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Sample records for las tunas cuba

  1. Spatial distribution and contamination assessment of heavy metals in urban topsoils from Las Tunas City, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Díaz Rizo, O; Fonticiella Morell, D; Arado López, J O; Borrell Muñoz, J L; D'Alessandro Rodríguez, K; López Pino, N

    2013-07-01

    Concentrations of Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb and Fe in the topsoils (0-10 cm) from Las Tunas city were measured by X-ray fluorescence analysis. The mean Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb contents in the urban topsoil samples (97 ± 30, 14 ± 2, 35 ± 36, 94 ± 26, 199 ± 87 and 42 ± 29 mg kg⁻¹ dry weight, respectively) were compared with mean concentrations for other cities around the world with similar population. Cr content in school grounds, parks and residential areas exceed in 20 % the average Cr background level. Highest content for Ni was determined in residential areas, for Zn in market gardens soils and as for Pb, the highest topsoil-background content ratios were observed for market gardens (2.7) and residential areas (2.3). Spatial distribution maps indicated the same behaviour for Cr-Co-Ni and Pb-Zn, respectively, whereas the spatial distribution of Cu differs from other heavy metals. On the other hand, the metal-to-iron normalisation, using (10-20 cm) bottom soil contents as background, showed that topsoils in Las Tunas city are severely enriched with lead and not enriched with the rest of the determined metals. The average values of integrated pollution index (IPI) indicated that soils are moderately contaminated by heavy metals (1.17 ≤ IPI(ave) ≤ 1.39), but enrichment index values shows that metal concentrations on the studied locations are not above the permissible levels for urban agriculture.

  2. Cuba.

    PubMed

    1985-08-01

    Cuba's population characteristics, geography, history, government, political conditions, and foreign relations were briefly described. Cuba, the largest island in the East Indies, has a tropical climate and is made up of a large area of rolling plains and a smaller mountainous region. Cuba's current population of 9.946 million (1983) is 70% urban and 30% rural. The annual population growth rate is 1.1%. The literacy rate among those aged 10-49 years is 96%, and school is compulsory for 6 years. The infant mortality rate is 21/1000 live births, and life expectancy is 74.7 years. 47% of the work force is engaged in industry and commerce, 28% in services and government, and 25% in agriculture. Since the revolution, Cuba has had a centrally planned, nonmarket economy. Large state enterprises run all segments of the economy, and economic policy is formulated by a central planning board. Farmers are allowed to privately market some of their produce. The government provide a wide range of social services. Most of the services are free, but some entail a minimal fee. Cuba's economy is depressed and overly dependent on the production of sugar. Since the revolution, Cuba's sugar production has increased by only 1.1% annually. In addition to sugar production, the country is engaged in some food processing and other light forms of industry. Cuba has a large reserve of nickle. Cuba's economic indicators are calculated differently than those used in market countries and are not comparable to those used in market countries. In 1983, disposable national income was US$15.8 billion, and per capita income was US$2,590. Cuba's imports exceed her exports. In 1983 exports totalled US$6.5 billion and imports amounted to US$7.2 billion. Cuba's foreign debt is increasing annually, and Cuba is highly dependent on economic assistance from Russia. Between 1961-83, the USSR provided Cuba with US$30 billion in economic aid and US$10 billion in military aid. The country's serious economic

  3. Turkey vulture surveys in Cuba

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wotzkow, C.; Wiley, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura), were surveyed monthly in Cuba from March 1982-January 1983. A total of 25371 vultures were tallied in 7186 km (3.5 vultures/transect km) of roadside counting along main highways leading from the city of La Habana (northwestern Cuba) to the city of Las Tunas (southeast). Numbers of vultures counted declined substantially beyond 200 m from the transect road. Density of vultures observed within 200 m of the road along the transect route was 0.06/ha. Highest counts were obtained in March, April and June. Turkey Vulture flying activity was greatest during the periods 0900-1200 H and 1400-1700 H.

  4. Growth and production of Donax striatus (Bivalvia: Donacidae) from Las Balsas beach, Gibara, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Ocaña, Frank A

    2015-09-01

    Clams of the genus Donax are worldwide the dominating group of the invertebrate community on sandy beaches. They are primary consumers that provide a significant abundance and biomass to the ecosystem. In the Caribbean, Donax striatus has an important role for nature and human, nonetheless studies on the population dynamics of this beach clam are scarce and no information exists on secondary production of this species. Growth parameters and secondary production of D. striatus were estimated from February 2008 to November 2009 at Las Balsas beach, Northeastern Cuba, in order to provide basic information for management purposes. In each month 45 samples were taken by means of a PVC corer of 0.025 m2 area and sieved with a 1 mm mesh. Animals were measured and weighted with and without shell. A total of 5 471 specimens were collected during the sampling period. Shell length ranged from 2.7-33.3 mm. Growth parameters estimated from length frequency data were L∞ = 36.1 mm, K= 0.8/yr and t0= 0.2/yr. The growth performance resulted in values of Φ'= 3.02. Life span was 2.4 yrs and mortality rate was 3.07 /yr. In 2008, mean abundance of D. striatus ranged between 17.1 - 770.7 ind./m2. In 2009 the lowest mean abundance was 34.4 and the highest was 892.5 ind./m2. During 2009 biomass and production was more than twice higher in comparison with 2008. Individual production showed highest values in the 24 mm shell size (3.74 g/m2.yr) and 25 mm (0.71 g/m2.yr), considering mass with shell and without shell, respectively. During 2009 abundance of individuals with 15 mm shell length or more increased resulting in higher biomass and production, compared to 2008. Using the conversion factor of wet mass to ash free dry mass (AFDM), annual production ranged between 2.87-6.11 g AFDM/m2.yr, resulting in a turnover rate (P/B) between 5.11 and 3.47 in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The rapid growth and high turnover rate of D. striatus suggest a rapid recovery of the population. These

  5. Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-30

    Wilfredo Cancio Isla, “Aprietan las restricciones para los viajes a Cuba,” El Nuevo Herald (Miami), April 28, 2006, and “Cierran en Miami otra agencia de... viajes a Cuba,” El Nuevo Herald, June 6, 2006. 16 White House, “Statement by President Bush on Cuba: Toward a Democratic Cuba,” July 13, 2001

  6. Tuna comparative physiology.

    PubMed

    Graham, Jeffrey B; Dickson, Kathryn A

    2004-11-01

    Thunniform swimming, the capacity to conserve metabolic heat in red muscle and other body regions (regional endothermy), an elevated metabolic rate and other physiological rate functions, and a frequency-modulated cardiac output distinguish tunas from most other fishes. These specializations support continuous, relatively fast swimming by tunas and minimize thermal barriers to habitat exploitation, permitting niche expansion into high latitudes and to ocean depths heretofore regarded as beyond their range.

  7. Concurrent Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, T.

    2016-10-01

    The parallel version of the multidimensional numerical integration package Cuba is presented and achievable speed-ups discussed. The parallelization is based on the fork/wait POSIX functions, needs no extra software installed, imposes almost no constraints on the integrand function, and works largely automatically.

  8. Cuba a la Deriva en un Mundo Postcommunista (Cuba Adrift in a Postcommunist World)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Alimentario’ ospocial, y a posar do quo se ha omprendido una movilizaci6n agrf cola do gran oscala on el campo, Cuba podri producir s6lo entro el 30 y el 40...y las fuorzas armadas do Cuba, asi como gran part. do Arn~rica Latina, so pasarfan a ou bando, asegur~ndole mu lugar en Is historia. Estados Unidos...forma do aumontar ]s disponibilidad do publicaciones norteamoricanas y extranjeras en Cuba, y fomontar los vinculos do las telecomunicaciones a travis do

  9. Cuba: Exploring the History of Admixture and the Genetic Basis of Pigmentation Using Autosomal and Uniparental Markers

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes-Smith, Evelyn; Salas, Antonio; Buttenschøn, Henriette N.; Demontis, Ditte; Torres-Español, María; Marín-Padrón, Lilia C.; Gómez-Cabezas, Enrique J.; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Mosquera-Miguel, Ana; Martínez-Fuentes, Antonio; Carracedo, Ángel; Børglum, Anders D.; Mors, Ole

    2014-01-01

    We carried out an admixture analysis of a sample comprising 1,019 individuals from all the provinces of Cuba. We used a panel of 128 autosomal Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs) to estimate the admixture proportions. We also characterized a number of haplogroup diagnostic markers in the mtDNA and Y-chromosome in order to evaluate admixture using uniparental markers. Finally, we analyzed the association of 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with quantitative estimates of skin pigmentation. In the total sample, the average European, African and Native American contributions as estimated from autosomal AIMs were 72%, 20% and 8%, respectively. The Eastern provinces of Cuba showed relatively higher African and Native American contributions than the Western provinces. In particular, the highest proportion of African ancestry was observed in the provinces of Guantánamo (40%) and Santiago de Cuba (39%), and the highest proportion of Native American ancestry in Granma (15%), Holguín (12%) and Las Tunas (12%). We found evidence of substantial population stratification in the current Cuban population, emphasizing the need to control for the effects of population stratification in association studies including individuals from Cuba. The results of the analyses of uniparental markers were concordant with those observed in the autosomes. These geographic patterns in admixture proportions are fully consistent with historical and archaeological information. Additionally, we identified a sex-biased pattern in the process of gene flow, with a substantially higher European contribution from the paternal side, and higher Native American and African contributions from the maternal side. This sex-biased contribution was particularly evident for Native American ancestry. Finally, we observed that SNPs located in the genes SLC24A5 and SLC45A2 are strongly associated with melanin levels in the sample. PMID:25058410

  10. Cuba. Section 23. Weather and Climate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1959-05-01

    see FIGURES 23-29 and 23-30.) inches at Central Los Canos, located in an en- closed valley in eastern Cuba, to a little more than 70 inches at Nueva ... Nueva Gerona Omaja Pinardel Rio Santiago de Cuba Santiago de las Vegas. . YRS REC 70 72 68 74 73 72 72 74 75 73 75 72 71 75 73...Ensenada de Mora... Gibara Guane Guantiinamo Havana Herrudura Jatibonico Madruga Nueva Gerona Nuevitas Pinar del Rto Santiago do

  11. Cuba after Fidel Castro.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-07

    Cuba , however, after the resumption of friendly relations with the Soviets in 1968. Although Castro wanted to remain...elections, and signed a trade agreement with the U.S.S.R., the United States took actions to punish Cuba with * economic sanctions. Relations worsened when...presidency, increasing tensions between Cuba and the United States . President Jimmy Carter, in seekino to improve relations with Cuba , succeeded

  12. Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-28

    en Miami otra agencia de viajes a Cuba,” El Nuevo Herald, June 6, 2006; U.S. Department of the Treasury, Office of Foreign Assets Control, List of...January 27, 2006. 21 Wilfredo Cancio Isla, “Aprietan las restricciones para los viajes a Cuba,” El Nuevo Herald (Miami), April 28, 2006, and “Cierran

  13. Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-30

    Miami), April 28, 2006, and “Cierran en Miami otra agencia de viajes a Cuba,” El Nuevo Herald, June 6, 2006; U.S. Department of the Treasury, Office...Fortuna Travel Services, Cubatur Express, La Perla CRS-16 21 Wilfredo Cancio Isla, “Aprietan las restricciones para los viajes a Cuba,” El Nuevo Herald

  14. Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-27

    agencia de viajes a Cuba,” El Nuevo Herald, June 6, 2006; U.S. Department of the Treasury, Office of Foreign Assets Control, List of Authorized Providers of...16 Wilfredo Cancio Isla, “Aprietan las restricciones para los viajes a Cuba,” El Nuevo Herald (Miami), Apr. 28, 2006, and “Cierran en Miami otra

  15. Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-21

    Herald (Miami), April 28, 2006, and “Cierran en Miami otra agencia de viajes a Cuba,” El Nuevo Herald, June 6, 2006; U.S. Department of the Treasury...23 Wilfredo Cancio Isla, “Aprietan las restricciones para los viajes a Cuba,” El Nuevo

  16. Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-31

    Cierran en Miami otra agencia de viajes a Cuba,” El Nuevo Herald, June 6, 2006; U.S. Department of the Treasury, Office of Foreign Assets Control, List...23 Wilfredo Cancio Isla, “Aprietan las restricciones para los viajes a Cuba,” El Nuevo Herald (Miami), April 28, 2006, and

  17. Women Physicists in Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Fuentes, Olimpia Arias; Alvarez, Lilliam; Vigil, Elena

    2009-04-01

    Cuba is a special country in Latin America and the Caribbean Region. Over almost 50 years of opening opportunities to everybody, girls and women have particularly benefited from laws, agreements, and promotions to decision-making levels. In spite of representing only a small portion of the physicist community in Cuba, women have always been represented in important positions and involved in the development of this discipline in our country. To give an idea about the current situation of women physicists in Cuba, we report some approximate numbers, fundamentally related to the principal institutions in which we have a critical mass of physicists.

  18. Applied Science in Cuba.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Jeffrey L.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses various topics and issues related to the scientific enterprise in Cuba. Notes that Cuban science is emphasizing biotechnology and research on the island's chief crop (sugarcane), although hampered by limited personnel and lack of modern laboratory equipment. (JN)

  19. Cuba and the Bahamas

    NASA Video Gallery

    This short video shows the cloudy island of Cuba and the Bahamas as the International Space Station flies from the Caribbean Sea northeast to the Atlantic Ocean. These shots were taken from onboard...

  20. 76 FR 39019 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quotas and Atlantic Tuna Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... the Atlantic tunas possession-at-sea and landing regulations to allow removal of Atlantic tunas tail lobes; and clarifying the transfer-at-sea regulations for Atlantic tunas. This action is necessary to... consideration of overharvest/underharvest from the previous fishing year and any accounting for estimated...

  1. 78 FR 70002 - International Fisheries; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; 2013 Bigeye Tuna Longline Fishery Closure in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ...; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; 2013 Bigeye Tuna Longline Fishery Closure in the Eastern Pacific Ocean; Correction... in the Eastern Pacific Ocean for the remainder of 2013. DATES: Effective November 11, 2013, through.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: NMFS announced that the bigeye tuna longline fishery in the Eastern Pacific...

  2. An evaluation of mercury concentrations in three brands of canned tuna.

    PubMed

    Gerstenberger, Shawn L; Martinson, Adam; Kramer, Joanna L

    2010-02-01

    There is widespread concern over the presence of Hg in fish consumed by humans. While studies have been focused on determining the Hg concentration in sport fish and some commercial fish, little attention has been directed to canned tuna; it is widely held that concentrations are low. In the present study, the amount of Hg present in canned tuna purchased in Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, was examined, and the brand, temporal variation, type, and packaging medium impacts on Hg concentrations in tuna were explored. A significant (p < 0.001) brand difference was noted: Brand 3 contained higher Hg concentrations ($\\bar x$ standard deviation (SD) (0.777 +/- 0.320 ppm) than Brands 1 (0.541 +/- 0.114 ppm) and 2 (0.550 +/- 0.199 ppm). Chunk white tuna (0.619 +/- 0.212 ppm) and solid white tuna (0.576 +/- 0.178 ppm) were both significantly (p < 0.001) higher in mean Hg than chunk light tuna (0.137 +/- 0.063 ppm). No significant temporal variation was noted, and packaging had no significant effect on Hg concentration. In total, 55% of all tuna examined was above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA) safety level for human consumption (0.5 ppm), and 5% of the tuna exceeded the action level established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) (1.0 ppm). These results indicate that stricter regulation of the canned tuna industry is necessary to ensure the safety of sensitive populations such as pregnant women, infants, and children. According to the U.S. EPA reference dose of 0.1 microg/kg body weight per day and a mean Hg value of 0.619 ppm, a 25-kg child may consume a meal (75 g) of canned chunk white tuna only once every 18.6 d. Continued monitoring of the industry and efforts to reduce Hg concentrations in canned tuna are recommended. Environ.

  3. Thawing of Frozen Tuna Meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Takeo; Nishiwaki, Kôji; Kakuda, Kitonari; Tomimatsu, Takao

    Frozen southern bluefin tuna meat discolors easily and sometimes contracts when thawed caused by thaw rigor. These phenomenon often become problematic in the transaction or handling of this kind of frozen tuna. Frozen meat blocks of southern Bluefin tuna were thawed separately by air thawing, running water thawing and microwave thawing. Changes occurring during thawing were checked for meat color by met-myoglobin ratio determination and for contract by microscopic observation. Results are as follows : (1) Discoloration scarcely occurred in the process of running water thawing (at 10°C for 50 min, or at 0°C for 6 hr). (2) No contraction was observed during thawing with running water described above and air thawing (at 18-20°C for 6 hr). (3) Discoloration and contraction seemed to be minimized, as to latently contractile blocks, when meat temperature passed through rapidly between -10°C and -5°C, and slowly (for 5-6 hr) between -5°C and -1°C. When the block was originally not contractile, discloration was minimized by rising meat temperature rapidly from -10°C to -l°C.

  4. Space Technology For Tuna Boats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Freshly-caught tuna is stored below decks in wells cooled to about zero degrees by brine circulated through a refrigerating system. The wells formerly were insulated by cork or fiberglass, but both materials were subject to deterioration; cork, for instance, needs replacement every three years. The Campbell Machine Division of Campbell Industries, San Diego, which manufactures and repairs large boats for the commercial fishing industry, was looking for a better way to insulate tuna storage wells. Learning of the Rockwell technique, Campbell contracted for a test installation on one boat, then bought its own equipment and adopted the spray-foam procedure for their boats. The foam hardens after application. It not only is a superior insulator, it also is considerably lighter and easier to apply. Fishing industry spokesmen say that foam insulation is far more reliable, efficient and economical than prior techniques. More than 40 foam-insulated tuna boats, ranging in cost from $1 million to $4 million, have been built and sold. Principal customers are Ralston Purina's Van Camp Seafood Division and Star-Kist Inc.

  5. U.S.-Cuba Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-07

    USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT U.S.- Cuba Relations by Colonel Mark Triplett United States Marine Corps Lieutenant Colonel Harry V. Phillips Project...must determine when and how. The departure of Fidel Castro from Cuba poses several policy alternatives for the United States . Depending on who...needs on its borders. Stability in Cuba is in the best interest of the United States . This paper briefly examines the history of Cuba , the background of

  6. Cuba: Background to a Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De La Fuente, Alejandro

    2000-01-01

    Provides historical information on Cuba. Addresses early colonization, the advent of plantation agriculture, the role and presence of the United States in the Caribbean and Cuba, and the social and economic developments in Cuba after the revolution in 1959 led by Fidel Castro. (CMK)

  7. [Spanish immigration in Cuba].

    PubMed

    Gonzalez Suarez, D

    1988-01-01

    Trends in immigration to Cuba from Spain in the first three decades of the twentieth century are analyzed. The author notes that this immigration was responsible for more than 25 percent of the population growth that occurred during this period. The impact of changes in Spanish and Cuban law on migration flows is considered.

  8. The challenge for Cuba.

    PubMed Central

    Claudio, L

    1999-01-01

    The restrictions of a U.S. trade embargo and the collapse of the Soviet Union marked the beginning of a period of extreme economic hardship in Cuba. Economic adversity has had tremendous effects, both positive and negative, on all aspects of life on the Island, including environmental and public health. PMID:10210701

  9. Occupational health in Cuba.

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, M R

    1981-01-01

    Health and safety regulation, training, and research were practically non-existent in Cuba before the Revolution in 1959. Since that time important advances have been made. Specialized inspectors, occupational physicians, and other such personnel are now trained in Cuba. An Occupational Health Institute, founded in 1976, provides training and specialized technical services, and conducts research. In 1978, a far reaching "Work Safety and Health Law" was enacted which defines the rights and responsibility of government agencies, workplace administrators, unions, and workers. Comprehensive control of toxic substances in workplaces, still at an early stage, is likely to increase in light of the new law, the growing availability of qualified personnel, and the mounting concern of public health authorities with the increasingly "developed" health profile of the population. PMID:7212141

  10. Storm Warnings for Cuba

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    of Cuba’s Central Planning Board OUCEPLAN), charged with the task of implementing a Soviet model of planning and management; Roberto Veiga, Secretary...positions are constrained by the realities of regime politics. Among the more visible reformistas is Roberto Robaina, former First Secretary of the Union...after the Fourth Party Congress, Maria Elena Cruz- Varela , a dissident poet, was physically attacked by one of the regime’s rapid-reaction brigades and

  11. Cuba, Are Sanctions Working?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    sanctions that the US has imposed on Cuba, and to determine if there are any other means available to reach Washington’s objective as stated above...of that independence to employ all means which vicinity, similarity of origin and sympathy could supply, to foment and stimulate insurrection (among...with the Interest Sections. This process is one step below the ambassadorial level. In 1980 the Mariel Boatlift incident created, once again, more

  12. Developing Astronomy in Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Taboada, R. E.

    2006-08-01

    Introduction Beginning from a brief historical introduction the up to day situation is presented and the topics relevant to Astronomy development analyzed from the view point of a person actually working in Astrophysics. Arising from national needs, Astronomical Calculations is the only "native-born" branch of astronomy in Cuba. Cuba was an observational platform capable to provide the Soviet Union with the 24 hours solar patrol needed by its Space Agency System to protect the men in orbit. This was the beginning of a very fruitful development of solar research in Cuba. Russia installed the instruments, trained the people to operate them, and gives the academic environment to develop the scientific work in solar physics, space weather, and related topics. What about Stellar Astronomy? The Cuban astro-climate is not good to develop an observational base. We are trying to develop stellar astronomy in collaboration with institutions capable to provide both, the academic and technical environment; but to continue developing Stellar Astronomy we need to influence the public opinion and convince people they need groups working in Astronomy. How to do that? Publishing. Giving conferences talking about OUR work, not only like spectators of the science. Showing science is culture in modern times. Showing projects in Astronomy can be cheap. ¡This is very important! Astronomy is not a luxury. Real possibilities I consider the Virtual Observatory concept the more appropriate in the near future, but it is necessary to have a connectivity level that is not commonly provided in Cuba, and to train the people. Concluding remarks From my experience "engagement" is the key word for Astronomy development in developing countries. Astronomy can not be developed without an appropriate academic environment, and we have not it. It is not "only" about financial resources, it is about "real collaboration" with a mature partner and common research goals.

  13. Cuba confronts climate change.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Gisela; Clark, Ismael

    2015-04-01

    Among environmental problems, climate change presents the greatest challenges to developing countries, especially island nations. Changes in climate and the resulting effects on human health call for examination of the interactions between environmental and social factors. Important in Cuba's case are soil conditions, food availability, disease burden, ecological changes, extreme weather events, water quality and rising sea levels, all in conjunction with a range of social, cultural, economic and demographic conditions.

  14. Tuna cornea as biomaterial for cardiac applications.

    PubMed

    Parravicini, Roberto; Cocconcelli, Flavio; Verona, Alessandro; Parravicini, Valeriano; Giuliani, Enrico; Barbieri, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Among available biomaterials, cornea is almost completely devoid of cells and is composed only of collagen fibers oriented in an orderly pattern, which contributes to low antigenicity. Thunnus thynnus, the Atlantic bluefin tuna, is a fish with large eyes that can withstand pressures of approximately 10 MPa. We evaluated the potential of this tuna cornea in cardiac bioimplantation. Eyes from freshly caught Atlantic bluefin tuna were harvested and preserved in a fixative solution. Sterilized samples of corneal stroma were embedded in paraffin and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and the histologic features were studied. Physical and mechanical resistance tests were performed in comparison with bovine pericardial strips and porcine mitral valves. Corneal material was implanted subcutaneously in 7 rats, to evaluate in vivo calcification rates. Mitral valves made from tuna corneal leaflets were implanted in 9 sheep. We found that the corneal tissue consisted only of parallel collagen fibers without evidence of vascular or neural structures. In tensile strength, the tuna corneal specimens were substantially similar to bovine pericardium. After 23 days, the rat-implanted samples showed no calcium or calcium salt deposition. Hydrodynamic and fatigue testing of valve prototypes yielded acceptable functional and long-term behavioral results. In the sheep, valvular performance was stable during the 180-day follow-up period, with no instrumental sign of calcification at the end of observation. We conclude that low antigenicity and favorable physical properties qualify tuna cornea as a potential material for durable bioimplantation. Further study is warranted.

  15. 78 FR 65887 - International Fisheries; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; 2013 Bigeye Tuna Longline Fishery Closure in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 300 RIN 0648-XC922 International Fisheries; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; 2013 Bigeye Tuna Longline Fishery Closure in the Eastern Pacific Ocean AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  16. Global integration of European tuna markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Toribio, Ramòn; Guillotreau, Patrice; Mongruel, Rémi

    2010-07-01

    This paper evaluates the degree of integration between the world market and the major European marketplaces of frozen and canned tuna through both vertical and horizontal price relationships. Spatial linkages are investigated horizontally in order to estimate the connection between the European market and the world-wide market on the primary stage of the value chain. One of the key results is the high level of market integration at the ex-vessel stage, and the price leadership of yellowfin tuna over skipjack tuna. The same approach is applied at the ex-factory level. Basically, the European market for final goods appears to be segmented between the Northern countries consuming low-priced canned skipjack tuna imported from Asia (mainly Thailand) and the Southern countries (Italy, Spain) processing and importing yellowfin-based products sold at higher prices. France appears to be an intermediate market where both products are consumed. The former market is found to be well integrated to the world market and can be considered to be competitive, but there is a suspicion of market power being exercised on the latter. Price relationships are therefore tested vertically between the price of frozen tuna paid by the canneries and the price of canned fish in both Italy and France. The two species show an opposite pattern in prices transmission along the value chain: price changes along the chain are far better transmitted for the “global” skipjack tuna than for the more “European” yellowfin tuna. The results are discussed, along with their implications for the fishing industry.

  17. Where Does Cuba Stand?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-14

    Minister Raul Castro, General Abelardo Colome Ibarra . For the most part, the present leadership of the dissident movement has not made any decisive move to...Wang, 1970, pp. 451-476; Jose Luls Llovio, Insider: My Hidden Life as a Revolutionary in Cuba, New York: Bantam, 1988, pp. 206-213, 237-251; Rhodu...preserved and improved on some of tne key features of the porfiriato, see Lorenzo Meyer, "Historical Roots of the Authoritarian State In Mexico," In Jose

  18. 77 FR 25732 - Tuna-Tariff-Rate Quota; the Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2012 Tuna Classifiable Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Tuna--Tariff-Rate Quota; the Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar.... ACTION: Announcement of the quota quantity of tuna in airtight containers for Calendar Year 2012..., 2012, a document concerning tariff rates for tuna in airtight containers for Calendar Year...

  19. 77 FR 22796 - Tuna-Tariff-Rate Quota; the Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2012 Tuna Classifiable Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... Year 2012 Tuna Classifiable Under Subheading 1604.14.22, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United..., the tariff-rate quota for tuna described in subheading 1604.14.22, HTSUS, is based on the apparent... subheading 1604.14.22, HTSUS. Any such tuna which is entered, or withdrawn from warehouse, for...

  20. 76 FR 27658 - Tuna-Tariff-Rate Quota; The Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2011 Tuna Classifiable Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... Year 2011 Tuna Classifiable Under Subheading 1604.14.22, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United... the tariff-rate quota for tuna described in subheading 1604.14.22, HTSUS, is based on the apparent... 1604.14.22, HTSUS. Any such tuna which is entered or withdrawn from warehouse for consumption...

  1. 78 FR 24430 - Tuna-Tariff Rate Quota; the Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2013 Tuna Classifiable Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... 2013 Tuna Classifiable Under Subheading 1604.14.22, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States... tariff-rate quota for tuna described in subheading 1604.14.22, HTSUS, is based on the apparent United... subheading 1604.14.22, HTSUS. Any such tuna which is entered, or withdrawn from warehouse, for...

  2. Structure and function of tuna tail tendons.

    PubMed

    Shadwick, Robert E; Rapoport, H Scott; Fenger, Joelle M

    2002-12-01

    The caudal tendons in tunas and other scombrid fish link myotomal muscle directly to the caudal fin rays, and thus serve to transfer muscle power to the hydrofoil-like tail during swimming. These robust collagenous tendons have structural and mechanical similarity to tendons found in other vertebrates, notably the leg tendons of terrestrial mammals. Biochemical studies indicate that tuna tendon collagen is composed of the (alpha1)(2),alpha2 heterotrimer that is typical of vertebrate Type I collagen, while tuna skin collagen has the unusual alpha1,alpha2,alpha3 trimer previously described in the skin of some other teleost species. Tuna collagen, like that of other fish, has high solubility due to the presence of an acid-labile intermolecular cross-link. Unlike collagen in mammalian tendons, no differences related to cross-link maturation were detected among tendons in tuna ranging from 0.05 to 72 kg (approx. 0.25-6 years). Tendons excised post-mortem were subjected to load cycling to determine the modulus of elasticity and resilience (mean of 1.3 GPa and 90%, respectively). These material properties compare closely to those of leg tendons from adult mammals that can function as effective biological springs in terrestrial locomotion, but the breaking strength is substantially lower. Peak tendon forces recorded during steady swimming appear to impose strains of much less than 1% of tendon length, and no more than 1.5% during bursts. Thus, the caudal tendons in tunas do not appear to function as elastic storage elements, even at maximal swimming effort.

  3. Thawing of Frozen Dressed Tuna by Microwave Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Takeo; Nagasaki, Tasuku; Takahashi, Kenji

    Large sized frozen yellowfin tuna and southern bluefin tuna in dressed form (decapitated and gutted) were thawed by microwave (915 MHz) irradiation. Temperature rise of the tuna during thawing was measured. Quality of the tuna meat before and after thawing was compared with each other using objective quality index such as degree of discoloration (met-myoglobin ratio), freshness (K1 value) and taste cornponent (K2 value). Results are as follows : (1) Both frozen tunas were thawed fairly well within as short time as 30 min without any partial over heating. (2) No changes in met-myoglobin ratio, K1 and K2 values were observed in the cases of yellow fin tuna. Slight discoloration, however, occurred in southern bluefin tuna meat during microwave thawing. This problem has been left unsolved.

  4. Cuba's kidney transplantation program.

    PubMed

    Mármol, Alexander; Pérez, Alexis; Pérez de Prado, Juan C; Fernández-Vega, Silvia; Gutiérrez, Francisco; Arce, Sergio

    2010-10-01

    The first kidney transplant in Cuba was performed on 24 February 1970, using a cadaveric donor. In 1979, living donor kidney transplantation began between first-degree relatives. A total of 2775 patients are enrolled in renal replacement therapy in 47 hospitals across the country, 1440 of whom are awaiting kidney transplantation. Organs for the kidney program are procured in 63 accredited hospitals equipped for multidisciplinary management of brain death. Accordingly, over 90% of transplanted kidneys are from cadaveric donors. Identification of potential recipients is carried out through a national, computerized program that affords all patients the same opportunity regardless of distance from a transplant center, and selection of the most suitable candidate is based primarily on HLA compatibility. KEYWORDS Chronic renal failure, kidney transplantation.

  5. 21 CFR 161.190 - Canned tuna.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... alletteratus (Rafinesque, 1810)—Spotted tunny Euthynnus lineatus Kishinouye, 1920—Black skipjack tuna Euthynnus... approximately 1/2-inch deep and painted flat black inside and outside) so that after tamping and smoothing the... through a suitable rheostat. The stand is equipped with non-glossy black curtains on the side of...

  6. 21 CFR 161.190 - Canned tuna.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... alletteratus (Rafinesque, 1810)—Spotted tunny Euthynnus lineatus Kishinouye, 1920—Black skipjack tuna Euthynnus... approximately 1/2-inch deep and painted flat black inside and outside) so that after tamping and smoothing the... through a suitable rheostat. The stand is equipped with non-glossy black curtains on the side of...

  7. 21 CFR 161.190 - Canned tuna.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... alletteratus (Rafinesque, 1810)—Spotted tunny Euthynnus lineatus Kishinouye, 1920—Black skipjack tuna Euthynnus... approximately 1/2-inch deep and painted flat black inside and outside) so that after tamping and smoothing the... through a suitable rheostat. The stand is equipped with non-glossy black curtains on the side of...

  8. 21 CFR 161.190 - Canned tuna.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... alletteratus (Rafinesque, 1810)—Spotted tunny Euthynnus lineatus Kishinouye, 1920—Black skipjack tuna Euthynnus... approximately 1/2-inch deep and painted flat black inside and outside) so that after tamping and smoothing the... through a suitable rheostat. The stand is equipped with non-glossy black curtains on the side of...

  9. 21 CFR 161.190 - Canned tuna.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... alletteratus (Rafinesque, 1810)—Spotted tunny Euthynnus lineatus Kishinouye, 1920—Black skipjack tuna Euthynnus... approximately 1/2-inch deep and painted flat black inside and outside) so that after tamping and smoothing the... through a suitable rheostat. The stand is equipped with non-glossy black curtains on the side of...

  10. [Otolith microchemistry of tuna species: research progress].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guo-ping

    2011-08-01

    Microchemistry analysis of trace elements and isotopes in fishes' calcified substances is an emerging approach to analyze the population structure, life history, and migration environmental history of fishes. With the increasing improvement of the researches and applications of otolith microchemistry, this approach has been a good tool for studying the ecology of tuna species. Currently, the research contents of tuna species' otolith microchemistry mainly include trace elements and isotopes, and the former is the emphasis and hotspot in applied research, playing a vital role in the researches of population partitioning, natal origin, migration environmental history, and life history of tuna species, especially bluefin tuna. However, most of the researches are focusing on the variation of otolith's Sr/Ca ratio, and there is no final conclusion on the relationships between the fractionation of isotopes C and O in otolith and the temperature. For the sake of exploiting the huge value of otolith microchemistry, it would be necessary to strengthen the researches on the deposition mechanisms of trace elements in otolith, and to analyze the spatio-temporal variations of various trace elements in otolith by comprehensive research methods.

  11. Kounis syndrome following canned tuna fish ingestion.

    PubMed

    De Gennaro, Luisa; Brunetti, Natale Daniele; Locuratolo, Nicola; Ruggiero, Massimo; Resta, Manuela; Diaferia, Giuseppe; Rana, Michele; Caldarola, Pasquale

    2016-12-20

    Kounis syndrome (KS) is a complex of cardiovascular symptoms and signs following either allergy or hypersensitivity and anaphylactic or anaphylactoid insults. We report the case of 57-year-old man, with hypertension and history of allergy, referred for facial rash and palpitations appeared after consumption of canned tuna fish. Suddenly, the patient collapsed: electrocardiogram showed ST-elevation in inferior leads. The patient was transferred from the spoke emergency room for coronary angio, which did not show any sign of coronary atherosclerosis. A transient coronary spasm was therefore hypothesized and the final diagnosis was KS. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first cases of KS following the ingestion of tuna fish. KS secondary to food allergy has also been reported, and shellfish ingestion has been considered as one of the most active KS inducer foods. Canned tuna fish too is well known as an allergy inducer. Tuna fish allergy should be considered, however, within the context of scombroid food poisoning, also called histamine fish poisoning. Fish with high levels of free histidine, the enzyme substrate converted to histamine by bacterial histidine decarboxylase, are those most often implicated in scombroid poisoning. Inflammatory mediators such as histamine constitute the pathophysiologic basis of Kounis hypersensitivity-associated acute coronary syndrome. Patients with coronary risk factors, allergic reaction after food ingestion, and suspected scombroid poisoning should be therefore carefully monitored for a prompt diagnosis of possible coronary complications.

  12. Measurement of Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of Tuna Fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Yutaka

    Considering that gape and heave produced during the freezing of tuna fish derive from changes in the thermophysical properties of tuna fish itself during freezing, the coefficient of linear and cubical expansion of tuna meat were measured continuously between the temperature before freezing and during freezing. The results of measurement were shown that the coefficient of thermal expansion of tuna meat displayed special temperature dependence as sudden change at the boundary temperature of freezing beginning as summarized below: 1) the coefficient of linear expansion of tuna meat were anisotropic according to the tissue and structure of the fish body, but these properties varied according to the test temperature; and 2) the coefficient of cubical expansion during freezing assumed a maximal value when tuna meat was partially frozen.

  13. A spatial ecosystem and populations dynamics model (SEAPODYM) Modeling of tuna and tuna-like populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehodey, Patrick; Senina, Inna; Murtugudde, Raghu

    2008-09-01

    An enhanced version of the spatial ecosystem and population dynamics model SEAPODYM is presented to describe spatial dynamics of tuna and tuna-like species in the Pacific Ocean at monthly resolution over 1° grid-boxes. The simulations are driven by a bio-physical environment predicted from a coupled ocean physical-biogeochemical model. This new version of SEAPODYM includes expanded definitions of habitat indices, movements, and natural mortality based on empirical evidences. A thermal habitat of tuna species is derived from an individual heat budget model. The feeding habitat is computed according to the accessibility of tuna predator cohorts to different vertically migrating and non-migrating micronekton (mid-trophic) functional groups. The spawning habitat is based on temperature and the coincidence of spawning fish with presence or absence of predators and food for larvae. The successful larval recruitment is linked to spawning stock biomass. Larvae drift with currents, while immature and adult tuna can move of their own volition, in addition to being advected by currents. A food requirement index is computed to adjust locally the natural mortality of cohorts based on food demand and accessibility to available forage components. Together these mechanisms induce bottom-up and top-down effects, and intra- (i.e. between cohorts) and inter-species interactions. The model is now fully operational for running multi-species, multi-fisheries simulations, and the structure of the model allows a validation from multiple data sources. An application with two tuna species showing different biological characteristics, skipjack ( Katsuwonus pelamis) and bigeye ( Thunnus obesus), is presented to illustrate the capacity of the model to capture many important features of spatial dynamics of these two different tuna species in the Pacific Ocean. The actual validation is presented in a companion paper describing the approach to have a rigorous mathematical parameter optimization

  14. El Espanol de Cuba: Situacion bibliografica (Spanish in Cuba: Bibliographies).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez Morales, Humberto

    1968-01-01

    Analytical and critical commentaries on books about the Spanish language in Cuba are presented here. Bibliographies, dictionaries, glossaries, readers, and linguistic studies are treated, and a selective bibliography of materials is presented. Most of the materials covered are also in M. W. Nichols'"A Bibliographical Guide to Materials on…

  15. Early Childhood Education in Cuba.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Susan A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the four levels of the early childhood education system in Cuba. Includes information on home visit programs for new parents, child care programs, preschool programs, programs for 5-year-olds, and primary school programs. Emphasizes that parents, relatives, teachers, and the larger community share the responsibility of educating young…

  16. Trouble with tuna: two cases of scombrotoxin poisoning.

    PubMed Central

    Stell, I M

    1997-01-01

    Two cases of scombrotoxin poisoning after exposure to tuna are described, the second being unusual in that tinned, rather than fresh, tuna was involved. This relatively rare condition needs to be distinguished from an allergic reaction, for which it can easily be mistaken. Images p111-a PMID:9132185

  17. Environmental Load during the Distribution of Cultured Tuna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Rirei; Watanabe, Manabu; Suzuki, Toru

    Tuna is the most favorite marine products for Japanese people. Most of them are consumed as Sashimi in Japan, and a half of them are imported. Cold transportation technology is essential to keep freshness of tuna during the oversea transportation. In the case of transporting tuna, ship transportation in ultra low temperature such as -60 °C is applied and also high speed transportation even by using airplane is practically used. On the other hand, it is a fact that such transportation processes of tuna are giving huge environmental load, though it has not been so much focused. Evaluation of cold transportation technologies from this environmental viewpoint must be important in the future. In this article, we compared CO2 emission during cold transportations of frozen tuna (marine transportation) and non-frozen tuna (air transportation) by using LCI analysis. As a result, CO2 emission of non-frozen tuna is found to be about four times greater than that of frozen tuna. This is due to the difference in the amount of freight per transportation of the airplane and the ship.

  18. 78 FR 36685 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2013 Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... Species; 2013 Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...: NMFS establishes 2013 quota specifications for the Atlantic bluefin tuna (BFT) fishery and closes the... Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT), as required by the Atlantic Tunas Convention...

  19. 78 FR 33240 - International Fisheries; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; Fishing Restrictions in the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... the overall EPO tuna catch. The number of purse seine vessels that have landed tuna in California...; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; Fishing Restrictions in the Eastern Pacific Ocean AGENCY: National Marine... rule. SUMMARY: NMFS is issuing regulations under the Tuna Conventions Act of 1950 to...

  20. Mercury in canned tuna: white versus light and temporal variation.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2004-11-01

    There are abundant data and advisories for mercury levels in wild fish, but far fewer for commercial fish that compose a large majority of the fish most people eat. Until recently, relatively little attention has been devoted to examining mercury in canned tuna, despite its great importance in human diets. There is substantial media coverage of the benefits and risk from fish consumption, but few peer-reviewed data on canned tuna, the most commonly consumed fish in the United States. In this paper, we examine the levels of total mercury in canned tuna obtained from a New Jersey grocery store from 1998 to 2003, looking for temporal consistency within this data set and particularly for comparison with the Food and Drug Administration's 1991 study. We analyzed 168 cans individually for total mercury. All values are reported as parts per million (= microg/g) on a wet weight basis. In a subset of samples analyzed for total and inorganic mercury, the inorganic mercury was below detection levels; hence at least 89% of the mercury can be considered methylmercury. We found that white-style tuna had significantly more total mercury (mean 0.407 ppm) than light-style tuna (mean 0.118 ppm), presumably reflecting that "white" tuna is albacore, a species relatively larger than the skipjack tuna, which is commonly available as "light" or "chunk light." The maximum mercury in a can was 0.997 ppm, but 25% of white tuna samples exceeded 0.5 ppm. Data suggest a slight increase in levels since 1991, and mercury levels were significantly higher in 2001 than in other years. The mean level of mercury in white tuna (mean 0.407 ppm) was significantly higher than the mean value of 0.17 ppm currently used by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in its risk assessment and public information. There were no significant differences in mercury levels in tuna packed in oil compared to water. Draining contents had no effect on mercury levels, and the fluid, both oil and water, contained

  1. Total mercury in canned tuna sold in Canada in 2006.

    PubMed

    Dabeka, Robert W; Mckenzie, Arthur D; Forsyth, Donald S

    2014-01-01

    Total mercury was measured in 156 composites prepared from 936 samples of canned tuna sold in Canada in 2006. Each composite comprised a single brand. Yellowfin tuna contained the lowest concentrations, averaging 0.066 mg/kg. Skipjack tuna contained slightly higher concentrations, averaging 0.132 mg/kg. The highest average concentration was found in the Albacore tuna: mean 0.325 mg/kg, range 0.174-0.507 mg/kg. The second highest concentration among the 49 albacore composites was 0.469 mg/kg. There were 72 composites for which the type of tuna was not specified. The mercury in these averaged 0.095 mg/kg and ranged from 0.016 to 0.237 mg/kg.

  2. Tuna Longline Fishing around West and Central Pacific Seamounts

    PubMed Central

    Morato, Telmo; Hoyle, Simon D.; Allain, Valerie; Nicol, Simon J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Seamounts have been identified as aggregating locations for pelagic biodiversity including tuna; however the topography and prevailing oceanography differ between seamounts and not all are important for tuna. Although a relatively common feature in oceanic ecosystems, little information is available that identifies those that are biologically important. Improved knowledge offers opportunities for unique management of these areas, which may advance the sustainable management of oceanic resources. In this study, we evaluate the existence of an association between seamounts and tuna longline fisheries at the ocean basin scale, identify significant seamounts for tuna in the western and central Pacific Ocean, and quantify the seamount contribution to the tuna longline catch. Methodology/Principal Findings We use data collected for the Western and Central Pacific Ocean for bigeye, yellowfin, and albacore tuna at the ocean basin scale. GLMs were applied to a coupled dataset of longline fisheries catch and effort, and seamount location information. The analyses show that seamounts may be associated with an annual longline combined catch of 35 thousand tonnes, with higher catch apparent for yellowfin, bigeye, and albacore tuna on 17%, 14%, and 14% of seamounts respectively. In contrast 14%, 18%, and 20% of seamounts had significantly lower catches for yellowfin, bigeye and albacore tuna respectively. Studying catch data in relation to seamount positions presents several challenges such as bias in location of seamounts, or lack of spatial resolution of fisheries data. Whilst we recognize these limitations the criteria used for detecting significant seamounts were conservative and the error in identification is likely to be low albeit unknown. Conclusions/Significance Seamounts throughout the study area were found to either enhance or reduce tuna catch. This indicates that management of seamounts is important Pacific-wide, but management approaches must take

  3. Sexual maturity in western Atlantic bluefin tuna

    PubMed Central

    Heinisch, Gilad; Rosenfeld, Hanna; Knapp, Jessica M.; Gordin, Hillel; Lutcavage, Molly E.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a novel endocrine approach for assessing the unresolved matter of the timing of sexual maturation in western Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABFT), a highly migratory population whose status remains uncertain. Ratios of follicle stimulating hormone to luteinizing hormone, a sexual maturity indicator, in all ABFT ≥134 cm curved fork length (CFL) were <0.4, similar to Mediterranean spawners, indicating that western ABFT mature at considerably smaller sizes and at a much younger age than currently assumed (≥185 cm CFL). PMID:25431301

  4. Cuba: Issues for 111th Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-14

    reflected in almost every aspect of national life .13 In late February 2008, Cuba signed two U.N. human rights treaties: the International Covenant on...Service Summary Cuba, which remains a hard-line communist state with a poor record on human rights , commemorated the 50th anniversary of its revolution...humanitarian donations, U.S.-sponsored radio and television broadcasting to Cuba (Radio and TV Marti), and support for human rights and democracy on the

  5. Cuba: Issues for the 111th Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-18

    almost every aspect of national life .13 In late February 2008, Cuba signed two U.N. human rights treaties: the International Covenant on Civil and...Cuba, which remains a hard-line communist state with a poor record on human rights , commemorated the 50th anniversary of its...humanitarian donations, U.S.-sponsored radio and television broadcasting to Cuba (Radio and TV Marti), and support for human rights and democracy on

  6. 78 FR 20604 - Enhanced Document Requirements To Support Use of the Dolphin Safe Label on Tuna Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... processors, other than tuna canners, of tuna product labeled dolphin-safe; and modify the reporting... processors, other than tuna canners, of tuna product labeled dolphin- safe; and to include modifications to a... the processor indicates the tuna is eligible to be labeled dolphin-safe under 50 CFR 216.91....

  7. Biology, fishery, conservation and management of Indian Ocean tuna fisheries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishna Pillai, N.; Satheeshkumar, Palanisamy

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is to explore the recent trend of the world tuna fishery with special reference to the Indian Ocean tuna fisheries and its conservation and sustainable management. In the Indian Ocean, tuna catches have increased rapidly from about 179959 t in 1980 to about 832246 t in 1995. They have continued to increase up to 2005; the catch that year was 1201465 t, forming about 26% of the world catch. Since 2006 onwards there has been a decline in the volume of catches and in 2008 the catch was only 913625 t. The Principal species caught in the Indian Ocean are skipjack and yellowfin. Western Indian Ocean contributed 78.2% and eastern Indian Ocean 21.8% of the total tuna production from the Indian Ocean. The Indian Ocean stock is currently overfished and IOTC has made some recommendations for management regulations aimed at sustaining the tuna stock. Fishing operations can cause ecological impacts of different types: by catches, damage of the habitat, mortalities caused by lost or discarded gear, pollution, generation of marine debris, etc. Periodic reassessment of the tuna potential is also required with adequate inputs from exploratory surveys as well as commercial landings and this may prevent any unsustainable trends in the development of the tuna fishing industry in the Indian Ocean.

  8. Bioenergetics, Trophic Ecology, and Niche Separation of Tunas.

    PubMed

    Olson, R J; Young, J W; Ménard, F; Potier, M; Allain, V; Goñi, N; Logan, J M; Galván-Magaña, F

    Tunas are highly specialized predators that have evolved numerous adaptations for a lifestyle that requires large amounts of energy consumption. Here we review our understanding of the bioenergetics and feeding dynamics of tunas on a global scale, with an emphasis on yellowfin, bigeye, skipjack, albacore, and Atlantic bluefin tunas. Food consumption balances bioenergetics expenditures for respiration, growth (including gonad production), specific dynamic action, egestion, and excretion. Tunas feed across the micronekton and some large zooplankton. Some tunas appear to time their life history to take advantage of ephemeral aggregations of crustacean, fish, and molluscan prey. Ontogenetic and spatial diet differences are substantial, and significant interdecadal changes in prey composition have been observed. Diet shifts from larger to smaller prey taxa highlight ecosystem-wide changes in prey availability and diversity and provide implications for changing bioenergetics requirements into the future. Where tunas overlap, we show evidence of niche separation between them; resources are divided largely by differences in diet percentages and size ranges of prey taxa. The lack of long-term data limits the ability to predict impacts of climate change on tuna feeding behaviour. We note the need for systematic collection of feeding data as part of routine monitoring of these species, and we highlight the advantages of using biochemical techniques for broad-scale analyses of trophic relations. We support the continued development of ecosystem models, which all too often lack the regional-specific trophic data needed to adequately investigate climate and fishing impacts.

  9. The curious case of Cuba.

    PubMed

    Keck, C William; Reed, Gail A

    2012-08-01

    As health professionals in the United States consider how to focus health care and coverage to ensure better, more equitable patient and population health outcomes, the experience of Cuba's National Health System over the last 5 decades may provide useful insights. Although mutual awareness has been limited by long-term political hostilities between the United States and Cuban governments, the history and details of the Cuban health system indicate that their health system merits attention as an example of a national integrated approach resulting in improved health status. More extensive analysis of the principles, practices, and outcomes in Cuba is warranted to inform health system transformation in the United States, despite differences in political-social systems and available resources.

  10. Cuba: Multidimensional numerical integration library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    The Cuba library offers four independent routines for multidimensional numerical integration: Vegas, Suave, Divonne, and Cuhre. The four algorithms work by very different methods, and can integrate vector integrands and have very similar Fortran, C/C++, and Mathematica interfaces. Their invocation is very similar, making it easy to cross-check by substituting one method by another. For further safeguarding, the output is supplemented by a chi-square probability which quantifies the reliability of the error estimate.

  11. Tuna fish diet influences cat behavior. [Elevated levels of selenium and mercury in commercial tuna fish cat food

    SciTech Connect

    Houpt, K.A.; Essick, L.A.; Shaw, E.B.; Alo, D.K.; Gilmartin, J.E.; Gutenmann, W.H.; Littman, C.B.; Lisk, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    When observed in their home cages, cats fed commercial tuna fish cat food were less active, vocalized less, and spent more time on the floor and more time eating than cats fed commercial beef cat food. There were no differences in response to human handling between the two groups. There were no differences in learning ability on a two-choice point maze or in reversal learning in the same maze between beef- and tuna-fed cats. The behavior of the groups differed in a 15-min open field test only in the number of toys contacted. Cats fed the tuna had elevated tissue levels of mercury and selenium.

  12. Time for a New Cuba Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-11

    government took over leadership of the island. The newly elected leader of Cuba, Estrada Palma , was forced by the United States Congress to rule under...providing oil on preferential terms, and it currently supplies about 100,000 barrels per day of petroleum products. Cuba has been paying for the oil

  13. 31 CFR 515.420 - Travel to Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Travel to Cuba. 515.420 Section 515....420 Travel to Cuba. The prohibition on dealing in property in which Cuba or a Cuban national has an...) also prohibits payment for air travel to Cuba on a third-country carrier unless the travel is...

  14. 31 CFR 515.420 - Travel to Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Travel to Cuba. 515.420 Section 515....420 Travel to Cuba. The prohibition on dealing in property in which Cuba or a Cuban national has an...) also prohibits payment for air travel to Cuba on a third-country carrier unless the travel is...

  15. 31 CFR 515.420 - Travel to Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel to Cuba. 515.420 Section 515....420 Travel to Cuba. The prohibition on dealing in property in which Cuba or a Cuban national has an...) also prohibits payment for air travel to Cuba on a third-country carrier unless the travel is...

  16. 31 CFR 515.420 - Travel to Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Travel to Cuba. 515.420 Section 515....420 Travel to Cuba. The prohibition on dealing in property in which Cuba or a Cuban national has an...) also prohibits payment for air travel to Cuba on a third-country carrier unless the travel is...

  17. 31 CFR 515.420 - Travel to Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Travel to Cuba. 515.420 Section 515....420 Travel to Cuba. The prohibition on dealing in property in which Cuba or a Cuban national has an...) also prohibits payment for air travel to Cuba on a third-country carrier unless the travel is...

  18. Measurement of Young's Modulus and Poisson's Ratio of Tuna Fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Yutaka; Hagura, Yoshio

    Considering that gape and heave produced during the freezing of tuna fish derive from changes in the mechanical properties of tuna fish itself during freezing,the Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus of tuna meat were measured at the respective temperature conditions of i) no freezing,ii) partial freezing,and iii) freezing. The results of measurement were shown that the mechanical properties of tuna meat displayed temperature dependence as sudden change at the boundary temperature of freezing beginning as summarized below: 1) the mechanical properties of tuna meat were anisotropic according to the tissue and structure of the fish body,but these properties greatly varied according to the test temperature;2) the Young's modulus of non-frozen tuna meat were approximately 50 KPa,but these became an extremely large value (approximately 4 GPa) after being frozen; and 3) the Poisson's ratio decreased as the frozen water percentage increased,but these displayed an approximate value of one or more.

  19. Monitoring of bisphenols in canned tuna from Italian markets.

    PubMed

    Fattore, Margherita; Russo, Giacomo; Barbato, Francesco; Grumetto, Lucia; Albrizio, Stefania

    2015-09-01

    Monitoring of food contamination from bisphenols is a necessary process for the consumers' risk assessment. A method for the quali-quantitative analysis of Bisphenol A (BPA), Bisphenol B (BPB), Bisphenol A Diglycidyl Ether (BADGE), and Bisphenol F Diglycidyl Ether (BFDGE), by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FD), was performed and validated for their determination in 33 samples of tuna fish, canned in either oil or aqueous medium. Samples were collected in Italian markets. Tuna and the correspondent preservation medium were analyzed separately. Detected levels of bisphenols ranged from 19.1 to 187.0 ng/g in tuna matrix and from 6.3 to 66.9 ng/mL in oil medium. No bisphenols were found in aqueous medium. At least one of the analytes was found in 83% of the tuna samples in oil medium, whereas tuna samples in aqueous medium showed BPA alone in 67% of samples. 21% of the oil medium samples resulted positive for at least one bisphenol. On the basis of measured concentrations and general daily ingestion rate of canned tuna fish, the probable daily intake of BPA for Italian population was calculated.

  20. 50 CFR 216.95 - Official mark for “Dolphin-safe” tuna products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Official mark for âDolphin-safeâ tuna... AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.95 Official mark for “Dolphin-safe... Department of Commerce that may be used to label tuna products that meet the “dolphin-safe” standards...

  1. 50 CFR 216.95 - Official mark for “Dolphin-safe” tuna products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Official mark for âDolphin-safeâ tuna... AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.95 Official mark for “Dolphin-safe... Department of Commerce that may be used to label tuna products that meet the “dolphin-safe” standards...

  2. 50 CFR 216.95 - Official mark for “Dolphin-safe” tuna products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Official mark for âDolphin-safeâ tuna... AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.95 Official mark for “Dolphin-safe... Department of Commerce that may be used to label tuna products that meet the “dolphin-safe” standards...

  3. 50 CFR 216.95 - Official mark for “Dolphin-safe” tuna products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Official mark for âDolphin-safeâ tuna... AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.95 Official mark for “Dolphin-safe... Department of Commerce that may be used to label tuna products that meet the “dolphin-safe” standards...

  4. 50 CFR 216.95 - Official mark for “Dolphin-safe” tuna products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Official mark for âDolphin-safeâ tuna... AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.95 Official mark for “Dolphin-safe... Department of Commerce that may be used to label tuna products that meet the “dolphin-safe” standards...

  5. 75 FR 54078 - International Fisheries; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; Vessel Capacity Limit in the Purse Seine Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... (Resolution C-02-03) to address the problem of excess capacity in the tuna purse-seine fleet operating in the... for tuna in the IATTC Convention Area. However, these vessels (class size 5 and under purse seine... satisfying its obligations under the Tuna Conventions Act and not exceeding its allotted capacity in...

  6. 76 FR 31351 - Safety Requirements and Manning Exemption Eligibility on Distant Water Tuna Fleet Vessels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ... availability of Office of Vessel Activities Policy Letter 11-05 regarding Distant Water Tuna Fleet vessels... Eligibility on Distant Water Tuna Fleet Vessels policy.\\1\\ A general summary of the comments received and the... SECURITY Coast Guard Safety Requirements and Manning Exemption Eligibility on Distant Water Tuna...

  7. 76 FR 3646 - Safety Requirements and Manning Exemption Eligibility on Distant Water Tuna Fleet Vessels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... availability of a draft policy regarding distant water tuna fleet vessels manning exemption eligibility and... SECURITY Coast Guard Safety Requirements and Manning Exemption Eligibility on Distant Water Tuna Fleet... Eligibility on Distant Water Tuna Fleet Vessels. DATES: Comments and related material must either be...

  8. 75 FR 30730 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... retention limit adjustment. SUMMARY: NMFS has determined that the Atlantic tunas General category daily Atlantic bluefin tuna (BFT) retention limit should be adjusted for the June through August 2010 time...

  9. 76 FR 32086 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... retention limit adjustment. SUMMARY: NMFS has determined that the Atlantic tunas General category daily Atlantic bluefin tuna (BFT) retention limit should be adjusted for the June through August 2011 time...

  10. 76 FR 52886 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... retention limit adjustment. SUMMARY: NMFS has determined that the Atlantic tunas General category daily Atlantic bluefin tuna (BFT) retention limit should be adjusted from one to three large medium or giant...

  11. Cuba: Issues for the 111th Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-04

    Research Service Summary Cuba remains a hard-line communist state with a poor record on human rights . The country’s political succession from the long...Cuban people, including private humanitarian donations, U.S.-sponsored broadcasting to Cuba, and support for human rights . In light of Fidel Castro’s... rights resolution. On July 16, 2009, the House approved H.R. 3170, the FY2010 Financial Services appropriations measure, with a provision defining

  12. Area Handbook Series: Cuba; a Country Study,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    Dantas THE AGE OF DISCOVERY-PreColumbian Cuba-Discovery and Occupation-THE COLONIAL PERIOD- Encomienda and Repartimiento-Colonial Administration-Economic...soil, tend the cattle, and perform other tasks as servants and porters for the Spaniards. 7 Cuba: A Country Study The Colonial Period Encomienda and...trust) and repartimientos (allotments). The encomienda system derived from Spanish feudal institutions of Roman origin, and in the New World it

  13. The Curious Case of Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Gail A.

    2012-01-01

    As health professionals in the United States consider how to focus health care and coverage to ensure better, more equitable patient and population health outcomes, the experience of Cuba’s National Health System over the last 5 decades may provide useful insights. Although mutual awareness has been limited by long-term political hostilities between the United States and Cuban governments, the history and details of the Cuban health system indicate that their health system merits attention as an example of a national integrated approach resulting in improved health status. More extensive analysis of the principles, practices, and outcomes in Cuba is warranted to inform health system transformation in the United States, despite differences in political-social systems and available resources. PMID:22698011

  14. Becoming a Chemist in Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taft, Hessy L.

    2003-08-01

    Education in Cuba is a national priority. Overall, the population is skilled and motivated to use all available resources; furthermore teachers are dedicated and focused on their mission. This paper reports on information obtained as a result of visits to several secondary schools and three premier institutions of higher learning: the University of Havana, the Higher Polytechnic Institute "Jose Antonio Echevaria", and an Institute for Pedagogy. University tuition is free for all Cubans: students can not work for a salary during the typical five-year program of post-secondary study and instead serve as interns in government, industry, or schools. Experience working abroad is encouraged upon graduation. An overview of Cuban university admissions criteria, some specific programs of study, and placement of students in career jobs upon graduation is presented.

  15. [The health system of Cuba].

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Alonso, Emma; Zacea, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the health conditions in Cuba and the general characteristics of the Cuban health system, including its structure and coverage, its financial sources, its health expenditure, its physical, material and human resources, and its stewardship functions. It also discusses the increasing importance of its research institutions and the role played by its users in the operation and evaluation of the system. Salient among the social actors involved in the health sector are the Cuban Women Federation and the Committees for the Defense of the Revolution. The paper concludes with the discussion of the most recent innovations implemented in the Cuban health system, including the cardiology networks, the Miracle Mission (Misión Milagro) and the Battle of Ideas (Batalla de Ideas).

  16. Global population trajectories of tunas and their relatives

    PubMed Central

    Juan-Jordá, Maria José; Mosqueira, Iago; Cooper, Andrew B.; Freire, Juan; Dulvy, Nicholas K.

    2011-01-01

    Tunas and their relatives dominate the world's largest ecosystems and sustain some of the most valuable fisheries. The impacts of fishing on these species have been debated intensively over the past decade, giving rise to divergent views on the scale and extent of the impacts of fisheries on pelagic ecosystems. We use all available age-structured stock assessments to evaluate the adult biomass trajectories and exploitation status of 26 populations of tunas and their relatives (17 tunas, 5 mackerels, and 4 Spanish mackerels) from 1954 to 2006. Overall, populations have declined, on average, by 60% over the past half century, but the decline in the total adult biomass is lower (52%), driven by a few abundant populations. The trajectories of individual populations depend on the interaction between life histories, ecology, and fishing pressure. The steepest declines are exhibited by two distinct groups: the largest, longest lived, highest value temperate tunas and the smaller, short-lived mackerels, both with most of their populations being overexploited. The remaining populations, mostly tropical tunas, have been fished down to approximately maximum sustainable yield levels, preventing further expansion of catches in these fisheries. Fishing mortality has increased steadily to the point where around 12.5% of the tunas and their relatives are caught each year globally. Overcapacity of these fisheries is jeopardizing their long-term sustainability. To guarantee higher catches, stabilize profits, and reduce collateral impacts on marine ecosystems requires the rebuilding of overexploited populations and stricter management measures to reduce overcapacity and regulate threatening trade. PMID:22143785

  17. Occurrence of toxic metals (Hg, Cd and Pb) in fresh and canned tuna: public health implications.

    PubMed

    Storelli, Maria M; Barone, Grazia; Cuttone, Giuseppe; Giungato, Daniele; Garofalo, Rita

    2010-11-01

    Hg, Pb and Cd levels in fresh and canned tuna were determined and assessed by comparing element levels in these samples with maximum permissible limits set by European legislation. The estimated weekly intakes by human consuming both fresh and canned tuna were also evaluated for possible consumer health risks. Among tested metals, Hg had the highest concentrations, followed by Pb and Cd either in fresh tuna or canned tuna. None of the tested samples surpassed the European regulatory limits fixed for Cd and Pb, whereas 8.9% of the tuna cans and 20% of fresh tuna samples exceeded standard for Hg. The size of tuna was a determining factor of Hg burden. A high intake of Hg surpassing the toxicological reference value established by WHO, was associated with consumption of larger size tuna specimens. Also canned tuna consumption with Hg concentrations higher than 1 μg kg(-1), strongly increased the consumer exposure. In contrast, Cd and Pb weekly intakes through consumption either of fresh tuna or canned tuna did not exceed the toxicological reference values established by WHO, and consequently there was no human health risk. A continuous surveillance system of Hg content in these fishery products is crucial for consumer protection.

  18. Baseline concentration of Polonium-210 ((210)Po) in tuna fish.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Feroz; Wesley, S Godwin

    2016-06-15

    Several species of tuna fish were analyzed for (210)Po content in their edible muscle tissues. This study was carried out as a part of baseline data generation around a large nuclear power plant situated at Kudankulam, southeast coast of India. The concentration of (210)Po in the muscle tissue ranged from 40.9±5.2 to 92.5±7.9Bq/kg of fresh fish, and the highest activity was recorded for the tuna Euthynnus affinis and the lowest for Auxis thazard. The committed effective dose to the local residents was calculated to be 62.7-141.8μSvyear(-1).

  19. Anthropogenic and naturally-produced organobrominated compounds in bluefin tuna from the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Pena-Abaurrea, Miren; Weijs, Liesbeth; Ramos, Lourdes; Borghesi, Nicoletta; Corsolini, Simonetta; Neels, Hugo; Blust, Ronny; Covaci, Adrian

    2009-09-01

    Anthropogenic compounds, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), together with naturally-produced organobromines, such as methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs), polybrominated hexahydroxanthene derivatives (PBHDs), 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (TBA) and a mixed halogenated monoterpene (MHC-1), were measured in muscle from 26 farmed and wild bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) caught in the Mediterranean Sea. This species is ecological attractive because of the changes of geographic habitat throughout its long lifespan which affect its feeding. PBDE concentrations were similar between tuna samples of different groups (17-149 ng g(-1) lipid weight - lw in farmed tuna, 25-219 ng g(-1)lw in longline fished tuna and 26-126 ng g(-1)lw in net-fished tuna). However, higher concentrations of naturally-produced MeO-PBDEs and PBHDs were observed in the two types of wild tuna (longline fished and net-fished) compared to farmed tuna suggesting that wild tunas come easily in contact with sources of these compounds. In all cases PBHDs presented the highest contribution to the sum of organobromines (50% in farmed tuna and >90% in wild tuna). TBA was detected at low concentrations (<6 ng g(-1)lw), while MHC-1 was found at higher concentrations (up to 42 ng g(-1)lw) in farmed tuna. The estimated daily ingestion of PBDEs from tuna was 830 ng PBDEs day(-1), regardless of the origin of the tuna. While this value is approximately 600 times lower than the minimum risk level set by the US Department of Health and Human Services, it is approximately eight times higher than the total intake of PBDEs via diet, suggesting that consumption of tuna can add considerably to the total daily intake of PBDEs.

  20. [Characteristics of the ecology of the eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in the Republic of Cuba].

    PubMed

    Berezin, V V

    1977-01-01

    Virologic and serological surveys of wild vertebrates carried out in various provinces of Cuba demonstrated definitely that birds were the main hosts of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus in this territory. Fifteen strains of this virus were isolated from 8 species of birds belonging to 5 orders. Isolation of EEE virus from the blood of the endemic genus of iguanas indicates a certain role of cold-blooded animals in the ecology of this agent. Active EEE virus foci have been found in 4 provinces of the Republic of Cuba: Pinar del Rio, Havana, Matanzas and Las Villas. Isolation of a number of EEE virus strains from sick horses during an epizootic in the latter province confirmed the importance role of this agent in the infectious pathology of domestic animals in Cuba. The experimental results suggest that in Cuba there occur at least two types of foci of this infection: forest and water-littoral (fresh-water swamps and lakes, and sea coast with mangrove forests).

  1. Joint Ventures in Cuba: Opportunities for Direct Foreign Investment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tancer, Robert S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a brief history of direct foreign investment in Cuba since 1982. This investment currently plays an important role in Cuba as a replacement to Soviet aid and as a means to earn foreign exchange. Tourism and mining are the preferred area for foreign investment because both of these sectors offer hard currency returns for Cuba. (20…

  2. 31 CFR 515.563 - Journalistic activities in Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Journalistic activities in Cuba. 515..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.563 Journalistic activities in Cuba. (a) General license... directly incident to journalistic activities in Cuba by persons regularly employed as journalists by a...

  3. Waterfowl in Cuba: Current status and distribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanco Rodríquez, Pedro; Vilella, Francisco; Sánchez Oria, Bárbara

    2014-01-01

    Cuba and its satellite islands represent the largest landmass in the Caribbean archipelago and a major repository of the region’s biodiversity. Approximately 13.4% of the Cuban territory is covered by wetlands, encompassing approximately 1.48 million ha which includes mangroves, flooded savannas, peatlands, freshwater swamp forests and various types of managed wetlands. Here, we synthesise information on the distribution and abundance of waterfowl on the main island of Cuba, excluding the numerous surrounding cays and the Isla de la Juventud (Isle of Youth), and report on band recoveries from wintering waterfowl harvested in Cuba by species and location. Twenty-nine species of waterfowl occur in Cuba, 24 of which are North American migrants. Of the five resident Anatid species, three are of conservation concern: the West Indian Whistling-duck Dendrocygna arborea (globally vulnerable), White-cheeked Pintail Anas bahamensis (regional concern) and Masked Duck Nomonyx dominicus(regional concern). The most abundant species of waterfowl wintering in Cuba include Blue-winged Teal A. discors, Northern Pintail A. acuta, and Northern Shoveler A. clypeata. Waterfowl banded in Canada and the United States and recovered in Cuba included predominantly Blue-winged Teal, American Wigeon and Northern Pintail. Banding sites of recovered birds suggest that most of the waterfowl moving through and wintering in Cuba are from the Atlantic and Mississippi flyways. Threats to wetlands and waterfowl in Cuba include: 1) egg poaching of resident species, 2) illegal hunting of migratory and protected resident species, 3) mangrove deforestation, 4) reservoirs for irrigation, 5) periods of pronounced droughts, and 6) hurricanes. Wetland and waterfowl conservation efforts continue across Cuba’s extensive system of protected areas. Expanding collaborations with international conservation organisations, researchers and governments in North America will enhance protection

  4. Science and Technology Diplomacy with Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colon, Frances

    President Obama's announcement of U. S. policy change toward Cuba and increased freedom of interaction with the Cuban people opens unprecedented and long-awaited opportunities for the scientific and engineering communities in the U. S. and in Cuba to establish and expand collaborative efforts that will greatly advance U.S. and Cuba science and technology agendas. New rules for export of donated-only items for scientific use will bring researchers closer to the level of their professional peers around the world. Increasing Cubans' access to information will result in greater interactions between scientific communities and enable the sharing of ideas and discoveries that can fuel entrepreneurship on the island. The scientific community has expressed an extraordinary level of interest in the wide range of scientific opportunities that the new policy presents, in collaborating with their Cuban counterparts, and in supporting the development of scientific capacity in Cuba. In response to numerous expressions of interest and inquiries from the scientific community, the Office of the Science and Technology Adviser to the Secretary of State (STAS) has engaged in public outreach to inform the U.S. science and technology community of the implications of the new policy for collaborative research, emerging scientific opportunities, and the standing limitations for engagement with the people of Cuba.

  5. El Nino Southern Oscillation and Tuna in the Western Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehodey, P.; Bertignac, M.; Hampton, J.; Lewis, A.; Picaut, J.

    1997-01-01

    Nearly 70% of the world's annual tuna harvest, currently 3.2 million tonnes, comes from the Pacific Ocean. Skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) dominate the catch. Although skipjack are distributed in the surface mixed layer throughout the equatorial and subtropical Pacific, catches are highest in the western equatorial Pacific warm pool, a region characterized by low primary productivity rates that has the warmest surface waters of the world's oceans. Assessments of tuna stocks indicate that recent western Pacific skipjack catches approaching one million tonnes annually are sustainable. The warm pool, which is fundamental to the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Earth's climate in general, must therefore also provide a habitat capable of supporting this highly productive tuna population. Here we show that apparent spatial shifts in the skipjack population are linked to large zonal displacements of the warm pool that occur during ENSO events. This relationship can be used to predict (several months in advance) the region of highest skipjack abundance, within a fishing ground extending over 6,000 km along the Equator.

  6. Radiation hydrolysate of tuna cooking juice with enhanced antioxidant properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jong-il; Sung, Nak-Yun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    Tuna protein hydrolysates are of increasing interest because of their potential application as a source of bioactive peptides. Large amounts of tuna cooking juice with proteins and extracts are produced during the process of tuna canning, and these cooking juice wastes cause environmental problems. Therefore, in this study, cooking juice proteins were hydrolyzed by irradiation for their utilization as functional additives. The degree of hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein increased from 0% to 15.1% at the absorbed doses of 50 kGy. To investigate the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate, it was performed the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and the lipid peroxidation inhibitory and superoxide radical scavenging activities were measured. The FRAP values increased from 1470 μM to 1930 μM and IC50 on superoxide anion was decreased from 3.91 μg/mL to 1.29 μg/mL at 50 kGy. All of the antioxidant activities were increased in the hydrolysate, suggesting that radiation hydrolysis, which is a simple process that does not require an additive catalysts or an inactivation step, is a promising method for food and environmental industries.

  7. Astronomy TV outreach, CUBA experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Oscar

    2015-08-01

    As professional astronomer and science communicator, I want to share my personal experience communicating Astronomy and general science principles in maybe, the most popular science outreach devoted TV program in Cuba. It is broadcasted nationwide in a prime time schedule every Sunday. The Science Popularization on TV, is in a Third World Country hard to do if you want to produce attractive materials for a broad audience. Budgets constraints in most of the cases and lack of the technical equipment required to produce first class visual materials conspire, against motivation and creativity of local scientists and media professionals. A way to show the advance of the national scientific community in Science fields and connecting them in a friendly relation with a broad majority of the people, is to combine the wisdom and knowledge of the local scientists together with the most spectacular TV production of the first world countries. Commenting, analyzing and conveying the hard science into the public debate of the common citizens. Here is shown a way to convey cutting edge science to the general public, using limited resources to produce imaginative television productions, highlighting the development, knowledge and wisdom of the local scientists.

  8. HBV Genotypic Variability in Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Loureiro, Carmen L.; Aguilar, Julio C.; Aguiar, Jorge; Muzio, Verena; Pentón, Eduardo; Garcia, Daymir; Guillen, Gerardo; Pujol, Flor H.

    2015-01-01

    The genetic diversity of HBV in human population is often a reflection of its genetic admixture. The aim of this study was to explore the genotypic diversity of HBV in Cuba. The S genomic region of Cuban HBV isolates was sequenced and for selected isolates the complete genome or precore-core sequence was analyzed. The most frequent genotype was A (167/250, 67%), mainly A2 (149, 60%) but also A1 and one A4. A total of 77 isolates were classified as genotype D (31%), with co-circulation of several subgenotypes (56 D4, 2 D1, 5 D2, 7 D3/6 and 7 D7). Three isolates belonged to genotype E, two to H and one to B3. Complete genome sequence analysis of selected isolates confirmed the phylogenetic analysis performed with the S region. Mutations or polymorphisms in precore region were more common among genotype D compared to genotype A isolates. The HBV genotypic distribution in this Caribbean island correlates with the Y lineage genetic background of the population, where a European and African origin prevails. HBV genotypes E, B3 and H isolates might represent more recent introductions. PMID:25742179

  9. The prevention of health risks in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Guttmacher, S

    1987-01-01

    Cuba still has a double burden of health risks. It must contend with some risks to health that persist in underdeveloped rural areas, and it must also deal with the risk factors associated with modern, urban living conditions. The economic and social changes fostered in the postrevolutionary period have reduced the relative importance of the first set of factors, but the changes have also introduced or intensified a myriad of factors derived from their own successes. In this article, the risk factors of greatest concern in contemporary Cuba are described, and the strategies adopted to combat these risk factors, together with the ways in which such strategies are shaped by Cuba's social and economic development are discussed.

  10. A Perspective on Physics in Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy, Carlos R.

    The author is Cuban by birth: the son of an Afro-Cuban mother and an Afro-American father. He spent the first 8 years of his life attending schools in Havana and New York City. He left Cuba in 1958 so as to gain a more uninterrupted educational experience. This led to his PhD in theoretical physics from Columbia University in 1978, followed by a post-doctoral appointment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico. He returned to Cuba in 1980 as a member of an academic tour organized by the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque. This provided an introduction to various government-run scientific facilities in Havana and the easternmost city of "Santiago de Cuba" in the province of Oriente.

  11. Reconnaissance paleomagnetic results from western Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazhenov, Mikhail L.; Pszczolkowski, Andrzej; Shipunov, Stanislav V.

    1996-03-01

    A paleomagnetic study of Mesozoic rocks from the Sierra de Los Organos and Sierra del Rosario fold belts of western Cuba revealed postfolding magnetisation in diabases of the Late Jurassic El Sábalo Formation and carbonates of the middle Cretaceous Pons and the Late Cretaceous Carmita and Moreno formations. Steep components with inclinations of about 70° were isolated from all three formations; at the same time, postfolding shallow components were also found in a few samples of the Pons limestones. We rule out a possibility to account for these results by either horizontal movements or non-dipole field anomaly. Neither very appealing is a hypothesis of a post-remagnetization tilt of the entire region. All the components appear to be confined to a plane perpendicular to the main structural trends; we hypothesize that the remanences might have been distorted or re-aligned during deformation; this assumption, however, is far from being proven. In contrast, well-defined characteristic components were isolated from basalts of the Aptian-Albian Encrucijada ( {D}/{I} = {247°}/{23°}, K = 14, a95 = 9.0°) and the Late Cretaceous Orozco ( {D}/{I} = {228°}/{22°}, K = 110, a95 = 4.7) formations from the Bahia Honda zone in the north of western Cuba; the remanence in the Encrucijada Formation is shown to predate deformation. Mean inclinations in both formations match those in Cretaceous volcanics from central Cuba, and all the results show lower latitudes than expected from the reference data for the North American plate thus implying that volcanic domains of Cuba were displaced northward by about 1000 km prior to the Middle Eocene. Cretaceous declinations in western and central Cuba differ by about the same amount as the major structural trends of these two areas suggesting oroclinal bending of Cuba. At the same time, both areas are rotated counterclockwise with respect to North America thus implying movements on a broader scale.

  12. Temperature sensitivity of cardiac function in pelagic fishes with different vertical mobilities: yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus), mahimahi (Coryphaena hippurus), and swordfish (Xiphias gladius).

    PubMed

    Galli, Gina L J; Shiels, Holly A; Brill, Richard W

    2009-01-01

    We measured the temperature sensitivity, adrenergic sensitivity, and dependence on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) of ventricular muscle from pelagic fishes with different vertical mobility patterns: bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus), yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), and mahimahi (Coryphaena hippurus) and a single specimen from swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Ventricular muscle from the bigeye tuna and mahimahi exhibited a biphasic response to an acute decrease in temperature (from 26 degrees to 7 degrees C); twitch force and kinetic parameters initially increased and then declined. The magnitude of this response was larger in the bigeye tuna than in the mahimahi. Under steady state conditions at 26 degrees C, inhibition of SR Ca(2+) release and reuptake with ryanodine and thapsigargin decreased twitch force and kinetic parameters, respectively, in the bigeye tuna only. However, the initial inotropy associated with decreasing temperature was abolished by SR inhibition in both the bigeye tuna and the mahimahi. Application of adrenaline completely reversed the effects of ryanodine and thapsigargin, but this effect was diminished at cold temperatures. In the yellowfin tuna, temperature and SR inhibition had minor effects on twitch force and kinetics, while adrenaline significantly increased these parameters. Limited data suggest that swordfish ventricular muscle responds to acute temperature reduction, SR inhibition, and adrenergic stimulation in a manner similar to that of bigeye tuna ventricular muscle. In aggregate, our results show that the temperature sensitivity, SR dependence, and adrenergic sensitivity of pelagic fish hearts are species specific and that these differences reflect species-specific vertical mobility patterns.

  13. Effect of different types of heat processing on chemical changes in tuna.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Nimish Mol; Jeya Shakila, R; Jeyasekaran, G; Sukumar, D

    2010-03-01

    The chemical changes in skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) subjected to cooking, frying, canning and microwave heating were studied. Raw tuna contained an unusual fatty acid C16:3 in high proportion (29.3%) followed by C18:2, C24:1, C16:0 and C18:3. Health beneficial fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (1.67%) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (2.50%), were quite low with ω-3/ω-6 ratio 0.28. The total saturated fatty acids suffered major loss in fried (70%) and canned tuna (40%) due to loss of C16:0, C14:0 and C22:0. The monounsaturated fatty acids content increased (38%) in cooked and microwave heated tuna due to C24:1. The polyunsaturated fatty acids content increased in fried (50%) and canned (25%) tuna due to the uptake of frying and filling oil, respectively during processing. The loss of health beneficial ω-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA were minimum in cooked tuna followed by microwave heated tuna. Canning totally destroyed these fatty acids. In fried tuna, the losses of EPA and DHA were 70 and 85%, respectively. Thiobarbituric acid - reactive substances values increased in heat processed tuna. Cholesterol increased in canned and microwave heated tuna but not in cooked tuna. Reduction of cholesterol in fried tuna was due to its migration into frying oil. This study indicated that cooking and microwave heating are the better processing methods to retain the health beneficial ω-3 fatty acids in comparison to frying and canning.

  14. Geology of the manganese deposits of Cuba

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simons, Frank S.; Straczek, John A.

    1958-01-01

    Deposits of manganese ore have been found in five of the six provinces of Cuba and have been reported from the sixth.  Only Oriente and Pinar del Rio provinces have more than a few known deposits and only the deposits of Oriente have yielded any appreciable amount of ore.

  15. Cuba Adrift in a Postcommunist World

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    1989 when Castro changed Cuba’s traditional revolutionary slogan from "Patria o Muerte ." (Fatherland or Death!) to "Socialismo o Muerte !" (Socialism...8217 prestigious government-affiliated publishing house, Fondo de Cultura Economics (FCE), has just been allowed to open an office in Havana. pretigou goermen

  16. Castro’s Cuba: Quo Vadis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    librarians, and signature collectors for the Varela Project--a citizens’ initiative to hold a national referendum on civil liberties- -were sentenced to an...Jose Abrantes, Carlos Aldana, and Roberto Robaina. In Ratliff’s pointed words, “it is fatal to be popular in Cuba unless you are already dead, like

  17. 15 CFR 746.2 - Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and reexports (TMP) by the news media (see § 740.9(a)(2)(viii) of the EAR). (ii) Operation technology...) Sales technology (TSU) (see § 740.13(b) of the EAR). (iv) Software updates (TSU) for legally exported... food to individuals or non-governmental organizations in Cuba and does not qualify as a...

  18. The Transformation of Political Culture in Cuba.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagen, Richard R.

    Cuba has experienced drastic social, economic, and political change since 1959. This book examines and analyses three important programs of Castro's regime which incorporate some of the distinctive features of the entire Cuban experience political socialization and cultural change; the literacy campaign of 1961, which was perhaps the most…

  19. Cuba shows jump in HIV positives.

    PubMed

    Cuba experienced a substantial increase in the number of HIV cases in 1996 due primarily to a growth of foreign tourism and an increase in prostitution, health officials said. The Juventud Rebelde newspaper said that since HIV/AIDS testing began in 1985, government-run hospitals and clinics have detected 1609 HIV-positive cases. In 1995 the total was reported at 1196, meaning that 413 new cases were detected in 1996. This compared with only 97 new cases reported during 1995. HIV infection among the island's 11 million inhabitants has remained relatively low due to a massive testing program and a public health infrastructure that provides universal and free medical treatment. Cuba was a pioneer in the use of interferon on those testing HIV-positive. Cuba produces its own interferon, which prolongs the life expectancy of patients, and also reagents for AIDS testing. There are special sanitariums for AIDS patients in most of Cuba's 12 provinces. Cuban adults who test HIV-positive are required to enter the sanitarium in a policy reminiscent of the way tuberculosis patients were tested in the US earlier in this century. Officials said the isolation of patients in sanitariums has been somewhat relaxed over past years by introducing greater flexibility in allowing persons who are considered reliable to live at home or make prolonged visits.

  20. Teaching American Diplomacy Using Primary Sources: Cuba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Michael; Anderson, David J.; Starbird, Caroline; Ertenberg, Samantha

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to allow high school students to examine the relationship between Cuba and the United States by studying a rich collection of primary materials and classroom-ready lessons which incorporate those materials. This book contains materials from 27 primary sources, including texts of speeches before the House and Senate,…

  1. Responses of the red blood cells from two high-energy-demand teleosts, yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) and skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis), to catecholamines.

    PubMed

    Lowe, T E; Brill, R W; Cousins, K L

    1998-08-01

    In fishes, catecholamines increase red blood cell intracellular pH through stimulation of a sodium/proton (Na+/H+) antiporter. This response can counteract potential reductions in blood O2 carrying capacity (due to Bohr and Root effects) when plasma pH and intracellular pH decrease during hypoxia, hypercapnia, or following exhaustive exercise. Tuna physiology and behavior dictate exceptionally high rates of O2 delivery to the tissues often under adverse conditions, but especially during recovery from exhaustive exercise when plasma pH may be reduced by as much as 0.4 pH units. We hypothesize that blood O2 transport during periods of metabolic acidosis could be especially critical in tunas and the response of rbc to catecholamines elevated to an extreme. We therefore investigated the in vitro response of red blood cells from yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) and skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) to catecholamines. Tuna red blood cells had a typical response to catecholamines, indicated by a rapid decrease in plasma pH. Amiloride reduced the response, whereas 4,4'diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid enhanced both the decrease in plasma pH and the increase in intracellular pH. Changes in plasma [Na+], [Cl-], and [K+] were consistent with the hypothesis that tuna red blood cells have a Na+/H+ antiporter similar to that described for other teleost red blood cells. Red blood cells from both tuna species were more responsive to noradrenaline than adrenaline. At identical catecholamine concentrations, the decrease in plasma pH was greater in skipjack tuna blood, the more active of the two tuna species. Based on changes in plasma pH, the response of red blood cells to catecholamines from both tuna species was less than that of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) red blood cells, but greater than that of cod (Gadus morhua) red blood cells. Noradrenaline had no measurable influence on the O2 affinity of skipjack tuna blood and only slightly increased the O2

  2. 76 FR 67790 - Advisory Committee to the U.S. Section of the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... Advisory Committee to the U.S. Section of the IATTC was established pursuant to Section 4 of the Tuna... major U.S. tuna harvesting, processing, and marketing sectors, as well as recreational fishing...

  3. Potential impact of climate change on the Intra-Americas Sea: Part 2. Implications for Atlantic bluefin tuna and skipjack tuna adult and larval habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhling, Barbara A.; Liu, Yanyun; Lee, Sang-Ki; Lamkin, John T.; Roffer, Mitchell A.; Muller-Karger, Frank; Walter, John F., III

    2015-08-01

    Increasing water temperatures due to climate change will likely have significant impacts on distributions and life histories of Atlantic tunas. In this study, we combined predictive habitat models with a downscaled climate model to examine potential impacts on adults and larvae of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) and skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) in the Intra-Americas Sea (IAS). An additional downscaled model covering the 20th century was used to compare habitat fluctuations from natural variability to predicted future changes under two climate change scenarios: Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 (medium-low) and RCP 8.5 (high). Results showed marked temperature-induced habitat losses for both adult and larval bluefin tuna on their northern Gulf of Mexico spawning grounds. In contrast, habitat suitability for skipjack tuna increased as temperatures warmed. Model error was highest for the two skipjack tuna models, particularly at higher temperatures. This work suggests that influences of climate change on highly migratory Atlantic tuna species are likely to be substantial, but strongly species-specific. While impacts on fish populations remain uncertain, these changes in habitat suitability will likely alter the spatial and temporal availability of species to fishing fleets, and challenge equilibrium assumptions of environmental stability, upon which fisheries management benchmarks are based.

  4. Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the North Cuba Basin, Cuba

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Petroleum generation in the North Cuba Basin is primarily the result of thrust loading of Jurassic and Cretaceous source rocks during formation of the North Cuba fold and thrust belt in the Late Cretaceous to Paleogene. The fold and thrust belt formed as Cuban arc-forearc rocks along the leading edge of the Caribbean plate translated northward during the opening of the Yucatan Basin and collided with the passive margin of southern North America in the Paleogene. Petroleum fluids generated during thrust loading migrated vertically into complex structures in the fold and thrust belt, into structures in the foreland basin, and possibly into carbonate reservoirs along the margins of the Yucatan and Bahama carbonate platforms. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) defined a Jurassic-Cretaceous Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) and three assessment units (AU)-North Cuba Fold and Thrust Belt AU, North Cuba Foreland Basin AU, and the North Cuba Platform Margin Carbonate AU-within this TPS based mainly on structure and reservoir type (fig. 1). There is considerable geologic uncertainty as to the extent of petroleum migration that might have occurred within this TPS to form potential petroleum accumulations. Taking this geologic uncertainty into account, especially in the offshore area, the mean volumes of undiscovered resources in the composite TPS of the North Cuba Basin are estimated at (1) 4.6 billion barrels of oil (BBO), with means ranging from an F95 probability of 1 BBO to an F5 probability of 9 BBO; and (2) 8.6 trillion cubic feet of of gas (TCFG), of which 8.6 TCFG is associated with oil fields, and about 1.2 TCFG is in nonassociated gas fields in the North Cuba Foreland Basin AU.

  5. A Full Lifecycle Bioenergetic Model for Bluefin Tuna

    PubMed Central

    Jusup, Marko; Klanjscek, Tin; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Kooijman, S. A. L. M.

    2011-01-01

    We formulated a full lifecycle bioenergetic model for bluefin tuna relying on the principles of Dynamic Energy Budget theory. Traditional bioenergetic models in fish research deduce energy input and utilization from observed growth and reproduction. In contrast, our model predicts growth and reproduction from food availability and temperature in the environment. We calibrated the model to emulate physiological characteristics of Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis, hereafter PBT), a species which has received considerable scientific attention due to its high economic value. Computer simulations suggest that (i) the main cause of different growth rates between cultivated and wild PBT is the difference in average body temperature of approximately 6.5°C, (ii) a well-fed PBT individual can spawn an average number of 9 batches per spawning season, (iii) food abundance experienced by wild PBT is rather constant and sufficiently high to provide energy for yearly reproductive cycle, (iv) energy in reserve is exceptionally small, causing the weight-length relationship of cultivated and wild PBT to be practically indistinguishable and suggesting that these fish are poorly equipped to deal with starvation, (v) accelerated growth rate of PBT larvae is connected to morphological changes prior to metamorphosis, while (vi) deceleration of growth rate in the early juvenile stage is related to efficiency of internal heat production. Based on these results, we discuss a number of physiological and ecological traits of PBT, including the reasons for high Feed Conversion Ratio recorded in bluefin tuna aquaculture. PMID:21779352

  6. Convergent evolution in mechanical design of lamnid sharks and tunas.

    PubMed

    Donley, Jeanine M; Sepulveda, Chugey A; Konstantinidis, Peter; Gemballa, Sven; Shadwick, Robert E

    2004-05-06

    The evolution of 'thunniform' body shapes in several different groups of vertebrates, including whales, ichthyosaurs and several species of large pelagic fishes supports the view that physical and hydromechanical demands provided important selection pressures to optimize body design for locomotion during vertebrate evolution. Recognition of morphological similarities between lamnid sharks (the most well known being the great white and the mako) and tunas has led to a general expectation that they also have converged in their functional design; however, no quantitative data exist on the mechanical performance of the locomotor system in lamnid sharks. Here we examine the swimming kinematics, in vivo muscle dynamics and functional morphology of the force-transmission system in a lamnid shark, and show that the evolutionary convergence in body shape and mechanical design between the distantly related lamnids and tunas is much more than skin deep; it extends to the depths of the myotendinous architecture and the mechanical basis for propulsive movements. We demonstrate that not only have lamnids and tunas converged to a much greater extent than previously known, but they have also developed morphological and functional adaptations in their locomotor systems that are unlike virtually all other fishes.

  7. Biomagnifications of mercury and methylmercury in tuna and mackerel.

    PubMed

    Hajeb, P; Jinap, S; Ahmad, I

    2010-12-01

    Seawater may be contaminated by harmful substances, including toxic elements released by human activities. The present study evaluates the total mercury and methylmercury concentrations and their correlations to fish body size in longtail tuna and short-bodied mackerel from Chendring, Kuantan, at east coast and Kuala Perlis at west costs of Peninsular Malaysia during May to November 2007. Total mercury and methylmercury in muscle tissue of 69 samples of longtail tuna and short-bodied mackerel, ranged from 0.180 to 1.460 μg/g and 0.0.169-0.973 μg/g and 0.251-1.470 μg/g and 0.202-1.352, whereas the methylmercury to total mercury ratio ranged from 70% to 83%, respectively. Samples of both species from the east coast showed higher levels of mercury compared to those from west coast. In all of the locations, significant positive correlations were found between fish body weight and mercury content (R(2) > 0.470). The estimated weekly intake of total mercury and methylmercury from the consumption 66.33 g/week of short-bodied mackerel and 18.34 g/week of longtail tuna (based on local dietry survey) was found to be lower than the maximum limit of 5 and 1.5 μg/kg bodyweight established by FAO/WHO and codex, respectively.

  8. Skipjack tuna as a bioindicator of contamination by perfluorinated compounds in the oceans.

    PubMed

    Hart, Kimberly; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Tao, Lin; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2008-09-15

    Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) have emerged as global environmental contaminants. Studies have reported the widespread occurrence of PFCs in biota from marine coastal waters and in remote polar regions. However, few studies have reported the distribution of PFCs in biota from offshore waters and open oceans. In this study, concentrations of nine PFCs were determined in the livers of 60 skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from offshore waters and the open ocean along the Pacific Rim, including the Sea of Japan, the East China Sea, the Indian Ocean, and the Western North Pacific Ocean, during 1997-1999. At least one of the nine PFCs was found in every tuna sample analyzed. Overall, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) were the predominant compounds found in livers of tuna at concentrations of <1-58.9 and <1-31.6 ng/g, wet wt, respectively. Long-chain perfluorocarboxylates such as perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) were common in the tuna livers. In livers of tuna from several offshore and open-ocean locations, concentrations of PFUnDA were greater than the concentrations of PFOS. The profiles and concentrations of PFCs in tuna livers suggest that the sources in East Asia are dominated by long-chain perfluorocarboxylates, especially PFUnDA. High concentrations of PFUnDA in tuna may indicate a shift in sources of PFCs in East Asia. The spatial distribution of PFOS in skipjack tuna reflected the concentrations previously reported in seawater samples from the Pacific and Indian Oceans, suggesting that tuna are good bioindicators of pollution by PFOS. Despite its predominance in ocean waters, PFOA was rarely found in tuna livers, indicative of the low bioaccumulation potential of this compound. Our study establishes baseline concentrations of PFCs in skipjack tuna from the oceans of the Asia-Pacific region, enabling future temporal trend studies of PFCs in oceans.

  9. Primary care in Cuba: a public health approach.

    PubMed

    Swanson, K A; Swanson, J M; Gill, A E; Walter, C

    1995-01-01

    Cuba's primary health care model is presented. Unlike ambulatory care services, which are but one component of primary care, Cuba's model is a comprehensive public health approach that meets the World Health Organization's definition of primary care. The history of the development of Cuba's model is presented, including an update on the innovative neighborhood/home clinics. Achievements in health outcomes as a result of Cuba's model and the consequences for women's health care are discussed. Examples are presented of the effects on health care delivery of the economic hardship that Cuba has experienced since 1991 as a result of the loss of 85% of its trade with the former Soviet Union and the intensified U.S. embargo. A critique of Cuba's model concludes the article.

  10. 50 CFR 216.92 - Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna harvested in the ETP by large purse seine vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna... MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.92 Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna harvested in the ETP by large purse seine vessels. (a)...

  11. 50 CFR 216.92 - Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna harvested in the ETP by large purse seine vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna... MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.92 Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna harvested in the ETP by large purse seine vessels. (a)...

  12. 50 CFR 216.92 - Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna harvested in the ETP by large purse seine vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna... MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.92 Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna harvested in the ETP by large purse seine vessels. (a)...

  13. 50 CFR 216.92 - Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna harvested in the ETP by large purse seine vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna... MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.92 Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna harvested in the ETP by large purse seine vessels. (a)...

  14. 50 CFR 216.92 - Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna harvested in the ETP by large purse seine vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna... MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.92 Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna harvested in the ETP by large purse seine vessels. (a)...

  15. 75 FR 22418 - The Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2010 Tuna Classifiable Under Subheading 1604.14.22...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... Year 2010 Tuna Classifiable Under Subheading 1604.14.22, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United... the tariff-rate quota for tuna described in subheading 1604.14.22, HTSUS, is based on the apparent... 1604.14.22, HTSUS. Any such tuna which is entered or withdrawn from warehouse for consumption...

  16. Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Legislative Initiatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-01

    Travel to Cuba?” Washington Post, July 14, 2003. 4 Laurie Goering, “Cuba Readies for Fall of U.S. ban on Visits; Relaxed Embargo Would Jolt Tourism ... Tourism ,” Chicago Tribune, August 14, p. 4. changing travel policy toward Cuba argue that their proposals would still allow the President to prohibit such...Restrictions on Travel and Legislative Initiatives Updated August 1, 2003 Mark P. Sullivan Specialist in Latin American Affairs Foreign Affairs, Defense, and

  17. Policy Objective and Options under a Leverage Strategy Toward Cuba.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    Cuba and the United States , the reassessment of the U.S.-Cuban fishing treaty of 1977, and the resumption of a major anti- Castro ...example, what would It "cost" the United States for Castro to detach Cuba militarily from the USSR, and to cease its revolutionary activities In the...resolving Cuban related problems. Accordingly, Cuba -derived leverage might best be used by the United States to secure Soviet cooperation in minimizing

  18. U.S. Embargo Against Cuba: Should it Be Continued

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-23

    relations , but I believe it to be necessary if the United States wants to have an influence on any future regime change in Cuba . Although Castro ... States severed its diplomatic relations with Cuba . This was in response to Castro’s insistence that the United States cut its embassy staff in Havana down...and tightening phases in its over 30 year history. During the early 1970’s, relations between the United States and Cuba

  19. 77 FR 31546 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 635 RIN 0648-XC035 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... area fishery for large medium and giant Atlantic bluefin tuna (BFT) for the remainder of 2012....

  20. 77 FR 73969 - International Fisheries; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; Fishing Restrictions in the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... member of the IATTC and to reduce overfishing of the stock. DATES: Comments must be submitted in writing... are an important step for reducing the overfishing of bluefin tuna. In 2011, NMFS determined overfishing is occurring on Pacific bluefin tuna based on stock assessment results of the...

  1. Mitochondrial genome of the blackfin tuna Thunnus atlanticus Lesson, 1831 (Perciformes, Scrombidae).

    PubMed

    Márquez, Edna J; Isaza, Juan P; Alzate, Juan F

    2016-05-01

    Blackfin tuna, Thunnus atlanticus is a widespread epipelagic oceanic species in the western Atlantic. So far the mitochondrial genome of this species remained unknown, although the mitogenomes of all congeners are known. The mitochondrial genome encodes for 13 proteins, 21 tRNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs and the gene synteny is conserved with other previously reported mitogenomes of tunas.

  2. Separation of gonadotropic fractions with different species specificities from tuna pituitaries

    SciTech Connect

    Ando, H.; Ishii, S.

    1988-05-01

    Eight different gonadotropic glycoprotein fractions were separated from the acetone-dried powder of yellow fin tuna pituitary glands by successive chromatographies on Superose 12 for gel filtration and Mono Q for anion exchange using the Pharmacia fast protein liquid chromatography system. This was preceded by preliminary separations using an ammonium sulfate precipitation method and affinity chromatography on concanavalin A-Sepharose. For biological characterization, we employed two radioreceptor assay systems, one using goby testis plasma membranes and silver carp GTH as the receptor and radioligand, respectively, and the other using testis plasma membranes of the yellow fin tuna and gonadotropin of the same species, respectively. We also employed two testicular cyclic AMP accumulation bioassay methods in vitro, one with the goby testis and the other with the mackerel testis. The least acidic fraction after Mono Q was further separated into four subfractions by rechromatography with Mono Q. They were strongly active in the tuna and mackerel assays but almost inactive in the goby assays. They were referred to as tuna-type tuna gonadotropin. In contrast, the most acidic fraction obtained after the first Mono Q was active in the goby assays but almost inactive in the tuna and mackerel assays. It was referred to as goby-type tuna gonadotropin. The intermediate fractions were active on both assays and are considered to be mixtures of tuna-type and goby-type gonadotropins. The reason for the presence of gonadotropin inactive to homologous species is discussed from the evolutionary viewpoint.

  3. Cuba After Castro: Implications of Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-18

    125,000 refugees (many from prisons and asylums)15 fled to the U.S. through the port of Mariel , Cuba. Again, in 1994, Castro declared an open migration...event of Cuban governmental change. A change in Cuban leadership could mean a change in the type of government that the Cuban people embrace. Cuba’s...continue further deterioration, we could possibly see large-scale crime, drug cartels, and boatlifts that would make Mariel appear miniscule. A

  4. Cuba: Issues for the 111th Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-25

    the human rights problems cited in the State Department report were “beatings and abuse of prisoners and detainees, harsh and life -threatening...Congressional Research Service Summary Cuba remains a hard-line communist state with a poor record on human rights . The country’s political succession from...and support for human rights activists. In light of Fidel Castro’s departure as head of government, many observers have called for a re-examination of

  5. Economy, politics, and health status in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Rojas Ochoa, F; López Pardo, C M

    1997-01-01

    An economic contraction occurred in Cuba at the beginning of the 1990s, of a magnitude greater than in any developed country in the last half century. This resulted primarily from the disappearance of the European socialist bloc and simultaneous tightening of the U.S. government's blockade at a time when Cuba was engaged in correcting its main economic problems. The economic crisis affected a number of areas of Cuban society. The state adopted a series of measures to cope with the socioeconomic situation, which have yielded positive results in the social and economic fields, as well as some undesirable results. In the health sector, the economic crisis has mainly reduced the availability of resources and has adversely affected some health determinants and some aspects of the population's health status. Despite the prevailing economic difficulties, the government is determined to preserve the country's achievements in health, and to develop them still further. The solution is not privatization or the introduction of health insurance systems or similar measures. Rather, Cuba will seek greater rationality and economic efficiency in the health sector. It has ratified the principles that the state should continue to finance the health system and maintain universal coverage and accessibility through free services.

  6. Toxocariasis in Cuba: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Sariego, Idalia; Kanobana, Kirezi; Rojas, Lázara; Speybroeck, Niko; Polman, Katja; Núñez, Fidel A.

    2012-01-01

    Human toxocariasis (HT) is a zoonotic disease caused by infection with the larval stage of Toxocara canis, the intestinal roundworm of dogs. Infection can be associated with a wide clinical spectrum varying from asymptomatic to severe organ injury. While the incidence of symptomatic human toxocariasis appears to be low, infection of the human population is widespread. In Cuba, a clear overview on the status of the disease is lacking. Here, we review the available information on toxocariasis in Cuba as a first step to estimate the importance of the disease in the country. Findings are discussed and put in a broader perspective. Data gaps are identified and suggestions on how to address these are presented. The available country data suggest that Toxocara infection of the definitive dog host and environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs is substantial, but information on HT is less conclusive. The availability of adequate diagnostic tools in the country should be guaranteed. Dedicated studies are needed for a reliable assessment of the impact of toxocariasis in Cuba and the design of prevention or control strategies. PMID:22389726

  7. Toxocariasis in Cuba: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Sariego, Idalia; Kanobana, Kirezi; Rojas, Lázara; Speybroeck, Niko; Polman, Katja; Núñez, Fidel A

    2012-01-01

    Human toxocariasis (HT) is a zoonotic disease caused by infection with the larval stage of Toxocara canis, the intestinal roundworm of dogs. Infection can be associated with a wide clinical spectrum varying from asymptomatic to severe organ injury. While the incidence of symptomatic human toxocariasis appears to be low, infection of the human population is widespread. In Cuba, a clear overview on the status of the disease is lacking. Here, we review the available information on toxocariasis in Cuba as a first step to estimate the importance of the disease in the country. Findings are discussed and put in a broader perspective. Data gaps are identified and suggestions on how to address these are presented. The available country data suggest that Toxocara infection of the definitive dog host and environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs is substantial, but information on HT is less conclusive. The availability of adequate diagnostic tools in the country should be guaranteed. Dedicated studies are needed for a reliable assessment of the impact of toxocariasis in Cuba and the design of prevention or control strategies.

  8. 31 CFR 515.566 - Religious activities in Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... authorized to engage in the travel-related transactions set forth in § 515.560(c) and such additional.... Travel-related transactions pursuant to this authorization must be for the purpose of engaging, while in Cuba, in a full-time program of religious activities. Financial and material donations to Cuba or...

  9. 31 CFR 515.566 - Religious activities in Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... authorized to engage in the travel-related transactions set forth in § 515.560(c) and such additional.... Travel-related transactions pursuant to this authorization must be for the purpose of engaging, while in Cuba, in a full-time program of religious activities. Financial and material donations to Cuba or...

  10. 31 CFR 515.570 - Remittances to Nationals of Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the purchase of airline tickets and payment of exit or third-country visa fees or other travel-related... Cuba, directly or indirectly, for transactions to facilitate non-immigrant travel by an individual in..., see Authorized Providers of Air, Travel and Remittance Forwarding Services to Cuba available from...

  11. Predicting the Distribution of Yellowfin Tuna in Philippine Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, G. J. P.; Leonardo, E. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Philippines is considered as a major tuna producer in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean, both for domestic consumption and on industrial scale. However, with the ever-increasing demand of growing population, it has always been a challenge to achieve sustainable fishing. The creation of satellite-derived potential fishing zone maps is a technology that has been adopted by advanced countries for almost three decades already and has led to reduction in search times by up to 40%. In this study, a Generalized Additive Model (GAM) is developed to predict the distribution of the Yellowfin tuna species in seas surrounding the Philippines based on the Catch-Per-Unit-Effort (CPUE) index. Level 3 gridded chlorophyll-a and sea surface temperature from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Aqua satellite of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are the main input parameters of the model. Chlorophyll-a is linked with the presence of phytoplankton, which indicates primary productivity and suggests potential regions of fish aggregation. Fish also prefers to stay in regions where the temperature is stable, thus the sea surface temperature fronts serve as a guide to locate concentrations of fish school. Historical monthly tuna catch data from Western and Central Pacific Commissions (WCPFC) is used to train the model. The resulting predictions are converted to potential fishing zone maps and are evaluated within and beyond the historical time range of the training data used. Diagnostic tests involving adjusted R2 value, GAM residual plots and root mean square error value are used to assess the accuracy of the model. The generated maps were able to confirm locations of known tuna fishing grounds in Mindanao and other parts of the country, as well us detect their seasonality and interannual variability. To improve the performance of the model, ancillary data such as surface winds reanalysis from National Centers for

  12. Physics in Cuba from the Perspective of Bibliometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Werner; Cardona, Manuel

    We present a bibliometric analysis of the development of the physical sciences in Cuba since the revolution of 1959. We analyze, using available databases (Web of Science, Essential Science Indicators, INSPEC), the development of the output (number of publications of authors based in Cuba) and of their impact (number of citations) from 1959 until now. We discuss the productivity of Cuba in comparison to the Latin American sister republics and the collaborative efforts between Cuba and highly developed countries. The most important areas of scientific activity within the field of physics, the preferred journals and the leading affiliations are identified. The most frequently cited Cuban physics publications are given. Finally, the overall scientific ranking of Cuba among the world nations is investigated.

  13. Behavior of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes in Raw Yellowfin Tuna during Cold Storage

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chengchu; Mou, Jing; Su, Yi-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Behavior of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes in raw yellowfin tuna during refrigeration and frozen storage were studied. Growth of Salmonella was inhibited in tuna during refrigerated storage, while L. monocytogenes was able to multiply significantly during refrigerated storage. Populations of Salmonella in tuna were reduced by 1 to 2 log after 12 days of storage at 5–7 °C, regardless levels of contamination. However, populations of L. monocytogenes Scott A, M0507, and SFL0404 in inoculated tuna (104–105 CFU/g) increased by 3.31, 3.56, and 3.98 log CFU/g, respectively, after 12 days of storage at 5–7 °C. Similar increases of L. monocytogenes cells were observed in tuna meat with a lower inoculation level (102–103 CFU/g). Populations of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes declined gradually in tuna samples over 84 days (12 weeks) of frozen storage at −18 °C with Salmonella Newport 6962 being decreased to undetectable level (<10 CFU/g) from an initial level of 103 log CFU/g after 42 days of frozen storage. These results demonstrate that tuna meat intended for raw consumption must be handled properly from farm to table to reduce the risks of foodborne illness caused by Salmonella and L. monocytogenes. PMID:28231111

  14. Identification of five highly priced tuna species by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shasha; Xu, Kunhua; Wu, Zhigang; Xie, Xiao; Feng, Junli

    2016-09-01

    Tunas are economically important fishery worldwide, and are often used for commercial processed production. For effective fishery management and protection of consumers' rights, it is important to develop a molecular method to identify species in canned tuna products rapidly and reliably. Here, we have developed a duplex quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) for identification of five highly priced tuna species (Thunnus maccoyii, Thunnus obesus, Thunnus albacares, Thunnus alalunga and Katsuwonus pelamis) from processed as well as fresh fish. After amplification and sequencing of seven genetic markers commonly used for species identification, 16S rDNA and control region (CR) of mitochondrial DNA were selected as the reference gene markers for genus Thunnus and tuna species identification, respectively. Subsequently, a 73 bp fragment of 16S rDNA and 85-99 bp fragment of CR were simultaneously amplified from each target species by qPCR. The qPCR efficiency of each reaction was calculated according to the standard curves, and the method was validated by amplification DNA extracted from single or mixed tuna specimen. The developed duplex qPCR system was applied to authenticate species of 14 commercial tuna products successfully, which demonstrated it was really a useful and academic technique to identify highly priced tuna species.

  15. Theological Higher Education in Cuba. Part 4: The Historical Roots and Milestones of the Eastern Cuba Baptist Theological Seminary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esqueda, Octavio J.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the Eastern Cuba Baptist Theological Seminary. The seminary was founded in the city of Santiago de Cuba, on October 10, 1949, by the Eastern Baptist Convention. The seminary exists to provide training for pastors in the Eastern Baptist Convention. The school offers a four-year program leading to a bachelor in…

  16. Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus) Biometrics and Condition

    PubMed Central

    Abid, Noureddine; Addis, Piero; Alot, Enrique; Andrushchenko, Irene; Deguara, Simeon; Di Natale, Antonio; Gatt, Mark; Golet, Walter; Karakulak, Saadet; Kimoto, Ai; Macias, David; Saber, Samar; Santos, Miguel Neves; Zarrad, Rafik

    2015-01-01

    The compiled data for this study represents the first Atlantic and Mediterranean-wide effort to pool all available biometric data for Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) with the collaboration of many countries and scientific groups. Biometric relationships were based on an extensive sampling (over 140,000 fish sampled), covering most of the fishing areas for this species in the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Sensitivity analyses were carried out to evaluate the representativeness of sampling and explore the most adequate procedure to fit the weight-length relationship (WLR). The selected model for the WLRs by stock included standardized data series (common measurement types) weighted by the inverse variability. There was little difference between annual stock-specific round weight-straight fork length relationships, with an overall difference of 6% in weight. The predicted weight by month was estimated as an additional component in the exponent of the weight-length function. The analyses of monthly variations of fish condition by stock, maturity state and geographic area reflect annual cycles of spawning and feeding behavior. We update and improve upon the biometric relationships for bluefin currently used by the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas, by incorporating substantially larger datasets than ever previously compiled, providing complete documentation of sources and employing robust statistical fitting. WLRs and other conversion factors estimated in this study differ from the ones used in previous bluefin stock assessments. PMID:26505476

  17. Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus) Biometrics and Condition.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Marin, Enrique; Ortiz, Mauricio; Ortiz de Urbina, José María; Quelle, Pablo; Walter, John; Abid, Noureddine; Addis, Piero; Alot, Enrique; Andrushchenko, Irene; Deguara, Simeon; Di Natale, Antonio; Gatt, Mark; Golet, Walter; Karakulak, Saadet; Kimoto, Ai; Macias, David; Saber, Samar; Santos, Miguel Neves; Zarrad, Rafik

    2015-01-01

    The compiled data for this study represents the first Atlantic and Mediterranean-wide effort to pool all available biometric data for Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) with the collaboration of many countries and scientific groups. Biometric relationships were based on an extensive sampling (over 140,000 fish sampled), covering most of the fishing areas for this species in the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Sensitivity analyses were carried out to evaluate the representativeness of sampling and explore the most adequate procedure to fit the weight-length relationship (WLR). The selected model for the WLRs by stock included standardized data series (common measurement types) weighted by the inverse variability. There was little difference between annual stock-specific round weight-straight fork length relationships, with an overall difference of 6% in weight. The predicted weight by month was estimated as an additional component in the exponent of the weight-length function. The analyses of monthly variations of fish condition by stock, maturity state and geographic area reflect annual cycles of spawning and feeding behavior. We update and improve upon the biometric relationships for bluefin currently used by the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas, by incorporating substantially larger datasets than ever previously compiled, providing complete documentation of sources and employing robust statistical fitting. WLRs and other conversion factors estimated in this study differ from the ones used in previous bluefin stock assessments.

  18. [Microbiological quality of spices consumed in Cuba].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, M; Alvarez, M; Zayas, M

    1991-01-01

    The microbiological quality of some widely consumed spices in Cuba was evaluated by means of aerobic mesophilic microorganisms count, filamentous fungi, yeasts, coliforms, thermophilic and thermoresistant microorganisms. Salmonella spp was looked for too. Black pepper and cumin resulted the most contaminated spices with values of total count and thermoresistant microorganisms at levels of 10(6) per gram, and coliform values up to 10(5) per gram. Oregano and cinnamon showed satisfactory microbiological quality; the contamination detected in these spices was lower than 10(4) per gram. Salmonella spp and yeasts were not detected.

  19. Nanotechnologies in Cuba: Popularization and Training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Castellanos, Carlos

    In Cuba, as in other countries, activities in the field of nanotechnology emerged from the converging development of research in materials physics and chemistry, microelectronics, supramolecular physics, microbiology and molecular biology. During the 1990s, theoretical and experimental work on semiconductor nanostructures gained in importance. Cuban physicists organized the Red CYTED (Network CYTED) to "study fabrication and characterization of semiconductor nanostructures for micro and optoelectronics" which functioned between 1998 and 2003 with the participation of eight Spanish-American countries. The network organized various courses and scientific meetings, edited a book and supported the scientific collaboration among the participant institutions.

  20. Discrimination of Juvenile Yellowfin (Thunnus albacares) and Bigeye (T. obesus) Tunas using Mitochondrial DNA Control Region and Liver Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Pedrosa-Gerasmio, Ivane R.; Babaran, Ricardo P.; Santos, Mudjekeewis D.

    2012-01-01

    Yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares (Bonnaterre, 1788) and bigeye tuna, Thunnus obesus (Lowe, 1839) are two of the most economically important tuna species in the world. However, identification of their juveniles, especially at sizes less than 40 cm, is very difficult, often leading to misidentification and miscalculation of their catch estimates. Here, we applied the mitochondrial DNA control region D-loop, a recently validated genetic marker used for identifying tuna species (Genus Thunnus), to discriminate juvenile tunas caught by purse seine and ringnet sets around fish aggregating devices (FADs) off the Southern Iloilo Peninsula in Central Philippines. We checked individual identifications using the Neighbor-Joining Method and compared results with morphometric analyses and the liver phenotype. We tested 48 specimens ranging from 13 to 31 cm fork length. Morpho-meristic analyses suggested that 12 specimens (25%) were bigeye tuna and 36 specimens (75%) were yellowfin tuna. In contrast, the genetic and liver analyses both showed that 5 specimens (10%) were bigeye tuna and 43 (90%) yellowfin tuna. This suggests that misidentification can occur even with highly stringent morpho-meristic characters and that the mtDNA control region and liver phenotype are excellent markers to discriminate juveniles of yellowfin and bigeye tunas. PMID:22536417

  1. 76 FR 38620 - International Fisheries; Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Bluefin Tuna Import, Export, Re-Export

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ...; Bluefin Tuna Import, Export, Re-Export AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic... of importation into the United States and conduct of other transactions (such as export and...

  2. 78 FR 72584 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... fisheries, and taking into account the protection of marine ecosystems.'' NMFS' preliminary estimate of... Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National..., 2013. Emily H. Menashes, Acting Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine...

  3. 77 FR 28496 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ..., preserving traditional fisheries, and taking into account the protection of marine ecosystems''. Migration of... Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National..., Acting Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service. BILLING CODE...

  4. 78 FR 20258 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... traditional fisheries, and taking into account the protection of marine ecosystems.'' It is important that... Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service. BILLING CODE 3510-22-P...

  5. 78 FR 50346 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ..., preserving traditional fisheries, and taking into account the protection of marine ecosystems.'' Commercial... Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National..., Acting Deputy Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service. BILLING...

  6. 78 FR 77362 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... taking into account the protection of marine ecosystems.'' For the last two years, the available January... Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service. BILLING CODE 3510-22-P...

  7. 76 FR 76900 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... opportunities, preserving traditional fisheries, and taking into account the protection of marine ecosystems... Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service. BILLING CODE 3510-22-P...

  8. 77 FR 53150 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... fisheries, and taking into account the protection of marine ecosystems.'' Commercial-sized BFT migrated to... Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Fullenkamp, Acting Deputy Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries...

  9. Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Legislative Initiatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-12

    Restrictions on Travel and Legislative Initiatives Updated September 12, 2003 Mark P. Sullivan Specialist in Latin American Affairs Foreign Affairs, Defense...REPORT DATE 12 SEP 2003 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2003 to 00-00-2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Legislative Initiatives Summary Restrictions on travel to Cuba have been a key and

  10. Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Legislative Initiatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-02-24

    on Travel and Legislative Initiatives Updated February 24, 2003 Mark P. Sullivan Specialist in Latin American Affairs Foreign Affairs, Defense, and...REPORT DATE 24 FEB 2003 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2003 to 00-00-2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Legislative Initiatives Summary Restrictions on travel to Cuba have been a key and

  11. Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Legislative Initiatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-22

    on Travel and Legislative Initiatives Updated April 22, 2003 Mark P. Sullivan Specialist in Latin American Affairs Foreign Affairs, Defense, and...REPORT DATE 22 APR 2003 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2003 to 00-00-2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Legislative Initiatives Summary Restrictions on travel to Cuba have been a key and

  12. Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Legislative Initiatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-06

    on Travel and Legislative Initiatives Updated January 6, 2003 Mark P. Sullivan Specialist in Latin American Affairs Foreign Affairs, Defense, and...REPORT DATE 06 JAN 2003 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2003 to 00-00-2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Legislative Initiatives Summary Restrictions on travel to Cuba have been a key and

  13. The Southern Oscillation, Hypoxia, and the Eastern Pacific Tuna Fishery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, D.; Kiefer, D.; Lam, C. H.; Harrison, D. P.; Armstrong, E. M.; Hinton, M.; Luo, L.

    2012-12-01

    The Eastern Pacific tuna fishery, which is one of the world's major fisheries, covers thousands of square kilometers. The vessels of this fishery are registered in more than 30 nations and largely target bigeye (Thunnus obesus), skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis), and yellowfin (T. albacores) tuna. In both the Pelagic Habitat Analysis Module project, which is sponsored by NASA, and the Fishscape project, which is sponsored by NSF, we have attempted to define the habitat of the three species by matching a 50 year time series on fish catch and effort with oceanographic information obtained from satellite imagery and from a global circulation model. The fishery time series, which was provided by the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, provided spatial maps of catch and effort at monthly time steps; the satellite imagery of the region consisted of sea surface temperature, chlorophyll, and height from GHRSST, SEAWiFS, and AVISO products, and the modeled flow field at selected depths was output from ECCO-92 simulations from 1992 to present. All information was integrated and analyzed within the EASy marine geographic information system. This GIS will also provides a home for the Fishscape spatial simulation model of the coupled dynamics of the ocean, fish, fleets, and markets. This model will then be applied to an assessment of the potential ecological and economic impacts of climate change, technological advances in fleet operations, and increases in fuel costs. We have determined by application of EOF analysis that the ECCO-2 simulation of sea surface height fits well with that of AVISO imagery; thus, if driven properly by predictions of future air-sea exchange, the model should provide good estimates of circulation patterns. We have also found that strong El Nino events lead to strong recruitment of all three species and strong La Nina events lead to weak recruitment. Finally, we have found that the general spatial distribution of the Eastern Pacific fishing grounds

  14. El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) impact on tuna fisheries in Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Palanisamy Satheesh; Pillai, Gopalakrishna N; Manjusha, Ushadevi

    2014-01-01

    El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an important driver of interannual variations in climate and ecosystem productivity in tropical regions. However, detailed information about this important phenomenon of the Indian Ocean is scarce. Consequently, the objective of this study is to improve understanding of the impact of warm event El Nino and cool event La Nina on annual tuna landings from the Indian Ocean from 1980 to 2010. In this study, maximum tuna landings were recorded during a weak El Nino year (1456054 t in 2006) and during a weak La Nina year (1243562 t in 2000), although the lowest tuna catch was followed during the strong El Nino year (1204119 t in 2009) and during a strong La Nina year (706546 t in 1988). Validation of predicted tuna landings and SST were showing a significant positive correlation (p < 0.01) was observed all the major tuna species except Southern Bluefin Tuna. Whereas the other relationships such as sea level pressure, Wind actions; Zonal Wind (U), Meridonial Wind (V), and Scalar Wind (W) are less well-defined. In contrast with principal component analysis we find that Principal Components 1 explains 75.5% of the total variance and suggest that sea surface temperature plays a major role in determining tuna availability in the region especially during warm event El Nino years; landings in Indian Ocean tend to be optimum SST 25 to 26°C in ENSO event. Our results confirm the ENSO impact on climate, tuna abundance and production in the Indian Ocean. However, among the oceanic variables SST explained the highest deviance in generalized additive models and therefore considered the best habitat predictor in the Indian Ocean followed by sea level pressure and Winds (U, V, W).

  15. Modelling retention and dispersion mechanisms of bluefin tuna eggs and larvae in the northwest Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariani, Patrizio; MacKenzie, Brian R.; Iudicone, Daniele; Bozec, Alexandra

    2010-07-01

    Knowledge of early life history of most fish species in the Mediterranean Sea is sparse and processes affecting their recruitment are poorly understood. This is particularly true for bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, even though this species is one of the world’s most valued fish species. Here we develop, apply and validate an individually based coupled biological-physical oceanographic model of fish early life history in the Mediterranean Sea. We first validate the general structure of the coupled model with a 12-day Lagrangian drift study of anchovy ( Engraulis encrasicolus) larvae in the Catalan Sea. The model reproduced the drift and growth of anchovy larvae as they drifted along the Catalan coast and yielded similar patterns as those observed in the field. We then applied the model to investigate transport and retention processes affecting the spatial distribution of bluefin tuna eggs and larvae during 1999-2003, and we compared modelled distributions with available field data collected in 2001 and 2003. Modelled and field distributions generally coincided and were patchy at mesoscales (10s-100s km); larvae were most abundant in eddies and along frontal zones. We also identified probable locations of spawning bluefin tuna using hydrographic backtracking procedures; these locations were situated in a major salinity frontal zone and coincided with distributions of an electronically tagged bluefin tuna and commercial bluefin tuna fishing vessels. Moreover, we hypothesized that mesoscale processes are responsible for the aggregation and dispersion mechanisms in the area and showed that these processes were significantly correlated to atmospheric forcing processes over the NW Mediterranean Sea. Interannual variations in average summer air temperature can reduce the intensity of ocean mesoscale processes in the Balearic area and thus potentially affect bluefin tuna larvae. These modelling approaches can increase understanding of bluefin tuna recruitment processes and

  16. Species-diverse coral communities on an artificial substrate at a tuna farm in Amami, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hata, Hiroki; Hirabayashi, Isao; Hamaoka, Hideki; Mukai, Yoshio; Omori, Koji; Fukami, Hironobu

    2013-04-01

    Tuna-farming is expanding worldwide, necessitating the monitoring/managing of its effects on the natural environment. In Japan, tuna-farming is conducted on coral reefs that have been damaged by mass-bleaching events and crown-of-thorns starfish (COTS) outbreaks. This study focused on the coral community on an artificial substrate of tuna-farm to reveal the possible effects of tuna-farming on the natural environment. Corals flourished on ropes suspended in the farm in the Amami Islands, southern Japan. These were moored 3 m below the sea-surface in 50-m-deep water. The coral community on the rope was analyzed and compared with those on natural substrata on two adjacent COTS-damaged reefs and with that in a protected reef. Corals were monitored throughout a year. Sixty coral species grew on the ropes, that corresponds to 27.3% of the 220 species known from Amami. The coral community was unique, dominated by massive faviid corals. On the ropes, the water temperature rarely exceeded 30.0 °C and no corals on the rope were severely bleached or covered by sedimentation during the observations. The tuna-farm infrastructure provided corals with a suitable habitat, and species-rich coral communities were established. These coral communities are an important node connecting tuna-farms and the natural environment.

  17. Characterization of the Boundary Layer on Full-Scale Bluefin Tuna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, Brian; Cipolla, Kimberly; Henoch, Charles

    2014-11-01

    The physics that enable tuna to cross large expanses of ocean while feeding and avoiding predators is not presently understood, and could involve complex control of turbulent boundary layer transition and drag reduction. Typical swimming speeds of Bluefin tuna are 1-2 m/s, but can be higher during strong accelerations. The goal of this work is to experimentally determine the approximate lateral location at which transition to turbulence occurs on the tuna for various speeds. The question is whether laminar flow or an advanced propulsion mechanism (or both) allows them to swim at high speeds. Uncertainties include the surface roughness of the skin, local favorable and adverse pressure gradients, and discontinuities such as the open mouth or juncture at the fins. Historically, much of the fluid mechanics work in the area of fish locomotion has focused on vortex shedding issues rather than the boundary layer. Here, the focus is obtaining information on the boundary layer characteristics of a rigid tuna model. A full scale model of a Pacific Bluefin tuna was fabricated using a mold made from an actual deceased tuna, preserving the surface features and details of the appendages. The model was instrumented with 32 wall pressure sensors and experiments performed in a tow tank. Results from flow visualization, drag and wall pressure measurements over a range of speeds and varying angles of attack will be presented.

  18. Total mercury in canned yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares marketed in northwest Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ruelas-Inzunza, Jorge; Patiño-Mejía, Carlos; Soto-Jiménez, Martín; Barba-Quintero, Guillermo; Spanopoulos-Hernández, Milton

    2011-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) was determined in Thunnus albacares canned in oil (from 7 to 10 samples per brand) and water (from 5 to 10 samples per brand) of five leading brands in Mexico in 2008. Potential health risk was estimated on the basis of Hg concentration and rate (1.43 kg year(-1)per capita) of tuna consumption in Mexico. Highest Hg concentrations were 0.51 ± 0.26 and 0.40 ± 0.24 μ gg(-1) dry weight in water and oil, respectively. Averaged Hg concentrations in tuna canned in water in the current study were comparable to values in Katsuwonus pelamis from Alabama; regarding the oil presentation, Hg levels were lower than in canned tuna collected in Mexico and comparable to values in canned tuna (species not identified) from Turkey. Hazard quotients were 0.0166 and 0.012 in water and oil, respectively. For the analyzed brands and considering tuna consumption in Mexican population, reference dose for this element was not exceeded; therefore, no human health risk is likely to occur. More work is necessary in relation to exposure to Hg from other sources, rates of consumption in strata of population with elevated fish consumption, size of canned tuna and on the role of Se against Hg toxicity.

  19. Heavy metals in canned tuna from Italian markets.

    PubMed

    Russo, R; Lo Voi, A; De Simone, A; Serpe, F P; Anastasio, A; Pepe, T; Cacace, D; Severino, L

    2013-02-01

    Fish is a good source of nutrients for humans but can pose a risk to human health because of the possible presence of some xenobiotics such as heavy metals and persistent organic contaminants. Constant monitoring is needed to minimize health risks and ensure product quality and consumer safety. The aim of the present study was to use atomic absorption spectrometry to determine the concentrations of some heavy metals (Hg, Pb, and Cd) in tuna packaged in different kinds of packages (cans or glass) in various countries (Italy and elsewhere). Concentrations of Cd and Hg were within the limits set by European Commission Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 and in many samples were below the detection limit. Pb concentrations exceeded European limits in 9.8% of the analyzed samples. These results are reassuring in terms of food safety but highlighted the need to constantly monitor the concentrations of heavy metals in fish products that could endanger consumer health.

  20. Simulating energy flow in biomolecules: application to tuna cytochrome c.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Q; Wong, C F; Rabitz, H

    1998-01-01

    By constructing a continuity equation of energy flow, one can utilize results from a molecular dynamics simulation to calculate the energy flux or flow in different parts of a biomolecule. Such calculations can yield useful insights into the pathways of energy flow in biomolecules. The method was first tested on a small system of a cluster of 13 argon atoms and then applied to the study of the pathways of energy flow after a tuna ferrocytochrome c molecule was oxidized. Initially, energy propagated faster along the direction perpendicular to the heme plane. This was due to an efficient through-bond mechanism, because the heme iron in cytochrome c was covalently bonded to a cysteine and a histidine. For the oxidation of cytochrome c, electrostatic interactions also facilitated a long-range through-space mechanism of energy flow. As a result, polar or charged groups that were further away from the oxidation site could receive energy earlier than nonpolar groups closer to the site. Another bridging mechanism facilitating efficient long-range responses to cytochrome c oxidation involved the coupling of far-off atoms with atoms that were nearer to, and interacted directly with, the oxidation site. The different characteristics of these energy transfer mechanisms defied a simple correlation between the time that the excess energy of the oxidation site first dissipated to an atom and the distance of the atom from the oxidation site. For tuna cytochrome c, all of the atoms of the protein had sensed the effects of the oxidation within approximately 40 fs. For the length scale of energy transfer considered in this study, the speed of the energy propagation in the protein was on the order of 10(5) m/s. PMID:9649368

  1. 31 CFR 515.563 - Journalistic activities in Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... directly incident to journalistic activities in Cuba by persons regularly employed as journalists by a news... activities; and (ii) A resume or similar document showing a record of journalism. (2) To qualify for a... significant record of journalism....

  2. 31 CFR 515.563 - Journalistic activities in Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... directly incident to journalistic activities in Cuba by persons regularly employed as journalists by a news... activities; and (ii) A resume or similar document showing a record of journalism. (2) To qualify for a... significant record of journalism....

  3. Physics and Women: A Challenge Being Successfully Met in Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias de Fuentes, Olimpia

    The history of physics in Cuba, like all the country's educational and scientific development, cannot be understood without taking into account its close relationship with the social changes that took place in Cuba during the five decades elapsed since 1959. This should include due consideration to the role played by women in this process, all the more since the link between science and gender is now generally regarded as a subject of growing special interest

  4. Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-16

    suspended the license of a Florida travel agency for license violations. The regulations that remain in place today are less restrictive than those in... travel agency , La Estrella de Cuba, from booking travel to Cuba. The agency reportedly was one of the largest licensed travel agencies, booking some 300...Most Recent Developments On January 23, 2006, the Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) suspended a South Florida travel

  5. Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Legislative Initiatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-22

    if travel restrictions were lifted.17 CRS-11 18 Laurie Goering, “Cuba Readies for Fall of U.S. Ban on Visits; Relaxed Embargo Would Jolt Tourism ...on Travel and Legislative Initiatives Updated May 22, 2003 Mark P. Sullivan Specialist in Latin American Affairs Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade...DATE 22 MAY 2003 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2003 to 00-00-2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and

  6. Counter-Insurgency in Cuba: Why Did Batista Fail

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-03

    influence on society.9 Cuba lacked a strong democratic tradition. The political traditions, transplanted by Spain to the New World, were feudal in nature...following causative factors: 1. Colonial history that emphasized a Spanish feudal model. 2. The respect for stronJ centralized authority embodied in the...by Andres Valdespino in the mid 1950s as a political organization dedicated to solving Cuba’s political instability. - Sociedad de Amigos de la

  7. International Medical Collaboration: Lessons from Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Castelló González, Mauro; Pons Vásquez, Reinaldo; Rodriguez Bencomo, David; Choonara, Imti

    2016-01-01

    Over 50,000 Cuban health professionals are currently working overseas in 67 different countries. They work in conjunction with local health professionals. The majority work in primary care in deprived areas. The aim is to reduce morbidity and mortality but also improve health in the long term by training local health professionals, and building both institutions and a structure to deliver health care alongside educating the local population. Cuba is a small, middle-income country. It has, however, made a significant international contribution in relation to medical collaboration. Cuba’s international collaboration is based on the principles of social justice and equity for all. It has set an example for other countries to emulate. PMID:27763571

  8. Communicating astronomy with the public in Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, O.

    2008-06-01

    Communicating astronomy with the public to produce attractive materials for a broad audience on TV is a difficult job in a third world country. One way of developing effective communication in fields like astronomy, astrophysics, and cosmology whilst connecting the professional astronomer with a majority of the people is to combine the knowledge of the scientist with the most spectacular TV production methods of first world countries: integrating, through commentary and analysis, astronomy and science into the public debate of lay citizens. Here I present my ten years of experience of presenting a TV programme devoted to general science outreach. I also comment on the progress of the construction of the new planetarium, a cultural centre for science and technology, to be opened as part of the commemoration activities for the 2009 International Year of Astronomy. It is hoped to guide the interest of the people of Cuba towards basic science and astronomy in the most populated and frequented area of the country.

  9. Discovery of a spawning ground reveals diverse migration strategies in Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus)

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, David E.; Marancik, Katrin E.; Guyon, Jeffrey R.; Lutcavage, Molly E.; Galuardi, Benjamin; Lam, Chi Hin; Walsh, Harvey J.; Wildes, Sharon; Yates, Douglas A.; Hare, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Atlantic bluefin tuna are a symbol of both the conflict between preservationist and utilitarian views of top ocean predators, and the struggle to reach international consensus on the management of migratory species. Currently, Atlantic bluefin tuna are managed as an early-maturing eastern stock, which spawns in the Mediterranean Sea, and a late-maturing western stock, which spawns in the Gulf of Mexico. However, electronic tagging studies show that many bluefin tuna, assumed to be of a mature size, do not visit either spawning ground during the spawning season. Whether these fish are spawning in an alternate location, skip-spawning, or not spawning until an older age affects how vulnerable this species is to anthropogenic stressors including exploitation. We use larval collections to demonstrate a bluefin tuna spawning ground in the Slope Sea, between the Gulf Stream and northeast United States continental shelf. We contend that western Atlantic bluefin tuna have a differential spawning migration, with larger individuals spawning in the Gulf of Mexico, and smaller individuals spawning in the Slope Sea. The current life history model, which assumes only Gulf of Mexico spawning, overestimates age at maturity for the western stock. Furthermore, individual tuna occupy both the Slope Sea and Mediterranean Sea in separate years, contrary to the prevailing view that individuals exhibit complete spawning-site fidelity. Overall, this complexity of spawning migrations questions whether there is complete independence in the dynamics of eastern and western Atlantic bluefin tuna and leads to lower estimates of the vulnerability of this species to exploitation and other anthropogenic stressors. PMID:26951668

  10. Discovery of a spawning ground reveals diverse migration strategies in Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus).

    PubMed

    Richardson, David E; Marancik, Katrin E; Guyon, Jeffrey R; Lutcavage, Molly E; Galuardi, Benjamin; Lam, Chi Hin; Walsh, Harvey J; Wildes, Sharon; Yates, Douglas A; Hare, Jonathan A

    2016-03-22

    Atlantic bluefin tuna are a symbol of both the conflict between preservationist and utilitarian views of top ocean predators, and the struggle to reach international consensus on the management of migratory species. Currently, Atlantic bluefin tuna are managed as an early-maturing eastern stock, which spawns in the Mediterranean Sea, and a late-maturing western stock, which spawns in the Gulf of Mexico. However, electronic tagging studies show that many bluefin tuna, assumed to be of a mature size, do not visit either spawning ground during the spawning season. Whether these fish are spawning in an alternate location, skip-spawning, or not spawning until an older age affects how vulnerable this species is to anthropogenic stressors including exploitation. We use larval collections to demonstrate a bluefin tuna spawning ground in the Slope Sea, between the Gulf Stream and northeast United States continental shelf. We contend that western Atlantic bluefin tuna have a differential spawning migration, with larger individuals spawning in the Gulf of Mexico, and smaller individuals spawning in the Slope Sea. The current life history model, which assumes only Gulf of Mexico spawning, overestimates age at maturity for the western stock. Furthermore, individual tuna occupy both the Slope Sea and Mediterranean Sea in separate years, contrary to the prevailing view that individuals exhibit complete spawning-site fidelity. Overall, this complexity of spawning migrations questions whether there is complete independence in the dynamics of eastern and western Atlantic bluefin tuna and leads to lower estimates of the vulnerability of this species to exploitation and other anthropogenic stressors.

  11. A Validated Methodology for Genetic Identification of Tuna Species (Genus Thunnus)

    PubMed Central

    Viñas, Jordi; Tudela, Sergi

    2009-01-01

    Background Tuna species of the genus Thunnus, such as the bluefin tunas, are some of the most important and yet most endangered trade fish in the world. Identification of these species in traded forms, however, may be difficult depending on the presentation of the products, which may hamper conservation efforts on trade control. In this paper, we validated a genetic methodology that can fully distinguish between the eight Thunnus species from any kind of processed tissue. Methodology After testing several genetic markers, a complete discrimination of the eight tuna species was achieved using Forensically Informative Nucleotide Sequencing based primarily on the sequence variability of the hypervariable genetic marker mitochondrial DNA control region (mtDNA CR), followed, in some specific cases, by a second validation by a nuclear marker rDNA first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1). This methodology was able to distinguish all tuna species, including those belonging to the subgenus Neothunnus that are very closely related, and in consequence can not be differentiated with other genetic markers of lower variability. This methodology also took into consideration the presence of introgression that has been reported in past studies between T. thynnus, T. orientalis and T. alalunga. Finally, we applied the methodology to cross-check the species identity of 26 processed tuna samples. Conclusions Using the combination of two genetic markers, one mitochondrial and another nuclear, allows a full discrimination between all eight tuna species. Unexpectedly, the genetic marker traditionally used for DNA barcoding, cytochrome oxidase 1, could not differentiate all species, thus its use as a genetic marker for tuna species identification is questioned. PMID:19898615

  12. Reemergence of dengue in Cuba: a 1997 epidemic in Santiago de Cuba.

    PubMed

    Kourí, G; Guzmán, M G; Valdés, L; Carbonel, I; del Rosario, D; Vazquez, S; Laferté, J; Delgado, J; Cabrera, M V

    1998-01-01

    After 15 years of absence, dengue reemerged in the municipality of Santiago de Cuba because of increasing migration to the area by people from disease-endemic regions, a high level of vector infestation, and the breakdown of eradication measures. The 1997 epidemic was detected early through an active surveillance system. Of 2,946 laboratory-confirmed cases, 205 were dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 12 were fatal. No deaths were reported in persons under 16 years of age. Now the epidemic is fully controlled.

  13. Reemergence of dengue in Cuba: a 1997 epidemic in Santiago de Cuba.

    PubMed Central

    Kourí, G.; Guzmán, M. G.; Valdés, L.; Carbonel, I.; del Rosario, D.; Vazquez, S.; Laferté, J.; Delgado, J.; Cabrera, M. V.

    1998-01-01

    After 15 years of absence, dengue reemerged in the municipality of Santiago de Cuba because of increasing migration to the area by people from disease-endemic regions, a high level of vector infestation, and the breakdown of eradication measures. The 1997 epidemic was detected early through an active surveillance system. Of 2,946 laboratory-confirmed cases, 205 were dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 12 were fatal. No deaths were reported in persons under 16 years of age. Now the epidemic is fully controlled. PMID:9454563

  14. Population assessment of tropical tuna based on their associative behavior around floating objects

    PubMed Central

    Capello, M.; Deneubourg, J. L.; Robert, M.; Holland, K. N.; Schaefer, K. M.; Dagorn, L.

    2016-01-01

    Estimating the abundance of pelagic fish species is a challenging task, due to their vast and remote habitat. Despite the development of satellite, archival and acoustic tagging techniques that allow the tracking of marine animals in their natural environments, these technologies have so far been underutilized in developing abundance estimations. We developed a new method for estimating the abundance of tropical tuna that employs these technologies and exploits the aggregative behavior of tuna around floating objects (FADs). We provided estimates of abundance indices based on a simulated set of tagged fish and studied the sensitivity of our method to different association dynamics, FAD numbers, population sizes and heterogeneities of the FAD-array. Taking the case study of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) acoustically-tagged in Hawaii, we implemented our approach on field data and derived for the first time the ratio between the associated and the total population. With more extensive and long-term monitoring of FAD-associated tunas and good estimates of the numbers of fish at FADs, our method could provide fisheries-independent estimates of populations of tropical tuna. The same approach can be applied to obtain population assessments for any marine and terrestrial species that display associative behavior and from which behavioral data have been acquired using acoustic, archival or satellite tags. PMID:27808175

  15. Population assessment of tropical tuna based on their associative behavior around floating objects.

    PubMed

    Capello, M; Deneubourg, J L; Robert, M; Holland, K N; Schaefer, K M; Dagorn, L

    2016-11-03

    Estimating the abundance of pelagic fish species is a challenging task, due to their vast and remote habitat. Despite the development of satellite, archival and acoustic tagging techniques that allow the tracking of marine animals in their natural environments, these technologies have so far been underutilized in developing abundance estimations. We developed a new method for estimating the abundance of tropical tuna that employs these technologies and exploits the aggregative behavior of tuna around floating objects (FADs). We provided estimates of abundance indices based on a simulated set of tagged fish and studied the sensitivity of our method to different association dynamics, FAD numbers, population sizes and heterogeneities of the FAD-array. Taking the case study of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) acoustically-tagged in Hawaii, we implemented our approach on field data and derived for the first time the ratio between the associated and the total population. With more extensive and long-term monitoring of FAD-associated tunas and good estimates of the numbers of fish at FADs, our method could provide fisheries-independent estimates of populations of tropical tuna. The same approach can be applied to obtain population assessments for any marine and terrestrial species that display associative behavior and from which behavioral data have been acquired using acoustic, archival or satellite tags.

  16. Modelling the Spatial Behaviour of a Tropical Tuna Purse Seine Fleet

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Tim K.; Mees, Chris C.; Milner-Gulland, E. J.

    2014-01-01

    Industrial tuna fisheries operate in the Indian, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, but concerns over sustainability and environmental impacts of these fisheries have resulted in increased scrutiny of how they are managed. An important but often overlooked factor in the success or failure of tuna fisheries management is the behaviour of fishers and fishing fleets. Uncertainty in how a fishing fleet will respond to management or other influences can be reduced by anticipating fleet behaviour, although to date there has been little research directed at understanding and anticipating the human dimension of tuna fisheries. The aim of this study was to address gaps in knowledge of the behaviour of tuna fleets, using the Indian Ocean tropical tuna purse seine fishery as a case study. We use statistical modelling to examine the factors that influence the spatial behaviour of the purse seine fleet at broad spatiotemporal scales. This analysis reveals very high consistency between years in the use of seasonal fishing grounds by the fleet, as well as a forcing influence of biophysical ocean conditions on the distribution of fishing effort. These findings suggest strong inertia in the spatial behaviour of the fleet, which has important implications for predicting the response of the fleet to natural events or management measures (e.g., spatial closures). PMID:25462165

  17. Pacific bluefin tuna transport Fukushima-derived radionuclides from Japan to California

    PubMed Central

    Madigan, Daniel J.; Baumann, Zofia; Fisher, Nicholas S.

    2012-01-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi release of radionuclides into ocean waters caused significant local and global concern regarding the spread of radioactive material. We report unequivocal evidence that Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis, transported Fukushima-derived radionuclides across the entire North Pacific Ocean. We measured γ-emitting radionuclides in California-caught tunas and found 134Cs (4.0 ± 1.4 Bq kg−1) and elevated 137Cs (6.3 ± 1.5 Bq kg−1) in 15 Pacific bluefin tuna sampled in August 2011. We found no 134Cs and background concentrations (∼1 Bq kg−1) of 137Cs in pre-Fukushima bluefin and post-Fukushima yellowfin tunas, ruling out elevated radiocesium uptake before 2011 or in California waters post-Fukushima. These findings indicate that Pacific bluefin tuna can rapidly transport radionuclides from a point source in Japan to distant ecoregions and demonstrate the importance of migratory animals as transport vectors of radionuclides. Other large, highly migratory marine animals make extensive use of waters around Japan, and these animals may also be transport vectors of Fukushima-derived radionuclides to distant regions of the North and South Pacific Oceans. These results reveal tools to trace migration origin (using the presence of 134Cs) and potentially migration timing (using 134Cs:137Cs ratios) in highly migratory marine species in the Pacific Ocean. PMID:22645346

  18. Modelling the spatial behaviour of a tropical tuna purse seine fleet.

    PubMed

    Davies, Tim K; Mees, Chris C; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2014-01-01

    Industrial tuna fisheries operate in the Indian, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, but concerns over sustainability and environmental impacts of these fisheries have resulted in increased scrutiny of how they are managed. An important but often overlooked factor in the success or failure of tuna fisheries management is the behaviour of fishers and fishing fleets. Uncertainty in how a fishing fleet will respond to management or other influences can be reduced by anticipating fleet behaviour, although to date there has been little research directed at understanding and anticipating the human dimension of tuna fisheries. The aim of this study was to address gaps in knowledge of the behaviour of tuna fleets, using the Indian Ocean tropical tuna purse seine fishery as a case study. We use statistical modelling to examine the factors that influence the spatial behaviour of the purse seine fleet at broad spatiotemporal scales. This analysis reveals very high consistency between years in the use of seasonal fishing grounds by the fleet, as well as a forcing influence of biophysical ocean conditions on the distribution of fishing effort. These findings suggest strong inertia in the spatial behaviour of the fleet, which has important implications for predicting the response of the fleet to natural events or management measures (e.g., spatial closures).

  19. Application of the Oxidation-Reduction Potential (ORP) for Pre-grading Tuna Freshness On-board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheevaporanapivat, Mongkol; Sakai, Hisaharu; Mine, Yuuji; Watanabe, Manabu; Suzuki, Toru

    Application of ORP as a rapid indicator for grading tuna's freshness on the ship was studied. The long line trawling process was used for catching the sample tuna in the South Pacific Ocean. All captured sample tuna were weighed, gender identified and investigated for their mortality, then measured ORP and K value. Three species of tuna were caught: blue marlin (Makaira mazara), yellow fin tuna (Thunnus albacares), and swordfish (Xiphia gladius). Most of the fish captured were male and they had been dead after picking onboard. The measured ORP values of blue marlin varied in the range of 0.295-0.362 Volt, with pH between 5.35-5.84. Both ORP and pH of swordfish was similar to that of blue marlin. But for yellow fin tuna, the ORP value was about the same as blue marlin while its pH was significantly higher. ORP value in all species tended to increase with pH of the fish meat decrease. It is interesting that ORP value of tuna increased in correlation with K value. These results suggested that ORP and pH change, which are measured in the short time, are the effective indicators for grading tuna's freshness on-board.

  20. 76 FR 5058 - Airports of Entry or Departure for Flights to and From Cuba

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... the United States and Cuba. These amendments are in accordance with the President's recent statement... United States and Cuba must arrive at or depart from one of three named U.S. airports: John F. Kennedy... the United States and Cuba. DATES: Effective Date: January 28, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  1. Orienete Province, eastern end of Cuba as seen from Gemini 7 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Oriente Province, eastern end of Cuba is photographed by Astronaut Frank Borman and James A. Lovell during the 14th revolution of the Gemini 7 mission. Guantanamo Bay is in the center of picture on southern coast of Cuba. Santiago de Cuba is located about one inch from the bottom edge of the picture, or about three inches westward down the coast from Guantanamo.

  2. Inshore capture-based tuna aquaculture impact on Posidonia oceanica meadows in the eastern part of the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Kružić, Petar; Vojvodić, Vjeročka; Bura-Nakić, Elvira

    2014-09-15

    Mapping and monitoring of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica in the eastern (Croatian) part of the Adriatic Sea since 2004 indicates a significant decline in meadow density in an area impacted by inshore capture-based tuna aquaculture. The density and overall condition of P. oceanica meadows impacted by tuna farms near Fulija Islet was compared to two reference sites (Iž Island and Mrtovnjak Islet). The factors with the most significant influence on P. oceanica meadows were found to be the input of organic matter originating from the cages, as well as high epiphyte biomass caused by nutrient enrichment. Significant differences in nutrient concentrations were found between the sites impacted by tuna farms (Fulija Islet) and the control stations. Shoot density of the P. oceanica meadows decreased at the stations in close vicinity to the tuna farm, which suggests that the tuna farm activity strongly affected the surrounding meadows.

  3. PCB and OCP accumulation and evidence of hepatic alteration in the Atlantic bluefin tuna, T. thynnus, from the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Maisano, Maria; Cappello, Tiziana; Oliva, Sabrina; Natalotto, Antonino; Giannetto, Alessia; Parrino, Vincenzo; Battaglia, Pietro; Romeo, Teresa; Salvo, Andrea; Spanò, Nunziacarla; Mauceri, Angela

    2016-10-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are known to act as "obesogens", being fat-soluble and affecting lipid metabolism. The Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, are top pelagic predators prone to bioaccumulate and biomagnify environmental contaminants. This study aimed at evaluating POPs-induced ectopic lipid accumulation in liver of adult tuna from the Mediterranean Sea. PCBs and organochlorine pesticides were measured in tuna liver, and marked morphological changes observed, namely poorly compacted tissues, intense vacuolization, erythrocyte infiltration and presence of melanomacrophages. The expression of perilipin, a lipid-droplet marker, positively correlated with the gene expression of PPARγ, a master regulator of adipogenesis, and its heterodimeric partner, RXRα. Changes in metabolites involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and ketogenesis were also observed. Although male bluefin tuna appeared to be more sensitive than females to the adverse effects of environmental obesogens, the alterations observed in tuna liver of both sexes suggest a potential onset of hepatic steatosis.

  4. Modeling the Spatial Dynamics of International Tuna Fleets.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jenny; Hinton, Michael G; Webster, D G

    2016-01-01

    We developed an iterative sequential random utility model to investigate the social and environmental determinants of the spatiotemporal decision process of tuna purse-seine fishery fishing effort in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Operations of the fishing gear mark checkpoints in a continuous complex decision-making process. Individual fisher behavior is modeled by identifying diversified choices over decision-space for an entire fishing trip, which allows inclusion of prior and current vessel locations and conditions among the explanatory variables. Among these factors are vessel capacity; departure and arrival port; duration of the fishing trip; daily and cumulative distance travelled, which provides a proxy for operation costs; expected revenue; oceanographic conditions; and tons of fish on board. The model uses a two-step decision process to capture the probability of a vessel choosing a specific fishing region for the first set and the probability of switching to (or staying in) a specific region to fish before returning to its landing port. The model provides a means to anticipate the success of marine resource management, and it can be used to evaluate fleet diversity in fisher behavior, the impact of climate variability, and the stability and resilience of complex coupled human and natural systems.

  5. Application of transfer functions to canned tuna fish thermal processing.

    PubMed

    Ansorena, M R; del Valle, C; Salvadori, V O

    2010-02-01

    Design and optimization of thermal processing of foods need accurate dynamic models to ensure safe and high quality food products. Transfer functions had been demonstrated to be a useful tool to predict thermal histories, especially under variable operating conditions. This work presents the development and experimental validation of a dynamic model (discrete transfer function) for the thermal processing of tuna fish in steam retorts. Transfer function coefficients were obtained numerically, using commercial software of finite elements (COMSOL Multiphysics) to solve the heat transfer balance. Dependence of transfer function coefficients on the characteristic dimensions of cylindrical containers (diameter and height) and on the sampling interval is reported. A simple equation, with two empirical parameters that depends on the container dimensions, represented the behavior of transfer function coefficients with very high accuracy. Experimental runs with different size containers and different external conditions (constant and variable retort temperature) were carried out to validate the developed methodology. Performance of the thermal process simulation was tested for predicting internal product temperature of the cold point and lethality and very satisfactory results were found. The developed methodology can play an important role in reducing the computational effort while guaranteeing accuracy by simplifying the calculus involved in the solution of heat balances with variable external conditions and emerges as a potential approach to the implementation of new food control strategies leading not only to more efficient processes but also to product quality and safety.

  6. Reproductive Schedules in Southern Bluefin Tuna: Are Current Assumptions Appropriate?

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Karen; Patterson, Toby A.; Reid, Howard; Harley, Shelton J.

    2012-01-01

    Southern bluefin tuna (SBT) appear to comprise a single stock that is assumed to be both mixed across its distribution and having reproductive adults that are obligate, annual spawners. The putative annual migration cycle of mature SBT consists of dispersed foraging at temperate latitudes with migration to a single spawning ground in the tropical eastern Indian Ocean. Spawning migrations have been assumed to target two peaks in spawning activity; one in September-October and a second in February-March. SBT of sizes comparable to that of individuals observed on the spawning ground were satellite tagged in the Tasman Sea region (2003–2008) and demonstrated both migrations to the spawning grounds and residency in the Tasman Sea region throughout the whole year. All individuals undertaking apparent spawning migrations timed their movements to coincide with the second recognised spawning peak or even later. These observations suggest that SBT may demonstrate substantial flexibility in the scheduling of reproductive events and may even not spawn annually as currently assumed. Further, the population on the spawning grounds may be temporally structured in association with foraging regions. These findings provide new perspectives on bluefin population and spatial dynamics and warrant further investigation and consideration of reproductive schedules in this species. PMID:22514636

  7. Modeling the Spatial Dynamics of International Tuna Fleets

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We developed an iterative sequential random utility model to investigate the social and environmental determinants of the spatiotemporal decision process of tuna purse-seine fishery fishing effort in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Operations of the fishing gear mark checkpoints in a continuous complex decision-making process. Individual fisher behavior is modeled by identifying diversified choices over decision-space for an entire fishing trip, which allows inclusion of prior and current vessel locations and conditions among the explanatory variables. Among these factors are vessel capacity; departure and arrival port; duration of the fishing trip; daily and cumulative distance travelled, which provides a proxy for operation costs; expected revenue; oceanographic conditions; and tons of fish on board. The model uses a two-step decision process to capture the probability of a vessel choosing a specific fishing region for the first set and the probability of switching to (or staying in) a specific region to fish before returning to its landing port. The model provides a means to anticipate the success of marine resource management, and it can be used to evaluate fleet diversity in fisher behavior, the impact of climate variability, and the stability and resilience of complex coupled human and natural systems. PMID:27537545

  8. Reproductive schedules in southern bluefin tuna: are current assumptions appropriate?

    PubMed

    Evans, Karen; Patterson, Toby A; Reid, Howard; Harley, Shelton J

    2012-01-01

    Southern bluefin tuna (SBT) appear to comprise a single stock that is assumed to be both mixed across its distribution and having reproductive adults that are obligate, annual spawners. The putative annual migration cycle of mature SBT consists of dispersed foraging at temperate latitudes with migration to a single spawning ground in the tropical eastern Indian Ocean. Spawning migrations have been assumed to target two peaks in spawning activity; one in September-October and a second in February-March. SBT of sizes comparable to that of individuals observed on the spawning ground were satellite tagged in the Tasman Sea region (2003-2008) and demonstrated both migrations to the spawning grounds and residency in the Tasman Sea region throughout the whole year. All individuals undertaking apparent spawning migrations timed their movements to coincide with the second recognised spawning peak or even later. These observations suggest that SBT may demonstrate substantial flexibility in the scheduling of reproductive events and may even not spawn annually as currently assumed. Further, the population on the spawning grounds may be temporally structured in association with foraging regions. These findings provide new perspectives on bluefin population and spatial dynamics and warrant further investigation and consideration of reproductive schedules in this species.

  9. Weight dependence of arsenic concentration in the Arabian Sea tuna fish

    SciTech Connect

    Ashraf, M.; Jaffar, M.

    1988-02-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to estimate the arsenic concentration in the edible muscle of Thunnus thynnus and Thunnus toggel (hereafter called tuna and longtail tune) as they have great commercial value. These fish are widely available along the coastal line of Pakistan and are consumed abundantly in large bulk. Thus, it was felt justifiable on the basis of safety of human health that data, in the first instance, be obtained on arsenic concentration in tuna as a function of weight to check whether the metal distribution was species-specific or it depended on individual mode of development. The data, the first of the kind so far presented on the Arabian Sea tuna, would thus provide the required baseline quantitative information needed in future studies on the physiological processes regulating the distribution and uptake of arsenic by these and other species of fish common to the region.

  10. Adaptive responses of tropical tuna purse-seiners under temporal regulations.

    PubMed

    Torres-Irineo, Edgar; Dreyfus-León, Michel; Gaertner, Daniel; Salas, Silvia; Marchal, Paul

    2017-02-01

    The failure to achieve fisheries management objectives has been broadly discussed in international meetings. Measuring the effects of fishery regulations is difficult due to the lack of detailed information. The yellowfin tuna fishery in the eastern Pacific Ocean offers an opportunity to evaluate the fishers' responses to temporal regulations. We used data from observers on-board Mexican purse-seine fleet, which is the main fleet fishing on dolphin-associated tuna schools. In 2002, the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission implemented a closed season to reduce fishing effort for this fishery. For the period 1992-2008, we analysed three fishery indicators using generalized estimating equations to evaluate the fishers' response to the closure. We found that purse-seiners decreased their time spent in port, increased their fishing sets, and maintained their proportion of successful fishing sets. Our results highlight the relevance of accounting for the fisher behaviour to understand fisheries dynamics when establishing management regulations.

  11. US Food and Drug Administration survey of methyl mercury in canned tuna

    SciTech Connect

    Yess, J.

    1993-01-01

    Methyl mercury was determined by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 220 samples of canned tuna collected in 1991. Samples were chosen to represent different styles, colors, and packs as available. Emphasis was placed on water-packed tuna, small can size, and the highest-volume brand names. The average methyl mercury (expressed as Hg) found for the 220 samples was 0.17 ppm; the range was <0.10-0.75 ppm. Statistically, a significantly higher level of methyl mercury was found in solid white and chunk tuna. Methyl mercury level was not related to can size. None of the 220 samples had methyl mercury levels that exceeded the 1 ppm FDA action level. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  12. Performance variation due to stiffness in a tuna-inspired flexible foil model.

    PubMed

    Rosic, Mariel-Luisa N; Thornycroft, Patrick J M; Feilich, Kara L; Lucas, Kelsey N; Lauder, George V

    2017-01-17

    Tuna are fast, economical swimmers in part due to their stiff, high aspect ratio caudal fins and streamlined bodies. Previous studies using passive caudal fin models have suggested that while high aspect ratio tail shapes such as a tuna's generally perform well, tail performance cannot be determined from shape alone. In this study, we analyzed the swimming performance of tuna-tail-shaped hydrofoils of a wide range of stiffnesses, heave amplitudes, and frequencies to determine how stiffness and kinematics affect multiple swimming performance parameters for a single foil shape. We then compared the foil models' kinematics with published data from a live swimming tuna to determine how well the hydrofoil models could mimic fish kinematics. Foil kinematics over a wide range of motion programs generally showed a minimum lateral displacement at the narrowest part of the foil, and, immediately anterior to that, a local area of large lateral body displacement. These two kinematic patterns may enhance thrust in foils of intermediate stiffness. Stiffness and kinematics exhibited subtle interacting effects on hydrodynamic efficiency, with no one stiffness maximizing both thrust and efficiency. Foils of intermediate stiffnesses typically had the greatest coefficients of thrust at the highest heave amplitudes and frequencies. The comparison of foil kinematics with tuna kinematics showed that tuna motion is better approximated by a zero angle of attack foil motion program than by programs that do not incorporate pitch. These results indicate that open questions in biomechanics may be well served by foil models, given appropriate choice of model characteristics and control programs. Accurate replication of biological movements will require refinement of motion control programs and physical models, including the creation of models of variable stiffness.

  13. Warm fish with cold hearts: thermal plasticity of excitation–contraction coupling in bluefin tuna

    PubMed Central

    Shiels, H. A.; Di Maio, A.; Thompson, S.; Block, B. A.

    2011-01-01

    Bluefin tuna have a unique physiology. Elevated metabolic rates coupled with heat exchangers enable bluefin tunas to conserve heat in their locomotory muscle, viscera, eyes and brain, yet their hearts operate at ambient water temperature. This arrangement of a warm fish with a cold heart is unique among vertebrates and can result in a reduction in cardiac function in the cold despite the elevated metabolic demands of endothermic tissues. In this study, we used laser scanning confocal microscopy and electron microscopy to investigate how acute and chronic temperature change affects tuna cardiac function. We examined the temporal and spatial properties of the intracellular Ca2+ transient (Δ[Ca2+]i) in Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) ventricular myocytes at the acclimation temperatures of 14°C and 24°C and at a common test temperature of 19°C. Acute (less than 5 min) warming and cooling accelerated and slowed the kinetics of Δ[Ca2+]i, indicating that temperature change limits cardiac myocyte performance. Importantly, we show that thermal acclimation offered partial compensation for these direct effects of temperature. Prolonged cold exposure (more than four weeks) increased the amplitude and kinetics of Δ[Ca2+]i by increasing intracellular Ca2+ cycling through the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). These functional findings are supported by electron microscopy, which revealed a greater volume fraction of ventricular SR in cold-acclimated tuna myocytes. The results indicate that SR function is crucial to the performance of the bluefin tuna heart in the cold. We suggest that SR Ca2+ cycling is the malleable unit of cellular Ca2+ flux, offering a mechanism for thermal plasticity in fish hearts. These findings have implications beyond endothermic fish and may help to delineate the key steps required to protect vertebrate cardiac function in the cold. PMID:20667881

  14. Effects of frozen storage on survival of Staphylococcus aureus and enterotoxin production in precooked tuna meat.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xulei; Su, Yi-Cheng

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the survival of Staphylococcus aureus in precooked tuna meat for producing canned products during frozen storage (-20 ± 2 °C) as well as its growth and enterotoxin production at 35 to 37 °C after the storage. Samples (50 ± 5 g) of precooked albacore (loin, chunk, and flake) and skipjack (chunk and flake) tuna were inoculated with 5 enterotoxin-producing strains of S. aureus at a level of approximately 3.5 log CFU/g and individually packed in a vacuum bag after 3 h incubation at 35 to 37 °C. Vacuum-packed samples were stored in a freezer (-20 ± 2 °C) for 4 wk. The frozen samples were then thawed in 37 °C circulating water for 2 h and incubated at 35 to 37 °C for 22 h. Populations of S. aureus in all precooked tuna samples decreased slightly (<0.7 log CFU/g) after 4 wk of storage at -20 ± 2 °C, but increased rapidly once the samples were thawed and held at 35 to 37 °C. Total S. aureus counts in albacore and skipjack samples increased by greater than 3 log CFU/g after 6 and 8 h of exposure to 35 to 37 °C, respectively. All samples became spoiled after 10 h of exposure to 35 to 37 °C, while no enterotoxin was detected in any samples. However, enterotoxins were detected in albacore loin and other samples after 12 and 24 h of incubation at 35 to 37 °C, respectively. Frozen precooked tuna meat should be used for producing canned tuna within 6 to 8 h of thawing to avoid product spoilage and potential enterotoxin production by S. aureus in contaminated precooked tuna meat.

  15. Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of eastern Cuba.

    PubMed

    Cano, Juan Hernández; Volpato, Gabriele

    2004-02-01

    Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba. Traditional herbal mixtures in Eastern Cuba are investigated through interviews with 130 knowledgeable people and traditional healers of the provinces of Santiago de Cuba and Guantánamo. One hundred seventy plant species and other products are used in 199 formulas, galones being the more complex. Cocos nucifera L. (Arecaceae), Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae), Cissus sicyoides L. (Vitaceae), Erythroxylum havanense Jacq. (Erythroxylaceae) and Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl. (Verbenaceae) are the species most frequently cited. The ecological distribution of the taxa and cultural and anthropological aspects of mixtures are highlighted; particularly American and African influences that have shaped local knowledge about plant combinations are discussed.

  16. Characterization of the Boundary Layers on Full-Scale Bluefin Tuna

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    Although the typical swimming speeds of bluefin tuna are 1 – 2 m/s, they can be higher during strong accelerations. The goal of the work...speeds. The question is whether laminar flow or an advanced propulsion mechanism (or both) allows them to swim at high speeds. A full-scale model...and drag reduction on the body. The typical swimming speed of bluefin tuna is 1 – 2 m/s, but it can be higher during strong accelerations. The

  17. The Real maccoyii: Identifying Tuna Sushi with DNA Barcodes – Contrasting Characteristic Attributes and Genetic Distances

    PubMed Central

    Lowenstein, Jacob H.; Amato, George; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis

    2009-01-01

    Background The use of DNA barcodes for the identification of described species is one of the least controversial and most promising applications of barcoding. There is no consensus, however, as to what constitutes an appropriate identification standard and most barcoding efforts simply attempt to pair a query sequence with reference sequences and deem identification successful if it falls within the bounds of some pre-established cutoffs using genetic distance. Since the Renaissance, however, most biological classification schemes have relied on the use of diagnostic characters to identify and place species. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we developed a cytochrome c oxidase subunit I character-based key for the identification of all tuna species of the genus Thunnus, and compared its performance with distance-based measures for identification of 68 samples of tuna sushi purchased from 31 restaurants in Manhattan (New York City) and Denver, Colorado. Both the character-based key and GenBank BLAST successfully identified 100% of the tuna samples, while the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) as well as genetic distance thresholds, and neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree building performed poorly in terms of species identification. A piece of tuna sushi has the potential to be an endangered species, a fraud, or a health hazard. All three of these cases were uncovered in this study. Nineteen restaurant establishments were unable to clarify or misrepresented what species they sold. Five out of nine samples sold as a variant of “white tuna” were not albacore (T. alalunga), but escolar (Lepidocybium flavorunneum), a gempylid species banned for sale in Italy and Japan due to health concerns. Nineteen samples were northern bluefin tuna (T. thynnus) or the critically endangered southern bluefin tuna (T. maccoyii), though nine restaurants that sold these species did not state these species on their menus. Conclusions/Significance The Convention on International Trade

  18. A New Approach to Health Services and Pharmacy in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Alina M

    2015-12-01

    In December 17, 2014, U.S. President Barack Obama surprised the world by announcing his intention to enter into negotiations aimed at reestablishing diplomatic relations with Cuba. Since then, expectations and interest regarding the health system of that country have increased. This report focuses on the Cuban health and pharmacy systems from a practical and educational standpoint. Pharmaceutical services, strengths, opportunities, and challenges are described. Cuba's new trends toward patient-centered care are analyzed to provide insights for developing pharmaceutical care practice and implementing policies suitable for practice in all health care settings.

  19. Relationships between tuna catch and variable frequency oceanographic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormaza-González, Franklin Isaac; Mora-Cervetto, Alejandra; María Bermúdez-Martínez, Raquel

    2016-08-01

    Skipjack (Katsuwunus pelamis), yellow fin (Thunnus albacares) and albacore (Thunnus alulunga) tunas landed in the Eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO) countries and Ecuador were correlated to the Indexes Oceanic El Niño (ONI) and Multivariate Enso Index (MEI). The temporal series 1983-2012, and 1977-1999 (warm Pacific Decadal Oscillation, PDO), and 2000-2012 (cold PDO) were analyzed. Linear correlation showed that at least 11 % of the total landings were associated with the MEI, with a slightly negative gradient from cold to warm conditions. When non-linear regression (n = 6), the R2 was higher up to 0.304 (MEI, r = 0.551). The correlation shows high spread from -0.5 to +0.5 for both MEI/ONI; the highest landings occurred at 0.34-0.45; both indexes suggested that at extreme values < -1.0 and > 1.1 total landings tend to decrease. Landings were associated up to 21.9 % (MEI) in 2000-2012, 1983-1999 rendered lower R2 (< 0.09); i.e., during cold PDO periods there was a higher association between landings and oceanographic conditions. For the non-linear regression (n = 6) a R2 of 0.374 (MEI) and 0.408 (ONI) were registered, for the 2000-2012, a higher R2 was observed in 1983-1999, 0.443 and 0.711 for MEI and ONI respectively, suggesting that is better to analyze split series (1983-1999, 2000-2012) than as a whole (1983-2012), due to noise produced by the transition from hot to cold PDOs. The highest landings were in the range -0.2 to 0.5 for MEI/ONI. The linear regression of skipjack landings in Ecuador gave an R2 of 0.140 (MEI) and 0.066 (ONI) and the non-linear were 0.440 and 0.183 respectively. Total landings in the EPO associated to oceanographic events of high and low frequencies could be used somehow as predictors of the high El Niño o La Niña. There is a clear evidence that tuna fish biomass are at higher levels when the PDO is on cold phase (2000-2030) and vice versa on warm phase (1980-1999). The analysis of the skipjack catch per unit effort (CPUE) on floating

  20. Electronic Tagging of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus, L.) Reveals Habitat Use and Behaviors in the Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Cermeño, Pablo; Quílez-Badia, Gemma; Ospina-Alvarez, Andrés; Sainz-Trápaga, Susana; Boustany, Andre M.; Seitz, Andy C.; Tudela, Sergi; Block, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the movements of Atlantic tuna (Thunnus thynnus L.) in the Mediterranean Sea using data from 2 archival tags and 37 pop-up satellite archival tags (PAT). Bluefin tuna ranging in size from 12 to 248 kg were tagged on board recreational boats in the western Mediterranean and the Adriatic Sea between May and September during two different periods (2000 to 2001 and 2008 to 2012). Although tuna migrations between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean have been well reported, our results indicate that part of the bluefin tuna population remains in the Mediterranean basin for much of the year, revealing a more complex population structure. In this study we demonstrate links between the western Mediterranean, the Adriatic and the Gulf of Sidra (Libya) using over 4336 recorded days of location and behavior data from tagged bluefin tuna with a maximum track length of 394 days. We described the oceanographic preferences and horizontal behaviors during the spawning season for 4 adult bluefin tuna. We also analyzed the time series data that reveals the vertical behavior of one pop-up satellite tag recovered, which was attached to a 43.9 kg tuna. This fish displayed a unique diving pattern within 16 days of the spawning season, suggesting a use of the thermocline as a thermoregulatory mechanism compatible with spawning. The results obtained hereby confirm that the Mediterranean is clearly an important habitat for this species, not only as spawning ground, but also as an overwintering foraging ground. PMID:25671316

  1. [Dust mites as occupational allergens in two bakeries of La Habana, Cuba].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Duro, Bárbara I; Alvarez-Castelló, Mirta; Mateo-Morejón, Mayteé; Luis-Rodríguez, Bárbara; Labrada-Rosado, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: las alergias ocupacionales son cada vez más frecuentes. Los alergenos del ambiente laboral de panaderías, como los ácaros, no están bien identificados a pesar de ser factores de riesgo conocidos de enfermedades respiratorias. Objetivos: aislar e identificarlas especies de ácaros en dos panaderías de La Habana, Cuba, con alta sensibilización a ácaros en sus trabajadores. Material y método: estudio descriptivo en el que se tomaron muestras por triplicado de las posibles fuentes de ácaros en las panaderías –como harina de trigo en uso, derrames de harina de trigo en los pisos, harina de trigo almacenada en sacos sellados, azúcar, levadura panadera granulada– que fueron procesadas, según el método de flotación de Hart and Fain (1987) para aislar, identificar y contar los ácaros presentes. Resultados: se encontraron ácaros en las muestras de harina de trigo en uso, en los derrames de ésta en los pisos y en la harina de trigo almacenada en sacos sellados. Las especies identificadas fueron Blomia tropicalis (70%), Tyrophagus putrescentiae (20%) y en mucho menor grado Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus y Dermatophagoides siboney. Conclusiones: existe elevada exposición a ácaros del polvo doméstico, particularmente a ácaros de almacén, en las panaderías analizadas, lo que constituye un factor de riesgo de alergia ocupacional a considerar.

  2. 75 FR 51182 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... Atlantic bluefin tuna (BFT) retention limit should be adjusted from one to three large medium or giant BFT... medium and giant BFT over a range of zero to a maximum of three per vessel based on consideration of the....9 mt, and increased the default General category daily retention limit of one large medium or...

  3. Examining dolphin hydrodynamics provides clues to calf-loss during tuna fishing

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Pete

    2004-01-01

    A combination of mathematical modeling and direct observation of the swimming behavior of dolphin mother-calf pairs has shown how the calf can gain much of the energy required for swimming if it is positioned correctly relative to the mother, a situation that may be disrupted during the chases that result from tuna-fishing practices. PMID:15132739

  4. 77 FR 24669 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Public Conference Call Regarding Recreational Yellowfin Tuna...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... Species; Public Conference Call Regarding Recreational Yellowfin Tuna Fishery Data Collection AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... conference call that is open to the public will be held to discuss historical and future data collection...

  5. Gender Transformations and Colonial Displacements in Laura Antillano's "Tuna de mar"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Alana

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the trajectories of two characters in Laura Antillano's short story, "Tuna de mar" (1991), as they navigate interrelated systems of power and attempt to position themselves closer to, or further away from, the margins. Set in the late eighteenth century, the tale features a female protagonist who escapes prostitution…

  6. Determination of histamine in canned tuna by molecularly imprinted polymers-surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fang; Grant, Edward; Lu, Xiaonan

    2015-12-11

    We introduce a rapid, cost effective and reliable approach to determine histamine level in canned tuna. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were synthesized as artificial antibodies towards histamine by utilizing the interaction between histamine and a functional monomer (methacrylic acid) to impress specific binding sites on polymer particles after polymerization. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was used to immobilize the MIPs, yielding a MIPs-PVC film that functioned as a recognition element to specifically separate histamine from tuna extract. A gold colloid solution served both as an eluting solvent to extract histamine from MIPs-PVC film and furnish a substrate for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) detection of histamine signals. Principal component analysis together with a partial least square regression (PLSR) model (R(2) = 0.947, RMSECV = 3.526) verified the reliability of MIPs-PVC-SERS approach for the detection and spectral analysis of histamine. Linear regression models were also constructed to relate the intensity of different histamine SERS bands with the corresponding spiking levels. One such model (using a band at 1576 cm(-1)) performed slightly better in predicting histamine content in tuna than the PLSR model. We conclude that our new MIPs-PVC-SERS approach can rapidly and reliably determine histamine at levels from 3 to 90 ppm in canned tuna meat.

  7. Reproductive biology of yellowfin tuna T. albacares in the west-central Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Guoping; Xu, Liuxiong; Zhou, Yingqi; Song, Liming

    2008-08-01

    Survey of yellowfin tuna in the west-central Indian Ocean was conducted on board of Chinese longliners during 2003, 2004 and 2005, which is a part of Chinese Tuna Fishery Scientific Observer Program (CTFSOP). The reproductive biology has been investigated. A total of 1 023 samples are collected including 417 ovaries and 606 testes. Spawning activities of yellowfin tuna have been studied for both male and female from January to June. The data showed that the average monthly sex ratio is 0.59, and the minimum length at sexual maturity is 101 cm for female and 110 cm for male respectively. Length at 50% sexual maturity is estimated at 113.77 cm for female and 120.20 cm for male, whereas maturation rate is 0.066 cm-1 for female and 0.091 cm-1 for male. Sex ratio by length class indicates that the proportion of male is higher than female’s along with size increasing; for instance, in the group of the body length longer than 145 cm, some females have their body length from 145 to 160 cm and males have their body length at 160 cm and even longer. Statistically, yellowfin tuna has a significant seasonal reproduction.

  8. 77 FR 38011 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 635 RIN 0648-XC055 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... closes the incidental Longline category northern area fishery for large medium and giant Atlantic...

  9. 75 FR 33731 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2010 Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 635 RIN 0648-AY77 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2010 Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications Correction In rule document 2010-13207...

  10. Probing local thermal stabilities of bovine, horse, and tuna ferricytochromes c at pH 7.

    PubMed

    Filosa, A; English, A M

    2000-08-01

    Correlation between the flexibility of the Met80 loop (residues 75-86) and the local stabilities of native ferricytochromes c from horse, bovine, and tuna was examined. By monitoring the heme bands versus temperature, absorption changes associated with altered ligation in the alkaline isomers were observed. In addition, the intensity of the 695-nm absorption band, which is associated with the heme-crevice stability, decreased with increasing temperature and exhibited biphasic temperature dependence, with transition temperatures (Tc) at 35 degrees C in tuna c, 55 degrees C in horse c, and 58 C in bovine c. Since the heme crevice plays a key role in the thermal stabilities of cytochromes c, their susceptibility to proteolytic attack was examined as a function of temperature. Proteolytic digestion, which requires local conformational instability, revealed that the local stabilities of the cytochromes follow the order: bovine > horse > tuna, and increased digestion occurred at temperatures close to the 695-nm Tc for each protein. This is consistent with the actual substitution of the Met80 ligand above the 695-nm Tc, which is reflected in the thermodynamic parameters for the two phases. Also, tuna c, unlike horse and bovine c, exhibits different 695-nm (35 degrees C) and Soret (approximately 46 degrees C) Tc values, but its local stability is controlled by the transition detected at 695 nm. The combined spectroscopic and proteolysis results clearly indicate that the flexibility of the Met80 loop determines the local stability of cytochromes c.

  11. 75 FR 30732 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2010 Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... Atlantic Tunas Convention Act (ATCA), and to achieve domestic management objectives under the Magnuson... contracting parties and other domestic management objectives, if warranted; and (3) provide the non-Longline..., the effects of the adjustment on accomplishing the objectives of the fishery management plan,...

  12. 77 FR 74612 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... taking into account the protection of marine ecosystems.'' Under the two-fish limit that applied in... Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service. BILLING CODE 3510-22-P...

  13. 78 FR 26709 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... recreational opportunities, preserving traditional fisheries, and taking into account the protection of marine ecosystems.'' Migration of commercial-size BFT to the fishing grounds off the northeast U.S. coast...

  14. 50 CFR 635.24 - Commercial retention limits for sharks, swordfish, and BAYS tunas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... storage of silky sharks, oceanic whitetip sharks, and scalloped, smooth, and great hammerhead sharks is... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Commercial retention limits for sharks... Management Measures § 635.24 Commercial retention limits for sharks, swordfish, and BAYS tunas. The...

  15. 50 CFR 635.24 - Commercial retention limits for sharks, swordfish, and BAYS tunas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... storage of silky sharks, oceanic whitetip sharks, and scalloped, smooth, and great hammerhead sharks is... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Commercial retention limits for sharks... Management Measures § 635.24 Commercial retention limits for sharks, swordfish, and BAYS tunas. The...

  16. Theological Higher Education in Cuba: Part 3--The Cuban Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esqueda, Octavio J.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the Cuban Revolution and its implications and consequences for Christian higher education in Cuba. Christian institutions experienced the same oppression from the communist revolution as the rest of the evangelical denominations during the sixties and seventies. The worst period for Protestantism began in 1965…

  17. Cuba: Moving Back to the Future with Tourism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Gerald R.

    1992-01-01

    Addresses Cuba's attempt to rebuild its tourism industry in an effort to combat its declining economy in the wake of reduced Russian aid. Provides a sketch of Cuban history and a discussion of the tourism highlighting contradictions between political rhetoric and economic policy. Reviews resource materials and ideas for classroom use. (DK)

  18. Fifty years of Cuba's medical diplomacy: from idealism to pragmatism.

    PubMed

    Feinsilver, Julie M

    2010-01-01

    Medical diplomacy, the collaboration between countries to simultaneously produce health benefits and improve relations, has been a cornerstone of Cuban foreign policy since the outset of the revolution fifty years ago. It has helped Cuba garner symbolic capital (goodwill, influence, and prestige) well beyond what would have been possible for a small, developing country, and it has contributed to making Cuba a player on the world stage. In recent years, medical diplomacy has been instrumental in providing considerable material capital (aid, credit, and trade), as the oil-for-doctors deals with Venezuela demonstrates. This has helped keep the revolution afloat in trying economic times. What began as the implementation of the one of the core values of the revolution, namely health as a basic human right for all peoples, has continued as both an idealistic and a pragmatic pursuit. This article examines the factors that enabled Cuba to conduct medical diplomacy over the past fifty years, the rationale behind the conduct of this type of soft power politics, the results of that effort, and the mix of idealism and pragmatism that has characterized the experience. Moreover, it presents a typology of medical diplomacy that Cuba has used over the past fifty years.

  19. A Medical School in Cuba Trains Doctors for Poor Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Marion

    2001-01-01

    Describes how the Latin American Medical School in Cuba attracts foreign students, including Americans, with a free course of study. Supporters say it shows Castro's commitment to humanitarian ideals, while critics see it as an attempt to curry favor with Central and Latin America. (EV)

  20. Cuba's Political Involvement in Sport Since the Socialist Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slack, Trevor

    This paper documents instances of Cuba's political use of sport internally and internationally. The linking of sport and politics is manifested in the number of times that pictures of Castro, involved in sport, appear in the Cuban media. This is pointed out as the two-fold desire of the politician to secure a virile media image and to mold the…

  1. Offshore S. Cuba -- Quaternary lobsters and Eocene reefs

    SciTech Connect

    Rebora, M. )

    1994-09-19

    When Cuba is mentioned, the first image that comes to an explorationist's mind is one of complex imbricated thrust sheets, fractured carbonate reservoirs, volcanics and ophiolitic, and heavy and high sulfur oil. It is now known that this stimulating'' scenario does not apply to the whole of Cuba but only to the northern and central part where plate collisions and robust wrench tectonics exacted their toll on sediments and hydrocarbons alike. Seismic data recently acquired by Taurus Petroleum off the southern coast of Cuba reveal a rather different scenario: Mesozoic sediments several thousands of meters thick, deformed by moderate wrench tectonics into low-relief flower structures, and overlain by a variety of Paleogene shelf edge reefs, atolls, and banks that look as if reproduced from the pages of AAPG's Memoir 57. The whole is topped by Oligocene and Miocene evaporites, shales, and carbonates. The paper describes the southern shelf area, exploration in Cuba, reefs, oil and gas shows, source rocks, reservoir rocks, seals, and potential reserves.

  2. Christmas, Natal, Navidad in Cuba, Mexico, and Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Maria Joao, Ed.; Fontes, Manuel da Costa, Ed.

    This material is a compilation of junior high school student-developed stories and games about the way Christmas is celebrated in Portugal, Mexico, and Cuba. The material was developed in the classroom by Portuguese, Mexican, and Cuban immigrant students and by American students who do not have a recent immigrant background, all of whom were…

  3. The United States and Cuba: Past, Present and Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-04-01

    soldiers “ encomiendas ” or “jurisdiction over geographic areas”31 and the right to tax the indigenous population and to force them to work for the...Empire in 1521.”35 The discovery of gold led many to leave Cuba and, in order to encourage the settlers to stay, the Spanish gave “ encomiendas ” “to

  4. Socialism and Education in Cuba and Soviet Uzbekistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charon-Cardona, Euridice

    2013-01-01

    During the Cold War over half a million Asians, Africans and Latin Americans studied and graduated in the Soviet Union's universities and technical schools as part of this country's educational aid policies. Cuba was an intermediary player in the Cold War geopolitical contest between the United States and the Soviet Union, fuelled by the…

  5. Cuba's Schools for the Mathematically and Scientifically Talented.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donoghue, Eileen F.; Vogeli, Bruce R.

    1998-01-01

    Describes Cuba's special schools for children talented in mathematics and science with emphasis on Lenin school, a central boarding school that enrolls 2700 gifted students and 14 regional boarding schools that enroll a total of 5000 students. Curriculum and Cuban Olympiad problem examples are included. (DB)

  6. Preliminary forecasts of Pacific bigeye tuna population trends under the A2 IPCC scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehodey, P.; Senina, I.; Sibert, J.; Bopp, L.; Calmettes, B.; Hampton, J.; Murtugudde, R.

    2010-07-01

    An improved version of the spatial ecosystem and population dynamics model SEAPODYM was used to investigate the potential impacts of global warming on tuna populations. The model included an enhanced definition of habitat indices, movements, and accessibility of tuna predators to different vertically migrant and non-migrant micronekton functional groups. The simulations covered the Pacific basin (model domain) at a 2° × 2° geographic resolution. The structure of the model allows an evaluation from multiple data sources, and parameterization can be optimized by adjoint techniques and maximum likelihood using fishing data. A first such optimized parameterization was obtained for bigeye tuna ( Thunnus obesus) in the Pacific Ocean using historical catch data for the last 50 years and a hindcast from a coupled physical-biogeochemical model driven by the NCEP atmospheric reanalysis. The parameterization provided very plausible biological parameter values and a good fit to fishing data from the different fisheries, both within and outside the time period used for optimization. We then employed this model to forecast the future of bigeye tuna populations in the Pacific Ocean. The simulation was driven by the physical-biogeochemical fields predicted from a global marine biogeochemistry - climate simulation. This global simulation was performed with the IPSL climate model version 4 (IPSL-CM4) coupled to the oceanic biogeochemical model PISCES and forced by atmospheric CO 2, from historical records over 1860-2000, and under the SRES A2 IPCC scenario for the 21st century (i.e. atmospheric CO 2 concentration reaching 850 ppm in the year 2100). Potential future changes in distribution and abundance under the IPCC scenario are presented but without taking into account any fishing effort. The simulation showed an improvement in bigeye tuna spawning habitat both in subtropical latitudes and in the eastern tropical Pacific (ETP) where the surface temperature becomes optimal for

  7. Do captive conditions favor shedding of parasites in the reared Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus)?

    PubMed

    Mladineo, I; Segvić, T; Petrić, M

    2011-01-01

    Tuna (Thunnus spp.) has been characterized by long distance migrations, highly predatory behavior and longevity, all of which in turn, enable infections with a wide spectrum of different parasitic groups, reflecting in a remarkable diversity of tuna parasite communities. Since 2003, we have been monitoring parasite communities of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) that are caught from the wild and transferred into cages during spring-summer months, as well as assemblages in fish that exit rearing cycle during the winter harvest period after 1.5 years. Interestingly in reared tuna, parasitic populations exhibit a significant decreasing trend at the end of the rearing cycle, rarely observed in other intensive productions that represent a suitable environment for the emergence, establishment and transmission of pathogens. In order to assess epizootiological behavior of tuna parasites assemblages at the beginning (B group) and at the end (A group) of 1.5 year rearing cycle, we examined data on parasite prevalence and abundance over 4 years. The aim was to evaluate parasite diversity indices and emerging differences between newly caught and harvested fish, as well as community compositions and their nestedness in respect to the event in the rearing cycle (capture or harvest time). In order to be able to predict classification of tuna in two categories (newly caught or heavily infected and harvested or less infected fish), based on empirical didymozoids abundances and year of sampling, we built a decision tree model. Results suggest that specificities of parasite assemblages and their dynamics in tuna before and after farming have no similar precedents in aquaculture. A trend of parasitic pauperization repeating in each rearing cycle over four-years time, in once diverse and species rich parasite communities is observed, however, structures of both B and A group rearing assemblages remain nested, with the same species being core parasites (Didymosulcus katsuwonicola

  8. Spatiotemporal variability in bigeye tuna ( Thunnus obesus) dive behavior in the central North Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Evan A.; Hawn, Donald R.; Polovina, Jeffrey J.

    2010-07-01

    Data from 29 pop-up archival transmission (PAT) tags deployed on commercial-size bigeye tuna ( Thunnus obesus) in the central North Pacific Ocean from 4°N to 32°N were analyzed to describe variability in their dive behavior across space and time. During the day, bigeye tuna generally spent time in the 0-50 m and 300-400 m depth ranges, with spatial and temporal variability in the deep mode. At night, bigeye tuna generally inhabited the 0-100 m depth range. Three daily dive types were defined based on the percentage of time tuna spent in specific depth layers during the day. These three types were defined as shallow, intermediate, and deep and represented 24.4%, 18.8%, and 56.8% of the total number of days in the study, respectively. More shallow and intermediate dive-type behavior was found in the first half of the year, and in latitudes from 14°N to 16°N and north of 28°N. A greater amount of deep-dive behavior was found in the regions south of 10°N and between 18°N and 28°N during the third and fourth quarters of the year. Dive-type behavior also varied with oceanographic conditions, with more shallow and intermediate behavior found in colder surface waters. Intermediate and deep-dive types were pooled to reflect the depths where bigeye tuna may have potential interactions with fishing gear. A Generalized Additive Model was used to quantify the effects of time, space, and sea surface temperature on this pooled dive type. Results from the model showed that while latitude and quarter of the year were important parameters, sea surface temperature had the most significant effect on the pooled intermediate and deep-dive behavior. Model predictions indicated that the largest percentage of potential interaction would occur in the fourth quarter in the region from 18°N-20°N, which corresponds to the time and place of the highest bigeye tuna catch rates by the Hawaii-based long-line fishery. These results suggest that a model framework using these three

  9. Pesticide use, alternatives and workers' health in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Alexander, R; Anderson, P K

    1984-01-01

    Cuba provides a unique example of a country that is actively implementing a program to reduce its dependence on pesticides. This paper addresses Cuba's current efforts to develop and implement alternatives to pesticides and legislation to limit exposure and protect workers in the interim. In 1980 Cuba embarked on a national program to utilize alternatives to chemical pest control. This three-part program includes expansion of knowledge of Cuban agro-ecology in order to implement cultural control practices; research and implementation on biological control of pests; and research on plant resistance and development of resistant crop varieties. To date, the program has enabled Cuba to reduce pesticide usage in sugar cane, citrus, tobacco, corn, and vegetable crops, among others. While alternatives to chemical pest control are being developed, the Cubans are paying special attention to regulating pesticide use and the safety of workers and members of the public exposed to toxic chemicals. In addition to the Resolution on Health and Safety (1967) and the Safety and Health Law (1978) which cover all workers, including Cuba's 250,000 agricultural workers, the Ministry of Public Health promulgated Resolution 335 in 1967. This resolution addresses requirements and administration of structural pest control, production, importation, transport and storage of pesticides, as well as requirements for worker contact with pesticides, pesticides for domestic use, aerial application of pesticides, and violations of the regulations. The paper concludes with a description of how the system works on the provincial level, as exemplified by Villa Clara, and the steps that have been taken to eliminate worker exposure to pesticides, to utilize pesticides which pose less of a hazard to workers, and to assure early detection of ill effects.

  10. Spawning of Bluefin Tuna in the Black Sea: Historical Evidence, Environmental Constraints and Population Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    MacKenzie, Brian R.; Mariani, Patrizio

    2012-01-01

    The lucrative and highly migratory Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus 1758; Scombridae), used to be distributed widely throughout the north Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea. Its migrations have supported sustainable fisheries and impacted local cultures since antiquity, but its biogeographic range has contracted since the 1950s. Most recently, the species disappeared from the Black Sea in the late 1980s and has not yet recovered. Reasons for the Black Sea disappearance, and the species-wide range contraction, are unclear. However bluefin tuna formerly foraged and possibly spawned in the Black Sea. Loss of a locally-reproducing population would represent a decline in population richness, and an increase in species vulnerability to perturbations such as exploitation and environmental change. Here we identify the main genetic and phenotypic adaptations that the population must have (had) in order to reproduce successfully in the specific hydrographic (estuarine) conditions of the Black Sea. By comparing hydrographic conditions in spawning areas of the three species of bluefin tunas, and applying a mechanistic model of egg buoyancy and sinking rate, we show that reproduction in the Black Sea must have required specific adaptations of egg buoyancy, fertilisation and development for reproductive success. Such adaptations by local populations of marine fish species spawning in estuarine areas are common as is evident from a meta-analysis of egg buoyancy data from 16 species of fish. We conclude that these adaptations would have been necessary for successful local reproduction by bluefin tuna in the Black Sea, and that a locally-adapted reproducing population may have disappeared. Recovery of bluefin tuna in the Black Sea, either for spawning or foraging, will occur fastest if any remaining locally adapted individuals are allowed to survive, and by conservation and recovery of depleted Mediterranean populations which could through time re

  11. Predicting Interactions between Common Dolphins and the Pole-and-Line Tuna Fishery in the Azores.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Maria João; Menezes, Gui; Machete, Miguel; Silva, Mónica A

    2016-01-01

    Common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) are responsible for the large majority of interactions with the pole-and-line tuna fishery in the Azores but the underlying drivers remain poorly understood. In this study we investigate the influence of various environmental and fisheries-related factors in promoting the interaction of common dolphins with this fishery and estimate the resultant catch losses. We analysed 15 years of fishery and cetacean interaction data (1998-2012) collected by observers placed aboard tuna fishing vessels. Dolphins interacted in less than 3% of the fishing events observed during the study period. The probability of dolphin interaction varied significantly between years with no evident trend over time. Generalized additive modeling results suggest that fishing duration, sea surface temperature and prey abundance in the region were the most important factors explaining common dolphin interaction. Dolphin interaction had no impact on the catches of albacore, skipjack and yellowfin tuna but resulted in significantly lower catches of bigeye tuna, with a predicted median annual loss of 13.5% in the number of fish captured. However, impact on bigeye catches varied considerably both by year and fishing area. Our work shows that rates of common dolphin interaction with the pole-and-line tuna fishery in the Azores are low and showed no signs of increase over the study period. Although overall economic impact was low, the interaction may lead to significant losses in some years. These findings emphasize the need for continued monitoring and for further research into the consequences and economic viability of potential mitigation measures.

  12. Tuna Species Substitution in the Spanish Commercial Chain: A Knock-On Effect

    PubMed Central

    Gordoa, Ana; Carreras, Gustavo; Sanz, Nuria; Viñas, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    Intentional mislabelling of seafood is a widespread problem, particularly with high-value species like tuna. In this study we examine tuna mislabelling, deliberate species substitution, types of substitution and its impact on prices. The survey covered the commercial chain, from Merca-Barna to fishmongers and restaurants in the Spanish Autonomous Community of Catalonia. To understand the geographic extent of the problem we also sampled Merca-Madrid, Europe’s biggest fish market, and Merca-Málaga for its proximity to the bluefin tuna migratory route and trap fishery. Monthly surveys were carried out over one year. The results showed a high deficiency in labelling: 75% of points of sale and 83% of restaurants did not specify the species, and in those cases the name of the species had to be asked. A total of 375 samples were analysed genetically, the largest dataset gathered in Europe so far. The identified species were Thunnus albacares, Thunnus thynnus and Thunnus obesus. Species substitution began at suppliers, with 40% of observed cases, increasing to 58% at fishmongers and 62% at restaurants. The substitution was mainly on bluefin tuna (T. thynnus), 73% of cases. At restaurants, only during the bluefin fishing season, we observed a decrease of Bluefin tuna substitution and an increase of reverse substitution revealing some illegal fishing. The effect of species substitution on species prices was relevant: T. obesus increased its price by around €12 kg-1 when it was sold as bluefin. In view of the deficiency of labelling, the abuse of generic names and the lack of the bluefin catch document, we conclude that the Spanish regulations are ineffective, highlighting the need for policy execution, and the urgent need for information campaigns to Spanish consumers. PMID:28125686

  13. Predicting Interactions between Common Dolphins and the Pole-and-Line Tuna Fishery in the Azores

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Maria João; Menezes, Gui; Machete, Miguel; Silva, Mónica A.

    2016-01-01

    Common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) are responsible for the large majority of interactions with the pole-and-line tuna fishery in the Azores but the underlying drivers remain poorly understood. In this study we investigate the influence of various environmental and fisheries-related factors in promoting the interaction of common dolphins with this fishery and estimate the resultant catch losses. We analysed 15 years of fishery and cetacean interaction data (1998–2012) collected by observers placed aboard tuna fishing vessels. Dolphins interacted in less than 3% of the fishing events observed during the study period. The probability of dolphin interaction varied significantly between years with no evident trend over time. Generalized additive modeling results suggest that fishing duration, sea surface temperature and prey abundance in the region were the most important factors explaining common dolphin interaction. Dolphin interaction had no impact on the catches of albacore, skipjack and yellowfin tuna but resulted in significantly lower catches of bigeye tuna, with a predicted median annual loss of 13.5% in the number of fish captured. However, impact on bigeye catches varied considerably both by year and fishing area. Our work shows that rates of common dolphin interaction with the pole-and-line tuna fishery in the Azores are low and showed no signs of increase over the study period. Although overall economic impact was low, the interaction may lead to significant losses in some years. These findings emphasize the need for continued monitoring and for further research into the consequences and economic viability of potential mitigation measures. PMID:27851763

  14. Tuna Species Substitution in the Spanish Commercial Chain: A Knock-On Effect.

    PubMed

    Gordoa, Ana; Carreras, Gustavo; Sanz, Nuria; Viñas, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    Intentional mislabelling of seafood is a widespread problem, particularly with high-value species like tuna. In this study we examine tuna mislabelling, deliberate species substitution, types of substitution and its impact on prices. The survey covered the commercial chain, from Merca-Barna to fishmongers and restaurants in the Spanish Autonomous Community of Catalonia. To understand the geographic extent of the problem we also sampled Merca-Madrid, Europe's biggest fish market, and Merca-Málaga for its proximity to the bluefin tuna migratory route and trap fishery. Monthly surveys were carried out over one year. The results showed a high deficiency in labelling: 75% of points of sale and 83% of restaurants did not specify the species, and in those cases the name of the species had to be asked. A total of 375 samples were analysed genetically, the largest dataset gathered in Europe so far. The identified species were Thunnus albacares, Thunnus thynnus and Thunnus obesus. Species substitution began at suppliers, with 40% of observed cases, increasing to 58% at fishmongers and 62% at restaurants. The substitution was mainly on bluefin tuna (T. thynnus), 73% of cases. At restaurants, only during the bluefin fishing season, we observed a decrease of Bluefin tuna substitution and an increase of reverse substitution revealing some illegal fishing. The effect of species substitution on species prices was relevant: T. obesus increased its price by around €12 kg-1 when it was sold as bluefin. In view of the deficiency of labelling, the abuse of generic names and the lack of the bluefin catch document, we conclude that the Spanish regulations are ineffective, highlighting the need for policy execution, and the urgent need for information campaigns to Spanish consumers.

  15. Mercury in tunas and blue marlin in the North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Drevnick, Paul E; Brooks, Barbara A

    2017-03-06

    Models and data from the North Pacific Ocean indicate that mercury concentrations in water and biota are increasing in response to (global or hemispheric) anthropogenic mercury releases. In the present study, we provide an updated record of mercury in yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) caught near Hawaii that confirms an earlier conclusion that mercury concentrations in these fish are increasing at a rate similar to that observed in waters shallower than 1000 m. We also compiled and reanalyzed data from bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) caught near Hawaii in the 1970s and 2000s. Increases in mercury concentrations in bigeye tuna are consistent with the trend found in yellowfin tuna, in both timing and magnitude. The data available for blue marlin do not allow for a fair comparison among years, because mercury concentrations differ between sexes for this species, and sex was identified (or reported) in only 3 of 7 studies. Also, mercury concentrations in blue marlin may be insensitive to modest changes in mercury exposure, because this species appears to have the ability to detoxify mercury. The North Pacific Ocean is a region of both relatively high rates of atmospheric mercury deposition and capture fisheries production. Other data sets that allow temporal comparisons in mercury concentrations, such as pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) in Alaskan waters and albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) off the US Pacific coast, should be explored further, to aid in understanding human health and ecological risks and to develop additional baseline knowledge for assessing changes in a region expected to respond strongly to reductions in anthropogenic mercury emissions. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;9999:1-10. © 2017 SETAC.

  16. Seasonal Movements, Aggregations and Diving Behavior of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus) Revealed with Archival Tags

    PubMed Central

    Walli, Andreas; Teo, Steven L. H.; Boustany, Andre; Farwell, Charles J.; Williams, Tom; Dewar, Heidi; Prince, Eric; Block, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    Electronic tags were used to examine the seasonal movements, aggregations and diving behaviors of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) to better understand their migration ecology and oceanic habitat utilization. Implantable archival tags (n = 561) were deployed in bluefin tuna from 1996 to 2005 and 106 tags were recovered. Movement paths of the fish were reconstructed using light level and sea-surface-temperature-based geolocation estimates. To quantify habitat utilization we employed a weighted kernel estimation technique that removed the biases of deployment location and track length. Throughout the North Atlantic, high residence times (167±33 days) were identified in four spatially confined regions on a seasonal scale. Within each region, bluefin tuna experienced distinct temperature regimes and displayed different diving behaviors. The mean diving depths within the high-use areas were significantly shallower and the dive frequency and the variance in internal temperature significantly higher than during transit movements between the high-use areas. Residence time in the more northern latitude high-use areas was significantly correlated with levels of primary productivity. The regions of aggregation are associated with areas of abundant prey and potentially represent critical foraging habitats that have seasonally abundant prey. Throughout the North Atlantic mean diving depth was significantly correlated with the depth of the thermocline, and dive behavior changed in relation to the stratification of the water column. In this study, with numerous multi-year tracks, there appear to be repeatable patterns of clear aggregation areas that potentially are changing with environmental conditions. The high concentrations of bluefin tuna in predictable locations indicate that Atlantic bluefin tuna are vulnerable to concentrated fishing efforts in the regions of foraging aggregations. PMID:19582150

  17. La Educacion de los Jesuitas en Cuba durante el Siglo XVI (1566-1574) (Jesuit Education in Cuba during the 16th Century (1566-1574).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puentes, Roberto Valdes

    2000-01-01

    Explains the relationship between Spanish colonialism in Cuba, evangelization of the Indians, and the origins of Cuban culture, as well as the role the Jesuits played in this process of transculturation. Analyzes the first phase in the history of the educational work of the Jesuits in Cuba (1566-1574). (BT)

  18. Characterization of the spawning habitat of Atlantic bluefin tuna and related species in the Balearic Sea (western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alemany, F.; Quintanilla, L.; Velez-Belchí, P.; García, A.; Cortés, D.; Rodríguez, J. M.; Fernández de Puelles, M. L.; González-Pola, C.; López-Jurado, J. L.

    2010-07-01

    Within the framework of the TUNIBAL project that focused on Atlantic bluefin tuna ( Thunnus thynnus) larval ecology, ichthyoplankton surveys were conducted from 2001 to 2005 off the Balearic archipelago, which is recognized as one of the main spawning areas of the eastern Atlantic stock of this species. In each survey, a regular sampling grid of about 200 stations, 10 nautical miles apart were sampled. CTD casts and oblique Bongo 60 and surface Bongo 90 plankton tows were carried out. The occurrence frequencies of Atlantic bluefin tuna, albacore tuna ( Thunnus alalunga) and bullet tuna ( Auxis rochei) larvae in quantitative Bongo 60 samples were 0.14, 0.29 and 0.49 respectively. Mean larval abundances in these positive samples were relatively high: 31 larvae 10 m -2 for Atlantic bluefin tuna, 17 for albacore tuna and 31 for bullet tuna. All species had patchy distributions since more than 90% of the stations showed larval densities under 10 larvae 100 m -3 (70% showed even less than 2 larvae 100 m -3), whereas in some isolated spots, we recorded abundances as high as 867 (Atlantic bluefin) or 872 (bullet tuna) larvae 10 m -2. These results allowed us to relate larval distribution to mesoscale hydrographic features and to characterize the spawning habitat of these species. Single Quotient Parameter analyses were applied to spatial (depth), physical (temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and geostrophic current velocities) and biological (mesozooplankton biomass) variables to determine the environmental preferences of each species for spawning. Results showed that the complex hydrodynamic scenarios around the Balearic Islands, due to the interaction between the inflowing surface Atlantic water masses (AW) and Mediterranean surface waters (MW), play a key role in determining the abundance and distribution of tuna larvae in this area, especially in the case of Atlantic bluefin tuna. Spawning of this species seems to take place mainly in offshore mixed waters, as

  19. Detecting the presence-absence of bluefin tuna by automated analysis of medium-range sonars on fishing vessels.

    PubMed

    Uranga, Jon; Arrizabalaga, Haritz; Boyra, Guillermo; Hernandez, Maria Carmen; Goñi, Nicolas; Arregui, Igor; Fernandes, Jose A; Yurramendi, Yosu; Santiago, Josu

    2017-01-01

    This study presents a methodology for the automated analysis of commercial medium-range sonar signals for detecting presence/absence of bluefin tuna (Tunnus thynnus) in the Bay of Biscay. The approach uses image processing techniques to analyze sonar screenshots. For each sonar image we extracted measurable regions and analyzed their characteristics. Scientific data was used to classify each region into a class ("tuna" or "no-tuna") and build a dataset to train and evaluate classification models by using supervised learning. The methodology performed well when validated with commercial sonar screenshots, and has the potential to automatically analyze high volumes of data at a low cost. This represents a first milestone towards the development of acoustic, fishery-independent indices of abundance for bluefin tuna in the Bay of Biscay. Future research lines and additional alternatives to inform stock assessments are also discussed.

  20. Canned bluefin tuna, an in vitro cardioprotective functional food potentially safer than commercial fish oil based pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Tenore, Gian Carlo; Calabrese, Giorgio; Ritieni, Alberto; Campiglia, Pietro; Giannetti, Daniela; Novellino, Ettore

    2014-09-01

    Commercial canned fish species typical in the Italian market were evaluated for their lipid profile. Bluefin tuna samples showed the highest content in omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) among the canned fish samples analyzed. Tests on H9C2 cardiomyocytes revealed that bluefin tuna n-3 PUFA may responsible for a significant cell protection against both physiological and doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress. Analogous tests performed by incubating cardiac cells with n-3 PUFA ethyl esters, of which most of fish oil pharmaceutical formulations (FOPF) are based, showed cytotoxicity at high doses. Our results highlighted that n-3 PUFA contents in a 50 g canned bluefin tuna portion would be almost equivalent to and potentially safer than those of 1 FOPF capsule (1000 mg)/die usually suggested for hyperlipidaemic subjects. Thus, Italian commercial canned bluefin tuna could be indicated as a functional food with potential health benefits for the prevention and care of cardiovascular disorders.

  1. Changes in the Distribution of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus) in the Gulf of Maine 1979-2005

    PubMed Central

    Golet, Walter J.; Galuardi, Benjamin; Cooper, Andrew B.; Lutcavage, Molly E.

    2013-01-01

    The Gulf of Maine, NW Atlantic Ocean, is a productive, seasonal foraging ground for Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), but commercial landings of adult size classes were up to 40% below the allocated total allowable catch between 2004 to 2008 for the rod and reel, harpoon, and purse seine categories in the Gulf of Maine. Reduction in Atlantic bluefin tuna catches in the Gulf of Maine could represent a decline in spawning stock biomass, but given wide-ranging, complex migration patterns, and high energetic requirements, an alternative hypothesis is that their dispersal patterns shifted to regions with higher prey abundance or profitability, reducing availability to U.S. fishing fleets. This study fit generalized linear models to Atlantic bluefin tuna landings data collected from fishermen’s logbooks (1979-2005) as well as the distances between bluefin tuna schools and Atlantic herring (Clupeaharengus), a primary prey species, to test alternative hypotheses for observed shifts in Atlantic bluefin tuna availability in the Gulf of Maine. For the bluefin model, landings varied by day of year, latitude and longitude. The effect of latitude differed by day of year and the effect of longitude differed by year. The distances between Atlantic bluefin tuna schools and Atlantic herring schools were significantly smaller (p<0.05) than would be expected from a randomly distributed population. A time series of average bluefin tuna school positions was positively correlated with the average number of herring captured per tow on Georges Bank in spring and autumn surveys respectively (p<0.01, r2=0.24, p<0.01, r2=0.42). Fishermen’s logbooks contributed novel spatial and temporal information towards testing these hypotheses for the bluefin tuna fishery. PMID:24069420

  2. Tuna and swordfish catch in the U.S. northwest Atlantic longline fishery in relation to mesoscale eddies.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ango C; Boustany, Andre M; Roberts, Jason J; Chang, Jui-Han; Halpin, Patrick N

    2015-11-01

    To analyze the effects of mesoscale eddies, sea surface temperature (SST), and gear configuration on the catch of Atlantic bluefin (Thunnus thynnus), yellowfin (Thunnus albacares), and bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius) in the U.S. northwest Atlantic longline fishery, we constructed multivariate statistical models relating these variables to the catch of the four species in 62 121 longline hauls made between 1993 and 2005. During the same 13-year period, 103 anticyclonic eddies and 269 cyclonic eddies were detected by our algorithm in the region 30-55°N, 30-80°W. Our results show that tuna and swordfish catches were associated with different eddy structures. Bluefin tuna catch was highest in anticyclonic eddies whereas yellowfin and bigeye tuna catches were highest in cyclonic eddies. Swordfish catch was found preferentially in regions outside of eddies. Our study confirms that the common practice of targeting tuna with day sets and swordfish with night sets is effective. In addition, bluefin tuna and swordfish catches responded to most of the variables we tested in the opposite directions. Bluefin tuna catch was negatively correlated with longitude and the number of light sticks used whereas swordfish catch was positively correlated with these two variables. We argue that overfishing of bluefin tuna can be alleviated and that swordfish can be targeted more efficiently by avoiding fishing in anticyclonic eddies and in near-shore waters and using more light sticks and fishing at night in our study area, although further studies are needed to propose a solid oceanography-based management plan for catch selection.

  3. Changes in the distribution of atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) in the Gulf of Maine 1979-2005.

    PubMed

    Golet, Walter J; Galuardi, Benjamin; Cooper, Andrew B; Lutcavage, Molly E

    2013-01-01

    The Gulf of Maine, NW Atlantic Ocean, is a productive, seasonal foraging ground for Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), but commercial landings of adult size classes were up to 40% below the allocated total allowable catch between 2004 to 2008 for the rod and reel, harpoon, and purse seine categories in the Gulf of Maine. Reduction in Atlantic bluefin tuna catches in the Gulf of Maine could represent a decline in spawning stock biomass, but given wide-ranging, complex migration patterns, and high energetic requirements, an alternative hypothesis is that their dispersal patterns shifted to regions with higher prey abundance or profitability, reducing availability to U.S. fishing fleets. This study fit generalized linear models to Atlantic bluefin tuna landings data collected from fishermen's logbooks (1979-2005) as well as the distances between bluefin tuna schools and Atlantic herring (Clupeaharengus), a primary prey species, to test alternative hypotheses for observed shifts in Atlantic bluefin tuna availability in the Gulf of Maine. For the bluefin model, landings varied by day of year, latitude and longitude. The effect of latitude differed by day of year and the effect of longitude differed by year. The distances between Atlantic bluefin tuna schools and Atlantic herring schools were significantly smaller (p<0.05) than would be expected from a randomly distributed population. A time series of average bluefin tuna school positions was positively correlated with the average number of herring captured per tow on Georges Bank in spring and autumn surveys respectively (p<0.01, r(2)=0.24, p<0.01, r(2)=0.42). Fishermen's logbooks contributed novel spatial and temporal information towards testing these hypotheses for the bluefin tuna fishery.

  4. On the movements, aggregations and the foraging habitat of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus and Thunnus orientalis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walli, Andreas G.

    To exploit the ocean's patchy resources, large open ocean fish species have evolved highly migratory foraging strategies. In this thesis, a synoptic study of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) and Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) and their environment was conducted to identify feeding behavior and foraging related horizontal and vertical movements, and to elucidate foraging habitat. First, electronic archival tags (n=561) were used to examine seasonal movements (1996-2005), aggregations and diving behaviors of Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABFT) to better understand their migration ecology and oceanic habitat utilization. Throughout the North Atlantic mean diving depth was significantly correlated with thermocline depth and dive behavior changed in relation to the stratification of the water column. Distribution behavior was characterized by seasonal aggregations and rapid movement phases. Throughout the North Atlantic, high residence times (167 +/- 33 days) were identified in four spatially confined regions on a seasonal scale. In these regions, mean diving depths were significantly shallower and dive frequency and internal temperature variance were significantly higher than during transit movements between the regions, suggesting foraging behavior. Residence time in high-use areas was correlated to primary productivity in northern latitudes and these areas represent critical foraging habitats with seasonally abundant prey. To be able to study feeding in wild bluefin tunas, the heat increment of feeding (HIF) in response to known quantities and caloric value of food ingested by captive individuals was evaluated. Feeding experiments were conducted using stomach and peritoneal placed archival tags in captive Pacific bluefin tuna (PBFT, n=31). Peritoneal temperature measurements indicate a significant correlation between food energy content and the duration from the start of post-grandial heat increment to the maximum thermal excess (TXmax ) in all ambient

  5. Under the Shadow of the Big Stick: U.S. Intervention in Cuba, 1906-1909

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-21

    Cuba: From Columbus to Castro and Beyond, 4 th ed. (Washington D.C.: Pergamon- Brassey ‟ s International Defense Publishers, 1997), 155. 2 than the...Suchlicki, Jaime. Cuba: From Columbus to Castro and Beyond. 4 th ed. Washington, D.C.: Pergamon- Brassey ‟ s Internationl Defense Publishers, 1997...Intervention in Cuba, 1906- 1909 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) MAJ Bruce A. Vitor II 5d. PROJECT

  6. United States - Cuba Policy: Strategic Framework for Re-emergent Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-07

    USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT United States – Cuba Policy: Strategic Framework For Re-emergent Relations by Allen J. Jamerson United States Air...COVERED (FROM - TO) xx-xx-2002 to xx-xx-2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE United States - Cuba Policy: Strategic Framework for Re-emergent Relations ... UNITED STATES – CUBA POLICY: STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK FOR RE-EMERGENT RELATIONS .....1 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

  7. Economic and Security Reasons Why the U.S. Should Normalize Relations with Cuba

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    chapter], a refusal to allow Castro to blackmail the United States with the threat of unleashing a wave of Cuban refugees to the U.S., the wrongful...9 Joaquín Roy, “ Cuba , the United States , and the Helms-Burton Doctrine,” Gainesville: The University...the U.S. current foreign policy toward Cuba will not achieve its stated objective of the end of the Castro regime and a democratic Cuba . Additionally

  8. Heat resistance of histamine-producing bacteria in irradiated tuna loins.

    PubMed

    Enache, Elena; Kataoka, Ai; Black, D Glenn; Weddig, Lisa; Hayman, Melinda; Bjornsdottir-Butler, Kristin

    2013-09-01

    Consumption of foods high in biogenic amines leads to an illness known as histamine, or scombrotoxin, poisoning. The illness is commonly associated with consumption of fish with high levels of histamine ( $ 500 ppm). The objective of this study was to determine and compare the heat resistance of five histamine-producing bacteria in irradiated albacore tuna loins. Heat-resistance parameters (D- and z-values) were determined for Morganella morganii, Raoultella planticola, Hafnia alvei, and Enterobacter aerogenes. D- or z-values were not determined for Photobacterium damselae, which was the most heat-sensitive organism in this study. P. damselae declined > 5.9 log CFU/g after a heat treatment of 50°C for 10 min, 54°C for 3 min, and 56°C for 0.5 min. M. morganii was the most heat-resistant histamine-producing bacteria in albacore tuna loins, followed by E. aerogenes, H. alvei, and R. planticola. M. morganii and E. aerogenes had the highest D(50°C), 49.7 ± 17.57 and 51.8 ± 17.38 min, respectively. In addition, M. morganii had the highest D-values for all other temperatures (54, 56, and 58°C) tested. D- and zvalues were also determined for M. morganii in skipjack tuna. While no significant (P > 0.05) difference was observed between D(54°C) and D(56°C) of M. morganii in either albacore or skipjack tuna, the D(58°C) (0.4 ± 0.17 min) was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in skipjack than in albacore (0.9 ± 0.24 min). The z-values for all organisms tested were in the range of 3.2 to 3.8°C. This study suggests that heat treatment designed to control M. morganii in tuna loins is sufficient for controlling histamine-producing bacteria in canned-tuna processing environments.

  9. Oligonucleotide indexing of DNA barcodes: identification of tuna and other scombrid species in food products

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background DNA barcodes are a global standard for species identification and have countless applications in the medical, forensic and alimentary fields, but few barcoding methods work efficiently in samples in which DNA is degraded, e.g. foods and archival specimens. This limits the choice of target regions harbouring a sufficient number of diagnostic polymorphisms. The method described here uses existing PCR and sequencing methodologies to detect mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms in complex matrices such as foods. The reported application allowed the discrimination among 17 fish species of the Scombridae family with high commercial interest such as mackerels, bonitos and tunas which are often present in processed seafood. The approach can be easily upgraded with the release of new genetic diversity information to increase the range of detected species. Results Cocktail of primers are designed for PCR using publicly available sequences of the target sequence. They are composed of a fixed 5' region and of variable 3' cocktail portions that allow amplification of any member of a group of species of interest. The population of short amplicons is directly sequenced and indexed using primers containing a longer 5' region and the non polymorphic portion of the cocktail portion. A 226 bp region of CytB was selected as target after collection and screening of 148 online sequences; 85 SNPs were found, of which 75 were present in at least two sequences. Primers were also designed for two shorter sub-fragments that could be amplified from highly degraded samples. The test was used on 103 samples of seafood (canned tuna and scomber, tuna salad, tuna sauce) and could successfully detect the presence of different or additional species that were not identified on the labelling of canned tuna, tuna salad and sauce samples. Conclusions The described method is largely independent of the degree of degradation of DNA source and can thus be applied to processed seafood. Moreover, the

  10. Effects of on-board and dockside handling on the formation of biogenic amines in mahimahi (Coryphaena hippurus), skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis), and yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares).

    PubMed

    Staruszkiewicz, Walter F; Barnett, James D; Rogers, Patricia L; Benner, Ronald A; Wong, Lynn L; Cook, John

    2004-01-01

    Consumer illnesses by scombroid poisonings have been a continuing problem for many years. The intoxications follow the ingestion of fish such as tuna and mahimahi that have undergone bacterial decomposition, leading to the formation of biogenic amines. Research studies have concluded that histamine is one of the indicators of scombrotoxic fish and that other amines, such as cadaverine, could be involved in the illnesses. Guidance for the handling of fish on board fishing vessels to prevent the production of scombrotoxic fish has been limited by a lack of data addressing changes that occur in fish from the water to delivery at dockside. In this study, the changes in selected biogenic amines were determined in mahimahi and tuna, which were captured and held in seawater at 25 to 35 degrees C for incubation times up to 18 h. The fillets from the treated fish were sectioned by transverse cuts and analyzed for histamine, cadaverine, and putrescine. Results showed that at 26 degrees C, more than 12 h of incubation were required before a histamine concentration of 50 ppm was reached in mahimahi. At 35 degrees C, 50 ppm histamine formed within 9 h. Similar results were found for skipjack and yellowfin tuna. Histamine concentrations exceeded 500 ppm within an additional 3 h of incubation in mahimahi. At both temperatures, an increase in the concentration of cadaverine preceded an increase in histamine levels. Changes in putrescine concentrations in the fish were less pronounced. The study also demonstrated that histidine decarboxylase activity was retained in some frozen samples of fish and could result in further increases in histamine on thawing.

  11. Relict Oceanic Lithosphere in Cuba: Types and Emplacement Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CobiellaReguera, J. L.

    2001-12-01

    According to their composition and tectonic position, three different types of relict oceanic lithosphere are present in Cuba: (1) the northern ophiolitic belt, a complex melange that extents more than 1000 km along the island, (2) the basement of the Cretaceous volcanic arc terrane: high temperature/low pressure amphibolites with some serpentinites and, (3) tectonic slices of serpentinite melanges (with eclogites and blueschists) and high pressure amphibolites, in the metamorphic Escambray massif (tectonostratigraphic terrane, microcontinent?) of southcentral Cuba. Available age constrains (paleontological and geochronological) indicate that relicts of oceanic lithosphere in Cuba are upper Mesozoic in age. Geochemical, petrological, and regional geology data suggest that such oceanic relicts probably originated in two different tectonic environments in the Proto-Caribbean basin; (1) a small oceanic basin of Upper Jurassic- Neocomian age, related to drift between North America and a southern continental mass and (2) a suprasubduction marginal basin, between the southeastern North American passive margin and an Aptian-Albian volcanic arc. Tectonic emplacement of the Cuban relict oceanic Proto-Caribbean lithosphere was likely related to several tectonic events and processes. Serpentinite melange slices and the high pressure amphibolites in the Jurassic and Cretaceous passive margin sequences of Escambray massif, characterized by low to moderate temperature and high pressure metamorphism, probably were emplaced from subduction and closure of the small oceanic depression located to the south (present geographic coordinates) of the volcanic arc in the Albian. The basement amphibolites of the volcanic arc terrane were derived from the Upper Jurassic-Neocomian oceanic crust, metamorphosed by the high temperatures and hot solutions related to the development on this crust of an Aptian-Albian volcanic arc with a north dipping subduction zone. These amphibolites were

  12. Eradication of poliomyelitis in Cuba: a historical perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Más Lago, P.

    1999-01-01

    The eradication of poliomyelitis in Cuba, for which effective vaccines had to be acquired, is reviewed in this article. The strategy for eradication was based on mass immunization campaigns for the annual delivery of two doses of trivalent Sabin oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). Except during the first campaign in 1962, the ages of the children for immunization were determined through national serological surveys of the entire country, including rural and urban areas. The interruption of wild virus transmission had been suspected since 1967 in Cuba, and since 1970 no studies have detected any wild virus. The important role of political and social organizations in the success of the programme and in the execution of the mass immunization campaigns is underscored. Countries that have successfully interrupted poliovirus circulation should maintain high immunization coverage for as long as there are other countries in the world where poliovirus still exists. PMID:10516790

  13. Origin of invasive Florida frogs traced to Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Heinicke, Matthew P.; Diaz, Luis M.; Hedges, S. Blair

    2011-01-01

    Two of the earliest examples of successful invasive amphibians are the greenhouse frog (Eleutherodactylus planirostris) and the Cuban treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) in Florida. Although both are generally assumed to be recent introductions, they are widespread on Caribbean islands and also have been proposed as natural colonizers. We obtained nucleotide sequence data for both species and their closest relatives in their native and introduced ranges. Phylogenetic analyses trace the origin of E. planirostris to a small area in western Cuba, while O. septentrionalis is derived from at least two Cuban sources, one probably a remote peninsula in western Cuba. The tropical-to-temperate invasion began with colonization of the Florida Keys followed by human-mediated dispersal within peninsular Florida. The subtropical Keys may have served as an adaptive stepping stone for the successful invasion of the North American continent. PMID:21270024

  14. Raising HIV/AIDS awareness through Cuba's Memorias project.

    PubMed

    Aragonés, Carlos; Campos, Jorge R; Nogueira, Oscar; Pérez, Jorge

    2011-04-01

    As long as there is no cure for AIDS, the only effective means of containing its spread is prevention, primarily through public education. Cuba's AIDS Prevention Group is a community-based organization whose main purpose is to support the National HIV/AIDS Program's prevention and education efforts. The Group's Memorias Project uses the creation and display of memorial quilts to put a human face on AIDS statistics and stimulate public reflection on issues related to the disease and society.

  15. Mathematics and Physics in Cuba Before 1959: A Personal Recollection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altshuler, José

    On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the formal inauguration of the Republic of Cuba (May 20, 1902), the then Historian of the City of Havana, Emilio Roig de Leuchsenring, decided to publish a memorial volume which would include various special studies on the progress made in the country during the preceding half century with regard to specific aspects of national collective life. The volume, entitled Facetas de la vida de Cuba republicana, 1902-1952 (Facets of Life in Republican Cuba, 1902-1952) appeared in print in 1954. Its publication was delayed—as Roig explained in his prologue, somewhat cryptically—"due to causes beyond our control or of that of the Cuban writers to whom we entrusted the preparation of the said studies." Needless to say, the causes referred to were none other than those derived from the atmosphere of political unrest in the country after the military coup staged in March 1952 by former strongman, General Batista.

  16. Recent trends in Cuba's mining and petroleum industries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wacaster, Susan; Baker, Michael S.; Soto-Viruet, Yadira; Textoris, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    The Report is Temporarily UnavailableIn response to recent diplomatic developments between Cuba and the United States, the National Minerals Information Center compiled available information on the mineral industries of Cuba. This fact sheet highlights a new map and table that identify mines, mineral processing facilities, and petroleum facilities as well as information on location, operational status, and ownership. It also addresses the current status of known mineral industry projects, historical developments, and trends of the Cuban economy with an emphasis on mineral industries, and the supply and demand for Cuba’s mineral resources.In 2013, Cuba was estimated to be among the world’s top ten producers of cobalt and nickel, which are the country’s leading exports. Cuba’s current crude oil and associated natural gas production from onshore and shallow water coastal reservoirs is approximately 50,000 barrels per day of liquids and about 20,000 barrels per day oil equivalent of natural gas. In 2013, the value of mining and quarrying activities accounted for 0.6 percent of Cuba’s gross domestic product (GDP), compared with 1.4 percent in 2000. The value of production from Cuba’s industrial manufacturing sector increased by 88 percent between 1993 and 2013 whereas the sector’s share in the GDP decreased by about 3 percent during the same time period reflecting economic growth in other sectors of the economy.

  17. The imprint of anthropogenic CO2 emissions on Atlantic bluefin tuna otoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraile, Igaratza; Arrizabalaga, Haritz; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Kölling, Martin; Santos, Miguel Neves; Macías, David; Addis, Piero; Dettman, David L.; Karakulak, Saadet; Deguara, Simeon; Rooker, Jay R.

    2016-06-01

    Otoliths of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) collected from the Mediterranean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean were analyzed to evaluate changes in the seawater isotopic composition over time. We report an annual otolith δ13C record that documents the magnitude of the δ13C depletion in the Mediterranean Sea between 1989 and 2010. Atlantic bluefin tuna in our sample (n = 632) ranged from 1 to 22 years, and otolith material corresponding to the first year of life (back-calculated birth year) was used to reconstruct seawater isotopic composition. Otolith δ18O remained relatively stable between 1989 and 2010, whereas a statistically significant decrease in δ13C was detected across the time interval investigated, with a rate of decline of 0.05‰ yr- 1 (- 0.94‰ depletion throughout the recorded period). The depletion in otolith δ13C over time was associated with the oceanic uptake of anthropogenically derived CO2.

  18. Moving Cages Further Offshore: Effects on Southern Bluefin Tuna, T. maccoyii, Parasites, Health and Performance

    PubMed Central

    Kirchhoff, Nicole T.; Rough, Kirsty M.; Nowak, Barbara F.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of offshore aquaculture on SBT health (particularly parasitic infections and haematology) and performance were the main aim of this study. Two cohorts of ranched Southern Bluefin tuna (SBT) (Thunnus maccoyii) were monitored throughout the commercial season, one maintained in the traditional near shore tuna farming zone and one maintained further offshore. SBT maintained offshore had reduced mortality, increased condition index at week 6 post transfer, reduced blood fluke and sealice loads, and haematological variables such as haemoglobin or lysozyme equal to or exceeding near shore maintained fish. The offshore cohort had no Cardicola forsteri and a 5% prevalence of Caligus spp., compared to a prevalence of 85% for Cardicola forsteri and 55% prevalence for Caligus spp. near shore at 6 weeks post transfer. This study is the first of its kind to examine the effects of commercial offshore sites on farmed fish parasites, health and performance. PMID:21901129

  19. Transectional heat transfer in thermoregulating bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) - a 2D heat flux model.

    PubMed

    Boye, Jess; Musyl, Michael; Brill, Richard; Malte, Hans

    2009-11-01

    We developed a 2D heat flux model to elucidate routes and rates of heat transfer within bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus Lowe 1839 in both steady-state and time-dependent settings. In modeling the former situation, we adjusted the efficiencies of heat conservation in the red and the white muscle so as to make the output of the model agree as closely as possible with observed cross-sectional isotherms. In modeling the latter situation, we applied the heat exchanger efficiencies from the steady-state model to predict the distribution of temperature and heat fluxes in bigeye tuna during their extensive daily vertical excursions. The simulations yielded a close match to the data recorded in free-swimming fish and strongly point to the importance of the heat-producing and heat-conserving properties of the white muscle. The best correspondence between model output and observed data was obtained when the countercurrent heat exchangers in the blood flow pathways to the red and white muscle retained 99% and 96% (respectively) of the heat produced in these tissues. Our model confirms that the ability of bigeye tuna to maintain elevated muscle temperatures during their extensive daily vertical movements depends on their ability to rapidly modulate heating and cooling rates. This study shows that the differential cooling and heating rates could be fully accounted for by a mechanism where blood flow to the swimming muscles is either exclusively through the heat exchangers or completely shunted around them, depending on the ambient temperature relative to the body temperature. Our results therefore strongly suggest that such a mechanism is involved in the extensive physiological thermoregulatory abilities of endothermic bigeye tuna.

  20. Cuba in Transition: Communism vs Charisma "Who Will Emerge as Cuba’s Next Leader"

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    thorn in the side of the United States and has boldly defied any attempts to overthrow his government. Has it been the Communist Institution that has...Furiol and Loser, (1990) p.51. 31 Fred C. Judson , Cuba and the Revolutionary Myth, (Boulder: Westview Press 1984), p. 3. 20 Chapter 3...1990’s. New York: Praeger. Johnson, John J., The Military and Society in Latin America. Stanford: Stanford University Press 1964 Judson , Fred C

  1. The aggregation of tuna around floating objects: what could be the underlying social mechanisms?

    PubMed

    Robert, Marianne; Dagorn, Laurent; Deneubourg, Jean Louis

    2014-10-21

    Several empirical and theoretical studies have shown how the exploitation of food sources, the choice of resting sites or other types of collective decision-making in heterogeneous environments are facilitated and modulated by social interactions between conspecifics. It is well known that many pelagic fishes live in schools and that this form of gregarious behavior provides advantages in terms of food intake and predator avoidance efficiency. However, the influence of social behavior in the formation of aggregations by tuna under floating objects (FOBs) is poorly understood. In this work, we investigated the collective patterns generated by different theoretical models, which either include or exclude social interactions between conspecifics, in the presence of two aggregation sites. The resulting temporal dynamics and distributions of populations were compared to in situ observations of tuna behavior. Our work suggests that social interactions should be incorporated in aggregative behavior to reproduce the temporal patterns observed in the field at both the individual and the group level, challenging the common vision of tuna aggregations around FOBs. Our study argues for additional data to further demonstrate the role of social behavior in the dynamics of these fish aggregations. Understanding the interplay between environmental and social factors in the associative behavior of fish with FOBs is necessary to assess the consequences of the widespread deployment of artificial FOBs by fishermen.

  2. Prediction of Quality Change During Thawing of Frozen Tuna Meat by Numerical Calculation I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Natsumi; Watanabe, Manabu; Suzuki, Toru

    A numerical calculation method has been developed to determine the optimum thawing method for minimizing the increase of metmyoglobin content (metMb%) as an indicator of color changes in frozen tuna meat during thawing. The calculation method is configured the following two steps: a) calculation of temperature history in each part of frozen tuna meat during thawing by control volume method under the assumption of one-dimensional heat transfer, and b) calculation of metMb% based on the combination of calculated temperature history, Arrenius equation and the first-order reaction equation for the increase rate of metMb%. Thawing experiments for measuring temperature history of frozen tuna meat were carried out under the conditions of rapid thawing and slow thawing to compare the experimental data with calculated temperature history as well as the increase of metMb%. The results were coincident with the experimental data. The proposed simulation method would be useful for predicting the optimum thawing conditions in terms of metMb%.

  3. Shifting from marine reserves to maritime zoning for conservation of Pacific bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus)

    PubMed Central

    Sibert, John; Senina, Inna; Lehodey, Patrick; Hampton, John

    2012-01-01

    Over 50% of the total bigeye tuna (BET) landed in the Western Central Pacific Ocean is caught incidentally in the purse seine fishery and sold for canning at prices less than US$2/kg. The remainder is landed in longline fisheries directed at BET and sold as fresh or frozen tuna at prices greater than US$10/kg. The combined fishing mortality by all gears will soon reduce the BET biomass in the Pacific Ocean to less than that capable of producing maximum sustainable yield. Closure of the high-seas enclaves in 2009 was hailed as a conservation measure, but was not scientifically evaluated before implementation and appears to have had no beneficial effect on the BET stock. A spatially explicit age-structured ecosystem model, SEAPODYM, is used to simulate alternative area-based fishery management policies to conserve bigeye tuna in the Western Central Pacific Ocean. Closing the high-seas enclaves to purse seine fishing has negligible effect on the BET biomass. Fishery management policies that control mortality on both juveniles and adults, through prohibition of fish aggregation devices in the purse seine fishery and restrictions on longline fishing in spawning areas, are the most efficient conservation policies. Large-scale benefits from bigeye conservation measures will become apparent only in the 2030s, assuming timely implementation and minimal effects of climate change. PMID:23064639

  4. Accumulation pattern of butyltin compounds in dolphin, tuna, and shark collected from Italian coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Kannan, K; Corsolini, S; Focardi, S; Tanabe, S; Tatsukawa, R

    1996-07-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) and its breakdown products, mono-(MBT) and dibutyltin (DBT) were determined in bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus thynnus) and blue shark (Prionace glauca) collected from the Italian coast of the Mediterranean Sea in 1992-1993. Concentrations of total butyltin (BTs) in the liver of dolphin (1,200-2,200 ng/g wet wt) were an order of magnitude higher than in the blubber (48-320 ng/g wet wt). TBT was the predominant butyltin species in the blubber while DBT accounted for an higher proportion in the liver of dolphins. Butyltin concentrations in bluefin tuna were lower than those in dolphins, with TBT highest in the muscle and DBT in the liver. Concentrations of BTs in blue sharks were lower than those in dolphin and tuna, with kidney having the highest concentrations. TBT was the predominant form of butyltin derivatives in all the tissues of shark. Accumulation of butyltin compounds in liver/kidney seems to be associated with the presence of proteins such as glutathione.

  5. Shifting from marine reserves to maritime zoning for conservation of Pacific bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus).

    PubMed

    Sibert, John; Senina, Inna; Lehodey, Patrick; Hampton, John

    2012-10-30

    Over 50% of the total bigeye tuna (BET) landed in the Western Central Pacific Ocean is caught incidentally in the purse seine fishery and sold for canning at prices less than US$2/kg. The remainder is landed in longline fisheries directed at BET and sold as fresh or frozen tuna at prices greater than US$10/kg. The combined fishing mortality by all gears will soon reduce the BET biomass in the Pacific Ocean to less than that capable of producing maximum sustainable yield. Closure of the high-seas enclaves in 2009 was hailed as a conservation measure, but was not scientifically evaluated before implementation and appears to have had no beneficial effect on the BET stock. A spatially explicit age-structured ecosystem model, SEAPODYM, is used to simulate alternative area-based fishery management policies to conserve bigeye tuna in the Western Central Pacific Ocean. Closing the high-seas enclaves to purse seine fishing has negligible effect on the BET biomass. Fishery management policies that control mortality on both juveniles and adults, through prohibition of fish aggregation devices in the purse seine fishery and restrictions on longline fishing in spawning areas, are the most efficient conservation policies. Large-scale benefits from bigeye conservation measures will become apparent only in the 2030s, assuming timely implementation and minimal effects of climate change.

  6. [Spatial-temporal distribution of bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus in the tropical Atlantic Ocean based on Argo data].

    PubMed

    Yang, Sheng-long; Jin, Shao-fei; Hua, Cheng-jun; Dai, Yang

    2015-02-01

    In order to analyze the correlation between spatial-temporal distribution of the bigeye tuna ( Thunnus obesus) and subsurface factors, the study explored the isothermal distribution of subsurface temperatures in the bigeye tuna fishing grounds in the tropical Atlantic Ocean, and built up the spatial overlay chart of the isothermal lines of 9, 12, 13 and 15 °C and monthly CPUE (catch per unit effort) from bigeye tuna long-lines. The results showed that the bigeye tuna mainly distributed in the water layer (150-450 m) below the lower boundary depth of thermocline. At the isothermal line of 12 °C, the bigeye tuna mainly lived in the water layer of 190-260 m, while few individuals were found at water depth more than 400 m. As to the 13 °C isothermal line, high CPUE often appeared at water depth less than 250 m, mainly between 150-230 m, while no CPUE appeared at water depth more than 300 m. The optimum range of subsurface factors calculated by frequency analysis and empirical cumulative distribution function (ECDF) exhibited that the optimum depth range of 12 °C isothermal depth was 190-260 m and the 13 °C isothermal depth was 160-240 m, while the optimum depth difference range of 12 °C isothermal depth was -10 to 100 m and the 13 °C isothermal depth was -40 to 60 m. The study explored the optimum range of subsurface factors (water temperature and depth) that drive horizontal and vertical distribution of bigeye tuna. The preliminary result would help to discover the central fishing ground, instruct fishing depth, and provide theoretical and practical references for the longline production and resource management of bigeye tuna in the Atlantic Ocean.

  7. Total mercury in fresh and processed tuna marketed in Galicia (NW Spain) in relation to dietary exposure.

    PubMed

    García, M Ángeles; Núñez, Ricardo; Alonso, Julián; Melgar, M Julia

    2016-12-01

    Mercury is a toxic trace metal, which can accumulate to levels threatening human and environmental health. In this study, contents of total mercury have been determined by ICP-MS spectrometry in fresh and processed tuna (110 samples) purchased from supermarkets in NW Spain. Mercury was present in all samples analyzed; however, only one sample of fresh tuna (1.070 mg kg(-1) wet weight (w.w.)) slightly exceeded the limit of the EU (1.0 mg kg(-1) w.w.). The average mercury concentration in processed tuna was lower than fresh, 0.306 mg kg(-1) w.w., and ranged from 0.080 to 0.715 mg kg(-1) w.w. Results were compared with literature data. In regard to the three types of preparation-packaging media for canned tuna, total Hg content was found in the following order: olive oil > natural > pickled sauce; the last showed significant statistical differences (p < 0.01) with the other two preparations. Between the two evaluated canned tuna species, significant statistical differences (p = 0.008) were observed and Thunnus alalunga presented a greater mean content (0.332 ± 0.114 mg kg(-1) w.w.) compared to Thunnus albacares (0.266 ± 0.171 mg kg(-1) w.w.).Taking into account the AESAN recommendation for adults and children, as well as the EU regulations and the tuna consumption by the Spanish population, the Hg levels obtained in this study pose no risk to consumer health. However, additional studies, a monitoring process, and efforts to reduce Hg concentration in tuna would be necessary, as well as considering other sources of exposure to Hg.

  8. Comparative influence of ocean conditions on yellowfin and Atlantic bluefin tuna catch from longlines in the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Teo, Steven L H; Block, Barbara A

    2010-05-28

    Directed fishing effort for Atlantic bluefin tuna in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), their primary spawning grounds in the western Atlantic, has been prohibited since the 1980s due to a precipitous decline of the spawning stock biomass. However, pelagic longlines targeted at other species, primarily yellowfin tuna and swordfish, continue to catch Atlantic bluefin tuna in the GOM as bycatch. Spatial and temporal management measures minimizing bluefin tuna bycatch in the GOM will likely become important in rebuilding the western Atlantic bluefin stock. In order to help inform management policy and understand the relative distribution of target and bycatch species in the GOM, we compared the spatiotemporal variability and environmental influences on the catch per unit effort (CPUE) of yellowfin (target) and bluefin tuna (bycatch). Catch and effort data from pelagic longline fisheries observers (1993-2005) and scientific tagging cruises (1998-2002) were coupled with environmental and biological data. Negative binomial models were used to fit the data for both species and Akaike's Information Criterion (corrected for small sample size) was used to determine the best model. Our results indicate that bluefin CPUE had higher spatiotemporal variability as compared to yellowfin CPUE. Bluefin CPUE increased substantially during the breeding months (March-June) and peaked in April and May, while yellowfin CPUE remained relatively high throughout the year. In addition, bluefin CPUE was significantly higher in areas with negative sea surface height anomalies and cooler sea surface temperatures, which are characteristic of mesoscale cyclonic eddies. In contrast, yellowfin CPUE was less sensitive to environmental variability. These differences in seasonal variability and sensitivity to environmental influences suggest that bluefin tuna bycatch in the GOM can be reduced substantially by managing the spatial and temporal distribution of the pelagic longline effort without substantially

  9. Comparing the Role of Education in Serving Socioeconomic and Political Development in Tanzania and Cuba.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mtonga, Harry L.

    1993-01-01

    Compares Tanzania and Cuba to show how, in each case, the state has used education in political and socioeconomic development as a means of achieving socialism. In Cuba, the school system has contributed to creation of the new society, whereas Tanzania continues with piecemeal reconstruction of the educational system. (SLD)

  10. 31 CFR 515.564 - Professional research and professional meetings in Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., academic nature; (ii) The research comprises a full work schedule in Cuba; (iii) The research has a..., or performance under contracts for the provision of the telecommunications services, or the.... Example 1 to paragraph (d): A musicologist travels to Cuba to do research on Cuban music pursuant to...

  11. Theological Higher Education in Cuba: Part 2--Origins and Ministry of Protestant Seminaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esqueda, Octavio J.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the main Protestant theological seminaries in Cuba: Western Cuba Baptist Seminary, Cedars of Lebanon Seminary, The New Pines Evangelical Seminary, Evangelical Theological Seminary, Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Center, Nazarene Theological Seminary and International School of Theology. The history and…

  12. Report of the Republic of Cuba to the 36th International Conference on Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Havana (Cuba).

    The Cuban Ministry of Education relates difficulty in presenting a valid report on education in Cuba from 1974-76 due to major changes instituted in 1975 in the first year of a five-year educational improvement plan. Information presented in the document is the most up to date available, however, and does reflect Cuba's objective to structure…

  13. American Delegation Is Blocked from Attending an Academic Conference in Cuba.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haworth, Karla

    1997-01-01

    American academics planning to attend an international conference on operations research in Cuba, including the keynote speaker, had to cancel plans when the Treasury Department did not approve licenses they needed to spend money in Cuba. They claim the lack of approval was for political reasons, but the government claims the application was…

  14. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency Relating to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency Relating to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and Movement of Vessels Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of February 23, 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency Relating to Cuba and of...

  15. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency Relating to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency Relating to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and Movement of Vessels Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of January 15, 2009 Continuation of the National Emergency Relating to Cuba and of...

  16. Food-web inferences of stable isotope spatial patterns in copepods and yellowfin tuna in the pelagic eastern Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Robert J.; Popp, Brian N.; Graham, Brittany S.; López-Ibarra, Gladis A.; Galván-Magaña, Felipe; Lennert-Cody, Cleridy E.; Bocanegra-Castillo, Noemi; Wallsgrove, Natalie J.; Gier, Elizabeth; Alatorre-Ramírez, Vanessa; Ballance, Lisa T.; Fry, Brian

    2010-07-01

    Evaluating the impacts of climate and fishing on oceanic ecosystems requires an improved understanding of the trophodynamics of pelagic food webs. Our approach was to examine broad-scale spatial relationships among the stable N isotope values of copepods and yellowfin tuna ( Thunnus albacares), and to quantify yellowfin tuna trophic status in the food web based on stable-isotope and stomach-contents analyses. Using a generalized additive model fitted to abundance-weighted-average δ 15N values of several omnivorous copepod species, we examined isotopic spatial relationships among yellowfin tuna and copepods. We found a broad-scale, uniform gradient in δ 15N values of copepods increasing from south to north in a region encompassing the eastern Pacific warm pool and parts of several current systems. Over the same region, a similar trend was observed for the δ 15N values in the white muscle of yellowfin tuna caught by the purse-seine fishery, implying limited movement behavior. Assuming the omnivorous copepods represent a proxy for the δ 15N values at the base of the food web, the isotopic difference between these two taxa, “ ΔYFT-COP,” was interpreted as a trophic-position offset. Yellowfin tuna trophic-position estimates based on their bulk δ 15N values were not significantly different than independent estimates based on stomach contents, but are sensitive to errors in the trophic enrichment factor and the trophic position of copepods. An apparent inshore-offshore, east to west gradient in yellowfin tuna trophic position was corroborated using compound-specific isotope analysis of amino acids conducted on a subset of samples. The gradient was not explained by the distribution of yellowfin tuna of different sizes, by seasonal variability at the base of the food web, or by known ambit distances (i.e. movements). Yellowfin tuna stomach contents did not show a regular inshore-offshore gradient in trophic position during 2003-2005, but the trophic

  17. Vertical behavior and diet of albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) vary with latitude in the South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Ashley J.; Allain, Valerie; Nicol, Simon J.; Evans, Karen J.; Hoyle, Simon D.; Dupoux, Cyndie; Vourey, Elodie; Dubosc, Jeff

    2015-03-01

    Albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) are an important upper tropic-level oceanic predator with a circum-global distribution. Little is known of the movements and diet of albacore tuna in the South Pacific Ocean and how variability in both might influence the vulnerability of albacore tuna to fisheries across their range. We coupled data derived from satellite-tagged albacore tuna with stomach samples collected from individuals at the same locations to characterize the vertical behavior, thermal and dietary habits of albacore tuna at tropical (New Caledonia and Tonga) and temperate (New Zealand) latitudes. A total of 18 pop-up satellite archival tags deployed on albacore tuna remained attached for 0-50 days. Position estimates, calculated from 11 tags, described short-term movements of predominantly less than 500 km, although one fish moved more than 1000 km over a period of 50 days. Vertical behavior and diet differed substantially between tropical and temperate latitudes. At tropical latitudes, albacore tuna showed a distinct diel pattern in vertical habitat use, occupying shallower, warmer waters above the mixed layer depth (MLD) at night, and deeper, cooler waters below the MLD during the day. In contrast, there was little evidence of a diel pattern of vertical behavior in albacore tuna at temperate latitudes, with fish limited to shallow waters above the MLD almost all of the time. Spatial patterns of species composition in stomach contents were consistent with vertical movement patterns, with significantly more deepwater prey species consumed in tropical waters than in temperate waters. Albacore in tropical waters also consumed significantly greater diversities of prey than in temperate waters, predominately preying on fish species, whereas those in temperate waters predominately preyed on crustacea. Our results indicate that the vertical distribution of albacore is constrained either by thermal preferences with diet reflecting these preferences, by the vertical

  18. Why do tuna maintain elevated slow muscle temperatures? Power output of muscle isolated from endothermic and ectothermic fish.

    PubMed

    Altringham, J D; Block, B A

    1997-10-01

    It has been hypothesised that regional endothermy has evolved in the muscle of some tunas to enhance the locomotory performance of the fish by increasing muscle power output. Using the work loop technique, we have determined the relationship between cycle frequency and power output, over a range of temperatures, in isolated bundles of slow muscle fibres from the endothermic yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) and its ectothermic relative the bonito (Sarda chiliensis). Power output in all preparations was highly temperature-dependent. A counter-current heat exchanger which could maintain a 10 degrees C temperature differential would typically double maximum muscle power output and the frequency at which maximum power is generated (fopt). The deep slow muscle of the tuna was able to operate at higher temperatures than slow muscle from the bonito, but was more sensitive to temperature change than more superficially located slow fibres from both tuna and bonito. This suggests that it has undergone some evolutionary specialisation for operation at higher, but relatively stable, temperatures. fopt of slow muscle was higher than the tailbeat frequency of undisturbed cruising tuna and, together with the high intrinsic power output of the slow muscle mass, suggests that cruising fish have a substantial slow muscle power reserve. This reserve should be sufficient to power significantly higher sustainable swimming speeds, presumably at lower energetic cost than if intrinsically less efficient fast fibres were recruited.

  19. Benefits and risks associated with consumption of raw, cooked, and canned tuna (Thunnus spp.) based on the bioaccessibility of selenium and methylmercury.

    PubMed

    Afonso, C; Costa, S; Cardoso, C; Oliveira, R; Lourenço, H M; Viula, A; Batista, I; Coelho, I; Nunes, M L

    2015-11-01

    The Se, Hg, and methylmercury (MeHg) levels in raw, cooked (boiled and grilled), and canned tuna (Thunnus spp.) were determined before and after an in vitro digestion, thereby enabling the calculation of the respective bioaccessibility percentages. A risk-benefit evaluation of raw and canned tuna on the basis of the Se and MeHg data was performed. Selenium bioaccessibility was high in tuna, though slightly lower in canned than in raw products. Mercury levels were high in raw and cooked tuna. Hg bioaccessibility percentages were low (39-48%) in the cooked tuna and even lower (<20%) in canned tuna. For the bioaccessible fraction, all molar Se:MeHg ratios were higher than one (between 10 and 74). A probabilistic assessment of MeHg risk vs Se benefit showed that while a weekly meal of canned tuna presents very low risk, raw, boiled, and grilled tuna consumption should not exceed a monthly meal, at least, for pregnant and nursing women.

  20. The efficacy of X-ray does on murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1) in pure culture, half-shell oyster, salmon sushi, and tuna salad

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this investigation, we determined the efficacy of X-ray doses on reducing a human norovirus (HuNoV) surrogate [murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1)] in pure culture, half-shell oyster, salmon sushi and tuna salad. The pure culture (phosphate-buffer saline, pH 7.4), half-shell oyster, salmon sushi and tuna ...

  1. Incidence of three Kudoa spp., K. neothunni, K. hexapunctata, and K. thunni (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida), in Thunnus tunas distributed in the western Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Akihiro; Tsuduki, Hideaki; Jimenez, Lea Angsinco; Li, Ying-Chun; Tanaka, Shuhei; Sato, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    A variety of tunas of the genus Thunnus are consumed daily in Japan as sliced raw fish (sashimi and sushi). The consumption of fresh sliced raw fish, i.e., unfrozen or uncooked, can sometimes cause food poisoning that is manifested by transient diarrhea and vomiting for a single day. One of the causes of this type of food poisoning has been identified as live Kudoa septempunctata (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) in the olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Furthermore, raw slices of fresh tunas are highly suspected to be a possible causative fish of similar food poisoning in Japan. In the present study, we conducted a survey of kudoid infections in tunas (the yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares, the Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis, and the longtail tuna Thunnus tonggol) fished in the western Pacific Ocean off Japan and several East Asian countries and characterized morphologically and genetically the kudoid myxospores in pseudocysts or cysts dispersed in the trunk muscles. Pseudocysts of solely Kudoa hexapunctata were identified in the Pacific bluefin tuna (four isolates), whereas in the yellowfin tuna (21 isolates) pseudocysts of Kudoa neothunni and K. hexapunctata were detected at a ratio of 15:6, respectively, in addition to cyst-forming Kudoa thunni in five yellowfin tunas. In the trunk muscles of six longtail tunas examined, pseudocysts of K. neothunni (all six fish) and K. hexapunctata (two fish) were densely dispersed. The myxospores of K. neothunni found in these longtail tunas had seven shell valves and polar capsules (SV/PC) instead of the more common six SV/PC arranged symmetrically. Nucleotide sequences of the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA), some with the internal transcribed spacer regions as well, of K. hexapunctata and K. neothunni from the three Thunnus spp., including the seven-SV/PC morphotype, were very similar to previously characterized nucleotide sequences of each species, whereas the 18S and 28S rDNA of four isolates of K. thunni

  2. Risk factors for wheezing in infants born in Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Medina, R.; Mora-Faife, E. C.; García-García, G.; Valle-Infante, I.; Gómez-Marrero, L.; Abreu-Suárez, G.; González-Valdez, J.; Fabró-Ortiz, D. Dania; Fundora-Hernández, H.; Venn, A.; Britton, J.; Fogarty, A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cuba is a unique country, and despite limited economic development, has an excellent health system. However, the prevalence of asthma symptoms in children in Havana, Cuba, is unusually high. Aim: As early life exposures are critical to the aetiology of asthma, we have studied environmental influences on the risk of wheezing in Cuban infants. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: A random sample of 2032 children aged 12–15 months living in Havana was selected for inclusion in the cohort. Data were collected using questionnaires administered by researchers. Results: Of 2032 infants invited to participate, 1956 (96%) infants provided data. The prevalence of any wheeze was 45%, severe wheeze requiring use of emergency services was 30% and recurrent wheeze on three or more occasions was 20%. The largest adjusted risk factors for any wheeze were presence of eczema [odds ratio (OR) 2.09; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.48–2.94], family history of asthma (OR 2.05; 95% CI 1.60–2.62), poor ventilation in the house (OR 1.99; 95% CI 1.48–2.67), attendance at nursery (OR 1.78; 95% CI 1.24–2.57), male sex (OR1.52; 95% CI 1.19–1.96) and the number of smokers in the house (P < 0.03 for trend), OR 1.64 (95% CI 1.17–2.31) for three or more smokers in the house compared to no smokers in the household. Conclusion: We have identified several risk factors for any wheeze in young infants living in modern day Cuba. As the prevalence of smoking in the house is high (51%), intervention studies are required to determine effective strategies to improve infant health. PMID:23824939

  3. Habitat overlap between southern bluefin tuna and yellowfin tuna in the east coast longline fishery - implications for present and future spatial management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartog, Jason R.; Hobday, Alistair J.; Matear, Richard; Feng, Ming

    2011-03-01

    Southern bluefin tuna (SBT) are presently a quota-managed species in the multi-species eastern Australian tuna and billfish longline fishery (ETBF). Capture of SBT is regulated by quota, as is access to regions likely to contain SBT. A habitat prediction model combining data from an ocean model and pop-up satellite archival tags is used to define habitat zones based on the probability of SBT occurrence. These habitat zones are used by fishery managers to restrict access by ETBF fishers to SBT habitat during a May-November management season. The zones display a distinct seasonal cycle driven by the seasonal southward expansion and northward contraction of the East Australia Current (EAC) and as a result access by fishers to particular ocean regions changes seasonally. This species also overlaps with the commercially valuable yellowfin tuna (YFT), thus, we modified the SBT model to generate YFT habitat predictions in order to investigate habitat overlap between SBT and YFT. There is seasonal variation in the overlap of the core habitat between these two species, with overlap early (May-Jul) in the management season and habitat separation occurring towards the end (Aug-Nov). The EAC is one of the fastest warming ocean regions in the southern hemisphere. To consider the future change in distribution of these two species compared to the present and to explore the potential impact on fishers and managers of the future, we use future ocean predictions from the CSIRO Bluelink ocean model for the year 2064 to generate habitat predictions. As the ocean warms on the east coast of Australia and the EAC extends southward, our model predicts the suitable habitat for SBT and YFT will move further south. There was an increase in the overlap of SBT and YFT habitat throughout the management season, due to regional variation of each species' habitat. These results illustrate that a management tradeoff exists between restricting fisher access to SBT habitat and allowing access to YFT

  4. Contribution to the knowledge of Galumnoidea (Acari, Oribatida) of Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Ermilov, Sergey G.; Tolstikov, Andrei V.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An annotated checklist of identified oribatid mites of the superfamily Galumnoidea collected from Cuba, including ten species from four genera and two families, is provided. Galumna flabellifera Hammer, 1958, Pergalumna bifissurata Hammer, 1972, Pergalumna bryani (Jacot, 1934), Pergalumna decorata Balogh & Mahunka, 1977 and Galumnopsis secunda Sellnick, 1923 are recorded for the first time in the Cuban fauna. A new species of Pergalumna, Pergalumna cubaensis sp. n., is described; it is morphologically similar to Pergalumna decorata Balogh & Mahunka, 1977, but differs from the latter by the larger body size, heavily granulated prodorsum and well-developed interlamellar setae. The adult of Allogalumna cubana Balogh & Mahunka, 1979 is redescribed. PMID:26798237

  5. Metazoan gill parasites of the Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus) (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) from the Mediterranean and their possible use as biological tags.

    PubMed

    Culurgioni, Jacopo; Mele, Salvatore; Merella, Paolo; Addis, Piero; Figus, Vincenza; Cau, Angelo; Karakulak, Firdes Saadet; Garippa, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    The gills of 63 specimens of the Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus) (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) from three localities of the Mediterranean (Sardinian, Tyrrhenian and Levantine Seas) were examined for metazoan parasites. The parasite fauna of T. thynnus from the Sea of Sardinia included 11 species: five didymozoid trematodes, three capsalid and one hexostomid monogeneans, and one caligid and one pseudocycnid copepods. Four didymozoids were found in fish from the Levantine Sea and only one didymozoid was recorded in fish from the Tyrrhenian Sea. Dividing the hosts into four size-groups (small, medium-sized, large and extra large), the pairwise comparison of prevalence and mean abundance of the new and literary data) showed differences according to host size. The differences in the composition of the parasitic faunas and in the prevalence of parasites, observed between the small tunas from the Tyrrhenian Sea and the medium-sized tunas from the Adriatic Sea, Levantine Sea and the North-East (NE) Atlantic Ocean, indicated that these groups form discrete units. The parasite fauna of the large tunas from the Sea of Sardinia is the richest among the bluefin tuna populations of the Mediterranean and the NE Atlantic, due to the presence of species not found elsewhere in bluefin tunas, such as Caligus coryphaenae Steenstrup et Lütken, 1861, Capsala magronum (Ishii, 1936) and C. paucispinosa (Mamaev, 1968). This fact and the prevalence of some parasites of this group (lower than those of medium-sized fish from the NE Atlantic and higher than the small and medium-sized tunas from the Mediterranean) suggest that the large-sized tuna group in the western Mediterranean is formed by Mediterranean resident tunas (poorly infected), and by tunas migrating from the Atlantic Ocean (heavily infected).

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides as intrinsic tracer tags of foraging grounds of bluefin tuna in the northwest Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Ashok D; Dickhut, Rebecca M; Dockum, Bruce W; Brill, Richard W; Farrington, Cameron

    2016-04-15

    Researchers have utilized chemical fingerprints in the determination of habitat utilization and movements of the aquatic animals. In the present effort, we analyzed polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and organochlorine pesticides in the samples of juvenile bluefin tuna caught offshore of Virginia, and in larger bluefin tuna from the Gulf of Maine and near Nova Scotia. For a given specimen, or a given location, PCB concentrations were highest, followed by DDTs, and chlordanes. Average contaminant concentrations from fish captured from the three locations were not significantly different; and PCBs, DDTs, and chlordanes correlated well with each other. Trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratios in bluefin tuna of eastern Atlantic (i.e., Mediterranean) origin are low compared to the corresponding ratios in fish in the western Atlantic. As the former migrate to the western Atlantic, these ratios gradually turnover due to the accumulation of biomass from forage contaminated with higher trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio reflecting dissimilar use of chlordane pesticides on two sides of the Atlantic Ocean. The trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio indicated that one juvenile bluefin tuna from offshore of Virginia and one large bluefin tuna from Gulf of Maine in the present study originated from foraging grounds in the Mediterranean Sea, and that they have made the trans-Atlantic migrations. The remaining individuals were determined to be either spawned in the Gulf of Mexico or the trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio for the putative Mediterranean bluefin tuna was completely turned over to resemble the ratio characteristic to the western Atlantic. Based on the turnover time for trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio previously determined, the residence time of juvenile bluefin tuna offshore Virginia was estimated to be at least 0.8 to 1.6years. A discriminant function analysis (DFA) plot of total PCB normalized signatures of PCB congeners showed three separate clusters, which suggested that bluefin tuna

  7. Metal Concentrations in Two Commercial Tuna Species from an Active Volcanic Region in the Mid-Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Torres, Paulo; Rodrigues, Armindo; Soares, Lília; Garcia, Patrícia

    2016-02-01

    Concentrations of cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead [Pb (µg g(-1) wet weight)] were determined in liver and muscle samples of 15 bigeye (Thunnus obesus) and 15 skipjack tunas (Katsuwonus pelamis) caught over an active volcanic region in the Mid-Atlantic Ocean (Azores, Portugal) and evaluated regarding consumption safety. None of the muscle samples (edible part) exceeded the European Union (EU) maximum limits (MLs) for Hg and Pb. Cd concentrations in muscle were much greater than EU MLs with 53 and 26 % of the bigeye tuna and skipjack tuna, respectively, in exceedance of the limits. Results obtained in this work, together with other studies in the same region, support the existence of an important volcanic source of Cd in waters of the Mid-Atlantic region, which should be carefully monitored given the importance of many commercial marine species for human consumption, mainly in Europe.

  8. Anti-wrinkle effects of a tuna heart H2O fraction on Hs27 human fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    KIM, YOUNG-MIN; JUNG, HEE-JIN; CHOI, JAE-SUE; NAM, TAEK-JEONG

    2016-01-01

    With the increase in life expectancy, there is also growing interest in anti-aging treatments and technologies. The development of anti-aging functional drugs for the skin, and foods from natural sources, may offer solutions to this global matter. Aging involves structural, functional and biochemical changes that occur throughout cells and bodily tissues; the amount of hormones secreted from of all human organs, including the skin, decreases over time. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) genes (MMP-1 and -8) play an important role in the aging of skin fibroblasts. For example, an increased MMP expression causes accelerated aging and the degradation of skin elasticity-related genes. In the present study, we examined the anti-wrinkle effects of tuna heart extract which are mediated through the inhibition of MMPs in skin cells. Generally, tuna contains high concentrations of selenium and antioxidants, which serve to remove free radicals, and is known to delay skin and body aging. In addition, unsaturated fatty acids in tuna help to maintain the natural glossy look of skin, and increase skin elasticity, providing moisture for dry skin. A recent study confirmed the various bio-effects of boiled tuna extract and muscle. However, bioactivity studies using tuna heart are limited. Thus, in the present study, we obtained extracts and fractions of tuna heart, and examined their effects on Hs27 human fibroblast proliferation using an MTS assay. In addition, we measured procollagen type 1 levels and elastase activity, and performed β-galactosidase staining. We then measured the expression levels of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and MMP-related genes by western blot analysis and RT-PCR. Our results revealed that tuna heart extract decreased MMP expression by upregulating tissue inhibitors of metallopro-teinase-1 (TIMP-1) and decreasing elastase activity, thus exerting anti-aging and anti-wrinkle effects by increasing collagen synthesis and promoting skin fibroblast proliferation

  9. Gulf of Mexico Ecological Forecasting - Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Population Assessment and Management using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laygo, K.; Jones, I.; Huerta, J.; Holt, B.

    2010-12-01

    Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus) is one of the largest vertebrates in the world and is in high demand in sushi markets. It is a highly political species and is managed internationally by the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tuna. The Gulf of Mexico and the Mediterranean Sea are the only two known spawning sites in the world. However, there is a large variance in estimates of adult Atlantic Tuna spawning. This research focuses on extending Earth science research results to existing decision-making systems, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)for population assessment and management of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna. The research team is a multi-sector and multi-disciplinary team composed of government (NOAA_NMFS), academic (University of South Florida Institute for Marine Remote Sensing) and commercial (Roffer’s Ocean Fishing Forecasting Service, Inc.) institutions. Their goal is to reduce the variance in the estimates of adult Bluefin Tuna spawning stock abundance in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Therefore, this paper will be derived from the innovative use of several earth orbiting satellites focusing on the use of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data to identify Sargassum, which is a floating marine algae that may be relevant to the presence of Bluefin Tuna aggregations. The SAR imagery will be examined in combination with MODIS and MERIS Chlorophyll-a products to detect fine-scale surface current shear, eddy and frontal features, as well as biological slicks due to the presence of Sargassum. In addition, wind records from NOAA buoy data will be studied to analyze wind patterns in the Gulf of Mexico. The fine-resolution, all-weather capabilities of SAR provide a valuable complement to optical/IR sensors, which are often impacted by cloud cover. This study will provide an assessment of whether or not SAR can contribute to decision support efforts relevant to commercial fisheries

  10. Mercury in Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis):bioaccumulation and trans-Pacific Ocean migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, John A.; Nogueira, Jacob I.; Pancorbo, Oscar C.; Batdorf, Carol A.; Block, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) have the largest home range of any tuna species and are well known for the capacity to make transoceanic migrations. We report the measurement of mercury (Hg) concentrations in wild Pacific bluefin tuna (PBFT), the first reported with known size-of-fish and capture location. The results indicate juvenile PBFT that are recently arrived in the California Current from the western Pacific Ocean have significantly higher Hg concentrations in white muscle (0.51 ug/g wet mass, wm) than PBFT of longer California Current residency (0.41 ug/g wm). These new arrivals are also higher in Hg concentration than PBFT in farm pens (0.43 ug/g wm) that were captured on arrival in the California Current and raised in pens on locally derived feed. Analysis by direct Hg analyzer and attention to Hg by tissue type and location on the fish allowed precise comparisons of mercury among wild and captive fish populations. Analysis of migration and nearshore residency, determined through extensive archival tagging, bioaccumulation models, trophic investigations, and potential coastal sources of methylmercury, indicates Hg bioaccumulation is likely greater for PBFT juvenile habitats in the western Pacific Ocean (East China Sea, Yellow Sea) than in the eastern Pacific Ocean (California Current). Differential bioaccumulation may be a trophic effect or reflect methylmercury availability, with potential sources for coastal China (large hypoxic continental shelf receiving discharge of three large rivers, and island-arc volcanism) different from those for coastal Baja California (small continental shelf, no large rivers, spreading-center volcanism).

  11. Photobacterium angustum and Photobacterium kishitanii, Psychrotrophic High-Level Histamine-Producing Bacteria Indigenous to Tuna

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, S. A.; Dunlap, P. V.; Benner, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    Scombrotoxin fish poisoning (SFP) remains the main contributor of fish poisoning incidents in the United States, despite efforts to control its spread. Psychrotrophic histamine-producing bacteria (HPB) indigenous to scombrotoxin-forming fish may contribute to the incidence of SFP. We examined the gills, skin, and anal vents of yellowfin (n = 3), skipjack (n = 1), and albacore (n = 6) tuna for the presence of indigenous HPB. Thirteen HPB strains were isolated from the anal vent samples from albacore (n = 3) and yellowfin (n = 2) tuna. Four of these isolates were identified as Photobacterium kishitanii and nine isolates as Photobacterium angustum; these isolates produced 560 to 603 and 1,582 to 2,338 ppm histamine in marine broth containing 1% histidine (25°C for 48 h), respectively. The optimum growth temperatures and salt concentrations were 26 to 27°C and 1% salt for P. kishitanii and 30 to 32°C and 2% salt for P. angustum in Luria 70% seawater (LSW-70). The optimum activity of the HDC enzyme was at 15 to 30°C for both species. At 5°C, P. kishitanii and P. angustum had growth rates of 0.1 and 0.2 h−1, respectively, and the activities of histidine decarboxylase (HDC) enzymes were 71% and 63%, respectively. These results show that indigenous HPB in tuna are capable of growing at elevated and refrigeration temperatures. These findings demonstrate the need to examine the relationships between the rate of histamine production at refrigeration temperatures, seafood shelf life, and regulatory limits. PMID:26826233

  12. Encapsulation of mixtures of tuna oil, tributyrin and resveratrol in a spray dried powder formulation.

    PubMed

    Sanguansri, Luz; Day, Li; Shen, Zhiping; Fagan, Peter; Weerakkody, Rangika; Cheng, Li Jiang; Rusli, Jenny; Augustin, Mary Ann

    2013-12-01

    Spray dried emulsions are effective for carrying and stabilising combinations of fish oil and tributyrin, fish oil and resveratrol, or fish oil, tributyrin and resveratrol in one formulation. The encapsulation efficiencies were >99% for all three bioactives when a heated mixture of sodium caseinate: glucose: dried glucose syrup matrix (Encapsulant matrix 1) was used. When a heated sodium caseinate: glucose: processed starch matrix (Encapsulant matrix 2) was used, the encapsulation efficiencies were 90-92% for tributyrin and approximately 98% for resveratrol for all formulations but 79-91% for tuna oil where the efficiency was more formulation dependent. There was 84-86% remaining EPA, 85-87% remaining DHA, 85% remaining tributyrin and 94-96% remaining resveratrol after 18 months at 25 °C storage of the spray dried emulsions using Encapsulant matrix 1 across all formulations. In comparison, there was 83-87% remaining EPA and 84-89% remaining DHA, 80-82% remaining tributyrin, and 81-100% remaining resveratrol across all formulations with Encapsulant matrix 2. In vitro studies showed that on sequential exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal fluids, <5% tuna oil was found as triglycerides, but all the tributyrin had been lipolysed. The presence of diglycerides, monoglycerides and free fatty acids in the in vitro digests suggested that lipolysis of tuna oil had occurred. The type of matrix used for encapsulating the bioactives had little effect on the lipolysis of the oils but affected the amount of solvent extractable resveratrol. The ability of delivering mixtures of bioactives within one formulation was demonstrated.

  13. The Conservation and Management of Tunas and Their Relatives: Setting Life History Research Priorities

    PubMed Central

    Juan-Jordá, Maria José; Mosqueira, Iago; Freire, Juan; Dulvy, Nicholas K.

    2013-01-01

    Scombrids (tunas, bonitos, Spanish mackerels and mackerels) support important fisheries in tropical, subtropical and temperate waters around the world, being one of the most economically- and socially-important marine species globally. Their sustainable exploitation, management and conservation depend on accurate life history information for the development of quantitative fisheries stock assessments, and in the fishery data-poor situations for the identification of vulnerable species. Here, we assemble life history traits (maximum size, growth, longevity, maturity, fecundity, spawning duration and spawning interval) for the 51 species of scombrids globally. We identify major biological gaps in knowledge and prioritize life history research needs in scombrids based on their biological gaps in knowledge, the importance of their fisheries and their current conservation status according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List. We find that the growth and reproductive biology of tunas and mackerel species have been more extensively studied than for Spanish mackerels and bonitos, although there are notable exceptions in all groups. We also reveal that reproductive biology of species, particular fecundity, is the least studied biological aspect in scombrids. We identify two priority groups, including 32 species of scombrids, and several populations of principal market tunas, for which life history research should be prioritized following the species-specific life history gaps identified in this study in the coming decades. By highlighting the important gaps in biological knowledge and providing a priority setting for life history research in scombrid species this study provides guidance for management and conservation and serves as a guide for biologists and resource managers interested in the biology, ecology, and management of scombrid species. PMID:23950930

  14. The conservation and management of tunas and their relatives: setting life history research priorities.

    PubMed

    Juan-Jordá, Maria José; Mosqueira, Iago; Freire, Juan; Dulvy, Nicholas K

    2013-01-01

    Scombrids (tunas, bonitos, Spanish mackerels and mackerels) support important fisheries in tropical, subtropical and temperate waters around the world, being one of the most economically- and socially-important marine species globally. Their sustainable exploitation, management and conservation depend on accurate life history information for the development of quantitative fisheries stock assessments, and in the fishery data-poor situations for the identification of vulnerable species. Here, we assemble life history traits (maximum size, growth, longevity, maturity, fecundity, spawning duration and spawning interval) for the 51 species of scombrids globally. We identify major biological gaps in knowledge and prioritize life history research needs in scombrids based on their biological gaps in knowledge, the importance of their fisheries and their current conservation status according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List. We find that the growth and reproductive biology of tunas and mackerel species have been more extensively studied than for Spanish mackerels and bonitos, although there are notable exceptions in all groups. We also reveal that reproductive biology of species, particular fecundity, is the least studied biological aspect in scombrids. We identify two priority groups, including 32 species of scombrids, and several populations of principal market tunas, for which life history research should be prioritized following the species-specific life history gaps identified in this study in the coming decades. By highlighting the important gaps in biological knowledge and providing a priority setting for life history research in scombrid species this study provides guidance for management and conservation and serves as a guide for biologists and resource managers interested in the biology, ecology, and management of scombrid species.

  15. Effect of thermal acclimation on action potentials and sarcolemmal K+ channels from Pacific bluefin tuna cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Galli, G L J; Lipnick, M S; Block, B A

    2009-08-01

    To sustain cardiac muscle contractility relatively independent of temperature, some fish species are capable of temporarily altering excitation-contraction coupling processes to meet the demands of their environment. The Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis, is a partially endothermic fish that inhabits a wide range of thermal niches. The present study examined the effects of temperature and thermal acclimation on sarcolemmal K(+) currents and their role in action potential (AP) generation in bluefin tuna cardiomyocytes. Atrial and ventricular myocytes were enzymatically isolated from cold (14 degrees C)- and warm (24 degrees C)-acclimated bluefin tuna. APs and current-voltage relations of K(+) channels were measured using the whole cell current and voltage clamp techniques, respectively. Data were collected either at the cardiomyocytes' respective acclimation temperature of 14 or 24 degrees C or at a common test temperature of 19 degrees C (to reveal the effects of acclimation). AP duration (APD) was prolonged in cold-acclimated (CA) cardiomyocytes tested at 14 degrees C compared with 19 degrees C and in warm-acclimated (WA) cardiomyocytes tested at 19 degrees C compared with 24 degrees C. This effect was mirrored by a decrease in the density of the delayed-rectifier current (I(Kr)), whereas the density of the background inward-rectifier current (I(K1)) was unchanged. When CA and WA cardiomyocytes were tested at a common temperature of 19 degrees C, no significant effects of temperature acclimation on AP shape or duration were observed, whereas I(Kr) density was markedly increased in CA cardiomyocytes. I(K1) density was unaffected in CA ventricular myocytes but was significantly reduced in CA atrial myocytes, resulting in a depolarization of atrial resting membrane potential. Our results indicate the bluefin AP is relatively short compared with other teleosts, which may allow the bluefin heart to function at cold temperatures without the necessity for thermal

  16. Innovative Tuberculosis Symposium held during Cuba Salud 2015.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Helena J; Armas Pérez, Luisa

    2016-12-01

    The fourth Tuberculosis (TB) Symposium, held during the Cuba Salud 2015 International Convention, highlighted advancements in research on TB and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) by interdisciplinary teams from academic and federal institutions in Cuba, Colombia, Mexico, and the Dominican Republic. Delegates focused on the targets presented in the World Health Organization End TB Strategy for 2016-2035 and elaborated on four primary themes: 1) attention to vulnerable populations such as immunocompromised individuals, health care workers, and residents of long-term institutions such as prisons and nursing homes; 2) identification of active and latent TB cases through contact investigations; 3) spread and control of drug-resistant Mtb strains; and 4) advancements in the development of novel vaccines or "booster" immunizations. This international TB forum served as a platform for experts in diverse disciplines in these Latin American countries to discuss challenges faced by TB research and control programs, proposing novel research initiatives and promoting collaborative teamwork strategies for TB elimination. In solidarity, collaborative efforts in TB control require identification of symptomatic individuals, rapid diagnostic testing for TB, drug susceptibility assays on Mtb strains, and management that provide universal and gratuitous access to directly observed short-course therapy.

  17. A comprehensive review of spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Pérez, Luis; Rodríguez-Labrada, Roberto; García-Rodríguez, Julio Cesar; Almaguer-Mederos, Luis Enrique; Cruz-Mariño, Tania; Laffita-Mesa, José Miguel

    2011-06-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is an autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia characterized by a progressive cerebellar syndrome associated to saccadic slowing, peripheral neuropathy, cognitive disorders, and other multisystem features. SCA2 is caused by the abnormal expansion of cytosine-adenine-guanine triplet repeats in the encoding region of the ATXN2 gene and therefore the expression of toxic polyglutamine expansions in the ataxin 2 protein, which cause progressive neuronal death of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum and several pontine, mesencephalic, and thalamic neurons among other cells. Worldwide, SCA2 is the second most frequent type of spinocerebellar ataxia, only surpassed by SCA3. Nevertheless, in Holguin, Cuba, the disease reaches the highest prevalence, resulting from a putative foundational effect. This review discusses the most important advances in the genotypical and phenotypical studies of SCA2, highlighting the comprehensive characterization reached in Cuba through clinical, neuroepidemiological, neurochemical, and neurophysiological evaluation of SCA2 patients and pre-symptomatic subjects, which has allowed the identification of new disease biomarkers and therapeutical opportunities. These findings provide guidelines, from a Cuban viewpoint, for the clinical management of the disease, its diagnosis, genetic counseling, and therapeutical options through rehabilitative therapy and/or pharmacological options.

  18. Vietnamese women at solidarity meeting of world women in Cuba.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes experiences of a Vietnamese delegation at a solidarity meeting of world women during April 13-16, 1998, in Cuba. The President of the Viet Nam Women's Union headed the delegation. The advisor was the vice-chairperson of the Vietnamese National Assembly. The delegation participated in 6 forums: women and sustainable economic development; women, health, education, and social security; women, communication and the mass media; women in politics and decision-making; women, violence and discrimination; and national independence, sovereignty, peace, and women. The delegation also participated in sessions on women's issues; implementation issues; women parliamentarians; and migrant and displaced women. The delegation met with delegates from other countries and participated in a world meeting and an Asian-Pacific meeting to support Cuban women. The entire delegation presented a stage show of songs, which was well received by the 3000 participants. The delegation met with Cuban delegates to discuss the formation of women's groups and to build better relations between the women of both countries. The delegation visited a training center of women cadres and the center for gender education. Participants adopted the Havana Declaration, which states the intention of world women to eradicate poverty and war and to promote peace, progress, and happiness in all countries. The Havana Declaration condemned the US embargo against Cuba. Fidel Castro spoke and expressed gratitude for the strong support from world women, especially Vietnamese women.

  19. United Vietnam and Cuba will overcome all obstacles.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    This article presents the speech of the President of the Viet Nam Women's Union, given on April 15, 1998, at a world women's solidarity meeting held in Cuba. The President gave the Cuban Women's Federation US$50,000 for women's and children's programs. The President indicated that the Vietnamese people wanted to help alleviate the hardships of the Cuban people and show solidarity with Cuba and Comrade Fidel Castro. The money was collected in a nationwide campaign in an effort to express Viet Nam's sympathy for Cubans who face difficult living conditions due to the US embargo. The President thanked the Cuban people for standing up to a superpower for all the world to see and for being confident and optimistic despite hardships. The Vietnamese are ready to defend revolutionary achievements, independence, and socialism. The Vietnamese will be celebrating the 35th year of the founding of the Cuban Committee for Solidarity with Viet Nam, Laos, and Cambodia. The Vietnamese delegation offered warm greetings to the Cuban Party and State and the Cuban women and children under the leadership of Comrade Fidel Castro.

  20. The Prevalence, Correlates and Impact of Dementia in Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Llibre Rodríguez, J.; Valhuerdi, A.; Sanchez, l.l.; Reyna, C.; Guerra, M.A.; Copeland, J.R.M.; McKeigue, P.; Ferri, C.P.; Prince, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background We aimed to estimate the prevalence, correlates and impact of dementia in Havana and Matanzas, Cuba. Methods A 1-phase catchment area survey of all over 65-year-old residents of 7 catchment areas in Havana and 1 in Matanzas was conducted. Dementia diagnosis was established according to DSM-IV and our own, pre-validated10/66 criteria. The impact of dementia was assessed through associations with needs for care, cutting back on work to care and caregiver psychological morbidity. Results We interviewed 2,944 older people, a response proportion of 96.4%. The prevalence of DSM-IV dementia was 6.4% and that of 10/66 dementia 10.8%. Both dementia outcomes were associated with older age, less education, a family history of dementia, shorter leg length and smaller skull circumference. Dementia, rather than physical health problems or depression, was the main contributor to needs for care (population-attributable prevalence fraction = 64.6%) and caregiver cutting back on work (population-attributable prevalence fraction = 57.3%). Conclusion The prevalence of dementia in Cuba is similar to Europe. Among health conditions, dementia is the major contributor to dependency and caregiver economic and psychological strain. More attention needs to be given to it and other chronic diseases associated more with disability than premature mortality. PMID:18931519

  1. An unassuming revelation: Cuba's social policy toward the AIDS epidemic.

    PubMed

    Binns, L A

    2013-01-01

    The thrust of this essay is nestled in Cuba's complimentary approach to the treatment of HIV/AIDS virus. In a comprehensive and comparative fashion, the contents herein give credence to a developing nation that demonstrates expedience and emphasizes a history of continuity with remarkable results. Underlying the report is a journey that enlightens the reader to a process rich in application and outcome during a period in which the plaque of HIV has transformed the Caribbean and Latin America community. Meanwhile, it also speaks to a collaborative effort inclusive of government , medical agencies, laboratories, international organizations and the public toward a common good. The country, nonetheless, is not without its shortcomings and therefore monetary constraints and matters of confidentiality and discrimination are pivotal to the presentation. In fact, an elaborate characterization accentuates a 50-year old commercial interdiction as a deterrent that contributes to the disruption of affordability and accessibility to the exchange of goods, services and information. Against all likelihood, a contrasting analysis of regional states inclusive of the United States of America documents Cuba's astonishing success in restricting HIV/AIDS. The Cuban model as described is an exemplary work in progress but likewise the fulfillment of the socialist philosophy toward humanity.

  2. Low birth weight outcomes: why better in Cuba than Alabama?

    PubMed

    Neggers, Yasmin; Crowe, Kristi

    2013-01-01

    Reducing the incidence of low birth weight (LBW), a major predictor of infant mortality and morbidity in developed and developing countries, is an important worldwide goal, yet interventions to reduce this incidence have been disappointingly unsuccessful. Despite its low per capita income, Cuba has managed to significantly reduce the prevalence of LBW in recent decades. To date, minimal research has been conducted to comparatively evaluate risk factors associated with birth weight outcomes between countries with significantly differing rates of LBW. For this reason, we traveled to Havana to study the Cuban model of prenatal care and compare risk factors associated with LBW in Cuba, the United States, and, in particular, Alabama. This article describes the community-based approaches to prenatal care provided within the Cuban healthcare system and their influence on rates of LBW. As a result of these successfully integrated health services, the Cuban healthcare model will be used to evaluate and compare Alabama's current prenatal care system, in particular the implementation of strategies such as community-based clinics and maternity homes for high-risk pregnancies.

  3. The potential impact of ocean acidification upon eggs and larvae of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromhead, Don; Scholey, Vernon; Nicol, Simon; Margulies, Daniel; Wexler, Jeanne; Stein, Maria; Hoyle, Simon; Lennert-Cody, Cleridy; Williamson, Jane; Havenhand, Jonathan; Ilyina, Tatiana; Lehodey, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are resulting in increasing absorption of CO2 by the earth's oceans, which has led to a decline in ocean pH, a process known as ocean acidification (OA). Evidence suggests that OA may have the potential to affect the distribution and population dynamics of many marine organisms. Early life history processes (e.g. fertilization) and stages (eggs, larvae, juveniles) may be relatively more vulnerable to potential OA impacts, with implications for recruitment in marine populations. The potential impact of OA upon tuna populations has not been investigated, although tuna are key components of pelagic ecosystems and, in the Pacific Ocean, form the basis of one of the largest and most valuable fisheries in the world. This paper reviews current knowledge of potential OA impacts on fish and presents results from a pilot study investigating how OA may affect eggs and larvae of yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares. Two separate trials were conducted to test the impact of pCO2 on yellowfin egg stage duration, larval growth and survival. The pCO2 levels tested ranged from present day (~400 μatm) to levels predicted to occur in some areas of the spawning habitat within the next 100 years (<2500 μatm) to 300 years (~<5000 μatm) to much more extreme levels (~10,000 μatm). In trial 1, there was evidence for significantly reduced larval survival (at mean pCO2 levels≥4730 μatm) and growth (at mean pCO2 levels≥2108 μatm), while egg hatch time was increased at extreme pCO2 levels≥10,000 μatm (*intermediate levels were not tested). In trial 2, egg hatch times were increased at mean pCO2 levels≥1573 μatm, but growth was only impacted at higher pCO2 (≥8800 μatm) and there was no relationship with survival. Unstable ambient conditions during trial 2 are likely to have contributed to the difference in results between trials. Despite the technical challenges with these experiments, there is a need for future empirical work which

  4. Global pollution monitoring of polybrominated diphenyl ethers using skipjack tuna as a bioindicator.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Daisuke; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Subramanian, Annamalai; Fillmann, Gilberto; Lam, Paul K S; Zheng, Gene J; Muchitar, Muswerry; Razak, Hamidah; Prudente, Maricar; Chung, Kyu-Hyuck; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2004-04-15

    To elucidate the global distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), these chemicals were determined in the muscle of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from offshore waters of various regions in the world (Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, Seychelles, and Brazil, and the Japan Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea, Indian Ocean, and North Pacific Ocean). PBDEs were detected in almost all the skipjack tuna collected from the locations surveyed (from < 0.1 to 53 ng/g of lipid), indicating widespread contamination by these compounds in the marine environment. Residue levels of PBDEs in these samples from the northern hemisphere seem to be higher than those from the southern hemisphere, which is plausibly due to larger usage of these compounds in the northern hemisphere. Higher concentrations of PBDEs were detected in the samples from waters around the East China Sea (up to 53 ng/g of lipid). Developing countries around the East China Sea are supposedly the "hot spots" releasing these chemicals into the marine environment. With regard to the composition of PBDE congeners, the percentage contribution by lower brominated congeners (BDE15, -28, and -47) showed an increasing trend with increasing latitude. On the other hand, higher brominated congeners (BDE153, -154, and -183) showed a reverse trend. These patterns suggest that lower brominated congeners of PBDEs (di-, tri-, and tetra-BDEs) were preferentially transported from pollution sources to northern colder regions through the atmosphere. PBDEs may have a high potency to cause global pollution like PCBs.

  5. Absolute abundance of southern bluefin tuna estimated by close-kin mark-recapture

    PubMed Central

    Bravington, Mark V.; Grewe, Peter M.; Davies, Campbell R.

    2016-01-01

    Southern bluefin tuna is a highly valuable, severely depleted species, whose abundance and productivity have been difficult to assess with conventional fishery data. Here we use large-scale genotyping to look for parent–offspring pairs among 14,000 tissue samples of juvenile and adult tuna collected from the fisheries, finding 45 pairs in total. Using a modified mark-recapture framework where ‘recaptures' are kin rather than individuals, we can estimate adult abundance and other demographic parameters such as survival, without needing to use contentious fishery catch or effort data. Our abundance estimates are substantially higher and more precise than previously thought, indicating a somewhat less-depleted and more productive stock. More broadly, this technique of ‘close-kin mark-recapture' has widespread utility in fisheries and wildlife conservation. It estimates a key parameter for management—the absolute abundance of adults—while avoiding the expense of independent surveys or tag-release programmes, and the interpretational problems of fishery catch rates. PMID:27841264

  6. Organochlorine pesticides in canned tuna and sardines on the Serbian market.

    PubMed

    Kartalović, Brankica; Novakov, Nikolina J; Mihaljev, Željko; Petrović, Jelena; Prica, Nadežda; Babić, Jelena; Ćirković, Miroslav A

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the level of organochlorine (OC) pesticides in 57 samples of canned tuna and 31 samples of canned sardines in vegetable oil, collected from supermarkets in Serbia. OC pesticides α-HCH, β-HCH, δ-HCH, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), DDE, DDD, dielderin, endosulfane I, endosulfane II, endosulan sulfate, endrin, endrin ketone, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, lindane, aldrin, metoxichlor, cis-chlordane and trans-chlordane were determined using a GS-MS method. The highest concentrations (µg kg(-1), arithmetic means) in canned tuna were for δ-HCH (60.6 ± 97.0) and p, p´-DDT (55.0 ± 25.1), while the corresponding values in canned sardines were for δ-HCH (90.7 ± 102.7) and endosulfane II (78.0 ± 145.9). Mean level for the sum of endosulfans was above the maximum limit in canned sardines (85.0 µg kg(-1)). Also, dieldrin (39.7 µg kg(-1)) was measured above the ML.

  7. Population declines of tuna and relatives depend on their speed of life

    PubMed Central

    Juan-Jordá, M. J.; Mosqueira, I.; Freire, J.; Dulvy, N. K.

    2015-01-01

    Larger-bodied species in a wide range of taxonomic groups including mammals, fishes and birds tend to decline more steeply and are at greater risk of extinction. Yet, the diversity in life histories is governed not only by body size, but also by time-related traits. A key question is whether this size-dependency of vulnerability also holds, not just locally, but globally across a wider range of environments. We test the relative importance of size- and time-related life-history traits and fishing mortality in determining population declines and current exploitation status in tunas and their relatives. We use high-quality datasets of half a century of population trajectories combined with population-level fishing mortalities and life-history traits. Time-related traits (e.g. growth rate), rather than size-related traits (e.g. maximum size), better explain the extent and rate of declines and current exploitation status across tuna assemblages, after controlling for fishing mortality. Consequently, there is strong geographical patterning in population declines, such that populations with slower life histories (found at higher cooler latitudes) have declined most and more steeply and have a higher probability of being overfished than populations with faster life histories (found at tropical latitudes). Hence, the strong, temperature-driven, latitudinal gradients in life-history traits may underlie the global patterning of population declines, fisheries collapses and local extinctions. PMID:26156763

  8. How important are coastal fronts to albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) habitat in the Northeast Pacific Ocean?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, Karen; Xu, Yi; Teo, Steven L. H.; McClatchie, Sam; Holmes, John

    2017-01-01

    We used satellite sea surface temperature (SST) data to characterize coastal fronts and then tested the effects of the fronts and other environmental variables on the distribution of the albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) catches in the coastal areas (from the coast to 200 nm offshore) of the Northeast Pacific Ocean. A boosted regression tree (BRT) model was used to explain the spatial and temporal patterns in albacore tuna catch per unit effort (CPUE) (1988-2011), using frontal features (distance to the front and temperature gradient), and other environmental variables like SST, surface chlorophyll concentration (chlorophyll), and geostrophic currents as explanatory variables. Based on over two decades of high-resolution data, the modeled results confirmed previous findings that albacore CPUE distribution is strongly influenced by SST and chlorophyll at fishing locations, and the distance of fronts from the coast (DFRONT-COAST), albeit with substantial seasonal and interannual variation. Albacore CPUEs were higher near warm, low chlorophyll oceanic waters, and near SST fronts. We performed sequential leave-one-year-out cross-validations for all years and found that the relationships in the BRT models were robust for the entire study period. Spatial distributions of model-predicted albacore CPUE were similar to observations, but the model was unable to predict very high CPUEs in some areas. These results help to explain previously observed variability in albacore CPUE and will likely help improve international fisheries management in the face of environmental changes.

  9. [Vertical distribution of main species captured by tuna longline fishery in the southeast Pacific Ocean].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-bo; Dai, Xiao-jie; Zhu, Jiang-feng; Gao, Chun-xia; Wu, Feng; Zheng, Xiao-chun

    2015-03-01

    Information of vertical distribution of longline-hook species is important for the development of effective measures to mitigate bycatch, and very helpful for better understanding of the oceanic ecosystem structure and implementation of ecosystem-based fisheries management. Based on depth data of longline hook and capture hook position of pelagic species, collected by on board scientific observer in the southeast Pacific Ocean from September 2013 to January 2014, shoaling rate of longline hook and vertical distribution of 14 pelagic species were analyzed. The results showed that the relative shoaling rate range of longline hook was 8.9% - 17.1%, and the average relative shoaling rate was 13.5%. The depth ranges of 14 capture species were different. The species with the deepest depth was Opah (Lampris guttatus), and the species with the shallowest depth was skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis). Except for yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) and striped marlin (Tetrapturus audax), the mean depth and depth distributions of bycatch species were significantly different from that of the targeted albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga).

  10. Lead, cadmium, arsenic and mercury in canned tuna fish marketed in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Andayesh, Shirin; Hadiani, Mohammad Rasoul; Mousavi, Zahra; Shoeibi, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    Fifty-four canned tuna fish samples corresponding to 10 widely used different brands were purchased from local markets in Tehran, Iran during 2012-2013 and analysed on heavy metals. Mercury was determined by a direct mercury analyser without any sample preparation. For analysis of other elements samples were digested using a microwave apparatus. Lead and cadmium were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and arsenic via hydride vapour generation. All samples had arsenic and mercury contamination. Arsenic levels showed a range of 0.25-1.42 mg kg(-1), which might be due to lack of national and international limits for arsenic in canned tuna fish. Lead and cadmium were measured in a small number of samples with a mean of 0.053 ± 0.058 mg kg(-1) and 0.013 ± 0.015 mg kg(-1), respectively. Results obtained for these heavy metals in all samples were lower than the corresponding limits, whereas arsenic and mercury contents might raise some attention.

  11. Individual tuna trolling strategies and transmission of fishing skills in a local community of Shimokita Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Akimichi, T

    1975-12-01

    Trolling techniques and strategies of fishermen of Oma in northern Japan to catch blue-fin tunas Thunnus thynnus are described. Usage patterns of fishing devices revealed to have ecological, psychological, and social implications. Choice of fish baits depended not only on the environmental factors relevant to the ecology of fish, but also on fishermen's skills which were different among different age groups and individuals. Younger fishermen preferred live baits to dead baits or lures whereas middle-aged or older ones chose them significantly less frequently. Moreover, the combination of a bait and a line by the latter denoted particular differences and specializations in terms of fishing strategies. Large differences in tuna landings indicating individual variations of skills were apparently related to techniques of trolling gear operation. In spite of an individual-based work. alternating work exchanging baits, and gifting were important in compensating physiological and technical handicaps through fishermen's interpersonal relationships based on genealogical, generational, and neighboring bondages. The exploitative difference between the coastal and the off-shore fishing grounds, use of baits being more varied in the latter, which were lately developed area, was also referred to as a problem of transmission in a local community of technical and mental skills.

  12. Microbiological Stability of Canned Tuna Produced in Italy and in Non-European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Gazzotti, Teresa; Rippa, Paola; Ciambrone, Lucia; Musarella, Rosanna; Pratticò, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The results of a study on the microbiological stability of canned tuna produced by Italian companies and similar canned products manufactured in countries outside Europe are reported herein. The study involved 38 samples of canned tuna of various brands, of which 14 were produced by companies outside Europe and 24 by Italian companies. Qualitative and quantitative microbiological tests were conducted for the following parameters: bacterial colony counts at 30°C, total coliforms, total Enterobacteriaceae, sulphite-reducing anaerobes, Salmonella spp., Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, yeasts and molds. Bacterial loads and mold contamination were respectivelyin found in 8/14 (57%) samples from outside EU and 7/24 (29%) Italian samples. The bacterial flora was represented by Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus warneri, Staphylococcus lentus, Streptococcus mitis, Enterococcus faecalis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides), Gram-negative bacteria (Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Acinetobacter iwoffii, Rhizobium radiobacter), spore-forming bacteria (Bacillus vallismortis), while the fungal species was represented by Penicillium spp., Rhizopus spp., Rhodotorula spp. and Alternaria spp. Excluding anomalies in the thermal treatment process of products and any contamination after treatment, the contaminations encountered in both cases were most likely due to insufficient production quality standards and the quality of the raw material used. These results may require a redefinition of the concept of commercial stability as hitherto stated. PMID:27800383

  13. Heavy metal content and molecular species identification in canned tuna: Insights into human food safety.

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, Anna Maria; Copat, Chiara; Ferrito, Venera; Grasso, Alfina; Ferrante, Margherita

    2017-03-24

    Canned tuna in olive oil and in brine of the most popular brands sold in Italian markets were analyzed to verify the authentication of transformed products, with the aim to unveil commercial frauds due to the substitutions of high value species with species of low commercial value, and to assess the health risk of consumers related to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) contents. Species authentication was evaluated with amplification of COI DNA barcode and confirmed the declared species. Among tested metals, Hg had the highest concentrations, followed by Cd and Pb. None of the tested samples surpassed the European regulatory limits no. 1881/2006 fixed for Hg and Pb, whereas one batch of canned tuna in olive oil exceeded standard for Cd. Risk for human health was evaluated by the metals daily intake and target hazard quotient (THQ). As a result, Cd and Pb did not exceed the toxicological reference values established by World Health Organization (WHO) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Conversely, Hg content suggests a consumption no more than once a week and a continuous surveillance of this fishery products for consumer protection.

  14. Burden of self-reported acute gastrointestinal illness in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Aguiar Prieto, Pablo; Finley, Rita L; Muchaal, P K; Guerin, Michele T; Isaacs, Sandy; Domínguez, Arnaldo Castro; Coutín Marie, Gisele; Perez, Enrique

    2009-06-01

    Acute gastrointestinal illness is an important public-health issue worldwide. Burden-of-illness studies have not previously been conducted in Cuba. The objective of the study was to determine the magnitude, distribution, and burden of self-reported acute gastrointestinal illness in Cuba. A retrospective, cross-sectional survey was conducted in three sentinel sites during June-July 2005 (rainy season) and during November 2005-January 2006 (dry season). Households were randomly selected from a list maintained by the medical offices in each site. One individual per household was selected to complete a questionnaire in a face-to-face interview. The case definition was three or more bouts of loose stools in a 24-hour period within the last 30 days. In total, 97.3% of 6,576 interviews were completed. The overall prevalence of acute gastrointestinal illness was 10.6%. The risk of acute gastrointestinal illness was higher during the rainy season (odds ratio [OR]=3.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.18-4.66) in children (OR=3.12, 95% CI 2.24-4.36) and teens (OR=2.27, 95% CI 1.51-3.41) compared to people aged 25-54 years, in males (OR=1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.47), and in the municipality of Santiago de Cuba (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.11-1.61). Of 680 cases, 17.1-38.1% visited a physician, depending on sentinel site. Of the cases who visited a physician, 33.3-53.9% were requested to submit a stool sample, and of those, 72.7-100.0% complied. Of the cases who sought medical care, 16.7-61.5% and 0-31.6% were treated with antidiarrhoeals and antibiotics respectively. Acute gastrointestinal illness represented a substantial burden of health compared to developed countries. Targeting the identified risk factors when allocating resources for education, food safety, and infrastructure might lower the morbidity associated with acute gastrointestinal illness.

  15. Burden of Self-reported Acute Gastrointestinal Illness in Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Pablo Aguiar; Finley, Rita L.; Guerin, Michele T.; Isaacs, Sandy; Domínguez, Arnaldo Castro; Marie, Gisele Coutín; Perez, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Acute gastrointestinal illness is an important public-health issue worldwide. Burden-of-illness studies have not previously been conducted in Cuba. The objective of the study was to determine the magnitude, distribution, and burden of self-reported acute gastrointestinal illness in Cuba. A retrospective, cross-sectional survey was conducted in three sentinel sites during June-July 2005 (rainy season) and during November 2005–January 2006 (dry season). Households were randomly selected from a list maintained by the medical offices in each site. One individual per household was selected to complete a questionnaire in a face-to-face interview. The case definition was three or more bouts of loose stools in a 24-hour period within the last 30 days. In total, 97.3% of 6,576 interviews were completed. The overall prevalence of acute gastrointestinal illness was 10.6%. The risk of acute gastrointestinal illness was higher during the rainy season (odds ratio [OR]=3.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.18-4.66) in children (OR=3.12, 95% CI 2.24-4.36) and teens (OR=2.27, 95% CI 1.51-3.41) compared to people aged 25-54 years, in males (OR=1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.47), and in the municipality of Santiago de Cuba (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.11-1.61). Of 680 cases, 17.1-38.1% visited a physician, depending on sentinel site. Of the cases who visited a physician, 33.3-53.9% were requested to submit a stool sample, and of those, 72.7-100.0% complied. Of the cases who sought medical care, 16.7- 61.5% and 0-31.6% were treated with antidiarrhoeals and antibiotics respectively. Acute gastrointestinal illness represented a substantial burden of health compared to developed countries. Targeting the identified risk factors when allocating resources for education, food safety, and infrastructure might lower the morbidity associated with acute gastrointestinal illness. PMID:19507750

  16. 78 FR 40997 - Enhanced Document Requirements To Support Use of the Dolphin Safe Label on Tuna Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... harvested (16 U.S.C. 1385(d)(1)(B)(i)). Furthermore, if the Secretary identifies any other fishery that has... favorable treatment to Mexican tuna products and therefore is inconsistent with Article 2.1 of the TBT..., where applicable; (2) the proposed rule will improve verification efforts; (3) the proposed rule...

  17. Proteomic analysis of processing by-products from canned and fresh tuna: identification of potentially functional food proteins.

    PubMed

    Sanmartín, Esther; Arboleya, Juan Carlos; Iloro, Ibon; Escuredo, Kepa; Elortza, Felix; Moreno, F Javier

    2012-09-15

    Proteomic approaches have been used to identify the main proteins present in processing by-products generated by the canning tuna-industry, as well as in by-products derived from filleting of skeletal red muscle of fresh tuna. Following fractionation by using an ammonium sulphate precipitation method, three proteins (tropomyosin, haemoglobin and the stress-shock protein ubiquitin) were identified in the highly heterogeneous and heat-treated material discarded by the canning-industry. Additionally, this fractionation method was successful to obtain tropomyosin of high purity from the heterogeneous starting material. By-products from skeletal red muscle of fresh tuna were efficiently fractionated to sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar fractions, prior to the identification based mainly on the combined searching of the peptide mass fingerprint (MALDI-TOF) and peptide fragment fingerprinting (MALDI LIFT-TOF/TOF) spectra of fifteen bands separated by 1D SDS-PAGE. Thus, the sarcoplasmic fraction contained myoglobin and several enzymes that are essential for efficient energy production, whereas the myofibrillar fraction had important contractile proteins, such as actin, tropomyosin, myosin or an isoform of the enzyme creatine kinase. Application of proteomic technologies has revealed new knowledge on the composition of important by-products from tuna species, enabling a better evaluation of their potential applications.

  18. Comparative Assessment of the Reproductive Status of Female Atlantic Bluefin Tuna from the Gulf of Mexico and the Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Jessica M.; Aranda, Guillermo; Medina, Antonio; Lutcavage, Molly

    2014-01-01

    Despite attention focused on the population status and rebuilding trajectory of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), the reproduction and spawning biology remains poorly understood, especially in the NW Atlantic. At present, the eastern and western spawning populations are believed to exhibit different reproductive characteristics and, consequently, stock productivity. However, our study suggests that the two spawning populations, the Gulf of Mexico and the Mediterranean Sea, could show similar reproductive features and spawning strategies. Between 2007 and 2009, gonad samples from female Atlantic bluefin tuna were collected in the northern Gulf of Mexico (n = 147) and in the western Mediterranean Sea (n = 40). The histological and stereological analysis confirmed that sampled eastern and western bluefin tuna exhibit the same spawning duration (three months) but the spawning in the Gulf of Mexico begins one month earlier than in the Mediterranean Sea. Western bluefin tuna caught in the peak of the spawning season (May) showed a similar spawning frequency (60%) to the spawning peak observed in the Mediterranean Sea (June). Fecundity for the Gulf of Mexico fish () was lower but not significantly different than for fish sampled in the Mediterranean Sea (). Our study represents the first comparative histological analysis of the eastern and western spawning stocks whose findings, combined with new determinations of size/age at maturity and possible alternative spawning areas, might suggest basic life history attributes warrant further scientific and management attention. PMID:24911973

  19. [Fatty acid variation in yellowfin tuna, spotted weakfish and Florida pompano when submitted to six cooking techniques].

    PubMed

    Castro-González, María Isabel; Maafs-Rodríguez, Ana Gabriela; Romo Pérez-Gil, Fernando

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of six cooking techniques (steamed, foiled, foiled with banana leaf, baked, microwave-cooked and light frying) in the fatty acid content of Thunnus albacore (yellowfin tuna), Cynoscionnebulosus (spotted weakfish) and Trachinotuscarolinus (Florida pompano). After cooking the fish fillets, fatty acid analyses were performed using gas chromatography. Total lipids increased in all cooking techniques in tunaand spotted weakfish. Saturated fatty acids of tuna and spotted weakfish increased in three cooking techniques, while in Florida pompano only gas oven raised their content. Lightly frying generated the highest content of n-3 in tuna and spotted weakfish, and the lowest in Florida pompano, specie that presented less variation. In tuna fish, the most recommended cooking techniques are foiled with aluminum and microwave oven; for spotted weakfish, foiled with banana leaf; while Florida pompano can be prepared using all cooking methods except gas oven. This information is useful to enrich data from chemical composition tables, in which concentrations are usually presented in raw food.

  20. Much More than Music: The Cultural Importance of "Estudiantinas-Tunas" and Choirs as Informal Adult Music Schools and Communitas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez-Ullate, Martín; Belmonte Trujillo, José Carlos

    2016-01-01

    For each person studying music in formal institutions in Spain, there are at least five others learning and performing in "informal" schools and settings. Choirs and "estudiantinas" or "tunas" are two examples of these informal schools found both in Ibero-America and worldwide. Their place in society and their…

  1. Comparative assessment of the reproductive status of female Atlantic bluefin tuna from the Gulf of Mexico and the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Jessica M; Aranda, Guillermo; Medina, Antonio; Lutcavage, Molly

    2014-01-01

    Despite attention focused on the population status and rebuilding trajectory of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), the reproduction and spawning biology remains poorly understood, especially in the NW Atlantic. At present, the eastern and western spawning populations are believed to exhibit different reproductive characteristics and, consequently, stock productivity. However, our study suggests that the two spawning populations, the Gulf of Mexico and the Mediterranean Sea, could show similar reproductive features and spawning strategies. Between 2007 and 2009, gonad samples from female Atlantic bluefin tuna were collected in the northern Gulf of Mexico (n = 147) and in the western Mediterranean Sea (n = 40). The histological and stereological analysis confirmed that sampled eastern and western bluefin tuna exhibit the same spawning duration (three months) but the spawning in the Gulf of Mexico begins one month earlier than in the Mediterranean Sea. Western bluefin tuna caught in the peak of the spawning season (May) showed a similar spawning frequency (60%) to the spawning peak observed in the Mediterranean Sea (June). Fecundity for the Gulf of Mexico fish (28.14 eggs · g(-1)) was lower but not significantly different than for fish sampled in the Mediterranean Sea (45.56 eggs · g(-1)). Our study represents the first comparative histological analysis of the eastern and western spawning stocks whose findings, combined with new determinations of size/age at maturity and possible alternative spawning areas, might suggest basic life history attributes warrant further scientific and management attention.

  2. First report of a Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in Cuba

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alvarez-Aleman, Anmari; Beck, Cathy A.; Powell, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in Florida utilize intake and effluent canals of power plants as resting and thermoregulatory habitat. We report the use of a power plant canal in Cuba by a known Florida manatee, the first documented case of movement by a manatee between Florida and Cuba. In January, February, and April 2007, two manatees (mother and calf) were reported entering a power plant canal in north Havana, Cuba. The larger manatee had several distinctive scars which were photographed. Digital images were matched to a previously known Florida manatee (CR131) with a sighting history dating from December 1979 to July 2006. Exchanges of individuals between Florida and Cuba may have important genetic implications, particularly since there appears to be little genetic exchange between the Florida manatee subspecies with populations of the Antillean manatee subspecies (T. m. manatus) in Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic.

  3. United States Security Policy Implications of a Post-Fidel Cuba

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-10

    trigger a security crisis.62 U.S. Ambassador Vicki Huddleston frames the exodus problem in 2010’s Learning to Salsa : The scale of future migration...Sweig, U.S. Ambassador and co-author of Learning to Salsa , Vicki Huddleston, and Congressional Research Service (CRS) Cuba expert, Mark Sullivan to...name a notable few. 27 Huddleston, Vicki and Carlos Pascual, Learning to Salsa : New Steps in U.S.-Cuba Relations (Washington, DC: Brookings

  4. Rivulus berovidesi, a new killifish species (Teleostei: Rivulidae) from western Cuba.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rodet Rodriguez

    2015-04-24

    Rivulus berovidesi, a new killifish species, is described from a small stream in Sierra de Cajalbana, northwestern Cuba. It is readily distinguished from Rivulus cylindraceus Poey by the combination of an exclusive color pattern and meristic characters such as a d-type frontal scalation pattern (versus e-type pattern in Rivulus cylindraceus). The current diagnosis of Rivulus berovidesi based on chromatic, morphological and meristic characters is consistent with a recent molecular analysis of this genus in Cuba.

  5. United States - Cuba Relations: Does the War on Terrorism Change Our Stance?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-09

    embargo. The United States’ North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) partners, Canada and Mexico , are also two of Cuba’s largest trading partners...getting through the lean "Special Period" by way of subsistence farming. Dr. Fernando Funes-Aguilar of the Havana-based Grupo de Agricultura Organica...www.sustainabletimes.ca/articles/cubanfarms.htm>. Internet. Accessed 19 October 2001. Baklanoff, Eric N. Expropriation of U.S. Investments in Cuba, Mexico

  6. Making Travel to Cuba Work for Health and Sustainable Development.

    PubMed

    Gorry, Conner

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, a record-breaking 3.5 million visitors-1 million from Canada alone-traveled to Cuba to explore its history, culture, natural splendor, and visit family. That same year, US President Barack Obama relaxed travel restrictions, giving general authorization for a dozen categories of legal travel by US citizens and residents. As a result, US visitors to the island ballooned by 80% between January 2015 and June 2016. And the numbers keep growing: the latest data show that foreign arrivals reached 4 million in 2016.[1] The surge in visitors highlights the potential negative impact of tourism on a developing country's infrastructure, environment, cultural patrimony and local economy-all considered important social determinants of health.

  7. The Training of Physics Teachers in Cuba: A Historical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jesús Alamino Ortega, Diego

    The regular, systematic training of physics teachers in Cuba is quite recent when compared to the long history of physics itself. However, its development may serve to illustrate some interesting solutions to a long-standing question: How should a physics teacher be trained in agreement with a certain society at a given moment? In the Cuban context the answer to this question involves quite an original sequence of continuities and breaks, following perhaps the thoughts of Bolívar's teacher, Simón Rodríguez, who wrote in the nineteenth century: "Beware! The mania of slavishly imitating the enlightened nations may well make America in its infancy play the role of an old lady."

  8. Current experience on calibration of radiators in Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, J. Fernandez

    This paper describes the experience acquired in calibration of three types of laboratory radiators installed in Cuba: the SINGLE-CELL-RAILSYSTEM, the GAMMA-CELL-500-001 and MRX-GAMMA-25M. The first two were made by Atomic Energy of Canada, Ltd. (AECL) in 1957 and 1984, respectively, and the last in 1971 in the USSR. All three incorporate a cobalt-60 source with different nominal activities and technical characteristic. During the dosimetric calibrations, these characteristics were studied on the basis of parameters, such as dose rate, intercept, uniformity ratio and tolerance limits. Fricke and Ceric sulfate dosimeters were used to perform the measurements. Statistical aspects of dose evaluation and its distribution were also considered. The accuracy of the results enable us to increase the efficacy in utilization of these radiators in the applications for which they are currently used.

  9. Mycoplasmas hyorhinis in different regions of cuba. diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Evelyn; Poveda, Carlos; Gupta, Rakesh; Suarez, Alejandro; Hernández, Yenney; Ramírez, Ana; Poveda, José B.

    2011-01-01

    M. hyorhinis is considered one of the etiological agents of arthritis in sucking pigs, but recently as seen, some strains can produce pneumonia that could not be distinguished from the mycoplasmosis caused by M. hyopneumoniae. The study was conducted to research the presence of Mycoplasma hyorhinis (M. hyorhinis ) in different regions of the country from exudates of pig lungs with typical EP lesions. Exudates from 280 pig lungs with typical EP lesions were studied using molecular techniques such as PCR, real time PCR and amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA. It was detected that the 66% of the samples studied resulted positive to M. hyorhinis, and the presence of this species was detected in all the provinces. Amplification and studies on the intergenic region 16S-23S of M. hyorhinis rRNA demonstrated the existing variability among strains of a same species. This study is the first report on M. hyorhinis detection in Cuba. PMID:24031686

  10. Trophic niches of sympatric tropical tuna in the Western Indian Ocean inferred by stable isotopes and neutral fatty acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardenne, Fany; Bodin, Nathalie; Chassot, Emmanuel; Amiel, Aurélien; Fouché, Edwin; Degroote, Maxime; Hollanda, Stéphanie; Pethybridge, Heidi; Lebreton, Benoit; Guillou, Gaël; Ménard, Frédéric

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the trophic ecology of three sympatric tropical tuna species (bigeye BET, skipjack SKJ, and yellowfin YFT) sampled in the Western Indian Ocean throughout 2013. Specifically we explored inter-specific resource partitioning and ontogenetic variability using neutral fatty acids and stable isotope analysis of liver and muscle from small (⩽100 cm fork length, FL) and large (>100 cm FL) tuna collected in mixed schools at the surface by purse-seine. Both biochemical tracers were used to calculate trophic niche indices that collectively revealed high potential for resource overlap, especially among small tuna. Resource overlap appeared strongest between BET and YFT, with SKJ tissues having high carbon isotope (δ13C) values (-17 ± 0.3‰), lower nitrogen isotope (δ15N) values (11.4 ± 0.6‰), and higher relative proportion of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) than the two other species, indicating a different diet. Size was found to be a strong predictor for most biochemical tracers in the three species with δ13C, δ15N and total lipid content in the liver. In the larger species (YFT and BET), proportions of mono-unsaturated fatty acids typically increased with size, while quantities of PUFA decreased. In addition to ontogenetic variability, trophic markers were shown to vary between sampling area and season: higher lipid reserves and δ15N values, and lower δ13C values occurred during monsoon periods around Seychelles than in the Mozambique Channel (parted from about 1500 km). Our multi-tracer approach reveals the magnitude of potential competitive interactions in mixed tropical tuna schools at both small and large sizes and demonstrates that ontogenetic niche differentiation acts as a major factor of coexistence in tropical tuna.

  11. Moving with the beat: heart rate and visceral temperature of free-swimming and feeding bluefin tuna.

    PubMed

    Clark, T D; Taylor, B D; Seymour, R S; Ellis, D; Buchanan, J; Fitzgibbon, Q P; Frappell, P B

    2008-12-22

    Owing to the inherent difficulties of studying bluefin tuna, nothing is known of the cardiovascular function of free-swimming fish. Here, we surgically implanted newly designed data loggers into the visceral cavity of juvenile southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii) to measure changes in the heart rate (fH) and visceral temperature (TV) during a two-week feeding regime in sea pens at Port Lincoln, Australia. Fish ranged in body mass from 10 to 21 kg, and water temperature remained at 18-19 degrees C. Pre-feeding fH typically ranged from 20 to 50 beats min(-1). Each feeding bout (meal sizes 2-7% of tuna body mass) was characterized by increased levels of activity and fH (up to 130 beats min(-1)), and a decrease in TV from approximately 20 to 18 degrees C as cold sardines were consumed. The feeding bout was promptly followed by a rapid increase in TV, which signified the beginning of the heat increment of feeding (HIF). The time interval between meal consumption and the completion of HIF ranged from 10 to 24 hours and was strongly correlated with ration size. Although fH generally decreased after its peak during the feeding bout, it remained elevated during the digestive period and returned to routine levels on a similar, but slightly earlier, temporal scale to TV. These data imply a large contribution of fH to the increase in circulatory oxygen transport that is required for digestion. Furthermore, these data oppose the contention that maximum fH is exceptional in bluefin tuna compared with other fishes, and so it is likely that enhanced cardiac stroke volume and blood oxygen carrying capacity are the principal factors allowing superior rates of circulatory oxygen transport in tuna.

  12. Moving with the beat: heart rate and visceral temperature of free-swimming and feeding bluefin tuna

    PubMed Central

    Clark, T.D; Taylor, B.D; Seymour, R.S; Ellis, D; Buchanan, J; Fitzgibbon, Q.P; Frappell, P.B

    2008-01-01

    Owing to the inherent difficulties of studying bluefin tuna, nothing is known of the cardiovascular function of free-swimming fish. Here, we surgically implanted newly designed data loggers into the visceral cavity of juvenile southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii) to measure changes in the heart rate (fH) and visceral temperature (TV) during a two-week feeding regime in sea pens at Port Lincoln, Australia. Fish ranged in body mass from 10 to 21 kg, and water temperature remained at 18–19°C. Pre-feeding fH typically ranged from 20 to 50 beats min−1. Each feeding bout (meal sizes 2–7% of tuna body mass) was characterized by increased levels of activity and fH (up to 130 beats min−1), and a decrease in TV from approximately 20 to 18°C as cold sardines were consumed. The feeding bout was promptly followed by a rapid increase in TV, which signified the beginning of the heat increment of feeding (HIF). The time interval between meal consumption and the completion of HIF ranged from 10 to 24 hours and was strongly correlated with ration size. Although fH generally decreased after its peak during the feeding bout, it remained elevated during the digestive period and returned to routine levels on a similar, but slightly earlier, temporal scale to TV. These data imply a large contribution of fH to the increase in circulatory oxygen transport that is required for digestion. Furthermore, these data oppose the contention that maximum fH is exceptional in bluefin tuna compared with other fishes, and so it is likely that enhanced cardiac stroke volume and blood oxygen carrying capacity are the principal factors allowing superior rates of circulatory oxygen transport in tuna. PMID:18755679

  13. Quantification of derivatives of bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and novolac glycidyl ether (NOGE) migrated from can coatings into tuna by HPLC/fluorescence and MS detection.

    PubMed

    Berger, U; Oehme, M; Girardin, L

    2001-01-02

    A reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic method combined with fluorescence and mass spectrometric detection in series is presented for the separation and quantification of bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and novolac glycidyl ether (NOGE) derivatives in extracts from food can coatings, tuna and oil. Fifteen samples of tuna cans bought in four European countries were investigated. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry in the positive ion mode (APCI(+)-MS) allowed to tentatively identify BADGE and NOGE related compounds originating from reactions of the glycidyl ethers with bisphenols, phenol, butanol, water and hydrochloric acid. Quantification was based on the external standard method and fluorescence detection. Mass fractions up to 3.7 micrograms/g were found for hydrochlorination products of bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE + 2HCl) in tuna. Furthermore, total migration quantities of phenolic ether compounds were estimated. The highest values found were 20 micrograms/g in tuna and 43 micrograms/g in the oil phase.

  14. 78 FR 37790 - In the Matter of: Mario Salinas-Lucio, Inmate Number #61687-279, FCI La Tuna, Federal Corrections...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... Tuna, Federal Corrections Institution, Federal Satellite Low, P.O. Box 6000, Anthony, TX 88021. Order..., Federal Satellite Low, P.O. Box 6000, Anthony, TX 88021, and when acting for or on behalf of...

  15. Genetic structuring and migration patterns of Atlantic bigeye tuna, Thunnus obesus (Lowe, 1839)

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Large pelagic fishes are generally thought to have little population genetic structuring based on their cosmopolitan distribution, large population sizes and high dispersal capacities. However, gene flow can be influenced by ecological (e.g. homing behaviour) and physical (e.g. present-day ocean currents, past changes in sea temperature and levels) factors. In this regard, Atlantic bigeye tuna shows an interesting genetic structuring pattern with two highly divergent mitochondrial clades (Clades I and II), which are assumed to have been originated during the last Pleistocene glacial maxima. We assess genetic structure patterns of Atlantic bigeye tuna at the nuclear level, and compare them with mitochondrial evidence. Results We examined allele size variation of nine microsatellite loci in 380 individuals from the Gulf of Guinea, Canary, Azores, Canada, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean. To investigate temporal stability of genetic structure, three Atlantic Ocean sites were re-sampled a second year. Hierarchical AMOVA tests, RST pairwise comparisons, isolation by distance (Mantel) tests, Bayesian clustering analyses, and coalescence-based migration rate inferences supported unrestricted gene flow within the Atlantic Ocean at the nuclear level, and therefore interbreeding between individuals belonging to both mitochondrial clades. Moreover, departures from HWE in several loci were inferred for the samples of Guinea, and attributed to a Wahlund effect supporting the role of this region as a spawning and nursery area. Our microsatellite data supported a single worldwide panmictic unit for bigeye tunas. Despite the strong Agulhas Current, immigration rates seem to be higher from the Atlantic Ocean into the Indo-Pacific Ocean, but the actual number of individuals moving per generation is relatively low compared to the large population sizes inhabiting each ocean basin. Conclusion Lack of congruence between mt and nuclear evidences, which is also found in other

  16. Approaches to substance abuse in Cuba: Ricardo A. González MD PhD DrSc. Psychiatrist and consulting professor, Eduardo B. Ordaz Psychiatric Hospital, Havana. Interviewed by Christina Mills.

    PubMed

    González, Ricardo

    2013-10-01

    For over 40 years, he has done one of the most difficult jobs in medicine; 4000 of his patients are among those many might write off as "lost causes." Yet he radiates optimism, his stories and experience reflecting a belief in the human potential to change and grow and a vocation to help his patients do so. Now an internationally recognized expert on addictions, in 1976 Dr González founded Cuba's first patient service for substance abuse at the Eduardo B. Ordaz Psychiatric Hospital in Havana, a program he directed until last year. It is now the national reference center for another 17 such programs, two more in Havana and one in every other Cuban province. In addition, it serves as a model for treatment centers catering to international patients (undoubtedly the most well known among them Diego Maradona, the Argentine soccer star): two in Holguin Province and one in Santiago Province, with another being developed at Las Praderas International Health Center in Havana. Dr González's 25 books on psychiatry, medical ethics and addictions attest to a prolific career in research and practice. Today, he continues to work "from retirement" as consulting professor and psychiatrist in the addiction service he founded, and also chairs Cuba's National Medical Ethics Commission. In this interview, Dr González shares insights from his years of experience addressing substance abuse, as well as on repercussions and management of such conditions in Cuba.

  17. Nitrogen isotopic baselines and implications for estimating foraging habitat and trophic position of yellowfin tuna in the Indian and Pacific Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorrain, Anne; Graham, Brittany S.; Popp, Brian N.; Allain, Valérie; Olson, Robert J.; Hunt, Brian P. V.; Potier, Michel; Fry, Brian; Galván-Magaña, Felipe; Menkes, Christophe E. R.; Kaehler, Sven; Ménard, Frédéric

    2015-03-01

    Assessment of isotopic compositions at the base of food webs is a prerequisite for using stable isotope analysis to assess foraging locations and trophic positions of marine organisms. Our study represents a unique application of stable-isotope analyses across multiple trophic levels (primary producer, primary consumer and tertiary consumer) and over a large spatial scale in two pelagic marine ecosystems. We found that δ15N values of particulate organic matter (POM), barnacles and phenylalanine from the muscle tissue of yellowfin tuna all showed similar spatial patterns. This consistency suggests that isotopic analysis of any of these can provide a reasonable proxy for isotopic variability at the base of the food web. Secondly, variations in the δ15N values of yellowfin tuna bulk-muscle tissues paralleled the spatial trends observed in all of these isotopic baseline proxies. Variation in isotopic composition at the base of the food web, rather than differences in tuna diet, explained the 11‰ variability observed in the bulk-tissue δ15N values of yellowfin tuna. Evaluating the trophic position of yellowfin tuna using amino-acid isotopic compositions across the western Indian and equatorial Pacific Oceans strongly suggests these tuna occupy similar trophic positions, albeit absolute trophic positions estimated by this method were lower than expected. This study reinforces the importance of considering isotopic baseline variability for diet studies, and provides new insights into methods that can be applied to generate nitrogen isoscapes for worldwide comparisons of top predators in marine ecosystems.

  18. Mercury concentration change in human hair after the ingestion of canned tuna fish

    SciTech Connect

    Inasmasu, T.; Ogo, A.; Yanagawa, M.; Keshino, M.; Hirakoba, A.; Takahashi, K.; Ishinish, N.

    1986-10-01

    The concentration of mercury in the hair of man has been conveniently used as an indicator of environmental exposure to mercury. In particular, studies concerning the relationship between the concentration of mercury in the hair and the dietary intake of mercury have revealed that the amount of fish consumed significantly affects the mercury concentration in the scalp hair. However, the quantitative relationship between the mercury concentration in the hair and the dietary intake of mercury has been scarcely proven. This is because mercury concentration in hair sampled reflects the degree of exposure from diet in the past, and because the dietary measurements of mercury generally depend on individuals remembering accurately or having recorded their intake of fish in the past. In an attempt to elucidate this problem. The authors assessed the mercury concentration in the hair of human subjects who ingested a certain amount of canned tuna fish.

  19. Increased sex ratio in Russia and Cuba after Chernobyl: a radiological hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ratio of male to female offspring at birth may be a simple and non-invasive way to monitor the reproductive health of a population. Except in societies where selective abortion skews the sex ratio, approximately 105 boys are born for every 100 girls. Generally, the human sex ratio at birth is remarkably constant in large populations. After the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in April 1986, a long lasting significant elevation in the sex ratio has been found in Russia, i.e. more boys or fewer girls compared to expectation were born. Recently, also for Cuba an escalated sex ratio from 1987 onward has been documented and discussed in the scientific literature. Presentation of the hypothesis By the end of the eighties of the last century in Cuba as much as about 60% of the food imports were provided by the former Soviet Union. Due to its difficult economic situation, Cuba had neither the necessary insight nor the political strength to circumvent the detrimental genetic effects of imported radioactively contaminated foodstuffs after Chernobyl. We propose that the long term stable sex ratio increase in Cuba is essentially due to ionizing radiation. Testing of the hypothesis A synoptic trend analysis of Russian and Cuban annual sex ratios discloses upward jumps in 1987. The estimated jump height from 1986 to 1987 in Russia measures 0.51% with a 95% confidence interval (0.28, 0.75), p value < 0.0001. In Cuba the estimated jump height measures 2.99% (2.39, 3.60), p value < 0.0001. The hypothesis may be tested by reconstruction of imports from the world markets to Cuba and by radiological analyses of remains in Cuba for Cs-137 and Sr-90. Implications of the hypothesis If the evidence for the hypothesis is strengthened, there is potential to learn about genetic radiation risks and to prevent similar effects in present and future exposure situations. PMID:23947741

  20. [Fatty acids of the tuna of different fishing areas of the Mexican Pacific, canned in oil and water].

    PubMed

    Castro Gónzalez, M I; Montaño Benavides, S; Pérez-Gil Romo, F

    2001-12-01

    A direct relationship exists between the state of health and the diet, and inside this some components, such as the fatty acids (FA), influence mostly in the prevention of certain illnesses (coronary heart disease, hypertension, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory answer, and arterial pressure). One of the main sources of essential FA are the marine products; the tuna is a marine food of wide consumption in Mexico due its readiness and low cost. The objective of this work was to determine the profile of fatty acids (FA) in tuna canned in oil and in water coming from three fishing areas of the Mexican Pacific. There were randomly obtained 7 oil-tuna commercial marks (AA) and 5 water- tuna (AW) coming from the next fishery areas: Baja California Sur (L1), Colima (L2) and Mazatlán (L3). The samples without draining were liquefied and thereafter it was obtained the methyl esters of fatty acids that were analyzed by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. In all the areas were identified 20 FA (mg/100 g); three AG omega 3 (EPA, DHA and linolenic) and two omega 6 (linoleic and arachidonic). In the AA of the three areas the most abundant saturated FA were estearric and palmitic acids, the most abundant monounsaturated fatty acid was the cis-vaccenic, followed by the oleic acid. The behavior of those omega 3 in the AA of the three areas were similar: with the less quantity was the linolenic acid (447-755), continued by the EPA (979-1323) and finally high concentrations of DHA (1862-3327). In the AW the DHA was the most abundant fatty acid in all the areas (1086-4456), the most abundant monounsaturated fatty acid was the palmitic (640-3809). It was observed the presence of trans fatty acids in high quantities in AW: linolelaidic (1394-1495) and elaidic (377-1234). The relationship omega 3/omega 6 in the AA was similar in L1 and L2, and lower in L3; in AW was higher in L2 and L3. In conclusion, evident variation exists in the content of FA among areas; it could

  1. Burst Feeding of Pelagia noctiluca ephyrae on Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus) Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Gordoa, Ana; Acuña, José Luis; Farrés, Roser; Bacher, Kathrin

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the predation of P. noctiluca ephyrae on Atlantic Bluefin tuna (ABFT) eggs under different experimental conditions. The specific factors considered in the experimental design were: a) water mix conditions to explore predation under two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) prey distributions, b) prey density to investigate the ingestion rate capacity, and c) incubation time to inspect gut saturation. The eggs and jellyfish ephyrae were collected during the 2012 ABFT spawning survey off Ibiza (Balearic Isl., Western Mediterranean). The results showed that the proportion of feeding ephyrae increased with size. The mean clearance rate of feeding ephyrae, 4.14 L h-1, was the highest ever recorded for ephyrae. Under calm conditions the eggs floated at the surface (2D spatial arrangement) and the clearance rates, at low prey densities, were at least twice those under mixed conditions (3D spatial arrangement). At high prey density, clearance rate did not differ between mix conditions, probably due to the fast gut saturation, which was reached in c.a. 15 min, as revealed by time series observations of gut contents. The fast saturation of ephyrae and their slow digestion time of approximately 18 h suggest the existence of a diel feeding periodicity. We conclude that in the Western Mediterranean, P. noctiluca ephyrae are capable of predating on ABFT eggs, a highly pulsed and spatially restricted resource that potentially switches from a 3D to a 2D configuration in the absence of wind-generated turbulence. The P. noctiluca and Atlantic Bluefin tuna egg system might represent an example of a general mechanism linking pelagic and neustonic food webs. PMID:24069335

  2. Atlantic Bluefin Tuna: A Novel Multistock Spatial Model for Assessing Population Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Nathan G.; McAllister, Murdoch K.; Lawson, Gareth L.; Carruthers, Tom; Block, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) is considered to be overfished, but the status of its populations has been debated, partly because of uncertainties regarding the effects of mixing on fishing grounds. A better understanding of spatial structure and mixing may help fisheries managers to successfully rebuild populations to sustainable levels while maximizing catches. We formulate a new seasonally and spatially explicit fisheries model that is fitted to conventional and electronic tag data, historic catch-at-age reconstructions, and otolith microchemistry stock-composition data to improve the capacity to assess past, current, and future population sizes of Atlantic bluefin tuna. We apply the model to estimate spatial and temporal mixing of the eastern (Mediterranean) and western (Gulf of Mexico) populations, and to reconstruct abundances from 1950 to 2008. We show that western and eastern populations have been reduced to 17% and 33%, respectively, of 1950 spawning stock biomass levels. Overfishing to below the biomass that produces maximum sustainable yield occurred in the 1960s and the late 1990s for western and eastern populations, respectively. The model predicts that mixing depends on season, ontogeny, and location, and is highest in the western Atlantic. Assuming that future catches are zero, western and eastern populations are predicted to recover to levels at maximum sustainable yield by 2025 and 2015, respectively. However, the western population will not recover with catches of 1750 and 12,900 tonnes (the “rebuilding quotas”) in the western and eastern Atlantic, respectively, with or without closures in the Gulf of Mexico. If future catches are double the rebuilding quotas, then rebuilding of both populations will be compromised. If fishing were to continue in the eastern Atlantic at the unregulated levels of 2007, both stocks would continue to decline. Since populations mix on North Atlantic foraging grounds, successful rebuilding policies will

  3. [Fatty acid composition and cholesterol content in naturally canned jurel, sardine, salmon, and tuna].

    PubMed

    Romero, N; Robert, P; Masson, L; Luck, C; Buschmann, L

    1996-03-01

    To obtain more information about fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of fat extracted from canned fish in brine habitually consumed in Chile, four different species Jurel (Trachurus murphyi), Sardine (Sardinops sagax), Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and Tuna (Thunnus alalunga) were analyzed. The GLC of fatty acid methyl esters showed that the main group of fatty acids belongs to polyunsaturated, being omega-3 family the more important. The principal representants were eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA), with percentages between 5%-11% and 12%-22% respectively. Omega-6 family was represented mainly by arachidonic acid (AA) with percentages between 2%-4%. Cholesterol content was similar to the values found in other animal origen meats. The figures were between 41-86 mg of cholesterol per 100 g of edible product, Tuna in brine, was the product with the lowest content of cholesterol. The calculated amount of EPA, DHA and total omega-3 fatty acids indicated values between 95-604, 390-1163 and 609-2775 mg respectively per 100 g of edible product. Due these results is important to emphasize the consumption of this type of canned fish in brine, that they really represent a good dietary source of mainly polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids. The international recommendations indicate to increase the consumption of fish, due the beneficial effects described in relation with cardiovascular disease, which is the mean cause of death in Chile, country with a wide variety of marine origen foods, but with a contradictory answer about its consumption which is not incorporated in the current diet.

  4. Isotope dilution SPME GC/MS for the determination of methylmercury in tuna fish samples.

    PubMed

    Centineo, Giuseppe; Blanco González, Elisa; García Alonso, J Ignacio; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2006-01-01

    The development of a rapid, precise and accurate analytical method for the determination of methylmercury in tuna fish samples is described. The method is based on the use of isotope dilution GC/MS with electron impact ionization, a widespread technique in routine testing laboratories. A certified spike containing (202)Hg-enriched methylmercury was used for the isotope dilution of the samples. After extraction of the methylmercury from the sample, methylmercury was propylated using sodium tetrapropyl borate in SPME vials and the analytes were sampled from the headspace for 15 min. For isotope measurements, the molecular ion (MePrHg(+)) was used in the SIM mode. Five molecular ions were monitored, corresponding to the (198)Hg, (199)Hg, (200)Hg, (201)Hg and (202)Hg isotopes. The detection at masses corresponding to (198)Hg was used to correct for m + 1 contributions of (13)C from the organic groups attached to the mercury atom on the (199)Hg, (200)Hg, (201)Hg and (202)Hg masses with simple mathematical equations, and the concentration of methylmercury was calculated on the basis of the corrected (200)Hg/(202)Hg isotope ratio. The (202)Hg-enriched methylmercury spike was applied, with satisfactory results, to the determination of methylmercury in the certified reference material BCR 464. The method was successfully applied to the determination of methylmercury in tuna fish samples, and the obtained results were included in the CCQM-P39 interlaboratory exercise, organized by the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM, Geel, Belgium) with excellent agreement between our results and the average obtained by the other participants.

  5. Atlantic bluefin tuna: a novel multistock spatial model for assessing population biomass.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nathan G; McAllister, Murdoch K; Lawson, Gareth L; Carruthers, Tom; Block, Barbara A

    2011-01-01

    Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) is considered to be overfished, but the status of its populations has been debated, partly because of uncertainties regarding the effects of mixing on fishing grounds. A better understanding of spatial structure and mixing may help fisheries managers to successfully rebuild populations to sustainable levels while maximizing catches. We formulate a new seasonally and spatially explicit fisheries model that is fitted to conventional and electronic tag data, historic catch-at-age reconstructions, and otolith microchemistry stock-composition data to improve the capacity to assess past, current, and future population sizes of Atlantic bluefin tuna. We apply the model to estimate spatial and temporal mixing of the eastern (Mediterranean) and western (Gulf of Mexico) populations, and to reconstruct abundances from 1950 to 2008. We show that western and eastern populations have been reduced to 17% and 33%, respectively, of 1950 spawning stock biomass levels. Overfishing to below the biomass that produces maximum sustainable yield occurred in the 1960s and the late 1990s for western and eastern populations, respectively. The model predicts that mixing depends on season, ontogeny, and location, and is highest in the western Atlantic. Assuming that future catches are zero, western and eastern populations are predicted to recover to levels at maximum sustainable yield by 2025 and 2015, respectively. However, the western population will not recover with catches of 1750 and 12,900 tonnes (the "rebuilding quotas") in the western and eastern Atlantic, respectively, with or without closures in the Gulf of Mexico. If future catches are double the rebuilding quotas, then rebuilding of both populations will be compromised. If fishing were to continue in the eastern Atlantic at the unregulated levels of 2007, both stocks would continue to decline. Since populations mix on North Atlantic foraging grounds, successful rebuilding policies will

  6. Climate effects on historic bluefin tuna captures in the Gibraltar Strait and Western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganzedo, Unai; Polanco-Martínez, Josué M.; Caballero-Alfonso, Ángela M.; Faria, Sérgio H.; Li, Jianke; Castro-Hernández, José J.

    2016-06-01

    Historical capture records of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus; BFT hereafter) from the Gibraltar Strait and Western Mediterranean show pronounced short- and long-term fluctuations. Some of these fluctuations are believed to be associated with biological and ecological process, as well as distinct climate factors. For the period of study (1700-1936) of this work, we found a long-term increasing trend in the BFT captures and in the climate variables. After applying a statistical time series analysis of relevant climate variables and long-term tuna capture records, it is highlighted the role played by sea-surface temperature (SST) on bluefin population variations. The most relevant result of this study is the strong correlation found between the total solar irradiance (TSI) - an external component of the climate system - and bluefin captures. The solar irradiance could have affected storminess during the period under study, mainly during the time interval 1700-1810. We suggest physico-biological mechanisms that explain the BFT catch fluctuations in two consecutive time intervals. In the first period, from 1700 to 1810, this mechanism could be high storm and wind activity, which would have made the BFT fisheries activities more difficult by reducing their efficacy. In contrast, during the interval from 1810 to 1907, the effects of wind and storms could be on spawning behaviour and larval ecology, and hence on year class strength, rather than on fish or fisherman's behaviour. These findings open up a range of new lines of enquiry that are relevant for both, fisheries and climate change research.

  7. Evangelizacion Indigena en Cuba (1512-1550): Estrategia y Razones de su Fracaso (Evangelization of Indigenous People in Cuba (1512-1550): Strategies and Reasons for its Failure).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puentes, Roberto Valdes; Reyes, Francisco Barroso

    2000-01-01

    Presents the different moments and contents of the strategies of the evangelization process practiced by the Spanish during the conquest and colonization of Cuba, as well as possible reasons for its failure. States that the Indians were enslaved and directed through evangelism toward acculturation. (BT)

  8. Las Vegas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image of Las Vegas, NV was acquired on August, 2000 and covers an area 42 km (25 miles) wide and 30 km (18 miles) long. The image displays three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region, with a spatial resolution of 15 m. McCarran International Airport to the south and Nellis Air Force Base to the NE are the two major airports visible. Golf courses appear as bright red areas of worms. The first settlement in Las Vegas (which is Spanish for The Meadows) was recorded back in the early 1850s when the Mormon church, headed by Brigham Young, sent a mission of 30 men to construct a fort and teach agriculture to the Indians. Las Vegas became a city in 1905 when the railroad announced this city was to be a major division point. Prior to legalized gambling in 1931, Las Vegas was developing as an agricultural area. Las Vegas' fame as a resort area became prominent after World War II. The image is located at 36.1 degrees north latitude and 115.1 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  9. Impressions of the Republic of Cuba. A Report by a Delegation of the American Association of State Colleges and Universities to the Republic of Cuba, December 2-10, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Carol R., Ed.

    Impressions of the Republic of Cuba are presented based on a visit to Cuba in 1978 by a delegation of the American Association of State Colleges and Universities. The following topics are discussed: the Cuban educational system, Cuban postsecondary education, goals of postsecondary education, elementary education, vocational and technical…

  10. Diversidad haplotípica en el manatí Trichechus manatus en Cuba: resultados preliminares

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hernandez-Martinez, Damir; Alvarez-Aleman, Anmari; Bonde, Robert K.; Powell, James A.; Garcia-Machado, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this analysis was to obtain information regarding the mtDNA haplotype composition of the manatee (T. manatus) occupying the Cuban archipelago. A fragment of 410 bp of the non-coding region was analyzed for 12 individual manatees from Cuba and one from Florida, USA. Only two haplotypes were identified. Haplotype A1, found exclusively in Florida (including in the sample analyzed here) but also found in Mexico, the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, was the most frequent haplotype (11 of the 12 samples from Cuba) and widely distributed. The second haplotype A3, previously referred to as endemic from Belize, was identified from an individual stranded in Isabela de Sagua, north of Cuba. These preliminary results provide information about three major aspects of manatee biology: (1) the mtDNA genetic diversity of T. manatus in Cuba seems low as compared to other regions of the Caribbean; (2) the Cuban population likely belongs to the group comprising Florida and the portions of the Greater Antilles; and (3) the territories of Belize and Cuba have exchanged individuals at present or in a relatively recent past.

  11. Studies in neotropical paleobotany. XIV. A palynoflora from the middle Eocene Saramaguacan formation of Cuba

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, A.; Cozadd, D.; Areces-Mallea, A.; Frederiksen, N.O.

    2000-01-01

    An assemblage of 46 fossil pollen and spore types is described from a core drilled through the middle Eocene Saramaguacan Formation, Camaguey Province, eastern Cuba. Many of the specimens represent unidentified or extinct taxa but several can be identified to family (Palmae, Bombacaceae, Gramineae, Moraceae, Myrtaceae) and some to genus (Pteris, Crudia, Lymingtonia?). The paleo-climate was warm-temperate to subtropical which is consistent with other floras in the region of comparable age and with the global paleotemperature curve. Older plate tectonic models show a variety of locations for proto-Cuba during Late Cretaceous and later times, including along the norther coast of South America. More recent models depict western and central Cuba as two separate parts until the Eocene, and eastern Cuba (joined to northern Hispaniola) docking to central Cuba also in the Eocene. All fragments are part of the North American Plate and none were directly connected with northern South America in late Mesozoic or Cenozoic time. The Saramaguacan flora supports this model because the assemblage is distinctly North American in affinities, with only one type (Retimonocolpites type 1) found elsewhere only in South America.

  12. Studies in Neotropical paleobotany. XIV. A palynoflora from the Middle Eocene Saramaguacan Formation of Cuba.

    PubMed

    Graham, A; Cozadd, D; Areces-Mallea, A; Frederiksen, N O

    2000-10-01

    An assemblage of 46 fossil pollen and spore types is described from a core drilled through the middle Eocene Saramaguacán Formation, Camagüey Province, eastern Cuba. Many of the specimens represent unidentified or extinct taxa but several can be identified to family (Palmae, Bombacaceae, Gramineae, Moraceae, Myrtaceae) and some to genus (Pteris, Crudia, Lymingtonia?). The paleoclimate was warm-temperate to subtropical which is consistent with other floras in the region of comparable age and with the global paleotemperature curve. Older plate tectonic models show a variety of locations for proto-Cuba during Late Cretaceous and later times, including along the norther coast of South America. More recent models depict western and central Cuba as two separate parts until the Eocene, and eastern Cuba (joined to northern Hispaniola) docking to central Cuba also in the Eocene. All fragments are part of the North American Plate and none were directly connected with northern South America in late Mesozoic or Cenozoic time. The Saramaguacán flora supports this model because the assemblage is distinctly North American in affinities, with only one type (Retimonocolpites type 1) found elsewhere only in South America.

  13. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil from Cuba and Brazil against housefly.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Zeneida Teixeira; Sánchez, Félix Fernández; dos Santos, Arith Ramos; Amaral, Ana Claudia Fernandes; Ferreira, José Luiz Pinto; Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Queiroz, Margareth Maria de Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus collected from Brazil and Cuba was tested to a chemical characterization and then was tested on the post-embryonic development of Musca domestica. The chemical composition analysis by GC-MS of the oils from Brazil/Cuba allowed the identification of 13 and 12 major constituents respectively; nine of them common to both. In the both oils, the main components were the isomers geranial and neral, which together form the compound citral. This corresponds to a total of 97.92%/Brazil and 97.69%/Cuba of the compounds identified. The monoterpene myrcene, observed only in the sample of Cuba, presented a large relative abundance (6.52%). The essential oil of C. citratus (Brazil/Cuba) was dissolved in DMSO and tested at concentrations of 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% and citral was prepared by mixing 16.8 mg with 960 µL DMSO. Both essential oils and monoterpene citral were applied topically to newly-hatched larvae (1µL/larva). The results showed a lethal concentration (LC50) of 4.25 and 3.24% for the Brazilian and Cuban essential oils, respectively. Mortalities of larval and newly-hatched larvae to adult periods were dose-dependent for the two both oils as for monoterpene citral, reaching 90%. Both essential oils and citral caused morphological changes in adult specimens.

  14. Detecting the presence-absence of bluefin tuna by automated analysis of medium-range sonars on fishing vessels

    PubMed Central

    Uranga, Jon; Arrizabalaga, Haritz; Boyra, Guillermo; Hernandez, Maria Carmen; Goñi, Nicolas; Arregui, Igor; Fernandes, Jose A.; Yurramendi, Yosu; Santiago, Josu

    2017-01-01

    This study presents a methodology for the automated analysis of commercial medium-range sonar signals for detecting presence/absence of bluefin tuna (Tunnus thynnus) in the Bay of Biscay. The approach uses image processing techniques to analyze sonar screenshots. For each sonar image we extracted measurable regions and analyzed their characteristics. Scientific data was used to classify each region into a class (“tuna” or “no-tuna”) and build a dataset to train and evaluate classification models by using supervised learning. The methodology performed well when validated with commercial sonar screenshots, and has the potential to automatically analyze high volumes of data at a low cost. This represents a first milestone towards the development of acoustic, fishery-independent indices of abundance for bluefin tuna in the Bay of Biscay. Future research lines and additional alternatives to inform stock assessments are also discussed. PMID:28152032

  15. Sweat Equity: A Study of Housing Systems by and for the People in the United States and Cuba.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Johnetta B.

    1979-01-01

    Compares housing problems and their resolution in Cuba and the United States. States that U.S. urban homesteading programs such as "sweat equity" are oriented to middle-income people and do not address needs of most Blacks. Contrasts this with Cuba whose government has made a sustained effort to improve housing. (Author/WP)

  16. Miconia bullotricha and M. hirtistyla, two new species of Miconia sect. Lima (Miconieae, Melastomataceae) from eastern Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Majure, Lucas C.; Bécquer, Eldis R.; Judd, Walter S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We describe two new species in Miconia sect. Lima, Miconia bullotricha Bécquer & Majure and Miconia hirtistyla Majure & Judd, from eastern, Cuba. We also provide illustrations and distribution maps for the two species, as well as a key to members of the Lima clade on Cuba. PMID:24526849

  17. Miconia bullotricha and M. hirtistyla, two new species of Miconia sect. Lima (Miconieae, Melastomataceae) from eastern Cuba.

    PubMed

    Majure, Lucas C; Bécquer, Eldis R; Judd, Walter S

    2014-01-01

    We describe two new species in Miconia sect. Lima, Miconia bullotricha Bécquer & Majure and Miconia hirtistyla Majure & Judd, from eastern, Cuba. We also provide illustrations and distribution maps for the two species, as well as a key to members of the Lima clade on Cuba.

  18. Arsenic bioaccessibility in gold mine tailings of Delita, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Toujaguez, R; Ono, F B; Martins, V; Cabrera, P P; Blanco, A V; Bundschuh, J; Guilherme, L R G

    2013-11-15

    A bioaccessibility test was carried out in four tailings collected at a former mining area in Delita, Cuba. A previous risk assessment study identified arsenic (As) as the main critical contaminant in this area and showed that the tailings had high As concentrations (up to 3.5%). This study aimed at: (i) evaluating As bioaccessibility in four tailings (R1, R2, R3 and R4) from a gold mining area to obtain a better health risk estimate; and, (ii) identifying the mineral phases responsible for most of the bioaccessible As using XRD, SEM-EDS, and XAS. The results showed that bioaccessible As in the tailings ranged from 0.65 to 40.5%. The main factors influencing As bioaccessibility were a high occurrence of amorphous iron arsenate; occurrence, even at low content, of iron oxyhydroxides and stability of mineral phases in the environment of the gastrointestinal tract. Although arsenopyrite, arsenates and goethite were confirmed by mineralogical methods such as optical microscopy, XRD, and SEM-EDS, XAS showed that scorodite-oxidation state As(+V)-was dominant in most of the tailings. This confirms that the low bioaccessibility of As in most of the tailings is due to the slow kinetics of As release from scorodite.

  19. Promoting health in response to global tourism expansion in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, J M; Gonzalez, M; Cabrera, G J; Catasus, S; Vidal, C; Yassi, A

    2008-03-01

    The ability of communities to respond to the pressures of globalization is an important determinant of community health. Tourism is a rapidly growing industry and there is an increasing concern about its health impact on local communities. Nonetheless, little research has been conducted to identify potential mitigating measures. We therefore took advantage of the 'natural experiment' provided by the expansion of tourism in Cuba, and conducted four focus groups and key informants interviews in each of two coastal communities. Participants expressed concerns about psycho-social impacts as well as occupational and environmental concerns, and both infectious and chronic diseases. A wide array of programs that had been developed to mitigate potential negative were described. Some of the programs were national in scope and others were locally developed. The programs particularly targeted youth as the most vulnerable population at risk of addictions and sexually transmitted infections. Occupational health concerns for workers in the tourism sector were also addressed, with many of the measures implemented protecting tourists as well. The health promotion and various other participatory action initiatives implemented showed a strong commitment to address the impacts of tourism and also contributed to building capacity in the two communities. Although longitudinal studies are needed to assess the sustainability of these programs and to evaluate their long-term impact in protecting health, other communities can learn from the initiatives taken.

  20. Potential for electricity generation from biomass residues in Cuba

    SciTech Connect

    Lora, E.S.

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is the study of the availability of major biomass residues in Cuba and the analysis of the electricity generation potential by using different technologies. An analysis of the changes in the country`s energy balance from 1988 up to date is presented, as well as a table with the availability study results and the energy equivalent for the following biomass residues: sugar cane bagasse and trash, rice and coffee husk, corn an cassava stalks and firewood. A total equivalent of 4.42 10{sup 6} tons/year of fuel-oil was obtained. Possible scenarios for the electricity production increase in the sugar industry are presented too. The analysis is carried out for a high stream parameter CEST and two BIG/GT system configurations. Limitations are introduced about the minimal milling capacity of the sugar mills for each technology. The calculated {open_quotes}real{close_quotes} electricity generation potential for BIG/GT systems, based on GE LM5000 CC gas turbines, an actual cane harvest of 58.0 10{sup 6} tons/year, half the available trash utilization and an specific steam consumption of 210 kg/tc, was 18601,0 GWh/year. Finally different alternatives are presented for low-scale electricity generation based on the other available agricultural residues.

  1. [Structure and injuries of octocoral communities (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea) of Ecological Reserve Siboney-Juticí, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba].

    PubMed

    Olivera Espinosa, Yunier; Hernández-Fernández, Leslie; Jover Capote, Abdiel

    2010-12-01

    In the spur-and-groove reefs of the Ecological Reserve Siboney-Juticí (Southeast Cuba) octocorals are one of the predominant components of the sessile fauna. Main objectives of the present paper are characterizing the composition, structure and conservation status of the octocoral communities and assessing on the prevailing environmental conditions in the study area. For data collection, six sampling sites were located every 2-3 km ranging from 12 m to 17 m depth along the spur-and-groove reefs. In each site, 22-26 lm2 quadrants were zigzag arranged every 2 m. The density of colonies was determined per site. The severity degree and predictability of environmental conditions were inferred by using the Heterogeneity and Equitability indexes, respectively. Hydrodynamic stress and the Comparative Pollution Index were also assessed. Current affectations of the octocoral communities were also determined and classified into four main categories: mechanical damage, diseases, predation and invertebrate and macroalgae overgrowth. As a result, 25 species represented by 752 colonies were recorded and Eunicea flexuosa and Gorgonia ventalina were the most abundant. The occurrence of Eunicea succinea forma succinea constituted the first report for Eastern Cuba. Site densities ranged from 3.58 +/- 1.84 to 7.58 +/- 2.16 colonies/m2 and considered from moderate to low. The biggest densities were reported at both sides of the San Juan River mouth. Despite of the composition and structure of the octocoral communities, low to high hydrodynamic stress and low and moderate levels of contamination were inferred, it is likely that these indexes could have been overestimated due to the sensitivity of the indicator species to other factors such as sedimentation. The environmental conditions were mostly favorable and stable. In general, the number of dead colonies was low and mostly caused by the detachment of the substrate and overgrowth of Millepora alcicornis. Injuries were mainly brought

  2. Activity Concentrations and Dose Assessment of Gamma Emitting Radionuclides in Canned Tuna and Sardines Produced after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident.

    PubMed

    Ababneh, Zaid Q; Al-Masoud, Fahad I; Ababneh, Anas M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the radioactivity concentrations of gamma emitting radionuclides in canned tuna and sardines that were produced after the Fukushima nuclear accident and to assess the resulting radiation doses to the public. Fifty-eight brands of canned tuna and sardines consumed in the Middle East and produced from different parts of the world were analyzed using a germanium detector. Cesium-137 (137Cs) was not detected above the minimum detectable activity in any of the samples. Natural radionuclides 40K, 226Ra and 228Ra were detected with wide activity concentration ranges and with average values of (in Bq kg(-1) wet weight): 68 ± 36, 0.31 ± 0.45, 0.34 ± 0.25, respectively, in tuna samples and with averages of 129 ± 67, 0.20 ± 0.33, 0.60 ± 0.31 in sardine samples. The results of the activity concentrations of 40K and 226Ra showed some regional dependence. Tuna samples produced in Europe have almost twice the concentration of 40K and half the concentration of 226Ra as compared to samples produced in either East or South Asia and North America. Moreover, sardine samples produced in North Africa and Europe have almost twice the concentrations of 40K and 226Ra as those produced in East or South Asia and North America. Dose assessment due to ingestion of canned seafood was also performed, and the committed effective dose was found to be well within the worldwide average.

  3. HCB, p,p'-DDE and PCB ontogenetic transfer and magnification in bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) from the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Corsolini, Simonetta; Sarà, Gianluca; Borghesi, Nicoletta; Focardi, Silvano

    2007-06-15

    The bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus 1758), is biologically and economically important in the Atlantic--Mediterranean ecosystems. Bluefin tuna feed on diverse food items depending on their age, thus they occupy different trophic levels during their lifespan. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), p,p'-DDE and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are well-known persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Mediterranean basin. The relationship between stable isotopes of nitrogen (N) and the POP residue levels in tissues has recently increased knowledge on the link between the trophic levels and the contaminant accumulation. Trophic levels were estimated by using 15N/14N ratio (delta15N) and HCB, p,p'-DDE, and forty-three PCBs were quantified in bluefin tuna from the southern Tyrrhenian Sea. Results showed that changes in PCB and p,p'-DDE concentrations were a function of size and trophic level, while no correlations were observed for HCB. Apart from HCB and PCB nos. 101, 207, 95, 158, and 60 + 56, which did not show any significant increase per trophic level, the other PCBs and the p,p'-DDE increased significantly. The ontogenetic magnification factor of PCBs was 6.6 +/- 0.5, which was significantly (12 times) higher (p < 0.05) than the values found for p,p'-DDE (1.4) and HCB (1.4).

  4. The relationship between fat content and biological parameters of bigeye tuna ( Thunnus obseus) in the Western Central Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Liming; Shen, Zhibin; Li, Jie; Li, Dongjing; Li, Yuwei

    2016-10-01

    Comparing fat content with physiological status can throw light on the reproduction and feeding behavior of the fish. The biological data of 586 bigeye tuna were collected from the longline fishery in the waters of Western Central Indian Ocean from November, 2012 to March, 2013. The spatial or temporal distribution of the fat content, and the relationships of fat content with gender, round weight, gonadal maturity and fork length were analyzed. A generalized additive model (GAM) was used to analyze the relationships between fat content and fork length (FL), gonadosomatic index (GSI), condition factor (K), and somatic index (SI). Results showed that: 1) the fat content of bigeye tuna was in the range of 3.1%-27.1% with the average 12.8%; 2) there were no significant geographical differences of average fat content ( P > 0.05) among 1° squares in general; 3) there were no significant differences ( P > 0.05) of the fat content for different genders, months, or gonad maturity stages; 4) there was an extremely significant correlation ( P = 0.000) between fat content and FL and GSI. There was no significant correlation ( P = 0.051) between fat content and K. There was a significant correlation ( P = 0.003) between fat content and SI. The results of this study suggest that the fat content of the matured fish was relatively stable. The survey area was in a spawning region, and the survey period was the spawning season for bigeye tuna.

  5. Evidence of discrete yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) populations demands rethink of management for this globally important resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grewe, P. M.; Feutry, P.; Hill, P. L.; Gunasekera, R. M.; Schaefer, K. M.; Itano, D. G.; Fuller, D. W.; Foster, S. D.; Davies, C. R.

    2015-11-01

    Tropical tuna fisheries are central to food security and economic development of many regions of the world. Contemporary population assessment and management generally assume these fisheries exploit a single mixed spawning population, within ocean basins. To date population genetics has lacked the required power to conclusively test this assumption. Here we demonstrate heterogeneous population structure among yellowfin tuna sampled at three locations across the Pacific Ocean (western, central, and eastern) via analysis of double digest restriction-site associated DNA using Next Generation Sequencing technology. The differences among locations are such that individuals sampled from one of the three regions examined can be assigned with close to 100% accuracy demonstrating the power of this approach for providing practical markers for fishery independent verification of catch provenance in a way not achieved by previous techniques. Given these results, an extended pan-tropical survey of yellowfin tuna using this approach will not only help combat the largest threat to sustainable fisheries (i.e. illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing) but will also provide a basis to transform current monitoring, assessment, and management approaches for this globally significant species.

  6. Simple measurements reveal the feeding history, the onset of reproduction, and energy conversion efficiencies in captive bluefin tuna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jusup, Marko; Klanjšček, Tin; Matsuda, Hiroyuki

    2014-11-01

    We present a numerical approach that, in conjunction with a fully set up Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model, aims at consistently approximating the feeding history of cultivated fish from the commonly measured aquaculture data (body length, body mass, or the condition factor). We demonstrate the usefulness of the approach by performing validation of a DEB-based model for Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) on an independent dataset and exploring the implied bioenergetics of this species in captivity. In the context of validation, the results indicate that the model successfully accounts for more than 75% of the variance in actual fish feed. At the 5% significance level, predictions do not underestimate nor overestimate observations and there is no bias. The overall model accuracy of 87.6% is satisfactory. In the context of tuna bioenergetics, we offer an explanation as to why the first reproduction in the examined case occurred only after the fish reached seven years of age, whereas it takes five years in the wild and sometimes as little as three years in captivity. Finally, we calculate energy conversion efficiencies and the supply stress throughout the entire lifetime to theoretically underpin the relatively low contribution of growth to aerobic metabolism implied by respirometry and high feed conversion ratio observed in bluefin tuna aquaculture.

  7. Spawning behaviour and post-spawning migration patterns of atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) ascertained from satellite archival tags.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Guillermo; Abascal, Francisco Javier; Varela, José Luis; Medina, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Spawning behaviour of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) was investigated using electronic satellite tags deployed in the western Mediterranean spawning ground, around the Balearic Islands (years 2009-2011). All the fish were tagged underwater and released within schools. In general, the fish tagged in the same year/school displayed common migratory trends. Following extended residency around the Balearic Islands, most tagged tuna crossed the Strait of Gibraltar heading for the North Atlantic. Discrepancies between the migratory tracks reconstructed from this and previous electronic tagging studies suggest that the bluefin tuna Mediterranean population may comprise distinct units exhibiting differing migratory behaviours. The diving behaviour varied between oceanic regions throughout the migratory pathways, the shallowest distribution taking place in the spawning ground and the deepest at the Strait of Gibraltar. A unique diving pattern was found on the majority of nights while the fish stayed at the spawning ground; it consisted of frequent and brief oscillatory movements up and down through the mixed layer, resulting in thermal profiles characterized by oscillations about the thermocline. Such a pattern is believed to reflect recent courtship and spawning activity. Reproductive parameters inferred from the analysis of vertical profiles are consistent with those estimated in previous studies based on biological samples.

  8. Distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPS) IN wild Bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) from different FAO capture zones.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, L M; Labella, G F; Panseri, S; Pavlovic, R; Bonacci, S; Arioli, F

    2016-06-01

    Residues of environmental contaminants in food represent a concern in food safety programs. In this study, the distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were evaluated in 79 tuna samples from FAO areas 51 (Indian Ocean), 71 (Pacific Ocean), 34 (Atlantic Ocean), and 37 (Mediterranean Sea). 6 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 16 organochlorines (OCs) and 7 polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were selected as representative compounds according to EFSA POPs monitoring guidelines. An analytical method, based on Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE), with an "in-line" clean-up step and GC-MS/MS detection, was developed, validated and applied. PCBs were detected in all FAO areas, with a prevalence of 100% for most of them. In the FAO area 37, only, all PBDEs were detected. Only 5 OCs were detected. The results showed that POPs contamination of tuna reflects FAO area contamination; in particular FAO area 37 was the most polluted. Moreover, tuna muscle was an appropriate matrix for monitoring contamination and for obtaining information about food safety.

  9. Spawning Behaviour and Post-Spawning Migration Patterns of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus) Ascertained from Satellite Archival Tags

    PubMed Central

    Aranda, Guillermo; Abascal, Francisco Javier; Varela, José Luis; Medina, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Spawning behaviour of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) was investigated using electronic satellite tags deployed in the western Mediterranean spawning ground, around the Balearic Islands (years 2009-2011). All the fish were tagged underwater and released within schools. In general, the fish tagged in the same year/school displayed common migratory trends. Following extended residency around the Balearic Islands, most tagged tuna crossed the Strait of Gibraltar heading for the North Atlantic. Discrepancies between the migratory tracks reconstructed from this and previous electronic tagging studies suggest that the bluefin tuna Mediterranean population may comprise distinct units exhibiting differing migratory behaviours. The diving behaviour varied between oceanic regions throughout the migratory pathways, the shallowest distribution taking place in the spawning ground and the deepest at the Strait of Gibraltar. A unique diving pattern was found on the majority of nights while the fish stayed at the spawning ground; it consisted of frequent and brief oscillatory movements up and down through the mixed layer, resulting in thermal profiles characterized by oscillations about the thermocline. Such a pattern is believed to reflect recent courtship and spawning activity. Reproductive parameters inferred from the analysis of vertical profiles are consistent with those estimated in previous studies based on biological samples. PMID:24098502

  10. A review of the genus Berosus Leach of Cuba (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Deler-Hernández, Albert; Fikáček, Martin; Cala-Riquelme, Franklyn

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Cuban fauna of the genus Berosus Leach, 1817 is reviewed based on newly collected material as well as historical and type specimens. Nine species are recognized, including three recorded from Cuba for the first time: Berosus infuscatus LeConte, 1855, Berosus interstitialis Knisch, 1924 (= Berosus stribalus Orchymont, 1946 syn. n.) and Berosus metalliceps Sharp, 1882. Only one of the nine Cuban species, Berosus chevrolati, remains endemic to Cuba, as two other species previously considered as endemic to Cuba are recorded from elsewhere: Berosus quadridens from Mexico and Central America and Berosus trilobus from the Dominican Republic. Notes on biology and Cuban distribution are provided for all nine species. Berosus quadridens Chevrolat, 1863, stat. restit. is removed from synonym with Berosus truncatipennis and considered a valid species. PMID:23794806

  11. [Distribution and abundance of the ascidian Ecteinascidia turbinata (Ascidiacea: Perophoridae) in Cuba].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Zanuy, Aida; Carballo, José Luis; García-Cagide, Alida; Naranjo, Santiago; Esquivel, Macario

    2007-03-01

    Permanently submerged mangrove roots (Rhizophora mangle) are the main habitat of the ascidian Ecteinascidia turbinata in Cuba. It was occasionally found on black coral (Antiphates caribeana) between 22 and 38 meters deep. This species exhibits a wide distribution in all the mangrove keys surrounding the Island of Cuba but does not occur in riparian or fringing mangroves. Populations of this species are abundant in Cuba: in 75% of the 58 localities sampled the species was present and in 57% more than 50% of the roots held at least one colony. The highest colony densities were found in the northern coast of Pinar del Rio province with values near one colony per lineal meter of mangrove root. We found the highest density (1.46 col/m) and greatest biomass at Jutías Key, with values between 25 and 660 g/m. The average of wet biomass in the studied mangroves was 73.63 g/m.

  12. A review of the genus Berosus Leach of Cuba (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae).

    PubMed

    Deler-Hernández, Albert; Fikáček, Martin; Cala-Riquelme, Franklyn

    2013-01-01

    The Cuban fauna of the genus Berosus Leach, 1817 is reviewed based on newly collected material as well as historical and type specimens. Nine species are recognized, including three recorded from Cuba for the first time: Berosus infuscatus LeConte, 1855, Berosus interstitialis Knisch, 1924 (= Berosus stribalus Orchymont, 1946 syn. n.) and Berosus metalliceps Sharp, 1882. Only one of the nine Cuban species, Berosus chevrolati, remains endemic to Cuba, as two other species previously considered as endemic to Cuba are recorded from elsewhere: Berosus quadridens from Mexico and Central America and Berosus trilobus from the Dominican Republic. Notes on biology and Cuban distribution are provided for all nine species. Berosus quadridens Chevrolat, 1863, stat. restit. is removed from synonym with Berosus truncatipennis and considered a valid species.

  13. [Relationship between antophyte foliar morphology and abiotic factors in the main rainforests of Eastern Cuba].

    PubMed

    Quesada, Eddy Martínez

    2009-01-01

    Relationship between antophyte foliar morphology and abiotic factors in the main rainforests of Eastern Cuba. The foliar morphology of representative antophytes in four rainforest types of Eastern Cuba was studied in relation to the main abiotic factors. Although there are several leaf types in these forests, the microphyll type is the most important among endemic species in the ophiolites complex and the Montane rainforest. At the Lowland rainforest (metamorphic complex) the mesophyll leaf was the most important. Most foliar epidermis had structures normally found in mesomorphic plants, but xeromorphic and higromorphic morphologies were also present.

  14. Climate change projection for the western tropical Pacific Ocean using a high-resolution ocean model: Implications for tuna fisheries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matear, R. J.; Chamberlain, M. A.; Sun, C.; Feng, M.

    2015-03-01

    The Western Pacific Warm Pool is a region of high tuna catch, and how future climate change might impact the tuna fisheries is an important regional issue. By using a high-resolution ocean model forced by the simulated climate of the 2060s, we investigate whether enhanced spatial resolution and bias correction of the mean state could alter the climate change projection for the western tropical Pacific and examine the consequences this might have for tropical tuna distributions. For most of the physical environmental variables, enhanced resolution and bias correction had only a minor impact on the projected changes. The climate projections showed a maximum surface warming east of the Warm Pool, a shoaling of the thermocline in the Warm Pool, and an eastward expansion of the Warm Pool. In the Warm Pool, the shoaling of the thermocline raises the nutricline into the photic zone and increases phytoplankton and primary productivity, a feature that is most evident in the high-resolution model projection but also weakly present in the coarse-resolution projection. The phytoplankton and primary productivity response to climate change was where ocean model resolution produced a clear difference. With enhanced resolution, the simulation had stronger and better-defined zonal currents, which were more consistent with observations. Along the equator, the high-resolution model enabled vertical current shear mixing to generate a sub-surface phytoplankton maximum both inside and outside the Warm Pool, which is an observed phenomenon. With climate change, the enhanced-resolution model projected enhanced vertical shear mixing, increased vertical supply of nutrients to the photic zone, and increased sub-surface phytoplankton concentrations. The increase in sub-surface phytoplankton concentrations helps to offset the decline in surface phytoplankton concentrations and results in a projection of almost no change in the western tropical Pacific primary productivity. In contrast, the low

  15. Microarray gene expression profiles from mature gonad tissues of Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus in the Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bluefin tunas are highly prized pelagic fish species representing a significant economic resource to fisheries throughout the world. Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) populations have significantly declined due to overexploitation. As a consequence of their value and population decline, T. thynnus has been the focus of considerable research effort concerning many aspects of their life history. However, in-depth understanding of T. thynnus reproductive biology is still lacking. Knowledge of reproductive physiology is a very important tool for determining effective fisheries and aquaculture management. Transcriptome techniques are proving powerful and provide novel insights into physiological processes. Construction of a microarray from T. thynnus ESTs sourced from reproductive tissues has provided an ideal platform to study the reproductive physiology of bluefin tunas. The aim of this investigation was to compare transcription profiles from the ovaries and testes of mature T. thynnus to establish sex specific variations underlying their reproductive physiology. Results Male and females T. thynnus gonad tissues were collected from the wild and histologically staged. Sub-samples of sexually mature tissues were also measured for their mRNA differential expression among the sexes using the custom microarray design BFT 4X44K. A total of 7068 ESTs were assessed for differential expression of which 1273 ESTs were significantly different (p<0.05) with >2 fold change in expression according to sex. Differential expression for 13 of these ESTs was validated with quantitative PCR. These include genes involved in egg envelope formation, hydration, and lipid transport/accumulation more highly expressed in ovaries compared with testis, while genes involved in meiosis, sperm motility and lipid metabolism were more highly expressed in testis compared with ovaries. Conclusions This investigation has furthered our knowledge of bluefin tunas reproductive biology by

  16. Vascular anatomy of the gills in a high energy demand teleost, the skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis).

    PubMed

    Olson, Kenneth R; Dewar, Heidi; Graham, Jeffrey B; Brill, Richard W

    2003-05-01

    Tunas (family: Scombridae, Tribe: Thunnini) exhibit anatomical, physiological, and biochemical adaptations that dramatically increase the ability of their cardiorespiratory systems to transfer oxygen from the water to the tissues. In the present study the vascular anatomy of the skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis, gill was examined by light and scanning electron microscopic analysis of methyl methacrylate vascular corrosion replicas prepared under physiological pressure. The gill filament contains three distinct blood pathways, respiratory, interlamellar, and nutrient. The respiratory, or arterio-arterial (AA) pathway, is the site of gas exchange and consists of the afferent and efferent filamental arteries (AFA and EFA) and arterioles (ALA and ELA) and the lamellae. Each ALA in the basal filament supplies ten or more lamellae and they anastomose with their neighbor to form a continuous vascular arcade. Four modifications in the lamellar circulation appear to enhance gas exchange efficiency. 1) The ALA deliver blood directly to the outer margin of the lamellae where unstirred boundary layer effects are predicted to be minimal and water PO2 highest. 2) Pillar cells are closely aligned along the outer boundary of the inlet side and the inner boundary of the outlet side of the lamellae to form multiple distributing and receiving blood channels. 3) Elsewhere in the lamella, pillar cells are aligned to form diagonal channels that direct blood from the outer to the inner lamellar margins, thereby reducing vascular resistance. 4) The lamellar sinusoid is especially widened near the efferent end to augment oxygen saturation of blood flowing through the inner margin. These adaptations, plus the presence of a bow-shaped interlamellar septum, and a thinned filament core appear to decrease gill vascular resistance and maximize gas-exchange efficiency. The interlamellar (IL) and nutrient systems originate from post-lamellar vessels and are arterio-venous (AV) pathways. IL

  17. Habitat suitability of the Atlantic bluefin tuna by size class: An ecological niche approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druon, Jean-Noël; Fromentin, Jean-Marc; Hanke, Alex R.; Arrizabalaga, Haritz; Damalas, Dimitrios; Tičina, Vjekoslav; Quílez-Badia, Gemma; Ramirez, Karina; Arregui, Igor; Tserpes, George; Reglero, Patricia; Deflorio, Michele; Oray, Isik; Saadet Karakulak, F.; Megalofonou, Persefoni; Ceyhan, Tevfik; Grubišić, Leon; MacKenzie, Brian R.; Lamkin, John; Afonso, Pedro; Addis, Piero

    2016-03-01

    An ecological niche modelling (ENM) approach was used to predict the potential feeding and spawning habitats of small (5-25 kg, only feeding) and large (>25 kg) Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABFT), Thunnus thynnus, in the Mediterranean Sea, the North Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico. The ENM was built bridging knowledge on ecological traits of ABFT (e.g. temperature tolerance, mobility, feeding and spawning strategy) with patterns of selected environmental variables (chlorophyll-a fronts and concentration, sea surface current and temperature, sea surface height anomaly) that were identified using an extensive set of precisely geo-located presence data. The results highlight a wider temperature tolerance for larger fish allowing them to feed in the northern - high chlorophyll levels - latitudes up to the Norwegian Sea in the eastern Atlantic and to the Gulf of Saint Lawrence in the western basin. Permanent suitable feeding habitat for small ABFT was predicted to be mostly located in temperate latitudes in the North Atlantic and in the Mediterranean Sea, as well as in subtropical waters off north-west Africa, while summer potential habitat in the Gulf of Mexico was found to be unsuitable for both small and large ABFTs. Potential spawning grounds were found to occur in the Gulf of Mexico from March-April in the south-east to April-May in the north, while favourable conditions evolve in the Mediterranean Sea from mid-May in the eastern to mid-July in the western basin. Other secondary potential spawning grounds not supported by observations were predicted in the Azores area and off Morocco to Senegal during July and August when extrapolating the model settings from the Gulf of Mexico into the North Atlantic. The presence of large ABFT off Florida and the Bahamas in spring was not explained by the model as is, however the environmental variables other than the sea surface height anomaly appeared to be favourable for spawning in part of this area. Defining key spatial and

  18. Depressed resilience of bluefin tuna in the western atlantic and age truncation.

    PubMed

    Secor, D H; Rooker, J R; Gahagan, B I; Siskey, M R; Wingate, R W

    2015-04-01

    Following intense overfishing in the 1970s, the western stock of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) experienced a long period of depressed abundance, which has been attributed to failure of the population to periodically produce large numbers of juveniles, the western stock mixing with the more highly exploited eastern stock (fisheries in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea), and regime shift in the population's ecosystem resulting in lower replacement rates. To evaluate the presence of relatively strong years of juvenile production, we analyzed age structure from a recent sample of otoliths (ear stones) collected from the western stock (2011-2013, North Carolina, U.S.A., winter fishery). Mixing levels for the recent sample were analyzed using otolith stable isotopes to test whether age structure might be biased through immigration of eastern stock bluefin tuna. Age structure from historical samples collected from United States and Canadian fisheries (1975-1981) was compared with more recent samples (1996-2007) to examine whether demographic changes had occurred to the western stock that might have disrupted juvenile production. Relatively high juvenile production occurred in 2003, 2005, and 2006. Otolith stable isotope analysis showed that these recruitments were mostly of western stock origin. However, these high recruitments were >2-fold less than historical recruitment. We found substantial age truncation in the sampled fisheries. Half the historical sample was >20 years old (mean age = 20.1 [SD 3.7]; skewness = -0.3), whereas <5% of the recent sample was >20 years old (mean age = 13.4 [SD 3.8]; skewness = 1.3). Loss of age structure is consistent with changes in fishing selectivity and trends in the stock assessment used for management. We propose that fishing, as a forcing variable, brought about a threshold shift in the western stock toward lower biomass and production, a shift that emulates the regime shift hypothesis. An abbreviated

  19. Risk factors for Giardia infection among hospitalized children in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Bello, J; Núñez, F A; González, O M; Fernández, R; Almirall, P; Escobedo, A A

    2011-01-01

    The risk factors associated with Giardia infection, in children hospitalized in Havana, Cuba, were recently explored. Children aged ≥5 years were more likely to be positive for Giardia infection than the younger children, with an odds ratio (OR) of 3·41 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1·36-9·69]. The risk factors found to be associated with Giardia infection in univariate analyses were rural residence (OR = 3·01; CI = 1·23-7·35), belonging to a household that did not receive water from an aqueduct (OR = 3·27; CI = 1·21-8·91), drinking unboiled water (OR = 3·64; CI = 2·14-6·26), nail biting (OR = 3·47; CI = 1·97-6·08), eating unwashed vegetables raw (OR = 4·84; CI = 2·33-10·14), and a personal (OR = 3·23; CI = 1·58-6·59) or family history (OR = 3·96; CI = 1·53-10·47) of previous parasitic infection. In multivariate analyses, however, only two (modifiable) risk factors were found to be independently and significantly associated with Giardia infection: nail biting and eating unwashed vegetables raw. It therefore seems that, at least at the individual level, giardiasis-prevention activities in Havana should be focussed on health education to improve personal hygiene and food-related practices. If appropriately managed, the surveillance of drinking water and foodstuffs, for Giardia and other parasites, might also help to reduce the hospitalization of Cuban children.

  20. Interrelationship of the terranes in western and central Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowska, Krystyna

    1993-03-01

    Present-day Cuba is a complex of terranes. In the western and central parts of the island the Sierra de los Organos and the Escambray terranes, which are genetically related, and the volcanosedimentary Cretaceous sequences of the Greater Antilles arc are distinguished. The Escambray and Sierra de los Organos massifs are terranes that were detached from their source areas near the Yucatan. A rift separating the Yucatan from the Florida-Bahama plate was involved. Separation of the Escambray sequence from that of the Sierra de los Organos took place in the Early Cretaceous along a NE-SW-trending transform fault. The Escambray sequence was transported together with the Greater Antilles island arc in front of the Farallon plate. About 80 Ma ago the volcanosedimentary Cretaceous sequence of the Greater Antilles island arc was thrust over the ophiolitic association. In this way the Zaza zone was formed. At that time some overthrusting and metamorphism took place in the Escambray massif, which was then overthrust and pressed into the Zaza zone. At about 45-50 Ma ago detachment and nappe overthrusting took place in the Sierra de los Organos and overthrust units reached the margin of the margin of the Florida-Bahama plate. Various structures are involved in the Zaza zone, including: (1) the volcanosedimentary Cretaceous sequences of the Greater Antilles arc (which is a tectonized and overthrust terrane); and (2) the ophiolitic association (the Greater Antilles arc terrane is thrust over this association). Both of these tectonic units were folded together. The Sierra de los Organos and the Escambray terranes were thrust onto the Zaza zone and then deformed together with it during later phases.

  1. Risk factors for Giardia infection among hospitalized children in Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Bello, J; Núñez, F A; González, O M; Fernández, R; Almirall, P; Escobedo, A A

    2011-01-01

    The risk factors associated with Giardia infection, in children hospitalized in Havana, Cuba, were recently explored. Children aged ⩾5 years were more likely to be positive for Giardia infection than the younger children, with an odds ratio (OR) of 3.41 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.36–9.69]. The risk factors found to be associated with Giardia infection in univariate analyses were rural residence (OR = 3.01; CI = 1.23–7.35), belonging to a household that did not receive water from an aqueduct (OR = 3.27; CI = 1.21–8.91), drinking unboiled water (OR = 3.64; CI = 2.14–6.26), nail biting (OR = 3.47; CI = 1.97–6.08), eating unwashed vegetables raw (OR = 4.84; CI = 2.33–10.14), and a personal (OR = 3.23; CI = 1.58–6.59) or family history (OR = 3.96; CI = 1.53–10.47) of previous parasitic infection. In multivariate analyses, however, only two (modifiable) risk factors were found to be independently and significantly associated with Giardia infection: nail biting and eating unwashed vegetables raw. It therefore seems that, at least at the individual level, giardiasis-prevention activities in Havana should be focussed on health education to improve personal hygiene and food-related practices. If appropriately managed, the surveillance of drinking water and foodstuffs, for Giardia and other parasites, might also help to reduce the hospitalization of Cuban children. PMID:21294949

  2. Determination of cadmium, lead and mercury residual levels in meat of canned light tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis and Thunnus albacares) and fresh little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus) in Libya

    PubMed Central

    Abolghait, S.K.; Garbaj, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance for mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contamination in tuna products is crucial for consumer food safety. Hg, Pb and Cd contaminants were monitored in a total of 60 specimens of fresh little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus) and popular brands of skipjack and yellowfin (Katsuwonus pelamis and Thunnus albacares) canned tuna commercially available in Tripoli, Libya. Direct Mercury Analyzer (DMA-80) was implemented for determination of total Hg level and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) was employed for determination of Cd and Pb concentrations. The results indicated that Hg had the highest concentration level and Cd had the lowest concentration level either in tested canned tuna or fresh little tunny samples. The average concentration of Hg in fresh little tunny samples was 1.185 ± 0.968 mg kg-1 wet weight (ww) and often exceeded the standard permissible limit. In addition, canned yellowfin tuna had the lowest levels of Cd (0.027 ± 0.026 mg kg-1 ww), Pb (0.075 ± 0.071) and Hg (0.163 ± 0.122 mg kg-1 ww). Results of the current surveillance indicated that canned skipjack and yellowfin tuna sold in Tripoli markets show contaminant levels well under the European thresholds adopted for Cd, Pb and Hg. However, consumption of large quantities of Mediterranean little tunny products significantly increases human exposure to the risk of Hg toxicity. PMID:26623379

  3. Jurassic-Cretaceous Composite Total Petroleum System and Geologic Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources of the North Cuba Basin, Cuba

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the world. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the North Cuba Basin. The assessment is based on the geologic elements of the total petroleum system (TPS) defined in the province, including petroleum source rocks (source-rock maturation, generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and petroleum traps (Trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined a Jurassic-Cretaceous Total Petroleum System in the North Cuba Basin Province. Within this TPS, three assessment units were defined and assessed for undiscovered oil and gas resources.

  4. Cuba: An Historical Appraisal of Its Foreign Debt and Soviet Economic Assistance and Cuba: An Evaluation of Its Military Relations with the Soviet Union.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    4 3 A number of sources however, indicate that this may not be entirely true. Cuba’s foreign debt on January 1, 1959 was, in fact, small. It stood at...Estatal de Estadisticas , Compendio de Estadisticas de Americana Latina, Febrero de 1982. Comparative Politics, Revolutions and the Restructuring of National...arrive. This was a valid indicator of the Soviets’ real intent and the extent of the growing Cuban accommodation. On 24 October, according to CIA

  5. Mercury Concentrations in Tuna (Thunnus albacares and Thunnus obesus) from the Brazilian Equatorial Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, L D; Goyanna, F; Bezerra, M F; Silva, G B

    2017-02-01

    Average total Hg concentrations measured in muscle of two species of tuna (Thunnus obesus and T. albacares) captured in the Brazilian Equatorial Atlantic Ocean varied from 95 to 1748 ng.g(-1) wet weight in T. obesus and 48 to 500 ng.g(-1) wet weight in T. albacares. Higher concentrations in T. obesus are probably related to foraging on deep water carnivorous fish. Smaller individuals of both species showed the lowest concentrations, but a significant positive relationship between fish weight and length and Hg concentrations was found for T. obesus, but not for T. albacares. Largest individuals (>30 kg) of T. obesus showed Hg concentrations ≥1000 ng.g(-1), surpassing the legal limits for human consumption, although the average concentration for this species was much lower (545 ng.g(-1)). Concentrations in T. albacares from the Brazilian Equatorial were lower than those found in the African and in the North Atlantic. No comparison could be made for T. obesus due to few studies for this species in the Atlantic Ocean.

  6. Estimating diets of pre-spawning Atlantic bluefin tuna from stomach content and stable isotope analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, José L.; Rodríguez-Marín, Enrique; Medina, Antonio

    2013-02-01

    Stomach content analysis (SCA) and stable isotope analysis (SIA) coupled with isotopic mixing model analysis were used to estimate diet composition of pre-spawning Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABFT), Thunnus thynnus, caught by trap in the Strait of Gibraltar area. SCA provided poor information on diet as most of the stomachs appeared empty or contained only hard remains. Mixing model diet compositions estimated from muscle tissue SIA data did not show clear inter-annual variations and suggested that ABFT fed on prey that occupy high and intermediate level positions of the food web. Otherwise, diet compositions estimated from liver tissue SIA showed greater inter-annual variations and appeared to indicate that ABFT fed on prey located at lower trophic levels. The different dietary compositions inferred from muscle and liver samples were most probably due to the different turnover rates of these organs, which would provide trophic information at two distinct time scales. Our findings suggest that a combination of SCA and SIA is more suitable than using SCA alone to determine temporal and regional variations in ABFT diet composition.

  7. Analysis of Metmyoglobin Formation Rates in Frozen Tuna Meat during Frozen Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viriyarattanasak, Chotika; Watanabe, Manabu; Suzuki, Toru

    Formation of metmyoglobin (metMb) in frozen tuna meat stored at -90, -60, -40, -30, -20, and -10°C for approximately 6 months was investigated. The reaction rate of metMB formation was estimated from a linear plot of ln ([M∞ . Mt] /[M∞ . Mo]) and storage time (t) for each storage temperature (Ts) (M∞, Mt, and Mo are metMb contents at times t = t∞, t, and 0, respectively). When M∞ was assumed to be 100%, the rate of metMb formation followed the first-order reaction only during the early stage of storage period. MetMb formation, however obeyed the first-order reaction for all test temperatures even during long-term storage when M∞ was assumed to be dependent on storage temperature (M∞(Ts)). A discontinuity was observed in the temperature dependence of M∞(Ts) at storage temperature range between -60 and -40°C, which was attributed to the glass transition of protein system. On the other hand, the temperature dependence of metMb formation did not show a significant change over all storage temperatures.

  8. Reproductive Biology of Albacore Tuna (Thunnus alalunga) in the Western Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Dhurmeea, Zahirah; Zudaire, Iker; Chassot, Emmanuel; Cedras, Maria; Nikolic, Natacha; Bourjea, Jérôme; West, Wendy; Appadoo, Chandani; Bodin, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    The reproductive biology of albacore tuna, Thunnus alalunga, in the western Indian Ocean was examined through analysis of the sex ratio, spawning season, length-at-maturity (L50), spawning frequency and fecundity. From 2013 to 2015, a total of 923 female and 867 male albacore were sampled. A bias in sex ratio was found in favor of females with fork length (LF) < 100 cm. Using histological analyses and gonadosomatic index, spawning was found to occur between 10°S and 30°S, mainly to the east of Madagascar from October to January. Large females contributed more to reproduction through their longer spawning period compared to small individuals. The L50 (mean ± standard error) of female albacore was estimated at 85.3 ± 0.7 cm LF. Albacore spawn on average every 2.2 days within the spawning region and spawning months, from November to January. Batch fecundity ranged between 0.26 and 2.09 million oocytes and the relative batch fecundity (mean ± standard deviation) was estimated at 53.4 ± 23.2 oocytes g-1 of somatic-gutted weight. The study provides new information on the reproductive development and classification of albacore in the western Indian Ocean. The reproductive parameters will reduce uncertainty in current stock assessment models which will eventually assist the fishery to be sustainable for future generations.

  9. No evidence for homeoviscous adaptation in a heterothermic tissue: tuna heat exchangers.

    PubMed

    Fudge, D S; Stevens, E D; Ballantyne, J S

    1998-09-01

    Many poikilotherms are known to adjust the membrane composition of their cells in response to a temperature change so that membrane fluidity, and therefore function, is conserved. Such compensatory changes in membrane composition are considered "homeoviscous adaptations." In this study, we examined a heterothermic tissue, the visceral rete mirabile of the bluefin tuna, for evidence of homeoviscous adaptation. We measured the proportions of phospholipid fatty acids and phospholipid head groups as a function of position along the rete thermal gradient, which has been estimated to be approximately 10 degrees C. We found no effect of position along the rete on the composition of either phospholipid fatty acids or head groups. Our results were unexpected in light of our previous demonstration of compensation of metabolic enzyme activity in the same tissue. The lack of evidence for a homeoviscous response may be due to the fluctuating nature of the thermal gradient along the visceral retia; i.e., membranes may be adapted to a eurythermal existence rather than being fine-tuned to a particular temperature.

  10. Carbon Monoxide Residues in Vacuum-Packed Yellowfin Tuna Loins (Thunnus Albacares)

    PubMed Central

    Mascolo, Celestina; Palma, Giuseppe; Smaldone, Giorgio; Girasole, Mariagrazia; Anastasio, Aniello

    2015-01-01

    The use of carbon monoxide (CO) in fresh fish has generated considerable debate. Carbon monoxide is used to treat fresh fish in order to retain its fresh red appearance for a longer period. It reacts with the oxy-myoglobin to form a fairly stable cherry red carboxy-myoglobin complex that may mask spoilage, because the CO-complex can be stable beyond the microbiological shelf life of the meat. The presence of CO in tuna fish (Thunnus Albacares) has been investigated by means of optical spectroscopy. Formation of the CO adduct can be easily detected by the combined analysis of electronic absorption spectra in their normal and second derivative modes, monitoring the intense Soret band at 420 nm. Samples were judged as CO treated when their levels were higher than 200 ng/g. Only two positive samples out of 29 analyzed were detected. The high level of uncertainty (0.30) of the method requires the use of more specific and sensitive methods for confirmatory analysis. PMID:27800404

  11. Muscular system in the pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis (Teleostei: Scombridae).

    PubMed

    Nakae, Masanori; Sasaki, Kunio; Shinohara, Gento; Okada, Tokihiko; Matsuura, Keiichi

    2014-02-01

    The muscular system in the Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis is studied in detail. For the first time, a complete description of the muscular anatomy of a thunnid is provided here. Eighty-two elements including subdivisions of components of the muscular system are identified. This is less than found in a basal perciform and two other investigated scombrid species, owing mainly to the absence or fusion of pectoral, pelvic and caudal fin muscles. The absence of elements of the basal perciform pattern was most prominent in the caudal fin, which includes only the flexor dorsalis, flexor ventralis, hypochordal longitudinalis, and interradialis. In the caudal fin, the medial fan-shaped ray was identified as the first dorsal ray, judging from myological and neuroanatomical characters. The highly developed gill filament muscles in Thunnus orientalis and sheet-like rectus communis control gill ventilation. Long body muscle tendons reduce the metabolic energy needed during rapid and continuous swimming. These characters are interpreted as adaptations in the context of the oceanic life style of the species.

  12. Near resonance acoustic scattering from organized schools of juvenile Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus).

    PubMed

    Weber, Thomas C; Lutcavage, Molly E; Schroth-Miller, Madeline L

    2013-06-01

    Schools of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) can exhibit highly organized spatial structure within the school. This structure was quantified for dome shaped schools using both aerial imagery collected from a commercial spotter plane and 400 kHz multibeam echo sounder data collected on a fishing vessel in 2009 in Cape Cod Bay, MA. Observations from one school, containing an estimated 263 fish within an approximately ellipsoidal volume of 1900 m(3), were used to seed an acoustic model that estimated the school target strength at frequencies between 10 and 2000 Hz. The fish's swimbladder resonance was estimated to occur at approximately 50 Hz. The acoustic model examined single and multiple scattering solutions and also a completely incoherent summation of scattering responses from the fish. Three levels of structure within the school were examined, starting with fish locations that were constrained by the school boundaries but placed according to a Poisson process, then incorporating a constraint on the distance to the nearest neighbor, and finally adding a constraint on the bearing to the nearest neighbor. Results suggest that both multiple scattering and spatial organization within the school should be considered when estimating the target strength of schools similar to the ones considered here.

  13. Reproductive Biology of Albacore Tuna (Thunnus alalunga) in the Western Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Dhurmeea, Zahirah; Zudaire, Iker; Chassot, Emmanuel; Cedras, Maria; Nikolic, Natacha; Bourjea, Jérôme; West, Wendy; Appadoo, Chandani

    2016-01-01

    The reproductive biology of albacore tuna, Thunnus alalunga, in the western Indian Ocean was examined through analysis of the sex ratio, spawning season, length-at-maturity (L50), spawning frequency and fecundity. From 2013 to 2015, a total of 923 female and 867 male albacore were sampled. A bias in sex ratio was found in favor of females with fork length (LF) < 100 cm. Using histological analyses and gonadosomatic index, spawning was found to occur between 10°S and 30°S, mainly to the east of Madagascar from October to January. Large females contributed more to reproduction through their longer spawning period compared to small individuals. The L50 (mean ± standard error) of female albacore was estimated at 85.3 ± 0.7 cm LF. Albacore spawn on average every 2.2 days within the spawning region and spawning months, from November to January. Batch fecundity ranged between 0.26 and 2.09 million oocytes and the relative batch fecundity (mean ± standard deviation) was estimated at 53.4 ± 23.2 oocytes g-1 of somatic-gutted weight. The study provides new information on the reproductive development and classification of albacore in the western Indian Ocean. The reproductive parameters will reduce uncertainty in current stock assessment models which will eventually assist the fishery to be sustainable for future generations. PMID:28002431

  14. Reconstructing transoceanic migration patterns of Pacific bluefin tuna using a chemical tracer toolbox.

    PubMed

    Madigan, Daniel J; Baumann, Zofia; Carlisle, Aaron B; Hoen, Danielle K; Popp, Brian N; Dewar, Heidi; Snodgrass, Owyn E; Block, Barbara A; Fisher, Nicholas S

    2014-06-01

    Large pelagic predators play important roles in oceanic ecosystems, and may migrate vast distances to utilize resources in different marine ecoregions. Understanding movement patterns of migratory marine animals is critical for effective management, but often challenging, due to the cryptic habitat of pelagic migrators and the difficulty of assessing past movements. Chemical tracers can partially circumvent these challenges by reconstructing recent migration patterns. Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis; PBFT) inhabit the western and eastern Pacific Ocean, and are in steep decline due to overfishing. Understanding age-specific eastward transpacific migration patterns can improve management practices, but these migratory dynamics remain largely unquantified. Here, we combine a Fukushima-derived radiotracer (134Cs) with bulk tissue and amino acid stable isotope analyses of PBFT to distinguish recent migrants from residents of the eastern Pacific Ocean. The proportion of recent migrants to residents decreased in older year classes, though the proportion of older PBFT that recently migrated across the Pacific was greater than previous estimates. This novel toolbox of biogeochemical tracers can be applied to any species that crosses the North Pacific Ocean.

  15. Cognitive Functioning and the Probability of Falls among Seniors in Havana, Cuba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trujillo, Antonio J.; Hyder, Adnan A.; Steinhardt, Laura C.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the connection between cognitive functioning and falls among seniors (greater than or equal to 60 years of age) in Havana, Cuba, after controlling for observable characteristics. Using the SABE (Salud, Bienestar, and Envejecimiento) cross-sectional database, we used an econometric strategy that takes advantage of available…

  16. Comparative Policy Brief: Status of Intellectual Disabilities in the Republic of Cuba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brice, Alejandro E.

    2008-01-01

    It is estimated that 3.2% of Cuba's population of 11.4 million persons has a severe disability of some kind. Recent economic difficulties have, it may be assumed, had a negative impact on health service provision--which is free to all--and thus, on population health outcomes and nutritional levels. There is a traditional culture of family care for…

  17. Emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates producing KPC-2 carbapenemase in Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Quiñones, D; Hart, M; Espinosa, F; Garcia, S; Carmona, Y; Ghosh, S; Urushibara, N; Kawaguchiya, M; Kobayashi, N

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing carbapenemase (KPC) has now become a global concern. As a part of a nationwide multicentre surveillance study in Cuba, three K. pneumoniae clinical isolates resistant to carbapenems were detected for a 1-month period (September to October 2011). PCR and sequence analysis revealed that the three strains harboured blaKPC-2. They showed resistance or intermediate susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, other β-lactams, a β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combination, and gentamicin. Two strains were susceptible only to colistin, whereas the other strain showing colistin resistance was susceptible to fluoroquinolones. These blaKPC-2-positive K. pneumoniae strains were classified into ST1271 (CC29), a novel clone harbouring blaKPC-2, and were revealed to be genetically identical by PCR-based DNA fingerprinting. The three patients infected with the KPC-producing K. pneumoniae had common risk factors, and had no overseas travel experience outside Cuba, suggesting local acquisition of the resistant pathogen. This is the first report of a KPC-producing K. pneumoniae in Cuba. Although detection of KPC in Enterobacteriaceae is still rare in Cuba, our finding indicated that KPC-producing bacteria are a global concern and highlighted the need to identify these microorganisms in clinical laboratories. PMID:25356357

  18. Education in Cuba--An Alternative Educational Discourse: Lessons to Be Learned?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breidlid, Anders

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the Cuban education system, which is well known for its focus on inclusion and equality of opportunity, but also for its focus on political and ideological conformity. The economic crisis in Cuba has led to an educational crisis as well, both in terms of teacher shortages and a decrease in quality and in…

  19. The State, Nonformal Education, and Socialism in Cuba, Nicaragua, and Grenada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Carlos Alberto

    1991-01-01

    Many Latin American states, characterized by "colonization" of the state by dominant families or individuals, are unable to carry out proper state functions. In attempting to address such states' shortcomings, nonformal adult education has been prominent in new educational policies of revolutionary governments in Cuba, Nicaragua, and…

  20. The University for Older Adults: On Cuba's Universalization of the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rangel, Clara Lig Long; Proenza, Antonia Zenaida Sanchez

    2006-01-01

    In this study we focus on a new program in Cuba, university studies for older adults or seniors. Specifically, we look at the Special Municipality of the Isla de la Juventud (Isle of Youth) in the context of the larger policy of "universalization of higher education." We provide information about Cuban perspectives on adult education,…

  1. The Flowering of Identity: Tracing the History of Cuba through the Visual Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Noel

    2007-01-01

    Teaching history through the visual arts is one way of bringing the past into the present. In Cuba, the visual arts and architecture have reflected the country's "flowering of identity" through time, as a multi-ethnic population has grown to recognize its own distinct history, values and attributes, and Cuban artists have portrayed the…

  2. Lessons from Cuba: Using Sense of Place as a Tool to Connect Internationally and at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dear, Samantha; Sayle, Hilary

    2011-01-01

    In the spring of 2010, 16 Recreation and Leisure Studies students from Brock University in St. Catharines, Ontario, travelled to Cuba to complete a fourth-year field class titled International Field Experiences in Recreation and Leisure. After a week spent in Havana, Brock University students engaged in a unique outdoor education experience. With…

  3. A Historical Analysis of the Educational Modalities of Inequalities Management in Costa Rica, Cuba and Guatemala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulot, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a historical and comparative study of the role that management of inequalities has played in the formation and evolution of educational institutions in three countries: Costa Rica, Cuba and Guatemala. This particular focus shows that this function has played a determining role, even if its organization has varied deeply in…

  4. Collaborative efforts for managing Melaleuca in the Ciénega de Zapata, Cuba

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Ciénega de Zapata Biosphere Reserve is the largest protected area not only in Cuba but also throughout the Caribbean. This swamp ecosystem is characterized by a high biodiversity that comprises several endemic birds, reptiles and invertebrates and is visited by 65 species of birds during their a...

  5. 31 CFR 515.564 - Professional research and professional meetings in Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Example 1 to paragraph (d): A musicologist travels to Cuba to do research on Cuban music pursuant to the... simply interested in music but who do not research music as part of their careers may not engage in... researcher of Cuban music for purposes of this general license. Example 2 to paragraph (d): A...

  6. 31 CFR 515.564 - Professional research and professional meetings in Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Example 1 to paragraph (d): A musicologist travels to Cuba to do research on Cuban music pursuant to the... simply interested in music but who do not research music as part of their careers may not engage in... researcher of Cuban music for purposes of this general license. Example 2 to paragraph (d): A...

  7. 31 CFR 515.564 - Professional research and professional meetings in Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Example 1 to paragraph (d): A musicologist travels to Cuba to do research on Cuban music pursuant to the... simply interested in music but who do not research music as part of their careers may not engage in... researcher of Cuban music for purposes of this general license. Example 2 to paragraph (d): A...

  8. 31 CFR 515.564 - Professional research and professional meetings in Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Example 1 to paragraph (d): A musicologist travels to Cuba to do research on Cuban music pursuant to the... simply interested in music but who do not research music as part of their careers may not engage in... researcher of Cuban music for purposes of this general license. Example 2 to paragraph (d): A...

  9. [Occurrence of Amrineus cocofolius Flechtmann (Prostigmata: Eriophyidae) in coconut fruits (Cocos nucifera L.) in Cuba].

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Reinaldo I; Cao, Josefina; Navia, Denise; González, Caridad; Cueto, Jorge R; Torres, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    The presence of the eriophyid mite, Amrineus cocofolius Flechtmann, was confirmed in association with equatorial necrotic bands on the coconut fruit epidermis, in different growth areas in the Provinces of La Habana, Granma y Guantánamo, Cuba, from February 2003 to March 2004.

  10. Developing Strategies for Waste Reduction by Means of Tailored Interventions in Santiago De Cuba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Robert; Brugger, Adrian; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces an approach to tailoring behavior-change campaigns to target populations using the example of solid waste reduction in Santiago de Cuba. Tailoring is performed in the following steps: (1) Psychological constructs are selected to detect problems in performing the target behavior, and data are gathered on these constructs.…

  11. Cuba's Latin American Medical School: can socially-accountable medical education make a difference?

    PubMed

    Gorry, Conner

    2012-07-01

    After graduating more than 12,000 doctors since its founding in 1999, Cuba's Latin American Medical School (ELAM, the Spanish acronym) is tackling one of its greatest challenges to date: how to track graduates from over 65 countries and measure their impact on health outcomes and policy in their local contexts?

  12. Application and validation of the TTI based chill chain management system SMAS (Safety Monitoring and Assurance System) on shelf life optimization of vacuum packed chilled tuna.

    PubMed

    Tsironi, Theofania; Gogou, Eleni; Velliou, Eirini; Taoukis, Petros S

    2008-11-30

    The objective of the study was to establish a validated kinetic model for growth of spoilage bacteria on vacuum packed tuna slices in the temperature range of 0 to 15 degrees C and to evaluate the applicability of the TTI (Time Temperature Integrators) based SMAS (Safety Monitoring and Assurance System) system to improve tuna product quality at the time of consumption in comparison to the conventional First In First Out (FIFO) approach. The overall measurements of total flora and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the tuna samples used in a laboratory simulated field test were in close agreement with the predictions of the developed kinetic model. The spoilage profile of the TTI bearing products, handled with SMAS, was improved. Three out of the thirty products that were handled randomly, according to the FIFO approach, were already spoiled at the time of consumption (logN(LAB)>6.5) compared to no spoiled products when handled with the SMAS approach.

  13. Arc-continent collision on the southern Margin of North America: Cuba and Hispaniola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, G.; Pindell, J.

    2004-12-01

    Comparison of the geology of Cuba and Hispaniola demonstrates how different tectonic styles can be produced in closely adjacent parts of the accretion arc. Cuba is a laterally extensive fold-and-thrust belt that includes a narrow belt of Early Cretaceous to Campanian arc rocks, ocean crust, sub-oceanic mantle and metamorphosed continental crust. Hispaniola represents a broader and more complete (although deformed) Early Cretaceous to Eocene arc structure with a single accreted, metamorphosed continental terrane. We suggest that Cuba's preset arc terrane is essentially a fore-arc that was underplated by continental crust in the Campanian collision of the Greater Antilles arc with southern Yucatan. Following this collision, the proto Caribbean lithosphere detached from the eastern margin of Yucatan resulting in rapid, north directed rollback. This, in turn, developed extension of the over-riding Cuban lithosphere and exhumed the underplated continental crust as extensional metamorphic core complexes. The present Cuban fold belt was formed as a result of collision with the southern margin of North America in the mid-Eocene. In contrast, Hispaniola was to the east of Cuba and was not detectably involved in the Campanian collisional event. At present, it is not clear if the extensional rollback event that affected Cuba had any significant effect on Hispaniola. Hispaniola's collision with North America began in the late Eocene(?) and culminated in the Oligocene and was highly oblique. This event resulted in highly oblique, south-verging thrusting that telescoped the back arc basin. It also produced a pop-up structure that reveals evidence of an earlier, mid-Cretaceous collisional event within the arc. This oblique collision persists until the present.

  14. Swimming performance studies on the eastern Pacific bonito Sarda chiliensis, a close relative of the tunas (family Scombridae) I. Energetics.

    PubMed

    Sepulveda, C A; Dickson, K A; Graham, J B

    2003-08-01

    A large swim tunnel respirometer was used to quantify the swimming energetics of the eastern Pacific bonito Sarda chiliensis (tribe Sardini) (45-50 cm fork length, FL) at speeds between 50 and 120 cm s(-1) and at 18+/-2 degrees C. The bonito rate of oxygen uptake ((O(2)))-speed function is U-shaped with a minimum (O(2)) at 60 cm s(-1), an exponential increase in (O(2)) with increased speed, and an elevated increase in (O(2)) at 50 cm s(-1) where bonito swimming is unstable. The onset of unstable swimming occurs at speeds predicted by calculation of the minimum speed for bonito hydrostatic equilibrium (1.2 FL s(-1)). The optimum swimming speed (U(opt)) for the bonito at 18+/-2 degrees C is approximately 70 cm s(-1) (1.4 FL s(-1)) and the gross cost of transport at U(opt) is 0.27 J N(-1) m(-1). The mean standard metabolic rate (SMR), determined by extrapolating swimming (O(2)) to zero speed, is 107+/-22 mg O(2) kg(-1) h(-1). Plasma lactate determinations at different phases of the experiment showed that capture and handling increased anaerobic metabolism, but plasma lactate concentration returned to pre-experiment levels over the course of the swimming tests. When adjustments are made for differences in temperature, bonito net swimming costs are similar to those of similar-sized yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares (tribe Thunnini), but the bonito has a significantly lower SMR. Because bonitos are the sister group to tunas, this finding suggests that the elevated SMR of the tunas is an autapomorphic trait of the Thunnini.

  15. Co-Occurrence and Habitat Use of Fin Whales, Striped Dolphins and Atlantic Bluefin Tuna in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Robert Klaus; Fromentin, Jean-Marc; Demarcq, Hervé; Brisset, Blandine; Bonhommeau, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Different dolphin and tuna species have frequently been reported to aggregate in areas of high frontal activity, sometimes developing close multi-species associations to increase feeding success. Aerial surveys are a common tool to monitor the density and abundance of marine mammals, and have recently become a focus in the search for methods to provide fisheries-independent abundance indicators for tuna stock assessment. In this study, we present first density estimates corrected for availability bias of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) and striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Golf of Lions (GoL), compared with uncorrected estimates of Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABFT; Thunnus thynnus) densities from 8 years of line transect aerial surveys. The raw sighting data were further used to analyze patterns of spatial co-occurrence and density of these three top marine predators in this important feeding ground in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea. These patterns were investigated regarding known species-specific feeding preferences and environmental characteristics (i. e. mesoscale activity) of the survey zone. ABFT was by far the most abundant species during the surveys in terms of schools and individuals, followed by striped dolphins and fin whales. However, when accounted for availability bias, schools of dolphins and fin whales were of equal density. Direct interactions of the species appeared to be the exception, but results indicate that densities, presence and core sighting locations of striped dolphins and ABFT were correlated. Core sighting areas of these species were located close to an area of high mesoscale activity (oceanic fronts and eddies). Fin whales did not show such a correlation. The results further highlight the feasibility to coordinate research efforts to explore the behaviour and abundance of the investigated species, as demanded by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD).

  16. Co-Occurrence and Habitat Use of Fin Whales, Striped Dolphins and Atlantic Bluefin Tuna in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Robert Klaus; Demarcq, Hervé; Brisset, Blandine

    2015-01-01

    Different dolphin and tuna species have frequently been reported to aggregate in areas of high frontal activity, sometimes developing close multi-species associations to increase feeding success. Aerial surveys are a common tool to monitor the density and abundance of marine mammals, and have recently become a focus in the search for methods to provide fisheries-independent abundance indicators for tuna stock assessment. In this study, we present first density estimates corrected for availability bias of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) and striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Golf of Lions (GoL), compared with uncorrected estimates of Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABFT; Thunnus thynnus) densities from 8 years of line transect aerial surveys. The raw sighting data were further used to analyze patterns of spatial co-occurrence and density of these three top marine predators in this important feeding ground in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea. These patterns were investigated regarding known species-specific feeding preferences and environmental characteristics (i. e. mesoscale activity) of the survey zone. ABFT was by far the most abundant species during the surveys in terms of schools and individuals, followed by striped dolphins and fin whales. However, when accounted for availability bias, schools of dolphins and fin whales were of equal density. Direct interactions of the species appeared to be the exception, but results indicate that densities, presence and core sighting locations of striped dolphins and ABFT were correlated. Core sighting areas of these species were located close to an area of high mesoscale activity (oceanic fronts and eddies). Fin whales did not show such a correlation. The results further highlight the feasibility to coordinate research efforts to explore the behaviour and abundance of the investigated species, as demanded by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). PMID:26458254

  17. Effect of Storage Temperature on the Outgrowth and Toxin Production of Staphylococcus aureus in Freeze-Thawed Precooked Tuna Meat.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Ai; Enache, Elena; Napier, Carla; Hayman, Melinda; Weddig, Lisa

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the time for a 3-log CFU/g outgrowth of Staphylococcus aureus and its toxin production in previously frozen precooked tuna meat (albacore [Thunnus alalunga] prepared as loin, chunk, and flake or skipjack [Katsuwonus pelamis] prepared as chunk and flake) held either at 21 or 27°C. A five-strain cocktail of enterotoxin-producing S. aureus was surface inoculated with ∼10(3) CFU/g onto tuna samples. The experimental time-temperature conditions were designed to mimic common industry holding conditions. After a 3-h incubation at 37°C, inoculated samples were individually vacuum sealed and stored at 20°C for 4 weeks. Following frozen storage, samples were thawed to the target temperature (21 or 27°C) and then incubated aerobically. Growth of S. aureus in tuna was then monitored using Baird Parker agar; simultaneously, aerobic plate counts, enterotoxin production, and sensory profile (color and odor) were determined. The results showed that the time for a 3-log CFU/g increase was >20 h at 21°C and 8 to 12 h at 27°C for albacore, with toxin production observed at 14 to 16 h at 21°C and at 8 h at 27°C. A 3-log CFU/g increase for skipjack occurred at 22 to 24 h at 21°C and at 10 to 14 h at 27°C. The toxin production in skipjack started at 20 to 22 h at 21°C and at 8 to 10 h at 27°C. Toxin production was observed before a 3-log increase was achieved in albacore samples at 21°C. Under all conditions, toxins were detected when the cell density of S. aureus was 6 log CFU/g. Overall, significantly faster S. aureus growth was observed in albacore compared with skipjack (P < 0.05), possibly owing to differences in sample composition (e.g., pH and salt content). The data developed from this study can be used by the tuna industry to model the growth and enterotoxin production of S. aureus and to design manufacturing controls that ensure food safety.

  18. Risk Factors for Seabird Bycatch in a Pelagic Longline Tuna Fishery.

    PubMed

    Gilman, Eric; Chaloupka, Milani; Peschon, John; Ellgen, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Capture in global pelagic longline fisheries threatens the viability of some seabird populations. The Hawaii longline tuna fishery annually catches hundreds of seabirds, primarily Laysan (Phoebastria immutabilis) and black-footed (P. nigripes) albatrosses. Since seabird regulations were introduced in 2001, the seabird catch rate has declined 74%. However, over the past decade, seabird catch levels significantly increased due to significant increasing trends in both effort and nominal seabird catch rates. We modelled observer data using a spatio-temporal generalized additive mixed model with zero-inflated Poisson likelihood to determine the significance of the effect of various risk factors on the seabird catch rate. The seabird catch rate significantly increased as annual mean multivariate ENSO index values increased, suggesting that decreasing ocean productivity observed in recent years in the central north Pacific may have contributed to the increasing trend in nominal seabird catch rate. A significant increasing trend in number of albatrosses attending vessels, possibly linked to declining regional ocean productivity and increasing absolute abundance of black-footed albatrosses, may also have contributed to the increasing nominal seabird catch rate. Largest opportunities for reductions are through augmented efficacy of seabird bycatch mitigation north of 23° N where mitigation methods are required and during setting instead of during hauling. Both side vs. stern setting, and blue-dyed vs. untreated bait significantly reduced the seabird catch rate. Of two options for meeting regulatory requirements, side setting had a significantly lower seabird catch rate than blue-dyed bait. There was significant spatio-temporal and seasonal variation in the risk of seabird capture with highest catch rates in April and May and to the northwest of the main Hawaiian Islands.

  19. Spawning Dynamics and Size Related Trends in Reproductive Parameters of Southern Bluefin Tuna, Thunnus maccoyii

    PubMed Central

    Farley, Jessica. H.; Davis, Tim L. O.; Bravington, Mark V.; Andamari, Retno; Davies, Campbell R.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of spawning behaviour and fecundity of fish is important for estimating the reproductive potential of a stock and for constructing appropriate statistical models for assessing sustainable catch levels. Estimates of length-based reproductive parameters are particularly important for determining potential annual fecundity as a function of fish size, but they are often difficult to estimate reliably. Here we provide new information on the reproductive dynamics of southern bluefin tuna (SBT) Thunnus maccoyii through the analysis of fish size and ovary histology collected on the spawning ground in 1993–1995 and 1999–2002. These are used to refine previous parameter estimates of spawning dynamics and investigate size related trends in these parameters. Our results suggest that the small SBT tend to arrive on the spawning ground slightly later and depart earlier in the spawning season relative to large fish. All females were mature and the majority were classed as spawning capable (actively spawning or non-spawning) with a very small proportion classed as regressing. The fraction of females spawning per day decreased with fish size, but once females start a spawning episode, they spawned daily irrespective of size. Mean batch fecundity was estimated directly at 6.5 million oocytes. Analysis of ovary histology and ovary weight data indicated that relative batch fecundity, and the duration of spawning and non-spawning episodes, increased with fish size. These reproductive parameter estimates could be used with estimates of residency time on the spawning ground as a function of fish size (if known) and demographic data for the spawning population to provide a time series of relative annual fecundity for SBT. PMID:25993276

  20. Hydrodynamics and energy-saving swimming techniques of Pacific bluefin tuna.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Tsutomu; Tamura, Yumiko; Weihs, Daniel

    2013-11-07

    Weihs theoretically revealed that during the movement of fish with negative buoyancy, more kinetic energy is saved in the glide and upward (GAU) swimming mode than in the continuous horizontal swimming mode. Because kinetic energy saving depends on dynamic parameters such as the drag and lift of the body, the effects of variations in these parameters on energy saving for different species remain unknown. Here, the kinetic energy saving of Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT), Thunnus orientalis, exhibiting the GAU swimming mode was investigated. The dynamic properties of PBT were estimated by carrying out CFD analysis. The CFD model was produced by using a three-dimensional laser surface profiler, and the model was controlled such that it exhibited swimming motion similar to that of a live PBT swimming in a flume tank. The drag generated by tail beating, which significantly affects the kinetic energy during motion, was twice that generated in the glide mode. The faster the upward swimming speed, the lesser is the kinetic energy saving; therefore, when the upward swimming speed is more than twice the glide speed, there is no gain in the GAU mode. However, when SMR (Standard Metabolic Rate) is considered, if the energy based on SMR is assumed to be 30% of the total energy spent during motion, the most efficient upward swimming speed is 1.4 times the glide speed. The GAU swimming mode of PBT leads to energy saving during motion, and the upward swimming speed and the lift force produced by the pectoral fins for the most efficient drive are unique for different species of different sizes.

  1. Risk Factors for Seabird Bycatch in a Pelagic Longline Tuna Fishery

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, Eric; Chaloupka, Milani; Peschon, John; Ellgen, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Capture in global pelagic longline fisheries threatens the viability of some seabird populations. The Hawaii longline tuna fishery annually catches hundreds of seabirds, primarily Laysan (Phoebastria immutabilis) and black-footed (P. nigripes) albatrosses. Since seabird regulations were introduced in 2001, the seabird catch rate has declined 74%. However, over the past decade, seabird catch levels significantly increased due to significant increasing trends in both effort and nominal seabird catch rates. We modelled observer data using a spatio-temporal generalized additive mixed model with zero-inflated Poisson likelihood to determine the significance of the effect of various risk factors on the seabird catch rate. The seabird catch rate significantly increased as annual mean multivariate ENSO index values increased, suggesting that decreasing ocean productivity observed in recent years in the central north Pacific may have contributed to the increasing trend in nominal seabird catch rate. A significant increasing trend in number of albatrosses attending vessels, possibly linked to declining regional ocean productivity and increasing absolute abundance of black-footed albatrosses, may also have contributed to the increasing nominal seabird catch rate. Largest opportunities for reductions are through augmented efficacy of seabird bycatch mitigation north of 23° N where mitigation methods are required and during setting instead of during hauling. Both side vs. stern setting, and blue-dyed vs. untreated bait significantly reduced the seabird catch rate. Of two options for meeting regulatory requirements, side setting had a significantly lower seabird catch rate than blue-dyed bait. There was significant spatio-temporal and seasonal variation in the risk of seabird capture with highest catch rates in April and May and to the northwest of the main Hawaiian Islands. PMID:27192492

  2. Schooling behaviour of juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis depends on their vision development.

    PubMed

    Torisawa, S; Fukuda, H; Suzuki, K; Takagi, T

    2011-11-01

    The effects of vision development and light intensity on schooling behaviour during growth in juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis were investigated using both behavioural and histological approaches. The schooling behaviour of three age groups [25, 40 and 55 days post hatching (dph)] of juvenile T. orinetalis were examined under various light intensities. Subsequently, schooling variables, such as the nearest neighbour distance (D(NN) ) and the separation swimming index (I(SS) ), were also measured under different light intensities. Furthermore, retinal indices of light adaptation in juvenile fish at each experimental light intensity and visual acuities in six stages (25-55 dph) of juveniles were examined histologically. During growth, the light intensity thresholds of I(SS) decreased from 5 to 0·05 lx, and D(NN) under light conditions (>300 lx) also decreased from 9·2 times the standard length (L(S) ) to 1·2 times L(S) . The thresholds of light intensities for the light adaptation of retinas in juveniles (25-55 dph) similarly decreased from 5 to 0·05 lx with growth. In addition, the visual acuities of juveniles developed from 0·04 to 0·17 with decreasing D(NN) . These data clearly indicate that the characteristics of schooling behaviour strongly correspond to the degree of vision development. Juvenile T. orinetalis also appear to be more dependent on cone rather than rod cells under low light intensity conditions, resulting in a relatively high light intensity threshold for schooling. These results suggest that juveniles can adapt to darker conditions during growth by developing improved visual capabilities.

  3. Cancer mortality in Cuba and among the Cuban-born in the United States: 1979-81.

    PubMed Central

    Shai, D

    1991-01-01

    The Cuban-born population of the United States, enumerated at 608,000 in the 1980 census, has been little studied with regard to cancer mortality. Being older and rarely migrating back to Cuba, Cuban Americans present a good subject for comparative cancer mortality. Age-adjusted death rates for selected causes of cancer are compared in this paper for Cubans in Cuba, the Cuban-born in the United States, and all whites in the United States. Two forms of cancer have been of particular concern in Cuba, cancer of the lung and cancer of the prostate, because of their relatively high death rates. The age-adjusted death rates for both of these cancers are lower among the Cuban-born in the United States than they are among Cubans in Cuba and whites in the United States. Death rates for cancer of the cervix and cancer of the rectum among the Cuban-born in this country are also low relative to Cubans in Cuba and whites in the United States. Stomach cancer mortality among Cuban-born men in the United States is lower than for men in Cuba or for white men in the United States, but Cuban-born women in this country have rates that are slightly higher than those of U.S white women. Mortality rates from colon cancer in both sexes and breast cancer among women are intermediate between the lower rates in Cuba and the higher rates among U.S. whites. Finally, the Cuban-born in the United States have higher death rates from cancer of the liver than do Cubans in Cuba or whites in the United States.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1899942

  4. Microencapsulated krill and tuna oil blend raises plasma long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels compared to tuna oil with similar increases in ileal contractility in rats.

    PubMed

    Patten, Glen S; Sanguansri, Luz; Augustin, Mary Ann; Abeywardena, Mahinda Y; Bird, Anthony R; Patch, Craig S; Belobrajdic, Damien P

    2017-03-01

    Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) may be more bioavailable from krill oil compared to fish oil due to their phospholipid structure. We tested whether a microencapsulated krill and tuna oil blend (ME-TOKO) provided greater LC n-3 PUFA bioavailability, improved blood lipid profiles and increased intestinal contractility compared to microencapsulated tuna oil (ME-TO). Rats were divided into three groups to receive isocaloric diets containing ME-TO, ME-TOKO and microencapsulated olive oil (ME-OO) at 0.3 or 2 g/100 g for 4 weeks. Final body and organ weights, feed intake and waste output were similar. ME-TOKO rats had higher plasma total LC n-3 PUFA levels compared to ME-TO, but liver LC n-3 PUFA levels and plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels were similar in non-fasted rats. Diets containing 2% ME-TO and ME-TOKO also showed similar increases in ileal contractility. In summary, ME-TO bioavailability of LC n-3 PUFA was similar to ME-TOKO.

  5. U.S. Policy Towards Cuba as a Two Level Game or: Defending Executive Policy Discretion in the Face of Domestic Pressure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    organizations; calling for the resumption of direct mail service to and from Cuba ; and establishing scholarships in the United States for Cuban students... Castro : A Threat to the Security of the United States ,” 1999 from Global Security website at, http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/world/ cuba /bw.htm...their possible intent against the U.S. in terms of biological warfare as early as 1997 when Castro , “compared the United States to a dragon and Cuba to

  6. Two new species of parasitic nematodes from the dogtooth tuna Gymnosarda unicolor (Pisces) off the Maldive Islands.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Lorber, Julia; Konecný, Robert

    2007-02-01

    Two new nematode species, Philometra gymnosardae n. sp. (Philometridae) and Heptochona maldivensis n. sp. (Rhabdochonidae), are described from the dogtooth tuna Gymnosarda unicolor (Rüppell) (Scombridae, Perciformes) from the Indian Ocean off the Maldive Islands (Republic of Maldives). The former species is characterized mainly by unequal, conspicuously long (859 and 435 microm) spicules; the structure of the caudal end in the male (found in the host's stomach); by markedly large, oval cephalic papillae (n = 8) of the outer circle; the presence of a small, anterior bulb on the very long esophagus; and 2 large caudal projections in the gravid female (parasitic in the host's body cavity). This is the first-known species of Philometra whose gravid females are present in the body cavity of tuna fishes. Heptochona maldivensis resembles H. stromatei but differs mainly in the position of deirids, shape of the muscular esophagus, character of postanal papillae, length of the left spicule (648 microm), much larger body measurements, location in the host (stomach), and the host type. Rhabdochona parastromatei Bilqees, 1971, is synonymized with H. stromatei, whereas Heptochona sindica Akram and Pie de Imprenta, 1988, and H. rivdica Akram, 1988, are invalid names. Heptochona varmai is transferred to another genus as Rhabdochona varmai (Gupta and Masoodi, 1990) n. comb. Rhabdochona varmai, Heptochona schmidtii Arya, 1991, and Rhabdochona marina Lakshmi and Sudha, 1999, are considered species inquirendae.

  7. Valorisation of tuna processing waste biomass for recovery of functional and antioxidant peptides using enzymatic hydrolysis and membrane fractionation process.

    PubMed

    Saidi, Sami; Ben Amar, Raja

    2016-10-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis using Prolyve BS coupled to membrane process (Ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF)) is a means of biotransformation of tuna protein waste to Tuna protein hydrolysate (TPH) with higher added values. This method could be an effective solution for the production of bioactive compounds used in various biotechnological applications and minimizing the pollution problems generated by the seafood processing industries. The amino acid composition, functional and antioxidant properties of produced TPH were evaluated. The results show that the glutamic acid, aspartic acid, glycine, alaline, valine and leucine were the major amino acids detected in the TPH profile. After membrane fractionation process, those major amino acids were concentrated in the NF retentate (NFR). The NFR and NF permeate (NFP) have a higher protein solubility (>95 %) when compared to TPH (80 %). Higher oil and water binding capacity were observed in TPH and higher emulsifying and foam stability was found in UF retentate. The NFP showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (65 %). The NFR contained antioxidant amino acid (30.3 %) showed the highest superoxide radical and reducing power activities. The TPH showed the highest iron chelating activity (75 %) compared to other peptide fractions. The effect of the membrane fractionation on the molecular weight distribution of the peptide and their bioactivities was underlined. We concluded that the TPH is a valuable source of bioactive peptides and their peptide fractions may serve as useful ingredients for application in food industry and formulation of nutritional products.

  8. Fisher-Level Decision Making to Participate in Fisheries Improvement Projects (FIPs) for Yellowfin Tuna in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Berentsen, Paul; Bush, Simon R.; Digal, Larry; Oude Lansink, Alfons

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies the capabilities needed by small-scale fishers to participate in Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs) for yellowfin tuna in the Philippines. The current literature provides little empirical evidence on how different models, or types of FIPs, influence the participation of fishers in their programs and the degree which FIPs are able to foster improvements in fishing practices. To address this literature gap, two different FIPs are empirically analysed, each with different approaches for fostering improvement. The first is the non-governmental organisation-led Partnership Programme Towards Sustainable Tuna, which adopts a bottom-up or development oriented FIP model. The second is the private-led Artesmar FIP, which adopts a top-down or market-oriented FIP approach. The data were obtained from 350 fishers surveyed and were analysed using two separate models run in succession, taking into consideration full, partial, and non-participation in the two FIPs. The results demonstrate that different types of capabilities are required in order to participate in different FIP models. Individual firm capabilities are more important for fishers participation in market-oriented FIPs, which use direct economic incentives to encourage improvements in fisher practices. Collective capabilities are more important for fishers to participate in development-oriented FIPs, which drive improvement by supporting fishers, fisher associations, and governments to move towards market requirements. PMID:27732607

  9. Trade-based estimation of bluefin tuna catches in the Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean, 2005-2011.

    PubMed

    Gagern, Antonius; van den Bergh, Jeroen; Sumaila, Ussif Rashid

    2013-01-01

    The Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean stock of Bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (BFTE) has long been considered overfished and at risk of collapse. Although ICCAT quotas for this stock have decreased considerably over the past years, uncertainty exists about the degree of catch beyond this quota. The extent of such catch is an important piece of information in stock assessment models as well as being an indicator of the effectiveness of fisheries management. We present a model using Bluefin tuna trade data to infer actual catches. Basing our calculations on 25 countries involved in BFTE trade, we estimate that between 2005 and 2011, allowable quotas were exceeded by 44 percent. This gap between catch and quotas has slightly increased over past years, leading to estimated excess catches of 57 percent for the period between 2008 and 2011. To improve assessments, preparation and design of BFTE management, we suggest that the estimated total removals reported in this paper be included in stock assessment models for BFTE. An implication of our findings is that ICCAT member states should take stronger measures to monitor and enforce compliance with quotas.

  10. Mercury accumulation in Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) with regards to muscle type, muscle position and fish size.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Adina C; O'Neill, Bernadette; Sigge, Gunnar O; Kerwath, Sven E; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2016-01-01

    The concentrations and relationships between individual mercury species and total mercury were investigated in different muscle parts and sizes of Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares). Fourteen Yellowfin tuna caught in the South Atlantic off the coast of South Africa had an average total Hg (tHg) concentration of 0.77 mg/kg wet weight. No differences were detected (p > 0.05) in tHg, MethylHg (MeHg) or inorganic Hg (iHg) accumulation among the four white muscle portions across the carcass, but both tHg and iHg were found in higher concentrations (p < 0.001) in dark muscle than white muscle. Positive linear correlations with fish weight were found for both tHg (r = 0.79, p < 0.001) and MeHg (r = 0.75, p < 0.001) concentrations. A prediction model was formulated to calculate toxic MeHg concentrations from measured tHg concentrations and fish weight (cMeHg = 0.073 + 1.365 · tHg-0.008 · w). As sampling sites and subsampling methods could affect toxicity measurements, we provide recommendations for sampling guidelines.

  11. Quantifying overlap between the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and predicted bluefin tuna spawning habitat in the Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hazen, Elliott L.; Carlisle, Aaron B.; Wilson, Steven G.; Ganong, James E.; Castleton, Michael R.; Schallert, Robert J.; Stokesbury, Michael J. W.; Bograd, Steven J.; Block, Barbara A.

    2016-01-01

    Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) are distributed throughout the North Atlantic and are both economically valuable and heavily exploited. The fishery is currently managed as two spawning populations, with the GOM population being severely depleted for over 20 years. In April-August of 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil spill released approximately 4 million barrels of oil into the GOM, with severe ecosystem and economic impacts. Acute oil exposure results in mortality of bluefin eggs and larvae, while chronic effects on spawning adults are less well understood. Here we used 16 years of electronic tagging data for 66 bluefin tuna to identify spawning events, to quantify habitat preferences, and to predict habitat use and oil exposure within Gulf of Mexico spawning grounds. More than 54,000 km2 (5%) of predicted spawning habitat within the US EEZ was oiled during the week of peak oil dispersal, with potentially lethal effects on eggs and larvae. Although the oil spill overlapped with a relatively small portion of predicted spawning habitat, the cumulative impact from oil, ocean warming and bycatch mortality on GOM spawning grounds may result in significant effects for a population that shows little evidence of rebuilding. PMID:27654709

  12. Microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA analyses of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus thynnus) population structure in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Jens; McDowell, Jan R; Díaz-Jaimes, Píndaro; Carlsson, Jeanette E L; Boles, Sandra B; Gold, John R; Graves, John E

    2004-11-01

    Genetic variation was surveyed at nine microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial control region (868 bp) to test for the presence of genetic stock structure in young-of-the-year Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus thynnus) from the Mediterranean Sea. Bluefin tuna were sampled over a period of 5 years from the Balearic and Tyrrhenian seas in the western basin of the Mediterranean Sea, and from the southern Ionian Sea in the eastern basin of the Mediterranean Sea. Analyses of multilocus microsatellite genotypes and mitochondrial control region sequences revealed no significant heterogeneity among collections taken from the same location in different years; however, significant spatial genetic heterogeneity was observed across all samples for both microsatellite markers and mitochondrial control region sequences (FST=0.0023, P=0.038 and PhiST=0.0233, P=0.000, respectively). Significant genetic differentiation between the Tyrrhenian and Ionian collections was found for both microsatellite and mitochondrial markers (FST=0.0087, P=0.015 and PhiST=0.0367, P=0.030, respectively). These results suggest the possibility of a genetically discrete population in the eastern basin of the Mediterranean Sea.

  13. Development of a fast and selective separation method to determine histamine in tuna fish samples using capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Vitali, Luciano; Valese, Andressa Camargo; Azevedo, Mônia Stremel; Gonzaga, Luciano Valdemiro; Costa, Ana Carolina Oliveira; Piovezan, Marcel; Vistuba, Jacqueline Pereira; Micke, Gustavo A

    2013-03-15

    This paper reports on the development of a fast and selective separation method by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) for the determination of histamine in tuna fish samples. The background electrolyte was composed of 60 mmol L(-1) hydroxyisobutyric acid and 10 mmol L(-1) sodium hydroxide at pH 3.3. The internal standard used was imidazole. Separations were performed in a fused uncoated silica capillary (32 cm total length, 8.5 cm effective length and 50 μm internal diameter) with direct UV detection at 210 nm. The samples and standards were injected hydrodynamically (50 mbar, 3s) from the outlet capillary end (nearest to the detector) and the electrophoretic system was operated under normal polarity and constant voltage conditions of 30 kV (positive polarity on the injection side). The migration time of histamine in the proposed method was only 0.34 min. The method was then validated and different tuna fish samples were analyzed. Good linearity (R(2)>0.999), a limit of detection 0.14 mg L(-1), intra-day precision better than 3.5% (peak area of sample), and recovery in the range of 94-108% were obtained. The results of the histamine concentration determined in the samples by the CZE method were compared with the LC-MS/MS method.

  14. Evaluation of FAD-associated purse seine fishery reduction strategies for bigeye tuna ( Thunnus obesus) in the Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yuhe; Chen, Xinjun; Xu, Liuxiong; Chen, Yong

    2013-07-01

    In the Indian Ocean, bigeye tuna supports one of the most important fisheries in the world. This fishery mainly consists of two components: longline and purse seine fisheries. Evidence of overfishing and stock depletion of bigeye tuna calls for an evaluation of alternative management strategies. Using an age-structured operating model, parameterized with the results derived in a recent stock assessment, we evaluated the effectiveness of applying constant fishing mortality (CF) and quasi-constant fishing mortality (QCF) strategies to reduce fishing effort of purse seining with fish aggregating devices (FADs) at different rates. Three different levels of productivity accounted for the uncertainty in our understanding of stock productivity. The study shows that the results of CF and QCF are similar. Average SSB and catch during simulation years would be higher if fishing mortality of FAD-associated purse seining was reduced rapidly. The banning or rapid reduction of purse seining with FAD resulted in a mean catch, and catch in the last simulation year, higher than that of the base case in which no change was made to the purse seine fishery. This could be caused by growth overfishing by purse seine fisheries with FADs according to the per-recruit analysis. These differences would be more obvious when stock productivity was low. Transferring efforts of FAD-associated purse seining to longline fisheries is also not feasible. Our study suggests that changes are necessary to improve the performance of the current management strategy.

  15. Heavy metals in yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) and common dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) landed on the Ecuadorian coast.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Cristiano V M; Cedeño-Macias, Luis A

    2016-01-15

    Heavy metals are contaminants of great environmental concern due to their multiple origins (natural and anthropogenic), the ability to accumulate in organs and tissues, and the deleterious effects they can cause in organisms. Studies on the accumulation of metals in seafood, such as fish, have increased in importance due to the risk for human health when consuming fish contaminated by metals. The present work was aimed at verifying the concentrations of cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) in the muscular tissue and liver of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) and common dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) from the Eastern Pacific Ocean landed in Manta city, Ecuador. Samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Around half of the muscle samples of both species presented levels of Cd and Hg above the limits considered safe for human consumption established by the European Union. For Pb,most of the muscle samples were considered acceptable for consumption. Results indicate that both species should be consumed with some caution. Considering the tolerable weekly intake recommended for adults by the World Health Organization, results indicate that Hg is the main metal that limits the consumption of yellowfin tuna and common dolphinfish, with a recommended maximum ingestion, respectively, of 191 and 178 g per week for an adult.c

  16. Quantifying overlap between the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and predicted bluefin tuna spawning habitat in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazen, Elliott L.; Carlisle, Aaron B.; Wilson, Steven G.; Ganong, James E.; Castleton, Michael R.; Schallert, Robert J.; Stokesbury, Michael J. W.; Bograd, Steven J.; Block, Barbara A.

    2016-09-01

    Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) are distributed throughout the North Atlantic and are both economically valuable and heavily exploited. The fishery is currently managed as two spawning populations, with the GOM population being severely depleted for over 20 years. In April-August of 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil spill released approximately 4 million barrels of oil into the GOM, with severe ecosystem and economic impacts. Acute oil exposure results in mortality of bluefin eggs and larvae, while chronic effects on spawning adults are less well understood. Here we used 16 years of electronic tagging data for 66 bluefin tuna to identify spawning events, to quantify habitat preferences, and to predict habitat use and oil exposure within Gulf of Mexico spawning grounds. More than 54,000 km2 (5%) of predicted spawning habitat within the US EEZ was oiled during the week of peak oil dispersal, with potentially lethal effects on eggs and larvae. Although the oil spill overlapped with a relatively small portion of predicted spawning habitat, the cumulative impact from oil, ocean warming and bycatch mortality on GOM spawning grounds may result in significant effects for a population that shows little evidence of rebuilding.

  17. Trade-Based Estimation of Bluefin Tuna Catches in the Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean, 2005–2011

    PubMed Central

    Gagern, Antonius; van den Bergh, Jeroen; Sumaila, Ussif Rashid

    2013-01-01

    The Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean stock of Bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (BFTE) has long been considered overfished and at risk of collapse. Although ICCAT quotas for this stock have decreased considerably over the past years, uncertainty exists about the degree of catch beyond this quota. The extent of such catch is an important piece of information in stock assessment models as well as being an indicator of the effectiveness of fisheries management. We present a model using Bluefin tuna trade data to infer actual catches. Basing our calculations on 25 countries involved in BFTE trade, we estimate that between 2005 and 2011, allowable quotas were exceeded by 44 percent. This gap between catch and quotas has slightly increased over past years, leading to estimated excess catches of 57 percent for the period between 2008 and 2011. To improve assessments, preparation and design of BFTE management, we suggest that the estimated total removals reported in this paper be included in stock assessment models for BFTE. An implication of our findings is that ICCAT member states should take stronger measures to monitor and enforce compliance with quotas. PMID:23922870

  18. Environmental impact of bleufin tuna aquaculture on benthic assemblages in the western coast of Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Castaneda, V.

    2013-05-01

    Sea-cage farming results in a constant rain of organic waste onto the surrounding benthos. In Baja California there is growing concern over the effects of sea-cages on the local environment: sediment chemistry and benthic communities. Samples were taken in 18 stations using a Van veen grab (0.1 m2) in Bahía Salsipuedes, Baja California in 2003, 2004, 2006 and 2008. Organisms belonging to 7 Phyla were collected: Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea, Echinodermata, Cnidaria, Sipuncula and Bryozoa. Polychaetes were the dominant group followed by crustaceans and mollusks. Polychaetes were represented by 37 families and 157 species. Best represented families were Paraonidae, Cirratulidae, Spionidae, Glyceridae and Maldanidae. This study shows that in the NW area of the bay organic carbon (2.54%) and organic nitrogen (0.95%) are being accumulated (higher concentrations and lower Eh values) and smaller opportunistic species are increasing rapidly near the tuna pens. It is crucial to maintain "healthy" macrofaunal populations in order to enhance decomposition of organic matter and to prevent its excessive accumulation. The most abundant polychaete species were Aphelochaeta multifinis, Mediomastus ambiseta, Prionospio steenstrupi Spiophanes bombyx, Apoprionospio pygnaea, Paraonella sp, Monticellina sp, Aricidea (Allia) ramosa, Spiophanes bombyx and Levinsenia gracilis. The dominant trophic groups were deposit-feeders and carnivores. The buildup of organic matter on the seafloor has attracted scavenger species particularly peracarid crustaceans. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) separated stations depending of the distance to the tuna pens.

  19. A foodborne outbreak of Campylobacter jejuni (O:33) infection associated with tuna salad: a rare strain in an unusual vehicle.

    PubMed

    Roels, T H; Wickus, B; Bostrom, H H; Kazmierczak, J J; Nicholson, M A; Kurzynski, T A; Davis, J P

    1998-10-01

    We report a foodborne outbreak of Campylobacter jejuni infection in a summer camp. Outbreak-related cases occurred in 79 persons including 3 secondary cases in campers. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from stool specimens from 16 of 21 patients who submitted a sample; 13 viable isolates were serotyped and all were serotype O:33 (somatic O scheme) or HL:18 (heat-labile scheme), and biotype III (Lior scheme). This serotype is widely distributed geographically but rarely isolated from humans. Samples of water from the wells supplying the camp were negative for faecal coliforms, and raw milk had not been served in the camp. A matched (1:1) case-control study identified tuna salad served for lunch on 19 July as the likely food item associated with illness (matched odds ratio=22; 95% confidence intervals (CI)=3.6-908). Swimming in the camp pool and other recreational water use in area lakes by the campers were not statistically associated with illness. The precise mechanism of introduction of the organism into the tuna salad remains unknown; contamination most likely occurred through cross-contamination with another food product, the hands of a food handler, or a work surface. Several deficiencies in the operation of the camp kitchen were identified. In Wisconsin, kitchens of such camps are subject to different inspection rules than restaurants. Camp staff, administrators, counselors, food managers, and infirmary staff, should fulfil important roles in their respective areas to prevent future outbreaks.

  20. Quantifying overlap between the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and predicted bluefin tuna spawning habitat in the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hazen, Elliott L; Carlisle, Aaron B; Wilson, Steven G; Ganong, James E; Castleton, Michael R; Schallert, Robert J; Stokesbury, Michael J W; Bograd, Steven J; Block, Barbara A

    2016-09-22

    Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) are distributed throughout the North Atlantic and are both economically valuable and heavily exploited. The fishery is currently managed as two spawning populations, with the GOM population being severely depleted for over 20 years. In April-August of 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil spill released approximately 4 million barrels of oil into the GOM, with severe ecosystem and economic impacts. Acute oil exposure results in mortality of bluefin eggs and larvae, while chronic effects on spawning adults are less well understood. Here we used 16 years of electronic tagging data for 66 bluefin tuna to identify spawning events, to quantify habitat preferences, and to predict habitat use and oil exposure within Gulf of Mexico spawning grounds. More than 54,000 km(2) (5%) of predicted spawning habitat within the US EEZ was oiled during the week of peak oil dispersal, with potentially lethal effects on eggs and larvae. Although the oil spill overlapped with a relatively small portion of predicted spawning habitat, the cumulative impact from oil, ocean warming and bycatch mortality on GOM spawning grounds may result in significant effects for a population that shows little evidence of rebuilding.

  1. Pulsed light treatment for the inactivation of selected pathogens and the shelf-life extension of beef and tuna carpaccio.

    PubMed

    Hierro, Eva; Ganan, Monica; Barroso, Elvira; Fernández, Manuela

    2012-08-01

    The efficacy of pulsed light to improve the safety of carpaccio has been investigated. Beef and tuna slices were superficially inoculated with approximately 3 log cfu/cm2 of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Fluences of 0.7, 2.1, 4.2, 8.4 and 11.9 J/cm2 were assayed. Colour, sensory and shelf-life studies were carried out. Treatments at 8.4 and 11.9 J/cm2 inactivated the selected pathogens approximately by 1 log cfu/cm2, although they modified the colour parameters and had a negative effect on the sensory quality of the product. The raw attributes were not affected by fluences of 2.1 and 4.2J/cm2 immediately after the treatment, although changes were observed during storage. The inactivation obtained with these fluences was lower than 1 log cfu/cm2, which may not be negligible in case of cross-contamination at a food plant or at a food service facility. Pulsed light showed a greater impact on the sensory quality of tuna carpaccio compared to beef. None of the fluences assayed extended the shelf-life of either product.

  2. Distribution and transportability of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in the Asia-Pacific region using skipjack tuna as a bioindicator.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Daisuke; Alaee, Mehran; Marvin, Chris; Muir, Derek C G; Macinnis, Gordia; Reiner, Eric; Crozier, Patrick; Furdui, Vasile I; Subramanian, Annamalai; Fillmann, Gilberto; Lam, Paul K S; Zheng, Gene J; Muchtar, Muswerry; Razak, Hamidah; Prudente, Maricar; Chung, Kyu-hyuck; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2006-11-01

    The geographical distribution of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) was investigated through analysis of muscle tissue of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from offshore waters of Asia-Pacific region (Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, Seychelles, Brazil, Japan Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea, Indian Ocean and North Pacific Ocean). HBCD was detected in almost all samples analyzed (<0.1 to 45 ng/g lipid weight basis), indicating widespread presence of this compound in the marine environment. Elevated concentrations of HBCD were found in skipjack tuna from areas around Japan, which have the larger modern industrial/urban societies, and implicated these areas as primary regional sources. All three individual HBCD isomers (alpha-, gamma- and beta-HBCD) were detected in almost all samples; the percentage contribution of the alpha-isomer to total HBCD increased with increasing latitude. The estimated empirical 1/2 distance for alpha-HBCD was 8500 km, which is one of the highest atmospheric transportability among various halogenated persistent organic pollutants (POPs).

  3. Biomagnification of mercury and its antagonistic interaction with selenium in yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares in the trophic web of Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ordiano-Flores, Alfredo; Rosíles-Martínez, Rene; Galván-Magaña, Felipe

    2012-12-01

    Mercury and selenium concentrations were determined in muscle of 37 yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) captured aboard of Mexican purse-seiners boats off western coast of Baja California Sur, between Punta Eugenia and Cabo Falso, from October to December 2006. Also, its prey (mainly, jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas and pelagic red crab Pleuroncodes planipes) were analyzed from the stomach contents. All the mercury values obtained were lower that mercury content recommended by standard legal limits for seafood adopted by Mexican norms (typically 0.5-1.0μg g(-1)). Mercury concentrations vary between 0.06 and 0.51μg g(-1) in yellowfin tuna, and from 0.01 to 0.20μg g(-1) in its prey, suggesting that mercury can accumulate in prey tissues and that of their predator. Biomagnification factors (BMF) between predator-prey associations were calculated. The BMFs were >1, indicating that mercury biomagnifies along the food web of yellowfin tuna. In all species studied there was a molar excess of selenium over mercury. The rank order of mean selenium/mercury molar ratios was for pufferfish (42.62)> diamond squid (15.09)>yellowfin tuna (10.29)>pelagic red crab (10.05)>panama lightfish (9.54)> jumbo squid (8.91). The selenium health benefit value (Se-HBV) was calculated to have an improved understanding of the health benefits and risk of fish consumption.

  4. Draft Genome Sequences of Histamine-Producing Photobacterium kishitanii and Photobacterium angustum, Isolated from Albacore (Thunnus alalunga) and Yellowfin (Thunnus albacares) Tuna

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Susan A.; Dunlap, Paul V.; Timme, Ruth E.; Benner, Ronald A.

    2015-01-01

    Histamine-producing bacteria are responsible for scombrotoxin (histamine) fish poisoning, a leading cause of fish poisoning in the United States. We report here the draft genome sequences of four histamine-producing (HP) Photobacterium kishitanii strains and nine HP Photobacterium angustum strains isolated from tuna. PMID:25931609

  5. Influence of the consumption of casein, or tuna in the raw, cooked or canned form, on the utilization of iron in the diet of weanling rats.

    PubMed

    García-Arias, M T; Castrillón, A M; Navarro, M P

    1994-03-01

    A study was made of the influence of the consumption of white tuna (subjected to various thermal treatments) on the bioavailability of dietary iron. Biological assays were carried out on Wistar rats fed semi-synthetic diets varying only in the protein source, casein-methionine, or tuna provided in the following forms: raw, cooked in brine, sterilized with or without soybean oil, and canned and stored for a period of 1 or 3 years. Feed intake, the fecal and urinary excretion of iron, and the iron content of the liver were monitored. Absorption of iron was enhanced by consuming the diet containing raw white tuna. However, the beneficial effect of raw tuna was greatly reduced by cooking it in brine, and even more so by sterilization, especially in the presence of oil. The benefit was partly restored by storing the conserves for a period of 1 or 3 years. It is hypothesized that structural alterations to the protein caused by thermal processes can affect the solubility and bioavailability of iron.

  6. Bioavailability of selenium from veal, chicken, beef, pork, lamb, flounder, tuna, selenomethionine, and sodium selenite assessed in selenium-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Wen, H Y; Davis, R L; Shi, B; Chen, J J; Chen, L; Boylan, M; Spallholz, J E

    1997-01-01

    The bioavailability of selenium (Se) from veal, chicken, beef, pork, lamb, flounder, tuna, selenomethionine (SeMet), and sodium selenite was assessed in Se-deficient Fischer-344 rats. Se as veal, chicken, beef, pork, lamb, flounder, tuna, SeMet, and sodium selenite was added to torula yeast (TY) basal diets to comprise Se-inadequate (0.05 mg Se/kg) diets. Se as sodium selenite was added to a TY basal diet to comprise a Se-adequate (0.10 mg Se/kg), Se-control diet. The experimental diets were fed to weanling Fischer-344 rats that had been subjected to dietary Se depletion for 6 wk. After 9 wk of the dietary Se repletion, relative activity of liver glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) from the different dietary groups compared with control rats (100%) was: flounder 106%, tuna 101%, pork 86%, sodium selenite 81%, SeMet 80%, beef 80%, chicken 77%, veal 77%, and lamb 58%. Se from flounder was the most efficient at restoring Se concentrations in the liver and skeletal muscle. Se from sodium selenite, SeMet, beef, veal, chicken, pork, lamb, and tuna was not dietarily sufficient to restore liver and muscle Se after 9 wk of recovery following a 6-wk period of Se depletion.

  7. Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus feeding ecology in the northern Gulf of Mexico: a preliminary description of diet from the western Atlantic spawning grounds.

    PubMed

    Butler, C M; Logan, J M; Provaznik, J M; Hoffmayer, E R; Staudinger, M D; Quattro, J M; Roberts, M A; Ingram, G W; Pollack, A G; Lutcavage, M E

    2015-01-01

    A combination of stomach contents, nitrogen stable-isotope and tissue C:N values are presented to demonstrate feeding activity of Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus on the Gulf of Mexico (GOMEX) spawning grounds. Diets include teleosts, cephalopods, crustaceans and a pelagic tunicate (Pyrosoma atlanticum). Results reveal the need to classify the GOMEX as a T. thynnus feeding ground.

  8. Long-term monitoring of the impact of a capture-based bluefin tuna aquaculture on water column nutrient levels in the Eastern Aegean Sea, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aksu, Mehmet; Kaymakçi-Başaran, Asli; Egemen, Ozdemir

    2010-12-01

    Capture-based aquaculture of Atlantic bluefin tuna in the Mediterranean has been expanding rapidly but little is known about its environmental impact. In order to understand the consequences of this new sector, long-term monitoring is needed. For this purpose, we investigated the impact of a capture-based tuna farm located in the Gerence Bay (Aegean Sea) on the water column on a seasonal basis from 2005 to 2008, where in the water column, temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, nutrients (nitrite, nitrate, ammonium, and phosphate), and chlorophyll a, in the sediment organic carbon variables were measured. Although highest nutrient concentrations were observed at the cage station as compared to the two controls in the production period, differences were not statistically significant between stations. Monitoring of physico-chemical parameters, nutrients, and chlorophyll a in water column together with organic carbon in sediment did not show detectable impact of fattening of Atlantic bluefin tuna. This was probably caused by strong currents present in the area, location of the cages away from the coast, hence high water depth, controlled feeding, and periodic presence of tuna farming activity in the study area.

  9. Assessment of Human Health Vulnerability to Climate Variability and Change in Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Bultó, Paulo Lázaro Ortíz; Rodríguez, Antonio Pérez; Valencia, Alina Rivero; Vega, Nicolás León; Gonzalez, Manuel Díaz; Carrera, Alina Pérez

    2006-01-01

    In this study we assessed the potential effects of climate variability and change on population health in Cuba. We describe the climate of Cuba as well as the patterns of climate-sensitive diseases of primary concern, particularly dengue fever. Analyses of the associations between climatic anomalies and disease patterns highlight current vulnerability to climate variability. We describe current adaptations, including the application of climate predictions to prevent disease outbreaks. Finally, we present the potential economic costs associated with future impacts due to climate change. The tools used in this study can be useful in the development of appropriate and effective adaptation options to address the increased climate variability associated with climate change. PMID:17185289

  10. The discipline of ergonomics in Cuba within the occupational health framework: background and trends.

    PubMed

    Torres, Yaniel; Rodríguez, Yordán; Viña, Silvio

    2013-01-01

    The concept of ergonomics was introduced in Cuba at the beginning of the 1970s. More than 40 years later, the prevailing approach to workers' health is still generally reactive rather than proactive, despite the commitment of the government to the subject. A factor influencing this issue is, generally, lack of recognition of the benefits of establishing ergonomic principles within most occupational activities. Recent progress to move occupational health practice toward a more preventive approach has been conducted, frequently with international support. The introduction of a set of Cuban standards proposing the necessity of ergonomic evaluations is an example of this progress. The main challenge for Cuban ergonomists is to transfer knowledge to occupational health practitioners in order to be in concordance with basic standards and regulations regarding ergonomics. The article offers a short description of the history of ergonomics and an overview of ergonomics practice in Cuba.

  11. [Trophic webs of reef fishes in northwestern Cuba. I. Stomach contents].

    PubMed

    Hernández, Ivet; Aguilar, Consuelo; González Sanón, Gaspar

    2008-06-01

    Trophic webs of reef fishes in northwestern Cuba. I. Stomach contents. Studies on the reef fishes of Cuba are not rare, but most have two basic limitations: small sample sizes and exclusion of small species. Our study sampled more species and larger samples in the sublitoral region of Havana city (23 degrees 7.587' N, 82 degrees 25.793' W), 2-18 m deep. We collected fish weekly from October 2004 through February 2006 with traps and harpoon. Overfishing has modified the fish communities. We used the relative importance index to describe the diets of carnivore and omnivore species, and a modification of the relative abundance method for the herbivores and sponge-eating species. The main food items are benthonic crustaceans (crabs, shrimp, copepods) and bony fish (mainly demersal species). Most species are eurifagous and thus, less affected by anthropic disturbance than specialist feeders.

  12. The Chemical Diversity of Lantana camara: Analyses of Essential Oil Samples from Cuba, Nepal, and Yemen.

    PubMed

    Satyal, Prabodh; Crouch, Rebecca A; Monzote, Lianet; Cos, Paul; Awadh Ali, Nasser A; Alhaj, Mehdi A; Setzer, William N

    2016-03-01

    The aerial parts of Lantana camara L. were collected from three different geographical locations: Artemisa (Cuba), Biratnagar (Nepal), and Sana'a (Yemen). The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A cluster analysis of 39 L. camara essential oil compositions revealed eight major chemotypes: β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, ar-curcumene/zingiberene, γ-curcumen-15-al/epi-β-bisabolol, (E)-nerolidol, davanone, eugenol/alloaromadendrene, and carvone. The sample from Cuba falls into the group dominated by (E)-nerolidol, the sample from Nepal is a davanone chemotype, and the sample from Yemen belongs to the β-caryophyllene chemotype. The chemical composition of L. camara oil plays a role in the biological activity; the β-caryophyllene and (E)-nerolidol chemotypes showed antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities.

  13. Role of the USA in shortage of food and medicine in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, A F

    1996-11-30

    For over 30 years an embargo by the USA has restricted Cuba's ability to purchase foods and medicines. In 1992, the USA enacted the Cuban Democracy Act (CDA), which "exempted" the sale of medicines from the embargo. However, the implementation of the CDA's requirements and the intensification of the embargo as a result of the passage of the Helms-Burton Act in March, 1996, have undermined the purpose of the medicine exemption. The resultant lack of food and medicine to Cuba contributed to the worst epidemic of neurological disease this century. The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights of the Organization of American States has informed the US Government that such activities violate international law and has requested that the US take immediate steps to exempt food and medicine from the embargo.

  14. Post Castro Cuba: An Opportunity for Normalized Cuban-American Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    our neighbors just 90 miles off the Florida coast. 63 ICA -z 100 .J 0 .it -cco s. m, < ’ > ~ - C ~ m CL- 4 z CL cr cr 64- POLITICAL CHRONOLOGY 1952...name 4 a few. Why not diplomatic relations with Cuba? An open dialogue, for example, would pr.raote opportunities for continued discussions on...required for economic growth. Consequently, diversification of the industrial base was absent. Investors had grown content in maintaining assets in cash

  15. Comparing environmental issues in Cuba before and after the Special Period: balancing sustainable development and survival.

    PubMed

    Maal-Bared, Rasha

    2006-04-01

    Following the Earth Summit in 1992, Cuba designed and implemented a variety of programs, administrative structures, and public awareness activities to promote sound environmental management and sustainable development. This came shortly after the fall of the Soviet Union and the strengthening of the US blockade in 1990, which resulted in a 35% drop in Cuban GDP. This period, referred to as the Special Period, witnessed a decrease in many environmentally damaging activities both by choice and by necessity, but also resulted in many decisions to resuscitate the Cuban economy. The purpose of this work was to compare and rank the environmental risks Cuba faced before and during the Special Period (1990-2000) using two Comparative environmental risk assessments (CERAs). To do so, an ecosystem integrity risk assessment matrix was constructed with 42 risk end points. The matrix assessed the risk posed by 17 problem areas including air pollution, water contamination, solid waste sites, pesticides and ecosystem degradation. The risks were calculated using five criteria: area affected, vulnerability of affected population, severity of impact, irreversibility of effect and uncertainty. To construct this matrix, both literature reviews and expert interviews in Cuba were conducted in 2000. The results showed a general decrease in risk scores during the Special Period. Before the Special Period, high risks were posed by: terrestrial degradation and industrial wastewater and sludge, followed by freshwater degradation, surface water stressors, and pesticides. After the Special Period, industrial wastewater and sludge and pesticides were no longer high-risk areas, but municipal wastewater and marine coastal degradation ranked higher than previously. Also, the risk endpoints most stressed after 1990 were affected by activities controlled by the government, such as mining and tourism, and lack of infrastructure. Therefore, the claims that public environmental education is the main

  16. Cuba After Castro; What Policy Best Serves U.S. National Interests?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Cuba opened small diplomatic missions known as "interests sections" in each others capitals. The influx of Cuban immigrants from the Mariel boat lift...This does not mean however, that the current policy is not without critics. Most serious examinations of current policy discuss its shortfalls and...as a safety valve to ensure the stability of his regime. Given this fact Castro could again use immigration as a means to reduce internal pressure or

  17. A New Fidelity: The Supporting Role of USSOUTHCOM in a Post-Castro Cuba

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-23

    cu.html (accessed 29 March 2008). 4Carlos Alberto Montaner and Ignacio Ramonet , (quote is that of Carlos Montaner) “Was Fidel Good for Cuba...factbook/print/cu.html (accessed 29 March 2008). 10Carlos Alberto Montaner and Ignacio Ramonet , (quote is that of Ignacio Ramonet ) “Was Fidel Good for...http://www.whitehouse.gov/nsc/nss/2006/sectionI.html (accessed 04 April 2008). 17Carlos Alberto Montaner and Ignacio Ramonet , (quote is that of Carlos

  18. Ecology of the Scorpion, Microtityus jaumei in Sierra de Canasta, Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Cala-Riquelme, Franklyn; Colombo, Marco

    2011-01-01

    An assessment of the population dynamics of Microtityus jaumei Armas (Scorpiones: Buthidae) on the slopes south of Sierra de Canasta, Guantánamo Province, Cuba show an increase in activity over the year (≤ 0.05). The activity peak is related to the reproductive period from June to November. The abundance of scorpions was significantly related to density of the canopy and thickness of the substrate. PMID:21870972

  19. Tuna extract reduces serum uric acid in gout-free subjects with insignificantly high serum uric acid: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kubomura, Daiki; Yamada, Masanori; Masui, Ayano

    2016-01-01

    Long-term reduction of serum urate levels is vital in the treatment of gout. However, it is difficult to convince gout-free individuals of the necessity of treatment as few appropriate over-the-counter remedies and dietary supplements are available. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the antihyperuricemic efficacy and safety of a tuna extract containing the imidazole compounds to evaluate its potential as a functional food ingredient. A randomized, 4-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted. A total of 48 male gout-free subjects with insignificantly high serum uric acid were randomly assigned to low- and high-dose tuna extract groups or a placebo group. The efficacy of the extract was assessed by measuring serum uric acid levels. Furthermore, a safety assessment was performed by physical parameters, hematology, blood biochemistry and urinalysis. The results indicated that the uric acid level was decreased at week 4 during the intervention in the tuna extract groups (low and high dose, −0.23 and −0.34 mg/dl, respectively) compared to the placebo group (−0.07 mg/dl). At week 4 after the intervention, a significant reduction in uric acid levels (−0.41 mg/dl; P<0.05) was observed in the high-dose tuna extract group compared with the placebo group (+0.11 mg/dl). No dose-related adverse events were observed during and following the intervention. Therefore, the present results suggest that oral administration of tuna extract containing the imidazole compounds has hypouricemic activity with no undesirable side effects. PMID:27446553

  20. Genetic origin, admixture, and asymmetry in maternal and paternal human lineages in Cuba

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Before the arrival of Europeans to Cuba, the island was inhabited by two Native American groups, the Tainos and the Ciboneys. Most of the present archaeological, linguistic and ancient DNA evidence indicates a South American origin for these populations. In colonial times, Cuban Native American people were replaced by European settlers and slaves from Africa. It is still unknown however, to what extent their genetic pool intermingled with and was 'diluted' by the arrival of newcomers. In order to investigate the demographic processes that gave rise to the current Cuban population, we analyzed the hypervariable region I (HVS-I) and five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) coding region in 245 individuals, and 40 Y-chromosome SNPs in 132 male individuals. Results The Native American contribution to present-day Cubans accounted for 33% of the maternal lineages, whereas Africa and Eurasia contributed 45% and 22% of the lineages, respectively. This Native American substrate in Cuba cannot be traced back to a single origin within the American continent, as previously suggested by ancient DNA analyses. Strikingly, no Native American lineages were found for the Y-chromosome, for which the Eurasian and African contributions were around 80% and 20%, respectively. Conclusion While the ancestral Native American substrate is still appreciable in the maternal lineages, the extensive process of population admixture in Cuba has left no trace of the paternal Native American lineages, mirroring the strong sexual bias in the admixture processes taking place during colonial times. PMID:18644108

  1. El Habano and the world it has shaped: Cuba, Connecticut, and Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Stubbs, Jean

    2010-01-01

    In the half century since the 1959 Cuban Revolution, El Habano remains the premium cigar the world over; but both before and since 1959, the seed, agricultural and industrial know-how, and human capital have been transplanted to replicate that cigar in a process accentuated by upheavals and out-migration. The focus here is on a little-known facet of the interconnected island and offshore Havana cigar history, linking Cuba with Connecticut and Indonesia: from when tobacco was taken from the Americas to Indonesia and gave rise to the famed Sumatra cigar wrapper leaf; through the rise and demise of its sister shade wrapper in Connecticut, with Cuban and Sumatra seed, ultimately overshadowed by Indonesia; and the resulting challenges facing Cuba today. The article highlights the role of Dutch, U.S., British, and Swedish capital to explain why in 2009 the two major global cigar corporations, British Imperial Tobacco and Swedish Match, were lobbying Washington, respectively, for and against the embargo on Cuba. As the antismoking, antitobacco lobby gains ground internationally, the intriguing final question is whether the future lies with El Habano or smokeless Swedish snus.

  2. Height, Zinc and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections in Schoolchildren: A Study in Cuba and Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim; van der Werff, Suzanne D.; D’Haese, Patrick C.; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong; Perignon, Marlene; Chamnan, Chhoun; Berger, Jacques; Parker, Megan E.; Junco Díaz, Raquel; Angel Núñez, Fidel; Rojas Rivero, Lázara; Bonet Gorbea, Mariano; Doak, Colleen M.; Campos Ponce, Maiza; Wieringa, Frank T.; Polman, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia) or hair (Cuba). We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001), while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children, plasma zinc was associated with height for age (aB-0.033, p = 0.029), but STH infection was not. Only in Cambodia, STH infection showed an association with zinc concentration (aB-0.233, p = 0.051). Factors influencing child growth differ between populations and may depend on prevalences of STH species and zinc deficiency. Further research is needed to elucidate these relationships and their underlying mechanisms. PMID:25903454

  3. Height, zinc and soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren: a study in Cuba and Cambodia.

    PubMed

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim; van der Werff, Suzanne D; D'Haese, Patrick C; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong; Perignon, Marlene; Chamnan, Chhoun; Berger, Jacques; Parker, Megan E; Díaz, Raquel Junco; Núñez, Fidel Angel; Rivero, Lázara Rojas; Gorbea, Mariano Bonet; Doak, Colleen M; Ponce, Maiza Campos; Wieringa, Frank T; Polman, Katja

    2015-04-20

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia) or hair (Cuba). We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001), while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children, plasma zinc was associated with height for age (aB-0.033, p = 0.029), but STH infection was not. Only in Cambodia, STH infection showed an association with zinc concentration (aB-0.233, p = 0.051). Factors influencing child growth differ between populations and may depend on prevalences of STH species and zinc deficiency. Further research is needed to elucidate these relationships and their underlying mechanisms.

  4. Modelling the impact of climate change on South Pacific albacore tuna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehodey, Patrick; Senina, Inna; Nicol, Simon; Hampton, John

    2015-03-01

    The potential impact of climate change under the IPCC AR4-A2 scenario (close to the AR5-RCP8.5 scenario) on south Pacific albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) is simulated with the Spatial Ecosystem And Population Dynamics Model (SEAPODYM) and environmental forcing variables provided by the Earth Climate model IPSL-CM4. Parameters controlling the habitat and dynamics of the population were optimized by fitting the model, using maximum likelihood, to a complete fishing data set for the historical fishing period since 1950. Albacore undertake clear seasonal migrations between feeding and spawning grounds, as evidenced by seasonal catch and size composition changes. This seasonality was well predicted by the SEAPODYM albacore simulations. The total biomass estimate of south Pacific albacore was predicted to have decreased from ~1.8 million tonnes (Mt) at the beginning of industrial fisheries in 1950 to 1.25 Mt in 2006, in good agreement with an independent estimate from stock assessment analysis. A simulation without fishing indicated an equivalent contribution of environmental variability and fishing to the historical decrease of the stock biomass. The parameterized SEAPODYM model was used to project the dynamics of the population until the end of the 21st century with an average fishing effort based on recent years. Under this fishing and climate change scenario, the population was predicted to decrease and to stabilize after 2035 just below 0.8 Mt, i.e., 55% below the initial biomass of 1960. After 2080 however, the trend was reversed when a new spawning ground emerged in the north Tasman Sea. A test simulation highlighted the sensitivity of the model results to projected dissolved oxygen concentration for which there is large uncertainty in the tropical region. A second test simulation showed that genetic selection favouring albacore with preferences for higher optimal ambient spawning temperature would maintain a reduced level of spawning in current tropical spawning

  5. What is the Role of the Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces (FAR) in a Post-Castro Cuba? What Role will the U.S. Military Play

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    York: Simon and Schuster, 1992. Rand National Defense Research Institute. Cuba Adrift in a Postcommunist World . Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 1992. Ratliff...gone and democracy is attempted. The political and economic power of the one million or so Cuban-Americans - living primarily in southern Florida...U.S./Latin-American History ............................... 6 Tightening the Chokehold on Cuba: Cuban Democracy Act of 1992

  6. Empirical models to identify mechanisms driving reductions in tissue mercury concentration during culture of farmed southern bluefin tuna Thunnus maccoyii.

    PubMed

    Balshaw, S; Edwards, J W; Ross, K E; Ellis, D; Padula, D J; Daughtry, B J

    2008-12-01

    Two empirical models are presented to elucidate the mechanisms driving reductions in the mercury concentration of southern bluefin tuna (SBT) during culture. Model 1 predicts temporal fluctuations in mercury concentration in response to growth dilution. Model 2 predicts the combined effects of growth dilution and linear mercury accumulation. Model 2 was found to be the more accurate model. Over a typical farming period of 136 days, growth dilution resulted in a reduction in mean mercury concentration of SBT edible tissues from 0.51 mg/kg down to 0.33 mg/kg. Extended culture beyond 136 days resulted in an increase in mercury concentration due to the combined effects of mercury accumulation and seasonal lipid depletion. Results indicate that under current industry practice, cultured SBT can be consumed twice as frequently as that of wild caught SBT while maintaining total dietary mercury intake below national recommendations.

  7. Increased liver apoptosis and tumor necrosis factor expression in Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) reared in the northern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Corriero, Aldo; Zupa, Rosa; Pousis, Chrysovalentinos; Santamaria, Nicoletta; Bello, Giambattista; Jirillo, Emilio; Carrassi, Michele; De Giorgi, Carla; Passantino, Letizia

    2013-06-15

    The Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (ABFT) is intensely fished in the Mediterranean Sea to supply a prosperous capture-based mariculture industry. Liver apoptotic structures and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) gene expression were determined in: wild ABFT caught in the eastern Atlantic; juvenile ABFT reared in the central Adriatic Sea; juvenile ABFT reared in the northern Adriatic Sea; adult ABFT reared in the western Mediterranean. The highest density of liver apoptotic structures was found in the juveniles from the northern Adriatic. Two partial TNF cDNAs (TNF1 and TNF2) were cloned and sequenced. TNF1 gene expression was higher in juveniles than in adults. The highest expression of TNF2 was found in the juveniles from the northern Adriatic. These findings might be related to the juvenile exposure to environmental pollutants.

  8. A new species of Desmopachria Babington (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) from Cuba with a prediction of its geographic distribution and notes on other Cuban species of the genus.

    PubMed

    Megna, Yoandri S; Sánchez-Fernández, David

    2014-01-10

    A new species, Desmopachria andreae sp. n. is described from Cuba. Diagnostic characters including illustrations of male genitalia are provided and illustrated for the five species of the genus occurring on the island. For these five species both a simple key to adults and maps of their known distribution in Cuba are also provided. Using a Maximun Entropy method (MaxEnt), a distribution model was developed for D. andreae sp.n. Based on the model's predictions, this species has a higher probability of occurring in high altitude forests (above 1000 m a.s.l.), characterised by relatively low temperatures especially during the hottest and wettest seasons, specifically, the mountainous areas of the Macizo de Guamuhaya (Central Cuba), Sierra Maestra (S Cuba) and Nipe-Sagua-Baracoa (NE Cuba). In some of these areas the species has not yet been recorded, and should be searched for in future field surveys.

  9. Background concentrations and reference values for heavy metals in soils of Cuba.

    PubMed

    Alfaro, Mirelys Rodríguez; Montero, Alfredo; Ugarte, Olegario Muñiz; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo; de Aguiar Accioly, Adriana Maria; Biondi, Caroline Miranda; da Silva, Ygor Jacques Agra Bezerra

    2015-01-01

    The potential threat of heavy metals to human health has led to many studies on permissible levels of these elements in soils. The objective of this study was to establish quality reference values (QRVs) for Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Fe, Mn, As, Hg, V, Ba, Sb, Ag, Co, and Mo in soils of Cuba. Geochemical associations between trace elements and Fe were also studied, aiming to provide an index for establishing background concentrations of metals in soils. Surface samples of 33 soil profiles from areas of native forest or minimal anthropic influence were collected. Samples were digested (USEPA method 3051A), and the metals were determined by ICP-OES. The natural concentrations of metals in soils of Cuba followed the order Fe > Mn > Ni > Cr > Ba > V > Zn > Cu > Pb > Co > As > Sb > Ag > Cd > Mo > Hg. The QRVs found for Cuban soils were as follows (mg kg(-1)): Ag (1), Ba (111), Cd (0.6), Co (25), Cr (153), Cu (83), Fe (54,055), Mn (1947), Ni (170), Pb (50), Sb (6), V (137), Zn (86), Mo (0.1), As (19), and Hg (0.1). The average natural levels of heavy metals are above the global average, especially for Ni and Cr. The chemical fractionation of soil samples presenting anomalous concentrations of metals showed that Cu, Ni, Cr, Sb, and As have low bioavailability. This suggests that the risk of contamination of agricultural products via plant uptake is low. However, the final decision on the establishment of soil QRVs in Cuba depends on political, economic, and social issues and in-depth risk analyses considering all routes of exposure to these elements.

  10. Cuba and Economic Sanctions: A Cold War Strategy in the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    the U.S. in a move that came to be called the “ Mariel boatlift.”21 In 1981-82, the two countries quietly pursued improving relations but once again...have the motive and the means to undercut the U.S. in this area. The U.S. has been accused of maintaining double standards with our policies toward Cuba...citizens, frees political prisoners, holds democratic free elections, and allows free speech.40 Eliminating sanctions completely would not by any means

  11. [Epidemiological study on Hymenolepis nana infection in Ciego de Avila Province, Cuba].

    PubMed

    Suárez Hernández, M; Bonet Couce, E; Díaz González, M; Ocampo Ruíz, I; Vidal García, I

    1998-01-01

    An epidemiological study on H. nana infection was carried out in Ciego de Avila province, Cuba, from 1981 to 1995. In this 15 years period 3,108,422 stool samples were examined for parasites, H. nana eggs were found in 250 (0.008%). Seasonal influence of this parasitism was not detected. There were more cases in children than in adults, with males prevailing over females. The more frequent symptoms and signs were abdominal pain, diarrhea and anorexia which relationships with food habits, dwelling characteristics, children day care center and school orchards are analyzed.

  12. The university for older adults: On Cuba's universalization of the university

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangel Long, Clara Lig; Proenza Sanchez, Antonia Zenaida

    2007-01-01

    In this study we focus on a new program in Cuba, university studies for older adults or seniors. Specifically, we look at the Special Municipality of the Isla de la Juventud (Isle of Youth) in the context of the larger policy of "universalization of higher education.≓ We provide information about Cuban perspectives on adult education, discuss the "workshop≓ as an important mode of educational work, and present information on both the preparation of those who teach older adults and the training of "facilitators≓ in the workshop mode. This contribution also presents student evaluations, as well as a critique of the program.

  13. Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Legislative Initiatives in the 107th Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-07-22

    on Travel and Legislative Initiatives in the 107th Congress Updated July 22, 2002 Mark P. Sullivan Specialist in Latin American Affairs Foreign...Restrictions on Travel and Legislative Initiatives in the 107th Congress 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Legislative Initiatives in the 107th

  14. Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Legislative Initiatives in the 107th Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-29

    Restrictions on Travel and Legislative Initiatives in the 107th Congress October 29, 2001 Mark P. Sullivan Specialist in Latin American Affairs Foreign Affairs...on Travel and Legislative Initiatives in the 107th Congress 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Legislative Initiatives in the 107th Congress

  15. [Anatomy and morphometry of Physa cubensis Pfeiffer, 1839 (Pulmonata: Physidae) in Cuba].

    PubMed

    Cong, M Y; Ferrer López, J R; Perera de Puga, G

    1994-01-01

    The anatomic description of Physa cubensis, based on specimens collected in 5 different sites in Cuba, is presented. The anatomic characteristics of the reproductive system as well as mantle digitations give ground for affirming that this is a unique species with external morphological variations and thus it should be kept under the Physa genre. Besides, dispersion diagrams and regression lines of the length in the width were analyzed in the five sites; the L/A (length/width) variation quotient was compared using a variance analysis. Significant differences were observed in the different sites probably due to the feeding sources of each biotope.

  16. Grasshoppers, Crickets and Katydids (Insecta: Orthoptera) of Cuba: an annotated checklist.

    PubMed

    Yong, Sheyla; Perez-Gelabert, Daniel E

    2014-07-07

    An annotated list of the Cuban fauna of Orthoptera is presented. For each species we include details of valid names, synonyms, type specimens (type category, sex, locality and depository), geographic distribution and bibliographic references. Clarifying notes are added, as well as comments on the species considered doubtful. A total of 140 species included in 62 genera, 31 subfamilies and 12 families make up the known Cuban fauna of Orthoptera. The family Episactidae, the acridid subfamily Ommatolampidinae with 3 unknown genera, 3 unknown genera of Tettigoniidae (Conocephalinae) and 1 undescribed new genus of Tetrigidae (Cladonotinae) are here recorded for the first time from Cuba. Syntypes are designated for Hygronemobius histrionicus Zayas.

  17. Cuba and Brazil: an important example of South-South collaboration in health biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Sáenz, Tirso W; Thorsteinsdóttir, Halla; de Souza, Maria Carlota

    2010-07-01

    This article analyzes the entrepreneurial cooperation between Cuba and Brazil in health biotechnology. It looks at the strategies applied and the main impacts. The respective government/political wills and the corresponding South-South collaboration policies are discussed, as well as the steps taken to materialize collaboration programs, including joint production of a meningitis vaccine for Africa. This cooperation is a good example of how South-South collaboration can be a useful tool to promote capacity building and provide cost-effective health solutions for developing countries.

  18. The Politics of Revolutionary Development: Civil-Military Relations in Cuba, 1959-1976,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    la Revoluci ~ n Socialista," Cbra Revolucionarla, No. 46 (December 2 1961), 11-55. 14. The fusion of civilian and military roles In Cuba was first...document in and to ali ’t, o" n Of the author. are Protcte by law. ’- Cnet reproducton. of ,s4C in-:~whole or in Part !3~t~unz T h i q n rI af lv -.-r...dominant force in the revolu- ti nary movement. It held a mmopoly of arm and, In the person of its am- mner- n -hief, a monopoly of popular support. WM

  19. Peptide derived from desalinated boiled tuna extract inhibits adipogenesis through the downregulation of C/EBP-α and PPAR-γ in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Min; Kim, Eun-Young; Kim, In-Hye; Nam, Taek-Jeong

    2015-05-01

    Recently, obesity has increased due to a variety of reasons, including the availability of 'fast food' and high-fat diets. Developing anti-obesity functional drugs and foods from natural sources may offer solutions to this global concern. Generally, tuna is a high-protein, low-fat and low-calorie food with various bioactive effects. It may improve memory, reduce cholesterol levels and positively affect the development of brain cells. In this study, we screened the anti-obesity potential of peptides derived from tuna protein. We then observed protein bands by the Coomassie blue staining of a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gel. The protein mixture was concentrated and desalted using in-gel trypsin digestion and a C18 nano column and Poros R2 reversed-phase preparation, prior to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS/MS). We screened the peptides for their ability to affect adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We also measured glucose uptake, triglyceride levels and lipid droplets using Oil Red O staining. As a result, we confirmed that one peptide inhibited adipocyte differentiation. We also observed the expression of obesity-related genes by western blot analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The peptide from the tuna extract significantly reduced the expression levels of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBP-α) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) adipocyte marker genes. Thus, our data suggest that this peptide from boiled tuna extract reduces lipid components and adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells, and these characteristics may be of value in the development of anti-obesity foods.

  20. Determination of trans- and cis-urocanic acid in relation to histamine, putrescine, and cadaverine contents in tuna (Auxis Thazard) at different storage temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zare, Davood; Muhammad, Kharidah; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Ghazali, H M

    2015-02-01

    Scombroid fish poisoning is usually associated with consumption of fish containing high levels of histamine. However, reports indicate that some cases have responded to antihistamine therapy while ingested histamine levels in these cases were low. Potentiation of histamine toxicity by some biogenic amines, and release of endogenous histamine by other compounds such as cis-urocanic acid (UCA) are some hypotheses that have been put forth to explain this anomaly. Very little is known about the effects of storage conditions on the production of both UCA isomers and biogenic amines in tuna. Thus, the production of trans- and cis-UCA, histamine, putrescine, and cadaverine in tuna during 15 d of storage at 0, 3, and 10 °C and 2 d storage at ambient temperature were monitored. The initial trans- and cis-UCA contents in fresh tuna were 2.90 and 1.47 mg/kg, respectively, whereas the levels of putrescine and cadaverine were less than 2 mg/kg, and histamine was not detected. The highest levels of trans- and cis-UCA were obtained during 15 d storage at 3 °C (23.74 and 21.79 mg/kg, respectively) while the highest concentrations of histamine (2796 mg/kg), putrescine (220.32 mg/kg) and cadaverine (1045.20 mg/kg) were obtained during storage at room temperature, 10 and 10 °C, respectively. Histamine content increased considerably during storage at 10 °C whereas trans- and cis-UCA contents changed slightly. The initial trans-UCA content decreased during storage at ambient temperature. Thus, unlike histamine, concentrations of trans- and cis-UCA did not result in elevated levels during storage of tuna.