmental constraints nor the neutral-assemblage models. Observed patterns of richness and species distributions were consistent with patterns expected when adaptive tradeoffs and dispersal-assembly mechanisms affect community structure. Adaptive trade-offs appeared to be important in limiting the distributions of species which segregate across the habitat gradient. However, dispersal was important in shaping the distributions of species that utilize habitats with a broad range of hydroperiods and alternative top predator types. Our results also suggest that the relative importance of these mechanisms may change across this habitat gradient and that a metacommunity perspective which incorporates both niche- and dispersal-assembly processes is necessary to understand how communities are organized.

  17. Mutation of the central nervous system neuroblast proliferation repressor ana leads to defects in larval olfactory behavior.

    PubMed

    Park, Y; Caldwell, M C; Datta, S

    1997-08-01

    In the developing nervous system, interactions between glia and immature neurons or neuroblasts regulate axon pathfinding, migration, and cell division, and therefore affect structure and function. Glial control of neuroblast cell division has been documented by studies of the anachronism (ana) gene of Drosophila melanogaster. ana encodes a glycoprotein which, in the developing larval central nervous system, is secreted by glia that neighbor regulated neuroblasts. Mutations in ana lead to premature neuroblast proliferation in the larval brain. Examination of lacZ expression from an ana enhancer trap line as well as detection of the ana protein show that ana is also expressed in the larval antennal-maxillary complex (AMC) at all larval stages. As previously reported for the central nervous system, ana expression in the AMC appears to be confined to glial cells. Larval olfactory system function in ana mutants was assayed in a behavioral paradigm. When tested with the three different chemoattractants, third instar ana9 mutant larvae showed diminished olfactory response compared to controls. Examination of a second ana allele revealed aberrant olfactory response to ethyl acetate, demonstrating that more than one mutation in ana can give rise to abnormal larval olfactory behavior. Assays of early first instar ana9 mutant larvae revealed defective olfactory behavior, implying that the olfactory phenotype stems from early larval AMC and/or embryonic origins. This is consistent with proliferation analysis in the early larval AMC region which uncovered a significantly higher number of S-phase cells in ana9 mutants.

  18. Evidence-Based Leadership Development: The 4L Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Shelleyann; Webber, Charles F.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to use the results of three research initiatives to present the life-long learning leader 4L framework, a model for leadership development intended for use by designers and providers of leadership development programming. Design/methodology/approach: The 4L model is a conceptual framework that emerged from the analysis of…

  19. Evidence-Based Mental Health Practices with Children Self-Efficacy Scale: Development and Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMeel, Lorri S.; Leathers, Sonya J.; Strand, Tonya C.

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews existing measures related to evidence-based practices with children and self-efficacy and describes the development and psychometric properties of the Evidence-Based Mental Health Practices With Children Efficacy Scale. This scale was developed to assess students' and clinicians' self-efficacy in their abilities to use…

  20. Development of an evidence-based practice and research collaborative among urban hospitals.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Susan Mace; Marshall, June; Burns, Paulette

    2009-03-01

    This article describes the development of an evidence-based practice and research collaborative among urban hospitals. The collaborative began as a mechanism to support the incorporation of evidence-based practice and research in the acute care practice setting. This article discusses the development of the collaborative, as well as the challenges, success, and future goals from both the academic and practice perspectives.

  1. Distribution, Health, and Development of Larval and Juvenile Lost River and Shortnose Suckers in the Williamson River Delta Restoration Project and Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon: 2008 Annual Data Summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Summer M.; Ottinger, Christopher; Brown, Daniel T.; VanderKooi, Scott P.; Robertson, Laura; Iwanowicz, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Federally endangered Lost River sucker Deltistes luxatus and shortnose sucker Chasmistes brevirostris were once abundant throughout their range but populations have declined; they have been extirpated from several lakes, and may no longer reproduce in others. Poor recruitment into the adult spawning populations is one of several reasons cited for the decline and lack of recovery of these species, and may be the consequence of high mortality during juvenile life stages. High larval and juvenile sucker mortality may be exacerbated by an insufficient quantity of suitable rearing habitat. Within Upper Klamath Lake, a lack of marshes also may allow larval suckers to be swept from suitable rearing areas downstream into the seasonally anoxic waters of the Keno Reservoir. The Nature Conservancy (TNC) flooded about 3,600 acres to the north of the Williamson River mouth (Tulana Unit) in October 2007, and about 1,400 acres to the south and east of the Williamson River mouth (Goose Bay Unit) a year later, to retain larval suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, create nursery habitat for suckers, and improve water quality. In collaboration with TNC, the Bureau of Reclamation, and Oregon State University, we began a long-term collaborative research and monitoring program in 2008 to assess the effects of the Williamson River Delta restoration on the early life-history stages of Lost River and shortnose suckers. Our approach includes two equally important aspects. One component is to describe habitat use and colonization processes by