Vertical laser beam propagation through the troposphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Minott, P. O.; Bufton, J. L.; Schaefer, W. H.; Grolemund, D. A.
1974-01-01
The characteristics of the earth's atmosphere and its effects upon laser beams was investigated in a series of balloon borne, optical propagation experiments. These experiments were designed to simulate the space to ground laser link. An experiment to determine the amplitude fluctuation, commonly called scintillation, caused by the atmosphere was described.
Safe Laser Beam Propagation for Interplanetary Links
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, Keith E.
2011-01-01
Ground-to-space laser uplinks to Earth–orbiting satellites and deep space probes serve both as a beacon and an uplink command channel for deep space probes and Earth-orbiting satellites. An acquisition and tracking point design to support a high bandwidth downlink from a 20-cm optical terminal on an orbiting Mars spacecraft typically calls for 2.5 kW of 1030-nm uplink optical power in 40 micro-radians divergent beams.2 The NOHD (nominal ocular hazard distance) of the 1030nm uplink is in excess of 2E5 km, approximately half the distance to the moon. Recognizing the possible threat of high power laser uplinks to the flying public and to sensitive Earth-orbiting satellites, JPL developed a three-tiered system at its Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) to ensure safe laser beam propagation through navigational and near-Earth space.
Safe Laser Beam Propagation for Interplanetary Links
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, Keith E.
2011-01-01
Ground-to-space laser uplinks to Earth–orbiting satellites and deep space probes serve both as a beacon and an uplink command channel for deep space probes and Earth-orbiting satellites. An acquisition and tracking point design to support a high bandwidth downlink from a 20-cm optical terminal on an orbiting Mars spacecraft typically calls for 2.5 kW of 1030-nm uplink optical power in 40 micro-radians divergent beams.2 The NOHD (nominal ocular hazard distance) of the 1030nm uplink is in excess of 2E5 km, approximately half the distance to the moon. Recognizing the possible threat of high power laser uplinks to the flying public and to sensitive Earth-orbiting satellites, JPL developed a three-tiered system at its Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) to ensure safe laser beam propagation through navigational and near-Earth space.
Laser beam propagation in atmospheric turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murty, S. S. R.
1979-01-01
The optical effects of atmospheric turbulence on the propagation of low power laser beams are reviewed in this paper. The optical effects are produced by the temperature fluctuations which result in fluctuations of the refractive index of air. The commonly-used models of index-of-refraction fluctuations are presented. Laser beams experience fluctuations of beam size, beam position, and intensity distribution within the beam due to refractive turbulence. Some of the observed effects are qualitatively explained by treating the turbulent atmosphere as a collection of moving gaseous lenses of various sizes. Analytical results and experimental verifications of the variance, covariance and probability distribution of intensity fluctuations in weak turbulence are presented. For stronger turbulence, a saturation of the optical scintillations is observed. The saturation of scintillations involves a progressive break-up of the beam into multiple patches; the beam loses some of its lateral coherence. Heterodyne systems operating in a turbulent atmosphere experience a loss of heterodyne signal due to the destruction of coherence.
Higher order annular Gaussian laser beam propagation in free space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eyyuboglu, Halil T.; Yenice, Yusuf E.; Baykal, Yahya K.
2006-03-01
Propagation of higher order annular Gaussian (HOAG) laser beams in free space is examined. HOAG beams are defined as the difference of two Hermite-Gaussian (HG) beams; thus, they can be produced by subtracting a smaller beam from a larger beam, that are cocentered and both possess HG mode field distributions. Such beams can be considered as a generalization of the well-known annular Gaussian beams. We formulate the source and receiver plane characteristics and kurtosis parameter of HOAG beams propagating in free space and evaluate them numerically. In comparison to HG beams, HOAG beams have a broader beam size with outer lobes of kidney shape. The amount of received power within the same receiver aperture size, that is, power in bucket, is generally lower for higher order beams. The convergence of the kurtosis parameter to an asymptotic value for higher order beams takes much longer propagation distances compared to zero-order beams.
Beam propagation behavior in a quasi-stadium laser diode.
Fukushima, T; Biellak, S; Sun, Y; Siegman, A
1998-01-19
The beam propagation behavior of a quasi-stadium laser diode is theoretically investigated. The resonator that we analyzed consists of one flat end-mirror, one convex curved end-mirror and two straight side wall mirrors. The cavity dimension is much larger than the oscillation wavelength. We derived one-dimensional Huygen's integral equations for this laser cavity and carried out eigenmode calculations using the Fox and Li mode calculation method taking into account the effect of the side wall reflections and visualized the propagation beams. Unique beam propagation behaviors were obtained. These results well agree with our previous experimental results.
Laser beam shaping profiles and propagation.
Shealy, David L; Hoffnagle, John A
2006-07-20
We consider four families of functions--the super-Gaussian, flattened Gaussian, Fermi-Dirac, and super-Lorentzian--that have been used to describe flattened irradiance profiles. We determine the shape and width parameters of the different distributions, when each flattened profile has the same radius and slope of the irradiance at its half-height point, and then we evaluate the implicit functional relationship between the shape and width parameters for matched profiles, which provides a quantitative way to compare profiles described by different families of functions. We conclude from an analysis of each profile with matched parameters using Kirchhoff-Fresnel diffraction theory and M2 analysis that the diffraction patterns as they propagate differ by small amounts, which may not be distinguished experimentally. Thus, beam shaping optics is designed to produce either of these four flattened output irradiance distributions with matched parameters will yield similar irradiance distributions as the beam propagates.
Practical considerations of producing propagation invariant laser beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soskind, M.; Soskind, R.; Soskind, Y. G.
2015-08-01
Due to their several unique properties, propagation invariant laser beams (PILBs) are playing an increasingly important role in several photonics applications. This paper describes some practical aspects of producing propagation invariant laser beams with different symmetries and structured light field distributions. Both intra-cavity and extra-cavity schemes can be employed. In the case of extra-cavity implementations, we show several practical layouts of anamorphic optical systems (AOSs) for shaping the propagation-invariant laser beams based on the size and waist locations of the input laser beams. We also establish matrix equations required to quantify the influence of input PILBs lateral and angular misalignments with respect to the AOSs onto the spatial characteristics of the produced output PILBs, and present examples of the resulting PILBs affected by the input PILBs misalignments.
CO2 laser beam propagation with ZnSe optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leong, K. H.; Liu, Yi; Holdridge, D. J.
Beam propagation characteristics of ZnSe optics used in kiloWatt power CO2 laser aided material processing applications are determined using the Prometec Laser Beam Analyzer. The laser used was a Rofin Sinar RS6000 CO2 laser with mode aperturing. Beam power varied from 500W to 6300W and beam modes used were TEM(sub 00), TEM(sub 01), TEM(sub 10), and TEM(sub 20). Both transmissive and reflective optics were examined. The ZnSe lenses tested included meniscus, diffractive, and cylindrical lenses of 5 in. focal length and a 10 in. focal length integrating lens. Reflective optics included an integrator and a 5 in. focal length parabolic mirror for welding. Parameters obtained included beam propagation profiles, intensity profiles, depth of focus, spot size, and back focal length. A subset of the data obtained is presented here. Details of the work will appear in a full length paper.
Modeling beam propagation and frequency conversion for the beamlet laser
Auerbach, J.M.
1996-06-01
The development of the Beamlet laser has involved extensive and detailed modeling of laser performance and beam propagation to: (1) predict the performance limits of the laser, (2) select system configurations with higher performance, (3) analyze experiments and provide guidance for subsequent laser shots, and (4) design optical components and establish component manufacturing specifications. In contrast to modeling efforts of previous laser systems such as Nova, those for Beamlet include as much measured optical characterization data as possible. This article concentrates on modeling of beam propagation in the Beamlet laser system, including the frequency converter, and compares modeling predictions with experimental results for several Beamlet shots. It briefly describes the workstation-based propagation and frequency conversion codes used to accomplish modeling of the Beamlet.
Characteristic of laser diode beam propagation through a collimating lens.
Xu, Qiang; Han, Yiping; Cui, Zhiwei
2010-01-20
A mathematical model of a laser diode beam propagating through a collimating lens is presented. Wave propagation beyond the paraxial approximation is studied. The phase delay of the laser diode wave in passing through the lens is analyzed in detail. The propagation optical field after the lens is obtained from the diffraction integral by the stationary phase method. The model is employed to predict the light intensity at various beam cross sections, and the computed intensity distributions are in a good agreement with the corresponding measurements.
Instability versus equilibrium propagation of a laser beam in plasma.
Lushnikov, Pavel M; Rose, Harvey A
2004-06-25
We obtain, for the first time, an analytic theory of the forward stimulated Brillouin scattering instability of a spatially and temporally incoherent laser beam that controls the transition between statistical equilibrium and nonequilibrium (unstable) self-focusing regimes of beam propagation. The stability boundary may be used as a comprehensive guide for inertial confinement fusion designs. Well into the stable regime, an analytic expression for the angular diffusion coefficient is obtained, which provides an essential correction to a geometric optic approximation for beam propagation.
Beaconless operation for optimal laser beam propagation through turbulent atmosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khizhnyak, Anatoliy; Markov, Vladimir
2016-09-01
Corruption of the wavefront, beam wondering and power density degradation at the receiving end are the effects typically observed at laser beam propagation through turbulent atmosphere. Compensation of these effects can be achieved if the reciprocal conditions for the propagating wave are satisfied along the propagation range. Practical realization of these conditions requires placing a localized beacon at the receiving end of the range and high-performance adaptive optics system (AOS). The key condition for an effective performance of AOS is a high value of the reciprocal component in the outgoing wave, since only this component is getting compensated after propagating turbulence perturbed path. The nonreciprocal components that is present in the wave directed toward the target is caused by three factors (detailed in this paper) that determine the partial restoration of the structure of the beacon beam. Thus solution of a complex problem of focusing the laser beam propagating through turbulent media can be achieved for the share of the outgoing wave that has a reciprocal component. This paper examines the ways and means that can be used in achieving the stated goal of effective laser power delivery on the distant image-resolved object.
Analysis of laser beam propagation in a turbulent atmosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clarke, R. H.
1985-09-01
The beam propagation method, based on the parabolic approximation to the wave equation, is used in conjunction with Papoulis' redefinition for optical fields of Woodward's ambiguity function. A simple derivation is given of Tatarskii's formula for the lateral coherence function, and hence the mean intensity profile, of a laser beam propagating through a turbulent atmosphere. Statistics of the received signal and the effects of spatial nonstationarity of the turbulence can also be deduced using this technique, as can the effects of very large-scale variations in refractive index and receiver directivity.
Harmonic generation by circularly polarized laser beams propagating in plasma
Agrawal, Ekta; Hemlata,; Jha, Pallavi
2015-04-15
An analytical theory is developed for studying the phenomenon of generation of harmonics by the propagation of an obliquely incident, circularly polarized laser beam in homogeneous, underdense plasma. The amplitudes of second and third harmonic radiation as well as detuning distance have been obtained and their variation with the angle of incidence is analyzed. The amplitude of harmonic radiation increases with the angle of incidence while the detuning distance decreases, for a given plasma electron density. It is observed that the generated second and third harmonic radiation is linearly and elliptically polarized, respectively. The harmonic radiation vanishes at normal incidence of the circularly polarized laser beam.
Propagation and focusing properties of high-power laser beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Baida; Bin, Zhang
1996-11-01
In This paper, on the basis of the generalized Huygens- Fresnel diffraction integral and by using the statistical- optics model of high-power lasers presented by Manes and Simmons at LLNL, the propagation and focusing properties of high-power lasers with amplitude modulations (AMs) and phase fluctuations (PFs) have been studied in detail. Numerical calculations for the apertured case have been performed, showing the dependence of focused field characteristics on the truncation parameter, Fresnel number of the system, phase fluctuations and amplitude modulations of high-power laser beams.
Simulation of laser beam propagation through the troposphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Bao-feng; Luo, Xiu-juan; Zhang, Yu; Zeng, Zhi-hong; Wang, Feng
2013-09-01
Understanding and predicting laser beam propagation effects in the atmosphere is important for laser applications. Turbulence effects cause beam wander, beam broadening, intensity scintillations, which reducing the power in bucket and the tracking accuracy, etc. In this work, the phase screens are used to model atmosphere turbulence in the model of the laser propagation through troposphere. And according to the characteristics of the troposphere，a layered model is used. Laser propagation follows the Huygens-Fresnel principle between phase screens. Simulations with different grid point numbers were constructed, and numerical experiments were conducted. According to the simulated results including Strehl ratio, sharpness, and amplitude distribution, preceding phase screens have effect on the total energy of the receiving surface, but have little impact on amplitude distribution. And the phase screens, which are close to the receiving surface, have a significant impact on both amplitude distribution and the total receiving energy. The results suggests that in simulation one should increase grid point numbers as many as possible and needs to pay particular attention to parameters of the phase screens near the receiving surface in simulation.
Propagation of narrow laser beams in a resonantly absorbing medium
Petrushevich, Yu V; Starostin, Andrei N
2000-03-31
The propagation of a narrow laser beam in a resonantly absorbing medium is analysed. Qualitatively different patterns of the dynamics of a radiation pulse travelling in a medium (depending on conditions of the problem) were obtained by a real three-dimensional nonstationary numerical simulation. The diffraction spreading of a pulse, its compression due to self-focusing, and chaotic beam splitting caused by the development of instability were observed. The simulation results are compared with the experimental data published in the literature. A qualitative agreement is obtained with the observations and conclusions made earlier. (nonlinear optical phenomena and devices)
Laser beam propagation through inertial confinement fusion hohlraum plasmas
Froula, D. H.; Divol, L.; Meezan, N. B.; Dixit, S.; Neumayer, P.; Moody, J. D.; Pollock, B. B.; Ross, J. S.; Suter, L.; Glenzer, S. H.
2007-05-15
A study of the laser-plasma interaction processes have been performed in plasmas that are created to emulate the plasma conditions in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion targets. The plasma emulator is produced in a gas-filled hohlraum; a blue 351-nm laser beam propagates along the axis of the hohlraum interacting with a high-temperature (T{sub e}=3.5 keV), dense (n{sub e}=5x10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}), long-scale length (L{approx}2 mm) plasma. Experiments at these conditions have demonstrated that the interaction beam produces less than 1% total backscatter resulting in transmission greater than 90% for laser intensities less than I<2x10{sup 15} W cm{sup -2}. The bulk plasma conditions have been independently characterized using Thomson scattering where the peak electron temperatures are shown to scale with the hohlraum heater beam energy in the range from 2 keV to 3.5 keV. This feature has allowed us to determine the thresholds for both backscattering and filamentation instabilities; the former measured with absolutely calibrated full aperture backscatter and near backscatter diagnostics and the latter with a transmitted beam diagnostics. Comparing the experimental results with detailed gain calculations for the onset of significant laser scattering processes shows a stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold (R=10%) for a linear gain of 15; these high temperature, low density experiments produce plasma conditions comparable to those along the outer beams in ignition hohlraum designs. By increasing the gas fill density (n{sub e}=10{sup 21} cm{sup -3}) in these targets, the inner beam ignition hohlraum conditions are accessed. In this case, stimulated Raman scattering dominates the backscattering processes and we show that scattering is small for gains less than 20 which can be achieved through proper choice of the laser beam intensity.
Long range laser propagation: power scaling and beam quality issues
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bohn, Willy L.
2010-09-01
This paper will address long range laser propagation applications where power and, in particular beam quality issues play a major role. Hereby the power level is defined by the specific mission under consideration. I restrict myself to the following application areas: (1)Remote sensing/Space based LIDAR, (2) Space debris removal (3)Energy transmission, and (4)Directed energy weapons Typical examples for space based LIDARs are the ADM Aeolus ESA mission using the ALADIN Nd:YAG laser with its third harmonic at 355 nm and the NASA 2 μm Tm:Ho:LuLiF convectively cooled solid state laser. Space debris removal has attracted more attention in the last years due to the dangerous accumulation of debris in orbit which become a threat to the satellites and the ISS space station. High power high brightness lasers may contribute to this problem by partially ablating the debris material and hence generating an impulse which will eventually de-orbit the debris with their subsequent disintegration in the lower atmosphere. Energy transmission via laser beam from space to earth has long been discussed as a novel long term approach to solve the energy problem on earth. In addition orbital transfer and stationkeeping are among the more mid-term applications of high power laser beams. Finally, directed energy weapons are becoming closer to reality as corresponding laser sources have matured due to recent efforts in the JHPSSL program. All of this can only be realized if he laser sources fulfill the necessary power requirements while keeping the beam quality as close as possible to the diffraction limited value. And this is the rationale and motivation of this paper.
High intensity laser beam propagation through a relativistic warm magnetoplasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rezaei, S.; Jafari Milani, M. R.; Jafari, M. J.
2017-04-01
In this work, nonlinear aspects of a circularly polarized high intensity Gaussian laser beam propagating in a relativistic warm magnetized plasma are studied, taking into account the relativistic ponderomotive force. The differential equation governing the dimensionless beam width parameter is achieved and numerically solved by introducing the dielectric permittivity of such plasma and using the paraxial ray approximation. The effects of entrance laser intensity and its polarization state, external magnetic field, and electron temperature on the laser spot size evolution are studied. It is found that for both right and left-handed polarization states increasing initial laser intensity deteriorates the self-focusing mechanism while rising electron temperature improves it. It is also observed that enhancing magnetic field leads to faster and stronger self-focusing in the case of right-handed polarization and an attenuation in the self-focusing process in the case of left-handed one. In addition, the spatial distribution of normalized modified electron density as well as laser intensity profiles as a function of plasma length and beam radius is plotted and discussed for three self-focusing, self-trapping, and defocusing regimes.
Propagation modeling results for narrow-beam undersea laser communications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fletcher, Andrew S.; Hardy, Nicholas D.; Hamilton, Scott A.
2016-03-01
Communication links through ocean waters are challenging due to undersea propagation physics. Undersea optical communications at blue or green wavelengths can achieve high data rates (megabit- to gigabit-per-second class links) despite the challenging undersea medium. Absorption and scattering in ocean waters attenuate optical signals and distort the waveform through dense multipath. The exponential propagation loss and the temporal spread due to multipath limit the achievable link distance and data rate. In this paper, we describe the Monte Carlo modeling of the undersea scattering and absorption channel. We model photon signal attenuation levels, spatial photon distributions, time of arrival statistics, and angle of arrival statistics for a variety of lasercom scenarios through both clear and turbid water environments. Modeling results inform the design options for an undersea optical communication system, particularly illustrating the advantages of narrow-beam lasers compared to wide beam methods (e.g. LED sources). The modeled pupil plane and focal plane photon arrival distributions enable beam tracking techniques for robust pointing solutions, even in highly scattering harbor waters. Laser communication with collimated beams maximizes the photon transfer through the scattering medium and enables spatial and temporal filters to minimize waveform distortion and background interference.
Laser beam propagation and wavefront correction in turbid media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galaktionov, Ilya; Kudryashov, Alexis; Sheldakova, Julia; Byalko, Alexander; Borsoni, Gilles
2015-09-01
It is well known that turbid medium such as fog or biological tissues causes light scatter. This phenomenon is known as major impediment for imaging and focusing of light. Thus it is important to understand the impact of the turbid medium on the light characteristics, namely intensity and phase distributions. In this work laser beam propagation through the scattering suspension of polystyrene microspheres in distilled water was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. We obtained the dependence of the wavefront aberrations on the particles concentration and shown the existence of high-order symmetric wavefront aberrations of the laser beam passed through turbid medium. The investigation showed that with the use of bimorph deformable mirror the wavefront aberrations of scattered light could be effectively corrected.
Ideal Laser Beam Propagation through high temperature ignition hohlraum plasmas
Froula, D H; Divol, L; Meezan, N; Dixit, S; Moody, J D; Pollock, B B; Ross, J S; Glenzer, S H
2006-09-20
We demonstrate that a blue (3{omega}, 351 nm) laser beam with an intensity of 2 x 10{sup 15} W-cm{sup -2} propagates within the original beam cone through a 2-mm long, T{sub e}=3.5 keV high density (n{sub e} = 5 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}) plasma. The beam produced less than 1% total backscatter; the resulting transmission is greater than 90%. Scaling of the electron temperature in the plasma shows that the plasma becomes transparent for uniform electron temperatures above 3 keV. These results are consistent with linear theory thresholds for both filamentation and backscatter instabilities inferred from detailed hydrodynamic simulations. This provides a strong justification for current inertial confinement fusion designs to remain below these thresholds.
Tao, Rumao; Si, Lei; Ma, Yanxing; Zhou, Pu; Liu, Zejin
2012-08-10
The propagation properties of coherently combined truncated laser beam arrays with beam distortions through non-Kolmogorov turbulence are studied in detail both analytically and numerically. The analytical expressions for the average intensity and the beam width of coherently combined truncated laser beam arrays with beam distortions propagating through turbulence are derived based on the combination of statistical optics methods and the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle. The effect of beam distortions, such as amplitude modulation and phase fluctuation, is studied by numerical examples. The numerical results reveal that phase fluctuations have significant influence on the spreading of coherently combined truncated laser beam arrays in non-Kolmogorov turbulence, and the effects of the phase fluctuations can be negligible as long as the phase fluctuations are controlled under a certain level, i.e., a>0.05 for the situation considered in the paper. Furthermore, large phase fluctuations can convert the beam distribution rapidly to a Gaussian form, vary the spreading, weaken the optimum truncation effects, and suppress the dependence of spreading on the parameters of the non-Kolmogorov turbulence.
Laser Beam Propagation Through Inhomogeneous Media with Shock-Like Profiles: Modeling and Computing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adamovsky, Grigory; Ida, Nathan
1997-01-01
Wave propagation in inhomogeneous media has been studied for such diverse applications as propagation of radiowaves in atmosphere, light propagation through thin films and in inhomogeneous waveguides, flow visualization, and others. In recent years an increased interest has been developed in wave propagation through shocks in supersonic flows. Results of experiments conducted in the past few years has shown such interesting phenomena as a laser beam splitting and spreading. The paper describes a model constructed to propagate a laser beam through shock-like inhomogeneous media. Numerical techniques are presented to compute the beam through such media. The results of computation are presented, discussed, and compared with experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, X.; Li, X.
2011-07-01
The propagation properties of apertured laser beams with amplitude modulations (AMs) and phase fluctuations (PFs) through atmospheric turbulence are studied in detail both analytically and numerically. The analytical expressions for the average intensity, power in the bucket ( PIB) and Strehl ratio ( S R ) of apertured laser beams with AMs and PFs propagating through atmospheric turbulence are derived. It is found that the worse the phase fluctuation and the higher the amplitude modulation are, the less laser beams are affected by turbulence. Furthermore, apertured Gaussian beams are more sensitive to turbulence than apertured laser beams with AMs and PFs. The average intensity of apertured laser beams with AMs and PFs may be even larger than that of apertured Gaussian beams due to turbulence. In particular, the influence of turbulence on the average maximum intensity of apertured laser beams with PFs and AMs may become serious if an unsuitable truncated parameter is chosen, which should be avoided in practice.
Production and propagation of Hermite-sinusoidal-Gaussian laser beams.
Tovar, A A; Casperson, L W
1998-09-01
Hermite-sinusoidal-Gaussian solutions to the wave equation have recently been obtained. In the limit of large Hermite-Gaussian beam size, the sinusoidal factors are dominant and reduce to the conventional modes of a rectangular waveguide. In the opposite limit the beams reduce to the familiar Hermite-Gaussian form. The propagation of these beams is examined in detail, and resonators are designed that will produce them. As an example, a special resonator is designed to produce hyperbolic-sine-Gaussian beams. This ring resonator contains a hyperbolic-cosine-Gaussian apodized aperture. The beam mode has finite energy and is perturbation stable.
Standoff Spectroscopy via Remote Generation of a Backward-Propagating Laser Beam
2011-02-04
of a backward- propagating coherent optical probe. This probe will be used in combination with a tunable forward-propagating laser beam(s) for a...femtosecond laser filaments potentially useful as light sources in LIDAR , but it cannot be used in our SOS scheme because the supercontinuum emission by...Yin GY, Harris SE (2006) Coherent control of laser -induced breakdown. Opt Lett 31:1331–1333. 22. Liu W, et al. (2006) An efficient control of
High power tube solid-state laser with zigzag propagation of pump and laser beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savich, Michael
2015-02-01
A novel resonator and pumping design with zigzag propagation of pumping and laser beams permits to design an improved tube Solid State Laser (SSL), solving the problem of short absorption path to produce a high power laser beam (100 - 1000kW). The novel design provides an amplifier module and laser oscillator. The tube-shaped SSL includes a gain element fiber-optically coupled to a pumping source. The fiber optic coupling facilitates light entry at compound Brewster's angle of incidence into the laser gain element and uses internal reflection to follow a "zigzag" path in a generally spiral direction along the length of the tube. Optics are arranged for zigzag propagation of the laser beam, while the cryogenic cooling system is traditional. The novel method of lasing uses advantages of cylindrical geometry to reach the high volume of gain medium with compactness and structural rigidity, attain high pump density and uniformity, and reach a low threshold without excessive increase of the temperature of the crystal. The design minimizes thermal lensing and stress effects, and provides high gain amplification, high power extraction from lasing medium, high pumping and lasing efficiency and a high beam quality.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zinchik, Alexander A.; Muzychenko, Yana B.
2015-06-01
This paper discusses theoretical and experimental results of the investigation of light beams that retain their intensity structure during propagation and focusing. Spiral laser beams are a family of laser beams that preserve the structural stability up to scale and rotation with the propagation. Properties of spiral beams are of practical interest for laser technology, medicine and biotechnology. Researchers use a spiral beams for movement and manipulation of microparticles. Functionality laser manipulators can be significantly enhanced by using spiral beams whose intensity remains invariable. It is well known, that these beams has non-zero orbital angular momentum. Spiral beams have a complicated phase distribution in cross section. In this paper we investigate the structural stability of the laser beams having a spiral phase structure by passing them through an inhomogeneous phase medium. Laser beam is passed through a medium is characterized by a random distribution of phase in the range 0..2π. The modeling was performed using VirtualLab 5.0 (manufacturer LightTrans GmbH). Compared the intensity distribution of the spiral and ordinary laser beam after the passage of the inhomogeneous medium. It is shown that the spiral beams exhibit a significantly better structural stability during the passage phase heterogeneous environments than conventional laser beams. The results obtained in the simulation are tested experimentally. Experimental results show good agreement with the theoretical results.
Excitation of Accelerating Plasma Waves by Counter-propagating Laser Beams
Gennady Shvets; Nathaniel J. Fisch; and Alexander Pukhov
2001-08-30
Generation of accelerating plasma waves using two counter-propagating laser beams is considered. Colliding-beam accelerator requires two laser pulses: the long pump and the short timing beam. We emphasize the similarities and differences between the conventional laser wakefield accelerator and the colliding-beam accelerator (CBA). The highly nonlinear nature of the wake excitation is explained using both nonlinear optics and plasma physics concepts. Two regimes of CBA are considered: (i) the short-pulse regime, where the timing beam is shorter than the plasma period, and (ii) the parametric excitation regime, where the timing beam is longer than the plasma period. Possible future experiments are also outlined.
Wavefront analysis of the laser beam propagating through a turbid medium
Galaktionov, I V; Sheldakova, J V; Kudryashov, A V
2015-02-28
Laser beam propagation through a scattering suspension of polystyrene microspheres in distilled water is studied theoretically and experimentally. The dependence of wavefront aberrations on the particle concentration is investigated. The existence of symmetric wavefront aberrations of the laser beam passed through a turbid medium is shown. (light scattering)
Estimation of propagation losses for infrared laser beam in turbulent atmosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaponov, A. E.; Sakharov, M. V.
2016-11-01
In present work, the radiation propagation in atmosphere from laser source to the receiver is considered by taking into account deviations of optical beam due to turbulence. The photon flux density on the receiver has been evaluated.
Aksenov, Valerii P; Kolosov, Valeriy V; Pogutsa, Cheslav E
2014-06-10
The propagation of laser beams having orbital angular momenta (OAM) in the turbulent atmosphere is studied numerically. The variance of random wandering of these beams is investigated with the use of the Monte Carlo technique. It is found that, among various types of vortex laser beams, such as the Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam, modified Bessel-Gaussian beam, and hypergeometric Gaussian beam, having identical initial effective radii and OAM, the LG beam occupying the largest effective volume in space is the most stable one.
Laser Beam Propagation through Inertial Confinement Fusion Hohlraum Plasmas
Froula, D H; Divol, L; Meezan, N B; DIxit, S; Neumayer, P; Moody, J D; Pollock, B B; Ross, J S; Glenzer, S H
2006-10-26
A study of the relevant laser-plasma interaction processes has been performed in long-scale length plasmas that emulate the plasma conditions in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion targets. Experiments in this high-temperature (T{sub e} = 3.5 keV), dense (n{sub e} = 0.5 - 1 x 10{sup -3}) hohlraum plasma have demonstrated that blue 351-nm laser beams produce less than 1% total backscatter resulting in transmission greater than 90% for ignition relevant laser intensities (I < 2 x 10{sup 15} W cm{sup -2}). The bulk plasma conditions have been independently characterized using Thomson scattering where the peak electron temperatures are shown to scale with the hohlraum heater beam energy in the range from 2 keV to 3.5 keV. This feature has allowed us to determine the thresholds for both backscattering and filamentation instabilities; the former measured with absolutely calibrated full aperture backscatter and near backscatter diagnostics and the latter with a transmitted beam diagnostics. Comparing the experimental results with detailed gain calculations for the onset of significant laser scattering processes shows that these results are relevant for the outer beams in ignition hohlraum experiments corresponding to a gain threshold for stimulated Brillouin scattering of 15. By increasing the gas fill density in these experiments further accesses inner beam ignition hohlraum conditions. In this case, stimulated Raman scattering dominates the backscattering processes. They show that scattering is small for gains smaller than 20, which can be achieved through proper choice of the laser beam intensity.
An exact solution to paraxial propagation of laser beams in longitudinal inhomogeneous plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Bing-Ju; Huang, Zheng; Liu, Ming-Wei; Liu, Xiao-Juan
2007-09-01
An exact, general solution for laser beams propagating in longitudinally inhomogeneous plasmas is obtained in the form of the diffraction integral. The Gaussian beam and the Hermite-Gaussian beam are taken for example. In the case of an increasing plasma density along the propagation distance, natural diffraction of the Gaussian beam is retarded. This retardance has a less effect on the central part of the Hermite-Gaussian beam while a considerable rise of the power in bucket (PIB) occurs in the surrounding part of the beam.
Plan for Safe Laser Beam Propagation from the Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson, K. E.; Roberts, W. T.; Garkanian, V.; Battle, F.; Leblanc, R.; Hemmati, H.; Robles, P.
2002-10-01
JPL is building a state-of-the-art Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) to perform research and development of laser beam propagation and signal detection technologies to meet NASA's future needs for high-bandwidth communications from Earth-orbiting and deep-space probes. Laser beam propagation between ground and space is regulated by several government agencies -- regulation that is significant when propagating high-brightness, Q-switched laser beams that will be used for uplinking commands to deep-space probes and as an acquisition, pointing, and tracking beacon for downlink optical communication. To ensure safe laser operation and beam propagation from the OCTL, JPL has identified a four-tier safety system. The safety system starts with safe beam propagation within the OCTL, extends to safe beam propagation through the air and into space, and is designed to meet the requirements of State (California Occupational Safety and Health Administration) and Federal agencies (Federal Aviation Administration and the U.S. Space Command's Laser Clearinghouse).
Laser beam propagation through turbulence and adaptive optics for beam delivery improvement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nicolas, Stephane
2015-10-01
We report results from numerical simulations of laser beam propagation through atmospheric turbulence. In particular, we study the statistical variations of the fractional beam energy hitting inside an optical aperture placed at several kilometer distance. The simulations are performed for different turbulence conditions and engagement ranges, with and without the use of turbulence mitigation. Turbulence mitigation is simulated with phase conjugation. The energy fluctuations are deduced from time sequence realizations. It is shown that turbulence mitigation leads to an increase of the mean energy inside the aperture and decrease of the fluctuations even in strong turbulence conditions and long distance engagement. As an example, the results are applied to a high energy laser countermeasure system, where we determine the probability that a single laser pulse, or one of the pulses in a sequence, will provide a lethal energy inside the target aperture. Again, turbulence mitigation contributes to increase the performance of the system at long-distance and for strong turbulence conditions in terms of kill probability. We also discuss a specific case where turbulence contributes to increase the pulse energy within the target aperture. The present analysis can be used to evaluate the performance of a variety of systems, such as directed countermeasures, laser communication, and laser weapons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Dai; Hao, Shiqi; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Qi
2016-10-01
An analytical formula model which is used to describe laser beam's depolarization characteristics is solved based on multiple Rayleigh scattering model. Firstly, by using Stokes vector to characterize intensity and polarization, while at the same time using Mueller matrix and rotation matrix to characterize polarization changing in scattering procedure, a single scattering model is built. Then, a multiple scattering model is built considering the effects of atmospheric absorbing and scattering attenuation. The received light's Stokes vectors through multiple scattering procedure are separately solved. At last, on the basis of multiple scattering vectors, the depolarization characteristics of laser beam propagation through atmosphere are estimated though calculating ratio of depolarization and polarized angle shifting. The numerical analysis based on analytical conclusion of this paper shows that for a horizontal polarized laser beam, its ratio of depolarization is about 1% and polarized angle shifting is about 0.3° when propagates through atmosphere and arrives into the receiver on the ground, and both the above characteristics have only a small change compared with the change of cloud's depth. The findings of these research show that Rayleigh scattering from atmosphere has a weak effect on the laser beam's polarization status. The multiple scattering model and Stokes vector analytical formulas raised in the paper could also be used to study the depolarization characteristics of ellipse polarized laser beam and partially polarized laser beam propagating through atmosphere. The research findings of this paper will have theoretical guiding significances in the domain of laser communication, laser detection and laser imaging.
Dementjev, Aleksandr S; Jovaisa, A; Silko, Galina; Ciegis, Raimondas
2005-11-30
Based on the developed efficient numerical methods for calculating the propagation of light beams, the alternative methods for measuring the beam radius and propagation ratio proposed in the international standard ISO 11146 are analysed. The specific calculations of the alternative beam propagation ratios M{sub i}{sup 2} performed for a number of test beams with a complicated spatial structure showed that the correlation coefficients c{sub i} used in the international standard do not establish the universal one-to-one relation between the alternative propagation ratios M{sub i}{sup 2} and invariant propagation ratios M{sub {sigma}}{sup 2} found by the method of moments. (laser beams)
CO[sub 2] laser beam propagation with ZnSe optics
Leong, K.H.; Liu, Yi; Holdridge, D.J.
1992-01-01
Beam propagation characteristics of ZnSe optics used in kiloWatt power CO[sub 2] laser aided material processing applications are determined using the Prometec Laser Beam Analyzer. The laser used was a Rofin Sinar RS6000 CO[sub 2] laser with mode aperturing. Beam power varied from 500W to 6300W and beam modes used were TEM[sub 00], TEM[sub 01], TEM[sub 10] and TEM[sub 20]. Both transmissive and reflective optics were examined. The ZnSe lenses tested included meniscus, diffractive and cylindrical lenses of 5in focal length and a 10in focal length integrading lens. Reflective optics included an integrator and a 5in focal length parabolic mirror for welding. Parameters obtained included beam propagation profiles, intensity profiles, depth of focus, spot size and back focal length. A subset of the data obtained is presented here. Details of the work will appear in a full length paper.
CO{sub 2} laser beam propagation with ZnSe optics
Leong, K.H.; Liu, Yi; Holdridge, D.J.
1992-11-01
Beam propagation characteristics of ZnSe optics used in kiloWatt power CO{sub 2} laser aided material processing applications are determined using the Prometec Laser Beam Analyzer. The laser used was a Rofin Sinar RS6000 CO{sub 2} laser with mode aperturing. Beam power varied from 500W to 6300W and beam modes used were TEM{sub 00}, TEM{sub 01}, TEM{sub 10} and TEM{sub 20}. Both transmissive and reflective optics were examined. The ZnSe lenses tested included meniscus, diffractive and cylindrical lenses of 5in focal length and a 10in focal length integrading lens. Reflective optics included an integrator and a 5in focal length parabolic mirror for welding. Parameters obtained included beam propagation profiles, intensity profiles, depth of focus, spot size and back focal length. A subset of the data obtained is presented here. Details of the work will appear in a full length paper.
Effects of laser beam propagation and saturation on the spatial shape of sodium laser guide stars.
Marc, Fabien; Guillet de Chatellus, Hugues; Pique, Jean-Paul
2009-03-30
The possibility to produce diffraction-limited images by large telescopes through Adaptive Optics is closely linked to the precision of measurement of the position of the guide star on the wavefront sensor. In the case of laser guide stars, many parameters can lead to a strong distortion on the shape of the LGS spot. Here we study the influence of both the saturation of the sodium layer excited by different types of lasers, the spatial quality of the laser mode at the ground and the influence of the atmospheric turbulence on the upward propagation of the laser beam. Both shape and intensity of the LGS spot are found to depend strongly on these three effects with important consequences on the precision on the wavefront analysis.
Adaptive control of laser beams propagating in the atmosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanev, Feodor; Atepaeva, Natalya; Lukin, Vladimir; Makenova, Nailya
2006-09-01
In the present paper efficiency of adaptive correction is analyzed in the turbulent atmosphere and under the conditions of thermal blooming. A numerical model of a typical adaptive optics system was developed to carry out the investigations. As it is known, phase conjugation and multidither, i.e., the algorithms commonly employed to correct for thermal and turbulent distortions of laser beams are unstable in nonlinear medium. We demonstrated that stability of phase control is possible to increase introducing the modifications of the algorithms. Also we demonstrated that phase compensation does not insure complete correction for thermal or turbulent aberrations induced by an atmospheric layer. To correct for aberrations under these conditions it is possible to employ amplitude-phase control over the beam, for example, to use the wavefront reversal algorithm. Realization of the algorithm is possible in a two-mirror adaptive system in which the control over beam phase is performed in two planes at the access to the medium. In numerical experiments it was shown that the two-mirror system insures the absolute compensation for a thin turbulent layer placed at arbitrary distance from the aperture of a laser source and high effectiveness of compensation for distributed lens comparing with phase-only algorithms.
Propagation of a laser beam in a time-varying waveguide. [plasma heating for controlled fusion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chapman, J. M.; Kevorkian, J.
1978-01-01
The propagation of an axisymmetric laser beam in a plasma column having a radially parabolic electron density distribution is reported. For the case of an axially uniform waveguide it is found that the basic characteristics of alternating focusing and defocusing beams are maintained. However, the intensity distribution is changed at the foci and outer-beam regions. The features of paraxial beam propagation are discussed with reference to axially varying waveguides. Laser plasma coupling is considered noting the case where laser heating produces a density distribution radially parabolic near the axis and the energy absorbed over the focal length of the plasma is small. It is found that: (1) beam-propagation stability is governed by the relative magnitude of the density fluctuations existing in the axial variation of the waveguides due to laser heating, and (2) for beam propagation in a time-varying waveguide, the global instability of the propagation is a function of the initial fluctuation growth rate as compared to the initial time rate of change in the radial curvature of the waveguide.
Propagation of a laser beam in a time-varying waveguide. [plasma heating for controlled fusion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chapman, J. M.; Kevorkian, J.
1978-01-01
The propagation of an axisymmetric laser beam in a plasma column having a radially parabolic electron density distribution is reported. For the case of an axially uniform waveguide it is found that the basic characteristics of alternating focusing and defocusing beams are maintained. However, the intensity distribution is changed at the foci and outer-beam regions. The features of paraxial beam propagation are discussed with reference to axially varying waveguides. Laser plasma coupling is considered noting the case where laser heating produces a density distribution radially parabolic near the axis and the energy absorbed over the focal length of the plasma is small. It is found that: (1) beam-propagation stability is governed by the relative magnitude of the density fluctuations existing in the axial variation of the waveguides due to laser heating, and (2) for beam propagation in a time-varying waveguide, the global instability of the propagation is a function of the initial fluctuation growth rate as compared to the initial time rate of change in the radial curvature of the waveguide.
Comparison of propagation of vortex and non-vortex laser beams in a random medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kirilenko, Mikhail S.; Porfirev, Alexey P.; Khonina, Svetlana N.
2017-04-01
We study theoretically the propagation of vortex laser beams in a random medium. The study is based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle with the generation of a random field, using the fast Fourier transform. The simulation shows that the stability of vortex beams to fluctuations of an optical medium falls with rising order of optical vortices. A coherence length (radius) of the random medium is of great importance. The coherence radius extension affects adversely the conservation of a beam structure in the random medium. During further free-space propagation, increasing coherence enables to reduce negative effects of fluctuations for beams with high-value topological charges.
Bolt beam propagation analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shokair, I. R.
BOLT (Beam on Laser Technology) is a rocket experiment to demonstrate electron beam propagation on a laser ionized plasma channel across the geomagnetic field in the ion focused regime (IFR). The beam parameters for BOLT are: beam current I(sub b) = 100 Amps, beam energy of 1--1.5 MeV (gamma =3-4), and a Gaussian beam and channel of radii r(sub b) = r(sub c) = 1.5 cm. The N+1 ionization scheme is used to ionize atomic oxygen in the upper atmosphere. This scheme utilizes 130 nm light plus three IR lasers to excite and then ionize atomic oxygen. The limiting factor for the channel strength is the energy of the 130 nm laser, which is assumed to be 1.6 mJ for BOLT. At a fixed laser energy and altitude (fixing the density of atomic oxygen), the range can be varied by adjusting the laser tuning, resulting in a neutralization fraction axial profile of the form: f(z) = f(sub 0) e(exp minus z)/R, where R is the range. In this paper we consider the propagation of the BOLT beam and calculate the range of the electron beam taking into account the fact that the erosion rates (magnetic and inductive) vary with beam length as the beam and channel dynamically respond to sausage and hose instabilities.
COUNTER PROPAGATION OF ELECTRON AND CO2 LASER BEAMS IN A PLASMA CHANNEL.
HIROSE,T.; POGORELSKY,I.V.; BEN ZVI,I.; YAKIMENKO,V.; KUSCHE,K.; SIDDONS,P.; KUMITA,T.; KAMIYA,Y.; ZIGLER,A.; GREENBERG,B.; ET AL
2002-11-12
A high-energy CO{sub 2} laser is channeled in a capillary discharge. Occurrence of guiding conditions at a relatively low plasma density (<10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}) is confirmed by MHD simulations. Divergence of relativistic electron beam changes depending on the plasma density. Counter-propagation of the electron and laser beams inside the plasma channel results in intense x-ray generation.
Efficient propagation of ultra-intense laser beam in dense plasma
Habara, H.; Ivancic, S.; Anderson, K.; Haberberger, D.; Iwawaki, T.; Stoeckl, C.; Tanaka, K. A.; Uematsu, Y.; Theobald, W.
2015-04-29
Ultra intense laser propagation in extended, dense plasma is investigated through optical and proton probing. When a >1 kJ, 10 ps laser propagates into a long-density scale length plasma, channel formation was observed up to 0.6 _{nc} from the analysis of optical probe images. The proton track analysis shows the formation of strong electric and magnetic fields along the plasma channel, which may lead to the observed collimated electron beam on the laser axis. These results are promising for the feasibility of the direct irradiation scheme of fast ignition.
Green frequency-doubled laser-beam propagation in high-temperature hohlraum plasmas.
Niemann, C; Berger, R L; Divol, L; Froula, D H; Jones, O; Kirkwood, R K; Meezan, N; Moody, J D; Ross, J; Sorce, C; Suter, L J; Glenzer, S H
2008-02-01
We demonstrate propagation and small backscatter losses of a frequency-doubled (2omega) laser beam interacting with inertial confinement fusion hohlraum plasmas. The electron temperature of 3.3 keV, approximately a factor of 2 higher than achieved in previous experiments with open geometry targets, approaches plasma conditions of high-fusion yield hohlraums. In this new temperature regime, we measure 2omega laser-beam transmission approaching 80% with simultaneous backscattering losses of less than 10%. These findings suggest that good laser coupling into fusion hohlraums using 2omega light is possible.
Green (2(omega)) Laser Beam propagation in high-temperature Hohlraum Plasmas
Niemann, C; Berger, R; Divol, L; Froula, D H; Jones, O S; Kirkwood, R K; Meezan, N; Moody, J; Ross, J S; Suter, L; Glenzer, S H
2007-10-26
We demonstrate propagation and small backscatter losses of a frequency-doubled (2{omega}) laser beam interacting with inertial confinement fusion hohlraum plasmas. The electron temperature of 3.3 keV, approximately a factor of two higher than achieved in previous experiments with open geometry targets, approaches plasma conditions of high-fusion yield hohlraums. In this new temperature regime, we measure 2{omega} laser beam transmission approaching 80% with simultaneous backscattering losses of less than 10%. These findings suggests that good laser coupling into fusion hohlraums using 2{omega} light is possible.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dementjev, Aleksandr S.; Jovaisa, A.; Silko, Galina; Ciegis, Raimondas
2005-11-01
Based on the developed efficient numerical methods for calculating the propagation of light beams, the alternative methods for measuring the beam radius and propagation ratio proposed in the international standard ISO 11146 are analysed. The specific calculations of the alternative beam propagation ratios Mi2 performed for a number of test beams with a complicated spatial structure showed that the correlation coefficients ci used in the international standard do not establish the universal one-to-one relation between the alternative propagation ratios Mi2 and invariant propagation ratios Mσ2 found by the method of moments.
Hermite-cosine-Gaussian laser beam and its propagation characteristics in turbulent atmosphere.
Eyyuboğlu, Halil Tanyer
2005-08-01
Hermite-cosine-Gaussian (HcosG) laser beams are studied. The source plane intensity of the HcosG beam is introduced and its dependence on the source parameters is examined. By application of the Fresnel diffraction integral, the average receiver intensity of HcosG beam is formulated for the case of propagation in turbulent atmosphere. The average receiver intensity is seen to reduce appropriately to various special cases. When traveling in turbulence, the HcosG beam initially experiences the merging of neighboring beam lobes, and then a TEM-type cosh-Gaussian beam is formed, temporarily leading to a plain cosh-Gaussian beam. Eventually a pure Gaussian beam results. The numerical evaluation of the normalized beam size along the propagation axis at selected mode indices indicates that relative spreading of higher-order HcosG beam modes is less than that of the lower-order counterparts. Consequently, it is possible at some propagation distances to capture more power by using higher-mode-indexed HcosG beams.
Evolution of branch points for a laser beam propagating through an uplink turbulent atmosphere.
Ge, Xiao-Lu; Liu, Xuan; Guo, Cheng-Shan
2014-03-24
Evolution of branch points in the distorted optical field is studied when a laser beam propagates through turbulent atmosphere along an uplink path. Two categories of propagation events are mainly explored for the same propagation height: fixed wavelength with change of the turbulence strength and fixed turbulence strength with change of the wavelength. It is shown that, when the beam propagates to a certain height, the density of the branch-points reaches its maximum and such a height changes with the turbulence strength but nearly remains constant with different wavelengths. The relationship between the density of branch-points and the Rytov number is also given. A fitted formula describing the relationship between the density of branch-points and propagation height with different turbulence strength and wavelength is found out. Interestingly, this formula is very similar to the formula used for describing the Blackbody radiation in physics. The results obtained may be helpful for atmospheric optics, astronomy and optical communication.
The characteristics of an intense laser beam propagating in a corrugated plasma channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, Jian-Min; Tang, Rong-An; Hong, Xue-Ren; Yang, Yang; Wang, Li; Zhou, Wei-Jun; Xue, Ju-Kui
2016-12-01
The propagation of an intense laser beam in a corrugated plasma channel is investigated. By using the source-dependent expansion technique, an evolution equation of the laser spot size is derived. The behaviors including aperiodic oscillation, resonance, beat-like wave, and periodic oscillation with multipeak are found and analyzed. The formula for the instantaneous wave numbers of these oscillations is obtained. These theoretical findings are confirmed by the final numerical simulation.
Pérez, Darío G; Funes, Gustavo
2012-12-03
Under the Geometrics Optics approximation is possible to estimate the covariance between the displacements of two thin beams after they have propagated through a turbulent medium. Previous works have concentrated in long propagation distances to provide models for the wandering statistics. These models are useful when the separation between beams is smaller than the propagation path-regardless of the characteristics scales of the turbulence. In this work we give a complete model for these covariances, behavior introducing absolute limits to the validity of former approximations. Moreover, these generalizations are established for non-Kolmogorov atmospheric models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Li; Hong, Xue-Ren; Sun, Jian-An; Tang, Rong-An; Yang, Yang; Zhou, Wei-Jun; Tian, Jian-Min; Duan, Wen-Shan
2017-07-01
The propagation of q-Gaussian laser beam in a preformed plasma channel is investigated by means of the variational method. A differential equation for the spot size has been obtained by including the effects of relativistic self-focusing, ponderomotive self-channeling and preformed channel focusing. The propagation behaviors and their corresponding physical conditions are identified. The comparison of the propagation between q-Gaussian and Gaussian laser beams is done by theoretical and numerical analysis. It is shown that, in the same channel, the focusing power of q-Gaussian laser beam is lower than that of Gaussian laser beam, i.e., the q-Gaussian laser beam is easier to focus than Gaussian laser beam.
Beam quality after propagation of Nd:YAG laser light through large-core optical fibers.
Kuhn, A; Blewett, I J; Hand, D P; Jones, J D
2000-12-20
Laser beam characteristics are altered during propagation through large-core optical fibers. The distribution of modes excited by the input laser beam is modified by means of mode coupling on transmission through the fiber, leading to spatial dispersion of the profile and, ultimately and unavoidably, to degradation in the quality of the delivered beam unless the beam is spatially filtered with consequent power loss. Furthermore, a mismatch between the intensity profile of a typical focused high-power laser beam and the profile of the step-index fiber gives rise to additional beam-quality degradation. Modern materials processing applications demand ever higher delivered beam qualities (as measured by a parameter such as M(2)) to achieve greater machining precision and efficiency, a demand that is currently in conflict with the desire to utilize the convenience and flexibility of large-core fiber-optic beam delivery. We present a detailed experimental investigation of the principal beam-quality degradation effects associated with fiber-optic beam delivery and use numerical modeling to aid an initial discussion of the causes of such degradation.
Propagation of a laser beam in a plasma
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chapman, J. M.; Kevorkian, J.; Steinhauer, L. C.; Vagners, J.
1975-01-01
This paper shows that for a nonabsorbing medium with a prescribed index of refraction, the effects of beam stability, line focusing, and beam distortion can be predicted from simple ray optics. When the paraxial approximation is used, diffraction effects are examined for Gaussian, Lorentzian, and square beams. Most importantly, it is shown that for a Gaussian beam, diffraction effects can be included simply by adding imaginary solutions to the paraxial ray equations. Also presented are several procedures to extend the paraxial approximation so that the solution will have a domain of validity of greater extent.
Schaefer, B.; Luebbecke, M.; Mann, K.
2006-05-15
The suitability of the Hartmann-Shack technique for the determination of the propagation parameters of a laser beam is faced against the well known caustic approach according to the ISO 11146 standard. A He-Ne laser (543 nm) was chosen as test beam, both in its fundamental mode as well as after intentional distortion, introducing a moderate amount of spherical aberration. Results are given for the most important beam parameters M{sup 2}, divergence, and beam widths, indicating an agreement of better than 10% and for adapted beam diameter <5%. Furthermore, the theoretical background, pros and cons, as well as some features of the software implementation for the Hartmann-Shack sensor are briefly reviewed.
Sirazetdinov, Vladimir S
2008-03-01
A detailed experimental study of spatial characteristics for laser beams propagating through the turbulent aerojet has been performed. The obtained results for radiation wavelengths of 0.53, 1.06, and 10.6 microm were used for the development of the numerical mathematical model for beam propagation through an extreme turbulent medium. The combination of parameters and algorithms for the numerical model was determined, which made it possible to obtain computational laser beam spatial characteristics that agreed quite well with the experimental data. Good agreement between the results points to the possibility, in principle, to regard the central jet area as a medium locally homogeneous in the statistical sense and anisotropic on the turbulent outer scales.
A computational study of laser-supported detonation waves propagating up an oblique incident beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bohn, C. L.; Crawford, M. L.
1987-01-01
A series of numerical experiments was conducted to study the propagation of laser-supported detonation waves (LSDWs) in the case that a CO2 laser beam strikes an aluminum surface obliquely in air. A reflected shock formed at the aluminum surface was more prominent at higher angles of incidence theta of the beam, but otherwise the hydrodynamics of the plasma and the LSDW were insensitive to theta. Furthermore, the total impulse delivered to the aluminum varied approximately as 1/cos theta, a result that can be modeled with elementary blast-wave theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yin, Suqin; Zhang, Bin; Dan, Youquan
2011-06-01
When high-power annular laser beams produced by the unstable resonator pass through the volume Bragg grating (VBG), absorption of light in the VBG will induce a temperature increment, resulting in changes in surface distortion. Considering that the surface distortion of the grating induces index and period differences, the scalar wave equations for the annular laser beams propagating in the VBG have been solved numerically and iteratively using finite-difference and sparse matrix methods. The variation in intensity distributions, the total power reflection coefficient, and the power in the bucket (PIB) for the annular laser beams passing through the reflection VBG with deformation have been analyzed quantitatively. It can be shown that the surface distortion of the VBG and the beam orders of the annular beams affect evidently the intensity distributions, the power reflection coefficient, and the PIB of the output beam. The peak intensity decreases as the deformation of the VBG increases. The total power reflection efficiency decreases significantly with the increase in deformations of the VBG. The PIB of the output beam decreases as the obscuration ratio β and the deformation of the VBG increase. For the given obscuration ratio β, the influence of deformation of reflection VBG on the PIB of the annular beams is more sensitive with increase in distortion of the VBG and decrease in beam order.
Excitation of Accelerating Plasma Waves by Counter-Propagating Laser Beams
Shvets, Gennady; Fisch, Nathaniel J; Pukhov, Alexander
2002-04-05
The conventional approach to exciting high phase velocity waves in plasmas is to employ a laser pulse moving in the direction of the desired particle acceleration. Photon downshifting then causes momentum transfer to the plasma and wave excitation. Novel approaches to plasma wake excitation, colliding-beam accelerator (CBA), which involve photon exchange between the long and short counter-propagating laser beams, are described. Depending on the frequency detuning Dw between beams and duration tL of the short pulse, there are two approaches to CBA. The first approach assumes tL ª 2/wp. Photons exchanged between the beams deposit their recoil momentum in the plasma driving the plasma wake. Frequency detuning between the beams determines the direction of the photon exchange, thereby controlling the phase of the plasma wake. This phase control can be used for reversing the slippage of the accelerated particles with respect to the wake. A variation on the same theme, super-beatwave accelerator, is also described. In the second approach, a short pulse with tL >> 2/wp1 detuned by Dw ~ 2wp from the counter-propagating beam is employed. While parametric excitation of plasma waves by the electromagnetic beatwave at 2wp of two co-propagating lasers was first predicted by Rosenbluth and Liu [M.N. Rosenbluth, C.S. Liu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 29 (1972) 701], it is demonstrated that the two excitation beams can be counter-propagating. The advantages of using this geometry (higher instability growth rate, insensitivity to plasma inhomogeneity) are explained, and supporting numerical simulations presented.
Optical 90-deg hybrid of birefringent crystals for freely propagating laser beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wan, Lingyu; Zhi, Yanan; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Liren
2010-12-01
An optical 90-deg hybrid of birefringent crystals for freely propagating laser beams is presented. It consists principally of a quarter-wave plate, two pairs of birefringent crystal plates, and a polarization analyzer. The splitting and recombination of the signal and local-oscillator beams are achieved through the birefringence of the crystals, and a 90-deg phase shift is introduced between orthogonally polarized beam components by use of a quarter-wave plate. The optical hybrid has a self-compensating light path, and its correct function is demonstrated in a self-heterodyne measurement setup.
Sheikh, Mumtaz; Riza, Nabeel A
2010-06-01
To the best of our knowledge, we propose the first motion-free laser beam propagation analyzer with a hybrid design using a digital micromirror device (DMD) and a liquid electronically controlled variable focus lens (ECVFL). Unlike prior analyzers that require profiling the beam at multiple locations along the light propagation axis, the proposed analyzer profiles the beam at the same plane for multiple values of the ECVFL focal length, thus eliminating beam profiler assembly motion. In addition to measuring standard Gaussian beam parameters, the analyzer can also be used to measure the M(2) beam propagation parameter of a multimode beam. Proof-of-concept beam parameter measurements with the proposed analyzer are successfully conducted for a 633 nm laser beam. Given the all-digital nature of the DMD-based profiling and all-analog motion-free nature of the ECVFL beam focus control, the proposed analyzer versus prior art promises better repeatability, speed, and reliability.
Beam Combining and Atmospheric Propagation of High Power Lasers
2011-11-09
The only difference in Eqs. (6a) and (6b) is in the beam quality terms, i.e., terms proportional to BDo RR = 2/1ˆ/ NRR BDo = 4M . The spot size on...22/1 MNRr BDo < . (7) 5 This condition is easily satisfied for typical ranges and levels of turbulence. As a specific example, we use the
Stimulated Raman scattering of laser in a plasma in the presence of a co-propagating electron beam
Parashar, J.
2013-12-15
A relativistic electron beam co-propagating with a high power laser in plasma is shown to add to the growth of the stimulated Raman back scattering of the laser. The growth rate is sensitive to phase matching of electron beam with the plasma wave. In the case of phase mismatch, the growth rate drops by an order. The energy spread of the electron beam significantly reduces the effectiveness of the beam on the stimulated Raman process.
Propagation of a laser-driven relativistic electron beam inside a solid dielectric.
Sarkisov, G S; Ivanov, V V; Leblanc, P; Sentoku, Y; Yates, K; Wiewior, P; Chalyy, O; Astanovitskiy, A; Bychenkov, V Yu; Jobe, D; Spielman, R B
2012-09-01
Laser probe diagnostics: shadowgraphy, interferometry, and polarimetry were used for a comprehensive characterization of ionization wave dynamics inside a glass target induced by a laser-driven, relativistic electron beam. Experiments were done using the 50-TW Leopard laser at the University of Nevada, Reno. We show that for a laser flux of ∼2 × 10(18) W/cm2 a hemispherical ionization wave propagates at c/3 for 10 ps and has a smooth electron-density distribution. The maximum free-electron density inside the glass target is ∼2 × 10(19) cm-3, which corresponds to an ionization level of ∼0.1%. Magnetic fields and electric fields do not exceed ∼15 kG and ∼1 MV/cm, respectively. The electron temperature has a hot, ringlike structure with a maximum of ∼0.7 eV. The topology of the interference phase shift shows the signature of the "fountain effect", a narrow electron beam that fans out from the propagation axis and heads back to the target surface. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) computer simulations demonstrate radial spreading of fast electrons by self-consistent electrostatic fields driven by laser. The very low ionization observed after the laser heating pulse suggests a fast recombination on the sub-ps time scale.
Propagation of a laser-driven relativistic electron beam inside a solid dielectric
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarkisov, G. S.; Ivanov, V. V.; Leblanc, P.; Sentoku, Y.; Yates, K.; Wiewior, P.; Chalyy, O.; Astanovitskiy, A.; Bychenkov, V. Yu.; Jobe, D.; Spielman, R. B.
2012-09-01
Laser probe diagnostics: shadowgraphy, interferometry, and polarimetry were used for a comprehensive characterization of ionization wave dynamics inside a glass target induced by a laser-driven, relativistic electron beam. Experiments were done using the 50-TW Leopard laser at the University of Nevada, Reno. We show that for a laser flux of ˜2 × 1018 W/cm2 a hemispherical ionization wave propagates at c/3 for 10 ps and has a smooth electron-density distribution. The maximum free-electron density inside the glass target is ˜2 × 1019 cm-3, which corresponds to an ionization level of ˜0.1%. Magnetic fields and electric fields do not exceed ˜15 kG and ˜1 MV/cm, respectively. The electron temperature has a hot, ringlike structure with a maximum of ˜0.7 eV. The topology of the interference phase shift shows the signature of the “fountain effect”, a narrow electron beam that fans out from the propagation axis and heads back to the target surface. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) computer simulations demonstrate radial spreading of fast electrons by self-consistent electrostatic fields driven by laser. The very low ionization observed after the laser heating pulse suggests a fast recombination on the sub-ps time scale.
Modeling laser beam propagation through components with internal multiple reflections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zongzhao; Zhang, Site; Wyrowski, Frank
2015-02-01
Component, e.g. Fabry-Perot interferometer, with internal multiple reflections plays an important role in laser technology. Its optical functionality is based on multiple reflections inside the component and the interference effect. In this paper, two electromagnetic concepts that allow the modeling of such components for general incident light are proposed. The first one is based on an iterative field tracing approach. With this approach multiple reflections through and inside the component are handled respectively. One typical example is the simulation of Newton's rings effect or the modeling of an Etalon with thickness variation because of fabrication tolerances. The other one is based on the matrix method for stratified media, which is usually used to handle optical layer systems Fabry-Perot interferometer. We present the details, demonstrate various examples and also discuss sampling issues due to the internal multiple reflections.
Hanson, Frank; Lasher, Mark
2010-06-01
We characterize and compare the effects of turbulence on underwater laser propagation with theory. Measurements of the coupling efficiency of the focused beam into a single-mode fiber are reported. A simple tip-tilt control system, based on the position of the image centroid in the focal plane, was shown to maintain good coupling efficiency for a beam radius equal to the transverse coherence length, r(0). These results are relevant to high bandwidth communication technology that requires good spatial mode quality.
Acceleration and Compression of Charged Particle Bunches Using Counter-Propagating Laser Beams
G. Shvets; N. J. Fisch; A. Pukhov
2000-10-17
The nonlinear interaction between counter-propagating laser beams in a plasma results in the generation of large (enhanced) plasma wakes. The two beams need to be slightly detuned in frequency, and one of them has to be ultra-short (shorter than a plasma period). Thus produced wakes have a phase velocity close to the speed of light and can be used for acceleration and compression of charged bunches. The physical mechanism responsible for the enhanced wake generation is qualitatively described and compared with the conventional laser wakefield mechanism. The authors also demonstrate that, depending on the sign of the frequency difference between the lasers, the enhanced wake can be used as a ``snow-plow'' to accelerate and compress either positively or negatively charged bunches. This ability can be utilized in an electron-positron injector.
Propagation of Laser-Driven Relativistic Electron Beam inside Solid Dielectric
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarkisov, G. S.; Jobe, D.; Spielman, R.; Ivanov, V. V.; Leblanc, P.; Sentoku, Y.; Yates, K.; Wiewior, P.; Bychenkov, V. Yu.
2011-10-01
Laser probing diagnostics shadowgraphy, interferometry and polarimetry was used for comprehensive characterization of ionization wave dynamics inside glass target induced by laser-driven relativistic electron beam. Experiment was done using 50-TW Leopard laser at University of Nevada Reno. It has been shown that for laser flax ~2 ×1018W/cm2 hemispheric ionization wave propagates with c/3 speed has smooth electron density distribution, absorbing probing green beam in 2-10 times. Maximum of free-electron density inside glass target is ~2x1019cm-3, which correspond to ionization ~0.1%. Magnetic and electric fields do not exceed ~15 kG and ~1 MV/cm. Electron temperature has hot-ring structure with maximum 0.1-0.5 eV. The topology of the interference phase shift shows the signature of the ``fountain effect'', a narrow electron beam that fans out from the propagation axis and heads back to the target surface. Two-dimensional PIC-simulations demonstrate radial spreading of fast electrons by self-consistent electrostatic fields. The very low ionization, ~0.1%, observed after the heating pulse suggests a fast recombination at the sub-ps time scale. Work was supported by the DOE/NNSA under UNR grant DE-FC52-06NA27616 and grant DE-PS02-08ER08-16.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Y.; Ge, Z. Y.; Ma, Y. Y.; Yang, X. H.; Xu, B. B.; Ramis, R.
2017-03-01
X-ray emission from laser irradiating solid target is an important X-ray source for various potential applications. Counter-propagating (C-P) laser beams configuration is proposed to enhance the laser to X-ray conversion efficiency (CE) from laser irradiating solid targets. One-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations show that the total X-ray CE for the C-P lasers case is as high as 65%, which has a 13% improvement compared with the single laser case. The improvement is mainly caused by the enlarged radiation region, and the enhancement of X-ray emission is from soft X-ray. Detailed energy term distributions and influences of the foil thickness on the X-ray CEs for both cases are presented. It is found that the enhancement of radiation is attributed to lower thermal and kinetic energy of the C-P lasers scheme.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gurdev, Ljuan; Dreischuh, Tanja; Vankov, Orlin; Bliznakova, Irina; Avramov, Lachezar; Stoyanov, Dimitar
2014-06-01
The possibility is studied to develop a straightforward analytical approach to the determination of the optical properties of liquid turbid media having forward-peaked scattering indicatrices. The approach is based on investigating the in-depth behavior of the radius and the axial intensity of a laser radiation beam propagating through the turbid medium. Based on the small-angle approximation, the detected forward-propagating light power spatial distribution, at relatively small or large optical depths along the beam axis, is obtained asymptotically in analytical form allowing one to derive relatively simple expressions of the extinction, reduced-scattering and absorption coefficients and the anisotropy factor of the medium through the characteristics of the propagating light beam. Preliminary experiments have also been performed, using Intralipid dilutions of different relatively low concentrations and measuring the cross-sectional radial distribution of the detected light power at different depths along the beam axis. The corresponding on-axis detected light power profiles have been measured independently as well. The experimental results are consistent with the analytical expressions obtained that allow one to estimate the optical coefficients and the anisotropy factor of the investigated media on the basis of the measured beam characteristics. The values obtained are near those predicted by other researchers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanov, M. V.; Alekseev, S. V.; Ivanov, N. G.; Losev, V. F.
2015-12-01
The influence of the optical inhomogeneities effect of the prism stretcher elements on the spatial, angular and spectral parameters of the transmitted radiation and the degree of change in the phase aberrations of the laser beam during its propagation in the stretcher are studied. It is shown that the prism material does not allow transmitting of a required diameter of 75 mm without linear distortions of the beam. The maximum intensity and beam diameter allowing to amplify the picosecond pulses in XeF(C-A) amplifier are determined.
Analytical theory for the propagation of laser beams in nonlinear media
Tatarinova, Larisa L.; Garcia, Martin E.
2007-10-15
The propagation of a laser beam of intensity I in a nonlinear medium with a refractive index n(I) of arbitrary form is studied. In particular, the influence of the functional form n=n(I) on self-focusing and self-trapping is investigated. Starting from the propagation equations and using symmetry considerations and the Bogoliubov renormalization group approach, we derive a general equation relating the self-focusing distance, the intensity, and n(I). For different polynomial dependences of n(I) on I, we construct analytical solutions for the spatial intensity profile I(r) for an initially collimated Gaussian beam inside the medium. We also explicitly analyze the case of nonlinear self-focusing accompanied by multiphoton ionization. For particular (already studied) cases, we considerably improve the accuracy of the results with respect to previous semianalytical studies and obtain very good agreement with recent numerical simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reza Hedayati Rad, M.; Kashani, F. D.; Eftekhari, M. M.; Reza Mahzoun, M.
2010-11-01
The propagation properties of Gaussian laser beams through a complete optical path including free space and the optics of transmitter and receiver containing a collimator, an aperture and a lens is studied. Based on the Collins integral and using the second order moment method, analytical formulas for intensity distribution and Power In Bucket (PIB) along the propagation path are derived. The effects of initial beam divergence, collimator-source separation distance and beam width deviation on laser beams properties are investigated. Obtained results are confirmed and illustrated with numerical examples and resulted graphs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lukin, Vladimir P.; Kanev, Fedor Yu; Sennikov, Viktor A.; Makenova, Nailya A.; Tartakovskii, Valerii A.; Konyaev, Petr A.
2004-09-01
Phase and amplitude — phase corrections of laser beam distortions during their propagation in a turbulent atmosphere under conditions of strong intensity fluctuations are compared. The effect of wavefront dislocations and the possibility of controlling the amplitude and phase of an optical wave are studied. Two approaches are analysed: phase correction using amplitude control and two-mirror phase correction. The efficiency of both methods is demonstrated.
Purohit, Gunjan Rawat, Priyanka; Chauhan, Prashant; Mahmoud, Saleh T.
2015-05-15
This article presents higher-order paraxial theory (non-paraxial theory) for the ring ripple formation on an intense Gaussian laser beam and its propagation in plasma, taking into account the relativistic-ponderomotive nonlinearity. The intensity dependent dielectric constant of the plasma has been determined for the main laser beam and ring ripple superimposed on the main laser beam. The dielectric constant of the plasma is modified due to the contribution of the electric field vector of ring ripple. Nonlinear differential equations have been formulated to examine the growth of ring ripple in plasma, self focusing of main laser beam, and ring rippled laser beam in plasma using higher-order paraxial theory. These equations have been solved numerically for different laser intensities and plasma frequencies. The well established experimental laser and plasma parameters are used in numerical calculation. It is observed that the focusing of the laser beams (main and ring rippled) becomes fast in the nonparaxial region by expanding the eikonal and other relevant quantities up to the fourth power of r. The splitted profile of laser beam in the plasma is observed due to uneven focusing/defocusing of the axial and off-axial rays. The growths of ring ripple increase when the laser beam intensity increases. Furthermore, the intensity profile of ring rippled laser beam gets modified due to the contribution of growth rate.
Ideal Laser-Beam Propagation through High-Temperature Ignition Hohlraum Plasmas
Froula, D. H.; Divol, L.; Meezan, N. B.; Dixit, S.; Moody, J. D.; Neumayer, P.; Pollock, B. B.; Ross, J. S.; Glenzer, S. H.
2007-02-23
We demonstrate that a blue (3{omega}, 351 nm) laser beam with an intensity of 2x10{sup 15} W cm{sup -2} propagates nearly within the original beam cone through a millimeter scale, T{sub e}=3.5 keV high density (n{sub e}=5x10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}) plasma. The beam produced less than 1% total backscatter at these high temperatures and densities; the resulting transmission is greater than 90%. Scaling of the electron temperature in the plasma shows that the plasma becomes transparent for uniform electron temperatures above 3 keV. These results are consistent with linear theory thresholds for both filamentation and backscatter instabilities inferred from detailed hydrodynamic simulations. This provides a strong justification for current inertial confinement fusion designs to remain below these thresholds.
Ideal laser-beam propagation through high-temperature ignition Hohlraum plasmas.
Froula, D H; Divol, L; Meezan, N B; Dixit, S; Moody, J D; Neumayer, P; Pollock, B B; Ross, J S; Glenzer, S H
2007-02-23
We demonstrate that a blue (3omega, 351 nm) laser beam with an intensity of 2 x 10(15) W cm(-2) propagates nearly within the original beam cone through a millimeter scale, T(e)=3.5 keV high density (n(e)=5 x 10(20) cm(-3)) plasma. The beam produced less than 1% total backscatter at these high temperatures and densities; the resulting transmission is greater than 90%. Scaling of the electron temperature in the plasma shows that the plasma becomes transparent for uniform electron temperatures above 3 keV. These results are consistent with linear theory thresholds for both filamentation and backscatter instabilities inferred from detailed hydrodynamic simulations. This provides a strong justification for current inertial confinement fusion designs to remain below these thresholds.
Multi-beam laser beacon propagation over lunar distance: comparison of predictions and measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biswas, A.; Piazzolla, S.
2017-02-01
A multi-beam beacon was transmitted from the Optical Communication Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) located at Table Mountain, CA to the Lunar Laser Space Terminal (LLST), on-board the Lunar Atmospheric Dust and Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft, during NASA's recent Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration (LLCD). The laser beacon (1568+/-0.1 nm) was square wave modulated and sensed by a quadrant sensor on LLST. While link acquisition and tracking proceeded with the sensed signal, on-board processing extracted power incident on the quadrant sensor and telemetered it down over the optical downlink. Subsequently, post-processing of the codewords received at OCTL retrieved the power time series recorded at LLST. Analysis comparing measured and predicted mean irradiance delivered to LLST consistently agreed to within < 1 decibel (dB). Irradiance fluctuations detected at LLST were reconciled with an uplink wave-propagation simulation model using Kolmogorov phase screens.
Korotkova, Olga; Avramov-Zamurovic, Svetlana; Malek-Madani, Reza; Nelson, Charles
2011-10-10
A number of field experiments measuring the fluctuating intensity of a laser beam propagating along horizontal paths in the maritime environment is performed over sub-kilometer distances at the United States Naval Academy. Both above the ground and over the water links are explored. Two different detection schemes, one photographing the beam on a white board, and the other capturing the beam directly using a ccd sensor, gave consistent results. The probability density function (pdf) of the fluctuating intensity is reconstructed with the help of two theoretical models: the Gamma-Gamma and the Gamma-Laguerre, and compared with the intensity's histograms. It is found that the on-ground experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical predictions. The results obtained above the water paths lead to appreciable discrepancies, especially in the case of the Gamma-Gamma model. These discrepancies are attributed to the presence of the various scatterers along the path of the beam, such as water droplets, aerosols and other airborne particles. Our paper's main contribution is providing a methodology for computing the pdf function of the laser beam intensity in the maritime environment using field measurements.
Fluctuation spectra for an infrared laser beam propagating horizontally in the open atmosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kagawa, Naoki; Wada, Osami; Koga, Ryuji
1996-11-01
Fluctuation for the laser beams of wavelengths on and off absorption lines were recorded, and the power spectral density function for each record was calculated, and the co- spectrum of the two records as well. A system with a 7 micrometers band lead-salt semiconductor laser that can be changed its wavelength were made up for examining the correlation between the fluctuation of the laser beam of 7859.50 nm and of 7860.27 nm. The former hit two absorption lines of water vapor located at 7859.49 nm and 7859.51 nm and the later were out of them. This experiment was carried out on the in- door corridor using a round-trip propagation path. Three electrical heaters and a humidity source set on the floor under the propagation path, which disturbed the temperature and humidity of the environment. In addition a fan agitated the air. As the results, the power spectral density function for the on-line data had a peak in the lower frequency region at which a contribution of the absorption is strong. The peak frequency agree with a predicted frequency by the integral length scale L0. Moreover, the co-spectrum increased in the frequency region less than 0.1 Hz. On the contrary, it decreased dramatically in the frequency region higher than 10 Hz. The results tell us the lower frequency region reflects the transportation of water vapor in the air.
Beam propagation analysis of a multi-laser diode FSO system through free space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kashani, F. D.; Hedayati Rad, M. Reza; Firozzadeh, Z.; Mahzoun, M. Reza
2011-10-01
In this paper beam propagation analysis of a multi-beam multi-collimator optical communication system through free space is studied. For this purpose, the propagation properties of Gaussian multi-beams through a multi-optical path including collimators in transmitters are studied and an analytical formula for intensity distribution is derived. The effects of beam divergence and beam separation distances on the propagation properties of Gaussian multi-beams are studied in detail by calculating the beam width and power in bucket (PIB). The analyses are illustrated by numerical examples.
Shu, Hong; Mokhov, Sergiy; Zeldovich, Boris Ya; Bass, Michael
2009-01-01
A further extension of the iteration method for beam propagation calculation is presented that can be applied for volume Bragg gratings (VBGs) with extremely large grating strength. A reformulation of the beam propagation formulation is presented for analyzing the reflection of a laser beam by a deformed VBG. These methods will be shown to be very accurate and efficient. A VBG with generic z-dependent distortion has been analyzed using these methods.
0.351 micron Laser Beam propagation in High-temperature Plasmas
Froula, D; Divol, L; Meezan, N; Ross, J; Berger, R L; Michel, P; Dixit, S; Rekow, V; Sorce, C; Moody, J D; Neumayer, P; Pollock, B; Wallace, R; Suter, L; Glenzer, S H
2007-12-10
A study of the laser-plasma interaction processes have been performed in plasmas that are created to emulate the plasma conditions in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion targets. The plasma emulator is produced in a gas-filled hohlraum; a blue 351-nm laser beam propagates along the axis of the hohlraum interacting with a high-temperature (T{sub e} = 3.5 keV), dense (n{sub e} = 5 x 10{sup 20}cm{sup -3}), long-scale length (L {approx} 2 mm) plasma. Experiments at these conditions have demonstrated that the interaction beam produces less than 1% total backscatter resulting in transmission greater than 90% for laser intensities less than I < 2 x 10{sup 15} W-cm{sup -2}. The bulk plasma conditions have been independently characterized using Thomson scattering where the peak electron temperatures are shown to scale with the hohlraum heater beam energy in the range from 2 keV to 3.5 keV. This feature has allowed us to determine the thresholds for both backscattering and filamentation instabilities; the former measured with absolutely calibrated full aperture backscatter and near backscatter diagnostics and the latter with a transmitted beam diagnostics. A plasma length scaling is also investigated extending our measurements to 4-mm long high-temperature plasmas. At intensities I < 5 x 10{sup 14} W-cm{sup -2}, greater than 80% of the energy in the laser is transmitted through a 5-mm long, high-temperature (T{sub e} > 2.5 keV) high-density (n{sub e} = 5 x 10{sup 20} w-cm{sup -3}) plasma. Comparing the experimental results with detailed gain calculations for the onset of significant laser scattering processes shows a stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold (R=10%) for a linear gain of 15; these high temperature, low density experiments produce plasma conditions comparable to those along the outer beams in ignition hohlraum designs. By increasing the gas fill density (n{sub e} = 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3}) in these targets, the inner beam ignition hohlraum conditions are
Excitation of monochromatic and stable electron acoustic wave by two counter-propagating laser beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, C. Z.; Liu, Z. J.; Zheng, C. Y.; He, X. T.
2017-07-01
The undamped electron acoustic wave is a newly-observed nonlinear electrostatic plasma wave and has potential applications in ion acceleration, laser amplification and diagnostics due to its unique frequency range. We propose to make the first attempt to excite a monochromatic and stable electron acoustic wave (EAW) by two counter-propagating laser beams. The matching conditions relevant to laser frequencies, plasma density, and electron thermal velocity are derived and the harmonic effects of the EAW are excluded. Single-beam instabilities, including stimulated Raman scattering and stimulated Brillouin scattering, on the excitation process are quantified by an interaction quantity, η =γ {τ }B, where γ is the growth rate of each instability and {τ }B is the characteristic time of the undamped EAW. The smaller the interaction quantity, the more successfully the monochromatic and stable EAW can be excited. Using one-dimensional Vlasov-Maxwell simulations, we excite EAW wave trains which are amplitude tunable, have a duration of thousands of laser periods, and are monochromatic and stable, by carefully controlling the parameters under the above conditions.
Challenges of laser beam propagation near/within marine boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manzur, Tariq; Katz, Richard A.; Olson, Joshua
2015-05-01
Marine atmospheric condition plays a critical role on imaging, laser beam propagation, and optical communication of the commercial and military platform. In Military platforms, ships and sailors must be able to defend and communicate with other maritime platform in sometimes volatile and hostile regions around the globe. Naval combatants need defensive and offensive capabilities against a variety of potential threats - many coming at low altitude, UAV, USV etc. High energy lasers (HELs) are currently in development, which have sufficient power levels (~100 kW) to destroy/disable most types of threats. Though target engagement and energy delivery are challenging, a HEL weapon can engage targets at the speed of light, does not require physical ammunition, and is able to run for hours at a time.
Dios, Federico; Recolons, Jaume; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Batet, Oscar
2008-02-04
Temporal analysis of the irradiance at the detector plane is intended as the first step in the study of the mean fade time in a free optical communication system. In the present work this analysis has been performed for a Gaussian laser beam propagating in the atmospheric turbulence by means of computer simulation. To this end, we have adapted a previously known numerical method to the generation of long phase screens. The screens are displaced in a transverse direction as the wave is propagated, in order to simulate the wind effect. The amplitude of the temporal covariance and its power spectrum have been obtained at the optical axis, at the beam centroid and at a certain distance from these two points. Results have been worked out for weak, moderate and strong turbulence regimes and when possible they have been compared with theoretical models. These results show a significant contribution of beam wander to the temporal behaviour of the irradiance, even in the case of weak turbulence. We have also found that the spectral bandwidth of the covariance is hardly dependent on the Rytov variance.
Propagation of hypergeometric laser beams in a medium with a parabolic refractive index
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kotlyar, V. V.; Kovalev, A. A.; Nalimov, A. G.
2013-12-01
An expression to describe the complex amplitude of a family of paraxial hypergeometric laser beams propagating in a parabolic-index fiber is proposed. A particular case of a Gaussian optical vortex propagating in a parabolic-index fiber is studied. Under definite parameters, the Gaussian optical vortices become the modes of the medium. This is a new family of paraxial modes derived for the parabolic-index medium. A wide class of solutions of nonparaxial Helmholtz equations that describe modes in a parabolic refractive index medium is derived in the cylindrical coordinate system. As the solutions derived are proportional to Kummer’s functions, only those of them which are coincident with the nonparaxial Laguerre-Gaussian modes possess a finite energy, meaning that they are physically implementable. A definite length of the graded-index fiber is treated as a parabolic lens, and expressions for the numerical aperture and the focal spot size are deduced. An explicit expression for the radii of the rings of a binary lens approximating a parabolic-index lens is derived. Finite-difference time-domain simulation has shown that using a binary parabolic-index microlens with a refractive index of 1.5, a linearly polarized Gaussian beam can be focused into an elliptic focal spot which is almost devoid of side-lobes and has a smaller full width at half maximum diameter of 0.45 of the incident wavelength.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toyoshima, Morio; Sasaki, Takashi; Takenaka, Hideki; Takayama, Yoshihisa
2012-11-01
This paper discusses a scintillation model of laser beam propagation in satellite-to-ground bidirectional atmospheric channels. The frequency characteristics of the downlink were theoretically derived on the basis of measurements in low Earth orbit satellite-to-ground laser communication experiments. The speckle patterns were averaged and the frequency response of the received optical signal was filtered by a telescope aperture. The model parameters were obtained by fitting the results to the model. This paper introduces scaling factors for the uplink and extends the theory for the downlink to that for the uplink. The proposed model can generate time-varying optical signals based on the von Kármán spectrum for space-to-ground laser links. The scintillation index was estimated using the modified Hufnagel-Valley model, which was obtained from real measurements. The probability density function was fitted by the estimated scintillation index and compared to the gamma-gamma distribution under strong turbulence conditions. The scaling factor for the root mean square wind speed was newly introduced to fit the frequency spectra for the uplink. The simulation results are presented in this paper. The proposed scintillation model can contribute to improving the fading simulation of satellite-to-ground communication links as well as add to the future discussion of standards, like those proposed by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems.
Modeling laser beam diffraction and propagation by the mode-expansion method.
Snyder, James J
2007-08-01
In the mode-expansion method for modeling propagation of a diffracted beam, the beam at the aperture can be expanded as a weighted set of orthogonal modes. The parameters of the expansion modes are chosen to maximize the weighting coefficient of the lowest-order mode. As the beam propagates, its field distribution can be reconstructed from the set of weighting coefficients and the Gouy phase of the lowest-order mode. We have developed a simple procedure to implement the mode-expansion method for propagation through an arbitrary ABCD matrix, and we have demonstrated that it is accurate in comparison with direct calculations of diffraction integrals and much faster.
Labaune, C; Baldis, H A; Bandulet, H; Depierreux, S; Fuchs, J; Michel, P; Pesme, D
2002-11-19
The control of coherence is a critical issue for the high-power lasers used in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The level of coherence is an important parameter for the control of the light intensity distribution as well as the growth rate of parametric instabilities. Over the past few years, experimental and theoretical studies have evidenced the ability of an underdense plasma to reduce the spatial and temporal coherence of an intense laser beam propagating through it. As any process affecting laser propagation, plasma-induced incoherence appears fundamental for ICF for it can impact on wave-coupling conditions. We present results obtained with the six-beam LULI laser facility, in the nanosecond regime, showing direct evidences of the reduction of spatial and temporal coherence of an initially RPP-smoothed laser beam after propagation through a preformed plasma. Plasma induced incoherence (PII) proceeds from several mechanisms which include self-focusing and filament instabilities and non-linear coupling between self-focusing and forward stimulated Brillouin scattering (FSBS). Part of these experiments was dedicated to the understanding of the physical mechanisms involved in PII, as the break up of a single hot spot and the existence of ion acoustic waves having small wave vectors transverse to the interaction beam which are produced in the PII processes. The spatial and temporal characteristics of these waves give a unique access to the influence of PII on stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calhoun, William R., III
One of the most recent advancements in laser technology is the development of ultrashort pulsed femtosecond lasers (FSLs). FSLs are improving many fields due to their unique extreme precision, low energy and ablation characteristics. In the area of laser medicine, ophthalmic surgeries have seen very promising developments. Some of the most commonly performed surgical operations in the world, including laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK), lens replacement (cataract surgery), and keratoplasty (cornea transplant), now employ FSLs for their unique abilities that lead to improved clinical outcome and patient satisfaction. The application of FSLs in medical therapeutics is a recent development, and although they offer many benefits, FSLs also stimulate nonlinear optical effects (NOEs), many of which were insignificant with previously developed lasers. NOEs can change the laser characteristics during propagation through a medium, which can subsequently introduce unique safety concerns for the surrounding tissues. Traditional approaches for characterizing optical effects, laser performance, safety and efficacy do not properly account for NOEs, and there remains a lack of data that describe NOEs in clinically relevant procedures and tissues. As FSL technology continues to expand towards new applications, FSL induced NOEs need to be better understood in order to ensure safety as FSL medical devices and applications continue to evolve at a rapid pace. In order to improve the understanding of FSL-tissue interactions related to NOEs stimulated during laser beam propagation though corneal tissue, research investigations were conducted to evaluate corneal optical properties and determine how corneal tissue properties including corneal layer, collagen orientation and collagen crosslinking, and laser parameters including pulse energy, repetition rate and numerical aperture affect second and third-harmonic generation (HG) intensity, duration and efficiency. The results of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pikuz, T.; Faenov, A.; Magnitskiy, S.; Nagorskiy, N.; Tanaka, M.; Ishino, M.; Nishikino, M.; Kando, M.; Kato, Y.; Kawachi, T.
2016-03-01
There is a significant interest in developing the coherent table-top X-ray lasers. Advent of plasma-based transient collisional excitation x-ray laser and particular, injection of coherent seeded beam, especially high-order harmonics, has tremendously improved the spatial coherence of such lasers, what allowed them to be the same widely used as synchrotron sources. Here we report experimental founding of unknown interference structure in a spatial profile of the output beam of the two-stage plasma X-ray laser. That allowed us experimental and theoretical discovering a new phenomenon consisted in a generation of phase-matched coherent point source in a laser plasma media by propagated X-ray laser seeded beam. This phenomenon could extend the applications of such x-ray lasers. For explanation of the observed phenomenon a new method of solving the standard system of Maxwell-Bloch equations has been developed. It was found that the interference pattern in the output laser beam was formed due to an emergence of phase-matched coherent virtual point source in the XRL amplifier and could be treated as the first observation of mirage phenomenon, analogous to the optical mirage, but in X-rays. The obtained results bring new comprehension into the physical nature of amplification of X-ray radiation in laser-induced plasma amplifiers and opening new opportunities for X-ray interferometry, holography and other applications, which requiring multiple rigidly phased sources of coherent radiation.
Parametric Excitations of Fast Plasma Waves by Counter-propagating Laser Beams
G. Shvets; N.J. Fisch
2001-03-19
Short- and long-wavelength plasma waves can become strongly coupled in the presence of two counter-propagating laser pump pulses detuned by twice the cold plasma frequency. What makes this four-wave interaction important is that the growth rate of the plasma waves occurs much faster than in the more obvious co-propagating geometry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Heerden, Stephanus P.; Klopper, Wouter; Prinsloo, Francois J.; Forbes, Andrew
1996-11-01
The development of a high repetition rate TEA-CO2 laser chain has a number of difficulties that must be overcome. One of these difficulties is to predict the free space propagation of the beam. A low energy (approximately 100 mJ/pulse), high-quality, carbon-dioxide beam is amplified in a number of carbon-dioxide amplifiers to more than 1 J per pulse. On propagation through the amplifier chain the primary beam encounters several transmission optics. It was found that the beam parameters of the primary beam change dramatically for high repetition rate operation (greater than 100 Hz). The alteration in beam parameters is brought about by thermal expansion and refractive index variations known as thermal lensing. This phenomenon is caused by the thermal gradient introduced to an optic by absorption of a laser beam with a Gaussian profile. Thermal lensing caused by the aforementioned laser system in transmission optics was investigated. The influence of several types of transmission optics in the amplifier chain was studied and compared. It was found that the use of a specific substrate (KCl or ZnSe) is determined by the position in the chain. A marked increase in thermal lensing effects was observed with damaged or contaminated optics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Chenglong; LeBrun, Thomas W.
2015-08-01
Gold nanoparticles (GNP) have wide applications ranging from nanoscale heating to cancer therapy and biological sensing. Optical trapping of GNPs as small as 18 nm has been successfully achieved with laser power as high as 855 mW, but such high powers can damage trapped particles (particularly biological systems) as well heat the fluid, thereby destabilizing the trap. In this article, we show that counter propagating beams (CPB) can successfully trap GNP with laser powers reduced by a factor of 50 compared to that with a single beam. The trapping position of a GNP inside a counter-propagating trap can be easily modulated by either changing the relative power or position of the two beams. Furthermore, we find that under our conditions while a single-beam most stably traps a single particle, the counter-propagating beam can more easily trap multiple particles. This (CPB) trap is compatible with the feedback control system we recently demonstrated to increase the trapping lifetimes of nanoparticles by more than an order of magnitude. Thus, we believe that the future development of advanced trapping techniques combining counter-propagating traps together with control systems should significantly extend the capabilities of optical manipulation of nanoparticles for prototyping and testing 3D nanodevices and bio-sensing.
Severe Self-induced Beam Distortion in Laboratory Simulated Laser Propagation at 10.6 micro.
Buser, R G; Rohde, R S
1973-02-01
Precision irradiance profiles have been determined for horizontally slewing high power laser beams through stationary absorbing gaseous media for the case of strong beam-medium interaction coupled with strong heating. Results are compared with the predictions of existing theoretical models concerning thermally induced lens effects in the presence of cross winds. Bending of the beam into the wind by beam slewing and intensification is found in reasonable agreement with the theory; for the observed overall beam spread, induced flow, turbulent tail, and concomitant beam breakup, no satisfactory theoretical treatment is available.
Michel, P; Labaune, C; Bandulet, H C; Lewis, K; Depierreux, S; Hulin, S; Bonnaud, G; Tikhonchuk, V T; Weber, S; Riazuelo, G; Baldis, H A; Michard, A
2004-04-30
A strong reduction of the spatial coherence of a laser beam after its propagation through a plasma has been measured using a Fresnel biprism interferometer. The laser beam was diffraction limited; the coherence width was reduced from 40 mm in vacuum down to a few mm with the plasma. Numerical results based on a paraxial model exhibit a coherence degree close to the experimental one; they also prove the importance of taking into account the nonlocal transport effects in numerical simulations for such plasma conditions.
Jha, Pallavi; Agrawal, Ekta
2014-05-15
An analytical study of second harmonic generation due to interaction an intense, p-polarized laser beam propagating obliquely in homogeneous underdense plasma, in the mildly relativistic regime, has been presented. The efficiency of the second harmonic radiation as well as its detuning length has been obtained and their variation with the angle of incidence is analyzed. It is shown that, for a given plasma electron density, the second harmonic efficiency increases with the angle of incidence while the detuning length decreases. The second harmonic amplitude vanishes at normal incidence of the laser beam.
Chen, Yu-Jen; Lin, Yu-Sung; Jiang, I-Min; Tsai, Ming-Shan
2008-03-17
This study investigates the optical nonlinearity of beam propagation in homogeneously aligned nematic liquid crystal (NLC) cells at a temperature close to the nematic-isotropic temperature (TNI). The undulate propagation mode with convergent and divergent loops appearing alternately is reported and the thermally enhanced optical reorientation nonlinearity at the focus is described. The optically induced phase transition exists along the pump beam direction. With the application of the conscopic technique, the arrangements of LC at the focus are proposed in this study. Results of this study demonstrate that the evolution of the LC configuration was affected by the pump beam based on the analysis of conoscopic patterns.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Subodh; Singh, Ram Kishor; Sharma, R. P.
2015-10-01
Terahertz (THz) generation by beating of two co-axial Gaussian laser beams, propagating in ripple density plasma, has been studied when both ponderomotive and relativistic nonlinearities are operative. When the two lasers co-propagate in rippled density plasma, electrons acquire a nonlinear velocity at beat frequency in the direction transverse to the direction of propagation. This nonlinear oscillatory velocity couples with the density ripple to generate a nonlinear current, which in turn generates THz radiation at the difference frequency. The necessary phase matching condition is provided by the density ripple. Relativistic ponderomotive focusing of the two lasers and its effects on yield of the generated THz amplitude have been discussed. Numerical results show that conversion efficiency of the order of 10-3 can be achieved in the terahertz radiation generation with relativistic ponderomotive focusing.
Kumar, Subodh; Singh, Ram Kishor Sharma, R. P.
2015-10-15
Terahertz (THz) generation by beating of two co-axial Gaussian laser beams, propagating in ripple density plasma, has been studied when both ponderomotive and relativistic nonlinearities are operative. When the two lasers co-propagate in rippled density plasma, electrons acquire a nonlinear velocity at beat frequency in the direction transverse to the direction of propagation. This nonlinear oscillatory velocity couples with the density ripple to generate a nonlinear current, which in turn generates THz radiation at the difference frequency. The necessary phase matching condition is provided by the density ripple. Relativistic ponderomotive focusing of the two lasers and its effects on yield of the generated THz amplitude have been discussed. Numerical results show that conversion efficiency of the order of 10{sup −3} can be achieved in the terahertz radiation generation with relativistic ponderomotive focusing.
Propagation instabilities of high-intensity laser-produced electron beams.
Tatarakis, M; Beg, F N; Clark, E L; Dangor, A E; Edwards, R D; Evans, R G; Goldsack, T J; Ledingham, K W D; Norreys, P A; Sinclair, M A; Wei, M-S; Zepf, M; Krushelnick, K
2003-05-02
Measurements of energetic electron beams generated from ultrahigh intensity laser interactions (I>10(19) W/cm(2)) with dense plasmas are discussed. These interactions have been shown to produce very directional beams, although with a broad energy spectrum. In the regime where the beam density approaches the density of the background plasma, we show that these beams are unstable to filamentation and "hosing" instabilities. Particle-in-cell simulations also indicate the development of such instabilities. This is a regime of particular interest for inertial confinement fusion applications of these beams (i.e., "fast ignition").
Slow-motion acquisition of laser beam profiles after propagation through gun blast
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kay, Armin V.
1991-07-01
Degradation of laser beam quality by special effects is considered to be of increasing importance for investigations concerning combat field communications. An 8-bit transient memory device has been developed which allows storing of a series of up to 15 laser beam intensity profiles using a CCD linear array of 1754 diodes with a spatial resolution of 10 micrometers . The shortest time interval between consecutive profiles amounts to 2 ms. Data reduction of the measured profiles can be achieved by best fit of a Gaussian normal distribution with four parameters representing bias level, peak amplitude, width (FWHM), and peak position. This procedure was applied to helium-neon-laser radiation after transmission through the gas blast expanding from a powder gun. Two different experimental arrangements have been realized so far. The first one comprises a large vessel which limits the expansion of the combustion products from a 20 mm-bore gun, and the laser beam traverses the barrel axis in front of the muzzle. The second set-up allows free gas blast expansion from a 40 mm-bore gun, the laser beam being adjusted parallel to the barrel axis. For both cases, the time behavior of beam extinction, broadening and wandering is reported. Absorption and scattering of radiation by shock waves, turbulent structures and aerosols in the exhaust cause considerable temporary alterations: peak intensity attenuation down to 0.1 beam width reaching up to twice its initial value, and beam deflection up to 2 mrad.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krmpot, Aleksandar J.; Rabasović, Mihailo D.; Jelenković, Branislav M.
2010-07-01
In this paper the saturation spectra of rubidium vapour at room temperature, obtained with overlapped co-propagating laser beams, were examined. Unlike the standard saturation spectroscopy, here the transmission of the pump laser beam was detected. The pump laser was locked to an atomic transition of the D2 line, while the probe laser frequency was scanned in a wide frequency range. The pump and probe beams had approximately the same intensities; thus the probe laser can saturate transitions and contribute to optical pumping. This, together with Doppler broadening, leads to rich pump transmission spectra, with many lines appearing due to the interaction of lasers with atoms in different velocity groups. The advantages of this method are well-resolved structures and appearance of spectral lines on a flat, Doppler-free background. Agreement between experimental and theoretical results shows the usefulness of this simple model, based on the rate equations, for identification of lines and determination of relative contribution to the observed line intensity from atoms with different velocities. Theoretical spectra are a useful tool for the calibration of experimental spectra obtained by a nonlinear dependence of the laser frequency on the voltage applied to the piezo used for the laser diode frequency scanning.
Willingale, L.; Nagel, S. R.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Bellei, C.; Dangor, A. E.; Kaluza, M. C.; Kamperidis, C.; Kneip, S.; Krushelnick, K.; Mangles, S. P. D.; Nilson, P. M.; Najmudin, Z.; Clarke, R. J.; Heathcote, R.; Lopes, N.; Nazarov, W.
2009-03-27
Experiments were performed to investigate the propagation of a high intensity (I{approx}10{sup 21} W cm{sup -2}) laser in foam targets with densities ranging from 0.9n{sub c} to 30n{sub c}. Proton acceleration was used to diagnose the interaction. An improvement in proton beam energy and efficiency is observed for the lowest density foam (n{sub e}=0.9n{sub c}), compared to higher density foams. Simulations show that the laser beam penetrates deeper into the target due to its relativistic propagation and results in greater collimation of the ensuing hot electrons. This results in the rear surface accelerating electric field being larger, increasing the efficiency of the acceleration. Enhanced collimation of the ions is seen to be due to the self-generated azimuthal magnetic and electric fields at the rear of the target.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tung, J. C.; Liang, H. C.; Lin, Y. C.; Su, K. W.; Huang, K. F.; Chen, Y. F.
2014-12-01
We systematically explore the power scale-up and propagation evolution of Lissajous structured beams in a lowly Nd-doped YVO4 laser with the off-axis pumping scheme. We experimentally found that the average output power can be up to 1.0 W for the output transmission in the range of 1.8-10% at an incident pump power of 6.2 W. It is also found that when the output transmission is greater than 5%, the spatial coherence is considerably reduced to lead to a feature of broken Lissajous figures in transverse patterns. Moreover, transverse patterns varying with propagation direction are remarkably measured to manifest the 3D characteristics of Lissajous structured beams. We also employ the formula of coherent states to make a comparison with experimental observations and to reveal the transverse momentum density varying with propagation direction.
Laserna, J J; Reyes, R Fernández; González, R; Tobaria, L; Lucena, P
2009-06-08
We report on an experimental study of the effect of atmospheric turbulence on laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) measurements. The characteristics of the atmosphere dictate specific performance constraints to this technology. Unlike classical laboratory LIBS systems where the distance to the sample is well known and characterized, LIBS systems working at several tens of meters to the target have specific atmospheric propagation conditions that cause the quality of the LIBS signals to be affected to a significant extent. Using a new LIBS based sensor system fitted with a nanosecond laser emitting at 1064 nm, propagation effects at distances of up to 120 m were investigated. The effects observed include wander and scintillation in the outgoing laser beam and in the return atomic emission signal. Plasmas were formed on aluminium targets. Average signal levels and signal fluctuations are measured so the effect of atmospheric turbulence on LIBS measurements is quantified.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sjöqvist, Lars; Henriksson, Markus; Fedina, Ekaterina; Fureby, Christer
2010-10-01
The exhaust from jet engines introduces extreme turbulence levels in local environments around aircrafts. This may degrade the performance of electro-optical missile warning and laser-based DIRCM systems used to protect aircrafts against heat-seeking missiles. Full scale trials using real engines are expensive and difficult to perform motivating numerical simulations of the turbulence properties within the jet engine exhaust. Large Eddy Simulations (LES) is a computational fluid dynamics method that can be used to calculate spatial and temporal refractive index dynamics of the turbulent flow in the engine exhaust. From LES simulations the instantaneous refractive index in each grid point can be derived and interpolated to phase screens for numerical laser beam propagation or used to estimate aberration effects from optical path differences. The high computation load of LES limits the available data in terms of the computational volume and number of time steps. In addition the phase screen method used in laser beam propagation may also be too slow. For this reason extraction of statistical parameters from the turbulence field and statistical beam propagation methods are studied. The temporal variation of the refractive index is used to define a spatially varying structure constant. Ray-tracing through the mean refractive index field provides integrated static aberrations and the path integrated structure constant. These parameters can be used in classical statistical parameterised models describing propagation through turbulence. One disadvantage of using the structure constant description is that the temporal information is lost. Methods for studying the variation of optical aberrations based on models of Zernike coefficients are discussed. The results of the propagation calculations using the different methods are compared to each other and to available experimental data. Advantages and disadvantages of the different methods are briefly discussed.
ARTICLES: Propagation of an intensity-modulated laser beam through a pulsed CO2 amplifier
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fedorov, S. V.; Yur'ev, M. S.
1987-01-01
A theoretical study was made (by a self-consistent solution of the equations of vibrational kinetics, hydrodynamics, and quasioptics) of the influence of self-interaction of laser radiation on the transmission of a beam through a CO2 amplifier. It was found that for times exceeding the time for collisional decay of the upper active level the radiation wavefront becomes unstable in the presence of small-scale perturbations of the transverse structure of the beam. It was shown that the harmful influence of the self-interaction on the divergence can be weakened by raising the intensity of the incident beam and the gain of the amplifier.
Srisungsitthisunti, Pornsak; Ersoy, Okan K; Xu, Xianfan
2009-01-01
Light diffraction by volume Fresnel zone plates (VFZPs) is simulated by the Hankel transform beam propagation method (Hankel BPM). The method utilizes circularly symmetric geometry and small step propagation to calculate the diffracted wave fields by VFZP layers. It is shown that fast and accurate diffraction results can be obtained with the Hankel BPM. The results show an excellent agreement with the scalar diffraction theory and the experimental results. The numerical method allows more comprehensive studies of the VFZP parameters to achieve higher diffraction efficiency.
Laser induced bubbles inside liquids: Transient optical properties and effects on a beam propagation
Lazic, V.; Carpanese, M.; Jovicevic, S.
2012-07-30
Light transmission through a laser formed bubble (LFB) following ablation of a metallic target inside water was studied. During the early expansion and late collapsing phases, the refraction index n{sub b} of the hot high-pressure vapor bubble is higher than 1.23 and close to that of the surrounding liquid. The cavity growth lowers n{sub b} down to 1.00 and causes strong defocusing of the incident laser beam with consequent enlargement of the ablation crater diameter, here overcoming factor two. Inhomogeneous water vapor clustering inside the cool expanded bubble further perturbs the light transmission and induces irregular ablation by the successive laser pulse.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lucey, Robert Francis, Jr.
1988-12-01
Experiments on the propagation of relativistic electron beams (REB) in the ion-focus regime (IFR) are described. A novel feature of the experiments is the long -pulse nature of the electron beam from the Michigan Electron Long Beam Accelerator (MELBA), a Marx generator with voltage compensation (1 MV, 10 kA, 1 microsecond). The REB is extracted from the diode through a 2.5 cm diameter aperture. A cold cathode is used. To reduce voltage droop from diode gap closure, anode-cathode spacings >7 cm are used. A 7.6 cm dia. cotton velvet cathode provides 300 A of injected current for 800 ns before a rapid increase in injected current, attributed to diode instability. Loss of REB transport accompanies this current increase. Conclusions drawn from the empirical diode study are: (1) successful generation of microsecond electron beams without magnetic insulation from cold cathodes requires diode spacing of ~10 cm, (2) cotton velvet gives improved beam quality over carbon fiber "brush" cathodes, (3) velvet cathodes have slower closure velocity of the cathode plasma. In the IFR regime partial neutralization of the space-charge of an REB by an ion background with the magnetic pinch force of the REB current achieves radial force balance. Experiments are performed in neutral gas, and in diethylaniline (DEA), preionized with a KrF laser. A pressure window for propagation is observed. For helium this window is 50-300 mtorr. The longest propagated pulse is 300 ns with a peak transported efficiency of 80%. In air the pressure window is 5-75 mtorr with similar efficiency. In DEA, fractional ionization of 0.004 has been achieved at a laser fluence of 10 mJ per square cm. To provide sufficient preionization for propagation, pressures where impact ionization is not negligible are required. A pressure window for propagation is again observed. For the current density and laser fluence in this experiment the pressure window is 0.2-2 mTorr. Within the pressure window instability, of the REB
Guo, Q L; Liang, B L; Wang, Y; Deng, G Y; Jiang, Y H; Zhang, S H; Fu, G S; Simmonds, P J
2014-10-01
The propagation characteristics of a focused laser beam in a SBN:75 photorefractive crystal strongly depend on the signal-to-background intensity ratio (R=I_{s}/I_{b}) under reverse external electric field. In the range 20>R>0.05, the laser beam shows enhanced self-defocusing behavior with increasing external electric field, while it shows self-focusing in the range 0.03>R>0.01. Spatial solitons are observed under a suitable reverse external electric field for R=0.025. A theoretical model is proposed to explain the experimental observations, which suggest a new type of soliton formation due to "enhancement" not "screening" of the external electrical field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holzner, R.; Dangel, S.
1998-02-01
Circularly polarized laser beams propagating through sodium vapour and tuned to the buffer-gas-broadened atomic 1355-5111/10/1/003/img1 transition can optically pump sodium atoms into a non-absorbing ground state. This causes an intensity-dependent refractive index gradient along as well as transverse to the laser beam propagation direction, giving rise to a number of nonlinear spatio-temporal intensity and polarization pattern creating processes. In the case of a single circularly polarized laser beam we have observed self-focusing and defocusing, the transformation of the incident Gaussian beam intensity profiles into ring profiles, a large shift of about 5 GHz of the maximum of the absorption profile when suitable magnetic fields are applied and the deflection of a beam by the inhomogeneous transverse magnetic field of a current-carrying wire. When two beams of opposite circular polarization are superimposed, astonishing effects such as the mutual deflection of both beams (beam bouncing), the mutual extinction of both beams (beam switching), the separation of initially overlapping beams (beam splitting) and the mutual attraction of both beams (beam attraction) can be observed. While most of the effects can be well described for the stationary state by a 1355-5111/10/1/003/img2 to 1355-5111/10/1/003/img3 atomic transition model, the correct description of the dynamics requires the consideration of all hyperfine states.
A phase screen model for simulating numerically the propagation of a laser beam in rain
Lukin, I P; Rychkov, D S; Falits, A V; Lai, Kin S; Liu, Min R
2009-09-30
The method based on the generalisation of the phase screen method for a continuous random medium is proposed for simulating numerically the propagation of laser radiation in a turbulent atmosphere with precipitation. In the phase screen model for a discrete component of a heterogeneous 'air-rain droplet' medium, the amplitude screen describing the scattering of an optical field by discrete particles of the medium is replaced by an equivalent phase screen with a spectrum of the correlation function of the effective dielectric constant fluctuations that is similar to the spectrum of a discrete scattering component - water droplets in air. The 'turbulent' phase screen is constructed on the basis of the Kolmogorov model, while the 'rain' screen model utiises the exponential distribution of the number of rain drops with respect to their radii as a function of the rain intensity. Theresults of the numerical simulation are compared with the known theoretical estimates for a large-scale discrete scattering medium. (propagation of laser radiation in matter)
Propagation of a short-pulse laser-driven electron beam in matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volpe, L.; Batani, D.; Birindelli, G.; Morace, A.; Carpeggiani, P.; Xu, M. H.; Liu, F.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Lin, X. X.; Liu, F.; Wang, S. J.; Zhu, P. F.; Meng, L. M.; Wang, Z. H.; Li, Y. T.; Sheng, Z. M.; Wei, Z. Y.; Zhang, J.; Santos, J. J.; Spindloe, C.
2013-03-01
We studied the transport of an intense electron beam produced by high intensity laser pulses through metals and insulators. Targets were irradiated at two different intensities, 1017 W/cm2 and 1019 W/cm2, at the laser facility Xtreme Light XL-III in Beijing, a Ti:Sa laser source emitting 40 fs pulses at 800 nm. The main diagnostic was Cu-Kα fluorescence imaging. Images of Kα spots have been collected for those two laser intensities, for different target thickness, and for different materials. Experimental results are analyzed taking into account both collisional and collective effects as well as refluxing at the edge of the target. The target temperature is evaluated to be Tc ˜ 6 eV for intensity I = 1017 W/cm2 (for all the tested materials: plastic, aluminium, and copper), and Tc ˜ 60 eV in aluminium and 120 eV in titanium for intensity I = 1019 W/cm2.
Beam Propagation Experimental Study.
1982-03-01
30- -40- -50 I 0 100 200 300 Time (ns) Figure 2. FX-100 diode voltage and current. The gas- insulated coax was charged to 4.2 MV in order to produce...limit the usable gradient. The voltage standoff capability will be further limited by electron bombardment of the insulators , which may lead to flashover ...the low-pressure window for stable propagation has been inferred from measurements of the time delay for the beam arrival at a given axial position. 8
Gaussian-Beam Laser-Resonator Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cross, Patricia L.; Bair, Clayton H.; Barnes, Norman
1989-01-01
Gaussian Beam Laser Resonator Program models laser resonators by use of Gaussian-beam-propagation techniques. Used to determine radii of beams as functions of position in laser resonators. Algorithm used in program has three major components. First, ray-transfer matrix for laser resonator must be calculated. Next, initial parameters of beam calculated. Finally, propagation of beam through optical elements computed. Written in Microsoft FORTRAN (Version 4.01).
Zhang, Bin; Chu, Xiaoliang; Li, Qiang
2002-07-01
The second-order intensity moments and beam-propagation factor (M2 factor) of partially coherent beams have been generalized to include the case of hard-edged diffraction. A laser beam with amplitude modulation and phase fluctuation and a Gaussian Schell-model beam are taken as two typical examples of partially coherent beams. Analytical expressions for the generalized M2 factor are derived.
Free space optical system performance for laser beam propagation through non-Kolmogorov turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toselli, Italo; Andrews, Larry C.; Phillips, Ronald L.; Ferrero, Valter
2007-02-01
Free space laser system performance is limited by atmospheric turbulence that has been described for many years by Kolmogorov's power spectral density model because of its simplicity. Unfortunately several experiments have been reported recently that show Kolmogorov theory is sometimes incomplete to describe atmospheric statistics properly, in particular in portions of the troposphere and stratosphere. In this paper we present a Non-Kolmogorov power spectrum which uses a generalized exponent instead of constant standard exponent value 11/3 and a generalized amplitude factor instead of constant value 0.033. Using this new spectrum in weak turbulence, we carry out, for horizontal path, analysis of Long Term Beam Spread, Scintillation index, Probability of fade, mean SNR and mean BER as variation of the spectrum exponent.
Analytical approach of laser beam propagation in the hollow polygonal light pipe.
Zhu, Guangzhi; Zhu, Xiao; Zhu, Changhong
2013-08-10
An analytical method of researching the light distribution properties on the output end of a hollow n-sided polygonal light pipe and a light source with a Gaussian distribution is developed. The mirror transformation matrices and a special algorithm of removing void virtual images are created to acquire the location and direction vector of each effective virtual image on the entrance plane. The analytical method is demonstrated by Monte Carlo ray tracing. At the same time, four typical cases are discussed. The analytical results indicate that the uniformity of light distribution varies with the structural and optical parameters of the hollow n-sided polygonal light pipe and light source with a Gaussian distribution. The analytical approach will be useful to design and choose the hollow n-sided polygonal light pipe, especially for high-power laser beam homogenization techniques.
Weil, Bradley S.; Wetherington, Jr., Grady R.
1985-01-01
Laser beam monitoring systems include laser-transparent plates set at an angle to the laser beam passing therethrough and light sensor for detecting light reflected from an object on which the laser beam impinges.
Viering, Kirsten; Medellin, David; Mo, Jianyong; Raizen, Mark G
2012-11-05
We report on an experimental method to align a laser beam to a cloud of atoms trapped in a magneto-optical trap (MOT). We show how balanced lock-in detection leads to a very sensitive method to align the laser beam to the atoms in the plane perpendicular to the propagation direction. This provides a very reliable and fast way of aligning laser beams to atoms trapped in a MOT.
Independent assessment of laser power beaming options
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ponikvar, Donald R.
1992-01-01
Technical and architectural issues facing a laser power beaming system are discussed. Issues regarding the laser device, optics, beam control, propagation, and lunar site are examined. Environmental and health physics aspects are considered.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Manning, Robert M.
2012-01-01
The method of moments is used to define and derive expressions for laser beam deflection and beam radius broadening for high-energy propagation through the Earth s atmosphere. These expressions are augmented with the integral invariants of the corresponding nonlinear parabolic equation that describes the electric field of high-energy laser beam to propagation to yield universal equations for the aforementioned quantities; the beam deflection is a linear function of the propagation distance whereas the beam broadening is a quadratic function of distance. The coefficients of these expressions are then derived from a thin screen approximation solution of the nonlinear parabolic equation to give corresponding analytical expressions for a target located outside the Earth s atmospheric layer. These equations, which are graphically presented for a host of propagation scenarios, as well as the thin screen model, are easily amenable to the phase expansions of the wave front for the specification and design of adaptive optics algorithms to correct for the inherent phase aberrations. This work finds application in, for example, the analysis of beamed energy propulsion for space-based vehicles.
Henesian, M.A.; Renard, P.; Auerbach, J.
1997-03-17
An exhaustive set of Beamlet and Nova laser system simulations were performed over a wide range of power levels in order to gain understanding about the statistical trends in Nova and Beamlet`s experimental data sets, and to provide critical validation of propagation tools and design ``rules`` applied to the 192-arm National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The experiments considered for modeling were at 220-ps FWHM duration with unpumped booster slabs on Beamlet, and 100-ps FWHM with pumped 31.5-cm and 46-cm disk amplifiers on Nova. Simulations indicated that on Beamlet, the AB (the intensity pendent phase shift parameter characterizing the tendency towards beam filamentation) for the booster amplifier stage without pumping, would be nearly identical to the AB expected on NIF at the peak of a typical 20-ns long shaped pulse intended for ICF target irradiation. Therefore, with energies less than I kJ in short-pulses, we examined on Beamlet the comparable AB-driven filamentation conditions predicted for long ICF pulseshapes in the 18 kJ regime on the NIF, while avoiding fluence dependent surface damage. Various spatial filter pinhole configurations were examined on Nova and Beamlet. Open transport spatial filter pinholes were used in some experiments to allow the direct measurement of the onset of beam filamentation. Schlieren images on Beamlet of the far field irradiance measuring the scattered light fraction outside of 33-{micro}radians were also obtained and compared to modeled results.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ulrich, Peter B. (Editor); Wilson, Leroy E. (Editor)
1991-01-01
Consideration is given to turbulence at the inner scale, modeling turbulent transport in laser beam propagation, variable wind direction effects on thermal blooming correction, realistic wind effects on turbulence and thermal blooming compensation, wide bandwidth spectral measurements of atmospheric tilt turbulence, remote alignment of adaptive optical systems with far-field optimization, focusing infrared laser beams on targets in space without using adaptive optics, and a simplex optimization method for adaptive optics system alignment. Consideration is also given to ground-to-space multiline propagation at 1.3 micron, a path integral approach to thermal blooming, functional reconstruction predictions of uplink whole beam Strehl ratios in the presence of thermal blooming, and stability analysis of semidiscrete schemes for thermal blooming computation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ulrich, Peter B. (Editor); Wilson, Leroy E. (Editor)
1991-01-01
Consideration is given to turbulence at the inner scale, modeling turbulent transport in laser beam propagation, variable wind direction effects on thermal blooming correction, realistic wind effects on turbulence and thermal blooming compensation, wide bandwidth spectral measurements of atmospheric tilt turbulence, remote alignment of adaptive optical systems with far-field optimization, focusing infrared laser beams on targets in space without using adaptive optics, and a simplex optimization method for adaptive optics system alignment. Consideration is also given to ground-to-space multiline propagation at 1.3 micron, a path integral approach to thermal blooming, functional reconstruction predictions of uplink whole beam Strehl ratios in the presence of thermal blooming, and stability analysis of semidiscrete schemes for thermal blooming computation.
GAUSSIAN BEAM LASER RESONATOR PROGRAM
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cross, P. L.
1994-01-01
In designing a laser cavity, the laser engineer is frequently concerned with more than the stability of the resonator. Other considerations include the size of the beam at various optical surfaces within the resonator or the performance of intracavity line-narrowing or other optical elements. Laser resonators obey the laws of Gaussian beam propagation, not geometric optics. The Gaussian Beam Laser Resonator Program models laser resonators using Gaussian ray trace techniques. It can be used to determine the propagation of radiation through laser resonators. The algorithm used in the Gaussian Beam Resonator program has three major components. First, the ray transfer matrix for the laser resonator must be calculated. Next calculations of the initial beam parameters, specifically, the beam stability, the beam waist size and location for the resonator input element, and the wavefront curvature and beam radius at the input surface to the first resonator element are performed. Finally the propagation of the beam through the optical elements is computed. The optical elements can be modeled as parallel plates, lenses, mirrors, dummy surfaces, or Gradient Index (GRIN) lenses. A Gradient Index lens is a good approximation of a laser rod operating under a thermal load. The optical system may contain up to 50 elements. In addition to the internal beam elements the optical system may contain elements external to the resonator. The Gaussian Beam Resonator program was written in Microsoft FORTRAN (Version 4.01). It was developed for the IBM PS/2 80-071 microcomputer and has been implemented on an IBM PC compatible under MS DOS 3.21. The program was developed in 1988 and requires approximately 95K bytes to operate.
GAUSSIAN BEAM LASER RESONATOR PROGRAM
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cross, P. L.
1994-01-01
In designing a laser cavity, the laser engineer is frequently concerned with more than the stability of the resonator. Other considerations include the size of the beam at various optical surfaces within the resonator or the performance of intracavity line-narrowing or other optical elements. Laser resonators obey the laws of Gaussian beam propagation, not geometric optics. The Gaussian Beam Laser Resonator Program models laser resonators using Gaussian ray trace techniques. It can be used to determine the propagation of radiation through laser resonators. The algorithm used in the Gaussian Beam Resonator program has three major components. First, the ray transfer matrix for the laser resonator must be calculated. Next calculations of the initial beam parameters, specifically, the beam stability, the beam waist size and location for the resonator input element, and the wavefront curvature and beam radius at the input surface to the first resonator element are performed. Finally the propagation of the beam through the optical elements is computed. The optical elements can be modeled as parallel plates, lenses, mirrors, dummy surfaces, or Gradient Index (GRIN) lenses. A Gradient Index lens is a good approximation of a laser rod operating under a thermal load. The optical system may contain up to 50 elements. In addition to the internal beam elements the optical system may contain elements external to the resonator. The Gaussian Beam Resonator program was written in Microsoft FORTRAN (Version 4.01). It was developed for the IBM PS/2 80-071 microcomputer and has been implemented on an IBM PC compatible under MS DOS 3.21. The program was developed in 1988 and requires approximately 95K bytes to operate.
Propagating of partially coherent laser beam in the near-resonant atomic gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kong, Delong; Wang, Zhaoying; Fang, Feiyun; Shi, Congquan; Lin, Qiang
2017-09-01
The characteristics of the light with various degrees of spatial coherence traveling in near-resonant atomic gas are investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The experimental results show that the coherence of partially coherent beams can get better after interaction with atoms under some certain conditions compared with that before interaction. The experimental results are explained theoretically by the method of spectroscopy absorption. Furthermore, partially coherent light has a better environmental adaptability than fully coherent light.
A Modeling and Data Analysis of Laser Beam Propagation in the Maritime Domain
2015-05-18
The light waves from the sun dominate the light waves of the laser light, creating less fluctuations in intensity at the target. The sensor is...our data exhibits. We develop a stochastic paraxial wave equation in order to have a mathematical model capable of accepting statistical parameters... wave equation in order to have a mathematical model capable of accepting statistical pa- rameters from the atmosphere as input to allow us to
Time-Dependent Propagation of High-Energy Laser Beams through the Atmosphere: II
2007-11-02
Equation (Al) can be written <xi> 2 <x. > i = p I dx± dx2 ^1^(^,^2,3)1 , = p I &c1 da?2 x±\\S{x1,x2,z)\\ , ( A4a ) i = 1, 2 (A4b...where "P is the beam power given by P = / dx± dx2 \\${x±,x2)| 2 46- (A5) By differentiating Eqs. ( A4a ) and (A4b) with respect to z and making
Yi, Xiang; Li, Zan; Liu, Zengji
2015-02-20
In clean ocean water, the performance of a underwater optical communication system is limited mainly by oceanic turbulence, which is defined as the fluctuations in the index of refraction resulting from temperature and salinity fluctuations. In this paper, using the refractive index spectrum of oceanic turbulence under weak turbulence conditions, we carry out, for a horizontally propagating plane wave and spherical wave, analysis of the aperture-averaged scintillation index, the associated probability of fade, mean signal-to-noise ratio, and mean bit error rate. Our theoretical results show that for various values of the rate of dissipation of mean squared temperature and the temperature-salinity balance parameter, the large-aperture receiver leads to a remarkable decrease of scintillation and consequently a significant improvement on the system performance. Such an effect is more noticeable in the plane wave case than in the spherical wave case.
Understanding Laser Beam Quality Beyond M2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soskind, Y. G.; Soskind, M. G.
2016-09-01
The laser beam M2 quality parameter is based on the second moments' theory, as defined by ISO standards, and provides a common approach for defining the propagation characteristics of laser beams as a whole. At the same time, the M2 parameter fails to quantitatively distinguish the quality of laser beams with different spatial characteristics. For example, several laser beams with very different spatial profiles may have the same M2 value. To overcome this ambiguity, a different beam quality criterion is introduced, allowing for a quantitative definition of both the structured laser beam shape and its propagation characteristics. This criterion, called the encircled power M2 (EPM2), bridges the gap between the M2 quality parameter and the structured laser beam shape. Based on several examples we demonstrate the utility of EPM2 as applied to characterization of several structured laser beam types.
Beam Propagation Experimental Study.
1983-04-01
and locating the camera next to the FX-100 output switch . The camera trigger was derived directly from the light emitted by the FX-100 output switch ...Instability 20 ASSTRPACT eContinue an reverse aide it necessary and Identify by block number) )A program of extensively diagnosed experiments to investigate ...primary objectives of this research were to measure the rate of erosion of the headIof the beam, and to investigate resistive instabilities, such as
Controlling Second Harmonic Efficiency of Laser Beam Interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barnes, Norman P. (Inventor); Walsh, Brian M. (Inventor); Reichle, Donald J. (Inventor)
2011-01-01
A method is provided for controlling second harmonic efficiency of laser beam interactions. A laser system generates two laser beams (e.g., a laser beam with two polarizations) for incidence on a nonlinear crystal having a preferred direction of propagation. Prior to incidence on the crystal, the beams are optically processed based on the crystal's beam separation characteristics to thereby control a position in the crystal along the preferred direction of propagation at which the beams interact.
Laser Propagation in Uranium Hexafluoride
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chu, Danny
1990-01-01
Several researchers have simulated the laser pulse propagation through simple N-level systems; but, for UF _6 models, large CPU time and memory is required. In an attempt to efficiently yet accurately characterize laser pulse propagation through a UF _6 molecule, a model of UF_6 is created and analyzed by adiabatic excitation. A minimax numerical method is developed to solve the time -dependent Schrodinger equation and then applied to the study of laser excitation of UF_6 using various Gaussian pulses. The process of laser isotope separation is also discussed. The results from the laser excitation of UF_6 are used to simulate laser propagation through ^{235} UF_6.
Electromagnetically Induced Guiding of Counter-propagating Lasers in Plasmas
First Author = G. Shvets; A. Pukhov
1998-05-01
The interaction of counter-propagating laser pulses in a plasma is considered. When the frequencies of the two lasers are close, nonlinear modification of the refraction index results in the mutual focusing of the two beams. A short (of order the plasma period) laser pulse can also be nonlinearly focused by a long counter-propagating beam which extends over the entire guiding length. This phenomenon of electromagnetically induced guiding can be utilized in laser-driven plasma accelerators.
Beam spreading of vortex beams propagating in turbulent atmosphere.
Lukin, Vladimir P; Konyaev, Peter A; Sennikov, Victor A
2012-04-01
We present some results obtained by numerical modeling of the propagation of vortex beams LG(0l) through a randomly inhomogeneous medium. The vortex beams are the lower order Laguerre-Gaussian modes. Such beams, if propagated under conditions of weak turbulence, also experience distortions, like a Gaussian beam. However, the statistically averaged vortex beams (LG(0l)) conserve the central intensity dip with a nonzero intensity on the beam axis. The beam broadening of vortex beams is analyzed. The average vortex beams are found to be broadened less than the Gaussian beam while propagated through a randomly inhomogeneous medium. The higher the topological charge l is, the smaller the beam broadening is.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bufton, Jack L.; Harding, David J.; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis
1993-01-01
Laser altimetry provides a high-resolution, high-accuracy method for measurement of the elevation and horizontal variability of Earth-surface topography. The basis of the measurement is the timing of the round-trip propagation of short-duration pulses of laser radiation between a spacecraft and the Earth's surface. Vertical resolution of the altimetry measurement is determined primarily by laser pulsewidth, surface-induced spreading in time of the reflected pulse, and the timing precision of the altimeter electronics. With conventional gain-switched pulses from solid-state lasers and sub-nsec resolution electronics, sub-meter vertical range resolution is possible from orbital attitudes of several hundred kilometers. Horizontal resolution is a function of laser beam footprint size at the surface and the spacing between successive laser pulses. Laser divergence angle and altimeter platform height above the surface determine the laser footprint size at the surface, while laser pulse repetition-rate, laser transmitter beam configuration, and altimeter platform velocity determine the space between successive laser pulses. Multiple laser transitters in a singlaltimeter instrument provide across-track and along-track coverage that can be used to construct a range image of the Earth's surface. Other aspects of the multi-beam laser altimeter are discussed.
Laser absorption and electron propagation in rippled plasma targets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shukla, Chandrasekhar; Das, Amita; Patel, Kartik
2016-10-01
Efficient absorption of laser energy and the collimated propagation of relativistic electron beams (generated by the laser target interaction) in plasma are two issues which are of significant importance for applications such as fast ignition scheme of inertial confinement fusion (ICF). It is shown with the help of 2-D Particle- In- Cell simulations that introducing density ripples transverse to the laser propagation direction enhances the efficiency of laser power absorption. Furthermore, the density ripples are also instrumental in suppressing the Weibel instability of the propagating electron beam (which is responsible for the divergence of the beam). A physical understanding of the two effects is also provided.
Vaisseau, X; Morace, A; Touati, M; Nakatsutsumi, M; Baton, S D; Hulin, S; Nicolaï, Ph; Nuter, R; Batani, D; Beg, F N; Breil, J; Fedosejevs, R; Feugeas, J-L; Forestier-Colleoni, P; Fourment, C; Fujioka, S; Giuffrida, L; Kerr, S; McLean, H S; Sawada, H; Tikhonchuk, V T; Santos, J J
2017-05-19
Collimated transport of ultrahigh intensity electron current was observed in cold and in laser-shocked vitreous carbon, in agreement with simulation predictions. The fast electron beams were created by coupling high-intensity and high-contrast laser pulses onto copper-coated cones drilled into the carbon samples. The guiding mechanism-observed only for times before the shock breakout at the inner cone tip-is due to self-generated resistive magnetic fields of ∼0.5-1 kT arising from the intense currents of fast electrons in vitreous carbon, by virtue of its specific high resistivity over the range of explored background temperatures. The spatial distribution of the electron beams, injected through the samples at different stages of compression, was characterized by side-on imaging of hard x-ray fluorescence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaisseau, X.; Morace, A.; Touati, M.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Baton, S. D.; Hulin, S.; Nicolaï, Ph.; Nuter, R.; Batani, D.; Beg, F. N.; Breil, J.; Fedosejevs, R.; Feugeas, J.-L.; Forestier-Colleoni, P.; Fourment, C.; Fujioka, S.; Giuffrida, L.; Kerr, S.; McLean, H. S.; Sawada, H.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Santos, J. J.
2017-05-01
Collimated transport of ultrahigh intensity electron current was observed in cold and in laser-shocked vitreous carbon, in agreement with simulation predictions. The fast electron beams were created by coupling high-intensity and high-contrast laser pulses onto copper-coated cones drilled into the carbon samples. The guiding mechanism—observed only for times before the shock breakout at the inner cone tip—is due to self-generated resistive magnetic fields of ˜0.5 - 1 kT arising from the intense currents of fast electrons in vitreous carbon, by virtue of its specific high resistivity over the range of explored background temperatures. The spatial distribution of the electron beams, injected through the samples at different stages of compression, was characterized by side-on imaging of hard x-ray fluorescence.
Valley, G. C.
1985-01-08
A laser system for providing a rapidly steerable laser output beam. The laser system includes a phase conjugate reflector, laser gain medium and its associated pump source, an output coupling device, and an optical element which selectably controls the transverse lasing mode of the laser system. The components are arranged to form a laser oscillator between the phase conjugate reflector and the optical device, and is operated in such a manner that each selected transverse mode of laser operation generates an output beam from the system which has a different wavefront tilt. Accordingly, the output beam is steerable and is dependent upon the selected transverse mode which is currently lasing in the oscillator.
Laser-Bessel-Beam-Driven Electron Acceleration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Dazhi; Imasaki, Kazuo
2005-08-01
A vacuum-laser-driven acceleration scheme using a laser Bessel beam is presented. In contrast to the conventional Gaussian beam, the Bessel beam demonstrates diffraction-free propagation, which implies the possibility of extending the effective interaction distance for a laser-electron system. In this method, the Bessel beam is truncated by annular slits to realize a series of nonsuccessive dim regions along the path of laser propagation, where the amplitude of the laser field is reduced, making the electron slightly decelerate as it travels in the decelerating phase. We analyzed the propagation characteristics of the truncated Bessel beam with scalar diffraction theory, and then introduced this approach with careful investigation of a three-stage acceleration model.
Yousefi, Masoud; Golmohammady, Shole; Mashal, Ahmad; Kashani, Fatemeh Dabbagh
2015-11-01
In this paper, on the basis of the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle, a semianalytical expression for describing on-axis scintillation index of a partially coherent flat-topped (PCFT) laser beam of weak to moderate oceanic turbulence is derived; consequently, by using the log-normal intensity probability density function, the bit error rate (BER) is evaluated. The effects of source factors (such as wavelength, order of flatness, and beam width) and turbulent ocean parameters (such as Kolmogorov microscale, relative strengths of temperature and salinity fluctuations, rate of dissipation of the mean squared temperature, and rate of dissipation of the turbulent kinetic energy per unit mass of fluid) on propagation behavior of scintillation index, and, hence, on BER, are studied in detail. Results indicate that, in comparison with a Gaussian beam, a PCFT laser beam with a higher order of flatness is found to have lower scintillations. In addition, the scintillation index and BER are most affected when salinity fluctuations in the ocean dominate temperature fluctuations.
Yu, Hao; Rossi, Giammarco; Braglia, Andrea; Perrone, Guido
2016-08-10
The paper presents the development of a tool based on a back-propagation artificial neural network to assist in the accurate positioning of the lenses used to collimate the beam from semiconductor laser diodes along the so-called fast axis. After training using a Gaussian beam ray-equivalent model, the network is capable of indicating the tilt, decenter, and defocus of such lenses from the measured field distribution, so the operator can determine the errors with respect to the actual lens position and optimize the diode assembly procedure. An experimental validation using a typical configuration exploited in multi-emitter diode module assembly and fast axis collimating lenses with different focal lengths and numerical apertures is reported.
Richou, B; Schertz, I; Gobin, I; Richou, J
1997-03-01
A large-core multimode optical fiber of a few meters length is studied as a 10-MW beam delivery system for a 15-ns pulsed Nd:YAG laser. A laser-to-fiber vacuum coupler is used to inhibit air breakdown and reduce the probability of dielectric breakdown on the fiber front surface. Laser-induced damage inside the fiber core is observed behind the fiber front surface. An explanation based on a high power density is illustrated by a ray trace. Damaged spots and measurements of fiber output energies are reported for two laser beam distributions: a flat-hat type and a near-Gaussian type. Experiments have been performed to deliver a 100-pulse mean energy between 100 and 230 mJ without catastrophic damage.
Ultrashort laser pulse beam shaping.
Zhang, Shuyan; Ren, Yuhang; Lüpke, Gunter
2003-02-01
We calculated the temporal and spatial characteristics of an ultrashort laser pulse propagating through a diffractive beam-shaping system that converts a Gaussian beam into a beam with a uniform irradiance profile that was originally designed for continuous waves [Proc. SPIE 2863, 237(1996)]. The pulse front is found to be considerably curved for a 10-fs pulse, resulting in a temporal broadening of the pulse that increases with increasing radius. The spatial intensity distribution deviates significantly from a top-hat profile, whereas the fluence shows a homogeneous radial distribution.
Laser beam generating apparatus
Warner, B.E.; Duncan, D.B.
1994-02-15
Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus is described. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect). 7 figures.
Laser beam generating apparatus
Warner, Bruce E.; Duncan, David B.
1994-01-01
Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect).
Laser beam generating apparatus
Warner, Bruce E.; Duncan, David B.
1993-01-01
Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect).
Laser beam generating apparatus
Warner, B.E.; Duncan, D.B.
1993-12-28
Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect). 11 figures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toselli, Italo; Andrews, Larry C.; Phillips, Ronald L.; Ferrero, Valter
2007-09-01
It is well known that free space laser system performance is limited by atmospheric turbulence. Most theoretical treatments have been described for many years by Kolmogorov's power spectral density model because of its simplicity. Unfortunately several experiments have been reported recently that show the Kolmogorov theory is sometimes incomplete to describe atmospheric statistics properly, in particular, in portions of the troposphere and stratosphere. In this paper, using a non Kolmogorov spectrum and following same procedure already used for horizontal path analysis, we extend free space optical system performance analysis to uplink and downlink paths. Our non Kolmogorov spectrum uses a generalized exponent instead of constant standard exponent value 11/3 and a generalized amplitude factor instead of constant value 0.033. Therefore, in non-Kolmogorov weak turbulence, we carry out, for a uplink and a downlink paths, analysis of Long Term Beam Spread, Scintillation index, Probability of fade, mean SNR and mean BER as variation of the spectrum exponent.
Propagation of chirped laser pulses in a plasma channel
Jha, Pallavi; Malviya, Amita; Upadhyay, Ajay K.
2009-06-15
Propagation of an initially chirped, Gaussian laser pulse in a preformed parabolic plasma channel is analyzed. A variational technique is used to obtain equations describing the evolution of the phase shift and laser spot size. The effect of initial chirp on the laser pulse length and intensity of a matched laser beam propagating in a plasma channel has been analyzed. The effective pulse length and chirp parameter of the laser pulse due to its interaction with plasma have been obtained and graphically depicted. The resultant variation in laser frequency across the laser pulse is discussed.
Kashani, Fatemeh Dabbagh; Yousefi, Masoud
2016-08-10
In this research, based on an analytical expression for cross-spectral density (CSD) matrix elements, coherence and polarization properties of phase-locked partially coherent flat-topped (PCFT) radial array laser beams propagating through weak oceanic turbulence are analyzed. Spectral degrees of coherence and polarization are analytically calculated using CSD matrix elements. Also, the effective width of spatial degree of coherence (EWSDC) is calculated numerically. The simulation is done by considering the effects of source parameters (such as radius of the array setup's circle, effective width of the spectral degree of coherence, and wavelength) and turbulent ocean factors (such as the rate of dissipation of the turbulent kinetic energy per unit mass of fluid and relative strength of temperature and salinity fluctuations, Kolmogorov micro-scale, and rate of dissipation of the mean squared temperature) in detail. Results indicate that any change in the amount of turbulence factors that increase the turbulence power reduces the EWSDC significantly and causes the reduction in the degree of polarization, and occurs at shorter propagation distances but with smaller magnitudes. In addition, being valid for all conditions, the degradation rate of the EWSDC of Gaussian array beams are more in comparison with the PCFT ones. The simulation and calculation results are shown by graphs.
Makarov, V A; Petnikova, V M; Shuvalov, V V
2013-10-31
We have analysed self-similar solutions to the propagation problem of a slit beam with a plane wavefront in a linear medium and in a photorefractive crystal with diffusion nonlinearity. It is shown that in the latter case, despite the presence of the nonlinear term in the wave equation, the linear superposition principle holds true for the solutions of this class due to saturation. At the same time, the mirror symmetry violation of the wave equation for the transverse coordinate in the nonlinear case and the requirement to the spatial localisation modify one of the localised partial solutions (Airy beam) to the corresponding linear problem and prohibit the existence of other solutions of this class. (laser beams)
Meteorological effects on laser propagation for power transmission
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beverly, R. E., III
1982-01-01
An examination of possible laser operating parameters for power transmission to earth from solar power satellites is presented, with particular attention paid to assuring optimal delivery at midlatitudes. The degradation of beam efficiency due to molecular scattering, molecular absorption, aerosol scattering, and aerosol absorption during beam propagation through the atmosphere can be alleviated by judicious choice of wavelength windows, elevating the receptor sites, using a vertical propagation path, or by hole boring, i.e., vaporizing the aerosol particles in the beam path. Analyses are given for the beam propagation through fog, haze, clouds, and snow using various transitions. Only weapons-quality lasers are seen as being capable of boring through clouds and aerosols, employing a CW beam with superimposed pulses at high power densities. It is concluded that further short wavelength transmission experiments be performed to demonstrate transmission feasibility with the CW/pulsed mode of beam propagation.
Meteorological effects on laser propagation for power transmission
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beverly, R. E., III
1982-01-01
An examination of possible laser operating parameters for power transmission to earth from solar power satellites is presented, with particular attention paid to assuring optimal delivery at midlatitudes. The degradation of beam efficiency due to molecular scattering, molecular absorption, aerosol scattering, and aerosol absorption during beam propagation through the atmosphere can be alleviated by judicious choice of wavelength windows, elevating the receptor sites, using a vertical propagation path, or by hole boring, i.e., vaporizing the aerosol particles in the beam path. Analyses are given for the beam propagation through fog, haze, clouds, and snow using various transitions. Only weapons-quality lasers are seen as being capable of boring through clouds and aerosols, employing a CW beam with superimposed pulses at high power densities. It is concluded that further short wavelength transmission experiments be performed to demonstrate transmission feasibility with the CW/pulsed mode of beam propagation.
Beam combining of quantum cascade laser arrays.
Lee, Benjamin G; Kansky, Jan; Goyal, Anish K; Pflügl, Christian; Diehl, Laurent; Belkin, Mikhail A; Sanchez, Antonio; Capasso, Federico A
2009-08-31
Wavelength beam combining was used to co-propagate beams from 28 elements in an array of distributed-feedback quantum cascade lasers (DFB-QCLs). The beam-quality product of the array, defined as the product of near-field spot size and far-field divergence for the entire array, was improved by a factor of 21 by using wavelength beam combining. To demonstrate the applicability of wavelength beam combined DFB-QCL arrays for remote sensing, we obtained the absorption spectrum of isopropanol at a distance of 6 m from the laser array.
Kasner, William H.; Racki, Daniel J.; Swenson, Clark E.
1984-01-01
A plurality of pivotal reflectors direct a high-power laser beam onto a workpiece, and a rotatable reflector is movable to a position wherein it intercepts the beam and deflects a major portion thereof away from its normal path, the remainder of the beam passing to the pivotal reflectors through an aperture in the rotating reflector. A plurality of targets are movable to positions intercepting the path of light traveling to the pivotal reflectors, and a preliminary adjustment of the latter is made by use of a low-power laser beam reflected from the rotating reflector, after which the same targets are used to make a final adjustment of the pivotal reflectors with the portion of the high-power laser beam passed through the rotating reflector.
Mobile terawatt laser propagation facility (Conference Presentation)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shah, Lawrence; Roumayah, Patrick; Bodnar, Nathan; Bradford, Joshua D.; Maukonen, Douglas; Richardson, Martin C.
2017-03-01
This presentation will describe the design and construction status of a new mobile high-energy femtosecond laser systems producing 500 mJ, 100 fs pulses at 10 Hz. This facility is built into a shipping container and includes a cleanroom housing the laser system, a separate section for the beam director optics with a retractable roof, and the environmental control equipment necessary to maintain stable operation. The laser system includes several innovations to improve the utility of the system for "in field" experiments. For example, this system utilizes a fiber laser oscillator and a monolithic chirped Bragg grating stretcher to improve system robustness/size and employs software to enable remote monitoring and system control. Uniquely, this facility incorporates a precision motion-controlled gimbal altitude-azimuth mount with a coudé path to enable aiming of the beam over a wide field of view. In addition to providing the ability to precisely aim at multiple targets, it is also possible to coordinate the beam with separate tracking/diagnostic sensing equipment as well as other laser systems. This mobile platform will be deployed at the Townes Institute Science and Technology Experimental Facility (TISTEF) located at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, to utilize the 1-km secured laser propagation range and the wide array of meteorological instrumentation for atmospheric and turbulence characterization. This will provide significant new data on the propagation of high peak power ultrashort laser pulses and detailed information on the atmospheric conditions in a coastal semi-tropical environment.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beverly, R. E., III
1980-01-01
The primary emphasis of this research activity was to investigate the effect of the environment on laser power transmission/reception from space to ground. Potential mitigation techniques to minimize the environment effect by a judicious choice of laser operating parameters was investigated. Using these techniques, the availability of power at selected sites was determined using statistical meteorological data for each site.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jodoin, Ronald E.
1979-01-01
Investigates the effect of the nonuniform irradiance across a laser beam on diffraction of the beam, specifically the Fraunhofer diffraction of a laser beam with a Gaussian irradiance profile as it passes through a circular aperture. (GA)
Propagation-invariant beams with quantum pendulum spectra: from Bessel beams to Gaussian beam-beams.
Dennis, Mark R; Ring, James D
2013-09-01
We describe a new class of propagation-invariant light beams with Fourier transform given by an eigenfunction of the quantum mechanical pendulum. These beams, whose spectra (restricted to a circle) are doubly periodic Mathieu functions in azimuth, depend on a field strength parameter. When the parameter is zero, pendulum beams are Bessel beams, and as the parameter approaches infinity, they resemble transversely propagating one-dimensional Gaussian wave packets (Gaussian beam-beams). Pendulum beams are the eigenfunctions of an operator that interpolates between the squared angular momentum operator and the linear momentum operator. The analysis reveals connections with Mathieu beams, and insight into the paraxial approximation.
Horizontal atmospheric turbulence, beam propagation, and modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilcox, Christopher C.; Santiago, Freddie; Martinez, Ty; Judd, K. Peter; Restaino, Sergio R.
2017-05-01
The turbulent effect from the Earth's atmosphere degrades the performance of an optical imaging system. Many studies have been conducted in the study of beam propagation in a turbulent medium. Horizontal beam propagation and correction presents many challenges when compared to vertical due to the far harsher turbulent conditions and increased complexity it induces. We investigate the collection of beam propagation data, analysis, and use for building a mathematical model of the horizontal turbulent path and the plans for an adaptive optical system to use this information to correct for horizontal path atmospheric turbulence.
Digital Computer Simulation Programs for Electrostrictive Laser Beam Trapping,
output is a printed computer movie showing the beam propagation trajectory at selected intervals during the laser pulse, and a graph of peak achieved intensity along the beam axis. The movie may also be plotted. (Author)
Laser steering of particle beams: Refraction and reflection ofparticle beams
Esarey, Eric; Katsouleas, T.; Mori, W.B.; Dodd, E.; Lee, S.; Hemker, R.; Clayton, C.; Joshi, C.
1999-11-01
The co-propagation of an intense particle beam with an ionizing laser beam in a working gas/plasma is considered. When the axes of the laser and particle beam are not aligned, then asymmetric plasma lensing results in a net dipole field acting on the particle beam. The particle beam can be steered or bent (as well as focused) by steering the laser. An analogy is made between the bending of the particle beam by collective effects at a plasma boundary and the refraction or reflection of light at an interface. This mechanism of particle steering may be of interest in applications for which permanent magnets are inconvenient of a fast turn on is required. 3-D particle-in-cell simulations and relevance to a recent experiment are discussed.
Laser beam scintillation beyond the turbulent atmosphere A numerical computation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bufton, J. L.; Taylor, L. S.
1976-01-01
The extended Huygens-Fresnel formulation for propagation through turbulence is used to examine scintillation of a finite laser beam. The method is demonstrated analytically for propagation beyond a weak Gaussian phase screen. A numerical integration technique is used to extend the results to a more realistic turbulence model. Results are compared with existing Gaussian beam propagation theory.
Single element laser beam shaper
Zhang, Shukui [Yorktown, VA; Shinn, Michelle D [Newport News, VA
2005-09-13
A single lens laser beam shaper for converting laser beams from any spatial profile to a flat-top or uniform spatial profile. The laser beam shaper includes a lens having two aspheric surfaces. The beam shaper significantly simplifies the overall structure in comparison with conventional 2-element systems and therefore provides great ease in alignment and reduction of cost.
Negative propagation effect in nonparaxial Airy beams.
Vaveliuk, Pablo; Martinez-Matos, Oscar
2012-11-19
Negative propagation is an unusual effect concerning the local sign change in the Poynting vector components of an optical beam under free propagation. We report this effect for finite-energy Airy beams in a subwavelength nonparaxial regime. This effect is due to a coupling process between propagating and evanescent plane waves forming the beam in the spectral domain and it is demonstrated for a single TE or TM mode. This is contrary to what happens for vector Bessel beams and vector X-waves, for which a complex superposition of TE and TM modes is mandatory. We also show that evanescent waves cannot contribute to the energy flux density by themselves such that a pure evanescent Airy beam is not physically realizable. The break of the shape-preserving and diffraction-free properties of Airy beams in a nonparaxial regime is exclusively caused by the propagating waves. The negative propagation effect in subwavelength nonparaxial Airy beams opens new capabilities in optical traps and tweezers, optical detection of invisibility cloacks and selective on-chip manipulation of nanoparticles.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Box, M. A.; Deepak, A.
1981-01-01
The propagation of photons in a medium with strongly anisotropic scattering is a problem with a considerable history. Like the propagation of electrons in metal foils, it may be solved in the small-angle scattering approximation by the use of Fourier-transform techniques. In certain limiting cases, one may even obtain analytic expressions. This paper presents some of these results in a model-independent form and also illustrates them by the use of four different phase-function models. Sample calculations are provided for comparison purposes
Atmospheric propagation and combining of high-power lasers.
Nelson, W; Sprangle, P; Davis, C C
2016-03-01
In this paper, we analyze beam combining and atmospheric propagation of high-power lasers for directed-energy (DE) applications. The large linewidths inherent in high-power fiber and slab lasers cause random phase and intensity fluctuations that occur on subnanosecond time scales. Coherently combining these high-power lasers would involve instruments capable of precise phase control and operation at rates greater than ∼10 GHz. To the best of our knowledge, this technology does not currently exist. This presents a challenging problem when attempting to phase lock high-power lasers that is not encountered when phase locking low-power lasers, for example, at milliwatt power levels. Regardless, we demonstrate that even if instruments are developed that can precisely control the phase of high-power lasers, coherent combining is problematic for DE applications. The dephasing effects of atmospheric turbulence typically encountered in DE applications will degrade the coherent properties of the beam before it reaches the target. Through simulations, we find that coherent beam combining in moderate turbulence and over multikilometer propagation distances has little advantage over incoherent combining. Additionally, in cases of strong turbulence and multikilometer propagation ranges, we find nearly indistinguishable intensity profiles and virtually no difference in the energy on the target between coherently and incoherently combined laser beams. Consequently, we find that coherent beam combining at the transmitter plane is ineffective under typical atmospheric conditions.
Optical chirped beam amplification and propagation
Barty, Christopher P.
2004-10-12
A short pulse laser system uses dispersive optics in a chirped-beam amplification architecture to produce high peak power pulses and high peak intensities without the potential for intensity dependent damage to downstream optical components after amplification.
A laser beam quality definition based on induced temperature rise.
Miller, Harold C
2012-12-17
Laser beam quality metrics like M(2) can be used to describe the spot sizes and propagation behavior of a wide variety of non-ideal laser beams. However, for beams that have been diffracted by limiting apertures in the near-field, or those with unusual near-field profiles, the conventional metrics can lead to an inconsistent or incomplete description of far-field performance. This paper motivates an alternative laser beam quality definition that can be used with any beam. The approach uses a consideration of the intrinsic ability of a laser beam profile to heat a material. Comparisons are made with conventional beam quality metrics. An analysis on an asymmetric Gaussian beam is used to establish a connection with the invariant beam propagation ratio.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nelson, C.; Avramov-Zamurovic, S.; Malek-Madani, R.; Korotkova, O.; Sova, R.; Davidson, F.
2011-06-01
During two separate field tests (July and September 2009) the performance of a free-space optical (FSO) communications link was evaluated in the maritime environment off of the mid-Atlantic coast near Wallops Island, VA. During these two field tests, a bi-directional shore-to-ship data link was established using commercially available adaptive optics terminals. The link, which ranged from 2 - 22 km (optical horizon), was established between a lookout tower located on Cedar Island, VA and a Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory research vessel. This paper presents statistical analysis of the power-in-the-bucket captured from two detectors placed alongside the adaptive optics terminal during the September 2009 field trial. The detectors ranged in size from 0.25" to 1.0" in diameter. We will present the histogram reconstruction and compare the data for the 0.25" and 1.0" power-in-bucket (PIB), and 1.0" power-in-fiber (PIF) Adaptive Optics (AO) detectors with analytical probability density function (PDF) models based on the Lognormal, Gamma-Laguerre, and Gamma-Gamma distributions. Additionally, dependence of the results on propagation distance, detector aperture size, and varying levels of optical turbulence are investigated.
Speckle Statistics of Multiple Overlapping Beams Propagating in Inhomogeneous Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afeyan, Bedros B.; Schmitt, A. J.; Lehmberg, R. H.
1999-11-01
We have calculated the electric field of RPP, SSD and ISI beams propagating in inhomogeneous plasmas. We have studied the intensity statistics of these beams as well as those generated when a number of such beams overlap. Changes in the geometry and statistical properties of the resulting hot spots will be presented as a function of angles of incidence, spot sizes and density scale length. Analytic, semi-analytic (quadrature using Green's functions) and numerical simulation results will be shown. The degree to which vacuum electrodynamics is inappropriate to model multiple overlapping beams in inhomogeneous plasmas will be demonstrated. These results are crucial to the study of plasma phenomena in the coronas of direct drive targets including laser imprinting and parametric instabilities. Parametric instabilities at the LEH of indirect drive targets must also take into account overlapping beam physics issues discussed here.
Dickson, Richard K.
2010-09-07
A quick insert and release laser beam guard panel clamping apparatus having a base plate mountable on an optical table, a first jaw affixed to the base plate, and a spring-loaded second jaw slidably carried by the base plate to exert a clamping force. The first and second jaws each having a face acutely angled relative to the other face to form a V-shaped, open channel mouth, which enables wedge-action jaw separation by and subsequent clamping of a laser beam guard panel inserted through the open channel mouth. Preferably, the clamping apparatus also includes a support structure having an open slot aperture which is positioned over and parallel with the open channel mouth.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hinkley, E. D., Jr.
1981-01-01
Instrument uses infrared absorption to determine methane concentration in liquid natural gas vapor. Two sensors measure intensity of 3.39 mm laser beam after it passes through gas; absorption is proportional to concentration of methane. Instrument is used in modeling spread of LNG clouds and as leak detector on LNG carriers and installations. Unit includes wheels for mobility and is both vertically and horizontally operable.
Laser beam pulse formatting method
Daly, Thomas P.; Moses, Edward I.; Patterson, Ralph W.; Sawicki, Richard H.
1994-01-01
A method for formatting a laser beam pulse (20) using one or more delay loops (10). The delay loops (10) have a partially reflective beam splitter (12) and a plurality of highly reflective mirrors (14) arranged such that the laser beam pulse (20) enters into the delay loop (10) through the beam splitter (12) and circulates therein along a delay loop length (24) defined by the mirrors (14). As the laser beam pulse (20) circulates within the delay loop (10) a portion thereof is emitted upon each completed circuit when the laser beam pulse (20) strikes the beam splitter (12). The laser beam pulse (20) is thereby formatted into a plurality of sub-pulses (50, 52, 54 and 56). The delay loops (10) are used in combination to produce complex waveforms by combining the sub-pulses (50, 52, 54 and 56) using additive waveform synthesis.
Synchronous characterization of semiconductor microcavity laser beam.
Wang, T; Lippi, G L
2015-06-01
We report on a high-resolution double-channel imaging method used to synchronously map the intensity- and optical-frequency-distribution of a laser beam in the plane orthogonal to the propagation direction. The synchronous measurement allows us to show that the laser frequency is an inhomogeneous distribution below threshold, but that it becomes homogeneous across the fundamental Gaussian mode above threshold. The beam's tails deviations from the Gaussian shape, however, are accompanied by sizeable fluctuations in the laser wavelength, possibly deriving from manufacturing details and from the influence of spontaneous emission in the very low intensity wings. In addition to the synchronous spatial characterization, a temporal analysis at any given point in the beam cross section is carried out. Using this method, the beam homogeneity and spatial shape, energy density, energy center, and the defects-related spectrum can also be extracted from these high-resolution pictures.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Motamedi, M. E.; Andrews, A. P.; Gunning, W. J.
1993-01-01
Agile beam steering is a critical requirement for airborne and space based LIDAR and optical communication systems. Design and test results are presented for a compact beam steering device with low inertia which functions by dithering two complementary (positive and negative) binary optic microlens arrays relative to each other in directions orthogonal to the direction of light propagation. The miniaturized system has been demonstrated at scan frequencies as high as 300 Hz, generating a 13 x 13 spot array with a total field of view of 2.4 degrees. The design is readily extendable to a 9.5 degree field of view and a 52 x 52 scan pattern. The system is compact - less than 2 in. on a side. Further size reductions are anticipated.
Study of propagation of vortex beams in aerosol optical medium.
Porfirev, Alexey P; Kirilenko, Mikhail S; Khonina, Svetlana N; Skidanov, Roman V; Soifer, Victor A
2017-04-10
A theoretical and experimental study of the propagation of vortex laser beams in a random aerosol medium is presented. The theoretical study is based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle with the generation of a random field, using the fast Fourier transform. The simulation shows that the stability of vortex beams to fluctuations of an optical medium falls with rising order of optical vortices. Moreover, a coherence length (radius) of the random medium is of great importance. The coherence radius extension affects adversely the conservation of a beam structure in the random medium. During further free-space propagation, increasing coherence enables reduction of the negative effects of fluctuations for beams with high-value topological charges. Experimental studies in the random aerosol medium have shown that at small distances vortex beams mostly demonstrate lower stability than a Gaussian beam. However, at considerable distances, vortex beams start to demonstrate greater stability that may be explained by their capacity to be regenerated after they passed obstacles.
Propagation of ultrashort laser pulses through water.
Li, Jianchao; Alexander, Dennis R; Zhang, Haifeng; Parali, Ufuk; Doerr, David W; Bruce, John C; Wang, Hao
2007-02-19
In this paper, propagation of ultrashort pulses through a long 3.5 meter water channel was studied. Of particular interest was the attenuation of the beam at various lengths along the variable path length and to find an explanation of why the attenuation deviates from typical Beer Lambert law around 3 meters for ultrashort laser pulse transmission. Laser pulses of 10 fs at 75 MHz, 100 fs at 80 MHz and 300 fs at 1 KHz were employed to investigate the effects of pulse duration, spectrum and repetition rate on the attenuation after propagating through water up to 3 meters. Stretched pulse attenuation measurements produced from 10 fs at a frequency of 75 MHz were compared with the 10 fs attenuation measurements. Results indicate that the broad spectrum of the ultrashort pulse is the dominant reason for the observed decrease in attenuation after 3 meters of travel in a long water channel. The repetition rate is found not to play a significant role at least for the long pulse scenario in this reported attenuation studies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aksenov, V. P.; Dudorov, V. V.; Kolosov, V. V.
2016-09-01
We suggest a technique for generation of optical vortex beams with a variable orbital angular momentum based on a fiber laser array. The technique uses the phase control of each single subbeam. Requirements for the number of subbeams and the spatial arrangement for the vortex beam generation are determined. The propagation dynamics of a vortex beam synthesized is compared with that of a continuous Laguerre-Gaussian beam in free space and in a turbulent atmosphere. Spectral properties of a beam synthesized, which is represented as a superposition of different azimuth modes, are determined during its free-space propagation. It is shown that energy and statistical parameters coincide for synthesized and continuous vortex beams when propagating through a turbulent medium. Probability density functions of the beam intensity fluctuations are well approximated to a gamma distribution in the cases where the scintillation index is lower than unity independently of the beam type and observation point position relative to the propagation axis.
Pulsed laser beam intensity monitor
Cason, C.M.; Jones, R.W.
1982-07-13
A pulsed laser beam intensity monitor measures the peak power within a selectable cross section of a test laser beam and measures integrated energy of the beam during the pulse period of a test laser. A continuous wave laser and a pulsed ruby laser are coaxially arranged for simultaneously transmitting optical output energy through a crystal flat during the time a test laser pulse is transmitted through the flat. Due to stress birefringence in the crystal, the ruby laser pulse transmitted through the flat is recorded and analyzed to provide peak power information about the test laser output pulse, and the continuous wave laser output reflected from the crystal flat provides a measurement of energy during the test laser pulse.
Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses.
Rodriguez, Miguel; Bourayou, Riad; Méjean, Guillaume; Kasparian, Jérôme; Yu, Jin; Salmon, Estelle; Scholz, Alexander; Stecklum, Bringfried; Eislöffel, Jochen; Laux, Uwe; Hatzes, Artie P; Sauerbrey, Roland; Wöste, Ludger; Wolf, Jean-Pierre
2004-03-01
Ultrashort, high-power laser pulses propagating vertically in the atmosphere have been observed over more than 20 km using an imaging 2-m astronomical telescope. This direct observation in several wavelength bands shows indications for filament formation at distances as far as 2 km in the atmosphere. Moreover, the beam divergence at 5 km altitude is smaller than expected, bearing evidence for whole-beam parallelization about the nonlinear focus. We discuss implications for white-light Lidar applications.
Laser welding beam quality calibration
Foulk, L.R.
1997-06-01
The relationship of beam quality and weld depth of penetration was studied to attempt to better quantify the operation of CO{sub 2} laser beam welders. Equipment to measure laser beam quality was obtained. The equipment was calibrated using standard apertures. To relate weld penetration and beam quality measurements, it was necessary to force changes in the CO{sub 2} laser welder`s operation. The chosen experimental variables were laser gas mixture and the use of a group of focusing lenses that had been used in production.
Propagation of a general-type beam through a truncated fractional Fourier transform optical system.
Zhao, Chengliang; Cai, Yangjian
2010-03-01
Paraxial propagation of a general-type beam through a truncated fractional Fourier transform (FRT) optical system is investigated. Analytical formulas for the electric field and effective beam width of a general-type beam in the FRT plane are derived based on the Collins formula. Our formulas can be used to study the propagation of a variety of laser beams--such as Gaussian, cos-Gaussian, cosh-Gaussian, sine-Gaussian, sinh-Gaussian, flat-topped, Hermite-cosh-Gaussian, Hermite-sine-Gaussian, higher-order annular Gaussian, Hermite-sinh-Gaussian and Hermite-cos-Gaussian beams--through a FRT optical system with or without truncation. The propagation properties of a Hermite-cos-Gaussian beam passing through a rectangularly truncated FRT optical system are studied as a numerical example. Our results clearly show that the truncated FRT optical system provides a convenient way for laser beam shaping.
Rippled beam free electron Laser Amplifier
Carlsten, Bruce E.
1998-04-21
A free electron laser amplifier provides a scalloping annular electron beam that interacts with the axial electric field of a T{sub 0n} mode. A waveguide defines an axial centerline and . A solenoid arranged about the waveguide produces an axial constant magnetic field within the waveguide. An electron beam source outputs a annular electron beam that interacts with the axial magnetic field to have an equilibrium radius and a ripple radius component having a variable radius with a ripple period along the axial centerline. An rf source outputs an axial electric field that propagates within the waveguide coaxial with the electron beam and has a radial mode that interacts at the electron beam at the equilibrium radius component of the electron beam.
Rippled beam free electron laser amplifier
Carlsten, Bruce E.
1999-01-01
A free electron laser amplifier provides a scalloping annular electron beam that interacts with the axial electric field of a TM.sub.0n mode. A waveguide defines an axial centerline and, a solenoid arranged about the waveguide produces an axial constant magnetic field within the waveguide. An electron beam source outputs a annular electron beam that interacts with the axial magnetic field to have an equilibrium radius and a ripple radius component having a variable radius with a ripple period along the axial centerline. An rf source outputs an axial electric field that propagates within the waveguide coaxial with the electron beam and has a radial mode that interacts at the electron beam at the equilibrium radius component of the electron beam.
Synchronous characterization of semiconductor microcavity laser beam
Wang, T. Lippi, G. L.
2015-06-15
We report on a high-resolution double-channel imaging method used to synchronously map the intensity- and optical-frequency-distribution of a laser beam in the plane orthogonal to the propagation direction. The synchronous measurement allows us to show that the laser frequency is an inhomogeneous distribution below threshold, but that it becomes homogeneous across the fundamental Gaussian mode above threshold. The beam’s tails deviations from the Gaussian shape, however, are accompanied by sizeable fluctuations in the laser wavelength, possibly deriving from manufacturing details and from the influence of spontaneous emission in the very low intensity wings. In addition to the synchronous spatial characterization, a temporal analysis at any given point in the beam cross section is carried out. Using this method, the beam homogeneity and spatial shape, energy density, energy center, and the defects-related spectrum can also be extracted from these high-resolution pictures.
Computation of beam propagation in turbulent field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yao; Cen, Zhaofeng; Li, Xiaotong
2016-10-01
The split-step Fourier method (SSFM) is introduced to analyze the beam propagation in a relatively large-sized turbulent filed, whose refractive-index profile is already detected. The numerical method is achieved by fast Fourier transform (FFT).To obtain the optimal sampling number, we propose an adaptive spread-spectrum method as an optimization. The SSFM is widely used for solving the nonlinear Schrödinger equation [1].The advantage of the SSFM is apparently its simple formalism and suitability to our situation. The direct numerical solution of the Helmholtz equation, derived from this method, yields detailed information of the spatial and angular properties of the propagation beam. On the other hand, a set of approximations restrict its applicability, the requirements for the accurate application of the method are summarized and a set of formulas is generalized in this paper. The efficiency of the SSFM depends on the sampling number, the adaptive spread-spectrum method yields optimal sampling number to increase the computational efficiency .To testify the accuracy of our algorithm, we use graded-index medium as the turbulent filed, for the reason that the beam propagation in turbulent field with random refractive-index profile is ruleless and has no unified reference. The simulation result testifies our algorithm is tremendously accurate, capable of selecting the optimal N automatically and much more computationally efficient than the original algorithm.
Laser beam characterization results for a high power CW Nd:YAG laser
Keicher, D.M.
1994-12-31
In an effort to understand multimode laser beam propagation characteristics for better development of laser material processing applications, beam diagnostic experiments were performed on a 1800 watt CW Nd:YAG laser. Beam diameter data were acquired at approximately 12 positions along the beam optical axis about the minimum waist created by a long focal length single element lens at several power levels. These data were then used to evaluate the laser output beam characteristics using two differing techniques. For the ISO technique, two data points from the beam diameter data were used in determining the output laser beam characteristics. These points were the beam minimum waist diameter and the diameter at a point along the beam optical axis where the beam diameter had increased to approximately 0.7 times that of the beam minimum waist diameter. The second analysis technique involved fitting the entire data set to theoretical equations used to describe the multimode laser beam propagation and points from the fitted curve fit were then used to determine the output beam characteristics from the laser. For all power levels evaluated, calculated results predicting the laser beam minimum waist location were in agreement with measured values and more consistent using the curve-fit technique than the two-point evaluation technique.
Laser beam alignment apparatus and method
Gruhn, Charles R.; Hammond, Robert B.
1981-01-01
The disclosure relates to an apparatus and method for laser beam alignment. Thermoelectric properties of a disc in a laser beam path are used to provide an indication of beam alignment and/or automatic laser alignment.
Laser beam alignment apparatus and method
Gruhn, C.R.; Hammond, R.B.
The disclosure related to an apparatus and method for laser beam alignment. Thermoelectric properties of a disc in a laser beam path are used to provide an indication of beam alignment and/or automatic laser alignment.
Refractive beam shapers for focused laser beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Vadim; Ostrun, Aleksei
2016-09-01
Focusing of laser radiation is most often used approach in various industrial micromachining applications like scribing, PCB drilling, and is important in scientific researches like laser heating in geophysics experiments with diamond anvil cells (DAC). Control of intensity distribution in focal spot is important task since optimum intensity profiles are rather flat-top, doughnut or "inverse-Gauss" than typical for lasers Gaussian profile. Because of high intensity of modern CW and pulsed lasers it is advisable to use refractive beam shaping optics with smooth optical surfaces providing high radiation resistance. Workable optical solutions can be built on the base of diffraction theory conclusion that flat-top intensity profile in focal plane of a lens is created when input beam has Airy-disk intensity distribution. It is suggested to apply refractive beam shapers converting, with minimum wavefront deformation, Gaussian profile of TEM00 beam to a beam with Airy disk intensity distribution, thereby optimizing conditions of interference near the focal plane of a lens after the beam shaper and providing flat-top, doughnut, "inverse-Gauss" profiles. This approach allows operation with CW and ultra-short pulse lasers, using F-theta lenses and objectives, mirror scanners, provides extended depth of field similar to Rayleigh length of comparable TEM00 beam, easy integration in industrial equipment, simple adjustment procedure and switching between profiles, telescope and collimator implementations. There will be considered design basics of beam shapers, analysis of profile behaviour near focal plane, examples of implementations in micromachining systems and experimental DAC setups, results of profile measurements and material processing.
Thermal blooming of different waveform laser propagation in atmosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, Tian-he; Liu, Wei; Gao, Qiong; Kang, Hua-chao
2013-09-01
Based upon the scalar wave equation and the equations of hydrodynamics, the simulation model used to calculate the transient thermal blooming of collimated multi-pulse laser by four-dimensional code. Considering the variety of absorption coefficient along with different altitudes, this paper got the new model of repetitively pulsed laser with thermal blooming in tropic by interpolation .On this basis, thermal blooming of different waveforms, such as triangle, gauss, and rectangle were calculated. The paper analyzes the thermal blooming of three waveform laser beams by changing respectively the value of the transmission power. After propagating the same distance in the same condition, the result shows that the peak irradiance of triangular laser distorts least severely; the PIB of gauss laser is the biggest, that is to say, the focusing ability of gauss laser is the best; the center of rectangle laser moves the furthest.
Propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in optically ionized gases
Morozov, A.; Luo, Y.; Suckewer, S.; Gordon, D. F.; Sprangle, P.
2010-02-15
Propagation of 800 nm, 120 fs laser pulses with intensities of 4x10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2} in supersonic gas jets of N{sub 2} and H{sub 2} is studied using a shear-type interferometer. The plasma density distribution resulting from photoionization is resolved in space and time with simultaneously measured initial neutral density distribution. A distinct difference in laser beam propagation distance is observed when comparing propagation in jets of H{sub 2} and N{sub 2}. This is interpreted in terms of ionization induced refraction, which is stronger when electrons are produced from states of higher ionization potential. Three dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, based on directly solving the Maxwell-Lorentz system of equations, show the roles played by the forward Raman and ionization scattering instabilities, which further affect the propagation distance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korotkova, Olga; Farwell, Nathan; Mahalov, Alex
Calculations of the second-order statistical characteristics of a polarized, lowest-order Gaussian beam which propagates through a jet-stream layer, in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) environment, are carried out. Comparison of the results based on the refractive-index structure parameter as predicted by a Hufnagel-Valley model and based on data taken at a recent campaign of measurements and high-resolution numerical simulations shows that the jet-stream can significantly affect the intensity distribution and spreading of the beam, especially at high zenith angles.
Instrumental laser beam systems in navigation using scattered radiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oshlakov, Viktor G.
1998-06-01
Molecular and aerosol scattering of laser radiation, propagating in the atmosphere, makes it possible to visualize it in space. This phenomenon can be used for navigation in the navy, air force and astronautics. The laser radiation scattering is known to be used in the visual laser beam systems. The scattered laser radiations is small as compared with direct laser radiation and safe for sight. The method being developed uses the scattering effect and enables one to create the instrumental laser beam systems for pilotage alone fairways and approach canals in coastal waters and seaports.
Phase unwrapping algorithms in laser propagation simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Rui; Yang, Lijia
2013-08-01
Currently simulating on laser propagation in atmosphere usually need to deal with beam in strong turbulence, which may lose a part of information via Fourier Transform to simulate the transmission, makes the phase of beam as a 2-D array wrap by 2π . An effective unwrapping algorithm is needed for continuing result and faster calculation. The unwrapping algorithms in atmospheric propagation are similar to the unwrapping algorithm in radar or 3-D surface rebuilding, but not the same. In this article, three classic unwrapping algorithms: the block least squares (BLS), mask-cut (MCUT), and the Flynn's minimal discontinuity algorithm (FMD) are tried in wave-front reconstruction simulation. Each of those algorithms are tested 100 times in 6 same conditions, including low(64x64), medium(128x128), and high(256x256) resolution phase array, with and without noises. Compared the results, the conclusions are delivered as follows. The BLS-based algorithm is the fastest, and the result is acceptable in low resolution environment without noise. The MCUT are higher in accuracy, though they are slower with the array resolution increased, and it is sensitive to noise, resulted in large area errors. Flynn's algorithm has the better accuracy, and it occupies large memory in calculation. After all, the article delivered a new algorithm that based on Active on Vertex (AOV) Network, to build a logical graph to cut the search space then find minimal discontinuity solution. The AOV is faster than MCUT in dealing with high resolution phase arrays, and better accuracy as FMD that has been tested.
Phased laser array for generating a powerful laser beam
Holzrichter, John F.; Ruggiero, Anthony J.
2004-02-17
A first injection laser signal and a first part of a reference laser beam are injected into a first laser element. At least one additional injection laser signal and at least one additional part of a reference laser beam are injected into at least one additional laser element. The first part of a reference laser beam and the at least one additional part of a reference laser beam are amplified and phase conjugated producing a first amplified output laser beam emanating from the first laser element and an additional amplified output laser beam emanating from the at least one additional laser element. The first amplified output laser beam and the additional amplified output laser beam are combined into a powerful laser beam.
Propagation of a cosh-Gaussian beam through an optical system in turbulent atmosphere.
Chu, Xiuxiang
2007-12-24
The propagation of a cosh-Gaussian beam through an arbitrary ABCD optical system in turbulent atmosphere has been investigated. The analytical expressions for the average intensity at any receiver plane are obtained. As an elementary example, the average intensity and its radius at the image plane of a cosh-Gaussian beam through a thin lens are studied. To show the effects of a lens on the average intensity and the intensity radius of the laser beam in turbulent atmosphere, the properties of a collimated cosh-Gaussian beam and a focused cosh-Gaussian beam for direct propagation in turbulent atmosphere are studied and numerically calculated. The average intensity profiles of a cosh-Gaussian beam through a lens can have a shape similar to that of the initial beam for a longer propagation distance than that of a collimated cosh-Gaussian beam for direct propagation. With the increment in the propagation distance, the average intensity radius at the image plane of a cosh-Gaussian beam through a thin lens will be smaller than that at the focal plane of a focused cosh-Gaussian beam for direct propagation. Meanwhile, the intensity distributions at the image plane of a cosh-Gaussian beam through a lens with different w(0) and Omega(0) are also studied.
Partially coherent flat-topped beam and its propagation.
Ge, Di; Cai, Yangjian; Lin, Qiang
2004-08-20
A partially coherent beam with flat-topped profile is proposed. The cross-spectral density of this beam can be expressed as a finite series of the cross-spectral density of partially coherent Gaussian-Schell-model beams with different parameters. Analytical propagation formulas for partially coherent flat-topped beams are derived through aligned and misaligned optical systems. The propagation property of partially coherent flat-topped beams in free space is illustrated numerically. The fractional Fourier transform of partially coherent fiat-topped beams is also studied. Our method provides a convenient way to describe partially coherent flat-topped beams and treat their propagation and transformation.
Curvature aided long range propagation of short laser pulses in the atmosphere
Yedierler, Burak
2013-03-15
The pre-filamentation regime of propagation of a short and intense laser pulse in the atmosphere is considered. Spatiotemporal self-focusing dynamics of the laser beam are investigated by calculating the coupled differential equations for spot size, pulse length, phase, curvature, and chirp functions of a Gaussian laser pulse via a variational technique. The effect of initial curvature parameter on the propagation of the laser pulse is taken into consideration. A method relying on the adjustment of the initial curvature parameter can expand the filamentation distance of a laser beam of given power and chirp is proposed.
Laser-induced propagation and destruction of amyloid beta fibrils.
Yagi, Hisashi; Ozawa, Daisaku; Sakurai, Kazumasa; Kawakami, Toru; Kuyama, Hiroki; Nishimura, Osamu; Shimanouchi, Toshinori; Kuboi, Ryoichi; Naiki, Hironobu; Goto, Yuji
2010-06-18
The amyloid deposition of amyloid beta (Abeta) peptides is a critical pathological event in Alzheimer disease (AD). Preventing the formation of amyloid deposits and removing preformed fibrils in tissues are important therapeutic strategies against AD. Previously, we reported the destruction of amyloid fibrils of beta(2)-microglobulin K3 fragments by laser irradiation coupled with the binding of amyloid-specific thioflavin T. Here, we studied the effects of a laser beam on Abeta fibrils. As was the case for K3 fibrils, extensive irradiation destroyed the preformed Abeta fibrils. However, irradiation during spontaneous fibril formation resulted in only the partial destruction of growing fibrils and a subsequent explosive propagation of fibrils. The explosive propagation was caused by an increase in the number of active ends due to breakage. The results not only reveal a case of fragmentation-induced propagation of fibrils but also provide insights into therapeutic strategies for AD.
Numerical phase front propagation for the laser interferometer space antenna
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papalexandris, Miltiadis V.; Waluschka, Eugene
2002-06-01
The present article reports on numerical studies of phase front propagation for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). The main objective is to determine the sensitivity of the average phase of the metrology beam with respect to fluctuations of the pointing of the beam. For this purpose, the metrology beam is propagated numerically along the interferometric arm of the instrument. The effects of the obscurations from the secondary mirror and its supporting struts are studied in detail. Further, the effects of random wavefront distortions that occur due to imperfections of the optical elements are estimated through a series of Monte Carlo simulations. The results of this study can be used to determine design requirements for the instrument.
Propagation of a radial phased-locked Lorentz beam array in turbulent atmosphere.
Zhou, Guoquan
2011-11-21
A radial phased-locked (PL) Lorentz beam array provides an appropriate theoretical model to describe a coherent diode laser array, which is an efficient radiation source for high-power beaming use. The propagation of a radial PL Lorentz beam array in turbulent atmosphere is investigated. Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel integral and some mathematical techniques, analytical formulae for the average intensity and the effective beam size of a radial PL Lorentz beam array are derived in turbulent atmosphere. The average intensity distribution and the spreading properties of a radial PL Lorentz beam array in turbulent atmosphere are numerically calculated. The influences of the beam parameters and the structure constant of the atmospheric turbulence on the propagation of a radial PL Lorentz beam array in turbulent atmosphere are discussed in detail. © 2011 Optical Society of America
Positron Beam Propagation in a Meter Long Plasma Channel
Marsh, K.A.; Blue, B.E.; Clayton, C.E.; Joshi, C.; Mori, W.B.; Decker, F.-J.; Hogan, M.J.; Iverson, R.; O'Connell, C.; Raimondi, P.; Siemann, Robert H.; Walz, D.; Katsouleas, T.C.; Muggli, P.; /Southern California U.
2008-03-17
Recent experiments and simulations have shown that positron beams propagating in plasmas can be focused and also create wakes with large accelerating gradients. For similar parameters, the wakes driven by positron beams are somewhat smaller compared to the case of an electron beam. Simulations have shown that the wake amplitude can be increased if the positron beam is propagated in a hollow plasma channel (Ref. 1). This paper, compares experimentally, the propagation and beam dynamics of a positron beam in a meter scale homogeneous plasma, to a positron beam hollow channel plasma. The results show that positron beams in hollow channels are less prone to distortions and deflections. Hollow channels were observed to guide the positron beam onto the channel axis. Beam energy loss was also observed implying the formation of a large wake amplitude. The experiments were carried out as part of the E-162 plasma wakefield experiments at SLAC.
Propagation of ion beams through a tenuous magnetized plasma
Chrien, E.F.; Valeo, E.J.; Kulsrud, R.M.; Oberman, C.R.
1985-10-01
When an ion beam is propagated through a plasma, the question of charge neutralization is critical to its propagation. We consider such a problem where the plasma is magnetized with magnetic field perpendicular to the beam. The plasma-number density and beam-number density are assumed comparable. We reduce the problem to a two-dimensional model, which we solve. The solution suggests that it should be possible to attain charge neutralization if the beam density is properly varied along itself.
Atmospheric propagation properties of various laser systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pitz, Greg A.; Glass, Sara; Kamer, Brian; Klennert, Wade L.; Hostutler, David A.
2012-06-01
Atmospheric propagation properties of various laser systems, including diode pumped alkali lasers (DPALs) and the Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser (COIL), are of importance. However, there appears to be a lack of highly accurate transmission characteristics of these systems associated with their operating conditions. In this study laser propagation of the rubidium-based DPAL and the COIL has been simulated utilizing integrated cavity output spectroscopy. This technique allowed for the simulation of laser propagation approaching distances of 3 kilometers on a test stand only 35 cm long. The spectral output from these simulations was compared to the HITRAN database with excellent agreement. The spectral prole and proximity of the laser line to the atmospheric absorbers is shown. These low pressure spectral proles were then extrapolated to higher pressures using an in-house hyperne model. These models allowed for the comparison of proposed systems and their output spectral prole. The diode pumped rubidium laser at pressures under an atmosphere has been shown to interact with only one water absorption feature, but at pressures approaching 7 atmospheres the D1 transition may interact with more than 6 water lines depending on resonator considerations. Additionally, a low pressure system may have some slight control of the overlap of the output prole with the water line by changing the buer gases.
Propagation of modified Bessel-Gaussian beams in turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eyyuboğlu, Halil Tanyer; Hardalaç, Fırat
2008-03-01
We investigate the propagation characteristics of modified Bessel-Gaussian beams traveling in a turbulent atmosphere. The source beam formulation comprises a Gaussian exponential and the summation of modified Bessel functions. Based on an extended Huygens-Fresnel principle, the receiver plane intensity is formulated and solved down to a double integral stage. Source beam illustrations show that modified Bessel-Gaussian beams, except the lowest order case, will have well-like shapes. Modified Bessel-Gaussian beams with summations will experience lobe slicing and will display more or less the same profile regardless of order content. After propagating in turbulent atmosphere, it is observed that a modified Bessel-Gaussian beam will transform into a Bessel-Gaussian beam. Furthermore it is seen that modified Bessel-Gaussian beams with different Bessel function combinations, but possessing nearly the same profile, will differentiate during propagation. Increasing turbulence strength is found to accelerate the beam transformation toward the eventual Gaussian shape.
Atmospheric effects on CO2 laser propagation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murty, S. S. R.; Bilbro, J. W.
1978-01-01
An investigation was made of the losses encountered in the propagation of CO2 laser radiation through the atmosphere, particularly as it applies to the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center Pulsed Laser Doppler System. As such it addresses three major areas associated with signal loss: molecular absorption, refractive index changes in a turbulent environment, and aerosol absorption and scattering. In particular, the molecular absorption coefficients of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and nitrous oxide are calculated for various laser lines in the region of 10.6 mu m as a function of various pressures and temperatures. The current status in the physics of low-energy laser propagation through a turbulent atmosphere is presented together with the analysis and evaluation of the associated heterodyne signal power loss. Finally, aerosol backscatter and extinction coefficients are calculated for various aerosol distributions and the results incorporated into the signal-to-noise ratio equation for the Marshall Space Flight Center system.
A finite element beam propagation method for simulation of liquid crystal devices.
Vanbrabant, Pieter J M; Beeckman, Jeroen; Neyts, Kristiaan; James, Richard; Fernandez, F Anibal
2009-06-22
An efficient full-vectorial finite element beam propagation method is presented that uses higher order vector elements to calculate the wide angle propagation of an optical field through inhomogeneous, anisotropic optical materials such as liquid crystals. The full dielectric permittivity tensor is considered in solving Maxwell's equations. The wide applicability of the method is illustrated with different examples: the propagation of a laser beam in a uniaxial medium, the tunability of a directional coupler based on liquid crystals and the near-field diffraction of a plane wave in a structure containing micrometer scale variations in the transverse refractive index, similar to the pixels of a spatial light modulator.
The holographic optical micro-manipulation system based on counter-propagating beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Čižmár, T.; Brzobohatý, O.; Dholakia, K.; Zemánek, P.
2011-01-01
We present a system employing a dynamic diffractive optical element to control properties of two counter-propagating beams overlapping within a sample chamber. This system allows us to eliminate optical aberrations along both beam pathways and arbitrarily switch between various numbers of laser beams and their spatial profiles (i.e. Gaussian, Laguerre-Gaussian, Bessel beams, etc.). We successfully tested various counter-propagating dual-beam configurations including optical manipulation of both high and low index particles in water or air, particle delivery in an optical conveyor belt and the formation of colloidal solitons by optical binding. Furthermore, we realized a novel optical mixer created by particles spiraling in counter-propagating interfering optical vortices and a new tool for optical tomography or localized spectroscopy enabling sterile contactless rotation and reorientation of a trapped living cell.
Laser processing with specially designed laser beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asratyan, A. A.; Bulychev, N. A.; Feofanov, I. N.; Kazaryan, M. A.; Krasovskii, V. I.; Lyabin, N. A.; Pogosyan, L. A.; Sachkov, V. I.; Zakharyan, R. A.
2016-04-01
The possibility of using laser systems to form beams with special spatial configurations has been studied. The laser systems applied had a self-conjugate cavity based on the elements of copper vapor lasers (LT-5Cu, LT-10Cu, LT-30Cu) with an average power of 5, 10, or 30 W. The active elements were pumped by current pulses of duration 80-100 ns. The duration of laser generation pulses was up to 25 ns. The generator unit included an unstable cavity, where one reflector was a special mirror with a reflecting coating. Various original optical schemes used were capable of exploring spatial configurations and energy characteristics of output laser beams in their interaction with micro- and nanoparticles fabricated from various materials. In these experiments, the beam dimensions of the obtained zones varied from 0.3 to 5 µm, which is comparable with the minimum permissible dimensions determined by the optical elements applied. This method is useful in transforming a large amount of information at the laser pulse repetition rate of 10-30 kHz. It was possible to realize the high-precision micromachining and microfabrication of microscale details by direct writing, cutting and drilling (with the cutting width and through-hole diameters ranging from 3 to 100 µm) and produce microscale, deep, intricate and narrow grooves on substrate surfaces of metals and nonmetal materials. This system is used for producing high-quality microscale details without moving the object under treatment. It can also be used for microcutting and microdrilling in a variety of metals such as molybdenum, copper and stainless steel, with a thickness of up to 300 µm, and in nonmetals such as silicon, sapphire and diamond with a thickness ranging from 10 µm to 1 mm with different thermal parameters and specially designed laser beam.
Modulational instability and beam splitting in the nonlinear light propagation in sodium vapour
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ackemann, T.; Aumann, A.; Logvin, Yu. A.
1999-02-01
A linearly polarized laser beam propagating through sodium vapour is known to break up into its circular polarization components (`beam splitting'). We clarify the underlying mechanism by showing that spatially periodic perturbations of the polarization state of a plane wave will be amplified exponentially during propagation due to a modulational instability. For a Gaussian beam in one transverse spatial dimension we find even as well as odd active eigenmodes for polarization perturbations. Their two-dimensional generalizations elucidate the reason for the radial and lateral splitting that is observed in a number of experiments. In the limiting case of a cubic nonlinearity the splitting can also be expected from a variational approach.
Thermal blooming on laser propagation in an aspirating pipe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Fuyin; Wang, Jihong; Ren, Ge; Tan, Yufeng; Zhu, Nengbing; Ai, Zhiwei
2016-10-01
Thermal blooming effect of gas on laser propagation can seriously degrade performance of far-field beam quality and energy distribution. Numerical simulation is carried out to study the influences of thermal blooming on laser propagation in line pipes. A physical model of thermal blooming effect of gas on laser propagation in an aspirating pipe is established. Axial flow and suction in the outlet are used to attenuate the thermal blooming effect. Based on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, stable calculation of flow field is carried out first, then the optical field and the fluent field is coupling calculated by means of user defined function (UDF). The results show that radial flow is enhanced in the aspirating pipe and the index of refraction gradient caused by thermal blooming effect is decreased. It is indicated that the beam quality of the outlet is improved compared with the pipe model without aspirating. The optical path difference (OPD) distribution of the outlet is analyzed and decomposed by Zernike polynomials. It is shown that the defocus item of 4m aspirating pipe is decreased more than an order of magnitude compared with the 4m pipe without aspirating.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhi, Dong; Tao, Rumao; Zhou, Pu; Ma, Yanxing; Wu, Wuming; Wang, Xiaolin; Si, Lei
2017-03-01
A new ring Airy Gaussian (RAiG) vortex beam generation method by coherent combination of Gaussian beam array has been proposed. To validate the feasibility of this method, the propagation properties of the RAiG vortex beam and the coherent combining beam in vacuum have been studied and analyzed. From the comparisons of the intensity distributions and phase patterns along the propagation path, we can conclude that the coherent combining beam has the same properties as those of the ideal RAiG vortex beam. So this method can be used to obtain RAiG vortex beam in practice. Then the general analytical expression of the root-mean-square (RMS) beam width of the RAiG vortex beam, which is appropriately generated by coherent combining method, through anisotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence has been derived. The influence of anisotropic turbulence on RMS beam width of the generated RAiG vortex beam has been numerically calculated. This generation method has good appropriation to the ideal RAiG vortex beam and is very useful for deriving the analytical expression of propagation properties through a random media. The conclusions are useful in practical applications, such as laser communication and remote sensing systems.
Laser-driven shock acceleration of monoenergetic ion beams.
Fiuza, F; Stockem, A; Boella, E; Fonseca, R A; Silva, L O; Haberberger, D; Tochitsky, S; Gong, C; Mori, W B; Joshi, C
2012-11-21
We show that monoenergetic ion beams can be accelerated by moderate Mach number collisionless, electrostatic shocks propagating in a long scale-length exponentially decaying plasma profile. Strong plasma heating and density steepening produced by an intense laser pulse near the critical density can launch such shocks that propagate in the extended plasma at high velocities. The generation of a monoenergetic ion beam is possible due to the small and constant sheath electric field associated with the slowly decreasing density profile. The conditions for the acceleration of high-quality, energetic ion beams are identified through theory and multidimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The scaling of the ion energy with laser intensity shows that it is possible to generate ~200 MeV proton beams with state-of-the-art 100 TW class laser systems.
Atmospheric propagation of two CO2 laser pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Autric, M.; Caressa, J.-P.; Dufresne, D.; Bournot, Ph.
1984-01-01
At the intensity and fluence levels reached in an experimental investigation of high-energy laser beam propagation, air breakdown occurs through the interaction of the intense radiation with aerosol particles naturally suspended in the path of the beam. The air plasma created is found to expand rapidly and have a detrimental effect on energy propagation. It is determined that the energy transmitted through the breakdown plasma as a function of the incident average energy density is less than 15 percent for fluences greater than 300 J/sq cm, and that incident energy transmission may be increased through the generation of a precursor pulse as a function of double pulse separation times ranging from a few microsec to 0.1 sec. Maximum effects have been obtained at pulse separation intervals of 100-200 microsec, and these are ascribed to the vaporization of aerosol particles by the first pulse.
Compression of Ultrafast Laser Beams
2016-03-01
6 Fig. 3 Before and after FROG spectra from the pulse compression ................6...of the FROG spectrum before and after the beam is compressed with the pulse compressor. The white light laser beam started with a pulse width of 80...distribution is unlimited. 6 Fig. 2 Pump and probe spectra Fig. 3 Before and after FROG spectra from the pulse compression The effectiveness of these
Liu, Chuyu [Newport News, VA; Zhang, Shukui [Yorktown, VA
2011-10-04
A single lens bullet-shaped laser beam shaper capable of redistributing an arbitrary beam profile into any desired output profile comprising a unitary lens comprising: a convex front input surface defining a focal point and a flat output portion at the focal point; and b) a cylindrical core portion having a flat input surface coincident with the flat output portion of the first input portion at the focal point and a convex rear output surface remote from the convex front input surface.
Laser mechanism for streamer propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Broitman, A. P.; Omarov, O. A.
1981-04-01
Experimentally observed streamer evolution is shown to be governed by stimulated photoionizing radiation emitted from the plasma of an avalanche as a result of impact-radiative recombination. Absorption of the radiation in the gas near the avalanche plasma leads to ionization of the gas and to the appearance of secondary electron avalanches. The process is repeated periodically until the streamer spans the discharge gap. This mechanism is called the laser mechanism due to the directed stimulated emission which contributes to the streamer evolution.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Knotts, Michael
1993-01-01
Describes an inexpensive fog machine that is useful for photography and laser demonstrations. The apparatus uses liquid nitrogen to chill steam to make a fine mist safe for precision optics. The device can be made for around $50. (MVL)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Knotts, Michael
1993-01-01
Describes an inexpensive fog machine that is useful for photography and laser demonstrations. The apparatus uses liquid nitrogen to chill steam to make a fine mist safe for precision optics. The device can be made for around $50. (MVL)
Real-time determination of laser beam quality by modal decomposition.
Schmidt, Oliver A; Schulze, Christian; Flamm, Daniel; Brüning, Robert; Kaiser, Thomas; Schröter, Siegmund; Duparré, Michael
2011-03-28
We present a real-time method to determine the beam propagation ratio M2 of laser beams. The all-optical measurement of modal amplitudes yields M2 parameters conform to the ISO standard method. The experimental technique is simple and fast, which allows to investigate laser beams under conditions inaccessible to other methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lampel, Michael C.; Curtin, Mark S.; Burke, Robert J.; Cover, Ralph A.; Rakowsky, George; Bennett, Glenn T.
1993-06-01
FEL power beaming has broad application to space operations. The Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation has examined the commercial applications of beamed power from Earth to space using the Radio Frequency LINAC Free Electron Laser (RF FEL) and has determined that there is a substantial addressable market. Rocketdyne's experience in developing and demonstrating FEL technologies, optics and atmospheric compensation and advanced power and power distribution systems ideally positions the Division to conduct the initial demonstration to prove the feasibility of using a FEL to beam power to space platforms.
Propagation of Airy-Gaussian beams in a chiral medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Fu; Yu, Weihao; Huang, Jiayao; Zhao, Ruihuang; Lin, Jiong; Deng, Dongmei
2016-04-01
We have expressed and investigated the propagation of Airy-Gaussian beams (AiGBs) in a chiral medium analytically. It is shown that AiGBs split into two components, i.e., the left circularly polarized (LCP) beams and the right circularly polarized (RCP) beams, which have a different propagation trajectory and are affected by the chiral parameter γ and the distribution factor χ 0. It is found that the LCP beams accelerate faster than the RCP beams during propagation, and are influenced by the chiral parameter. With an increase in the chiral parameter, the acceleration of the LCP beams increases, but that of the RCP beams decreases. So, it is significant that we can control the self-acceleration of AiGBs by varying the chiral parameter and the distribution factor.
Unveiling the propagation dynamics of self-accelerating vector beams.
Bar-David, Jonathan; Voloch-Bloch, Noa; Mazurski, Noa; Levy, Uriel
2016-09-27
We study theoretically and experimentally the varying polarization states and intensity patterns of self-accelerating vector beams. It is shown that as these beams propagate, the main intensity lobe and the polarization singularity gradually drift apart. Furthermore, the propagation dynamics can be manipulated by controlling the beams' acceleration coefficients. We also demonstrate the self-healing dynamics of these accelerating vector beams for which sections of the vector beam are being blocked by an opaque or polarizing obstacle. Our results indicate that the self-healing process is almost insensitive for the obstacles' polarization direction. Moreover, the spatial polarization structure also shows self- healing properties, and it is reconstructed as the beam propagates further beyond the perturbation plane. These results open various possibilities for generating, shaping and manipulating the intensity patterns and space variant polarization states of accelerating vector beams.
Atmospheric propagation of high power laser radiation at different weather conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pargmann, Carsten; Hall, Thomas; Duschek, Frank; Handke, Jürgen
2016-05-01
Applications based on the propagation of high power laser radiation through the atmosphere are limited in range and effect, due to weather dependent beam wandering, beam deterioration, and scattering processes. Security and defense related application examples are countermeasures against hostile projectiles and the powering of satellites and aircrafts. For an examination of the correlations between weather condition and laser beam characteristics DLR operates at Lampoldshausen a 130 m long free transmission laser test range. Sensors around this test range continuously monitor turbulence strength, visibility, precipitation, temperature, and wind speed. High power laser radiation is obtained by a TruDisk 6001 disk laser (Trumpf company) yielding a maximum output power of 6 kW at a wavelength of 1030 nm. The laser beam is expanded to 180 mm and focused along the beam path. Power and intensity distribution are measured before and after propagation, providing information about the atmospheric transmission and alterations of diameter and position of the laser beam. Backscattered laser light is acquired by a photo receiver. As a result, measurements performed at different weather conditions show a couple of correlations to the characteristics of the laser beam. The experimental results are compared to a numerical analysis. The calculations are based on the Maxwell wave equation in Fresnel approximation. The turbulence is considered by the introduction of phase screens and the "von Karman" spectrum.
Protective laser beam viewing device
Neil, George R.; Jordan, Kevin Carl
2012-12-18
A protective laser beam viewing system or device including a camera selectively sensitive to laser light wavelengths and a viewing screen receiving images from the laser sensitive camera. According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the camera is worn on the head of the user or incorporated into a goggle-type viewing display so that it is always aimed at the area of viewing interest to the user and the viewing screen is incorporated into a video display worn as goggles over the eyes of the user.
Laser-Beam-Alignment Controller
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krasowski, M. J.; Dickens, D. E.
1995-01-01
In laser-beam-alignment controller, images from video camera compared to reference patterns by fuzzy-logic pattern comparator. Results processed by fuzzy-logic microcontroller, which sends control signals to motor driver adjusting lens and pinhole in spatial filter.
Beam position mis-measurement due to propagating modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Stephen R.; Johnson, Ronald G.
2000-11-01
In many modern storage rings, position monitors process beam signals at frequencies above cutoff for propagating modes in the beam duct. This is common in beam ducts with antechambers. Propagating modes introduce fields at the position monitor pickups unrelated to beam position at the monitor, and therefore can cause errors in indicated position. We discuss issues of generation and propagation of these fields, how they couple to position monitor pickups, and steps that can be taken to minimize their effects. We report some experiences with propagating modes affecting position measurements and our experience with lowering the processing frequency of several BPMs, which must operate in wide beam chamber near the interaction point of the PEP-II ring.
Electron beam pumped semiconductor laser
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hug, William F. (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor)
2009-01-01
Electron-beam-pumped semiconductor ultra-violet optical sources (ESUVOSs) are disclosed that use ballistic electron pumped wide bandgap semiconductor materials. The sources may produce incoherent radiation and take the form of electron-beam-pumped light emitting triodes (ELETs). The sources may produce coherent radiation and take the form of electron-beam-pumped laser triodes (ELTs). The ELTs may take the form of electron-beam-pumped vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (EVCSEL) or edge emitting electron-beam-pumped lasers (EEELs). The semiconductor medium may take the form of an aluminum gallium nitride alloy that has a mole fraction of aluminum selected to give a desired emission wavelength, diamond, or diamond-like carbon (DLC). The sources may be produced from discrete components that are assembled after their individual formation or they may be produced using batch MEMS-type or semiconductor-type processing techniques to build them up in a whole or partial monolithic manner, or combination thereof.
Modeling of dynamic effects of a low power laser beam
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lawrence, George N.; Scholl, Marija S.; Khatib, AL
1988-01-01
Methods of modeling some of the dynamic effects involved in laser beam propagation through the atmosphere are addressed with emphasis on the development of simple but accurate models which are readily implemented in a physical optics code. A space relay system with a ground based laser facility is considered as an example. The modeling of such characteristic phenomena as laser output distribution, flat and curved mirrors, diffraction propagation, atmospheric effects (aberration and wind shear), adaptive mirrors, jitter, and time integration of power on target, is discussed.
Program Models A Laser Beam Focused In An Aerosol Spray
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barton, J. P.
1996-01-01
Monte Carlo analysis performed on packets of light. Program for Analysis of Laser Beam Focused Within Aerosol Spray (FLSPRY) developed for theoretical analysis of propagation of laser pulse optically focused within aerosol spray. Applied for example, to analyze laser ignition arrangement in which focused laser pulse used to ignite liquid aerosol fuel spray. Scattering and absorption of laser light by individual aerosol droplets evaluated by use of electromagnetic Lorenz-Mie theory. Written in FORTRAN 77 for both UNIX-based computers and DEC VAX-series computers. VAX version of program (LEW-16051). UNIX version (LEW-16065).
Scintillation reduction for combined Gaussian-vortex beam propagating through turbulent atmosphere
Berman, Gennady P; Gorshkov, V. N.; Torous, S. V.
2010-12-14
We numerically examine the spatial evolution of the structure of coherent and partially coherent laser beams (PCBs), including the optical vortices, propagating in turbulent atmospheres, The influence of beam fragmentation and wandering relative to the axis of propagation (z-axis) on the value of the scintillation index (SI) of the signal at the detector is analyzed. A method for significantly reducing the SI, by averaging the signal at the detector over a set of PCBs, is described, This novel method is to generate the PCBs by combining two laser beams - Gaussian and vortex beams, with different frequencies (the difference between these two frequencies being significantly smaller than the frequencies themselves). In this case, the SI is effectively suppressed without any high-frequency modulators.
Propagation-induced polarization changes in partially coherent optical beams.
Agrawal, G P; Wolf, E
2000-11-01
Propagation of a partially coherent optical beam inside a linear, nondispersive, dielectric medium is studied, taking into account the vector nature of the electromagnetic field. Propagation-induced polarization changes are studied by using the Gaussian-Schell model for the cross-spectral-density tensor. The degree of polarization changes with propagation and also becomes nonuniform across the beam cross section. The extent of these changes depends on the coherence radius associated with the cross-correlation function. For optical beams with symmetric spectra, the bandwidth of the source spectra is found to play a relatively minor role.
A simple three dimensional wide-angle beam propagation method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Changbao; van Keuren, Edward
2006-05-01
The development of three dimensional (3-D) waveguide structures for chip scale planar lightwave circuits (PLCs) is hampered by the lack of effective 3-D wide-angle (WA) beam propagation methods (BPMs). We present a simple 3-D wide-angle beam propagation method (WA-BPM) using Hoekstra’s scheme along with a new 3-D wave equation splitting method. The applicability, accuracy and effectiveness of our method are demonstrated by applying it to simulations of wide-angle beam propagation and comparing them with analytical solutions.
A microcomputer-controlled laser beam analyzer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hand, L. E.; Nagle, H. T., Jr.; Kerns, D. V., Jr.
1982-07-01
A microcomputer-controlled laser beam analyzer is described. It uses five INTEL 8080 microcomputers to calculate the beam's peak intensity, peak intensity coordinates, centroid coordinates, beam energy, and beam quality in real time. Its application to the U.S. Army's gas-dynamic laser is illustrated.
Unveiling the propagation dynamics of self-accelerating vector beams
Bar-David, Jonathan; Voloch-Bloch, Noa; Mazurski, Noa; Levy, Uriel
2016-01-01
We study theoretically and experimentally the varying polarization states and intensity patterns of self-accelerating vector beams. It is shown that as these beams propagate, the main intensity lobe and the polarization singularity gradually drift apart. Furthermore, the propagation dynamics can be manipulated by controlling the beams’ acceleration coefficients. We also demonstrate the self-healing dynamics of these accelerating vector beams for which sections of the vector beam are being blocked by an opaque or polarizing obstacle. Our results indicate that the self-healing process is almost insensitive for the obstacles’ polarization direction. Moreover, the spatial polarization structure also shows self- healing properties, and it is reconstructed as the beam propagates further beyond the perturbation plane. These results open various possibilities for generating, shaping and manipulating the intensity patterns and space variant polarization states of accelerating vector beams. PMID:27671745
Propagation of an Airy beam with a spiral phase.
Chu, Xiuxiang
2012-12-15
The propagation of an Airy beam with a spiral phase is studied. The centroid position and spread of the beam are investigated analytically for different topological charges. Study shows that the centroid position of the Airy beam with a spiral phase keeps moving during propagation. The motion with positive topological charge is in the direction opposite to that with negative topological charge. The speed of the motion of the centroid position is proportional to the topological charge and the normalized distance. From the variation of the second moment of the beam, we can also see that the beam spread is speeded up by the spiral phase during propagation. The speed of the beam spread is proportional to the square of the topological charge.
Unveiling the propagation dynamics of self-accelerating vector beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bar-David, Jonathan; Voloch-Bloch, Noa; Mazurski, Noa; Levy, Uriel
2016-09-01
We study theoretically and experimentally the varying polarization states and intensity patterns of self-accelerating vector beams. It is shown that as these beams propagate, the main intensity lobe and the polarization singularity gradually drift apart. Furthermore, the propagation dynamics can be manipulated by controlling the beams’ acceleration coefficients. We also demonstrate the self-healing dynamics of these accelerating vector beams for which sections of the vector beam are being blocked by an opaque or polarizing obstacle. Our results indicate that the self-healing process is almost insensitive for the obstacles’ polarization direction. Moreover, the spatial polarization structure also shows self- healing properties, and it is reconstructed as the beam propagates further beyond the perturbation plane. These results open various possibilities for generating, shaping and manipulating the intensity patterns and space variant polarization states of accelerating vector beams.
Mean intensity of vortex Bessel beams propagating in turbulent atmosphere.
Lukin, Igor P
2014-05-20
Transformation of vortex Bessel beams during propagation in turbulent atmosphere is theoretically analyzed. Deforming influence of the random inhomogeneity of the turbulent medium on propagation of diffraction-free beams leads to disappearance of their invariant properties. In the given research, features of evolution of the spatial structure of distribution of mean intensity of vortex Bessel beams in turbulent atmosphere are analyzed. A quantitative criterion of possibility of carrying over of a dark central domain by vortex Bessel beams in a turbulent atmosphere is derived. The analysis of the behavior of several physical parameters of mean-level optical radiation shows that the shape stability of a vortex Bessel beam increases with the topological charge of this beam during its propagation in a turbulent atmosphere.
Atmospheric Propagation of High Energy Lasers and Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cook, Joung R.
2005-04-01
It has been over forty years since the invention of the laser, which has inspired the imagination of scientists and science fiction writers alike. Many ideas have been realized, still many remain as dreams, and new ones are still being conceived. The High Energy Laser (HEL) has been associated with weapon applications during the past three decades. Much of the same technology can be directly applied to power beaming, laser propulsion, and other potential remote energy and power transfer applications. Economically, these application areas are becoming increasingly more viable. This paper reviews the evolutionary history of the HEL device technologies. It points out the basic system components and layouts with associated key technologies that drive the effectiveness and efficiency of the system level performance. It describes the fundamental properties and wavelength dependencies of atmospheric propagation that in turn have become the prescription for wavelength properties that are desired from the device.
Measurement system with high accuracy for laser beam quality.
Ke, Yi; Zeng, Ciling; Xie, Peiyuan; Jiang, Qingshan; Liang, Ke; Yang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Ming
2015-05-20
Presently, most of the laser beam quality measurement system collimates the optical path manually with low efficiency and low repeatability. To solve these problems, this paper proposed a new collimated method to improve the reliability and accuracy of the measurement results. The system accuracy controlled the position of the mirror to change laser beam propagation direction, which can realize the beam perpendicularly incident to the photosurface of camera. The experiment results show that the proposed system has good repeatability and the measuring deviation of M^{2} factor is less than 0.6%.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhi, Dong; Chen, Yizhu; Tao, Rumao; Ma, Yanxing; Zhou, Pu; Si, Lei
2015-11-01
The propagation properties of a radial Gaussian beam array through oceanic turbulence are studied analytically. The analytical expressions for the average intensity and the beam quality (power-in-the-bucket (PIB) and M 2-factor) of a radial beam array in a turbulent ocean are derived based on an account of statistical optics methods, the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle, and the second order moments of the Wigner distribution function. The influences of w, ε, and χ T on the average intensity are investigated. The array divergence increases and the laser beam spreads as the salinity-induced dominant, ε decreased, and χ T increased. Further, the analytical expression of PIB and the M 2-factor in the target plane is obtained. The changes of PIB and the M 2-factor with three oceanic turbulence parameters indicate that the stronger turbulence with a larger w, smaller ε, and larger χ T results in the value of PIB decreasing, the value of the M 2-factor increasing, and the beam quality degrading.
Simulation of Propagation and Transformation of THz Bessel Beams with Orbital Angular Momentum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choporova, Yulia; Knyazev, Boris; Mitkov, Mikhail; Osintseva, Natalya; Pavelyev, Vladimir
Recently, terahertz Bessel beams with angular orbital momentum ("vortex beams") with topological charges l = ±1 and l = ±2 were generated for the first time using radiation of the Novosibirsk free electron laser (NovoFEL) and silicon binary phase axicons (Knyazev et al., Phys. Rev. Letters, vol. 115, Art. 163901, 2015). Such beams are prospective for application in wireless communication and remote sensing. In present paper, numerical modelling of generation and transformation of vortex beams based on the scalar diffraction theory has been performed. It was shown that the Bessel beams with the diameters of the first ring of 1.7 and 3.2 mm for topological charges ±1 and ±2, respectively, propagate at a distance up to 160 mm without dispersion. Calculation showed that the propagation distance can be increased by reducing of the radiation wavelength or using a telescopic system. In the first case, the propagation distance grows up inversely proportional to the wavelength, whereas, in the latter case the propagation distance increases as a square of a ratio of the telescope lenses foci. Modelling of the passing of the vortex Bessel beams through a random phase screen and amplitude obstacles showed the self-healing ability of the beams. Even if an obstacle with a diameter of 10 mm blocks several central rings of Bessel beam, it reconstructs itself after passing a length of about 100 mm. Results of the simulations are in a good agreement with the experimental data, when the latter exist.
Ponderomotive self-focusing of Gaussian laser beam in warm collisional plasma
Jafari Milani, M. R.; Niknam, A. R.; Farahbod, A. H.
2014-06-15
The propagation characteristics of a Gaussian laser beam through warm collisional plasma are investigated by considering the ponderomotive force nonlinearity and the complex eikonal function. By introducing the dielectric permittivity of warm unmagnetized plasma and using the WKB and paraxial ray approximations, the coupled differential equations defining the variations of laser beam parameters are obtained and solved numerically. Effects of laser and plasma parameters such as the collision frequency, the initial laser intensity and its spot size on the beam width parameter and the axis laser intensity distribution are analyzed. It is shown that, self-focusing of the laser beam takes place faster by increasing the collision frequency and initial laser spot size and then after some distance propagation the laser beam abruptly loses its initial diameter and vastly diverges. Furthermore, the modified electron density distribution is obtained and the collision frequency effect on this distribution is studied.
Turbulence-induced persistence in laser beam wandering.
Zunino, Luciano; Gulich, Damián; Funes, Gustavo; Pérez, Darío G
2015-07-01
We have experimentally confirmed the presence of long-memory correlations in the wandering of a thin Gaussian laser beam over a screen after propagating through a turbulent medium. A laboratory-controlled experiment was conducted in which coordinate fluctuations of the laser beam were recorded at a sufficiently high sampling rate for a wide range of turbulent conditions. Horizontal and vertical displacements of the laser beam centroid were subsequently analyzed by implementing detrended fluctuation analysis. This is a very well-known and widely used methodology to unveil memory effects from time series. Results obtained from this experimental analysis allow us to confirm that both coordinates behave as highly persistent signals for strong turbulent intensities. This finding is relevant for a better comprehension and modeling of the turbulence effects in free-space optical communication systems and other applications related to propagation of optical signals in the atmosphere.
Repeat scanning technology for laser ultrasonic propagation imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Jung-Ryul; Yenn Chong, See; Sunuwar, Nitam; Park, Chan Yik
2013-08-01
Laser ultrasonic scanning in combination with contact or non-contact sensors provides new paradigms in structural health management (SHM) and non-destructive in-process quality control (IPQC) for large composite structures. Wave propagation imaging technology based on laser ultrasonic scanning and fixed-point sensing shows remarkable advantages, such as minimal need for embedded sensors in SHM, minimum invasive defect visualization in IPQC and general capabilities of curved and complex target inspection, and temporal reference-free inspection. However, as with other SHM methods and non-destructive evaluation based on ultrasound, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is a prevalent issue in real structural applications, especially with non-contact thin-composite sensing or with thick and heterogeneous composites. This study proposes a high-speed repeat scanning technique for laser ultrasonic propagation imaging (UPI) technology, which is realized with the scanning speed of 1 kHz of a Q-switched continuous wave laser, and precise control of the laser beam pulses for identical point scanning. As a result, the technique enables the achievement of significant improvement in the SNR to inspect real-world composite structures. The proposed technique provides enhanced results for impact damage detection in a 2 mm thick wing box made of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic, despite the low sensitivity of non-contact laser ultrasonic sensing. A field-applicable pure laser UPI system has been developed using a laser Doppler vibrometer as the non-contact ultrasonic sensor. The proposed technique enables the visualization of the disbond defect in a 15 mm thick wind blade specimen made of glass-fiber-reinforced plastic, despite the high dissipation of ultrasound in the thick composite.
Bliss, E.S.; Peterson, R.L.; Salmon, J.T.; Thomas, R.A.
1992-11-01
The laser system described in the previous paper is used for experiments in which success requires tight tolerances on beam position, direction, and wavefront. Indeed, the optimum performance of the laser itself depends on careful delivery of copper laser light to the dye amplifiers, precise propagation of dye laser beams through restricted amplifier apertures, and accurate monitoring of laser power at key locations. This paper describes the alignment systems, wavefront correction systems, and laser diagnostics systems which ensure that the control requirements of both the laser and associated experiments are met. Because laser isotope separation processes utilize more than one wavelength, these systems monitor and control multiple wavelengths simultaneously.
Mode analysis of spreading of partially coherent beams propagating through atmospheric turbulence.
Shirai, Tomohiro; Dogariu, Aristide; Wolf, Emil
2003-06-01
The spreading of partially coherent beams propagating through atmospheric turbulence is studied by use of the coherent-mode representation of the beams. Specifically, we consider partially coherent Gaussian Schell-model beams entering the atmosphere, and we examine the spreading of each coherent mode, represented by a Hermite-Gaussian function, on propagation. We find that in atmospheric turbulence the relative spreading of higher-order modes is smaller than that of lower-order modes, whereas the relative spreading of all order modes is the same as in free space. This modal behavior successfully explains why under certain circumstances partially coherent beams are less affected by atmospheric turbulence than are fully spatially coherent laser beams.
Propagation characteristics of Bessel beams generated by continuous, incoherent light sources.
Altıngöz, Ceren; Yalızay, Berna; Akturk, Selcuk
2015-08-01
We investigate the propagation behavior of Bessel beams generated by incoherent, continuous light sources. We perform experiments with narrowband and broadband light emitting diodes, and, for comparison, with a laser diode. We observe that the formation of Bessel beams is affected minimally by temporal coherence, while spatial coherence determines the longitudinal evolution of the beam profile. With spatially incoherent beams, the fringe contrast is comparable to the coherent case at the beginning of the Bessel zone, while it completely fades away by propagation, turning into a cylindrical light pipe. Our results show that beam shaping methods can be extended to cases of limited spatial coherence, paving the way for potential new uses and applications of such sources.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghotra, Harjit Singh; Kant, Niti
2017-01-01
Electron acceleration due to a circularly polarized (CP) Gaussian laser field has been investigated theoretically in magnetized plasma. A Gaussian laser beam possesses trapping forces on electrons during its propagation through plasma. A single particle simulation indicates a resonant enhancement of electron acceleration with a Gaussian laser beam. The plasma is magnetized with an axial magnetic field in same direction as that of laser beam propagation. The dependence of laser beam width parameter on electron energy gain with propagation distance has been presented graphically for different values of laser intensity. Electron energy gain is relatively high where the laser beam parameter is at its minimum value. Enhanced energy gain of the order of GeV is reported with magnetic field under 20 MG in plasma. It is also seen that the axial magnetic field maintains the electron acceleration for large propagation distance even with an increasing beam width parameter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rickenstorff, Carolina; Rodrigo, Jóse A.; Alieva, Tatiana
2016-04-01
Different applications such as astronomy, remote optical sensing and free space optical communications, among others, require both numerical and laboratory experimental simulations of beam propagation through turbulent atmosphere prior to an outdoor test. While rotating phase plates or hot chambers can be applied to such studies, they do not allow changing the atmospheric conditions and the propagation distance in situ. In contrast, the spatial light modulators (SLMs) are a flexible alternative for experimental turbulence simulation. In this work we consider an experimental setup comprising two SLMs for studying laser beam propagation in weak atmospheric turbulence. The changes of atmospheric conditions and propagation distances are properly achieved by the adjustment of the phase screens and the focal distances of digital lenses implemented in both SLMs. The proposed system can be completely automatized and all its elements are in fixed positions avoiding mechanical misalignment. Its design, propagation distance and atmospheric condition adjustment are provided. The setup performance is verified by numerical simulation of Gaussian beam propagation in the weak turbulence regime. The obtained parameters: scintillation index, beam wander and spreading are compared to their theoretical counterparts for different propagation distances and atmospheric conditions.
Annular Laser Beam Cladding Process Feasibility Study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuznetsov, Alexander; Jeromen, Andrej; Levy, Gideon; Fujishima, Makoto; Govekar, Edvard
In the paper a novel annular - ring shaped - laser beam cladding head and related cladding process are presented. In the cladding head a laser beam is shaped into an annular ring and guided coaxially with the powder tube disposing the powder jet in the centre of the focused annular laser beam ring. An experimental process feasibility analysis was performed using a Nd:YAG pulsed laser system with a maximal average power 250 W. Beside the known influencing parameters of laser cladding process including the powder mass flow, workpiece feeding velocity, and laser beam intensity, the important parameters related to the annular laser beam caustics were defined. The process feasibility and influence of the process parameters on powder catchment efficiency was analysed based on the cladding experiments of SS 316L powder on SS 304 workpiece material. The potential benefits related to the annular laser beam melt pool geometry and related powder catchment efficiency are discussed.
Laser beam complex amplitude measurement by phase diversity.
Védrenne, Nicolas; Mugnier, Laurent M; Michau, Vincent; Velluet, Marie-Thérèse; Bierent, Rudolph
2014-02-24
The control of the optical quality of a laser beam requires a complex amplitude measurement able to deal with strong modulus variations and potentially highly perturbed wavefronts. The method proposed here consists in an extension of phase diversity to complex amplitude measurements that is effective for highly perturbed beams. Named camelot for Complex Amplitude MEasurement by a Likelihood Optimization Tool, it relies on the acquisition and processing of few images of the beam section taken along the optical path. The complex amplitude of the beam is retrieved from the images by the minimization of a Maximum a Posteriori error metric between the images and a model of the beam propagation. The analytical formalism of the method and its experimental validation are presented. The modulus of the beam is compared to a measurement of the beam profile, the phase of the beam is compared to a conventional phase diversity estimate. The precision of the experimental measurements is investigated by numerical simulations.
LASER PROFILE MEASUREMENTS OF AN H BEAM.
CONNOLLY,R.; CAMERON,P.; CUPOLO,J.; GRAU,M.; KESSELMAN,M.; LIAW,C.J.; SIKORA,R.
2001-06-18
A non-intercepting beam profile monitor for He beams is being developed at Brookhaven National Lab. An H{sup {minus}} ion has a first ionization potential of 0.75eV. Electrons can be removed from an H{sup {minus}} beam by passing light from a near-infrared laser through it. Experiments have been performed on the BNL linac to measure the transverse profile of a 750keV beam by using a Nd:YAG laser to photoneutralize narrow slices of the beam. The laser beam is scanned across the ion beam neutralizing the portion of the beam struck by the laser. The electrons are removed from the ion beam and the beam current notch is measured.
LASER PROFILE MEASUREMENTS OF AN H BEAM.
CONNOLLY,R.; CAMERON,P.; CUPOLO,J.; GRAU,M.; KESSELMAN,M.; LIAW,C.J.; SIKORA,R.
2001-05-12
A non-intercepting beam profile monitor for H{sup {minus}} beams is being developed at Brookhaven National Lab. An H{sup {minus}} ion has a first ionization potential of 0.75eV. Electrons can be removed from an H{sup {minus}} beam by passing light from a near-infrared laser through it. Experiments have been performed on the BNL linac to measure the transverse profile of a 750keV beam by using a Nd:YAG laser to photoneutralize narrow slices of the beam. The laser beam is scanned across the ion beam neutralizing the portion of the beam struck by the laser. The electrons are removed from the ion beam and the beam current notch is measured.
Propagation of an Airy beam through the atmosphere.
Ji, Xiaoling; Eyyuboğlu, Halil T; Ji, Guangming; Jia, Xinhong
2013-01-28
In this paper, the effect of thermal blooming of an Airy beam propagating through the atmosphere is examined, and the effect of atmospheric turbulence is not considered. The changes of the intensity distribution, the centroid position and the mean-squared beam width of an Airy beam propagating through the atmosphere are studied by using the four-dimensional (4D) computer code of the time-dependent propagation of Airy beams through the atmosphere. It is shown that an Airy beam can't retain its shape and the structure when the Airy beam propagates through the atmosphere due to thermal blooming except for the short propagation distance, or the short time, or the low beam power. The thermal blooming results in a central dip of the center lobe, and causes the center lobe to spread and decrease. In contrast with the center lobe, the side lobes are less affected by thermal blooming, such that the intensity maximum of the side lobe may be larger than that of the center lobe. However, the cross wind can reduce the effect of thermal blooming. When there exists the cross wind velocity vx in x direction, the dependence of centroid position in x direction on vx is not monotonic, and there exists a minimum, but the centroid position in y direction is nearly independent of vx.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takahara, H.; Koshijima, T.; Iida, H.
1986-04-01
For laser internal therapy in medical applications, optical fibres are required to propagate the laser beam. The far-field pattern of the laser beam at the exit face of the optical fibre is studied using a multimode step-index fibre and a graded index Selfoc fibre. The degree of dispersion, or the output angular distribution, of the beam passing through the Selfoc fibre is much smaller than that passing through the multimode step-index fibre. Consequently, the energy density in the far-field pattern of the beam passing through the Selfoc fibre is very much larger than that for the beam passing through the multimode step-index fibre. It is concluded that the Selfoc fibre is more effective in laser internal therapy.
Influence of laser array performance on spectrally combined beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Zhen; Yang, Lei; Zhong, Zheqiang; Zhang, Bin
2016-10-01
Incoherent spectral beam combining (SBC) of multiple laser beams is accomplished along the emitters' arraying direction. Considering that the output beams from a laser array (LA) usually have deflection angles, positional displacements and divergence angles even after being collimated, a propagation model of SBC systems based on multilayer dielectric gratings has been built up. On the basis, properties of the spectrally combined beam affected by parameters of the LA have been discussed in detail. Simulation results show that with the increase in the deflection angle, both the power and the beam quality of the combined beam degrade dramatically. The positional displacement has little impact on the intensity distribution and the beam quality of combined beam but change the wavelength composition of the combined beam. The divergence angle strongly affects the intensity distribution and the beam quality of the combined beam. Additionally, the effect of the deflection angle on the output beam quality is more obvious and may shift the beam spot when comparing with that of the divergence angle.
Propagation of sharply autofocused ring Airy Gaussian vortex beams.
Chen, Bo; Chen, Chidao; Peng, Xi; Peng, Yulian; Zhou, Meiling; Deng, Dongmei
2015-07-27
Controlling the focal length and the intensity of the optical focus in the media is an important task. Here we investigate the propagation properties of the sharply autofocused ring Airy Gaussian vortex beams numerically and some numerical experiments are performed. We introduce the distribution factor b into the initial beams, and discuss the influences for the beams. With controlling the factor b, the beams that tend to a ring Airy vortex beam with the smaller value, or a hollow Gaussian vortex beam with the larger one. By a choice of initial launch condition, we find that the number of topological charge of the incident beams, as well as its size, greatly affect the focal intensity and the focal length of the autofocused ring Airy Gaussian vortex beams. Furthermore, we show that the off-axis autofocused ring Airy Gaussian beams with vortex pairs can be implemented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Haiyan; Li, Xiangyin
2010-11-01
With the help of the tensor method, the analytical expression for the cross-spectral density of the radial partially coherent flat-topped array (RPCFTA) beams propagating in a turbulent atmosphere is derived, where the correlated superposition and uncorrelated superposition are considered. The average intensity, the spatial coherence properties and power in bucket (PIB) of these kinds of beams are investigated in detail. It is shown by numerical results and analysis that the average intensity and the spatial coherence of the correlated or uncorrelated RPCFTA beams will change on propagation and this change is dependent upon the correlation of the source's beamlets and atmospheric turbulence. In addition, the comparisons of the average intensity and the spatial coherence between the correlated and the uncorrelated RPCFTA beams propagating both in turbulent atmosphere and in free space are also given, and some interesting results are obtained. The laser power of focus ability of the single PCFT beam is worse than that of the correlated RPCFTA beam and but better than that of the uncorrelated RPCFTA beam when propagation distance in turbulent atmosphere is far-field plane.
Interaction of high power laser beams with plasma in ICF hohlraum using the FDTD method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Zhili
2016-11-01
In the indirect-drive Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) system, groups of laser beams are injected into a gold cylindrical hohlraum and plasma is stimulated with the ablation of the wall of hohlraum by the laser beams. In our work, the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method associated with the bilinear transform and Maclaurin series expansion approaches is utilized to examine the laser beam propagation in plasma described by the Drude model. The state-of-the-art approaches for generating the laser beams are presented and realized according to the full utilization of the TF/SF source condition. Base on the previous technologies, the quantitatively numerical analysis of the propagation characteristics of laser beams in the plasma is conducted. The obtained results are illustrated and discussed that are helpful for the parameter optimization of laser beams for an ICF system.
Scattering apodizer for laser beams
Summers, Mark A.; Hagen, Wilhelm F.; Boyd, Robert D.
1985-01-01
A method is disclosed for apodizing a laser beam to smooth out the production of diffraction peaks due to optical discontinuities in the path of the laser beam, such method comprising introduction of a pattern of scattering elements for reducing the peak intensity in the region of such optical discontinuities, such pattern having smoothly tapering boundaries in which the distribution density of the scattering elements is tapered gradually to produce small gradients in the distribution density, such pattern of scattering elements being effective to reduce and smooth out the diffraction effects which would otherwise be produced. The apodizer pattern may be produced by selectively blasting a surface of a transparent member with fine abrasive particles to produce a multitude of minute pits. In one embodiment, a scattering apodizer pattern is employed to overcome diffraction patterns in a multiple element crystal array for harmonic conversion of a laser beam. The interstices and the supporting grid between the crystal elements are obscured by the gradually tapered apodizer pattern of scattering elements.
Scattering apodizer for laser beams
Summers, M.A.; Hagen, W.F.; Boyd, R.D.
1984-01-01
A method is disclosed for apodizing a laser beam to smooth out the production of diffraction peaks due to optical discontinuities in the path of the laser beam, such method comprising introduction of a pattern of scattering elements for reducing the peak intensity in the region of such optical discontinuities, such pattern having smoothly tapering boundaries in which the distribution density of the scattering elements is tapered gradually to produce small gradients in the distribution density, such pattern of scattering elements being effective to reduce and smooth out the diffraction effects which would otherwise be produced. The apodizer pattern may be produced by selectively blasting a surface of a transparent member with fine abrasive particles to produce a multitude of minute pits. In one embodiment, a scattering apodizer pattern is employed to overcome diffraction patterns in a multiple element crystal array for harmonic conversion of a laser beam. The interstices and the supporting grid between the crystal elements are obscured by the gradually tapered apodizer pattern of scattering elements.
Optimization of Gaussian beam widths in acoustic propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gordon, D. F.
1989-10-01
The use of Gaussian beams to compute wave propagation phenomena is a field of current interest and activity. Porter and Bucker (1987) supply an extensive list of references. More recent references can be found in Benites and Aki (1989). Gaussian beams can be traced as rays in range-dependent media providing not only propagation loss, but travel times, multipath structure, and frequency dependence. The well-known ray theory problems of caustics and shadow zones are treated automatically. A beam width minimization technique applied to a Gaussian beam model developed by Dr. H. P. Bucker, is outlined. Porter and Bucker (1987) gives the formulation upon which the techniques is built. A free parameter E is usually determined in a heuristic manner. Here, it is shown that the minimization of beam width assigns a precise value to E. Examples are given showing that the minimized beams give good propagation losses in some cases. A case also shown in the standard Gaussian beams give poor results and the minimized beams give even worse results. The problem appears to arise in beams that pass near boundaries. This problem will have to be corrected before a final judgment can be made on the validity of minimum-width beams.
Enhanced propagation for relativistic laser pulses in inhomogeneous plasmas using hollow channels.
Fuchs, J; d'Humières, E; Sentoku, Y; Antici, P; Atzeni, S; Bandulet, H; Depierreux, S; Labaune, C; Schiavi, A
2010-11-26
The influence of long (several millimeters) and hollow channels, bored in inhomogeneous ionized plasma by using a long pulse laser beam, on the propagation of short, ultraintense laser pulses has been studied. Compared to the case without a channel, propagation in channels significantly improves beam transmission and maintains a beam quality close to propagation in vacuum. In addition, the growth of the forward-Raman instability is strongly reduced. These results are beneficial for the direct scheme of the fast ignitor concept of inertial confinement fusion as we demonstrate, in fast-ignition-relevant conditions, that with such channels laser energy can be carried through increasingly dense plasmas close to the fuel core with minimal losses.
Cascaded injection resonator for coherent beam combining of laser arrays
Kireev, Vassili [Sunnyvale, CA; Liu, Yun; Protopopescu, Vladimir [Knoxville, TN; Braiman, Yehuda [Oak Ridge, TN
2008-10-21
The invention provides a cascaded injection resonator for coherent beam combining of laser arrays. The resonator comprises a plurality of laser emitters arranged along at least one plane and a beam sampler for reflecting at least a portion of each laser beam that impinges on the beam sampler, the portion of each laser beam from one of the laser emitters being reflected back to another one of the laser emitters to cause a beam to be generated from the other one of the laser emitters to the beam reflector. The beam sampler also transmits a portion of each laser beam to produce a laser output beam such that a plurality of laser output beams of the same frequency are produced. An injection laser beam is directed to a first laser emitter to begin a process of generating and reflecting a laser beam from one laser emitter to another laser emitter in the plurality. A method of practicing the invention is also disclosed.
Intense electron beam propagation across a magnetic field
Zhang, X.; Striffler, C.D.; Yao, R.L.; Destler, W.W.; Reiser, M.P.
1989-01-01
In this paper we consider the propagation of an intense electron-ion beam across an applied magnetic field. In the absence of the applied field, the beam system is in a Bennett equilibrium state that involves electrons with both large axial and thermal velocities and a cold stationary space-charge neutralizing ion species. Typical parameters under consideration are V{sub o} {approximately} 1 MV, I {approximately} 5 kA, T{sub e} {approximately} 100 keV, and beam radii {approximately} 1 cm. We find that in the intense beam regime, the propagation is limited due to space-charge depression caused by the deflection of the electron beam by the transverse field. This critical field is of the order of the peak self-magnetic field of the electron beam which is substantially higher than the single particle cut-off field. 8 refs., 3 figs.
Laser beam welding of thermoplastics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Russek, Ulrich A.; Palmen, A.; Staub, H.; Poehler, J.; Wenzlau, C.; Otto, G.; Poggel, M.; Koeppe, A.; Kind, H.
2003-07-01
Current product development showing an ever shrinking physical volume is asking for new, reliable joining technologies. Laser beam technologies conceal innovative solutions to overcome limitations of conventional joining technologies. Laser beam welding of thermoplastics offers several process technical advantages. The joining energy is fed contact-less into the joining area, avoiding mechanical stress and thermal load to the joining partners. The energy is supplied spatially (seam width on the order of 100 μm) and timely (interaction time on the order of ms) very well defined. Different process strategies are possible leading to flexibility, product adapted irradiation, short process times and high quality weld seams as well as to high integration abilities and automation potentials. During the joining process no vibration, no thermal stress, no particle release takes place. Therefore, destruction of mechanically and electronically highly sensitive components, such as microelectronics, is avoided. The work place pollution is neglectable compared to other joining technologies, such as gluing (fume) or ultrasonic welding (noise, pieces of fluff). Not only micro-components can be welded in a reproducible way but also macro-components while obtaining a hermetic sealing with good optical appearance. In this publication firstly, an overview concerning process technical basis, aspects and challenges is given. Next, results concerning laser penetration welding of polymers using high power diode lasers are presented, while comparing contour and simultaneous welding by experimental results and the on-line process monitoring.
Raman beam combining for laser brightness enhancement
Dawson, Jay W.; Allen, Graham S.; Pax, Paul H.; Heebner, John E.; Sridharan, Arun K.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Barty, Chrisopher B. J.
2015-10-27
An optical source capable of enhanced scaling of pulse energy and brightness utilizes an ensemble of single-aperture fiber lasers as pump sources, with each such fiber laser operating at acceptable pulse energy levels. Beam combining involves stimulated Raman scattering using a Stokes' shifted seed beam, the latter of which is optimized in terms of its temporal and spectral properties. Beams from fiber lasers can thus be combined to attain pulses with peak energies in excess of the fiber laser self-focusing limit of 4 MW while retaining the advantages of a fiber laser system of high average power with good beam quality.
Uncertainty Propagation for Terrestrial Mobile Laser Scanner
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mezian, c.; Vallet, Bruno; Soheilian, Bahman; Paparoditis, Nicolas
2016-06-01
Laser scanners are used more and more in mobile mapping systems. They provide 3D point clouds that are used for object reconstruction and registration of the system. For both of those applications, uncertainty analysis of 3D points is of great interest but rarely investigated in the literature. In this paper we present a complete pipeline that takes into account all the sources of uncertainties and allows to compute a covariance matrix per 3D point. The sources of uncertainties are laser scanner, calibration of the scanner in relation to the vehicle and direct georeferencing system. We suppose that all the uncertainties follow the Gaussian law. The variances of the laser scanner measurements (two angles and one distance) are usually evaluated by the constructors. This is also the case for integrated direct georeferencing devices. Residuals of the calibration process were used to estimate the covariance matrix of the 6D transformation between scanner laser and the vehicle system. Knowing the variances of all sources of uncertainties, we applied uncertainty propagation technique to compute the variance-covariance matrix of every obtained 3D point. Such an uncertainty analysis enables to estimate the impact of different laser scanners and georeferencing devices on the quality of obtained 3D points. The obtained uncertainty values were illustrated using error ellipsoids on different datasets.
Propagation of Airy Gaussian vortex beams in uniaxial crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weihao, Yu; Ruihuang, Zhao; Fu, Deng; Jiayao, Huang; Chidao, Chen; Xiangbo, Yang; Yanping, Zhao; Dongmei, Deng
2016-04-01
The propagation dynamics of the Airy Gaussian vortex beams in uniaxial crystals orthogonal to the optical axis has been investigated analytically and numerically. The propagation expression of the beams has been obtained. The propagation features of the Airy Gaussian vortex beams are shown with changes of the distribution factor and the ratio of the extraordinary refractive index to the ordinary refractive index. The correlations between the ratio and the maximum intensity value during the propagation, and its appearing distance have been investigated. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374108, 11374107, 10904041, and 11547212), the Foundation of Cultivating Outstanding Young Scholars of Guangdong Province, China, the CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, University of Science and Technology of China, the National Training Program of Innovation and Entrepreneurship for Undergraduates (Grant No. 2015093), and the Science and Technology Projects of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2013B031800011).
Laser cutting silicon-glass double layer wafer with laser induced thermal-crack propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Yecheng; Yang, Lijun; Zhang, Hongzhi; Wang, Yang
2016-07-01
This study was aimed at introducing the laser induced thermal-crack propagation (LITP) technology to solve the silicon-glass double layer wafer dicing problems in the packaging procedure of silicon-glass device packaged by WLCSP technology, investigating the feasibility of this idea, and studying the crack propagation process of LITP cutting double layer wafer. In this paper, the physical process of the 1064 nm laser beam interact with the double layer wafer during the cutting process was studied theoretically. A mathematical model consists the volumetric heating source and the surface heating source has been established. The temperature and stress distribution was simulated by using finite element method (FEM) analysis software ABAQUS. The extended finite element method (XFEM) was added to the simulation as the supplementary features to simulate the crack propagation process and the crack propagation profile. The silicon-glass double layer wafer cutting verification experiment under typical parameters was conducted by using the 1064 nm semiconductor laser. The crack propagation profile on the fracture surface was examined by optical microscope and explained from the stress distribution and XFEM status. It was concluded that the quality of the finished fracture surface has been greatly improved, and the experiment results were well supported by the numerical simulation results.
Propagation characteristics of partially coherent beams with spatially varying correlations.
Lajunen, Hanna; Saastamoinen, Toni
2011-10-15
We introduce a class of partially coherent beams with spatially varying correlation properties. It is shown that mathematically simple modifications in the coherence function of conventional Gaussian Schell-model beams lead to partially coherent fields with extraordinary free-space propagation characteristics, such as locally sharpened and laterally shifted intensity maxima. We study the properties of such fields based on an elementary-mode interpretation and by numerical simulations. The results demonstrate the potential of coherence modulation for beam shaping applications.
High-current fast electron beam propagation in a dielectric target.
Klimo, Ondrej; Tikhonchuk, V T; Debayle, A
2007-01-01
Recent experiments demonstrate an efficient transformation of high intensity laser pulse into a relativistic electron beam with a very high current density exceeding 10(12) A cm(-2). The propagation of such a beam inside the target is possible if its current is neutralized. This phenomenon is not well understood, especially in dielectric targets. In this paper, we study the propagation of high current density electron beam in a plastic target using a particle-in-cell simulation code. The code includes both ionization of the plastic and collisions of newborn electrons. The numerical results are compared with a relatively simple analytical model and a reasonable agreement is found. The temporal evolution of the beam velocity distribution, the spatial density profile, and the propagation velocity of the ionization front are analyzed and their dependencies on the beam density and energy are discussed. The beam energy losses are mainly due to the target ionization induced by the self-generated electric field and the return current. For the highest beam density, a two-stream instability is observed to develop in the plasma behind the ionization front and it contributes to the beam energy losses.
Chu, Shu-Chun; Yang, Chao-Shun; Otsuka, Kenju
2008-11-24
This paper proposes a new scheme for generating vortex laser beams from a laser. The proposed system consists of a Dove prism embedded in an unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration. This configuration allows controlled construction of p x p vortex array beams from Ince-Gaussian modes, IG(e) (p,p) modes. An incident IG(e)(p,p) laser beam of variety order p can easily be generated from an end-pumped solid-state laser system with an off-axis pumping mechanism. This study simulates this type of vortex array laser beam generation, analytically derives the vortex positions of the resulting vortex array laser beams, and discusses beam propagation effects. The resulting vortex array laser beam can be applied to optical tweezers and atom traps in the form of two-dimensional arrays, or used to study the transfer of angular momentum to micro particles or atoms (Bose-Einstein condensate).
Self-reconstruction of diffraction-free and accelerating laser beams in scattering media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ersoy, T.; Yalizay, B.; Akturk, S.
2012-12-01
We experimentally investigate propagation of laser beams with different intensity profiles in highly scattering media. We generate transverse laser amplitude profiles with Gaussian, Bessel and Airy function envelopes. We then propagate these beams through optical phantoms formed with variable density intralipid solutions. At the sample exit, we compare change in maximum intensities, as well as beam profile reconstruction. We show that self-reconstruction properties of Bessel and Airy beams bring about slower decrease in maximum intensity with increasing scatterer density. On the other hand, the beam profiles deteriorate faster, as compared to reference Gaussian beams. Slower decrease in the intensity can be attributed to the wavevector spectra providing a continuous flow of energy to the beam center, while beam deterioration is linked to total beam volume in the scattering medium. These results show that beam shaping methods can significantly enhance delivery of intense light deeper into turbid media, but this enhancement is compromised by stronger speckling of beam profiles.
LASER BEAMS: Optical diabols in singular laser beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasil'ev, V. I.; Denisenko, V. G.; Egorov, R. I.; Slyusar, V. V.; Soskin, M. S.
2008-03-01
Polarisation singularities and optical diabols in laser beams are studied experimentally by the developed method of digital Stokes-polarimetry. Three possible morphological forms of singularities with circular polarisation (C points) are found and their statistics in the speckle pattern of photoinduced scattering is determined. Singular fields with controllable parameters are realised and used for studying topological transformations, creation and annihilation of singularities and optical diabols. Both possible types of distributions of the major and minor semiaxes of polarisation ellipses in the beam cross section around C points (optical diabols) are measured. It is shown that, in accordance with the theory, the annihilation of pairs of elliptical diabols is preceded by their transformation to hyperbolic diabols.
Vortex beam based more stable annular laser guide star
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Ruiyao; Cui, Wenda; Li, Lei; Sun, Quan; He, Yulong; Wang, Hongyan; Ning, Yu; Xu, Xiaojun
2016-11-01
We present an annular laser guide star (LGS) concept for large ground-based telescopes in this paper. The more stable annular LGS is generated by turbulence-resisted vortex beam. In the uplink, a vortex beam tends to wander more slightly than a Gaussian beam does in atmospheric turbulence. This may enable an annular LGS to wander more slightly than a traditional Gaussian beam generated LGS does, which would ease the burden of uplink tip-tilt mirror and benefit a dynamical closed-loop adaptive optics system. We conducted numerical simulation to validate the feasibility of this concept. And we have gotten 31% reduced variance of spot wandering of annular LGS. Besides, we set up a spatial light modulator based laser guide star simulator for beam propagation in turbulent atmosphere to experimentally test the annular LGS concept. Preliminary experimental results are given. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time this concept is formulated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korotkova, O.
2006-02-01
The intensity fluctuations of random electromagnetic beams propagating in the atmosphere are studied. For such beams it is shown that when the atmospheric fluctuations are weak then the scintillation index (the normalized variance of intensity fluctuations) of the beam at any distance from the source depends not only on the state of coherence but also on the degree of polarization of the beam in the source plane. In particular, we found that for initially unpolarized beams the scintillation index generally takes on smaller values than that for completely polarized beams. The presented analysis might be useful in the applications (e.g. communications, laser radars) where atmospheric effects can be mitigated by adjusting the coherence properties and the polarization properties of the source.
Method for splitting low power laser beams
Pierscionek, B.K. )
1990-04-01
A new method for producing parallel rays from a laser beam using a cylindrical lens and pinholes is presented. This method can produce a greater number of emergent rays than using a {ital beam} {ital splitter}.
Beam-Steering Subsystem For Laser Communication
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lesh, James R.; Chen, Chien-Chung; Ansari, Homayoon
1995-01-01
Proposed free-space laser communication system contains fewer optical and mechanical components. Involves novel fast beam-steering subsystem stabilizing only angle between transmitting and receiving beams instead of stabilizing both transmitting and receiving lines of sight individually. Received and transmitted beams of light both imaged onto CCD array at focal plane. Relative angular positions of beams computed from centroids of their images.
Propagation of flat-topped multi-Gaussian beams through a double-lens system with apertures.
Gao, Yanqi; Zhu, Baoqiang; Liu, Daizhong; Lin, Zunqi
2009-07-20
A general model for different apertures and flat-topped laser beams based on the multi-Gaussian function is developed. The general analytical expression for the propagation of a flat-topped beam through a general double-lens system with apertures is derived using the above model. Then, the propagation characteristics of the flat-topped beam through a spatial filter are investigated by using a simplified analytical expression. Based on the Fluence beam contrast and the Fill factor, the influences of a pinhole size on the propagation of the flat-topped multi-Gaussian beam (FMGB) through the spatial filter are illustrated. An analytical expression for the propagation of the FMGB through the spatial filter with a misaligned pinhole is presented, and the influences of the pinhole offset are evaluated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Navpreet; Gupta, Naveen; Singh, Arvinder
2016-12-01
This paper investigates second harmonic generation (SHG) of an intense Cosh-Gaussian (ChG) laser beam propagating through a preformed underdense collisional plasma with nonlinear absorption. Nonuniform heating of plasma electrons takes place due to the nonuniform irradiance of intensity along the wavefront of laser beam. This nonuniform heating of plasma leads to the self-focusing of the laser beam and thus produces strong density gradients in the transverse direction. The density gradients so generated excite an electron plasma wave (EPW) at pump frequency that interacts with the pump beam to produce its second harmonics. To envision the propagation dynamics of the ChG laser beam, moment theory in Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (W.K.B) approximation has been invoked. The effects of nonlinear absorption on self-focusing of the laser beam as well as on the conversion efficiency of its second harmonics have been theoretically investigated.
Gaussian Schell-model beams propagating through polarization gratings.
Piquero, G; Borghi, R; Santarsiero, M
2001-06-01
The effects of polarization gratings on partially coherent beams are investigated by studying a Gaussian Schell-model beam impinging on a linear polarizer whose transmission axis varies periodically along one transverse direction. Analytical expressions for the beam polarization-coherence matrix after the grating are obtained. In particular, the evolution of the degree of polarization upon propagation is analyzed. Different behaviors of the output beam, depending on the beam parameters and on the period of the grating, are exhibited. In particular, it is shown that, by suitably choosing the latter quantities, it is possible to obtain not only any desirable value of the degree of polarization of the output beam but also particular distributions of such parameters across the transverse sections of the beam.
Beam-quality measurements for materials processing lasers and the proposed ISO standard
Fuerschbach, P.W.; Essien, M.
1993-11-01
Laser beam-quality can indicate the maximum power density that can be obtained with a specific laser and serves as a figure-of-merit when comparing lasers, calibrating lasers, and in assessing a laser`s operating condition. Measurements of laser beam-quality for a 1000 watt continuous wave CO{sub 2} laser and a 400 watt pulsed Nd:YAG laser have been completed. These measurements were made with two different type instruments: (1) a specially constructed apparatus that uses an integrating sphere and diamond apertures and (2) a commercially available instrument that incorporates a scanning and spinning hollow needle. Laser beam-quality and the propagation constants have been determined using a non-linear curve-fitting technique and the new proposed ISO standard for measuring laser beam-quality. The curve fitting analysis and the ISO analysis were found to produce approximately the same values for beam-quality and the propagation constants. However, a comparison of the experimental procedures required with the two techniques showed significant differences. The utility of the ISO technique was limited by it`s experimental procedural restrictions. The importance of spherical aberration in distorting laser beam-quality measurements and in limiting the application of beam-quality to laser spotsize prediction is also detailed.
Propagation properties of elliptical Gaussian beam in uniaxial crystals along the optical axis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Dajun; Wang, He; Wang, Yaochuan; Yin, Hongming
2015-10-01
Based on the paraxial vectorial theory of beams propagating in uniaxial anisotropic crystal, we have derived the analytical propagation equations of elliptical Gaussian beam in uniaxial crystal along the optical axis, and given the typical numerical example to illustrate our analytical results. It is found that the x-polarized Gaussian beams split into an ordinary beam and an extraordinary beam, which independently propagate along the optical axis, and the elliptical Gaussian beam loses its initial profile with the propagation distance increasing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Yonggen; Li, Yude; Dan, Youquan; Du, Quan; Wang, Shijian
2016-07-01
The Wigner distribution function (WDF) has been used to study the propagation properties of partially coherent Laguerre Gaussian (PCLG) beams through atmospheric turbulence. Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle, an analytical formula of the propagation matrixes in terms of the second-order moments of the WDF for PCLG Beams in the receiving plane is derived. And then the analytical formulae for the curvature radii of PCLG Beams propagating in turbulence are given by the second-order moments of the WDF. The numerical results indicate that the curvature radius of PCLG Beams changes more rapidly in turbulence than that in the free space. The influence of the transverse coherence width and the beam waist width on the curvature radius of PCLG Beams is obvious, while the laser wavelength and the inner scale of turbulence have a slight effect. The study results may be useful for remote sensing and free space optical communications.
Multimode laser beam analyzer instrument using electrically programmable optics.
Marraccini, Philip J; Riza, Nabeel A
2011-12-01
Presented is a novel design of a multimode laser beam analyzer using a digital micromirror device (DMD) and an electronically controlled variable focus lens (ECVFL) that serve as the digital and analog agile optics, respectively. The proposed analyzer is a broadband laser characterization instrument that uses the agile optics to smartly direct light to the required point photodetectors to enable beam measurements of minimum beam waist size, minimum waist location, divergence, and the beam propagation parameter M(2). Experimental results successfully demonstrate these measurements for a 500 mW multimode test laser beam with a wavelength of 532 nm. The minimum beam waist, divergence, and M(2) experimental results for the test laser are found to be 257.61 μm, 2.103 mrad, 1.600 and 326.67 μm, 2.682 mrad, 2.587 for the vertical and horizontal directions, respectively. These measurements are compared to a traditional scan method and the results of the beam waist are found to be within error tolerance of the demonstrated instrument.
Multimode laser beam analyzer instrument using electrically programmable optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marraccini, Philip J.; Riza, Nabeel A.
2011-12-01
Presented is a novel design of a multimode laser beam analyzer using a digital micromirror device (DMD) and an electronically controlled variable focus lens (ECVFL) that serve as the digital and analog agile optics, respectively. The proposed analyzer is a broadband laser characterization instrument that uses the agile optics to smartly direct light to the required point photodetectors to enable beam measurements of minimum beam waist size, minimum waist location, divergence, and the beam propagation parameter M2. Experimental results successfully demonstrate these measurements for a 500 mW multimode test laser beam with a wavelength of 532 nm. The minimum beam waist, divergence, and M2 experimental results for the test laser are found to be 257.61 μm, 2.103 mrad, 1.600 and 326.67 μm, 2.682 mrad, 2.587 for the vertical and horizontal directions, respectively. These measurements are compared to a traditional scan method and the results of the beam waist are found to be within error tolerance of the demonstrated instrument.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Yecheng; Wang, Maolu; Zhang, Hongzhi; Yang, Lijun; Fu, Xihong; Wang, Yang
2017-08-01
Silicon-glass devices are widely used in IC industry, MEMS and solar energy system because of their reliability and simplicity of the manufacturing process. With the trend toward the wafer level chip scale package (WLCSP) technology, the suitable dicing method of silicon-glass bonded structure wafer has become necessary. In this paper, a combined experimental and computational approach is undertaken to investigate the feasibility of cutting the sandwich structure glass-silicon-glass (SGS) wafer with laser induced thermal-crack propagation (LITP) method. A 1064 nm semiconductor laser cutting system with double laser beams which could simultaneously irradiate on the top and bottom of the sandwich structure wafer has been designed. A mathematical model for describing the physical process of the interaction between laser and SGS wafer, which consists of two surface heating sources and two volumetric heating sources, has been established. The temperature stress distribution are simulated by using finite element method (FEM) analysis software ABAQUS. The crack propagation process is analyzed by using the J-integral method. In the FEM model, a stationary planar crack is embedded in the wafer and the J-integral values around the crack front edge are determined using the FEM. A verification experiment under typical parameters is conducted and the crack propagation profile on the fracture surface is examined by the optical microscope and explained from the stress distribution and J-integral value.
High-power, high-intensity laser propagation and interactions
Sprangle, Phillip; Hafizi, Bahman
2014-05-15
This paper presents overviews of a number of processes and applications associated with high-power, high-intensity lasers, and their interactions. These processes and applications include: free electron lasers, backward Raman amplification, atmospheric propagation of laser pulses, laser driven acceleration, atmospheric lasing, and remote detection of radioactivity. The interrelated physical mechanisms in the various processes are discussed.
Adaptive laser link reconfiguration using constraint propagation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crone, M. S.; Julich, P. M.; Cook, L. M.
1993-01-01
This paper describes Harris AI research performed on the Adaptive Link Reconfiguration (ALR) study for Rome Lab, and focuses on the application of constraint propagation to the problem of link reconfiguration for the proposed space based Strategic Defense System (SDS) Brilliant Pebbles (BP) communications system. According to the concept of operations at the time of the study, laser communications will exist between BP's and to ground entry points. Long-term links typical of RF transmission will not exist. This study addressed an initial implementation of BP's based on the Global Protection Against Limited Strikes (GPALS) SDI mission. The number of satellites and rings studied was representative of this problem. An orbital dynamics program was used to generate line-of-site data for the modeled architecture. This was input into a discrete event simulation implemented in the Harris developed COnstraint Propagation Expert System (COPES) Shell, developed initially on the Rome Lab BM/C3 study. Using a model of the network and several heuristics, the COPES shell was used to develop the Heuristic Adaptive Link Ordering (HALO) Algorithm to rank and order potential laser links according to probability of communication. A reduced set of links based on this ranking would then be used by a routing algorithm to select the next hop. This paper includes an overview of Constraint Propagation as an Artificial Intelligence technique and its embodiment in the COPES shell. It describes the design and implementation of both the simulation of the GPALS BP network and the HALO algorithm in COPES. This is described using a 59 Data Flow Diagram, State Transition Diagrams, and Structured English PDL. It describes a laser communications model and the heuristics involved in rank-ordering the potential communication links. The generation of simulation data is described along with its interface via COPES to the Harris developed View Net graphical tool for visual analysis of communications
Polarization of a probe laser beam due to nonlinear QED effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shakeri, Soroush; Kalantari, Seyed Zafarollah; Xue, She-Sheng
2017-01-01
Nonlinear QED interactions induce different polarization properties on a given probe beam. We consider the polarization effects caused by the photon-photon interaction in laser experiments, when a laser beam propagates through a constant magnetic field or collides with another laser beam. We solve the quantum Boltzmann equation within the framework of the Euler-Heisenberg Lagrangian for both time-dependent and constant background field to explore the time evolution of the Stokes parameters Q, U, and V describing polarization. Assuming an initially linearly polarized probe laser beam, we also calculate the induced ellipticity and rotation of the polarization plane.
Measurements on wave propagation characteristics of spiraling electron beams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singh, A.; Getty, W. D.
1976-01-01
Dispersion characteristics of cyclotron-harmonic waves propagating on a neutralized spiraling electron beam immersed in a uniform axial magnetic field are studied experimentally. The experimental setup consisted of a vacuum system, an electron-gun corkscrew assembly which produces a 110-eV beam with the desired delta-function velocity distribution, a measurement region where a microwave signal is injected onto the beam to measure wavelengths, and a velocity analyzer for measuring the axial electron velocity. Results of wavelength measurements made at beam currents of 0.15, 1.0, and 2.0 mA are compared with calculated values, and undesirable effects produced by increasing the beam current are discussed. It is concluded that a suitable electron beam for studies of cyclotron-harmonic waves can be generated by the corkscrew device.
Enhanced laser beam coupling to a plasma
Steiger, Arno D.; Woods, Cornelius H.
1976-01-01
Density perturbations are induced in a heated plasma by means of a pair of oppositely directed, polarized laser beams of the same frequency. The wavelength of the density perturbations is equal to one half the wavelength of the laser beams. A third laser beam is linearly polarized and directed at the perturbed plasma along a line that is perpendicular to the direction of the two opposed beams. The electric field of the third beam is oriented to lie in the plane containing the three beams. The frequency of the third beam is chosen to cause it to interact resonantly with the plasma density perturbations, thereby efficiently coupling the energy of the third beam to the plasma.
Realization of curved Bessel beams: propagation around obstructions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morris, J. E.; Čižmár, T.; Dalgarno, H. I. C.; Marchington, R. F.; Gunn-Moore, F. J.; Dholakia, K.
2010-12-01
We present an experimental realization of spiraling and snaking zero-order Bessel beams; light modes designed to deviate from straight-line propagation. We show that these modes can be generated with a tunable lateral deviation, amplitude and axial periodicity using a dynamic adaptive optical element, namely a spatial light modulator. We demonstrate that such beams can elude obstructions placed on the optical axis. We discuss their applications for micromanipulation and within lab-on-a-chip systems.
Impact of Atmospheric Turbulence on Beam Propagation
Strasburg, Jana D.; Harper, Warren W.; William E Thompson & Richard L Brunson
2004-09-08
A trailer-based sensor system has been developed for remote chemical sensing applications. The detection scheme utilizes quantum cascade lasers operating in the long-wave infrared. It has been determined that atmospheric turbulence is the dominating noise source for this system. For this application, horizontal path lengths vary from several hundred meters to several kilometers resulting in weak to moderate to strong turbulence conditions.
Wang, Fei; Toselli, Italo; Korotkova, Olga
2016-02-10
An optical system consisting of a laser source and two independent consecutive phase-only spatial light modulators (SLMs) is shown to accurately simulate a generated random beam (first SLM) after interaction with a stationary random medium (second SLM). To illustrate the range of possibilities, a recently introduced class of random optical frames is examined on propagation in free space and several weak turbulent channels with Kolmogorov and non-Kolmogorov statistics.
Kline, J L; Montgomery, D S; Flippo, K A; Johnson, R P; Rose, H A; Shimada, T; Williams, E A
2008-10-01
A short pulse (few picoseconds) laser probe provides high temporal resolution measurements to elucidate details of fast dynamic phenomena not observable with typical longer laser pulse probes and gated diagnostics. Such a short pulse laser probe (SPLP) has been used to measure filamentation of a random phase plate (RPP) smoothed laser beam in a gas-jet plasma. The plasma index of refraction due to driven density and temperature fluctuations by the RPP beam perturbs the phase front of a SPLP propagating at a 90 degree angle with respect to the RPP interaction beam. The density and temperature fluctuations are quasistatic on the time scale of the SPLP (approximately 2 ps). The transmitted near-field intensity distribution from the SPLP provides a measure of the phase front perturbation. At low plasma densities, the transmitted intensity pattern is asymmetric with striations across the entire probe beam in the direction of the RPP smoothed beam. As the plasma density increases, the striations break up into smaller sizes along the direction of the RPP beam propagation. The breakup of the intensity pattern is consistent with self-focusing of the RPP smoothed interaction beam. Simulations of the experiment using the wave propagation code, PF3D, are in qualitative agreement demonstrating that the asymmetric striations can be attributed to the RPP driven density fluctuations. Quantification of the beam breakup measured by the transmitted SPLP could lead to a new method for measuring self-focusing of lasers in underdense plasmas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patil, S. D.; Takale, M. V.
2016-05-01
This paper presents an influence of light absorption on self-focusing of laser beam propagation in plasma. The differential equation for beam-width parameter is obtained using the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin and paraxial approximations through parabolic equation approach. The nonlinearity in dielectric function is assumed to be aroused due to the combined effect of weakly relativistic and ponderomotive regime. To highlight the nature of propagation, behavior of beam-width parameter with dimensionless distance of propagation is presented graphically and discussed. The present work is helpful to understand issues related to the beam propagation in laser plasma interaction experiments where light absorption plays a vital role.
Patil, S. D.; Takale, M. V.
2016-05-06
This paper presents an influence of light absorption on self-focusing of laser beam propagation in plasma. The differential equation for beam-width parameter is obtained using the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin and paraxial approximations through parabolic equation approach. The nonlinearity in dielectric function is assumed to be aroused due to the combined effect of weakly relativistic and ponderomotive regime. To highlight the nature of propagation, behavior of beam-width parameter with dimensionless distance of propagation is presented graphically and discussed. The present work is helpful to understand issues related to the beam propagation in laser plasma interaction experiments where light absorption plays a vital role.
Long distance laser ultrasonic propagation imaging system for damage visualization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Jung-Ryul; Shin, He-Jin; Chia, Chen Ciang; Dhital, Dipesh; Yoon, Dong-Jin; Huh, Yong-Hak
2011-12-01
Wind turbine blade failure is the most prominent and common type of damage occurring in operating wind turbine systems. Conventional nondestructive testing systems are not available for in situ wind turbine blades. We propose a portable long distance ultrasonic propagation imaging (LUPI) system that uses a laser beam targeting and scanning system to excite, from a long distance, acoustic emission sensors installed in the blade. An examination of the beam collimation effect using geometric parameters of a commercial 2 MW wind turbine provided Lamb wave amplitude increases of 41.5 and 23.1 dB at a distance of 40 m for symmetrical and asymmetrical modes, respectively, in a 2 mm-thick stainless steel plate. With this improvement in signal-to-noise ratio, a feasibility study of damage detection was conducted with a 5 mm-thick composite leading edge specimen. To develop a reliable damage evaluation system, the excitation/sensing technology and the associated damage visualization algorithm are equally important. Hence, our results provide a new platform based on anomalous wave propagation imaging (AWPI) methods with adjacent wave subtraction, reference wave subtraction, reference image subtraction, and the variable time window amplitude mapping method. The advantages and disadvantages of AWPI algorithms are reported in terms of reference data requirements, signal-to-noise ratios, and damage evaluation accuracy. The compactness and portability of the proposed UPI system are also important for in-field applications at wind farms.
Laser Beam Duct Pressure Controller System.
the axial flow of a conditioning gas within the laser beam duct, by matching the time rate of change of the pressure of the flowing conditioning gas...to the time rate of change of the pressure in the cavity of an operably associated laser beam turret.
Experimental demonstration of coherent beam combining over a 7 km propagation path.
Weyrauch, Thomas; Vorontsov, Mikhail A; Carhart, Gary W; Beresnev, Leonid A; Rostov, Andrey P; Polnau, Ernst E; Liu, Jony Jiang
2011-11-15
We demonstrate coherent combining (phase locking) of seven laser beams emerging from an adaptive fiber-collimator array over a 7 km atmospheric propagation path using a target-in-the-loop (TIL) setting. Adaptive control of the piston and the tip and tilt wavefront phase at each fiber-collimator subaperture resulted in automatic focusing of the combined beam onto an unresolved retroreflector target (corner cube) with precompensation of quasi-static and atmospheric turbulence-induced phase aberrations. Both phase locking (piston) and tip-tilt control were performed by maximizing the target-return optical power using iterative stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) techniques. The performance of TIL coherent beam combining and atmospheric mitigation was significantly increased by using an SPGD control variation that accounts for the round-trip propagation delay (delayed SPGD).
Nonlinear effects in propagation of radiation of X-ray free-electron lasers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nosik, V. L.
2016-05-01
Nonlinear effects accompanying the propagation of high-intensity beams of X-ray free-electron lasers are considered. It is shown that the X-ray wave field in the crystal significantly changes due to the formation of "hollow" atomic shells as a result of the photoelectric effect.
Tian, Yuzhen; Guo, Jin; Wang, Rui; Wang, Tingfeng
2011-09-12
In order to research the statistical properties of Gaussian beam propagation through an arbitrary thickness random phase screen for adaptive optics and laser communication application in the laboratory, we establish mathematic models of statistical quantities, which are based on the Rytov method and the thin phase screen model, involved in the propagation process. And the analytic results are developed for an arbitrary thickness phase screen based on the Kolmogorov power spectrum. The comparison between the arbitrary thickness phase screen and the thin phase screen shows that it is more suitable for our results to describe the generalized case, especially the scintillation index.
Self-focusing of Hermite-Gaussian laser beam with relativistic nonlinearity
Sharma, Prerana
2015-07-31
This paper presents an investigation of self-focusing of Hermite-Gaussian laser beams in plasma considering relativistic nonlinearity. The differential equations for beam width parameters are obtained using the usual Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin and paraxial approximations. The nonlinearity in the dielectric constant is assumed to be aroused mainly due to the relativistic mass correction of electron. To highlight the nature of focusing, graphical results of the behavior of beam-width parameters with the dimensionless distance of propagation is presented. The numerical computation is completed by using Taylor series method. The present work is helpful to understand issues related to the beam propagation in laser plasma interaction experiments.
Microwave accelerator E-beam pumped laser
Brau, Charles A.; Stein, William E.; Rockwood, Stephen D.
1980-01-01
A device and method for pumping gaseous lasers by means of a microwave accelerator. The microwave accelerator produces a relativistic electron beam which is applied along the longitudinal axis of the laser through an electron beam window. The incident points of the electron beam on the electron beam window are varied by deflection coils to enhance the cooling characteristics of the foil. A thyratron is used to reliably modulate the microwave accelerator to produce electron beam pulses which excite the laser medium to produce laser pulse repetition frequencies not previously obtainable. An aerodynamic window is also disclosed which eliminates foil heating problems, as well as a magnetic bottle for reducing laser cavity length and pressures while maintaining efficient energy deposition.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, Janet P.
2003-01-01
Furthering pursuits in high bandwidth communications to future NASA deep space and neat-Earth probes, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is building the Optical communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) atop Table Mountain in Southern California. This R&D optical antenna will be used to develop optical communication strategies for future optical ground stations. Initial experiments to be conducted include propagating high-powered, Q-switched laser beams to retro-reflecting satellites. Yet laser beam propagation from the ground to space is under the cognizance of various government agencies, namely: the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (ISHA) that is responsible for protecting workforce personnel; the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) responsible for protecting pilots and aircraft; and the Laser Clearinghouse of Space Command responsible for protecting space assets. To ensure that laser beam propagation from the OCTL and future autonomously operated ground stations comply with the guidelines of these organizations, JPL is developing a multi-tiered safety system that will meet the coordination, monitoring, and reporting functions required by the agencies. At Tier 0, laser operators will meet OSHA safety standards for protection and access to the high power lasers area will be restricted and interlocked. Tier 1, the area defined from the telescope dome out to a range of 3.4-km, will utilize long wave infrared camera sensors to alert operators of at risk aircraft in the FAA controlled airspace. Tier 2, defined to extend from 3.4-km out to the aircraft service ceiling in FAA airspace, will detect at risk aircraft by radar. Lastly, beam propagation into space, defined as Tier 3, will require coordination with the Laser Clearinghouse. A detailed description of the four tiers is presented along with the design of the integrated monitoring and beam transmission control system.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, Janet P.
2003-01-01
Furthering pursuits in high bandwidth communications to future NASA deep space and neat-Earth probes, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is building the Optical communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) atop Table Mountain in Southern California. This R&D optical antenna will be used to develop optical communication strategies for future optical ground stations. Initial experiments to be conducted include propagating high-powered, Q-switched laser beams to retro-reflecting satellites. Yet laser beam propagation from the ground to space is under the cognizance of various government agencies, namely: the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (ISHA) that is responsible for protecting workforce personnel; the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) responsible for protecting pilots and aircraft; and the Laser Clearinghouse of Space Command responsible for protecting space assets. To ensure that laser beam propagation from the OCTL and future autonomously operated ground stations comply with the guidelines of these organizations, JPL is developing a multi-tiered safety system that will meet the coordination, monitoring, and reporting functions required by the agencies. At Tier 0, laser operators will meet OSHA safety standards for protection and access to the high power lasers area will be restricted and interlocked. Tier 1, the area defined from the telescope dome out to a range of 3.4-km, will utilize long wave infrared camera sensors to alert operators of at risk aircraft in the FAA controlled airspace. Tier 2, defined to extend from 3.4-km out to the aircraft service ceiling in FAA airspace, will detect at risk aircraft by radar. Lastly, beam propagation into space, defined as Tier 3, will require coordination with the Laser Clearinghouse. A detailed description of the four tiers is presented along with the design of the integrated monitoring and beam transmission control system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aksenov, V. P.; Pogutsa, Ch E.
2008-04-01
The evolution of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) of a Laguerre—Gaussian beam interacting with turbulent inhomogeneities of the atmosphere is studied theoretically. The integral representations are obtained for the OAM in terms of the distributions of the random intensity and random field of the permittivity of the medium, and also for OAM statistical characteristics in terms of corresponding correlation functions. It is found that the average OAM value is preserved during the propagation of the laser beam in a random medium. The dependence of the dispersion of OAM fluctuations on the atmospheric turbulence and beam parameters is calculated. It is shown that the dependence of the OAM dispersion on the initial angular momentum of the laser beam disappears in the case of very strong turbulence.
Development of laser beam injection system for the Edge Thomson Scattering (ETS) in ITER
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yatsuka, E.; Hatae, T.; Suitoh, S.; Ohara, M.; Hagita, K.; Inoue, K.; Bassan, M.; Walsh, M.; Itami, K.
2016-01-01
This paper focuses on the design and development of the laser injection system for the ITER Edge Thomson Scattering system (ETS). The ITER ETS achieves a temporal resolution of 100 Hz by firing two 50 Hz laser beams alternatively. The use of dual lasers enables us to perform the Thomson scattering measurements at a temporal resolution of 50 Hz in case that one of the laser systems stops functioning. A new type of beam combiner was developed to obtain a single beam that is collinear and fixed linearly polarized from two laser beams using a motor-driven rotating half-wave plate. The rotating half-wave plate method does not induce misalignment even if the rotating mechanism malfunctions. The combined beam is relayed from the diagnostic hall to the plasma using mirror optics and is absorbed at the beam dump integrated on the inner blanket. The beam alignment system was designed to direct the laser beam onto the center of the beam dump head. The beam position at the beam dump is monitored by four alignment laser beams which propagate parallel to the diagnostic Nd:YAG laser beam and imaging systems installed outside the diagnostic port.
Ursescu, Daniel; Cheriaux, G.; Audebert, P.; ...
2017-01-01
The Laser Beam Delivery (LBD) system technical design report covers the interface between the High Power Laser System (HPLS) and the experiments, together with the pulse quality management. Here, the laser transport part of the LBD has a number of subsystems as follows: the beam transport lines for the six main outputs of HPLS, the additional short and long pulses and the synchronization system including the timing of the laser pulses with the Gamma Beam System (GBS) and the experiments on femtosecond timescale. Pulse quality management, discussed further here, consist in the generation and delivery of multiple HPLS pulses, coherentmore » combining of the HPLS arms, laser pulse diagnostics on target, laser beam dumps, shutters and output energy adaption.« less
Ursescu, Daniel; Cheriaux, G.; Audebert, P.; Kalashnikov, M.; Toncian, T.; Cerchez, M.; Kaluza, M.; Paulus, G.; Priebe, G.; Dabu, R.; Cernaianu, M. O.; Dinescu, M; Asavei, T.; Dancus, I.; Neagu, L.; Boianu, A.; Hooker, C.; Barty, C.; Haefner, C.
2017-01-01
The Laser Beam Delivery (LBD) system technical design report covers the interface between the High Power Laser System (HPLS) and the experiments, together with the pulse quality management. Here, the laser transport part of the LBD has a number of subsystems as follows: the beam transport lines for the six main outputs of HPLS, the additional short and long pulses and the synchronization system including the timing of the laser pulses with the Gamma Beam System (GBS) and the experiments on femtosecond timescale. Pulse quality management, discussed further here, consist in the generation and delivery of multiple HPLS pulses, coherent combining of the HPLS arms, laser pulse diagnostics on target, laser beam dumps, shutters and output energy adaption.
Beam Propagator for Weather Radars, Modules 1 and 2
Ortega, Edwin Campos
2013-10-08
This program simulates the beam propagation of weather radar pulses under particular and realistic atmospheric conditions (without using the assumption of standard refraction conditions). It consists of two modules: radiosondings_refract_index_many.pro (MAIN MODULE) beam_propagation_function.pro(EXTERNAL FUNCTION) FOR THE MAIN MODULE, THE CODE DOES OUTPUT--INTO A FILE--THE BEAM HEIGHT AS A FUNCTION OF RANGE. THE RADIOSONDE INPUT FILES SHOULD BE ALREADY AVAILABLE BY THE USER. FOR EXAMPLE, RADIOSONDE OBSERVATION FILES CAN BE OBTAINED AT: RADIOSONDE OBSERVATIONS DOWNLOADED AT "http://weather.uwyo.edu/upperair/soounding.html" OR "http://jervis.pyr.ec.gc.ca" THE EXTERNAL FUNCTION DOES THE ACTUAL COMPUTATION OF BEAM PROPAGATION. IT INCLUDES CONDITIONS OF ANOMALOUS PROPAGATION AND NEGATIVE ELEVATION ANGLES. THE EQUATIONS USED HERE WERE DERIVED BY EDWIN CAMPOS, BASED ON THE SNELL-DESCARTES LAW OF REFRACTION, CONSIDERING THE EARTH CURVATURE. THE PROGRAM REQUIRES A COMPILER FOR THE INTERACTIVE DATA LANGUAGE (IDL). DESCRIPTION AND VALIDATION DETAILS HAVE BEEN PUBLISHED IN THE PEER-REVIEWED SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE, AS FOLLOWS: Campos E. 2012. Estimating weather radar coverage over complex terrain, pp.26-32, peer reviewed, in Weather Radar and Hydrology, edited by Moore RJ, Cole SJ and Illingworth AJ. International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) Press, IAHS Publ. 351. ISBN 978-1-907161-26-1.
Beam Propagator for Weather Radars, Modules 1 and 2
Ortega, Edwin Campos
2013-10-08
This program simulates the beam propagation of weather radar pulses under particular and realistic atmospheric conditions (without using the assumption of standard refraction conditions). It consists of two modules: radiosondings_refract_index_many.pro (MAIN MODULE) beam_propagation_function.pro(EXTERNAL FUNCTION) FOR THE MAIN MODULE, THE CODE DOES OUTPUT--INTO A FILE--THE BEAM HEIGHT AS A FUNCTION OF RANGE. THE RADIOSONDE INPUT FILES SHOULD BE ALREADY AVAILABLE BY THE USER. FOR EXAMPLE, RADIOSONDE OBSERVATION FILES CAN BE OBTAINED AT: RADIOSONDE OBSERVATIONS DOWNLOADED AT "http://weather.uwyo.edu/upperair/soounding.html" OR "http://jervis.pyr.ec.gc.ca" THE EXTERNAL FUNCTION DOES THE ACTUAL COMPUTATION OF BEAM PROPAGATION. IT INCLUDES CONDITIONS OF ANOMALOUS PROPAGATION AND NEGATIVE ELEVATION ANGLES. THE EQUATIONS USED HERE WERE DERIVED BY EDWIN CAMPOS, BASED ON THE SNELL-DESCARTES LAW OF REFRACTION, CONSIDERING THE EARTH CURVATURE. THE PROGRAM REQUIRES A COMPILER FOR THE INTERACTIVE DATA LANGUAGE (IDL). DESCRIPTION AND VALIDATION DETAILS HAVE BEEN PUBLISHED IN THE PEER-REVIEWED SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE, AS FOLLOWS: Campos E. 2012. Estimating weather radar coverage over complex terrain, pp.26-32, peer reviewed, in Weather Radar and Hydrology, edited by Moore RJ, Cole SJ and Illingworth AJ. International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) Press, IAHS Publ. 351. ISBN 978-1-907161-26-1.
Beam shaping in the MegaJoule laser project
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luce, Jacques
2011-10-01
The LMJ (Laser MegaJoule) is dedicated to inertial confinement fusion. To perform this type of experiment, 160 square beams are frequency converted and focused onto a target filled with a deuterium tritium mixture. We propose to review how these beams are shaped along their propagation through the LMJ. Going upstream from the target to the laser source, specific optics has been designed to meet the beam shaping requirement. A focusing grating and a pseudorandom phase plate concentrate the energy onto the target. A deformable mirror controls and compensates the spatial phase defect occurring during the propagation through the main slab amplifiers. A liquid crystal cell shapes the beam in order to compensate the gain profile of the main amplifiers. It also protects the growth of damages that take place in the final optics of the chain. At last, a phase mirror generates a square flat top mode from a gaussian beam within a regenerative amplifier. All these optical components have one common principle: they control the phase of the spatial laser field.
Reference systems for laser beam quality and parameter measurements
Xu Dagang; Ma Chong; Guo Zhengqiang; Lu Zheng
1996-12-31
Three reference systems for the calibration and comparison of beam parameter measurements and beam quality of cw and pulsed lasers at NIM are described. While the cross-sectional power/energy density distribution function of TEM{sub 00} He-Ne laser and pulsed Nd:YAG laser are detected by a CCD-camera, the power density distribution function of cw CO{sub 2} laser is scanned by a liquid nitrogen cooled TeCdHg detector. Test procedures and evaluations are refer to ISO/DIS 11146 document. From the measured cross-sectional distribution function, the first and second spatial moments as well as the beam width are calculated. The waist location and width are determined by a hyperbolic fit to different measurements of the beam width along the propagation axis. The error evaluation equations for beam parameter measurement have been derived. Measurement agreements using different test methods and instruments are studied. Varieties of beam characteristics and measurement uncertainty for two measuring apparatus are given.
Coherence delay augmented laser beam homogenizer
Rasmussen, P.; Bernhardt, A.
1993-06-29
The geometrical restrictions on a laser beam homogenizer are relaxed by ug a coherence delay line to separate a coherent input beam into several components each having a path length difference equal to a multiple of the coherence length with respect to the other components. The components recombine incoherently at the output of the homogenizer, and the resultant beam has a more uniform spatial intensity suitable for microlithography and laser pantogography. Also disclosed is a variable aperture homogenizer, and a liquid filled homogenizer.
Coherence delay augmented laser beam homogenizer
Rasmussen, Paul; Bernhardt, Anthony
1993-01-01
The geometrical restrictions on a laser beam homogenizer are relaxed by ug a coherence delay line to separate a coherent input beam into several components each having a path length difference equal to a multiple of the coherence length with respect to the other components. The components recombine incoherently at the output of the homogenizer, and the resultant beam has a more uniform spatial intensity suitable for microlithography and laser pantogography. Also disclosed is a variable aperture homogenizer, and a liquid filled homogenizer.
Beam Stop For High-Power Lasers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcdermid, Iain S.; Williamson, William B.
1990-01-01
Graphite/aluminum plate absorbs most of light. Beam stop fits on standard optical mounting fixture. Graphite plate thick enough to absorb incident laser beam but thin enough to transfer heat quickly to heat sink. Device used for variety of blocking purposes. For example, blocks laser beam after it passes through experimental setup, or at each stage of setup so stages checked and tested in sequence. Negligible reflectance of device is valuable safety feature, protecting both users and equipment from reflections.
The collinear laser beam line at ISAC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levy, C. D. P.; Baartman, R.; Behr, J. A.; Kiefl, R. F.; Pearson, M.; Poutissou, R.; Hatakeyama, A.; Hirayama, Y.
2004-12-01
The collinear laser beam line at ISAC is producing a range of highly polarized Li and Na isotopes with high beam transmission efficiency. Using a Ta production target, a 8Li rate of more than 10 8 atoms s -1 with 60% polarization at the user experiment is typical. The beam line is also used for laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy on heavy ions and atoms. A preliminary scheme for polarizing 20F is presented.
Quantification of optical turbulence in the ocean and its effects on beam propagation.
Nootz, Gero; Jarosz, Ewa; Dalgleish, Fraser R; Hou, Weilin
2016-11-01
The influence of optically active turbulence on the propagation of laser beams is investigated in clear ocean water over a path length of 8.75 m. The measurement apparatus is described and the effects of optical turbulence on the laser beam are presented. The index of refraction structure constant is extracted from the beam deflection and the results are compared to independently made measures of the turbulence strength (Cn2) by a vertical microstructure profiler. Here we present values of Cn2 taken from aboard the R/V Walton Smith during the Bahamas optical turbulence exercise (BOTEX) in the Tongue of the Ocean between June 30 and July 12, 2011, spanning a range from 10^{-14} to 10^{-10} m^{-2/3}. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time such measurements are reported for the ocean.
Propagation of electromagnetic stochastic beams in anisotropic turbulence.
Yao, Min; Toselli, Italo; Korotkova, Olga
2014-12-29
The effects of anisotropic, non-Kolmogorov turbulence on propagating stochastic electromagnetic beam-like fields are discussed for the first time. The atmosphere of interest can be found above the boundary layer, at high (more than 2 km above the ground) altitudes where the energy distribution among the turbulent eddies might not satisfy the classic assumption represented by the famous 11/3 Kolmogorov's power law, and the anisotropy in the direction orthogonal to the Earth surface is possibly present. Our analysis focuses on the classic electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model beams but can either be readily reduced to scalar and/or coherent beams or generalized to other beam classes. In particular, we explore the effects of the anisotropic parameter on the spectral density, the spectral degree of coherence and on the spectral degree of polarization of the beam.
Method and apparatus for timing of laser beams in a multiple laser beam fusion system
Eastman, Jay M.; Miller, Theodore L.
1981-01-01
The optical path lengths of a plurality of comparison laser beams directed to impinge upon a common target from different directions are compared to that of a master laser beam by using an optical heterodyne interferometric detection technique. The technique consists of frequency shifting the master laser beam and combining the master beam with a first one of the comparison laser beams to produce a time-varying heterodyne interference pattern which is detected by a photo-detector to produce an AC electrical signal indicative of the difference in the optical path lengths of the two beams which were combined. The optical path length of this first comparison laser beam is adjusted to compensate for the detected difference in the optical path lengths of the two beams. The optical path lengths of all of the comparison laser beams are made equal to the optical path length of the master laser beam by repeating the optical path length adjustment process for each of the comparison laser beams. In this manner, the comparison laser beams are synchronized or timed to arrive at the target within .+-.1.times.10.sup.-12 second of each other.
Potential converter for laser-power beaming
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walker, Gilbert H.; Williams, Michael D.; Schuster, Gregory L.; Iles, Peter A.
1991-01-01
Future space missions, such as those associated with the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), will require large amounts of power for operation of bases, rovers, and orbit transfer vehicles. One method for supplying this power is to beam power from a spaced based or Earth based laser power station to a receiver where laser photons can be converted to electricity. Previous research has described such laser power stations orbiting the Moon and beaming power to a receiver on the surface of the Moon by using arrays of diode lasers. Photovoltaic converters that can be efficiently used with these diode lasers are described.
Robotics For High Power Laser Beam Manipulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watson, Henry E.
1989-03-01
The research and development programs in manufacturing science at The Pennsylvania State University have a major emphasis on laser materials processing technology development. A major thrust of this program is the development of an intelligent robotic system which can manipulate a laser beam in three dimension with the precision required for welding. The robot is called LARS for Laser Articulated Robotic System. A gantry based robot was selected as the foundation for LARS and the system is divided into five major subsystems: robot, electronic control, vision, workhead, beam transport, and software. An overview of the Laser Robotics program including laser materials processing research programs will be provided.
Pulsed electron beam propagation in argon and nitrogen gas mixture
Kholodnaya, G. E.; Sazonov, R. V.; Ponomarev, D. V.; Remnev, G. E.; Zhirkov, I. S.
2015-10-15
The paper presents the results of current measurements for the electron beam, propagating inside a drift tube filled in with a gas mixture (Ar and N{sub 2}). The experiments were performed using the TEA-500 pulsed electron accelerator. The main characteristics of electron beam were as follows: 60 ns pulse duration, up to 200 J energy, and 5 cm diameter. The electron beam propagated inside the drift tube assembled of three sections. Gas pressures inside the drift tube were 760 ± 3, 300 ± 3, and 50 ± 1 Torr. The studies were performed in argon, nitrogen, and their mixtures of 33%, 50%, and 66% volume concentrations, respectively.
Propagation velocities of laser-produced plasmas from copper wire targets and water droplets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Song, Kyo-Dong; Alexander, Dennis R.
1994-01-01
Experiments were performed to determine the plasma propagation velocities resulting from KrF laser irradiation of copper wire target (75 microns diameter) and water droplets (75 microns diameter) at irradiance levels ranging from 25 to 150 GW/sq cm. Plasma propagation velocities were measured using a streak camera system oriented orthogonally to the high-energy laser propagation axis. Plasma velocities were studied as a function of position in the focused beam. Results show that both the shape of the plasma formation and material removal from the copper wire are different and depend on whether the targets are focused or slightly defocused (approximately = 0.5 mm movement in the beam axis). Plasma formation and its position relative to the target is an important factor in determining the practical focal point during high-energy laser interaction with materials. At irradiance of 100 GW/sq cm, the air plasma has two weak-velocity components which propagate toward and away from the incident laser while a strong-velocity component propagates away from the laser beam as a detonation wave. Comparison of the measured breakdown velocities (in the range of 2.22-2.27 x 10(exp 5) m/s) for air and the value calculated by the nonlinear breakdown wave theory at irradiance of 100 GW/sq cm showed a quantitative agreement within approximately 50% while the linear theory and Gaussian pulse theory failed. The detonation wave velocities of plasma generated from water droplets and copper wire targets for different focused cases were measured and analyzed theoretically. The propagation velocities of laser-induced plasma liquid droplets obtained by previous research are compared with current work.
Propagation velocities of laser-produced plasmas from copper wire targets and water droplets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Song, Kyo-Dong; Alexander, Dennis R.
1994-01-01
Experiments were performed to determine the plasma propagation velocities resulting from KrF laser irradiation of copper wire target (75 microns diameter) and water droplets (75 microns diameter) at irradiance levels ranging from 25 to 150 GW/sq cm. Plasma propagation velocities were measured using a streak camera system oriented orthogonally to the high-energy laser propagation axis. Plasma velocities were studied as a function of position in the focused beam. Results show that both the shape of the plasma formation and material removal from the copper wire are different and depend on whether the targets are focused or slightly defocused (approximately = 0.5 mm movement in the beam axis). Plasma formation and its position relative to the target is an important factor in determining the practical focal point during high-energy laser interaction with materials. At irradiance of 100 GW/sq cm, the air plasma has two weak-velocity components which propagate toward and away from the incident laser while a strong-velocity component propagates away from the laser beam as a detonation wave. Comparison of the measured breakdown velocities (in the range of 2.22-2.27 x 10(exp 5) m/s) for air and the value calculated by the nonlinear breakdown wave theory at irradiance of 100 GW/sq cm showed a quantitative agreement within approximately 50% while the linear theory and Gaussian pulse theory failed. The detonation wave velocities of plasma generated from water droplets and copper wire targets for different focused cases were measured and analyzed theoretically. The propagation velocities of laser-induced plasma liquid droplets obtained by previous research are compared with current work.
Optical guiding of laser beam in nonuniform plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh Gill, Tarsem
2000-11-01
A plasma channel produced by a short ionising laser pulse is axially nonuniform resulting from the self-defocusing. Through such preformed plasma channel, when a delayed pulse propagates, the phenomena of diffraction, refraction and self-phase modulation come into play. We have solved the nonlinear parabolic partial differential equation governing the propagation characteristics for an approximate analytical solution using variational approach. Results are compared with the theoretical model of Liu and Tripathi ( Phys. Plasmas, 1, 3100 (1994)) based on paraxial ray approximation. Particular emphasis is on both beam width and longitudinal phase delay which are crucial to many applications.}
Laser beam self-focusing in turbulent dissipative media.
Hafizi, B; Peñano, J R; Palastro, J P; Fischer, R P; DiComo, G
2017-01-15
A high-power laser beam propagating through a dielectric in the presence of fluctuations is subject to diffraction, dissipation, and optical Kerr nonlinearity. A method of moments was applied to a stochastic, nonlinear enveloped wave equation to analyze the evolution of the long-term spot radius. For propagation in atmospheric turbulence described by a Kolmogorov-von Kármán spectral density, the analysis was benchmarked against field experiments in the low-power limit and compared with simulation results in the high-power regime. Dissipation reduced the effect of self-focusing and led to chromatic aberration.
Spreading and wandering of Gaussian-Schell model laser beams in an anisotropic turbulent ocean
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Yuqian; Zhang, Yixin; Zhu, Yun; Hu, Zhengda
2016-09-01
The effect of anisotropic turbulence on the spreading and wandering of Gaussian-Schell model (GSM) laser beams propagating in an ocean is studied. The long-term spreading of a GSM beam propagating through the paraxial channel of a turbulent ocean is also developed. Expressions of random wander for such laser beams are derived in an anisotropic turbulent ocean based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle. We investigate the influence of parameters in a turbulent ocean on the beam wander and spreading. Our results indicate that beam spreading and random beam wandering are smaller without considering the anisotropy of turbulence in the oceanic channel. Salinity fluctuation has a greater contribution to both the beam spreading and beam wander than that of temperature fluctuations in a turbulent ocean. Our results could be helpful for designing a free-space optical wireless communication system in an oceanic environment.
Space Optical Communications Using Laser Beam Amplification
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Agrawal, Govind
2015-01-01
The Space Optical Communications Using Laser Beam Amplification (SOCLBA) project will provide a capability to amplify a laser beam that is received in a modulating retro-reflector (MRR) located in a satellite in low Earth orbit. It will also improve the pointing procedure between Earth and spacecraft terminals. The technology uses laser arrays to strengthen the reflected laser beam from the spacecraft. The results of first year's work (2014) show amplification factors of 60 times the power of the signal beam. MMRs are mirrors that reflect light beams back to the source. In space optical communications, a high-powered laser interrogator beam is directed from the ground to a satellite. Within the satellite, the beam is redirected back to ground using the MMR. In the MMR, the beam passes through modulators, which encode a data signal onto the returning beam. MMRs can be used in small spacecraft for optical communications. The SOCLBA project is significant to NASA and small spacecraft due to its application to CubeSats for optical data transmission to ground stations, as well as possible application to spacecraft for optical data transmission.
Laser Beam Submerged Arc Hybrid Welding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reisgen, Uwe; Olschok, Simon; Mavany, Michael; Jakobs, Stefan
The laser beam submerged arc hybrid welding method originates from the knowledge that, with increasing penetration depth, the laser beam process has a tendency to pore formation in the lower weld regions. The combination with the energy efficient submerged arc process improves the degassing and reduces the tendency to pore formation. The high deposition rate of the SA process in combination with the laser beam process offers, providing the appropriate choice of weld preparation, the possibility of welding plates with a thickness larger than 20 mm in a single pass, and also of welding thicker plates with the double sided single pass technique.
Laser Beam Submerged Arc Hybrid Welding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reisgen, Uwe; Olschok, Simon; Jakobs, Stefan; Schleser, Markus; Mokrov, Oleg; Rossiter, Eduardo
The laser beam-submerged arc hybrid welding method originates from the knowledge that, with increasing penetration depth, the laser beam process has a tendency to pore formation in the lower weld regions. The coupling with the energy-efficient submerged-arc process improves degassing and reduces the tendency to pore formation. The high deposition rate of the SA process in combination with the laser beam process offers, providing the appropriate choice of weld preparation, the possibility of welding plates with a thickness larger than 20° mm in a single pass, and also of welding thicker plates with the double-sided single pass technique.
Novel materials and beam delivery technique for ultrafast laser processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Ju
2002-01-01
Ultrafast lasers offer significant advantages for novel laser materials processing, especially at small length scales. Their extremely high optical intensity results in nonlinear laser-material interaction and energy deposition, which provide unique, non-traditional material processing capabilities. In this work, a Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser system is applied for both practical and fundamental investigations of ultrafast laser materials processing. For practical applications, experimental techniques are developed to characterize and process two novel materials: (1) silica aerogels, and (2) thermal-sprayed materials, both of which are difficult to micromachine using any conventional technique. The breakdown threshold as well as the low-level absorption coefficient of the aerogel material are measured, while the material removal rate is characterized as a function of the laser fluence and the number of laser shots. Thermal-sprayed line patterns are trimmed by synchronizing the femtosecond laser pulses with a three-dimensional motorized micro-positioning system. A trimmed line width ˜50 mum is obtained, from an original line width ˜500 mum. In addition to developing experimental techniques for practical ultrafast laser processing of novel materials, investigations on improving the machining quality and efficiency by characterizing the nonlinear interactions between the femtosecond laser pulses and the beam delivery gas medium are also conducted in this work. A theoretical model based on the nonlinear Schrodinger equation is applied to simulate the pulse propagation under the coupled effects of two nonlinear mechanisms. The model predictions show that the beam profile can be dramatically distorted due to the nonlinear changes in the refractive index in air, which can be minimized by delivering the beam using an inert gas, particularly helium, due to its unique physical properties. Machining of copper sample by delivering the femtosecond laser pulse in four
Propagation model for vector beams generated by metasurfaces.
Shu, Weixing; Liu, Yachao; Ke, Yougang; Ling, Xiaohui; Liu, Zhenxing; Huang, Bin; Luo, Hailu; Yin, Xiaobo
2016-09-05
A propagation model of vector beams generated by metasurfaces based on vector diffraction theory is established theoretically and verified experimentally. Considering the Pancharatnam-Berry phase introduced by the metasurface, analytical forms of vector beams for arbitrary incident polarization and topological charge of metasurfaces are found in the Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction regions, respectively. The complex amplitude of the resultant vector beam can be described in terms of a confluent hypergeometric function, with an intensity profile that manifests concentric rings in the Fresnel region and a single ring in the Fraunhofer one. Fraunhofer diffraction provides a method to create vector beams with simultaneously high purity and modal power. Further experiments verify the theoretical results.
Random optical beam propagation in anisotropic turbulence along horizontal links.
Wang, Fei; Korotkova, Olga
2016-10-17
Considerable amount of data has been collected in the past asserting that atmospheric turbulence has regions where it exhibits anisotropic statistics. For instance, it is known that the fluctuations in the refractive index within the first meter above the ground are typically stronger in the vertical direction compared with those in the horizontal directions. We have investigated the second-order statistical properties of a Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) beam traversing anisotropic atmospheric turbulence along a horizontal path. Analytical expression is rigorously derived for the cross-spectral density function of a GSM beam. It is shown that the spread of the beam and its coherence properties become different in two transverse directions due to anisotropy. In the limiting case when the source coherence width becomes infinite our results reduce to those for Gaussian beam propagation. Source partial coherence is shown to mitigate anisotropy at sub-kilometer distances.
Vibration and wave propagation characteristics of multisegmented elastic beams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nayfeh, Adnan H.; Hawwa, Muhammad A.
1990-01-01
Closed form analytical solutions are derived for the vibration and wave propagation of multisegmented elastic beams. Each segment is modeled as a Timoshenko beam with possible inclusion of material viscosity, elastic foundation and axial forces. Solutions are obtained by using transfer matrix methods. According to these methods formal solutions are first constructed which relate the deflection, slope, moment and shear force of one end of the individual segment to those of the other. By satisfying appropriate continuity conditions at segment junctions, a global 4x4 matrix results which relates the deflection, slope, moment and shear force of one end of the beam to those of the other. If any boundary conditions are subsequently invoked on the ends of the beam one gets the appropriate characteristic equation for the natural frequencies. Furthermore, by invoking appropriate periodicity conditions the dispersion relation for a periodic system is obtained. A variety of numerical examples are included.
Vibration and wave propagation characteristics of multisegmented elastic beams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nayfeh, Adnan H.; Hawwa, Muhammad A.
1990-01-01
Closed form analytical solutions are derived for the vibration and wave propagation of multisegmented elastic beams. Each segment is modeled as a Timoshenko beam with possible inclusion of material viscosity, elastic foundation and axial forces. Solutions are obtained by using transfer matrix methods. According to these methods formal solutions are first constructed which relate the deflection, slope, moment and shear force of one end of the individual segment to those of the other. By satisfying appropriate continuity conditions at segment junctions, a global 4x4 matrix results which relates the deflection, slope, moment and shear force of one end of the beam to those of the other. If any boundary conditions are subsequently invoked on the ends of the beam one gets the appropriate characteristic equation for the natural frequencies. Furthermore, by invoking appropriate periodicity conditions the dispersion relation for a periodic system is obtained. A variety of numerical examples are included.
Evolution of a Gaussian laser beam in warm collisional magnetoplasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jafari, M. J.; Jafari Milani, M. R.; Niknam, A. R.
2016-07-01
In this paper, the spatial evolution of an intense circularly polarized Gaussian laser beam propagated through a warm plasma is investigated, taking into account the ponderomotive force, Ohmic heating, external magnetic field, and collisional effects. Using the momentum transfer and energy equations, both modified electron temperature and electron density in plasma are obtained. By introducing the complex dielectric permittivity of warm magnetized plasma and using the complex eikonal function, coupled differential equations for beam width parameter are established and solved numerically. The effects of polarization state of laser and magnetic field on the laser spot size evolution are studied. It is observed that in case of the right-handed polarization, an increase in the value of external magnetic field causes an increase in the strength of the self-focusing, especially in the higher values, and consequently, the self-focusing occurs in shorter distance of propagation. Moreover, the results demonstrate the existence of laser intensity and electron temperature ranges where self-focusing can occur, while the beam diverges outside of these regions; meanwhile, in these intervals, there exists a turning point for each of intensity and temperature in which the self-focusing process has its strongest strength. Finally, it is found that the self-focusing effect can be enhanced by increasing the plasma frequency (plasma density).
Evolution of a Gaussian laser beam in warm collisional magnetoplasma
Jafari, M. J.; Jafari Milani, M. R.; Niknam, A. R.
2016-07-15
In this paper, the spatial evolution of an intense circularly polarized Gaussian laser beam propagated through a warm plasma is investigated, taking into account the ponderomotive force, Ohmic heating, external magnetic field, and collisional effects. Using the momentum transfer and energy equations, both modified electron temperature and electron density in plasma are obtained. By introducing the complex dielectric permittivity of warm magnetized plasma and using the complex eikonal function, coupled differential equations for beam width parameter are established and solved numerically. The effects of polarization state of laser and magnetic field on the laser spot size evolution are studied. It is observed that in case of the right-handed polarization, an increase in the value of external magnetic field causes an increase in the strength of the self-focusing, especially in the higher values, and consequently, the self-focusing occurs in shorter distance of propagation. Moreover, the results demonstrate the existence of laser intensity and electron temperature ranges where self-focusing can occur, while the beam diverges outside of these regions; meanwhile, in these intervals, there exists a turning point for each of intensity and temperature in which the self-focusing process has its strongest strength. Finally, it is found that the self-focusing effect can be enhanced by increasing the plasma frequency (plasma density).
Fractional laser photothermolysis using Bessel beams.
Mignon, Charles; Rodriguez, Aura Higuera; Palero, Jonathan A; Varghese, Babu; Jurna, Martin
2016-12-01
Fractional photothermolysis uses lasers to generate a pattern of microscopic columnar thermal lesions within the skin stimulating collagen remodeling. In this paper we investigate the use of Bessel beams as an alternative to conventional Gaussian beams in creating laser photothermal lesions of different aspect ratios in skin. We show for the first time the improved photothermal lesion depth-to-diameter aspect ratio using Bessel beams in ex vivo human skin as well as in numerical simulations using electric field Monte Carlo photon transport, finite difference methods and Arrhenius model. Bessel beams allow the creation of deep and narrow thermal lesions necessary for improved efficacy in fractional photothermolysis.
Fractional laser photothermolysis using Bessel beams
Mignon, Charles; Rodriguez, Aura Higuera; Palero, Jonathan A.; Varghese, Babu; Jurna, Martin
2016-01-01
Fractional photothermolysis uses lasers to generate a pattern of microscopic columnar thermal lesions within the skin stimulating collagen remodeling. In this paper we investigate the use of Bessel beams as an alternative to conventional Gaussian beams in creating laser photothermal lesions of different aspect ratios in skin. We show for the first time the improved photothermal lesion depth-to-diameter aspect ratio using Bessel beams in ex vivo human skin as well as in numerical simulations using electric field Monte Carlo photon transport, finite difference methods and Arrhenius model. Bessel beams allow the creation of deep and narrow thermal lesions necessary for improved efficacy in fractional photothermolysis. PMID:28018718
Producing National Ignition Facility (NIF)-quality beams on the Nova and Beamlet lasers
Widmayer, C.C.; Auerbach, J.M.; Ehrlich, R.B.
1996-08-01
The Nova and Beamlet lasers were used to simulate the beam propagation conditions that will be encountered during the National Ignition Facility operation. Perturbation theory predicts that there is a 5mm scale length propagation mode that experiences large nonlinear power growth. This mode was observed in the tests. Further tests have confirmed that this mode can be suppressed with improved spatial filtering.
Electron Injection into Laser Wakefields by the Two-Beam Colliding Pulse Scheme
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakamura, K.; Michel, P.; Toth, C. S.; Geddes, C. G. R.; van Tilborg, J.; Fubiani, G.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.; Cary, J. R.; Giacone, R.; Bruhwiler, D.
2004-11-01
Laser driven acceleration in plasmas has succeeded in producing electron beams containing considerable amount of charge (> 100 pC) at energies in excess of 100 MeV. Control of the trapping process is needed to generate monoenergetic electron beams in a reproducible manner. We report on experimental progress of laser triggered injection of electrons into laser wakefields with a two-pulse colliding laser scheme[1]. The experiments use the multi-beam, multi-terawatt Ti:Al_2O3 laser at the l'OASIS facility of LBNL. In the experiments, two counter propagating beams 30^rc angle are focused onto a high density ( ˜10^19/cm^3) gas jet. Preliminary results indicate that electron beam properties are affected by the second beam. Details of the experiments will be shown as well as comparisons with simulations. [1] G. Fubiani, et., al, Phys. Rev. E 70, 016402 (2004).
Eliasson, B; Shukla, P K
2006-10-01
We consider nonlinear interactions between two colliding laser beams in an electron plasma, accounting for the relativistic electron mass increase in the laser fields and radiation pressure driven electron-acoustic (EA) perturbations that are supported by hot and cold electrons. By using the hydrodynamic and Maxwell equations, we obtain the relevant equations for nonlinearly coupled laser beams and EA perturbations. The coupled equations are then Fourier analyzed to obtain a nonlinear dispersion relation. The latter is numerically solved to show the existence of new classes of the parametric instabilities in the presence of two colliding laser beams in a two-electron plasma. The dynamics of nonlinearly coupled laser beams in our electron plasma is also investigated. The results should be useful in understanding the nonlinear propagation characteristics of multiple electromagnetic beams in laser-produced plasmas as well as in space plasmas.
Laser beam-profile impression and target thickness impact on laser-accelerated protons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schollmeier, M.; Harres, K.; Nürnberg, F.; Blažević, A.; Audebert, P.; Brambrink, E.; Fernández, J. C.; Flippo, K. A.; Gautier, D. C.; Geißel, M.; Hegelich, B. M.; Schreiber, J.; Roth, M.
2008-05-01
Experimental results on the influence of the laser focal spot shape onto the beam profile of laser-accelerated protons from gold foils are reported. The targets' microgrooved rear side, together with a stack of radiochromic films, allowed us to deduce the energy-dependent proton source-shape and size, respectively. The experiments show, that shape and size of the proton source depend only weakly on target thickness as well as shape of the laser focus, although they strongly influence the proton's intensity distribution. It was shown that the laser creates an electron beam that closely follows the laser beam topology, which is maintained during the propagation through the target. Protons are then accelerated from the rear side with an electron created electric field of a similar shape. Simulations with the Sheath-Accelerated Beam Ray-tracing for IoN Analysis code SABRINA, which calculates the proton distribution in the detector for a given laser-beam profile, show that the electron distribution during the transport through a thick target (50μm Au) is only modified due to multiple small angle scattering. Thin targets (10μm) show large source sizes of over 100μm diameter for 5MeV protons, which cannot be explained by multiple scattering only and are most likely the result of refluxing electrons.
Laser beam-profile impression and target thickness impact on laser-accelerated protons
Schollmeier, M.; Harres, K.; Nuernberg, F.; Roth, M.; Blazevic, A.; Audebert, P.; Brambrink, E.; Fernandez, J. C.; Flippo, K. A.; Gautier, D. C.; Geissel, M.; Hegelich, B. M.; Schreiber, J.
2008-05-15
Experimental results on the influence of the laser focal spot shape onto the beam profile of laser-accelerated protons from gold foils are reported. The targets' microgrooved rear side, together with a stack of radiochromic films, allowed us to deduce the energy-dependent proton source-shape and size, respectively. The experiments show, that shape and size of the proton source depend only weakly on target thickness as well as shape of the laser focus, although they strongly influence the proton's intensity distribution. It was shown that the laser creates an electron beam that closely follows the laser beam topology, which is maintained during the propagation through the target. Protons are then accelerated from the rear side with an electron created electric field of a similar shape. Simulations with the Sheath-Accelerated Beam Ray-tracing for IoN Analysis code SABRINA, which calculates the proton distribution in the detector for a given laser-beam profile, show that the electron distribution during the transport through a thick target (50 {mu}m Au) is only modified due to multiple small angle scattering. Thin targets (10 {mu}m) show large source sizes of over 100 {mu}m diameter for 5 MeV protons, which cannot be explained by multiple scattering only and are most likely the result of refluxing electrons.
Neutral Beam Propagation Effects in the Upper Atmosphere.
1984-10-01
I 7 -AA74 6 NEUTRAL BEAR PROPAGAT ION EFFECTS IN THE UPPER7~ATMOSPHERE(U) B STON C LL CHESTNUT HILL MA DEPT OF~PHYSICS P CARINI ET AL 01 OCT 84...BUREAU OF STANDARDS 2963 A t %. -_- ’o N, r ,._ .~ , AD-A 174 896 AFGL-TR-85-0038 NEUTRAL BEAM PROPAGATION EFFECTS IN THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE P. Carini...ZIP Code) 10 SOURCE OF FUNDING NOS PROGRAM PROJECT TASK( WORK UNIT ELEMENT NO NO. NO. NO 1j 1 TITLE (Include secuit’iy ClawficaiJon) Neutral Beam
Beam propagation method analysis of optical waveguide lenses.
Ishikawa, A; Izutsu, M; Sueta, T
1990-12-01
Focusing characteristics of optical waveguide lenses are analyzed by the beam propagation method (BPM) instead of the ray tracing method. By use of the BPM, we can observe field distributions of a converging or diverging light beam after it passes through a waveguide lens. Variations of the spot width and magnitude of diffraction can immediately be evaluated with this calculation. The BPM calculations are used for a mode-index, Luneburg, and geodesic lenses. For the application of the method to the geodesic lens, the surface deformation is converted into an equivalent index.
Electron beam magnetic switch for a plurality of free electron lasers
Schlitt, Leland G.
1984-01-01
Apparatus for forming and utilizing a sequence of electron beam segments, each of the same temporal length (substantially 15 nsec), with consecutive beams being separated by a constant time interval of the order of 3 nsec. The beam sequence is used for simultaneous inputs to a plurality of wiggler magnet systems that also accept the laser beams to be amplified by interaction with the co-propagating electron beams. The electron beams are arranged substantially in a circle to allow proper distribution of and simultaneous switching out of the beam segments to their respective wiggler magnets.
Simulation based analysis of laser beam brazing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dobler, Michael; Wiethop, Philipp; Schmid, Daniel; Schmidt, Michael
2016-03-01
Laser beam brazing is a well-established joining technology in car body manufacturing with main applications in the joining of divided tailgates and the joining of roof and side panels. A key advantage of laser brazed joints is the seam's visual quality which satisfies highest requirements. However, the laser beam brazing process is very complex and process dynamics are only partially understood. In order to gain deeper knowledge of the laser beam brazing process, to determine optimal process parameters and to test process variants, a transient three-dimensional simulation model of laser beam brazing is developed. This model takes into account energy input, heat transfer as well as fluid and wetting dynamics that lead to the formation of the brazing seam. A validation of the simulation model is performed by metallographic analysis and thermocouple measurements for different parameter sets of the brazing process. These results show that the multi-physical simulation model not only can be used to gain insight into the laser brazing process but also offers the possibility of process optimization in industrial applications. The model's capabilities in determining optimal process parameters are exemplarily shown for the laser power. Small deviations in the energy input can affect the brazing results significantly. Therefore, the simulation model is used to analyze the effect of the lateral laser beam position on the energy input and the resulting brazing seam.
Mid-IR laser source using hollow waveguide beam combining
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elder, Ian F.; Thorne, Daniel H.; Lamb, Robert A.; Jenkins, R. M.
2016-03-01
Hollow waveguide technology is a route to efficient beam combining of multiple laser sources in a compact footprint. It is a technology appropriate for combining free-space or fibre-coupled beams generated by semiconductor, fibre or solidstate laser sources. This paper will present results of a breadboard mid-IR system comprising four laser sources combined using a hollow waveguide optical circuit. In this approach the individual dichroic beam combiner components are held in precision alignment slots in the hollow waveguide circuit and the different input wavelengths are guided between the components to a common output port. The hollow waveguide circuit is formed in the surface of a Macor (machinable glass-ceramic) substrate using precision CNC machining techniques. The hollow waveguides have fundamentally different propagation characteristics to solid core waveguides leading to transmission characteristics close to those of the atmosphere while still providing useful light guidance properties. The transmission efficiency and power handling of the hollow waveguide circuit can be designed to be very high across a broad waveband range. Three of the sources are quantum cascade lasers (QCLs), a semiconductor laser technology providing direct generation of midwave IR output. The combined beams provide 4.2 W of near diffraction-limited output co-boresighted to better than 20 µrad. High coupling efficiency into the waveguides is demonstrated, with negligible waveguide transmission losses. The overall transmission of the hollow waveguide beam combining optical circuit, weighted by the laser power at each wavelength, is 93%. This loss is dominated by the performance of the dichroic optics used to combine the beams.
Fluorometric Beam Profiling of UV MALDI Lasers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steven, Rory T.; Palmer, Andrew D.; Bunch, Josephine
2013-07-01
The photon distribution (beam profile) of the laser as projected onto the sample is an important variable in matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). Measurement of the beam profile is, therefore, an important factor within MALDI-MS. In this study a simple, low-cost fluorometric laser beam profiling technique is presented and applied in conjunction with MALDI-MS experiments. A comparison of the beam profile information afforded by a commercial system and the fluorometric method is carried out to determine the variation of beam profile for an Nd:YVO4 laser operated between 1 and 25 kHz. The beam profile information can be used, in conjunction with corresponding ion yields, to inform MALDI-MS experiments. The fluorometric beam profiling technique is used to obtain information about the beam dimensions as incident upon the MALDI-MS sample plate in-source. These values are compared with equivalent information obtained from ablation of thin film α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA). In this study, area estimation by ablation provided a value 1.6 times smaller than that obtained by the fluorometric method, demonstrating the need for caution when measuring beam profile and, therefore, fluence, in MALDI-MS. [Figure not available: see fulltext.
Propagation of Polarization Modulated Beams Through a Turbulent Atmosphere
2014-11-24
EM energy absorption in dense concentrations of particles ( clouds , fog). Propagation through turbulent atmospheres with minimum jitter/absorption...and beam redirection. The media substituting for the atmosphere and ionosphere were: a water vapor chamber , heated air, and static and rotated...atomic resonance. A simple representation of an ion is as an electron cloud attached to a fixed ion. If the attachments are represented in the x, y and
Laser cooling of a stored ion beam: A first step towards crystalline beams
Hangst, J.S.
1992-09-01
This report discusses: a brief introduction to storage rings; crystalline beams; laser cooling of ion beams; description of astrid-the experimental setup; first experiments with lithium 7 ion beam; experiments with erbium 166 ion beams; further experiments with lithium 7 ion beams; beam dynamics, laser cooling,and crystalline beams in astrid; possibilities for further study in astrid.
Laser beam riding artillery missiles guidance device is designed
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Mingliang; Huo, Zhicheng; Chen, Wei
2014-09-01
Laser driving gun missile guidance type beam of laser information field formed by any link failure or reduced stability will directly lead to ballistic or miss out of control, and based on this, this paper designed the driving beam of laser guided missile guidance beam type forming device modulation and zoom mechanism, in order to make the missile can recognize its position in the laser beam, laser beam gun missile, by means of spatial encoding of the laser beam laser beam into information after forming device, a surface to achieve the purpose of precision guidance.
Yang, Ting; Xu, Yonggen; Tian, Huanhuan; Die, Dong; Du, Quan; Zhang, Biling; Dan, Youquan
2017-05-01
Analytical formulas for the root-mean-square (rms) spatial width, the rms angular width, and the M(2)-factor of partially coherent standard Laguerre Gaussian beams (PC-SLGBs) and partially coherent elegant Laguerre Gaussian beams (PC-ELGBs) in inhomogeneous turbulent atmosphere have been derived. The propagation properties of PC-SLGBs and PC-ELGBs in inhomogeneous atmospheric turbulence are studied numerically and comparatively. It can be found that the propagation of laser beams in inhomogeneous turbulence is different from that in homogeneous turbulence. It is also shown that relative rms spatial widths and M(2)-factors of PC-ELGBs are more affected by inhomogeneous turbulence than those of PC-SLGBs. Moreover, the relative rms spatial widths and M(2)-factors of PC-SLGBs and PC-ELGBs in inhomogeneous turbulent atmosphere are closely related with waist widths, coherence widths, zenith angles, inner scales, and beam orders. Furthermore, the saturation propagation distance of the relative M(2)-factor and rms angular width with zenith angles of π/6 are 20 km and 0.5 km, respectively.
A critical review of laser beam welding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martukanitz, Richard P.
2005-03-01
The use of lasers for welding has exhibited tremendous growth over the last decade for improving efficiency and reducing costs in a broad range of industries. Much of these successes are based on the development and availability of enabling technologies, which include improvements in process understanding, enhancements in laser sources and systems, and continued development and progression in process technology for laser beam welding of macro and micro components. The development of accurate numerical simulation techniques has provided an unprecedented opportunity to view the transient nature of laser processing. Advancements in laser source technology include the introduction of higher-power Nd:YAG lasers, utilizing diode pumped rods or disks, and fiber lasers, both providing the capability for fiber optic beam delivery. Although CO2 laser systems continue to dominate thick section welding, this influence will be challenged by emerging source technologies, namely high power fiber lasers. One of the most promising advances in laser process technology is laser-arc hybrid welding, which is seeing considerable interest worldwide and is currently being evaluated for various applications within heavy industry and manufacturing. The benefit of hybrid welding is the synergistic effect of improved processing rates and joint accommodation over either of the processes viewed separately. Other processing methods are also being developed to increase the utility of laser beam welding for industry, such as the use of dual beams and beam manipulation. The continued advancement in process knowledge is seen as a key element for facilitating the development of new processes and encouraging the acceptance of new source technology.
Satellites Would Transmit Power By Laser Beams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, M. D.; Walker, Gilbert H.; HUMES D. H.; Kwon, J. H.
1995-01-01
Arrays of diode lasers concentrate power into narrow beams. Baseline design of system formulated with regard to two particular missions that differ greatly in power requirements, thus showing scalability and attributes of basic system. Satellite system features large-scale array amplifier of high efficiency, injection-locked amplifiers, coherent combination of beams, and use of advanced lithographic technology to fabricate diode lasers in array. Extremely rapid development of applicable technologies make features realizable within decade.
Apparatus for laser beam profile measurements
Barnes, N.P.; Gettemy, D.J.
1985-01-30
Apparatus for measuring the spatial intensity profile of the output beam from a continuous-wave laser oscillator. The rapid and repetitive passing of a small aperture through the otherwise totally blocked output beam of the laser under investigation provides an easily interpretable, real-time measure of the intensity characteristics thereof when detected by a single detector and the signal generated thereby displayed on an oscilloscope synthronized to the motion of the aperture.
Braiding of two spiraling laser beams due to plasma wave wakes.
Ren, C; Duda, B J; Mori, W B
2001-12-01
We study how two Gaussian laser beams interact through plasma wave wakes produced when they co-propagate in a plasma. Using a variational principle, we derive equations of motion for the centroid of each beam, and find braided centroid solutions. These results can be generalized to other nonlinear optical media with non-instantaneous nonlinearity.
Atmospheric propagation and combining of high power lasers: comment.
Goodno, Gregory D; Rothenberg, Joshua E
2016-10-10
Nelson et al. [Appl. Opt.55, 1757 (2016)APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.55.001757] recently concluded that coherent beam combining and remote phase locking of high-power lasers are fundamentally limited by the laser source linewidth. These conclusions are incorrect and not relevant to practical high-power coherently combined laser architectures.
Active laser radar systems with stochastic electromagnetic beams in turbulent atmosphere.
Cai, Yangjian; Korotkova, Olga; Eyyuboğlu, Halil T; Baykal, Yahya
2008-09-29
Propagation of stochastic electromagnetic beams through paraxial ABCD optical systems operating through turbulent atmosphere is investigated with the help of the ABCD matrices and the generalized Huygens-Fresnel integral. In particular, the analytic formula is derived for the cross-spectral density matrix of an electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model (EGSM) beam. We applied our analysis for the ABCD system with a single lens located on the propagation path, representing, in a particular case, the unfolded double-pass propagation scenario of active laser radar. Through a number of numerical examples we investigated the effect of local turbulence strength and lens' parameters on spectral, coherence and polarization properties of the EGSM beam.
Two-photon flow cytometer with laser scanning Bessel beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yongdong; Ding, Yu; Ray, Supriyo; Paez, Aurelio; Xiao, Chuan; Li, Chunqiang
2016-03-01
Flow cytometry is an important technique in biomedical discovery for cell counting, cell sorting and biomarker detection. In vivo flow cytometers, based on one-photon or two-photon excited fluorescence, have been developed for more than a decade. One drawback of laser beam scanning two-photon flow cytometer is that the two-photon excitation volume is fairly small due to the short Rayleigh range of a focused Gaussian beam. Hence, the sampling volume is much smaller than one-photon flow cytometry, which makes it challenging to count or detect rare circulating cells in vivo. Bessel beams have narrow intensity profiles with an effective spot size (FWHM) as small as several wavelengths, making them comparable to Gaussian beams. More significantly, the theoretical depth of field (propagation distance without diffraction) can be infinite, making it an ideal solution as a light source for scanning beam flow cytometry. The trade-off of using Bessel beams rather than a Gaussian beam is the fact that Bessel beams have small concentric side rings that contribute to background noise. Two-photon excitation can reduce this noise, as the excitation efficiency is proportional to intensity squared. Therefore, we developed a two-photon flow cytometer using scanned Bessel beams to form a light sheet that intersects the micro fluidic channel.
Laser wakefield acceleration of polarized electron beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pugacheva, D. V.; Andreev, N. E.; Cros, B.
2016-11-01
The acceleration of highly polarized electron beams are widely used in state-of-the-art high-energy physics experiments. In this work, a model for investigation of polarization dynamics of electron beams in the laser-plasma accelerator depending on the initial energy of electrons was developed and tested. To obtain the evolution of the trajectory and momentum of the electron for modeling its acceleration the wakefield structure was determined. The spin precession of the beam electron was described by Thomas-Bargman-Michel-Telegdi equations. The evolution of the electron beam polarization was investigated for zero-emittance beams with zero-energy spread.
Rippled-beam free-electron laser
Carlsten, B.E.
1997-10-01
The authors describe a new microwave generation mechanism involving a scalloping annular electron beam. The beam interacts with the axial electric field of a TM{sub 0n} mode in a smooth circular waveguide through the axial free-electron laser interaction, in which the beam ripple period is synchronous with the phase slippage of the rf mode relative to the electron beam. Due to nonlinearities in the orbit equation, the interaction can be made autoresonant, where the phase and amplitude of the gain is independent of the beam energy.
Emission and Propagation Properties of Midinfrared Quantum Cascade Lasers
Krishnaswami, Kannan; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Cannon, Bret D.; Ho, Nicolas; Anheier, Norman C.
2008-02-15
We report divergence, astigmatism and M^{2} measurements of quantum cascade lasers (QCL) with an emission wavelength of 8.77 mum. Emission profiles from the QCL facet showed divergence angles of 62° and 32° FWHM ± 2° for the fast and slow axes, respectively. The observation of far field structure superimposed on the fast axes profiles was attributed to the position of the QCL die with respect to the edge of the laser submount, emphasizing the need for careful placement. Two diffraction-limited Germanium aspheric microlenses were designed and fabricated to efficiently collect, collimate, and focus QCL emission. A confocal system comprised of these lenses was used to measure the beam propagation figure of merit (M2) yielding 1.8 and 1.2 for the fast and slow axes, respectively. Astigmatism at the exit facet was calculated to be about 3.4 mum, or less than half a wave. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experimental measurement of astigmatism and M^{2} reported for mid-IR QCLs.
Electron acceleration by a propagating laser pulse in vacuum
Wang Fengchao; Shen Baifei; Zhang Xiaomei; Li Xuemei; Jin Zhangying
2007-08-15
Electrons accelerated by a propagating laser pulse of linear or circular polarization in vacuum have been investigated by one-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations and analytical modeling. A stopping target is used to stop the laser pulse and extract the energetic electrons from the laser field. The effect of the reflected light is taken into account. The maximum electron energy depends on the laser intensity and initial electron energy. There is an optimal acceleration length for electrons to gain maximum energy where electrons meet the peak of the laser pulse. The optimal acceleration length depends strongly on the laser pulse duration and amplitude.
Phoenix Laser Beam in Action on Mars
2008-09-30
The Surface Stereo Imager camera aboard NASA Phoenix Mars Lander acquired a series of images of the laser beam in the Martian night sky. Bright spots in the beam are reflections from ice crystals in the low level ice-fog.
Laser beam welding of any metal.
Leong, K. H.
1998-10-01
The effect of a metal's thermophysical properties on its weldability are examined. The thermal conductivity, melting point, absorptivity and thermal diffusivity of the metal and the laser beam focused diameter and welding speed influence the minimum beam irradiance required for melting and welding. Beam diameter, surface tension and viscosity of the molten metal affect weld pool stability and weld quality. Lower surface tension and viscosity increases weld pool instability. With larger beam diameters causing wider welds, dropout also increases. Effects of focused beam diameter and joint fitup on weldability are also examined. Small beam diameters are sensitive to beam coupling problems in relation to fitup precision in addition to beam alignment to the seam. Welding parameters for mitigating weld pool instability and increasing weld quality are derived from the above considerations. Guidelines are presented for the tailoring of welding parameters to achieve good welds. Weldability problems can also be anticipated from the properties of a metal.
Varying the Divergence of Multiple Parallel Laser Beams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kovalik, Joseph M.; Wright, Malcolm W.
2008-01-01
A provision for controlled variation of the divergence of a laser beam or of multiple parallel laser beams has been incorporated into the design of a conceptual free-space optical-communication station from which the transmitted laser beam(s) would be launched via a telescope. The original purpose to be served by this provision was to enable optimization, under various atmospheric optical conditions, of the divergence of a laser beam or beams transmitted from a ground station to a spacecraft.
Statistical effects in high-power microwave beam propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alvarez, R. A.; Bolton, P. R.; Sieger, G. E.
1988-06-01
At very high power levels pulsed microwave beams can generate air-breakdown plasmas which may limit the fluence that the beam can transport through the atmosphere. Conventional air breakdown is an avalanche process wherein free electrons, driven by the microwave fields, produce ionization through collisions with air molecules. Propagation of a beam is affected when the plasma electron density approaches the critical density for the particular microwave frequency. The rate of growth of the plasma depends on the competition between the ionization probability and electron loss processes such as attachment and diffusion. The physics of the avalanche process is reasonably well understood, and fluence limits can be fairly accurately predicted, so long as there are free seed electrons to initiate the breakdown. At sea level and low altitudes, seed electrons are, in fact, expected to be fairly rare, and air breakdown, and the consequences for beam propagation, must be treated as a statistical problem; the effective fluence limit may be much greater than would be predicted on the basis of conventional breakdown thresholds. The statistical effects are currently being investigated.
Role of beam propagation in Goos-Hänchen and Imbert-Fedorov shifts.
Aiello, A; Woerdman, J P
2008-07-01
We derive the polarization-dependent displacements parallel and perpendicular to the plane of incidence for a Gaussian light beam reflected from a planar interface, taking into account the propagation of the beam. Using a classical-optics formalism we show that beam propagation may greatly affect both Goos-Hänchen and Imbert-Fedorov shifts when the incident beam is focused.
Single laser beam measurement of thermal diffusivity.
Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Doiron, Serge; Deveaux, Michel; Haché, Alain
2008-12-10
Thermal diffusion properties of interfaces are measured using self-induced surface thermal lensing with a single laser beam. The time evolution of the reflected beam reveals information on heat diffusion away from the interface. Unambiguous correlation between measured signal and thermal diffusivity is shown, theoretically and experimentally, from which calibration curves are obtained. Being simpler and less sensitive to vibrations and misalignments, the technique offers definite advantages over standard two-beam (pump-probe) methods.
Spiral laser beams in inhomogeneous media.
Mahalov, Alex; Suazo, Erwin; Suslov, Sergei K
2013-08-01
Explicit solutions of the inhomogeneous paraxial wave equation in a linear and quadratic approximation are applied to wave fields with invariant features, such as oscillating laser beams in a parabolic waveguide and spiral light beams in varying media. A similar effect of superfocusing of particle beams in a thin monocrystal film, harmonic oscillations of cold trapped atoms, and motion in magnetic field are also mentioned.
Beam current controller for laser ion source
Okamura, Masahiro
2014-10-28
The present invention relates to the design and use of an ion source with a rapid beam current controller for experimental and medicinal purposes. More particularly, the present invention relates to the design and use of a laser ion source with a magnetic field applied to confine a plasma flux caused by laser ablation.
Generation of low-divergence laser beams
Kronberg, J.W.
1993-09-14
Apparatus for transforming a conventional beam of coherent light, having a Gaussian energy distribution and relatively high divergence, into a beam in which the energy distribution approximates a single, non-zero-order Bessel function and which therefore has much lower divergence. The apparatus comprises a zone plate having transmitting and reflecting zones defined by the pattern of light interference produced by the combination of a beam of coherent light with a Gaussian energy distribution and one having such a Bessel distribution. The interference pattern between the two beams is a concentric array of multiple annuli, and is preferably recorded as a hologram. The hologram is then used to form the transmitting and reflecting zones by photo-etching portions of a reflecting layer deposited on a plate made of a transmitting material. A Bessel beam, containing approximately 50% of the energy of the incident beam, is produced by passing a Gaussian beam through such a Bessel zone plate. The reflected beam, also containing approximately 50% of the incident beam energy and having a Bessel energy distribution, can be redirected in the same direction and parallel to the transmitted beam. Alternatively, a filter similar to the Bessel zone plate can be placed within the resonator cavity of a conventional laser system having a front mirror and a rear mirror, preferably axially aligned with the mirrors and just inside the front mirror to generate Bessel energy distribution light beams at the laser source. 11 figures.
Generation of low-divergence laser beams
Kronberg, James W.
1993-01-01
Apparatus for transforming a conventional beam of coherent light, having a Gaussian energy distribution and relatively high divergence, into a beam in which the energy distribution approximates a single, non-zero-order Bessel function and which therefore has much lower divergence. The apparatus comprises a zone plate having transmitting and reflecting zones defined by the pattern of light interference produced by the combination of a beam of coherent light with a Gaussian energy distribution and one having such a Bessel distribution. The interference pattern between the two beams is a concentric array of multiple annuli, and is preferably recorded as a hologram. The hologram is then used to form the transmitting and reflecting zones by photo-etching portions of a reflecting layer deposited on a plate made of a transmitting material. A Bessel beam, containing approximately 50% of the energy of the incident beam, is produced by passing a Gaussian beam through such a Bessel zone plate. The reflected beam, also containing approximately 50% of the incident beam energy and having a Bessel energy distribution, can be redirected in the same direction and parallel to the transmitted beam. Alternatively, a filter similar to the Bessel zone plate can be placed within the resonator cavity of a conventional laser system having a front mirror and a rear mirror, preferably axially aligned with the mirrors and just inside the front mirror to generate Bessel energy distribution light beams at the laser source.
An Alternative Form of Laser Beam Characterization
KNOROVSKY,GERALD A.; MACCALLUM,DANNY O.
2000-06-30
Careful characterization of laser beams used in materials processing such as welding and drilling is necessary to obtain robust, reproducible processes and products. Recently, equipment and techniques have become available which make it possible to rapidly and conveniently characterize the size, shape, mode structure, beam quality (Mz), and intensity of a laser beam (incident power/unit area) as a function of distance along the beam path. This facilitates obtaining a desired focused spot size and also locating its position. However, for a given position along the beam axis, these devices typically measure where the beam intensity level has been reduced to I/ez of maximum intensity at that position to determine the beam size. While giving an intuitive indication of the beam shape since the maximum intensity of the beam varies greatly, the contour so determined is not an iso-contour of any parameter related to the beam intensity or power. In this work we shall discuss an alternative beam shape formulation where the same measured information is plotted as contour intervals of intensity.
Lateral propagation of MeV electrons generated by femtosecond laser irradiation
Seely, J. F.; Szabo, C. I.; Audebert, P.; Brambrink, E.; Tabakhoff, E.; Hudson, L. T.
2010-02-15
The propagation of MeV electrons generated by intense (approx =10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}) femtosecond laser irradiation, in the lateral direction perpendicular to the incident laser beam, was studied using targets consisting of irradiated metal wires and neighboring spectator wires embedded in electrically conductive (aluminum) or resistive (Teflon) substrates. The K shell spectra in the energy range 40-60 keV from wires of Gd, Dy, Hf, and W were recorded by a transmission crystal spectrometer. The spectra were produced by 1s electron ionization in the irradiated wire and by energetic electron propagation through the substrate material to the spectator wire of a different metal. The electron range and energy were determined from the relative K shell emissions from the irradiated and spectator wires separated by varying substrate lateral distances of up to 1 mm. It was found that electron propagation through Teflon was inhibited, compared to aluminum, implying a relatively weak return current and incomplete space-charge neutralization. The energetic electron propagation in the direction parallel to the electric field of the laser beam was larger than perpendicular to the electric field. Energetic electron production was lower when directly irradiating aluminum or Teflon compared to irradiating the heavy metal wires. These experiments are important for the determination of the energetic electron production mechanism and for understanding lateral electron propagation that can be detrimental to fast-ignition fusion and hard x-ray backlighter radiography.
Laser beam microwelding in the watch industry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olowinsky, Alexander M.; Kramer, Thorsten; Durand, Friedrich
2002-06-01
After the invention of the laser principle and its first application for drilling of jewels in watch movements, the laser was only used for marking. The still ongoing trend of miniaturization and automation opened a new field of application: laser beam micro welding. This paper gives an overview of the new application of laser beam welding in watch industry. The combination of dissimilar materials like brass and stainless steel is often needed in watch movements due to tribologic aspects. Here, laser beam micro welding offers an alternative to conventional joining techniques like press fit or gluing. Since the watch components are very small the locally limited heat input of the laser beam offers the possibility of weld seam widths < 200 micrometers . The depth and the width of the closed weld seam as well as the surface quality can be influenced especially at the end of the seam using the pulse forming capability of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Several watch components could be joined by means of laser beam micro welding. The width of the seam could be reduced to 100-200 micrometers . The joining geometries of an axis/wheel combination are in the range of 100 micrometers to 1 mm diameter of the axis and about 200 micrometers wheel thickness. The process of laser beam micro welding could be integrated in a fully automated assembly machine for watch movement parts. This paper will give an overview about some results of a European research project where the welding of microparts was investigated. The aim was to decrease contamination and distortion of the parts during the mending process. The work to be presented has been funded by the European Commission in a project under the contract BRPR-CT- 0634.
Active Signal Propagation and Imaging Using Vortex Beams
2014-08-01
waist , and 2p+ l+1( )arctan(z / zR ) is the Gouy phase where zR is the Rayleigh range. The order of the Laguerre-Gaussian mode is given by N = 2p...cause them to rotate around the circumference of the optical vortex . 1.1. Guide-probe experiment Implementation of OV-GP imaging is based on...polarized Gaussian beam from a Helium-Neon laser cavity (633nm, ~5mW) is expanded and collimated to a beam waist of ~5mm and converted into an OV baring
Flat profile laser beam shaper
Johnson, Todd R.
2017-09-12
A system for shaping a beam comprises an emitter for emitting coherent electromagnetic radiation. Birefringent displacers are configured between the emitter and a target wherein the at least two birefringent displacers split the coherent electromagnetic radiation into a plurality of coherent parallel beams of electromagnetic radiation thereby producing a shaped wave front of the coherent parallel beams of electromagnetic radiation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walia, Keshav; Tripathi, Deepak; Tyagi, Yachna
2017-08-01
This paper presents an investigation of weakly relativistic ponderomotive effects on self-focusing during interaction of high power elliptical laser beam with plasma. The nonlinear differential equations for the beam width parameters of elliptical laser beam have set up by using Wentzal-Krammers-Brillouin (WKB) and paraxial approximations. These equations have been solved numerically by using fourth order Runge-Kutta method to study the variation of these beam width parameters against normalized distance of propagation. Effects of variation in laser beam intensity, plasma density and electron temperature on the beam width parameters are also analyzed.
Beam propagation factors and kurtosis parameters of a Lorentz-Gauss vortex beam.
Zhou, Guoquan
2014-06-01
Based on the second-order and the higher-order moments, analytical expressions for the beam propagation factors of a Lorentz-Gauss vortex beam with l=1 have been derived, and analytical propagation expressions for the kurtosis parameters of a Lorentz-Gauss vortex beam with l=1 through a paraxial and real ABCD optical system have also been presented. The M² factor is determined by the parameters a and b and decreases with increasing the parameter a or b. The M² factor is validated to be larger than 2. The kurtosis parameters depend on the diffraction-free ranges of the Lorentz part, the parameters a and b, and the ratio A/B. The kurtosis parameters of a Lorentz-Gauss vortex beam propagating in free space are demonstrated in different reference planes. In the far field, the kurtosis parameter K decreases with increasing one of the parameters a and b. Upon propagation, the kurtosis parameter K first decreases, then increases, and finally tends to a saturated value. In any case, the kurtosis parameter K is larger than 2. This research is beneficial to optical trapping, guiding, and manipulation of microscopic particles and atoms using Lorentz-Gauss vortex beams.
Reflective diffractive beam splitter for laser interferometers.
Fahr, Stephan; Clausnitzer, Tina; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Tünnermann, Andreas
2007-08-20
The first realization of a reflective 50/50 beam splitter based on a dielectric diffraction grating suitable for high-power laser interferometers is reported. The beam splitter is designed to operate at a wavelength of 1064 nm and in s polarization. To minimize the performance degradation of the device that is due to fabrication fluctuations, during the design process special attention was paid to achieve high fabrication tolerances especially of groove width and depth. Applying this beam splitter to high-power laser interferometers, such as future gravitational wave detectors, will avoid critical thermal lensing effects and allow for the free choice of substrate materials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Yonghui; Sun, Huayan; Zhao, Yanzhong; Chen, Jianbiao
2015-10-01
Active laser detection technique has a broad application prospect in antimissile and air defense, however the aerodynamic flow field around the planes and missiles cause serious distortion effect on the detecting laser beams. There are many computational fluid dynamics(CFD) codes that can predict the air density distribution and also the density fluctuations of the flow field, it's necessary for physical optics to be used to predict the distortion properties after propagation through the complex process. Aiming at the physical process of laser propagation in "Cat-eye" lenses and aerodynamic flow field for twice, distortion propagation calculation method is researched in this paper. In the minds of dividing the whole process into two parts, and tread the aero-optical optical path difference as a phase distortion, the incidence and reflection process are calculated using Collins formula and angular spectrum diffraction theory respectively. In addition, turbulent performance of the aerodynamic flow field is estimated according to the electromagnetic propagation theory through a random medium, the rms optical path difference and Strehl ratio of the turbulent optical distortion are obtained. Finally, Computational fluid mechanics and aero-optical distortion properties of the detecting laser beams are calculated with the hemisphere-on-cylinder turret as an example, calculation results are showed and analysed.
Laser Beam Processing - A Manufacturer's Viewpoint
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Y. C. J.
1985-09-01
The ability of continuous wave high power CO2 Lasers to generate power densities of up to 108 watts Cm makes them useful for a variety of material processing tasks. Deep-penetration laser welding, high precision laser cutting, surface heat treating by martensitic phase transformation hardening, and surface alloying are the four major areas which are accepting laser processes. This paper will cover these four primary laser applications existing in production within a variety of industries. Each individual area will be discussed in detail, describing the advantages and various parameters to achieve maximum productivity and quality. Beam config-uration, integration, and manipulation are included also. Production examples of laser welding, cutting, surface hardening and surface alloying, are examined to demonstrate the laser processing advantages. This paper also reviews the present and future status of the laser metalsworking industry in respect to the growth potential, research and development, manufacturers responsibilities etc.
Beam wandering of femtosecond laser filament in air.
Yang, Jing; Zeng, Tao; Lin, Lie; Liu, Weiwei
2015-10-05
The spatial wandering of a femtosecond laser filament caused by the filament heating effect in air has been studied. An empirical formula has also been derived from the classical Karman turbulence model, which determines quantitatively the displacement of the beam center as a function of the propagation distance and the effective turbulence structure constant. After fitting the experimental data with this formula, the effective turbulence structure constant has been estimated for a single filament generated in laboratory environment. With this result, one may be able to estimate quantitatively the displacement of a filament over long distance propagation and interpret the practical performance of the experiments assisted by femtosecond laser filamentation, such as remote air lasing, pulse compression, high order harmonic generation (HHG), etc.
Apparatus and method for laser beam diagnosis
Salmon, Jr., Joseph T.
1991-01-01
An apparatus and method is disclosed for accurate, real time monitoring of the wavefront curvature of a coherent laser beam. Knowing the curvature, it can be quickly determined whether the laser beam is collimated, or focusing (converging), or de-focusing (diverging). The apparatus includes a lateral interferometer for forming an interference pattern of the laser beam to be diagnosed. The interference pattern is imaged to a spatial light modulator (SLM), whose output is a coherent laser beam having an image of the interference pattern impressed on it. The SLM output is focused to obtain the far-field diffraction pattern. A video camera, such as CCD, monitors the far-field diffraction pattern, and provides an electrical output indicative of the shape of the far-field pattern. Specifically, the far-field pattern comprises a central lobe and side lobes, whose relative positions are indicative of the radius of curvature of the beam. The video camera's electrical output may be provided to a computer which analyzes the data to determine the wavefront curvature of the laser beam.
Apparatus and method for laser beam diagnosis
Salmon, J.T. Jr.
1991-08-27
An apparatus and method are disclosed for accurate, real time monitoring of the wavefront curvature of a coherent laser beam. Knowing the curvature, it can be quickly determined whether the laser beam is collimated, or focusing (converging), or de-focusing (diverging). The apparatus includes a lateral interferometer for forming an interference pattern of the laser beam to be diagnosed. The interference pattern is imaged to a spatial light modulator (SLM), whose output is a coherent laser beam having an image of the interference pattern impressed on it. The SLM output is focused to obtain the far-field diffraction pattern. A video camera, such as CCD, monitors the far-field diffraction pattern, and provides an electrical output indicative of the shape of the far-field pattern. Specifically, the far-field pattern comprises a central lobe and side lobes, whose relative positions are indicative of the radius of curvature of the beam. The video camera's electrical output may be provided to a computer which analyzes the data to determine the wavefront curvature of the laser beam. 11 figures.
Beam uniformity of flat top lasers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Chao; Cramer, Larry; Danielson, Don; Norby, James
2015-03-01
Many beams that output from standard commercial lasers are multi-mode, with each mode having a different shape and width. They show an overall non-homogeneous energy distribution across the spot size. There may be satellite structures, halos and other deviations from beam uniformity. However, many scientific, industrial and medical applications require flat top spatial energy distribution, high uniformity in the plateau region, and complete absence of hot spots. Reliable standard methods for the evaluation of beam quality are of great importance. Standard methods are required for correct characterization of the laser for its intended application and for tight quality control in laser manufacturing. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has published standard procedures and definitions for this purpose. These procedures have not been widely adopted by commercial laser manufacturers. This is due to the fact that they are unreliable because an unrepresentative single-pixel value can seriously distort the result. We hereby propose a metric of beam uniformity, a way of beam profile visualization, procedures to automatically detect hot spots and beam structures, and application examples in our high energy laser production.
Electron beam, laser beam and plasma arc welding studies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Banas, C. M.
1974-01-01
This program was undertaken as an initial step in establishing an evaluation framework which would permit a priori selection of advanced welding processes for specific applications. To this end, a direct comparison of laser beam, electron beam and arc welding of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was undertaken. Ti-6Al-4V was selected for use in view of its established welding characteristics and its importance in aerospace applications.
Linear quadratic regulator for laser beam shaping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Escárate, Pedro; Agüero, Juan C.; Zúñiga, Sebastián; Castro, Mario; Garcés, Javier
2017-07-01
The performance of an adaptive optics system depends on multiple factors, including the quality of the laser beam before being projected to the mesosphere. In general, cumbersome procedures are required to optimize the laser beam in terms of amplitude and phase. However, aberrations produced by the optics of the laser beam system are still detected during the operations due to, for example, uncertainty in the utilized models. In this paper we propose the use of feedback to overcome the presence of model uncertainty and disturbances. In particular we use a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) for closed loop laser beam shaping using a setup of two deformable mirrors. The proposed method is studied and simulated to provide an automatic optimization of the Amplitude of the laser beam. The performance of the LQR control algorithm is evaluated via numerical simulations using the root mean square error (RMSE). The results show an effective amplitude correction of the laser system aberrations after 20 iterations of the algorithm, a RMSE less than 0.7 was obtained, with about 140 actuators per mirror and a separation of z=3 [m] among the mirrors.
Transmission Of Power Via Combined Laser Beams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kwon, Jin H.; Lee, Ja H.
1992-01-01
Laser Diode Array (LDA) appears to be most efficient means of transferring power from Earth to satellites and between satellites, in terms of mass and size, of various laser configurations. To form large-scale-array amplifier (LSAA), element LDA's must generate well-defined diffraction-limited beams. Coherent matching of phases among LDA's enables system to generate good beam pattern in far field over thousands of kilometers. By passing beam from master laser through number of LDA amplifiers simultaneously, one realizes coherence among amplified output beams. LSAA used for transmission of power with efficiency of approximately 80 percent into receiver of moderate size at 5,000 km. Also transmits data at high rates by line-of-sight rather than fiber optics.
Design Considerations for Plasma Accelerators Driven by Lasers or Particle Beams
Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Benedetti, C.; Toth, Cs.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Leemans, W.P.
2010-06-01
Plasma accelerators may be driven by the ponderomotive force of an intense laser or the space-charge force of a charged particle beam. The implications for accelerator design and the different physical mechanisms of laser-driven and beam-driven plasma acceleration are discussed. Driver propagation is examined, as well as the effects of the excited plasma wave phase velocity. The driver coupling to subsequent plasma accelerator stages for high-energy physics applications is addressed.
Terahertz generation by two cross focused Gaussian laser beams in magnetized plasma
Singh, Ram Kishor Sharma, R. P.
2014-11-15
This paper presents a theoretical model for terahertz (THz) radiation generation by two cross-focused Gaussian laser beams in a collisionless magnetoplasma. The plasma is redistributed due to the ponderomotive nonlinearity which leads to the cross focusing of the laser beams. The focusing of the copropagating laser beams increases with increasing the externally applied static magnetic field which is perpendicular to the wave propagation direction. The nonlinear current at THz frequency arises on account of nonlinear ponderomotive force as a result of beating of the two lasers. The generated THz radiation amplitude increases significantly with increasing magnetic field. The cross focusing of two laser beams enhances the THz yield. Optimization of laser-plasma parameters gives the radiated normalized THz power of the order of 10 kW.
Optical Device for Converting a Laser Beam into Two Co-aligned but Oppositely Directed Beams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jennings, Donald
2013-01-01
Optical systems consisting of a series of optical elements require alignment from the input end to the output end. The optical elements can be mirrors, lenses, sources, detectors, or other devices. Complex optical systems are often difficult to align from end-to-end because the alignment beam must be inserted at one end in order for the beam to traverse the entire optical path to the other end. The ends of the optical train may not be easily accessible to the alignment beam. Typically, when a series of optical elements is to be aligned, an alignment laser beam is inserted into the optical path with a pick-off mirror at one end of the series of elements. But it may be impossible to insert the beam at an end-point. It can be difficult to locate the pick-off mirror at the desired position because there is not enough space, there is no mounting surface, or the location is occupied by a source, detector, or other component. Alternatively, the laser beam might be inserted at an intermediate location (not at an end-point) and sent, first in one direction and then the other, to the opposite ends of the optical system for alignment. However, in this case, alignment must be performed in two directions and extra effort is required to co-align the two beams to make them parallel and coincident, i.e., to follow the same path as an end-to-end beam. An optical device has been developed that accepts a laser beam as input and produces two co-aligned, but counter-propagating beams. In contrast to a conventional alignment laser placed at one end of the optical path, this invention can be placed at a convenient position within the optical train and aligned to send its two beams simultaneously along precisely opposite paths that, taken together, trace out exactly the same path as the conventional alignment laser. This invention allows the user the freedom to choose locations within the optical train for placement of the alignment beam. It is also self-aligned by design and requires
Gaussian-Schell-model beams propagating through rough gratings.
Torcal-Milla, Francisco Jose; Sanchez-Brea, Luis Miguel
2011-03-01
In this work we analyze the near-field intensity distribution produced by a rough grating illuminated with a Gaussian-Schell-model beam. This kind of grating is formed by rough and smooth slits. Statistical techniques are used to describe the grating, and the Fresnel approach is used to perform the propagation of light. Two kinds of coherence affect the light propagation. One of them comes from the light beam, since it is not totally coherent. The other one comes from the rough topography of the grating surface. We have found that the Talbot effect is not present just after the grating, but it gradually increases. In addition, the contrast of the self-images decreases from a certain distance due to the coherence properties of the illumination beam. Then, the self-imaging process is only present between two specific distances from the grating. To corroborate the analytical results, we have performed numerical simulations for the mean intensity distribution based on the Sommerfeld-Rayleigh approach, showing their validity.
Propagation of intense laser pulses in strongly magnetized plasmas
Yang, X. H. Ge, Z. Y.; Xu, B. B.; Zhuo, H. B.; Ma, Y. Y.; Shao, F. Q.; Yu, W.; Xu, H.; Yu, M. Y.; Borghesi, M.
2015-06-01
Propagation of intense circularly polarized laser pulses in strongly magnetized inhomogeneous plasmas is investigated. It is shown that a left-hand circularly polarized laser pulse propagating up the density gradient of the plasma along the magnetic field is reflected at the left-cutoff density. However, a right-hand circularly polarized laser can penetrate up the density gradient deep into the plasma without cutoff or resonance and turbulently heat the electrons trapped in its wake. Results from particle-in-cell simulations are in good agreement with that from the theory.
Laser beam focusing through the scattering medium by means of adaptive optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galaktionov, Ilya; Kudryashov, Alexis; Sheldakova, Julia; Nikitin, Alexander
2017-02-01
Laser beam propagation through the scattering suspension of polystyrene microspheres in distilled water was studied. The distorted laser beam was analyzed by both Shack-Hartmann sensor and CCD camera. The measured local slopes of the Poynting vector were compensated for by means of bimorph deformable mirror with 14 electrodes in order to increase the intensity of the focal spot in the far-field. Three different techniques for laser beam focusing were implemented and compared: LSQ fit-error minimization by Shack-Hartmann sensor, Hill-climbing optimization by Shack-Hartmann sensor and Hill-climbing optimization by far-field CCD camera.
ALCBEAM - Neutral beam formation and propagation code for beam-based plasma diagnostics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bespamyatnov, I. O.; Rowan, W. L.; Liao, K. T.
2012-03-01
ALCBEAM is a new three-dimensional neutral beam formation and propagation code. It was developed to support the beam-based diagnostics installed on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. The purpose of the code is to provide reliable estimates of the local beam equilibrium parameters: such as beam energy fractions, density profiles and excitation populations. The code effectively unifies the ion beam formation, extraction and neutralization processes with beam attenuation and excitation in plasma and neutral gas and beam stopping by the beam apertures. This paper describes the physical processes interpreted and utilized by the code, along with exploited computational methods. The description is concluded by an example simulation of beam penetration into plasma of Alcator C-Mod. The code is successfully being used in Alcator C-Mod tokamak and expected to be valuable in the support of beam-based diagnostics in most other tokamak environments. Program summaryProgram title: ALCBEAM Catalogue identifier: AEKU_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKU_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 66 459 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 7 841 051 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: IDL Computer: Workstation, PC Operating system: Linux RAM: 1 GB Classification: 19.2 Nature of problem: Neutral beams are commonly used to heat and/or diagnose high-temperature magnetically-confined laboratory plasmas. An accurate neutral beam characterization is required for beam-based measurements of plasma properties. Beam parameters such as density distribution, energy composition, and atomic excited populations of the beam atoms need to be known. Solution method: A neutral beam is initially formed as an ion beam which is extracted from
Laser-induced shockwave propagation from ablation in a cavity
Zeng Xianzhong; Mao Xianglei; Mao, Samuel S.; Wen, S.-B.; Greif, Ralph; Russo, Richard E.
2006-02-06
The propagation of laser-induced shockwaves from ablation inside of cavities was determined from time-resolved shadowgraph images. The temperature and electron number density of the laser-induced plasma was determined from spectroscopic measurements. These properties were compared to those for laser ablation on the flat surface under the same energy and background gas condition. A theoretical model was proposed to determine the amount of energy and vaporized mass stored in the vapor plume based on these measurements.
Laser power beaming for satellite applications
Friedman, H.W.
1993-09-22
A serious consideration of laser power beaming for satellite applications appears to have grown out of a NASA mission analysis for transmitting power to lunar bases during the two week dark period. System analyses showed that laser power beaming to the moon in conjunction with efficient, large area solar cell collection panels, were an attractive alternative to other schemes such as battery storage and nuclear generators, largely because of the high space transportation costs. The primary difficulty with this scheme is the need for very high average power visible lasers. One system study indicated that lasers in excess of 10 MW at a wavelength of approximately 850 nm were required. Although such lasers systems have received much attention for military applications, their realization is still a long term goal.
Propagation of a Laguerre-Gaussian correlated Schell-model beam in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiu, Yunli; Chen, Zhaoxi; He, Yingji
2017-04-01
Analytical expressions for the cross-spectral density function and the second-order moments of the Wigner distribution function of a Laguerre-Gaussian correlated Schell-model (LGCSM) beam propagating in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media are derived. The propagation properties, such as beam irradiance, beam width, the spectral degree of coherence and the propagation factor of a LGCSM beam inside the media are investigated in detail. The effect of the beam parameters and the input power on the evolution properties of a LGCSM is illustrated numerically. It is found that the beam width varies periodically or keeps invariant for a certain proper input power. And both the beam irradiance and the spectral degree of coherence of the LGCSM beam change periodically with the propagation distance for the arbitrary input power which however has no influence on the propagation factor. The coherent length and the mode order mainly affect the evolution speed of the LGCSM beam in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media.
Digital Controller For Laser-Beam-Steering Subsystem: Part 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ansari, Homayoon; Voisinet, Leeann
1995-01-01
A report presents additional information about laser-beam-steering apparatus described in "Digital Controller for Laser-Beam-Steering Subsystem" (NPO-19193) and "More About Beam-Steering Subsystem for Laser Communication" (NPO-19381). Reiterates basic principles of operation of beam-steering subsystem, with emphasis on modes of operation, basic design concepts, and initial experiments on partial prototype of apparatus.
Digital Controller For Laser-Beam-Steering Subsystem: Part 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ansari, Homayoon; Voisinet, Leeann
1995-01-01
A report presents additional information about laser-beam-steering apparatus described in "Digital Controller for Laser-Beam-Steering Subsystem" (NPO-19193) and "More About Beam-Steering Subsystem for Laser Communication" (NPO-19381). Reiterates basic principles of operation of beam-steering subsystem, with emphasis on modes of operation, basic design concepts, and initial experiments on partial prototype of apparatus.
Prepulse effect on intense femtosecond laser pulse propagation in gas
Giulietti, Antonio; Tomassini, Paolo; Galimberti, Marco; Giulietti, Danilo; Gizzi, Leonida A.; Koester, Petra; Labate, Luca; Ceccotti, Tiberio; D'Oliveira, Pascal; Auguste, Thierry; Monot, Pascal; Martin, Philippe
2006-09-15
The propagation of an ultrashort laser pulse can be affected by the light reaching the medium before the pulse. This can cause a serious drawback to possible applications. The propagation in He of an intense 60-fs pulse delivered by a Ti:sapphire laser in the chirped pulse amplification (CPA) mode has been investigated in conditions of interest for laser-plasma acceleration of electrons. The effects of both nanosecond amplified spontaneous emission and picosecond pedestals have been clearly identified. There is evidence that such effects are basically of refractive nature and that they are not detrimental for the propagation of a CPA pulse focused to moderately relativistic intensity. The observations are fully consistent with numerical simulations and can contribute to the search of a stable regime for laser acceleration.
Initial alignment method for free space optics laser beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shimada, Yuta; Tashiro, Yuki; Izumi, Kiyotaka; Yoshida, Koichi; Tsujimura, Takeshi
2016-08-01
The authors have newly proposed and constructed an active free space optics transmission system. It is equipped with a motor driven laser emitting mechanism and positioning photodiodes, and it transmits a collimated thin laser beam and accurately steers the laser beam direction. It is necessary to introduce the laser beam within sensible range of the receiver in advance of laser beam tracking control. This paper studies an estimation method of laser reaching point for initial laser beam alignment. Distributed photodiodes detect laser luminescence at respective position, and the optical axis of laser beam is analytically presumed based on the Gaussian beam optics. Computer simulation evaluates the accuracy of the proposed estimation methods, and results disclose that the methods help us to guide the laser beam to a distant receiver.
Propagation of a nonrelativistic electron beam in a plasma in a magnetic field
Okuda, H.; Horton, R.; Ono, M.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.
1986-10-01
Propagation of a nonrelativistic electron beam in a plasma in a strong magnetic field has been studied using electrostatic one-dimensional particle simulation models. Electron beams of finite pulse length and of continuous injection are followed in time to study the effects of beam-plasma interaction on the beam propagation. For the case of pulsed beam propagation, it is found that the beam distribution rapidly spreads in velocity space generating a plateaulike distribution with a high energy tail extending beyond the initial beam velocity.
Transmitted Laser Beam Diagnostic at the Omega Laser Facility
Niemann, C; Antonini, G; Compton, S; Glenzer, S; Hargrove, D; Moody, J; Kirkwood, R; Rekow, V; Sorce, C; Armstrong, W; Bahr, R; Keck, R; Pien, G; Seka, W; Thorp, K
2004-04-01
We have developed and commissioned a transmitted beam diagnostic (TBD) for the 2{omega} high intensity interaction beam at the Omega laser facility. The TBD consists of a bare-surface reflector mounted near the target, which collects and reflects 4% of the transmitted light to a detector assembly outside the vacuum chamber. The detector includes a time integrating near-field camera that measures beam spray, deflection and the absolute transmitted power. We present a detailed description of the instrument and the calibration method and include first measurements on laser heated gasbag targets to demonstrate the performance of the diagnostic.
Kagome fiber based industrial laser beam delivery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maurel, M.; Gorse, A.; Beaudou, B.; Lekiefs, Q.; Chafer, M.; Debord, B.; Gérôme, F.; Benabid, F.
2017-02-01
We report on a Hollow Core-Photonic Crystal Fiber (HC-PCF) based high power ultra-short pulse laser beam delivery system (GLO-BDS) that combines ease-of-use, high laser-coupling efficiency, robustness and industrial compatible cabling. The GLO-BDS comprises a pre-aligned laser-injection head, a sheath cable protected HC-PCF and a modular fiber-output head. It enables fiber-core gas loading and evacuation in a hermetic fashion. 5 m long GLO-BDS were demonstrated for Yb USP laser, Ti:Sapphire laser and frequency-doubled Yb USP laser. They all exhibit a transmission coefficient larger than 80%, and a laser output profile close to single mode (M2 <1.3).
Method and apparatus for laser-controlled proton beam radiology
Johnstone, C.J.
1998-06-02
A proton beam radiology system provides cancer treatment and proton radiography. The system includes an accelerator for producing an H{sup {minus}} beam and a laser source for generating a laser beam. A photodetachment module is located proximate the periphery of the accelerator. The photodetachment module combines the H{sup {minus}} beam and laser beam to produce a neutral beam therefrom within a subsection of the H{sup {minus}} beam. The photodetachment module emits the neutral beam along a trajectory defined by the laser beam. The photodetachment module includes a stripping foil which forms a proton beam from the neutral beam. The proton beam is delivered to a conveyance segment which transports the proton beam to a patient treatment station. The photodetachment module further includes a laser scanner which moves the laser beam along a path transverse to the cross-section of the H{sup {minus}} beam in order to form the neutral beam in subsections of the H{sup {minus}} beam. As the scanning laser moves across the H{sup {minus}} beam, it similarly varies the trajectory of the proton beam emitted from the photodetachment module and in turn varies the target location of the proton beam upon the patient. Intensity modulation of the proton beam can also be achieved by controlling the output of the laser. 9 figs.
Method and apparatus for laser-controlled proton beam radiology
Johnstone, Carol J.
1998-01-01
A proton beam radiology system provides cancer treatment and proton radiography. The system includes an accelerator for producing an H.sup.- beam and a laser source for generating a laser beam. A photodetachment module is located proximate the periphery of the accelerator. The photodetachment module combines the H.sup.- beam and laser beam to produce a neutral beam therefrom within a subsection of the H.sup.- beam. The photodetachment module emits the neutral beam along a trajectory defined by the laser beam. The photodetachment module includes a stripping foil which forms a proton beam from the neutral beam. The proton beam is delivered to a conveyance segment which transports the proton beam to a patient treatment station. The photodetachment module further includes a laser scanner which moves the laser beam along a path transverse to the cross-section of the H.sup.- beam in order to form the neutral beam in subsections of the H.sup.- beam. As the scanning laser moves across the H.sup.- beam, it similarly varies the trajectory of the proton beam emitted from the photodetachment module and in turn varies the target location of the proton beam upon the patient. Intensity modulation of the proton beam can also be achieved by controlling the output of the laser.
Laser propagation and soliton generation in strongly magnetized plasmas
Feng, W.; Li, J. Q.; Kishimoto, Y.
2016-03-15
The propagation characteristics of various laser modes with different polarization, as well as the soliton generation in strongly magnetized plasmas are studied numerically through one-dimensional (1D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations and analytically by solving the laser wave equation. PIC simulations show that the laser heating efficiency substantially depends on the magnetic field strength, the propagation modes of the laser pulse and their intensities. Generally, large amplitude laser can efficiently heat the plasma with strong magnetic field. Theoretical analyses on the linear propagation of the laser pulse in both under-dense and over-dense magnetized plasmas are well confirmed by the numerical observations. Most interestingly, it is found that a standing or moving soliton with frequency lower than the laser frequency is generated in certain magnetic field strength and laser intensity range, which can greatly enhance the laser heating efficiency. The range of magnetic field strength for the right-hand circularly polarized (RCP) soliton formation with high and low frequencies is identified by solving the soliton equations including the contribution of ion's motion and the finite temperature effects under the quasi-neutral approximation. In the limit of immobile ions, the RCP soliton tends to be peaked and stronger as the magnetic field increases, while the enhanced soliton becomes broader as the temperature increases. These findings in 1D model are well validated by 2D simulations.
Laser beam shaping for biomedical microscopy techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laskin, Alexander; Kaiser, Peter; Laskin, Vadim; Ostrun, Aleksei
2016-04-01
Uniform illumination of a working field is very important in optical systems of confocal microscopy and various implementations of fluorescence microscopy like TIR, SSIM, STORM, PALM to enhance performance of these laser-based research techniques. Widely used TEM00 laser sources are characterized by essentially non-uniform Gaussian intensity profile which leads usually to non-uniform intensity distribution in a microscope working field or in a field of microlenses array of a confocal microscope optical system, this non-uniform illumination results in instability of measuring procedure and reducing precision of quantitative measurements. Therefore transformation of typical Gaussian distribution of a TEM00 laser to flat-top (top hat) profile is an actual technical task, it is solved by applying beam shaping optics. Due to high demands to optical image quality the mentioned techniques have specific requirements to a uniform laser beam: flatness of phase front and extended depth of field, - from this point of view the microscopy techniques are similar to holography and interferometry. There are different refractive and diffractive beam shaping approaches used in laser industrial and scientific applications, but only few of them are capable to fulfil the optimum conditions for beam quality required in discussed microscopy techniques. We suggest applying refractive field mapping beam shapers πShaper, which operational principle presumes almost lossless transformation of Gaussian to flat-top beam with flatness of output wavefront, conserving of beam consistency, providing collimated low divergent output beam, high transmittance, extended depth of field, negligible wave aberration, and achromatic design provides capability to work with several lasers with different wavelengths simultaneously. The main function of a beam shaper is transformation of laser intensity profile, further beam transformation to provide optimum for a particular technique spot size and shape has to
Beam propagation factor of partially coherent flat-topped beams in a turbulent atmosphere.
Dan, Youquan; Zhang, Bin
2008-09-29
The Wigner distribution function (WDF) has been used to study the beam propagation factor (M(2)-factor) for partially coherent flat-topped (PCFT) beams with circular symmetry in a turbulent atmosphere. Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle and the definition of the WDF, an expression for the WDF of PCFT beams in turbulence has been given. By use of the second-order moments of the WDF, the analytical formulas for the root-mean-square (rms) spatial width, the rms angular width, and the M(2)-factor of PCFT beams in turbulence have been derived, which can be applied to cases of different spatial power spectra of the refractive index fluctuations. The rms angular width and the M(2)-factor of PCFT beams in turbulence have been discussed with numerical examples. It can be shown that the M(2)-factor of PCFT beams in turbulence depends on the beam order, degree of global coherence of the source, waist width, wavelength, spatial power spectrum of the refractive index fluctuations, and propagation distance.
Modeling and measurement of angle-beam wave propagation in a scatterer-free plate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dawson, Alexander J.; Michaels, Jennifer E.; Michaels, Thomas E.
2017-02-01
Wavefield imaging has been shown to be a powerful tool for improving the understanding and characterization of wave propagation and scattering in plates. The complete measurement of surface displacement over a 2-D grid provided by wavefield imaging has the potential to serve as a useful means of validating ultrasonic models. Here, a preliminary study of ultrasonic angle-beam wave propagation in a scatterer-free plate using a combination of wavefield measurements and 2-D finite element models is described. Both wavefield imaging and finite element analysis are used to study the propagation of waves at a refracted angle of 56.8° propagating in a 6.35 mm thick aluminum plate. Wavefield imaging is performed using a laser vibrometer mounted on an XYZ scanning stage, which is programmed to move point-to-point on a rectilinear grid to acquire waveform data. The commercial finite element software package, PZFlex, which is specifically designed to handle large, complex ultrasonic problems, is used to create a 2-D cross-sectional model of the transducer and plate. For model validation, vertical surface displacements from both the wavefield measurements and the PZFlex finite element model are compared and found to be in excellent agreement. The validated PZFlex model is then used to explain the mechanism of Rayleigh wave generation by the angle-beam wedge. Since the wavefield measurements are restricted to the specimen surface, the cross-sectional PZFlex model is able to provide insights the wavefield data cannot. This study illustrates how information obtained from ultrasonic experiments and modeling results can be combined to improve understanding of angle-beam wave generation and propagation.
Continuous-Wave Laser Beam Fanning in Organic Solutions: A Novel Phenomenon
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abdeldayem, Hossin; Witherow, William K.; Shields, Angela; Penn, Benjamin; Frazier, Donald O.; Moghbel, Mehdi; Venkateswarlu, P.; Sekhar, P. Chandra; George, M. C.
1994-01-01
If a low-power cw Ar(+) laser beam (approx. 50 mW) is sent horizontally and focused on the entrance side of a cuvette containing an absorptive solution, the beam fans into the lower half of the cuvette instead of propagating through and forming self-phase-modulation fringes. We call this phenomenon self-beam fanning, which has been observed in several organic solutions. We present here several experimental results and a descriptive model of the phenomenon.
Precision Atomic Beam Laser Spectroscopy
1999-02-20
postdoctoral, and visiting faculty researchers. The organizing principles of our work are to enhance the coherence and general utility of laser sources by... utilizing some million atoms, namely -1000:1. The optimum servo control of the laser using this signal could evidently produce a laser linewidth in the...Lett. 22,184-186 (1997), P. Dube, M. D. Levenson, and J. L. Hall. 10. "Real-time precision refractometry : new approaches," Appl. Opt. 36,1223- 1234
Ultrashort Laser Pulse Propagation in Water
2009-01-01
method now called steepest descent. Their analysis was based on a step- modulated field propagating through a Lorentz dielectric which is nothing more...propagation through 6 m of water when compared to BLB. They also found that BLB was not violated for pulses with varying bandwidth with temporal widths...pulses in a Lorentz medium, the so-called generalized Sommerfeld and Brillouin precursor method. We were able to show, for the first time, that the
Ionizing laser propagation and spectral phase determination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mittelberger, D. E.; Nakamura, K.; Lehe, R.; Gonsalves, A. J.; Benedetti, C.; Mao, H.-S.; Daniels, J.; Dale, N.; Swanson, K. K.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.
2017-03-01
Ionization-induced blueshifting is investigated through INF&RNO simulations and experimental studies at the Berkeley Laboratory Laser Accelerator (BELLA) Center. The effects of spectral phase and optical compression are explored. An in-situ method for verifying the spectral phase of an intense laser pulse at focus is presented, based on the effects of optical compression on the morphology of the blueshifted laser spectra.
Undulator radiation driven by laser-wakefield accelerator electron beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiggins, S. M.; Anania, M. P.; Welsh, G. H.; Brunetti, E.; Cipiccia, S.; Grant, P. A.; Reboredo, D.; Manahan, G.; Grant, D. W.; Jaroszynski, D. A.
2015-05-01
The Advanced Laser-Plasma High-Energy Accelerators towards X-rays (ALPHA-X) programme is developing laserplasma accelerators for the production of ultra-short electron bunches with subsequent generation of coherent, bright, short-wavelength radiation pulses. The new Scottish Centre for the Application of Plasma-based Accelerators (SCAPA) will develop a wide range of applications utilising such light sources. Electron bunches can be propagated through a magnetic undulator with the aim of generating fully coherent free-electron laser (FEL) radiation in the ultra-violet and Xrays spectral ranges. Demonstration experiments producing spontaneous undulator radiation have been conducted at visible and extreme ultra-violet wavelengths but it is an on-going challenge to generate and maintain electron bunches of sufficient quality in order to stimulate FEL behaviour. In the ALPHA-X beam line experiments, a Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser system with peak power 20 TW has been used to generate electron bunches of energy 80-150 MeV in a 2 mm gas jet laser-plasma wakefield accelerator and these bunches have been transported through a 100 period planar undulator. High peak brilliance, narrow band spontaneous radiation pulses in the vacuum ultra-violet wavelength range have been generated. Analysis is provided with respect to the magnetic quadrupole beam transport system and subsequent effect on beam emittance and duration. Requirements for coherent spontaneous emission and FEL operation are presented.
Optical trapping with superfocused high-M2 laser diode beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sokolovskii, G. S.; Dudelev, V. V.; Melissinaki, V.; Losev, S. N.; Soboleva, K. K.; Deryagin, A. G.; Kuchinskii, V. I.; Farsari, M.; Sibbett, W.; Rafailov, E. U.
2015-03-01
Many applications of high-power laser diodes demand tight focusing. This is often not possible due to the multimode nature of semiconductor laser radiation possessing beam propagation parameter M2 values in double-digits. We propose a method of `interference' superfocusing of high-M2 diode laser beams with a technique developed for the generation of Bessel beams based on the employment of an axicon fabricated on the tip of a 100 μm diameter optical fiber with high-precision direct laser writing. Using axicons with apex angle 1400 and rounded tip area as small as ~10 μm diameter, we demonstrate 2-4 μm diameter focused laser `needle' beams with approximately 20 μm propagation length generated from multimode diode laser with beam propagation parameter M2=18 and emission wavelength of 960 nm. This is a few-fold reduction compared to the minimal focal spot size of ~11 μm that could be achieved if focused by an `ideal' lens of unity numerical aperture. The same technique using a 1600 axicon allowed us to demonstrate few-μm-wide laser `needle' beams with nearly 100 μm propagation length with which to demonstrate optical trapping of 5-6 μm rat blood red cells in a water-heparin solution. Our results indicate the good potential of superfocused diode laser beams for applications relating to optical trapping and manipulation of microscopic objects including living biological objects with aspirations towards subsequent novel lab-on-chip configurations.
Propagation of Bessel beams from a dielectric to a conducting medium.
Mugnai, D
2011-06-10
Recently, the use of Bessel beams in evaluating the possibility of using them for a new generation of ground penetrating radar systems has been considered. Therefore, an analysis of the propagation of Bessel beams in conducting media is worthwhile. We present here an analysis of this type. Specifically, for normal incidence we analyze the propagation of a Bessel beam coming from a perfect dielectric and impinging on a conducting medium, i.e., the propagation of a Bessel beam generated by refracted inhomogeneous waves. The remarkable and unexpected result is that the incident Bessel beam does not change its shape even when propagating in the conducting medium.
Numerical simulation of broadband vortex terahertz beams propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Semenova, V. A.; Kulya, M. S.; Bespalov, V. G.
2016-08-01
Orbital angular momentum (OAM) represents new informational degree of freedom for data encoding and multiplexing in fiber and free-space communications. OAM-carrying beams (also called vortex beams) were successfully used to increase the capacity of optical, millimetre-wave and radio frequency communication systems. However, the investigation of the OAM potential for the new generation high-speed terahertz communications is also of interest due to the unlimited demand of higher capacity in telecommunications. Here we present a simulation-based study of the propagating in non-dispersive medium broadband terahertz vortex beams generated by a spiral phase plate (SPP). The algorithm based on scalar diffraction theory was used to obtain the spatial amplitude and phase distributions of the vortex beam in the frequency range from 0.1 to 3 THz at the distances 20-80 mm from the SPP. The simulation results show that the amplitude and phase distributions without unwanted modulation are presented in the wavelengths ranges with centres on the wavelengths which are multiple to the SPP optical thickness. This fact may allow to create the high-capacity near-field communication link which combines OAM and wavelength-division multiplexing.
Numerical investigation of short-pulse laser radiation propagation in a turbulent atmosphere
Banakh, V A; Gerasimova, L O; Smalikho, I N
2015-03-31
An algorithm is presented for the numerical simulation of short-pulse optical radiation propagation in a turbulent atmosphere on the basis of the solution to the parabolic wave equation for the complex spectral amplitude of the wave field by the split-step method. We present examples of the use of this algorithm for simulating the propagation of a pulsed coherent spatially limited beam and a plane wave. It is shown that in the regime of strong optical turbulence the relative variance of fluctuations of energy density of femtosecond radiation becomes much smaller than the relative variance of the intensity of cw radiation. (laser radiation scattering)
Computer-aided modeling of beam propagation effects in diffraction-critical spaceborne instruments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caldwell, Martin E.; Gray, Peter F.; McNamara, Paul
1996-08-01
This talk concerns applications of a ray-trace model to the computation of the effect of diffraction on beam propagation. It reports the use of the technique in the design of apertures for space-borne instruments having critical diffraction properties. The modeling technique used is that of gaussian beam decomposition, a numerical beam propagation technique incorporated in a commercially available ray-trace program. The result is the powerful capability to model the optical field at any point, in systems of any geometry, with any amount of aberration. The technique is particularly useful for design problems where `non-imaging' effects are important, and examples of its use will be given. Although the computation requirements for such detailed analysis may seem daunting, the continuing increase in readily available computing power is now overcoming this drawback. The application here is to certain `diffraction-critical' situations, where the design of correctly sized apertures is needed for the control of unwanted diffraction effects. Three recent design studies are illustrated: (1) Millimeter wave imaging with off-axis reflectors. Analysis of the effects of aberration on coherent detection efficiency. (2) Long-distance beam propagation in space-borne laser interferometry. This involves the analysis of coherent detection efficiency in the presence of aberrated gaussian beams. (3) Design of a Lyot stop system for an infra-red radiometer which is to view the Earth's limb from space. Here the critical (and unwanted) diffraction is that from the bright Earth disc, lying just outside of the instrument field of view. The analysis technique is explained, and examples given of diffracted energy patterns analyzed at progressive stages in the system. It is shown how these aid the design and analysis of the systems. The aim is to show the range problems in which this method is useful, and to hopefully learn from others at the conference about other cases where such techniques
Laser beaming demonstrations to high-orbit satellites
Lipinski, R.J.; Meister, D.C.; Tucker, S.
1994-12-31
Laser power beaming to satellites and orbital transfer vehicles requires the accurate pointing of a low-divergence laser beam to its target, whether the target is in the sunlight or the earth`s shadow. The Air Force Phillips Laboratory (AFPL) has demonstrated reduction in the image size of stars by a factor of 10 or more by using laser beacons and adaptive optics for atmospheric compensation. This same technology is applicable to reducing the divergence of laser beams propagated from earth to space. A team of Phillips Laboratory, COMSAT Laboratories, and Sandia National Laboratories plans to demonstrate the state of the art in this area with laser-beaming demonstrations to high-orbit satellites. The demonstrations will utilize the 1.5-m diameter telescope with adaptive optics at the AFPL Starfire Optical Range (SOR) and a ruby laser provided by the Air Force and Sandia (1--50 kW and 6 ms at 694.3 nm). The first targets will be corner-cube retro-reflectors left on the moon by the Apollo 11, 14, and 15 landings. The authors will attempt to use adaptive optics for atmospheric compensation to demonstrate accurate and reliable beam projection with a series of shots over a span of time and shot angle. The authors will utilize the return signal from the retro-reflectors to help determine the beam diameter on the moon and the variations in pointing accuracy caused by atmospheric tilt. This will be especially challenging because the retro-reflectors will need to be in the lunar shadow to allow detection over background light. If the results from this experiment are encouraging, the authors will at a later date direct the beam at a COMSAT satellite in geosynchronous orbit as it goes into the shadow of the earth. The authors will utilize an onboard monitor to measure the current generated in the solar panels on the satellite while the beam is present. A threshold irradiance of about 4 W/m{sup 2} on orbit is needed for this demonstration.
Laser beaming demonstrations to high-orbit satellites
Lipinski, R.J.; Meister, D.C.; Tucker, S.
1993-12-31
Laser power beaming to satellites and orbital transfer vehicles requires the accurate pointing of a low-divergence laser beam to its target, whether the target is in the sunlight or the earth`s shadow. The Air Force Phillips Laboratory (AFPL) has demonstrated reduction in the image size of stars by a factor of 10 or more by using laser beacons and adaptive optics for atmospheric compensation. This same technology is applicable to reducing the divergence of laser beams propagated from earth to space. A team of Phillips Laboratory, COMSAT Laboratories, and Sandia National Laboratories plans to demonstrate the state of the art in this area with laser-beaming demonstrations to high-orbit satellites. The demonstrations will utilize the 1.5-m diameter telescope with adaptive optics at the AFPL Starfire Optical Range (SOR) and a ruby laser provided by the Air Force and Sandia (1--50 kill and 6 ms at 694.3 nm). The first targets will be corner-cube retro-reflectors left on the moon by the Apollo 11, 14, and 15 landings. We will attempt to use adaptive optics for atmospheric compensation to demonstrate accurate and reliable beam projection with a series of shots over a span of time and shot angle. We will utilize the return signal from the retro-reflectors to help determine the beam diameter on the moon and the variations in pointing accuracy caused by atmospheric tilt. This will be especially challenging because the retro-reflectors will need to be in the lunar shadow to allow detection over background light. If the results from this experiment are encouraging, we will at a later date direct the beam at a COMSAT satellite in geosynchronous orbit as it goes into the shadow of the earth. We will utilize an onboard monitor to measure the current generated in the solar panels on the satellite while the beam is present. A threshold irradiance of about 4 W/m{sup 2} on orbit is needed for this demonstration.
High-average-power and high-beam-quality Innoslab picosecond laser amplifier.
Xu, Liu; Zhang, Hengli; Mao, Yefei; Yan, Ying; Fan, Zhongwei; Xin, Jianguo
2012-09-20
We demonstrated a laser-diode, end-pumped picosecond amplifier. With effective shaping of the seed laser, we achieved 73 W amplified laser output at the pump power of 255 W, and the optical-optical efficiency was about 28%. The beam propagation factors M(2) measured at the output power of 60 W in the horizontal direction and the vertical direction were 1.5 and 1.4, respectively.
Ion beam and laser induced surface modifications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Appleton, B. R.
1984-01-01
The capabilities of energetic ion beam and laser processing of surfaces are reviewed. Ion implantation doping, ion beam mixing, and laser and electron beam processing techniques are capable of producing new and often unique surface properties. The inherent control of these techniques has led to significant advances in our ability to tailor the properties of solids for a wide range of technological applications. Equally important, these techniques have allowed tests of fundamental materials interactions under conditions not heretofore achievable and have resulted in increased understanding of a broad range of materials phenomena. These include new metastable phase formation, rapid nucleation and crystal growth kinetics, amorphous metals and metaglasses, supersaturated solid solutions and substitutional alloys, interface interactions, solute trapping, laser-assisted chemical modifications, and a host of other.
Phoenix's Laser Beam in Action on Mars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2008-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the animation
The Surface Stereo Imager camera aboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander acquired a series of images of the laser beam in the Martian night sky. Bright spots in the beam are reflections from ice crystals in the low level ice-fog. The brighter area at the top of the beam is due to enhanced scattering of the laser light in a cloud. The Canadian-built lidar instrument emits pulses of laser light and records what is scattered back.
The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.
Industrial fiber beam delivery system for ultrafast lasers: applications and recent advances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eilzer, Sebastian; Funck, Max C.; Wedel, Björn
2016-03-01
Fiber based laser beam delivery is the method of choice for high power laser applications whenever great flexibility is required. For cw-lasers fiber beam delivery has long been established but has recently also become available for ultrafast lasers. Using micro-structured hollow core fibers that guide the laser beam mostly inside a hollow core, nonlinear effects and catastrophic damage that arise in conventional glass fibers can be avoided. Today, ultrafast pulses with several 100 μJ and hundreds of MW can be transmitted in quasi single mode fashion. In addition, the technology opens new possibilities for beam delivery systems as the pulse propagation inside the fiber can be altered on purpose. For example to shorten the pulse duration of picosecond lasers down into the femtosecond regime. We present a modular fiber beam delivery system for micromachining applications with industrial pico- and femtosecond lasers that is flexibly integrated into existing applications. Micro-structured hollow core fibers inside the sealed laser light cable efficiently guide high-power laser pulses over distances of several meters with excellent beam quality, while power, pulse duration and polarization are maintained. Robust and stable beam transport during dynamic operation as in robot or gantry systems will be discussed together with optional pulse compression.
LASER BEAM PROFILE MONITOR DEVELOPMENT AT BNL FOR SNS.
CONNOLLY,R.; CAMERON,P.; CUPOLO,J.; GASSNER,D.; GRAU,M.; KESSELMAN,M.; PENG,S.; SIKORA,R.
2002-05-06
A beam profile monitor for H-beams based on laser photoneutralization is being developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for use on the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) [l]. An H ion has a first ionization potential of 0.75eV and can be neutralized by light from a Nd:YAG laser (h=1064nm). To measure beam profiles, a narrow laser beam is passed through the ion beam neutralizing a portion of the H-beam struck by the laser. The laser trajectory is stepped across the ion beam. At each laser position, the reduction of the beam current caused by the laser is measured. A proof-of-principle experiment was done earlier at 750keV. This paper reports on measurements made on 200MeV beam at BNL and with a compact scanner prototype at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab on beam from the SNS RFQ.
2w Laser Propagation and Raman Backscatter in Underdense Gas Bag Plasmas
Meezan, N; Divol, L; Suter, L; Miller, M; Stevenson, R M; Slark, G; Oades, K
2003-09-05
Recent 2{omega} gasbag experiments on the Helen laser studied single-beam propagation and backscatter as a function of gas density. We present a comprehensive analysis of these experiments using simulations in HYDRA. Post-processed results agree well with experimental fast x-ray images (FXI) showing stable laser propagation across the bag. The measured total stimulated Raman backscatter (SRS) increases with initial gas density up to n{sub e} {approx} 0.08 n{sub c}, then decreases. Near-backscatter images (NBI) show that the decrease in total SRS with increasing density is not due to scatter outside of the collection optics. SRS gain spectra calculated from the HYDRA results agree well with experimental streak spectra. The tilt and spread in wavelength of the spectra appear to be explained by gasbag hydrodynamics only, with no need to invoke filamentation. Axial density gradients and laser pump absorption may combine to detune and limit SRS gain at high density.
Competition of multiple filaments during the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses
Hosseini, S.A.; Luo, Q.; Ferland, B.; Liu, W.; Chin, S.L.; Kosareva, O.G.; Panov, N.A.; Kandidov, V.P.; Akoezbek, N.
2004-09-01
We observed a universal phenomenon of the competition among multiple filaments generated during the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses in air. We show that the fluorescence signal from the excitation of nitrogen molecules inside the plasma channel contains important information pertaining to the formation and interaction of multiple filaments. The detected backscattered nitrogen fluorescence from inside the filaments yielded irregular changes from shot to shot which cannot be explained by fluctuation arising from the initial laser pulse itself. Numerical simulations reveal a complex dynamics of multiple filament propagation and interaction dynamics that depends strongly on the initial perturbations of the laser beam. The irregular changes of the fluorescence signal are attributed to the interference between adjacent hot spots that evolve into filaments which give rise to new hot spots (filaments) in between, and thus give the appearance of the fusion or branching of filaments.
Wu, Huiyun; Sheng, Shen; Huang, Zhisong; Zhao, Siqing; Wang, Hua; Sun, Zhenhai; Xu, Xiegu
2013-02-25
As a new attractive application of the vortex beams, power coupling of annular vortex beam propagating through a two- Cassegrain-telescope optical system in turbulent atmosphere has been investigated. A typical model of annular vortex beam propagating through a two-Cassegrain-telescope optical system is established, the general analytical expression of vortex beams with limited apertures and the analytical formulas for the average intensity distribution at the receiver plane are derived. Under the H-V 5/7 turbulence model, the average intensity distribution at the receiver plane and power coupling efficiency of the optical system are numerically calculated, and the influences of the optical topological charge, the laser wavelength, the propagation path and the receiver apertures on the power coupling efficiency are analyzed. These studies reveal that the average intensity distribution at the receiver plane presents a central dark hollow profile, which is suitable for power coupling by the Cassegrain telescope receiver. In the optical system with optimized parameters, power coupling efficiency can keep in high values with the increase of the propagation distance. Under the atmospheric turbulent conditions, great advantages of vortex beam in power coupling of the two-Cassegrain-telescope optical system are shown in comparison with beam without vortex.
Directed fast electron beams in ultraintense picosecond laser irradiated solid targets
Ge, X. L.; Lin, X. X.; Yuan, X. H. E-mail: ytli@iphy.ac.cn; Sheng, Z. M.; Carroll, D. C.; Neely, D.; Gray, R. J.; Tresca, O.; McKenna, P.; Yu, T. P.; Chen, M.; Liu, F.; Zhuo, H. B.; Zielbauer, B.; and others
2015-08-31
We report on fast electron transport and emission patterns from solid targets irradiated by s-polarized, relativistically intense, picosecond laser pulses. A beam of multi-MeV electrons is found to be transported along the target surface in the laser polarization direction. The spatial-intensity and energy distributions of this beam are compared with the beam produced along the laser propagation axis. It is shown that even for peak laser intensities an order of magnitude higher than the relativistic threshold, laser polarization still plays an important role in electron energy transport. Results from 3D particle-in-cell simulations confirm the findings. The characterization of directional beam emission is important for applications requiring efficient energy transfer, including secondary photon and ion source development.
Propagation of an Airy-Gaussian beam in uniaxial crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Mei-Ling; Chen, Chi-Dao; Chen, Bo; Peng, Xi; Peng, Yu-Lian; Deng, Dong-Mei
2015-12-01
Under the paraxial approximation, the analytical propagation expression of an Airy-Gaussian beam (AiGB) in uniaxial crystals orthogonal to the optical axis is investigated. The propagation dynamics of the AiGB is given for different ratios of the extraordinary index to the ordinary refractive index. It has been found that the continuity and the self-bending effect of AiGB become weaker when the ratio increases. From the figure of the maximum intensity of AiGB, one can see that the maximum intensity is not monotone decreasing due to the anisotropic effect of the crystals. The intensity distribution of AiGB in different distribution factors is shown. The AiGB converges toward a Gaussian beam as the distribution factor increases. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374108 and 10904041), the Foundation for the Author of Guangdong Provincial Excellent Doctoral Dissertation, China (Grant No. SYBZZXM201227), the Foundation of Cultivating Outstanding Young Scholars (“Thousand, Hundred, Ten” Program) of Guangdong Province in China, and the Fund from the Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Laser beam shaping and packaging system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Daxin; Zhao, Baiqin
2012-10-01
This paper presents a semiconductor laser beam shaping system, that can collimate the irradiance profile effectively and package the laser diode(LD) at the same time. Due to the semiconductor LD is a kind of line source, a particular ellipsoidal lens is designed after both the fast-axis and the slow-axis of the laser beam analyzed. Geometrical optics analysis based on the ray tracing method is done and the formulas to calculate the shape of the lens are given. Both the theoretical and experimental result show that the laser beam system works effectively; the divergence angle is reduced to less than 0.5 degree in the fast-axial direction and 1.8 degree in the slow-axial direction. In addition, it is the same process that makes the laser beam shaper and packages the LD by using epoxy resin, which simplifies the manufacturing process and reduces the LD volume greatly. Because of the advantages of small volume, low-cost, high rigidity and easy fabrication, the shaper is of great value in the field of semiconductor LD applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuhn, A.; Blewett, I. J.; Hand, D. P.; French, P.; Richmond, M.; Jones, J. D. C.
2000-10-01
This paper investigates the extension of optical fibre beam delivery to high-brightness applications, in particular laser percussion drilling, where both a good beam quality and high peak power are required. Beam quality preservation through a number of optical fibres is studied both experimentally and by using a ray propagation model. It is determined that in order to achieve the beam quality required for percussion drilling ( M2<30) the largest fibre which can be used is 400 μm diameter. The laser-induced damage threshold is measured for a number of 400 μm fibres, and a CO 2 laser-annealing technique is shown to increase the damage threshold by a factor of 10, allowing 28 J, 1 ms pulses to be transmitted.
Dual-beam laser traps in biology and medicine: when one beam is not enough
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whyte, Graeme; Lautenschläger, Franziska; Kreysing, Moritz; Boyde, Lars; Ekpenyong, Andrew; Delabre, Ulysse; Chalut, Kevin; Franze, Kristian; Guck, Jochen
2010-08-01
Optical traps are nowadays quite ubiquitous in biophysical and biological studies. The term is often used synonymously with optical tweezers, one particular incarnation of optical traps. However, there is another kind of optical trap consisting of two non-focused, counter-propagating laser beams. This dual-beam trap predates optical tweezers by almost two decades and currently experiences a renaissance. The advantages of dual-beam traps include lower intensities on the trapped object, decoupling from imaging optics, and the possibility to trap cells and cell clusters up to 100 microns in diameter. When used for deforming cells this trap is referred to as an optical stretcher. I will review several applications of such traps in biology and medicine for the detection of cancer cells, sorting stem cells, testing light guiding properties of retinal cells and the controlled rotation of cells for single cell tomography.
Laser propagation at 1.56 microm and 3.60 microm in maritime environments.
Hanson, Frank; Poirier, Pete; Haddock, Delmar; Kichura, Dan; Lasher, Mark
2009-07-20
We report results from field experiments that have compared laser propagation at 1.565 microm and 3.603 microm in a variety of atmospheric conditions in a low-altitude maritime environment in order to quantify the relative effects of turbulence under realistic conditions. Intensity scintillation and normalized focused spot sizes were found to be significantly less affected by turbulence at the longer wavelength, in general agreement with theoretical predictions. Also, the longer wavelength beam was noticeably less degraded by aberrations in the transceiver optical components. These advantages should be considered when evaluating the wavelength trade-offs in laser communication systems.
External-cavity beam combining of 4-channel quantum cascade lasers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Yue; Zhang, Jin-Chuan; Zhou, Yu-Hong; Jia, Zhi-Wei; Zhuo, Ning; Zhai, Shen-Qiang; Wang, Li-Jun; Liu, Jun-Qi; Liu, Shu-Man; Liu, Feng-Qi; Wang, Zhan-Guo
2017-09-01
We demonstrate an external-cavity (EC) beam combining of 4-channel quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) with an output coupler which makes different QCL beams propagating coaxially. A beam combining efficiency of 35% (up to 75% near threshold) is obtained with a beam quality M2 of 5.5. A peak power of 0.64 W is achieved at a wavelength of 4.7 μm. The differences of spot characteristic between coupled and uncoupled are also showed in this letter. The QCLs in this EC system do not have heat crosstalk so that the system can be used for high power beam combining of QCLs.
Propagation of modulated optical beams carrying orbital angular momentum in turbid water.
Cochenour, Brandon; Morgan, Kaitlyn; Miller, Keith; Johnson, Eric; Dunn, Kaitlin; Mullen, Linda
2016-11-01
The attenuation and temporal dispersion of beams with and without orbital angular momentum (OAM) underwater are investigated in a controlled laboratory water tank environment. Both spherical polystyrene beads and a commercial antacid are used to determine the effect of scattering particle size and shape on the results. Varying concentrations of the scattering agents were used to study the propagation of light in both minimally scattered and multiply scattered regimes (over 20 attenuation lengths). To study temporal dispersion, a custom diode seeded fiber amplified laser source is used to modulate beams up to 1 GHz, and diffractive spiral phase plates are used to compare performance over different spatial modes. We observe an increase in received signal with increasing OAM order (|m|=0, 8, and 16) under multiple scattering conditions. Initial experimental results suggest that this variation is dependent on particle shape and size. We do not observe any dependency of OAM order on temporal dispersion.
Beam shaping for laser initiated optical primers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lizotte, Todd E.
2008-08-01
Remington was one of the first firearm manufacturing companies to file a patent for laser initiated firearms, in 1969. Nearly 40 years later, the development of laser initiated firearms has not become a mainstream technology in the civilian market. Requiring a battery is definitely a short coming, so it is easy to see how such a concept would be problematic. Having a firearm operate reliably and the delivery of laser energy in an efficient manner to ignite the shock-sensitive explosive primer mixtures is a tall task indeed. There has been considerable research on optical element based methods of transferring or compressing laser energy to ignite primer charges, including windows, laser chip primers and various lens shaped windows to focus the laser energy. The focusing of laser light needs to achieve igniting temperatures upwards of >400°C. Many of the patent filings covering this type of technology discuss simple approaches where a single point of light might be sufficient to perform this task. Alternatively a multi-point method might provide better performance, especially for mission critical applications, such as precision military firearms. This paper covers initial design and performance test of the laser beam shaping optics to create simultaneous multiple point ignition locations and a circumferential intense ring for igniting primer charge compounds. A simple initial test of the ring beam shaping technique was evaluated on a standard large caliber primer to determine its effectiveness on igniting the primer material. Several tests were conducted to gauge the feasibility of laser beam shaping, including optic fabrication and mounting on a cartridge, optic durability and functional ignition performance. Initial data will be presented, including testing of optically elements and empirical primer ignition / burn analysis.
In situ measurement of laser beam quality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hashemi, Somayeh Sadat; Ghavami Sabouri, Saeed; Khorsandi, Alireza
2017-09-01
An innovative optical method is introduced for the beam quality measurement of any arbitrary transverse mode based on the reconstruction of the mode from a few-frame image of the beam cross-section. This is performed by the decomposition of a mode to its basic Hermite-Gaussian modal coefficients. The performance of the proposed method is examined through M 2-factor measurement of the beam of a Nd:YAG laser which was forced to oscillate in a certain mode using a crossed rectangular intracavity aperture. Obtained results have shown that this method can be alternatively replaced for the hologram- and ISO-based techniques recently exploiting for beam quality measurement regardless of the mode type and the position of utilized CCD camera along the beam direction.
Modeling of Beam Wave Pulse Propagation in Vegetation Using Transport Theory
2005-07-31
SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Modeling of Beam Wave Pulse Propagation in Vegetation using Transport Theory DAAD190110- S S 6. AUTHOR(S) Gerald M. Whitman...real- time modeling ( of interest to the soldier in the field), three new approximate theories for beam wave propagation in vegetation were developed and...Enclosure 1 MODELING OF BEAM WAVE PULSE PROPAGATION IN VEGETATION USING TRANSPORT THEORY By Gerald M. Whitman Felix K. Schwering Michael Yu-Chi Wu DISB
2010-03-01
NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF STATISTICAL TURBULENCE EFFECTS ON BEAM PROPAGATION THROUGH 2-D SHEAR MIXING LAYER THESIS James C. Bowers, Captain, USAF...STATISTICAL TURBULENCE EFFECTS ON BEAM PROPAGATION THROUGH 2-D SHEAR MIXING LAYER THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Engineering Physics...robust method for calculating atmospheric turbulence effects on optical beam propagation, which could simplify similar approaches to chaotic aero-optical
Laser synchrotron radiation and beam cooling
Esarey, E.; Sprangle, P.; Ting, A.
1995-12-31
The interaction of intense {approx_gt} 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}, short pulse ({approx_lt} 1 ps) lasers with electron beams and plasmas can lead to the generation of harmonic radiation by several mechanisms. Laser synchrotron radiation may provide a practical method for generating tunable, near monochromatic, well collimated, short pulse x-rays in compact, relatively inexpensive source. The mechanism for the generation of laser synchrotron radiation is nonlinear Thomson scattering. Short wavelengths can be generated via Thomson scattering by two methods, (i) backscattering from relativistic electron beams, in which the radiation frequency is upshifted by the relativistic factor 4{gamma}{sup 2}, and (ii) harmonic scattering, in which a multitude of harmonics are generated with harmonic numbers extending out to the critical harmonic number nc{approx_equal}a{sub 0}{sup 3} {much_gt} 1, where a{sub 0} {approx_equal}10{sup -9}{lambda}I{sup 1/2}, {lambda} is the laser wavelength in {mu}m and I is the laser intensity in W/cm{sup 2}. Laser synchrotron sources are capable of generating short ({approx_lt} ps) x-ray pulses with high peak flux ({approx_gt} 10{sup 21} photons/s) and brightness ({approx_gt}{sup 19} photons/s-mm{sup 2}-mrad{sup 2} 0.1%BW. As the electron beam radiates via Thomson scattering, it can subsequently be cooled, i.e., the beam emittance and energy spread can be reduced. This cooling can occur on rapid ({approximately} ps) time scales. In addition, electron distributions with sufficiently small axial energy spreads can be used to generate coherent XUV radiation via a laser-pumped FEL mechanism.
Laser Propagation in Nanostructured Ultra-Low-Density Materials
Fournier, K. B.; Colvin, J.; Yogo, A; Kemp, G. E.; Matsukuma, H.; Tanaka, N.; Zhang, Z.; Koga, K.; Tosaki, S.; Nishimura, H.
2016-03-15
The nanostructure of very-low-density aerogels (< 10 mg/cm^{3}) affects the laser heating and propagation of the subsequent heat front. Simulations treat these materials as an atomistic medium without any structure differentiating between near-solid-density material and voids. Thus, simulations fail to predict the effects of the aerogel’s physical micro or nanostructure on the laser-matter interaction. We have designed an experiment using the GEKKO XII laser and ILE diagnostics to characterize the ionization-wave propagation and x-ray yield from aerogel and mass-matched gaseous targets as the laser passes through each. By design, the gas and aerogel targets will have identical densities and identical effective ionization states.
More About Beam-Steering Subsystem For Laser Communication
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Page, Norman A.; Chen, Chien-Chu; Hemmati, Hamid; Lesh, James R.
1995-01-01
Two reports present additional information about developmental beam-steering subsystem of laser-communication system. Aspects of this subsystem described previously in "Beam-Steering Subsystem for Laser Communication" (NPO-19069) and "Digital Controller for Laser-Beam-Steering Subsystem" (NPO-19193). Reports reiterate basic principles of operation of beam-steering subsystem and of laser-communication system as whole. Also presents some of details of optical and mechanical design of prototype of subsystem, called Optical Communication Demonstrator.
More About Beam-Steering Subsystem For Laser Communication
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Page, Norman A.; Chen, Chien-Chu; Hemmati, Hamid; Lesh, James R.
1995-01-01
Two reports present additional information about developmental beam-steering subsystem of laser-communication system. Aspects of this subsystem described previously in "Beam-Steering Subsystem for Laser Communication" (NPO-19069) and "Digital Controller for Laser-Beam-Steering Subsystem" (NPO-19193). Reports reiterate basic principles of operation of beam-steering subsystem and of laser-communication system as whole. Also presents some of details of optical and mechanical design of prototype of subsystem, called Optical Communication Demonstrator.
Resonant Laser Manipulation of an Atomic Beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lilly, T. C.; Ketsdever, A. D.; Gimelshein, S. F.
2011-05-01
Theories for laser-atom interactions have been under development since the advent of laser technology. The theories have yet to be adequately integrated into kinetic flow solvers. Realizing this integration would greatly enhance the scaling of laser-species interactions beyond the realm of ultra-cold atomic physics. A representative numerical investigation was conducted using a custom collisionless gas particle trajectory code, demonstrating this goal in the present study. The investigation covered neutral atomic beam steering and collimation using near-resonant laser fields. In addition to the numerical investigation, a validating experiment was conducted. The experimental results showed good agreement with the numerical simulations when experimental parameters, such as finite laser line width, were taken into account. These simulations showed trends and some limitations associated with the use of a continuous-wave Gaussian laser fields for the steering and collimation of a geometrically skimmed cesium atomic beam using the photon scattering force and the near-resonant induced dipole gradient force. These simulations indicate possible integration of the resonant laser-atom interaction with other rarefied and collisional solvers for similar species such as alkali metals.
Real-time measurement of laser beam quality factor by the Fresnel phase-retrieval method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Pao-Keng; Liu, Jian-You; Chen, Yung-Chieh; Hsu, Chia-En
2016-09-01
Conventionally, it is a tedious work to measure the beam quality factor for a laser beam because one needs to move a camera-based beam profiler from one location to another for many times to record intensity profiles at different positions around the beam waist. We present a simple method for determining the laser beam quality factor from only two laser intensity profiles at different cross sections around the waist. We first used an iterative phase-retrieval algorithm, based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle, to reconstruct the phase profiles at the two cross sections where the intensity profiles had been measured. Once the optical field amplitude (the square root of intensity) and phase distribution functions at certain cross section of a laser beam had been determined, we can propagate the light wave at this cross section by using the Fresnel diffraction formula to obtain the intensity profiles at different positions, from which the beam quality factor can be determined. Using a HeNe laser for test, we had experimentally demonstrated the feasibility of our idea by showing that the result from our proposed method is in good agreement with that obtained from the conventional method. Our setup is capable of executing a real-time measurement of the beam quality factor because the two intensity profiles can be simultaneously recorded by using a beam splitter and two beam-profilers controlled by the same computer.
[Monte Carlo simulation of the divergent beam propagation in a semi-infinite bio-tissue].
Zhang, Lin; Qi, Shengwen
2013-12-01
In order to study the light propagation in biological tissue, we analyzed the divergent beam propagation in turbid medium. We set up a Monte Carlo simulation model for simulating the divergent beam propagation in a semi-infinite bio-tissue. Using this model, we studied the absorbed photon density with different tissue parameters in the case of a divergent beam injecting the tissue. The simulation results showed that the rules of optical propagation in the tissue were found and further the results also suggested that the diagnosis and treatment of the light could refer to the rules of optical propagation.
Workshop summary: Receivers for laser power beaming
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Landis, Geoffrey A.
1993-01-01
At the Space Photovoltaics Research and Technology (SPRAT) conference at NASA Lewis Research Center, a workshop session was held to discuss issues involved in using photovoltaic arrays ('solar cells') to convert laser power into electrical power for use as receiving elements for beamed power.
Particle detection with intensified laser beam
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Knollenberg, R. G.
1972-01-01
Application of external and laser output mirrors to produce intensified light beam for measurement of light scattered by dispersed particles is described. Use of fiber optics bundles to collect light is discussed. Diagram of equipment and principles of operation are presented.
Systems analysis on laser beamed power
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zeiders, Glenn W., Jr.
1993-01-01
The NASA SELENE power beaming program is intended to supply cost-effective power to space assets via Earth-based lasers and active optics systems. Key elements of the program are analyzed, the overall effort is reviewed, and recommendations are presented.
Bibliography of Soviet Laser Developments, Number 88, March - April 1987.
1988-03-03
Effects ; Laser Communications,’ Laser Beam Propagation; Adaptive Optics,’ Laser Computer Technology; Holography,; Laser Chemical Effects ; Laser...Parameters, Laser Measuremen Applications; Laser4Excited Optical Effects , Laser Spectroscopy, Laser Be :Target Interaction; Laser Plasma , 20. ABSTRACT This...theoretical aspects of advanced lasers; and general laser theory. Laser applications are listed under biological effects ; communications systems; beam
Accurately modeling Gaussian beam propagation in the context of Monte Carlo techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hokr, Brett H.; Winblad, Aidan; Bixler, Joel N.; Elpers, Gabriel; Zollars, Byron; Scully, Marlan O.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.; Thomas, Robert J.
2016-03-01
Monte Carlo simulations are widely considered to be the gold standard for studying the propagation of light in turbid media. However, traditional Monte Carlo methods fail to account for diffraction because they treat light as a particle. This results in converging beams focusing to a point instead of a diffraction limited spot, greatly effecting the accuracy of Monte Carlo simulations near the focal plane. Here, we present a technique capable of simulating a focusing beam in accordance to the rules of Gaussian optics, resulting in a diffraction limited focal spot. This technique can be easily implemented into any traditional Monte Carlo simulation allowing existing models to be converted to include accurate focusing geometries with minimal effort. We will present results for a focusing beam in a layered tissue model, demonstrating that for different scenarios the region of highest intensity, thus the greatest heating, can change from the surface to the focus. The ability to simulate accurate focusing geometries will greatly enhance the usefulness of Monte Carlo for countless applications, including studying laser tissue interactions in medical applications and light propagation through turbid media.
Multiple beam laser cell micropatterning system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Narasimhan, Sriram V.; Goodwin, Richard L.; Borg, Thomas K.; Dawson, Darren M.; Gao, Bruce Z.
2004-10-01
The various cell mechanisms, including cell-cell interactions, in native tissue could be better understood by engineering a cell coculture with a micro environment that closely mimics the natural cell arrangement. To this end, we developed a cell micropatterning system that uses a weakly focused laser beam to trap individual cells at the center of the beam and propel them forward onto an appropriate substrate. The optimal methods of introducing different cell types to be patterned into the patterning system and preventing cells from randomly falling onto the pattern were issues to be addressed with this system. Here, we report the development of a multi-chamber, multi-beam laser cell micropatterning system, in which the delivery of specific cells into the beam can be controlled using secondary laser beams. This permits consecutive creation of a pattern involving multiple cell types at specific relative positions. As examples, various patterns of fibroblasts have been created on collagen coated coverslips. In addition, two asynchronously beating clusters of cardiomyocytes were connected with fibroblasts of cardiac origin, yielding a deeper insight into the electrophysiological role of fibroblasts in conduction of the action potentials among cardiomyocytes.
Ion beams from laser-generated plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hughes, R. H.; Anderson, R. J.; Gray, L. G.; Rosenfeld, J. P.; Manka, C. K.; Carruth, M. R.
1980-01-01
The paper describes the space-charge-limited beams produced by the plasma blowoffs generated by 20-MW bursts of 1.06-micron radiation from an active Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Laser power densities near 10 to the 11th/sq cm on solid targets generate thermalized plasma plumes which drift to a 15-kV gridded extraction gap where the ions are extracted, accelerated, and electrostatically focused; the spatially defined ion beams are then magnetically analyzed to determine the charge state content in the beams formed from carbon, aluminum, copper, and lead targets. This technique preserves time-of-flight (TOF) information in the plasma drift region, which permits plasma ion temperatures and mass flow velocities to be determined from the Maxwellian ion curve TOF shapes for the individual charge species.
Suwada, Tsuyoshi; Satoh, Masanori; Telada, Souichi; Minoshima, Kaoru
2013-09-01
A laser-based alignment system with a He-Ne laser has been newly developed in order to precisely align accelerator units at the KEKB injector linac. The laser beam was first implemented as a 500-m-long fiducial straight line for alignment measurements. We experimentally investigated the propagation and stability characteristics of the laser beam passing through laser pipes in vacuum. The pointing stability at the last fiducial point was successfully obtained with the transverse displacements of ±40 μm level in one standard deviation by applying a feedback control. This pointing stability corresponds to an angle of ±0.08 μrad. This report contains a detailed description of the experimental investigation for the propagation and stability characteristics of the laser beam in the laser-based alignment system for long-distance linear accelerators.
Enhanced Photoacoustic Beam Profiling of Pulsed Lasers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
González, M.; Santiago, G.; Paz, M.; Slezak, V.; Peuriot, A.
2013-09-01
An improved version of a photoacoustic beam profiler of pulsed lasers is presented. The new model resorts to high-bandwidth condenser microphones to register higher-order, excited acoustic modes, thus enabling more accurate profiling. In addition, Xe was used as a buffer gas since its high atomic weight further reduces the eigenfrequencies. Furthermore, a new gas-handling system makes up for some deficiencies found in the first model. The system was calibrated using the Airy pattern generated with a pinhole illuminated by a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser that excited traces. Once calibrated, the beam profile of a TEA laser was obtained, using ethylene as the absorbing species. This profiler returns more accurate profiles than thermal paper.
Schiffer, J.P.; Hangst, J.S.; Nielsen, J.S.
1995-08-01
In collaboration with the Arhus group, the laser cooling of a beam bunched by an rf electrode was investigated at the ASTRID storage ring. A single laser is used for unidirectional cooling, since the longitudinal velocity of the beam will undergo {open_quotes}synchrotron oscillations{close_quotes} and the ions are trapped in velocity space. As the cooling proceeds the velocity spread of the beam, as well as the bunch length is measured. The bunch length decreases to the point where it is limited only by the Coulomb repulsion between ions. The measured length is slightly (20-30%) smaller than the calculated limit for a cold beam. This may be the accuracy of the measurement, or may indicate that the beam still has a large transverse temperature so that the longitudinal repulsion is less than would be expected from an absolutely cold beam. Simulations suggest that the coupling between transverse and longitudinal degrees of freedom is strong -- but this issue will have to be resolved by further measurements.
Efficient Energy Deposition for an Electron Beam Pumped KrF Laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hegeler, F.; Myers, M. C.; Friedman, M.; Sethian, J. D.; Swanekamp, S. B.; Rose, D. V.; Welch, D. R.
2002-11-01
Electra is a repetitively pulsed, electron beam pumped krypton fluoride (KrF) laser that will develop the technologies that can meet the Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) requirements for durability, efficiency, and cost. The Electra laser is pumped with two opposing electron beams each with parameters of 500 kV, 90 kA, with a 100 ns flat-top pulse duration, and a cathode area of 27 x 97 cm^2. The e-beam propagates through a hibachi structure, which supports a thin foil that isolates the vacuum diode from the high-pressure (>1 atm) laser gas. It has been demonstrated that segmenting the beam into strips to miss the hibachi support ribs significantly increases the electron beam deposition efficiency. The energy deposition efficiency is defined as the ratio of energy deposited in the laser gas over the vacuum diode e-beam energy. Energy deposition efficiencies of 75have been achieved with a 500 keV e-beam. In addition, 1-D and 3-D codes have simulated the e-beam propagation through the hibachi, and 1-D codes predict a maximum energy deposition efficiency of 81
Undersea Laser Communication with Narrow Beams
2015-09-29
temporal spread. Based on information theoretic arguments, gigabit-per-second class links can be achieved at 20 extinction lengths by utilizing pulse...given as b) both in units of m-1. A beam attenuation length, or extinction length, of (a+b)-1 m refers to the propagation distance that results in a...chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), or in some cases suspended sediment. We can see a variation in extinction greater than a factor of 10; we
Numerical Simulation of Ion Rings and Ion Beam Propagation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mankofsky, Alan
processes are included. CIDER has been used to simulate the propagation of an intense ion beam through a z-pinch plasma channel. We find that transport efficiencies in the 75% range are possible using 5-7 MeV, 1-2 MA proton beams with initial divergences in the range 1.5(DEGREES)-7(DEGREES) in a 4 m hydrogen channel. Current neutralization in excess of 99% is found, and no gross axisymmetric instabilities are observed.
Phasing surface emitting diode laser outputs into a coherent laser beam
Holzrichter, John F.
2006-10-10
A system for generating a powerful laser beam includes a first laser element and at least one additional laser element having a rear laser mirror, an output mirror that is 100% reflective at normal incidence and <5% reflective at an input beam angle, and laser material between the rear laser mirror and the output mirror. The system includes an injector, a reference laser beam source, an amplifier and phase conjugater, and a combiner.
Simple effective tests for beam propagation method programs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dumitrescu, Mihail M.; Iancu, Ovidiu D.; Karam, Jean Michel
2000-02-01
In view of the increased need of an effective, practical and unified test set to evalute the modeling capabilities of beam propagation method (BPM) based programs, we prose an incident set of tests to be used for a standard evaluation. The proposed test have been chosen to be simple, easy to implement and enable a fairly good evaluation without the need of any experiment. Interesting aspects of the tests' results and some straightforward, practical criteria to estimate program capabilities and to tune the simulation parameters are presented. A cross-checking between 'Mode Solver' based and BPM based programs is also put into discussion. A paraxial error evaluation method is presented and the transverse mesh influence on the paraxial error is analyzed.
On the cancellation of OAM beams propagating through convective turbulence.
Funes, Gustavo; Anguita, Jaime
2017-05-01
By means of an experimental setup, we study the time evolution of orbital angular momentum (OAM) crosstalk after a 5 m propagation path with a turbulence perturbation generated by a flat heater. This convective turbulence could simulate the beam passing over hot concrete or building roofs. We study the consequences of using a wide range of transmission OAM states. We also explore the effect of misalignment, and we propose two new different techniques for analyzing the vortex cancellation. Even though results are inconsistent with theoretical predictions, especially for low turbulence regimes, we state that signal-to-noise ratio is the key factor to understanding this discrepancy. Finally, a crosstalk correction method is proposed via image post-processing that would open the possibility of an adaptive optics approach that is different from conventional ones.
Beam quality measurements using digitized laser beam images
Duncan, M.D. ); Mahon, R. )
1989-11-01
A method is described for measuring various laser beam characteristics with modest experimental complexity by digital processing of the near and far field images. Gaussian spot sizes, peak intensities, and spatial distributions of the images are easily found. Far field beam focusability is determined by computationally applying apertures of circular of elliptical diameters to the digitized image. Visualization of the magnitude of phase and intensity distortions is accomplished by comparing the 2-D fast Fourier transform of both smoothed and unsmoothed near field data to the actual far field data. The digital processing may be performed on current personal computers to give the experimenter unprecedented capabilities for rapid beam characteriztion at relatively low cost.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Xiangli; Yin, Yaling; Zheng, Gongjue; Guo, Chaoxiu; Sun, Yu; Zhou, Zhongneng; Bai, Shunjie; Wang, Hailing; Xia, Yong; Yin, Jianping
2014-07-01
A new nonlinear optical method to generate a dark hollow beam (DHB) with a dielectric ZnSe crystal is proposed. From Huygens-Fresnel diffraction theory, we calculate the intensity distributions of the DHB and its propagating properties in free space, and study the dependences of the optimal propagation position and the dark-spot size (DSS) of the hollow beam on the waist radius of the incident Gaussian laser beam. Our study shows that the intensity distribution of the DHB presents symmetrical distribution with increasing the propagation distance, the optimal distance zopt becomes farther and the DSS becomes larger with the increase of the waist radius w of the incident Gaussian laser beam. This generated DHB will have applications in the optical guiding and trapping of macroscopic objects, atoms or molecules.
PRIMARY TESTS OF LASER / E BEAM INTERACTION IN A PLASMA CHANNEL.
POGORELSKY,I.V.; BEN ZVI,I.; HIROSE,T.; YAKIMENKO,V.; KUSCHE,K.; SIDDONS,P.; ET AL
2002-06-23
A high-energy CO{sub 2} laser is channeled in a capillary discharge. Plasma dynamic simulations confirm occurrence of guiding conditions at the relatively low axial plasma density 1 {divided_by} 4 x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}. A relativistic electron beam transmitted through the capillary changes its properties depending upon the plasma density. We observe focusing, defocusing or steering of the e-beam. Counter-propagation of the electron and laser beams in the plasma channel results in generation of intense picosecond x-ray pulses.
Higher--order CO/sub 2/ laser beam spot size and depth of focus determined
Luxon, J.T.; Parker, D.E.
1981-06-01
Measurements of higher-order CO/sub 2/ laser beam spot size have been made and found in good agreement with a Hermite-Gaussian rectangular beam propagation model. A modified working definition of spot size is introduced, and a useful depth of focus relationship is presented. It is shown that a single measurement of spot size for any higher-order mode is all that is required to reasonably predict spot size for the same laser operating in different modes. Alternatively, beam size can be predicted theoretically on the basis of the optical cavity parameters.
Effect of collisions on amplification of laser beams by Brillouin scattering in plasmas
Humphrey, K. A.; Speirs, D. C.; Trines, R. M. G. M.; Norreys, P.; Fiuza, F.; Cairns, R. A.; Silva, L. O.
2013-10-15
We report on particle in cell simulations of energy transfer between a laser pump beam and a counter-propagating seed beam using the Brillouin scattering process in uniform plasma including collisions. The results presented show that the ion acoustic waves excited through naturally occurring Brillouin scattering of the pump field are preferentially damped without affecting the driven Brillouin scattering process resulting from the beating of the pump and seed fields together. We find that collisions, including the effects of Landau damping, allow for a more efficient transfer of energy between the laser beams, and a significant reduction in the amount of seed pre-pulse produced.
LASER BEAMS: On a method for obtaining laser beams with a phase singularity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malyutin, A. A.
2004-03-01
A method is analysed for obtaining laser beams with a phase singularity with the help of phase screens described by the function of the type exp(ilphi). It is shown that this method is used to obtain laser beams in the form of single rings with a smooth intensity distribution in the far-field radiation zone (at the lens focus) representing the superposition of Laguerre — Gaussian modes. In the near-field zone and, in the presence of aperture clipping, also in the focal region, the beams with a more complicated structure can be observed. The scaling of the radius corresponding to the maximum intensity of the beam both in the absence and presence of aperture clipping occurs linearly with the singularity charge l. The influence of the beam decentration and of the phase screen on the structure of phase-singularity beams is estimated.
LASER BEAMS: Rotation of arbitrary laser beams using π/2-mode converters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malyutin, A. A.
2003-03-01
Two types of rotators of arbitrary beams based on astigmatic π/2 and π converters of laser modes are described. Unlike traditional rotators of Dove prism type, proposed schemes use exclusively refracting optical components. Numerical simulations of the beam rotators are performed based both on Fresnel theory and ray-tracing method.
Adaptive slit beam shaping for direct laser written waveguides.
Salter, P S; Jesacher, A; Spring, J B; Metcalf, B J; Thomas-Peter, N; Simmonds, R D; Langford, N K; Walmsley, I A; Booth, M J
2012-02-15
We demonstrate an improved method for fabricating optical waveguides in bulk materials by means of femtosecond laser writing. We use an LC spatial light modulator (SLM) to shape the beam focus by generating adaptive slit illumination in the pupil of the objective lens. A diffraction grating is applied in a strip across the SLM to simulate a slit, with the first diffracted order mapped onto the pupil plane of the objective lens while the zeroth order is blocked. This technique enables real-time control of the beam-shaping parameters during writing, facilitating the fabrication of more complicated structures than is possible using nonadaptive methods. Waveguides are demonstrated in fused silica with a coupling loss to single-mode fibers in the range of 0.2 to 0.5 dB and propagation loss <0.4 dB/cm.