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Sample records for laser beam distortion

  1. Propagation of coherently combined truncated laser beam arrays with beam distortions in non-Kolmogorov turbulence.

    PubMed

    Tao, Rumao; Si, Lei; Ma, Yanxing; Zhou, Pu; Liu, Zejin

    2012-08-10

    The propagation properties of coherently combined truncated laser beam arrays with beam distortions through non-Kolmogorov turbulence are studied in detail both analytically and numerically. The analytical expressions for the average intensity and the beam width of coherently combined truncated laser beam arrays with beam distortions propagating through turbulence are derived based on the combination of statistical optics methods and the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle. The effect of beam distortions, such as amplitude modulation and phase fluctuation, is studied by numerical examples. The numerical results reveal that phase fluctuations have significant influence on the spreading of coherently combined truncated laser beam arrays in non-Kolmogorov turbulence, and the effects of the phase fluctuations can be negligible as long as the phase fluctuations are controlled under a certain level, i.e., a>0.05 for the situation considered in the paper. Furthermore, large phase fluctuations can convert the beam distribution rapidly to a Gaussian form, vary the spreading, weaken the optimum truncation effects, and suppress the dependence of spreading on the parameters of the non-Kolmogorov turbulence.

  2. Simulation of the wavefront distortion and beam quality for a high-power zigzag slab laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jae Sung; Cha, Yong-Ho; Cha, Byung Heon; Lee, Hyeon Cheor; Kim, Hyun Tae; Lee, Jung Hwan

    2016-12-01

    A simulation method of the beam quality for a high-power zigzag slab laser has been developed. This method can predict the wavefront distortion and beam quality for various optical arrangements and optimize the design effectively. A Nd:YAG zigzag slab laser amplifier was designed as an application. The optimized design shows a beam quality of 1.20 corresponding to the minimized wavefront distortion with a peak-to-valley of 0.568 μm and root mean square of 0.115 μm even under high-power operation with a total pump power of 14 kW. Although there are some effects other than the optical design error that incur wavefront distortions, this method can help to determine the first optical design of the zigzag slab laser without the need for many experimental studies.

  3. Simplex optimization-based dynamic wavefront control for mitigation of atmospheric distortions of the laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikulin, Vladimir V.

    2004-01-01

    Development of long-range laser communication devices capable of operating within Earth"s atmosphere is a challenging task. Turbulence effects cause changes of the refractive index along the propagation path that lead to phase distortions (aberrations), thus creating random optical energy redistribution in the spatial domain and imposing performance limitations on the laser systems. A common method of mitigating these effects suggests dynamic wavefront control. In this paper the proposed technique is based on correction of the distorted beam using an electrically addressed programmable spatial light modulator (SLM). The phase profile that we impose on the distorted laser beam is described by a general two-dimensional wavefront OPD function. The simplex algorithm facilitates dynamic optimization of the system performance metric J as a function of control parameters (the polynomial coefficients). The resultant polynomial is used for calculation of the corrective phase profiles to be loaded onto the programmable phase modulator. The proposed control algorithm is independent of the system model and offers the advantage of blind ("model-free") optimization. The wavefront correction system is implemented in a simulation setup. Its performance is assessed in terms of convergence, speed, robustness and the ability to reduce the effects of wavefront distortions.

  4. Investigation of the thermally induced laser beam distortion associated with vacuum compressor gratings in high energy and high average power femtosecond laser systems

    PubMed Central

    Fourmaux, S.; Serbanescu, C.; Lecherbourg, L.; Payeur, S.; Martin, F.; Kieffer, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    We report successful compensation of the thermally induced laser beam distortion associated with high energy 110 mJ and high average power femtosecond laser system of 11 Watts operated with vacuum compressor gratings. To enhance laser-based light source brightness requires development of laser systems with higher energy and higher average power. Managing the high thermal loading on vacuum optical components is a key issue in the implementation of this approach. To our knowledge this is the first time that such thermal induced distortions on the vacuum compressor gratings are characterized and compensated. PMID:19129886

  5. Investigation of the thermally induced laser beam distortion associated with vacuum compressor gratings in high energy and high average power femtosecond laser systems.

    PubMed

    Fourmaux, S; Serbanescu, C; Lecherbourg, L; Payeur, S; Martin, F; Kieffer, J C

    2009-01-05

    We report successful compensation of the thermally induced laser beam distortion associated with high energy 110 mJ and high average power femtosecond laser system of 11 Watts operated with vacuum compressor gratings. To enhance laser-based light source brightness requires development of laser systems with higher energy and higher average power. Managing the high thermal loading on vacuum optical components is a key issue in the implementation of this approach. To our knowledge this is the first time that such thermal induced distortions on the vacuum compressor gratings are characterized and compensated.

  6. Severe Self-induced Beam Distortion in Laboratory Simulated Laser Propagation at 10.6 micro.

    PubMed

    Buser, R G; Rohde, R S

    1973-02-01

    Precision irradiance profiles have been determined for horizontally slewing high power laser beams through stationary absorbing gaseous media for the case of strong beam-medium interaction coupled with strong heating. Results are compared with the predictions of existing theoretical models concerning thermally induced lens effects in the presence of cross winds. Bending of the beam into the wind by beam slewing and intensification is found in reasonable agreement with the theory; for the observed overall beam spread, induced flow, turbulent tail, and concomitant beam breakup, no satisfactory theoretical treatment is available.

  7. Effects of Diffraction of the Self-induced Thermal Distortion of a Laser Beam in a Crosswind.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, F G; Smith, D C

    1972-02-01

    Experiments investigating the influence of diffraction on the thermal lens effects of wind are reported. The results show that the distorted beam peak intensity depends critically on the size of the Fresnel number involved. Numerical results accounting for diffraction effects have also been obtained which confirm the experimental observations.

  8. Zigzag laser with reduced optical distortion

    DOEpatents

    Albrecht, G.F.; Comaskey, B.; Sutton, S.B.

    1994-04-19

    The architecture of the present invention has been driven by the need to solve the beam quality problems inherent in Brewster's angle tipped slab lasers. The entrance and exit faces of a solid state slab laser are cut perpendicular with respect to the pump face, thus intrinsically eliminating distortion caused by the unpumped Brewster's angled faces. For a given zigzag angle, the residual distortions inherent in the remaining unpumped or lightly pumped ends may be reduced further by tailoring the pump intensity at these ends. 11 figures.

  9. Zigzag laser with reduced optical distortion

    DOEpatents

    Albrecht, Georg F.; Comaskey, Brian; Sutton, Steven B.

    1994-01-01

    The architecture of the present invention has been driven by the need to solve the beam quality problems inherent in Brewster's angle tipped slab lasers. The entrance and exit faces of a solid state slab laser are cut perpendicular with respect to the pump face, thus intrinsically eliminating distortion caused by the unpumped Brewster's angled faces. For a given zigzag angle, the residual distortions inherent in the remaining unpumped or lightly pumped ends may be reduced further by tailoring the pump intensity at these ends.

  10. Simulations of far-field optical beam quality influenced by the thermal distortion of the secondary mirror for high-power laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ruhai; Chen, Ning; Zhuang, Xinyu; Wang, Bing

    2015-02-01

    In order to research the influence on the beam quality due to thermal deformation of the secondary mirror in the high power laser system, the theoretical simulation study is performed. Firstly, three typical laser power 10kW, 50kW and 100kW with the wavelength 1.064μm are selected to analyze thermal deformation of mirror through the finite element analyze of thermodynamics instantaneous method. Then the wavefront aberration can be calculated by ray-tracing theory. Finally, focus spot radius,beam quality (BQ) of far-filed beam can be calculated and comparably analyzed by Fresnel diffraction integration. The simulation results show that with the increasing laser power, the optical aberration of beam director gets worse, the far-field optical beam quality decrease, which makes the laser focus spot broadening and the peak optical intensity of center decreasing dramatically. Comparing the clamping ring and the three-point clamping, the former is better than the latter because the former only induces the rotation symmetric deformation and the latter introduces additional astigmatism. The far-field optical beam quality can be improved partly by simply adjusting the distance between the main mirror and the secondary mirror. But the far-field power density is still the one tenth as that without the heat distortion of secondary mirror. These results can also provide the reference to the thermal aberration analyze for high power laser system and can be applied to the field of laser communication system and laser weapon etc.

  11. Low distortion laser welding of cylindrical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittel, Sonja

    2011-02-01

    Automotive components are for the most part cylindrical and thus the weld seams are of radial shape. Radial weld seams are usually produced by starting at a point on the component's surface rotating the component resulting in an overlap zone at the start/end of the weld. In this research, it is shown that the component's distortion strongly depends on the overlap of weld start and end. A correlation between overlap zone and distortion is verified by an experimental study. In order to reduce distortion generated by the overlap zone a special optics is used which allows shaping the laser beam into a ring shape which is then focused on the cylindrical surface and produces a radial ring weld seam simultaneously by one laser pulse. In doing this, the overlap zone is eliminated and distortion can be reduced. Radial weld seams are applied on precision samples and distortion is measured after welding. The distortion of the precision samples is measured by a tactile measuring method and a comparison of the results of welding with the ring optics to reference welds is done.

  12. Low distortion laser welding of cylindrical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittel, Sonja

    2010-09-01

    Automotive components are for the most part cylindrical and thus the weld seams are of radial shape. Radial weld seams are usually produced by starting at a point on the component's surface rotating the component resulting in an overlap zone at the start/end of the weld. In this research, it is shown that the component's distortion strongly depends on the overlap of weld start and end. A correlation between overlap zone and distortion is verified by an experimental study. In order to reduce distortion generated by the overlap zone a special optics is used which allows shaping the laser beam into a ring shape which is then focused on the cylindrical surface and produces a radial ring weld seam simultaneously by one laser pulse. In doing this, the overlap zone is eliminated and distortion can be reduced. Radial weld seams are applied on precision samples and distortion is measured after welding. The distortion of the precision samples is measured by a tactile measuring method and a comparison of the results of welding with the ring optics to reference welds is done.

  13. Laser beam monitoring system

    DOEpatents

    Weil, Bradley S.; Wetherington, Jr., Grady R.

    1985-01-01

    Laser beam monitoring systems include laser-transparent plates set at an angle to the laser beam passing therethrough and light sensor for detecting light reflected from an object on which the laser beam impinges.

  14. Optimized laser turrets for minimum phase distortion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderplaats, G. N.; Fuhs, A. E.; Blaisdell, G. A.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis and computer program which optimizes laser turret geometry to obtain minimum phase distortion is described. Phase distortion due to compressible, inviscid flow over small perturbation laser turrets in subsonic or supersonic flow is calculated. The turret shape is determined by a two dimensional Fourier series; in a similar manner, the flow properties are given by a Fourier series. Phase distortion is calcualted for propagation at serveral combinations of elevation and azimuth angles. A sum is formed from the set of values, and this sum becomes the objective function for an optimization computer program. The shape of the turret is varied to provide minimum phase distortion.

  15. Beam-Beam Diagnostics from Closed-Orbit Distortion

    SciTech Connect

    Furman, M.; Chin, Y.-H.; Eden, J.; Kozanecki, W.; Tennyson, J.; Ziemann, V.

    1992-07-01

    The authors study the applicability of beam-beam deflection techniques as a tuning tool for asymmetric B factories, focusing on PEP-II as an example. Assuming that the closed orbits of the two beams are separated vertically at the interaction point by a local orbit bump that is nominally closed, they calculate the residual beam orbit distortions due to the beam-beam interaction. Difference orbit measurements, performed at points conveniently distant from the interaction point (IP), provide distinct signatures that can be used to maintain the beams in collision and perform detailed optical diagnostics at the IP. A proposal to test this method experimentally at the TRISTAN ring is briefly discussed. Because of their two-ring structure, asymmetric B factories are likely to require more diagnostics and feedback mechanisms than single-ring colliders in order to guarantee head-on collisions. In addition to the traditional techniques, however, the independence of the two beams allows one to envisage other kinds of beam diagnostics. In this article they investigate one such possibility, by looking at the closed orbit distortion produced by the beam-beam interaction when the beams do not collide exactly head-on. They base this investigation on an analytic model and strong-strong multiparticle simulations. Although the discussion uses the PEP-II design as an example, the conclusion is that this technique is quite a promising diagnostics tool for asymmetric colliders in general.

  16. Closed Orbit Distortion and the Beam-Beam Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Furman, M.; Chin, Y.; Eden, J.; Kozanecki, W.; Tennyson, J.L.; Ziemann, V.; /SLAC

    2007-02-23

    We study the applicability of beam-beam deflection techniques as a tuning tool for the SLAC/LBL/LLNL B factory, PEP-II. Assuming that the closed orbits of the two beams are separated vertically at the interaction point by a local orbit bump that is nominally closed, we calculate the residual beam orbit distortions due to the beam-beam interaction. Difference orbit measurements, performed at points conveniently distant from the IP, provide distinct coordinate- or frequency-space signatures that can be used to maintain the beams in collision and perform detailed optical diagnostics at the IP. A proposal to test this method experimentally at the TRISTAN ring is briefly discussed.

  17. Closed orbit distortion and the beam-beam interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Furman, M.; Chin, Y.H.; Eden, J.; Kozanecki, W. |; Tennyson, J.; Ziemann, V.

    1992-06-01

    We study the applicability of beam-beam deflection techniques as a tuning tool for the SLAC/LBL/LLNL B factory, PEP-II. Assuming that the closed orbits of the two beams are separated vertically at the interaction point by a local orbit bump that is nominally closed, we calculate the residual beam orbit distortions due to the beam-beam interaction. Difference orbit measurements, performed at points conveniently distant from the IP, provide distinct coordinate- or frequency-space signatures that can be used to maintain the beams in collision and perform detailed optical diagnostics at the IP. A proposal to test this method experimentally at the TRISTAN ring is briefly discussed.

  18. Analytical beam-width characteristics of distorted cat-eye reflected beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yanzhong; Shan, Congmiao; Zheng, Yonghui; Zhang, Laixian; Sun, Huayan

    2015-02-01

    The analytical expression of beam-width of distorted cat-eye reflected beam under far-field condition is deduced using the approximate three-dimensional analytical formula for oblique detection laser beam passing through cat-eye optical lens with center shelter, and using the definition of second order moment, Gamma function and integral functions. The laws the variation of divergence angle and astigmatism degree of the reflected light with incident angle, focal shift, aperture size, and center shelter ratio are established by numerical calculation, and physical analysis. The study revealed that the cat-eye reflected beam is like a beam transmitted and collimated by the target optical lens, and has the same characteristics as that of Gaussian beam. A proper choice of positive focal shift would result in a divergence angle smaller than that of no focal shift. The astigmatism is mainly caused by incidence angle.

  19. Luminosity Loss due to Beam Distortion and the Beam-Beam Instability

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Juhao; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Chao, A.W.; Seryi, A.; Sramek, C.K.; /Rice U.

    2005-06-30

    In a linear collider, sources of emittance dilution such as transverse wakefields or dispersive errors will couple the vertical phase space to the longitudinal position within the beam (the so-called ''banana effect''). When the Intersection Point (IP) disruption parameter is large, these beam distortions will be amplified by a single bunch kink instability which will lead to luminosity loss. We study this phenomena both analytically using linear theory and via numerical simulation. In particular, we examine the dependence of the luminosity loss on the wavelength of the beam distortions and the disruption parameter. This analysis may prove useful when optimizing the vertical disruption parameter for luminosity operation with given beam distortions.

  20. Agile beam laser

    SciTech Connect

    Valley, G. C.

    1985-01-08

    A laser system for providing a rapidly steerable laser output beam. The laser system includes a phase conjugate reflector, laser gain medium and its associated pump source, an output coupling device, and an optical element which selectably controls the transverse lasing mode of the laser system. The components are arranged to form a laser oscillator between the phase conjugate reflector and the optical device, and is operated in such a manner that each selected transverse mode of laser operation generates an output beam from the system which has a different wavefront tilt. Accordingly, the output beam is steerable and is dependent upon the selected transverse mode which is currently lasing in the oscillator.

  1. Laser beam generating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Warner, B.E.; Duncan, D.B.

    1994-02-15

    Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus is described. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect). 7 figures.

  2. Laser beam generating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Bruce E.; Duncan, David B.

    1994-01-01

    Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect).

  3. Laser beam generating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Bruce E.; Duncan, David B.

    1993-01-01

    Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect).

  4. Laser beam generating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Warner, B.E.; Duncan, D.B.

    1993-12-28

    Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect). 11 figures.

  5. Wind profile estimation from point to point laser distortion data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leland, Robert

    1989-01-01

    The author's results on the problem of using laser distortion data to estimate the wind profile along the path of the beam are presented. A new model for the dynamics of the index of refraction in a non-constant wind is developed. The model agrees qualitatively with theoretical predictions for the index of refraction statistics in linear wind shear, and is approximated by the predictions of Taylor's hypothesis in constant wind. A framework for a potential in-flight experiment is presented, and the estimation problem is discussed in a maximum likelihood context.

  6. Orbit distortion and beam tilt caused by transverse wake fields

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, A.W.; Kheifets, S.

    1981-09-01

    As particle bunch passes through a region with a transverse impedance, it generates a transverse wake electromagnetic field that is proportional to the transverse displacement of the bunch in the region. The field acts back on the bunch, causing various effects (such as instabilities) in the motion of the bunch. In this note, we study one of such effects in which a transverse impedance causes the beam to be distorted in its shape. Observed at a fixed location in the storage ring, this distortion does not change from turn to turn; rather, the distortion is static in time. To describe the distortion, let us cut the bunch longitudinally into many slices and connect the centers of charge of the slices into a curve. In the absence of transverse impedance, this curve is a straight line parallel to the direction of motion of the bunch. Perturbed by the transverse EM field, the curve becomes distorted. What we will find in this note is the shape of such a curve. We emphasize the fact that the effect we are considering is a static effect. The beam is assumed to be stable in this statically distorted state. The distortion is a result of having the bunch passing by the impedance off-centered; the produced wake then acts on the particles, causing them to follow distorted closed orbits which depend on the longitudinal positions of the particles. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Laser beam alignment system

    DOEpatents

    Kasner, William H.; Racki, Daniel J.; Swenson, Clark E.

    1984-01-01

    A plurality of pivotal reflectors direct a high-power laser beam onto a workpiece, and a rotatable reflector is movable to a position wherein it intercepts the beam and deflects a major portion thereof away from its normal path, the remainder of the beam passing to the pivotal reflectors through an aperture in the rotating reflector. A plurality of targets are movable to positions intercepting the path of light traveling to the pivotal reflectors, and a preliminary adjustment of the latter is made by use of a low-power laser beam reflected from the rotating reflector, after which the same targets are used to make a final adjustment of the pivotal reflectors with the portion of the high-power laser beam passed through the rotating reflector.

  8. Diffraction of a Laser Beam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jodoin, Ronald E.

    1979-01-01

    Investigates the effect of the nonuniform irradiance across a laser beam on diffraction of the beam, specifically the Fraunhofer diffraction of a laser beam with a Gaussian irradiance profile as it passes through a circular aperture. (GA)

  9. Single element laser beam shaper

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Shukui [Yorktown, VA; Shinn, Michelle D [Newport News, VA

    2005-09-13

    A single lens laser beam shaper for converting laser beams from any spatial profile to a flat-top or uniform spatial profile. The laser beam shaper includes a lens having two aspheric surfaces. The beam shaper significantly simplifies the overall structure in comparison with conventional 2-element systems and therefore provides great ease in alignment and reduction of cost.

  10. Beam-shape distortion caused by transverse wake fields

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, A.W.; Kheifets, S.

    1983-02-01

    As a particle bunch in a storage ring passes through a region with a transverse impedance, it generates a transverse wake electromagnetic field that is proportional to the transverse displacement of the bunch in the region. The field acts back on the bunch, causing various effects (such as instabilities) in the motion of the bunch. We study one such effect in which a transverse impedance causes the beam to be distorted in its shape. Observed at a fixed location in the storage ring, this distortion does not change from turn to turn; rather, the distortion is static in time. To describe the distortion, the bunch is considered to be divided longitudinally into many slices and the centers of change of the slices are connected into a curve. In the absence of transverse impedance, this curve is a straight line parallel to the direction of motion of the bunch. Perturbed by the transverse wake field, the curve becomes distorted. What we find in this paper is the shape of such a curve. The results obtained are applied to the PEP storage ring. The impedance is assumed to come solely from the rf cavities. We find that the beam shape is sufficiently distorted and hence that loss of luminosity due to this effect becomes a possibility.

  11. Aerodynamic distortion propagation calculation in application of high-speed target detection by laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yonghui; Sun, Huayan; Zhao, Yanzhong; Chen, Jianbiao

    2015-10-01

    Active laser detection technique has a broad application prospect in antimissile and air defense, however the aerodynamic flow field around the planes and missiles cause serious distortion effect on the detecting laser beams. There are many computational fluid dynamics(CFD) codes that can predict the air density distribution and also the density fluctuations of the flow field, it's necessary for physical optics to be used to predict the distortion properties after propagation through the complex process. Aiming at the physical process of laser propagation in "Cat-eye" lenses and aerodynamic flow field for twice, distortion propagation calculation method is researched in this paper. In the minds of dividing the whole process into two parts, and tread the aero-optical optical path difference as a phase distortion, the incidence and reflection process are calculated using Collins formula and angular spectrum diffraction theory respectively. In addition, turbulent performance of the aerodynamic flow field is estimated according to the electromagnetic propagation theory through a random medium, the rms optical path difference and Strehl ratio of the turbulent optical distortion are obtained. Finally, Computational fluid mechanics and aero-optical distortion properties of the detecting laser beams are calculated with the hemisphere-on-cylinder turret as an example, calculation results are showed and analysed.

  12. Beam shape distortion caused by transverse wake fields

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, A.W.; Kheifets, S.

    1983-08-01

    As a particle bunch in a storage ring passes through a region with a transverse impedance it generates a transverse wake electromagnetic field that is proportional to the transverse displacement of the bunch in the region. The field acts back on the bunch which results in various effects or instabilities in the motion of the bunch. In this paper the authors study one of these effects in which a transverse impedance causes the beam to be distorted in its shape. This distortion, observed at a fixed location in the storage ring, does not change from turn to turn; rather, it remains static in time. To describe the distortion, the bunch is considered to be divided longitudinally into many slices, and the centers of charge of the slices are connected into a curve. In the absence of transverse impedance, this curve is a straight line, parallel to the direction of motion of the bunch. Perturbed by the transverse wake field, however, the curve becomes distorted; what the authors find in this paper is the shape of such a curve. The results obtained are applied to the PEP storage ring. The impedance is assumed to come solely from the RF cavities. The authors find that the beam shape is sufficiently distorted and hence that loss of luminosity due to this effect becomes a possibility.

  13. Converging beams for distortion-free imagery in transfer holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waddell, Peter; Saxby, Graham

    1995-02-01

    In order to obtain a distortion-free image when a transfer hologram is replayed by a diverging beam, the original reference beam must be the precise conjugate of the replay beam, i.e., it must converge towards the future location of the replay source. Off-the-shelf collimating mirrors have too long a focal length to achieve this, and suitable custom-built mirrors are heavy and prohibitively expensive. Several methods are suggested for obtaining a suitable beam, including a new type of varifocal pellicular mirror made by stretching a metallized plastic membrane over a circular drumhead and creating a partial vacuum behind it, producing a concave mirror of high optical quality with adjustable focal length.

  14. Laser beam guard clamps

    DOEpatents

    Dickson, Richard K.

    2010-09-07

    A quick insert and release laser beam guard panel clamping apparatus having a base plate mountable on an optical table, a first jaw affixed to the base plate, and a spring-loaded second jaw slidably carried by the base plate to exert a clamping force. The first and second jaws each having a face acutely angled relative to the other face to form a V-shaped, open channel mouth, which enables wedge-action jaw separation by and subsequent clamping of a laser beam guard panel inserted through the open channel mouth. Preferably, the clamping apparatus also includes a support structure having an open slot aperture which is positioned over and parallel with the open channel mouth.

  15. Laser beam methane detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkley, E. D., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Instrument uses infrared absorption to determine methane concentration in liquid natural gas vapor. Two sensors measure intensity of 3.39 mm laser beam after it passes through gas; absorption is proportional to concentration of methane. Instrument is used in modeling spread of LNG clouds and as leak detector on LNG carriers and installations. Unit includes wheels for mobility and is both vertically and horizontally operable.

  16. Beam uniformity of flat top lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chao; Cramer, Larry; Danielson, Don; Norby, James

    2015-03-01

    Many beams that output from standard commercial lasers are multi-mode, with each mode having a different shape and width. They show an overall non-homogeneous energy distribution across the spot size. There may be satellite structures, halos and other deviations from beam uniformity. However, many scientific, industrial and medical applications require flat top spatial energy distribution, high uniformity in the plateau region, and complete absence of hot spots. Reliable standard methods for the evaluation of beam quality are of great importance. Standard methods are required for correct characterization of the laser for its intended application and for tight quality control in laser manufacturing. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has published standard procedures and definitions for this purpose. These procedures have not been widely adopted by commercial laser manufacturers. This is due to the fact that they are unreliable because an unrepresentative single-pixel value can seriously distort the result. We hereby propose a metric of beam uniformity, a way of beam profile visualization, procedures to automatically detect hot spots and beam structures, and application examples in our high energy laser production.

  17. Laser beam pulse formatting method

    DOEpatents

    Daly, Thomas P.; Moses, Edward I.; Patterson, Ralph W.; Sawicki, Richard H.

    1994-01-01

    A method for formatting a laser beam pulse (20) using one or more delay loops (10). The delay loops (10) have a partially reflective beam splitter (12) and a plurality of highly reflective mirrors (14) arranged such that the laser beam pulse (20) enters into the delay loop (10) through the beam splitter (12) and circulates therein along a delay loop length (24) defined by the mirrors (14). As the laser beam pulse (20) circulates within the delay loop (10) a portion thereof is emitted upon each completed circuit when the laser beam pulse (20) strikes the beam splitter (12). The laser beam pulse (20) is thereby formatted into a plurality of sub-pulses (50, 52, 54 and 56). The delay loops (10) are used in combination to produce complex waveforms by combining the sub-pulses (50, 52, 54 and 56) using additive waveform synthesis.

  18. Laser beam microwelding in the watch industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olowinsky, Alexander M.; Kramer, Thorsten; Durand, Friedrich

    2002-06-01

    After the invention of the laser principle and its first application for drilling of jewels in watch movements, the laser was only used for marking. The still ongoing trend of miniaturization and automation opened a new field of application: laser beam micro welding. This paper gives an overview of the new application of laser beam welding in watch industry. The combination of dissimilar materials like brass and stainless steel is often needed in watch movements due to tribologic aspects. Here, laser beam micro welding offers an alternative to conventional joining techniques like press fit or gluing. Since the watch components are very small the locally limited heat input of the laser beam offers the possibility of weld seam widths < 200 micrometers . The depth and the width of the closed weld seam as well as the surface quality can be influenced especially at the end of the seam using the pulse forming capability of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Several watch components could be joined by means of laser beam micro welding. The width of the seam could be reduced to 100-200 micrometers . The joining geometries of an axis/wheel combination are in the range of 100 micrometers to 1 mm diameter of the axis and about 200 micrometers wheel thickness. The process of laser beam micro welding could be integrated in a fully automated assembly machine for watch movement parts. This paper will give an overview about some results of a European research project where the welding of microparts was investigated. The aim was to decrease contamination and distortion of the parts during the mending process. The work to be presented has been funded by the European Commission in a project under the contract BRPR-CT- 0634.

  19. Optical phase distortion due to compressible flow over laser turrets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuhs, A. E.; Fuhs, S. E.

    1980-01-01

    Analytical models for optical phase distortion due to compressible flow over a laser turret are developed. Phase distortion is calculated for both blunt and small perturbation turrets. For the blunt turret, the Janzen-Rayleigh technique is used to determine the flow field. Phase distortions of 2.2 wavelengths at 3.8 microns are calculated for the blunt turret. For small perturbation turrets, a versatile analytical model is developed for a turret on a fuselage with circular cross section. With a two dimensional Fourier series representation of the turret, any shape can be considered. Both subsonic and supersonic flows can be calculated. Phase distortions of 1.2 wavelengths at 3.8 microns are calculated for one turret at high subsonic Mach number. In addition to being of value for laser turrets, the methods are applicable to reconnaissance aircraft using photographic equipment and cruise missiles using celestial navigation.

  20. Pulsed laser beam intensity monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Cason, C.M.; Jones, R.W.

    1982-07-13

    A pulsed laser beam intensity monitor measures the peak power within a selectable cross section of a test laser beam and measures integrated energy of the beam during the pulse period of a test laser. A continuous wave laser and a pulsed ruby laser are coaxially arranged for simultaneously transmitting optical output energy through a crystal flat during the time a test laser pulse is transmitted through the flat. Due to stress birefringence in the crystal, the ruby laser pulse transmitted through the flat is recorded and analyzed to provide peak power information about the test laser output pulse, and the continuous wave laser output reflected from the crystal flat provides a measurement of energy during the test laser pulse.

  1. Atomic laser-beam finder.

    PubMed

    Viering, Kirsten; Medellin, David; Mo, Jianyong; Raizen, Mark G

    2012-11-05

    We report on an experimental method to align a laser beam to a cloud of atoms trapped in a magneto-optical trap (MOT). We show how balanced lock-in detection leads to a very sensitive method to align the laser beam to the atoms in the plane perpendicular to the propagation direction. This provides a very reliable and fast way of aligning laser beams to atoms trapped in a MOT.

  2. Laser welding beam quality calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Foulk, L.R.

    1997-06-01

    The relationship of beam quality and weld depth of penetration was studied to attempt to better quantify the operation of CO{sub 2} laser beam welders. Equipment to measure laser beam quality was obtained. The equipment was calibrated using standard apertures. To relate weld penetration and beam quality measurements, it was necessary to force changes in the CO{sub 2} laser welder`s operation. The chosen experimental variables were laser gas mixture and the use of a group of focusing lenses that had been used in production.

  3. Laser beam alignment apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Gruhn, Charles R.; Hammond, Robert B.

    1981-01-01

    The disclosure relates to an apparatus and method for laser beam alignment. Thermoelectric properties of a disc in a laser beam path are used to provide an indication of beam alignment and/or automatic laser alignment.

  4. Laser beam alignment apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Gruhn, C.R.; Hammond, R.B.

    The disclosure related to an apparatus and method for laser beam alignment. Thermoelectric properties of a disc in a laser beam path are used to provide an indication of beam alignment and/or automatic laser alignment.

  5. Laser-cooled continuous ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffer, J.P.; Hangst, J.S.; Nielsen, J.S.

    1995-08-01

    A collaboration with a group in Arhus, Denmark, using their storage ring ASTRID, brought about better understanding of ion beams cooled to very low temperatures. The longitudinal Schottky fluctuation noise signals from a cooled beam were studied. The fluctuation signals are distorted by the effects of space charge as was observed in earlier measurements at other facilities. However, the signal also exhibits previously unobserved coherent components. The ions` velocity distribution, measured by a laser fluorescence technique suggests that the coherence is due to suppression of Landau damping. The observed behavior has important implications for the eventual attainment of a crystalline ion beam in a storage ring. A significant issue is the transverse temperature of the beam -- where no direct diagnostics are available and where molecular dynamics simulations raise interesting questions about equilibrium.

  6. Beam quality measurements using digitized laser beam images

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, M.D. ); Mahon, R. )

    1989-11-01

    A method is described for measuring various laser beam characteristics with modest experimental complexity by digital processing of the near and far field images. Gaussian spot sizes, peak intensities, and spatial distributions of the images are easily found. Far field beam focusability is determined by computationally applying apertures of circular of elliptical diameters to the digitized image. Visualization of the magnitude of phase and intensity distortions is accomplished by comparing the 2-D fast Fourier transform of both smoothed and unsmoothed near field data to the actual far field data. The digital processing may be performed on current personal computers to give the experimenter unprecedented capabilities for rapid beam characteriztion at relatively low cost.

  7. Refractive beam shapers for focused laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Vadim; Ostrun, Aleksei

    2016-09-01

    Focusing of laser radiation is most often used approach in various industrial micromachining applications like scribing, PCB drilling, and is important in scientific researches like laser heating in geophysics experiments with diamond anvil cells (DAC). Control of intensity distribution in focal spot is important task since optimum intensity profiles are rather flat-top, doughnut or "inverse-Gauss" than typical for lasers Gaussian profile. Because of high intensity of modern CW and pulsed lasers it is advisable to use refractive beam shaping optics with smooth optical surfaces providing high radiation resistance. Workable optical solutions can be built on the base of diffraction theory conclusion that flat-top intensity profile in focal plane of a lens is created when input beam has Airy-disk intensity distribution. It is suggested to apply refractive beam shapers converting, with minimum wavefront deformation, Gaussian profile of TEM00 beam to a beam with Airy disk intensity distribution, thereby optimizing conditions of interference near the focal plane of a lens after the beam shaper and providing flat-top, doughnut, "inverse-Gauss" profiles. This approach allows operation with CW and ultra-short pulse lasers, using F-theta lenses and objectives, mirror scanners, provides extended depth of field similar to Rayleigh length of comparable TEM00 beam, easy integration in industrial equipment, simple adjustment procedure and switching between profiles, telescope and collimator implementations. There will be considered design basics of beam shapers, analysis of profile behaviour near focal plane, examples of implementations in micromachining systems and experimental DAC setups, results of profile measurements and material processing.

  8. Thermal-induced two dimensional beam distortion in planar waveguide amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Jun; Ke, Wei-Wei; Su, Hua

    2013-07-29

    Mode characteristics in the solid-state planar waveguide (PWG) laser amplifiers are investigated theoretically, in consideration of the temperature gradient generated by cooling across the thickness and by pumping inhomogeneity along the width direction. When variation of the refractive index along the width direction is dominated by the lower spatial frequencies, the vector wave equation is solved analytically by means of the perturbation method. It is similar to the zigzag slab amplifier in which the phase aberration depending on the width coordinate plays the most important role to cause degradation of the beam quality. The crossing mode distortions owing to two dimension nature of the index variations are illustrated, and that mode profile is varied by the index variation along both the thickness and the width directions. Modes in the single-mode or the few-mode PWGs are shown to suffer weaker thermal-induced distortion across the thickness than those in the multi-mode PWGs.

  9. Thermally induced distortion of high average power laser system by an optical transport system

    SciTech Connect

    Ault, L; Chow, R; Taylor, Jedlovec, D

    1999-03-31

    The atomic vapor laser isotope separation process uses high-average power lasers that have the commercial potential to enrich uranium for the electric power utilities. The transport of the laser beam through the laser system to the separation chambers requires high performance optical components, most of which have either fused silica or Zerodur as the substrate material. One of the requirements of the optical components is to preserve the wavefront quality of the laser beam that propagate over long distances. Full aperture tests with the high power process lasers and finite element analysis (FEA) have been performed on the transport optics. The wavefront distortions of the various sections of the transport path were measured with diagnostic Hartmann sensor packages. The FEA results were derived from an in-house thermal-structural-optical code which is linked to the commercially available CodeV program. In comparing the measured and predicted results, the bulk absorptance of fused silica was estimated to about 50 ppm/cm in the visible wavelength regime. Wavefront distortions are reported on optics made from fused silica and Zerodur substrate materials.

  10. GAUSSIAN BEAM LASER RESONATOR PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, P. L.

    1994-01-01

    In designing a laser cavity, the laser engineer is frequently concerned with more than the stability of the resonator. Other considerations include the size of the beam at various optical surfaces within the resonator or the performance of intracavity line-narrowing or other optical elements. Laser resonators obey the laws of Gaussian beam propagation, not geometric optics. The Gaussian Beam Laser Resonator Program models laser resonators using Gaussian ray trace techniques. It can be used to determine the propagation of radiation through laser resonators. The algorithm used in the Gaussian Beam Resonator program has three major components. First, the ray transfer matrix for the laser resonator must be calculated. Next calculations of the initial beam parameters, specifically, the beam stability, the beam waist size and location for the resonator input element, and the wavefront curvature and beam radius at the input surface to the first resonator element are performed. Finally the propagation of the beam through the optical elements is computed. The optical elements can be modeled as parallel plates, lenses, mirrors, dummy surfaces, or Gradient Index (GRIN) lenses. A Gradient Index lens is a good approximation of a laser rod operating under a thermal load. The optical system may contain up to 50 elements. In addition to the internal beam elements the optical system may contain elements external to the resonator. The Gaussian Beam Resonator program was written in Microsoft FORTRAN (Version 4.01). It was developed for the IBM PS/2 80-071 microcomputer and has been implemented on an IBM PC compatible under MS DOS 3.21. The program was developed in 1988 and requires approximately 95K bytes to operate.

  11. GAUSSIAN BEAM LASER RESONATOR PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, P. L.

    1994-01-01

    In designing a laser cavity, the laser engineer is frequently concerned with more than the stability of the resonator. Other considerations include the size of the beam at various optical surfaces within the resonator or the performance of intracavity line-narrowing or other optical elements. Laser resonators obey the laws of Gaussian beam propagation, not geometric optics. The Gaussian Beam Laser Resonator Program models laser resonators using Gaussian ray trace techniques. It can be used to determine the propagation of radiation through laser resonators. The algorithm used in the Gaussian Beam Resonator program has three major components. First, the ray transfer matrix for the laser resonator must be calculated. Next calculations of the initial beam parameters, specifically, the beam stability, the beam waist size and location for the resonator input element, and the wavefront curvature and beam radius at the input surface to the first resonator element are performed. Finally the propagation of the beam through the optical elements is computed. The optical elements can be modeled as parallel plates, lenses, mirrors, dummy surfaces, or Gradient Index (GRIN) lenses. A Gradient Index lens is a good approximation of a laser rod operating under a thermal load. The optical system may contain up to 50 elements. In addition to the internal beam elements the optical system may contain elements external to the resonator. The Gaussian Beam Resonator program was written in Microsoft FORTRAN (Version 4.01). It was developed for the IBM PS/2 80-071 microcomputer and has been implemented on an IBM PC compatible under MS DOS 3.21. The program was developed in 1988 and requires approximately 95K bytes to operate.

  12. Phased laser array for generating a powerful laser beam

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, John F.; Ruggiero, Anthony J.

    2004-02-17

    A first injection laser signal and a first part of a reference laser beam are injected into a first laser element. At least one additional injection laser signal and at least one additional part of a reference laser beam are injected into at least one additional laser element. The first part of a reference laser beam and the at least one additional part of a reference laser beam are amplified and phase conjugated producing a first amplified output laser beam emanating from the first laser element and an additional amplified output laser beam emanating from the at least one additional laser element. The first amplified output laser beam and the additional amplified output laser beam are combined into a powerful laser beam.

  13. Multi-beam laser altimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bufton, Jack L.; Harding, David J.; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis

    1993-01-01

    Laser altimetry provides a high-resolution, high-accuracy method for measurement of the elevation and horizontal variability of Earth-surface topography. The basis of the measurement is the timing of the round-trip propagation of short-duration pulses of laser radiation between a spacecraft and the Earth's surface. Vertical resolution of the altimetry measurement is determined primarily by laser pulsewidth, surface-induced spreading in time of the reflected pulse, and the timing precision of the altimeter electronics. With conventional gain-switched pulses from solid-state lasers and sub-nsec resolution electronics, sub-meter vertical range resolution is possible from orbital attitudes of several hundred kilometers. Horizontal resolution is a function of laser beam footprint size at the surface and the spacing between successive laser pulses. Laser divergence angle and altimeter platform height above the surface determine the laser footprint size at the surface, while laser pulse repetition-rate, laser transmitter beam configuration, and altimeter platform velocity determine the space between successive laser pulses. Multiple laser transitters in a singlaltimeter instrument provide across-track and along-track coverage that can be used to construct a range image of the Earth's surface. Other aspects of the multi-beam laser altimeter are discussed.

  14. Examination of the CLIC drive beam pipe design for thermal distortion caused by distributed beam line

    SciTech Connect

    C. Johnson; K. Kloeppel

    1997-01-01

    Beam transport programs are widely used to estimate the distribution of power deposited in accelerator structures by particle beams, either intentionally as for targets or beam dumps or accidentally owing the beam loss incidents. While this is usually adequate for considerations of radiation safety, it does not reveal the expected temperature rise and its effect on structural integrity. To find this, thermal diffusion must be taken into account, requiring another step in the analysis. The method that has been proposed is to use the output of a transport program, perhaps modified, as input for a finite element analysis program that can solve the thermal diffusion equation. At Cern, the design of the CLIC beam pipe has been treated in this fashion. The power distribution produced in the walls by a distributed beam loss was found according to the widely-used electron shower code EGS4. The distribution of power density was then used to form the input for the finite element analysis pro gram ANSYS, which was able to find the expected temperature rise and the resulting thermal distortion. As a result of these studies, the beam pipe design can be modified to include features that will counteract such distortion.

  15. Iritis and pupillary distortion after periorbital cosmetic alexandrite laser.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Chung; Tseng, Po-Chen; Chen, Chun-Chen; Woung, Lin-Chung; Liou, Shiow-Wen

    2011-05-01

    To describe a case of ocular complications associated with laser-assisted periorbital cosmetic treatment and to recommend consideration of the ocular damage caused by dermatological laser therapy, including pupillary distortion and anterior uveitis. Case report. A 29-year-old Caucasian woman underwent cosmetic alexandrite laser therapy in the left upper eyelid area without protective eye shields. She complained of an irregular oval pupil, photophobia, and blurred vision in her left eye. Initially, her best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 30/25 (OD) and 30/25 (OS). Slit-lamp biomicroscopy revealed a distorted left pupil with 3+ cell activity in the anterior chamber, but normal intraocular pressure. She was treated with topical corticosteroids. However, marked anterior chamber activity, pigment dispersion over the iris surface, and deteriorating BCVA of 10/25 (OS) had developed at the two-week follow-up. The ocular inflammation subsided gradually and her BCVA returned to normal after intensive steroid treatment. At the six-month follow-up, an ocular examination showed poor pupillary motility and persistent pigment over the iris surface. The patient still suffered from glare in dim light and experienced problems with dark adaptation. Alexandrite laser treatment of the upper eyelid region may penetrate the eyelid, causing anterior uveitis and irreversible damage to the iris. We recommended appropriate eye protection during this therapeutic procedure.

  16. Strongly Phase-Aberrated Nondiffraction Limited Laser Beams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    AFWL-TR-75-153 AFWL-TR 75-153 A CO o o v v v STRONGLY PHASE-ABERRATED NOND1FFRACTION LIMITED LASER BEAMS Charles B. Hogge January 1976...8217./’< ^^U/.v:4;->) <ju5^ Nondiffraction limited ; /; ^’ Aberrations ’ ^»^ ^ Random phase 20 ABSTRACT (Continue on...Results for Strongly Phase Aberrated Nondiffraction Limited Beams 36 IV SYSTEM JITTER AND CASCADED RANDOM PHASE DISTORTIONS 53 System

  17. Finite element simulation of laser tube bending: Effect of scanning schemes on bending angle, distortions and stress distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safdar, Shakeel; Li, Lin; Sheikh, M. A.; Zhu Liu

    2007-09-01

    Laser forming has received considerable attention in recent years. Within laser forming, tube bending is an important industrial activity, with applications in critical engineering systems like micro-machines, heat exchangers, hydraulic systems, boilers, etc. Laser tube bending utilizes the thermal stresses generated during laser scanning to achieve the desired bends. The parameters to control the process are usually laser power, beam diameter, scanning velocity and number of scans. Recently axial scanning has been used for tube bending instead of commonly used circumferential scans. However the comparison between the scanning schemes has involved dissimilar laser beam geometries with circular beam used for circumferential scanning and a rectangular beam for the axial scan. Thermal stresses generated during laser scanning are strongly dependent upon laser beam geometry and scanning direction and hence it is difficult to isolate the contribution made by these two variables. It has recently been established at the Corrosion and Protection Centre, University of Manchester, that corrosion properties of material during laser forming are affected by the number of laser passes. Depending on the material, the corrosion behaviour is either adversely or favourably affected by number of passes. Thus it is of great importance to know how different scanning schemes would affect laser tube bending. Moreover, any scanning scheme which results in greater bending angle would eliminate the need for higher number of passes, making the process faster. However, it is not only the bending angle which is critical, distortions in other planes are also extremely important. Depending on the use of the final product, unwanted distortions may be the final selection criteria. This paper investigates the effect of scanning direction on laser tube bending. Finite-element modelling has been used for the study of the process with some results also validated by experiments.

  18. Gaussian-Beam Laser-Resonator Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, Patricia L.; Bair, Clayton H.; Barnes, Norman

    1989-01-01

    Gaussian Beam Laser Resonator Program models laser resonators by use of Gaussian-beam-propagation techniques. Used to determine radii of beams as functions of position in laser resonators. Algorithm used in program has three major components. First, ray-transfer matrix for laser resonator must be calculated. Next, initial parameters of beam calculated. Finally, propagation of beam through optical elements computed. Written in Microsoft FORTRAN (Version 4.01).

  19. Beam distortion of rotation double prisms with an arbitrary incident angle.

    PubMed

    Li, Anhu; Zuo, Qiyou; Sun, Wansong; Yi, Wanli

    2016-07-01

    The distortion of beam shape in rotation Risley prisms is discussed in this paper. Using the ray-tracing method based on vector refraction theorem, a rigorous theoretical model of beam distortion with an arbitrary incident angle is established to explore the influencing factors. For a specified double-prism pair, the emergent beam is squeezed in one direction while stretched in the mutual perpendicular direction, the distortion of which is determined by the relative rotation angle. Moreover, the distortion of beam shape is greatly influenced by the wedge angles and the refractive indices of the prisms, as well as different double-prism configurations, while uncorrelated to the prism thickness and the distance between two prisms. This paper demonstrates the regular change of the beam shape with multiparameter variations in rotation double prisms, which can be applied to the design of rotation double-prism systems.

  20. Beam shaping for laser-based adaptive optics in astronomy.

    PubMed

    Béchet, Clémentine; Guesalaga, Andrés; Neichel, Benoit; Fesquet, Vincent; González-Núñez, Héctor; Zúñiga, Sebastián; Escarate, Pedro; Guzman, Dani

    2014-06-02

    The availability and performance of laser-based adaptive optics (AO) systems are strongly dependent on the power and quality of the laser beam before being projected to the sky. Frequent and time-consuming alignment procedures are usually required in the laser systems with free-space optics to optimize the beam. Despite these procedures, significant distortions of the laser beam have been observed during the first two years of operation of the Gemini South multi-conjugate adaptive optics system (GeMS). A beam shaping concept with two deformable mirrors is investigated in order to provide automated optimization of the laser quality for astronomical AO. This study aims at demonstrating the correction of quasi-static aberrations of the laser, in both amplitude and phase, testing a prototype of this two-deformable mirror concept on GeMS. The paper presents the results of the preparatory study before the experimental phase. An algorithm to control amplitude and phase correction, based on phase retrieval techniques, is presented with a novel unwrapping method. Its performance is assessed via numerical simulations, using aberrations measured at GeMS as reference. The results predict effective amplitude and phase correction of the laser distortions with about 120 actuators per mirror and a separation of 1.4 m between the mirrors. The spot size is estimated to be reduced by up to 15% thanks to the correction. In terms of AO noise level, this has the same benefit as increasing the photon flux by 40%.

  1. Laser processing with specially designed laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asratyan, A. A.; Bulychev, N. A.; Feofanov, I. N.; Kazaryan, M. A.; Krasovskii, V. I.; Lyabin, N. A.; Pogosyan, L. A.; Sachkov, V. I.; Zakharyan, R. A.

    2016-04-01

    The possibility of using laser systems to form beams with special spatial configurations has been studied. The laser systems applied had a self-conjugate cavity based on the elements of copper vapor lasers (LT-5Cu, LT-10Cu, LT-30Cu) with an average power of 5, 10, or 30 W. The active elements were pumped by current pulses of duration 80-100 ns. The duration of laser generation pulses was up to 25 ns. The generator unit included an unstable cavity, where one reflector was a special mirror with a reflecting coating. Various original optical schemes used were capable of exploring spatial configurations and energy characteristics of output laser beams in their interaction with micro- and nanoparticles fabricated from various materials. In these experiments, the beam dimensions of the obtained zones varied from 0.3 to 5 µm, which is comparable with the minimum permissible dimensions determined by the optical elements applied. This method is useful in transforming a large amount of information at the laser pulse repetition rate of 10-30 kHz. It was possible to realize the high-precision micromachining and microfabrication of microscale details by direct writing, cutting and drilling (with the cutting width and through-hole diameters ranging from 3 to 100 µm) and produce microscale, deep, intricate and narrow grooves on substrate surfaces of metals and nonmetal materials. This system is used for producing high-quality microscale details without moving the object under treatment. It can also be used for microcutting and microdrilling in a variety of metals such as molybdenum, copper and stainless steel, with a thickness of up to 300 µm, and in nonmetals such as silicon, sapphire and diamond with a thickness ranging from 10 µm to 1 mm with different thermal parameters and specially designed laser beam.

  2. Study of x-ray lithography mask distortion during electron-beam writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Hongyan; Wang, Yongkun

    2008-10-01

    Three-dimensional finite element model was developed to simulate the X-ray lithography mask distortion during electron-beam writing (EBW). Equivalent heat flux density method was proposed and the transient thermal stress simulation was done. The results show that the in-plane distortion (IPD) of the mask fluctuates with the time. The maximum value is 8.24 nm, and the direction is deviated from the electron beam center. The maximum out-of-plane distortion (OPD) is 9.75μm. The direction is normal to the pattern window, and occurred in the center of the beam center.

  3. Phase-Conjugate Mirror Removes Wave-Front Distortions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seery, Bernard D.; Zukowski, Barbara J. K.; Saif, Babak

    1996-01-01

    Phase-conjugate mirrors remove distortions or aberrations from wave fronts in laser beams. With help of mirrors, one obtains high-power laser beams of diffraction-limited quality. Potential applications include multistage laser systems.

  4. Compression of Ultrafast Laser Beams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    6 Fig. 3 Before and after FROG spectra from the pulse compression ................6...of the FROG spectrum before and after the beam is compressed with the pulse compressor. The white light laser beam started with a pulse width of 80...distribution is unlimited. 6 Fig. 2 Pump and probe spectra Fig. 3 Before and after FROG spectra from the pulse compression The effectiveness of these

  5. Single lens laser beam shaper

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Chuyu [Newport News, VA; Zhang, Shukui [Yorktown, VA

    2011-10-04

    A single lens bullet-shaped laser beam shaper capable of redistributing an arbitrary beam profile into any desired output profile comprising a unitary lens comprising: a convex front input surface defining a focal point and a flat output portion at the focal point; and b) a cylindrical core portion having a flat input surface coincident with the flat output portion of the first input portion at the focal point and a convex rear output surface remote from the convex front input surface.

  6. Making Laser Beams Visible.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knotts, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive fog machine that is useful for photography and laser demonstrations. The apparatus uses liquid nitrogen to chill steam to make a fine mist safe for precision optics. The device can be made for around $50. (MVL)

  7. Making Laser Beams Visible.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knotts, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive fog machine that is useful for photography and laser demonstrations. The apparatus uses liquid nitrogen to chill steam to make a fine mist safe for precision optics. The device can be made for around $50. (MVL)

  8. Ultrashort laser pulse beam shaping.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuyan; Ren, Yuhang; Lüpke, Gunter

    2003-02-01

    We calculated the temporal and spatial characteristics of an ultrashort laser pulse propagating through a diffractive beam-shaping system that converts a Gaussian beam into a beam with a uniform irradiance profile that was originally designed for continuous waves [Proc. SPIE 2863, 237(1996)]. The pulse front is found to be considerably curved for a 10-fs pulse, resulting in a temporal broadening of the pulse that increases with increasing radius. The spatial intensity distribution deviates significantly from a top-hat profile, whereas the fluence shows a homogeneous radial distribution.

  9. Power beaming with FEL lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampel, Michael C.; Curtin, Mark S.; Burke, Robert J.; Cover, Ralph A.; Rakowsky, George; Bennett, Glenn T.

    1993-06-01

    FEL power beaming has broad application to space operations. The Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation has examined the commercial applications of beamed power from Earth to space using the Radio Frequency LINAC Free Electron Laser (RF FEL) and has determined that there is a substantial addressable market. Rocketdyne's experience in developing and demonstrating FEL technologies, optics and atmospheric compensation and advanced power and power distribution systems ideally positions the Division to conduct the initial demonstration to prove the feasibility of using a FEL to beam power to space platforms.

  10. Independent assessment of laser power beaming options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponikvar, Donald R.

    1992-01-01

    Technical and architectural issues facing a laser power beaming system are discussed. Issues regarding the laser device, optics, beam control, propagation, and lunar site are examined. Environmental and health physics aspects are considered.

  11. Protective laser beam viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Neil, George R.; Jordan, Kevin Carl

    2012-12-18

    A protective laser beam viewing system or device including a camera selectively sensitive to laser light wavelengths and a viewing screen receiving images from the laser sensitive camera. According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the camera is worn on the head of the user or incorporated into a goggle-type viewing display so that it is always aimed at the area of viewing interest to the user and the viewing screen is incorporated into a video display worn as goggles over the eyes of the user.

  12. Laser-Beam-Alignment Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasowski, M. J.; Dickens, D. E.

    1995-01-01

    In laser-beam-alignment controller, images from video camera compared to reference patterns by fuzzy-logic pattern comparator. Results processed by fuzzy-logic microcontroller, which sends control signals to motor driver adjusting lens and pinhole in spatial filter.

  13. Electron beam pumped semiconductor laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hug, William F. (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Electron-beam-pumped semiconductor ultra-violet optical sources (ESUVOSs) are disclosed that use ballistic electron pumped wide bandgap semiconductor materials. The sources may produce incoherent radiation and take the form of electron-beam-pumped light emitting triodes (ELETs). The sources may produce coherent radiation and take the form of electron-beam-pumped laser triodes (ELTs). The ELTs may take the form of electron-beam-pumped vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (EVCSEL) or edge emitting electron-beam-pumped lasers (EEELs). The semiconductor medium may take the form of an aluminum gallium nitride alloy that has a mole fraction of aluminum selected to give a desired emission wavelength, diamond, or diamond-like carbon (DLC). The sources may be produced from discrete components that are assembled after their individual formation or they may be produced using batch MEMS-type or semiconductor-type processing techniques to build them up in a whole or partial monolithic manner, or combination thereof.

  14. A microcomputer-controlled laser beam analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hand, L. E.; Nagle, H. T., Jr.; Kerns, D. V., Jr.

    1982-07-01

    A microcomputer-controlled laser beam analyzer is described. It uses five INTEL 8080 microcomputers to calculate the beam's peak intensity, peak intensity coordinates, centroid coordinates, beam energy, and beam quality in real time. Its application to the U.S. Army's gas-dynamic laser is illustrated.

  15. Understanding Laser Beam Quality Beyond M2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soskind, Y. G.; Soskind, M. G.

    2016-09-01

    The laser beam M2 quality parameter is based on the second moments' theory, as defined by ISO standards, and provides a common approach for defining the propagation characteristics of laser beams as a whole. At the same time, the M2 parameter fails to quantitatively distinguish the quality of laser beams with different spatial characteristics. For example, several laser beams with very different spatial profiles may have the same M2 value. To overcome this ambiguity, a different beam quality criterion is introduced, allowing for a quantitative definition of both the structured laser beam shape and its propagation characteristics. This criterion, called the encircled power M2 (EPM2), bridges the gap between the M2 quality parameter and the structured laser beam shape. Based on several examples we demonstrate the utility of EPM2 as applied to characterization of several structured laser beam types.

  16. Laser beam steering device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motamedi, M. E.; Andrews, A. P.; Gunning, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    Agile beam steering is a critical requirement for airborne and space based LIDAR and optical communication systems. Design and test results are presented for a compact beam steering device with low inertia which functions by dithering two complementary (positive and negative) binary optic microlens arrays relative to each other in directions orthogonal to the direction of light propagation. The miniaturized system has been demonstrated at scan frequencies as high as 300 Hz, generating a 13 x 13 spot array with a total field of view of 2.4 degrees. The design is readily extendable to a 9.5 degree field of view and a 52 x 52 scan pattern. The system is compact - less than 2 in. on a side. Further size reductions are anticipated.

  17. Characterizing the beam steering and distortion of Gaussian and Bessel beams focused in tissues with microscopic heterogeneities

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ye; Liu, Jonathan T.C.

    2015-01-01

    Bessel beams have recently been investigated as a means of improving deep-tissue microscopy in highly scattering and heterogeneous media. It has been suggested that the long depth-of-field and self-reconstructing property of a Bessel beam enables an increased penetration depth of the focused beam in tissues compared to a conventional Gaussian beam. However, a study is needed to better quantify the magnitude of the beam steering as well as the distortion of focused Gaussian and Bessel beams in tissues with microscopic heterogeneities. Here, we have developed an imaging method and quantitative metrics to evaluate the motion and distortion of low-numerical-aperture (NA) Gaussian and Bessel beams focused in water, heterogeneous phantoms, and fresh mouse esophagus tissues. Our results indicate that low-NA Bessel beams exhibit reduced beam-steering artifacts and distortions compared to Gaussian beams, and are therefore potentially useful for microscopy applications in which pointing accuracy and beam quality are critical, such as dual-axis confocal (DAC) microscopy. PMID:25909015

  18. Characterizing the beam steering and distortion of Gaussian and Bessel beams focused in tissues with microscopic heterogeneities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ye; Liu, Jonathan T C

    2015-04-01

    Bessel beams have recently been investigated as a means of improving deep-tissue microscopy in highly scattering and heterogeneous media. It has been suggested that the long depth-of-field and self-reconstructing property of a Bessel beam enables an increased penetration depth of the focused beam in tissues compared to a conventional Gaussian beam. However, a study is needed to better quantify the magnitude of the beam steering as well as the distortion of focused Gaussian and Bessel beams in tissues with microscopic heterogeneities. Here, we have developed an imaging method and quantitative metrics to evaluate the motion and distortion of low-numerical-aperture (NA) Gaussian and Bessel beams focused in water, heterogeneous phantoms, and fresh mouse esophagus tissues. Our results indicate that low-NA Bessel beams exhibit reduced beam-steering artifacts and distortions compared to Gaussian beams, and are therefore potentially useful for microscopy applications in which pointing accuracy and beam quality are critical, such as dual-axis confocal (DAC) microscopy.

  19. Annular Laser Beam Cladding Process Feasibility Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Alexander; Jeromen, Andrej; Levy, Gideon; Fujishima, Makoto; Govekar, Edvard

    In the paper a novel annular - ring shaped - laser beam cladding head and related cladding process are presented. In the cladding head a laser beam is shaped into an annular ring and guided coaxially with the powder tube disposing the powder jet in the centre of the focused annular laser beam ring. An experimental process feasibility analysis was performed using a Nd:YAG pulsed laser system with a maximal average power 250 W. Beside the known influencing parameters of laser cladding process including the powder mass flow, workpiece feeding velocity, and laser beam intensity, the important parameters related to the annular laser beam caustics were defined. The process feasibility and influence of the process parameters on powder catchment efficiency was analysed based on the cladding experiments of SS 316L powder on SS 304 workpiece material. The potential benefits related to the annular laser beam melt pool geometry and related powder catchment efficiency are discussed.

  20. LASER PROFILE MEASUREMENTS OF AN H BEAM.

    SciTech Connect

    CONNOLLY,R.; CAMERON,P.; CUPOLO,J.; GRAU,M.; KESSELMAN,M.; LIAW,C.J.; SIKORA,R.

    2001-06-18

    A non-intercepting beam profile monitor for He beams is being developed at Brookhaven National Lab. An H{sup {minus}} ion has a first ionization potential of 0.75eV. Electrons can be removed from an H{sup {minus}} beam by passing light from a near-infrared laser through it. Experiments have been performed on the BNL linac to measure the transverse profile of a 750keV beam by using a Nd:YAG laser to photoneutralize narrow slices of the beam. The laser beam is scanned across the ion beam neutralizing the portion of the beam struck by the laser. The electrons are removed from the ion beam and the beam current notch is measured.

  1. LASER PROFILE MEASUREMENTS OF AN H BEAM.

    SciTech Connect

    CONNOLLY,R.; CAMERON,P.; CUPOLO,J.; GRAU,M.; KESSELMAN,M.; LIAW,C.J.; SIKORA,R.

    2001-05-12

    A non-intercepting beam profile monitor for H{sup {minus}} beams is being developed at Brookhaven National Lab. An H{sup {minus}} ion has a first ionization potential of 0.75eV. Electrons can be removed from an H{sup {minus}} beam by passing light from a near-infrared laser through it. Experiments have been performed on the BNL linac to measure the transverse profile of a 750keV beam by using a Nd:YAG laser to photoneutralize narrow slices of the beam. The laser beam is scanned across the ion beam neutralizing the portion of the beam struck by the laser. The electrons are removed from the ion beam and the beam current notch is measured.

  2. Centrifugal Distortion Causes Anderson Localization in Laser Kicked Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floss, Johannes; Averbukh, Ilya Sh.

    2014-05-01

    The periodically kicked 2D rotor is a textbook model in nonlinear dynamics. The classical kicked rotor can exhibit truly chaotic motion, whilst in the quantum regime this chaotic motion is suppressed by a mechanism similar to Anderson Localization. Up to now, these effects have been mainly observed in an atom optics analogue of a quantum rotor: cold atoms in a standing light wave. We demonstrate that common linear molecules (like N2, O2, CO2, ...), kicked by a train of short linearly polarized laser pulses, can exhibit a new mechanism for dynamical Anderson Localization due to their non-rigidity. When the pulses are separated by the rotational revival time trev = πℏ / B , the angular momentum J grows ballistically (Quantum Resonance). We show that, due to the centrifugal distortion of fast spinning molecules, above some critical value J =Jcr the Quantum Resonance is suppressed via the mechanism of Anderson Localization. This leads to a non-sinusoidal oscillation of the angular momentum distribution, which may be experimentally observed even at ambient conditions by using current techniques for laser molecular alignment.

  3. Scattering apodizer for laser beams

    DOEpatents

    Summers, Mark A.; Hagen, Wilhelm F.; Boyd, Robert D.

    1985-01-01

    A method is disclosed for apodizing a laser beam to smooth out the production of diffraction peaks due to optical discontinuities in the path of the laser beam, such method comprising introduction of a pattern of scattering elements for reducing the peak intensity in the region of such optical discontinuities, such pattern having smoothly tapering boundaries in which the distribution density of the scattering elements is tapered gradually to produce small gradients in the distribution density, such pattern of scattering elements being effective to reduce and smooth out the diffraction effects which would otherwise be produced. The apodizer pattern may be produced by selectively blasting a surface of a transparent member with fine abrasive particles to produce a multitude of minute pits. In one embodiment, a scattering apodizer pattern is employed to overcome diffraction patterns in a multiple element crystal array for harmonic conversion of a laser beam. The interstices and the supporting grid between the crystal elements are obscured by the gradually tapered apodizer pattern of scattering elements.

  4. Scattering apodizer for laser beams

    DOEpatents

    Summers, M.A.; Hagen, W.F.; Boyd, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    A method is disclosed for apodizing a laser beam to smooth out the production of diffraction peaks due to optical discontinuities in the path of the laser beam, such method comprising introduction of a pattern of scattering elements for reducing the peak intensity in the region of such optical discontinuities, such pattern having smoothly tapering boundaries in which the distribution density of the scattering elements is tapered gradually to produce small gradients in the distribution density, such pattern of scattering elements being effective to reduce and smooth out the diffraction effects which would otherwise be produced. The apodizer pattern may be produced by selectively blasting a surface of a transparent member with fine abrasive particles to produce a multitude of minute pits. In one embodiment, a scattering apodizer pattern is employed to overcome diffraction patterns in a multiple element crystal array for harmonic conversion of a laser beam. The interstices and the supporting grid between the crystal elements are obscured by the gradually tapered apodizer pattern of scattering elements.

  5. Cascaded injection resonator for coherent beam combining of laser arrays

    DOEpatents

    Kireev, Vassili [Sunnyvale, CA; Liu, Yun; Protopopescu, Vladimir [Knoxville, TN; Braiman, Yehuda [Oak Ridge, TN

    2008-10-21

    The invention provides a cascaded injection resonator for coherent beam combining of laser arrays. The resonator comprises a plurality of laser emitters arranged along at least one plane and a beam sampler for reflecting at least a portion of each laser beam that impinges on the beam sampler, the portion of each laser beam from one of the laser emitters being reflected back to another one of the laser emitters to cause a beam to be generated from the other one of the laser emitters to the beam reflector. The beam sampler also transmits a portion of each laser beam to produce a laser output beam such that a plurality of laser output beams of the same frequency are produced. An injection laser beam is directed to a first laser emitter to begin a process of generating and reflecting a laser beam from one laser emitter to another laser emitter in the plurality. A method of practicing the invention is also disclosed.

  6. Laser beam welding of thermoplastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russek, Ulrich A.; Palmen, A.; Staub, H.; Poehler, J.; Wenzlau, C.; Otto, G.; Poggel, M.; Koeppe, A.; Kind, H.

    2003-07-01

    Current product development showing an ever shrinking physical volume is asking for new, reliable joining technologies. Laser beam technologies conceal innovative solutions to overcome limitations of conventional joining technologies. Laser beam welding of thermoplastics offers several process technical advantages. The joining energy is fed contact-less into the joining area, avoiding mechanical stress and thermal load to the joining partners. The energy is supplied spatially (seam width on the order of 100 μm) and timely (interaction time on the order of ms) very well defined. Different process strategies are possible leading to flexibility, product adapted irradiation, short process times and high quality weld seams as well as to high integration abilities and automation potentials. During the joining process no vibration, no thermal stress, no particle release takes place. Therefore, destruction of mechanically and electronically highly sensitive components, such as microelectronics, is avoided. The work place pollution is neglectable compared to other joining technologies, such as gluing (fume) or ultrasonic welding (noise, pieces of fluff). Not only micro-components can be welded in a reproducible way but also macro-components while obtaining a hermetic sealing with good optical appearance. In this publication firstly, an overview concerning process technical basis, aspects and challenges is given. Next, results concerning laser penetration welding of polymers using high power diode lasers are presented, while comparing contour and simultaneous welding by experimental results and the on-line process monitoring.

  7. Raman beam combining for laser brightness enhancement

    DOEpatents

    Dawson, Jay W.; Allen, Graham S.; Pax, Paul H.; Heebner, John E.; Sridharan, Arun K.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Barty, Chrisopher B. J.

    2015-10-27

    An optical source capable of enhanced scaling of pulse energy and brightness utilizes an ensemble of single-aperture fiber lasers as pump sources, with each such fiber laser operating at acceptable pulse energy levels. Beam combining involves stimulated Raman scattering using a Stokes' shifted seed beam, the latter of which is optimized in terms of its temporal and spectral properties. Beams from fiber lasers can thus be combined to attain pulses with peak energies in excess of the fiber laser self-focusing limit of 4 MW while retaining the advantages of a fiber laser system of high average power with good beam quality.

  8. Thermally induced mode distortion and its limit to power scaling of fiber lasers.

    PubMed

    Ke, Wei-Wei; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Bao, Xian-Feng; Shu, Xiao-Jian

    2013-06-17

    A general model is proposed to describe thermal-induced mode distortion in the step-index fiber (SIF) high power lasers. Two normalized parameters in the model are able to determine the mode characteristic in the heated SIFs completely. Shrinking of the mode fields and excitation of the high-order modes by the thermal-optic effect are investigated. A simplified power amplification model is used to describe the output power redistribution under various guiding modes. The results suggest that fiber with large mode area is more sensitive on the thermally induced mode distortion and hence is disadvantaged in keeping the beam quality in high power operation. The model is further applied to improve the power scaling analysis of Yb-doped fiber lasers. Here the thermal effect is considered to couple with the optical damage and the stimulated Raman scattering dynamically, whereas direct constraint from the thermal lens is relaxed. The resulting maximal output power is from 67kW to 97kW, depending on power fraction of the fundamental mode.

  9. LASER BEAMS: Optical diabols in singular laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasil'ev, V. I.; Denisenko, V. G.; Egorov, R. I.; Slyusar, V. V.; Soskin, M. S.

    2008-03-01

    Polarisation singularities and optical diabols in laser beams are studied experimentally by the developed method of digital Stokes-polarimetry. Three possible morphological forms of singularities with circular polarisation (C points) are found and their statistics in the speckle pattern of photoinduced scattering is determined. Singular fields with controllable parameters are realised and used for studying topological transformations, creation and annihilation of singularities and optical diabols. Both possible types of distributions of the major and minor semiaxes of polarisation ellipses in the beam cross section around C points (optical diabols) are measured. It is shown that, in accordance with the theory, the annihilation of pairs of elliptical diabols is preceded by their transformation to hyperbolic diabols.

  10. Method for splitting low power laser beams

    SciTech Connect

    Pierscionek, B.K. )

    1990-04-01

    A new method for producing parallel rays from a laser beam using a cylindrical lens and pinholes is presented. This method can produce a greater number of emergent rays than using a {ital beam} {ital splitter}.

  11. Beam-Steering Subsystem For Laser Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesh, James R.; Chen, Chien-Chung; Ansari, Homayoon

    1995-01-01

    Proposed free-space laser communication system contains fewer optical and mechanical components. Involves novel fast beam-steering subsystem stabilizing only angle between transmitting and receiving beams instead of stabilizing both transmitting and receiving lines of sight individually. Received and transmitted beams of light both imaged onto CCD array at focal plane. Relative angular positions of beams computed from centroids of their images.

  12. Propagation characteristics of annular laser beams passing through the reflection Bragg grating with deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Suqin; Zhang, Bin; Dan, Youquan

    2011-06-01

    When high-power annular laser beams produced by the unstable resonator pass through the volume Bragg grating (VBG), absorption of light in the VBG will induce a temperature increment, resulting in changes in surface distortion. Considering that the surface distortion of the grating induces index and period differences, the scalar wave equations for the annular laser beams propagating in the VBG have been solved numerically and iteratively using finite-difference and sparse matrix methods. The variation in intensity distributions, the total power reflection coefficient, and the power in the bucket (PIB) for the annular laser beams passing through the reflection VBG with deformation have been analyzed quantitatively. It can be shown that the surface distortion of the VBG and the beam orders of the annular beams affect evidently the intensity distributions, the power reflection coefficient, and the PIB of the output beam. The peak intensity decreases as the deformation of the VBG increases. The total power reflection efficiency decreases significantly with the increase in deformations of the VBG. The PIB of the output beam decreases as the obscuration ratio β and the deformation of the VBG increase. For the given obscuration ratio β, the influence of deformation of reflection VBG on the PIB of the annular beams is more sensitive with increase in distortion of the VBG and decrease in beam order.

  13. 200 Hz repetition frequency joule-level high beam quality Nd:YAG nanosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jisi; Tang, Xiongxin; Fan, Zhongwei; Wang, Haocheng

    2016-06-01

    A joule-level Nd:YAG nanosecond laser of high repetition frequency and high beam quality is developed out. The laser is designed as a MOPA system mainly including single longitudinal mode seed, pre-amplifier unit an d power amplifier unit. In order to obtain the high-quality laser beam output, phase conjugation is adopted to compensate the laser beam distortion. Under the condition of 200 Hz high repetition frequency and 8.19 μJ single pulse energy injected by the single longitudinal mode seed, 1.53 J output energy is gained. The output laser beam is of 9 mm diameter, 7.41 ns pulse width, the far field beam spot 1.32 times the value of the diffraction limit, 1.2% energy stability (RMS) and less than 13 μrad far field beam spot angle shift.

  14. Beam-quality measurements for materials processing lasers and the proposed ISO standard

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerschbach, P.W.; Essien, M.

    1993-11-01

    Laser beam-quality can indicate the maximum power density that can be obtained with a specific laser and serves as a figure-of-merit when comparing lasers, calibrating lasers, and in assessing a laser`s operating condition. Measurements of laser beam-quality for a 1000 watt continuous wave CO{sub 2} laser and a 400 watt pulsed Nd:YAG laser have been completed. These measurements were made with two different type instruments: (1) a specially constructed apparatus that uses an integrating sphere and diamond apertures and (2) a commercially available instrument that incorporates a scanning and spinning hollow needle. Laser beam-quality and the propagation constants have been determined using a non-linear curve-fitting technique and the new proposed ISO standard for measuring laser beam-quality. The curve fitting analysis and the ISO analysis were found to produce approximately the same values for beam-quality and the propagation constants. However, a comparison of the experimental procedures required with the two techniques showed significant differences. The utility of the ISO technique was limited by it`s experimental procedural restrictions. The importance of spherical aberration in distorting laser beam-quality measurements and in limiting the application of beam-quality to laser spotsize prediction is also detailed.

  15. Distortion of optical wedges with a large angle of incidence in a collimated beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Wenwei; Xu, Yuxian

    1999-04-01

    The optical wedge engenders a distortion aberration in a collimated beam in general. Presented is a set of distortion formulas and of third-order distortion formulas in the component form of TAx and TAy for optical wedges. The main dependence of the distortion as a function of the apex angle, of the incident angle of the optical axis, and of the view field of the optical wedge is established. The slope formula of a curved line, which is the image of a straight line of an optical wedge, is developed. They are suited for the large incident angle of the optical axis and the small apex angle. The analysis and calculation indicate that the image of a square for an optical wedge is in the shape of a church bell with a slightly convex or flat side rather than with a concave side.

  16. Enhanced laser beam coupling to a plasma

    DOEpatents

    Steiger, Arno D.; Woods, Cornelius H.

    1976-01-01

    Density perturbations are induced in a heated plasma by means of a pair of oppositely directed, polarized laser beams of the same frequency. The wavelength of the density perturbations is equal to one half the wavelength of the laser beams. A third laser beam is linearly polarized and directed at the perturbed plasma along a line that is perpendicular to the direction of the two opposed beams. The electric field of the third beam is oriented to lie in the plane containing the three beams. The frequency of the third beam is chosen to cause it to interact resonantly with the plasma density perturbations, thereby efficiently coupling the energy of the third beam to the plasma.

  17. Laser steering of particle beams: Refraction and reflection ofparticle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Esarey, Eric; Katsouleas, T.; Mori, W.B.; Dodd, E.; Lee, S.; Hemker, R.; Clayton, C.; Joshi, C.

    1999-11-01

    The co-propagation of an intense particle beam with an ionizing laser beam in a working gas/plasma is considered. When the axes of the laser and particle beam are not aligned, then asymmetric plasma lensing results in a net dipole field acting on the particle beam. The particle beam can be steered or bent (as well as focused) by steering the laser. An analogy is made between the bending of the particle beam by collective effects at a plasma boundary and the refraction or reflection of light at an interface. This mechanism of particle steering may be of interest in applications for which permanent magnets are inconvenient of a fast turn on is required. 3-D particle-in-cell simulations and relevance to a recent experiment are discussed.

  18. Novel materials and beam delivery technique for ultrafast laser processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ju

    2002-01-01

    Ultrafast lasers offer significant advantages for novel laser materials processing, especially at small length scales. Their extremely high optical intensity results in nonlinear laser-material interaction and energy deposition, which provide unique, non-traditional material processing capabilities. In this work, a Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser system is applied for both practical and fundamental investigations of ultrafast laser materials processing. For practical applications, experimental techniques are developed to characterize and process two novel materials: (1) silica aerogels, and (2) thermal-sprayed materials, both of which are difficult to micromachine using any conventional technique. The breakdown threshold as well as the low-level absorption coefficient of the aerogel material are measured, while the material removal rate is characterized as a function of the laser fluence and the number of laser shots. Thermal-sprayed line patterns are trimmed by synchronizing the femtosecond laser pulses with a three-dimensional motorized micro-positioning system. A trimmed line width ˜50 mum is obtained, from an original line width ˜500 mum. In addition to developing experimental techniques for practical ultrafast laser processing of novel materials, investigations on improving the machining quality and efficiency by characterizing the nonlinear interactions between the femtosecond laser pulses and the beam delivery gas medium are also conducted in this work. A theoretical model based on the nonlinear Schrodinger equation is applied to simulate the pulse propagation under the coupled effects of two nonlinear mechanisms. The model predictions show that the beam profile can be dramatically distorted due to the nonlinear changes in the refractive index in air, which can be minimized by delivering the beam using an inert gas, particularly helium, due to its unique physical properties. Machining of copper sample by delivering the femtosecond laser pulse in four

  19. Laser Beam Duct Pressure Controller System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    the axial flow of a conditioning gas within the laser beam duct, by matching the time rate of change of the pressure of the flowing conditioning gas...to the time rate of change of the pressure in the cavity of an operably associated laser beam turret.

  20. CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETERS: Properties of self-compensation for three-dimensional periodic phase distortions in active media of gas-flow lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobachev, V. V.

    2003-10-01

    A mathematical model for optimising the beam formation direction in an active medium with three-dimensional periodic perturbations is developed. This model is applicable to the refractive-index distributions that can be represented in a multiplicative form with separated variables. The analysis of the actual structure of perturbations that appear behind the original nozzle assembly of a cw chemical laser has shown that the optimal direction of the beam formation lies in the region of partial self-compensation for distortions, which ensures an acceptable wave-front quality of the formed radiation.

  1. Laser-Bessel-Beam-Driven Electron Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dazhi; Imasaki, Kazuo

    2005-08-01

    A vacuum-laser-driven acceleration scheme using a laser Bessel beam is presented. In contrast to the conventional Gaussian beam, the Bessel beam demonstrates diffraction-free propagation, which implies the possibility of extending the effective interaction distance for a laser-electron system. In this method, the Bessel beam is truncated by annular slits to realize a series of nonsuccessive dim regions along the path of laser propagation, where the amplitude of the laser field is reduced, making the electron slightly decelerate as it travels in the decelerating phase. We analyzed the propagation characteristics of the truncated Bessel beam with scalar diffraction theory, and then introduced this approach with careful investigation of a three-stage acceleration model.

  2. Microwave accelerator E-beam pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Brau, Charles A.; Stein, William E.; Rockwood, Stephen D.

    1980-01-01

    A device and method for pumping gaseous lasers by means of a microwave accelerator. The microwave accelerator produces a relativistic electron beam which is applied along the longitudinal axis of the laser through an electron beam window. The incident points of the electron beam on the electron beam window are varied by deflection coils to enhance the cooling characteristics of the foil. A thyratron is used to reliably modulate the microwave accelerator to produce electron beam pulses which excite the laser medium to produce laser pulse repetition frequencies not previously obtainable. An aerodynamic window is also disclosed which eliminates foil heating problems, as well as a magnetic bottle for reducing laser cavity length and pressures while maintaining efficient energy deposition.

  3. Propagation-dependent beam profile distortion associated with the Goos-Hanchen shift.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yuhang; Zheng, Zheng; Zhu, Jinsong

    2009-11-09

    The propagation-dependent profile distortion of the reflected beam is studied via deriving the theoretical model of the optical field distribution in both the near and far field. It is shown that strong and fast-varying beam distortions can occur along the propagation path, compared to the profile on the reflecting surface. Numerical simulations for the case of a typical SPR configuration with a sharp angular response curve reveal that, when the phase distribution in the angular range covered by the input beam becomes nonlinear, previous theories based on the linear phase approximation fail to predict the Goos-Hanchen shift and its propagation-dependent variations precisely. Our study could shed light on more accurate modeling of the Goos-Hanchen effect's impact on the relevant photonic devices and measurement applications.

  4. Laser beam delivery at ELI-NP

    DOE PAGES

    Ursescu, Daniel; Cheriaux, G.; Audebert, P.; ...

    2017-01-01

    The Laser Beam Delivery (LBD) system technical design report covers the interface between the High Power Laser System (HPLS) and the experiments, together with the pulse quality management. Here, the laser transport part of the LBD has a number of subsystems as follows: the beam transport lines for the six main outputs of HPLS, the additional short and long pulses and the synchronization system including the timing of the laser pulses with the Gamma Beam System (GBS) and the experiments on femtosecond timescale. Pulse quality management, discussed further here, consist in the generation and delivery of multiple HPLS pulses, coherentmore » combining of the HPLS arms, laser pulse diagnostics on target, laser beam dumps, shutters and output energy adaption.« less

  5. Laser beam delivery at ELI-NP

    SciTech Connect

    Ursescu, Daniel; Cheriaux, G.; Audebert, P.; Kalashnikov, M.; Toncian, T.; Cerchez, M.; Kaluza, M.; Paulus, G.; Priebe, G.; Dabu, R.; Cernaianu, M. O.; Dinescu, M; Asavei, T.; Dancus, I.; Neagu, L.; Boianu, A.; Hooker, C.; Barty, C.; Haefner, C.

    2017-01-01

    The Laser Beam Delivery (LBD) system technical design report covers the interface between the High Power Laser System (HPLS) and the experiments, together with the pulse quality management. Here, the laser transport part of the LBD has a number of subsystems as follows: the beam transport lines for the six main outputs of HPLS, the additional short and long pulses and the synchronization system including the timing of the laser pulses with the Gamma Beam System (GBS) and the experiments on femtosecond timescale. Pulse quality management, discussed further here, consist in the generation and delivery of multiple HPLS pulses, coherent combining of the HPLS arms, laser pulse diagnostics on target, laser beam dumps, shutters and output energy adaption.

  6. Propagation modeling results for narrow-beam undersea laser communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Andrew S.; Hardy, Nicholas D.; Hamilton, Scott A.

    2016-03-01

    Communication links through ocean waters are challenging due to undersea propagation physics. Undersea optical communications at blue or green wavelengths can achieve high data rates (megabit- to gigabit-per-second class links) despite the challenging undersea medium. Absorption and scattering in ocean waters attenuate optical signals and distort the waveform through dense multipath. The exponential propagation loss and the temporal spread due to multipath limit the achievable link distance and data rate. In this paper, we describe the Monte Carlo modeling of the undersea scattering and absorption channel. We model photon signal attenuation levels, spatial photon distributions, time of arrival statistics, and angle of arrival statistics for a variety of lasercom scenarios through both clear and turbid water environments. Modeling results inform the design options for an undersea optical communication system, particularly illustrating the advantages of narrow-beam lasers compared to wide beam methods (e.g. LED sources). The modeled pupil plane and focal plane photon arrival distributions enable beam tracking techniques for robust pointing solutions, even in highly scattering harbor waters. Laser communication with collimated beams maximizes the photon transfer through the scattering medium and enables spatial and temporal filters to minimize waveform distortion and background interference.

  7. Coherence delay augmented laser beam homogenizer

    DOEpatents

    Rasmussen, P.; Bernhardt, A.

    1993-06-29

    The geometrical restrictions on a laser beam homogenizer are relaxed by ug a coherence delay line to separate a coherent input beam into several components each having a path length difference equal to a multiple of the coherence length with respect to the other components. The components recombine incoherently at the output of the homogenizer, and the resultant beam has a more uniform spatial intensity suitable for microlithography and laser pantogography. Also disclosed is a variable aperture homogenizer, and a liquid filled homogenizer.

  8. Coherence delay augmented laser beam homogenizer

    DOEpatents

    Rasmussen, Paul; Bernhardt, Anthony

    1993-01-01

    The geometrical restrictions on a laser beam homogenizer are relaxed by ug a coherence delay line to separate a coherent input beam into several components each having a path length difference equal to a multiple of the coherence length with respect to the other components. The components recombine incoherently at the output of the homogenizer, and the resultant beam has a more uniform spatial intensity suitable for microlithography and laser pantogography. Also disclosed is a variable aperture homogenizer, and a liquid filled homogenizer.

  9. Beam Stop For High-Power Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdermid, Iain S.; Williamson, William B.

    1990-01-01

    Graphite/aluminum plate absorbs most of light. Beam stop fits on standard optical mounting fixture. Graphite plate thick enough to absorb incident laser beam but thin enough to transfer heat quickly to heat sink. Device used for variety of blocking purposes. For example, blocks laser beam after it passes through experimental setup, or at each stage of setup so stages checked and tested in sequence. Negligible reflectance of device is valuable safety feature, protecting both users and equipment from reflections.

  10. The collinear laser beam line at ISAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, C. D. P.; Baartman, R.; Behr, J. A.; Kiefl, R. F.; Pearson, M.; Poutissou, R.; Hatakeyama, A.; Hirayama, Y.

    2004-12-01

    The collinear laser beam line at ISAC is producing a range of highly polarized Li and Na isotopes with high beam transmission efficiency. Using a Ta production target, a 8Li rate of more than 10 8 atoms s -1 with 60% polarization at the user experiment is typical. The beam line is also used for laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy on heavy ions and atoms. A preliminary scheme for polarizing 20F is presented.

  11. Beam combining of quantum cascade laser arrays.

    PubMed

    Lee, Benjamin G; Kansky, Jan; Goyal, Anish K; Pflügl, Christian; Diehl, Laurent; Belkin, Mikhail A; Sanchez, Antonio; Capasso, Federico A

    2009-08-31

    Wavelength beam combining was used to co-propagate beams from 28 elements in an array of distributed-feedback quantum cascade lasers (DFB-QCLs). The beam-quality product of the array, defined as the product of near-field spot size and far-field divergence for the entire array, was improved by a factor of 21 by using wavelength beam combining. To demonstrate the applicability of wavelength beam combined DFB-QCL arrays for remote sensing, we obtained the absorption spectrum of isopropanol at a distance of 6 m from the laser array.

  12. Wavefront control of high power laser beams for the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, E; Feldman, M; Grey, A; Koch, J; Lund, L; Sacks, R; Smith, D; Stolz, C; Van Atta, L; Winters, S; Woods, B; Zacharias, R

    1999-09-22

    The use of lasers as the driver for inertial confinement fusion and weapons physics experiments is based on their ability to produce high-energy short pulses in a beam with low divergence. Indeed, the focus ability of high quality laser beams far exceeds alternate technologies and is a major factor in the rationale for building high power lasers for such applications. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a large, 192-beam, high-power laser facility under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for fusion and weapons physics experiments. Its uncorrected minimum focal spot size is limited by laser system aberrations. The NIF includes a Wavefront Control System to correct these aberrations to yield a focal spot small enough for its applications. Sources of aberrations to be corrected include prompt pump-induced distortions in the laser amplifiers, previous-shot thermal distortions, beam off-axis effects, and gravity, mounting, and coating-induced optic distortions. Aberrations from gas density variations and optic manufacturing figure errors are also partially corrected. This paper provides an overview of the NIF Wavefront Control System and describes the target spot size performance improvement it affords. It describes provisions made to accommodate the NIF's high fluence (laser beam and flashlamp), large wavefront correction range, wavefront temporal bandwidth, temperature and humidity variations, cleanliness requirements, and exception handling requirements (e.g. wavefront out-of-limits conditions).

  13. Method and apparatus for timing of laser beams in a multiple laser beam fusion system

    DOEpatents

    Eastman, Jay M.; Miller, Theodore L.

    1981-01-01

    The optical path lengths of a plurality of comparison laser beams directed to impinge upon a common target from different directions are compared to that of a master laser beam by using an optical heterodyne interferometric detection technique. The technique consists of frequency shifting the master laser beam and combining the master beam with a first one of the comparison laser beams to produce a time-varying heterodyne interference pattern which is detected by a photo-detector to produce an AC electrical signal indicative of the difference in the optical path lengths of the two beams which were combined. The optical path length of this first comparison laser beam is adjusted to compensate for the detected difference in the optical path lengths of the two beams. The optical path lengths of all of the comparison laser beams are made equal to the optical path length of the master laser beam by repeating the optical path length adjustment process for each of the comparison laser beams. In this manner, the comparison laser beams are synchronized or timed to arrive at the target within .+-.1.times.10.sup.-12 second of each other.

  14. Potential converter for laser-power beaming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Gilbert H.; Williams, Michael D.; Schuster, Gregory L.; Iles, Peter A.

    1991-01-01

    Future space missions, such as those associated with the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), will require large amounts of power for operation of bases, rovers, and orbit transfer vehicles. One method for supplying this power is to beam power from a spaced based or Earth based laser power station to a receiver where laser photons can be converted to electricity. Previous research has described such laser power stations orbiting the Moon and beaming power to a receiver on the surface of the Moon by using arrays of diode lasers. Photovoltaic converters that can be efficiently used with these diode lasers are described.

  15. Robotics For High Power Laser Beam Manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Henry E.

    1989-03-01

    The research and development programs in manufacturing science at The Pennsylvania State University have a major emphasis on laser materials processing technology development. A major thrust of this program is the development of an intelligent robotic system which can manipulate a laser beam in three dimension with the precision required for welding. The robot is called LARS for Laser Articulated Robotic System. A gantry based robot was selected as the foundation for LARS and the system is divided into five major subsystems: robot, electronic control, vision, workhead, beam transport, and software. An overview of the Laser Robotics program including laser materials processing research programs will be provided.

  16. Laser beam focusing through the scattering medium by means of adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galaktionov, Ilya; Kudryashov, Alexis; Sheldakova, Julia; Nikitin, Alexander

    2017-02-01

    Laser beam propagation through the scattering suspension of polystyrene microspheres in distilled water was studied. The distorted laser beam was analyzed by both Shack-Hartmann sensor and CCD camera. The measured local slopes of the Poynting vector were compensated for by means of bimorph deformable mirror with 14 electrodes in order to increase the intensity of the focal spot in the far-field. Three different techniques for laser beam focusing were implemented and compared: LSQ fit-error minimization by Shack-Hartmann sensor, Hill-climbing optimization by Shack-Hartmann sensor and Hill-climbing optimization by far-field CCD camera.

  17. CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETERS: Phase control of a focused laser beam: the comparison of the efficiency of methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukin, Vladimir P.

    2005-02-01

    The adaptive phase correction of distortions of spatially limited laser beams and a plane wave transmitted through a turbulent atmosphere layer is considered. The requirements to the size of the mirror element and the bandwidth of the correction system are determined, which proved to be the same as in the case of weak intensity fluctuations.

  18. Space Optical Communications Using Laser Beam Amplification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, Govind

    2015-01-01

    The Space Optical Communications Using Laser Beam Amplification (SOCLBA) project will provide a capability to amplify a laser beam that is received in a modulating retro-reflector (MRR) located in a satellite in low Earth orbit. It will also improve the pointing procedure between Earth and spacecraft terminals. The technology uses laser arrays to strengthen the reflected laser beam from the spacecraft. The results of first year's work (2014) show amplification factors of 60 times the power of the signal beam. MMRs are mirrors that reflect light beams back to the source. In space optical communications, a high-powered laser interrogator beam is directed from the ground to a satellite. Within the satellite, the beam is redirected back to ground using the MMR. In the MMR, the beam passes through modulators, which encode a data signal onto the returning beam. MMRs can be used in small spacecraft for optical communications. The SOCLBA project is significant to NASA and small spacecraft due to its application to CubeSats for optical data transmission to ground stations, as well as possible application to spacecraft for optical data transmission.

  19. Laser Beam Submerged Arc Hybrid Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisgen, Uwe; Olschok, Simon; Mavany, Michael; Jakobs, Stefan

    The laser beam submerged arc hybrid welding method originates from the knowledge that, with increasing penetration depth, the laser beam process has a tendency to pore formation in the lower weld regions. The combination with the energy efficient submerged arc process improves the degassing and reduces the tendency to pore formation. The high deposition rate of the SA process in combination with the laser beam process offers, providing the appropriate choice of weld preparation, the possibility of welding plates with a thickness larger than 20 mm in a single pass, and also of welding thicker plates with the double sided single pass technique.

  20. Laser Beam Submerged Arc Hybrid Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisgen, Uwe; Olschok, Simon; Jakobs, Stefan; Schleser, Markus; Mokrov, Oleg; Rossiter, Eduardo

    The laser beam-submerged arc hybrid welding method originates from the knowledge that, with increasing penetration depth, the laser beam process has a tendency to pore formation in the lower weld regions. The coupling with the energy-efficient submerged-arc process improves degassing and reduces the tendency to pore formation. The high deposition rate of the SA process in combination with the laser beam process offers, providing the appropriate choice of weld preparation, the possibility of welding plates with a thickness larger than 20° mm in a single pass, and also of welding thicker plates with the double-sided single pass technique.

  1. Compact optical system for pulse-to-pulse laser beam quality measurement and applications in laser machining.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Robert W; Cortés-Martínez, Rodolpho; Waddle, Andrew J; Shephard, Jonathan D; Taghizadeh, Mohammad R; Greenaway, Alan H; Hand, Duncan P

    2004-09-10

    Fluctuations in beam quality (M2) have been observed on a pulse-to-pulse basis from an industrial Nd:YAG laser. This was achieved with a compact multiplane imaging method incorporating quadratically distorted diffraction gratings, which enabled simultaneous imaging of nine planes on a single CCD array. With this system, we measured across a range of beam qualities with an associated error (in M2 variation) of the order of 0.7%. Application of the system to fiber-optic beam delivery and laser drilling is demonstrated.

  2. Formation of a spatial laser-beam profile in a channel of high-power neodymium facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bel'kov, S A; Voronich, I N; Garanin, S G; Zimalin, B G; Savkin, A V; Sharov, O A

    2015-06-30

    A system for one-dimensional spatial profiling of a laser beam is suggested, capable of compensating for the spatial laserbeam distortions that arise due to a nonuniform gain distribution over the aperture in the amplifying channel of high-power Nd:glass lasers with wide-aperture stages on disk active elements. The principle of operation, the approach to calculation of the key element parameters, and calculation and experimental results of studying the formation of spatial profiles of the laser beam intensity at the output from the system in question are described. Possible applications of the system both in single-beam and multi-beam optical schemes are considered. (lasers)

  3. Fractional laser photothermolysis using Bessel beams.

    PubMed

    Mignon, Charles; Rodriguez, Aura Higuera; Palero, Jonathan A; Varghese, Babu; Jurna, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Fractional photothermolysis uses lasers to generate a pattern of microscopic columnar thermal lesions within the skin stimulating collagen remodeling. In this paper we investigate the use of Bessel beams as an alternative to conventional Gaussian beams in creating laser photothermal lesions of different aspect ratios in skin. We show for the first time the improved photothermal lesion depth-to-diameter aspect ratio using Bessel beams in ex vivo human skin as well as in numerical simulations using electric field Monte Carlo photon transport, finite difference methods and Arrhenius model. Bessel beams allow the creation of deep and narrow thermal lesions necessary for improved efficacy in fractional photothermolysis.

  4. Fractional laser photothermolysis using Bessel beams

    PubMed Central

    Mignon, Charles; Rodriguez, Aura Higuera; Palero, Jonathan A.; Varghese, Babu; Jurna, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Fractional photothermolysis uses lasers to generate a pattern of microscopic columnar thermal lesions within the skin stimulating collagen remodeling. In this paper we investigate the use of Bessel beams as an alternative to conventional Gaussian beams in creating laser photothermal lesions of different aspect ratios in skin. We show for the first time the improved photothermal lesion depth-to-diameter aspect ratio using Bessel beams in ex vivo human skin as well as in numerical simulations using electric field Monte Carlo photon transport, finite difference methods and Arrhenius model. Bessel beams allow the creation of deep and narrow thermal lesions necessary for improved efficacy in fractional photothermolysis. PMID:28018718

  5. Compensation of non-ideal beam splitter polarization distortion effect in Michelson interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yeng-Cheng; Lo, Yu-Lung; Liao, Chia-Chi

    2016-02-01

    A composite optical structure consisting of two quarter-wave plates and a single half-wave plate is proposed for compensating for the polarization distortion induced by a non-ideal beam splitter in a Michelson interferometer. In the proposed approach, the optimal orientations of the optical components within the polarization compensator are determined using a genetic algorithm (GA) such that the beam splitter can be treated as a free-space medium and modeled using a unit Mueller matrix accordingly. Two implementations of the proposed polarization controller are presented. In the first case, the compensator is placed in the output arm of Michelson interferometer such that the state of polarization of the interfered output light is equal to that of the input light. However, in this configuration, the polarization effects induced by the beam splitter in the two arms of the interferometer structure cannot be separately addressed. Consequently, in the second case, compensator structures are placed in the Michelson interferometer for compensation on both the scanning and reference beams. The practical feasibility of the proposed approach is introduced by considering a Mueller polarization-sensitive (PS) optical coherence tomography (OCT) structure with three polarization controllers in the input, reference and sample arms, respectively. In general, the results presented in this study show that the proposed polarization controller provides an effective and experimentally-straightforward means of compensating for the polarization distortion effects induced by the non-ideal beam splitters in Michelson interferometers and Mueller PS-OCT structures.

  6. Simulation based analysis of laser beam brazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobler, Michael; Wiethop, Philipp; Schmid, Daniel; Schmidt, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Laser beam brazing is a well-established joining technology in car body manufacturing with main applications in the joining of divided tailgates and the joining of roof and side panels. A key advantage of laser brazed joints is the seam's visual quality which satisfies highest requirements. However, the laser beam brazing process is very complex and process dynamics are only partially understood. In order to gain deeper knowledge of the laser beam brazing process, to determine optimal process parameters and to test process variants, a transient three-dimensional simulation model of laser beam brazing is developed. This model takes into account energy input, heat transfer as well as fluid and wetting dynamics that lead to the formation of the brazing seam. A validation of the simulation model is performed by metallographic analysis and thermocouple measurements for different parameter sets of the brazing process. These results show that the multi-physical simulation model not only can be used to gain insight into the laser brazing process but also offers the possibility of process optimization in industrial applications. The model's capabilities in determining optimal process parameters are exemplarily shown for the laser power. Small deviations in the energy input can affect the brazing results significantly. Therefore, the simulation model is used to analyze the effect of the lateral laser beam position on the energy input and the resulting brazing seam.

  7. Fluorometric Beam Profiling of UV MALDI Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steven, Rory T.; Palmer, Andrew D.; Bunch, Josephine

    2013-07-01

    The photon distribution (beam profile) of the laser as projected onto the sample is an important variable in matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). Measurement of the beam profile is, therefore, an important factor within MALDI-MS. In this study a simple, low-cost fluorometric laser beam profiling technique is presented and applied in conjunction with MALDI-MS experiments. A comparison of the beam profile information afforded by a commercial system and the fluorometric method is carried out to determine the variation of beam profile for an Nd:YVO4 laser operated between 1 and 25 kHz. The beam profile information can be used, in conjunction with corresponding ion yields, to inform MALDI-MS experiments. The fluorometric beam profiling technique is used to obtain information about the beam dimensions as incident upon the MALDI-MS sample plate in-source. These values are compared with equivalent information obtained from ablation of thin film α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA). In this study, area estimation by ablation provided a value 1.6 times smaller than that obtained by the fluorometric method, demonstrating the need for caution when measuring beam profile and, therefore, fluence, in MALDI-MS. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. Laser cooling of a stored ion beam: A first step towards crystalline beams

    SciTech Connect

    Hangst, J.S.

    1992-09-01

    This report discusses: a brief introduction to storage rings; crystalline beams; laser cooling of ion beams; description of astrid-the experimental setup; first experiments with lithium 7 ion beam; experiments with erbium 166 ion beams; further experiments with lithium 7 ion beams; beam dynamics, laser cooling,and crystalline beams in astrid; possibilities for further study in astrid.

  9. Laser beam riding artillery missiles guidance device is designed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Mingliang; Huo, Zhicheng; Chen, Wei

    2014-09-01

    Laser driving gun missile guidance type beam of laser information field formed by any link failure or reduced stability will directly lead to ballistic or miss out of control, and based on this, this paper designed the driving beam of laser guided missile guidance beam type forming device modulation and zoom mechanism, in order to make the missile can recognize its position in the laser beam, laser beam gun missile, by means of spatial encoding of the laser beam laser beam into information after forming device, a surface to achieve the purpose of precision guidance.

  10. [Signal analysis and spectrum distortion correction for tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy system].

    PubMed

    Bao, Wei-Yi; Zhu, Yong; Chen, Jun; Chen, Jun-Qing; Liang, Bo

    2011-04-01

    In the present paper, the signal of a tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) trace gas sensing system, which has a wavelength modulation with a wide range of modulation amplitudes, is studied based on Fourier analysis method. Theory explanation of spectrum distortion induced by laser intensity amplitude modulation is given. In order to rectify the spectrum distortion, a method of synchronous amplitude modulation suppression by a variable optical attenuator is proposed. To validate the method, an experimental setup is designed. Absorption spectrum measurement experiments on CO2 gas were carried out. The results show that the residual laser intensity modulation amplitude of the experimental system is reduced to -0.1% of its original value and the spectrum distortion improvement is 92% with the synchronous amplitude modulation suppression. The modulation amplitude of laser intensity can be effectively reduced and the spectrum distortion can be well corrected by using the given correction method and system. By using a variable optical attenuator in the TDLAS (tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy) system, the dynamic range requirements of photoelectric detector, digital to analog converter, filters and other aspects of the TDLAS system are reduced. This spectrum distortion correction method can be used for online trace gas analyzing in process industry.

  11. A critical review of laser beam welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martukanitz, Richard P.

    2005-03-01

    The use of lasers for welding has exhibited tremendous growth over the last decade for improving efficiency and reducing costs in a broad range of industries. Much of these successes are based on the development and availability of enabling technologies, which include improvements in process understanding, enhancements in laser sources and systems, and continued development and progression in process technology for laser beam welding of macro and micro components. The development of accurate numerical simulation techniques has provided an unprecedented opportunity to view the transient nature of laser processing. Advancements in laser source technology include the introduction of higher-power Nd:YAG lasers, utilizing diode pumped rods or disks, and fiber lasers, both providing the capability for fiber optic beam delivery. Although CO2 laser systems continue to dominate thick section welding, this influence will be challenged by emerging source technologies, namely high power fiber lasers. One of the most promising advances in laser process technology is laser-arc hybrid welding, which is seeing considerable interest worldwide and is currently being evaluated for various applications within heavy industry and manufacturing. The benefit of hybrid welding is the synergistic effect of improved processing rates and joint accommodation over either of the processes viewed separately. Other processing methods are also being developed to increase the utility of laser beam welding for industry, such as the use of dual beams and beam manipulation. The continued advancement in process knowledge is seen as a key element for facilitating the development of new processes and encouraging the acceptance of new source technology.

  12. Satellites Would Transmit Power By Laser Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. D.; Walker, Gilbert H.; HUMES D. H.; Kwon, J. H.

    1995-01-01

    Arrays of diode lasers concentrate power into narrow beams. Baseline design of system formulated with regard to two particular missions that differ greatly in power requirements, thus showing scalability and attributes of basic system. Satellite system features large-scale array amplifier of high efficiency, injection-locked amplifiers, coherent combination of beams, and use of advanced lithographic technology to fabricate diode lasers in array. Extremely rapid development of applicable technologies make features realizable within decade.

  13. Apparatus for laser beam profile measurements

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, N.P.; Gettemy, D.J.

    1985-01-30

    Apparatus for measuring the spatial intensity profile of the output beam from a continuous-wave laser oscillator. The rapid and repetitive passing of a small aperture through the otherwise totally blocked output beam of the laser under investigation provides an easily interpretable, real-time measure of the intensity characteristics thereof when detected by a single detector and the signal generated thereby displayed on an oscilloscope synthronized to the motion of the aperture.

  14. Laser wakefield acceleration of polarized electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugacheva, D. V.; Andreev, N. E.; Cros, B.

    2016-11-01

    The acceleration of highly polarized electron beams are widely used in state-of-the-art high-energy physics experiments. In this work, a model for investigation of polarization dynamics of electron beams in the laser-plasma accelerator depending on the initial energy of electrons was developed and tested. To obtain the evolution of the trajectory and momentum of the electron for modeling its acceleration the wakefield structure was determined. The spin precession of the beam electron was described by Thomas-Bargman-Michel-Telegdi equations. The evolution of the electron beam polarization was investigated for zero-emittance beams with zero-energy spread.

  15. Rippled-beam free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsten, B.E.

    1997-10-01

    The authors describe a new microwave generation mechanism involving a scalloping annular electron beam. The beam interacts with the axial electric field of a TM{sub 0n} mode in a smooth circular waveguide through the axial free-electron laser interaction, in which the beam ripple period is synchronous with the phase slippage of the rf mode relative to the electron beam. Due to nonlinearities in the orbit equation, the interaction can be made autoresonant, where the phase and amplitude of the gain is independent of the beam energy.

  16. Compensation of Hologram Distortion by Controlling Defocus Component in Reference Beam Wavefront for Angle Multiplexed Holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muroi, T.; Kinoshita, N.; Ishii, N.; Kamijo, K.; Kawata, Y.; Kikuchi, H.

    2013-12-01

    Holographic memory has the potential to function as a recording system with a large capacity and high data-transfer-rate. Photopolymer materials are typically used as a write-once recording medium. When holograms are recorded on this medium, they can distort due to shrinkage or expansion of the materials, which degrades the reconstructed image and causes a higher bit error rate (bER) of the reproduced data. We propose optically compensating for hologram distortion by controlling aberration components in the reference beam wavefront while reproducing data, thereby improving the reproduced data quality. First, we investigated the relation between each aberration component of the reference beam and the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the reproduced data using numerical simulation and found that horizontal tilt and the defocus component affect the SNR. Next, we experimentally evaluated the reproduced data by controlling the defocus component in the reference beam and found that the bER of the reproduced data could be decreased by controlling the defocus center with respect to the hologram position and phase modulation depth of the defocus component. Then, we investigated a practical control method of the defocus component using an evaluation value similar to the definition of the SNR for actual data reproduction from holograms. Using a defocus controlled wavefront enabled us to decrease the bER from 3.54 x 10^-3 with a plane wave to 3.14 x 10^-4. We also investigated how to reduce the bERs of reproduced data in angle multiplexed holograms. By using a defocus controlled wavefront to compensate for hologram distortion on the 40th data page in 80-page angle multiplexed holograms, the bERs of all pages could be decreased to less than 1x10^-3. We showed that controlling the defocus component is an effective way to compensate for hologram distortion and to decrease the bER of reproduced data in holographic memory.

  17. Phoenix Laser Beam in Action on Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-09-30

    The Surface Stereo Imager camera aboard NASA Phoenix Mars Lander acquired a series of images of the laser beam in the Martian night sky. Bright spots in the beam are reflections from ice crystals in the low level ice-fog.

  18. Laser beam welding of any metal.

    SciTech Connect

    Leong, K. H.

    1998-10-01

    The effect of a metal's thermophysical properties on its weldability are examined. The thermal conductivity, melting point, absorptivity and thermal diffusivity of the metal and the laser beam focused diameter and welding speed influence the minimum beam irradiance required for melting and welding. Beam diameter, surface tension and viscosity of the molten metal affect weld pool stability and weld quality. Lower surface tension and viscosity increases weld pool instability. With larger beam diameters causing wider welds, dropout also increases. Effects of focused beam diameter and joint fitup on weldability are also examined. Small beam diameters are sensitive to beam coupling problems in relation to fitup precision in addition to beam alignment to the seam. Welding parameters for mitigating weld pool instability and increasing weld quality are derived from the above considerations. Guidelines are presented for the tailoring of welding parameters to achieve good welds. Weldability problems can also be anticipated from the properties of a metal.

  19. Controlling Second Harmonic Efficiency of Laser Beam Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P. (Inventor); Walsh, Brian M. (Inventor); Reichle, Donald J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method is provided for controlling second harmonic efficiency of laser beam interactions. A laser system generates two laser beams (e.g., a laser beam with two polarizations) for incidence on a nonlinear crystal having a preferred direction of propagation. Prior to incidence on the crystal, the beams are optically processed based on the crystal's beam separation characteristics to thereby control a position in the crystal along the preferred direction of propagation at which the beams interact.

  20. Varying the Divergence of Multiple Parallel Laser Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovalik, Joseph M.; Wright, Malcolm W.

    2008-01-01

    A provision for controlled variation of the divergence of a laser beam or of multiple parallel laser beams has been incorporated into the design of a conceptual free-space optical-communication station from which the transmitted laser beam(s) would be launched via a telescope. The original purpose to be served by this provision was to enable optimization, under various atmospheric optical conditions, of the divergence of a laser beam or beams transmitted from a ground station to a spacecraft.

  1. Single laser beam measurement of thermal diffusivity.

    PubMed

    Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Doiron, Serge; Deveaux, Michel; Haché, Alain

    2008-12-10

    Thermal diffusion properties of interfaces are measured using self-induced surface thermal lensing with a single laser beam. The time evolution of the reflected beam reveals information on heat diffusion away from the interface. Unambiguous correlation between measured signal and thermal diffusivity is shown, theoretically and experimentally, from which calibration curves are obtained. Being simpler and less sensitive to vibrations and misalignments, the technique offers definite advantages over standard two-beam (pump-probe) methods.

  2. Spiral laser beams in inhomogeneous media.

    PubMed

    Mahalov, Alex; Suazo, Erwin; Suslov, Sergei K

    2013-08-01

    Explicit solutions of the inhomogeneous paraxial wave equation in a linear and quadratic approximation are applied to wave fields with invariant features, such as oscillating laser beams in a parabolic waveguide and spiral light beams in varying media. A similar effect of superfocusing of particle beams in a thin monocrystal film, harmonic oscillations of cold trapped atoms, and motion in magnetic field are also mentioned.

  3. Vertical laser beam propagation through the troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minott, P. O.; Bufton, J. L.; Schaefer, W. H.; Grolemund, D. A.

    1974-01-01

    The characteristics of the earth's atmosphere and its effects upon laser beams was investigated in a series of balloon borne, optical propagation experiments. These experiments were designed to simulate the space to ground laser link. An experiment to determine the amplitude fluctuation, commonly called scintillation, caused by the atmosphere was described.

  4. Beam current controller for laser ion source

    DOEpatents

    Okamura, Masahiro

    2014-10-28

    The present invention relates to the design and use of an ion source with a rapid beam current controller for experimental and medicinal purposes. More particularly, the present invention relates to the design and use of a laser ion source with a magnetic field applied to confine a plasma flux caused by laser ablation.

  5. Effects of laser beam propagation and saturation on the spatial shape of sodium laser guide stars.

    PubMed

    Marc, Fabien; Guillet de Chatellus, Hugues; Pique, Jean-Paul

    2009-03-30

    The possibility to produce diffraction-limited images by large telescopes through Adaptive Optics is closely linked to the precision of measurement of the position of the guide star on the wavefront sensor. In the case of laser guide stars, many parameters can lead to a strong distortion on the shape of the LGS spot. Here we study the influence of both the saturation of the sodium layer excited by different types of lasers, the spatial quality of the laser mode at the ground and the influence of the atmospheric turbulence on the upward propagation of the laser beam. Both shape and intensity of the LGS spot are found to depend strongly on these three effects with important consequences on the precision on the wavefront analysis.

  6. Generation of low-divergence laser beams

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-09-14

    Apparatus for transforming a conventional beam of coherent light, having a Gaussian energy distribution and relatively high divergence, into a beam in which the energy distribution approximates a single, non-zero-order Bessel function and which therefore has much lower divergence. The apparatus comprises a zone plate having transmitting and reflecting zones defined by the pattern of light interference produced by the combination of a beam of coherent light with a Gaussian energy distribution and one having such a Bessel distribution. The interference pattern between the two beams is a concentric array of multiple annuli, and is preferably recorded as a hologram. The hologram is then used to form the transmitting and reflecting zones by photo-etching portions of a reflecting layer deposited on a plate made of a transmitting material. A Bessel beam, containing approximately 50% of the energy of the incident beam, is produced by passing a Gaussian beam through such a Bessel zone plate. The reflected beam, also containing approximately 50% of the incident beam energy and having a Bessel energy distribution, can be redirected in the same direction and parallel to the transmitted beam. Alternatively, a filter similar to the Bessel zone plate can be placed within the resonator cavity of a conventional laser system having a front mirror and a rear mirror, preferably axially aligned with the mirrors and just inside the front mirror to generate Bessel energy distribution light beams at the laser source. 11 figures.

  7. Generation of low-divergence laser beams

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus for transforming a conventional beam of coherent light, having a Gaussian energy distribution and relatively high divergence, into a beam in which the energy distribution approximates a single, non-zero-order Bessel function and which therefore has much lower divergence. The apparatus comprises a zone plate having transmitting and reflecting zones defined by the pattern of light interference produced by the combination of a beam of coherent light with a Gaussian energy distribution and one having such a Bessel distribution. The interference pattern between the two beams is a concentric array of multiple annuli, and is preferably recorded as a hologram. The hologram is then used to form the transmitting and reflecting zones by photo-etching portions of a reflecting layer deposited on a plate made of a transmitting material. A Bessel beam, containing approximately 50% of the energy of the incident beam, is produced by passing a Gaussian beam through such a Bessel zone plate. The reflected beam, also containing approximately 50% of the incident beam energy and having a Bessel energy distribution, can be redirected in the same direction and parallel to the transmitted beam. Alternatively, a filter similar to the Bessel zone plate can be placed within the resonator cavity of a conventional laser system having a front mirror and a rear mirror, preferably axially aligned with the mirrors and just inside the front mirror to generate Bessel energy distribution light beams at the laser source.

  8. An Alternative Form of Laser Beam Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    KNOROVSKY,GERALD A.; MACCALLUM,DANNY O.

    2000-06-30

    Careful characterization of laser beams used in materials processing such as welding and drilling is necessary to obtain robust, reproducible processes and products. Recently, equipment and techniques have become available which make it possible to rapidly and conveniently characterize the size, shape, mode structure, beam quality (Mz), and intensity of a laser beam (incident power/unit area) as a function of distance along the beam path. This facilitates obtaining a desired focused spot size and also locating its position. However, for a given position along the beam axis, these devices typically measure where the beam intensity level has been reduced to I/ez of maximum intensity at that position to determine the beam size. While giving an intuitive indication of the beam shape since the maximum intensity of the beam varies greatly, the contour so determined is not an iso-contour of any parameter related to the beam intensity or power. In this work we shall discuss an alternative beam shape formulation where the same measured information is plotted as contour intervals of intensity.

  9. Flat profile laser beam shaper

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Todd R.

    2017-09-12

    A system for shaping a beam comprises an emitter for emitting coherent electromagnetic radiation. Birefringent displacers are configured between the emitter and a target wherein the at least two birefringent displacers split the coherent electromagnetic radiation into a plurality of coherent parallel beams of electromagnetic radiation thereby producing a shaped wave front of the coherent parallel beams of electromagnetic radiation.

  10. Reflective diffractive beam splitter for laser interferometers.

    PubMed

    Fahr, Stephan; Clausnitzer, Tina; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2007-08-20

    The first realization of a reflective 50/50 beam splitter based on a dielectric diffraction grating suitable for high-power laser interferometers is reported. The beam splitter is designed to operate at a wavelength of 1064 nm and in s polarization. To minimize the performance degradation of the device that is due to fabrication fluctuations, during the design process special attention was paid to achieve high fabrication tolerances especially of groove width and depth. Applying this beam splitter to high-power laser interferometers, such as future gravitational wave detectors, will avoid critical thermal lensing effects and allow for the free choice of substrate materials.

  11. Three-dimensional calculation of high-power, annularly distributed, laser-beam-induced thermal effects on reflectors and windows.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiping; Tan, Fuli; Lü, Baida; Liu, Cangli

    2005-12-01

    Based on the three-dimensional transient heat conduction equation and the elastic stress-strain equation, the temperature rise, distortion, and equivalent stress distributions of a high-reflectivity silicon reflector and a white bijou window irradiated by a high-power sloped annularly distributed laser beam are simulated using a three-dimensional finite element model (FEM). The effects of laser intensity, output duration, beam obscure ratio, and laser intensity spatial gradient on the results are especially investigated. The effects of mirror and window thermal distortion on laser beam phase aberrations are also evaluated. This noncylindrosymmetric three-dimensional FEM can be used to evaluate high-power, high-energy, laser beam-induced thermal effects on optical components.

  12. Laser Beam Processing - A Manufacturer's Viewpoint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Y. C. J.

    1985-09-01

    The ability of continuous wave high power CO2 Lasers to generate power densities of up to 108 watts Cm makes them useful for a variety of material processing tasks. Deep-penetration laser welding, high precision laser cutting, surface heat treating by martensitic phase transformation hardening, and surface alloying are the four major areas which are accepting laser processes. This paper will cover these four primary laser applications existing in production within a variety of industries. Each individual area will be discussed in detail, describing the advantages and various parameters to achieve maximum productivity and quality. Beam config-uration, integration, and manipulation are included also. Production examples of laser welding, cutting, surface hardening and surface alloying, are examined to demonstrate the laser processing advantages. This paper also reviews the present and future status of the laser metalsworking industry in respect to the growth potential, research and development, manufacturers responsibilities etc.

  13. Apparatus and method for laser beam diagnosis

    DOEpatents

    Salmon, Jr., Joseph T.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus and method is disclosed for accurate, real time monitoring of the wavefront curvature of a coherent laser beam. Knowing the curvature, it can be quickly determined whether the laser beam is collimated, or focusing (converging), or de-focusing (diverging). The apparatus includes a lateral interferometer for forming an interference pattern of the laser beam to be diagnosed. The interference pattern is imaged to a spatial light modulator (SLM), whose output is a coherent laser beam having an image of the interference pattern impressed on it. The SLM output is focused to obtain the far-field diffraction pattern. A video camera, such as CCD, monitors the far-field diffraction pattern, and provides an electrical output indicative of the shape of the far-field pattern. Specifically, the far-field pattern comprises a central lobe and side lobes, whose relative positions are indicative of the radius of curvature of the beam. The video camera's electrical output may be provided to a computer which analyzes the data to determine the wavefront curvature of the laser beam.

  14. Apparatus and method for laser beam diagnosis

    DOEpatents

    Salmon, J.T. Jr.

    1991-08-27

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for accurate, real time monitoring of the wavefront curvature of a coherent laser beam. Knowing the curvature, it can be quickly determined whether the laser beam is collimated, or focusing (converging), or de-focusing (diverging). The apparatus includes a lateral interferometer for forming an interference pattern of the laser beam to be diagnosed. The interference pattern is imaged to a spatial light modulator (SLM), whose output is a coherent laser beam having an image of the interference pattern impressed on it. The SLM output is focused to obtain the far-field diffraction pattern. A video camera, such as CCD, monitors the far-field diffraction pattern, and provides an electrical output indicative of the shape of the far-field pattern. Specifically, the far-field pattern comprises a central lobe and side lobes, whose relative positions are indicative of the radius of curvature of the beam. The video camera's electrical output may be provided to a computer which analyzes the data to determine the wavefront curvature of the laser beam. 11 figures.

  15. Electron beam, laser beam and plasma arc welding studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banas, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    This program was undertaken as an initial step in establishing an evaluation framework which would permit a priori selection of advanced welding processes for specific applications. To this end, a direct comparison of laser beam, electron beam and arc welding of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was undertaken. Ti-6Al-4V was selected for use in view of its established welding characteristics and its importance in aerospace applications.

  16. Linear quadratic regulator for laser beam shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escárate, Pedro; Agüero, Juan C.; Zúñiga, Sebastián; Castro, Mario; Garcés, Javier

    2017-07-01

    The performance of an adaptive optics system depends on multiple factors, including the quality of the laser beam before being projected to the mesosphere. In general, cumbersome procedures are required to optimize the laser beam in terms of amplitude and phase. However, aberrations produced by the optics of the laser beam system are still detected during the operations due to, for example, uncertainty in the utilized models. In this paper we propose the use of feedback to overcome the presence of model uncertainty and disturbances. In particular we use a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) for closed loop laser beam shaping using a setup of two deformable mirrors. The proposed method is studied and simulated to provide an automatic optimization of the Amplitude of the laser beam. The performance of the LQR control algorithm is evaluated via numerical simulations using the root mean square error (RMSE). The results show an effective amplitude correction of the laser system aberrations after 20 iterations of the algorithm, a RMSE less than 0.7 was obtained, with about 140 actuators per mirror and a separation of z=3 [m] among the mirrors.

  17. A Programmable Beam Shaping System for Tailoring the Profile of High Fluence Laser Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Heebner, J; Borden, M; Miller, P; Stolz, C; Suratwala, T; Wegner, P; Hermann, M; Henesian, M; Haynam, C; Hunter, S; Christensen, K; Wong, N; Seppala, L; Brunton, G; Tse, E; Awwal, A; Franks, M; Marley, E; Williams, K; Scanlan, M; Budge, T; Monticelli, M; Walmer, D; Dixit, S; Widmayer, C; Wolfe, J; Bude, J; McCarty, K; DiNicola, J

    2010-11-10

    Customized spatial light modulators have been designed and fabricated for use as precision beam shaping devices in fusion class laser systems. By inserting this device in a low-fluence relay plane upstream of the amplifier chain, 'blocker' obscurations can be programmed into the beam profile to shadow small isolated flaws on downstream optical components that might otherwise limit the system operating energy. In this two stage system, 1920 x 1080 bitmap images are first imprinted on incoherent, 470 nm address beams via pixilated liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) modulators. To realize defined masking functions with smooth apodized shapes and no pixelization artifacts, address beam images are projected onto custom fabricated optically-addressable light valves. Each valve consists of a large, single pixel liquid cell in series with a photoconductive Bismuth silicon Oxide (BSO) crystal. The BSO crystal enables bright and dark regions of the address image to locally control the voltage supplied to the liquid crystal layer which in turn modulates the amplitude of the coherent beams at 1053 nm. Valves as large as 24 mm x 36 mm have been fabricated with low wavefront distortion (<0.5 waves) and antireflection coatings for high transmission (>90%) and etalon suppression to avoid spectral and temporal ripple. This device in combination with a flaw inspection system and optic registration strategy represents a new approach for extending the operational lifetime of high fluence laser optics.

  18. Transmission Of Power Via Combined Laser Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, Jin H.; Lee, Ja H.

    1992-01-01

    Laser Diode Array (LDA) appears to be most efficient means of transferring power from Earth to satellites and between satellites, in terms of mass and size, of various laser configurations. To form large-scale-array amplifier (LSAA), element LDA's must generate well-defined diffraction-limited beams. Coherent matching of phases among LDA's enables system to generate good beam pattern in far field over thousands of kilometers. By passing beam from master laser through number of LDA amplifiers simultaneously, one realizes coherence among amplified output beams. LSAA used for transmission of power with efficiency of approximately 80 percent into receiver of moderate size at 5,000 km. Also transmits data at high rates by line-of-sight rather than fiber optics.

  19. Synchronous characterization of semiconductor microcavity laser beam.

    PubMed

    Wang, T; Lippi, G L

    2015-06-01

    We report on a high-resolution double-channel imaging method used to synchronously map the intensity- and optical-frequency-distribution of a laser beam in the plane orthogonal to the propagation direction. The synchronous measurement allows us to show that the laser frequency is an inhomogeneous distribution below threshold, but that it becomes homogeneous across the fundamental Gaussian mode above threshold. The beam's tails deviations from the Gaussian shape, however, are accompanied by sizeable fluctuations in the laser wavelength, possibly deriving from manufacturing details and from the influence of spontaneous emission in the very low intensity wings. In addition to the synchronous spatial characterization, a temporal analysis at any given point in the beam cross section is carried out. Using this method, the beam homogeneity and spatial shape, energy density, energy center, and the defects-related spectrum can also be extracted from these high-resolution pictures.

  20. Simulation of Mirror Distortion in Free-Electron LASER Oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    H. Freund; S. V. Benson; Michelle D. Shinn

    2006-09-01

    The JLab FEL is routinely operated with sub-picosecond bunches. The short bunch length is important for high gain of the FEL. Coherent transition radiation has been used for the bunch length measurements for many years. This diagnostic can be used only in the pulsed beam mode. It is our goal to run FEL with CW beam and 74.85 MHz micropulse repetition rate. Hence it is very desirable to have the possibility of doing the bunch length measurements when running CW beam with any micropulse frequency. We use a Fourier transform infrared interferometer, which is essentially a Michelson interferometer, to measure the spectrum of the coherent synchrotron radiation generated in the last dipole of the magnetic bunch compressor upstream of the FEL wiggler. This noninvasive diagnostic provides the bunch length measurements for CW beam operation at any micropulse frequency. We also compare the measurements made with the help of the FTIR interferometer with the data obtained by the Martin-Puplett interferometer. Results of the two diagnostics are usually agree within 15%. Here we present a description of the experimental setup, data evaluation procedure and results of the beam measurements.

  1. Correction of amplitude distortions for truncated Bessel beam and SER estimation for 4ASK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyyuboğlu, Halil T.

    2016-08-01

    We apply amplitude corrections to a truncated Bessel beam that has propagated through turbulent atmosphere modelled by random phase screens. These corrections are realized via transmitting an unmodulated beam in parallel to the one carrying the 4 amplitude shift keying (ASK) modulated message signal. On the receiver side, the amplitude corrections are obtained by dividing the intensity of the unmodulated beam by its free space equivalence. The corrections are then used to restore the amplitude distortions of the beam carrying the 4ASK modulated message signal and in the determination of decision boundaries for the received 4ASK symbols. The success of the system is visually inspected by comparing the received intensity profiles before and after the application of corrections. Furthermore, simulation analysis of symbol error rate (SER) is made, where the proposed set-up is found to be quite insensitive to wavelength difference between the unmodulated and modulated beams. On the other hand, the difference in the structure constant values of these two beams seems to have profound effect on system performance.

  2. High Average Power Laser Gain Medium With Low Optical Distortion Using A Transverse Flowing Liquid Host

    DOEpatents

    Comaskey, Brian J.; Ault, Earl R.; Kuklo, Thomas C.

    2005-07-05

    A high average power, low optical distortion laser gain media is based on a flowing liquid media. A diode laser pumping device with tailored irradiance excites the laser active atom, ion or molecule within the liquid media. A laser active component of the liquid media exhibits energy storage times longer than or comparable to the thermal optical response time of the liquid. A circulation system that provides a closed loop for mixing and circulating the lasing liquid into and out of the optical cavity includes a pump, a diffuser, and a heat exchanger. A liquid flow gain cell includes flow straighteners and flow channel compression.

  3. Laser power beaming for satellite applications

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, H.W.

    1993-09-22

    A serious consideration of laser power beaming for satellite applications appears to have grown out of a NASA mission analysis for transmitting power to lunar bases during the two week dark period. System analyses showed that laser power beaming to the moon in conjunction with efficient, large area solar cell collection panels, were an attractive alternative to other schemes such as battery storage and nuclear generators, largely because of the high space transportation costs. The primary difficulty with this scheme is the need for very high average power visible lasers. One system study indicated that lasers in excess of 10 MW at a wavelength of approximately 850 nm were required. Although such lasers systems have received much attention for military applications, their realization is still a long term goal.

  4. More on analyzing the reflection of a laser beam by a deformed highly reflective volume Bragg grating using iteration of the beam propagation method.

    PubMed

    Shu, Hong; Mokhov, Sergiy; Zeldovich, Boris Ya; Bass, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A further extension of the iteration method for beam propagation calculation is presented that can be applied for volume Bragg gratings (VBGs) with extremely large grating strength. A reformulation of the beam propagation formulation is presented for analyzing the reflection of a laser beam by a deformed VBG. These methods will be shown to be very accurate and efficient. A VBG with generic z-dependent distortion has been analyzed using these methods.

  5. Digital Controller For Laser-Beam-Steering Subsystem: Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Homayoon; Voisinet, Leeann

    1995-01-01

    A report presents additional information about laser-beam-steering apparatus described in "Digital Controller for Laser-Beam-Steering Subsystem" (NPO-19193) and "More About Beam-Steering Subsystem for Laser Communication" (NPO-19381). Reiterates basic principles of operation of beam-steering subsystem, with emphasis on modes of operation, basic design concepts, and initial experiments on partial prototype of apparatus.

  6. Digital Controller For Laser-Beam-Steering Subsystem: Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Homayoon; Voisinet, Leeann

    1995-01-01

    A report presents additional information about laser-beam-steering apparatus described in "Digital Controller for Laser-Beam-Steering Subsystem" (NPO-19193) and "More About Beam-Steering Subsystem for Laser Communication" (NPO-19381). Reiterates basic principles of operation of beam-steering subsystem, with emphasis on modes of operation, basic design concepts, and initial experiments on partial prototype of apparatus.

  7. Initial alignment method for free space optics laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Yuta; Tashiro, Yuki; Izumi, Kiyotaka; Yoshida, Koichi; Tsujimura, Takeshi

    2016-08-01

    The authors have newly proposed and constructed an active free space optics transmission system. It is equipped with a motor driven laser emitting mechanism and positioning photodiodes, and it transmits a collimated thin laser beam and accurately steers the laser beam direction. It is necessary to introduce the laser beam within sensible range of the receiver in advance of laser beam tracking control. This paper studies an estimation method of laser reaching point for initial laser beam alignment. Distributed photodiodes detect laser luminescence at respective position, and the optical axis of laser beam is analytically presumed based on the Gaussian beam optics. Computer simulation evaluates the accuracy of the proposed estimation methods, and results disclose that the methods help us to guide the laser beam to a distant receiver.

  8. Transmitted Laser Beam Diagnostic at the Omega Laser Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Niemann, C; Antonini, G; Compton, S; Glenzer, S; Hargrove, D; Moody, J; Kirkwood, R; Rekow, V; Sorce, C; Armstrong, W; Bahr, R; Keck, R; Pien, G; Seka, W; Thorp, K

    2004-04-01

    We have developed and commissioned a transmitted beam diagnostic (TBD) for the 2{omega} high intensity interaction beam at the Omega laser facility. The TBD consists of a bare-surface reflector mounted near the target, which collects and reflects 4% of the transmitted light to a detector assembly outside the vacuum chamber. The detector includes a time integrating near-field camera that measures beam spray, deflection and the absolute transmitted power. We present a detailed description of the instrument and the calibration method and include first measurements on laser heated gasbag targets to demonstrate the performance of the diagnostic.

  9. Kagome fiber based industrial laser beam delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurel, M.; Gorse, A.; Beaudou, B.; Lekiefs, Q.; Chafer, M.; Debord, B.; Gérôme, F.; Benabid, F.

    2017-02-01

    We report on a Hollow Core-Photonic Crystal Fiber (HC-PCF) based high power ultra-short pulse laser beam delivery system (GLO-BDS) that combines ease-of-use, high laser-coupling efficiency, robustness and industrial compatible cabling. The GLO-BDS comprises a pre-aligned laser-injection head, a sheath cable protected HC-PCF and a modular fiber-output head. It enables fiber-core gas loading and evacuation in a hermetic fashion. 5 m long GLO-BDS were demonstrated for Yb USP laser, Ti:Sapphire laser and frequency-doubled Yb USP laser. They all exhibit a transmission coefficient larger than 80%, and a laser output profile close to single mode (M2 <1.3).

  10. Method and apparatus for laser-controlled proton beam radiology

    DOEpatents

    Johnstone, C.J.

    1998-06-02

    A proton beam radiology system provides cancer treatment and proton radiography. The system includes an accelerator for producing an H{sup {minus}} beam and a laser source for generating a laser beam. A photodetachment module is located proximate the periphery of the accelerator. The photodetachment module combines the H{sup {minus}} beam and laser beam to produce a neutral beam therefrom within a subsection of the H{sup {minus}} beam. The photodetachment module emits the neutral beam along a trajectory defined by the laser beam. The photodetachment module includes a stripping foil which forms a proton beam from the neutral beam. The proton beam is delivered to a conveyance segment which transports the proton beam to a patient treatment station. The photodetachment module further includes a laser scanner which moves the laser beam along a path transverse to the cross-section of the H{sup {minus}} beam in order to form the neutral beam in subsections of the H{sup {minus}} beam. As the scanning laser moves across the H{sup {minus}} beam, it similarly varies the trajectory of the proton beam emitted from the photodetachment module and in turn varies the target location of the proton beam upon the patient. Intensity modulation of the proton beam can also be achieved by controlling the output of the laser. 9 figs.

  11. Method and apparatus for laser-controlled proton beam radiology

    DOEpatents

    Johnstone, Carol J.

    1998-01-01

    A proton beam radiology system provides cancer treatment and proton radiography. The system includes an accelerator for producing an H.sup.- beam and a laser source for generating a laser beam. A photodetachment module is located proximate the periphery of the accelerator. The photodetachment module combines the H.sup.- beam and laser beam to produce a neutral beam therefrom within a subsection of the H.sup.- beam. The photodetachment module emits the neutral beam along a trajectory defined by the laser beam. The photodetachment module includes a stripping foil which forms a proton beam from the neutral beam. The proton beam is delivered to a conveyance segment which transports the proton beam to a patient treatment station. The photodetachment module further includes a laser scanner which moves the laser beam along a path transverse to the cross-section of the H.sup.- beam in order to form the neutral beam in subsections of the H.sup.- beam. As the scanning laser moves across the H.sup.- beam, it similarly varies the trajectory of the proton beam emitted from the photodetachment module and in turn varies the target location of the proton beam upon the patient. Intensity modulation of the proton beam can also be achieved by controlling the output of the laser.

  12. Laser beam shaping for biomedical microscopy techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskin, Alexander; Kaiser, Peter; Laskin, Vadim; Ostrun, Aleksei

    2016-04-01

    Uniform illumination of a working field is very important in optical systems of confocal microscopy and various implementations of fluorescence microscopy like TIR, SSIM, STORM, PALM to enhance performance of these laser-based research techniques. Widely used TEM00 laser sources are characterized by essentially non-uniform Gaussian intensity profile which leads usually to non-uniform intensity distribution in a microscope working field or in a field of microlenses array of a confocal microscope optical system, this non-uniform illumination results in instability of measuring procedure and reducing precision of quantitative measurements. Therefore transformation of typical Gaussian distribution of a TEM00 laser to flat-top (top hat) profile is an actual technical task, it is solved by applying beam shaping optics. Due to high demands to optical image quality the mentioned techniques have specific requirements to a uniform laser beam: flatness of phase front and extended depth of field, - from this point of view the microscopy techniques are similar to holography and interferometry. There are different refractive and diffractive beam shaping approaches used in laser industrial and scientific applications, but only few of them are capable to fulfil the optimum conditions for beam quality required in discussed microscopy techniques. We suggest applying refractive field mapping beam shapers πShaper, which operational principle presumes almost lossless transformation of Gaussian to flat-top beam with flatness of output wavefront, conserving of beam consistency, providing collimated low divergent output beam, high transmittance, extended depth of field, negligible wave aberration, and achromatic design provides capability to work with several lasers with different wavelengths simultaneously. The main function of a beam shaper is transformation of laser intensity profile, further beam transformation to provide optimum for a particular technique spot size and shape has to

  13. Precision Atomic Beam Laser Spectroscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-02-20

    postdoctoral, and visiting faculty researchers. The organizing principles of our work are to enhance the coherence and general utility of laser sources by... utilizing some million atoms, namely -1000:1. The optimum servo control of the laser using this signal could evidently produce a laser linewidth in the...Lett. 22,184-186 (1997), P. Dube, M. D. Levenson, and J. L. Hall. 10. "Real-time precision refractometry : new approaches," Appl. Opt. 36,1223- 1234

  14. Rippled beam free electron Laser Amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsten, Bruce E.

    1998-04-21

    A free electron laser amplifier provides a scalloping annular electron beam that interacts with the axial electric field of a T{sub 0n} mode. A waveguide defines an axial centerline and . A solenoid arranged about the waveguide produces an axial constant magnetic field within the waveguide. An electron beam source outputs a annular electron beam that interacts with the axial magnetic field to have an equilibrium radius and a ripple radius component having a variable radius with a ripple period along the axial centerline. An rf source outputs an axial electric field that propagates within the waveguide coaxial with the electron beam and has a radial mode that interacts at the electron beam at the equilibrium radius component of the electron beam.

  15. Rippled beam free electron laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Carlsten, Bruce E.

    1999-01-01

    A free electron laser amplifier provides a scalloping annular electron beam that interacts with the axial electric field of a TM.sub.0n mode. A waveguide defines an axial centerline and, a solenoid arranged about the waveguide produces an axial constant magnetic field within the waveguide. An electron beam source outputs a annular electron beam that interacts with the axial magnetic field to have an equilibrium radius and a ripple radius component having a variable radius with a ripple period along the axial centerline. An rf source outputs an axial electric field that propagates within the waveguide coaxial with the electron beam and has a radial mode that interacts at the electron beam at the equilibrium radius component of the electron beam.

  16. Ion beam and laser induced surface modifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleton, B. R.

    1984-01-01

    The capabilities of energetic ion beam and laser processing of surfaces are reviewed. Ion implantation doping, ion beam mixing, and laser and electron beam processing techniques are capable of producing new and often unique surface properties. The inherent control of these techniques has led to significant advances in our ability to tailor the properties of solids for a wide range of technological applications. Equally important, these techniques have allowed tests of fundamental materials interactions under conditions not heretofore achievable and have resulted in increased understanding of a broad range of materials phenomena. These include new metastable phase formation, rapid nucleation and crystal growth kinetics, amorphous metals and metaglasses, supersaturated solid solutions and substitutional alloys, interface interactions, solute trapping, laser-assisted chemical modifications, and a host of other.

  17. Phoenix's Laser Beam in Action on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the animation

    The Surface Stereo Imager camera aboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander acquired a series of images of the laser beam in the Martian night sky. Bright spots in the beam are reflections from ice crystals in the low level ice-fog. The brighter area at the top of the beam is due to enhanced scattering of the laser light in a cloud. The Canadian-built lidar instrument emits pulses of laser light and records what is scattered back.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Synchronous characterization of semiconductor microcavity laser beam

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T. Lippi, G. L.

    2015-06-15

    We report on a high-resolution double-channel imaging method used to synchronously map the intensity- and optical-frequency-distribution of a laser beam in the plane orthogonal to the propagation direction. The synchronous measurement allows us to show that the laser frequency is an inhomogeneous distribution below threshold, but that it becomes homogeneous across the fundamental Gaussian mode above threshold. The beam’s tails deviations from the Gaussian shape, however, are accompanied by sizeable fluctuations in the laser wavelength, possibly deriving from manufacturing details and from the influence of spontaneous emission in the very low intensity wings. In addition to the synchronous spatial characterization, a temporal analysis at any given point in the beam cross section is carried out. Using this method, the beam homogeneity and spatial shape, energy density, energy center, and the defects-related spectrum can also be extracted from these high-resolution pictures.

  19. LASER BEAM PROFILE MONITOR DEVELOPMENT AT BNL FOR SNS.

    SciTech Connect

    CONNOLLY,R.; CAMERON,P.; CUPOLO,J.; GASSNER,D.; GRAU,M.; KESSELMAN,M.; PENG,S.; SIKORA,R.

    2002-05-06

    A beam profile monitor for H-beams based on laser photoneutralization is being developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for use on the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) [l]. An H ion has a first ionization potential of 0.75eV and can be neutralized by light from a Nd:YAG laser (h=1064nm). To measure beam profiles, a narrow laser beam is passed through the ion beam neutralizing a portion of the H-beam struck by the laser. The laser trajectory is stepped across the ion beam. At each laser position, the reduction of the beam current caused by the laser is measured. A proof-of-principle experiment was done earlier at 750keV. This paper reports on measurements made on 200MeV beam at BNL and with a compact scanner prototype at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab on beam from the SNS RFQ.

  20. Optimization of the laser beam propagation conditions in the prism stretcher of THL-100 multiterawatt laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, M. V.; Alekseev, S. V.; Ivanov, N. G.; Losev, V. F.

    2015-12-01

    The influence of the optical inhomogeneities effect of the prism stretcher elements on the spatial, angular and spectral parameters of the transmitted radiation and the degree of change in the phase aberrations of the laser beam during its propagation in the stretcher are studied. It is shown that the prism material does not allow transmitting of a required diameter of 75 mm without linear distortions of the beam. The maximum intensity and beam diameter allowing to amplify the picosecond pulses in XeF(C-A) amplifier are determined.

  1. Welding-induced alignment distortion in DIP LD packages: effect of laser welding sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenning; Lin, Yaomin; Shi, Frank G.

    2002-06-01

    In pigtailing of a single mode fiber to a semiconductor laser for optical communication applications, the tolerance for displacement of the fiber relative to the laser is extremely tight, a submicron movement can often lead to a significant misalignment and thus the reduction in the power coupled into the fiber. Among various fiber pigtailing assembly technologies, pulsed laser welding is the method with submicron accuracy and is most conducive to automation. However, the melting-solidification process during laser welding can often distort the pre-achieved fiber-optic alignment. This Welding-Induced-Alignment-Distortion (WIAD) is a serious concern and significantly affects the yield for single mode fiber pigtailing to a semiconductor laser. This work presents a method for predicting WIAD as a function of various processing, laser, tooling and materials parameters. More specifically, the degree of WIAD produced by the laser welding in a dual-in-line laser diode package is predicted for the first time. An optimal welding sequence is obtained for minimizing WIAD.

  2. Laser beam shaping and packaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Daxin; Zhao, Baiqin

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a semiconductor laser beam shaping system, that can collimate the irradiance profile effectively and package the laser diode(LD) at the same time. Due to the semiconductor LD is a kind of line source, a particular ellipsoidal lens is designed after both the fast-axis and the slow-axis of the laser beam analyzed. Geometrical optics analysis based on the ray tracing method is done and the formulas to calculate the shape of the lens are given. Both the theoretical and experimental result show that the laser beam system works effectively; the divergence angle is reduced to less than 0.5 degree in the fast-axial direction and 1.8 degree in the slow-axial direction. In addition, it is the same process that makes the laser beam shaper and packages the LD by using epoxy resin, which simplifies the manufacturing process and reduces the LD volume greatly. Because of the advantages of small volume, low-cost, high rigidity and easy fabrication, the shaper is of great value in the field of semiconductor LD applications.

  3. LASER BEAMS: Calculation of the laser-beam M2 factor by the method of moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potemkin, A. K.; Khazanov, E. A.

    2005-11-01

    The method is proposed for calculating the M2 factor by using the averaged description of wave beams (the method of moments). The values of M2 are calculated for the super-Gaussian intensity distribution with phase distortions caused by the electron and thermal self-focusing and spherical aberration.

  4. Effects of organized turbulence structures on the phase distortion in a coherent optical beam propagating through a turbulent shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truman, C. Randall; Lee, Moon Joo

    1990-05-01

    Effects of organized turbulence structures on the propagation of an optical beam in a turbulent shear flow have been analyzed. An instantaneous passive-scalar field in a computed homogeneous turbulent shear flow is used to represent index-of-refraction fluctuations, and phase distortion induced in a coherent optical beam by turbulent fluctuations is calculated. The organized vortical structures (``hairpin-shaped'' eddies) in the turbulent flow give rise to a scalar distribution with elongated regions of intense fluctuation, which have an inclination (about 30°) with respect to the mean flow, similar to that of the characteristic ``hairpin'' eddies. Two-point correlations of vorticity and scalar fluctuations support a proposed physical model in which the regions of intense scalar fluctuation are produced primarily by hairpin vortices. It is found that the spatial distribution of the phase distortion has a substantial variation with the direction of propagation. A highly localized distribution of intense phase distortions is produced when the optical beam propagates at an angle (45°) close to the inclination of hairpin vortices; at larger angles of propagation the distribution shows an elongated pattern with smaller phase distortions. It is also found that the root-mean-square phase distortion depends significantly on the propagation direction, and the phase distortion can be minimized at an angle of propagation approximately normal to the inclination of hairpin eddies. This study shows how the characteristics of an optical beam propagating through a turbulent shear flow are affected by the geometrical configurations of organized vortical structures.

  5. Adaptive control of laser beams propagating in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanev, Feodor; Atepaeva, Natalya; Lukin, Vladimir; Makenova, Nailya

    2006-09-01

    In the present paper efficiency of adaptive correction is analyzed in the turbulent atmosphere and under the conditions of thermal blooming. A numerical model of a typical adaptive optics system was developed to carry out the investigations. As it is known, phase conjugation and multidither, i.e., the algorithms commonly employed to correct for thermal and turbulent distortions of laser beams are unstable in nonlinear medium. We demonstrated that stability of phase control is possible to increase introducing the modifications of the algorithms. Also we demonstrated that phase compensation does not insure complete correction for thermal or turbulent aberrations induced by an atmospheric layer. To correct for aberrations under these conditions it is possible to employ amplitude-phase control over the beam, for example, to use the wavefront reversal algorithm. Realization of the algorithm is possible in a two-mirror adaptive system in which the control over beam phase is performed in two planes at the access to the medium. In numerical experiments it was shown that the two-mirror system insures the absolute compensation for a thin turbulent layer placed at arbitrary distance from the aperture of a laser source and high effectiveness of compensation for distributed lens comparing with phase-only algorithms.

  6. Deformation of a laser beam in the fabrication of graphite microstructures inside a volume of diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Kononenko, T V; Zavedeev, E V

    2016-03-31

    We report a theoretical and experimental study of the energy profile deformation along the laser beam axis during the fabrication of graphite microstructures inside a diamond crystal. The numerical simulation shows that the use of a focusing lens with a numerical aperture NA < 0.1 at a focusing depth of up to 2 mm makes it possible to avoid a noticeable change in the energy profile of the beam due to the spherical aberration that occurs in the case of refraction of the focused laser beam at the air – diamond interface. The calculation results are confirmed by experimental data on the distribution of the laser intensity along the beam axis in front of its focal plane, derived from observations of graphitisation wave propagation in diamond. The effect of radiation self-focusing on laser-induced graphitisation of diamond is analysed. It is shown that if the wavefront distortion due to self-focusing can be neglected at a minimum pulse energy required for the optical breakdown of diamond, then an increase in the beam distortion with increasing pulse energy has no effect on the graphitisation process. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  7. Beam shaping for laser initiated optical primers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizotte, Todd E.

    2008-08-01

    Remington was one of the first firearm manufacturing companies to file a patent for laser initiated firearms, in 1969. Nearly 40 years later, the development of laser initiated firearms has not become a mainstream technology in the civilian market. Requiring a battery is definitely a short coming, so it is easy to see how such a concept would be problematic. Having a firearm operate reliably and the delivery of laser energy in an efficient manner to ignite the shock-sensitive explosive primer mixtures is a tall task indeed. There has been considerable research on optical element based methods of transferring or compressing laser energy to ignite primer charges, including windows, laser chip primers and various lens shaped windows to focus the laser energy. The focusing of laser light needs to achieve igniting temperatures upwards of >400°C. Many of the patent filings covering this type of technology discuss simple approaches where a single point of light might be sufficient to perform this task. Alternatively a multi-point method might provide better performance, especially for mission critical applications, such as precision military firearms. This paper covers initial design and performance test of the laser beam shaping optics to create simultaneous multiple point ignition locations and a circumferential intense ring for igniting primer charge compounds. A simple initial test of the ring beam shaping technique was evaluated on a standard large caliber primer to determine its effectiveness on igniting the primer material. Several tests were conducted to gauge the feasibility of laser beam shaping, including optic fabrication and mounting on a cartridge, optic durability and functional ignition performance. Initial data will be presented, including testing of optically elements and empirical primer ignition / burn analysis.

  8. Laser beam propagation in atmospheric turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murty, S. S. R.

    1979-01-01

    The optical effects of atmospheric turbulence on the propagation of low power laser beams are reviewed in this paper. The optical effects are produced by the temperature fluctuations which result in fluctuations of the refractive index of air. The commonly-used models of index-of-refraction fluctuations are presented. Laser beams experience fluctuations of beam size, beam position, and intensity distribution within the beam due to refractive turbulence. Some of the observed effects are qualitatively explained by treating the turbulent atmosphere as a collection of moving gaseous lenses of various sizes. Analytical results and experimental verifications of the variance, covariance and probability distribution of intensity fluctuations in weak turbulence are presented. For stronger turbulence, a saturation of the optical scintillations is observed. The saturation of scintillations involves a progressive break-up of the beam into multiple patches; the beam loses some of its lateral coherence. Heterodyne systems operating in a turbulent atmosphere experience a loss of heterodyne signal due to the destruction of coherence.

  9. In situ measurement of laser beam quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi, Somayeh Sadat; Ghavami Sabouri, Saeed; Khorsandi, Alireza

    2017-09-01

    An innovative optical method is introduced for the beam quality measurement of any arbitrary transverse mode based on the reconstruction of the mode from a few-frame image of the beam cross-section. This is performed by the decomposition of a mode to its basic Hermite-Gaussian modal coefficients. The performance of the proposed method is examined through M 2-factor measurement of the beam of a Nd:YAG laser which was forced to oscillate in a certain mode using a crossed rectangular intracavity aperture. Obtained results have shown that this method can be alternatively replaced for the hologram- and ISO-based techniques recently exploiting for beam quality measurement regardless of the mode type and the position of utilized CCD camera along the beam direction.

  10. Effects of mirror distortion by thermal deformation in an interferometry beam size monitor system at PLS-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Ji-Gwang; Kim, Eun-San; Kim, Changbum; Huang, Jung-Yun; Kim, Dotae

    2016-10-01

    Extraction mirrors installed at the most upstream position of interferometry beam size monitor are frequently used for measuring the beam size in storage rings. These mirrors receive the high power synchrotron radiation and are distorted owing to the heat distribution that depends on the position on the mirror surface. The distortion of the mirror changes the effective separation of the slit in the interferometry beam size monitor. Estimation of the effects of the front-end mirror distortion is important for measuring the beam size accurately. In this paper, we present the result of the numerical simulation of the temperature distribution and thermal expansion of the front-end mirror using ANSYS code, the theoretical basis of the effects of mirror distortion and compare with experimental results from Pohang Light Source II (PLS-II) at the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL). The equipment in the beam diagnosis line in PLS-II and experimental set-up for measuring the distortion of the front-end mirror using a multi-hole square array Hartmann screen are described.

  11. Image distortion and its correction in linear galvanometric mirrors-based laser-scanning microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenbo; Wu, Zhenguo; Zeng, Haishan

    2015-05-01

    To simplify imaging focusing and calibration tasks, a laser-scanning microscope needs to scan at a moderate frame rate. The inertia of a galvanometric scanner leads to time delays when following external commands, which subsequently introduces image distortions that deteriorate as scan frequency increases. Sinusoidal and triangular waveforms were examined as fast axis driving patterns. The interplay among driving pattern, frequency, sampling rate, phase shift, linear scanning range, and their effect on reconstructed images was discussed. Utilizing position feedback from the linear galvo scanners, the effect of response time could be automatically compensated in real time. Precompensated triangular driving waveform offered the least amount of image distortion.

  12. Laser synchrotron radiation and beam cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Esarey, E.; Sprangle, P.; Ting, A.

    1995-12-31

    The interaction of intense {approx_gt} 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}, short pulse ({approx_lt} 1 ps) lasers with electron beams and plasmas can lead to the generation of harmonic radiation by several mechanisms. Laser synchrotron radiation may provide a practical method for generating tunable, near monochromatic, well collimated, short pulse x-rays in compact, relatively inexpensive source. The mechanism for the generation of laser synchrotron radiation is nonlinear Thomson scattering. Short wavelengths can be generated via Thomson scattering by two methods, (i) backscattering from relativistic electron beams, in which the radiation frequency is upshifted by the relativistic factor 4{gamma}{sup 2}, and (ii) harmonic scattering, in which a multitude of harmonics are generated with harmonic numbers extending out to the critical harmonic number nc{approx_equal}a{sub 0}{sup 3} {much_gt} 1, where a{sub 0} {approx_equal}10{sup -9}{lambda}I{sup 1/2}, {lambda} is the laser wavelength in {mu}m and I is the laser intensity in W/cm{sup 2}. Laser synchrotron sources are capable of generating short ({approx_lt} ps) x-ray pulses with high peak flux ({approx_gt} 10{sup 21} photons/s) and brightness ({approx_gt}{sup 19} photons/s-mm{sup 2}-mrad{sup 2} 0.1%BW. As the electron beam radiates via Thomson scattering, it can subsequently be cooled, i.e., the beam emittance and energy spread can be reduced. This cooling can occur on rapid ({approximately} ps) time scales. In addition, electron distributions with sufficiently small axial energy spreads can be used to generate coherent XUV radiation via a laser-pumped FEL mechanism.

  13. More About Beam-Steering Subsystem For Laser Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, Norman A.; Chen, Chien-Chu; Hemmati, Hamid; Lesh, James R.

    1995-01-01

    Two reports present additional information about developmental beam-steering subsystem of laser-communication system. Aspects of this subsystem described previously in "Beam-Steering Subsystem for Laser Communication" (NPO-19069) and "Digital Controller for Laser-Beam-Steering Subsystem" (NPO-19193). Reports reiterate basic principles of operation of beam-steering subsystem and of laser-communication system as whole. Also presents some of details of optical and mechanical design of prototype of subsystem, called Optical Communication Demonstrator.

  14. More About Beam-Steering Subsystem For Laser Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, Norman A.; Chen, Chien-Chu; Hemmati, Hamid; Lesh, James R.

    1995-01-01

    Two reports present additional information about developmental beam-steering subsystem of laser-communication system. Aspects of this subsystem described previously in "Beam-Steering Subsystem for Laser Communication" (NPO-19069) and "Digital Controller for Laser-Beam-Steering Subsystem" (NPO-19193). Reports reiterate basic principles of operation of beam-steering subsystem and of laser-communication system as whole. Also presents some of details of optical and mechanical design of prototype of subsystem, called Optical Communication Demonstrator.

  15. Resonant Laser Manipulation of an Atomic Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilly, T. C.; Ketsdever, A. D.; Gimelshein, S. F.

    2011-05-01

    Theories for laser-atom interactions have been under development since the advent of laser technology. The theories have yet to be adequately integrated into kinetic flow solvers. Realizing this integration would greatly enhance the scaling of laser-species interactions beyond the realm of ultra-cold atomic physics. A representative numerical investigation was conducted using a custom collisionless gas particle trajectory code, demonstrating this goal in the present study. The investigation covered neutral atomic beam steering and collimation using near-resonant laser fields. In addition to the numerical investigation, a validating experiment was conducted. The experimental results showed good agreement with the numerical simulations when experimental parameters, such as finite laser line width, were taken into account. These simulations showed trends and some limitations associated with the use of a continuous-wave Gaussian laser fields for the steering and collimation of a geometrically skimmed cesium atomic beam using the photon scattering force and the near-resonant induced dipole gradient force. These simulations indicate possible integration of the resonant laser-atom interaction with other rarefied and collisional solvers for similar species such as alkali metals.

  16. Workshop summary: Receivers for laser power beaming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1993-01-01

    At the Space Photovoltaics Research and Technology (SPRAT) conference at NASA Lewis Research Center, a workshop session was held to discuss issues involved in using photovoltaic arrays ('solar cells') to convert laser power into electrical power for use as receiving elements for beamed power.

  17. Particle detection with intensified laser beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knollenberg, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    Application of external and laser output mirrors to produce intensified light beam for measurement of light scattered by dispersed particles is described. Use of fiber optics bundles to collect light is discussed. Diagram of equipment and principles of operation are presented.

  18. Systems analysis on laser beamed power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeiders, Glenn W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA SELENE power beaming program is intended to supply cost-effective power to space assets via Earth-based lasers and active optics systems. Key elements of the program are analyzed, the overall effort is reviewed, and recommendations are presented.

  19. Multiple beam laser cell micropatterning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimhan, Sriram V.; Goodwin, Richard L.; Borg, Thomas K.; Dawson, Darren M.; Gao, Bruce Z.

    2004-10-01

    The various cell mechanisms, including cell-cell interactions, in native tissue could be better understood by engineering a cell coculture with a micro environment that closely mimics the natural cell arrangement. To this end, we developed a cell micropatterning system that uses a weakly focused laser beam to trap individual cells at the center of the beam and propel them forward onto an appropriate substrate. The optimal methods of introducing different cell types to be patterned into the patterning system and preventing cells from randomly falling onto the pattern were issues to be addressed with this system. Here, we report the development of a multi-chamber, multi-beam laser cell micropatterning system, in which the delivery of specific cells into the beam can be controlled using secondary laser beams. This permits consecutive creation of a pattern involving multiple cell types at specific relative positions. As examples, various patterns of fibroblasts have been created on collagen coated coverslips. In addition, two asynchronously beating clusters of cardiomyocytes were connected with fibroblasts of cardiac origin, yielding a deeper insight into the electrophysiological role of fibroblasts in conduction of the action potentials among cardiomyocytes.

  20. Virtually distortion-free imaging system for large field, high resolution lithography using electrons, ions or other particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Hawryluk, A.M.; Ceglio, N.M.

    1993-01-12

    Virtually distortion free large field high resolution imaging is performed using an imaging system which contains large field distortion or field curvature. A reticle is imaged in one direction through the optical system to form an encoded mask. The encoded mask is then imaged back through the imaging system onto a wafer positioned at the reticle position. Particle beams, including electrons, ions and neutral particles, may be used as well as electromagnetic radiation.

  1. Virtually distortion-free imaging system for large field, high resolution lithography using electrons, ions or other particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Hawryluk, Andrew M.; Ceglio, Natale M.

    1993-01-01

    Virtually distortion free large field high resolution imaging is performed using an imaging system which contains large field distortion or field curvature. A reticle is imaged in one direction through the optical system to form an encoded mask. The encoded mask is then imaged back through the imaging system onto a wafer positioned at the reticle position. Particle beams, including electrons, ions and neutral particles, may be used as well as electromagnetic radiation.

  2. Ion beams from laser-generated plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, R. H.; Anderson, R. J.; Gray, L. G.; Rosenfeld, J. P.; Manka, C. K.; Carruth, M. R.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes the space-charge-limited beams produced by the plasma blowoffs generated by 20-MW bursts of 1.06-micron radiation from an active Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Laser power densities near 10 to the 11th/sq cm on solid targets generate thermalized plasma plumes which drift to a 15-kV gridded extraction gap where the ions are extracted, accelerated, and electrostatically focused; the spatially defined ion beams are then magnetically analyzed to determine the charge state content in the beams formed from carbon, aluminum, copper, and lead targets. This technique preserves time-of-flight (TOF) information in the plasma drift region, which permits plasma ion temperatures and mass flow velocities to be determined from the Maxwellian ion curve TOF shapes for the individual charge species.

  3. Hartmann-Shack wave front measurements for real time determination of laser beam propagation parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, B.; Luebbecke, M.; Mann, K.

    2006-05-15

    The suitability of the Hartmann-Shack technique for the determination of the propagation parameters of a laser beam is faced against the well known caustic approach according to the ISO 11146 standard. A He-Ne laser (543 nm) was chosen as test beam, both in its fundamental mode as well as after intentional distortion, introducing a moderate amount of spherical aberration. Results are given for the most important beam parameters M{sup 2}, divergence, and beam widths, indicating an agreement of better than 10% and for adapted beam diameter <5%. Furthermore, the theoretical background, pros and cons, as well as some features of the software implementation for the Hartmann-Shack sensor are briefly reviewed.

  4. Safe Laser Beam Propagation for Interplanetary Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Keith E.

    2011-01-01

    Ground-to-space laser uplinks to Earth–orbiting satellites and deep space probes serve both as a beacon and an uplink command channel for deep space probes and Earth-orbiting satellites. An acquisition and tracking point design to support a high bandwidth downlink from a 20-cm optical terminal on an orbiting Mars spacecraft typically calls for 2.5 kW of 1030-nm uplink optical power in 40 micro-radians divergent beams.2 The NOHD (nominal ocular hazard distance) of the 1030nm uplink is in excess of 2E5 km, approximately half the distance to the moon. Recognizing the possible threat of high power laser uplinks to the flying public and to sensitive Earth-orbiting satellites, JPL developed a three-tiered system at its Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) to ensure safe laser beam propagation through navigational and near-Earth space.

  5. Safe Laser Beam Propagation for Interplanetary Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Keith E.

    2011-01-01

    Ground-to-space laser uplinks to Earth–orbiting satellites and deep space probes serve both as a beacon and an uplink command channel for deep space probes and Earth-orbiting satellites. An acquisition and tracking point design to support a high bandwidth downlink from a 20-cm optical terminal on an orbiting Mars spacecraft typically calls for 2.5 kW of 1030-nm uplink optical power in 40 micro-radians divergent beams.2 The NOHD (nominal ocular hazard distance) of the 1030nm uplink is in excess of 2E5 km, approximately half the distance to the moon. Recognizing the possible threat of high power laser uplinks to the flying public and to sensitive Earth-orbiting satellites, JPL developed a three-tiered system at its Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) to ensure safe laser beam propagation through navigational and near-Earth space.

  6. Enhanced Photoacoustic Beam Profiling of Pulsed Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, M.; Santiago, G.; Paz, M.; Slezak, V.; Peuriot, A.

    2013-09-01

    An improved version of a photoacoustic beam profiler of pulsed lasers is presented. The new model resorts to high-bandwidth condenser microphones to register higher-order, excited acoustic modes, thus enabling more accurate profiling. In addition, Xe was used as a buffer gas since its high atomic weight further reduces the eigenfrequencies. Furthermore, a new gas-handling system makes up for some deficiencies found in the first model. The system was calibrated using the Airy pattern generated with a pinhole illuminated by a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser that excited traces. Once calibrated, the beam profile of a TEA laser was obtained, using ethylene as the absorbing species. This profiler returns more accurate profiles than thermal paper.

  7. CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETER: Phase and amplitude — phase control of a laser beam propagating in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukin, Vladimir P.; Kanev, Fedor Yu; Sennikov, Viktor A.; Makenova, Nailya A.; Tartakovskii, Valerii A.; Konyaev, Petr A.

    2004-09-01

    Phase and amplitude — phase corrections of laser beam distortions during their propagation in a turbulent atmosphere under conditions of strong intensity fluctuations are compared. The effect of wavefront dislocations and the possibility of controlling the amplitude and phase of an optical wave are studied. Two approaches are analysed: phase correction using amplitude control and two-mirror phase correction. The efficiency of both methods is demonstrated.

  8. Effects of organized turbulence structures on the phase distortion in a coherent optical beam propagating through a turbulent shear flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truman, C. Randall; Lee, Moon Joo

    1990-01-01

    Phase distortion in a coherent optical beam propagating through a turbulent shear flow is studied. The instantaneous distribution of the index refraction is represented by a passive-scalar field in a computed homogeneous shear flow. The flow contains organized vortical structures (hairpin eddies), which are characteristic of turbulent shear flows. The phase distortion induced by turbulent fluctuations is calculated from the optical path difference through the flow. A conceptual model is proposed for the distribution of scalar fluctuations produced by the hairpin vortices in the shear flow. It is shown that the phase distortion of an optical beam can be minimized by propagating the beam at an angle approximately normal to the organized vortical structures in a turbulent shear flow.

  9. Laser-cooled bunched ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffer, J.P.; Hangst, J.S.; Nielsen, J.S.

    1995-08-01

    In collaboration with the Arhus group, the laser cooling of a beam bunched by an rf electrode was investigated at the ASTRID storage ring. A single laser is used for unidirectional cooling, since the longitudinal velocity of the beam will undergo {open_quotes}synchrotron oscillations{close_quotes} and the ions are trapped in velocity space. As the cooling proceeds the velocity spread of the beam, as well as the bunch length is measured. The bunch length decreases to the point where it is limited only by the Coulomb repulsion between ions. The measured length is slightly (20-30%) smaller than the calculated limit for a cold beam. This may be the accuracy of the measurement, or may indicate that the beam still has a large transverse temperature so that the longitudinal repulsion is less than would be expected from an absolutely cold beam. Simulations suggest that the coupling between transverse and longitudinal degrees of freedom is strong -- but this issue will have to be resolved by further measurements.

  10. Phasing surface emitting diode laser outputs into a coherent laser beam

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, John F.

    2006-10-10

    A system for generating a powerful laser beam includes a first laser element and at least one additional laser element having a rear laser mirror, an output mirror that is 100% reflective at normal incidence and <5% reflective at an input beam angle, and laser material between the rear laser mirror and the output mirror. The system includes an injector, a reference laser beam source, an amplifier and phase conjugater, and a combiner.

  11. High gain pre-amplifier laser beam quality evaluating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Yu, Jin; Zhao, Tianzhuo; Zhang, Xue; Fan, Zhongwei

    2011-06-01

    Designed a system for the high gain laser pre-amplifier to evaluate the image quality. The system uses 4f imaging principle and Kepler type telescope was choiced, it has two advantages: avert optical distortion and eliminate aberration in the measurement system. Combined with the location of the lens inside of pre-amplifier such as the spatial filter , the near field imaging structure was designed. The structure can be reduced to 11.9 times the beam image, and clearly passed the image to the CCD target surface. The location of first positive lens focus is the location of far field image. In this article, one laser pre-amplifier was measured. The average measured near field modulation M=1.34, the average measured far field diffraction limit is 2.94. Experiments show that the stability of measuring system is less than+/-5%, it can meet the measurement requirements of ICF laser pre-amplifier parameters. Use this system we can discover the problem during the design and installation. There is great meaning for develop of laser pre-amplifier in ICF for further.

  12. LASER BEAMS: On a method for obtaining laser beams with a phase singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyutin, A. A.

    2004-03-01

    A method is analysed for obtaining laser beams with a phase singularity with the help of phase screens described by the function of the type exp(ilphi). It is shown that this method is used to obtain laser beams in the form of single rings with a smooth intensity distribution in the far-field radiation zone (at the lens focus) representing the superposition of Laguerre — Gaussian modes. In the near-field zone and, in the presence of aperture clipping, also in the focal region, the beams with a more complicated structure can be observed. The scaling of the radius corresponding to the maximum intensity of the beam both in the absence and presence of aperture clipping occurs linearly with the singularity charge l. The influence of the beam decentration and of the phase screen on the structure of phase-singularity beams is estimated.

  13. Integration of a laser doppler vibrometer and adaptive optics system for acoustic-optical detection in the presence of random water wave distortions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Land, Phillip; Robinson, Dennis; Roeder, James; Cook, Dean; Majumdar, Arun K.

    2016-05-01

    A new technique has been developed for improving the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) of underwater acoustic signals measured above the water's surface. This technique uses a Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) and an Adaptive Optics (AO) system (consisting of a fast steering mirror, deformable mirror, and Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensor) for mitigating the effect of surface water distortions encountered while remotely recording underwater acoustic signals. The LDV is used to perform non-contact vibration measurements of a surface via a two beam laser interferometer. We have demonstrated the feasibility of this technique to overcome water distortions artificially generated on the surface of the water in a laboratory tank. In this setup, the LDV beam penetrates the surface of the water and travels down to be reflected off a submerged acoustic transducer. The reflected or returned beam is then recorded by the LDV as a vibration wave measurement. The LDV extracts the acoustic wave information while the AO mitigates the water surface distortions, increasing the overall SNR. The AO system records the Strehl ratio, which is a measure of the quality of optical image formation. In a perfect optical system the Strehl ratio is unity, however realistic systems with imperfections have Strehl ratios below one. The operation of the AO control system in open-loop and closed-loop configurations demonstrates the utility of the AO-based LDV for many applications.

  14. LASER BEAMS: Rotation of arbitrary laser beams using π/2-mode converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyutin, A. A.

    2003-03-01

    Two types of rotators of arbitrary beams based on astigmatic π/2 and π converters of laser modes are described. Unlike traditional rotators of Dove prism type, proposed schemes use exclusively refracting optical components. Numerical simulations of the beam rotators are performed based both on Fresnel theory and ray-tracing method.

  15. Hybrid laser-beam-shaping system for rotatable dual beams with long depth of focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Fu-Lung; Chen, Cheng-Huan; Lin, Yu-Chung; Lin, Mao-Chi

    2016-10-01

    A laser processing system consisting of two diffractive elements and one refractive element is proposed enabling a Gaussian laser beam to be transformed into two beams with a depth of focus of up to 150 µm and focal spot smaller than 5 µm. For specific laser processing, the two beams are rotatable when the beam-splitting diffractive element is rotated. The overall system is versatile for laser cutting and drilling.

  16. LASER BEAMS: Laser heterodyning of Gaussian beams with partial spatial coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozin, G. I.; Kuznetsov, A. P.; Lebedinskii, M. O.

    2005-05-01

    The characteristics of Gaussian beams with partial spatial coherence are considered theoretically. The conditions for efficient recording of laser radiation reflected from scattering surfaces upon laser heterodyning and intracavity radiation reception are analysed. Recommendations on the use of projecting telescopic systems are given. Theoretical conclusions are confirmed experimentally.

  17. Correction of walk-off-induced wavefront distortion for continuous-wave laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Hongxin; Chen, Guozhu; Wu, Yue; Shen, Yong; Liu, Qu

    2016-09-01

    We theoretically and experimentally investigate the wave front distortion in critically phase-matched continuous-wave (CW) second harmonic generation (SHG). Due to the walk-off effect in the nonlinear crystal, the generated second harmonic is extremely elliptical and quite non-Gaussian, which causes a very low matching and coupling efficiency in experiment. Cylindrical lenses and walk-off compensating crystals are adopted to correct distorted wave fronts, and obtain a good TEM00 mode efficiently. Theoretically, we simulate the correction effect of 266-nm laser generated with SHG. The experiment results accord well with the theoretical simulation and an above 80% TEM00 component is obtained for 266-nm continuous-wave laser with a 4.8°-walk-off angle in beta barium borate (BBO) crystal. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 91436103) and Research Programme of National University of Defense Technology, China (Grant No. JC15-02-03).

  18. Nonlinear distortion evaluation in a directly modulated distributed feedback laser diode-based fiber-optic cable television transport system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chung-Yi; Ying, Cheng-Ling; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chu, Chien-An

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated a directly modulated distributed feedback (DFB) laser diode (LD) for cable TV systems with respect to carrier-to-nonlinear distortion of LDs. The second-order distortion-to-carrier ratio is found to be proportional to that of the second-order coefficient-to-first-order coefficient of the DFB laser diode driving current and to the optical modulation index (OMI). Furthermore, the third-order distortion-to-carrier ratio is proportional to that of the third-order coefficient-to-first-order coefficient of the DFB laser diode driving current, and to the OMI2.

  19. An intense polarized beam by a laser ionization injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmori, Chihiro; Hiramatsu, Shigenori; Nakamura, Takeshi

    1990-12-01

    Accumulation of protons and polarized protons by photo-ionization injection are described. This method consists of: (1) producing the neutral hydrogen beam by Lorentz stripping; (2) excitation of the neutral hydrogen beam with a laser; and (3) ionization of the hydrogen beam in the 2P excited state with another laser. When the laser for the excitation is circularly polarized, we can get a polarized proton beam. An ionization efficiency of 98 percent and a polarization of 80 percent can be expected by an intense laser beam from a free electron laser (FEL).

  20. Coherence delay augmented laser beam homogenizer

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, P.; Bernhardt, A.

    1991-12-31

    It is an object of the present invention to provide an apparatus that can reduce the apparent coherence length of a laser beam so the beam can be used with an inexpensive homogenizer to produce an output beam with a uniform spatial intensity across its entire cross section. It is a further object of the invention to provide an improved homogenizer with a variable aperture size that is simple and easily made. It is still an additional object of the invention to provide an improved liquid filled homogenizer utilizing total internal reflection for improved efficiency. These, and other objects of the invention are realized by using a ``coherence delay line,`` according to the present invention, in series between a laser and a homogenizer. The coherence delay line is an optical ``line`` that comprises two mirrors, one partially reflecting, and one totally reflecting, arranged so that light incident from the laser first strikes the partially reflecting mirror. A portion of the beam passes through, and a portion is reflected back to the totally reflecting mirror.

  1. Laser power beaming system analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeiders, Glenn W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The successful demonstration of the PAMELA adaptive optics hardware and the fabrication of the BTOS truss structure were identified by the program office as the two most critical elements of the NASA power beaming program, so it was these that received attention during this program. Much of the effort was expended in direct program support at MSFC, but detailed technical analyses of the AMP deterministic control scheme and the BTOS truss structure (both the JPL design and a spherical one) were prepared and are attached, and recommendations are given.

  2. [Effects in eyes, caused by laser rays emitted by laser-beam projectors].

    PubMed

    Mal'kova, N Iu; Ushkova, I N; Romanenko, E I

    2014-01-01

    Health assessment of laser radiation emitted by laser-beam projectors used for laser shows in concert and theatrical events was carried out. The effects of various laser radiation wavelengths and regimes on functional state of eye retina were studied.

  3. Wavefront autocorrelation of femtosecond laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunwald, Ruediger; Neumann, Uwe J.; Griebner, Uwe; Reimann, Klaus; Steinmeyer, Guenter; Kebbel, Volker

    2004-06-01

    Spatially resolved wavefront sensing and time-resolved autocorrelation measurement of ultrashort pulses are usually separated procedures. For few-cycle pulses with significant spatial inhomogeneities and poor beam quality, a fully spatio-temporal beam characterization is necessary. Here we report on a new concept for a joint two-dimensional mapping of local temporal coherence and local wavefront tilt based on the combination of collinear autocorrelation and Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing. Essentially for this "wavefront autocorrelation" is a splitting of the beam into a matrix of Bessel-like sub-beams by an array of thin-film microaxicons. The sub-beams are further processed by a two-dimensional collinear autocorrelation setup. The second harmonic distribution of sub-beams at a defined distance is imaged onto a CCD camera. The nondiffractive sub-beams ensure an extended depth of focus and a low sensitivity towards angular misalignment or axial displacement. With low-dispersion small-angle refractive-reflective shapers, wavefront-sensing of Ti:sapphire laser wavepackets was demonstrated experimentally for the first time.

  4. Beam-energy and laser beam-profile monitor at the BNL LINAC

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, R.; Briscoe, B.; Degen, C.; DeSanto, L.; Meng, W.; Minty, M.; Nayak, S.; Raparia, D.; Russo, T.

    2010-05-02

    We are developing a non-interceptive beam profile and energy monitor for H{sup -} beams in the high energy beam transport (HEBT) line at the Brookhaven National Lab linac. Electrons that are removed from the beam ions either by laser photodetachment or stripping by background gas are deflected into a Faraday cup. The beam profile is measured by stepping a narrow laser beam across the ion beam and measuring the electron charge vs. transverse laser position. There is a grid in front of the collector that can be biased up to 125kV. The beam energy spectrum is determined by measuring the electron charge vs. grid voltage. Beam electrons have the same velocity as the beam and so have an energy of 1/1836 of the beam protons. A 200MeV H{sup -} beam yields 109keV electrons. Energy measurements can be made with either laser-stripped or gas-stripped electrons.

  5. VideoBeam portable laser communicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecherle, G. Stephen; Holcomb, Terry L.

    1999-01-01

    A VideoBeamTM portable laser communicator has been developed which provides full duplex communication links consisting of high quality analog video and stereo audio. The 3.2-pound unit resembles a binocular-type form factor and has an operational range of over two miles (clear air) with excellent jam-resistance and low probability of interception characteristics. The VideoBeamTM unit is ideally suited for numerous military scenarios, surveillance/espionage, industrial precious mineral exploration, and campus video teleconferencing applications.

  6. Laser beamed power - Satellite demonstration applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Westerlund, Larry H.

    1992-01-01

    Feasibility of using a ground-based laser to beam light to the solar arrays of orbiting satellites to a level sufficient to provide the operating power required is discussed. An example case of a GEO communications satellite near the end of life due to radiation damage of the solar arrays or battery failure is considered. It is concluded that the commercial satellite industry should be able to reap significant economic benefits through the use of power beaming which is capable of providing supplemental power for satellites with failing arrays, or primary power for failed batteries.

  7. Freeform beam shaping for high-power multimode lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Vadim

    2014-03-01

    Widening of using high power multimode lasers in industrial laser material processing is accompanied by special requirements to irradiance profiles in such technologies like metal or plastics welding, cladding, hardening, brazing, annealing, laser pumping and amplification in MOPA lasers. Typical irradiance distribution of high power multimode lasers: free space solid state, fiber-coupled solid state and diodes lasers, fiber lasers, is similar to Gaussian. Laser technologies can be essentially improved when irradiance distribution on a workpiece is uniform (flattop) or inverse-Gauss; when building high-power pulsed lasers it is possible to enhance efficiency of pumping and amplification by applying super-Gauss irradiance distribution with controlled convexity. Therefore, "freeform" beam shaping of multimode laser beams is an important task. A proved solution is refractive field mapping beam shaper like Shaper capable to control resulting irradiance profile - with the same unit it is possible to get various beam profiles and choose optimum one for a particular application. Operational principle of these devices implies transformation of laser irradiance distribution by conserving beam consistency, high transmittance, providing collimated low divergent output beam. Using additional optics makes it possible to create resulting laser spots of necessary size and round, elliptical or linear shape. Operation out of focal plane and, hence, in field of lower wavefront curvature, allows extending depth of field. The refractive beam shapers are implemented as telescopes and collimating systems, which can be connected directly to fiber-coupled lasers or fiber lasers, thus combining functions of beam collimation and irradiance transformation.

  8. Finite Element Modeling for the Structural Analysis of Al-Cu Laser Beam Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartel, Udo; Ilin, Alexander; Bantel, Christoph; Gibmeier, Jens; Michailov, Vesselin

    Laser beam welding of aluminum and copper (Al-Cu) materials is a cost efficient joining technology to produce e.g. connector elements for battery modules. Distortion low connections can be achieved, which have electrical favorable properties. Numerical simulation of the laser beam welding process of Al-Cu dissimilar materials can provide further insight into principal process mechanisms and mechanical response of the joint parts. In this paper a methodology is introduced to investigate the structural behavior of Al-Cu joints in overlap joint with respect to welding distortions and residual stresses. First the material model of the homogeneous base materials are validated. Next, a generic material model approach is used to simulate the structural behavior of heterogeneous Al-Cu connections.

  9. Nonlinear Dynamics of Arrays of Coherent Laser Beams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-23

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2012-0058 Nonlinear dynamics of arrays of coherent laser beams Professor Sergei K. Turitsyn Aston...Report 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) 20 June 2010 – 19 June 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nonlinear dynamics of arrays of coherent laser beams 5a...have been verified using numerical simulations. 15. SUBJECT TERMS EOARD, Laser Beams, Lasers 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF

  10. Laser cleaving on glass sheets with multiple laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Yen-Liang; Lin, Jehnming

    2008-05-01

    A multiple laser system consisting of CO 2 line-shaped and Nd-YAG pulsed lasers was applied to cleave a soda-lime glass substrate in this study. Due to an increase of absorption coefficient of the wavelength of 1.06 μm for Nd-YAG laser on the soda-lime glass at high temperatures, the glass sheets were preheated by the CO 2 line-shaped laser and followed with the pulsed Nd-YAG laser to generate a mixture fracture mode on the substrate. The stress distribution on the glass substrate cleaved by the multiple laser beams has been analyzed. An uncoupled thermal-elastic analysis based on the finite-element method (FEM) was made. The numerical results show that the stress field of the fracture region is caused by a complex stress state and the cleavages are significantly affected by the pulsed laser. A clean cut of the soda-lime glass substrate could be obtained due to a large shear stress state on the cutting direction with the pulsed laser radiated on the glass substrate.

  11. Laser power beaming applications and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Robert J.; Cover, Ralph A.; Curtin, Mark S.; Dinius, R.; Lampel, Michael C.

    1994-05-01

    Beaming laser energy to spacecraft has important economic potential. It promises significant reduction in the cost of access to space, for commercial and government missions. While the potential payoff is attractive, existing technologies perform the same missions and the keys to market penetration for power beaming are a competitive cost and a schedule consistent with customers' plans. Rocketdyne is considering these questions in the context of a commercial enterprise -- thus, evaluation of the requirements must be done based on market assessments and recognition that significant private funding will be involved. It is in the context of top level business considerations that the technology requirements are being assessed and the program being designed. These considerations result in the essential elements of the development program. Since the free electron laser is regarded as the `long pole in the tent,' this paper summarizes Rocketdyne's approach for a timely, cost-effective program to demonstrate an FEL capable of supporting an initial operating capability.

  12. Laser beamed power: Satellite demonstration applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Westerlund, Larry H.

    1992-01-01

    It is possible to use a ground-based laser to beam light to the solar arrays of orbiting satellites, to a level sufficient to provide all or some of the operating power required. Near-term applications of this technology for providing supplemental power to existing satellites are discussed. Two missions with significant commercial pay-off are supplementing solar power for radiation-degraded arrays and providing satellite power during eclipse for satellites with failed batteries.

  13. Wavelength Beam-Combined Laser Diode Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    focal length f f f Diffraction grating Output...lead Water in/out Figure 3. Lincoln Laboratory-designed WBC “laser in a box.” To reduce the overall size of the WBC device, multiple folding mirrors were implemented between the diode array and the concave mirror . ...spatially merges multiple wave- length sources into a single high-inten- sity beam with an order-of-magnitude improvement in brightness compared

  14. Laser beamed power: Satellite demonstration applications

    SciTech Connect

    Landis, G.A.; Westerlund, L.H.

    1992-08-01

    It is possible to use a ground-based laser to beam light to the solar arrays of orbiting satellites, to a level sufficient to provide all or some of the operating power required. Near-term applications of this technology for providing supplemental power to existing satellites are discussed. Two missions with significant commercial pay-off are supplementing solar power for radiation-degraded arrays and providing satellite power during eclipse for satellites with failed batteries.

  15. Solid-State Laser, Resonant Ionization Laser Ion Source (Rilis) and Laser Beam Transport at Radioactive Ion Beam Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lassen, J.; Bricault, P.; Dombsky, M.; Izdebski, F.; Lavoie, J. P.; Gillner, M.; Gottwald, T.; Hellbusch, F.; Teigelhöfer, A.; Voss, A.; Wendt, K. D. A.

    2009-03-01

    The inception of laser resonance ionization spectroscopy and its application as a resonant ionization laser ion source (RILIS) took place merely 20 years ago with pulsed dye lasers [1-5]. By now next generation radioactive ion beam (RIB) facilities are being planned or built. Understanding and considering the unique RILIS requirements in the layout of next generation RIB facilities will allow for cost-effective implementation of this versatile ion source. This discussion touches on laser beam transport and RILIS requirements not necessarily obvious to experts in conventional ion sources.

  16. Mechanically assisted laser forming of thin beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucha, Zygmunt; Widłaszewski, Jacek; Kurp, Piotr; Mulczyk, Krystian

    2016-12-01

    Laser-assisted forming techniques have been developed in recent years to aid plastic working of materials, which are difficult in processing at normal temperatures due to a high brittleness, effects of high work-hardening or a high spring-back phenomenon. This paper reports initial experimental investigations and numerical simulations of a mechanically-assisted laser forming process. The research is aimed at facilitating plastic shaping of thin-walled parts made of high temperature resistant alloys. Stainless steel plate, 1 mm thick, 20 mm wide, was mounted in the cantilever arrangement and a gravitational load was applied to its free end. A CO2 laser beam with rectangular cross-section traversed along the plate, towards the fixed edge. Laser spot covered the whole width of the plate. Experiments and simulations using the finite element method were performed for different values of mechanical load and with constant laser processing parameters. Experimentally validated numerical model allowed analysis of plastic deformation mechanism under the hybrid thermo-mechanical processing. The revealed mechanism of deformation consists in intense material plastic flow near the laser heated surface. This behavior results mainly from the tension state close to the heated surface and the decrease of material yield stress at elevated temperature. Stress state near the side edges of the processed plate favored more intense plastic deformation and the involved residual stress in this region.

  17. Laser-Beam-Absorption Chemical-Species Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gersh, Michael; Goldstein, Neil; Lee, Jamine; Bien, Fritz; Richtsmeier, Steven

    1996-01-01

    Apparatus measures concentration of chemical species in fluid medium (e.g., gaseous industrial process stream). Directs laser beam through medium, and measures intensity of beam after passage through medium. Relative amount of beam power absorbed in medium indicative of concentration of chemical species; laser wavelength chosen to be one at which species of interest absorbs.

  18. A laser beam quality definition based on induced temperature rise.

    PubMed

    Miller, Harold C

    2012-12-17

    Laser beam quality metrics like M(2) can be used to describe the spot sizes and propagation behavior of a wide variety of non-ideal laser beams. However, for beams that have been diffracted by limiting apertures in the near-field, or those with unusual near-field profiles, the conventional metrics can lead to an inconsistent or incomplete description of far-field performance. This paper motivates an alternative laser beam quality definition that can be used with any beam. The approach uses a consideration of the intrinsic ability of a laser beam profile to heat a material. Comparisons are made with conventional beam quality metrics. An analysis on an asymmetric Gaussian beam is used to establish a connection with the invariant beam propagation ratio.

  19. Self-induced thermal distortion effects on target image quality.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, F G

    1972-06-01

    Experimental results are reported that show the effects of the self-induced thermal lens due to a high power laser beam on imaging or tracking systems viewing along the same propagation path. The thermal distortion effects of a wind are simulated with a low power ( less, similar 3-W) CO(2) laser beam propagating through a cell of liquid CS(2) moving across the beam. The resulting image distortion includes a warping effect analogous to the deflection of the CO(2) beam, together with a pronounced demagnification of the central portion of the object. An active optical tracker is simulated with a He-Ne laser beam propagating collinearly with the CO(2) beam. The He-Ne beam pattern returned from a specular target is distorted and sharply confined to the outline of the crescent shaped CO(2) beam. Simple ray optics models are used to provide qualitative explanations for the experimental results.

  20. Quantum well, beam deflecting surface emitting lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jae H. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    This invention relates to surface emitting semiconductor lasers (SELs), with integrated 45 deg. beam deflectors. A SEL is formed on a wafer including vertical mirrors and 45 deg. beam deflectors formed in grooves by tilted ion beam etching. A SEL is a lattice matched, or unstrained, AlGaAs/GaAs GRINSCH SQW SEL. An alternate embodiment is shown, in which a SEL is lattice mismatched, strained or pseudomorphic, or InGaAs/AlGaAs GRINSCH SQW SEL which emits radiation at a wavelength to which its substrate is transparent. Both SELs exhibit high output power, low threshold current density, and relatively high efficiency, and each are processing compatible with conventional large scale integration technology. Such SELs may be fabricated in large numbers from single wafers. The novel features of this invention include the use of tilted ion beam etching to form a pair of grooves each including vertical mirrors and 45 deg. beam deflectors. The embodiment provides substantial circuit design flexibility because radiation may be coupled both up and/or down through the substrate.

  1. Collaborative Research: Instability and transport of laser beam in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Harvey Arnold; Lushnikov, Pavel

    2014-11-18

    Our goal was to determine the onset of laser light scattering due to plasma wave instabilities. Such scatter is usually regarded as deleterious since laser beam strength is thereby diminished. While this kind of laser-plasma-instability (LPI) has long been understood for the case of coherent laser light, the theory of LPI onset for a laser beam with degraded coherence is recent. Such a laser beam fills plasma with a mottled intensity distribution, which has large fluctuations. The key question is: do the exceptionally large fluctuations control LPI onset or is it controlled by the relatively quiescent background laser intensity? We have answered this question. This is significant because LPI onset power in the former case is typically small compared to that of the latter. In addition, if large laser intensity fluctuations control LPI onset, then nonlinear effects become significant for less powerful laser beams than otherwise estimated.

  2. Quantitative pump-induced wavefront distortions in laser-diode- and flash-lamp-pumped Nd:YLF laser rods

    SciTech Connect

    Skeldon, M.D.; Saager, R.B.; Seka, W.

    1999-03-01

    Detailed interferometric measurements of the induced thermal distortions due to laser-diode and xenon flashlamp pumping of Nd:YLF are presented. The thermal distortions are quantified in terms of the primary aberrations of defocus, astigmatism, coma, and spherical. Defocus and astigmatism are shown to dominate the thermal aberrations. The measured defocus and astigmatism are converted to the conventional thermal-focal lengths in two perpendicular directions with respect to the Nd:YLF crystalline c axis for each of the two polarization states {sigma} and {pi}. A comparison of the thermal-focal lengths measured with the xenon flashlamp- and laser-diode-pumped rods is given when the rods are pumped to the same small-signal gain. The authors calculate effective dioptric-power coefficients from the data for comparison to those reported in the literature for krypton-flashlamp pumping. A thermal-time constant of 1.5 s is measured for the laser-diode-pumped Nd:YLF laser rod.

  3. Application of reactor-pumped lasers to power beaming

    SciTech Connect

    Repetti, T.E.

    1991-10-01

    Power beaming is the concept of centralized power generation and distribution to remote users via energy beams such as microwaves or laser beams. The power beaming community is presently performing technical evaluations of available lasers as part of the design process for developing terrestrial and space-based power beaming systems. This report describes the suitability of employing a nuclear reactor-pumped laser in a power beaming system. Although there are several technical issues to be resolved, the power beaming community currently believes that the AlGaAs solid-state laser is the primary candidate for power beaming because that laser meets the many design criteria for such a system and integrates well with the GaAs photodiode receiver array. After reviewing the history and physics of reactor-pumped lasers, the advantages of these lasers for power beaming are discussed, along with several technical issues which are currently facing reactor-pumped laser research. The overriding conclusion is that reactor-pumped laser technology is not presently developed to the point of being technially or economically competitive with more mature solid-state technologies for application to power beaming. 58 refs.

  4. Application of reactor-pumped lasers to power beaming

    SciTech Connect

    Repetti, T.E.

    1991-10-01

    Power beaming is the concept of centralized power generation and distribution to remote users via energy beams such as microwaves or laser beams. The power beaming community is presently performing technical evaluations of available lasers as part of the design process for developing terrestrial and space-based power beaming systems. This report describes the suitability of employing a nuclear reactor-pumped laser in a power beaming system. Although there are several technical issues to be resolved, the power beaming community currently believes that the AlGaAs solid-state laser is the primary candidate for power beaming because that laser meets the many design criteria for such a system and integrates well with the GaAs photodiode receiver array. After reviewing the history and physics of reactor-pumped lasers, the advantages of these lasers for power beaming are discussed, along with several technical issues which are currently facing reactor-pumped laser research. The overriding conclusion is that reactor-pumped laser technology is not presently developed to the point of being technially or economically competitive with more mature solid-state technologies for application to power beaming. 58 refs.

  5. Correction of the phase distortion for high power laser by freeform shape mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gang; Tang, Xiaojun; Ren, Jianfeng; Huang, Qitai; Wang, Wentao

    2016-11-01

    The wavefront can keep stable while the laser system is adjusted well. Based on this characteristic, in order to improve the beam quality, we suggest to make mirror of free-form surface to compensate for the laser wavefront aberration. First, the theory of aberration compensated with free-form shape mirror is introduced, then through computer simulation, the mirror's capability of is discussed, lastly, the mirror is used by laser system which the average output power is 12.5KW. By the using of free-form shape mirror, laser's wavefront, beam quality of farfield and intensity of nearfield are improved obviously: the intensity of nearfield F is improved from 0.15 to 0.39; the wavefront's PV is improved from 6.3μm to 1.7μm the wavefront's rms is improved from 2.0μm to 0.4μm the beam quality of farfield β is improved from 5.25 to 1.8. Compared with deformable mirror of adaptive optics, the free-form shape mirror has its own advantage: low cost; with no increase to laser system complication; the free-from shape mirror can be used to compensated for high order wavefront aberration effectively.

  6. Efficient laser production of energetic neutral beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollica, F.; Antonelli, L.; Flacco, A.; Braenzel, J.; Vauzour, B.; Folpini, G.; Birindelli, G.; Schnuerer, M.; Batani, D.; Malka, V.

    2016-03-01

    Laser-driven ion acceleration by intense, ultra-short, laser pulse has received increasing attention in recent years, and the availability of much compact and versatile ions sources motivates the study of laser-driven sources of energetic neutral atoms. We demonstrate the production of a neutral and directional beam of hydrogen and carbon atoms up to 200 keV per nucleon, with a peak flow of 2.7× {{10}13} atom s-1. Laser accelerated ions are neutralized in a pulsed, supersonic argon jet with tunable density between 1.5× {{10}17} cm-3and 6× {{10}18} cm-3. The neutralization efficiency has been measured by a time-of-flight detector for different argon densities. An optimum is found, for which complete neutralization occurs. The neutralization rate can be explained only at high areal densities (>1× {{10}17} cm-2) by single electron charge transfer processes. These results suggest a new perspective for the study of neutral production by laser and open discussion of neutralization at a lower density.

  7. Laser beam riding guided system principle and design research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Zhou; Jin, Yi; Xu, Zhou; Xing, Hao

    2016-01-01

    With the development of science and technology, precision-strike weapons has been considered to be important for winning victory in military field. Laser guidance is a major method to execute precision-strike in modern warfare. At present, the problems of primary stage of Laser guidance has been solved with endeavors of countries. Several technical aspects of laser-beam riding guided system have been mature, such as atmosphere penetration of laser beam, clutter inhibition on ground, laser irradiator, encoding and decoding of laser beam. Further, laser beam quality, equal output power and atmospheric transmission properties are qualified for warfare situation. Riding guidance instrument is a crucial element of Laser-beam riding guided system, and is also a vital element of airborne, vehicle-mounted and individual weapon. The optical system mainly consist of sighting module and laser-beam guided module. Photoelectric detector is the most important sensing device of seeker, and also the key to acquire the coordinate information of target space. Currently, in consideration of the 1.06 u m of wavelength applied in all the semi-active laser guided weapons systems, lithium drifting silicon photodiode which is sensitive to 1.06 u m of wavelength is used in photoelectric detector. Compared to Solid and gas laser, diode laser has many merits such as small volume, simple construction, light weight, long life, low lost and easy modulation. This article introduced the composition and operating principle of Laser-beam riding guided system based on 980 nm diode laser, and made a analysis of key technology; for instance, laser irradiator, modulating disk of component, laser zooming system. Through the use of laser diode, Laser-beam riding guided system is likely to have smaller shape and very light.

  8. Ultraviolet laser beam monitor using radiation responsive crystals

    DOEpatents

    McCann, Michael P.; Chen, Chung H.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus and method for monitoring an ultraviolet laser beam includes disposing in the path of an ultraviolet laser beam a substantially transparent crystal that will produce a color pattern in response to ultraviolet radiation. The crystal is exposed to the ultraviolet laser beam and a color pattern is produced within the crystal corresponding to the laser beam intensity distribution therein. The crystal is then exposed to visible light, and the color pattern is observed by means of the visible light to determine the characteristics of the laser beam that passed through crystal. In this manner, a perpendicular cross sectional intensity profile and a longitudinal intensity profile of the ultraviolet laser beam may be determined. The observation of the color pattern may be made with forward or back scattered light and may be made with the naked eye or with optical systems such as microscopes and television cameras.

  9. Impact of Laser Beam Speckle Structure on Crossed Beam Energy Transfer via Beam Deflections and Ponderomotive Self-Focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, G.; Hüller, S.

    2017-02-01

    The role of laser speckle structure (hot spots) and its ponderomotive self-focusing (PSF), in crossed beam energy transfer (CBET), of smoothed laser beams is investigated in an inhomogeneous expanding plasma. Numerical simulations using the code harmony in two spatial dimensions, demonstrate how self-focusing of laser hot spots in crossed beams can significantly affect the transfer of energy from one beam to the other in addition to the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) process. It is shown that for sufficiently intense laser beams, when the laser hot spots exceed the criterion for self-focusing in a plasma with flow, the angular spread of transmitted light beams increases considerably with the intensity, which arises in particular, in expanding plasma where significant beam deflection is observed. It is shown for the first time that besides SBS, the contribution of speckle structure, PSF, and deflections of the intense hot spots in multiple speckle beams to CBET, therefore matters.

  10. Reduction of the Influence of Laser Beam Directional Dithering in a Laser Triangulation Displacement Probe.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongwei; Tao, Wei; Zhang, Zhengqi; Zhao, Siwei; Yin, Xiaoqia; Zhao, Hui

    2017-05-15

    Directional dithering of a laser beam potentially limits the detection accuracy of a laser triangulation displacement probe. A theoretical analysis indicates that the measurement accuracy will linearly decrease as the laser dithering angle increases. To suppress laser dithering, a scheme for reduction of the influence of laser beam directional dithering in a laser triangulation displacement probe, which consists of a collimated red laser, a laser beam pointing control setup, a receiver lens, and a charge-coupled device, is proposed in this paper. The laser beam pointing control setup is inserted into the source laser beam and the measured object and can separate the source laser beam into two symmetrical laser beams. Hence, at the angle at which the source laser beam dithers, the positional averages of the two laser spots are equal and opposite. Moreover, a virtual linear function method is used to maintain a stable average of the positions of the two spots on the imaging side. Experimental results indicate that with laser beam pointing control, the estimated standard deviation of the fitting error decreases from 0.3531 mm to 0.0100 mm , the repeatability accuracy can be lowered from ±7 mm to ±5 μ m , and the nonlinear error can be reduced from ±6 % FS (full scale) to ±0.16 % FS.

  11. Reduction of the Influence of Laser Beam Directional Dithering in a Laser Triangulation Displacement Probe

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongwei; Tao, Wei; Zhang, Zhengqi; Zhao, Siwei; Yin, Xiaoqia; Zhao, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Directional dithering of a laser beam potentially limits the detection accuracy of a laser triangulation displacement probe. A theoretical analysis indicates that the measurement accuracy will linearly decrease as the laser dithering angle increases. To suppress laser dithering, a scheme for reduction of the influence of laser beam directional dithering in a laser triangulation displacement probe, which consists of a collimated red laser, a laser beam pointing control setup, a receiver lens, and a charge-coupled device, is proposed in this paper. The laser beam pointing control setup is inserted into the source laser beam and the measured object and can separate the source laser beam into two symmetrical laser beams. Hence, at the angle at which the source laser beam dithers, the positional averages of the two laser spots are equal and opposite. Moreover, a virtual linear function method is used to maintain a stable average of the positions of the two spots on the imaging side. Experimental results indicate that with laser beam pointing control, the estimated standard deviation of the fitting error decreases from 0.3531 mm to 0.0100 mm, the repeatability accuracy can be lowered from ±7 mm to ±5 μm, and the nonlinear error can be reduced from ±6 % FS (full scale) to ±0.16 % FS. PMID:28505131

  12. High-power multi-beam diode laser transmitter for a flash imaging lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmlund, Christer; Aitta, Petteri; Kivi, Sini; Mitikka, Risto; Tyni, Lauri; Heikkinen, Veli

    2013-10-01

    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland is developing the transmitter for the "Flash Optical Sensor for TErrain Relative NAVigation" (FOSTERNAV) multi-beam flash imaging lidar. FOSTERNAV is a concept demonstrator for new guidance, navigation and control (GNC) technologies to fulfil the requirements for landing and docking of spacecraft as well as for navigation of rovers. This paper presents the design, realisation and testing of the multi-beam continuous-wave (CW) laser transmitter to be used in a 256x256 pixel flash imaging lidar. Depending on the target distance, the lidar has three operation modes using either several beams with low divergence or one single beam with a large divergence. This paper describes the transmitter part of the flash imaging lidar with focus on the electronics and especially the laser diode drivers. The transmitter contains eight fibre coupled commercial diode laser modules with a total peak optical power of 32 W at 808 nm. The main requirement for the laser diode drivers was linear modulation up to a frequency of 20 MHz allowing, for example, low distortion chirps or pseudorandom binary sequences. The laser modules contain the laser diode, a monitoring photodiode, a thermo-electric cooler, and a thermistor. The modules, designed for non-modulated and low-frequency operation, set challenging demands on the design of the drivers. Measurement results are presented on frequency response, and eye diagrams for pseudo-random binary sequences.

  13. Digital Computer Simulation Programs for Electrostrictive Laser Beam Trapping,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    output is a printed computer movie showing the beam propagation trajectory at selected intervals during the laser pulse, and a graph of peak achieved intensity along the beam axis. The movie may also be plotted. (Author)

  14. Laser systems configured to output a spectrally-consolidated laser beam and related methods

    DOEpatents

    Koplow, Jeffrey P [San Ramon, CA

    2012-01-10

    A laser apparatus includes a plurality of pumps each of which is configured to emit a corresponding pump laser beam having a unique peak wavelength. The laser apparatus includes a spectral beam combiner configured to combine the corresponding pump laser beams into a substantially spatially-coherent pump laser beam having a pump spectrum that includes the unique peak wavelengths, and first and second selectively reflective elements spaced from each other to define a lasing cavity including a lasing medium therein. The lasing medium generates a plurality of gain spectra responsive to absorbing the pump laser beam. Each gain spectrum corresponds to a respective one of the unique peak wavelengths of the substantially spatially-coherent pump laser beam and partially overlaps with all other ones of the gain spectra. The reflective elements are configured to promote emission of a laser beam from the lasing medium with a peak wavelength common to each gain spectrum.

  15. Higher order annular Gaussian laser beam propagation in free space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyyuboglu, Halil T.; Yenice, Yusuf E.; Baykal, Yahya K.

    2006-03-01

    Propagation of higher order annular Gaussian (HOAG) laser beams in free space is examined. HOAG beams are defined as the difference of two Hermite-Gaussian (HG) beams; thus, they can be produced by subtracting a smaller beam from a larger beam, that are cocentered and both possess HG mode field distributions. Such beams can be considered as a generalization of the well-known annular Gaussian beams. We formulate the source and receiver plane characteristics and kurtosis parameter of HOAG beams propagating in free space and evaluate them numerically. In comparison to HG beams, HOAG beams have a broader beam size with outer lobes of kidney shape. The amount of received power within the same receiver aperture size, that is, power in bucket, is generally lower for higher order beams. The convergence of the kurtosis parameter to an asymptotic value for higher order beams takes much longer propagation distances compared to zero-order beams.

  16. Phase stability of injection-locked beam of semiconductor lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Do Hoon; Schuster, Gregory; Lee, Ja H.

    1992-01-01

    An experiment on the phase stability of an injection locked beam was done by using AlGaAs semiconductor lasers. The coherence of two beams from master and slave lasers was measured by interference between the beams in the Twymann-Green interferometer. The phase change of the output beam of the slave laser as a function of the driving current was measured in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer consisting of the master and slave lasers, and a value of 2.5 radians/mA was obtained.

  17. Characterising laser beams with liquid crystal displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, Angela; Naidoo, Darryl; Forbes, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    We show how one can determine the various properties of light, from the modal content of laser beams to decoding the information stored in optical fields carrying orbital angular momentum, by performing a modal decomposition. Although the modal decomposition of light has been known for a long time, applied mostly to pattern recognition, we illustrate how this technique can be implemented with the use of liquid-crystal displays. We show experimentally how liquid crystal displays can be used to infer the intensity, phase, wavefront, Poynting vector, and orbital angular momentum density of unknown optical fields. This measurement technique makes use of a single spatial light modulator (liquid crystal display), a Fourier transforming lens and detector (CCD or photo-diode). Such a diagnostic tool is extremely relevant to the real-time analysis of solid-state and fibre laser systems as well as mode division multiplexing as an emerging technology in optical communication.

  18. The optimization of the beam of laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiufeng; Xu, Xiaoxuan; Fan, Wei

    2008-03-01

    Laser diodes are efficient, compact, and inexpensive light sources and are already part of our modern life. However, their use for spectroscopy has been limited due to the intrinsic problem of reliably controling output frequency and power. In application where linewidth, stability or tunable narrow-band frequency output is required, free-running laser diodes are from satisfactory. The problem can be overcome with External-Cavity Diode Lasers (ECDL). The obvious features of my working are the optimization of the spatial mode and the design of the direction of light. We design the optical trace, and having a well result. In the process of the experiment using grating for the modulation of external-cavity and geometry optimization for maintaining the fixed direction of output beam. So when declining the grating for tuning the frequency of laser, you have not the demand of changing the rest part in experiment. In the system, I utilized a feedback to obtain a good precision of the controlling of the temperature and current.

  19. Staging Laser Plasma Accelerators for Increased Beam Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Panasenko, D.; Shu, A. J.; Schroeder, C. B.; Gonsalves, A. J.; Nakamura, K.; Matlis, N. H.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Plateau, G.; Lin, C.; Toth, C.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2009-01-22

    Staging laser plasma accelerators is an efficient way of mitigating laser pump depletion in laser driven accelerators and necessary for reaching high energies with compact laser systems. The concept of staging includes coupling of additional laser energy and transporting the electron beam from one accelerating module to another. Due to laser damage threshold constraints, in-coupling laser energy with conventional optics requires distances between the accelerating modules of the order of 10 m, resulting in decreased average accelerating gradient and complicated e-beam transport. In this paper we use basic scaling laws to show that the total length of future laser plasma accelerators will be determined by staging technology. We also propose using a liquid jet plasma mirror for in-coupling the laser beam and show that it has the potential to reduce distance between stages to the cm-scale.

  20. Staging laser plasma accelerators for increased beam energy

    SciTech Connect

    Panasenko, Dmitriy; Shu, Anthony; Schroeder, Carl; Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; Matlis, Nicholas; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Plateau, Guillaume; Lin, Chen; Toth, Csaba; Geddes, Cameron; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim

    2008-09-29

    Staging laser plasma accelerators is an efficient way of mitigating laser pump depletion in laser driven accelerators and necessary for reaching high energies with compact laser systems. The concept of staging includes coupling of additional laser energy and transporting the electron beam from one accelerating module to another. Due to laser damage threshold constraints, in-coupling laser energy with conventional optics requires distances between the accelerating modules of the order of 10m, resulting in decreased average accelerating gradient and complicated e-beam transport. In this paper we use basic scaling laws to show that the total length of future laser plasma accelerators will be determined by staging technology. We also propose using a liquid jet plasma mirror for in-coupling the laser beam and show that it has the potential to reduce distance between stages to the cm-scale.

  1. External cavity beam combining of 21 semiconductor lasers using SPGD.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Juan; Augst, Steven J; Creedon, Kevin; Kansky, Jan; Fan, Tso Yee; Sanchez-Rubio, Antonio

    2012-04-10

    Active coherent beam combining of laser oscillators is an attractive way to achieve high output power in a diffraction limited beam. Here we describe an active beam combining system used to coherently combine 21 semiconductor laser elements with an 81% beam combining efficiency in an external cavity configuration compared with an upper limit of 90% efficiency in the particular configuration of the experiment. Our beam combining system utilizes a stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm for active phase control. This work demonstrates that active beam combining is not subject to the scaling limits imposed on passive-phasing systems.

  2. Laser beam characterization results for a high power CW Nd:YAG laser

    SciTech Connect

    Keicher, D.M.

    1994-12-31

    In an effort to understand multimode laser beam propagation characteristics for better development of laser material processing applications, beam diagnostic experiments were performed on a 1800 watt CW Nd:YAG laser. Beam diameter data were acquired at approximately 12 positions along the beam optical axis about the minimum waist created by a long focal length single element lens at several power levels. These data were then used to evaluate the laser output beam characteristics using two differing techniques. For the ISO technique, two data points from the beam diameter data were used in determining the output laser beam characteristics. These points were the beam minimum waist diameter and the diameter at a point along the beam optical axis where the beam diameter had increased to approximately 0.7 times that of the beam minimum waist diameter. The second analysis technique involved fitting the entire data set to theoretical equations used to describe the multimode laser beam propagation and points from the fitted curve fit were then used to determine the output beam characteristics from the laser. For all power levels evaluated, calculated results predicting the laser beam minimum waist location were in agreement with measured values and more consistent using the curve-fit technique than the two-point evaluation technique.

  3. Variable xy-UV beam expander for high-power laser beam shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadorff, Georg; DeWitt, Frank; Lindau, Sten

    2012-10-01

    A five element zoomable anamorphic beam expander is designed and fabricated for a laser illumination system used in the manufacture of patterned micro-circuit substrates. The beam expander is the front end of a Gaussian to top-hat beam shaping illuminator. The tightly toleranced optical system downstream of the beam expander should not be readjusted with changes to the input beam. The job of the beam expander is to maintain, independent of the input beam, a constant diffraction limited output beam size as well as a specific waist location. A high power quasi-CW laser at 355 nm is employed for high throughput. The specifications of the laser allow for a range of x,y-beam diameters (ellipticity), x,y-waist locations (astigmatism), and x,y-divergence. As the laser's frequency tripling crystal is exposed to high fluence over time, the beam parameters will change. At some point the laser is exchanged for a new one, and a new set of beam parameters is presented to the beam expander. Movable cylindrical lenses enable the independent adjustment of x- and y-beam parameters. The mounting cells are motorized to enable adjustments remotely. We present the optical design approach using Gaussian beam ray tracing and discuss the mechanical implementation.

  4. Laser power beaming to extend lives of GSO NiCd satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Monroe, D.K.

    1993-12-31

    It is proposed that a ground-based laser can beam power to commercial communication satellites in geosynchronous orbit and reduce battery depth-of-discharge during eclipses. Two laser system designs are presented which have the capability of reducing battery discharge by 100%. Both utilize a steerable beam director, with a mirror diameter of 4 meters in one case and 8 meters in the other. Both also use an adaptive optics unit within the beam train to provide real-time corrections for wavefront distortions caused by atmospheric turbulence. The required system power output is in the range of 100 to 200 kW for a transmitted wavelength just under 900 nm. Laser power beaming can nearly double the remaining lifetime of a satellite that uses NiCd batteries. However, by the time such lasers become available, nearly all NiCd satellites will be replaced by NiH{sub 2} satellites, which stand to benefit much less from power beaming.

  5. Instrumental laser beam systems in navigation using scattered radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshlakov, Viktor G.

    1998-06-01

    Molecular and aerosol scattering of laser radiation, propagating in the atmosphere, makes it possible to visualize it in space. This phenomenon can be used for navigation in the navy, air force and astronautics. The laser radiation scattering is known to be used in the visual laser beam systems. The scattered laser radiations is small as compared with direct laser radiation and safe for sight. The method being developed uses the scattering effect and enables one to create the instrumental laser beam systems for pilotage alone fairways and approach canals in coastal waters and seaports.

  6. Dye laser amplifier including an improved window configuration for its dye beam

    DOEpatents

    O'Neil, Richard W.; Davin, James M.

    1992-01-01

    A dye laser amplifier in which a continuously replenished supply of dye is excited with a first light beam in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam passing therethrough is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a cell though which a continuous stream of the dye is caused to pass, and means for directing the first beam into the cell while the second beam is directed into and through the same cell. There is also disclosed herein a specific improvement to this amplifier which resides in the use of a pair of particularly configured windows through which the second beam passes along fixed paths as the second beam enters and exits the dye cell. Each of these windows has a relatively thick main section which is substantially larger in dimensions transverse to its beam path than the cross section of the second beam itself, whereby to add structural integrity to the overall window. At the same time, the latter includes a second section which is disposed entirely within the confines of the main section and through which the second beam is intended to pass in its entirety. This second section is made substantially thinner than the main section in order to reduce optical distortion as the second beam passes therethrough.

  7. Dye laser amplifier including an improved window configuration for its dye beam

    DOEpatents

    O'Neil, R.W.; Davin, J.M.

    1992-12-01

    A dye laser amplifier in which a continuously replenished supply of dye is excited with a first light beam in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam passing therethrough is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a cell though which a continuous stream of the dye is caused to pass, and means for directing the first beam into the cell while the second beam is directed into and through the same cell. There is also disclosed herein a specific improvement to this amplifier which resides in the use of a pair of particularly configured windows through which the second beam passes along fixed paths as the second beam enters and exits the dye cell. Each of these windows has a relatively thick main section which is substantially larger in dimensions transverse to its beam path than the cross section of the second beam itself, whereby to add structural integrity to the overall window. At the same time, the latter includes a second section which is disposed entirely within the confines of the main section and through which the second beam is intended to pass in its entirety. This second section is made substantially thinner than the main section in order to reduce optical distortion as the second beam passes therethrough. 4 figs.

  8. Power limitations and pulse distortions in an Yb : KGW chirped-pulse amplification laser system

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, G H; Yang, J; Kulik, A V; Sall, E G; Chizhov, S A; Kang, U; Yashin, V E

    2013-08-31

    We have studied self-action effects (self-focusing and self-phase modulation) and stimulated Raman scattering in an Yb : KGW chirped-pulse amplification laser system. The results demonstrate that self-focusing in combination with thermal lensing may significantly limit the chirped pulse energy in this system (down to 200 μJ) even at a relatively long pulse duration (50 ps). Nonlinear lenses in the laser crystals in combination with thermal lenses bring the regenerative amplifier cavity in the laser system to the instability zone and limit the average output power at pulse repetition rates under 50 kHz. Self-phase modulation, a manifestation of self-action, may significantly distort a recompressed femtosecond pulse at energies near the self-focusing threshold. Stimulated Raman scattering in such a laser has a weaker effect on output parameters than do self-focusing and thermal lensing, and Raman spectra are only observed in the case of pulse energy instability. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  9. Laser spectroscopy and laser cooling of relativistic stored ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühl, T.; Neumann, R.; Marx, D.; Poth, H.; Boos, K.; Grieser, R.; Huber, G.; Klein, R.; Schröder, S.; Balykin, V.; Habs, D.; Petrich, W.; Wanner, B.; Wolf, A.; Schwalm, D.

    1991-05-01

    Experiments with relativistic ions at the test storage ring TSR [P. Baumann et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A268 (1988) 531] demonstrate the potential of the interaction of laser light with energetic stored ions for spectroscopic purposes as well as for manipulation of the ion velocity. Latest results for Li + ions are reported. At the ion energies available at ESR [B. Franzke, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. {B24}/{B25} (1987) 19] it will become possible to prepare and store bare ions up to U 92+. Experiments using these exotic beams are discussed and an outlook to the situation at even higher energies is given.

  10. Receiver power penalty due to localized distortion induced by transmission-type optical antenna in inter-satellite laser communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Liying; Yang, Yuqiang; Ma, Jing; Yu, Jianjie

    2009-05-01

    Based on a truncated ellipse Gaussian model for localized distortion in transmission-type optical antenna, the receiver power penalty due to localized wavefront deformation is researched. It is shown that the receiver power depends on distortion deepness h, radii a and b, and position d, and changes regularly with them. Localized distortion has the greatest influence on receiver power at a depth of h~1.45λ, which does not depend on other deformation parameters. The maxima of the receiver power penalty for different distortion radii are given. To reduce the impact of localized distortion on the receiver power, the machining precision of lenses should be better than 1.45λ. We hope the results can be used in the design of intersatellite laser communication systems.

  11. Beam splitting target reflector based compensation for angular drift of laser beam in laser autocollimation of measuring small angle deviations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Fan; Tan Jiubin; Cui Jiwen

    2013-06-15

    Beam splitting target reflector based compensation for the angular drift of laser beam in laser autocollimation is proposed in this article to improve the measurement accuracy and stability of small angle deviations. A beam splitting target reflector is used to replace the plane mirror in laser autocollimation to generate a reference beam when returning the measurement beam. The reference beam and measurement beam have the same angular drift, but have different sensitivities to the rotation angle of the reflector due to the unique characteristics of the reflector. Thus, the angular drift of laser beam in laser autocollimation can be compensated in real time by using the drift of reference beam. Experimental results indicate that an output stability of 0.085 arc sec in 2 h can be achieved after compensation. And a measurement accuracy of {+-}0.032 arc sec can be obtained over the range of {+-}1190 arc sec with an effective resolution of 0.006 arc sec. It is confirmed that the compensation method for the angular drift of laser beam is necessary for improving the measurement accuracy and stability in laser autocollimation.

  12. Beam splitting target reflector based compensation for angular drift of laser beam in laser autocollimation of measuring small angle deviations.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan; Tan, Jiubin; Cui, Jiwen

    2013-06-01

    Beam splitting target reflector based compensation for the angular drift of laser beam in laser autocollimation is proposed in this article to improve the measurement accuracy and stability of small angle deviations. A beam splitting target reflector is used to replace the plane mirror in laser autocollimation to generate a reference beam when returning the measurement beam. The reference beam and measurement beam have the same angular drift, but have different sensitivities to the rotation angle of the reflector due to the unique characteristics of the reflector. Thus, the angular drift of laser beam in laser autocollimation can be compensated in real time by using the drift of reference beam. Experimental results indicate that an output stability of 0.085 arc sec in 2 h can be achieved after compensation. And a measurement accuracy of ±0.032 arc sec can be obtained over the range of ±1190 arc sec with an effective resolution of 0.006 arc sec. It is confirmed that the compensation method for the angular drift of laser beam is necessary for improving the measurement accuracy and stability in laser autocollimation.

  13. Advantages of ground-to-space laser power beaming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rather, John D. G.

    1992-01-01

    NASA's current research activities to evaluate laser power beaming systems are reviewed. Applications of such systems are considered, including communications satellites, radar and direct broadcast satellites, space transfer vehicles lunar base operations and exploration, and optical technologies. The current laser power beaming program within the NASA Headquarters Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology is addressed.

  14. Characterisation of electron beams from laser-driven particle accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Brunetti, E.; Manahan, G. G.; Shanks, R. P.; Islam, M. R.; Ersfeld, B.; Anania, M. P.; Cipiccia, S.; Issac, R. C.; Vieux, G.; Welsh, G. H.; Wiggins, S. M.; Jaroszynski, D. A.

    2012-12-21

    The development, understanding and application of laser-driven particle accelerators require accurate measurements of the beam properties, in particular emittance, energy spread and bunch length. Here we report measurements and simulations showing that laser wakefield accelerators can produce beams of quality comparable to conventional linear accelerators.

  15. Refractive beam shapers for optical systems of lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Vadim; Ostrun, Aleksei

    2015-02-01

    Performance of modern high-power lasers can be strongly improved by control of irradiance distribution in laser optical systems: flat-top or super-Gaussian irradiance profiles are optimum for amplification in MOPA lasers and for reduction of thermal effects in crystals of solid-state ultra-short pulse lasers; variable profiles are also important in irradiating of photocathode of Free Electron lasers (FEL). This task can be easily solved with using beam shaping optics, for example, the field mapping refractive beam shapers like Shaper. The operational principle of these devices presumes transformation of laser beam intensity from Gaussian to flattop one with high flatness of output wavefront, saving of beam consistency, providing collimated output beam of low divergence, high transmittance, extended depth of field, negligible residual wave aberration, and achromatic design provides capability to work with ultra-short pulse lasers having broad spectrum. With using the same Shaper it is possible to realize various beam profiles like flattop, inverse Gauss or super Gauss by simple variation of input beam diameter. This paper will describe some design basics of refractive beam shapers of the field mapping type and optical layouts of their applying in optical systems of high-power lasers. Examples of real implementations and experimental results will be presented as well.

  16. Nonlinear optics and liquid crystal light valve for laser beam control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huignard, Jean Pierre; Brignon, Arnaud; Steinhausser, Bastien

    2008-11-01

    The recent advances in solid state laser technology now permit to achieve high energy and efficiency sources for a wide range of applications extending from laser physics to material processing, biophotonics, remote sensing and coherent lidar systems. In particular the progress of fibre laser exploiting the double clading diode pumping structure are impressive: they are compact and emit single mode beams. However optical damage and nonlinear effects limit the output peak power emitted by a single mode fiber laser. Also limitations arise in bulk laser materials due to the thermal loading which induces strong wavefront distortions on the beams. We develop in this paper original concepts adapted to power-energy scaling of bulk or fibre lasers. The final objective is to emit high brightness and high energy beams whose quality is close to the diffraction limit. For this purpose we present new technics to be inspired from from Fourier optics and allowing the wavefront processing either through nonlinear interactions or with adaptive optical components such as electro optic phase modulators or liquid crystal light valves.

  17. Optically pumped Cs vapor lasers: pump-to-laser beam overlap optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auslender, Ilya; Cohen, Tom; Lebiush, Eyal; Barmashenko, Boris D.; Rosenwaks, Salman

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of an experimental study of Ti:Sapphire pumped Cs laser and theoretical modeling of these results, where we focused on the influence of the pump-to-laser beam overlap, a crucial parameter for optimizing the output laser power. The dependence of the output laser power on the incident pump power was found for varying pump beam cross-section widths and for a constant laser beam. Maximum laser power > 370 mW with an optical-to-optical efficiency of 43% and slope efficiency 55% was obtained. Non monotonic dependence of the laser power and threshold power on the pump beam radius (at a given pump power) was observed with a maximum laser power and minimum threshold power achieved at the ratio 0.7 between the optimal pump beam and laser beam radius. A simple optical model of the laser, where Gaussian spatial shapes of the pump and laser intensities in any cross section of the beams were assumed, was compared to the experiments. Good agreement was obtained between the measured and calculated dependence of the laser power on the incident pump power at different pump beam radii and of the laser power, threshold power and optimal temperature on the pump beam radius. The model does not use empirical parameters such as mode overlap efficiency but rather the pump and laser beam spatial shapes as input parameters. This model can be applied to different optically pumped alkali lasers with arbitrary spatial distributions of the pump and laser beam widths.

  18. Laser beacon adaptive optics for power beaming applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fugate, Robert Q.

    1994-05-01

    This paper discusses the laser beam control system requirements for power beaming applications. Power beaming applications include electric and thermal engine propulsion for orbit transfer, station changing, and recharging batteries. Beam control includes satellite acquisition, high accuracy tracking, higher order atmospheric compensation using adaptive optics, and precision point-ahead. Beam control may also include local laser beam clean-up with a low order adaptive optics system. This paper also presents results of tracking and higher-order correction experiments on astronomical objects. The results were obtained with a laser beacon adaptive optics system at Phillips Laboratory's Starfire Optical Range near Albuquerque, NM. At a wavelength of 0.85 micrometers , we have achieved Strehl ratios of approximately 0.50 using laser beacons and approximately 0.65 using natural stars for exposures longer than one minute on objects of approximately 8th magnitude. The resulting point spread function has a full width half maximum (FWHM) of 0.13 arcsec.

  19. Novel measurement method of infrared laser beam divergence angle based on two linear array CCDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jing; Chen, Haiqing; Tan, Zuojun; Hou, Dejia; Wang, Xianfeng

    2013-09-01

    In the practical application of infrared lasers, an infrared linear laser beam of 90°×2° is shaped to meet special demand. So it is very important to test its beam divergence angle which reflects long-distance transmission characteristics. Many approaches are proposed, such as area array CCD single imaging method, two plate reflecting mirrors multi imaging method, distorted diffraction grating multi imaging method and so on. Nevertheless, these methods only can be used to detect infrared laser beam whose spot shape is small and elliptical. Actually if the view angle of the infrared linear laser beam is greater than 90° in the horizontal direction, the area array CCD cannot detect the whole light spot. So we proposed a two linear array CCDs scanning imaging measurement method. The two linear array CCDs are placed at Z1 position of near field and Z2 position of far field respectively, and they are separated by an angle Φ. Beam width in two positions can be calculated by light intensity distribution curves which are measured by linear array CCD. Meanwhile, beam width fits linear equation in the far field, so beam divergence angle can be obtained by two point line fitting. This method is based on a real-time and automatic measurement system which consists of infrared laser optical transmitter, control module, imaging system and data processing. The infrared laser optical transmitter is controlled by control module to rotate every one degree. After scanning is completed, we can acquire the spot image and beam divergence angle curve by imaging system and data processing. This novel arrangement provides a precise and comprehensive measurement. Compared to other methods, this method can not only be used for measuring beam divergence angle of infrared linear laser beam, but also for detecting the uniformity of energy distribution and assembling laser optical transmitter. Experimental results indicate that measurement values are in the acceptable range, measurement

  20. Do twisted laser beams evoke nuclear hyperpolarization?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, A. B.; Andrews, D. L.; Rohrbach, A.; Gohn-Kreuz, C.; Shatokhin, V. N.; Kiselev, V. G.; Hennig, J.; von Elverfeldt, D.; Hövener, J.-B.

    2016-07-01

    The hyperpolarization of nuclear spins promises great advances in chemical analysis and medical diagnosis by substantially increasing the sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Current methods to produce a hyperpolarized sample, however, are arduous, time-consuming or costly and require elaborate equipment. Recently, a much simpler approach was introduced that holds the potential, if harnessed appropriately, to revolutionize the production of hyperpolarized spins. It was reported that high levels of hyperpolarization in nuclear spins can be created by irradiation with a laser beam carrying orbital angular momentum (twisted light). Aside from these initial reports however, no further experimental verification has been presented. In addition, this effect has so far evaded a critical theoretical examination. In this contribution, we present the first independent attempt to reproduce the effect. We exposed a sample of immersion oil or a fluorocarbon liquid that was placed within a low-field NMR spectrometer to Laguerre-Gaussian and Bessel laser beams at a wavelength of 514.5 nm and various topological charges. We acquired 1H and 19F NMR free induction decay data, either during or alternating with the irradiation that was parallel to B0. We observed an irregular increase in NMR signal in experiments where the sample was exposed to beams with higher values of the topological charge. However, at no time did the effect reach statistical significance of 95%. Given the measured sensitivity of our setup, we estimate that a possible effect did not exceed a hyperpolarization (at 5 mT) of 0.14-6%, depending on the assumed hyperpolarized volume. It should be noted though, that there were some differences between our setup and the previous implementation of the experiment, which may have inhibited the full incidence of this effect. To approach a theoretical description of this effect, we considered the interaction of an electron with a plane wave, which is known to be

  1. Simulation of wavefront reconstruction in beam reshaping system for rectangular laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qiong; Liu, Wenguang; Jiang, Zongfu

    2014-05-01

    A new method to calculating the wavefront of slap laser is studied in this paper. The method is based on the ray trace theory of geometrical optics. By using the Zemax simulation software and Matlab calculation software, the wavefront of rectangular beam in beam reshaping system is reconstructed. Firstly, with the x- and y-slope measurement of reshaping beam the direction cosine of wavefront can be calculated. Then, the inverse beam path of beam reshaping system is built by using Zemax simulation software and the direction cosine of rectangular beam can be given, too. Finally, Southwell zonal model is used to reconstruct the wavefront of rectangular beam in computer simulation. Once the wavefront is received, the aberration of laser can be eliminated by using the proper configuration of beam reshaping system. It is shown that this method to reconstruct the wavefront of rectangular beam can evidently reduce the negative influence of additional aberration induced by beam reshaping system.

  2. PLASMA WAKE EXCITATION BY LASERS OR PARTICLE BEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Carl B.; Esarey, Eric; Benedetti, Carlo; Toth, Csaba; Geddes, Cameron; Leemans, Wim

    2011-04-01

    Plasma accelerators may be driven by the ponderomotive force of an intense laser or the space-charge force of a charged particle beam. Plasma wake excitation driven by lasers or particle beams is examined, and the implications of the different physical excitation mechanisms for accelerator design are discussed. Plasma-based accelerators have attracted considerable attention owing to the ultrahigh field gradients sustainable in a plasma wave, enabling compact accelerators. These relativistic plasma waves are excited by displacing electrons in a neutral plasma. Two basic mechanisms for excitation of plasma waves are actively being researched: (i) excitation by the nonlinear ponderomotive force (radiation pressure) of an intense laser or (ii) excitation by the space-charge force of a dense charged particle beam. There has been significant recent experimental success using lasers and particle beam drivers for plasma acceleration. In particular, for laser-plasma accelerators (LPAs), the demonstration at LBNL in 2006 of high-quality, 1 GeV electron beams produced in approximately 3 cm plasma using a 40 TW laser. In 2007, for beam-driven plasma accelerators, or plasma-wakefield accelerators (PWFAs), the energy doubling over a meter to 42 GeV of a fraction of beam electrons on the tail of an electron beam by the plasma wave excited by the head was demonstrated at SLAC. These experimental successes have resulted in further interest in the development of plasma-based acceleration as a basis for a linear collider, and preliminary collider designs using laser drivers and beam drivers are being developed. The different physical mechanisms of plasma wave excitation, as well as the typical characteristics of the drivers, have implications for accelerator design. In the following, we identify the similarities and differences between wave excitation by lasers and particle beams. The field structure of the plasma wave driven by lasers or particle beams is discussed, as well as the

  3. Laser Induced Retinal Damage Thresholds for Annular Retinal Beam Profiles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    Thompson-Gerstman granular model of laser-induced thermal damage to the retina ."°20 The study documented in this paper is a continuation of our earlier...Retinal Beam Profiles DISTRIBUTION: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This paper is part of the following report: TITLE: Laser Interaction...mrad of visual field; which correspond to outer beam diameters of roughly 70, 160, and 300 tin, respectively, on the primate retina . Annular beam

  4. Photovoltaic receivers for laser beamed power in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    There has recently been a resurgence of interest in the use of beamed power to support space exploration activities. One of the most promising beamed power concepts uses a laser beam to transmit power to a remote photovoltaic array. Large lasers can be located on cloud-free sites at one or more ground locations and illuminate solar arrays to a level sufficient to provide operating power. Issues involved in providing photovoltaic receivers for such applications are discussed.

  5. Method for changing the cross section of a laser beam

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.; Seppala, Lynn

    1995-01-01

    A technique is disclosed herein in which a circular optical beam, for example a copper vapor laser (CVL) beam, is converted to a beam having a profile other than circular, e.g. square or triangular. This is accomplished by utilizing a single optical mirror having a reflecting surface designed in accordance with a specifically derived formula in order to make the necessary transformation, without any substantial light loss and without changing substantially the intensity profile of the circular beam which has a substantially uniform intensity profile. In this way, the output beam can be readily directed into the dye cell of a dye laser.

  6. Method for changing the cross section of a laser beam

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, W.C.; Seppala, L.

    1995-12-05

    A technique is disclosed herein in which a circular optical beam, for example a copper vapor laser (CVL) beam, is converted to a beam having a profile other than circular, e.g. square or triangular. This is accomplished by utilizing a single optical mirror having a reflecting surface designed in accordance with a specifically derived formula in order to make the necessary transformation, without any substantial light loss and without changing substantially the intensity profile of the circular beam which has a substantially uniform intensity profile. In this way, the output beam can be readily directed into the dye cell of a dye laser. 4 figs.

  7. Method for changing the cross section of a laser beam

    SciTech Connect

    Sweatt, W.C.; Seppala, L.

    1995-12-05

    A technique is disclosed herein in which a circular optical beam, for example a copper vapor laser (CVL) beam, is converted to a beam having a profile other than circular, e.g. square or triangular. This is accomplished by utilizing a single optical mirror having a reflecting surface designed in accordance with a specifically derived formula in order to make the necessary transformation, without any substantial light loss and without changing substantially the intensity profile of the circular beam which has a substantially uniform intensity profile. In this way, the output beam can be readily directed into the dye cell of a dye laser. 4 figs.

  8. Hough Transform Based Corner Detection for Laser Beam Positioning

    SciTech Connect

    Awwal, A S

    2005-07-26

    In laser beam alignment in addition to detecting position, one must also determine the rotation of the beam. This is essential when a commissioning new laser beam for National Ignition Facility located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. When the beam is square, the positions of the corners with respect to one another provides an estimate of the rotation of the beam. This work demonstrates corner detection in the presence or absence of a second order non-uniform illumination caused by a spatial mask. The Hough transform coupled with illumination dependent pre-processing is used to determine the corner points. We show examples from simulated and real NIF images.

  9. Isotope separation using tuned laser and electron beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trajmar, Sandor (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    The apparatus comprises means for producing an atomic beam containing the isotope of interest and other isotopes. Means are provided for producing a magnetic field traversing the path of the atomic beam of an intensity sufficient to broaden the energy domain of the various individual magnetic sublevels of the isotope of interest and having the atomic beam passing therethrough. A laser beam is produced of a frequency and polarization selected to maximize the activation of only individual magnetic sublevels of the isotope of interest with the portion of its broadened energy domain most removed from other isotopes with the stream. The laser beam is directed so as to strike the atomic beam within the magnetic field and traverse the path of the atomic beam whereby only the isotope of interest is activated by the laser beam. The apparatus further includes means for producing a collimated and high intensity beam of electrons of narrow energy distribution within the magnetic field which is aimed so as to strike the atomic beam while the atomic beam is simultaneously struck by the laser beam and at an energy level selected to ionize the activated isotope of interest but not ground state species included therewith. Deflection means are disposed in the usual manner to collect the ions.

  10. Hybrid laser beam steerer for laser communications applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofka, Jozef; Nikulin, Vladimir V.; Skormin, Victor A.; Nicholson, Donald J.

    2004-01-01

    Omniwrist is a new sensor mount developed under the Air Force funding that emulates the kinematics of a human wrist. Driven by two linear motors and equipped with a dedicated computer implementing advanced control laws, it is capable of a full 180° hemisphere of pitch/yaw motion and demonstrates performance characteristics comparable with an electro-mechanical beam steering system. While exceeding the bandwidth requirements for the coarse beam steering task, Omniwrist"s dynamic response is much slower than the one of the acousto-optic device (Bragg cell) that is virtually inertia-free. At the same time, the steering range of a Bragg cell, +/- .5°, is too small for many applications. The authors have been successful in the enhancement of the design and development of control laws improving its dynamic characteristics of a Bragg cell. This paper presents the research aimed at the development of a hybrid laser beam steering system comprising Bragg cells installed on the Omniwrist platform. An optimal control strategy facilitating such applications as scanning, search, rapid repositioning, tracking, feedback and feedforward compensation of environmental vibration of the optical platform (satellite-based and airborne) has been developed, implemented and tested. This includes the solution of such underlying problems as mathematical description of the hybrid system, optimal task distribution between the "coarse" and the "fine" positioning tasks, coordination of the operation of the "coarse" and "fine" system controllers. The efficiency of the developed system in various applications will be investigated further and compared against known designs.

  11. Inviscid Flow Field Effects: Experimental results. [optical distortions over airborne laser turrets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otten, L. J., III; Gilbert, K. G.

    1980-01-01

    The aero-optical distortions due to invisid flow effects over airborne laser turrets is investigated. Optical path differences across laser turret apertures are estimated from two data sources. The first is a theoretical study of main flow effects for a spherical turret assembly for a Mach number (M) of 0.6. The second source is an actual wind tunnel density field measurement on a 0.3 scale laser turret/fairing assembly, with M = 0.75. A range of azimuthal angles from 0 to 90 deg was considered, while the elevation angle was always 0 deg (i.e., in the plane of the flow). The calculated optical path differences for these two markedly different geometries are of the same order. Scaling of results to sea level conditions and an aperture diameter of 50 cm indicated up to 0.0007 cm of phase variation across the aperture for certain forward look angles and a focal length of F = -11.1 km. These values are second order for a 10.6 micron system.

  12. Intelligent beam monitoring and diagnostics for CO2 lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaierle, Stefan; Mann, Stefan; Ortmann, Juergen; Kreutz, Ernst-Wolfgang; Poprawe, Reinhart

    2001-04-01

    Changes in the laser beam quality caused by pollution, wasting or defects of the optical components and the laser beam source usually only can be detected by time-consumptive methods. Therefore a system is developed to automate and simplify the diagnosis of the laser beam radiation. As a solution a laser beam analyzer is permanently integrated into the laser system, an ergonomic user software is developed and the analyzer, the tooling-machine, and the laser are controlled by one computer. The user of a laser machine is enabled with this system to detect changes in the beam quality in an early state by daily measurements which are easy and fast to be carried out. Failures can be retraced to defects of the laser source, the beam guiding system, and the focussing optics by the use of image processing methods and fuzzy algorithms. Furthermore it is possible to detect stealing changes in the beam mode structure. Within the scope of quality assurance the data can be archived according to EN ISO 900x to be able to assign processing parameters to work-pieces.

  13. Chirped microlens arrays for diode laser circularization and beam expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Peter; Dannberg, Peter; Hoefer, Bernd; Beckert, Erik

    2005-08-01

    Single-mode diode lasers are well-established light sources for a huge number of applications but suffer from astigmatism, beam ellipticity and large manufacturing tolerances of beam parameters. To compensate for these shortcomings, various approaches like anamorphic prism pairs and cylindrical telescopes for circularization as well as variable beam expanders based on zoomed telescopes for precise adjustment of output beam parameters have been employed in the past. The presented new approach for both beam circularization and expansion is based on the use of microlens arrays with chirped focal length: Selection of lenslets of crossed cylindrical microlens arrays as part of an anamorphic telescope enables circularization, astigmatism correction and divergence tolerance compensation of diode lasers simultaneously. Another promising application of chirped spherical lens array telescopes is stepwise variable beam expansion for circular laser beams of fiber or solid-state lasers. In this article we describe design and manufacturing of beam shaping systems with chirped microlens arrays fabricated by polymer-on-glass replication of reflow lenses. A miniaturized diode laser module with beam circularization and astigmatism correction assembled on a structured ceramics motherboard and a modulated RGB laser-source for photofinishing applications equipped with both cylindrical and spherical chirped lens arrays demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed system design approach.

  14. Propagation of a laser beam in a plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, J. M.; Kevorkian, J.; Steinhauer, L. C.; Vagners, J.

    1975-01-01

    This paper shows that for a nonabsorbing medium with a prescribed index of refraction, the effects of beam stability, line focusing, and beam distortion can be predicted from simple ray optics. When the paraxial approximation is used, diffraction effects are examined for Gaussian, Lorentzian, and square beams. Most importantly, it is shown that for a Gaussian beam, diffraction effects can be included simply by adding imaginary solutions to the paraxial ray equations. Also presented are several procedures to extend the paraxial approximation so that the solution will have a domain of validity of greater extent.

  15. Numerical analysis on the beam quality improvements of high power chemical laser system with water cooled mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Kai; Li, Bin; Xu, Xiao-jun

    2011-06-01

    Chemical laser is one of the most widely used high power infrared sources. Thermal deformation of mirrors in a resonator is a key factor which hinders the improvement of the beam quality in high power chemical lasers, and it has been a matter of the utmost concern in the design of high power chemical laser systems. Water-cooled technique is one of the most widely methods employed in cooling mirrors in high power laser systems. Several kinds of water-cooled mirrors have been studied by researchers in the world. Research teams of the United States and Russia have done a lot of work and their water cooled mirrors behave very well. In China, the study of micro-channel water cooled silicon mirror has been carried out by Cheng Zuhai in detail and the research of water jet cooled mirror has been performed by Li Bin. Both the two types of water cooled mirrors show excellent capabilities in alleviating the thermal deformation of mirrors. However, the issues that how and to what extent the beam quality is improved when the water cooled mirrors are involved have not been analyzed so far. In this paper, through numerical simulations, the beam qualities of linear resonators with various types of water cooled mirrors are analyzed in detail, and the effects of the two types of water cooled mirrors are compared. The thermal distortion of uncooled Si mirrors is characterized by Zernike polynomials and the beam quality is characterized with Strehl ratio, β factor, and M2 factor, which degenerates as the beam oscillates in the distorted resonator. The aberrance of mirrors non-uniformly heated by high energy laser mainly distributes on the low-even-order Zernike polynomials. When the uncooled Si mirrors are replaced by water cooled mirrors, the distortion decreases greatly and the beam quality is improved a lot. Although the performance of the water jet cooled mirror on mitigating distortion is better than the micro-channel water cooled mirror, the resonator made up of two water jet

  16. Near-term feasibility demonstration of laser power beaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Herbert W.

    1994-05-01

    A mission to recharge batteries of satellites in geostationary orbits (geosats) may be a commercially viable application which could be achieved with laser systems somewhat larger than present state-of-the-art. The lifetime of batteries on geosats is limited by repetitive discharge cycles which occur when the satellites are eclipsed by the earth during the spring and fall equinoxes. By coupling high power lasers with modern, large aperture telescopes and laser guide star adaptive optics systems, present day communications satellites could be targeted. It is important that a near term demonstration of laser power beaming be accomplished using lasers in the kilowatt range so that issues associated with high average power be addressed. The Laser Guide Star Facility at LLNL has all the necessary subsystems needed for such a near term demonstration, including high power lasers for both the power beam and guide star, beam directors and satellite tracking system.

  17. Near-term feasibility demonstration of laser power beaming

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, H.W.

    1994-01-01

    A mission to recharge batteries of satellites in geostationary orbits (geosats) may be a commercially viable application which could be achieved with laser systems somewhat larger than present state-of-the-art. The lifetime of batteries on geosats is limited by repetitive discharge cycles which occur when the satellites are eclipsed by the earth during the spring and fall equinoxes. By coupling high power lasers with modern, large aperture telescopes and laser guide star adaptive optics systems, present day communications satellites could be targeted. It is important that a near term demonstration of laser power beaming be accomplished using lasers in the kilowatt range so that issues associated with high average power be addressed. The Laser Guide Star Facility at LLNL has all the necessary subsystems needed for such a near term demonstration, including high power lasers for both the power beam and guide star, beam directors and satellite tracking system.

  18. Pulsed lasers on plasmas produced by electron beams and discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasenko, Viktor F; Yakovlenko, Sergei I

    2003-02-28

    The use of electron beams for pumping dense gases made it possible to obtain lasing on atomic and molecular transitions in different spectral ranges and to develop high-power pulsed lasers. N.G. Basov and coworkers made a substantial contribution to the formation and advancement of this field. A brief review of the research on efficient elevated-pressure active media and high-power pulsed lasers utilising plasmas produced both by an electron beam and an electron-beam-controlled discharge is presented. These are excimer and exciplex lasers, lasers utilising atomic transitions in xenon and neon, an Ar -N{sub 2} mixture laser, a molecular nitrogen ion laser, and a high-pressure CO{sub 2} laser. Data obtained in the investigation of the radiation of rare-gas halide complexes are given. (special issue devoted to the 80th anniversary of academician n g basov's birth)

  19. Wavelength beam combined quantum cascade lasers for IRCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, John L.; Tober, Richard L.; Bruno, John D.; Leavitt, Richard P.; Lascola, Kevin M.; Meissner, Gregory P.; Pham, John T.

    2009-05-01

    The threat posed to aircraft by shoulder-fired missiles has increased to the point where initial testing of laser-based IRCM systems on commercial aircraft is underway. However, the laser sources used in this testing are complex and costly. Consequently, the need for a simpler, cost-effective, compact, and power-efficient laser source technology is urgent. Over the last two years, quantum cascade (QC) lasers have advanced in performance and reliability to the point where a thorough, experimentally based assessment of the applicability of these lasers as IRCM sources is called for. In this talk, I will describe Maxion's development of a wavelength-beam-combined laser source module capable of emitting, in principle, multi-Watt-levels of optical power in a single, near-diffraction-limited beam. Details of the single emitter performances in the linear QC laser array are provided as well as the power performance and optical beam characteristics of the WBC system.

  20. Electron beam switched discharge for rapidly pulsed lasers

    DOEpatents

    Pleasance, Lyn D.; Murray, John R.; Goldhar, Julius; Bradley, Laird P.

    1981-01-01

    Method and apparatus for electrical excitation of a laser gas by application of a pulsed voltage across the gas, followed by passage of a pulsed, high energy electron beam through the gas to initiate a discharge suitable for laser excitation. This method improves upon current power conditioning techniques and is especially useful for driving rare gas halide lasers at high repetition rates.

  1. The study of laser beam riding guided system based on 980nm diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Zhou; Xu, Haifeng; Sui, Xin; Yang, Kun

    2015-10-01

    With the development of science and technology, precision-strike weapons has been considered to be important for winning victory in military field. Laser guidance is a major method to execute precision-strike in modern warfare. At present, the problems of primary stage of Laser guidance has been solved with endeavors of countries. Several technical aspects of laser-beam riding guided system have been mature, such as atmosphere penetration of laser beam, clutter inhibition on ground, laser irradiator, encoding and decoding of laser beam. Further, laser beam quality, equal output power and atmospheric transmission properties are qualified for warfare situation. Riding guidance instrument is a crucial element of Laser-beam riding guided system, and is also a vital element of airborne, vehicle-mounted and individual weapon. The optical system mainly consist of sighting module and laser-beam guided module. Photoelectric detector is the most important sensing device of seeker, and also the key to acquire the coordinate information of target space. Currently, in consideration of the 1.06 u m of wavelength applied in all the semi-active laser guided weapons systems, lithium drifting silicon photodiode which is sensitive to 1.06 u m of wavelength is used in photoelectric detector. Compared to Solid and gas laser, diode laser has many merits such as small volume, simple construction, light weight, long life, low lost and easy modulation. This article introduced the composition and operating principle of Laser-beam riding guided system based on 980 nm diode laser, and made a analysis of key technology; for instance, laser irradiator, modulating disk of component, laser zooming system. Through the use of laser diode, Laser-beam riding guided system is likely to have smaller shape and very light.

  2. Laser beam steering for GRACE Follow-On intersatellite interferometry.

    PubMed

    Schütze, Daniel; Stede, Gunnar; Müller, Vitali; Gerberding, Oliver; Bandikova, Tamara; Sheard, Benjamin S; Heinzel, Gerhard; Danzmann, Karsten

    2014-10-06

    The GRACE Follow-On satellites will use, for the first time, a Laser Ranging Interferometer to measure intersatellite distance changes from which fluctuations in Earth's geoid can be inferred. We have investigated the beam steering method that is required to maintain the laser link between the satellites. Although developed for the specific needs of the GRACE Follow-On mission, the beam steering method could also be applied to other intersatellite laser ranging applications where major difficulties are common: large spacecraft separation and large spacecraft attitude jitter. The beam steering method simultaneously coaligns local oscillator beam and transmitted beam with the laser beam received from the distant spacecraft using Differential Wavefront Sensing. We demonstrate the operation of the beam steering method on breadboard level using GRACE satellite attitude jitter data to command a hexapod, a six-degree-of-freedom rotation and translation stage. We verify coalignment of local oscillator beam/ transmitted beam and received beam of better than 10 μrad with a stability of 10 μrad/ √Hz in the GRACE Follow-On measurement band of 0.002...0.1 Hz. Additionally, important characteristics of the beam steering setup such as Differential Wavefront Sensing signals, heterodyne efficiency, and suppression of rotation-to-pathlength coupling are investigated and compared with analysis results.

  3. Measurement and compensation schemes for the pulse front distortion of ultra-intensity ultra-short laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Fenxiang; Xu, Yi; Yu, Linpeng; Yang, Xiaojun; Li, Wenkai; Lu, Jun; Leng, Yuxin

    2016-11-01

    Pulse front distortion (PFD) is mainly induced by the chromatic aberration in femtosecond high-peak power laser systems, and it can temporally distort the pulse in the focus and therefore decrease the peak intensity. A novel measurement scheme is proposed to directly measure the PFD of ultra-intensity ultra-short laser pulses, which can work not only without any extra struggle for the desired reference pulse, but also largely reduce the size of the required optical elements in measurement. The measured PFD in an experimental 200TW/27fs laser system is in good agreement with the calculated result, which demonstrates the validity and feasibility of this method effectively. In addition, a simple compensation scheme based on the combination of concave lens and parabolic lens is also designed and proposed to correct the PFD. Based on the theoretical calculation, the PFD of above experimental laser system can almost be completely corrected by using this compensator with proper parameters.

  4. Fuzzy control iterative algorithm for beam uniformity enhancement of gas laser through boundary layer flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xu; Wu, Kenan; Jiang, Wenting

    2014-07-01

    Fuzzy control iterative algorithm for beam uniformity enhancement of gas laser through boundary layer flow is presented. The iterative process of the proposed algorithm is controlled by the fuzzy control theory. In each loop, the MSE and the TUI value are evaluated to fuzzily determine which one is relatively greater, leading to different approaches in the iteration. Computer simulation results proved the effectiveness of the proposed method. Gerchberg- Saxton algorithm, profile smoothing algorithm and fuzzy control iterative algorithm are applied to the diffractive optical element design for the correction of laser beam distorted by a Blausius boundary layer. Fuzzy control iterative algorithm leads to better result than Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm and profile smoothing algorithm. Both mean square error and top ununiformity index of the result obtained by fuzzy control iterative algorithm are rather low.

  5. CO2 laser beam propagation with ZnSe optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leong, K. H.; Liu, Yi; Holdridge, D. J.

    Beam propagation characteristics of ZnSe optics used in kiloWatt power CO2 laser aided material processing applications are determined using the Prometec Laser Beam Analyzer. The laser used was a Rofin Sinar RS6000 CO2 laser with mode aperturing. Beam power varied from 500W to 6300W and beam modes used were TEM(sub 00), TEM(sub 01), TEM(sub 10), and TEM(sub 20). Both transmissive and reflective optics were examined. The ZnSe lenses tested included meniscus, diffractive, and cylindrical lenses of 5 in. focal length and a 10 in. focal length integrating lens. Reflective optics included an integrator and a 5 in. focal length parabolic mirror for welding. Parameters obtained included beam propagation profiles, intensity profiles, depth of focus, spot size, and back focal length. A subset of the data obtained is presented here. Details of the work will appear in a full length paper.

  6. Evaluation and Correction of the Non-linear Distortion of CEBAF Beam Position Monitors

    SciTech Connect

    M. Spata, T.L. Allison, K.E. Cole, J. Musson, J. Yan

    2011-09-01

    The beam position monitors at CEBAF have four antenna style pickups that are used to measure the location of the beam. There is a strong nonlinear response when the beam is far from the electrical center of the device. In order to conduct beam experiments at large orbit excitation we need to correct for this nonlinearity. The correction algorithm is presented and compared to measurements from our stretched wire BPM test stand.

  7. Precision atomic beam density characterization by diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Oxley, Paul; Wihbey, Joseph

    2016-09-15

    We provide experimental and theoretical details of a simple technique to determine absolute line-of-sight integrated atomic beam densities based on resonant laser absorption. In our experiments, a thermal lithium beam is chopped on and off while the frequency of a laser crossing the beam at right angles is scanned slowly across the resonance transition. A lock-in amplifier detects the laser absorption signal at the chop frequency from which the atomic density is determined. The accuracy of our experimental method is confirmed using the related technique of wavelength modulation spectroscopy. For beams which absorb of order 1% of the incident laser light, our measurements allow the beam density to be determined to an accuracy better than 5% and with a precision of 3% on a time scale of order 1 s. Fractional absorptions of order 10{sup −5} are detectable on a one-minute time scale when we employ a double laser beam technique which limits laser intensity noise. For a lithium beam with a thickness of 9 mm, we have measured atomic densities as low as 5 × 10{sup 4} atoms cm{sup −3}. The simplicity of our technique and the details we provide should allow our method to be easily implemented in most atomic or molecular beam apparatuses.

  8. Precision atomic beam density characterization by diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oxley, Paul; Wihbey, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    We provide experimental and theoretical details of a simple technique to determine absolute line-of-sight integrated atomic beam densities based on resonant laser absorption. In our experiments, a thermal lithium beam is chopped on and off while the frequency of a laser crossing the beam at right angles is scanned slowly across the resonance transition. A lock-in amplifier detects the laser absorption signal at the chop frequency from which the atomic density is determined. The accuracy of our experimental method is confirmed using the related technique of wavelength modulation spectroscopy. For beams which absorb of order 1% of the incident laser light, our measurements allow the beam density to be determined to an accuracy better than 5% and with a precision of 3% on a time scale of order 1 s. Fractional absorptions of order 10-5 are detectable on a one-minute time scale when we employ a double laser beam technique which limits laser intensity noise. For a lithium beam with a thickness of 9 mm, we have measured atomic densities as low as 5 × 104 atoms cm-3. The simplicity of our technique and the details we provide should allow our method to be easily implemented in most atomic or molecular beam apparatuses.

  9. Beam Cooling and Laser Spectroscopy (BECOLA) Project at NSCL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamisono, K.; Barquest, B. R.; Bollen, G.; Mantica, P. F.; Morrissey, D. J.; Ringle, R.; Schwarz, S.

    2009-10-01

    A new beam line for beam cooling and laser spectroscopy (BECOLA) has been designed and is being installed at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) at Michigan State University. The BECOLA beam line will be capable of accepting ions of energy up to 60 keV. A linear Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) ion trap [1] will be used to cool and bunch the beam upstream of the BECOLA beam line. This beam line will have two dedicated experimental legs, one for collinear-laser spectroscopy with the bunched beam and another for polarization by optical pumping of low energy atoms/ions for β-NMR experiments. Initial studies at NSCL will include the measurement of μ, Q and of light- and medium-mass refractory isotopes, using both the laser spectroscopy and the β-NMR technique. A frequency doubled light of Ti:Sapphire ring laser pumped by diode-pumped solid state laser will be used for spectroscopy and optical pumping for polarization. The present status of BECOLA beam line as well as the laser system will be presented. [4pt] [1] G. Bollen et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 532, 203 (2004).

  10. Precision atomic beam density characterization by diode laser absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Oxley, Paul; Wihbey, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    We provide experimental and theoretical details of a simple technique to determine absolute line-of-sight integrated atomic beam densities based on resonant laser absorption. In our experiments, a thermal lithium beam is chopped on and off while the frequency of a laser crossing the beam at right angles is scanned slowly across the resonance transition. A lock-in amplifier detects the laser absorption signal at the chop frequency from which the atomic density is determined. The accuracy of our experimental method is confirmed using the related technique of wavelength modulation spectroscopy. For beams which absorb of order 1% of the incident laser light, our measurements allow the beam density to be determined to an accuracy better than 5% and with a precision of 3% on a time scale of order 1 s. Fractional absorptions of order 10(-5) are detectable on a one-minute time scale when we employ a double laser beam technique which limits laser intensity noise. For a lithium beam with a thickness of 9 mm, we have measured atomic densities as low as 5 × 10(4) atoms cm(-3). The simplicity of our technique and the details we provide should allow our method to be easily implemented in most atomic or molecular beam apparatuses.

  11. Effect of ultrarelativistic laser beam filamentation on third harmonic spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Ruchika; Sharma, Prerana; Chauhan, Prashant K.; Rafat, M.; Sharma, R. P.

    2009-04-01

    This paper investigates the generation of plasma wave and third harmonic generation in a hot collision less plasma by an intense laser beam. On the account of the V→×B→ force, a plasma wave at 2ω0 (here ω0 is the pump laser frequency) is generated. The solution of the pump laser beam has been obtained within the nonparaxial ray approximation. Filamentary structures of the laser beam are observed due to relativistic nonlinearity. By expanding the eikonal and the other relevant quantities up to the fourth power of r it is observed that the focusing of the laser beams become fast in the nonparaxial region. Interaction of the plasma wave with the incident laser beam generates the third harmonics. The mechanism of the plasma wave, third harmonic generation, and the parameters, which govern the third harmonic yield and hence the spectrum of third harmonics, have been studied in detail. Correlation of the third harmonic spectrum with the filamentation has been pointed out. Therefore, the broadening of the third harmonic spectra can be used as a diagnostic tool to study the presence of the filamentation of laser beams in laser plasma experiments.

  12. Effect of ultrarelativistic laser beam filamentation on third harmonic spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Ruchika; Rafat, M.; Sharma, Prerana; Chauhan, Prashant K.; Sharma, R. P.

    2009-04-15

    This paper investigates the generation of plasma wave and third harmonic generation in a hot collision less plasma by an intense laser beam. On the account of the V-vectorxB-vector force, a plasma wave at 2{omega}{sub 0} (here {omega}{sub 0} is the pump laser frequency) is generated. The solution of the pump laser beam has been obtained within the nonparaxial ray approximation. Filamentary structures of the laser beam are observed due to relativistic nonlinearity. By expanding the eikonal and the other relevant quantities up to the fourth power of r it is observed that the focusing of the laser beams become fast in the nonparaxial region. Interaction of the plasma wave with the incident laser beam generates the third harmonics. The mechanism of the plasma wave, third harmonic generation, and the parameters, which govern the third harmonic yield and hence the spectrum of third harmonics, have been studied in detail. Correlation of the third harmonic spectrum with the filamentation has been pointed out. Therefore, the broadening of the third harmonic spectra can be used as a diagnostic tool to study the presence of the filamentation of laser beams in laser plasma experiments.

  13. Compact two-beam push-pull free electron laser

    DOEpatents

    Hutton, Andrew

    2009-03-03

    An ultra-compact free electron laser comprising a pair of opposed superconducting cavities that produce identical electron beams moving in opposite directions such that each set of superconducting cavities accelerates one electron beam and decelerates the other electron beam. Such an arrangement, allows the energy used to accelerate one beam to be recovered and used again to accelerate the second beam, thus, each electron beam is decelerated by a different structure than that which accelerated it so that energy exchange rather than recovery is achieved resulting in a more compact and highly efficient apparatus.

  14. The Effect of Laser Scan Strategy on Distortion and Residual Stresses of Arches Made With Selective Laser Melting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagg, Stacey D.; Sochalski-Kolbus, Lindsay M.; Bunn, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is developing Additive Manufacturing (AM) - both in-space AM for on-demand parts, tools, or structures, and on-earth AM for rapid, reduced-cost, small volume production of complex space-flight hardware. Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is an on-earth AM technology that MSFC is using to build Alloy 718 rocket engine components. An understanding of the SLM-718 material properties is required to design, build, and qualify these components for space flight. Residual stresses and are of particular interest for this AM process, since SLM is a series of approximately 100 micron-wide welds, where highly non-linear heating and cooling, severe thermal gradients and repeated thermal cycling can result in high residual stresses within the component. These stresses may cause degraded material properties, and warp or distort the geometry of the SLM component. The distortions can render the component out-of-tolerance when inspected, and even interrupt or halt the build process if the warped material prevents the SLM machine from operating properly. The component must be scrapped and re-designed, which is time consuming and costly. If residual stresses are better understood, and can be predicted, these effects can be mitigated early in the component's design. the compressive residual stresses in the z-direction were highest in the chess sample, followed by island then continuous. This may be due to the binding nature of the segments

  15. Laser power beaming for rocket propulsion and airbreathing propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hertzberg, A.

    1980-01-01

    The developing technology of laser power beaming is introduced, and two systems are used as examples of the capabilities of the laser for beamed energy. In the first system, the potential of the laser to power flight systems ranging from hypersonic air-breathing launch vehicles to commercial jet transports is examined. Attention is given to the possibility of an air-breathing propulsion which offers the promise of a global air transportation network independent of kerosene and powered by solar energy. In addition, consideration is given to a new type of rocket propulsion based on the laser's ability to concentrate coherent laser energy to high power densities. Focused laser beams would heat the propellants directly to produce specific impulses approaching ion and MHD rocket levels, and would do so without the burden of a heavy electrical power supply.

  16. Beamed laser power in support of near-earth missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Edmund J.; Schuster, Gregory L.; Weaver, Willard; Humes, Donald H.

    1989-01-01

    It was found that solar-pumped laser-beamed power is lighter than photovoltaic for power requirements of 150 KWe and above, and is competitive with combined photovoltaic/solar-dynamic over the entire power range investigated. A space station supported by laser-beamed power can be a lower-g facility (reduced drag) than with PV or PV + SD power; has greater freedom of orientation (small receiver moves rather than large arrays or concentrators); and requires less structure (arrays, alpha joints, booms) permitting easier control and fewer vibrational modes. Laser power beaming offers a revolutionary concept for planning designing, and powering large orbiting spacecraft.

  17. A self pulsed laser ranging system under development at 'JPL'. [for onboard measurement of large space deployable reflector surface distortions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdahl, M.

    1979-01-01

    The performance of large space deployable antenna reflectors to be used for broad-based communications systems is largely dependent on the accuracy with which the surface figure can be constructed and maintained. The paper examines various surface distortion tolerance and measurement requirements for various classes of communication antennas. Several surface measuring methods are described including a self-pulsed laser ranging system.

  18. Parametric study of transport beam lines for electron beams accelerated by laser-plasma interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Scisciò, M.; Antici, P.; Lancia, L.; Migliorati, M.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Papaphilippou, Y.

    2016-03-07

    In the last decade, laser-plasma acceleration of high-energy electrons has attracted strong attention in different fields. Electrons with maximum energies in the GeV range can be laser-accelerated within a few cm using multi-hundreds terawatt (TW) lasers, yielding to very high beam currents at the source (electron bunches with up to tens-hundreds of pC in a few fs). While initially the challenge was to increase the maximum achievable electron energy, today strong effort is put in the control and usability of these laser-generated beams that still lack of some features in order to be used for applications where currently conventional, radio-frequency (RF) based, electron beam lines represent the most common and efficient solution. Several improvements have been suggested for this purpose, some of them acting directly on the plasma source, some using beam shaping tools located downstream. Concerning the latter, several studies have suggested the use of conventional accelerator magnetic devices (such as quadrupoles and solenoids) as an easy implementable solution when the laser-plasma accelerated beam requires optimization. In this paper, we report on a parametric study related to the transport of electron beams accelerated by laser-plasma interaction, using conventional accelerator elements and tools. We focus on both, high energy electron beams in the GeV range, as produced on petawatt (PW) class laser systems, and on lower energy electron beams in the hundreds of MeV range, as nowadays routinely obtained on commercially available multi-hundred TW laser systems. For both scenarios, our study allows understanding what are the crucial parameters that enable laser-plasma accelerators to compete with conventional ones and allow for a beam transport. We show that suitable working points require a tradeoff-combination between low beam divergence and narrow energy spread.

  19. Parametric study of transport beam lines for electron beams accelerated by laser-plasma interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scisciò, M.; Lancia, L.; Migliorati, M.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Antici, P.

    2016-03-01

    In the last decade, laser-plasma acceleration of high-energy electrons has attracted strong attention in different fields. Electrons with maximum energies in the GeV range can be laser-accelerated within a few cm using multi-hundreds terawatt (TW) lasers, yielding to very high beam currents at the source (electron bunches with up to tens-hundreds of pC in a few fs). While initially the challenge was to increase the maximum achievable electron energy, today strong effort is put in the control and usability of these laser-generated beams that still lack of some features in order to be used for applications where currently conventional, radio-frequency (RF) based, electron beam lines represent the most common and efficient solution. Several improvements have been suggested for this purpose, some of them acting directly on the plasma source, some using beam shaping tools located downstream. Concerning the latter, several studies have suggested the use of conventional accelerator magnetic devices (such as quadrupoles and solenoids) as an easy implementable solution when the laser-plasma accelerated beam requires optimization. In this paper, we report on a parametric study related to the transport of electron beams accelerated by laser-plasma interaction, using conventional accelerator elements and tools. We focus on both, high energy electron beams in the GeV range, as produced on petawatt (PW) class laser systems, and on lower energy electron beams in the hundreds of MeV range, as nowadays routinely obtained on commercially available multi-hundred TW laser systems. For both scenarios, our study allows understanding what are the crucial parameters that enable laser-plasma accelerators to compete with conventional ones and allow for a beam transport. We show that suitable working points require a tradeoff-combination between low beam divergence and narrow energy spread.

  20. Laser wakefield accelerated electron beam monitoring and control

    SciTech Connect

    Koga, J. K.; Mori, M.; Kotaki, H.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Kiriyama, H.; Kando, M.; Bulanov, S. V.

    2016-03-25

    We will discuss our participation in the ImPACT project, which has as one of its goals the development of an ultra-compact electron accelerator using lasers (< 1 GeV, < 10   m) and the generation of an x-ray beam from the accelerated electrons. Within this context we will discuss our investigation into electron beam monitoring and control. Since laser accelerated electrons will be used for x-ray beam generation combined with an undulator, we will present investigation into the possibilities of the improvement of electron beam emittance through cooling.

  1. Red and infrared gas laser beam for therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascu, Mihail-Lucian; Ristici, Marin; Ristici, E.; Tivarus, Madalina-Elena

    2000-06-01

    For the low power laser therapy, the experiments show that better results are obtained when the laser beam is an overlapping of two radiations: one in the visible region of the spectrum and the other in IR region. Also, some experiments show that for good results in biostimulation it is important to have a high coherence length of laser beam; this is not the case of the laser diodes The He-Ne laser has the best coherence, being able to generate laser radiations in visible and IR. It has tow strong laser lines: 633 nm and 1.15 micrometers . Although their gains are about the same, the available power of the red radiation is 3-4 times higher because of its larger width, when they oscillate separately. Using special dichroic mirrors for simultaneous reflection of the both liens, the laser beam will consist of the two radiations, each of them having good coherence . A 420 mm active length, 1.8 mm inner diameter He-Ne laser tube and a special designed resonator has been developed. The mirrors reflect both radiations as follows: one reflects 99.9 percent and the other, the output mirror, reflects 98 percent. There is a competition between them because these lines have a common lower level. The output power of the laser beam as 6 mW for 633 nm and 4 mW for 1.15 micrometers , respectively.

  2. Genomic Physics. Multiple Laser Beam Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2014-03-01

    The synapses affected by Alzheimer's disease can be rejuvenated by the multiple ultrashort wavelength laser beams.[2] The guiding lasers scan the whole area to detect the amyloid plaques based on the laser scattering technique. The scanning lasers pinpoint the areas with plaques and eliminate them. Laser interaction is highly efficient, because of the focusing capabilities and possibility for the identification of the damaging proteins by matching the protein oscillation eigen-frequency with laser frequency.[3] Supported by Nikola Tesla Labs, La Jolla, California, USA.

  3. Diffractive beam shaping for enhanced laser polymer welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauschenberger, J.; Vogler, D.; Raab, C.; Gubler, U.

    2015-03-01

    Laser welding of polymers increasingly finds application in a large number of industries such as medical technology, automotive, consumer electronics, textiles or packaging. More and more, it replaces other welding technologies for polymers, e. g. hot-plate, vibration or ultrasonic welding. At the same rate, demands on the quality of the weld, the flexibility of the production system and on processing speed have increased. Traditionally, diode lasers were employed for plastic welding with flat-top beam profiles. With the advent of fiber lasers with excellent beam quality, the possibility to modify and optimize the beam profile by beam-shaping elements has opened. Diffractive optical elements (DOE) can play a crucial role in optimizing the laser intensity profile towards the optimal M-shape beam for enhanced weld seam quality. We present results on significantly improved weld seam width constancy and enlarged process windows compared to Gaussian or flat-top beam profiles. Configurations in which the laser beam diameter and shape can be adapted and optimized without changing or aligning the laser, fiber-optic cable or optical head are shown.

  4. Laser ion source for high brightness heavy ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, M.

    2016-09-01

    A laser ion source is known as a high current high charge state heavy ion source. But, we place great emphasis on the capability to realize a high brightness ion source. A laser ion source has a pinpoint small volume where materials are ionized and can achieve quite uniform low temperature ion beam. Those features may enable us to realize very small emittance beams. Furthermore, a low charge state high brightness laser ion source was successfully commissioned in Brookhaven National Laboratory in 2014. Now most of all the solid based heavy ions are being provided from the laser ion source for regular operation.

  5. Laser ion source for high brightness heavy ion beam

    DOE PAGES

    Okamura, M.

    2016-09-01

    A laser ion source is known as a high current high charge state heavy ion source. But, we place great emphasis on the capability to realize a high brightness ion source. A laser ion source has a pinpoint small volume where materials are ionized and can achieve quite uniform low temperature ion beam. Those features may enable us to realize very small emittance beams. Furthermore, a low charge state high brightness laser ion source was successfully commissioned in Brookhaven National Laboratory in 2014. Now most of all the solid based heavy ions are being provided from the laser ion sourcemore » for regular operation.« less

  6. Laser beam combiner for Thomson scattering core LIDAR.

    PubMed

    Balboa, I; Huang, B; Naylor, G; Walsh, M; Sirinelli, A; Parsons, P; Fessey, J; Townsend, M; Beurskens, M; Conway, N; Flanagan, J; Kempenaars, M; Kirk, A

    2010-10-01

    The light detection and ranging Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic is advantageous since it only requires a single view port into the tokamak. This technique requires a short pulse laser at high energy, usually showing a limited repetition rate. Having multiple lasers will increase the repetition rate. This paper presents a scanning mirror as a laser beam combiner. Measurements of the position accuracy and jitter show that the pointing stability of the laser beam is within ±25 μrad for over tens of seconds. A control feedback loop is implemented to demonstrate the long term stability. Such a system could be applied for ITER and JET.

  7. Laser ion source for high brightness heavy ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, M.

    2016-09-01

    A laser ion source is known as a high current high charge state heavy ion source. But, we place great emphasis on the capability to realize a high brightness ion source. A laser ion source has a pinpoint small volume where materials are ionized and can achieve quite uniform low temperature ion beam. Those features may enable us to realize very small emittance beams. Furthermore, a low charge state high brightness laser ion source was successfully commissioned in Brookhaven National Laboratory in 2014. Now most of all the solid based heavy ions are being provided from the laser ion source for regular operation.

  8. Laser ion source for high brightness heavy ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, M.

    2016-09-01

    A laser ion source is known as a high current high charge state heavy ion source. However we place great emphasis on the capability to realize a high brightness ion source. A laser ion source has a pinpoint small volume where materials are ionized and can achieve quite uniform low temperature ion beam. Those features may enable us to realize very small emittance beams. In 2014, a low charge state high brightness laser ion source was successfully commissioned in Brookhaven National Laboratory. Now most of all the solid based heavy ions are being provided from the laser ion source for regular operation.

  9. Laser beam brazing of car body and aircraft components

    SciTech Connect

    Haferkamp, H.; Kreutzburg, K.

    1994-12-31

    At present, when brazing car body components for the automotive industry, manual flame brazing is mostly used. The advantage of brazing as compared to welding, is the lower hardness of the braze metal, making postmachining easier. But manual flame brazing also shows several main disadvantages, such as pores within the seam and a high thermal influence on the workpiece. Therefore, investigations on laser beam brazing concerning the reduction of the technological and economical disadvantages of the flame brazing process were carried out. Laser beam brazing of aluminum alloys is also a main topic of this presentation. The fundamental research in brazing mild steel was done on lap joints. The investigations about brazing mild steel and aluminum alloys have demonstrated that it is possible to braze these metals using laser beam radiation. Laser beam brazing of 3-dimensional mild steel components requires a special program for the brazing sequence, and new specifications in design and fabrication. But comparing seams made by laser beam brazing to manual flame brazing show that there are advantages to using the automated laser process. Laser beam brazing of aluminum alloys makes it possible to join metals with poor brazeability, although brazing conditions lead to a slight melting of the gap sides.

  10. Activation of cells using femtosecond laser beam (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batabyal, Subrata; Satpathy, Sarmishtha; Kim, Young-tae; Mohanty, Samarendra K.

    2016-03-01

    Study of communication in cellular systems requires precise activation of targeted cell(s) in the network. In contrast to chemical, electrical, thermal, mechanical stimulation, optical stimulation is non-invasive and is better suited for stimulation of targeted cells. As compared to visible lasers, the near infrared (NIR) microsecond/nanosecond pulsed laser beams are being used as preferred stimulation tool as they provide higher penetration depth in tissues. Femotosecond (FS) laser beams in NIR are also being used for direct and indirect (i.e. via two-photon optogenetics) stimulation of cells. Here, we present a comparative evaluation of efficacy of NIR FS laser beam for direct (no optogenetic sensitization) and 2ph optogenetic stimulation of cells. Further, for the first time, we demonstrate the use of blue (~450 nm, obtained by second harmonic generation) FS laser beam for stimulation of cells with and without Channelrhodopisn-2 (ChR2) expression. Comparative analysis of photocurrent generated by blue FS laser beam and continuous wave blue light for optogenetics stimulation of ChR2 transfected HEK cells will be presented. The use of ultrafast laser micro-beam for focal, non-contact, and repeated stimulation of single cells in a cellular circuitry allowed us to study the communication between different cell types.

  11. The output beam quality of a Q-switched Nd:glass slab laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Murray K.; Byer, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have constructed and tested a flashlamp pumped, Q-switched, Nd:glass zigzag slab laser. The thermally induced optical distortion through the slab is minimized by uniform pumping and cooling and the use of corrective pump shields at the slab ends. The laser spatial output for Q-switched resonators has been measured and modeled. It is shown that a larger aperture planar oscillator has an output divergence many times above the diffraction limit. Operation as a one-dimensional unstable resonator in the wide direction of the slab allows the efficient extraction of energy in a high-quality beam. Near-diffraction-limited laser output of 5 J at 4 Hz is achieved with a resonator that includes an intracavity telescope to correct for residual defocusing in the thin direction of the slab.

  12. The output beam quality of a Q-switched Nd:glass slab laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Murray K.; Byer, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have constructed and tested a flashlamp pumped, Q-switched, Nd:glass zigzag slab laser. The thermally induced optical distortion through the slab is minimized by uniform pumping and cooling and the use of corrective pump shields at the slab ends. The laser spatial output for Q-switched resonators has been measured and modeled. It is shown that a larger aperture planar oscillator has an output divergence many times above the diffraction limit. Operation as a one-dimensional unstable resonator in the wide direction of the slab allows the efficient extraction of energy in a high-quality beam. Near-diffraction-limited laser output of 5 J at 4 Hz is achieved with a resonator that includes an intracavity telescope to correct for residual defocusing in the thin direction of the slab.

  13. Influence of laser array performance on spectrally combined beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhen; Yang, Lei; Zhong, Zheqiang; Zhang, Bin

    2016-10-01

    Incoherent spectral beam combining (SBC) of multiple laser beams is accomplished along the emitters' arraying direction. Considering that the output beams from a laser array (LA) usually have deflection angles, positional displacements and divergence angles even after being collimated, a propagation model of SBC systems based on multilayer dielectric gratings has been built up. On the basis, properties of the spectrally combined beam affected by parameters of the LA have been discussed in detail. Simulation results show that with the increase in the deflection angle, both the power and the beam quality of the combined beam degrade dramatically. The positional displacement has little impact on the intensity distribution and the beam quality of combined beam but change the wavelength composition of the combined beam. The divergence angle strongly affects the intensity distribution and the beam quality of the combined beam. Additionally, the effect of the deflection angle on the output beam quality is more obvious and may shift the beam spot when comparing with that of the divergence angle.

  14. Wake fields, potential well distortion and beam stability in the LER PEP-II

    SciTech Connect

    Heifets, S.A.

    1996-02-01

    Longitudinal and transverse wake fields are constructed for LER PEP-II. The effects of potential well distortion and the single bunch longitudinal stability are discussed for LER PEP-II storage ring. The coupled-bunch stability recalculated with the updated impedance.

  15. Laser beam alignment and profilometry using diagnostic fluorescent safety mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizotte, Todd E.

    2011-03-01

    There are a wide range of laser beam delivery systems in use for various purposes; including industrial and medical applications. Virtually all such beam delivery systems for practical purposes employ optical systems comprised of mirrors and lenses to shape, focus and guide the laser beam down to the material being processed. The goal of the laser beam delivery is to set the optimum parameters and to "fold" the beam path to reduce the mechanical length of the optical system, thereby allowing a physically compact system. In many cases, even a compact system can incorporate upwards of six mirrors and a comparable number of lenses all needing alignment so they are collinear. One of the major requirements for use of such systems in industry is a method of safe alignment. The alignment process requires that the aligner determine where the beam strikes each element. The aligner should also preferably be able to determine the shape or pattern of the laser beam at that point and its relative power. These alignments are further compounded in that the laser beams generated are not visible to the unaided human eye. Such beams are also often of relatively high power levels, and are thereby a significant hazard to the eyes of the aligner. Obvious an invisible beam makes it nearly impossible to align laser system without some form of optical assistance. The predominant method of visually aligning the laser beam delivery is the use of thermal paper, paper cards or fluorescing card material. The use of paper products which have limited power handling capability or coated plastics can produce significant debris and contaminants within the beam line that ultimately damage the optics. The use of the cards can also create significant laser light scatter jeopardizing the safety of the person aligning the system. This paper covers a new safety mirror design for use with at various UV and Near IR wavelengths (193 nm to 1064 nm) within laser beam delivery systems and how its use can

  16. Possibilities and limitations of rod-beam theories. [nonlinear distortion tensor and nonlinear stress tensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, D.

    1979-01-01

    Rod-beam theories are founded on hypotheses such as Bernouilli's suggesting flat cross-sections under deformation. These assumptions, which make rod-beam theories possible, also limit the accuracy of their analysis. It is shown that from a certain order upward terms of geometrically nonlinear deformations contradict the rod-beam hypotheses. Consistent application of differential geometry calculus also reveals differences from existing rod theories of higher order. These differences are explained by simple examples.

  17. DPSS Laser Beam Quality Optimization Through Pump Current Tuning

    SciTech Connect

    Omohundro, Rob; Callen, Alice; Sukuta, Sydney; /San Jose City Coll.

    2012-03-30

    The goal of this study is to demonstrate how a DPSS laser beam's quality parameters can be simultaneously optimized through pump current tuning. Two DPSS lasers of the same make and model were used where the laser diode pump current was first varied to ascertain the lowest RMS noise region. The lowest noise was found to be 0.13% in this region and the best M{sup 2} value of 1.0 and highest laser output power were simultaneously attained at the same current point. The laser manufacturer reported a M{sup 2} value of 1.3 and RMS noise value of .14% for these lasers. This study therefore demonstrates that pump current tuning a DPSS laser can simultaneously optimize RMS Noise, Power and M{sup 2} values. Future studies will strive to broaden the scope of the beam quality parameters impacted by current tuning.

  18. A comparison of the physics of Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW), Electron Beam Welding (EBW), and Laser Beam Welding (LBW)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The physics governing the applicability and limitations of gas tungsten arc (GTA), electron beam (EB), and laser beam (LB) welding are compared. An appendix on the selection of laser welding systems is included.

  19. Comparison of the physics of Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW), Electron Beam Welding (EBW), and Laser Beam Welding (LBW)

    SciTech Connect

    Nunes, A.C. Jr.

    1985-08-01

    The physics governing the applicability and limitations of gas tungsten arc (GTA), electron beam (EB), and laser beam (LB) welding are compared. An appendix on the selection of laser welding systems is included.

  20. A single beam laser tracker as an alignment tool

    SciTech Connect

    Wand, B.T.; LeCocq, C.; Gaydosh, M.; Ruland, R.E.

    1992-07-01

    In December 1991 the Survey and Alignment team of the Stanford Liner Accelerator Center (SLAC) purchased a Chesapeake single beam laser tracker. This paper will discuss first experiences and applications with this new type of an alignment instrument.

  1. Dynamic photonic crystals dimensionality tuning by laser beams polarization changing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golinskaya, Anastasia D.; Stebakova, Yulia V.; Valchuk, Yana V.; Smirnov, Aleksandr M.; Mantsevich, Vladimir N.

    2017-05-01

    A simple way to create dynamic photonic crystals with different lattice symmetry by interference of non-coplanar laser beams in colloidal solution of quantum dots was demonstrated. With the proposed technique we have made micro-periodic dynamic semiconductor structure with strong nonlinear changing of refraction and absorption and analyzed the self-diffraction processes of two, three and four non-coplanar laser beams at the dynamic photonic crystal (diffraction grating) with hexagonal lattice structure. To reach the best uniform contrast of the structure and for better understanding of the problems, specially raised by the interference of multiple laser beams theoretical calculation of the periodic intensity field in the QDs solution were performed. It was demonstrated that dynamic photonic crystal structure and even it's dimension can be easily tuned with a high speed by the laser beams polarization variation without changing the experimental setup geometry.

  2. Advances in fiber laser spectral beam combining for power scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honea, Eric; Afzal, Robert S.; Savage-Leuchs, Matthias; Henrie, Jason; Brar, Khush; Kurz, Nathan; Jander, Don; Gitkind, Neil; Hu, Dan; Robin, Craig; Jones, Andrew M.; Kasinadhuni, Ravi; Humphreys, Richard

    2016-03-01

    Spectral Beam Combining (SBC) of fiber lasers provides a simple, robust architecture for high brightness power scaling beyond the limit of a single fiber. We review recent progress in power scaling and describe what we believe is the highest power SBC fiber demonstration and largest number of fiber lasers combined to date. Here we report results on a fiber SBC system where we achieved > 30 kW by combining 96 individual fiber lasers into a single high brightness beam with a beam quality of M2 = 1.6 x 1.8. The potential for further power scaling at the system level is highlighted with examples of beam combinable fiber laser power scaling.

  3. Practical considerations of producing propagation invariant laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soskind, M.; Soskind, R.; Soskind, Y. G.

    2015-08-01

    Due to their several unique properties, propagation invariant laser beams (PILBs) are playing an increasingly important role in several photonics applications. This paper describes some practical aspects of producing propagation invariant laser beams with different symmetries and structured light field distributions. Both intra-cavity and extra-cavity schemes can be employed. In the case of extra-cavity implementations, we show several practical layouts of anamorphic optical systems (AOSs) for shaping the propagation-invariant laser beams based on the size and waist locations of the input laser beams. We also establish matrix equations required to quantify the influence of input PILBs lateral and angular misalignments with respect to the AOSs onto the spatial characteristics of the produced output PILBs, and present examples of the resulting PILBs affected by the input PILBs misalignments.

  4. Mathematical aspects of laser beam shaping and splitting.

    SciTech Connect

    Dickey, Fred McCartney; Romero, Louis Anthony

    2010-05-01

    We will discuss general mathematical ideas arising in the problems of Laser beam shaping and splitting. We will be particularly concerned with questions concerning the scaling and symmetry of such systems.

  5. Multiple scattering of laser beams in dense hydrosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zardecki, A.; Gerstl, S. A. W.; Unruh, W. P.; Stokes, G. H.; Stupin, D. M.; Elliott, N. E.; Weinman, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    The multiple scattering of laser beams is usually described within the framework of small-angle scattering theory. The validity of this approximation as well as improvements due to the incorporation of diffusion theory in the calculations were studied.

  6. Thermal beam distortions in end-pumped Nd:YAG, Nd:GSGG, and Nd:YLF rods

    SciTech Connect

    Pfistner, C.; Weber, R.; Weber, H.P. . Inst. of Applied Physics); Merazzi, S.; Gruber, R. . Centro Svizzero di Calcolo Scientifico)

    1994-07-01

    The thermally induced beam distortion in end-pumped Nd:YAG, Nd: GSGG, and Nd:YLF rods were analyzed and the influence of edge- and face-cooling was investigated. The distributions of temperature, stress, and strain in the crystals were calculated by finite element analysis. Based on these data, the space-resolved changes of the refractive index were determined considering thermal dispersion, surface deformation, and strain-induced birefringence. The resulting optical path difference for one round-trip in the end-pumped rods was integrated numerically. For each rod, the induced thermal lens was determined over the extent of the pump spot radius. The calculations of the optical path difference were experimentally confirmed by investigations using a modified Twyman-Green interferometer with a polarized HeNe probe beam at 633 nm under lasing and nonlasting conditions.

  7. 3w Transmitted Beam Diagnostic at the Omega Laser Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Froula, D H; Rekow, V; Sorce, C; Piston, K; Knight, R; Alvarez, S; Griffith, R; Hargrove, D; Ross, J S; Dixit, S; Pollock, B; Divol, L; Glenzer, S H; Armstrong, W; Bahr, R; Thorp, K; Pien, G

    2006-04-24

    A 3{omega} transmitted beam diagnostic has been commissioned on the Omega Laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester [Soures et.al., Laser Part. Beams 11 (1993)]. Transmitted light from one beam is collected by a large focusing mirror and directed onto a diagnostic platform. The near field of the transmitted light is imaged; the system collects information from twice the original f-cone of the beam. Two gated optical cameras capture the near field image of the transmitted light. Thirteen spatial positions around the measurement region are temporally resolved using fast photodiodes to allow a measure of the beam spray evolution. The Forward stimulated Raman scattering and forward simulated Brillion scattering are spectrally and temporally resolved at 5 independent locations within twice the original f-cone. The total transmitted energy is measured in two spectral bands ({delta}{lambda} < 400 nm and {delta}{lambda} > 400 nm).

  8. Hermite-Gaussian Modes and Mirror Distortions in the Free Electron Laser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    Trends for Hyperbolic Distortion for the JLab EM Wiggler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 xi 26. Gain and...Extraction Trends for Hyperbolic Distortion for the JLab STI Wiggler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 27. Gain and...Extraction Trends for Ellipsoidal Distortion for the JLab EM Wiggler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 28. Gain and

  9. Single electron beam rf feedback free electron laser

    DOEpatents

    Brau, C.A.; Stein, W.E.; Rockwood, S.D.

    1981-02-11

    A free electron laser system and electron beam system for a free electron laser which uses rf feedback to enhance efficiency are described. Rf energy is extracted from a single electron beam by decelerating cavities and energy is returned to accelerating cavities using rf returns, such as rf waveguides, rf feedthroughs, resonant feedthroughs, etc. This rf energy is added to rf klystron energy to reduce the required input energy and thereby enhance energy efficiency of the system.

  10. Integrated Electro-optical Laser-Beam Scanners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boord, Warren T.

    1990-01-01

    Scanners using solid-state devices compact, consume little power, and have no moving parts. Integrated electro-optical laser scanner, in conjunction with external lens, points outgoing beam of light in any number of different directions, depending on number of upper electrodes. Offers beam-deflection angles larger than those of acousto-optic scanners. Proposed for such diverse applications as nonimpact laser printing, color imaging, ranging, barcode reading, and robotic vision.

  11. Integrated Electro-optical Laser-Beam Scanners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boord, Warren T.

    1990-01-01

    Scanners using solid-state devices compact, consume little power, and have no moving parts. Integrated electro-optical laser scanner, in conjunction with external lens, points outgoing beam of light in any number of different directions, depending on number of upper electrodes. Offers beam-deflection angles larger than those of acousto-optic scanners. Proposed for such diverse applications as nonimpact laser printing, color imaging, ranging, barcode reading, and robotic vision.

  12. Dual-Beam Atom Laser Driven by Spinor Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Robert; Lundblad, Nathan; Maleki, Lute; Aveline, David

    2007-01-01

    An atom laser now undergoing development simultaneously generates two pulsed beams of correlated Rb-87 atoms. (An atom laser is a source of atoms in beams characterized by coherent matter waves, analogous to a conventional laser, which is a source of coherent light waves.) The pumping mechanism of this atom laser is based on spinor dynamics in a Bose-Einstein condensate. By virtue of the angular-momentum conserving collisions that generate the two beams, the number of atoms in one beam is correlated with the number of atoms in the other beam. Such correlations are intimately linked to entanglement and squeezing in atomic ensembles, and atom lasers like this one could be used in exploring related aspects of Bose-Einstein condensates, and as components of future sensors relying on atom interferometry. In this atom-laser apparatus, a Bose-Einstein condensate of about 2 x 10(exp 6) Rb-87 atoms at a temperature of about 120 micro-K is first formed through all-optical means in a relatively weak singlebeam running-wave dipole trap that has been formed by focusing of a CO2-laser beam. By a technique that is established in the art, the trap is loaded from an ultrahigh-vacuum magnetooptical trap that is, itself, loaded via a cold atomic beam from an upstream two-dimensional magneto-optical trap that resides in a rubidium-vapor cell that is differentially pumped from an adjoining vacuum chamber, wherein are performed scientific observations of the beams ultimately generated by the atom laser.

  13. Development of laser-ion beam photodissociation methods

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, D.H.

    1990-08-01

    During this report period our research efforts have concentrated on studies of the dissociation reactions of model peptides and other biologically important molecules. In addition, a considerable amount of research effort has been directed toward improving the apparatus used for laser-ion beam photodissociation. The instrumental improvements include some changes on the original apparatus, but most of this effort involved designing a second generation laser-ion beam photodissociation instrument.

  14. Disintegration of urinary calculi by laser beam: drilling experiment in extracted urinary stones.

    PubMed

    Tanahashi, Y; Orikasa, S; Chiba, R; Tahira, K; Fukatsu, T; Miyakawa, T

    1979-06-01

    Disintegration of urinary calculi was attempted by the use of laser beam. As a first step, drilling of extracted urinary stones was attempted using a continuous wave CO2 laser and a pulse ruby laser. Stones were drilled easily by either laser beam. The power around 10 W of continuous CO2 laser beam was sufficient to drill through the stone.

  15. Potential-Well Distortion, Microwave Instability, and Their Effects with Colliding Beams at KEKB

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yunhai; Flanagan, J.; Fukuma, H.; Funakoshi, Y.; Ieiri, T.; Ohmi, K.; Oide, K.; Suetsugu, Y.; Rorie, Jamal; /Hawaii U.

    2009-04-01

    Microwave instability in the Low Energy Ring of KEKB was studied using a broadband impedance model. The model gave excellent descriptions of longitudinal dynamics for both positive and negative momentum compactions. Moreover, it predicted that the threshold of microwave instability was a factor of two lower than the machine nominal operating bunch current. The prediction was confirmed by a measurement using the Belle detector. Furthermore, we integrated the longitudinal wakefield into the beam-beam simulation and applied it to study the combined effects in KEKB. As a result, the beam-beam simulation became truly three-dimensional with emittance growth in all three dimensions simultaneously as the beam currents increase. In addition, an observed mystery of asymmetry in the horizontal scan could also be explained by our simulations.

  16. Polarization/Spatial Combining of Laser-Diode Pump Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelsinger, Paul; Liu, Duncan

    2008-01-01

    A breadboard version of an optical beam combiner is depicted which make it possible to use the outputs of any or all of four multimode laser diodes to pump a non-planar ring oscillator (NPRO) laser. The output of each laser diode has a single-mode profile in the meridional plane containing an axis denoted the 'fast' axis and a narrower multimode profile in the orthogonal meridional plane, which contains an axis denoted the 'slow' axis and a narrower multimode profile in the orthogonal meridional plane, which contains an axis denoted the 'slow' axis. One of the purposes served by the beam-combining optics is to reduce the fast-axis numerical aperture (NA) of the laser-diode output to match the NA of the optical fiber. Along the slow axis, the unmodified laser-diode NA is already well matched to the fiber optic NA, so no further slow-axis beam shaping is needed. In this beam combiner, the laser-diode outputs are collimated by aspherical lenses, then half-wave plates and polarizing beam splitters are used to combine the four collimated beams into two beams. Spatial combination of the two beams and coupling into the optical fiber is effected by use of anamorphic prisms, mirrors, and a focusing lens. The anamorphic prisms are critical elements in the NA-matching scheme, in that they reduce the fast-axis beam width to 1/6 of its original values. Inasmuch as no slow-axis beam shaping is needed, the collimating and focusing lenses are matched for 1:1 iumaging. Because these lenses are well corrected for infinite conjugates the combiner offers diffraction-limited performance along both the fast and slow axes.

  17. Multiplexed volume Bragg gratings for spectral beam combining of high power fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divliansky, Ivan; Ott, Daniel; Anderson, Brian; Drachenberg, Derrek; Rotar, Vasile; Venus, George; Glebov, Leonid

    2012-02-01

    The recent development of kW fiber laser sources makes the concept of laser systems operating at power levels from tens of kilowatts up to 100-kilowatt levels a reality. The use of volume Bragg gratings for spectral beam combining is one approach to achieve that goal. To make such systems compact, lower the complexity and minimize the induced thermal distortions we propose and demonstrate the use of special volume Bragg elements which have several Bragg gratings written inside as combining optical components. The multiplexed volume Bragg gratings (MVBGs) were recorded in photo-thermo refractive glass and three beams with total power of 420 W were successfully combined using one MVBG. The combining efficiency was 97% and there was no significant beam quality degradation. The results demonstrated that the approach of using multiplexed volume Bragg gratings for spectral beam combining is an excellent extension to the current state of the art combining techniques. Especially valuable is the capability to reduce the number of optical elements in the system and while being able to manage the expected thermal load when kilowatt level sources are used for beam combining.

  18. Effects of laser fluence on silicon modification by four-beam laser interference

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Le; Li, Dayou; Wang, Zuobin Yue, Yong; Zhang, Jinjin; Yu, Miao; Li, Siwei

    2015-12-21

    This paper discusses the effects of laser fluence on silicon modification by four-beam laser interference. In this work, four-beam laser interference was used to pattern single crystal silicon wafers for the fabrication of surface structures, and the number of laser pulses was applied to the process in air. By controlling the parameters of laser irradiation, different shapes of silicon structures were fabricated. The results were obtained with the single laser fluence of 354 mJ/cm{sup 2}, 495 mJ/cm{sup 2}, and 637 mJ/cm{sup 2}, the pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz, the laser exposure pulses of 30, 100, and 300, the laser wavelength of 1064 nm, and the pulse duration of 7–9 ns. The effects of the heat transfer and the radiation of laser interference plasma on silicon wafer surfaces were investigated. The equations of heat flow and radiation effects of laser plasma of interfering patterns in a four-beam laser interference distribution were proposed to describe their impacts on silicon wafer surfaces. The experimental results have shown that the laser fluence has to be properly selected for the fabrication of well-defined surface structures in a four-beam laser interference process. Laser interference patterns can directly fabricate different shape structures for their corresponding applications.

  19. Monoenergetic collimated nano-Coulomb electron beams driven by crossed laser beams

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jingwei; Murakami, M.; Weng, S. M.; Ruhl, H.; Luan Shixia; Yu Wei

    2013-07-08

    Monoenergetic collimated electron acceleration by two crossed laser beams is investigated through an analytical model and particle-in-cell simulations. Electron bunches with a total charge of order nano-Coulombs are accelerated by the axial electric field formed by the crossed laser beams to nearly 760 MeV with an energy spread of 2.7%. The transverse components of both electric and magnetic fields vanish along the axis, making the electron beam highly collimated. This acceleration scheme appears promising in producing high quality electron beams.

  20. Laser assisted direct write process with novel beam profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Shuo; Wellburn, Dan; Fearon, Eamonn; Yan, Shilian; Edwardson, Stuart; Dearden, G.; Watkins, K. G.

    2013-05-01

    The Laser Assisted Direct Write (LADW) method can be used to generate electrical circuitry on a substrate by depositing metallic ink and curing the ink thermally with a laser. Compared to conventional oven curing, laser curing can be used in-situ, over complicated 3D contours, and selectively cure over heat sensitive substrates. The intensity distribution of the laser beam used has significant influence on many surface heating processes. A conventional Gaussian beam would lead to uneven heating across the beam path. To overcome this issue, Wellburn has designed a novel beam shaping device, which allows one to convert a Gaussian beam profile into an annular ring with a variable level of central plateau fill [1]. Shang et al. have developed and verified a predictive Finite Element Method (FEM) model to simulate the laser curing process for a generic combination of processing parameters. Laser modes can be flexibly varied within this model. Hence it can be used to predict the performance of curing with differently intensity distributions. This study investigates the curing process under different intensity profiles obtained with the beam shaping device. Electrical resistivity and scratch resistance of cured samples are tested as measures of the curing quality achieved. Results obtained are then compared with the FEM model predictions, and indicate the best intensity distribution for this particular application.

  1. Distortion of the per-pixel signal in the Timepix detector observed in high energy carbon ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, B.; Soukup, P.; Granja, C.; Jakubek, J.; Pospíšil, S.; Jäkel, O.; Martišíková, M.

    2014-09-01

    Within the application of the pixelated semiconductor Timepix detector for ion beam therapy purposes, distortion and non-linearity in the spectrometric pixel response to high energy carbon ions were observed. In this contribution, these effects are studied in detail. A distinct correlation between the arrival time of a particle during the exposure time and the respective detector signal was found. The hypothesis to explain these findings by oscillations in the pixel electronics leading to a second rise of the preamplifier output above threshold is discussed. Depending on the particle arrival time, the distortions can result in an artificially increased counter value and consequently an enlarged detector signal in energy mode. The effect appears when the signal per-pixel is above approximately 1 MeV, therefore becomig especially significant for measurements with heavy ions. The results presented in this publication are part of: B. Hartmann, A Novel Approach to Ion Spectroscopy of Therapeutic Ion Beams Using a Pixelated Semiconductor Detector, Ph.D. thesis, University of Heidelberg, Germany (2013).

  2. Laser-based profile and energy monitor for H beams

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly,R.; Alessi, J.; Bellavia, S.; Dawson, C.; Degen, C.; Meng, W.; Raparia, D.; Russo, T.; Tsoupas, N.

    2008-09-29

    A beam profile and energy monitor for H{sup -} beams based on laser photoneutralization was built at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL)* for use on the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HMS) at Fermilab. An H{sup -} ion has a first ionization potential of 0.75eV and can be neutralized by light from a Nd:YAG laser ({lambda}=1064nm). To measure beam profiles, a narrow laser beam is stepped across the ion beam, removing electrons from the portion of the H{sup -} beam intercepted by the laser. These electrons are channeled into a Faraday cup by a curved axial magnetic field. To measure the energy distribution of the electrons, the laser position is fixed and the voltage on a screen in front of the Faraday cup is raised in small steps. We present a model which reproduces the measured energy spectrum from calculated beam energy and space-charge fields. Measurements are reported from experiments in the BNL linac MEBT at 750keV.

  3. RESONATORS, MODES, BEAMS: Gain saturation of laser beams and production and decay of phase dislocations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyutin, A. A.

    2006-02-01

    The distortion of the distribution of initially pure laser modes caused by the gain saturation is simulated numerically. It is shown that the gain saturation results in a considerable enrichment of the modal spectrum of radiation accompanied by the production and decay of phase dislocations in the far-field domain and at the output of an astigmatic π/2-mode converter.

  4. A picosecond beam-timing system for the OMEGA laser

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, W. R.; Katz, J.; Huff, R.; Hill, E. M.; Kelly, J. H.; Kwaitkowski, J.; Brannon, R. B.; Boni, R.

    2016-05-27

    Here, a timing system is demonstrated for the OMEGA Laser System that guarantees all 60 beams will arrive on target simultaneously with a root mean square variability of 4 ps. The system relies on placing a scattering sphere at the target position to couple the UV light from each beam into a single photodetector.

  5. Dual beam translator for use in Laser Doppler anemometry

    DOEpatents

    Brudnoy, D.M.

    1984-04-12

    A method and apparatus for selectively translating the path of at least one pair of light beams in a Laser Doppler anemometry device whereby the light paths are translated in a direction parallel to the original beam paths so as to enable attainment of spacial coincidence of the two intersection volumes and permit accurate measurements of Reynolds shear stress.

  6. Flat-top beam for laser-stimulated pain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaughey, Ryan; Nadeau, Valerie; Dickinson, Mark

    2005-04-01

    One of the main problems during laser stimulation in human pain research is the risk of tissue damage caused by excessive heating of the skin. This risk has been reduced by using a laser beam with a flattop (or superGaussian) intensity profile, instead of the conventional Gaussian beam. A finite difference approximation to the heat conduction equation has been applied to model the temperature distribution in skin as a result of irradiation by flattop and Gaussian profile CO2 laser beams. The model predicts that a 15 mm diameter, 15 W, 100 ms CO2 laser pulse with an order 6 superGaussian profile produces a maximum temperature 6 oC less than a Gaussian beam with the same energy density. A superGaussian profile was created by passing a Gaussian beam through a pair of zinc selenide aspheric lenses which refract the more intense central region of the beam towards the less intense periphery. The profiles of the lenses were determined by geometrical optics. In human pain trials the superGaussian beam required more power than the Gaussian beam to reach sensory and pain thresholds.

  7. Acoustical problems in high energy pulsed E-beams lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, T. E.; Wylie, K. F.

    1976-01-01

    During the pulsing of high energy, CO2, electron beam lasers, a significant fraction of input energy ultimately appears as acoustical disturbances. The magnitudes of these disturbances were quantified by computer analysis. Acoustical and shock impedance data are presented on materials (Rayleigh type) which show promise in controlling acoustical disturbance in E-beam systems.

  8. A picosecond beam-timing system for the OMEGA laser

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, W. R.; Katz, J.; Huff, R.; Hill, E. M.; Kelly, J. H.; Kwiatkowski, J.; Brannon, R. B.; Boni, R.

    2016-05-15

    A timing system is demonstrated for the OMEGA Laser System that guarantees all 60 beams will arrive on target simultaneously with a root mean square variability of 4 ps. The system relies on placing a scattering sphere at the target position to couple the ultraviolet light from each beam into a single photodetector.

  9. Surface alloying by ion, electron and laser beams

    SciTech Connect

    Rehn, L.E.; Picraux, S.T.; Wiedersich, H.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on the surface treatments of alloys using ion, electron, and laser beams. Topics considered at the conference included energy deposition, heat flow, rapid solidification, physical radiation effects, ion implantation, ion-irradiated materials, microstructure, solute redistribution, surface-melted alloys, solute trapping in ion-implanted metals, and the industrial applications of ion beam processes.

  10. A picosecond beam-timing system for the OMEGA laser

    DOE PAGES

    Donaldson, W. R.; Katz, J.; Huff, R.; ...

    2016-05-27

    Here, a timing system is demonstrated for the OMEGA Laser System that guarantees all 60 beams will arrive on target simultaneously with a root mean square variability of 4 ps. The system relies on placing a scattering sphere at the target position to couple the UV light from each beam into a single photodetector.

  11. Laser beam scintillation beyond the turbulent atmosphere A numerical computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bufton, J. L.; Taylor, L. S.

    1976-01-01

    The extended Huygens-Fresnel formulation for propagation through turbulence is used to examine scintillation of a finite laser beam. The method is demonstrated analytically for propagation beyond a weak Gaussian phase screen. A numerical integration technique is used to extend the results to a more realistic turbulence model. Results are compared with existing Gaussian beam propagation theory.

  12. Digital Controller For Laser-Beam-Steering Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Homayoon

    1995-01-01

    Report presents additional information about proposed apparatus described in "Beam-Steering Subsystem for Laser Communication" (NPO-19069). Discusses design of digital beam-steering control subsystem and, in particular, that part of design pertaining to digital compensation for frequency response of steering mirror.

  13. Laser beam complex amplitude measurement by phase diversity.

    PubMed

    Védrenne, Nicolas; Mugnier, Laurent M; Michau, Vincent; Velluet, Marie-Thérèse; Bierent, Rudolph

    2014-02-24

    The control of the optical quality of a laser beam requires a complex amplitude measurement able to deal with strong modulus variations and potentially highly perturbed wavefronts. The method proposed here consists in an extension of phase diversity to complex amplitude measurements that is effective for highly perturbed beams. Named camelot for Complex Amplitude MEasurement by a Likelihood Optimization Tool, it relies on the acquisition and processing of few images of the beam section taken along the optical path. The complex amplitude of the beam is retrieved from the images by the minimization of a Maximum a Posteriori error metric between the images and a model of the beam propagation. The analytical formalism of the method and its experimental validation are presented. The modulus of the beam is compared to a measurement of the beam profile, the phase of the beam is compared to a conventional phase diversity estimate. The precision of the experimental measurements is investigated by numerical simulations.

  14. Phase control and beam steering of semiconductor laser arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, J.

    1982-01-01

    The operational principles and a possible device configuration of one dimensional monolithically integrated semiconductor laser arrays are described. The output beam of the array can be electronically steered. Devices of the type can find applications in optical communication systems where the power levels needed are above the capability of a single laser device.

  15. Noncontact Acousto-Ultrasonic Testing With Laser Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Robert D.; Green, Robert E., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Laser beams used to excite and detect acoustic waves in specimens. Laser/acousto-ultrasonic technique entails no mechanical contact between specimens and testing apparatus. Apparatus located at relatively large distances (meters) from specimens, making it possible to test specimens too hot for contact measurements or located in inaccessible places, vacuums, or hostile environments.

  16. Laser ion source for low charge heavy ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura,M.; Pikin, A.; Zajic, V.; Kanesue, T.; Tamura, J.

    2008-08-03

    For heavy ion inertial fusion application, a combination of a laser ion source and direct plasma injection scheme into an RFQ is proposed. The combination might provide more than 100 mA of singly charged heavy ion beam from a single laser shot. A planned feasibility test with moderate current is also discussed.

  17. Noncontact Acousto-Ultrasonic Testing With Laser Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Robert D.; Green, Robert E., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Laser beams used to excite and detect acoustic waves in specimens. Laser/acousto-ultrasonic technique entails no mechanical contact between specimens and testing apparatus. Apparatus located at relatively large distances (meters) from specimens, making it possible to test specimens too hot for contact measurements or located in inaccessible places, vacuums, or hostile environments.

  18. Multiple quasi-monoenergetic electron beams from laser-wakefield acceleration with spatially structured laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Y.; Li, M. H.; Li, Y. F.; Wang, J. G.; Tao, M. Z.; Han, Y. J.; Zhao, J. R.; Huang, K.; Yan, W. C.; Ma, J. L.; Li, Y. T.; Chen, L. M.; Li, D. Z.; Chen, Z. Y.; Sheng, Z. M.; Zhang, J.

    2015-08-15

    By adjusting the focus geometry of a spatially structured laser pulse, single, double, and treble quasi-monoenergetic electron beams were generated, respectively, in laser-wakefield acceleration. Single electron beam was produced as focusing the laser pulse to a single spot. While focusing the laser pulse to two spots that are approximately equal in energy and size and intense enough to form their own filaments, two electron beams were produced. Moreover, with a proper distance between those two focal spots, three electron beams emerged with a certain probability owing to the superposition of the diffractions of those two spots. The energy spectra of the multiple electron beams are quasi-monoenergetic, which are different from that of the large energy spread beams produced due to the longitudinal multiple-injection in the single bubble.

  19. Program Models A Laser Beam Focused In An Aerosol Spray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, J. P.

    1996-01-01

    Monte Carlo analysis performed on packets of light. Program for Analysis of Laser Beam Focused Within Aerosol Spray (FLSPRY) developed for theoretical analysis of propagation of laser pulse optically focused within aerosol spray. Applied for example, to analyze laser ignition arrangement in which focused laser pulse used to ignite liquid aerosol fuel spray. Scattering and absorption of laser light by individual aerosol droplets evaluated by use of electromagnetic Lorenz-Mie theory. Written in FORTRAN 77 for both UNIX-based computers and DEC VAX-series computers. VAX version of program (LEW-16051). UNIX version (LEW-16065).

  20. Modeling beam propagation and frequency conversion for the beamlet laser

    SciTech Connect

    Auerbach, J.M.

    1996-06-01

    The development of the Beamlet laser has involved extensive and detailed modeling of laser performance and beam propagation to: (1) predict the performance limits of the laser, (2) select system configurations with higher performance, (3) analyze experiments and provide guidance for subsequent laser shots, and (4) design optical components and establish component manufacturing specifications. In contrast to modeling efforts of previous laser systems such as Nova, those for Beamlet include as much measured optical characterization data as possible. This article concentrates on modeling of beam propagation in the Beamlet laser system, including the frequency converter, and compares modeling predictions with experimental results for several Beamlet shots. It briefly describes the workstation-based propagation and frequency conversion codes used to accomplish modeling of the Beamlet.

  1. Radially polarized cylindrical vector beams from a monolithic microchip laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidoo, Darryl; Fromager, Michael; Ait-Ameur, Kamel; Forbes, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    Monolithic microchip lasers consist of a thin slice of laser crystal where the cavity mirrors are deposited directly onto the end faces. While this property makes such lasers very compact and robust, it prohibits the use of intracavity laser beam shaping techniques to produce complex light fields. We overcome this limitation and demonstrate the selection of complex light fields in the form of vector-vortex beams directly from a monolithic microchip laser. We employ pump reshaping and a thermal gradient across the crystal surface to control both the intensity and polarization profile of the output mode. In particular, we show laser oscillation on a superposition of Laguerre-Gaussian modes of zero radial and nonzero azimuthal index in both the scalar and vector regimes. Such complex light fields created directly from the source could find applications in fiber injection, materials processing and in simulating quantum processes.

  2. Laser beam steering approaches for microstructuring of copper layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mur, Jaka; Podobnik, Boštjan; Poberaj, Igor

    2017-02-01

    We have investigated the process of copper layer ablation with a tightly focused Q-switched 532 nm laser. Focusing 40 ns long laser pulses to a micrometer-sized spot results in high energy density and gives rise to ablation phenomena not seen during laser processing with larger beam diameters. Use of acousto-optic deflectors (AODs) enabled us to test different laser beam steering approaches in terms of choosing the position for each laser pulse independently of the previous pulses. Random addressing of desired positions across a microstructure proved to be the most efficient method compared to various scanning approaches. Assigning a random order to the spatial sequence of laser pulses resulted in the fastest microstructuring process and featured lowest residual heating of the substrate.

  3. Laser beam splitting by polarization encoding.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chenhao

    2015-03-20

    A scheme is proposed to design a polarization grating that splits an incident linearly polarized beam to an array of linearly polarized beams of identical intensity distribution and various azimuth angles of linear polarization. The grating is equivalent to a wave plate with space-variant azimuth angle and space-variant phase retardation. The linear polarization states of all split beams make the grating suitable for coherent beam combining architectures based on Dammann gratings.

  4. New method of beam bunching in free-ion lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Bessonov, E.G.

    1995-12-31

    An effective ion beam bunching method is suggested. This method is based on a selective interaction of line spectrum laser light (e.g. axial mode structure light) with non-fully stripped ion beam cooled in a storage rings, arranging the ion beam in layers in radial direction of an energy-longitudinal coordinate plane and following rotation of the beam at the right angle after switching on the RF cavity or undulator grouper/buncher. Laser cooling of the ion beam can be used at this position after switching off the resonator to decrease the energy spread caused by accelerating field of the resonator. A relativistic multilayer ion mirror will be produced this way. Both monochromatic laser beams and intermediate monochromaticity and bandwidth light sources of spontaneous incoherent radiation can be used for production of hard and high power electromagnetic radiation by reflection from this mirror. The reflectivity of the mirror is rather high because of the cross-section of the backward Rayleigh scattering of photon light by non-fully stripped relativistic ions ({approximately}{lambda}{sup 2}) is much greater ({approximately} 10{divided_by}15 orders) then Thompson one ({approximately} r{sub e}{sup 2}). This position is valid even in the case of non-monochromatic laser light ({Delta}{omega}/{omega} {approximately} 10{sup -4}). Ion cooling both in longitudinal plane and three-dimensional radiation ion cooling had been proposed based on this observation. The using of these cooling techniques will permit to store high current and low emittance relativistic ion beams in storage rings. The bunched ion beam can be used in ordinary Free-Ion Lasers as well. After bunching the ion beam can be extracted from the storage ring in this case. Storage rings with zero momentum compaction function will permit to keep bunching of the ion beam for a long time.

  5. Nanosecond laser micro machining using an external beam attenuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosman, Johan; Kettelarij, Henk; de Kok, Corne J. G. M.

    2003-11-01

    The pulse width -- pulse energy relationship of a solid-state laser can reduce the accuracy of micro machined features. Our goal is to control a depth of a laser mark with an accuracy of 0.1 μm and reduce the line width below the spot diameter. Reaching this depth and width in a stable and industrial viable laser process would not have been possible without the additional control generated by the beam attenuator.

  6. Electron beam-switched discharge for rapidly pulsed lasers

    DOEpatents

    Pleasance, L.D.; Murray, J.R.; Goldhar, J.; Bradley, L.P.

    1979-12-11

    A method and apparatus are designed for electrical excitation of a laser gas by application of a pulsed voltage across the gas, followed by passage of a pulsed, high energy electron beam through the gas to initiate a discharge suitable for laser excitation. This method improves upon current power conditioning techniques and is especially useful for driving rare gas halide lasers at high repetition rates.

  7. Earth-to-geosynchronous satellite laser beam transmission.

    PubMed

    Aruga, T; Araki, K; Hayashi, R; Iwabuchi, T; Takahashi, M; Nakamura, S

    1985-01-01

    Some experimental results for detection of a ground-based laser beacon by a geosynchronous satellite are reported. A 50-cm diam telescope and silicon intensifier tube camera were used for optical observation of the satellite. The transmitted argon laser beam was detected by the visible channel of a radiometer on board the Japanese Geostationary Meteorological Satellite. Two activities, (1) orbit prediction correction using optical observation and (2) detection of the earth laser beacon by the radiometer, are described.

  8. Hundred-watt diode laser source by spectral beam combining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Peng, Hangyu; Liu, Yun; Qin, Li; Cao, Junsheng; Shan, Xiaonan; Zeng, Yugang; Fu, Xihong; Tong, Cunzhu; Ning, Yongqiang; Wang, Lijun

    2014-12-01

    A diode laser source with a continuous wavelength (CW) power of 106 W and the beam quality M2 of 14.6 is demonstrated by spectrum beam combining (SBC) of three 800 nm LDAs. With the help of relay optics, a wavelength interval of 0.21 nm and a whole spectrum span of 13.9 nm are achieved, which is almost 10 times narrower than those of the structure without the relay optics. This presents a method to obtain a high power and high beam quality SBC laser source with a narrow spectrum.

  9. Measurement system with high accuracy for laser beam quality.

    PubMed

    Ke, Yi; Zeng, Ciling; Xie, Peiyuan; Jiang, Qingshan; Liang, Ke; Yang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Ming

    2015-05-20

    Presently, most of the laser beam quality measurement system collimates the optical path manually with low efficiency and low repeatability. To solve these problems, this paper proposed a new collimated method to improve the reliability and accuracy of the measurement results. The system accuracy controlled the position of the mirror to change laser beam propagation direction, which can realize the beam perpendicularly incident to the photosurface of camera. The experiment results show that the proposed system has good repeatability and the measuring deviation of M2 factor is less than 0.6%.

  10. Beam propagation behavior in a quasi-stadium laser diode.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, T; Biellak, S; Sun, Y; Siegman, A

    1998-01-19

    The beam propagation behavior of a quasi-stadium laser diode is theoretically investigated. The resonator that we analyzed consists of one flat end-mirror, one convex curved end-mirror and two straight side wall mirrors. The cavity dimension is much larger than the oscillation wavelength. We derived one-dimensional Huygen's integral equations for this laser cavity and carried out eigenmode calculations using the Fox and Li mode calculation method taking into account the effect of the side wall reflections and visualized the propagation beams. Unique beam propagation behaviors were obtained. These results well agree with our previous experimental results.

  11. Intense high-quality medical proton beams via laser fields.

    PubMed

    Galow, Benjamin J; Harman, Zoltán; Keitel, Christoph H

    2010-12-06

    Simulations based on the coupled relativistic equations of motion show that protons stemming from laser-plasma processes can be efficiently post-accelerated employing single and crossed pulsed laser beams focused to spot radii on the order of the laser wavelength. We demonstrate that the crossed beams produce quasi-monoenergetic accelerated protons with kinetic energies exceeding 200 MeV, small energy spreads of about 1% and high densities as required for hadron cancer therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first scheme allowing for this important application based on an all-optical set-up.

  12. Electron beam/laser glazing of iron-base materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strutt, P. R.; Lewis, B. G.; Kurup, M.

    1981-07-01

    Research on directed energy source processing of hard-iron base materials demonstrates the effect of environment, alloy chemistry and processing parameters on the nature of the crystal structure, distribution, and compositional variation of phases. In molybdenum high speed steels, for example, it is found that segregation resulting from convective and turbulent flow during glazing may either result in large scale phase separation or compositional variation within a phase. Another example of the importance of processing conditions is a clear demonstration of the effect of small oxide particles in inducing martensite during laser processing. A detailed analysis has been made to determine the effect of deflection coil parameters on the distortion of surface area glazing patterns. This is particularly important in developing techniques for preparing uniform rapidly solidified layers. In studying molybdenum base high speed steels the value of the carbon content is found to be important in determining delta ferrite formation and the peritectic reaction of this phase to uniform austenite and carbide phases. In contrast to M2 (where the carbon concentration is 0.85wt%) a homogeneous gamma/alpha phase mixture forms in materials with a carbon content of > or = 1wt%, i.e. the alloys M7, and M42. However in these two materials combined convective and turbulent flow during glazing results in a significant composition variation of the refractory elements. Tempering largely removes this inhomogeneity and results in the formation of a homogeneous tempered martensite structure. A most important effect observed in M2, M7, and M42 was the shift to longer tempering times of material glazed at moderate to high beam velocities.

  13. Adaptive laser beam forming for laser shock micro-forming for 3D MEMS devices fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Ran; Wang, Shuliang; Wang, Mohan; Li, Shuo; Huang, Sheng; Lin, Yankun; Chen, Kevin P.

    2016-07-01

    Laser shock micro-forming is a non-thermal laser forming method that use laser-induced shockwave to modify surface properties and to adjust shapes and geometry of work pieces. In this paper, we present an adaptive optical technique to engineer spatial profiles of the laser beam to exert precision control on the laser shock forming process for free-standing MEMS structures. Using a spatial light modulator, on-target laser energy profiles are engineered to control shape, size, and deformation magnitude, which has led to significant improvement of the laser shock processing outcome at micrometer scales. The results presented in this paper show that the adaptive-optics laser beam forming is an effective method to improve both quality and throughput of the laser forming process at micrometer scales.

  14. EFFECT OF ORBIT DISTORTIONS LAND BETATRON TUNE ON THE RHIC POLARIZED BEAM.

    SciTech Connect

    LUCCIO,A.U.; PILAT,F.; PTITSYN,V.

    2001-06-18

    Polarized protons have been stored and accelerated in RHIC from G{sub {gamma}} = 46.5 to 60 during Run2000 with only one Siberian snake installed. We simulated with the spin tracking code Spink the behavior of polarized protons, in particular the effect of closed orbit distortions and betatron tune variation on the spin dynamics. According to simulation results, closed orbit and tune effects will be translated into requirements for the tune and orbit correction systems for the RHIC polarized proton Run2001, when both Siberian snakes will be available.

  15. Theoretical modeling on the laser induced effect of liquid crystal optical phased beam steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaoxian; Wang, Xiangru; Wu, Liang; Tan, Qinggui; Li, Man; Shang, Jiyang; Wu, Shuanghong; Huang, Ziqiang

    2017-01-01

    Non-mechanical laser beam steering has been reported previously in liquid crystal array devices. To be one of the most promising candidates to be practical non-mechanical laser deflector, its laser induced effect still has few theoretical model. In this paper, we propose a theoretical model to analyze this laser induced effect of LC-OPA to evaluate the deterioration on phased beam steering. The model has three parts: laser induced thermal distribution; temperature dependence of material parameters and beam steering deterioration. After these three steps, the far field of laser beam is obtained to demonstrate the steering performance with the respect to the incident laser beam power and beam waist.

  16. Scaling of solid state lasers for satellite power beaming applications

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, H.W.; Albrecht, G.F.; Beach, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    The power requirements for a satellite power beaming laser system depend upon the diameter of the beam director, the performance of the adaptive optics system, and the mission requirements. For an 8 meter beam director and overall Strehl ratio of 50%, a 30 kW laser at 850 nm can deliver an equivalent solar flux to a satellite at geostationary orbit. Advances in Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers (DPSSL) have brought these small, efficient and reliable devices to high average power and they should be considered for satellite power beaming applications. Two solid state systems are described: a diode pumped Alexandrite and diode pumped Thulium doped YAG. Both can deliver high average power at 850 nm in a single aperture.

  17. Scaling of solid state lasers for satellite power beaming applications

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, H.; Albrecht, G.; Beach, R.

    1994-12-31

    The power requirements for a satellite power beaming laser system depend upon the diameter of the beam director, the performance of the adaptive optics system, and the mission requirements. For an 8 meter beam director and overall Strehl ratio of 50%, a 30 kW laser at 850 nm can deliver an equivalent solar flux to a satellite at geostationary orbit. Advances in Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers (DPSSL) have brought these small, efficient and reliable devices to high average power and they should be considered for satellite power beaming applications. Two solid state systems are described: a diode pumped Alexandrite and diode pumped Thulium doped YAG. Both can deliver high average power at 850 nm in a single aperture.

  18. Intersatellite communication laser beam steering and spoiling methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleski, Paul J.

    1994-09-01

    In the area of free space optical communications a significant amount of attention has been given to the overall problems of the acquisition and tracking of satellites and the accurate alignment and positioning of optical components on board a spacecraft. Accomplishing these functions with minimal investment in hardware size, weight, and power is essential to the successful evolution of space laser communications (Lasercom). This paper presents two types of nonmechanical laser beam control devices. A nematic liquid crystal (LC) lens and wedge have been fabricated and tested. These electro-optic devices can provide the capability of acquisition, fine tracking, point ahead and alignment of a laser beam in Lasercom terminals. Characteristics such as optical efficiency, switching speed, beam steer range and beam divergence have been measured. Device design and performance parameters are described.

  19. Laser-driven shock acceleration of monoenergetic ion beams.

    PubMed

    Fiuza, F; Stockem, A; Boella, E; Fonseca, R A; Silva, L O; Haberberger, D; Tochitsky, S; Gong, C; Mori, W B; Joshi, C

    2012-11-21

    We show that monoenergetic ion beams can be accelerated by moderate Mach number collisionless, electrostatic shocks propagating in a long scale-length exponentially decaying plasma profile. Strong plasma heating and density steepening produced by an intense laser pulse near the critical density can launch such shocks that propagate in the extended plasma at high velocities. The generation of a monoenergetic ion beam is possible due to the small and constant sheath electric field associated with the slowly decreasing density profile. The conditions for the acceleration of high-quality, energetic ion beams are identified through theory and multidimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The scaling of the ion energy with laser intensity shows that it is possible to generate ~200 MeV proton beams with state-of-the-art 100 TW class laser systems.

  20. Laser and optical system for laser assisted hydrogen ion beam stripping at SNS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Rakhman, A.; Menshov, A.; Webster, A.; Gorlov, T.; Aleksandrov, A.; Cousineau, S.

    2017-03-01

    Recently, a high-efficiency laser assisted hydrogen ion (H-) beam stripping was successfully carried out in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator. The experiment was not only an important step toward foil-less H- stripping for charge exchange injection, it also set up a first example of using megawatt ultraviolet (UV) laser source in an operational high power proton accelerator facility. This paper reports in detail the design, installation, and commissioning result of a macro-pulsed multi-megawatt UV laser system and laser beam transport line for the laser stripping experiment.

  1. Multimode laser beam analyzer instrument using electrically programmable optics.

    PubMed

    Marraccini, Philip J; Riza, Nabeel A

    2011-12-01

    Presented is a novel design of a multimode laser beam analyzer using a digital micromirror device (DMD) and an electronically controlled variable focus lens (ECVFL) that serve as the digital and analog agile optics, respectively. The proposed analyzer is a broadband laser characterization instrument that uses the agile optics to smartly direct light to the required point photodetectors to enable beam measurements of minimum beam waist size, minimum waist location, divergence, and the beam propagation parameter M(2). Experimental results successfully demonstrate these measurements for a 500 mW multimode test laser beam with a wavelength of 532 nm. The minimum beam waist, divergence, and M(2) experimental results for the test laser are found to be 257.61 μm, 2.103 mrad, 1.600 and 326.67 μm, 2.682 mrad, 2.587 for the vertical and horizontal directions, respectively. These measurements are compared to a traditional scan method and the results of the beam waist are found to be within error tolerance of the demonstrated instrument.

  2. Multimode laser beam analyzer instrument using electrically programmable optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marraccini, Philip J.; Riza, Nabeel A.

    2011-12-01

    Presented is a novel design of a multimode laser beam analyzer using a digital micromirror device (DMD) and an electronically controlled variable focus lens (ECVFL) that serve as the digital and analog agile optics, respectively. The proposed analyzer is a broadband laser characterization instrument that uses the agile optics to smartly direct light to the required point photodetectors to enable beam measurements of minimum beam waist size, minimum waist location, divergence, and the beam propagation parameter M2. Experimental results successfully demonstrate these measurements for a 500 mW multimode test laser beam with a wavelength of 532 nm. The minimum beam waist, divergence, and M2 experimental results for the test laser are found to be 257.61 μm, 2.103 mrad, 1.600 and 326.67 μm, 2.682 mrad, 2.587 for the vertical and horizontal directions, respectively. These measurements are compared to a traditional scan method and the results of the beam waist are found to be within error tolerance of the demonstrated instrument.

  3. Resonant Laser Manipulation of an Atomic Beam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    tunable method for the remote control of the beam’s position and transverse temperature. So far the use of laser -atom manipulation has been primarily...atom’s electronic structure by an oscillating electric field and that field’s change in strength as a function of location. For the nominal TEM00 laser ...vacuum system (side view) and B) Notional diagram of TCL code domain. The laser system was comprised of a tapper amplified 852 nm diode laser in the

  4. Atmospheric multiple scattering of a vertically directed laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malacari, M.; Dawson, B. R.

    2017-07-01

    Vertical laser beams are often used at ground-based cosmic ray observatories employing the fluorescence technique for characterizing the height-dependent properties of the atmosphere, as well as for calibration and telescope alignment studies. The light flux received at a detector from a laser is typically assumed to be only singly scattered out of the beam, with no possibility for the multiple scattering of photons initially scattered in other directions back into the detector's field of view. We present the results of a new simulation for the scattering of light from a vertically-directed laser beam, and derive a parametrization for the multiple scattered signal expected at a detector from such a source as a function of the prevailing atmospheric conditions. The parametrization is then used to estimate the increase in the reconstructed height-dependent aerosol loading when recovered using a laser-based technique.

  5. Calibration of Laser Beam Direction for Inner Diameter Measuring Device.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tongyu; Wang, Zhong; Wu, Zhengang; Li, Xingqiang; Wang, Lei; Liu, Changjie

    2017-02-05

    The laser triangulation method is one of the most advanced methods for large inner diameter measurement. Our research group proposed a kind of inner diameter measuring device that is principally composed of three laser displacement sensors known to be fixed in the same plane measurement position. It is necessary to calibrate the direction of the laser beams that are emitted by laser displacement sensors because they do not meet the theoretical model accurately. For the purpose of calibrating the direction of laser beams, a calibration method and mathematical model were proposed. The inner diameter measuring device is equipped with the spindle of the machine tool. The laser beams rotate and translate in the plane and constitute the rotary rays which are driven to scan the inner surface of the ring gauge. The direction calibration of the laser beams can be completed by the sensors' distance information and corresponding data processing method. The corresponding error sources are analyzed and the validity of the method is verified. After the calibration, the measurement error of the inner diameter measuring device reduced from ± 25 μ m to ± 15 μ m and the relative error was not more than 0.011%.

  6. Laser-driven generation of ultraintense proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badziak, J.; Jabłoński, S.; Kubkowska, M.; Parys, P.; Rosiński, M.; Wołowski, J.; Szydłowski, A.; Antici, P.; Fuchs, J.; Mancic, A.

    2010-10-01

    The results of experimental and numerical studies of high-intensity proton beam generation driven by a short laser pulse of relativistic intensity are reported. In the experiment, a 350 fs laser pulse of 1.06 or 0.53 μm wavelength and intensity up to 2×1019 Wcm-2 irradiated a thin (0.6-2 μm) plastic (PS) or Au/PS (plastic covered by 0.2 μm Au front layer) target along the target normal. The effect of laser intensity, the target structure and the laser wavelength on the proton beam parameters and laser-protons energy conversion efficiency were examined. Both the measurements and one-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations showed that MeV proton beams of intensity ∼1018 Wcm-2 and current density ∼1012 Acm-2 at the source can be produced when the laser intensity-wavelength squared product I Lλ2 is ∼1019 Wcm-2 μm2 and the laser-target interaction conditions approach the skin-layer ponderomotive acceleration (SLPA) requirements. The simulations also proved that at I Lλ2≥slant 5×1019 Wcm-2 μm2 and λ≤slant 0.53 μm, SLPA clearly prevails over other acceleration mechanisms and it can produce multi-MeV proton beams of extremely high intensities above 1020 Wcm-2.

  7. Calibration of Laser Beam Direction for Inner Diameter Measuring Device

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tongyu; Wang, Zhong; Wu, Zhengang; Li, Xingqiang; Wang, Lei; Liu, Changjie

    2017-01-01

    The laser triangulation method is one of the most advanced methods for large inner diameter measurement. Our research group proposed a kind of inner diameter measuring device that is principally composed of three laser displacement sensors known to be fixed in the same plane measurement position. It is necessary to calibrate the direction of the laser beams that are emitted by laser displacement sensors because they do not meet the theoretical model accurately. For the purpose of calibrating the direction of laser beams, a calibration method and mathematical model were proposed. The inner diameter measuring device is equipped with the spindle of the machine tool. The laser beams rotate and translate in the plane and constitute the rotary rays which are driven to scan the inner surface of the ring gauge. The direction calibration of the laser beams can be completed by the sensors’ distance information and corresponding data processing method. The corresponding error sources are analyzed and the validity of the method is verified. After the calibration, the measurement error of the inner diameter measuring device reduced from ±25 μm to ±15 μm and the relative error was not more than 0.011%. PMID:28165432

  8. Beam conditioner for free electron lasers and synchrotrons

    DOEpatents

    Liu, H.; Neil, G.R.

    1998-09-08

    A focused optical has been used to introduce an optical pulse, or electromagnetic wave, collinear with the electron beam in a free electron laser or synchrotron thereby adding an axial field component that accelerates the electrons on the radial outside of the distribution of electrons in the electron beam. This invention consists of using the axial electrical component of a TEM{sub 10} mode Gaussian beam in vacuum to condition the electron beam and speed up the outer electrons in the beam. The conditioning beam should possess about the same diameter as the electron beam. The beam waist of the conditioning wave must be located around the entrance of the undulator longitudinally to have a net energy exchange between the electrons in the outer part of the distribution and the conditioning wave owing to the natural divergence of a Gaussian beam. By accelerating the outer electrons, the outer and core electrons are caused to stay in phase. This increases the fraction of the electron beam energy that is converted to light thereby improving the efficiency of conversion of energy to light and therefore boosting the power output of the free electron laser and synchrotron. 4 figs.

  9. Beam conditioner for free electron lasers and synchrotrons

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Hongxiu; Neil, George R.

    1998-01-01

    A focused optical is been used to introduce an optical pulse, or electromagnetic wave, colinearly with the electron beam in a free electron laser or synchrotron thereby adding an axial field component that accelerates the electrons on the radial outside of the distribution of electrons in the electron beam. This invention consists of using the axial electrical component of a TEM.sub.10 mode Gaussian beam in vacuum to condition the electron beam and speed up the outer electrons in the beam. The conditioning beam should possess about the same diameter as the electron beam. The beam waist of the conditioning wave must be located around the entrance of the undulator longitudinally to have a net energy exchange between the electrons in the outer part of the distribution and the conditioning wave owing to the natural divergence of a Gaussian beam. By accelerating the outer electrons, the outer and core electrons are caused to stay in phase. This increases the fraction of the electron beam energy that is converted to light thereby improving the efficiency of conversion of energy to light and therefore boosting the power output of the free electron laser and synchrotron.

  10. Aerosol beam-focus laser-induced plasma spectrometer device

    DOEpatents

    Cheng, Meng-Dawn

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus for detecting elements in an aerosol includes an aerosol beam focuser for concentrating aerosol into an aerosol beam; a laser for directing a laser beam into the aerosol beam to form a plasma; a detection device that detects a wavelength of a light emission caused by the formation of the plasma. The detection device can be a spectrometer having at least one grating and a gated intensified charge-coupled device. The apparatus may also include a processor that correlates the wavelength of the light emission caused by the formation of the plasma with an identity of an element that corresponds to the wavelength. Furthermore, the apparatus can also include an aerosol generator for forming an aerosol beam from bulk materials. A method for detecting elements in an aerosol is also disclosed.

  11. Vortex beam based more stable annular laser guide star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ruiyao; Cui, Wenda; Li, Lei; Sun, Quan; He, Yulong; Wang, Hongyan; Ning, Yu; Xu, Xiaojun

    2016-11-01

    We present an annular laser guide star (LGS) concept for large ground-based telescopes in this paper. The more stable annular LGS is generated by turbulence-resisted vortex beam. In the uplink, a vortex beam tends to wander more slightly than a Gaussian beam does in atmospheric turbulence. This may enable an annular LGS to wander more slightly than a traditional Gaussian beam generated LGS does, which would ease the burden of uplink tip-tilt mirror and benefit a dynamical closed-loop adaptive optics system. We conducted numerical simulation to validate the feasibility of this concept. And we have gotten 31% reduced variance of spot wandering of annular LGS. Besides, we set up a spatial light modulator based laser guide star simulator for beam propagation in turbulent atmosphere to experimentally test the annular LGS concept. Preliminary experimental results are given. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time this concept is formulated.

  12. Evolution of branch points for a laser beam propagating through an uplink turbulent atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiao-Lu; Liu, Xuan; Guo, Cheng-Shan

    2014-03-24

    Evolution of branch points in the distorted optical field is studied when a laser beam propagates through turbulent atmosphere along an uplink path. Two categories of propagation events are mainly explored for the same propagation height: fixed wavelength with change of the turbulence strength and fixed turbulence strength with change of the wavelength. It is shown that, when the beam propagates to a certain height, the density of the branch-points reaches its maximum and such a height changes with the turbulence strength but nearly remains constant with different wavelengths. The relationship between the density of branch-points and the Rytov number is also given. A fitted formula describing the relationship between the density of branch-points and propagation height with different turbulence strength and wavelength is found out. Interestingly, this formula is very similar to the formula used for describing the Blackbody radiation in physics. The results obtained may be helpful for atmospheric optics, astronomy and optical communication.

  13. Characterization of lap joints laser beam welding of thin AA 2024 sheets with Yb:YAG disk-laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caiazzo, Fabrizia; Alfieri, Vittorio; Cardaropoli, Francesco; Sergi, Vincenzo

    2012-06-01

    Lap joints obtained by overlapping two plates are widely diffused in aerospace industry. Nevertheless, because of natural aging, adhesively bonded and riveted aircraft lap joints may be affected by cracks from rivets, voids or corrosion. Friction stir welding has been proposed as a valid alternative, although large heat affected zones are produced both in the top and the bottom plate due to the pin diameter. Interest has therefore been shown in studying laser lap welding as the laser beam has been proved to be competitive since it allows to concentrate the thermal input and increases productivity and quality. Some challenges arise as a consequence of aluminum low absorptance and high thermal conductivity; furthermore, issues are due to metallurgical challenges such as both micro and macro porosity formation and softening in the fused zone. Welding of AA 2024 thin sheets in a lap joint configuration is discussed in this paper: tests are carried out using a recently developed Trumpf TruDisk 2002 Yb:YAG disk-laser with high beam quality which allows to produce beads with low plates distortion and better penetration. The influence of the processing parameters is discussed considering the fused zone extent and the bead shape. The porosity content as well as the morphological features of the beads have been examined.

  14. Stability of a Light Sail Riding on a Laser Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchester, Zachary; Loeb, Abraham

    2017-03-01

    The stability of a light sail riding on a laser beam is analyzed both analytically and numerically. Conical sails on Gaussian beams, which have been studied in the past, are shown to be unstable without active control or additional mechanical modifications. A new architecture for a passively stable sail-and-beam configuration is proposed. The novel spherical shell design for the sail is capable of “beam riding” without the need for active feedback control. Full three-dimensional ray-tracing simulations are performed to verify our analytical results.

  15. Near spherical illumination of ion-beam and laser targets

    SciTech Connect

    Mark, J.W.K.

    1985-12-12

    A procedure is developed for reducing energy-deposition asymmetry in spherical targets driven directly by ion or laser beams. This work is part of a strategy for achieving illumination symmetry in such targets, which is proposed as an alternative to those in the literature. This strategy allows an axially symmetric placement of beamlets, which would be convenient for some driven or reactor scenarios. It also allows the use of beam currents or energy fluxes and beam transverse profiles to help reduce deposition asymmetry with fewer beamlets. In the ideal limit of thin deposition layers and controlled beam profiles, at most six beamlets are needed for target symmetry.

  16. Tailored terahertz pulses from a laser-modulated electron beam.

    PubMed

    Byrd, J M; Hao, Z; Martin, M C; Robin, D S; Sannibale, F; Schoenlein, R W; Zholents, A A; Zolotorev, M S

    2006-04-28

    We present a new method to generate steady and tunable, coherent, broadband terahertz radiation from a relativistic electron beam modulated by a femtosecond laser. We have demonstrated this in the electron storage ring at the Advanced Light Source. Interaction of an electron beam with a femtosecond laser pulse copropagating through a wiggler modulates the electron energies within a short slice of the electron bunch with about the same duration of the laser pulse. The bunch develops a longitudinal density perturbation due to the dispersion of electron trajectories, and the resulting hole emits short pulses of temporally and spatially coherent terahertz pulses synchronized to the laser. We present measurements of the intensity and spectra of these pulses. This technique allows tremendous flexibility in shaping the terahertz pulse by appropriate modulation of the laser pulse.

  17. Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, J.M.; Hao, Z.; Martin, M.C.; Robin, D.S.; Sannibale, F.; Schoenlein, R.W.; Zholents, A.A.; Zolotorev, M.S.

    2006-04-28

    We present a new method to generate steady and tunable, coherent, broadband terahertz radiation from a relativistic electron beam modulated by a femtosecond laser. We have demonstrated this in the electron storage ring at the Advanced Light Source. Interaction of an electron beam with a femtosecond laser pulse copropagating through a wiggler modulates the electron energies within a short slice of the electron bunch with about the same duration of the laser pulse. The bunch develops a longitudinal density perturbation due to the dispersion of electron trajectories, and the resulting hole emits short pulses of temporally and spatially coherent terahertz pulses synchronized to the laser. We present measurements of the intensity and spectra of these pulses. This technique allows tremendous flexibility in shaping the terahertz pulse by appropriate modulation of the laser pulse.

  18. Measurement of beam characteristics from C(6+) laser ion source.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, A; Sako, K; Sato, K; Hayashizaki, N; Hattori, T

    2014-02-01

    We developed a C(6+) laser ion source for a heavy-ion accelerator. A carbon target was irradiated with a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm wavelength, 1.4 J maximum laser energy, 10 ns pulse duration) to generate a high-density plasma. The laser ion source employed a rotating carbon target for continuous operation. Ion beams were extracted from the plasma through a drift space using a direct plasma injection scheme [B. Yu. Sharkov, A. V. Shumshurov, V. P. Dubenkow, O. B. Shamaev, and A. A. Golubev, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 2841 (1992)] up to a maximum voltage of 40 kV. We measured the characteristics of the ion beams from the laser ion source and present the results of experiments here.

  19. Fundamental studies on laser radiation therapy: dispersion of a laser beam passing through optical fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahara, H.; Koshijima, T.; Iida, H.

    1986-04-01

    For laser internal therapy in medical applications, optical fibres are required to propagate the laser beam. The far-field pattern of the laser beam at the exit face of the optical fibre is studied using a multimode step-index fibre and a graded index Selfoc fibre. The degree of dispersion, or the output angular distribution, of the beam passing through the Selfoc fibre is much smaller than that passing through the multimode step-index fibre. Consequently, the energy density in the far-field pattern of the beam passing through the Selfoc fibre is very much larger than that for the beam passing through the multimode step-index fibre. It is concluded that the Selfoc fibre is more effective in laser internal therapy.

  20. Coherent summation of spatially distorted laser Doppler signals by using a two-dimensional heterodyne detector array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Kin P.; Killinger, Dennis K.

    1992-01-01

    Phase-sensitive coherent summation of individual heterodyne detector array signals was demonstrated for the enhanced detection of spatially distorted laser Doppler returns. With the use of a 2 x 2 heterodyne detector array, the phase and amplitude of a time-varying speckle pattern was detected, and the signal-to-noise ratio of the Doppler shift estimate was shown to be improved by a factor of 2, depending on the extent of spatial coherence loss. These results are shown to agree with a first-order analysis and indicate the advantage of coherent summation for both short-range laser Doppler velocimetry and long-range atmospheric coherent lidar.

  1. High Power Laser Beam Welding of Thick-walled Ferromagnetic Steels with Electromagnetic Weld Pool Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzsche, André; Avilov, Vjaceslav; Gumenyuk, Andrey; Hilgenberg, Kai; Rethmeier, Michael

    The development of modern high power laser systems allows single pass welding of thick-walled components with minimal distortion. Besides the high demands on the joint preparation, the hydrostatic pressure in the melt pool increases with higher plate thicknesses. Reaching or exceeding the Laplace pressure, drop-out or melt sagging are caused. A contactless electromagnetic weld support system was used for laser beam welding of thick ferromagnetic steel plates compensating these effects. An oscillating magnetic field induces eddy currents in the weld pool which generate Lorentz forces counteracting the gravity forces. Hysteresis effects of ferromagnetic steels are considered as well as the loss of magnetization in zones exceeding the Curie temperature. These phenomena reduce the effective Lorentz forces within the weld pool. The successful compensation of the hydrostatic pressure was demonstrated on up to 20 mm thick plates of duplex and mild steel by a variation of the electromagnetic power level and the oscillation frequency.

  2. Terahertz plasmonic laser radiating in an ultra-narrow beam

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Chongzhao; Khanal, Sudeep; Reno, John L.; Kumar, Sushil

    2016-07-07

    Plasmonic lasers (spasers) generate coherent surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and could be realized at subwavelength dimensions in metallic cavities for applications in nanoscale optics. Plasmonic cavities are also utilized for terahertz quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs), which are the brightest available solid-state sources of terahertz radiation. A long standing challenge for spasers that are utilized as nanoscale sources of radiation, is their poor coupling to the far-field radiation. Unlike conventional lasers that could produce directional beams, spasers have highly divergent radiation patterns due to their subwavelength apertures. Here, we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate a new technique for implementing distributed feedback (DFB) that is distinct from any other previously utilized DFB schemes for semiconductor lasers. The so-termed antenna-feedback scheme leads to single-mode operation in plasmonic lasers, couples the resonant SPP mode to a highly directional far-field radiation pattern, and integrates hybrid SPPs in surrounding medium into the operation of the DFB lasers. Experimentally, the antenna-feedback method, which does not require the phase matching to a well-defined effective index, is implemented for terahertz QCLs, and single-mode terahertz QCLs with a beam divergence as small as 4°×4° are demonstrated, which is the narrowest beam reported for any terahertz QCL to date. Moreover, in contrast to a negligible radiative field in conventional photonic band-edge lasers, in which the periodicity follows the integer multiple of half-wavelengths inside the active medium, antenna-feedback breaks this integer limit for the first time and enhances the radiative field of the lasing mode. Terahertz lasers with narrow-beam emission will find applications for integrated as well as standoff terahertz spectroscopy and sensing. Furthermore, the antenna-feedback scheme is generally applicable to any plasmonic laser with a Fabry–Perot cavity

  3. Terahertz plasmonic laser radiating in an ultra-narrow beam

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Chongzhao; Khanal, Sudeep; Reno, John L.; ...

    2016-07-07

    Plasmonic lasers (spasers) generate coherent surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and could be realized at subwavelength dimensions in metallic cavities for applications in nanoscale optics. Plasmonic cavities are also utilized for terahertz quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs), which are the brightest available solid-state sources of terahertz radiation. A long standing challenge for spasers that are utilized as nanoscale sources of radiation, is their poor coupling to the far-field radiation. Unlike conventional lasers that could produce directional beams, spasers have highly divergent radiation patterns due to their subwavelength apertures. Here, we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate a new technique for implementing distributed feedback (DFB) thatmore » is distinct from any other previously utilized DFB schemes for semiconductor lasers. The so-termed antenna-feedback scheme leads to single-mode operation in plasmonic lasers, couples the resonant SPP mode to a highly directional far-field radiation pattern, and integrates hybrid SPPs in surrounding medium into the operation of the DFB lasers. Experimentally, the antenna-feedback method, which does not require the phase matching to a well-defined effective index, is implemented for terahertz QCLs, and single-mode terahertz QCLs with a beam divergence as small as 4°×4° are demonstrated, which is the narrowest beam reported for any terahertz QCL to date. Moreover, in contrast to a negligible radiative field in conventional photonic band-edge lasers, in which the periodicity follows the integer multiple of half-wavelengths inside the active medium, antenna-feedback breaks this integer limit for the first time and enhances the radiative field of the lasing mode. Terahertz lasers with narrow-beam emission will find applications for integrated as well as standoff terahertz spectroscopy and sensing. Furthermore, the antenna-feedback scheme is generally applicable to any plasmonic laser with a Fabry–Perot cavity

  4. Full-Duplex Digital Communication on a Single Laser Beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazzard, D. A.; MacCannell, J. A.; Lee, G.; Selves, E. R.; Moore, D.; Payne, J. A.; Garrett, C. D.; Dahlstrom, N.; Shay, T. M.

    2006-01-01

    A proposed free-space optical communication system would operate in a full-duplex mode, using a single constant-power laser beam for transmission and reception of binary signals at both ends of the free-space optical path. The system was conceived for two-way data communication between a ground station and a spacecraft in a low orbit around the Earth. It has been estimated that in this application, a data rate of 10 kb/s could be achieved at a ground-station-to-spacecraft distance of 320 km, using a laser power of only 100 mW. The basic system concept is also applicable to terrestrial free-space optical communications. The system (see figure) would include a diode laser at one end of the link (originally, the ground station) and a liquid-crystal- based retroreflecting modulator at the other end of the link (originally, the spacecraft). At the laser end, the beam to be transmitted would be made to pass through a quarter-wave plate, which would convert its linear polarization to right circular polarization. For transmission of data from the laser end to the retroreflector end, the laser beam would be modulated with subcarrier phase-shift keying (SC-PSK). The transmitted beam would then pass through an aperture- sharing element (ASE) - basically, a mirror with a hole in it, used to separate the paths of the transmitted and received light beams. The transmitted beam would continue outward through a telescope (which, in the original application, would be equipped with a spacecraft-tracking system) that would launch the transmitted beam along the free-space optical path to the retroreflector end.

  5. Laser beam steering via wave mixing in volumetric thermal gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, David W.

    1992-06-01

    A volumetric thermal grating (VTG) is a spatially periodic refractive index variation in a volume of gas or liquid, generated by imaging interference fringes into the medium. The fringes can be created and varied by steering laser write beams electronically with acousto- optic (A-O) cells. While the wavelength of the write beams is chosen to be absorbed by a dopant in the VTG medium, a read beam at an off-resonance wavelength can be manipulated by diffraction from the resulting index grating. Potential applications include resonator and amplifier optical isolation prepulse suppression in high-gain amplifiers, noninertial steering of large-diameter laser beams, transfer of phase information between beams to facilitate adaptive optics, Q-switching of chemical lasers, and line selection in broadband lasers. In this paper, we present a preliminary assessment of VTG utility for these optical systems applications by quantitative analysis of the medium density dynamics. In Section 2, we derive a relation between A-O acoustic frequency uncertainty and VTG pointing/steering uncertainty, which also scales desired steering range to required A-O frequency modulation bandwidth. In Section 3, we discuss the temporal response of a doped rare-gas VTG medium. Section 4 is an assessment of VTG beam-steering performance potential using available technology.

  6. Reference systems for laser beam quality and parameter measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Dagang; Ma Chong; Guo Zhengqiang; Lu Zheng

    1996-12-31

    Three reference systems for the calibration and comparison of beam parameter measurements and beam quality of cw and pulsed lasers at NIM are described. While the cross-sectional power/energy density distribution function of TEM{sub 00} He-Ne laser and pulsed Nd:YAG laser are detected by a CCD-camera, the power density distribution function of cw CO{sub 2} laser is scanned by a liquid nitrogen cooled TeCdHg detector. Test procedures and evaluations are refer to ISO/DIS 11146 document. From the measured cross-sectional distribution function, the first and second spatial moments as well as the beam width are calculated. The waist location and width are determined by a hyperbolic fit to different measurements of the beam width along the propagation axis. The error evaluation equations for beam parameter measurement have been derived. Measurement agreements using different test methods and instruments are studied. Varieties of beam characteristics and measurement uncertainty for two measuring apparatus are given.

  7. Laser beacon adaptive optics for power beaming applications

    SciTech Connect

    Fugate, R.Q.

    1994-12-31

    This paper discusses the laser beam control system requirements for power beaming applications. Power beaming applications include electric and thermal engine propulsion for orbit transfer, station changing, and recharging batteries. Beam control includes satellite acquisition, high accuracy tracking, higher order atmospheric compensation using adaptive optics, and precision point-ahead. Beam control may also include local laser beam clean-up with a low order adaptive optics system. This paper also presents results of tracking and higher-order correction experiments on astronomical objects. The results were obtained with a laser beacon adaptive optics system at Phillips Laboratory`s Starfire Optical Range near Albuquerque, NM. At a wavelength of 0.85 {mu}m, the author has achieved Strehl ratios of {approximately}0.50 using laser beacons and {approximately}0.65 using natural stars for exposures longer than one minute on objects of {approximately}8{sup th} magnitude. The resulting point spread function has a full width half maximum (FWHM) of 0.13 arcsec.

  8. Dense Monoenergetic Proton Beams from Chirped Laser-Plasma Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galow, Benjamin J.; Salamin, Yousef I.; Liseykina, Tatyana V.; Harman, Zoltán; Keitel, Christoph H.

    2011-10-01

    Interaction of a frequency-chirped laser pulse with single protons and a hydrogen gas target is studied analytically and by means of particle-in-cell simulations, respectively. The feasibility of generating ultraintense (107 particles per bunch) and phase-space collimated beams of protons (energy spread of about 1%) is demonstrated. Phase synchronization of the protons and the laser field, guaranteed by the appropriate chirping of the laser pulse, allows the particles to gain sufficient kinetic energy (around 250 MeV) required for such applications as hadron cancer therapy, from state-of-the-art laser systems of intensities of the order of 1021W/cm2.

  9. Laser beam interactions with vapor plumes during Nd:YAG laser welding on aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peebles, H. C.; Russo, A. J.; Hadley, G. R.; Akau, R. L.

    Welds produced on pure aluminum targets using pulsed Nd:YAG lasers can be accurately described using a relatively simple conduction mode heat transfer model provided that the fraction of laser energy absorbed is known and the amount of metal vaporized is smalled however at laser fluences commonly used in many production welding schedules significant aluminum vaporization does occur. The possible mechanisms have been identified which could result in laser beam attenuation by the vapor plume.

  10. Enhanced direct laser vacuum acceleration of a charged particle in crossing plane-wave laser beams

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, H; Liu, C P; Wang, C; Shen, B F

    2015-09-30

    Strict theory shows that in the field of two laser beams crossing in vacuum with a phase delay π/2, a unique dynamics of the electron is observed. Unlike a single-beam case in which the velocity component along the laser magnetic field is always zero, the electron motion in the case of crossing beams is completely three-dimensional and hence a larger maximum value of the relativistic factor Γ, i.e. acceleration of an electron to larger energies, can be achieved. (laser acceleration of electrons)

  11. Direct design of laser-beam shapers, zoom-beam expanders, and combinations thereof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerr, Fabian; Thienpont, Hugo

    2016-10-01

    Laser sources have become indispensable for industrial materials processing applications like surface treatment, cutting or welding to name a few examples. Many of these applications pose different requirements on the delivered laser irradiance distribution. Some applications might not only favor a specific irradiance distribution (e.g. a at-top) but can additionally benefit from time-varying distributions. We present an overview of a recently developed design approach that allows direct calculation of virtually any refractive or reflective laser beam shaping system. The derived analytic solution is fully described by few initial parameters and does allow an increasingly accurate calculation of all optical surfaces. Unlike other existing direct design methods for laser beam shaping, there is almost no limitation in the number of surfaces that can be calculated with this approach. This is of particular importance for optical designs of dynamic systems such as variable optical beam expanders that require four (or more) optical surfaces. Besides conventional static beam shapers, we present direct designs of zoom beam expanders, and as a novelty, a class of dynamic systems that shape and expand the input beam simultaneously. Such dynamic zoom beam shapers consist of a minimal number of optical elements and provide a much more compact solution, yet achieving excellent overall optical performance throughout the full range of zoom positions.

  12. Numerical study of neutron beam divergence in a beam-fusion scenario employing laser driven ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alejo, A.; Green, A.; Ahmed, H.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Cerchez, M.; Clarke, R.; Doria, D.; Dorkings, S.; Fernandez, J.; McKenna, P.; Mirfayzi, S. R.; Naughton, K.; Neely, D.; Norreys, P.; Peth, C.; Powell, H.; Ruiz, J. A.; Swain, J.; Willi, O.; Borghesi, M.; Kar, S.

    2016-09-01

    The most established route to create a laser-based neutron source is by employing laser accelerated, low atomic-number ions in fusion reactions. In addition to the high reaction cross-sections at moderate energies of the projectile ions, the anisotropy in neutron emission is another important feature of beam-fusion reactions. Using a simple numerical model based on neutron generation in a pitcher-catcher scenario, anisotropy in neutron emission was studied for the deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction. Simulation results are consistent with the narrow-divergence (∼ 70 ° full width at half maximum) neutron beam recently served in an experiment employing multi-MeV deuteron beams of narrow divergence (up to 30° FWHM, depending on the ion energy) accelerated by a sub-petawatt laser pulse from thin deuterated plastic foils via the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration mechanism. By varying the input ion beam parameters, simulations show that a further improvement in the neutron beam directionality (i.e. reduction in the beam divergence) can be obtained by increasing the projectile ion beam temperature and cut-off energy, as expected from interactions employing higher power lasers at upcoming facilities.

  13. Beam Extraction from Laser Driven Multi-Charged Ion Source

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, O A; Logan, B G

    2001-03-19

    A newly proposed type of multicharged ion source offers the possibility of an economically advantageous high-charge-state fusion driver. Multiphoton absorption in an intense uniform laser focus can give multiple charge states of high purity, simplifying or eliminating the need for charge-state separation downstream. Very large currents (hundreds of amperes) can be extracted from this type of source. Several arrangements are possible. For example, the laser plasma could be tailored for storage in a magnetic bucket, with beam extracted from the bucket. A different approach, described in this report, is direct beam extraction from the expanding laser plasma. They discuss extraction and focusing for the particular case of a 4.1-MV beam of Xe{sup 16+} ions. The maximum duration of the beam pulse is limited by the total charge in the plasma, while the practical pulse length is determined by the range of plasma radii over which good beam optics can be achieved. The extraction electrode contains a solenoid for beam focusing. The design studies were carried out first with an envelope code and then with a self-consistent particle code. Results from the initial model showed that hundreds of amperes could be extracted, but that most of this current missed the solenoid entrance or was intercepted by the wall and that only a few amperes were able to pass through. They conclude with an improved design which increases the surviving beam to more than 70 amperes.

  14. Laser Welding of Alumina Ceramic Substrates with Two Fixed Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedore, Blake William Clark

    Laser welding was investigated as a potential joining technology for alumina ceramic substrates. The objective of this study was to develop a method to preheat the ceramic using a single defocused laser beam prior to welding. Engineering ceramics are employed in a variety of systems and environments due to their unique properties. Joining technologies must be developed to facilitate the manufacture of complex or large ceramic components. Laser welding is advantageous as it forms joints rapidly, and does not introduce intermediate materials to form the bond, which can have deleterious effects. The Laser Machining System (LMS) at Queen's University was adapted for this study. A defocused far-infrared (FIR) laser beam was positioned to overlay a focused near-infrared (NIR) laser beam; the defocused FIR beam preheated the ceramic substrate and the focused NIR beam formed the weld. A finite element model was developed in COMSOL MultiPhysics to simulate the preheating processes and to develop a preheating protocol. The protocol was implemented using the FIR beam and adjusted to achieve preheating temperatures of 1450, 1525, and 1600°C. Welds were performed on 1 mm thick alumina plates using the preheating protocols and NIR beam powers of 25, 50, and 75 W. Weld speed was held constant throughout the study at 0.5 mm/s. The preheating protocols were successful at achieving near-constant preheating temperatures, with standard deviations below 32 degrees. Partially penetrating welds were formed with the NIR beam at 25 W, and fully penetrating welds at 50 and 75 W. Large pores were present in the 25 W and 50 W welds. Minimal porosity was observed in the welds formed at 75 W. All of the welded plates experienced a transverse fracture that extended perpendicular to weld, and a longitudinal fracture extending parallel to the weld. This study shows that a fixed defocused laser beam can successfully preheat alumina substrates to the high temperatures required for welding; however

  15. Single-laser, one beam, tetrahedral magneto-optical trap.

    PubMed

    Vangeleyn, Matthieu; Griffin, Paul F; Riis, Erling; Arnold, Aidan S

    2009-08-03

    We have realized a 4-beam pyramidal magneto-optical trap ideally suited for future microfabrication. Three mirrors split and steer a single incoming beam into a tripod of reflected beams, allowing trapping in the four-beam overlap volume. We discuss the influence of mirror angle on cooling and trapping, finding optimum efficiency in a tetrahedral configuration. We demonstrate the technique using an ex-vacuo mirror system to illustrate the previously inaccessible supra-plane pyramid MOT configuration. Unlike standard pyramidal MOTs both the pyramid apex and its mirror angle are non-critical and our MOT offers improved molasses free from atomic shadows in the laser beams. The MOT scheme naturally extends to a 2-beam refractive version with high optical access. For quantum gas experiments, the mirror system could also be used for a stable 3D tetrahedral optical lattice.

  16. Designing Light Beam Transmittance Measuring Tool Using a Laser Pointer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuroso, H.; Kurniawan, W.; Marwoto, P.

    2016-08-01

    A simple instrument used for measuring light beam transmittance percentage made of window film has been developed. The instrument uses a laser pointer of 405 nm and 650 nm ±10% as a light source. Its accuracy approaches 80%. Transmittance data was found by comparing the light beam before and after passing the window film. The light intensity measuring unit was deleted by splitting the light source into two beams through a beam splitter. The light beam was changed into resistance by a NORP12 LDR sensor designed at a circuit of voltage divider rule of Khirchoff's laws. This conversion system will produce light beam intensity received by the sensor to become an equal voltage. This voltage will, then, be presented on the computer screen in the form of a real time graph via a 2.0 USB data transfer.

  17. Radiobiological study by using laser-driven proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yogo, A.; Sato, K.; Nishikino, M.; Mori, M.; Teshima, T.; Numasaki, H.; Murakami, M.; Demizu, Y.; Akagi, S.; Nagayama, S.; Ogura, K.; Sagisaka, A.; Orimo, S.; Nishiuchi, M.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Ikegami, M.; Tampo, M.; Sakaki, H.; Suzuki, M.; Daito, I.; Oishi, Y.; Sugiyama, H.; Kiriyama, H.; Okada, H.; Kanazawa, S.; Kondo, S.; Shimomura, T.; Nakai, Y.; Tanoue, M.; Sugiyama, H.; Sasao, H.; Wakai, D.; Kawachi, T.; Nishimura, H.; Bolton, P. R.; Daido, H.

    2009-07-01

    Particle acceleration driven by high-intensity laser systems is widely attracting interest as a potential alternative to conventional ion acceleration, including ion accelerator applications to tumor therapy. Recent works have shown that a high intensity laser pulse can produce single proton bunches of a high current and a short pulse duration. This unique feature of laser-ion acceleration can lead to progress in the development of novel ion sources. However, there has been no experimental study of the biological effects of laser-driven ion beams. We describe in this report the first demonstrated irradiation effect of laser-accelerated protons on human lung cancer cells. In-vitro A549 cells are irradiated with a proton dose of 20 Gy, resulting in a distinct formation of γ-H2AX foci as an indicator of DNA double-strand breaks. This is a pioneering result that points to future investigations of the radiobiological effects of laser-driven ion beams. The laser-driven ion beam is apotential excitation source for time-resolved determination of hydroxyl (OH) radical yield, which will explore relationship between the fundamental chemical reactions of radiation effects and consequent biological processes.

  18. Excimer Laser Beam Analyzer Based on CVD Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girolami, Marco; Salvatori, Stefano; Conte, Gennaro

    2010-11-01

    1-D and 2-D detector arrays have been realized on CVD-diamond. The relatively high resistivity of diamond in the dark allowed the fabrication of photoconductive "sandwich" strip (1D) or pixel (2D) detectors: a semitransparent light-receiving back-side contact was used for detector biasing. Cross-talk between pixels was limited by using intermediate guard contacts connected at the same ground potential of the pixels. Each pixel photocurrent was conditioned by a read-out electronics composed by a high sensitive integrator and a Σ-Δ ADC converter. The overall 500 μs conversion time allowed a data acquisition rate up to 2 kSPS. The measured fast photoresponse of the samples in the ns time regime suggests to use the proposed devices for fine tuning feedback of high-power pulsed-laser cavities, whereas solar-blindness guarantees high performance in UV beam diagnostics also under high intensity background illumination. Offering unique properties in terms of thermal conductivity and visible-light transparency, diamond represents one of the most suitable candidate for the detection of high-power UV laser emission. The technology of laser beam profiling is evolving with the increase of excimer lasers applications that span from laser-cutting to VLSI and MEMS technologies. Indeed, to improve emission performances, fine tuning of the laser cavity is required. In such a view, the development of a beam-profiler, able to work in real-time between each laser pulse, is mandatory.

  19. Radiobiological study by using laser-driven proton beams

    SciTech Connect

    Yogo, A.; Nishikino, M.; Mori, M.; Ogura, K.; Sagisaka, A.; Orimo, S.; Nishiuchi, M.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Ikegami, M.; Tampo, M.; Sakaki, H.; Suzuki, M.; Daito, I.; Kiriyama, H.; Okada, H.; Kanazawa, S.; Kondo, S.; Shimomura, T.; Nakai, Y.; Kawachi, T.

    2009-07-25

    Particle acceleration driven by high-intensity laser systems is widely attracting interest as a potential alternative to conventional ion acceleration, including ion accelerator applications to tumor therapy. Recent works have shown that a high intensity laser pulse can produce single proton bunches of a high current and a short pulse duration. This unique feature of laser-ion acceleration can lead to progress in the development of novel ion sources. However, there has been no experimental study of the biological effects of laser-driven ion beams. We describe in this report the first demonstrated irradiation effect of laser-accelerated protons on human lung cancer cells. In-vitro A549 cells are irradiated with a proton dose of 20 Gy, resulting in a distinct formation of gamma-H2AX foci as an indicator of DNA double-strand breaks. This is a pioneering result that points to future investigations of the radiobiological effects of laser-driven ion beams. The laser-driven ion beam is apotential excitation source for time-resolved determination of hydroxyl (OH) radical yield, which will explore relationship between the fundamental chemical reactions of radiation effects and consequent biological processes.

  20. Speckle-metric-optimization-based adaptive optics for laser beam projection and coherent beam combining.

    PubMed

    Vorontsov, Mikhail; Weyrauch, Thomas; Lachinova, Svetlana; Gatz, Micah; Carhart, Gary

    2012-07-15

    Maximization of a projected laser beam's power density at a remotely located extended object (speckle target) can be achieved by using an adaptive optics (AO) technique based on sensing and optimization of the target-return speckle field's statistical characteristics, referred to here as speckle metrics (SM). SM AO was demonstrated in a target-in-the-loop coherent beam combining experiment using a bistatic laser beam projection system composed of a coherent fiber-array transmitter and a power-in-the-bucket receiver. SM sensing utilized a 50 MHz rate dithering of the projected beam that provided a stair-mode approximation of the outgoing combined beam's wavefront tip and tilt with subaperture piston phases. Fiber-integrated phase shifters were used for both the dithering and SM optimization with stochastic parallel gradient descent control.

  1. Deflection of a Reflected Intense Vortex Laser Beam.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lingang; Shen, Baifei; Zhang, Xiaomei; Huang, Shan; Shi, Yin; Liu, Chen; Wang, Wenpeng; Xu, Jiancai; Pei, Zhikun; Xu, Zhizhan

    2016-09-09

    An interesting deflection effect deviating the optical reflection law is revealed in the relativistic regime of intense vortex laser plasma interaction. When an intense vortex laser obliquely impinges onto an overdense plasma target, the reflected beam deflects out of the plane of incidence with an experimentally observable deflection angle. The mechanism is demonstrated by full three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation as well as analytical modeling using the Maxwell stress tensor. The deflection results from the rotational symmetry breaking of the foil driven by the unsymmetrical shear stress of the vortex beam. The l-dependent shear stress, where l is the topological charge, as an intrinsic characteristic to the vortex beam, plays an important role as the ponderomotive force in relativistic vortex laser matter interaction.

  2. Deflection of a Reflected Intense Vortex Laser Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lingang; Shen, Baifei; Zhang, Xiaomei; Huang, Shan; Shi, Yin; Liu, Chen; Wang, Wenpeng; Xu, Jiancai; Pei, Zhikun; Xu, Zhizhan

    2016-09-01

    An interesting deflection effect deviating the optical reflection law is revealed in the relativistic regime of intense vortex laser plasma interaction. When an intense vortex laser obliquely impinges onto an overdense plasma target, the reflected beam deflects out of the plane of incidence with an experimentally observable deflection angle. The mechanism is demonstrated by full three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation as well as analytical modeling using the Maxwell stress tensor. The deflection results from the rotational symmetry breaking of the foil driven by the unsymmetrical shear stress of the vortex beam. The l -dependent shear stress, where l is the topological charge, as an intrinsic characteristic to the vortex beam, plays an important role as the ponderomotive force in relativistic vortex laser matter interaction.

  3. Turbulence-induced persistence in laser beam wandering.

    PubMed

    Zunino, Luciano; Gulich, Damián; Funes, Gustavo; Pérez, Darío G

    2015-07-01

    We have experimentally confirmed the presence of long-memory correlations in the wandering of a thin Gaussian laser beam over a screen after propagating through a turbulent medium. A laboratory-controlled experiment was conducted in which coordinate fluctuations of the laser beam were recorded at a sufficiently high sampling rate for a wide range of turbulent conditions. Horizontal and vertical displacements of the laser beam centroid were subsequently analyzed by implementing detrended fluctuation analysis. This is a very well-known and widely used methodology to unveil memory effects from time series. Results obtained from this experimental analysis allow us to confirm that both coordinates behave as highly persistent signals for strong turbulent intensities. This finding is relevant for a better comprehension and modeling of the turbulence effects in free-space optical communication systems and other applications related to propagation of optical signals in the atmosphere.

  4. Optimization and control of electron beams from laser wakefield accelerations using asymmetric laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopal, K.; Gupta, D. N.

    2017-10-01

    Optimization and control of electron beam quality in laser wakefield acceleration are explored by using a temporally asymmetric laser pulse of the sharp rising front portion. The temporally asymmetric laser pulse imparts stronger ponderomotive force on the ambient plasma electrons. The stronger ponderomotive force associated with the asymmetric pulse significantly affects the injection of electrons into the wakefield and consequently the quality of the injected bunch in terms of injected charge, mean energy, and emittance. Based on particle-in-cell simulations, we report to generate a monoenergetic electron beam with reduced emittance and enhanced charge in laser wakefield acceleration using an asymmetric pulse of duration 30 fs.

  5. System for obtaining smooth laser beams where intensity variations are reduced by spectral dispersion of the laser light (SSD)

    DOEpatents

    Skupsky, Stanley; Kessler, Terrance J.; Short, Robert W.; Craxton, Stephen; Letzring, Samuel A.; Soures, John

    1991-01-01

    In an SSD (smoothing by spectral dispersion) system which reduces the time-averaged spatial variations in intensity of the laser light to provide uniform illumination of a laser fusion target, an electro-optic phase modulator through which a laser beam passes produces a broadband output beam by imposing a frequency modulated bandwidth on the laser beam. A grating provides spatial and angular spectral dispersion of the beam. Due to the phase modulation, the frequencies ("colors") cycle across the beam. The dispersed beam may be amplified and frequency converted (e.g., tripled) in a plurality of beam lines. A distributed phase plate (DPP) in each line is irradiated by the spectrally dispersed beam and the beam is focused on the target where a smooth (uniform intensity) pattern is produced. The color cycling enhances smoothing and the use of a frequency modulated laser pulse prevents the formation of high intensity spikes which could damage the laser medium in the power amplifiers.

  6. Mid-IR laser source using hollow waveguide beam combining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elder, Ian F.; Thorne, Daniel H.; Lamb, Robert A.; Jenkins, R. M.

    2016-03-01

    Hollow waveguide technology is a route to efficient beam combining of multiple laser sources in a compact footprint. It is a technology appropriate for combining free-space or fibre-coupled beams generated by semiconductor, fibre or solidstate laser sources. This paper will present results of a breadboard mid-IR system comprising four laser sources combined using a hollow waveguide optical circuit. In this approach the individual dichroic beam combiner components are held in precision alignment slots in the hollow waveguide circuit and the different input wavelengths are guided between the components to a common output port. The hollow waveguide circuit is formed in the surface of a Macor (machinable glass-ceramic) substrate using precision CNC machining techniques. The hollow waveguides have fundamentally different propagation characteristics to solid core waveguides leading to transmission characteristics close to those of the atmosphere while still providing useful light guidance properties. The transmission efficiency and power handling of the hollow waveguide circuit can be designed to be very high across a broad waveband range. Three of the sources are quantum cascade lasers (QCLs), a semiconductor laser technology providing direct generation of midwave IR output. The combined beams provide 4.2 W of near diffraction-limited output co-boresighted to better than 20 µrad. High coupling efficiency into the waveguides is demonstrated, with negligible waveguide transmission losses. The overall transmission of the hollow waveguide beam combining optical circuit, weighted by the laser power at each wavelength, is 93%. This loss is dominated by the performance of the dichroic optics used to combine the beams.

  7. Laser beam propagation through inertial confinement fusion hohlraum plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Froula, D. H.; Divol, L.; Meezan, N. B.; Dixit, S.; Neumayer, P.; Moody, J. D.; Pollock, B. B.; Ross, J. S.; Suter, L.; Glenzer, S. H.

    2007-05-15

    A study of the laser-plasma interaction processes have been performed in plasmas that are created to emulate the plasma conditions in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion targets. The plasma emulator is produced in a gas-filled hohlraum; a blue 351-nm laser beam propagates along the axis of the hohlraum interacting with a high-temperature (T{sub e}=3.5 keV), dense (n{sub e}=5x10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}), long-scale length (L{approx}2 mm) plasma. Experiments at these conditions have demonstrated that the interaction beam produces less than 1% total backscatter resulting in transmission greater than 90% for laser intensities less than I<2x10{sup 15} W cm{sup -2}. The bulk plasma conditions have been independently characterized using Thomson scattering where the peak electron temperatures are shown to scale with the hohlraum heater beam energy in the range from 2 keV to 3.5 keV. This feature has allowed us to determine the thresholds for both backscattering and filamentation instabilities; the former measured with absolutely calibrated full aperture backscatter and near backscatter diagnostics and the latter with a transmitted beam diagnostics. Comparing the experimental results with detailed gain calculations for the onset of significant laser scattering processes shows a stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold (R=10%) for a linear gain of 15; these high temperature, low density experiments produce plasma conditions comparable to those along the outer beams in ignition hohlraum designs. By increasing the gas fill density (n{sub e}=10{sup 21} cm{sup -3}) in these targets, the inner beam ignition hohlraum conditions are accessed. In this case, stimulated Raman scattering dominates the backscattering processes and we show that scattering is small for gains less than 20 which can be achieved through proper choice of the laser beam intensity.

  8. Coherent beam combining architectures for high power tapered laser arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimmel, G.; Janicot, S.; Hanna, M.; Decker, J.; Crump, P.; Erbert, G.; Witte, U.; Traub, M.; Georges, P.; Lucas-Leclin, G.

    2017-02-01

    Coherent beam combining (CBC) aims at increasing the spatial brightness of lasers. It consists in maintaining a constant phase relationship between different emitters, in order to combine them constructively in one single beam. We have investigated the CBC of an array of five individually-addressable high-power tapered laser diodes at λ = 976 nm, in two architectures: the first one utilizes the self-organization of the lasers in an interferometric extended-cavity, which ensures their mutual coherence; the second one relies on the injection of the emitters by a single-frequency laser diode. In both cases, the coherent combining of the phase-locked beams is ensured on the front side of the array by a transmission diffractive grating with 98% efficiency. The passive phase-locking of the laser bar is obtained up to 5 A (per emitter). An optimization algorithm is implemented to find the proper currents in the five ridge sections that ensured the maximum combined power on the front side. Under these conditions we achieve a maximum combined power of 7.5 W. In the active MOPA configuration, we can increase the currents in the tapered sections up to 6 A and get a combined power of 11.5 W, corresponding to a combining efficiency of 76%. It is limited by the beam quality of the tapered emitters and by fast phase fluctuations between emitters. Still, these results confirm the potential of CBC approaches with tapered lasers to provide a high-power and high-brightness beam, and compare with the current state-of-the-art with laser diodes.

  9. Flexible printed circuit boards laser bonding using a laser beam homogenization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joohan; Choi, Haewoon

    2012-11-01

    A laser micro-bonding process using laser beam shaping is successfully demonstrated for flexible printed circuit boards. A CW Ytterbium fiber laser with a wavelength of 1070 nm and a laser power density of 1-7 W/mm2 is employed as a local heat source for bonding flexible printed circuit boards to rigid printed circuit boards. To improve the bonding quality, a micro-lens array is used to modify the Gaussian laser beam for the bonding process. An electromagnetic modeling and heat transfer simulation is conducted to verify the effect of the micro-lens array on the laser bonding process. The optimal bonding parameters are found experimentally. As the measured temperature ramp rate of the boards exceeds 1100 K/s, bonding occurs within 100-200 ms at a laser power density of 5 W/mm2. The bonding quality of the FPCB is verified with a shear strength test. Process characteristics are also discussed.

  10. Interaction between the laser beam and keyhole wall during high power fiber laser keyhole welding.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jianglin; Ha, Na; Xiao, Rongshi; Wu, Qiang; Zhang, Qunli

    2017-07-24

    The crucial factor of laser welding is the laser energy conversion. For a better understanding of the process, the interaction process between the laser beam and keyhole wall was investigated by observing the keyhole wall evaporation during high-power fiber laser welding. The results show that the evaporation vapor, induced by the laser beam, discretely distributed on the keyhole wall. A tiny 'hollow' zone was observed at the spot center-action region on the FKW. The evaporation vapor induced by the spot center moved downward along the front keyhole wall (FKW) with a period of about 0.3~0.75 ms, which indicates that the keyhole formation is reminiscent of a periodical laser drilling process on the FKW. The evaporation vapor on the keyhole wall suggest the assumption that the laser energy coupling mode in the keyhole was multiple-reflection, and the keyhole depth was mainly determined by the drilling behavior induced by the first absorption on the FKW.

  11. Filamentation of Focused and Collimated Laser Beams in Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apeksimov, D. V.; Bukin, O. A.; Golik, S. S.; Zemlyanov, A. A.; Kabanov, A. M.; Kuchinskaya, O. I.; Matvienko, G. G.; Oshlakov, V. K.; Petrov, A. V.; Sokolova, E. B.; Khoroshaeva, E. E.

    2015-05-01

    Experimental results of investigations into the transformation of the spectral and spatial characteristics of femtosecond collimated and focused Ti:Sa -laser beams with wavelengths of 800 and 400 nm upon filamentation in continuous liquid media are presented. It is shown that broadening of the laser pulse spectrum due to phase self-modulation in the medium with a cubic nonlinearity depends on the pulse power and beam diameter. Dependences of the number of filaments, width of laser radiation spectrum, nonlinear focusing distance, and diameter of the filamentation region on the laser pulse power are measured. The existence of a relative power interval in which the explosive growth of the number of filaments occurs, is established.

  12. Filamentation of focused and collimated laser beams in liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apeksimov, D. V.; Bukin, O. A.; Golik, S. S.; Zemlyanov, A. A.; Kabanov, A. M.; Kuchinskaya, O. I.; Matvienko, G. G.; Oshlakov, V. K.; Petrov, A. V.; Sokolova, E. B.; Khoroshaeva, E. E.

    2015-11-01

    Experimental results of investigations into the transformation of the spectral and spatial characteristics of femtosecond collimated and focused Ti:Sapphire-laser beams with wavelengths of 800 and 400 nm upon filamentation in continuous liquid media are presented. It is shown that broadening of the laser pulse spectrum due to phase self-modulation in the medium with a cubic nonlinearity depends on the pulse power and beam diameter. Dependences of the number of filaments, width of laser radiation spectrum, nonlinear focusing distance, and diameter of the filamentation region on the laser pulse power are measured. The existence of a relative power interval in which the explosive growth of the number of filaments occurs, is established.

  13. Development of a fast position-sensitive laser beam detector

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, Isaac; Huang Rongxin; Henderson, Kevin; Florin, Ernst-Ludwig; Raizen, Mark G.

    2008-10-15

    We report the development of a fast position-sensitive laser beam detector. The detector uses a fiber-optic bundle that spatially splits the incident beam, followed by a fast balanced photodetector. The detector is applied to the study of Brownian motion of particles on fast time scales with 1 A spatial resolution. Future applications include the study of molecule motors, protein folding, as well as cellular processes.

  14. Laser beam centering and pointing system

    DOEpatents

    Rushford, Michael Charles

    2015-01-13

    An optical instrument aligns an optical beam without the need for physical intervention of the instrument within the apparatus or platforms from which the trajectory of the beam to be ascertained. The alignment apparatus and method enable the desired function to be realized without the placement of physical apertures or sensors directly in the path of the beam through the system whose spatial position and slope is to be sought. An image plane provides the observer with a pair of well-defined images that are indicative of the beam centering and pointing alignment parameters. The optical alignment can be realized without the need for referencing to an external or fixed set of coordinates or fiducials. The instrument can therefore service situations where adverse environments would otherwise prohibit the use of such instruments, including regions of high radiation, high temperature, vacuum and/or cryogenic atmospheres.

  15. Electron Acceleration by a Tightly Focused Laser Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamin, Yousef I.; Keitel, Christoph H.

    2002-03-01

    State-of-the-art petawatt laser beams may be focused down to few-micron spot sizes and can produce violent electron acceleration as a result of the extremely intense and asymmetric fields. Classical fifth-order calculations in the diffraction angle show that electrons, injected sideways into the tightly focused laser beam, get captured and gain energy in the GeV regime. We point out the most favorable points of injection away from the focus, along with an efficient means of extracting the energetic electron with a static magnetic field.

  16. Harmonic generation by circularly polarized laser beams propagating in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Ekta; Hemlata,; Jha, Pallavi

    2015-04-15

    An analytical theory is developed for studying the phenomenon of generation of harmonics by the propagation of an obliquely incident, circularly polarized laser beam in homogeneous, underdense plasma. The amplitudes of second and third harmonic radiation as well as detuning distance have been obtained and their variation with the angle of incidence is analyzed. The amplitude of harmonic radiation increases with the angle of incidence while the detuning distance decreases, for a given plasma electron density. It is observed that the generated second and third harmonic radiation is linearly and elliptically polarized, respectively. The harmonic radiation vanishes at normal incidence of the circularly polarized laser beam.

  17. Characteristic of laser diode beam propagation through a collimating lens.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiang; Han, Yiping; Cui, Zhiwei

    2010-01-20

    A mathematical model of a laser diode beam propagating through a collimating lens is presented. Wave propagation beyond the paraxial approximation is studied. The phase delay of the laser diode wave in passing through the lens is analyzed in detail. The propagation optical field after the lens is obtained from the diffraction integral by the stationary phase method. The model is employed to predict the light intensity at various beam cross sections, and the computed intensity distributions are in a good agreement with the corresponding measurements.

  18. System requirements for laser power beaming to geosynchronous satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, R.D.; McKechnie, T.S.; Neal, D.R.

    1994-03-01

    Geosynchronous satellites use solar arrays as their primary source of electrical power. During earth eclipse, which occurs 90 times each year, the satellites are powered by batteries, but the heavy charge-discharge cycle decreases their life expectancy. By beaming laser power to satellites during the eclipses, satellite life expectancy can be significantly increased. In this paper, the authors investigate the basic system parameters and trade-offs of using reactor pumped laser technology to beam power from the Nevada Test Site. A first order argument is used to develop a consistent set of requirements for such a system.

  19. System requirements for laser power beaming to geosynchronous satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, R.D.; McKechnie, T.S.; Neal, D.R.

    1994-12-31

    Geosynchronous satellites use solar arrays as their primary source of electrical power. During earth eclipse, which occurs 90 times each year, the satellites are powered by batteries, but the heavy charge-discharge cycle decreases their life expectancy. By beaming laser power to satellites during the eclipses, satellite life expectancy can be significantly increased. In this paper, the authors investigate the basic system parameters and trade-offs of using reactor pumped laser technology to beam power from the Nevada Test Site. A first order argument is used to develop a consistent set of requirements for such a system.

  20. Large area electron beam pumped krypton fluoride laser amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Sethian, J.D.; Obenschain, S.P.; Gerber, K.A.; Pawley, C.J.; Serlin, V.; Sullivan, C.A.; Webster, W.; Deniz, A.V.; Lehecka, T.; McGeoch, M.W.; Altes, R.A.; Corcoran, P.A.; Smith, I.D.; Barr, O.C.

    1997-06-01

    Nike is a recently completed multi-kilojoule krypton fluoride (KrF) laser that has been built to study the physics of direct drive inertial confinement fusion. This paper describes in detail both the pulsed power and optical performance of the largest amplifier in the Nike laser, the 60 cm amplifier. This is a double pass, double sided, electron beam-pumped system that amplifies the laser beam from an input of 50 J to an output of up to 5 kJ. It has an optical aperture of 60 cm {times} 60 cm and a gain length of 200 cm. The two electron beams are 60 cm high {times} 200 cm wide, have a voltage of 640 kV, a current of 540 kA, and a flat top power pulse duration of 250 ns. A 2 kG magnetic field is used to guide the beams and prevent self-pinching. Each electron beam is produced by its own Marx/pulse forming line system. The amplifier has been fully integrated into the Nike system and is used on a daily basis for laser-target experiments. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Very thick holographic nonspatial filtering of laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludman, Jacques E.; Riccobono, Juanita R.; Reinhand, Nadya O.; Semenova, Irina V.; Korzinin, Yuri L.; Shahriar, Selim M.; Caulfield, H. John; Fournier, Jean-Marc R.; Hemmer, Philip R.

    1997-06-01

    A novel device, the nonspatial filter, is described for laser beam cleanup. It is based on the Bragg selectivity of thick holograms. Unlike pinhole and fiber spatial filters, which employ lenses and apertures in the transform plane, nonspatial filters operate directly on the laser beam. This eliminates the need for laser beam focusing, which is the source of many of the material and alignment instabilities and laser power limitations of spatial filters. Standard holographic materials are not suitable for this application because differential shrinkage during processing limits the maximum Bragg angle selectivity attainable, and because they are generally too thin. New technologies that eliminate the problem of differential shrinkage are described. These technologies are based either on the use of a rigid porous substrate material, such as porous glass, filled with a light-sensitive material, such as holographic photopolymers or dichromated gelatin, or on the use of a thick photo- polymer with diffusion amplification. We report results of holographic nonspatial filtering of a laser beam in 1D, with an angular selectivity of better than 1 mrad.

  2. Influence of the pump-to-laser beam overlap on the performance of optically pumped cesium vapor laser.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Tom; Lebiush, Eyal; Auslender, Ilya; Barmashenko, Boris D; Rosenwaks, Salman

    2016-06-27

    Experimental and theoretical study of the influence of the pump-to-laser beam overlap, a crucial parameter for optimization of optically pumped alkali atom lasers, is reported for Ti:Sapphire pumped Cs laser. Maximum laser power > 370 mW with an optical-to-optical efficiency of 43% and slope efficiency ~55% was obtained. The dependence of the lasing power on the pump power was found for different pump beam radii at constant laser beam radius. Non monotonic dependence of the laser power (optimized over the temperature of the Cs cell) on the pump beam radius was observed with a maximum achieved at the ratio ~0.7 between the pump and laser beam radii. The optimal temperature decreased with increasing pump beam radius. A simple optical model of the laser, where Gaussian spatial shapes of the pump and laser intensities in any cross section of the beams were assumed, was compared to the experiments. Good agreement was obtained between the measured and calculated dependence of the laser power on the pump power at different pump beam radii and also of the laser power, threshold pump power and optimal temperature on the pump beam radius. The model does not use empirical parameters such as mode overlap efficiency and can be applied to different Ti:Sapphire and diode pumped alkali lasers with arbitrary spatial distributions of the pump and laser beam widths.

  3. Symmetric compression of 'laser greenhouse' targets by a few laser beams

    SciTech Connect

    Gus'kov, Sergei Yu; Demchenko, N N; Rozanov, Vladislav B; Stepanov, R V; Zmitrenko, N V; Caruso, A; Strangio, C

    2003-02-28

    The possibility of efficient and symmetric compression of a target with a low-density structured absorber by a few laser beams is considered. An equation of state is proposed for a porous medium, which takes into account the special features of the absorption of high-power nanosecond laser pulses. The open version of this target is shown to allow the use of ordinary Gaussian beams, requiring no special profiling of the absorber surface. The conditions are defined under which such targets can be compressed efficiently by only two laser beams (or beam clusters). Simulations show that for a 2.1-MJ laser pulse, a seven-fold gain for the target under study is achieved. (special issue devoted to the 80th anniversary of academician n g basov's birth)

  4. Laser beam temporal and spatial tailoring for laser shock processing

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Lloyd; Dane, C. Brent

    2001-01-01

    Techniques are provided for formatting laser pulse spatial shape and for effectively and efficiently delivering the laser energy to a work surface in the laser shock process. An appropriately formatted pulse helps to eliminate breakdown and generate uniform shocks. The invention uses a high power laser technology capable of meeting the laser requirements for a high throughput process, that is, a laser which can treat many square centimeters of surface area per second. The shock process has a broad range of applications, especially in the aerospace industry, where treating parts to reduce or eliminate corrosion failure is very important. The invention may be used for treating metal components to improve strength and corrosion resistance. The invention has a broad range of applications for parts that are currently shot peened and/or require peening by means other than shot peening. Major applications for the invention are in the automotive and aerospace industries for components such as turbine blades, compressor components, gears, etc.

  5. A laser-wire beam-energy and beam-profile monitor at the BNL linac

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, R.; Degen, C.; DeSanto, L.; Meng, W.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.; Nayak, S.

    2011-03-28

    In 2009 a beam-energy monitor was installed in the high energy beam transport (HEBT) line at the Brookhaven National Lab linac. This device measures the energies of electrons stripped from the 40mA H{sup -} beam by background gas. Electrons are stripped by the 2.0x10{sup -7}torr residual gas at a rate of {approx}1.5x10{sup -8}/cm. Since beam electrons have the same velocities as beam protons, the beam proton energy is deduced by multiplying the electron energy by m{sub p}/m{sub e}=1836. A 183.6MeV H{sup -} beam produces 100keV electrons. In 2010 we installed an optics plates containing a laser and scanning optics to add beam-profile measurement capability via photodetachment. Our 100mJ/pulse, Q-switched laser neutralizes 70% of the beam during its 10ns pulse. This paper describes the upgrades to the detector and gives profile and energy measurements.

  6. Far-field beam quality evaluation of high-power unstable resonators TEA CO2 Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ruhai; Chen, Ning; Shi, Kui; Wang, Bing

    2013-05-01

    High average power pulsed TEA CO2 lasers have many important applications, such as laser manufacturing, military applications, but there rarely have reports about the theoretical and experimental studies on the virtual confocus resonator of pulsed TEA CO2 laser, especially its far field optical quality. Based on the real date of the unstable resonator modified by the stable resonator of high power TEA CO2, three common theoretical evaluations and analyzes were conducted and compared with the measured results of far field light intensity distribution with 2 kW designed unstable resonator laser with the block ratio is ɛ=0.404. The results show that the unstable resonator can obtain near diffraction limitation and high optical quality beam. The β factor is smaller than 4 times than the stable resonator. Furthermore, the smaller block factor can make higher power in bucket for the unstable resonator. The comprehensive prediction and evaluation of designed unstable resonator need to synthetically use these three theoretical methods of the evaluations. The simulation results, with considering the optical aberration, heat distortion and atmospheric effect, agree well with the real recording image by the infrared imaging system in the distance of 300m. The research of this paper has very important reference value for evaluating the tactical effectiveness and optimization design of high power TEA CO2 laser system with different unstable resonators.

  7. Long range laser propagation: power scaling and beam quality issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, Willy L.

    2010-09-01

    This paper will address long range laser propagation applications where power and, in particular beam quality issues play a major role. Hereby the power level is defined by the specific mission under consideration. I restrict myself to the following application areas: (1)Remote sensing/Space based LIDAR, (2) Space debris removal (3)Energy transmission, and (4)Directed energy weapons Typical examples for space based LIDARs are the ADM Aeolus ESA mission using the ALADIN Nd:YAG laser with its third harmonic at 355 nm and the NASA 2 μm Tm:Ho:LuLiF convectively cooled solid state laser. Space debris removal has attracted more attention in the last years due to the dangerous accumulation of debris in orbit which become a threat to the satellites and the ISS space station. High power high brightness lasers may contribute to this problem by partially ablating the debris material and hence generating an impulse which will eventually de-orbit the debris with their subsequent disintegration in the lower atmosphere. Energy transmission via laser beam from space to earth has long been discussed as a novel long term approach to solve the energy problem on earth. In addition orbital transfer and stationkeeping are among the more mid-term applications of high power laser beams. Finally, directed energy weapons are becoming closer to reality as corresponding laser sources have matured due to recent efforts in the JHPSSL program. All of this can only be realized if he laser sources fulfill the necessary power requirements while keeping the beam quality as close as possible to the diffraction limited value. And this is the rationale and motivation of this paper.

  8. Comparison of laser and neutral particle beam discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canavan, Gregory H.

    1989-09-01

    The relative ability of lasers and neutral particle beams (NPBs) to discriminate reentry vehicle (RV) and anti-satellite (ASAT) decoys is pivotal in assessing their relative worth as strategic defenses. Their ability is evaluated and their relative contributions are assessed. It is concluded that NPBs can typically discriminate about 100 times as many objects as can lasers, and do so with significantly greater certainty.

  9. Comparison of laser and neutral particle beam discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1989-09-01

    The relative ability of lasers and neutral particle beams (NPBs) to discriminate reentry vehicle (RV) and anti-satellite (ASAT) decoys is pivotal in assessing their relative worth as strategic defenses. This report evaluates their ability and assesses their relative contributions, concluding that NPBs can typically discriminate about 100 times as many objects as can lasers, and do so with significantly greater certainty. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Dual-beam laser autofocusing system based on liquid lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fumin; Yao, Yannan; Qu, Xinghua; Zhang, Tong; Pei, Bing

    2017-02-01

    A dual-beam laser autofocusing system is designed in this paper. The autofocusing system is based on a liquid lens with less moving parts and fast response time, which makes the system simple, reliable, compact and fast. A novel scheme "Time-sharing focus, fast conversion" is innovatively proposed. The scheme effectively solves the problem that the guiding laser and the working laser cannot focus at the same target point because of the existence of chromatic aberration. This scheme not only makes both guiding laser and working laser achieve optimal focusing in guiding stage and working stage respectively, but also greatly reduces the system complexity and simplifies the focusing process as well as makes autofocusing time of the working laser reduce to about 10 ms. In the distance range of 1 m to 30 m, the autofocusing spot size is kept under 4.3 mm at 30 m and just 0.18 mm at 1 m. The spot size is much less influenced by the target distance compared with the collimated laser with a micro divergence angle for its self-adaptivity. The dual-beam laser autofocusing system based on liquid lens is fully automatic, compact and efficient. It is fully meet the need of dynamicity and adaptivity and it will play an important role in a number of long-range control applications.

  11. Laser absorption velocimetry using an optical vortex beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Shinji; Aramaki, Mitsutoshi; Ozawa, Naoya; Terasaka, Kenichiro; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Morisaki, Tomohiro

    2016-09-01

    A plain-wave-like beam, or a Hermite-Gaussian mode, has been used for conventional laser spectroscopy. Since the Doppler shift in frequency of light absorbed by a moving atom is given by the dot product of the wave vector of the light beam and an atomic velocity, it is essentially a one-dimensional measurement. It has a merit that the interpretation of the result is clear and straightforward; however, it simultaneously poses a limitation that the measurable velocity component is confined to the projection along the wave vector. This limitation may be overcome by using an optical vortex beam, or a Laguerre-Gaussian mode, which has helical phase fronts associated with orbital angular momentum of light. Due to its three-dimensional phase structure, the Doppler shift for an atom moving in the optical vortex beam has three components. Therefore, the laser measurement method that has a sensitivity even for transverse motion across the beam is possible to be achieved. We have performed laser absorption measurements using optical vortex beams as a proof-of-principle experiment, where an additional frequency shift in the absorption spectra of metastable argon neutrals in a plasma has been observed. The details of experimental results will be discussed in the conference. This study was partially supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grand Numbers 15K05365 and 25287152.

  12. Study about the thermal adaptability of mirrors based on MOEMS for satellite-borne laser beam control used in multiple targets tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Hua; Yuan, Yujun

    2008-03-01

    The development of miniature, light-duty and low power consumption satellite-borne new concept devices based on MOEMS has significant meaning to realize forming inter-satellite network and minimizing, integrating, intellectualizing the payload of satellite-borne laser communication system. Agile beam steering control system based on MOEMS can realize the large FOV, high precision, agile response trace and optical axis alignment for multiple targets in spatial optoelectronic system. Comparing to traditional technology, agile beam steering control system lower the volumes, reduce the weight and power. In this article, ANSYS thermal analysis software is used to simulate the thermal distortion of the micro-mirrors on the MOEMS. ZEMAX optical analysis software is used to simulate the outgoing beam before and after the distortion of the mirrors. Under certain conditions, high power laser beam will have thermal effect on the reflector based on the reflective MOEMS APT precise steering device. The simulation results show that: the thermal distortion of the micro-mirror is tiny when radiated by low power laser, the influence can be neglected. However, when the laser power increasing, the receiving power decreased, the system performance degraded. In order to mitigate the negative influence, relevant method must be adopted.

  13. Concrete "Waffle" Provides Laser Beam Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Building Design and Construction, 1978

    1978-01-01

    A massive concrete "waffle," riding on a bed of specially treated gravel and sand inside another building, provides the structural rigidity needed by the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics. (Author)

  14. Performance of Laser Beam Wavefront Sensor.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    13 IV. EXPERIENTAL REUT..... ................ 17 OtCEDflO PAE BLANK-NOT FILMD 3 1* Schematic of the Phase ................... .... 10 2...laser communications , lidar, and electro-optice; communication sciences, applied electronics, semiconductor crystal and device physics, radiometric

  15. Beam Shaped Single Mode Spiral Lasers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-31

    directionality; he showed that suitably deformed (Limaçon shaped) resonators can partially circumvent this problem and also achieve higher optical power. He...volume, highly directional light sources possible in the future for many important applications, e.g. photonic integrated circuits, optical ...communications, and medical/biological high-sensitive sensors.Quantum cascade laser, limacon shaped, microcavity semiconductor lasers, ray optics , wave

  16. Concepts for laser beam parameter monitoring during industrial mass production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrop, Nicholas J.; Maerten, Otto; Wolf, Stefan; Kramer, Reinhard

    2017-02-01

    In today's industrial mass production, lasers have become an established tool for a variety of processes. As with any other tool, mechanical or otherwise, the laser and its ancillary components are prone to wear and ageing. Monitoring of these ageing processes at full operating power of an industrial laser is challenging for a range of reasons. Not only the damage threshold of the measurement device itself, but also cycle time constraints in industrial processing are just two of these challenges. Power measurement, focus spot size or full beam caustic measurements are being implemented in industrial laser systems. The scope of the measurement and the amount of data collected is limited by the above mentioned cycle time, which in some cases can only be a few seconds. For successful integration of these measurement systems into automated production lines, the devices must be equipped with standardized communication interfaces, enabling a feedback loop from the measurement device to the laser processing systems. If necessary these measurements can be performed before each cycle. Power is determined with either static or dynamic calorimetry while camera and scanning systems are used for beam profile analysis. Power levels can be measured from 25W up to 20 kW, with focus spot sizes between 10μm and several millimeters. We will show, backed by relevant statistical data, that defects or contamination of the laser beam path can be detected with applied measurement systems, enabling a quality control chain to prevent process defects.

  17. Direct laser patterning of self-assembled monolayer using elliptical laser beams: A theoretical parametric study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Martin Y.; Shadnam, Mohammad Reza; Amirfazli, A.

    2011-11-01

    A theoretical quantitative analysis of processing parameters for application of an elliptical laser beam to achieve maximum patterning area is the focus of this study. Direct laser patterning (DLP) of self-assembled monolayers (SAM) is achieved by localized heating of the sample above the SAM desorption temperature. Through use of elliptical laser beams in the present work, three goals are achieved by analyzing the heat diffusion model and related thermo-kinetics model: (1) optimal working conditions (combination of laser power, scanning velocity and aspect ratio) for DLP to produce maximum feature size, or highest processing velocity at a given power; (2) identification of conditions that reduces the potential thermal damage to the substrate; (3) shedding light on issues related to uniformity or homogeneity of heating a substrate using an elliptical laser beam. A heat diffusion model is employed to provide the resulting surface temperature caused by elliptical laser beams, and the coupled thermo-kinetics model is used to determine the final SAM coverage generated by DLP. Parametric analysis revealed that 70-150 mW can be used to pattern feature sizes in the range of 2-10 times of equivalent circular beam size. It is also found that each elliptical laser beam has a unique optimal aspect ratio to result in the widest feature size for a given laser power and scanning velocity. The edge transition width increases with an increase of the aspect ratio. Keeping the aspect ratio of elliptical laser beam small (i.e. β<20), a sharp edge definition could be obtained; if an aspect ratio larger than 30 is used, a surface with gradual edge definition could be obtained.

  18. Longitudinal discharge laser baffles

    DOEpatents

    Warner, B.E.; Ault, E.R.

    1994-06-07

    The IR baffles placed between the window and the electrode of a longitudinal discharge laser improve laser performance by intercepting off-axis IR radiation from the laser and in doing so reduce window heating and subsequent optical distortion of the laser beam. 1 fig.

  19. Longitudinal discharge laser baffles

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Bruce E.; Ault, Earl R.

    1994-01-01

    The IR baffles placed between the window and the electrode of a longitudinal discharge laser improve laser performance by intercepting off-axis IR radiation from the laser and in doing so reduce window heating and subsequent optical distortion of the laser beam.

  20. LASER BEAMS: Fluctuations of the orbital angular momentum of a laser beam, carrying an optical vortex, in the turbulent atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksenov, V. P.; Pogutsa, Ch E.

    2008-04-01

    The evolution of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) of a Laguerre—Gaussian beam interacting with turbulent inhomogeneities of the atmosphere is studied theoretically. The integral representations are obtained for the OAM in terms of the distributions of the random intensity and random field of the permittivity of the medium, and also for OAM statistical characteristics in terms of corresponding correlation functions. It is found that the average OAM value is preserved during the propagation of the laser beam in a random medium. The dependence of the dispersion of OAM fluctuations on the atmospheric turbulence and beam parameters is calculated. It is shown that the dependence of the OAM dispersion on the initial angular momentum of the laser beam disappears in the case of very strong turbulence.

  1. Runaway electron beam control for longitudinally pumped metal vapor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbychev, G. V.; Kolbycheva, P. D.

    1995-08-01

    Physics and techniques for producing of the pulsed runaway electron beams are considered. The main obstacle for increasing electron energies in the beams is revealed to be a self- breakdown of the e-gun's gas-filled diode. Two methods to suppress the self-breakdown and enhance the volumetric discharge producing the e-beam are offered and examined. Each of them provides 1.5 fold increase of the ceiling potential on the gun. The methods also give the ways to control several guns simultaneously. Resulting in the possibility of realizing the powerful longitudinal pumping of metal-vapor lasers on self-terminated transitions of atoms or ions.

  2. Instability versus equilibrium propagation of a laser beam in plasma.

    PubMed

    Lushnikov, Pavel M; Rose, Harvey A

    2004-06-25

    We obtain, for the first time, an analytic theory of the forward stimulated Brillouin scattering instability of a spatially and temporally incoherent laser beam that controls the transition between statistical equilibrium and nonequilibrium (unstable) self-focusing regimes of beam propagation. The stability boundary may be used as a comprehensive guide for inertial confinement fusion designs. Well into the stable regime, an analytic expression for the angular diffusion coefficient is obtained, which provides an essential correction to a geometric optic approximation for beam propagation.

  3. A study on 8 beam laser diode to adopt laser scanning unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Dae-Gwon; Park, Jong-Keun; Park, Jung-Hyun; Choi, An-Sik; Kim, Tae-Kyung

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, next generation 780nm monolithic individually addressable 8 beam diode laser with 10mW optical power for laser scanning unit were developed. Beam to beam spacing is 30μm and air bridge interconnection process was developed for individual operations. Measured average values of threshold current(Ith), operating current(Iop), operating voltage(Vop), slope efficiency(SE), horizontal beam divergence(FFH), vertical beam divergence(FFV), and peak wavelength(λ) from 5 specimens are 14.91mA, 28.79mA, 1.91V, 0.72mW/mA, 8.28°, 31.89°, and 785.67nm respectively. Major electro-optic parameters from 8 emitters are within 3% variation for each device. Also we measured power droop that had a strong influence on printing image at 600Hz with duty 10% and 90% and we can obtained droop rate within 2% in each channel at room temperature and 10mW power. From 500Hr reliability life test result at 70°C, we obtained Iop variation within 1% in each channel with 10mw power. From the experimental measurement results, we can assure that the developed 8 beam diode laser is suitable optical source for high speed laser scanning unit in multi-function printing system and laser beam printers.

  4. Geodetic constraints from multi-beam laser altimeter crossovers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, G. A.; Rowlands, D. D.; Smith, D. E.

    2010-06-01

    The round-trip travel time measurements made by spacecraft laser altimeters are primarily used to construct topographic maps of the target body. The accuracy of the calculated bounce point locations of the laser pulses depends on the quality of the spacecraft trajectory reconstruction. The trajectory constraints from Doppler and range radio tracking data can be supplemented by altimetric “crossovers”, to greatly improve the reconstruction of the spacecraft trajectory. Crossovers have been used successfully in the past (e.g., Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on Mars Global Surveyor), but only with single-beam altimeters. The same algorithms can be used with a multi-beam laser altimeter, but we present a method using the unique cross-track topographic information present in the multi-beam data. Those crossovers are especially adapted to shallow (small angle) intersections, as the overlapping area is large, reducing the inherent ambiguities of single-beam data in that situation. We call those “swath crossovers”. They prove particularly useful in the case of polar-orbiting spacecraft over slowly rotating bodies, because all the non-polar crossovers have small intersection angles. To demonstrate this method, we perform a simplified simulation based on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and its five-beam Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter. We show that swath crossovers over one lunar month can independently, from geometry alone, recover the imposed orbital perturbations with great accuracy (5 m horizontal, < 1 m vertical, about one order of magnitude smaller than the imposed perturbations). We also present new types of constraints that can be derived from the swath crossovers, and designed to be used in a precision orbit determination setup. In future work, we will use such multi-beam altimetric constraints with data from LRO.

  5. Laser Beam Propagation through Inertial Confinement Fusion Hohlraum Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Froula, D H; Divol, L; Meezan, N B; DIxit, S; Neumayer, P; Moody, J D; Pollock, B B; Ross, J S; Glenzer, S H

    2006-10-26

    A study of the relevant laser-plasma interaction processes has been performed in long-scale length plasmas that emulate the plasma conditions in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion targets. Experiments in this high-temperature (T{sub e} = 3.5 keV), dense (n{sub e} = 0.5 - 1 x 10{sup -3}) hohlraum plasma have demonstrated that blue 351-nm laser beams produce less than 1% total backscatter resulting in transmission greater than 90% for ignition relevant laser intensities (I < 2 x 10{sup 15} W cm{sup -2}). The bulk plasma conditions have been independently characterized using Thomson scattering where the peak electron temperatures are shown to scale with the hohlraum heater beam energy in the range from 2 keV to 3.5 keV. This feature has allowed us to determine the thresholds for both backscattering and filamentation instabilities; the former measured with absolutely calibrated full aperture backscatter and near backscatter diagnostics and the latter with a transmitted beam diagnostics. Comparing the experimental results with detailed gain calculations for the onset of significant laser scattering processes shows that these results are relevant for the outer beams in ignition hohlraum experiments corresponding to a gain threshold for stimulated Brillouin scattering of 15. By increasing the gas fill density in these experiments further accesses inner beam ignition hohlraum conditions. In this case, stimulated Raman scattering dominates the backscattering processes. They show that scattering is small for gains smaller than 20, which can be achieved through proper choice of the laser beam intensity.

  6. Improving the intensity of a focused laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddadi, Sofiane; Fromager, Michael; Louhibi, Djelloul; Hasnaoui, Abdelkrim; Harfouche, Ali; Cagniot, Emmanuel; ńit-Ameur, Kamel

    2015-03-01

    Let us consider the family of symmetrical Laguerre-Gaus modes of zero azimuthal order which will be denoted as LGp0 . The latter is made up of central lobe surrounded by p concentric rings of light. The fundamental mode LG00 is a Gaussian beam of width W. The focusing of a LGp0 beam of power P by a converging lens of focal length f produces a focal spot keeping the LGp0 -shape and having a central intensity I0= 2PW2/(λf)2 whatever the value of the radial order p. Many applications of lasers (laser marking, laser ablation, …) seek nowadays for a focal laser spot with the highest as possible intensity. For a given power P, increasing intensity I0 can be achieved by increasing W and reducing the focal length f. However, this way of doing is in fact limited because the ratio W/f cannot increase indefinitely at the risk of introducing a huge truncation upon the edge of the lens. In fact, it is possible to produce a single-lobed focal spot with a central intensity of about p times the intensity I0. This result has been obtained by reshaping (rectification) a LGp0 beam thanks to a proper Binary Diffractive Optical Element (BDOE). In addition, forcing a laser cavity to oscillate upon a LGp0 can improve the power extract due to a mode volume increasing with the mode order p. This could allow envisaging an economy of scale in term of laser pumping power for producing a given intensity I0. In addition, we have demonstrated that a rectified LGp0 beam better stand the lens spherical aberration than the usual Gaussian beam.

  7. Hole-boring through clouds for laser power beaming

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinski, R.J.; Walter, R.F.

    1994-12-31

    Power beaming to satellites with a ground-based laser can be limited by clouds. Hole-boring through the clouds with a laser has been proposed as a way to overcome this obstacle. This paper reviews the past work on laser hole-boring and concludes that hole-boring for direct beaming to satellites is likely to require 10--100 MW. However, it may be possible to use an airborne relay mirror at 10--25 km altitude for some applications in order to extend the range of the laser (e.g., for beaming to satellites near the horizon). In these cases, use of the relay mirror also would allow a narrow beam between the laser and the relay, as well as the possibility of reducing the crosswind if the plane matched speed with the cloud temporarily. Under these conditions, the power requirement to bore a hole through most cirrus and cirrostratus clouds might be only 500-kW if the hole is less than 1 m in diameter and if the crosswind speed is less than 10 m/s. Overcoming cirrus and cirrostratus clouds would reduce the downtime due to weather by a factor of 2. However, 500 kW is a large laser, and it may be more effective instead to establish a second power beaming site in a separate weather zone. An assessment of optimum wavelengths for hole boring also was made, and the best options were found to be 3.0--3.4 {mu}m and above 10 {mu}m.

  8. Thermal effect on prebunched two-beam free electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirian, N. S.; Maraghechi, B.

    2013-08-01

    A numerical simulation in one-dimension is conducted to study the two-beam free electron laser. The fundamental resonance of the fast electron beam coincides with the fifth harmonic of the slow electron beam in order to generate extreme ultraviolet radiation. Thermal effect in the form of the longitudinal velocity spread is included in the analysis. In order to reduce the length of the wiggler, prebunched slow electron beam is considered. The evaluation of the radiation power, bunching parameter, distribution function of energy, and the distribution function of the pondermotive phase is studied. Sensitivity of the power of the fifth harmonic to the jitter in the energy difference between the two beams is also studied. A phase space is presented that shows the trapped electrons at the saturation point.

  9. Nonmechanical laser beam steering/beam spoiling methods for intersatellite cross links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleski, Paul J.; Dorrian, Kevin W.; Busch, Timothy E.

    1994-08-01

    In the area of free space optical communications a significant amount of attention has been given to the overall problems of the acquisition and tracking of satellites. Accomplishing these functions with minimal investment in hardware size, weight, and power is essential to the successful evolution of space laser communications (LASERCOM). This paper studies and compares two different types of nonmechanical laser beam steering/diverging devices. A nematic liquid crystal phased array has been tested and compared to an acousto-optic Bragg cell. Both electro-optic devices are capable of simultaneous laser beam spoiling and steering which will provide an alternative to the use of electromechanical hardware for acquisition, fine tracking and point ahead in LASERCOM terminals. Characteristics such as optical efficiency, response time, beam steer range and divergence and power consumption have been measured. Device design and performance parameters are described.

  10. Delivering pump light to a laser gain element while maintaining access to the laser beam

    DOEpatents

    Beach, Raymond J.; Honea, Eric C.; Payne, Stephen A.

    2001-01-01

    A lens duct is used for pump delivery and the laser beam is accessed through an additional component called the intermediate beam extractor which can be implemented as part of the gain element, part of the lens duct or a separate component entirely.

  11. Active coherent beam combining of diode lasers.

    PubMed

    Redmond, Shawn M; Creedon, Kevin J; Kansky, Jan E; Augst, Steven J; Missaggia, Leo J; Connors, Michael K; Huang, Robin K; Chann, Bien; Fan, Tso Yee; Turner, George W; Sanchez-Rubio, Antonio

    2011-03-15

    We have demonstrated active coherent beam combination (CBC) of up to 218 semiconductor amplifiers with 38.5 W cw output using up to eleven one-dimensional 21-element individually addressable diode amplifier arrays operating at 960 nm. The amplifier array elements are slab-coupled-optical-waveguide semiconductor amplifiers (SCOWAs) set up in a master-oscillator-power-amplifier configuration. Diffractive optical elements divide the master-oscillator beam to seed multiple arrays of SCOWAs. A SCOWA was phase actuated by adjusting the drive current to each element and controlled using a stochastic-parallel-gradient-descent (SPGD) algorithm for the active CBC. The SPGD is a hill-climbing algorithm that maximizes on-axis intensity in the far field, providing phase locking without needing a reference beam.

  12. Indium phosphide solar cells for laser power beaming applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1992-01-01

    Lasers can be used to transmit power to photovoltaic cells. Solar cell efficiencies are enhanced significantly under monochromatic light, and therefore a laser beam of proper wavelength could be a very effective source of illumination for a solar array operating at very high efficiencies. This work reviews the modeling studies made on indium phosphide solar cells for such an application. These cells are known to be very radiation resistant and have a potential for high efficiency. Effects of cell series resistance, laser intensity, and temperature on cell performance have been discussed.

  13. Propagation and focusing properties of high-power laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Baida; Bin, Zhang

    1996-11-01

    In This paper, on the basis of the generalized Huygens- Fresnel diffraction integral and by using the statistical- optics model of high-power lasers presented by Manes and Simmons at LLNL, the propagation and focusing properties of high-power lasers with amplitude modulations (AMs) and phase fluctuations (PFs) have been studied in detail. Numerical calculations for the apertured case have been performed, showing the dependence of focused field characteristics on the truncation parameter, Fresnel number of the system, phase fluctuations and amplitude modulations of high-power laser beams.

  14. Indium phosphide solar cells for laser power beaming applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1992-01-01

    Lasers can be used to transmit power to photovoltaic cells. Solar cell efficiencies are enhanced significantly under monochromatic light, and therefore a laser beam of proper wavelength could be a very effective source of illumination for a solar array operating at very high efficiencies. This work reviews the modeling studies made on indium phosphide solar cells for such an application. These cells are known to be very radiation resistant and have a potential for high efficiency. Effects of cell series resistance, laser intensity, and temperature on cell performance have been discussed.

  15. Modeling of dynamic effects of a low power laser beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, George N.; Scholl, Marija S.; Khatib, AL

    1988-01-01

    Methods of modeling some of the dynamic effects involved in laser beam propagation through the atmosphere are addressed with emphasis on the development of simple but accurate models which are readily implemented in a physical optics code. A space relay system with a ground based laser facility is considered as an example. The modeling of such characteristic phenomena as laser output distribution, flat and curved mirrors, diffraction propagation, atmospheric effects (aberration and wind shear), adaptive mirrors, jitter, and time integration of power on target, is discussed.

  16. Optical Device for Converting a Laser Beam into Two Co-aligned but Oppositely Directed Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Optical systems consisting of a series of optical elements require alignment from the input end to the output end. The optical elements can be mirrors, lenses, sources, detectors, or other devices. Complex optical systems are often difficult to align from end-to-end because the alignment beam must be inserted at one end in order for the beam to traverse the entire optical path to the other end. The ends of the optical train may not be easily accessible to the alignment beam. Typically, when a series of optical elements is to be aligned, an alignment laser beam is inserted into the optical path with a pick-off mirror at one end of the series of elements. But it may be impossible to insert the beam at an end-point. It can be difficult to locate the pick-off mirror at the desired position because there is not enough space, there is no mounting surface, or the location is occupied by a source, detector, or other component. Alternatively, the laser beam might be inserted at an intermediate location (not at an end-point) and sent, first in one direction and then the other, to the opposite ends of the optical system for alignment. However, in this case, alignment must be performed in two directions and extra effort is required to co-align the two beams to make them parallel and coincident, i.e., to follow the same path as an end-to-end beam. An optical device has been developed that accepts a laser beam as input and produces two co-aligned, but counter-propagating beams. In contrast to a conventional alignment laser placed at one end of the optical path, this invention can be placed at a convenient position within the optical train and aligned to send its two beams simultaneously along precisely opposite paths that, taken together, trace out exactly the same path as the conventional alignment laser. This invention allows the user the freedom to choose locations within the optical train for placement of the alignment beam. It is also self-aligned by design and requires

  17. Two-photon flow cytometer with laser scanning Bessel beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongdong; Ding, Yu; Ray, Supriyo; Paez, Aurelio; Xiao, Chuan; Li, Chunqiang

    2016-03-01

    Flow cytometry is an important technique in biomedical discovery for cell counting, cell sorting and biomarker detection. In vivo flow cytometers, based on one-photon or two-photon excited fluorescence, have been developed for more than a decade. One drawback of laser beam scanning two-photon flow cytometer is that the two-photon excitation volume is fairly small due to the short Rayleigh range of a focused Gaussian beam. Hence, the sampling volume is much smaller than one-photon flow cytometry, which makes it challenging to count or detect rare circulating cells in vivo. Bessel beams have narrow intensity profiles with an effective spot size (FWHM) as small as several wavelengths, making them comparable to Gaussian beams. More significantly, the theoretical depth of field (propagation distance without diffraction) can be infinite, making it an ideal solution as a light source for scanning beam flow cytometry. The trade-off of using Bessel beams rather than a Gaussian beam is the fact that Bessel beams have small concentric side rings that contribute to background noise. Two-photon excitation can reduce this noise, as the excitation efficiency is proportional to intensity squared. Therefore, we developed a two-photon flow cytometer using scanned Bessel beams to form a light sheet that intersects the micro fluidic channel.

  18. Guided Radiation Beams in Free Electron Lasers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-19

    the electron beam in an FEL that the radiation beam will remain guided. 0 20 II. Refractive Index Associated with FELs In our model, the vector ...eIAw/ymOc(exp(ikwz) + c.c.) ex/2 , is the wiggle velocity, y is the Lorentz factor, Aw is the vector potential amplitude of the planar wiggler...Balboa Avenue Palo Alto, CA 94303 San Diego, CA 92123 38 Dr. S. Krinsky Nat. Synchrotron Light Source Dr. Michael Lavan Brookhaven National Laboratory U.S

  19. HUBBLE DISCOVERS POWERFUL LASER BEAMED FROM CHAOTIC STAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is an artist's concept of a gas cloud (left) that acts as a natural ultraviolet laser, near the huge, unstable star Eta Carinae (right) -- one of most massive and energetic stars in our Milky Way Galaxy. The super-laser was identified by a team led by Kris Davidson of the University of Minnesota, and including nine other collaborators in the U.S. and Sweden during spectroscpic observations made with the Goddard High Resolution spectrograph aboard NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Since it's unlikely that a single beam from the cloud would happen to be precisely aimed in earth's driection, the astronomers conclude that numerous beams must be radiating from the cloud in all directions - beams from a dance hall mirror-ball. The interstellar laser may result from Eta Carinae's violently chaotic eruptions, illustrated here as a reddish (due to light scattering by dust) outflow from the bright star. A laser, (an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) creates an intense coherent beam of light when atoms or molecules in a gas, liquid or solid medium, force an incoming mix of wavelengths (or colors) of light to work in phase, or, at the same wavelength. Though a natural infrared laser was identified in space in 1995, lasers are very rare in space and nothing like the UV laser has ever been seen before. Eta Carinae is several million times brighter than the Sun, and one hundred times as massive. The superstar, located 8,000 light-years away in the souther constellation Carina, underwent a colossal outburst 150 years ago. Illustration courtesy James Gitlin/STScI

  20. HUBBLE DISCOVERS POWERFUL LASER BEAMED FROM CHAOTIC STAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is an artist's concept of a gas cloud (left) that acts as a natural ultraviolet laser, near the huge, unstable star Eta Carinae (right) -- one of most massive and energetic stars in our Milky Way Galaxy. The super-laser was identified by a team led by Kris Davidson of the University of Minnesota, and including nine other collaborators in the U.S. and Sweden during spectroscpic observations made with the Goddard High Resolution spectrograph aboard NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Since it's unlikely that a single beam from the cloud would happen to be precisely aimed in earth's driection, the astronomers conclude that numerous beams must be radiating from the cloud in all directions - beams from a dance hall mirror-ball. The interstellar laser may result from Eta Carinae's violently chaotic eruptions, illustrated here as a reddish (due to light scattering by dust) outflow from the bright star. A laser, (an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) creates an intense coherent beam of light when atoms or molecules in a gas, liquid or solid medium, force an incoming mix of wavelengths (or colors) of light to work in phase, or, at the same wavelength. Though a natural infrared laser was identified in space in 1995, lasers are very rare in space and nothing like the UV laser has ever been seen before. Eta Carinae is several million times brighter than the Sun, and one hundred times as massive. The superstar, located 8,000 light-years away in the souther constellation Carina, underwent a colossal outburst 150 years ago. Illustration courtesy James Gitlin/STScI