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Sample records for laser hair removal

  1. Removing Hair Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Removing Hair Safely Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... related to common methods of hair removal. Laser Hair Removal In this method, a laser destroys hair ...

  2. Laser hair removal for genital gender affirming surgery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, William R.; Garrett, Giorgia L.; Arron, Sarah T.

    2016-01-01

    Genital gender affirming surgery (GAS) involves reconstruction of the genitals to match a patient’s identified sex. The use of hair-bearing flaps in this procedure may result in postoperative intra-vaginal and intra-urethral hair growth and associated complications, including lower satisfaction with genital GAS. Despite the significant increase in genital GAS within the past 50 years, there is limited data regarding hair removal practices in preparation for genital GAS and notable variation in hair removal techniques among dermatologists and other practitioners. We present a literature review, recommendations from our experience, and a practical laser hair removal (LHR) approach to hair removal prior to genital GAS. PMID:27298787

  3. Alternative Method for Creating Fine Hairs with Hair Removal Laser in Hair Transplantation for Hairline Correction

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Sun; Kim, Jin Yong; Choe, Yun Seon; Han, Wonseok; An, Jee Soo

    2015-01-01

    Background Foremost fine hairs in the frontal hairline region are critical in hair transplantation for hairline correction (HTHC) in women. However, there are few studies on a nonsurgical revisionary method for improving an unnatural foremost hairline with thick donor hairs resulting from a previous HTHC. Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of using a hair removal laser (HRL) system to create fine hairs in Asian women with thick donor hairs. Methods Through a retrospective chart review, the HRL parameters, hair diameter (measured with a micrometer before and after the procedures), subjective results after the procedures, adverse effects, and the number of procedures were investigated. The reduction rate of the hair diameter was calculated. Results Twenty-four women who received long-pulse Neodymium-Doped:Yttrium Aluminum Garnet therapy after HTHC were included. The parameters were as follows: delivered laser energy, 35~36 J/cm2; pulse duration, 6 ms; and spot size, 10 mm. The mean number of laser sessions was 2.6. The mean hair diameter significantly decreased from 80.0±11.5 µm to 58.4±13.2 µm (p=0.00). The mean rate of hair diameter reduction was -25.7% (range, -44.6% to 5.7%). The number of laser sessions and the hair diameter after the procedures showed a negative correlation (r=-0.410, p=0.046). Most of the patients (87.5%) reported subjective improvement of their hairlines. Most complications were transient and mild. Conclusion HRL can be an alternative method for creating fine hairs and revising foremost hairline in Asian women with thick donor hairs. PMID:25673927

  4. A Hairy Situation: Laser Hair Removal after Oral Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Shields, Bridget E; Moye, Molly S; Bayon, Rodrigo; Sperry, Steven M; Wanat, Karolyn A

    2018-03-01

    To present a case series of 4 patients who underwent postoperative hair removal using the long-pulsed Alexandrite or Nd:YAG laser following intraoral cutaneous flap reconstruction. Patients underwent epilation in dermatology clinic with long-pulsed Alexandrite or Nd:YAG lasers, spaced 8 weeks apart, until hair removal was achieved. All patients achieved improvement in hair removal regardless of initial flap donor site with significant improvement in quality of life and minimal side effects. The long-pulsed Alexandrite and Nd:YAG represent safe and effective treatment options to improve patient quality of life following intraoral flap repair following excision of malignancy.

  5. Hair and bare skin discrimination for laser-assisted hair removal systems.

    PubMed

    Cayir, Sercan; Yetik, Imam Samil

    2017-07-01

    Laser-assisted hair removal devices aim to remove body hair permanently. In most cases, these devices irradiate the whole area of the skin with a homogenous power density. Thus, a significant portion of the skin, where hair is not present, is burnt unnecessarily causing health risks. Therefore, methods that can distinguish hair regions automatically would be very helpful avoiding these unnecessary applications of laser. This study proposes a new system of algorithms to detect hair regions with the help of a digital camera. Unlike previous limited number of studies, our methods are very fast allowing for real-time application. Proposed methods are based on certain features derived from histograms of hair and skin regions. We compare our algorithm with competing methods in terms of localization performance and computation time and show that a much faster real-time accurate localization of hair regions is possible with the proposed method. Our results show that the algorithm we have developed is extremely fast (around 45 milliseconds) allowing for real-time application with high accuracy hair localization ( 96.48 %).

  6. Audit cycle of documentation in laser hair removal.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S N; Lanigan, S W

    2005-09-01

    Lasercare clinics are one of the largest providers of skin laser treatment in the United Kingdom, in both private sector and National Health Service. Laser hair removal is performed by trained nurses following written protocols. Choice of laser and fluence is tailored to Fitzpatrick skin type. We audited and re-audited documentation of six criteria in patients receiving laser hair removal (signed consent, Fitzpatrick skin type, use of appropriate laser, appropriate fluence, patient satisfaction and objective assessment) across 13 clinics at different points in time. Data were obtained on 772 treatments. Overall findings revealed excellent documentation of consent, use of appropriate laser and fluence (median 100%), good documentation of skin type (median 90%) and poor documentation of patient satisfaction and objective assessment (median 67% and 53%, respectively). Comparison between baseline and repeat audit at 6-8 months (nine clinics) showed significant improvement across clinics in these latter two criteria [patient satisfaction: odds ratio (OR) 0.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15-0.78, P=0.01; objective assessment: OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.07-0.50, P=0.0003 (Mantel-Haenszel weighted odds ratios)]. We conclude that quality of documentation was generally and consistently high in multiple clinics and that re-auditing led to significant improvement in poor scores. This simple measure could easily be implemented more widely across many disciplines.

  7. Gaseous and Particulate Content of Laser Hair Removal Plume.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Gary S; Farinelli, William; Christiani, David C; Herrick, Robert F; Lee, Norman C Y; Avram, Mathew M

    2016-12-01

    Potentially harmful chemicals are released when tissues are vaporized. Laser hair removal (LHR) causes heating and often vaporization of hairs, producing both a signature malodorous plume and visible particulates. To characterize the chemical composition and quantify the ultrafine particle content of the plume generated during LHR. In the laser center of a large academic hospital, discarded terminal hairs from the trunk and extremities were collected from 2 adult volunteers. The hair samples were sealed in glass gas chromatography chambers and treated with a laser. The laser plume was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). During LHR treatment, two 6-L negative pressure canisters were used to capture 30 seconds of laser plume, and a portable condensation particle counter was used to measure ultrafine particulates (<1 µm). Ultrafine particle concentrations were measured within the treatment room, within the waiting room, and outside the building. The chemical content of the laser plume was analyzed with GC-MS and screened for aerosolized toxins using Environmental Protection Agency-certified methods. The ambient concentration of ultrafine particles during LHR was measured by condensation particle counters. Analysis with GC-MS identified 377 chemical compounds. Sixty-two of these compounds, of which 13 are known or suspected carcinogens and more than 20 are known environmental toxins, exhibited strong absorption peaks. During LHR, the portable condensation particle counters documented an 8-fold increase compared with the ambient room baseline level of ultrafine particle concentrations (ambient room baseline, 15 300 particles per cubic centimeter [ppc]; LHR with smoke evacuator, 129 376 ppc), even when a smoke evacuator was in close proximity (5.0 cm) to the procedure site. When the smoke evacuator was turned off for 30 seconds, there was a more than 26-fold increase in particulate count compared with ambient baseline levels (ambient baseline

  8. Hypertrichosis in Becker's nevus: effective low-fluence laser hair removal.

    PubMed

    Lapidoth, M; Adatto, M; Cohen, S; Ben-Amitai, D; Halachmi, S

    2014-01-01

    Becker's nevus is cosmetically bothersome both due to the hyperpigmentation and due to the hypertrichosis which can accompany it, particularly in males. Laser hair removal can be considered, but the pigmented background of the Becker's nevus makes the treatment more challenging. Fifteen patients with Becker's nevus underwent eight sessions of hair removal with low-fluence high-repetition-rate diode lasers (808-810 nm). All participants experienced significant hair reduction at 6 and 12 months. No adverse events were reported. The study supports the use of low fluence with high-repetition-rate diode laser hair removal as a safe and effective method for the management of hypertrichosis in Becker's nevus.

  9. Laser-assisted hair removal for facial hirsutism in women: A review of evidence.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chun-Man

    2018-06-01

    Poly cystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) has been described as the common diagnosis for hirsutism in women. Facial hirsutism is by far the most distressing symptom of hyperandrogenism in women with PCOS. A statistically significant improvement in psychological well-being has been reported in patients with PCOS allocated for laser-assisted hair removal. The theory of selective photothermolysis has revolutionized laser hair removal in that it is effective and safe, when operated by sufficiently trained and experienced professionals. Long-pulsed ruby (694 nm), long-pulsed alexandrite (755 nm), diode (800-980 nm), and long-pulsed Nd:YAG (1064 nm) are commercially available laser devices for hair removal most widely studied. This article will introduce the fundamentals and mechanism of action of lasers in hair removal, in a contemporary literature review looking at medium to long term efficacy and safety profiles of various laser hair removal modalities most widely commercially available to date.

  10. Optical hair removal.

    PubMed

    Ort, R J; Anderson, R R

    1999-06-01

    Traditional methods of hair removal have proven unsatisfactory for many individuals with excessive or unwanted hair. In the last few years, several lasers and xenon flashlamps have been developed that promise to fulfill the need for a practical, safe, and long-lasting method of hair removal. Aggressive marketing of these has contributed to their popularity among patients and physicians. However, significant controversy and confusion surrounds this field. This article provides a detailed explanation of the scientific underpinnings for optical hair removal and explores the advantages and disadvantages of the various devices currently available (Nd:YAG, ruby, alexandrite, diode lasers, and xenon flashlamp). Treatment and safety guidelines are provided to assist the practitioner in the use of these devices. Although the field of optical hair removal is still in its infancy, initial reports of long-term efficacy are encouraging.

  11. [Complications after laser hair removal: the standpoint of a dermatological legal expert regarding liability].

    PubMed

    Bayle, P; Saval, F; Rougé, D; Telmon, N

    2015-03-01

    Laser hair removal is widely used, including outside medical settings. Potential complications, notably burns, may engage the operator's liability. In this case, investigations by medical experts are frequently requested. We describe 6 expert examinations carried out by the same legal dermatology expert between 2012 and 2014. They concerned burns of varying severity caused by laser hair removal procedures carried out by a doctor, a physiotherapist and 4 beauticians. Laser hair removal is carried out in many beauty centres, although in France it is restricted by law to medical use. This practice is thus currently the subject of legal and economic controversy. The analysis of 6 medical expert investigations of accidents involving laser hair removal illustrates the various types of fault in which the operator's liability may be engaged and it also serves to redefine the legal framework of this act within the realm of aesthetic medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical Evaluation of Hair Removal Using an 810 nm Diode Laser With a Novel Scanning Device.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Erin; Goldberg, David J

    2016-11-01

    Diode lasers are often considered as the gold standard preference for hair removal due to the deep penetration and ef- fective targeting of the hair follicle. A wide variety of diode lasers are available, which can differ in terms of their parameters (such as fluence, pulse duration, repetition rate, scanner, and cooling). The objective of the study was to evaluate the safety and ef cacy of hair removal with an 810 nm novel scanning diode laser, up to six months after last treatment. A scanning 810 nm diode laser was used for axillary hair removal of 14 female patients who received 3 treatments, 4-6 weeks apart. Follow-up on hair count was conducted 3 and 6 months after last treatment and compared to baseline hair count. No unexpected or signi cant adverse events were recorded. An average hair count reduction of 72.8% after 3 months and 67.6% 6 months after the last treatment is demonstrated. The examined 810 nm diode laser was proven to be safe and effective for hair removal. Results were sustained for 6 months after last treatment. Longer follow-up data are followed for further substantiation of the clinical effect. Scanning technology can provide for potentially faster and safer treatments. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(11):1330-1333..

  13. Intelligent Image Analysis for Image-Guided Laser Hair Removal and Skin Therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Brian; Lu, Thomas; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    We present the development of advanced automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithms for the hair follicles identification in digital skin images to accurately direct the laser beam to remove the hair. The ATR system first performs a wavelet filtering to enhance the contrast of the hair features in the image. The system then extracts the unique features of the targets and sends the features to an Adaboost based classifier for training and recognition operations. The ATR system automatically classifies the hair, moles, or other skin lesion and provides the accurate coordinates of the intended hair follicle locations. The coordinates can be used to guide a scanning laser to focus energy only on the hair follicles. The intended benefit would be to protect the skin from unwanted laser exposure and to provide more effective skin therapy.

  14. Comparison of the effect of diode laser versus intense pulsed light in axillary hair removal.

    PubMed

    Ormiga, Patricia; Ishida, Cleide Eiko; Boechat, Alvaro; Ramos-E-Silva, Marcia

    2014-10-01

    Devices such as diode laser and intense pulsed light (IPL) are in constant development aiming at permanent hair removal, but there are few comparative studies between these technologies. The objective was to comparatively assess axillary hair removal performed by diode laser and IPL and to obtain parameters of referred pain and evolution response for each method. A comparative prospective, double-blind, and randomized study of axillary hair removal performed by the diode laser and IPL was conducted in 21 females. Six sessions were held with application of the diode laser in one axilla and the IPL in the other, with intervals of 30 days and follow-up of 6 months after the last session. Clinical photographs and digital dermoscopy for hair counts in predefined and fixed fields of the treated areas were performed before, 2 weeks after the sixth session, and 6 months after the end of treatment. A questionnaire to assess the pain was applied. The number of hair shafts was significantly reduced with the diode laser and IPL. The diode laser was more effective, although more painful than the IPL. No serious, adverse, or permanent effects were observed with both technologies. Both diode laser and the IPL are effective, safe, and able to produce lasting results in axillary hair removal.

  15. Long-term hair removal using a 3-millisecond alexandrite laser.

    PubMed

    Laughlin , S A; Dudley, D K

    2000-04-01

    Laser epilation is now used widely as a clinical alternative to electrolysis for the removal of unwanted hair. All of the laser systems presently being used produce a reliable temporary hair loss by inducing telogen. Most of the published studies use follow-up periods of 6 months or less after the last treatment and cannot address the issue of permanency. Since many patients desire permanent hair loss, there is a need for specific information on the exact benefits and limitations of each particular system. The purpose of this study was to assess the degree of hair loss attained by a single treatment with a 3-msec alexandrite laser. A designated period for follow-up was used to address the issue of long-term benefits. A single treatment was carried out on 25 study sites with a 3-msec alexandrite laser at 755 nm using fluences of 30 to 50 joules/cm(2). Hair counts were obtained manually by two independent observers marking terminal hairs under magnification. The counts were repeated using photographic images and the average of the four readings taken. The degree of hair loss was calculated at a time after treatment equal to one complete growth cycle for the particular anatomic site. A second measurement was obtained at a time equal to one growth cycle plus 6 months to determine whether any hair loss had remained stable. The average hair loss at the first follow-up time was 43%, with 60% of sites showing a hair loss of >30%. The hair loss remained stable and the reduction in hair density at both designated times was statistically significant (p <.05). A normal-mode alexandrite laser achieves a long-term alopecia and may result in a permanent loss of terminal hair after one treatment at fluences of 30 to 50 joules/cm(2).

  16. A comparison of temperature profile depending on skin types for laser hair removal therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Hoon; Lee, Gwi-Won; Youn, Jong-In

    2014-11-01

    Although numerous lasers with different wavelengths are available for laser hair removal, their use in individuals with dark-pigmented skin remains a challenge. The present study aims to develop a numerical heat diffusion model considering skin types over various wavelengths. This numerical mode uses Pennes approximation to represent heat from metabolism, blood perfusion and an external heating source. The heat diffusion model is experimentally validated by using agar-based skin tissue phantoms. Diode lasers with four different wavelengths were used with two antithetical skin models. The pulse width and beam spot size were set to 200 ms and 1 cm(2), respectively. Temperature distribution along the hair structure and skin tissue was examined to determine both thermal confinement and heat transfer to the hair follicle. Experimental results are well matched with the numerical results. The results show that for the light skin model, thermal confinement is well achieved over various wavelengths, and treatment efficacy is expected to be better at a shorter wavelength. Otherwise, for the dark skin model, thermal confinement is poorly achieved as the wavelength decreases (<808 nm) and the temperature gap between the hair tip and the hair root is significantly large compared with the light skin model, which may lead to adverse effects. We believe that the developed numerical model will help to establish optimal laser parameters for different individuals during laser hair removal.

  17. 760nm: a new laser diode wavelength for hair removal modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wölz, Martin; Zorn, Martin; Pietrzak, Agnieszka; Kindsvater, Alex; Meusel, Jens; Hülsewede, Ralf; Sebastian, Jürgen

    2015-02-01

    A new high-power semiconductor laser diode module, emitting at 760 nm is introduced. This wavelength permits optimum treatment results for fair skin individuals, as demonstrated by the use of Alexandrite lasers in dermatology. Hair removal applications benefit from the industry-standard diode laser design utilizing highly efficient, portable and light-weight construction. We show the performance of a tap-water-cooled encapsulated laser diode stack with a window for use in dermatological hand-pieces. The stack design takes into account the pulse lengths required for selectivity in heating the hair follicle vs. the skin. Super-long pulse durations place the hair removal laser between industry-standard CW and QCW applications. The new 760 nm laser diode bars are 30% fill factor devices with 1.5 mm long resonator cavities. At CW operation, these units provide 40 W of optical power at 43 A with wall-plug-efficiency greater than 50%. The maximum output power before COMD is 90 W. Lifetime measurements starting at 40 W show an optical power loss of 20% after about 3000 h. The hair removal modules are available in 1x3, 1x8 and 2x8 bar configurations.

  18. Safety and efficacy of low fluence, high repetition rate versus high fluence, low repetition rate 810-nm diode laser for axillary hair removal in Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenhai; Liu, Chengyi; Chen, Zhou; Cai, Lin; Zhou, Cheng; Xu, Qianxi; Li, Houmin; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2016-11-01

    High-fluence diode lasers with contact cooling have emerged as the gold standard to remove unwanted hair. Lowering the energy should result in less pain and could theoretically affect the efficacy of the therapy. To compare the safety and efficacy of a low fluence high repetition rate 810-nm diode laser to those of a high fluence, low repetition rate diode laser for permanent axillary hair removal in Chinese women. Ninety-two Chinese women received four axillae laser hair removal treatments at 4-week intervals using the low fluence, high repetition rate 810-nm diode laser in super hair removal (SHR) mode on one side and the high fluence, low repetition rate diode laser in hair removal (HR) mode on the other side. Hair counts were done at each follow-up visit and 6-month follow-up after the final laser treatment using a "Hi Quality Hair Analysis Program System"; the immediate pain score after each treatment session was recorded by a visual analog scale. The overall median reduction of hair was 90.2% with the 810-nm diode laser in SHR mode and 87% with the same laser in HR mode at 6-month follow-up. The median pain scores in SHR mode and in HR mode were 2.75 and 6.75, respectively. Low fluence, high repetition rate diode laser can efficiently remove unwanted hair but also significantly improve tolerability and reduce adverse events during the course of treatment.

  19. Long-term efficacy of linear-scanning 808 nm diode laser for hair removal compared to a scanned alexandrite laser.

    PubMed

    Grunewald, Sonja; Bodendorf, Marc Oliver; Zygouris, Alexander; Simon, Jan Christoph; Paasch, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Alexandrite and diode lasers are commonly used for hair removal. To date, the available spot sizes and repetition rates are defining factors in terms of penetration depth, treatment speed, and efficacy. Still, larger treatment areas and faster systems are desirable. To compare the efficacy, tolerability, and subject satisfaction of a continuously linear-scanning 808 nm diode laser with an alexandrite 755 nm laser for axillary hair removal. A total of 31 adults with skin types I-IV received 6 treatments at 4-week intervals with a 755 nm alexandrite laser (right axilla) and a continuously linear-scanning 808 nm diode laser (left axilla). Axillary hair density was assessed using a computerized hair detection system. There was a significant reduction in axillary hair after the 6th treatment (P < 0.05) on both sides (left, 808 nm: hair clearance of 72.16%; right, 755 nm: hair clearance of 71.30%). The difference in reduction between the two lasers was not significant, but both were persistant at 18 months follow-up (left: hair clearance of 73.71%; right: hair clearance of 71.90%). Erythema and perifollicular edema were more common after alexandrite laser treatment, but all side effects were transient. While 62.50% of patients reported more pain in response to treatment with the new diode laser, all patients rated treatment with either laser tolerable. Treatment with either the alexandrite or the linear-scanning diode laser results in significant, comparable, persistent (at least 18 months) axillary hair reduction among individuals with skin types I-IV. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A study on the development of a robot-assisted automatic laser hair removal system.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyoung-Woo; Park, Sungwoo; Noh, Seungwoo; Lee, Dong-Hun; Yoon, Chiyul; Koh, Wooseok; Kim, Youdan; Chung, Jin Ho; Kim, Hee Chan; Kim, Sungwan

    2014-11-01

    Abstract Background and Objective: The robot-assisted automatic laser hair removal (LHR) system is developed to automatically detect any arbitrary shape of the desired LHR treatment area and to provide uniform laser irradiation to the designated skin area. For uniform delivery of laser energy, a unit of a commercial LHR device, a laser distance sensor, and a high-resolution webcam are attached at the six axis industrial robot's end-effector, which can be easily controlled using a graphical user interface (GUI). During the treatment, the system provides real-time treatment progress as well as the total number of "pick and place" automatically. During the test, it was demonstrated that the arbitrary shapes were detected, and that the laser was delivered uniformly. The localization error test and the area-per-spot test produced satisfactory outcome averages of 1.04 mm error and 38.22 mm(2)/spot, respectively. RESULTS showed that the system successfully demonstrated accuracy and effectiveness. The proposed system is expected to become a promising device in LHR treatment.

  1. A Study on the Development of a Robot-Assisted Automatic Laser Hair Removal System

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyoung-woo; Park, Sungwoo; Noh, Seungwoo; Lee, Dong-Hun; Yoon, Chiyul; Koh, Wooseok; Kim, Youdan; Chung, Jin Ho; Kim, Hee Chan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background and Objective: The robot-assisted automatic laser hair removal (LHR) system is developed to automatically detect any arbitrary shape of the desired LHR treatment area and to provide uniform laser irradiation to the designated skin area. Methods: For uniform delivery of laser energy, a unit of a commercial LHR device, a laser distance sensor, and a high-resolution webcam are attached at the six axis industrial robot's end-effector, which can be easily controlled using a graphical user interface (GUI). During the treatment, the system provides real-time treatment progress as well as the total number of “pick and place” automatically. Results: During the test, it was demonstrated that the arbitrary shapes were detected, and that the laser was delivered uniformly. The localization error test and the area-per-spot test produced satisfactory outcome averages of 1.04 mm error and 38.22 mm2/spot, respectively. Conclusions: Results showed that the system successfully demonstrated accuracy and effectiveness. The proposed system is expected to become a promising device in LHR treatment. PMID:25343281

  2. Novel 755-nm diode laser vs. conventional 755-nm scanned alexandrite laser: Side-by-side comparison pilot study for thorax and axillary hair removal.

    PubMed

    Paasch, Uwe; Wagner, Justinus A; Paasch, Hartmut W

    2015-01-01

    Alexandrite (755 nm) and diode lasers (800-810 nm) are commonly used for hair removal. The alexandrite laser technology is somewhat cumbersome whereas new diode lasers are more robust. Recently, alexandrite-like 755 nm wavelength diodes became available. To compare the efficacy, tolerability, and subject satisfaction of a 755 nm diode laser operated in conventional (HR) and non-conventional in-motion (SHR) modes with a conventional scanned alexandrite 755 nm laser for chest and axillary hair removal. A prospective, single-center, proof of principle study was designed to evaluate the safety, efficacy and handling of a 755 nm diode laser system in comparison to a standard alexandrite 755 nm scanning hair removal laser. The new 755 nm diode is suitable to be used in SHR and HR mode and has been tested for its safety, efficacy and handling in a volunteer with success. Overall, both systems showed a high efficacy in hair reduction (88.8% 755 nm diode laser vs. 77.7% 755 nm alexandrite laser). Also, during the study period, no severe adverse effects were reported. The new 755 nm diode laser is as effective and safe as the traditional 755 nm alexandrite laser. Additionally, treatment with the 755 nm diode laser with HR and SHR modes was found to be less painful.

  3. The efficacy of laser-assisted hair removal in the treatment of acne keloidalis nuchae; a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Esmat, Samia M; Abdel Hay, Rania M; Abu Zeid, Ola M; Hosni, Hala N

    2012-01-01

    Laser-assisted hair removal causes miniaturization of hair shafts which are the principal contributors to inflammation in acne keloidalis nuchae (AKN). To assess the efficacy of hair reduction by long pulsed Nd-YAG laser as a therapeutic modality for AKN. This interventional pilot trial included 16 patients with AKN who received 5 sessions of long pulsed Nd-YAG laser. Lesions were objectively and subjectively assessed at the third and fifth laser sessions, and 1 year after. Global response to treatment was rated using a quartile grading scale regarding the percentage improvement in the count of papules and the size of the plaques. Biopsies were taken before and 2 weeks after the fifth session to evaluate the pathological changes associated with improvement of the treated lesions. All patients showed a significant improvement. The percentage of improvement in the early caseswas significantly higher when compared to late cases.Two weeks after the fifth session, all biopsies showed a significant decrease in the inflammatory infiltrate except one case. Sclerosis was markedly decreased. Complete absence of hair follicles and adenexawas observed, apart from in 2 cases. Laser hair depilation can significantly improve this disfiguring chronic disorder. Starting treatment as early as possible achieves the best results and can stop the disease process if followed by maintenance sessions.

  4. Beam shaping for cosmetic hair removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizotte, Todd E.; Tuttle, Tracie

    2007-09-01

    Beam shaping has the potential to provide comfort to people who require or seek laser based cosmetic skin procedures. Of immediate interest is the procedure of aesthetic hair removal. Hair removal is performed using a variety of wavelengths from 480 to 1200 nm by means of filtered Xenon flash lamps (pulsed light) or 810 nm diode lasers. These wavelengths are considered the most efficient means available for hair removal applications, but current systems use simple reflector designs and plane filter windows to direct the light to the surface being exposed. Laser hair removal is achieved when these wavelengths at sufficient energy levels are applied to the epidermis. The laser energy is absorbed by the melanin (pigment) in the hair and hair follicle which in turn is transformed into heat. This heat creates the coagulation process, which causes the removal of the hair and prevents growth of new hair [1]. This paper outlines a technique of beam shaping that can be applied to a non-contact based hair removal system. Several features of the beam shaping technique including beam uniformity and heat dispersion across its operational treatment area will be analyzed. A beam shaper design and its fundamental testing will be discussed in detail.

  5. Airborne particulate concentration during laser hair removal: A comparison between cold sapphire with aqueous gel and cryogen skin cooling.

    PubMed

    Ross, Edward V; Chuang, Gary S; Ortiz, Arisa E; Davenport, Scott A

    2018-04-01

    High concentrations of sub-micron nanoparticles have been shown to be released during laser hair removal (LHR) procedures. These emissions pose a potential biohazard to healthcare workers that have prolonged exposure to LHR plume. We sought to demonstrate that cold sapphire skin cooling done in contact mode might suppress plume dispersion during LHR. A total of 11 patients were recruited for laser hair removal. They were treated on the legs and axilla with a 755 or 1064 nm millisecond-domain laser equipped with either (i) cryogen spray (CSC); (ii) refrigerated air (RA); or (iii) contact cooling with sapphire (CC). Concentration of ultrafine nanoparticles <1 μm were measured just before and during LHR with the three respective cooling methods. For contact cooling (CC), counts remained at baseline levels, below 3,500 parts per cubic centimeter (ppc) for all treatments. In contrast, the CSC system produced large levels of plume, peaking at times to over 400,000 ppc. The CA cooled system produced intermediate levels of plume, about 35,000 ppc (or about 10× baseline). Cold Sapphire Skin cooling with gel suppresses plume during laser hair removal, potentially eliminating the need for smoke evacuators, custom ventilation systems, and respirators during LHR. Lasers Surg. Med. 50:280-283, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Comparison of Alexandrite and Diode Lasers for Hair Removal in Dark and Medium Skin: Which is Better?

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Farhad Hamad; Jaafar, Mohamad Suhimi; Ismail, Asaad Hamid; Mutter, Kussay Nugamesh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: To improve laser hair removal (LHR) for dark skin, the fluence rate reaching the hair follicle in LHR is important. This paper presents the results of a comparative study examining the function of wavelength on dark skin types using 755 nm alexandrite and 810 nm diode lasers. Methods: The structure of the skin was created using a realistic skin model by the Advanced Systems Analysis Program. Result: In this study, the alexandrite laser (755 nm) and diode laser (810 nm) beam–skin tissue interactions were simulated. The simulation results for both lasers differed. The transmission ratio of the diode laser to the dark skin dermis was approximately 4% more than that of the alexandrite laser for the same skin type. For the diode laser at skin depth z = 0.67 mm, the average transmission ratios of both samples were 36% and 27.5%, but those for the alexandrite laser at the same skin depth were 32% and 25%. Conclusion: Both lasers were suitable in LHR for dark skin types, but the diode laser was better than the alexandrite laser because the former could penetrate deeper into the dermis layer. PMID:25653820

  7. Comparison of Alexandrite and Diode Lasers for Hair Removal in Dark and Medium Skin: Which is Better?

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Farhad Hamad; Jaafar, Mohamad Suhimi; Ismail, Asaad Hamid; Mutter, Kussay Nugamesh

    2014-01-01

    To improve laser hair removal (LHR) for dark skin, the fluence rate reaching the hair follicle in LHR is important. This paper presents the results of a comparative study examining the function of wavelength on dark skin types using 755 nm alexandrite and 810 nm diode lasers. The structure of the skin was created using a realistic skin model by the Advanced Systems Analysis Program. In this study, the alexandrite laser (755 nm) and diode laser (810 nm) beam-skin tissue interactions were simulated. The simulation results for both lasers differed. The transmission ratio of the diode laser to the dark skin dermis was approximately 4% more than that of the alexandrite laser for the same skin type. For the diode laser at skin depth z = 0.67 mm, the average transmission ratios of both samples were 36% and 27.5%, but those for the alexandrite laser at the same skin depth were 32% and 25%. Both lasers were suitable in LHR for dark skin types, but the diode laser was better than the alexandrite laser because the former could penetrate deeper into the dermis layer.

  8. Comparison of adverse events of laser and light-assisted hair removal systems in skin types IV-VI.

    PubMed

    Breadon, Jonith Y; Barnes, Chad A

    2007-01-01

    Photoepilation, utilizing lasers and noncoherent light sources, is designed to irradiate as much of the follicular unit as possible, with melanin as the target chromophore. Wavelength absorption should generate energy sufficient to heat and destroy the hair follicle, while preserving the surrounding tissue. When performing photoepilation on African-American skin (Fitzpatrick skin types IV-VI) a greater risk of potential epidermal adverse events, such as dyspigmentation, blistering, crusting, edema, and subsequent scarring, is possible. To reduce epidermal melanin absorption of energy longer wavelengths are considered safer for use on Fitzpatrick skin types IV to VI. This article reviews and compares the reported incidences of adverse events in African-American skin, utilizing lasers and noncoherent light sources for assisted hair removal.

  9. Long-term clinical evaluation of a 800-nm long-pulsed diode laser with a large spot size and vacuum-assisted suction for hair removal.

    PubMed

    Ibrahimi, Omar A; Kilmer, Suzanne L

    2012-06-01

    The long-pulsed diode (800-810-nm) laser is one of the most commonly used and effective lasers for hair removal. Limitations of currently available devices include a small treatment spot size, treatment-associated pain, and the need for skin cooling. To evaluate the long-term hair reduction capabilities of a long-pulsed diode laser with a large spot size and vacuum assisted suction. Thirty-five subjects were enrolled in a prospective, self-controlled, single-center study of axillary hair removal. The study consisted of three treatments using a long-pulsed diode laser with a large spot size and vacuum-assisted suction at 4- to 6-week intervals with follow-up visits 6 and 15 months after the last treatment. Hair clearance was quantified using macro hair-count photographs taken at baseline and at 6- and 15-month follow-up visits. Changes in hair thickness and color, levels of treatment-associated pain, and adverse events were additional study endpoints. There was statistically significant hair clearance at the 6 (54%) and 15-month (42%) follow-up visits. Remaining hairs were thinner and lighter at the 15-month follow-up visit, and the majority of subjects reported feeling up to mild to moderate pain during treatment without the use of pretreatment anesthesia or skin cooling. A long-pulsed diode laser with a large spot size and vacuum-assisted suction is safe and effective for long-term hair removal. This is the largest prospective study to evaluate long-term hair removal and the first to quantify decreases in hair thickness and darkness with treatment. © 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Static and dynamic modes of 810 nm diode laser hair removal compared: A clinical and histological study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims Laser hair removal has recently become a major indication. Diode lasers have become commercially available offering two modes of application: a stamping or static mode, and a dynamic mode whereby the handpiece is continuously moved across the target tissue. The present study was designed to compare the efficacy of these two approaches clinically and histologically. Subjects and Methods Twenty-five subjects participated in the study, 12 males and 13 females, ages ranging from 20 to 57 yr (Mean age 41.6 yr). A baseline hair count was performed on both the target areas. The ms-pulsed diode laser delivered 810 nm via a handpiece with a cooled tip, offering both static and dynamic modes which were used on the subjects' left and right crura, respectively. Pain during treatment was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS) and gross inspection was performed immediately after treatment for any abnormality in the treated skin. Hair counts were performed on both crura at 1 and 3 months after the treatment, and compared with the baseline counts. Biopsies were performed in the dynamic mode treated skin at baseline and at 1 month after the treatment, and assessed with light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results All subjects completed the study. Compared with baseline, hair counts were significantly lower at 1 and 3 months post-treatment with no significant difference between the static and dynamic laser depilation modes, nor in the severity of the pain experienced during the procedure. Histologically, degenerative changes in the hair follicles were noted immediately after laser treatment. At one month, cystic formation was seen in the hair follicles showing a strong tendency towards apoptotic cell death. Conclusions With the diode laser system and at the parameters used in the present study, high depilation efficacy was seen with no significant difference between the static and dynamic modes. Interestingly

  11. Hypertrichotic Becker's nevi treated with combination 1,550 nm non-ablative fractional photothermolysis and laser hair removal.

    PubMed

    Balaraman, Brundha; Friedman, Paul M

    2016-04-01

    The removal of Becker's nevi poses a significant challenge due to limited available therapeutic options and increased risk of adverse effects, including scarring and dyspigmentation. Herein, we present the use of the non-ablative fractional photothermolysis in combination with laser hair removal for the treatment of hypertrichotic Becker's nevi. Retrospective analysis of three patients with Becker's nevi revealed that two patients with hypertrichotic Becker's nevi had greater than 75% clearance with combination therapy, and one patient with atrichotic Becker's nevus had a similar result with monotherapy non-ablative fractional photothermolysis. This report demonstrates the utility and safety of combination non-ablative fractional resurfacing and laser hair removal for the treatment of hypertrichotic Becker's nevi, and monotherapy non-ablative fractional photothermolysis for atrichotic Becker's nevi. Further comparative studies are necessary to determine optimal laser parameters, treatment schedules, and response duration. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Standard guidelines of care: laser and IPL hair reduction.

    PubMed

    Buddhadev, Rajesh M

    2008-01-01

    Laser-assisted hair removal, Laser hair removal, Laser and light-assisted hair removal, Laser and light-assisted, long-term hair reduction, IPL photodepilation, LHE photodepilation; all these are acceptable synonyms. Laser (Ruby, Nd Yag, Alexandrite, Diode), intense pulse light, light and heat energy system are the different light-/Laser-based systems used for hair removal; each have its advantages and disadvantages. The word "LONG-TERM HAIR REDUCTION" should be used rather than permanent hair removal. Patient counseling is essential about the need for multiple sessions. PHYSICIANS' QUALIFICATIONS: Laser hair removal may be practiced by any dermatologist, who has received adequate background training during postgraduation or later at a centre that provides education and training in Lasers or in focused workshops providing such training. The dermatologist should have adequate knowledge of the machines, the parameters and aftercare. The physician may allow the actual procedure to be performed under his/her direct supervision by a trained nurse assistant/junior doctor. However, the final responsibility for the procedure would lie with the physician. The procedure may be performed in the physician's minor procedure room. Investigations to rule out any underlying cause for hair growth are important; concurrent drug therapy may be needed. Laser parameters vary with area, type of hair, and the machine used. Full knowledge about the machine and cooling system is important. Future maintenance treatments may be needed.

  13. Efficacy and Safety of Hair Removal with a Long-Pulsed Diode Laser Depending on the Spot Size: A Randomized, Evaluators-Blinded, Left-Right Study.

    PubMed

    Jo, Seong Jin; Kim, Jin Yong; Ban, Juhee; Lee, Youngjoo; Kwon, Ohsang; Koh, Wooseok

    2015-10-01

    The efficacy of the long-pulsed diode laser (LPDL) in hair removal is determined with various physical parameters. Recently, LPDLs with a larger spot size are commercially available; however, the independent effect of spot size on hair removal has not been studied. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of the LPDL in hair removal depending on the spot size. A randomized, evaluators-blind, intrapatient comparison (left vs. right) trial was designed. Ten healthy Korean women received three hair removal treatment sessions on both armpits with the 805-nm LPDL and followed for 3 months. A 10×10 mm handpiece (D1) or a 10×30 mm handpiece (D3) was randomly assigned to the right or left axilla. The fluence, pulse duration, and epidermal cooling temperature were identical for both armpits. Hair clearance was quantified with high-resolution photos taken at each visit. Postprocedural pain was quantified on a visual analogue scale. Adverse events were evaluated by physical examination and the patients' self-report. The mean hair clearance at 3 months after three treatment sessions was 38.7% and 50.1% on the armpits treated with D1 and D3, respectively (p=0.028). Procedural pain was significantly greater in the side treated with D3 (p=0.009). Serious adverse events were not observed. Given that the pulse duration, fluence, and epidermal cooling were identical, the 805-nm LPDL at the three times larger spot size showed an efficacy improvement of 29.5% in axillary hair removal without serious adverse events.

  14. Long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser vs. intense pulsed light for hair removal in dark skin: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ismail, S A

    2012-02-01

    Although several lasers meet the wavelength criteria for selective follicular destruction, the treatment of darker skin phototypes is particularly challenging because absorption of laser energy by the targeted hairs is compromised by an increased concentration of epidermal melanin. To compare satisfaction level, safety and effectiveness of a long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser and intense pulsed light (IPL) in axillary hair reduction in subjects with dark skin. The study design was a within-patient, right-left, assessor-blinded, comparison of long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser and IPL. Fifty women (skin phototypes IV-VI) volunteered for removal of axillary hair. Five sessions at 4- to 6-week intervals were performed. Hair counts at both sides were compared at baseline and 6months after the last session. Final overall evaluations were performed by subjects and clinician at the end of the study. Satisfaction was scored for both devices. Thirty-nine women completed the study. At 6months, the decrease in hair counts on the laser side (79·4%, P<0·001 vs. pretreatment) was significantly (P<0·01) greater than that on the IPL side (54·4%, P<0·01 vs. pretreatment). Only temporary adverse effects were reported at both sides. Higher pain scores and more inflammation were reported with Nd:YAG laser; however, it was preferred by 29 volunteers (74%). Volunteers reported higher satisfaction score with Nd:YAG laser (P<0·01). Dark skin can be treated by both systems safely and effectively; however, long-pulsed (1064 nm) Nd:YAG laser is more effective as reported by both subjects and clinician. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  15. Comparison of hair removal efficacy and side effect of neodymium:Yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser and intense pulsed light systems (18-month follow-up).

    PubMed

    Szima, Georgina Zita; Janka, Eszter Anna; Kovács, Anikó; Bortély, Blanka; Bodnár, Edina; Sawhney, Irina; Szabó, Éva; Remenyik, Éva

    2017-06-01

    Photothermal destruction of hair shaft melanin with intense pulsed light (IPL) and neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser has become an effective treatment of hair removal. Our aim was to compare efficacy, satisfactory levels, safety, and side effects of Nd:YAG and IPL in hair reduction. This was a prospective randomized intrapatient, right-left, assessor-blinded comparison of Nd:YAG vs IPL. There were 38 volunteers recruited. Seven sessions were performed. Hair count, efficacy, and side effects were compared before and after each treatment and 6 months after the last treatment. In respect of 12 volunteers, we have examined the reduction in hair after 18 months. Initially, there was no significant difference between the numbers of hair follicles. There was significant hair reduction after each treatment on the Nd:YAG-treated side. The hair reduction became significant after the third treatment with IPL. Comparison of the efficacy of the two devices on each visits showed no significant difference. There was statistically lower pain score on the IPL-treated side and statistically higher erythema, burning sensation, and edema on the Nd:YAG-treated side. Statistically lower side effect score was observed on the IPL-treated side. Eight months after the last treatment, there was significant hair reduction both on the Nd:YAG and on the IPL-treated side, and there was no difference between the efficacy. The patient satisfaction scores were higher with the IPL. Unwanted hair can be reduced by both systems safely and effectively; however, IPL has less side effects and higher satisfaction scores. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Clinical assessment of a new 755 nm diode laser for hair removal: Efficacy, safety and practicality in 56 patients.

    PubMed

    Royo, Josefina; Moreno-Moraga, Javier; Trelles, Mario A

    2017-04-01

    Recently, the first diode laser with a wavelength of 755 nm for in-motion hair removal came on the market. The objective of this study was to check its efficacy, safety, and practicality under different options for its use. A prospective study in a heterogeneous group of 56 patients who had hair removed from various areas of their bodies using three different treatment methods. Four sessions were scheduled in all cases, with a gap of 3 months between each session. Efficacy was assessed by counting of hairs per cm 2 and the adverse effects in each session were recorded in detail in the patients' clinical histories. The three tested options achieved a significant reduction in the number of hairs (P < 0.0001). The average clearances achieved using the conventional method (HR), the in-motion method (SHR) and the stacking method were 75.5%, 70.1%, and 41.9%, respectively. The degree of satisfaction of the participants on a scale of 0-10 was 7.7, 8.1 and 6.8, respectively. Erythema and perifollicular edema, which are characteristic responses in laser hair removal, were observed. The incidence of burns was 1.33%. The 755-nm diode laser performed efficiently and safely in all the tested areas, using high total accumulated energy per surface unit. Based on our prior experience with other equipment, the results are promising. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:355-360, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Efficacy, tolerability, and safety of a long-pulsed ruby laser system in the removal of unwanted hair.

    PubMed

    Polderman, M C; Pavel, S; le Cessie, S; Grevelink, J M; van Leeuwen, R L

    2000-03-01

    Unwanted hair growth is a common, usually physiologic phenomenon. In this study the efficacy and tolerability of a long-pulsed ruby laser system was compared with needle electrolysis and hot wax on three parts of the body. Thirty volunteers were treated three times on the forearm (n = 10), on the face (n = 10), or in the pubic area (n = 10) with 25 J/cm2 laser, 40 J/cm2 laser, needle electrolysis, and hot wax therapy. The 25 J/cm2 and 40 J/cm2 laser treated sites showed a statistically significant decrease (38% and 49%, respectively) in the number of hairs at the first visit after the last treatment compared to the pretreatment hair counts. No significant decrease was observed in the needle electrolysis and hot wax treated sites. Laser therapy yielded better results on the forearm than on the face or pubic area and was scored as the least painful. The long-pulsed ruby laser is a promising, well-tolerated method of epilation.

  18. Removing Pubic Hair (For Young Men)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Removing Pubic Hair Posted under Health Guides . Updated 23 March 2017. + ... Twitter email Print Some guys trim their pubic hair, others prefer to shave or wax, and most ...

  19. Effects of hair removal alexandrite laser on biometric parameters of the skin.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Shiva; Abolhasani, Ehsan; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammadali

    2016-04-01

    The effects of alexandrite laser (AL) on skin parameters such as melanin content, skin layer depth, elasticity, and density have not been investigated through biometric methods. We aim to assess the effect of AL on the skin parameters through biometric devices to determine whether it has positive effects on treated region. In this pretest-posttest study, we recruited patients who attended Laser Clinic of Skin and Stem Cell Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, from January through December 2014. Patients had to be free of any dermatologic conditions and lesion at the site of treatment or any contraindication to laser therapy. Baseline measurements were performed and patients received four sessions of AL therapy (spot size, 12 mm; fluence, 12 J/cm(2); and pulse width, 5 Hz) with 4-week intervals. Four weeks after the last treatment session, the same parameters were assessed that included skin color, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), dermis and epidermis density and depth (through skin ultrasonography), melanin content, erythema intensity, and skin elasticity. Biometric parameters of 33 patients (27 females [81.8%]), with mean (SD) age of 35.7 (9.5) years were evaluated. The mean percent changes of skin parameters were as follows: skin color, 5.88% through Visioface and by 56.8% through Colorimeter devices (became lighter); melanin content, -15.95%; TEWL, -2.96%; elasticity, +14.88%; dermis depth -19.01%; and dermis density, +1580.11% (P < 0.001 for changes in each parameter). AL could decrease melanin content of the skin and make the skin thinner while it could increase elasticity and density of epidermis and dermis, which might indicate increased collagen content of skin.

  20. Hair today, gone tomorrow: a comparison of body hair removal practices in gay and heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Martins, Yolanda; Tiggemann, Marika; Churchett, Libby

    2008-09-01

    Although hairlessness is rapidly becoming a component of the ideal male body, little research has examined men's concerns about their body hair or their hair removal practices. Samples of gay and heterosexual men completed questionnaires that assessed whether they had ever removed their back, buttock or pubic hair, the frequency with which they did so, the methods used and their self-reported reasons for removing this hair, as well as their level of appearance investment. Results indicated that many gay and heterosexual men remove their back, buttock and pubic hair regularly and that their primary reason for doing so is to maintain or improve their appearance. The frequency of hair removal was also associated with the motivational salience component of appearance investment. The findings offer further support to the premise that gay and heterosexual men exhibit similar body image concerns.

  1. Topical liposomal Rose Bengal for photodynamic white hair removal: randomized, controlled, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Samy, Nevien; Fadel, Maha

    2014-04-01

    Blond and white hair removal by laser is a complicated task with weak satisfactory results due to the deficiency in laser-absorbing chromophore. To investigate if repetitive sessions of photodynamic therapy (PDT) using external application of liposomal Rose bengal (RB) photosensitizer followed by intense pulsed light (IPL) exposure enables removal of gray and white hair. Rose bengal loaded in liposomes (LRB) was constructed, prepared in hydrogel, and was studied for some pharmaceutical properties. Penetration and selective hair follicle damage in mice skin were studied. Topical gel containing LRB was used for treating fifteen adult females who were complaining of facial white terminal hair. Unwanted facial hair was treated for three sessions at intervals of 4-6 weeks using intense pulsed light (IPL). At each session, the treatment area was pre-treated with topical LRB gel, while a control group of another 15 patients applied placebo gel before IPL treatment. Evaluations included hair regrowth, which was measured 4 weeks after each treatment session and at 6 months follow-up by counting the number of terminal hair compared with baseline pretreatment values. Treatment outcomes and complications if any were also reported. Average hair regrowth in the LRB group was 56% after 3 treatment cycles. After six-months follow up, average terminal hair count compared with baseline pretreatment showed 40% reduction and no recorded side effects. A significant difference (P<0.05) was seen compared with the control group; the clinical results were promising. Photodynamic hair removal using rose bengal-encapsulated liposomal gel in combination with IPL treatment showed significant efficacy in the treatment of white hair compared with a control group.

  2. Optimising Laser Tattoo Removal

    PubMed Central

    Sardana, Kabir; Ranjan, Rashmi; Ghunawat, Sneha

    2015-01-01

    Lasers are the standard modality for tattoo removal. Though there are various factors that determine the results, we have divided them into three logical headings, laser dependant factors such as type of laser and beam modifications, tattoo dependent factors like size and depth, colour of pigment and lastly host dependent factors, which includes primarily the presence of a robust immune response. Modifications in the existing techniques may help in better clinical outcome with minimal risk of complications. This article provides an insight into some of these techniques along with a detailed account of the factors involved in tattoo removal. PMID:25949018

  3. A feature-preserving hair removal algorithm for dermoscopy images.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Qaisar; Garcia, Irene Fondón; Emre Celebi, M; Ahmad, Waqar

    2013-02-01

    Accurate segmentation and repair of hair-occluded information from dermoscopy images are challenging tasks for computer-aided detection (CAD) of melanoma. Currently, many hair-restoration algorithms have been developed, but most of these fail to identify hairs accurately and their removal technique is slow and disturbs the lesion's pattern. In this article, a novel hair-restoration algorithm is presented, which has a capability to preserve the skin lesion features such as color and texture and able to segment both dark and light hairs. Our algorithm is based on three major steps: the rough hairs are segmented using a matched filtering with first derivative of gaussian (MF-FDOG) with thresholding that generate strong responses for both dark and light hairs, refinement of hairs by morphological edge-based techniques, which are repaired through a fast marching inpainting method. Diagnostic accuracy (DA) and texture-quality measure (TQM) metrics are utilized based on dermatologist-drawn manual hair masks that were used as a ground truth to evaluate the performance of the system. The hair-restoration algorithm is tested on 100 dermoscopy images. The comparisons have been done among (i) linear interpolation, inpainting by (ii) non-linear partial differential equation (PDE), and (iii) exemplar-based repairing techniques. Among different hair detection and removal techniques, our proposed algorithm obtained the highest value of DA: 93.3% and TQM: 90%. The experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm is highly accurate, robust and able to restore hair pixels without damaging the lesion texture. This method is fully automatic and can be easily integrated into a CAD system. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Chronic neuropathic facial pain after intense pulsed light hair removal. Clinical features and pharmacological management.

    PubMed

    Gay-Escoda, Cosme; Párraga-Manzol, Gabriela; Sánchez-Torres, Alba; Moreno-Arias, Gerardo

    2015-10-01

    Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) photodepilation is usually performed as a hair removal method. The treatment is recommended to be indicated by a physician, depending on each patient and on its characteristics. However, the use of laser devices by medical laypersons is frequent and it can suppose a risk of damage for the patients. Most side effects associated to IPL photodepilation are transient, minimal and disappear without sequelae. However, permanent side effects can occur. Some of the complications are laser related but many of them are caused by an operator error or mismanagement. In this work, we report a clinical case of a patient that developed a chronic neuropathic facial pain following IPL hair removal for unwanted hair in the upper lip. The specific diagnosis was painful post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathy, reference 13.1.2.3 according to the International Headache Society (IHS). Neuropathic facial pain, photodepilation, intense pulse light.

  5. Chronic neuropathic facial pain after intense pulsed light hair removal. Clinical features and pharmacological management

    PubMed Central

    Párraga-Manzol, Gabriela; Sánchez-Torres, Alba; Moreno-Arias, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) photodepilation is usually performed as a hair removal method. The treatment is recommended to be indicated by a physician, depending on each patient and on its characteristics. However, the use of laser devices by medical laypersons is frequent and it can suppose a risk of damage for the patients. Most side effects associated to IPL photodepilation are transient, minimal and disappear without sequelae. However, permanent side effects can occur. Some of the complications are laser related but many of them are caused by an operator error or mismanagement. In this work, we report a clinical case of a patient that developed a chronic neuropathic facial pain following IPL hair removal for unwanted hair in the upper lip. The specific diagnosis was painful post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathy, reference 13.1.2.3 according to the International Headache Society (IHS). Key words:Neuropathic facial pain, photodepilation, intense pulse light. PMID:26535105

  6. Prospective Evaluation of the Safety and Efficacy of a 1060-nm Large Spot Size, Vacuum-Assisted Hair Removal Diode Laser System in Asian/Pacific Fitzpatrick's Skin Types IV-V Patients.

    PubMed

    Tahiliani, Sushil T; Tahiliani, Harsh S

    2016-11-01

    Laser-based photoepilation of dark skin types demands a delicate combination of appropriate light wavelengths and spot size to achieve optimal epidermal-to-follicular energy absorption ratios. This prospective study assessed the axillary, arm, thigh, and back hair clearing ef cacy of the LightSheer In nity 1060 nm diode laser in 10 Fitzpatrick skin type IV-V patients. Each area was treated up to ve times, at 4-6-week intervals, after which immediate skin responses and adverse events were recorded. Hair count, color and coarseness were assessed before each treatment session, as well as 1, 3, and 6 months following the last session. Both patients and the treating physician rated the degree of improvement with time, and patients also ranked their satisfaction with the treatment outcome. Percent hair reduction from baseline gradually increased with treatment and peaked at 74.6%, 68.4%, and 65.7% for axillary, arm and thigh regions, respectively, 6 months following the last treatment session. Baseline hair growth patterns precluded effective selection of a representative area for hair counting. Patients satisfaction was consistently higher for axillary hair clearance rates, followed by thigh and arm responses. Throughout the follow-up period, the investigator rated 50-67% of the treated axillae as presenting "good" or "very good" hair clearance, and provided similar ratings for 67% of the treated thigh regions at both the 1 and 6 month follow-up sessions. Immediate responses to treatment were mild to moderate and short-lived and no incidents of brosis or scarring were reported. Taken together, the LightSheer In nity 1060 HS Handpiece provided for an ideal ef cacy-safety balance in treating dark-skinned patients, providing for long-term hair clearance with minimal downtime. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(11):1427-1434.

  7. "I think gorilla-like back effusions of hair are rather a turn-off": 'Excessive hair' and male body hair (removal) discourse.

    PubMed

    Terry, Gareth; Braun, Virginia

    2016-06-01

    Men's hair removal practices are becoming mainstream, seen as a consequence of changing masculine norms and men's relationships to their bodies. This is often presented as a straightforward 'shift' from men's ideal bodies as naturally hairy, to increased hairlessness, and the consequence on men's body concerns as inevitable. This paper analyses qualitative survey data from Aotearoa/New Zealand using critical thematic analysis, and describes three themes. Two themes capture contradictory ideas: that men's body hair is natural, and that men's body hair is unpleasant. A third theme introduces the concept of 'excess' hair, which allowed sense-making of this contradiction, mandating men's grooming of 'excessive' hair. However its vagueness as a concept may provoke anxiety for men resulting in hair removal. This paper adds to a body of research demonstrating a cultural transition: the ways changing masculinities, increased commodification of male bodies, and shifting gender roles impact on men's hair removal practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Body Hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... girlshealth.gov/ Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you ... removing pubic hair Ways to get rid of hair top Removing body hair can cause skin irritation, ...

  9. Fractional photothermolysis laser treatment of male pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won-Serk; Lee, Hye In; Lee, Jin Woong; Lim, Yun Young; Lee, Seung Jae; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Myeung Nam; Song, Kye Yong; Park, Won Serk

    2011-01-01

    Various trials have been conducted on the management of male pattern hair loss (MPHL). A variety of laser and light sources have been used for the treatment of MPHL. To understand the effects of a 1,550-nm fractional erbium-glass laser on the hair cycle in an alopecia mouse model and to study the clinical effects of the same laser used as treatment for MPHL. Irradiation was applied to the shaved skin of C3H/HeN mice using various energy and density settings and varied irradiation intervals. In a clinical pilot study involving human subjects, 20 participants were treated over five sessions at 2-week intervals. A fractional photothermolysis laser was used at the energy of 5 mJ and a total density of 300 spots/cm(2). In the animal study, the hair stimulation effects were dependent upon the energy level, density, and irradiation interval. The anagen conversion of hair and the increase in Wnt 5a, β-catenin signals were observed. In the human pilot study, incremental improvements in hair density and growth rate were observed. This pilot study showed that a 1,550-nm fractional erbium-glass laser might induce hair growth, but more intensive studies are required to clarify the clinical applications of this treatment. © 2010 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.

  10. Effect of a novel low-energy pulsed-light device for home-use hair removal.

    PubMed

    Alster, Tina S; Tanzi, Elizabeth L

    2009-03-01

    Removal of unwanted hair is the most popular skin treatment worldwide. Over the past decade, various lasers and light sources for epilation have been advocated for use in an office setting, although most people continue to treat unwanted hair with a variety of temporary physical methods (e.g., waxing, shaving) in a home setting, presumably due to cost and convenience factors. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a low-energy pulsed-light device intended for home-use hair removal. Twenty women (skin phototypes I-IV) with dark terminal hair in nonfacial sites (axilla, forearms, inguinal region, legs) self-administered three treatments at 2-week intervals using a handheld intense-pulsed-light device. Matched untreated skin sites were also studied. Hair counts and clinical photographs were obtained pretreatment and at 1, 3, and 6 months after the third treatment. Side effects and patient satisfaction scores were recorded. All patients showed a positive clinical response to treatment, with reduction of unwanted hair. No reduction of hair was noted in untreated matched areas. Hair counts were reduced 37.8% to 53.6% 6 months after the three treatments. Skin region influenced clinical response, with lower legs exhibiting greater hair reduction than arms and inguinal and axillary areas. Mild erythema was experienced in 25% of patients, but no other side effects or complications were encountered. Patient satisfaction scores were high, with all patients stating that they would purchase the device for future home use. CONCLUSIONS Low-energy pulsed light can be applied safely and effectively for at-home hair removal in a variety of nonfacial locations and skin phototypes I-IV.

  11. Laser and Light Treatments for Hair Reduction in Fitzpatrick Skin Types IV-VI: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Fayne, Rachel A; Perper, Marina; Eber, Ariel E; Aldahan, Adam S; Nouri, Keyvan

    2018-04-01

    Unwanted facial and body hair presents as a common finding in many patients, such as females with hirsutism. With advances in laser and light technology, a clinically significant reduction in hair can be achieved in patients with light skin. However, in patients with darker skin, Fitzpatrick skin types (FST) IV-VI, the higher melanin content of the skin interferes with the proposed mechanism of laser-induced selective photothermolysis, which is to target the melanin in the hair follicle to cause permanent destruction of hair bulge stem cells. Many prospective and retrospective studies have been conducted with laser and light hair-removal devices, but most exclude patients with darkly pigmented skin, considering them a high-risk group for unwanted side effects, including pigmentation changes, blisters, and crust formation. We reviewed the published literature to obtain studies that focused on hair reduction for darker skin types. The existing literature for this patient population identifies longer wavelengths as a key element of the treatment protocol and indicates neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG), diode, alexandrite, and ruby lasers as well as certain intense pulsed light sources for safe hair reduction with minimal side effects in patients with FST IV-VI, so long as energy settings and wavelengths are appropriate. Based on the findings in this review, safe and effective hair reduction for patients with FST IV-VI is achievable under proper treatment protocols and energy settings.

  12. Pubic hair preferences, reasons for removal, and associated genital symptoms: comparisons between men and women.

    PubMed

    Butler, Scott M; Smith, Nicole K; Collazo, Erika; Caltabiano, Lucia; Herbenick, Debby

    2015-01-01

    Pubic hair grooming and removal are common behaviors among men and women. However, little is known about the reasons for grooming, preferred pubic hairstyle of sexual partners, and symptoms associated with regular grooming. This study aims to assess pubic hair removal/grooming practices, pubic hairstyle preferences, and genital outcomes associated with pubic hair removal among men and women in a college sample. Data were gathered from 1,110 participants (671 women and 439 men) at a large public Midwestern university and a small Southern public university. Items assessed demographics, pubic hair grooming and removal practices in the past 4 weeks, reasons for pubic hair status, preference for pubic hairstyle of sexual partners, and symptoms associated with removal and grooming. Most (95%) participants had removed their pubic hair on at least one occasion in the past 4 weeks with shaving being the most commonly reported hair removal technique by women (82%) and men (49%). Women were significantly more likely to report their typical status as hair-free (50% vs. 19%; χ(2) = 165.528, P < 0.001) and men were significantly more likely to prefer a hair-free sexual partner (60% vs. 24%; χ(2) = 211.712, P < 0.001). Genital itching was experienced on at least one occasion by 80.3% of pubic hair groomers and was the most commonly reported side effect. Genital grooming and pubic hair removal are common practices among both men and women of college-age. Women are likely to report stronger associations with feelings of cleanliness, comfort, sex appeal, social norms of their peer group, and affordability as reasons for their chosen pubic hair style. Women also report more experiences with genital side effects of pubic hair removal, an expected result as women are removing pubic hair more frequently and more completely than their male counterparts. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  13. Laser Tattoo Removal: An Update.

    PubMed

    Naga, Lina I; Alster, Tina S

    2017-02-01

    Tattoo art has been around for thousands of years in every culture and is currently flourishing in all age groups, social classes, and occupations. Despite the rising popularity of tattoos, demand for their removal has also increased. While various treatments, including surgical excision, dermabrasion, and chemical destruction have historically been applied, over the past 2 decades, lasers have revolutionized the way tattoos are treated and have become the gold standard of treatment. To achieve optimal cosmetic outcome of treatment, lasers emitting high energies and short pulses are required to adequately destroy tattoo ink. We review the history of laser tattoo removal, outlining the challenges inherent in developing lasers that can most effectively remove tattoo particles while safely protecting skin from unwanted injury.

  14. Laser paint removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallets, T.

    1983-12-01

    The Laser Paint Stripper program is a three phase effort which includes: feasibility demonstration; prototype optimization; and implementation at our Air Logistic Centers (depots) by FY88. Major technical areas that make up the automated system include: (1) laser device with power and uptime to handle the number and size of aircraft (F-16 vs C-5A); (2) the beam transport and manipulation system; (3) controls for beam/aircraft safety, alignment, and surface condition sensors; (4) integration software; and (5) cleanup of residue products.

  15. Quantitative assessment of growing hair counts, thickness and colour during and after treatments with a low-fluence, home-device laser: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Thaysen-Petersen, D; Barbet-Pfeilsticker, M; Beerwerth, F; Nash, J F; Philipsen, P A; Staubach, P; Haedersdal, M

    2015-01-01

    At-home laser and intense pulsed-light hair removal continues to grow in popularity and availability. A relatively limited body of evidence is available on the course of hair growth during and after low-fluence laser usage. To assess growing hair counts, thickness and colour quantitatively during and after cessation of low-fluence laser treatment. Thirty-six women with skin phototypes I-IV and light to dark-brown axillary hairs were included. Entire axillary regions were randomized to zero or eight self-administered weekly treatments with an 810-nm home-use laser at 5·0-6·4 J cm(-2). Standardized clinical photographs were taken before each treatment and up to 3 months after the final treatment for computer-aided quantification of growing hair counts, thickness and colour. Thirty-two women completed the study protocol. During sustained treatment, there was a reduction in growing hair that reached a plateau of up to 59%, while remaining hairs became up to 38% thinner and 5% lighter (P < 0·001). The majority of subjects (77%) reported 'moderately' to 'much less hair' in treated than untreated axilla, and assessed remaining hairs as thinner and lighter (≥ 60%). After treatment cessation, hair growth gradually returned to baseline levels, and 3 months after the final treatment the count and thickness of actively growing hair exceeded pretreatment values by 29% and 7%, respectively (P ≤ 0·04). Sustained usage of low-fluence laser induced a stable reduction of growing hair counts, thickness and colour. The reduction was reversible and hairs regrew beyond baseline values after cessation of usage. Computer-aided image analysis was qualified for quantification of hair counts, thickness and colour after laser epilation. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  16. Complete regression of a melanocytic nevus under intense pulsed light therapy for axillary hair removal in a cosmetic center.

    PubMed

    Martín, José M; Monteagudo, Carlos; Bella, Rebeca; Reig, Irela; Jordá, Esperanza

    2012-01-01

    Intense pulsed light (IPL) therapy using noncoherent broad-spectrum light has been reported to be effective for hair removal, and also for treating superficial pigmented lesions like ephelides and solar lentigines. We report complete regression of a pigmented melanocytic nevus, histologically confirmed, after hair removal treatment with IPL. The use of lasers and IPL is a common procedure used by dermatologists and even other professions for the treatment of cosmetically troubling skin conditions. The main advantage of such treatment is a reduction of surgical scars, thus producing a favorable cosmetic outcome, but a major limitation is that histopathologic diagnosis is not usually obtained prior to treatment. Such devices should be carefully used in patients with potentially dangerous melanocytic lesions. We also review the recent literature regarding inadequate treatment of melanocytic lesions with lasers. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Microspectral investigation of hair of one girl during six years by laser emission analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surmenko, Elena L.; Sokolova, Tatiana N.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2001-10-01

    Multiple chemical elements of clinical and nutritional interest were measured in the hair of a girl - cerebral palsy patient. Sixteen samples of hair were cut and investigated to determine time and nutrition trends by using laser and arc emission spectroscopy.

  18. Risky business: is pubic hair removal by women associated with body image and sexual health?

    PubMed

    Grossman, Stephanie L; Annunziato, Rachel A

    2018-04-30

    Background: Body hair removal is a behaviour that has become normative among women in Westernised cultures, and is presented by the media as the feminine ideal, despite being painful and a potential cause of infection. Of concern, removal may be part of a more global pattern of appearance dissatisfaction and risky sexual behaviour. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationships among pubic hair removal, body image and sexual health indicators. Methods: Women (n=264; Mage=33.82, s.d.=11.13, range=18-66) completed self-report questionnaires assessing these constructs, including an assessment of body hair removal practices. Results: Greater appearance concerns (as measured by thin-ideal internalisation, appearance investment and self-objectification) and sexual health indicators (i.e. less condom use self-efficacy when a partner disapproves of condom use) all predicted greater importance of reasons for pubic hair removal (R2=0.315, F(8184)=9.97, P<0.001), controlling for age groups. Additionally, women who removed a greater amount of hair reported more thin-ideal internalisation and appearance investment than those who removed less hair. Conclusions: Women who express stronger reasoning for pubic hair removal, and remove a larger amount of it, may endorse problematic beliefs and behaviours particularly related to appearance concerns. It is important for practitioners to consider this practice as distinct from grooming and to be aware of its association with a broader array of risky beliefs and behaviours that can compromise women's well-being.

  19. Enhancing hair growth in male androgenetic alopecia by a combination of fractional CO2 laser therapy and hair growth factors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yue; Zhuo, Fenglin; Li, Linfeng

    2017-11-01

    Laser therapy and growth factors have been used as alternative treatments for male androgenetic alopecia (MAA). The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy and safety of hair growth factors alone or combined with ablative carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) fractional laser therapy in MAA. Twenty-eight men were enrolled in this randomized half-split study based on a left-head to right-head pattern. Fractional CO 2 laser treatment was unilaterally performed; hair growth factors were bilaterally applied. Six sessions with 2-week intervals were performed. Global photographs and dermoscopy assessments were performed at the baseline and 4 months after first treatment. Global photographs underwent blinded review by three independent dermatologists. Scanning electron microscopy was used to compare changes in hair-follicle phase and hair-shaft diameter. Twenty-seven participants completed the 4-month treatment schedule. One patient was lost. Mean hair density increased from 114 ± 27 to 143 ± 25/cm 2 (P < 0.001) in the combined group and from 113 ± 24 to 134 ± 19/cm 2 in the growth factor group (P < 0.001). The mean change from baseline between two groups was also compared (P = 0.003). Global photographs showed improvement in 93% (25/27) patients in the combined group and 67% (18/27) patients in the growth factor group. Under scanning electron microscopy, hair follicles appeared to transition from telogen to anagen, and hair-shaft diameter increased in five randomly selected patients. Ablative fractional CO 2 laser combined with hair growth factors may serve as an alternative treatment for MAA in individuals unwilling/unable to undergo medical or surgical treatment.

  20. Laser removal of sludge from steam generators

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, Henry D.

    1990-01-01

    A method of removing unwanted chemical deposits known as sludge from the metal surfaces of steam generators with laser energy is provided. Laser energy of a certain power density, of a critical wavelength and frequency, is intermittently focused on the sludge deposits to vaporize them so that the surfaces are cleaned without affecting the metal surface (sludge substrate). Fiberoptic tubes are utilized for laser beam transmission and beam direction. Fiberoptics are also utilized to monitor laser operation and sludge removal.

  1. Laser Tattoo Removal: A Clinical Update

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Stephanie GY; Goh, Chee Leok

    2015-01-01

    Techniques for tattoo removal have evolved significantly over the years. The commonly used Quality-switched (QS) ruby, alexandrite, and Nd:YAG lasers are the traditional workhorses for tattoo removal. Newer strategies using combination laser treatments, multi-pass treatments, and picosecond lasers offer promising results. The tattoo color and skin type of the patient are important considerations when choosing the appropriate laser. Standard protocols can be developed for the effective and safe treatment of tattoos. PMID:25949017

  2. Hair removal-related injuries in the United States, 1991-2014.

    PubMed

    Swain, Thomas A; Tully, Albert Scott; Redford, Travis; McGwin, Gerald

    2016-12-01

    Hair removal practices have changed in frequency and location on the body. Previous research on hair removal injuries has focused on a specific body region, age, or gender. This study sought to take a broader perspective of hair removal-associated injuries in the United States which sought treatment at emergency departments. Data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) from 1991 to 2014 were used to identify hair removal-related injuries. Incidence rates were determined for the overall population and stratified by gender and age category using US Census Bureau population estimates. From 1991 to 2014, there were an estimated 292 053 hair removal-associated injuries in the United States. The overall incidence rate was highest in 2013 (9/100 000). Those aged 65+ had the highest incidence from 1991 to 2010 with those aged 19-34 having the highest rate starting in 2011. When stratified by body region injured, males had highest injury rates to the face and females had highest rates to the lower limbs. Starting in 2010, those aged 19-34 had higher incidence particularly for pubic and trunk regions. The incidence of hair removal-associated injuries seen by emergency departments increased nearly ninefold between 1991 and 2013. Due to the increased incidence among 19- to 34-year-olds, caution should be taken particularly for this age group when undergoing depilatory practices. Overall, individuals should practice safe and acceptable usage of hair removal products to reduce the risk of injury. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Hair removal for Fitzpatrick skin types V and VI using light and heat energy technology.

    PubMed

    Sadick, Neil S; Krespi, Yoseph

    2006-09-01

    To determine the safety and efficacy of a light and heat energy (LHE)-based system (SkinStaion system; Radiancy Inc, Orangeburg, NY, USA) for hair removal in subjects with skin types V and VI. Thirty-one subjects with Fitzpatrick skin types V and VI were consented for treatment with the system. Twenty-six subjects completed the 12-week follow-up. Safety was evaluated at each visit and efficacy was evaluated at both follow-up visits. An average hair clearance of 41.7% from 57 treatment sites was reported at the 6-week follow-up visit and a 35.5% average hair clearance was reported at the 12-week follow-up. Edema was only reported in 2 cases (7.7%) of the study population. Eleven cases of erythema were reported following treatment. Treatment with the modified LHE system was safe and effective for hair removal in patients with skin types V and VI.

  4. Effect of needle size and type, reuse of needles, insertion speed, and removal of hair on contamination of joints with tissue debris and hair after arthrocentesis.

    PubMed

    Adams, Stephen B; Moore, George E; Elrashidy, Mohammed; Mohamed, Ahmed; Snyder, Paul W

    2010-08-01

    To assess joint contamination with tissue and hair after arthrocentesis of equine fetlock joints. Experimental. Limb specimens from 8 equine cadavers. Soft tissues including the joint capsule were harvested from the dorsal aspect of the fetlock joints and mounted on a wooden frame. Needles inserted through the joint tissue preparation were flushed into tissue culture plates that were examined for tissue and hair debris. Variables evaluated were gauge and type of needle (16, 18, 20, and 22 G sharp disposable needles and 20 G disposable spinal needles with stylet), number of times each needle was used (1, 2, 3, 4), length of hair (unclipped, clipped, shaved with razor), and needle insertion speed (fast, slow). Descriptive and statistical evaluations were performed. Tissue contamination was identified in 1145 of 1260 wells and hair contamination was identified in 384 of 1260 wells. Twenty gauge needles inserted through unclipped hair resulted in the least amount of hair contamination. Compared with 20 G needles with fast insertion 1 time through unclipped hair the odds ratios for contamination with hair were significantly greater for 16 G sharp disposable needles, 20 G spinal needles, clipped hair, shaved hair, and reuse of the needles. Spinal needles inserted through unclipped hair transferred many long hairs into the joint space. Reuse of needles for arthrocentesis should be avoided. Removal of hair is not indicated for arthrocentesis with sharp injection needles but is recommended when using spinal needles with stylets. Joint contamination with hair and tissue debris will be decreased by specific needle insertion techniques. Decreased contamination of joints may reduce the frequency of joint infections after arthrocentesis.

  5. Lasers for tattoo removal: a review.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Sonal; Elsaie, Mohamed L; Leiva, Angel; Nouri, Keyvan

    2010-09-01

    Tattoos have existed and have been used as an expression of art by man for ages-and so have the techniques to remove them. Lasers based on the principle of selective photothermolysis are now being used to remove black as well as colorful tattoos with varying successes. The commonly used lasers for tattoo removal are the Q-switched 694-nm ruby laser, the Q-switched 755-nm alexandrite laser, the 1,064-nm Nd:YAG laser, and the 532-nm Nd:YAG laser. Newer techniques and methods are evolving in tattoo removal with lasers. Choosing the right laser for the right tattoo color is necessary for a successful outcome. Our review aims to understand the principles of laser tattoo removal and their applications for different types and colors of tattoos. The review also highlights the complications that can occur such as dyspigmentation, allergic reactions, epidermal debris, ink darkening, and so on, in this process and how to prevent them.

  6. Robotic Laser Coating Removal System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    9 3.2 SELECTION OF TEST PLATFORM/FACILITY .................................. 9 3.3 TEST PLATFORM/FACILITY HISTORY...lasers are 4 efficient in converting electrical energy to coherent radiation and, thus, have widespread industrial use. In order to select an...completion of this evaluation a 6 kW CO2 laser from Rofin-Sinar was selected for use in the RLCRS. This laser provided the highest quality laser

  7. Hair ignition by dye laser for port-wine stain: risk factors evaluated.

    PubMed

    Molin, L; Hallgren, S

    1999-04-01

    Flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser is the preferred treatment for port-wine stain. Vascular hemoglobin and epidermal melanin are competing sites for dye laser absorption and damage. The case presented illustrates the potential hazard of ignition induced by dye laser treatment on the face of a patient receiving inhalation anesthesia. A 6-year-old girl with almost black hair was treated for a port-wine stain covering most of the right half of her face. She was treated with dye laser under general anesthesia administered by mask. A laser pulse close to the upper part of the eyebrow induced a blaze and the eyebrow was instantly destroyed by the fire. Regrowth of the eyebrow was complete after a few months. Hair specimens of various colors were exposed experimentally to dye laser irradiation in room and oxygen-saturated atmospheres. Risk factors of ignition are high laser dosage, a high oxygen level, repeated pulses and dark colored hair.

  8. Neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet long impulse laser for the elimination of superfluous hair: experiences and considerations from 3 years of activity.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, G A; Perrotta, A; Rossano, F; D'Andrea, F

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the results obtained with a modern apparatus for laser hair removal (neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet [Nd:YAG] laser at long impulses with a wave-length of 1,064 nm; Q-switched laser) over a follow-up period of 3 years. A large heterogeneous group of 480 patients was taken into consideration. These patients were treated according to a standard protocol with monthly checkups and a personalized protocol at deferred appointments. The results, discovered by means of the most objective procedure possible, were retrieved and put into a graph showing two different curves for the repopulation of hair. In their clinical travels, the authors observed an average variable regrowth of 40% to 65%, allowing them to affirm that laser hair removal using Nd:YAG at long impulses is decisively efficient in obtaining long-term results. The use of a protocol (denominated "prolonged monthly checkup") with laser sessions at ever-decreasing periods permits, among other things, more outstanding and advantageous results for the patient. Thanks to more efficiently synchronized phases of the biologic hair cycle, this shortens and moves the telegenic phases closer and also renders the anagenic phases (those in which the selective photoermolysis on the pilipheric follicle proves to be efficient) more efficient. Personalization of the treatment relative to the monthly health checkup sessions is of fundamental importance to the scope of obtaining the best results in terms of cost-benefit rate, provided submassimal fluxes are (i.e., those well-tolerated by the patient) used. All this allows hair removal that is not definitive, but which becomes progressively permanent (i.e., characterized by ever-growing periods of lack of hair sustained by sporadic maintenance laser sessions based on the individual's necessity).

  9. Single slit interference made easy with a strand of hair and a laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messer, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Students can easily measure the width of a strand of their own hair with a monochromatic light source such as a laser. This inexpensive activity engages students in an application of single slit diffraction using Babinet's principle.

  10. Robotic Laser Coating Removal System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    Materiel Command IRR Internal Rate of Return JTP Joint Test Protocol JTR Joint Test Report LARPS Large Area Robotic Paint Stripping LASER Light...use of laser paint stripping systems is applicable to depainting activities on large off-aircraft components and weapons systems for the Air Force...The use of laser paint stripping systems is applicable to depainting activities on large off-aircraft components and weapons systems for the Air

  11. Effect of helium-neon laser irradiation on hair follicle growth cycle of Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Shukla, S; Sahu, K; Verma, Y; Rao, K D; Dube, A; Gupta, P K

    2010-01-01

    We report the results of a study carried out to investigate the effect of helium-neon (He-Ne) laser (632.8 nm) irradiation on the hair follicle growth cycle of testosterone-treated and untreated mice. Both histology and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were used for the measurement of hair follicle length and the relative percentage of hair follicles in different growth phases. A positive correlation (R = 0.96) was observed for the lengths of hair follicles measured by both methods. Further, the ratios of the lengths of hair follicles in the anagen and catagen phases obtained by both methods were nearly the same. However, the length of the hair follicles measured by both methods differed by a factor of 1.6, with histology showing smaller lengths. He-Ne laser irradiation (at approximately 1 J/cm(2)) of the skin of both the control and the testosterone-treated mice was observed to lead to a significant increase (p < 0.05) in % anagen, indicating stimulation of hair growth. The study also demonstrates that OCT can be used to monitor the hair follicle growth cycle, and thus hair follicle disorders or treatment efficacy during alopecia. (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. High removal rate laser-based coating removal system

    DOEpatents

    Matthews, Dennis L.; Celliers, Peter M.; Hackel, Lloyd; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Dane, C. Brent; Mrowka, Stanley

    1999-11-16

    A compact laser system that removes surface coatings (such as paint, dirt, etc.) at a removal rate as high as 1000 ft.sup.2 /hr or more without damaging the surface. A high repetition rate laser with multiple amplification passes propagating through at least one optical amplifier is used, along with a delivery system consisting of a telescoping and articulating tube which also contains an evacuation system for simultaneously sweeping up the debris produced in the process. The amplified beam can be converted to an output beam by passively switching the polarization of at least one amplified beam. The system also has a personal safety system which protects against accidental exposures.

  13. The effect of a 1550 nm fractional erbium-glass laser in female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Lee, G-Y; Lee, S-J; Kim, W-S

    2011-12-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is the most common cause of hair loss in women, and its prevalence increases with advancing age. Affected women may experience psychological distress and social withdrawal. A variety of laser and light sources have been tried for treatment of hair loss, and some success has been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of a 1550 nm fractional erbium-glass laser in treatment of female pattern hair loss. Twenty eight ethnic South Korean patients with varying degrees of FPHL were enrolled in the study. Patients received ten treatments with a 1550 nm fractional Er:Glass Laser (Mosaic, Lutronic Co., Ltd, Seoul, South Korea) at 2-weeks intervals using the same parameters (5-10 mm tip, 6 mJ pulse energy, 800 spot/cm(2) density, static mode). Phototrichogram and global photographs were taken at baseline and at the end of laser treatment, and analysed for changes in hair density and hair shaft diameter. Global photographs underwent blinded review by three independent dermatologists using a 7-point scale. Patients also answered questionnaires assessing hair growth throughout the study. All adverse effects were reported during the study. Twenty seven patients completed a 5-month schedule of laser treatment. One patient was excluded during treatment due to occurrence of alopecia areata. At the initial visit, mean hair density was 100 ± 14/cm(2) , and mean hair thickness was 58 ± 12 μm. After 5 months of laser treatment, hair density showed a marked increase to 157 ± 28/cm(2) (P < 0.001), and hair thickness also increased to 75 ± 13 μm (P < 0.001). Global photographs showed improvement in 24 (87.5%) of the 27 patients. Two patients (7.4%) reported mild pruritus after laser treatment; however, these resolved within 2 h. A 1550 nm fractional erbium-glass laser irradiation may be an effective and safe treatment option for women with female pattern hair loss. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European

  14. Doppler laser imaging predicts response to topical minoxidil in the treatment of female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    McCoy, J; Kovacevic, M; Situm, M; Stanimirovic, A; Bolanca, Z; Goren, A

    2016-01-01

    Topical minoxidil is the only drug approved by the US FDA for the treatment of female pattern hair loss. Unfortunately, following 16 weeks of daily application, less than 40% of patients regrow hair. Several studies have demonstrated that sulfotransferase enzyme activity in plucked hair follicles predicts topical minoxidil response in female pattern hair loss patients. However, due to patients’ discomfort with the procedure, and the time required to perform the enzymatic assay it would be ideal to develop a rapid, non-invasive test for sulfotransferase enzyme activity. Minoxidil is a pro-drug converted to its active form, minoxidil sulfate, by sulfotransferase enzymes in the outer root sheath of hair. Minoxidil sulfate is the active form required for both the promotion of hair regrowth and the vasodilatory effects of minoxidil. We thus hypothesized that laser Doppler velocimetry measurement of scalp blood perfusion subsequent to the application of topical minoxidil would correlate with sulfotransferase enzyme activity in plucked hair follicles. In this study, plucked hair follicles from female pattern hair loss patients were analyzed for sulfotransferase enzyme activity. Additionally, laser Doppler velocimetry was used to measure the change in scalp perfusion at 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes, after the application of minoxidil. In agreement with our hypothesis, we discovered a correlation (r=1.0) between the change in scalp perfusion within 60 minutes after topical minoxidil application and sulfotransferase enzyme activity in plucked hairs. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the feasibility of using laser Doppler imaging as a rapid, non-invasive diagnostic test to predict topical minoxidil response in the treatment of female pattern hair loss.

  15. Perioperative hair removal: A review of best practice and a practice improvement opportunity.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Maureen; Barnden, Marsha; Johnson, Helen Boehm; Fauerbach, Loretta Litz; Graham, Denise; Edmiston, Charles E

    2018-06-01

    The current practice of perioperative hair removal reflects research-driven changes designed to minimize the risk of surgical wound infection. An aspect of the practice which has received less scrutiny is the clean-up of the clipped hair. This process is critical. The loose fibers represent a potential infection risk because of the micro-organisms they can carry, but their clean-up can pose a logistical problem because of the time required to remove them. Research has demonstrated that the most commonly employed means of clean-up, the use of adhesive tape or sticky mitts, can be both ineffective and time-consuming in addition to posing an infection risk from cross-contamination. Recently published research evaluating surgical clippers fitted with a vacuum-assisted hair collection device highlights the potential for significant practice improvement in the perioperative hair removal clean-up process. These improvements include not only further mitigation of potential infection risk but also substantial OR time and cost savings.

  16. The picosecond laser for tattoo removal.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Vincent M; Aldahan, Adam S; Mlacker, Stephanie; Shah, Vidhi V; Nouri, Keyvan

    2016-11-01

    The prevalence of tattoos continues to grow as modern society's stigma towards this form of body art shifts towards greater acceptance. Approximately one third of Americans aged 18-25 and 40 % of Americans aged 26-40 are tattooed. As tattoos continue to rise in popularity, so has the demand for an effective method of tattoo removal such as lasers. The various colors of tattoo inks render them ideal targets for specific lasers using the principle of selective photothermolysis. Traditional laser modalities employed for tattoo removal operate on pulse durations in the nanosecond domain. However, this pulse duration range is still too long to effectively break ink into small enough particles. Picosecond (10 -12 ) lasers have emerged at the forefront of laser tattoo removal due to their shorter pulse lengths, leading to quicker heating of the target chromophores, and consequently, more effective tattoo clearance. Recent studies have cited more effective treatment outcomes using picosecond lasers. Future comparative studies between picosecond lasers of various settings are necessary to determine optimal laser parameters for tattoo clearance.

  17. Hair regrowth through wound healing process after ablative fractional laser treatment in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jung Min; Jung, Han Mi; Goo, Boncheol; Park, Young Min

    2015-07-01

    Alopecia is one of the most common dermatological problems in the elderly; however, current therapies for it are limited by low efficacy and undesirable side effects. Although clinical reports on fractional laser treatment for various alopecia types are increasing, the exact mechanism remains to be clarified. The purposes of this study were to demonstrate the effect of ablative fractional laser treatment on hair follicle regrowth in vivo and investigate the molecular mechanism after laser treatment. Ablative CO2 fractional laser was applied to the shaved dorsal skin of 7-week-old C57BL/6 mice whose hair was in the telogen stage. After 12 mice were treated at various energy (10-40 mJ/spot) and density (100-400 spots/cm(2) ) settings to determine the proper dosage for maximal effect. Six mice were then treated at the decided dosage and skin specimens were sequentially obtained by excision biopsy from the dorsal aspect of each mouse. Tissue samples were used for the immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays to examine hair follicle status and their related molecules. The most effective dosage was the 10 mJ/spot and 300 spots/cm(2) setting. The anagen conversion of hair was observed in the histopathological examination, while Wnt/β-catenin expression was associated with hair regrowth in the immunohistochemistry and molecular studies. Ablative fractional lasers appear to be effective for inducing hair regrowth via activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in vivo. Our findings indicate that fractional laser treatment can potentially be developed as new treatment options for stimulating hair regrowth. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. High removal rate laser-based coating removal system

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, D.L.; Celliers, P.M.; Hackel, L.

    1999-11-16

    A compact laser system is disclosed that removes surface coatings (such as paint, dirt, etc.) at a removal rate as high as 1,000 ft{sup 2}/hr or more without damaging the surface. A high repetition rate laser with multiple amplification passes propagating through at least one optical amplifier is used, along with a delivery system consisting of a telescoping and articulating tube which also contains an evacuation system for simultaneously sweeping up the debris produced in the process. The amplified beam can be converted to an output beam by passively switching the polarization of at least one amplified beam. The systemmore » also has a personal safety system which protects against accidental exposures.« less

  19. Honey bee hairs and pollenkitt are essential for pollen capture and removal.

    PubMed

    Amador, Guillermo J; Matherne, Marguerite; Waller, D'Andre; Mathews, Megha; Gorb, Stanislav N; Hu, David L

    2017-03-23

    While insect grooming has been observed and documented for over one hundred years, we present the first quantitative analysis of this highly dynamic process. Pollinating insects, like honey bees, purposely cover themselves with millions of pollen particles that, if left ungroomed, would make sensing and controlled flight difficult. How do they get clean? We show that the hairs on insect eyes are tuned to the pollen they collect; namely, the hairs are spaced so that they suspend pollen above the body for easy removal by the forelegs. In turn, hair spacing on the foreleg dictates the leg's ability to store the pollen removed during each swipe. In tests with wax-covered honey bees, we show that hairy forelegs are necessary for pollen removal. Moreover, the viscous fluid found on the surface of pollen grains, or pollenkitt, greatly enhances adhesion. We find that bees accumulate twice as much pollen if pollenkitt is present. This study may help further understand pollination, as well as inform designs for mechanically-sensitive functional surfaces with micro- and nano-structures that are easier to keep clean.

  20. Optodynamic monitoring of laser tattoo removal.

    PubMed

    Cencič, Boris; Grad, Ladislav; Možina, Janez; Jezeršek, Matija

    2012-04-01

    The goal of this research is to use the information contained in the mechanisms occurring during the laser tattoo removal process. We simultaneously employed a laser-beam deflection probe (LBDP) to measure the shock wave and a camera to detect the plasma radiation, both originating from a high-intensity laser-pulse interaction with a tattoo. The experiments were performed in vitro (skin phantoms), ex vivo (marking tattoos on pig skin), and in vivo (professional and amateur decorative tattoos). The LBDP signal includes the information about the energy released during the interaction and indicates textural changes in the skin, which are specific for different skin and tattoo conditions. Using both sensors, we evaluated a measurement of threshold for skin damage and studied the effect of multiple pulses. In vivo results show that a prepulse reduces the interaction strength and that a single strong pulse produces better removal results.

  1. What's New for Laser Orbital Debris Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps, Claude; Lander, Mike

    2011-11-01

    Orbital debris in low Earth orbit (LEO) are now sufficiently dense that the use of space is threatened by runaway collision cascading. A problem predicted more than thirty years ago, the threat from debris larger than about 1cm is now a reality that we ignore at our peril. The least costly, and most comprehensive, solution is Laser Orbital Debris Removal (LODR). In this approach, a high power pulsed laser on the Earth creates a laser-ablation jet on the debris object's surface which provides the small impulse required to cause it to re-enter and burn up in the atmosphere. The LODR system should be located near the Equator, and includes the laser, a large, agile mirror, and systems for active detection, tracking and atmospheric path correction. In this paper, we discuss advances that have occurred since LODR was first proposed, which make this solution to the debris problem look quite realistic.

  2. Laser welding of removable partial denture frameworks.

    PubMed

    Brudvik, James S; Lee, Seungbum; Croshaw, Steve N; Reimers, Donald L; Reimers, Dave L

    2008-01-01

    To identify and measure distortions inherent in the casting process of a Class III mandibular cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) framework to illustrate the problems faced by the laboratory technician and the clinician and to measure the changes that occur during the correction of the fit discrepancy using laser welding. Five identical castings of a Co-Cr alloy partial denture casting were made and measured between 3 widely separated points using the x, y, and z adjustments of a Nikon Measurescope. The same measurements were made after each of the following clinical and laboratory procedures: sprue removal, sectioning of the casting into 3 parts through the posterior meshwork, fitting the segments to the master cast, picking up the segments using resin, and laser welding of the 3 segments. Measurements of all 5 castings showed a cross-arch decrease after sprue removal, an increase after fitting the segments to the master cast, and a slight decrease after resin pickup and laser welding. Within the limitations of this study, the findings suggest that precise tooth-frame relations can be established by resin pickup and laser welding of segments of Co-Cr removable partial denture frameworks.

  3. Hair sparing does not compromise real-time magnetic resonance imaging guided stereotactic laser fiber placement for temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shikha; Kumar, Kevin K; Rabon, Matthew J; Dolce, Dana; Halpern, Casey H

    2018-06-01

    Pre-operative scalp shaving is conventionally thought to simplify postoperative cranial wound care, lower the rate of wound infections, and ease optimal incision localization. Over the past few decades, some neurosurgeons have refrained from scalp shaving in order to improve patient satisfaction with brain surgery. However, this hair-sparing approach has not yet been explored in the growing field of magnetic resonance-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (MRgLITT). This study investigated the initial impact of a no-shave technique on post-operative wound infection rate as well as on entry and target accuracy in MRgLITT for mesial temporal epilepsy. Eighteen patients selected by the Stanford Comprehensive Epilepsy Program between November 2015 and August 2017 were included in the study. All patients underwent functional selective amygdalohippocampotomies using MRgLITT entirely within a diagnostic MRI suite. No hair was removed and no additional precautions were taken for hair or scalp care. Otherwise, routine protocols for surgical preparations and wound closure were followed. The study was performed under approval from Stanford University's Internal Review Board (IRB-37830). No post-operative wound infections or erosions occurred for any patient. The mean entry point error was 2.87 ± 1.3 mm and the mean target error was 1.0 ± 0.9 mm. There have been no other complications associated with this hair-sparing approach. The study's results suggest that hair sparing in MRgLITT surgery for temporal epilepsy does not increase the risk of wound complications or compromise accuracy. This preferred cosmetic approach may thus appeal to epilepsy patients considering such interventions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Low-Level Laser (Light) Therapy (LLLT) for Treatment of Hair Loss

    PubMed Central

    Avci, Pinar; Gupta, Gaurav K.; Clark, Jason; Wikonkal, Norbert; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Alopecia is a common disorder affecting more than half of the population worldwide. Androgenetic alopecia, the most common type, affects 50% of males over the age of 40 and 75% of females over 65. Only two drugs have been approved so far (minoxidil and finasteride) and hair transplant is the other treatment alternative. This review surveys the evidence for low-level laser therapy (LLLT) applied to the scalp as a treatment for hair loss and discusses possible mechanisms of actions. Methods and Materials Searches of PubMed and Google Scholar were carried out using keywords alopecia, hair loss, LLLT, photobiomodulation. Results Studies have shown that LLLT stimulated hair growth in mice subjected to chemotherapy-induced alopecia and also in alopecia areata. Controlled clinical trials demonstrated that LLLT stimulated hair growth in both men and women. Among various mechanisms, the main mechanism is hypothesized to be stimulation of epidermal stem cells in the hair follicle bulge and shifting the follicles into anagen phase. Conclusion LLLT for hair growth in both men and women appears to be both safe and effective. The optimum wavelength, coherence and dosimetric parameters remain to be determined. PMID:23970445

  5. Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) for treatment of hair loss.

    PubMed

    Avci, Pinar; Gupta, Gaurav K; Clark, Jason; Wikonkal, Norbert; Hamblin, Michael R

    2014-02-01

    Alopecia is a common disorder affecting more than half of the population worldwide. Androgenetic alopecia, the most common type, affects 50% of males over the age of 40 and 75% of females over 65. Only two drugs have been approved so far (minoxidil and finasteride) and hair transplant is the other treatment alternative. This review surveys the evidence for low-level laser therapy (LLLT) applied to the scalp as a treatment for hair loss and discusses possible mechanisms of actions. Searches of PubMed and Google Scholar were carried out using keywords alopecia, hair loss, LLLT, photobiomodulation. Studies have shown that LLLT stimulated hair growth in mice subjected to chemotherapy-induced alopecia and also in alopecia areata. Controlled clinical trials demonstrated that LLLT stimulated hair growth in both men and women. Among various mechanisms, the main mechanism is hypothesized to be stimulation of epidermal stem cells in the hair follicle bulge and shifting the follicles into anagen phase. LLLT for hair growth in both men and women appears to be both safe and effective. The optimum wavelength, coherence and dosimetric parameters remain to be determined. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Fixed, low radiant exposure vs. incremental radiant exposure approach for diode laser hair reduction: a randomized, split axilla, comparative single-blinded trial.

    PubMed

    Pavlović, M D; Adamič, M; Nenadić, D

    2015-12-01

    Diode lasers are the most commonly used treatment modalities for unwanted hair reduction. Only a few controlled clinical trials but not a single randomized controlled trial (RCT) compared the impact of various laser parameters, especially radiant exposure, onto efficacy, tolerability and safety of laser hair reduction. To compare the safety, tolerability and mid-term efficacy of fixed, low and incremental radiant exposures of diode lasers (800 nm) for axillary hair removal, we conducted an intrapatient, left-to-right, patient- and assessor-blinded and controlled trial. Diode laser (800 nm) treatments were evaluated in 39 study participants (skin type II-III) with unwanted axillary hairs. Randomization and allocation to split axilla treatments were carried out by a web-based randomization tool. Six treatments were performed at 4- to 6-week intervals with study subjects blinded to the type of treatment. Final assessment of hair reduction was conducted 6 months after the last treatment by means of blinded 4-point clinical scale using photographs. The primary endpoint was reduction in hair growth, and secondary endpoints were patient-rated tolerability and satisfaction with the treatment, treatment-related pain and adverse effects. Excellent reduction in axillary hairs (≥ 76%) at 6-month follow-up visit after receiving fixed, low and incremental radiant exposure diode laser treatments was obtained in 59% and 67% of study participants respectively (Z value: 1.342, P = 0.180). Patients reported lower visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score on the fixed (4.26) than on the incremental radiant exposure side (5.64) (P < 0.0003). The only side-effect was mild and transient erythema. Subjects better tolerated the fixed, low radiant exposure protocol (P = 0.03). The majority of the study participants were satisfied with both treatments. Both low and incremental radiant exposures produced similar hair reduction and high and comparable patient satisfaction. However, low radiant

  7. Hair Removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... razors are completely disposable, some have a disposable blade, and some are electric. Guys often shave their ... slowly, pulling looser areas of skin taut before running the razor over them. Change razors often to ...

  8. HairMax LaserComb laser phototherapy device in the treatment of male androgenetic alopecia: A randomized, double-blind, sham device-controlled, multicentre trial.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Matt; Charles, Glenn; Heyman, Eugene; Michaels, David

    2009-01-01

    The use of low levels of visible or near infrared light for reducing pain, inflammation and oedema, promoting healing of wounds, deeper tissue and nerves, and preventing tissue damage has been known for almost 40 years since the invention of lasers. The HairMax LaserComb is a hand-held Class 3R lower level laser therapy device that contains a single laser module that emulates 9 beams at a wavelength of 655 nm (+/-5%). The device uses a technique of parting the user's hair by combs that are attached to the device. This improves delivery of distributed laser light to the scalp. The combs are designed so that each of the teeth on the combs aligns with a laser beam. By aligning the teeth with the laser beams, the hair can be parted and the laser energy delivered to the scalp of the user without obstruction by the individual hairs on the scalp. The primary aim of the study was to assess the safety and effectiveness of the HairMax LaserComb laser phototherapy device in the promotion of hair growth and in the cessation of hair loss in males diagnosed with androgenetic alopecia (AGA). This double-blind, sham device-controlled, multicentre, 26-week trial randomized male patients with Norwood-Hamilton classes IIa-V AGA to treatment with the HairMax LaserComb or the sham device (2 : 1). The sham device used in the study was identical to the active device except that the laser light was replaced by a non-active incandescent light source. Of the 110 patients who completed the study, subjects in the HairMax LaserComb treatment group exhibited a significantly greater increase in mean terminal hair density than subjects in the sham device group (p < 0.0001). Consistent with this evidence for primary effectiveness, significant improvements in overall hair regrowth were demonstrated in terms of patients' subjective assessment (p < 0.015) at 26 weeks over baseline. The HairMax LaserComb was well tolerated with no serious adverse events reported and no statistical difference in

  9. Analysis of the penetration of a caffeine containing shampoo into the hair follicles by in vivo laser scanning microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lademann, J.; Richter, H.; Schanzer, S.; Klenk, A.; Sterry, W.; Patzelt, A.

    2010-02-01

    In previous in vitro investigations, it was demonstrated that caffeine is able to stimulate the hair growth. Therefore, a penetration of caffeine into the hair follicle is necessary. In the present study, in vivo laser scanning microscopy (LSM) was used to investigate the penetration and storage of a caffeine containing shampoo into the hair follicles. It was shown that a 2-min contact time of the shampoo with the skin was enough to accumulate significant parts of the shampoo in the hair follicles. A penetration of the shampoo up to a depth of approx. 200 μm could be detected, which represents the detection limit of the LSM. At this depth, the close network of the blood capillaries surrounding the hair follicles commences. Even after 24 h, the substance was still detectable in the hair follicles. This demonstrates the long-term reservoir function of the hair follicles for topically applied substances such as caffeine.

  10. Clinical effects of non-ablative and ablative fractional lasers on various hair disorders: a case series of 17 patients.

    PubMed

    Cho, Suhyun; Choi, Min Ju; Zheng, Zhenlong; Goo, Boncheol; Kim, Do-Young; Cho, Sung Bin

    2013-04-01

    Both ablative and non-ablative fractional lasers have been applied to various uncommon hair disorders. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the clinical effects of fractional laser therapy on the course of primary follicular and perifollicular pathologies and subsequent hair regrowth. A retrospective review of 17 patients with uncommon hair disorders - including ophiasis, autosomal recessive woolly hair/hypotrichosis, various secondary cicatricial alopecias, pubic hypotrichosis, frontal fibrosing alopecia, and perifolliculitis abscedens et suffodiens - was conducted. All patients had been treated with non-ablative and/or ablative fractional laser therapies. The mean clinical improvement score in these 17 patients was 2.2, while the mean patient satisfaction score was 2.5. Of the 17 subjects, 12 (70.6%) demonstrated a clinical response to non-ablative and/or ablative fractional laser treatments, including individuals with ophiasis, autosomal recessive woolly hair/hypotrichosis, secondary cicatricial alopecia (scleroderma and pressure-induced alopecia), frontal fibrosing alopecia, and perifolliculitis abscedens et suffodiens. Conversely, patients with long-standing ophiasis, surgical scar-induced secondary cicatricial alopecia, and pubic hypotrichosis did not respond to fractional laser therapy. Our findings demonstrate that the use of non-ablative and/or ablative fractional lasers promoted hair growth in certain cases of uncommon hair disorders without any remarkable side effects.

  11. Laser cleaning of steel for paint removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G. X.; Kwee, T. J.; Tan, K. P.; Choo, Y. S.; Hong, M. H.

    2010-11-01

    Paint removal is an important part of steel processing for marine and offshore engineering. For centuries, a blasting techniques have been widely used for this surface preparation purpose. But conventional blasting always has intrinsic problems, such as noise, explosion risk, contaminant particles, vibration, and dust. In addition, processing wastes often cause environmental problems. In recent years, laser cleaning has attracted much research effort for its significant advantages, such as precise treatment, and high selectivity and flexibility in comparison with conventional cleaning techniques. In the present study, we use this environmentally friendly technique to overcome the problems of conventional blasting. Processed samples are examined with optical microscopes and other surface characterization tools. Experimental results show that laser cleaning can be a good alternative candidate to conventional blasting.

  12. Enhancing hair follicle regeneration by nonablative fractional laser: Assessment of irradiation parameters and tissue response.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yueh-Feng; Wang, Shiou-Han; Wu, Pei-Shan; Fan, Sabrina Mai-Yi; Chiu, Hsien-Yi; Tsai, Tsung-Hua; Lin, Sung-Jan

    2015-04-01

    Identification of methods to enhance anagen entry can be helpful for alopecia. Recently, nonablative laser has been proposed as a potential treatment for alopecia. However, how the laser parameters affect stem cell activity, hair cycles and the associated side effects have not been well characterized. Here we examine the effects of irradiation parameters of 1,550-nm fractional laser on hair cycles. The dorsal skin of eight-week-old female C57BL/6 mice with hair follicles in synchronized telogen was shaved and irradiated with a 1,550-nm fractional erbium-glass laser (Fraxel RE:STORE (SR1500) Laser System, Solta Medical, U.S.A.) with varied beam energies (5-35 mJ) and beam densities (500-3500 microthermal zones/cm(2) ). The cutaneous changes were evaluated both grossly and histologically. Hair follicle stem cell activity was detected by BrdU incorporation and changes in gene expression were quantified by real-time PCR. Direct thermal injury to hair follicles could be observed early after irradiation, especially at higher beam energy. Anagen induction in the irradiated skin showed an all-or-non change. Anagen induction and ulcer formation were affected by the combination of beam energy and density. The lowest beam energy of 5 mJ failed to promote anagen entry at all beam densities tested. As beam energy increased from 10 mJ to 35 mJ, we found a decreasing trend of beam density that could induce anagen entry within 7-9 days with activation of hair follicle stem cells. Beam density above the pro-regeneration density could lead to ulcers and scarring followed by anagen entry in adjacent skin. Analysis of inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, revealed that transient moderate inflammation was associated with anagen induction and intense prolonged inflammation preceded ulcer formation. To avoid side effects of hair follicle injury and scarring, appropriate combination of beam energy and density is required. Parameters outside the therapeutic

  13. Low level laser therapy and hair regrowth: an evidence-based review.

    PubMed

    Zarei, Mina; Wikramanayake, Tongyu C; Falto-Aizpurua, Leyre; Schachner, Lawrence A; Jimenez, Joaquin J

    2016-02-01

    Despite the current treatment options for different types of alopecia, there is a need for more effective management options. Recently, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) was evaluated for stimulating hair growth. Here, we reviewed the current evidence on the LLLT effects with an evidence-based approach, focusing more on randomized controlled studies by critically evaluating them. In order to investigate whether in individuals presenting with hair loss (male pattern hair loss (MPHL), female pattern hair loss (FPHL), alopecia areata (AA), and chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA)) LLLT is effective for hair regrowth, several databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Database were searched using the following keywords: Alopecia, Hair loss, Hair growth, Low level laser therapy, Low level light therapy, Low energy laser irradiation, and Photobiomodulation. From the searches, 21 relevant studies were summarized in this review including 2 in vitro, 7 animal, and 12 clinical studies. Among clinical studies, only five were randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which evaluated LLLT effect on male and female pattern hair loss. The RCTs were critically appraised using the created checklist according to the Critical Appraisal for Therapy Articles Worksheet created by the Center of Evidence-Based Medicine, Oxford. The results demonstrated that all the performed RCTs have moderate to high quality of evidence. However, only one out of five studies performed intention-to-treat analysis, and only another study reported the method of randomization and subsequent concealment of allocation clearly; all other studies did not include this very important information in their reports. None of these studies reported the treatment effect of factors such as number needed to treat. Based on this review on all the available evidence about effect of LLLT in alopecia, we found that the FDA-cleared LLLT devices are both safe and effective in patients with MPHL and FPHL

  14. Laser space debris removal: now, not later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps, Claude R.

    2015-02-01

    Small (1-10cm) debris in low Earth orbit (LEO) are extremely dangerous, because they spread the breakup cascade depicted in the movie "Gravity." Laser-Debris-Removal (LDR) is the only solution that can address both large and small debris. In this paper, we briefly review ground-based LDR, and discuss how a polar location can dramatically increase its effectiveness for the important class of sun-synchronous orbit (SSO) objects. No other solutions address the whole problem of large ( 1000cm, 1 ton) as well as small debris. Physical removal of small debris (by nets, tethers and so on) is impractical because of the energy cost of matching orbits. We also discuss a new proposal which uses a space-based station in low Earth orbit (LEO), and rapid, head-on interaction in 10- 40s rather than 4 minutes, with high-power bursts of 100ps, 355nm pulses from a 1.5m diameter aperture. The orbiting station employs "heat-capacity" laser mode with low duty cycle to create an adaptable, robust, dualmode system which can lower or raise large derelict objects into less dangerous orbits, as well as clear out the small debris in a 400-km thick LEO band. Time-average laser optical power is less than 15kW. The combination of short pulses and UV wavelength gives lower required energy density (fluence) on target as well as higher momentum coupling coefficient. This combination leads to much smaller mirrors and lower average power than the ground-based systems we have considered previously. Our system also permits strong defense of specific assets. Analysis gives an estimated cost of about 1k each to re-enter most small debris in a few months, and about 280k each to raise or lower 1-ton objects by 40km. We believe it can do this for 2,000 such large objects in about four years. Laser ablation is one of the few interactions in nature that propel a distant object without any significant reaction on the source.

  15. Er:YAG laser-assisted hair transplantation in cicatricial alopecia.

    PubMed

    Podda, M; Spieth, K; Kaufmann, R

    2000-11-01

    Autologous hair transplantation and its combination with flap or reduction procedures is a common surgical approach to cover defects in cicatricial alopecias. Due to the poor recipient conditions present in scar tissue, it is crucial to minimize the trauma exerted on implantation holes in order to achieve good transplantation results. We sought to evaluate the "cold"-ablative properties of the Er:YAG laser for the generation of recipient holes in cicatricial alopecia. Patients with cicatricial alopecia of diverse etiology were treated with Er:YAG laser-assisted hair transplantation. Mini- or micrografts were inserted into recipient holes ablated with a pulse energy of 900-1200 mJ and a spot size of 1.0-1.6 mm. A fluence of 80-120 J/cm2 and 8-12 pulses gave an almost ideal combination of minimal thermal damage and tissue ablation down to the subcutis. With an apparent mini- and micrograft survival of 95% we achieved good cosmetic results after two to five transplant sessions in all patients. The Er:YAG laser is a novel effective tool to ablate recipient holes for autologous hair transplantation in cicatricial alopecia.

  16. Low-level laser treatment accelerated hair regrowth in a rat model of chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA).

    PubMed

    Wikramanayake, Tongyu Cao; Villasante, Alexandra C; Mauro, Lucia M; Nouri, Keyvan; Schachner, Lawrence A; Perez, Carmen I; Jimenez, Joaquin J

    2013-05-01

    Chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) is one of the most distressing side effects of antineoplastic chemotherapy for which there is no effective interventional approach. A low-level laser (LLL) device, the HairMax LaserComb®, has been cleared by the FDA to treat androgenetic alopecia. Its effects may be extended to other settings; we have demonstrated that LaserComb treatment induced hair regrowth in a mouse model for alopecia areata. In the current study, we tested whether LLL treatment could promote hair regrowth in a rat model for CIA. Chemotherapy agents cyclophosphamide, etoposide, or a combination of cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin were administered in young rats to induce alopecia, with or without LLL treatment. As expected, 7-10 days later, all the rats developed full body alopecia. However, rats receiving laser treatment regrew hair 5 days earlier than rats receiving chemotherapy alone or sham laser treatment (with the laser turned off). The accelerated hair regrowth in laser-treated rats was confirmed by histology. In addition, LLL treatment did not provide local protection to subcutaneously injected Shay chloroleukemic cells. Taken together, our results demonstrated that LLL treatment significantly accelerated hair regrowth after CIA without compromising the efficacy of chemotherapy in our rat model. Our results suggest that LLL should be explored for the treatment of CIA in clinical trials because LLL devices for home use (such as the HairMax LaserComb®) provide a user-friendly and noninvasive approach that could be translated to increased patient compliance and improved efficacy.

  17. The growth of human scalp hair in females using visible red light laser and LED sources

    PubMed Central

    Lanzafame, Raymond J; Blanche, Raymond R; Chiacchierini, Richard P; Kazmirek, Eric R; Sklar, Jeffrey A

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Low level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) has been demonstrated to promote hair growth in males. A double-blind randomized controlled trial was undertaken to define the safety and physiologic effects of LLLT on females with androgenic alopecia. Methods Forty-seven females (18–60 years old, Fitzpatrick I–IV, and Ludwig–Savin Baldness Scale I-2, I-3, I-4, II-1, II-2 baldness patterns) were recruited. A transition zone scalp site was selected; hairs were trimmed to 3 mm height; the area was tattooed and photographed. The active group received a “TOPHAT655” unit containing 21, 5 mW diode lasers (655 ± 5 nm) and 30 LEDS (655 ± 20 nm), in a bicycle-helmet like apparatus. The placebo group unit appeared identical, containing incandescent red lights. Patients treated at home every other day × 16 weeks (60 treatments, 67 J/cm2 irradiance/25 minute treatment, 2.9 J dose), with follow up and photography at 16 weeks. A masked 2.85 cm2 photographic area was evaluated by another blinded investigator. The primary endpoint was the percent increase in hair counts from baseline. Results Forty-two patients completed the study (24 active, 18 sham). No adverse events or side effects were reported. Baseline hair counts were 228.2 ± 133.4 (N = 18) in the sham and 209.6 ± 118.5 (N = 24) in the active group (P = 0.642). Post Treatment hair counts were 252.1 ± 143.3 (N = 18) in the sham group and 309.9 ± 166.6 (N = 24) in the active group (P = 0.235). The change in hair counts over baseline was 23.9 ± 30.1 (N = 18) in the sham group and 100.3 ± 53.4 (N = 24) in the active group (P < 0.0001). The percent hair increase over the duration of the study was 11.05 ± 48.30 (N = 18) for the sham group and 48.07 ± 17.61 (N = 24) for the active group (P < 0.001). This demonstrates a 37% increase in hair growth in the active treatment group as compared

  18. The growth of human scalp hair in females using visible red light laser and LED sources.

    PubMed

    Lanzafame, Raymond J; Blanche, Raymond R; Chiacchierini, Richard P; Kazmirek, Eric R; Sklar, Jeffrey A

    2014-10-01

    Low level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) has been demonstrated to promote hair growth in males. A double-blind randomized controlled trial was undertaken to define the safety and physiologic effects of LLLT on females with androgenic alopecia. Forty-seven females (18-60 years old, Fitzpatrick I-IV, and Ludwig-Savin Baldness Scale I-2, I-3, I-4, II-1, II-2 baldness patterns) were recruited. A transition zone scalp site was selected; hairs were trimmed to 3 mm height; the area was tattooed and photographed. The active group received a "TOPHAT655" unit containing 21, 5 mW diode lasers (655 ± 5 nm) and 30 LEDS (655 ± 20 nm), in a bicycle-helmet like apparatus. The placebo group unit appeared identical, containing incandescent red lights. Patients treated at home every other day × 16 weeks (60 treatments, 67 J/cm(2) irradiance/25 minute treatment, 2.9 J dose), with follow up and photography at 16 weeks. A masked 2.85 cm(2) photographic area was evaluated by another blinded investigator. The primary endpoint was the percent increase in hair counts from baseline. Forty-two patients completed the study (24 active, 18 sham). No adverse events or side effects were reported. Baseline hair counts were 228.2 ± 133.4 (N = 18) in the sham and 209.6 ± 118.5 (N = 24) in the active group (P = 0.642). Post Treatment hair counts were 252.1 ± 143.3 (N = 18) in the sham group and 309.9 ± 166.6 (N = 24) in the active group (P = 0.235). The change in hair counts over baseline was 23.9 ± 30.1 (N = 18) in the sham group and 100.3 ± 53.4 (N = 24) in the active group (P < 0.0001). The percent hair increase over the duration of the study was 11.05 ± 48.30 (N = 18) for the sham group and 48.07 ± 17.61 (N = 24) for the active group (P < 0.001). This demonstrates a 37% increase in hair growth in the active treatment group as compared to the placebo group. LLLT of the scalp at 655

  19. Laser balancing system for high material removal rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M. G.; Georgalas, G.; Ortiz, A. L.

    1984-01-01

    A laser technique to remove material in excess of 10 mg/sec from a spinning rotor is described. This material removal rate is 20 times greater than previously reported for a surface speed of 30 m/sec. Material removal enhancement was achieved by steering a focused laser beam with moving optics to increase the time of laser energy interaction with a particular location on the circumferential surface of a spinning rotor. A neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) pulse laser was used in this work to evaluate material removal for carbon steel, 347 stainless steel, Inconal 718, and titanium 6-4. This technique is applicable to dynamic laser balancing.

  20. Supporting cells remove and replace sensory receptor hair cells in a balance organ of adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Bucks, Stephanie A; Cox, Brandon C; Vlosich, Brittany A; Manning, James P; Nguyen, Tot B; Stone, Jennifer S

    2017-01-01

    Vestibular hair cells in the inner ear encode head movements and mediate the sense of balance. These cells undergo cell death and replacement (turnover) throughout life in non-mammalian vertebrates. However, there is no definitive evidence that this process occurs in mammals. We used fate-mapping and other methods to demonstrate that utricular type II vestibular hair cells undergo turnover in adult mice under normal conditions. We found that supporting cells phagocytose both type I and II hair cells. Plp1-CreERT2-expressing supporting cells replace type II hair cells. Type I hair cells are not restored by Plp1-CreERT2-expressing supporting cells or by Atoh1-CreERTM-expressing type II hair cells. Destruction of hair cells causes supporting cells to generate 6 times as many type II hair cells compared to normal conditions. These findings expand our understanding of sensorineural plasticity in adult vestibular organs and further elucidate the roles that supporting cells serve during homeostasis and after injury. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18128.001 PMID:28263708

  1. Effect of low-level laser treatment on cochlea hair-cell recovery after ototoxic hearing loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, Chung-Ku; He, Peijie; Jung, Jae Yun; Ahn, Jin-Chul; Chung, Phil-Sang; Lee, Min Young; Suh, Myung-Whan

    2013-12-01

    The primary cause of hearing loss includes damage to cochlear hair cells. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has become a popular treatment for damaged nervous systems. Based on the idea that cochlea hair cells and neural cells are from same developmental origin, the effect of LLLT on hearing loss in animal models is evaluated. Hearing loss animal models were established, and the animals were irradiated by 830-nm diode laser once a day for 10 days. Power density of the laser treatment was 900 mW/cm2, and the fluence was 162 to 194 J. The tympanic membrane was evaluated after LLLT. Thresholds of auditory brainstem responses were evaluated before treatment, after gentamicin, and after 10 days of LLLT. Quantitative scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations were done by counting remaining hair cells. Tympanic membranes were intact at the end of the experiment. No adverse tissue reaction was found. On SEM images, LLLT significantly increased the number of hair cells in middle and basal turns. Hearing was significantly improved by laser irradiation. After LLLT treatment, both the hearing threshold and hair-cell count significantly improved.

  2. Ultrasound Guidance and Monitoring of Laser-Based Fat Removal

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Jignesh; Thomsen, Sharon; Milner, Thomas E.; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objectives We report on a study to investigate feasibility of utilizing ultrasound imaging to guide laser removal of subcutaneous fat. Ultrasound imaging can be used to identify the tissue composition and to monitor the temperature increase in response to laser irradiation. Study Design/Materials and Methods Laser heating was performed on ex vivo porcine subcutaneous fat through the overlying skin using a continuous wave laser operating at 1,210 nm optical wavelength. Ultrasound images were recorded using a 10 MHz linear array-based ultrasound imaging system. Results Ultrasound imaging was utilized to differentiate between water-based and lipid-based regions within the porcine tissue and to identify the dermis-fat junction. Temperature maps during the laser exposure in the skin and fatty tissue layers were computed. Conclusions Results of our study demonstrate the potential of using ultrasound imaging to guide laser fat removal. PMID:19065554

  3. The application of laser scanning confocal microscopy to the examination of hairs and textile fibers: an initial investigation.

    PubMed

    Kirkbride, K Paul; Tridico, Silvana R

    2010-02-25

    An initial investigation of the application of laser scanning confocal microscopy to the examination of hairs and fibers has been conducted. This technique allows the production of virtual transverse and longitudinal cross-sectional images of a wide range of hairs and fibers. Special mounting techniques are not required; specimens that have been mounted for conventional microscopy require no further treatment. Unlike physical cross-sectioning, in which it is difficult to produce multiple cross-sections from a single hair or fiber and the process is destructive, confocal microscopy allows the examiner to image the cross-section at any point in the field of view along the hair or fiber and it is non-destructive. Confocal microscopy is a fluorescence-based technique. The images described in this article were collected using only the autofluorescence exhibited by the specimen (i.e. fluorescence staining was not necessary). Colorless fibers generally and hairs required excitation at 405 nm in order to stimulate useful autofluorescence; longer wavelength excitation was suitable for dyed fibers. Although confocal microscopy was found to be generally applicable to the generation virtual transverse cross-sections from a wide range of hairs and fibers, on some occasions the autofluorescence signal was attenuated by heavy pigmentation or the presence of an opaque medulla in hairs, and by heavy delustering or the presence of air-filled voids in the case of fibers. In these situations only partial cross-sections were obtained. 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Efficient TEA CO II-laser-based coating removal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prinsloo, F. J.; van Heerden, S. P.; Ronander, E.; Botha, L. R.

    2007-05-01

    A high power 1kW pulsed transversely excited atmospheric CO II laser that has been developed for the paint stripping of missiles was used to test paint stripping on several metallic and composite aircraft panels to determine the rate at which this laser could remove paint from aircraft.

  5. Pubic hair removal and sexual behavior: findings from a prospective daily diary study of sexually active women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Herbenick, Debby; Hensel, Devon; Smith, Nicole K; Schick, Vanessa; Reece, Michael; Sanders, Stephanie A; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2013-03-01

    Pubic hair removal is prevalent among women in the United States. However, most studies related to pubic hair removal are based on cross-sectional surveys and retrospective recall. The purpose of this research was to, in a prospective event-level daily diary study, assess demographic, affective, relational, situational, and behavioral factors related to women's pubic hair removal. Data collection occurred as part of a 5-week prospective, Internet-based daily diary study. Age; Affective predictors (positive mood, negative mood, feeling interested in sex, feeling in love); Relational predictors (partner support, partner negativity, partner type, partner gender); Situational predictors (any vaginal symptoms, use of any vaginal hygiene products; having applied any creams to the genitals); Behavioral variables (penile-vaginal sex, penile-anal sex, had finger inserted into vagina, had clitoris stimulated with fingers, inserted toy into vagina, used vibrator on clitoris, inserted finger into anus, inserted toy into anus, duration of penetration, intensity of penetration). A total of 2,453 women ages 18 to 68 (mean age 32.69) completed the study, contributing 49,287 total diaries (mean per person 24.5; standard deviation 10.3, median 30); 15.2% of all days (N = 7,362) involved pubic hair waxing or shaving, with the vast majority of hair removal days involving shaving (N = 7,302; 99%). Pubic hair removal was significantly associated with younger age, a greater interest in sex, vaginal fingering, finger-clitoral stimulation, having a casual sex partner, using vaginal hygiene products, and applying cream to the genitals. Hair removal was marginally associated with longer duration of vaginal penetration. These findings provide greater insight into the factors associated with women's pubic hair removal and their sexual experiences on a day-to-day level. Clinical and educational implications are discussed. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  6. The Effect of One Session Low Level Laser Therapy of Extracted Follicular Units on the Outcome of Hair Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tabaie, Seyed Mehdi; Berenji Ardestani, Hoda; Azizjalali, Mir Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Photobiostimulation with low level laser (LLL) has been used in medicine for a long time and its effects have been shown in many diseases. Some studies have evaluated the effect of LLL on androgenic alopecia. One of the most important limitations of the use of LLL in the treatment of alopecia is the requirement for multiple sessions, which is hardly accepted by patients. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the irradiation of extracted follicular hair units by LLL on the outcome of hair transplantation. We enrolled 10 patients with androgenic alopecia and after screening tests for infections and other diseases, we extracted hair follicular units. The hair units were divided in two groups. One group was irradiated by LLL 20 minutes before transplantation (660 nm, 80 Hz, 100 mW) and the other one was used as control. The containing plates were labeled as A and B and sent to the operation room. The surgeon was unaware of the therapy assigned to the plates and transplanted them randomly on the right or left side of the head. One hundred follicular units on each sides of the scalp were transplanted symmetrically. The follicles on both sides were evaluated at 3 and 6 months of transplantation for hair growth rate by another physician, blinded to the treatment assigned to each side. Ten patient with androgenic alopecia and mean (SD) age of 31.5 (6.6) years (range 25-45 years) completed the study. All patients had 100% hair growth at 3 and 6 months follow-up except one who had hair growth of 20% at three months of transplantation, which changed to 100% at sixth months. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding hair growth (P > 0.8). One session of LLL irradiation has no significant effect on the outcome of transplanted hair follicles. Studies with larger sample size are needed to draw a definite conclusion.

  7. The Effect of One Session Low Level Laser Therapy of Extracted Follicular Units on the Outcome of Hair Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Tabaie, Seyed Mehdi; Berenji Ardestani, Hoda; Azizjalali, Mir Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Photobiostimulation with low level laser (LLL) has been used in medicine for a long time and its effects have been shown in many diseases. Some studies have evaluated the effect of LLL on androgenic alopecia. One of the most important limitations of the use of LLL in the treatment of alopecia is the requirement for multiple sessions, which is hardly accepted by patients. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the irradiation of extracted follicular hair units by LLL on the outcome of hair transplantation. Methods: We enrolled 10 patients with androgenic alopecia and after screening tests for infections and other diseases, we extracted hair follicular units. The hair units were divided in two groups. One group was irradiated by LLL 20 minutes before transplantation (660 nm, 80 Hz, 100 mW) and the other one was used as control. The containing plates were labeled as A and B and sent to the operation room. The surgeon was unaware of the therapy assigned to the plates and transplanted them randomly on the right or left side of the head. One hundred follicular units on each sides of the scalp were transplanted symmetrically. The follicles on both sides were evaluated at 3 and 6 months of transplantation for hair growth rate by another physician, blinded to the treatment assigned to each side. Results: Ten patient with androgenic alopecia and mean (SD) age of 31.5 (6.6) years (range 25-45 years) completed the study. All patients had 100% hair growth at 3 and 6 months follow-up except one who had hair growth of 20% at three months of transplantation, which changed to 100% at sixth months. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding hair growth (P > 0.8). Conclusion: One session of LLL irradiation has no significant effect on the outcome of transplanted hair follicles. Studies with larger sample size are needed to draw a definite conclusion. PMID:27330694

  8. Picosecond lasers for tattoo removal: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Ofer; Atzmony, Lihi; Akerman, Lehavit; Levi, Assi; Kershenovich, Ruben; Lapidoth, Moshe; Mimouni, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    Given that the pigment particles in tattoos have a relaxation time of <10 ns, picosecond lasers would be expected to be more effective than nanosecond lasers in tattoo removal. To systematically review the evidence regarding the effectiveness and safety of picosecond lasers for tattoo removal, Pubmed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), ClinicalTrials.gov, and reference lists were searched for relevant trials. The primary outcome was >70 % clearance of tattoo pigment. Secondary outcomes were 90-100 % clearance of tattoo pigment, number of laser sessions required, and adverse effects. Eight trials were included, six with human participants (160 participants) and 2 with animal models. Seven of the eight trials explored the usage of either 755, 758, 795, 1064, or 1064/532-nm picosecond lasers for black and blue ink tattoos. In the human trials, 69-100 % of tattoos showed over 70 % clearance of pigment after 1-10 laser treatments. Reported side effects included pain, hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation, blister formation and transient erythema, edema, and pinpoint bleeding. Included articles varied in type of laser investigated, mostly non-comparative studies and with a medium to high risk of bias. There is sparse evidence that picosecond lasers are more effective than their nanosecond counterparts for mainly black and blue ink tattoo removal, with minor side effects.

  9. New and Advanced Picosecond Lasers for Tattoo Removal.

    PubMed

    Adatto, Maurice A; Amir, Ruthie; Bhawalkar, Jayant; Sierra, Rafael; Bankowski, Richard; Rozen, Doran; Dierickx, Christine; Lapidoth, Moshe

    2017-01-01

    Early methods of tattoo removal ultimately resulted in unacceptable cosmetic outcomes. While the introduction of laser technology was an improvement over the existing chemical, mechanical, and surgical procedures, the use of nonselective tattoo removal with carbon dioxide and argon lasers led to scarring. Q-switched lasers with nanosecond (10-9) pulse domains were considered to have revolutionized tattoo treatment, by selectively heating the tattoo particles, while reducing the adverse sequelae to adjacent normal skin. Theoretical considerations of restricting pulse duration, to heat tattoo particles to higher temperatures, proposed the use of sub-nanosecond pulses to target particles with thermal relaxation times lower than the nanosecond pulses in Q-switched lasers. Initial studies demonstrated that picosecond (10-12) pulses were more effective than nanosecond pulses in clearing black tattoos. Advances in picosecond technology led to the development of commercially available lasers, incorporating several different wavelengths, to further refine pigment targeting. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Evaluation of wavelength-dependent hair growth effects on low-level laser therapy: an experimental animal study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Nam-Jeong; Youn, Jong-In

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the wavelength-dependent effects of hair growth on the shaven backs of Sprague-Dawley rats using laser diodes with wavelengths of 632, 670, 785, and 830 nm. Each wavelength was selected by choosing four peak wavelengths from an action spectrum in the range 580 to 860 nm. The laser treatment was performed on alternating days over a 2-week period. The energy density was set to 1.27 J/cm(2) for the first four treatments and 1.91 J/cm(2) for the last four treatments. At the end of the experiment, both photographic and histological examinations were performed to evaluate the effect of laser wavelength on hair growth. Overall, the results indicated that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) with a 830-nm wavelength resulted in greater stimulation of hair growth than the other wavelengths examined and 785 nm also showed a significant effect on hair growth.

  11. Laser removal of loose uranium compound contamination from metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, D. E.; Modise, T. S.

    2007-04-01

    Pulsed laser removal of surface contamination of uranyl nitrate and uranium dioxide from stainless steel has been studied. Most of the loosely bound contamination has been removed at fluence levels below 0.5 J cm -2, leaving about 5% fixed contamination for uranyl nitrate and 15% for uranium dioxide. Both alpha and beta activities are then sufficiently low that contaminated objects can be taken out of a restricted radiation area for re-use. The ratio of beta to alpha activity is found to be a function of particle size and changes during laser removal. In a separate experiment using technetium-99m, the collection of removed radioactivity in the filter was studied and an inventory made of removed and collected contamination.

  12. Efficacy of low-level laser therapy on hair regrowth in dogs with noninflammatory alopecia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Lara; Cavina, Damiano; Radicchi, Giada; Miragliotta, Vincenzo; Abramo, Francesca

    2015-02-01

    Canine noninflammatory alopecia (CNA) is a heterogeneous group of skin diseases with different underlying pathogenesis. The therapeutic approach is challenging, and new options for treatment are desirable. To test the clinical efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on hair regrowth in CNA. Seven dogs of different ages, breeds and genders with a clinical and histopathological diagnosis of noninflammatory alopecia. Each dog was treated twice weekly for a maximum of 2 months with a therapeutic laser producing the following three different wavelengths emerging simultaneously from 21 foci: 13 × 16 mW, 470 nm; 4 × 50 mW, 685 nm; and 4 × 200 mW, 830 nm. The fluence given was 3 J/cm(2) , frequency 5 Hz, amplitude of the irradiated area was 25 cm(2) and application time was 1.34 min. A predetermined alopecic area was left untreated and served as a control area. From one dog, post-treatment biopsies of treated and untreated sites were obtained for histological evaluation of hair density and the percentage of haired and nonhaired follicles. At the end of the study, coat regrowth was greatly improved in six of seven animals and improved in one of seven. By morphometry, the area occupied by hair follicles was 18% in the treated sample and 11% in the untreated one (11%); haired follicles were (per area) 93% in the treated sample and only 9% in the control sample. Our clinical and histological data document promising effects of LLLT on hair regrowth in CNA. Further studies investigating the biological mechanism underlying the effect of LLLT on hair follicle cycling are warranted. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.

  13. The growth of human scalp hair mediated by visible red light laser and LED sources in males.

    PubMed

    Lanzafame, Raymond J; Blanche, Raymond R; Bodian, Adam B; Chiacchierini, Richard P; Fernandez-Obregon, Adolfo; Kazmirek, Eric R

    2013-10-01

    Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used to promote hair growth. A double-blind randomized controlled trial was undertaken to define the safety and physiologic effects of LLLT on males with androgenic alopecia. Forty-four males (18-48 yo, Fitzpatrick I-IV, Hamilton-Norwood IIa-V) were recruited. A transition zone scalp site was selected; hairs were trimmed to 3 mm height; the area was tattooed and photographed. The active group received a "TOPHAT655" unit containing 21, 5 mW lasers (655 ± 5 nm), and 30 LEDS (655 ± 20 nm), in a bicycle-helmet like apparatus. The placebo group unit appeared identical, containing incandescent red lights. Patients treated at home every other day × 16 weeks (60 treatments, 67.3 J/cm(2) irradiance/25 minute treatment), with follow up and photography at 16 weeks. A masked 2.85 cm(2) photographic area was evaluated by another blinded investigator. The primary endpoint was the percent increase in hair counts from baseline. Forty-one patients completed the study (22 active, 19 placebo). No adverse events or side effects were reported. Baseline hair counts were 162.7 ± 95.9 (N = 22) in placebo and 142.0 ± 73.0 (N = 22) and active groups respectively (P = 0.426). Post Treatment hair counts were 162.4 ± 62.5 (N = 19) and 228.7 ± 102.8 (N = 22), respectively (P = 0.0161). A 39% percent hair increase was demonstrated (28.4 ± 46.2 placebo, N = 19; 67.2 ± 33.4, active, N = 22) (P = 0.001) Deleting one placebo group subject with a very high baseline count and a very large decrease, resulted in baseline hair counts of 151.1 ± 81.0 (N = 21) and 142.0 ± 73.0 (N = 22), respectively (P = 0.680). Post treatment hair counts were 158.2 ± 61.5 (N = 18) and 228.7 ± 102.8 (N = 22) (P = 0.011), resulting in a 35% percent increase in hair growth (32.3 ± 44.2, placebo, N = 18; 67.2 ± 33.4, active, N = 22) (P = 0.003). LLLT of the scalp at 655 nm significantly improved hair counts in males with androgenetic alopecia. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals

  14. Comparison of the effects of 665 nm low level diode Laser Hat versus and a combination of 665 nm and 808nm low level diode Laser Scanner of hair growth in androgenic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Barikbin, Behrooz; Khodamrdi, Zeinab; Kholoosi, Leila; Akhgri, Mohammad Reza; Haj Abbasi, Majid; Hajabbasi, Mojgan; Razzaghi, Zahra; Akbarpour, Samaneh

    2017-05-17

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a combined set of low level diode laser scanner (665 nm and 808nm) on hair growth, and assessment of safety and effectiveness of a new laser scanner on hair growth treatment procedure in androgenic alopecia. 90 patients (18 to 70 years) with androgenic alopecia were randomized into three groups. The first group (n=30) received 655 nm red light using laser hat, the second group (n=30) received 655 nm red laser plus 808 nm infrared laser using a laser scanner of hair growth device (with the patent number: 77733) and the third group (n=30) received no laser as the control group. Patients in laser scanner group had better results and showed a higher increase in terminal hair density compared with laser hat group (mean of 9.61 versus 9.16 per cm 2 ). We found significant decrease in terminal hair density from baseline in control group (mean -1.8 per cm 2 , p<0.0001). Results showed a statistically significant improvement in the laser scanner of the hair growth group compared with laser hat and the control group. The study showed that treatment with new laser devise had a promising result without any observable adverse effects.

  15. Fractional non-ablative laser-assisted drug delivery leads to improvement in male and female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Bertin, Ana Carina Junqueira; Vilarinho, Adriana; Junqueira, Ana Lúcia Ariano

    2018-02-16

    Androgenetic alopecia, also known as male and female pattern hair loss, is a very prevalent condition; however, approved therapeutic options are limited. Fractionated laser has been proposed to assist in penetration of topical medications to the cutaneous tissue. We present four cases of androgenetic alopecia that underwent treatment with a non-ablative erbium glass fractional laser followed by the application of topical finasteride 0,05% and growth factors including basic fibroblast growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and copper peptide 1%. During all laser treatment sessions, eight passes were performed, at 7 mJ, 3-9% of coverage and density of 120 mzt/cm 2 . A positive response was observed in all of the four patients. Photographs taken 2 weeks after the last session showed improvement in hair regrowth and density. No significant side effects were observed.

  16. Application of CO II laser for removal of oral mucocele

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, J.; Moriya, K.; Hirai, Y.

    2006-02-01

    Mucocele is an oral soft tissue cyst caused by the disturbance of saliva flow. Mucocele is widely observed in child patients and recurrence is high. The objective of this study was to clarify the effect of CO II laser irradiation in the case of mucocele. A CO II laser was used on 45 subjects, aged between 0 to 15 years, having mucocele on lip, lingual, or buccal mucosa. Our procedure in using CO II laser was not to vaporize the mucocele but to remove the whole mucocele mass. The border of mucocele was firstly incised by laser following defocusly ablating the root or body of mucocele separating from sorrounding tissue. As a result, mucocele was easily and completely removed without breaking the wall of mucocele. None of the cases required suturing. The results were as follows. 1. The mucocele of lip or lingual mucosa with a rich blood supply, was efficiently removed, without bleeding, giving a clear operative field during the operation. 2. The surgery itself was simple and less time-consuming. 3. After two or three weeks the wound was completely healed without almost any discomfort in all patients 4. Wound contraction and scarring were decreased or eliminated. 5. The reoccurrence of mucocele was not seen, except only in one case of lingual mucocele. In conclusion the use of CO II laser proved to be a very safe and effective mode for the removal of mucocele, especially in small children.

  17. Short-pulse laser removal of organic coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, Craig T.

    2000-08-01

    A major problem in the regular maintenance of aerospace systems is the removal of paint and other protective coatings from surfaces without polluting the atmosphere or endangering workers. Recent research has demonstrated that many organic coatings can be removed from surfaces efficiently using short laser pulses without the use of any chemical agents. The lasers employed in this study were repetitively-pulsed neodymium YAG devices operating at 1064 nm (15 - 30 ns, 10 - 20 Hz). The efficiency of removal can be cast in terms of an effective heat of ablation, Q* (kJ of laser energy incident per g of paint removed), although, for short pulses, the mechanism of removal is believed to be dominated more by thermo- mechanical or shock effects than by photo-ablation. Q* data were collected as a function of pulse fluence for several paint types. For many paint types, there was a fairly sharp threshold fluence per pulse near 1 J/cm2, above which Q* values dropped to levels which were a factor of four lower than those observed for long- pulse or continuous laser ablation of paint. In this regime, the coating is removed in fairly large particles or, in the case of one paint, the entire thickness of the coating was removed over the exposed area in one pulse. Hardware for implementing short-pulse laser paint stripping in the field is under development and will be highlighted in the presentation. Practical paint stripping rates achieved using the prototype hardware are presented for several paint types.

  18. Pulsed photothermal depth profiling of tattoos undergoing laser removal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanic, Matija; Majaron, Boris

    2012-02-01

    Pulsed photothermal radiometry (PPTR) allows noninvasive determination of temperature depth profiles induced by pulsed laser irradiation of strongly scattering biological tissues and organs, including human skin. In present study, we evaluate the potential of this technique for investigational characterization and possibly quantitative evaluation of laser tattoo removal. The study involved 5 healthy volunteers (3 males, 2 females), age 20-30 years, undergoing tattoo removal treatment using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. There were four measurement and treatment sessions in total, separated by 2-3 months. Prior to each treatment, PPTR measurements were performed on several tattoo sites and one nearby healthy site in each patient, using a 5 ms Nd:YAG laser at low radiant exposure values and a dedicated radiometric setup. The laser-induced temperature profiles were then reconstructed by applying a custom numerical code. In addition, each tatoo site was documented with a digital camera and measured with a custom colorimetric system (in tristimulus color space), providing an objective evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy to be correlated with our PPTR results. The results show that the laser-induced temperature profile in untreated tattoos is invariably located at a subsurface depth of 300 μm. In tattoo sites that responded well to laser therapy, a significant drop of the temperature peak was observed in the profiles obtained from PPTR record. In several sites that appeared less responsive, as evidenced by colorimetric data, a progressive shift of the temperature profile deeper into the dermis was observed over the course of consecutive laser treatments, indicating that the laser tattoo removal was efficient.

  19. Dust Removal on Mars Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, T. G.; Morris, R. V.; Clegg, S. M.; Wiens, R. C.; Anderson, R. B.

    2011-01-01

    Dust coatings on the surface of Mars complicate and, if sufficiently thick, mask the spectral characteristics and compositional determination of underlying material from in situ and remote sensing instrumentation. The Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) portion of the Chemistry & Camera (ChemCam) instrument, aboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, will be the first active remote sensing technique deployed on Mars able to remove dust. ChemCam utilizes a 5 ns pulsed 1067 nm high-powered laser focused to less than 400 m diameter on targets at distances up to 7 m [1,2]. With multiple laser pulses, dust and weathering coatings can be remotely analyzed and potentially removed using this technique [2,3]. A typical LIBS measurement during MSL surface operations is planned to consist of 50 laser pulses at 14 mJ, with the first 5 to 10 pulses used to analyze as well as remove any surface coating. Additionally, ChemCam's Remote Micro-Imager (RMI) is capable of resolving 200 m details at a distance of 2 m, or 1 mm at 10 m [1,4]. In this study, we report on initial laboratory experiments conducted to characterize the removal of dust coatings using similar LIBS parameters as ChemCam under Mars-like conditions. These experiments serve to better understand the removal of surface dust using LIBS and to facilitate the analysis of ChemCam LIBS spectral data and RMI images.

  20. Methods and apparatus for removal and control of material in laser drilling of a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Rinzler, Charles C; Zediker, Mark S; Faircloth, Brian O; Moxley, Joel F

    2014-01-28

    The removal of material from the path of a high power laser beam during down hole laser operations including drilling of a borehole and removal of displaced laser effected borehole material from the borehole during laser operations. In particular, paths, dynamics and parameters of fluid flows for use in conjunction with a laser bottom hole assembly.

  1. Methods and apparatus for removal and control of material in laser drilling of a borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Rinzler, Charles C.; Zediker, Mark S.; Faircloth, Brian O.

    2016-12-06

    The removal of material from the path of a high power laser beam during down hole laser operations including drilling of a borehole and removal of displaced laser effected borehole material from the borehole during laser operations. In particular, paths, dynamics and parameters of fluid flows for use in conjunction with a laser bottom hole assembly.

  2. Active space debris removal by using laser propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezunkov, Yu. A.

    2013-03-01

    At present, a few projects on the space debris removal by using highpower lasers are developed. One of the established projects is the ORION proposed by Claude Phipps from Photonics Associates Company and supported by NASA (USA) [1]. But the technical feasibility of the concept is limited by sizes of the debris objects (from 1 to 10 cm) because of a small thrust impulse generated at the laser ablation of the debris materials. At the same time, the removal of rocket upper stages and satellites, which have reached the end of their lives, has been carried out only in a very small number of cases and most of them remain on the Low Earth Orbits (LEO). To reduce the amount of these large-size objects, designing of space systems allowing deorbiting upper rocket stages and removing large-size satellite remnants from economically and scientifically useful orbits to disposal ones is considered. The suggested system is based on high-power laser propulsion. Laser-Orbital Transfer Vehicle (LOTV) with the developed aerospace laser propulsion engine is considered as applied to the problem of mitigation of man-made large-size space debris in LEO.

  3. Application of lasers and pulsed power to coating removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Chris M.; Moeny, William M.; Curry, Randy D.; McDonald, Ken; Bosma, John T.

    1995-03-01

    Lasers and other pulsed power systems are uniquely suited for removal of coatings from a wide variety of substrates. Coatings which can be removed by these systems include paint, adhesives, epoxies, dips, rust, scale, and bird droppings. Suitable substrates include wood, metal, cloth, stone, ceramic, plastics, and even skin. These systems have the advantage over chemical stripping or mechanical abrasion in that the substrate is left virtually unharmed and in many cases the residue is reduced to a form that is more easily disposed of without toxic byproducts or expensive refurbishment. Furthermore, laser and other pulsed power based systems can be operated using only local containment without the need for special operator protective gear or complete enclosure of the substrate structure. Additional advantages are gained in these systems because they typically combine multiple removal mechanisms for greater effectiveness. For example, pulsed lasers create rapid heating of the coating. This rapid heating can result in chemical breakdown of the coating, thermomechanical stress induced dislocation, shock wave agitation, and physical ablation. This paper presents some of the latest research findings on coating removal using these systems. A comparative survey of the system technology, effectiveness, cost, and application is presented. Also presented is a survey of the commercial potential for the systems. Systems which are presented include lasers (CW, pulsed, Infrared, UV, etc.), flashlamps, electro-cathodic debonders, electron beams, and glow discharges.

  4. 75 FR 76015 - Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 393.200 Laser(s) as Medical Devices for Facelift, Wrinkle Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0551] Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 393.200 Laser(s) as Medical Devices for Facelift, Wrinkle Removal, Acupuncture... Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 393.200 Laser(s) as Medical Devices for Facelift, Wrinkle Removal, Acupuncture...

  5. Mechanical properties of sensory hair bundles are reflected in their Brownian motion measured with a laser differential interferometer.

    PubMed Central

    Denk, W; Webb, W W; Hudspeth, A J

    1989-01-01

    By optically probing with a focused, low-power laser beam, we measured the spontaneous deflection fluctuations of the sensory hair bundles on frog saccular hair cells with a sensitivity of about 1 pm/square root of Hz. The preparation was illuminated by two orthogonally polarized laser beams separated by only about 0.2 microns at their foci in the structure under investigation. Slight movement of the object from one beam toward the other caused a change of the phase difference between the transmitted beams and an intensity modulation at the detector where the beams interfered. Maintenance of the health of the cells and function of the transduction mechanism were occasionally confirmed by measuring the intracellular resting potential and the sensitivity of transduction. The root-mean-square (rms) displacement of approximately 3.5 nm at a hair bundle's tip suggests a stiffness of about 350 microN/m, in agreement with measurements made with a probe attached to a bundle's tip. The spectra resemble those of overdamped harmonic oscillators with roll-off frequencies between 200 and 800 Hz. Because the roll-off frequencies depended strongly on the viscosity of the bathing medium, we conclude that hair-bundle motion is mainly damped by the surrounding fluid. PMID:2787510

  6. Assessment Study of Small Space Debris Removal by Laser Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sang H.; Papa, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    Space debris in Earth orbit poses significant danger to satellites, humans in space, and future space exploration activities. In particular, the increasing number of unidentifiable objects, smaller than 10 cm, presents a serious hazard. Numerous technologies have been studied for removing unwanted objects in space. Our approach uses a short wavelength laser stationed in orbit to vaporize these small objects. This paper discusses the power requirements for space debris removal using lasers. A short wavelength laser pumped directly or indirectly by solar energy can scan, identify, position, and illuminate the target, which will then be vaporized or slow down the orbital speed of debris by laser detonation until it re-enters the atmosphere. The laser-induced plasma plume has a dispersive motion of approximately 105 m/sec with a Lambertian profile in the direction of the incoming beam [1-2]. The resulting fast ejecting jet plume of vaporized material should prevent matter recombination and condensation. If it allows any condensation of vaporized material, the size of condensed material will be no more than a nanoscale level [3]. Lasers for this purpose can be indirectly pumped by power from an array of solar cells or directly pumped by the solar spectrum [4]. The energy required for vaporization and ionization of a 10 cm cube ( 2700 gm) of aluminum is 87,160 kJ. To remove this amount of aluminum in 3 minutes requires a continuous laser beam power of at least 5.38 MW under the consideration of 9% laser absorption by aluminum [5] and 5% laser pumping efficiency. The power needed for pumping 5.38 MW laser is approximately 108 MW, which can be obtained from a large solar array with 40% efficiency solar cells and a minimal area of 450 meters by 450 meters. This solar array would collect approximately 108 MW. The power required for system operation and maneuvering can be obtained by increasing solar panel size. This feasibility assessment covers roughly the power requirement

  7. Low-level laser treatment stimulates hair growth via upregulating Wnt10b and β-catenin expression in C3H/HeJ mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tiran; Liu, Liqiang; Fan, Jincai; Tian, Jia; Gan, Cheng; Yang, Zengjie; Jiao, Hu; Han, Bing; Liu, Zheng

    2017-07-01

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate the role of low-level laser treatment (LLLT) in hair growth in C3H/HeJ mice. Healthy C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into two groups: with and without low-level laser treatment. The skin color of each mouse was observed each day. Skin samples were collected for H&E, immunofluorescence, PCR, and western blot analysis, to observe the morphology of hair follicles and detect the expression levels of Wnt10b and β-catenin. Observation of skin color demonstrated that black pigmentation started significantly earlier in the laser group than in the control group. Hair follicle number in both groups showed no difference; however, the hair follicle length presented a significant difference. Wnt10b protein was detected on the second day in hair matrix cells in the LLLT group but not in the control group. PCR and western blot results both illustrated that expression of Wnt10b and β-catenin was significantly higher in the LLLT group than in the control group. Our study illustrated that low-level laser treatment can promote hair regrowth by inducing anagen phase of hair follicles via initiating the Wnt10b/β-catenin pathway.

  8. Measurement of longitudinal sulfur isotopic variations by laser ablation MC-ICP-MS in single human hair strands.

    PubMed

    Santamaria-Fernandez, Rebeca; Giner Martínez-Sierra, Justo; Marchante-Gayón, J M; García-Alonso, J Ignacio; Hearn, Ruth

    2009-05-01

    A new method for the measurement of longitudinal variations of sulfur isotope amount ratios in single hair strands using a laser ablation system coupled to a multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (LA-MC-ICP-MS) is reported here for the first time. Ablation parameters have been optimized for the measurement of sulfur isotope ratios in scalp human hair strands of 80-120-microm thickness and different washing procedures have been evaluated. The repeatability of the method has been tested and the ability to measure sulfur isotopic variations in 1,000-microm-long hair segments has been evaluated. A horse hair sample previously characterized for carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in an interlaboratory study has been characterized by LA-MC-ICP-MS to be used as an in-house standard for the bracketing of human hair strands. (34)S/(32)S isotope amount ratios have been measured and corrected for instrumental mass bias adopting the external standardization approach using National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) RM8553 and full uncertainty budgets have been calculated using the Kragten approach. Results are reported as both (34)S/(32)S isotope amount ratios and deltaS(V-CDT) values (sulfur isotopic differences relative to a reference sample expressed in the Vienna Canyon Diablo Troilite (V-CDT) scale) calculated using NIST RM8553, NIST RM8554, and NIST RM8556 to anchor results to the V-CDT scale. The main advantage of the new method versus conventional gas source isotope ratio mass spectrometry measurements is that longitudinal variations in sulfur isotope amount ratios can be resolved. Proof of concept is shown with human scalp hair strands from three individuals, two UK residents and one traveler (long periods of time abroad). The method enables monitoring of longitudinal isotope ratio variations in single hair strands. Absolute ratios are reported and delta(34)S(V-CDT) values are plotted for comparison. Slight variations of <1.2 per

  9. Removal of dogs' gingival pigmentation with CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, Jose A. P.; Chavantes, Maria C.; Gioso, Marco A.; Pesce, Hildeberto F.; Jatene, Adib D.

    1995-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the ability of CO2 laser to remove physiologic pigmentation of gingiva. Dogs were chosen for this study because of their intense black pigmentation on the gingiva, similar to what can be found in human negroes and other dark- skinned races. Three specimens were irradiated at the left side of the buccal aspect of the gingiva, while for comparison the right side was used as a control. CO2 laser in a continuous mode applying 3 watt power was used (Xanar-20, USA). The portion to be irradiated was continuously irrigated with saline solution, to prevent tissue damage from the excessive heat generated. The handpiece device irradiated the target easily and fast, with no bleeding. All the pigmentation could be removed from the portion exposed to the laser beam. A 45th day follow up showed very little repigmentation just in one of the specimens. It could be concluded that CO2 laser irradiation can be an alternative to remove pigmentation of the gingiva for cosmetic purposes. The risk of repigmentation exists, so the patients should be aware of this inconvenience, sometimes demanding further irradiation.

  10. Laser-tissue interaction in tattoo removal by q-switched lasers.

    PubMed

    Barua, Shyamanta

    2015-01-01

    Q-switched (QS) lasers are widely considered the gold standard for tattoo removal, with excellent clinical results, impressive predictability, and a good safety profile. The generation of giant pulses by the method of Q-switching is responsible for the unique laser-tissue interaction that is seen in tattoo removal by QS lasers. The QS lasers work by impaction and dissolution of the tattoo pigments. Mechanical fragmentation of the tattoo pigments encased in intracellular lamellated organelles followed by their phagocytosis by macrophages is thought to be the major event in the clearance of pigments by QS lasers. A few novel techniques have been tried in recent times to hasten the clearance of tattoo pigments.

  11. Laser-Tissue Interaction in Tattoo Removal by Q-Switched Lasers

    PubMed Central

    Barua, Shyamanta

    2015-01-01

    Q-switched (QS) lasers are widely considered the gold standard for tattoo removal, with excellent clinical results, impressive predictability, and a good safety profile. The generation of giant pulses by the method of Q-switching is responsible for the unique laser-tissue interaction that is seen in tattoo removal by QS lasers. The QS lasers work by impaction and dissolution of the tattoo pigments. Mechanical fragmentation of the tattoo pigments encased in intracellular lamellated organelles followed by their phagocytosis by macrophages is thought to be the major event in the clearance of pigments by QS lasers. A few novel techniques have been tried in recent times to hasten the clearance of tattoo pigments. PMID:25949016

  12. On the physics of laser-induced selective photothermolysis of hair follicles: Influence of wavelength, pulse duration, and epidermal cooling.

    PubMed

    Svaasand, Lars O; Nelson, J Stuart

    2004-01-01

    The physical basis for optimization of wavelength, pulse duration, and cooling for laser-induced selective photothermolysis of hair follicles in human skin is discussed. The results indicate that the most important optimization parameter is the cooling efficiency of the technique utilized for epidermal protection. The optical penetration is approximately the same for lasers at 694, 755, and 800 nm. The penetration of radiation from Nd:yttrium-aluminum-garnet lasers at 1064 nm is, however, somewhat larger. Photothermal damage to the follicle is shown to be almost independent of laser pulse duration up to 100 ms. The results reveal that epidermal cooling by a 30-80-ms-long cryogen spurt immediately before laser exposure is the only efficient technique for laser pulse durations less than 10 ms. For longer pulse durations in the 30-100 ms range, protection can be done efficiently by skin cooling during laser exposure. For laser pulses of 100 ms, an extended precooling period, e.g., by bringing a cold object into good thermal contact with the skin for about 1 s, can be of value. Thermal quenching of laser induced epidermal temperature rise after pulsed exposure can most efficiently be done with a 20 ms cryogen spurt applied immediately after irradiation. (c) 2004 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

  13. [Habits and traditions of female college students related to intimate clothing, genital adornments, genital hair removal and sexual practices].

    PubMed

    Giraldo, Paulo César; Polo, Renata Colbachini; do Amaral, Rose Luce Gomes; Reis, Virgínia Vieitez; Beghini, Joziani; Bardin, Marcela Grigol

    2013-09-01

    To describe the practices and care with the genital area of female college students. A descriptive analytical study evaluated the habits and traditions of 364 students from the University of Campinas (Unicamp) regarding the use of underwear, body piercings, tattoos, hair removal and sexual practices. A questionnaire with 42 questions assessed the most current practices among female college students. All questions were self answered and the questionnaires, without any identification, were placed in sealed ballot boxes to ensure the confidentiality of information. The responses were tabulated in Microsoft® Excel 2007 to obtain univariate analysis. The mean age of the college students in the study was 21 years (SD ± 2.7), and 84% were white. The volunteers who participated in this study were from the biological science area (50%), the exact science area (29%) or the humanity area (21%). It was observed that 61.8% of the respondents wear cotton panties, but at the same time 75.4% wear tight jeans, and only 18.4% wore no panties when sleeping. Only one participant reported having had genital piercing and none of them reported tattooing. Most female college students do genital waxing, and approximately 1/3 of them do so completely. After hair removal, 2/3 apply an anti-inflammatory and/or moisturizer to the region. Only 62% use condoms and 17.6% use a lubricant during intercourse. Half of them receive oral sex, 17.9% practice anal sex and 26.6% of them report feeling pain during sexual intercourse. Vaginal discharge after intercourse was reported in 25.6% of the cases. Young female college students from Brazilian public universities have many inadequate care habits related to their genital area. They do not use genital piercing and tattoos, but report having pain during sexual intercourse and vaginal discharge after sex in a large number of cases.

  14. Hair transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... this procedure: Scarring Unnatural-looking tufts of new hair growth It is possible that the transplanted hair will ... Most hair transplants result in excellent hair growth within several ... may be needed to create best results. The replaced hairs are ...

  15. Removable partial denture alloys processed by laser-sintering technique.

    PubMed

    Alageel, Omar; Abdallah, Mohamed-Nur; Alsheghri, Ammar; Song, Jun; Caron, Eric; Tamimi, Faleh

    2018-04-01

    Removable partial dentures (RPDs) are traditionally made using a casting technique. New additive manufacturing processes based on laser sintering has been developed for quick fabrication of RPDs metal frameworks at low cost. The objective of this study was to characterize the mechanical, physical, and biocompatibility properties of RPD cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloys produced by two laser-sintering systems and compare them to those prepared using traditional casting methods. The laser-sintered Co-Cr alloys were processed by the selective laser-sintering method (SLS) and the direct metal laser-sintering (DMLS) method using the Phenix system (L-1) and EOS system (L-2), respectively. L-1 and L-2 techniques were 8 and 3.5 times more precise than the casting (CC) technique (p < 0.05). Co-Cr alloys processed by L-1 and L-2 showed higher (p < 0.05) hardness (14-19%), yield strength (10-13%), and fatigue resistance (71-72%) compared to CC alloys. This was probably due to their smaller grain size and higher microstructural homogeneity. All Co-Cr alloys exhibited low porosity (2.1-3.3%); however, pore distribution was more homogenous in L-1 and L-2 alloys when compared to CC alloys. Both laser-sintered and cast alloys were biocompatible. In conclusion, laser-sintered alloys are more precise and present better mechanical and fatigue properties than cast alloys for RPDs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 1174-1185, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Biological application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy technique for determination of trace elements in hair.

    PubMed

    Emara, Elshaimaa M; Imam, Hisham; Hassan, Mouyed A; Elnaby, Salah H

    2013-12-15

    Analysis of trace elements in mammalian hair has the potential to reveal retrospective information about an individual's nutritional status and exposure. As trace elements are incorporated into the hair during the growth process, longitudinal segments of the hair may reflect the body burden during growth. Using LIBS technique, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Si, Fe, Pb and Zn were detected in a single strand of horse hair. The results obtained through LIBS technique on hair samples were compared with the traditional technique (AAS) on digested acidified solution of the same samples. The effects of the experimental parameters on the emission lines were studied and the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) in produced plasma was investigated. The transient plasma condition was verified at specific time region (1500-2000 ns) in the plasma evolution corresponding to its dynamic expanding characteristic. The relative mass concentrations of Fe and Zn were calculated by setting the concentration of C as the calibration. The information obtained from the trace elements' spectra of horse hair in this study substantiates the potential of hair as a biomarker. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization mass spectrometric imaging of olanzapine in a single hair using esculetin as a matrix.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hang; Wang, Ying; Wang, Ge; Hong, Lizhi

    2017-07-15

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometric imaging (MALDI-MSI) for the analysis of intact hair is a powerful tool for monitoring changes in drug consumption. The embedding of a low drug concentration in the hydrophobic hair matrix makes it difficult to extract and detect, and requires an improved method to increase detection sensitivity. In this study, an MSI method using MALDI-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance was developed for direct identification and imaging of olanzapine in hair samples using the positive ion mode. Following decontamination, scalp hair samples from an olanzapine user were scraped from the proximal to the distal end three times, and 5mm hair sections were fixed onto an Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO)-coated microscopic glass slide. Esculetin (6,7-dihydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one) was used as a new hydrophobic matrix to increase the affinity, extraction and ionization efficiency of olanzapine in the hair samples. The spatial distribution of olanzapine was observed using five single hairs from the same drug user. This matrix improves the affinity of olanzapine in hair for molecular imaging with mass spectrometry. This method may provide a detection power for olanzapine to the nanogram level per 5mm hair. Time course changes in the MSI results were also compared with quantitative HPLC-MS/MS for each 5mm segment of single hair shafts selected from the MALDI target. MALDI imaging intensities in single hairs showed good semi-quantitative correlation with the results from conventional HPLC-MS/MS. MALDI-MSI is suitable for monitoring drug intake with a high time resolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of a space debris laser removal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gjesvold, Evan; Straub, Jeremy

    2017-05-01

    As long as man ventures into space, he will leave behind debris, and as long as he ventures into space, this debris will pose a threat to him and his projects. Space debris must be located and decommissioned. Lasers may prove to be the ideal method, as they can operate at a distance from the debris, have a theoretically infinite supply of energy from the sun, and are a seemingly readily available technology. This paper explores the requirements and reasoning for such a laser debris removal method. A case is made for the negligibility of eliminating rotational velocity from certain systems, while a design schematic is also presented for the implementation of a cube satellite proof of concept.

  19. A Critical Assessment of the Evidence for Low-Level Laser Therapy in the Treatment of Hair Loss.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K; Foley, Kelly A

    2017-02-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is currently in use to stimulate hair growth and is quickly gaining in popularity due to the ease of use and absence of side effects. In 2015 alone, the number of LLLT devices with the Food and Drug Administration clearance has doubled. To consolidate evidence and establish which data are still required for the widespread acceptance of LLLT for hair loss therapy. A thorough search of the PubMed database was conducted to obtain studies investigating LLLT for androgenetic alopecia in men and women. Nine trials were identified for comb and helmet/cap devices, five of which were randomized controlled trials. Data comparison across LLLT trials and with traditional hair loss therapy (minoxidil, finasteride) was not straight forward because there was a lack of visual evidence, sample sizes were low, and there were large variations in study duration and efficacy measurements. There are a number of unanswered questions about the optimum treatment regimen, including maintenance treatment and the long-term consequences of LLLT use. Moving forward, protocols should be standardized across trials. Moreover, it is recommended that future trials include visual evidence and trial duration be expanded to 12 months.

  20. Treatment of unwanted hair in auricular reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Gault, David

    2009-08-01

    In many microtia patients, the hairline is lower than ideal. Despite this, it is essential to position the reconstructed ear in the correct place. Here is a series of tips and tricks to deal with unwanted hair on the skin that covers an autogenous tissue reconstruction. Replacement of the skin with a fascial flap and skin graft remains the mainstay of treatment for a very-low-hairline case. Surgical removal of hair on the helical rim during the release procedure is also described. Laser depilation, surgical electrolysis, and even shaving techniques are also discussed. Copyright Thieme Medical Publishers.

  1. Effects of the Lexington LaserComb on hair regrowth in the C3H/HeJ mouse model of alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Wikramanayake, Tongyu Cao; Rodriguez, Rosa; Choudhary, Sonal; Mauro, Lucia M; Nouri, Keyvan; Schachner, Lawrence A; Jimenez, Joaquin J

    2012-03-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is a common autoimmune disease that presents with non-scarring alopecia. It is characterized by intra- or peri-follicular lymphocytic infiltrates composed of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells on histology. To this day, few treatments are effective for AA. Here we present findings of using a low-level laser comb to alleviate the symptoms of AA in a C3H/HeJ mouse model for AA. Fourteen C3H/HeJ mice with induced AA were used in this study. Two were killed to confirm AA through histology. The remaining 12 mice were randomized into two groups; group I received HairMax LaserComb (wavelength: 655 nm, beam diameter <5 mm; divergence 57 mrad; nine lasers) for 20 s daily, three times per week for a total of 6 weeks; group II was treated similarly, except that the laser was turned off (sham-treated). After 6 weeks of LaserComb treatment, hair regrowth was observed in all the mice in group I (laser-treated) but none in group II (sham-treated). On histology, increased number of anagen hair follicles was observed in laser-treated mice. On the other hand, sham-treated mice demonstrated hair follicles in the telogen phase with no hair shaft. LaserComb seems to be an effective and convenient device for the treatment of AA in the C3H/HeJ mouse model. Human studies are required to determine the efficacy and safety of this device for AA therapy.

  2. Your Hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Hair KidsHealth / For Kids / Your Hair What's in this ... eyes from sweat dripping down from your forehead. Hair Comes From Where? Whether hair is growing out ...

  3. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hair Loss KidsHealth / For Teens / Hair Loss What's in ... after the problem that causes it is corrected. Hair Basics Hair is made of a kind of ...

  4. Hair Transplants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Skin Experts Skin Treatments Hair Transplants Share » HAIR TRANSPLANTS Before (left) and after (right) - front of ... transplant. Photo courtesy of N. Sadick What are hair transplants? In punch transplanting, a plug containing hair ...

  5. Laser removal of graffiti from Pink Morelia Quarry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penide, J.; Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Sánchez-Castillo, A.; Comesaña, R.; del Val, J.; Lusquiños, F.; Pou, J.

    2013-11-01

    Morelia is an important city sited in Mexico. Its historical center reflects most of their culture and history, especially of the colonial period; in fact, it was appointed World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Sadly, there is a serious problem with graffiti in Morelia and its historical center is the worst affected since its delicate charming is definitely damaged. Hitherto, the conventional methods employed to remove graffiti from Pink Morelia Quarry (the most used building stone in Morelia) are quite aggressive to the appearance of the monuments, so actually, they are not a very good solution. In this work, we performed a study on the removal of graffiti from Pink Morelia Quarry by high power diode laser. We carried out an extensive experimental study looking for the optimal processing parameters, and compared a single-pass with a multi-pass method. Indeed, we achieved an effective cleaning without producing serious side effects in the stone. In conclusion, the multi-pass method emitting in continuous wave was revealed as the more effective operating modes to remove the graffiti.

  6. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric imaging for the rapid segmental analysis of methamphetamine in a single hair using umbelliferone as a matrix.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hang; Wang, Ying

    2017-07-04

    Segmental hair analysis offers a longer period for retrospective drug detection than blood or urine. Hair is a keratinous fiber and is strongly hydrophobic. The embedding of drugs in hydrophobic hair at low concentrations makes it difficult for extraction and detection with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) coupled with mass spectrometric imaging (MSI). In this study, a single scalp hair was longitudinally cut with a cryostat section to a length of 4 mm and fixed onto a stainless steel MALDI plate. Umbelliferone was used as a new hydrophobic matrix to enrich and assist the ionization efficiency of methamphetamine in the hair sample. MALDI-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR)-MS profiling and imaging were performed for direct detection and mapping of methamphetamine on the longitudinal sections of the single hair sample in positive ion mode. Using MALDI-MSI, the distribution of methamphetamine was observed throughout five longitudinally sectioned hair samples from a drug abuser. The changes of methamphetamine were also semi-quantified by comparing the ratios of methamphetamine/internal standard (I.S). This method improves the detection sensitivity of target drugs embedded in a hair matrix for imaging with mass spectrometry. The method could provide a detection level of methamphetamine down to a nanogram per milligram incorporated into hair. The results were also compared with the conventional high performance liquid chromatography -tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method. Changes in the imaging results over time by the MSI method showed good semi-quantitative correlation to the results from the HPLC-MS/MS method. This study provides a powerful tool for drug abuse control and forensic medicine analysis in a narrow time frame, and a reduction in the sample amount required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Visualization of hair follicles using high-speed optical coherence tomography based on a Fourier domain mode locking laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, M.-T.; Chang, F.-Y.

    2012-04-01

    In this study, a swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system with a Fourier domain mode locking (FDML) laser is proposed for a dermatology study. The homemade FDML laser is one kind of frequency-sweeping light source, which can provide output power of >20 mW and an output spectrum of 65 nm in bandwidth centered at 1300 nm, enabling imaging with an axial resolution of 12 μm in the OCT system. To eliminate the forward scans from the laser output and insert the delayed backward scans, a Mach-Zehnder configuration is implemented. Compared with conventional frequency-sweeping light sources, the FDML laser can achieve much higher scan rates, as high as ˜240 kHz, which can provide a three-dimensional imaging rate of 4 volumes/s. Furthermore, the proposed high-speed SS-OCT system can provide three-dimensional (3D) images with reduced motion artifacts. Finally, a high-speed SS-OCT system is used to visualize hair follicles, demonstrating the potential of this technology as a tool for noninvasive diagnosis of alopecia.

  8. Ultrafast laser ablation for targeted atherosclerotic plaque removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanvin, Thomas; Conkey, Donald B.; Descloux, Laurent; Frobert, Aurelien; Valentin, Jeremy; Goy, Jean-Jacques; Cook, Stéphane; Giraud, Marie-Noelle; Psaltis, Demetri

    2015-07-01

    Coronary artery disease, the main cause of heart disease, develops as immune cells and lipids accumulate into plaques within the coronary arterial wall. As a plaque grows, the tissue layer (fibrous cap) separating it from the blood flow becomes thinner and increasingly susceptible to rupturing and causing a potentially lethal thrombosis. The stabilization and/or treatment of atherosclerotic plaque is required to prevent rupturing and remains an unsolved medical problem. Here we show for the first time targeted, subsurface ablation of atherosclerotic plaque using ultrafast laser pulses. Excised atherosclerotic mouse aortas were ablated with ultrafast near-infrared (NIR) laser pulses. The physical damage was characterized with histological sections of the ablated atherosclerotic arteries from six different mice. The ultrafast ablation system was integrated with optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging for plaque-specific targeting and monitoring of the resulting ablation volume. We find that ultrafast ablation of plaque just below the surface is possible without causing damage to the fibrous cap, which indicates the potential use of ultrafast ablation for subsurface atherosclerotic plaque removal. We further demonstrate ex vivo subsurface ablation of a plaque volume through a catheter device with the high-energy ultrafast pulse delivered via hollow-core photonic crystal fiber.

  9. Orbital debris removal using ground-based lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Charles R.

    1996-01-01

    Orbiting the Earth are spent rocket stages, non-functioning satellites, hardware from satellite deployment and staging, fragments of exploded spacecraft, and other relics of decades of space exploration: orbital debris. The United States Space Command tracks and maintains a catalog of the largest objects. The catalog contains over 7000 objects. Recent studies have assessed the debris environment in an effort to estimate the number of smaller particles and the probability of a collision causing catastrophic damage to a functioning spacecraft. The results of the studies can be used to show, for example, that the likelihood of a collision of a particle larger than about one centimeter in diameter with the International Space Station during a 10-year period is a few percent, roughly in agreement with earlier estimates for Space Station Freedom. Particles greater than about one centimeter in diameter pose the greatest risk to shielded spacecraft. There are on the order of 105 such particles in low Earth orbit. The United States National Space Policy, begun in 1988, is to minimize debris consistent with mission requirements. Measures such as venting unused fuel to prevent explosions, retaining staging and deployment hardware, and shielding against smaller debris have been taken by the U.S. and other space faring nations. There is at present no program to remove debris from orbit. The natural tendency for upper atmospheric drag to remove objects from low Earth orbit is more than balanced by the increase in the number of debris objects from new launches and fragmentation of existing objects. In this paper I describe a concept under study by the Program Development Laboratory of Marshall Space Flight Center and others to remove debris with a ground-based laser. A longer version of this report, including figures, is available from the author.

  10. A Prospective Study of Axillary Hair Reduction in Patients Treated With Microwave Technology.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Jeremy A; Neckman, Julia P; Zelickson, Brian; Vasily, David B; Geronemus, Roy G

    2017-04-01

    Removing unwanted body hair is a growing trend in society today, and there are many laser-based devices for hair reduction. There are some limitations to those methods, including the lack of efficacy for lighter color hair. The objective was to quantify hair reduction in the axillae after treatment with a noninvasive microwave energy device. A prospective, multicenter study was performed at 3 private dermatology clinics. Fifty-six adult subjects seeking axillary hair reduction were enrolled and treated with the device in 1 or 2 treatment sessions 3 months apart at various energy levels, and followed for 12 months. The primary analysis was monitoring reduction of hair counts from baseline to follow-up visits. A subject assessment of overall satisfaction, odor ratings, and sweat reduction ratings was provided at follow-up visits. Fifty-six subjects received treatment, with an average total underarm hair reduction of approximately 70% for both light and dark hair. Percentage of patients with hair reduction of 30% or more was significantly higher than 50% at all follow-up visits. Half of treated subjects reported expected mild transient post-treatment effects such as localized edema, discomfort, and bruising. Other reported events were mild. This clinical study provides evidence for safe and permanent axillary hair reduction, showing stable average reduction that lasted through the year of follow-up. Most notably, the study has shown the treatment's efficacy for reduction of light-colored axillary hair.

  11. Analysis of Antiretrovirals in Single Hair Strands for Evaluation of Drug Adherence with Infrared-Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Elias P; Thompson, Corbin G; Bokhart, Mark T; Prince, Heather M A; Sykes, Craig; Muddiman, David C; Kashuba, Angela D M

    2016-01-19

    Adherence to a drug regimen can be a strong predictor of health outcomes, and validated measures of adherence are necessary at all stages of therapy from drug development to prescription. Many of the existing metrics of drug adherence (e.g., self-report, pill counts, blood monitoring) have limitations, and analysis of hair strands has recently emerged as an objective alternative. Traditional methods of hair analysis based on LC-MS/MS (segmenting strands at ≥1 cm length) are not capable of preserving a temporal record of drug intake at higher resolution than approximately 1 month. Here, we evaluated the detectability of HIV antiretrovirals (ARVs) in hair from a range of drug classes using infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization (IR-MALDESI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) with 100 μm resolution. Infrared laser desorption of hair strands was shown to penetrate into the strand cortex, allowing direct measurement by MSI without analyte extraction. Using optimized desorption conditions, a linear correlation between IR-MALDESI ion abundance and LC-MS/MS response was observed for six common ARVs with estimated limits of detection less than or equal to 1.6 ng/mg hair. The distribution of efavirenz (EFV) was then monitored in a series of hair strands collected from HIV infected, virologically suppressed patients. Because of the role hair melanin plays in accumulation of basic drugs (like most ARVs), an MSI method to quantify the melanin biomarker pyrrole-2,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (PTCA) was evaluated as a means of normalizing drug response between patients to develop broadly applicable adherence criteria.

  12. Hair as a Biomarker of Environmental Manganese Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Eastman, Rachel R.; Jursa, Tom P.; Benedetti, Chiara; Lucchini, Roberto G.; Smith, Donald R.

    2013-01-01

    The absence of well-validated biomarkers of manganese (Mn) exposure in children remains a major obstacle for studies of Mn toxicity. We developed a hair cleaning methodology to establish the utility of hair as an exposure biomarker for Mn and other metals (Pb, Cr, Cu), using ICP-MS, scanning electron microscopy, and laser ablation ICP-MS to evaluate cleaning efficacy. Exogenous metal contamination on hair that was untreated or intentionally contaminated with dust or Mn-contaminated water was effectively removed using a cleaning method of 0.5% Triton X-100 sonication plus 1N nitric acid sonication. This cleaning method was then used on hair samples from children (n=121) in an ongoing study of environmental Mn exposure and related health effects. Mean hair Mn levels were 0.121 μg/g (median = 0.073 μg/g, range = 0.011 – 0.736 μg/g), which are ~4 to 70-fold lower than levels reported in other pediatric Mn studies. Hair Mn levels were also significantly higher in children living in the vicinity of active, but not historic, ferroalloy plant emissions compared to controls (P<0.001). These data show that exogenous metal contamination on hair can be effectively cleaned of exogenous metal contamination, and they substantiate the use of hair Mn levels as a biomarker of environmental Mn exposure in children. PMID:23259818

  13. Development of a water-jet assisted laser paint removal process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhukar, Yuvraj K.; Mullick, Suvradip; Nath, Ashish K.

    2013-12-01

    The laser paint removal process usually leaves behind traces of combustion product i.e. ashes on the surface. An additional post-processing such as light-brushing or wiping by some mechanical means is required to remove the residual ash. In order to strip out the paint completely from the surface in a single step, a water-jet assisted laser paint removal process has been investigated. The 1.07 μm wavelength of Yb-fiber laser radiation has low absorption in water; therefore a high power fiber laser was used in the experiment. The laser beam was delivered on the paint-surface along with a water jet to remove the paint and residual ashes effectively. The specific energy, defined as the laser energy required removing a unit volume of paint was found to be marginally more than that for the gas-jet assisted laser paint removal process. However, complete paint removal was achieved with the water-jet assist only. The relatively higher specific energy in case of water-jet assist is mainly due to the scattering of laser beam in the turbulent flow of water-jet.

  14. Correlates of body depilation: an exploratory study into the health implications of body hair reduction and removal among college-aged men.

    PubMed

    Boroughs, Michael S; Thompson, J Kevin

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that body hair may be of increasing importance in men's overall body image. Body depilation is a relatively new area of clinical and research inquiry among men with much of the documented evidence of the phenomenon split between mass media accounts and descriptive scientific investigations. This study was undertaken to further our understanding of this behavior by examining the relationship between depilation and other dimensions of body image in a nonclinical sample. A total of 364 men completed measures assessing self-reported hair growth, body depilation, drive for muscularity, gender role conflict, body dysmorphia, and social comparison. The correlates of body depilation included a drive for muscularity, gender role conflict, and physical appearance social comparison. Significant differences were identified among men who depilate, compared with those who do not, on measures of social comparison and a drive for muscularity. These findings lend support for the idea that body hair, and its reduction or removal, is a key aspect of men's body image that translates into some challenges in assessment and prevention among health care practitioners.

  15. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    Hair loss Overview Hair loss can affect just your scalp or your entire body. It can be the result of heredity, hormonal changes, medical conditions or medications. Anyone can experience hair loss, but it's more common in men. Baldness ...

  16. Hair loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... that is applied to the scalp to stimulate hair growth. Other medicines, such as hormones, may be prescribed to decrease hair loss and promote hair growth. Drugs such as finasteride and dutasteride can be ...

  17. Laser-induced synlabia, cryptomenorrhea, and urine retention: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Fadul-Elahi, Thoraya; Janjua, Nusrat Batool

    2017-01-01

    Cosmetic laser use has many pros and cons. The worldwide use of laser for body hair removal has led to many medical complications. Unsupervised use of the laser for hair removal in vulva may result in many problems and can merely damage the vulva, although rarely, affecting the body image. This rare and novel case report is a 21 year old virgin who presented with acute urinary retention and cryptomenorrhea due to complete synlabia secondary to unsupervised vulval laser hair removal. The urinary retention was relieved by suprapubic catheterization initially. During examination under anesthesia, the fused labia were separated by a surgical incision with drainage of hematocolpos and then, a Foley's urethral catheter was inserted. She had an uneventful recovery. We report this case to emphasize on the supervised use of laser by trained and qualified personnel for hair removal in vulva to minimize its complications. PMID:29118543

  18. Can long-term alopecia occur after appropriate pulsed-dye laser therapy in hair-bearing sites? Pediatric dermatologists weigh in.

    PubMed

    Feldstein, Stephanie; Totri, Christine R; Friedlander, Sheila F

    2015-03-01

    The risk of long-term alopecia after pulsed-dye laser (PDL) therapy is unknown. To identify how many practitioners treat hair-bearing sites with PDL and how commonly long-term alopecia occurs, the authors queried pediatric dermatologists about their experiences using this modality. A survey was designed to evaluate the frequency of and factors contributing to long-term alopecia after PDL treatment of port-wine stains (PWS). "Long-term" was defined as no sign of hair regrowth after several years of nontreatment. The survey was administered to attendees at the 2014 Society for Pediatric Dermatology biannual meeting. Sixty-four pediatric dermatologists completed the survey, 50 of whom had experience using PDL. Of these physicians, 86% have used PDL to treat PWS of the eyebrow and 80% have treated PWS of the scalp. Over one-quarter of respondents (25.5%) using PDL on hair-bearing areas had at least 1 of their patients develop long-term alopecia after PDL treatment. The incidence of long-term alopecia after PDL treatment in the surveyed population was 1.5% to 2.6%. The occurrence of long-term alopecia at hair-bearing sites after treatment with PDL may be greater than previously thought. Because the majority of physicians using PDL treat hair-bearing areas, prospective studies are needed to more accurately determine the risk of long-term alopecia and the factors that contribute to it.

  19. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  20. Visualization of laser tattoo removal treatment effects in a mouse model by two-photon microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Won Hyuk; Yoon, Yeoreum; Kim, Wonjoong; Kwon, Soonjae; Lee, Seunghun; Song, Duke; Choi, Jong Woon; Kim, Ki Hean

    2017-01-01

    Laser tattoo removal is an effective method of eliminating tattoo particles in the skin. However, laser treatment cannot always remove the unwanted tattoo completely, and there are risks of either temporary or permanent side effects. Studies using preclinical animal models could provide detailed information on the effects of laser treatment in the skin, and might help to minimize side effects in clinical practices. In this study, two-photon microscopy (TPM) was used to visualize the laser treatment effects on tattoo particles in both phantom specimens and in vivo mouse models. Fluorescent tattoo ink was used for particle visualization by TPM, and nanosecond (ns) and picosecond (ps) lasers at 532 nm were used for treatment. In phantom specimens, TPM characterized the fragmentation of individual tattoo particles by tracking them before and after the laser treatment. These changes were confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). TPM was used to measure the treatment efficiency of the two lasers at different laser fluences. In the mouse model, TPM visualized clusters of tattoo particles in the skin and detected their fragmentation after the laser treatment. Longitudinal TPM imaging observed the migration of cells containing tattoo particles after the laser treatment. These results show that TPM may be useful for the assessment of laser tattoo removal treatment in preclinical studies. PMID:28856046

  1. Validation of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the detection of nicotine biomarkers in hair and an evaluation of wash procedures for removal of environmental nicotine.

    PubMed

    Miller, Eleanor I; Murray, Gordon J; Rollins, Douglas E; Tiffany, Stephen T; Wilkins, Diana G

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to develop and validate a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method for the quantification of nicotine, eight nicotine metabolites, and two minor tobacco alkaloids in fortified analyte-free hair and subsequently apply this method to hair samples collected from active smokers. An additional aim of the study was to include an evaluation of different wash procedures for the effective removal of environmentally deposited nicotine from tobacco smoke. An apparatus was designed for the purpose of exposing analyte-free hair to environmental tobacco smoke in order to deposit nicotine onto the hair surface. A shampoo/water wash procedure was identified as the most effective means of removing nicotine. This wash procedure was utilized for a comparison of washed and unwashed heavy smoker hair samples. Analytes and corresponding deuterated internal standards were extracted using a cation-exchange solid-phase cartridge. LC-MS-MS was carried out using an Acquity™ UPLC(®) system (Waters) and a Quattro Premier XE™ triple quadrupole MS (Waters) operated in electrospray positive ionization mode, with multiple reaction monitoring data acquisition. The developed method was applied to hair samples collected from heavy smokers (n = 3) and low-level smokers (n = 3) collected through IRB-approved protocols. Nicotine, cotinine, and nornicotine were quantified in both the washed and unwashed hair samples collected from three heavy smokers, whereas 3-hydroxycotinine was quantified in only one unwashed sample and nicotine-1'-oxide in the washed and unwashed hair samples from two heavy smokers. In contrast, nicotine-1'-oxide was quantified in one of the three low-level smoker samples; nicotine was quantified in the other two low-level smoker samples. No other analytes were detected in the hair of the three low-level smokers.

  2. Selective removal of composite sealants with near-UV laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louie, Tiffany M.; Jones, Robert S.; Sarma, Anupama V.; Fried, Daniel

    2004-05-01

    It is often necessary to replace pit and fissure sealants and composite restorations. This task is complicated by the necessity for complete removal of the remaining composite to enable suitable adhesion of new composite. Previous studies have shown that lasers pulses from a frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser (355-nm) can selectively remove residual composite after orthodontic bracket removal on enamel surfaces. UV laser light is preferentially absorbed by polymeric resins and the organic content of the tooth enamel. The objective of this study was to determine if such laser pulses are suitable for selective removal of the old composite from pit and fissure sealants and restorations without damaging surrounding sound tissues. Optical coherence tomography was used to acquire optical cross sections of the occlusal topography and peripheral tooth structure non-destructively before application of the sealants, after sealant application, and after sealant removal with 355-nm laser pulses with intensities ranging from 0-10 J/cm2. Thermocouples were used to monitor the temperature in the pulp chamber during composite removal under clinically relevant ablation rates, i.e., 30 Hz and 30 mJ per laser pulse. At an irradiation intensity of 1.3 J/cm2 pit and fissure sealants were completely removed without visible damage to the underlying enamel. At intensities above 1.5 J/cm2, the laser removes the resin layer while at the same time preferentially etching the surface of the enamel. Temperature excursions in the pulp chamber of extracted teeth was limited to less than 5°C if air-cooling was used during the rapid removal (1-2 min) of sealants, water-cooling was not needed. This is the first presentation of a method for the selective removal of composite restorative materials without damage to the underlying sound tooth structure.

  3. Hair transplantation.

    PubMed

    Avram, Marc R

    2012-12-01

    Hair transplantation is a purely dermatologic surgical procedure that dermatologists should be able to perform in appropriate candidates with hair loss. Hair transplantation techniques performed in the 1960s through the 1990s utilized large grafts that created an unfortunate public image of unnatural-appearing transplanted hair. Over the last 15 years, hair transplantation has been performed using follicular units to create consistently natural-looking transplanted hair in both men and women. This article provides an overview of candidate selection and state-of-the-art techniques for performing hair transplantation.

  4. Containing Hair During Cutting In Zero Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed device collects loose hair during barbering and shaving in zero gravity to prevent hair clippings from contaminating cabin of spacecraft. Folds for storage, opens into clear, bubblelike plastic dome surrounding user's head, tray fits around user's throat, and fanlike ring surrounds back of neck. Device fits snugly but comfortably around neck, preventing hair from escaping to outside. Flow of air into hose connected to suction pump removes hair from bubble as cut. Filter at end of hose collects hair.

  5. Selective removal of dental composite using a rapidly scanned carbon dioxide laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Kenneth H.; Fried, Daniel

    2011-03-01

    Dental restorative materials are color matched to the tooth and are difficult to remove by mechanical means without excessive removal or damage to peripheral enamel and dentin. Lasers are ideally suited for selective ablation to minimize healthy tissue loss when replacing existing restorations, sealants or removing composite adhesives such as residual composite left after debonding orthodontic brackets. In this study a carbon dioxide laser operating at high laser pulse repetition rates integrated with a galvanometer based scanner was used to selectively remove composite from tooth surfaces. A diode array spectrometer was used to measure the plume emission after each laser pulse and determine if the ablated material was tooth mineral or composite. The composite was placed on tooth buccal and occlusal surfaces and the carbon dioxide laser was scanned across the surface to selectively remove the composite without excessive damage to the underlying sound enamel. The residual composite and the damage to the underlying enamel was evaluated using optical microscopy. The laser was able to rapidly remove the composites rapidly from both surfaces with minimal damage to the underlying sound enamel.

  6. Using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to characterize copper, zinc and mercury along grizzly bear hair providing estimate of diet.

    PubMed

    Noël, Marie; Christensen, Jennie R; Spence, Jody; Robbins, Charles T

    2015-10-01

    We enhanced an existing technique, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), to function as a non-lethal tool in the temporal characterization of trace element exposure in wild mammals. Mercury (Hg), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) were analyzed along the hair of captive and wild grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). Laser parameters were optimized (consecutive 2000 μm line scans along the middle line of the hair at a speed of 50 μm/s; spot size=30 μm) for consistent ablation of the hair. A pressed pellet of reference material DOLT-2 and sulfur were used as external and internal standards, respectively. Our newly adapted method passed the quality control tests with strong correlations between trace element concentrations obtained using LA-ICP-MS and those obtained with regular solution-ICP-MS (r(2)=0.92, 0.98, 0.63, 0.57, 0.99 and 0.90 for Hg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb, respectively). Cross-correlation analyses revealed good reproducibility between trace element patterns obtained from hair collected from the same bear. One exception was Cd for which external contamination was observed resulting in poor reproducibility. In order to validate the method, we used LA-ICP-MS on the hair of five captive grizzly bears fed known and varying amounts of cutthroat trout over a period of 33 days. Trace element patterns along the hair revealed strong Hg, Cu and Zn signals coinciding with fish consumption. Accordingly, significant correlations between Hg, Cu, and Zn in the hair and Hg, Cu, and Zn intake were evident and we were able to develop accumulation models for each of these elements. While the use of LA-ICP-MS for the monitoring of trace elements in wildlife is in its infancy, this study highlights the robustness and applicability of this newly adapted method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Innovative CO2 LASER-Based Pavement Striping and Stripe Removal

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-07-01

    This is a Technical Report of an FY2014 NDOT funded project on Innovative CO2 Laserbased Pavement Striping and Stripe Removal. The project was concerned with adopting the laser technology for pavement stripe and markers removal and inferring on its e...

  8. Erbium Laser Technology vs Traditional Drilling for Caries Removal: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Tao, Siying; Li, Lan; Yuan, He; Tao, Sibei; Cheng, Yiming; He, Libang; Li, Jiyao

    2017-12-01

    The study aimed to assess the efficacy of erbium laser technology compared with traditional drilling for caries removal. A systematic search was conducted through Medline via PubMed, Embase, Cochrane databases, CNKI till December 2016. Randomised controlled trials, quasi-randomized controlled trials, or controlled clinical trials with data comparing the efficacy of erbium laser technology versus traditional drilling for caries removal were included. Fourteen studies were selected in our meta-analysis. Erbium laser technology showed an increased time when removing caries compared with drilling (mean difference: 3.48, 95% confidence interval: 1.90-5.06, P < .0001). However, erbium laser technology reduced the requirement for local anesthesia (risk ratio: 0.28, 95% confidence interval: 0.13-0.62, P = .002). Erbium laser technology was also not significantly different to traditional drilling with regard to restoration loss, pulpal vitality, and postoperative sensitivity. Erbium laser technology showed an increased time for cavity preparation compared with traditional drilling. However, erbium laser technology reduced the requirement for local anesthesia. There was no significant difference between erbium laser technology and traditional drilling regarding restoration loss, pulpal vitality, and postoperative sensitivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Material removal effect of microchannel processing by femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pan; Chen, Lei; Chen, Jianxiong; Tu, Yiliu

    2017-11-01

    Material processing using ultra-short-pulse laser is widely used in the field of micromachining, especially for the precision processing of hard and brittle materials. This paper reports a theoretical and experimental study of the ablation characteristics of a silicon wafer under micromachining using a femtosecond laser. The ablation morphology of the silicon wafer surface is surveyed by a detection test with an optical microscope. First, according to the relationship between the diameter of the ablation holes and the incident laser power, the ablation threshold of the silicon wafer is found to be 0.227 J/cm2. Second, the influence of various laser parameters on the size of the ablation microstructure is studied and the ablation morphology is analyzed. Furthermore, a mathematical model is proposed that can calculate the ablation depth per time for a given laser fluence and scanning velocity. Finally, a microchannel milling test is carried out on the micromachining center. The effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed models are verified by comparing the estimated depth to the actual measured results.

  10. Selective Removal of Demineralization Using Near Infrared Cross Polarization Reflectance and a Carbon Dioxide Laser.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kenneth H; Fried, Daniel

    2012-02-09

    Lasers can ablate/remove tissue in a non-contact mode of operation and a pulsed laser beam does not interfere with the ability to image the tooth surface, therefore lasers are ideally suited for integration with imaging devices for image-guided ablation. Laser energy can be rapidly and efficiently delivered to tooth surfaces using a digitally controlled laser beam scanning system for precise and selective laser ablation with minimal loss of healthy tissues. Under the appropriate irradiation conditions such laser energy can induce beneficial chemical and morphological changes in the walls of the drilled cavity that can increase resistance to further dental decay and produce surfaces with enhanced adhesive properties to restorative materials. Previous studies have shown that images acquired using near-IR transillumination, optical coherence tomography and fluorescence can be used to guide the laser for selective removal of demineralized enamel. Recent studies have shown that NIR reflectance measurements at 1470-nm can be used to obtain images of enamel demineralization with very high contrast. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that image guided ablation of occlusal lesions can be successfully carried out using a NIR reflectance imaging system coupled with a carbon dioxide laser operating at 9.3-μm with high pulse repetition rates.

  11. Ingrown Hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... needed to determine whether a single- or multiple-blade razor is best for preventing ingrown hair. See ... in the direction of hair growth. Rinse the blade after each stroke. Rinse your skin and apply ...

  12. Hair disorders.

    PubMed

    Jackson, E A

    2000-06-01

    Disorders of the hair are commonplace in the primary care practice. Among these disorders are male pattern baldness, Telogen effluvium, alopecia areata, Trichotillomania, and fungal infections involving the hair shaft. A review of the normal anatomy and life cycle of hair also is presented.

  13. Hair cut

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-10

    ISS033-E-018986 (10 Nov. 2012) --- Russian cosmonaut Evgeny Tarelkin, Expedition 33 flight engineer, trims the hair of Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy, flight engineer, in the Tranquility node of the International Space Station. Tarelkin used hair clippers fashioned with a vacuum device to garner freshly cut hair. NASA astronaut Kevin Ford, flight engineer, is visible in the background.

  14. Hair cut

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-10

    ISS033-E-018991 (10 Nov. 2012) --- Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy, Expedition 33 flight engineer, trims the hair of Russian cosmonaut Evgeny Tarelkin, flight engineer, in the Tranquility node of the International Space Station. Novitskiy used hair clippers fashioned with a vacuum device to garner freshly cut hair.

  15. Muscle relaxation for individuals having tattoos removed through laser treatment: possible effects regarding anxiety and pain.

    PubMed

    Huang, Faye; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Chen, Tien-Hsing; Chen, Ching; Hsieh, Yu-Lian; Chong, Mian-Yoon; Hung, Chi-Fa; Lin, Shu-Ching; Tsai, Hsiu-Huang; Wang, Liang-Jen

    2016-08-01

    Effectively managing pain is vital for the well-being and satisfaction of patients undergoing dermatologic treatments involving lasers. This study investigates the potential outcome of using muscle relaxation techniques to reduce pain among people having their tattoos removed with laser treatment. This study consists of 56 participants (mean age 18.1 ± 2.1 years) that had tattoos removed using the principle of selective photothermolysis. These participants underwent muscle relaxation before receiving the laser treatment. Their peripheral skin temperatures (PST) were measured both at the beginning and the end of the muscle relaxation period. Then, the Beck Anxiety Inventory was applied to evaluate anxiety levels. Once the laser treatment was completed, pain levels were measured using a visual analogue scale. A total of 125 person-sessions of laser treatment and psychometric assessments were performed in this study. The muscle relaxation method significantly increased the PST of the participants while reducing the levels of anxiety and pain throughout the course of the laser treatment procedure. The PST, anxiety scores, and pain scores all showed significant correlations with one another. According to the results obtained, this study proposes that muscle relaxation techniques be considered possibly auxiliary treatment options for individuals having tattoos removed through laser treatment. Additional studies with a comparison group and a larger sample size are required in the future to confirm the effectiveness of such intervention.

  16. Endoscopic removal of PMMA in hip revision surgery with a CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazy, John; Kollmer, Charles; Uppal, Gurvinder S.; Lane, Gregory J.; Sherk, Henry H.

    1991-05-01

    Purpose: to compare CO2 laser to mechanical means of PMMA removal in total hip arthroplasty revision surgery. Materials and methods: Forty-five patients requiring hip revision surgery were studied and compared to historical controls. Cement was removed from the femoral canal utilizing a 30 centimeter laparoscope. A CO2 laser waveguide was passed through the laparoscope into the femoral canal and a TV camera was placed over the eye piece to permit visualization of the depths of the femoral canal on a video monitor. The leg was placed in a horizontal position which avoided the pooling of blood or saline in the depths of the femur. Under direct vision the distal plug could be vaporized with a 40 centimeter CO2 laser waveguide. Power settings of 20 to 25 watts and a superpulsed mode were used. A 2 mm suction tube was welded to the outside of the laparoscope permitting aspiration of the products of vaporization. Results: Of 45 hip revisions there were no shaft perforation, fractures or undue loss of bone stock. There was no statistically different stay in hospital time, blood loss or operative time between the CO2 revision group compared to the non-laser revision group, in which cement was removed by mechanical methods. Conclusions: Mechanical methods used in removing bone cement using high speed burrs, reamers, gouges, and osteotomies is technically difficult and fraught with complications including shaft fracture, perforations, and unnecessary loss of bone stock. The authors' experience using the CO2 laser in hip revision surgery has permitted the removal of bone cement. Use of a modified laparoscope has allowed for precise, complete removal of bone cement deep within the femoral shaft without complication or additional operative time. The authors now advocate the use of a CO2 laser with modified laparoscope in hip revision surgery in which bone cement is to be removed from within the femoral shaft.

  17. The role of mass removal mechanisms in the onset of ns-laser induced plasma formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autrique, D.; Clair, G.; L'Hermite, D.; Alexiades, V.; Bogaerts, A.; Rethfeld, B.

    2013-07-01

    The present study focuses on the role of mass removal mechanisms in ns-laser ablation. A copper sample is placed in argon, initially set at standard pressure and temperature. Calculations are performed for a 6 ns laser pulse with a wavelength of 532 nm and laser fluences up to 10 J/cm2. The transient behavior in and above the copper target is described by a hydrodynamic model. Transmission profiles and ablation depths are compared with experimental results and similar trends are found. Our calculations reveal an interesting self-inhibiting mechanism: volumetric mass removal in the supercritical region triggers plasma shielding and therefore stops proceeding. This self-limiting process indicates that volumetric mass removal does not necessarily result in large ablation depths.

  18. Effective removal of calcified deposits on microstructured titanium fixture surfaces of dental implants with erbium lasers.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Toru; Aoki, Akira; Ichinose, Shizuko; Taniguchi, Yoichi; Tachikawa, Noriko; Shinoki, Takeshi; Meinzer, Walter; Sculean, Anton; Izumi, Yuichi

    2018-03-13

    Recently, the occurrence of peri-implantitis has been increasing. However, a suitable method to debride the contaminated surface of titanium implants has not been established. The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological changes of the microstructured fixture surface after erbium laser irradiation, and to clarify the effects of the erbium lasers when used to remove calcified deposits from implant fixture surfaces. In experiment 1, sandblasted, large grit, acid etched surface implants were treated with Er:YAG laser or Er,Cr:YSGG laser at 30-60 mJ/pulse and 20 Hz with water spray. In experiments 2 and 3, the effects of erbium lasers used to remove calcified deposits (artificially prepared deposits on virgin implants and natural calculus on failed implants) were investigated and compared with mechanical debridement using either a titanium curette or cotton pellets. After the various debridement methods, all specimens were analyzed by stereomicroscopy (SM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Stereomicroscopy and SEM showed that erbium lasers with optimal irradiation parameters did not have an effect on titanium microstructures. Compared to mechanical debridement, erbium lasers were more capable of removing calcified deposits on the microstructured surface without surface alteration using a non-contact sweeping irradiation at 40 mJ/pulse (ED 14.2 J/cm 2 /pulse) and 20 Hz with water spray. These results indicate that Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG lasers are more advantageous in removing calcified deposits on the microstructured surface of titanium implants without inducing damage, compared to mechanical therapy by cotton pellet or titanium curette. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Study of the Conditions of Irradiating Laser for Removal of Toner from Used Paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihori, Haruo; Inagawa, Yuki; Ito, Naohiro; Fujii, Masaharu; Ninomiya, Hideki

    Though it is said to the paper-less age with the spread of personal computer, amount of office papers to be used doesn't have tendency to decrease. In general, used papers are recovered and recycled in order to preserve the environment. The labor and costs are required for the recovery of used papers and a recycled paper is lower in quality. If we could reuse used papers repeatedly without withdrawing those, for example, by copying machine that could print again with removing toner on used paper, it is very convenient and ecological. So, we studied about removing toner from used papers by application of the laser ablation technique. As an optical source, SHG-YAG laser was chosen. For removal of toner from used papers, the energy density to irradiate them with SHG-YAG laser was examined. When approximately 12mJ/mm2 of the energy density, which was average value, toner was removed so much as to be able to reuse again. Moreover, conditions of the laser irradiation, concretely, the velocity scanning the laser and the number of the irradiation, were studied.

  20. Finite element analysis of space debris removal by high-power lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Li; Jiang, Guanlei; Yu, Shuang; Li, Ming

    2015-08-01

    With the development of space station technologies, irradiation of space debris by space-based high-power lasers, can locally generate high-temperature plasmas and micro momentum, which may achieve the removal of debris through tracking down. Considered typical square-shaped space debris of material Ti with 5cm×5cm size, whose thermal conductivity, density, specific heat capacity and emissivity are 7.62W/(m·°C), 4500kg/m3, 0.52J/(kg·°C) and 0.3,respectively, based on the finite element analysis of ANSYS, each irradiation of space debris by high-power lasers with power density 106W/m2 and weapons-grade lasers with power density 3000W/m2 are simulated under space environment, and the temperature curves due to laser thermal irradiation are obtained and compared. Results show only 2s is needed for high-power lasers to make the debris temperature reach to about 10000K, which is the threshold temperature for plasmas-state conversion. While for weapons-grade lasers, it is 13min needed. Using two line elements (TLE), and combined with the coordinate transformation from celestial coordinate system to site coordinate system, the visible period of space debris is calculated as 5-10min. That is, in order to remove space debris by laser plasmas, the laser power density should be further improved. The article provides an intuitive and visual feasibility analysis method of space debris removal, and the debris material and shape, laser power density and spot characteristics are adjustable. This finite element analysis method is low-cost, repeatable and adaptable, which has an engineering-prospective applications.

  1. Image-guided removal of interproximal lesions with a CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, Albert; Chan, Kenneth H.; Le, Oanh; Simon, Jacob C.; Fried, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that near-IR (NIR) imaging methods such as NIR reflectance can be used to image lesions on proximal surfaces, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be used to measure the depth of those lesions below the tooth surface. These imaging modalities can be used to acquire high contrast images of demineralized tooth surfaces, and 2-D and 3-D images can be extracted from this data. At NIR wavelengths longer than 1200-nm, there is no interference from stains and the contrast is only due to the increased light scattering of the demineralization. Previous studies have shown that image-guided laser ablation can be used to remove occlusal lesions, but its use for the removal of subsurface lesions on proximal surfaces has not been investigated. The objective of this study is to demonstrate that simultaneously scanned NIR and CO2 lasers can be used to selectively remove natural and artificial interproximal caries lesions with minimal damage to sound tooth structure. In this study, images of simulated and natural interproximal lesions on extracted teeth were imaged using a digital microscope, a scanned 1460-nm superluminescent laser diode with an InGaAs detector and a cross polarization OCT system operating at 1300-nm. The lesions were subsequently removed with a CO2 laser operating at 9.3-μm and the dental handpiece and the volume of sound tissue removed was compared.

  2. A case of generalized bromhidrosis following whole-body depilatory laser.

    PubMed

    Helou, Josiane; Haber, Roger; Kechichian, Elio; Tomb, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Laser treatment is a widespread method for hair removal. Despite its very common use, side effects remain relatively rare and transient. Axillary hyperhidrosis and bromhidrosis have already been reported in the literature after depilatory lasers. We report here a novel side effect of total body bromhidrosis following hair removal laser. A 27-year-old man, phototype 3 underwent four sessions of total body depilatory laser, combining pulsed alexandrite and pulsed diode lasers. A few days afterwards, a generalized foul odor was noted and was resistant to regular deodorants and Aluminum chloride based antiperspirants. Possible mechanisms include the activation of dormant bacteria in the skin flora, sweat gland dysfunction, altered skin flora, sweat gland hormone receptor disturbances, and genetic factors. Total body bromhidrosis and hyperhidrosis are potential complications of total body laser hair removal.

  3. Selective Removal of Residual Orthodontic Composite Using a Rapidly Scanned Carbon Dioxide Laser with Spectral Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirasuna, Krista

    Background and Objective: Excessive heat accumulation within the tooth, incomplete removal of composite, and variable damage to the enamel are shortcomings of using conventional burs to remove residual orthodontic composite after debonding fixed appliances. The objective of this study was to determine if composite could be selectively removed from the enamel surface using a rapidly scanned carbon dioxide laser controlled by spectral feedback. Materials and Methods: A carbon dioxide laser operating at a wavelength of 9.3 microm with a pulse duration of 10-15 micros and a pulse repetition rate of ˜ 200 Hz was used to selectively remove composite from the buccal surfaces of 21 extracted teeth. GrenGloo(TM) composite was used to better visualize residual composite and the amount of enamel lost was measured with optical microscopy. A spectral feedback system utilizing a miniature spectrometer was used to control the laser scanning system. Pulpal temperature measurements were performed during composite removal to determine if there was excessive heat accumulation. Results: The amount of enamel lost averaged 22.7microm +/- 8.9 and 25.3 microm +/- 9.4 for removal at 3.8 and 4.2 J/cm2, respectively. An average maximum temperature rise of 1.9°C +/- 1.5 was recorded, with no teeth approaching the critical value of 5.5°C. The average time of composite removal was 19.3 +/- 4.1 seconds. Conclusions: Residual orthodontic composite can be rapidly removed from the tooth surface using a rapidly scanned CO2 laser with spectral feedback, with minimal temperature rise within the pulp and with minimal damage to the underlying enamel surface.

  4. Removal of sulfur compounds from diesel using ArF laser and oxygen.

    PubMed

    Gondal, M A; Siddiqui, M N; Al-Hooshani, K

    2013-01-01

    A laser-based technique for deep desulfurization of diesel and other hydrocarbon fuels by removal of dimethyldibenzothiophene (DMDBT), a persistent sulfur contaminant in fuel oils has been developed. We report a selective laser excitation of DMDBT in diesel and model compounds such as n-hexane in a reaction chamber under oxygen environment where oxidative reactions can take place. ArF laser emitting at 193 nm was employed for excitation of oxygen and DMDBT, while for process optimization, the laser energy was varied from 50 to 200 mJ/cm(2). The laser-irradiated DMDBT solution under continuous oxygen flow was analyzed by UV absorption spectrometer to determine the photochemical oxidative degradation of DMDBT. In just 5 min of laser irradiation time, almost 95% DMDBT was depleted in a diesel containing 200 ppm of DMDBT. This article provides a new method for the removal of sulfur compounds from diesel by laser based photochemical process.

  5. Laser effects based optimal laser parameter identifications for paint removal from metal substrate at 1064 nm: a multi-pulse model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jinghua; Cui, Xudong; Wang, Sha; Feng, Guoying; Deng, Guoliang; Hu, Ruifeng

    2017-10-01

    Paint removal by laser ablation is favoured among cleaning techniques due to its high efficiency. How to predict the optimal laser parameters without producing damage to substrate still remains challenging for accurate paint stripping. On the basis of ablation morphologies and combining experiments with numerical modelling, the underlying mechanisms and the optimal conditions for paint removal by laser ablation are thoroughly investigated. Our studies suggest that laser paint removal is dominated by the laser vaporization effect, thermal stress effect and laser plasma effect, in which thermal stress effect is the most favoured while laser plasma effect should be avoided during removal operations. Based on the thermodynamic equations, we numerically evaluated the spatial distribution of the temperature as well as thermal stress in the paint and substrate under the irradiation of laser pulse at 1064 nm. The obtained curves of the paint thickness vs. threshold fluences can provide the reference standard of laser parameter selection in view of the paint layer with different thickness. A multi-pulse model is proposed and validated under a constant laser fluence to perfectly remove a thicker paint layer. The investigations and the methods proposed here might give hints to the efficient operations on the paint removal and lowering the risk of substrate damages.

  6. Mass removal by oxidation and sublimation of porous graphite during fiber laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Grady T.; Bauer, William A.; Fox, Charles D.; Gonzales, Ashley E.; Herr, Nicholas C.; Gosse, Ryan C.; Perram, Glen P.

    2017-01-01

    The various effects of laser heating of carbon materials are key to assessing laser weapon effectiveness. Porous graphite plates, cylinders, and cones with densities of 1.55 to 1.82 g/cm3 were irradiated by a 10-kW fiber laser at 0.075 to 3.525 kW/cm2 for 120 s to study mass removal and crater formation. Surface temperatures reached steady state values as high as 3767 K. The total decrease in sample mass ranged from 0.06 to 6.29 g, with crater volumes of 0.52 to 838 mm3, and penetration times for 12.7-mm-thick plates as short as 38 s. Minor contaminants in the graphite samples produced calcium and iron oxide to be redeposited on the graphite surface. Dramatic graphite crystalline structures are also produced at higher laser irradiances. Significantly increased porosity of the sample is observed even outside the laser-irradiated region. Total mass removed increases with deposited laser energy at a rate of 4.83 g/MJ for medium extruded graphite with an apparent threshold of 0.15 MJ. At ˜3.5 kW/cm2, the fractions of the mass removed from the cylindrical samples in the crater, surrounding trench, and outer region of decreased porosity are 38%, 47%, and 15%, respectively. Graphite is particularly resistant to damage by high power lasers. The new understanding of graphite combustion and sublimation during laser irradiation is vital to the more complex behavior of carbon composites.

  7. Root Hairs

    PubMed Central

    Grierson, Claire; Nielsen, Erik; Ketelaarc, Tijs; Schiefelbein, John

    2014-01-01

    Roots hairs are cylindrical extensions of root epidermal cells that are important for acquisition of nutrients, microbe interactions, and plant anchorage. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specification, differentiation, and physiology of root hairs in Arabidopsis are reviewed here. Root hair specification in Arabidopsis is determined by position-dependent signaling and molecular feedback loops causing differential accumulation of a WD-bHLH-Myb transcriptional complex. The initiation of root hairs is dependent on the RHD6 bHLH gene family and auxin to define the site of outgrowth. Root hair elongation relies on polarized cell expansion at the growing tip, which involves multiple integrated processes including cell secretion, endomembrane trafficking, cytoskeletal organization, and cell wall modifications. The study of root hair biology in Arabidopsis has provided a model cell type for insights into many aspects of plant development and cell biology. PMID:24982600

  8. Measurement of efficiency in calculus removal with a frequency-doubled Alexandrite laser on pigs' jaws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilgrim, Christian G.; Rechmann, Peter; Goldin, Dan S.; Hennig, Thomas

    2000-03-01

    Periodontal therapy aims in a most sufficient cleaning of tooth surfaces from supra- and subgingival calculus. As a standard dental procedure teeth are treated with ultrasonic devices. The competence of the frequency doubled Alexandrite laser for a highly effective and selective removal of calculus has been repeatedly proved. Aim of the study presented here was to determine the efficiency at simulated clinical conditions of the frequency doubled Alexandrite laser (laboratory prototype, q-switched, fiber guided, wavelength 377 nm, pulse duration 1 microsecond, pulse repetition rate 70 Hz, water cooling) by quantifying it's calculus removing efficiency. The evaluated data were compared to those obtained with an ultrasonic calculus remover. In the first part of the study sample material consisted of 23 pigs' jaws. They were divided into two groups. The teeth of one group were cleaned on their buccal surfaces using an ultrasonic device (Sonosoft Lux, KaVo, Biberach, Germany; tip #9). Than hand-guided cleaning was performed until no further improvement in cleanness was visible. Cleaning time was measured. Photographic documentation was taken before and after the treatment. The teeth in the second group were cleaned engaging a frequency doubled Alexandrite laser. Treatment time was measured and photographs were taken in the same way. In the second part of the study 21 surfaces of human teeth set up in an artificial pocket model were treated with both systems again. Measurements followed the same protocol. The results strongly support the use of the frequency doubled Alexandrite laser for calculus removal.

  9. A Laser Optical System to Remove Low Earth Orbit Space Debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps, Claude R.; Baker, Kevin L.; Libby, Stephen B.; Liedahl, Duane A.; Olivier, Scot S.; Pleasance, Lyn D.; Rubenchik, Alexander; Nikolaev, Sergey; Trebes, James E.; George, Victor E.; Marrcovici, Bogdan; Valley, Michael T.

    2013-08-01

    Collisions between existing Low Earth Orbit (LEO) debris are now a main source of new debris, threatening future use of LEO space. As solutions, flying up and interacting with each object is inefficient due to the energy cost of orbit plane changes, while debris removal systems using blocks of aerogel or gas-filled balloons are prohibitively expensive. Furthermore, these solutions to the debris problem address only large debris, but it is also imperative to remove 10-cm-class debris. In Laser-Orbital-Debris-Removal (LODR), a ground-based pulsed laser makes plasma jets on LEO debris objects, slowing them slightly, and causing them to re-enter the atmosphere and burn up. LODR takes advantage of recent advances in pulsed lasers, large mirrors, nonlinear optics and acquisition systems. LODR is the only solution that can address both large and small debris. International cooperation is essential for building and operating such a system. We also briefly discuss the orbiting laser debris removal alternative.

  10. Dry hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... harsh soaps or alcohols Excessive blow-drying Dry air due to the climate Menkes kinky hair syndrome Malnutrition Underactive parathyroid ( hypoparathyroidism ) Underactive thyroid ( hypothyroidism ) Other hormone abnormalities

  11. A post-processing study on aluminum surface by fiber laser: Removing face milling patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayahan, Ersin

    2018-05-01

    The face milling process of the metal surface is a well-known machining process of using rotary cutters to remove material from a workpiece. Flat metal surfaces can be produced by a face milling process. However, in practice, visible, traced marks following the motion of points on the cutter's face are usually apparent. In this study, it was shown that milled patterns can be removed by means of 20 W fiber laser on the aluminum surface (AA7075). Experimental results also showed that roughened and hydrophobic surface can be produced with optimized laser parameters. It is a new approach to remove the patterns from the metal surface and can be explained through roughening by re-melting instead of ablation. The new method is a strong candidate to replace sandblasting the metal surface. It is also cheap and environmentally friendly.

  12. Integration of GaAs vertical-cavity surface emitting laser on Si by substrate removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Hsi-Jen J.; Smith, John S.

    1994-03-01

    The successful integration of strained quantum well InGaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) on both Si and Cu substrates was described using a GaAs substrate removal technique. The GaAs VCSEL structure was metallized and bonded to the Si substrate after growth. The GaAs substrate was then removed by selective chemical wet etching. Finally, the bonded GaAs film metallized on the top (emitting) side and separate lasers were defined. This is the first time a VCSEL had been integrated on a Si substrate with its substrate removed. The performance enhancement of GaAs VCSELs bonded on good thermal conductors are demonstrated.

  13. Pubic hair and sexuality: a review.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Sara; Sweeney, Clare; Fraser, Michael; Oades, Gren

    2009-08-01

    Hair is a distinguishing feature of mammals, though the persistence of visible head, axillary, and pubic hair remains anthropologically unclear. Humans throughout the ages have modified their head and body hair, but aesthetic removal of pubic hair has become the "the ultimate barometer of how fashionable you really are" in the 21st century. The aim of the article is to examine the trends in pubic hair removal and its impact on health and sexuality. A literature search was performed, with a further search performed using an Internet-based search engine. For discussion, the results have been classified into the topics of "Development and anthropology","Cultural and artistic significance", "Medical implications", "Psychological and sexual significance and popular culture", "Impact of body hair loss on sexuality" and "Style and terminology." Pubic hair removal has been common since the ancient times. Pubic hair was rarely depicted in artistic representations of the nude until the late 19th century. It is postulated that the current trend of pubic hair removal may be related to the increased accessibility of Internet-based pornography. Anecdotally, pubic hair removal may carry benefits regarding increased sexual sensation and satisfaction though there is no quantative research in this field. There is a recognized morbidity to pubic hair removal, and also a lack of standardization of terms for styles adopted. We propose a definitive grading system for male and female body hair based on the widely used Tumor Node Metastasis staging system. Pubic hair removal appears to be an important aspect of expressing one's sexuality and participation in sexual activity. This practice has an interesting psychosexual basis which, to date, has not yet been fully explored in sexual medicine.

  14. Trial of human laser epilation technology for permanent wool removal in Merino sheep.

    PubMed

    Colditz, I G; Cox, T; Small, A H

    2015-01-01

    To assess whether human laser epilation technology can permanently prevent wool growth in sheep. An observational study. Two commercial human epilation lasers (Sharplan alexandrite 755 nm laser, and Lumenis LightSheer 800 nm diode laser) were tested at energies between 10 and 100 J/cm2 and pulse widths from 2 to 400 ms. Wool was clipped from flank, breech, pizzle and around the eyes of superfine Merino sheep with Oster clippers. After initial laser removal of residual wool to reveal bare skin, individual skin sites were treated with up to 15 cycles of laser irradiation. Behavioural responses during treatment, skin temperature immediately after treatment and skin and wool responses for 3 months after treatment were monitored. A clear transudate was evident on the skin surface within minutes. A dry superficial scab developed by 24 h and remained adherent for at least 6 weeks. When scabs were shed, there was evidence of scarring at sites receiving multiple treatment cycles and normal wool growth in unscarred skin. There was no evidence of laser energy level or pulse width affecting the response of skin and wool to treatment and no evidence of permanent inhibition of wool growth by laser treatment. Laser treatment was well tolerated by the sheep. Treatment of woolled skin with laser parameters that induce epilation by selective photothermolysis in humans failed to induce permanent inhibition of wool growth in sheep. Absence of melanin in wool may have contributed to the result. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  15. Laboratory investigation of the efficacy of holmium:YAG laser irradiation in removing intracanal debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuebler-Moritz, Michael; Gutknecht, Norbert; Sailer, Hermann F.; Hering, Peter; Prettl, Wilhelm

    1997-05-01

    Current endodontic therapy involves debridement and disinfection of the root canal by means of mechanical instrumentation and chemical irrigation. However, several studies have shown that these techniques fail to achieve complete cleansing. Recently, lasers have been suggested for use within root canals. This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of Holmium:YAG laser irradiation in removing intracanal debris and smear layer. Root canal surfaces of freshly-extracted human teeth were exposed to pulsed Ho:YAG laser radiation. Subsequently, laser induced structural changes were investigated using scanning electron microscopy. Temperature measurements during irradiation were performed by means of thermocouples. The result of this survey give a preliminary indication of the ability of the Ho:YAG laser to improve current endodontic treatment survey give a preliminary indication of the ability of the Ho:YAG laser to improve current endodontic treatment modalities. However, limitations exist with regard to circumscribed and well-quantified irradiation of root canal surfaces, due to the lack of perpendicular delivery of the laser beam. Additional studies will be required to develop suitable optical transmission systems, in order to achieve complete cleansing and to avoid damage to the periradicular tissues, respectively.

  16. Experimental removal of subgingival calculus with the Er:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Ulrich; Hibst, Raimund

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the Er:YAG laser removal of subgingival calculi in periodontal treatment and to describe laser-induced cementum surface alterations. Freshly extracted human teeth with adherent plaques and mineralized calculi were laser treated using modified quartz fiber tips in direct contact to the root surface. For the fiber tip tested, the ablation threshold was 6.5 mJ. An effective removal of calculi was possible with 50 mJ resp. 150 mJ for a triple fiber. For the latter, a mass loss with a mean of about 5.1. mg/min was achieved. Histologic examinations of the cementum surface showed smoothed appearance alternately with rough depressions of the fiber tips, which can be discussed as a good precondition for periodontal tissue regeneration. Maximum temperature increase of 1.4 K was reached in the pulp, if an additional water irrigation was applied to the root surface. From these results it can be concluded that with the Er:YAG laser an effective removal of subgingival calculi can be performed without thermal risk for the pulp.

  17. Efficacy and safety of a low-level laser device in the treatment of male and female pattern hair loss: a multicenter, randomized, sham device-controlled, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Joaquin J; Wikramanayake, Tongyu C; Bergfeld, Wilma; Hordinsky, Maria; Hickman, Janet G; Hamblin, Michael R; Schachner, Lawrence A

    2014-04-01

    Male and female pattern hair loss are common, chronic dermatologic disorders with limited therapeutic options. In recent years, a number of commercial devices using low-level laser therapy have been promoted, but there have been little peer-reviewed data on their efficacy. To determine whether treatment with a low-level laser device, the US FDA-cleared HairMax Lasercomb®, increases terminal hair density in both men and women with pattern hair loss. Randomized, sham device-controlled, double-blind clinical trials were conducted at multiple institutional and private practices. A total of 146 male and 188 female subjects with pattern hair loss were screened. A total of 128 male and 141 female subjects were randomized to receive either a lasercomb (one of three models) or a sham device in concealed sealed packets, and were treated on the whole scalp three times a week for 26 weeks. Terminal hair density of the target area was evaluated at baseline and at 16- and 26-week follow-ups, and analyzed to determine whether the hypothesis formulated prior to data collection, that lasercomb treatment would increase terminal hair density, was correct. The site investigators and the subjects remained blinded to the type of device they dispensed/received throughout the study. The evaluator of masked digital photographs was blinded to which trial arm the subject belonged. Seventy-eight, 63, 49, and 79 subjects were randomized in four trials of 9-beam lasercomb treatment in female subjects, 12-beam lasercomb treatment in female subjects, 7-beam lasercomb treatment in male subjects, and 9- and 12-beam lasercomb treatment in male subjects, compared with the sham device, respectively. Nineteen female and 25 male subjects were lost to follow-up. Among the remaining 122 female and 103 male subjects in the efficacy analysis, the mean terminal hair count at 26 weeks increased from baseline by 20.2, 20.6, 18.4, 20.9, and 25.7 per cm2 in 9-beam lasercomb-treated female subjects, 12-beam

  18. Overpaint Removal on a Gilded Wooden Bas-Relief Using a Nd:YAG Laser at 1.064 µm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strzelec, M.; Marczak, J.; Koss, A.; Szambelan, R.

    The paper presents the work on laser renovation of wooden bas-relief (lime tree), consisting of three figures: Saint Anna and Mary with Jesus, made by unknown artist at the beginning of XVII century. Almost whole relief surface is covered by gilding placed on a special preparation (bolus alba) with binding media. The painting layers cover only the parts of complexion and hairs of figures. The application of a 1.064 µm, Q-switched, Nd:YAG laser, allowed to unveil, in a short time the intact substrate of the object with well preserved gilding remains.

  19. Ingrowing Hair

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Di-Qing; Liang, Yu-Hua; Li, Xi-Qing; Zhao, Yu-Kun; Wang, Fang; Sarkar, Rashmi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cutaneous pili migrans and creeping eruption caused by parasitic diseases may present as a moving linear lesion in skin. The former, caused by a hair shaft or fragment embedded in the superficial skin or middle dermis, is a rare condition characterized by creeping eruption with a black line observed at the advancing end. In exceptionally rare instance, the hair grows inside the skin and burrows in the uppermost dermis, such a condition has been called “ingrown hair.” We report a 30-year-old Chinese man, who was accustomed to pull or extrude the beard hairs, with 1-year history of slowly extending black linear eruption on his right chin. Cutaneous examination revealed a 4-cm long black linear lesion beneath the skin associated with edematous erythema around and folliculitis on both ends of the lesion. After treatment with topical mupirocin ointment, the erythema and folliculitis improved and 2 hairs of the beard with hair follicles were pulled out from the skin. Two weeks later, another similar black line about 1 cm in length in the skin presented on the prior lesional area, which was pulled out by a shallow incision of the skin and was also demonstrated as a beard hair with hair follicle. The patient was diagnosed as “ingrowing hair” with multiple recurrences. The lesions recovered after the beard hairs were pulled out. No recurrence occurred in a year of follow-up. We suggest that “ingrowing hair” is better than “ingrown hair” to describe such a condition. Pulling out the involved hair and correcting the bad practice are its optimal management strategies. PMID:27175694

  20. Efficacy of Sodium Hypochlorite Activated With Laser in Intracanal Smear Layer Removal: An SEM Study

    PubMed Central

    Shahriari, Shahriar; Kasraei, Shahin; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah; Karkeabadi, Hamed; Davanloo, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite activated with laser in removing of the smear layer in the apical, middle, and coronal segments of root canal walls by scanning electron microscopy analysis. Methods: Sixty single-rooted human mandibular teeth were decoronated to a standardized length. The samples were prepared by using Race rotary system to size 40, 0.04 taper and divided into 4 equal groups (n = 15). Group 1, irrigated with EDTA 17% and 5.25% NaOCl, groups 2, 3 and 4, 1%, 2.5%, and 5% NaOCl activated with Nd:YAG laser, respectively. Teeth were split longitudinally and subjected to scanning electron microscope (SEM). Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney tests. P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Five percent NaOCl LAI (laser-activated irrigation) showed best smear layer removal in test groups and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Control group (EDTA 17% and 5.25% NaOCl irrigation) showed significantly better outcomes in comparative with test groups (P < 0.001). In the apical third, compared to coronal and middle third, the canal walls were often contaminated by inorganic debris and smear layer. Conclusion: All different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite activated with laser have a positive effect on removing of smear layer. Sodium hypochlorite activated with laser removed smear layer more effectively at the coronal and middle third compared to the apical third. PMID:28912942

  1. Removal of dust particles from metal-mirror surfaces by excimer-laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Klaus R.; Wolff-Rottke, B.; Mueller, F.

    1995-07-01

    The effect of particle desorption from Al mirror surfaces by the influence of pulsed UV laser radiation has been studied. The investigations are closely related to the demands of astronomers, who are looking for a more effective way of cleaning the Al coatings of future very large telescope mirrors. A systematic parameter study has been performed in order to determine the irradiation conditions which yield the highest dust removal efficiency (i.e. reflectivity increase) on contaminated samples, taking particularly into account laser-induced damage and degradation effects of coating and substrate. The particle removal rate increases with increasing laser fluence, being limited however by the damage threshold of the coating. Therefore, parameters influencing the damage threshold of metal coatings like wavelength, pulse width, and number of pulses have been studied in detail. Data indicate that on Al coated BK7 and Zerodur samples KrF laser radiation yields the optimum result, with cleaning efficiencies comparable to polymer film stripping. The initial reflectivity of the clean coating can nearly be reinstalled, in particular when an additional solvent film on the sample surface is applied. Hence, laser desorption seems to be a viable method of cleaning large Al mirrors for telescopes.

  2. Controlled Contamination of Epoxy Composites with PDMS and Removal by Laser Ablation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmieri, Frank; Ledesma, Rodolfo; Cataldo, Daniel; Lin, Yi; Wohl, Christopher; Gupta, Mool; Connell, John

    2016-01-01

    Surface preparation is critical to the performance of adhesively bonded composites. During manufacturing, minute quantities of mold release compounds are inevitably deposited on faying surfaces and may compromise bond performance. To ensure safety, mechanical fasteners and other crack arrest features must be installed in the bondlines of primary structures, which negates some advantages of adhesively bonded construction. Laser ablation is an automated, repeatable, and scalable process with high potential for the surface preparation of metals and composites in critical applications such as primary airframe structures. In this study, laser ablation is evaluated on composite surfaces for the removal of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a common mold release material. Composite panels were contaminated uniformly with PDMS film thicknesses as low as 6.0 nm as measured by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. Bond performance was assessed by mechanical testing using a 250 F cure, epoxy adhesive and compared with pre-bond surface inspection results. Water contact angle, optically stimulated electron emission, and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy were used to characterize contaminated and laser ablated surfaces. The failure mode obtained from double cantilever beam tests correlated well with surface characterization data. The test results indicated that even low levels of PDMS were not completely removed by laser ablation.

  3. Removal of dust particles from metal mirror surfaces by excimer laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, K.; Wolff-Rottke, B.; Mueller, F.

    1995-12-31

    The effect of particle desorption from Al mirror surfaces by the influence of pulsed UV laser radiation has been studied. The investigations are closely related to the demands of astronomers, who are looking for a more effective way of cleaning the Al coatings of future very large telescope (VLT) mirrors. A systematic parameter study has been performed in order to determine the irradiation conditions which yield the highest dust removal efficiency (i.e. reflectivity increase) on contaminated samples, taking particularly into account laser induced damage and degradation effects of coating and substrate. The particle removal rate increases with increasing laser fluence,more » being limited however by the damage threshold of the coating. Therefore, parameters influencing the damage threshold of metal coatings like wavelength, pulse width and number of pulses have been studied in detail. Data indicate that on Al coated BK7 and Zerodur samples KrF laser radiation yields the optimum result, with cleaning efficiencies comparable to polymer film stripping. The initial reflectivity of the clean coating can nearly be reinstalled, in particular when an additional solvent film on the sample surface is applied. Hence, laser desorption seems to be a viable method of cleaning large Al mirrors for telescopes.« less

  4. 6-Gingerol inhibits hair shaft growth in cultured human hair follicles and modulates hair growth in mice.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yong; Sun, Yabin; Wang, Wenjun; Du, Benjun; Xiao, Shun-e; Hu, Yijue; Hu, Zhiqi

    2013-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) in vivo and in vitro. 6-Gingerol suppressed hair growth in hair follicles in culture and the proliferation of cultured DPCs. The growth inhibition of DPCs by 6-gingerol in vitro may reflect a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Similar results were obtained in vivo. The results of this study showed that 6-gingerol does not have the ability to promote hair growth, on the contrary, can suppress human hair growth via its inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs in vitro, and can cause prolongation of telogen phase in vivo. Thus, 6-gingerol rather than being a hair growth stimulating drug, it is a potential hair growth suppressive drug; i.e. for hair removal.

  5. 6-Gingerol Inhibits Hair Shaft Growth in Cultured Human Hair Follicles and Modulates Hair Growth in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Yong; Sun, Yabin; Wang, Wenjun; Du, Benjun; Xiao, Shun-e; Hu, Yijue; Hu, Zhiqi

    2013-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) in vivo and in vitro. 6-Gingerol suppressed hair growth in hair follicles in culture and the proliferation of cultured DPCs. The growth inhibition of DPCs by 6-gingerol in vitro may reflect a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Similar results were obtained in vivo. The results of this study showed that 6-gingerol does not have the ability to promote hair growth, on the contrary, can suppress human hair growth via its inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs in vitro, and can cause prolongation of telogen phase in vivo. Thus, 6-gingerol rather than being a hair growth stimulating drug, it is a potential hair growth suppressive drug; i.e. for hair removal. PMID:23437345

  6. Research on laser-removal of a deuterium deposit from a graphite sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubkowska, M.; Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Malinowski, K.; Sadowski, M. J.; Rosinski, M.; Gasior, P.

    2014-04-01

    The paper presents experimental results of investigation of a removal of deuterium deposits from a graphite target by means of pulsed laser beams. The sample was a part of the TEXTOR limiter with a deuterium-deposited layer. That target was located in the vacuum chamber, pumped out to 5×10-5 Torr, and it was irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser, which generated 3.5-ns pulses of energy of 0.5 J at λ1 = 1063 nm, or 0.1 J at λ3 = 355 nm.

  7. Calculus removal on a root cement surface by ultrashort laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, Johan F.; Vestentoft, Kasper; Christensen, Bjarke H.; Løvschall, Henrik; Balling, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Ultrashort-pulse-laser ablation of dental calculus (tartar) and cement is performed on root surfaces. The investigation shows that the threshold fluence for ablation of calculus is a factor of two to three times smaller than that of a healthy root cement surface. This indicates that ultrashort laser pulses may provide an appropriate tool for selective removal of calculus with minimal damage to the underlying root cement. Future application of an in situ profiling technique allows convenient on-line monitoring of the ablation process.

  8. Removal of a glowing spot from an image tube using laser radiation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurski, T. R.

    1972-01-01

    A troublesome problem with the Kron electronograph has been the presence of a white glowing spot on the glass wall of the tube adjacent to the focus electrode. The procedure followed to eliminate the spot was to operate in the dark and apply voltage only to the focused electrode. Ruby laser radiation was unfocused, and its position was shifted on the electrode between laser shots until an effect was observed. This technique for removing the glowing spot should be applicable to other electronic image tubes.

  9. Cystoscopic suture removal by Holmium-YAG laser after Burch procedure

    PubMed Central

    Karaşahin, Emre Kazım; Esin, Sertaç; Alanbay, İbrahim; Ercan, Mutlu Cihangir; Mutlu, Erol; Başer, İskender; Basal, Şeref

    2011-01-01

    Burch colposuspension remains one of the successful operations performed for stress incontinence. Accidental suturing of the bladder wall during the procedure or subsequent erosion may lead to lower urinary tract symptoms. Diagnosis and management of these sutures indicate precise evaluation for which a 70 degree cystoscope is used. In selected cases, Holmium-YAG laser may enable us to manage long-standing, encrustated neglected sutures. Here we would like to report successful removal of intravesical sutures using the Holmium-YAG laser. PMID:24591960

  10. Accelerated tattoo removal with acoustic shock wave therapy in conjunction with a picosecond laser.

    PubMed

    Vangipuram, Ramya; Hamill, Selina S; Friedman, Paul M

    2018-06-25

    Conventional tattoo removal consists of single-pass treatments, spaced 7-8 weeks apart, for a total of 7-10 sessions. A major limiting factor of this procedure is the development of cavitation bubbles and vacuoles within the epidermis and dermis that result from the rapid heating of tattoo particles by the laser. While multiple-pass methods using the R20 protocol or the PFD patch enhance tattoo removal through epidermal clearance, they have no effect on deep-intradermal pigment associated vacuoles that arise from treatment with lasers such as the Q-switched laser. A 28-year-old female with Fitzpatrick skin Type V presented for treatment of a 6-year-old professional black tattoo on the left ventral wrist. She underwent three treatment sessions at 6-8 week intervals using a commercial 1,064-nm picosecond Nd:YAG laser (PicoWay; Candela, Wayland, MA) and a perfluorodecalin (PFD) patch (Merz; Raleigh, NC). At each treatment session, she received two passes with 1,064-nm, 4-mm spot size, a fluence ranging from 2.8 to 3.2 J/cm 2 and a laser repetition rate of 2 Hz. Between laser passes and following the final laser pass, the medial portion of the tattoo was treated with acoustic shock wave therapy (ASWT) using the Zwave device (Zimmer Medizin Systems; Irvine, CA) with 90 mJ, 22 Hz, and 1,200 pulses. After three treatment sessions, there was 80% clearance of the medial portion of the tattoo that received the ASWT compared with 60% clearance of the lateral portion of the tattoo that was treated with the picosecond 1,064-nm Nd:YAG laser and PFD patch alone. In the days following each treatment session, the patient noted consistently less edema, erythema and epidermal crusting on the portion of the tattoo that received the ASWT. We report a case of 80% tattoo clearance with ASWT in a patient with Fitzpatrick type V skin compared with 60% clearance with the picosecond 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser and PFD patch alone. The concurrent use of the PFD patch, which facilitated multi

  11. Standard guidelines of care: CO2 laser for removal of benign skin lesions and resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Krupashankar, D S

    2008-01-01

    Resurfacing is a treatment to remove acne and chicken pox scars, and changes in the skin due to ageing. MACHINES: Both ablative and nonablative lasers are available for use. CO 2 laser is the gold standard in ablative lasers. Detailed knowledge of the machines is essential. INDICATIONS FOR CO 2 LASER: Therapeutic indications: Actinic and seborrheic keratosis, warts, moles, skin tags, epidermal and dermal nevi, vitiligo blister and punch grafting, rhinophyma, sebaceous hyperplasia, xanthelasma, syringomas, actinic cheilitis angiofibroma, scar treatment, keloid, skin cancer, neurofibroma and diffuse actinic keratoses. CO 2 laser is not recommended for the removal of tattoos. AESTHETIC INDICATIONS: Resurfacing for acne, chicken pox and surgical scars, periorbital and perioral wrinkles, photo ageing changes, facial resurfacing. PHYSICIANS' QUALIFICATIONS: Any qualified dermatologist (DVD or MD) may practice CO 2 laser. The dermatologist should possess postgraduate qualification in dermatology and should have had specific hands-on training in lasers either during postgraduation or later at a facility which routinely performs laser procedures under a competent dermatologist/plastic surgeon, who has experience and training in using lasers. For the use of CO 2 lasers for benign growths, a full day workshop is adequate. As parameters may vary in different machines, specific training with the available machine at either the manufacturer's facility or at another centre using the machine is recommended. CO 2 lasers can be used in the dermatologist's minor procedure room for the above indications. However, when used for full-face resurfacing, the hospital operation theatre or day care facility with immediate access to emergency medical care is essential. Smoke evacuator is mandatory. Detailed counseling with respect to the treatment, desired effects, possible postoperative complications, should be discussed with the patient. The patient should be provided brochures to study and

  12. Pulsed laser-assisted removal of powder coating from galvanised steel surface: a characterisation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Aniruddha; Prasad, Manisha; Shail, Shailini; Bhatt, R. B.; Behere, P. G.; Afzal, Md.; Kumar, Arun; Kar, Rajib; Nilaya, J. P.; Biswas, D. J.

    2015-06-01

    Removal of pure polyester powder coating from galvanised steel surface is studied using the fundamental, second and third harmonic radiations obtained from a Q-switched Nd-YAG laser capable of delivering pulses of duration 10 ns. Removal of the coating was found to be most effective for 1064 nm radiation followed by 532 and 355 nm radiations. Measurement of absorption of the incident radiation by the paint layer carried out with an integrating sphere has helped to gain insight into the removal mechanisms operative at these wavelengths. Single shot removal of the entire thickness of the powder coating was successfully achieved using 1064 nm radiation. Characterisation study of the laser-treated surface revealed that the coating removal was achieved leaving the underneath zinc layer as before. Usage of pulsed emission at 1064 nm of fluence 0.7 J/cm2 and repetition rate 5 Hz allowed stripping of 60-micron-thick coating at the rate of ~35 cm2 per minute.

  13. Selective removal of esthetic composite restorations with spectral guided laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Ivana; Chan, Kenneth H.; Tsuji, Grant H.; Staninec, Michal; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Dental composites are used for a wide range of applications such as fillings for cavities, adhesives for orthodontic brackets, and closure of gaps (diastemas) between teeth by esthetic bonding. Anterior restorations are used to replace missing, diseased and unsightly tooth structure for both appearance and function. When these restorations must be replaced, they are difficult to remove mechanically without causing excessive removal or damage to enamel because dental composites are color matched to teeth. Previous studies have shown that CO2 lasers have high ablation selectivity and are well suited for removal of composite on occlusal surfaces while minimizing healthy tissue loss. A spectral feedback guidance system may be used to discriminate between dental composite and dental hard tissue for selective ablation of composite material. The removal of composite restorations filling diastemas is more challenging due to the esthetic concern for anterior teeth. The objective of this study is to determine if composite spanning a diastema between anterior teeth can be removed by spectral guided laser ablation at clinically relevant rates with minimal damage to peripheral healthy tissue and with higher selectivity than a high speed dental handpiece.

  14. Keratins and lipids in ethnic hair.

    PubMed

    Cruz, C F; Fernandes, M M; Gomes, A C; Coderch, L; Martí, M; Méndez, S; Gales, L; Azoia, N G; Shimanovich, U; Cavaco-Paulo, A

    2013-06-01

    Human hair has an important and undeniable relevance in society due to its important role in visual appearance and social communication. Hair is mainly composed of structural proteins, mainly keratin and keratin associated proteins and lipids. Herein, we report a comprehensive study of the content and distribution of the lipids among ethnic hair, African, Asian and Caucasian hair. More interestingly, we also report the study of the interaction between those two main components of hair, specifically, the influence of the hair internal lipids in the structure of the hair keratin. This was achieved by the use of a complete set of analytical tools, such as thin layer chromatography-flame ionization detector, X-ray analysis, molecular dynamics simulation and confocal microscopy. The experimental results indicated different amounts of lipids on ethnic hair compositions and higher percentage of hair internal lipids in African hair. In this type of hair, the axial diffraction of keratin was not observed in X-ray analysis, but after hair lipids removal, the keratin returned to its typical packing arrangement. In molecular dynamic simulation, lipids were shown to intercalate dimers of keratin, changing its structure. From those results, we assume that keratin structure may be influenced by higher concentration of lipids in African hair. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  15. Hair cosmetics.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, M N

    1987-07-01

    Porosity, elasticity, and texture influence the hair's ability to be changed. The types of color--temporary, gradual, natural, semipermanent, and permanent--depend upon the size of the "coloring" molecule to determine whether they penetrate the cortex (permanent) or precipitate on the cuticle. Different types of hair--thick or coarse, fine or thin--have varying affinity for different products and coloring/waving methods. Damaged hair is treated differently from hair with healthy, less porous shafts. Because so many people have color-treated hair today, dermatologists should be aware of all the latest changes and improvements, in order to assist patients with damaged or congenitally deformed hair. Acid-based permanents are becoming the most commonly used. Daily care with shampooing and conditioning has attained its most sophisticated level with the use of anionic and cationic surfactants in all hair-care products. It is also important for the dermatologist to be aware of what help is available for his or her patients. Cosmetic companies are eager to help any patient with severe problems with texture, dullness, over-fine or congenitally defective hair. The physician should send the patient with a severe problem directly to the nearest company headquarters or major city office to have a hair analysis, and receive suggestions from the experts of that company. For patients with moderate to mild problems, the dermatologist should be able to recommend three or four good salons in the local area with which he or she is familiar. Our main goal as physicians is to take care of the entire patient and to enable him or her to have a good self-image.

  16. Attitudes toward Women's Body Hair: Relationship with Disgust Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiggemann, Marika; Lewis, Christine

    2004-01-01

    We aimed to further investigate the "hairlessness" norm that is the common practice of body hair removal among women. A sample of 198 undergraduate students (91 men, 107 women) completed questionnaires asking about attitudes toward women's body hair and the reasons women remove this hair, as well as a measure of disgust sensitivity. It was found…

  17. Integral lipids of mammalian hair.

    PubMed

    Wertz, P W; Downing, D T

    1989-01-01

    1. It has been demonstrated that hair contains lipids which cannot be removed by extensive extraction with chloroform-methanol mixtures. These integral lipids can be extracted only after the hair has been subjected to alkaline hydrolysis. 2. Integral hair lipids include cholesterol sulfate (0.7-2.9 mg/g hair), ceramides (0.6-1.4 mg/g), cholesterol (0.3-1.4 mg/g), fatty alcohols (trace-0.2 mg/g) and fatty acids (2.3-4.0 mg/g). 3. One of the major integral hair lipids, representing 38.4-47.6% of the total fatty acids, is the anteisobranched 18-methyleicosanoic acid. 4. The species examined included human (Homo sapiens), pig (Sus scrofa), dog (Canis familiaris), sheep (Ovis ammon aries) and cow (Bos taurus).

  18. Use of a hydrogel sealant in epithelial ingrowth removal after laser in situ keratomileusis.

    PubMed

    Ramsook, Sandhya S; Hersh, Peter S

    2015-12-01

    We describe 2 cases in which clinically significant epithelial ingrowth was removed by debridement and followed by the use of a hydrogel sealant (Resure) to seal the flap edge. In both cases, the epithelial ingrowth was seen after otherwise uneventful laser in situ keratomileusis retreatment. The visual outcomes were good with no recrudescence of interface epithelium. Neither author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of the ablation plume on the removal process during ArF-excimer laser photoablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerbecker, Christina; Lubatschowski, Holger; Lohmann, Stefan; Ruff, Christine; Kermani, Omid; Ertmer, Wolfgang

    1996-01-01

    Correction of myopia with the ArF-excimer laser (PRK) sometimes leads to a so called 'central island' formation on the anterior corneal surface. The attenuation of the laser beam by the ablation plume might be one reason for this phenomenon. The attenuation properties of the ablation plume were investigated by a probe beam parallel to the surface of the tissue probe. By varying the laser parameters (fluence, repetition rate, spot size) and the target tissue (cornea, PMMA) the attenuation of the probe beam was measured time and spatial resolved. As a result of this study, a significant influence of the removal process due to scattering and absorption within the ablation plume can be assumed as a function of repetition rate, spot size and air flow on the tissue surface.

  20. Laser welding of a cobalt-chromium removable partial denture alloy.

    PubMed

    NaBadalung, D P; Nicholls, J I

    1998-03-01

    The electric alloy brazed joints of removable partial denture alloys have failed frequently after routine usage. A technique providing higher joint strengths was investigated. This investigation compared the tensile strengths of electric-brazed and laser-welded joints for a cobalt-chromium removable partial denture alloy. Twenty-four cobalt-chromium standard tensile testing rods were prepared and divided into three groups of eight. All specimens in the control group (group 1) were left in the as-cast condition. Groups 2 and 3 were the test specimens, which were sectioned at the center of the rod. Eight specimens were joined by using electric brazing, and the remaining specimens were joined by using laser welding. After joining, each joint was ground to a uniform diameter, then tested to tensile failure on an Instron universal testing machine. Failure loads were recorded and fracture stress calculated. Statistical analysis was applied. The student-Newman-Keuls test showed a highly significant difference between the joint strengths of the as-cast control specimens, the electric-brazed and laser-welded joints. The tensile strengths of the as-cast joints were higher than those for the laser-welded joints, and both were higher than the electric-brazed joint strengths.

  1. Nanosecond multi-pulse laser milling for certain area removal of metal coating on plastics surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kai; Jia, Zhenyuan; Ma, Jianwei; Liu, Wei; Wang, Ling

    2014-12-01

    Metal coating with functional pattern on engineering plastics surface plays an important role in industry applications; it can be obtained by adding or removing certain area of metal coating on engineering plastics surface. However, the manufacturing requirements are improved continuously and the plastic substrate presents three-dimensional (3D) structure-many of these parts cannot be fabricated by conventional processing methods, and a new manufacturing method is urgently needed. As the laser-processing technology has many advantages like high machining accuracy and constraints free substrate structure, the machining of the parts is studied through removing certain area of metal coating based on the nanosecond multi-pulse laser milling. To improve the edge quality of the functional pattern, generation mechanism and corresponding avoidance strategy of the processing defects are studied. Additionally, a prediction model for the laser ablation depth is proposed, which can effectively avoid the existence of residual metal coating and reduces the damage of substrate. With the optimal machining parameters, an equiangular spiral pattern on copper-clad polyimide (CCPI) is machined based on the laser milling at last. The experimental results indicate that the edge of the pattern is smooth and consistent, the substrate is flat and without damage. The achievements in this study could be applied in industrial production.

  2. To compare the gingival melanin repigmentation after diode laser application and surgical removal.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Gaurav; Kaur, Harjit; Jain, Sanjeev; Kaur, Navnit; Sehgal, Navneet Kaur; Gautam, Aditi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to compare the gingival melanin repigmentation after diode laser application and surgical removal done by scraping with Kirkland knife. This study was a randomized split-mouth study where 10 patients presenting with unattractive, diffuse, dark brown to black gingival discoloration on the facial aspect of the maxillary gingiva were treated by diode laser application and surgical removal and followed up for 3-, 6-, and 9-month intervals. The results showed a statistically significant difference in repigmentation between the groups at the interval of 3 months ( P = 0.040), but the difference was statistically not significant at 6 months ( P = 0.118) and 9 months ( P = 0.146). On surgically treated sites, all cases showed repigmentation of the gingiva, but in laser treated, there were two individuals which did not show repigmentation of the gingiva even at the end of 9-month observation time. The incidence of repigmentation was slightly less in laser-treated sites as compared to surgical depigmentation although the difference was statistically significant only up to 3 months.

  3. Final Report on NASA Portable Laser Coating Removal Systems Field Demonstrations and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothgeb, Matthew J; McLaughlin, Russell L.

    2008-01-01

    Processes currently used throughout the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to remove corrosion and coatings from structures, ground service equipment, small parts and flight components result in waste streams consisting of toxic chemicals, spent media blast materials, and waste water. When chemicals are used in these processes they are typically high in volatile organic compounds (VOC) and are considered hazardous air pollutants (HAP). When blast media is used, the volume of hazardous waste generated is increased significantly. Many of the coatings historically used within NASA contain toxic metals such as hexavalent chromium, and lead. These materials are highly regulated and restrictions on worker exposure continue to increase. Most recently the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) reduced the permissible exposure limit (PEL) for hexavalent chromium (CrVI) from 52 to 5 micrograms per cubic meter of air as an 8-hour time-weighted average. Hexavalent chromium is found in numerous pretreatment and primer coatings used within the Space Shuttle Program. In response to the need to continue to protect assets within the agency and the growing concern over these new regulations, NASA is researching different ways to continue the required maintenance of both facility and flight equipment in a safe, efficient, and environmentally preferable manner. The use of laser energy to prepare surfaces for a variety of processes, such as corrosion and coating removal, weld preparation, and non destructive evaluation (NDE) is a relatively new application of the technology that has been proven to be environmentally preferable and in many cases less labor intensive than currently used removal methods. The novel process eliminates VOCs and blast media and captures the removed coatings with an integrated vacuum system. This means that the only waste generated are the coatings that are removed, resulting in an overall cleaner process. The development of a

  4. Influence of wavelength on the laser removal of lichens colonizing heritage stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz, M.; Oujja, M.; Ascaso, C.; Pérez-Ortega, S.; Souza-Egipsy, V.; Fort, R.; de los Rios, A.; Wierzchos, J.; Cañamares, M. V.; Castillejo, M.

    2017-03-01

    Laser irradiation of lichen thalli on heritage stones serves for the control of epilithic and endolithic biological colonizations. In this work we investigate rock samples from two quarries traditionally used as source of monumental stone, sandstone from Valonsadero (Soria, Spain) and granite from Alpedrete (Madrid, Spain), in order to find conditions for efficient laser removal of lichen thalli that ensure preservation of the lithic substrate. The samples presented superficial areas colonized by different types of crustose lichens, i.e. Candelariella vitellina, Aspicilia viridescens, Rhizocarpon disporum and Protoparmeliopsis muralis in Valonsadero samples and P. cf. bolcana and A. cf. contorta in Alpedrete samples. A comparative laser cleaning study was carried out on the mentioned samples with ns Q-switched Nd:YAG laser pulses of 1064 nm (fundamental radiation), 355 nm (3rd harmonic) and 266 nm (4th harmonic) and sequences of IR-UV pulses. A number of techniques such as UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, stereomicroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at low vacuum, SEM with backscattered electron imaging (SEM-BSE), electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and FT-Raman spectroscopy were employed to determine the best laser irradiation conditions and to detect possible structural, morphological and chemical changes on the irradiated surfaces. The results show that the laser treatment does not lead to the complete removal of the studied lichen thalli, although clearly induces substantial damage, in the form of loss of the lichen upper cortex and damage to the algal layer. In the medium term these alterations could result in the destruction of the lichen thalli, thus providing a degree of control of the biodeterioration processes of the lithic substrate and reducing the chances of subsequent lichen recolonization.

  5. Paint removal from aluminum and composite substrate of aircraft by laser ablation using TEA CO2 lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunemi, Akira; Endo, Akira; Ichishima, Daiji

    1998-09-01

    A high power TEA CO2 laser was applied to strip paints from the surface of aircraft. For our experimental samples, aluminum and fiber-reinforced composite substrate were painted as the completely same way as normal aircraft. As a result of delicate control of the irradiation parameters, the surfaces of not only aluminum substrate but also composite substrate were clearly exposed without any damages. Removed materials were found out to be effectively collected by a combination of a micro filter and activated carbon powder.

  6. Mass removal modes in the laser ablation of silicon by a Q-switched diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Daniel J.; Ki, Hyungson; Mazumder, Jyoti

    2006-06-01

    A fundamental study on the Q-switched diode-pumped solid-state laser interaction with silicon was performed both experimentally and numerically. Single pulse drilling experiments were conducted on N-type silicon wafers by varying the laser intensity from 108-109 W cm-2 to investigate how the mass removal mechanism changes depending on the laser intensity. Hole width and depth were measured and surface morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy. For the numerical model study, Ki et al's self-consistent continuous-wave laser drilling model (2001 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 34 364-72) was modified to treat the solidification phenomenon between successive laser pulses. The model has the capabilities of simulating major interaction physics, such as melt flow, heat transfer, evaporation, homogeneous boiling, multiple reflections and surface evolution. This study presents some interesting results on how the mass removal mode changes as the laser intensity increases.

  7. Experimental Results Of The Application Of Excimer Lasers In Surgical Treatment Of Cartilage Removal In Knee Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeller, Karl O.; Hohlbach, G.; Baretton, G.; Schramm, U.

    1989-04-01

    The aim of surgical therapy for osteoarthritic cartilage is the removal of the arthritic areas while maintaining the healthy tissue. Removal of calified areas by arthroscopy is preferably used in knee joints. The following investigations were performed to obtain the ablation rates during laser application in order to improve the ablation ratio of the calcified cartilage. For this purpose, specimens were immersed in tetracycline solution which has an absorption maximum at the laser's wavelength.

  8. Hair Treatments and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Common chemicals in hair dyes include hydrogen peroxide, ammonia, and alcohols. Hair curling or permanent wave chemicals include ammonium thioglycolate and ammonia. Hair bleaching chemicals include hydrogen peroxide. Hair straighteners ( ...

  9. Laser/space material uncooperative propulsion for orbital debris removal and asteroid, meteoroid, and comet deflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Jonathan W.; Taylor, Charles R.; Smalley, Larry L.; Dickerson, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Orbital debris in low-Earth orbit in the size range from 1 to 10 cm in diameter can be detected but not tracked reliably enough to be avoided by spacecraft. It can cause catastrophic damage even to a shielded spacecraft. With adaptive optics, a ground-based pulsed laser ablating the debris surface can produce enough propulsion in several hundred pulses to cause such debris to reenter the atmosphere. A single laser station could remove all of the 1-10 cm debris in three years or less. A technology demonstration of laser space propulsion is proposed which would pave the way for the implementation of such a debris removal system. The cost of the proposed demonstration is comparable with the estimated annual cost of spacecraft operations in the present orbital debris environment. Orbital debris is not the only space junk that is deleterious to the Earth's environment. Collisions with asteroids have caused major havoc to the Earth's biosphere many times in the ancient past. Since the possibility still exists for major impacts, it is shown that it is possible to scale up the systems to prevent these catastrophic collisions given sufficient early warning.

  10. Variable fidelity robust optimization of pulsed laser orbital debris removal under epistemic uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Liqiang; Cai, Yuanli; Liu, Jin; Hou, Chongyuan

    2016-04-01

    A variable fidelity robust optimization method for pulsed laser orbital debris removal (LODR) under uncertainty is proposed. Dempster-shafer theory of evidence (DST), which merges interval-based and probabilistic uncertainty modeling, is used in the robust optimization. The robust optimization method optimizes the performance while at the same time maximizing its belief value. A population based multi-objective optimization (MOO) algorithm based on a steepest descent like strategy with proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is used to search robust Pareto solutions. Analytical and numerical lifetime predictors are used to evaluate the debris lifetime after the laser pulses. Trust region based fidelity management is designed to reduce the computational cost caused by the expensive model. When the solutions fall into the trust region, the analytical model is used to reduce the computational cost. The proposed robust optimization method is first tested on a set of standard problems and then applied to the removal of Iridium 33 with pulsed lasers. It will be shown that the proposed approach can identify the most robust solutions with minimum lifetime under uncertainty.

  11. Co removal and phase transformations during high power diode laser irradiation of cemented carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barletta, M.; Rubino, G.; Gisario, A.

    2011-02-01

    The use of a continuous wave-high power diode laser for removing surface Co-binder from Co-cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co (5.8 wt%.)) hardmetal slabs was investigated. Combined scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses were performed in order to study the phase transformations and micro-structural modifications of the WC-Co substrates occurring during and after laser irradiation. The micro-structure of the WC-Co progressively transforms as energy density increased, exhibiting stronger removal of Co and WC grain growth. At very high energy density, local melting of the WC grains with the formation of big agglomerates of interlaced grains is observed, and the crystalline structure of the irradiated substrate shows the presence of a brittle ternary eutectic phase of W, Co and C (often referred to as the η-phase). The latter can be detrimental to the mechanical properties of WC-Co. Therefore, the proper adjustment of the laser processing parameters plays a crucial role in surface treatments of WC-Co substrates prior to post-processing like diamond deposition.

  12. Final Report on Portable Laser Coating Removal Systems Field Demonstrations and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothgeb, Matthew J.; McLaughlin, Russell L.

    2008-01-01

    Processes currently used throughout the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to remove corrosion and coatings from structures, ground service equipment and small components results in waste streams consisting of toxic chemicals, spent media blast materials, and waste water. When chemicals are used in these processes they are typically high in volatile organic compounds (VOC) and are considered hazardous air pollutants (HAP). When blast media is used, the volume of hazardous waste generated is increased significantly. Many of the coatings historically used within NASA contain toxic metals such as hexavalent chromium, and lead. These materials are highly regulated and restrictions on worker exposure continue to increase. Most recently the EPA reduced the permissible exposure limit (PEL) for hexavalent chromium. The new standard lowers OSHA's PEL for hexavalent chromium from 52 to 5 micrograms of Cr(V1) per cubic meter of air as an 8-hour time-weighted average. Hexavalent chromium is found in the pretreatment and primer coatings used within the Shuttle Program. In response to the need to continue to protect assets within the agency and the growing concern over these new regulations, NASA is researching different ways to continue the required maintenance of both facility and flight equipment in a safe, efficient and environmentally preferable manner. The use of laser energy to remove prepare surfaces for a variety of processes, such as corrosion and coating removal, weld preparation and non destructive evaluation is a relatively new technology that has shown itself to be environmentally preferable and in many cases less labor intensive than currently used removal methods. The development of a Portable Laser Coating Removal System (PLCRS) started as the goal of a Joint Group on Pollution Prevention (JG-PP) project, led by the Air Force, where several types of lasers in several configurations were thoroughly evaluated. Following this project, NASA decided

  13. Light and scanning electron microscope investigations comparing calculus removal using an Er:YAG laser and a frequency-doubled alexandrite laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rechmann, Peter; Hennig, Thomas; Sadegh, Hamid M. M.; Goldin, Dan S.

    1997-05-01

    With respect to lasers emitting within the mid-IR spectral domain fiber applicators are being developed. Intended is the use of these lasers in periodontal therapy and their application inside the gingival pocket. Aim of the study presented here is to compare the effect of an Er:YAG laser on dental calculus with the results following irradiation with a frequency doubled Alexandrite laser. The surface of freshly extracted wisdom teeth and of extracted teeth suffering from severe periodontitis were irradiated with both laser wavelengths using a standardized application protocol. Calculus on the enamel surface, at the enamel cementum junction and on the root surface was irradiated. For light microscope investigations undecalcified histological sections were prepared after treatment. For the scanning electron microscope teeth were dried in alcohol and sputtered with gold. Investigations revealed that with both laser systems calculus can be removed. Using the frequency doubled Alexandrite laser selective removal of calculus is possible while engaging the Er:YAG laser even at lowest energies necessary for calculus removal healthy cementum is ablated without control.

  14. Subsurface wrinkle removal by laser treatment in combination with dynamic cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paithankar, Dilip Y.; Hsia, James C.; Ross, E. V.

    2000-05-01

    Compared to traditional CO2 or Er:YAG laser resurfacing, sub-surface thermal injury to stimulate skin remodeling for the removal of wrinkles is attractive due to the lower morbidity associated with epidermal preservation. We have developed a technique that thermally damages dermal collagen while preserving the epidermis by a combination of infra-red laser irradiation and dynamic cooling of skin. Wound healing response to the thermal denaturation of collagen may trigger synthesis of fresh collagen and result in restoration of a more youthful appearance. The laser wavelength is chosen so as to thermally injure dermis in a narrow band at depths of 150 to 500 microns from the surface of the skin. The epidermis is preserved by a Candela dynamic cooling device (DCDTM) cryogen spray. Three-dimensional Monte Carlo calculations have been done to calculate the light distribution within tissue while taking into account light absorption and scattering. This light distribution has been used to calculate heat generation within tissue. Heat transfer calculations have been done while taking into consideration the cryogen cooling. The resulting temperature profiles have been used to suggest heating and cooling parameters. Freshly excised ex vivo pig skin was irradiated with laser and DCD at these heating and cooling parameters. Histological evaluation of the biopsies has shown that it is possible to spare the epidermis while thermally denaturing the dermal collagen. The modeling and histology results are discussed.

  15. Project ORION: Orbital Debris Removal Using Ground-Based Sensors and Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    About 100,000 pieces of 1 to 10-cm debris in low-Earth orbit are too small to track reliably but large enough to cripple or destroy spacecraft. The ORION team studied the feasibility of removing the debris with ground-based laser impulses. Photoablation experiments were surveyed and applied to likely debris materials. Laser intensities needed for debris orbit modification call for pulses on the order of lOkJ or continuous wave lasers on the order of 1 MW. Adaptive optics are necessary to correct for atmospheric turbulence. Wavelength and pulse duration windows were found that limit beam degradation due to nonlinear atmospheric processes. Debris can be detected and located to within about 10 microrads with existing radar and passive optical technology. Fine targeting would be accomplished with laser illumination, which might also be used for detection. Bistatic detection with communications satellites may also be possible. We recommend that existing technology be used to demonstrate the concept at a loss of about $20 million. We calculate that an installation to clear altitudes up to 800 km of 1 to 10-cm debris over 2 years of operation would cost about $80 million. Clearing altitudes up to 1,500 km would take about 3 years and cost about $160 million.

  16. Energy coupling in short pulse laser solid interactions and its impact for space debris removal.

    PubMed

    Neely, David; Allott, Ric; Bingham, Bob; Collier, John; Greenhalgh, Justin; Michaelis, Max; Phillips, Jonathan; Phipps, Claude R; McKenna, Paul

    2014-11-01

    Significant advances have been made over the last decade to improve the performance, efficiency, and contrast of high peak and average power laser systems, driven by their use in a wide variety of fields, from the industrial to the scientific. As the contrast of the lasers has improved, interactions with contrasts of 1012 are now routinely undertaken. At such high contrasts, there is negligible preplasma formation and the ionized surface layer created by subpicosecond-duration pulses typically forms a highly reflective "plasma mirror" capable of reflecting between 70% and 90% of the incident energy. Although such interactions are of significant interest for applications such as harmonic source production and to enable the underlying physics to be studied, their low absorption can limit their usefulness for applications such as space debris removal.

  17. Space debris removal by ground-based lasers: main conclusions of the European project CLEANSPACE.

    PubMed

    Esmiller, Bruno; Jacquelard, Christophe; Eckel, Hans-Albert; Wnuk, Edwin

    2014-11-01

    Studies show that the number of debris in low Earth orbit is exponentially growing despite future debris release mitigation measures considered. Specifically, the already existing population of small and medium debris (between 1 cm and several dozens of cm) is today a concrete threat to operational satellites. A ground-based laser solution which can remove, at low expense and in a nondestructive way, hazardous debris around selected space assets appears as a highly promising answer. This solution is studied within the framework of the CLEANSPACE project which is part of the FP7 space program. The overall CLEANSPACE objective is: to propose an efficient and affordable global system architecture, to tackle safety regulation aspects, political implications and future collaborations, to develop affordable technological bricks, and to establish a roadmap for the development and the future implantation of a fully functional laser protection system. This paper will present the main conclusions of the CLEANSPACE project.

  18. Ultrasensitive analysis of lysergic acid diethylamide and its C-8 isomer in hair by capillary zone electrophoresis in combination with a stacking technique and laser induced fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Airado-Rodríguez, Diego; Cruces-Blanco, Carmen; García-Campaña, Ana M

    2015-03-25

    This article deals with the development and validation of a novel capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with laser induced fluorescence detection method for the analysis of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and its isomer iso-LSD in hair samples. The separation of both analytes has been achieved in less than 13 min in a 72-cm effective length capillary with 75-μm internal diameter. As running buffer 25 mM citrate, pH 6.0 has been employed and separation temperature and voltage of 20 °C and 13 kV respectively, were applied. Field amplified sample injection (FASI) has been employed for on-line sample preconcentration, using ultrapure water containing 117 μM H3PO4 as optimum injection medium. Injection voltage and time have been optimized by means of experimental design, obtaining values of 7 kV and 15s, respectively. Methylergonovine has been employed as internal standard in order to compensate irreproducibility from electrokinetic injection. The analytical method has been applied to hair samples, previous extraction of the target analytes by ultrasound assisted solid-liquid extraction at 40 °C for 2.5 h, employing acetonitrile as extracting solvent. Linear responses were found for LSD and iso-LSD in matrix-matched calibrations from around 0.400 up to 50.0 pg mg(-1). LODs (3 S/N) in the order of 0.100 pg mg(-1) were calculated for both analytes, obtaining satisfactory recovery percentages for this kind of sample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Selective Removal of Natural Occlusal Caries by Coupling Near-infrared Imaging with a CO2 Laser

    PubMed Central

    Tao, You-Chen; Fried, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Laser removal of dental hard tissue can be combined with optical, spectral or acoustic feedback systems to selectively ablate dental caries and restorative materials. Near-infrared (NIR) imaging has considerable potential for the optical discrimination of sound and demineralized tissue. Last year we successfully demonstrated that near-IR images can be used to guide a CO2 laser ablation system for the selective removal of artificial caries lesions on smooth surfaces. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that two-dimensional near-infrared images of natural occlusal caries can be used to guide a CO2 laser for selective removal. Two-dimensional NIR images were acquired at 1310-nm of extracted human molar teeth with occlusal caries. Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) was also used to acquire depth-resolved images of the lesion areas. An imaging processing module was developed to analyze the NIR imaging output and generate optical maps that were used to guide a CO2 laser to selectively remove the lesions at a uniform depth. Post-ablation NIR images were acquired to verify caries removal. Based on the analysis of the NIR images, caries lesions were selectively removed with a CO2 laser while sound tissues were conserved. However, the removal rate varied markedly with the severity of decay and multiple passes were required for caries removal. These initial results are promising but indicate that the selective removal of natural caries is more challenging than the selective removal of artificial lesions due to varying tooth geometry, the highly variable organic/mineral ratio in natural lesions and more complicated lesion structure. PMID:21909225

  20. Selective removal of natural occlusal caries by coupling near-infrared imaging with a CO II laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, You-Chen; Fried, Daniel

    2008-02-01

    Laser removal of dental hard tissue can be combined with optical, spectral or acoustic feedback systems to selectively ablate dental caries and restorative materials. Near-infrared (NIR) imaging has considerable potential for the optical discrimination of sound and demineralized tissue. Last year we successfully demonstrated that near-IR images can be used to guide a CO2 laser ablation system for the selective removal of artificial caries lesions on smooth surfaces. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that two-dimensional near-infrared images of natural occlusal caries can be used to guide a CO2 laser for selective removal. Two-dimensional NIR images were acquired at 1310-nm of extracted human molar teeth with occlusal caries. Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) was also used to acquire depth-resolved images of the lesion areas. An imaging processing module was developed to analyze the NIR imaging output and generate optical maps that were used to guide a CO2 laser to selectively remove the lesions at a uniform depth. Post-ablation NIR images were acquired to verify caries removal. Based on the analysis of the NIR images, caries lesions were selectively removed with a CO2 laser while sound tissues were conserved. However, the removal rate varied markedly with the severity of decay and multiple passes were required for caries removal. These initial results are promising but indicate that the selective removal of natural caries is more challenging than the selective removal of artificial lesions due to varying tooth geometry, the highly variable organic/mineral ratio in natural lesions and more complicated lesion structure.

  1. Selective Removal of Natural Occlusal Caries by Coupling Near-infrared Imaging with a CO(2) Laser.

    PubMed

    Tao, You-Chen; Fried, Daniel

    2008-03-01

    Laser removal of dental hard tissue can be combined with optical, spectral or acoustic feedback systems to selectively ablate dental caries and restorative materials. Near-infrared (NIR) imaging has considerable potential for the optical discrimination of sound and demineralized tissue. Last year we successfully demonstrated that near-IR images can be used to guide a CO(2) laser ablation system for the selective removal of artificial caries lesions on smooth surfaces. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that two-dimensional near-infrared images of natural occlusal caries can be used to guide a CO(2) laser for selective removal. Two-dimensional NIR images were acquired at 1310-nm of extracted human molar teeth with occlusal caries. Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) was also used to acquire depth-resolved images of the lesion areas. An imaging processing module was developed to analyze the NIR imaging output and generate optical maps that were used to guide a CO(2) laser to selectively remove the lesions at a uniform depth. Post-ablation NIR images were acquired to verify caries removal. Based on the analysis of the NIR images, caries lesions were selectively removed with a CO(2) laser while sound tissues were conserved. However, the removal rate varied markedly with the severity of decay and multiple passes were required for caries removal. These initial results are promising but indicate that the selective removal of natural caries is more challenging than the selective removal of artificial lesions due to varying tooth geometry, the highly variable organic/mineral ratio in natural lesions and more complicated lesion structure.

  2. Femtosecond laser-assisted compared with standard cataract surgery for removal of advanced cataracts.

    PubMed

    Hatch, Kathryn M; Schultz, Tim; Talamo, Jonathan H; Dick, H Burkhard

    2015-09-01

    To compare effective phacoemulsification time (EPT) for the removal of brunescent cataracts treated with femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery with standard cataract phacoemulsification techniques. Ruhr University Eye Hospital, Bochum, Germany. Comparative prospective case study. The Lens Opacities Classification System III (LOCS III) grading system was used to measure eyes divided into 4 groups having cataract surgery. Groups 1 and 2 contained eyes with LOCS III grade nuclear opalescence (NO) 3 cataracts treated with standard cataract surgery and femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery, respectively. Groups 3 and 4 contained brunescent cataracts, LOCS III grades NO5, treated with standard cataract surgery and femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery, respectively. There were 240 eyes, with 60 eyes in each group. The EPT in Group 1 ranged from 0.46 to 3.10 (mean 1.38); the EPT in all eyes in Group 2 was 0 (P < .001). The EPT in Groups 3 and 4 was 2.12 to 19.29 (mean 6.85) and 0 to 6.75 (mean 1.35), respectively (P < .001). A comparison between EPT in Groups 1 and 4 showed that EPT in Group 4 was also lower than in Group 1 (P = .013). Groups 4 and 1 were the most statistically similar of all groups compared, suggesting that EPT for a femtosecond laser-treated grade 5 cataract was most similar to that of a standard-treated grade 3 cataract. Femtosecond laser pretreatment for brunescent cataracts allowed for a significant reduction in EPT compared with manual standard phacoemulsification techniques. Drs. Hatch, Talamo, and Dick are consultants to Abbott Medical Optics, Inc. Dr. Schultz has no financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A retrospective analysis of the influencing factors and complications of Q-switched lasers in tattoo removal in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mengli; Gong, Xiangdong; Lin, Tong; Wu, Qiuju; Ge, Yiping; Huang, Yuqing; Ge, LiYu

    2018-04-01

    Q-switched (QS) lasers are the gold standard for tattoo removal. The purpose of the present study was to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the factors that influence the efficacy of QS lasers and their associated complications in the removal of tattoos in China. Clinical data of 266 patients were analyzed retrospectively. The tattoo clearance rate was evaluated using the 4-point scale. The Cox regression model was applied to analyze the factors that affected the efficacy of QS lasers in tattoo removal. In addition, treatment-related adverse reactions were analyzed. The results showed that several variables had a statistically significant effect (p < 0.05) on the efficacy of QS laser-mediated tattoo removal treatment, including the patients' age, the tattoo's age, type, color, or ink density and the number of treatments. A variety of adverse responses occurred during the laser treatment. The overall incidence of adverse responses was approximately 24.06%, including pigmentation, hypopigmentation, bulla formation, allergic reactions, and skin texture changes or hypertrophic scarring. Some factors may influence the efficacy of QS lasers in the treatment of tattoos and certain adverse reactions may occur during this process.

  4. Endoscopic removal of laser-cut covered self-expandable metallic biliary stents: A report of six cases.

    PubMed

    Tanisaka, Yuki; Ryozawa, Shomei; Kobayashi, Masanori; Harada, Maiko; Kobatake, Tsutomu; Omiya, Kumiko; Iwano, Hirotoshi; Arai, Shin; Nonaka, Kouichi; Mashimo, Yumi

    2018-02-01

    Covered self-expandable metallic stents (CSEMS) may provide palliative drainage for unresectable distal malignant biliary strictures. Laser-cut CSEMS allows easy positioning due to its characteristic of minimal stent shortening. Endoscopic stent removal is sometimes recommended for recurrent biliary obstruction (RBO). However, there are no previous reports of endoscopic removal of laser-cut CSEMS. The current study presents data from 6 patients who were placed a laser-cut CSEMS for unresectable distal malignant biliary strictures, and later endoscopic stent removal was attempted for RBO at the present institute. The duration of stent placement, the procedural success rate, the procedural duration, and accidental complications were evaluated. The mean duration of stent placement was 156±37.9 days (range, 117-205). The procedural success rate was 100%. The mean procedural duration was 11.8±7.5 min (range, 5-24). No complications were reported. Laser-cut CSEMS were safely removed from all patients. The present case report is the first to demonstrate that Endoscopic stent removal of laser-cut CSEMS was safely performed.

  5. An analytical model to design circumferential clasps for laser-sintered removable partial dentures.

    PubMed

    Alsheghri, Ammar A; Alageel, Omar; Caron, Eric; Ciobanu, Ovidiu; Tamimi, Faleh; Song, Jun

    2018-06-21

    Clasps of removable partial dentures (RPDs) often suffer from plastic deformation and failure by fatigue; a common complication of RPDs. A new technology for processing metal frameworks for dental prostheses based on laser-sintering, which allows for precise fabrication of clasp geometry, has been recently developed. This study sought to propose a novel method for designing circumferential clasps for laser-sintered RPDs to avoid plastic deformation or fatigue failure. An analytical model for designing clasps with semicircular cross-sections was derived based on mechanics. The Euler-Bernoulli elastic curved beam theory and Castigliano's energy method were used to relate the stress and undercut with the clasp length, cross-sectional radius, alloy properties, tooth type, and retention force. Finite element analysis (FEA) was conducted on a case study and the resultant tensile stress and undercut were compared with the analytical model predictions. Pull-out experiments were conducted on laser-sintered cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) dental prostheses to validate the analytical model results. The proposed circumferential clasp design model yields results in good agreement with FEA and experiments. The results indicate that Co-Cr circumferential clasps in molars that are 13mm long engaging undercuts of 0.25mm should have a cross-section radius of 1.2mm to provide a retention of 10N and to avoid plastic deformation or fatigue failure. However, shorter circumferential clasps such as those in premolars present high stresses and cannot avoid plastic deformation or fatigue failure. Laser-sintered Co-Cr circumferential clasps in molars are safe, whereas they are susceptible to failure in premolars. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-10-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig's type) B) The "Christmas tree pattern" where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation.

  7. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    PubMed Central

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Context: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. Evidence Acquisition: A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig’s type) B) The “Christmas tree pattern” where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Results: The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. Conclusions: The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation. PMID:24719635

  8. Scalable process for mitigation of laser-damaged potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystal optic surfaces with removal of damaged antireflective coating

    SciTech Connect

    Elhadj, S.; Steele, W. A.; VanBlarcom, D. S.

    Here, we investigate an approach for the recycling of laser-damaged large-aperture deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate (DKDP) crystals used for optical switching (KDP) and for frequency conversion (DKDP) in megajoule-class high-power laser systems. The approach consists of micromachining the surface laser damage sites (mitigation), combined with multiple soaks and ultrasonication steps in a coating solvent to remove, synergistically, both the highly adherent machining debris and the laser-damage-affected antireflection coating. We then identify features of the laser-damage-affected coating, such as the “solvent-persistent” coating and the “burned-in” coating, that are difficult to remove by conventional approaches without damaging the surface. We also providemore » a solution to the erosion problem identified in this work when colloidal coatings are processed during ultrasonication. Finally, we provide a proof of principle of the approach by testing the full process that includes laser damage mitigation of DKDP test parts, coat stripping, reapplication of a new antireflective coat, and a laser damage test demonstrating performance up to at least 12 J/cm 2 at UV wavelengths, which is well above current requirements. Our approach ultimately provides a potential path to a scalable recycling loop for the management of optics in large, high-power laser systems that can reduce cost and extend lifetime of highly valuable and difficult to grow large DKDP crystals.« less

  9. A novel dual‐wavelength, Nd:YAG, picosecond‐domain laser safely and effectively removes multicolor tattoos

    PubMed Central

    Schomacker, Kevin T.; Basilavecchio, Lisa D.; Plugis, Jessica M.; Bhawalkar, Jayant D.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Although nanosecond‐domain lasers have been the mainstay of laser tattoo removal for decades, recent disruptive innovations in laser design have introduced a new class of commercial Q‐switched lasers that generate picosecond‐domain pulses. Study A picosecond‐domain, Nd:YAG laser with a KTP frequency‐doubling crystal was used to treat 31 decorative tattoos in 21 subjects. Safety and effectiveness were determined by blinded evaluation of digital images in this prospective clinical study. Results The average clearance overall as evaluated by blinded observers evaluating randomized digital photographs was 79 ± 0.9% (mean ± sem) after an average of 6.5 treatments. Of the 31 tattoos completing treatment, 6 had evidence of mild hyper‐ or hypo‐pigmentation by evaluation of photographs. Conclusion The 350 picosecond, 532 nm, and 450 picosecond 1,064 nm Nd:YAG laser is safe and effective for removing decorative tattoos. Lasers Surg. Med. 47:542–548, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26175187

  10. Scalable process for mitigation of laser-damaged potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystal optic surfaces with removal of damaged antireflective coating

    DOE PAGES

    Elhadj, S.; Steele, W. A.; VanBlarcom, D. S.; ...

    2017-03-07

    Here, we investigate an approach for the recycling of laser-damaged large-aperture deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate (DKDP) crystals used for optical switching (KDP) and for frequency conversion (DKDP) in megajoule-class high-power laser systems. The approach consists of micromachining the surface laser damage sites (mitigation), combined with multiple soaks and ultrasonication steps in a coating solvent to remove, synergistically, both the highly adherent machining debris and the laser-damage-affected antireflection coating. We then identify features of the laser-damage-affected coating, such as the “solvent-persistent” coating and the “burned-in” coating, that are difficult to remove by conventional approaches without damaging the surface. We also providemore » a solution to the erosion problem identified in this work when colloidal coatings are processed during ultrasonication. Finally, we provide a proof of principle of the approach by testing the full process that includes laser damage mitigation of DKDP test parts, coat stripping, reapplication of a new antireflective coat, and a laser damage test demonstrating performance up to at least 12 J/cm 2 at UV wavelengths, which is well above current requirements. Our approach ultimately provides a potential path to a scalable recycling loop for the management of optics in large, high-power laser systems that can reduce cost and extend lifetime of highly valuable and difficult to grow large DKDP crystals.« less

  11. Comparison of baseline removal methods for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of geological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyar, M. Darby; Giguere, Stephen; Carey, CJ; Boucher, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    This project examines the causes, effects, and optimization of continuum removal in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to produce the best possible prediction accuracy of elemental composition in geological samples. We compare prediction accuracy resulting from several different techniques for baseline removal, including asymmetric least squares (ALS), adaptive iteratively reweighted penalized least squares (Air-PLS), fully automatic baseline correction (FABC), continuous wavelet transformation, median filtering, polynomial fitting, the iterative thresholding Dietrich method, convex hull/rubber band techniques, and a newly-developed technique for Custom baseline removal (BLR). We assess the predictive performance of these methods using partial least-squares analysis for 13 elements of geological interest, expressed as the weight percentages of SiO2, Al2O3, TiO2, FeO, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O, and the parts per million concentrations of Ni, Cr, Zn, Mn, and Co. We find that previously published methods for baseline subtraction generally produce equivalent prediction accuracies for major elements. When those pre-existing methods are used, automated optimization of their adjustable parameters is always necessary to wring the best predictive accuracy out of a data set; ideally, it should be done for each individual variable. The new technique of Custom BLR produces significant improvements in prediction accuracy over existing methods across varying geological data sets, instruments, and varying analytical conditions. These results also demonstrate the dual objectives of the continuum removal problem: removing a smooth underlying signal to fit individual peaks (univariate analysis) versus using feature selection to select only those channels that contribute to best prediction accuracy for multivariate analyses. Overall, the current practice of using generalized, one-method-fits-all-spectra baseline removal results in poorer predictive performance for all methods. The

  12. Efficacy of Er,Cr:YSGG Laser in Removing Smear Layer and Debris with Two Different Output Powers

    PubMed Central

    Bolhari, Behnam; Ehsani, Sara; Etemadi, Ardavan; Shafaq, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the erbium, chromium: yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser in removing debris and the smear layer using two different output powers on the apical, middle, and coronal segments of root canal walls. Background data: Previous literature has failed to evaluate the exclusive effect of Er,Cr:YSGG laser on the quality of smear layer and debris removal in all three segments of the root canal space. Methods: Sixty extracted teeth were included in the study. After instrumentation, samples were divided into three experimental groups and one positive control group with no further treatment. In group 1, a final irrigation was performed using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), sequentially. In group 2, the samples were treated with a 2.78 μm Er,Cr:YSGG laser with an output power of 1.5 W. The same laser was used in group 3, but with an output power of 2.5 W. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images from the coronal, middle, and apical thirds of the roots were prepared and evaluated for both smear layer and debris removal by three blinded observers. Results: The results showed no differences between groups 1 and 2 regarding the quality of smear layer removal in all areas. However, the 2.5 W laser failed to remove the smear layer effectively. Regarding debris removal, the EDTA and NaOCl irrigation showed significantly better outcomes (adjusted p<0.05) in all areas. Conclusions: This study raises questions about the overall cleaning abilities of Er,Cr:YSGG lasers. PMID:25198390

  13. Efficacy of Er,Cr:YSGG laser in removing smear layer and debris with two different output powers.

    PubMed

    Bolhari, Behnam; Ehsani, Sara; Etemadi, Ardavan; Shafaq, Mohammad; Nosrat, Ali

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the erbium, chromium: yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser in removing debris and the smear layer using two different output powers on the apical, middle, and coronal segments of root canal walls. Previous literature has failed to evaluate the exclusive effect of Er,Cr:YSGG laser on the quality of smear layer and debris removal in all three segments of the root canal space. Sixty extracted teeth were included in the study. After instrumentation, samples were divided into three experimental groups and one positive control group with no further treatment. In group 1, a final irrigation was performed using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), sequentially. In group 2, the samples were treated with a 2.78 μm Er,Cr:YSGG laser with an output power of 1.5 W. The same laser was used in group 3, but with an output power of 2.5 W. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images from the coronal, middle, and apical thirds of the roots were prepared and evaluated for both smear layer and debris removal by three blinded observers. The results showed no differences between groups 1 and 2 regarding the quality of smear layer removal in all areas. However, the 2.5 W laser failed to remove the smear layer effectively. Regarding debris removal, the EDTA and NaOCl irrigation showed significantly better outcomes (adjusted p<0.05) in all areas. This study raises questions about the overall cleaning abilities of Er,Cr:YSGG lasers.

  14. Comparison of treatment with an Alexandrite picosecond laser and Nd:YAG nanosecond laser for removing blue-black Chinese eyeliner tattoos.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mengli; Huang, Yuqing; Lin, Tong; Wu, Qiuju

    2018-02-28

    To retrospectively evaluate the efficacy of an Alexandrite picosecond laser versus Nd:YAG nanosecond laser for removing blue-black eyeliner tattoos which have existed more than 10 years. A total of 40 patients were treated with an Alexandrite picosecond laser in our department from August 2015 to July 2017, with a fluence of 1.96-6.37J/cm 2 , spot size of 2.0-3.6 mm, and pulse width of 750 ps. Another 32 patients were treated with an Nd:YAG nanosecond laser, with a fluence of 2.80-7.00 J/cm 2 , spot size of 3 mm, and pulse width of 5-20 ns. All analysed patients completed at least one treatment and follow-up. The median number of treatment for all the patients was 1 (range, 1-4). After a single session, no difference was found between the two lasers for the eyeliner removal (p > 0.05). For the people who achieved an excellent response of tattoo clearance, there was still no difference between the two groups (p > 0.05). Transient side effects were observed in two groups, but neither group had significant adverse reactions. To treat blue-black Chinese eyeliner tattoos over 10 years, Alexandrite picosecond laser does not provide better clearance than the Nd:YAG nanosecond laser.

  15. Efficacy of removal of cariogenic bacteria and carious dentin by ablation using different modes of Er:YAG lasers

    PubMed Central

    Baraba, A.; Kqiku, L.; Gabrić, D.; Verzak, Ž.; Hanscho, K.; Miletić, I.

    2018-01-01

    The primary objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the efficiency of removal of cariogenic bacteria and carious dentin by ablation using two lasers: fluorescence-feedback controlled (FFC) Er:YAG laser and different pulses of Er:YAG laser based on variable square pulse technology (VSPt). The secondary objective was to measure the temperature during laser ablation of carious tissue. Seventy-two extracted human molars were used in this study. Sixty teeth with carious dentin were randomly divided into four experimental groups according to the treatment for caries removal: group 1: 400 µs (FFC group); group 2: super short pulse (SSP group, 50 µs pulse); group 3: medium short pulse (MSP group, 100 µs pulse); group 4: short pulse (SP group, 300 µs pulse) and one positive control group with no treatment. Twelve teeth without carious lesion were used as a negative control group. After caries removal, swabs were taken with cotton pellets and real-time PCR analysis was performed. During caries ablation, a thermal infrared camera was used to measure the temperature changes. In all experimental groups, specimens were free of bacterial contamination after the treatment. In the SSP, MSP and SP groups, temperatures measured during caries ablation were significantly higher compared to temperatures in the FFC group (P<0.001). In this in vitro study, laser treatment for removal of carious dentin and cariogenic bacteria was an efficient treatment modality without causing excessive temperatures that might adversely affect pulp vitality. PMID:29340524

  16. Efficacy of removal of cariogenic bacteria and carious dentin by ablation using different modes of Er:YAG lasers.

    PubMed

    Baraba, A; Kqiku, L; Gabrić, D; Verzak, Ž; Hanscho, K; Miletić, I

    2018-01-11

    The primary objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the efficiency of removal of cariogenic bacteria and carious dentin by ablation using two lasers: fluorescence-feedback controlled (FFC) Er:YAG laser and different pulses of Er:YAG laser based on variable square pulse technology (VSPt). The secondary objective was to measure the temperature during laser ablation of carious tissue. Seventy-two extracted human molars were used in this study. Sixty teeth with carious dentin were randomly divided into four experimental groups according to the treatment for caries removal: group 1: 400 µs (FFC group); group 2: super short pulse (SSP group, 50 µs pulse); group 3: medium short pulse (MSP group, 100 µs pulse); group 4: short pulse (SP group, 300 µs pulse) and one positive control group with no treatment. Twelve teeth without carious lesion were used as a negative control group. After caries removal, swabs were taken with cotton pellets and real-time PCR analysis was performed. During caries ablation, a thermal infrared camera was used to measure the temperature changes. In all experimental groups, specimens were free of bacterial contamination after the treatment. In the SSP, MSP and SP groups, temperatures measured during caries ablation were significantly higher compared to temperatures in the FFC group (P<0.001). In this in vitro study, laser treatment for removal of carious dentin and cariogenic bacteria was an efficient treatment modality without causing excessive temperatures that might adversely affect pulp vitality.

  17. Combination of CO2 and Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers is more effective than Q-switched Nd:YAG laser alone for eyebrow tattoo removal.

    PubMed

    Radmanesh, Mohammad; Rafiei, Zohreh

    2015-04-01

    The eyebrow tattoo removal using Q-switched lasers is usually prolonged. Other modalities may be required to enhance the efficacy and shorten the treatment course. To compare the efficacy of Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser alone versus combination of Q-switched Nd:YAG and Ultrapulse CO2 lasers for eyebrow tattoo removal after a single session. After local anesthesia, the right eyebrow of 20 patients was treated with Ultrapulse CO2 laser with the parameters of 4 J/cm(2) and 3.2 J/cm(2) for the first and the second passes. Both eyebrows were then treated with 1064-nm and 532-nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The spot size and pulse duration were 3 mm and 5 nanoseconds for both wavelengths, and the fluence was 7 J/cm(2) for 1064 nm and 3 J/cm (2) for 532 nm. The side treated with combination of Q-switched Nd:YAG and CO2 lasers improved 75-100% in 6 of 20 patients versus only 1 of 20 in the side treated with Q-switched Nd:YAG alone. Similarly, the right side in 13 of 20 patients showed more than 50% improvement with combination therapy versus the left side (the monotherapy side), where only 6 of 20 cases showed more than 50% improvement. The Mann-Whitney test was 2.85 for the right side and 1.95 for the left side (P value = 0.007). Using Ultra pulse CO2 laser enhances the efficacy of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser in eyebrow tattoo removal.

  18. Hair Pulling (Trichotillomania)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Families - Vietnamese Spanish Facts for Families Guide Hair Pulling (Trichotillomania) No. 96; Reviewed July 2013 It ... for children and adolescents to play with their hair. However, frequent or obsessive hair pulling can lead ...

  19. Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... pillow. This is the result of the normal hair growth cycle. Hairs will grow for a few years, ... the name for the resting stage of the hair growth cycle. A telogen effluvium is when some stress ...

  20. The Use of 3D Metal Printing (Direct Metal Laser Sintering) in Removable Prosthodontics.

    PubMed

    Laverty, Dominic P; Thomas, Matthew B M; Clark, Paul; Addy, Liam D

    2016-11-01

    The use of 3D printing is expanding and it is envisaged that it will have an increasing presence within dentistry. Having an appreciation and understanding of such technology is therefore paramount. It is currently used to produce a variety of dental objects/prostheses. This paper briefly looks at 3D printing in dentistry and specifically describes the use of the direct metal laser sintering 3D printing technique in the production of cobalt chromium removable prosthesis frameworks. Clinical relevance: Understanding the different technologies that can and are being used within the dental field is important, particularly as it is a rapidly changing field. Having an understanding of such technologies will allow practitioners to utilize such technologies appropriately in the management of their patients.

  1. Hair pull test: Evidence-based update and revision of guidelines.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Katherine A; Shelley, Amanda J; Colantonio, Sophia; Beecker, Jennifer

    2017-03-01

    The hair pull test lacks validation and has unclear pretest guidelines. We sought to quantify normal hair pull test values and elucidate the effect of pretest hair washing and brushing. The impact of hair texture and lifestyle was also examined. Participants (n = 181) completed a questionnaire recording demographics, medications, and hair health/history. A single hair pull test (scalp vertex) was performed. The mean number of hairs removed per pull was 0.44 (SD 0.75). There was no significant difference in the mean number of hairs removed regardless of when participants washed (P = .20) or brushed (P = .25) their hair. Hair pull test values were similar between Caucasian-, Asian-, and Afro-textured hair. There was no significant difference in hair pull values between participants taking medications affecting hair loss and participants not taking these medications (P = .33). Tight hairstyles did not influence hair pull test values. Participant hair washing and brushing could not be controlled during the study, but this information was documented and analyzed. Normal values for the hair pull test should be reduced to 2 hairs or fewer (97.2% of participants). The current 5-day restriction on pretest hair washing can be reduced and brushing be made permissible. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hair dye poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  3. Selective removal of carious human dentin using a nanosecond pulsed laser operating at a wavelength of 5.85 μ m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Katsunori; Kita, Tetsuya; Yoshikawa, Kazushi; Yasuo, Kenzo; Yamamoto, Kazuyo; Awazu, Kunio

    2015-05-01

    Less invasive methods for treating dental caries are strongly desired. However, conventional dental lasers do not always selectively remove caries or ensure good bonding to the composite resin. According to our previous study, demineralized dentin might be removed by a nanosecond pulsed laser operating at wavelengths of around 5.8 μm. The present study investigated the irradiation effect of the light on carious human dentin classified into "remove," "not remove," and "unclear" categories. Under 5.85-μm laser pulses, at average power densities of 30 W/cm2 and irradiation time of 2 s, the ablation depth of "remove" and "not remove," and also the ablation depth of "unclear" and "not remove," were significantly different (p<0.01). The ablation depth was correlated with both Vickers hardness and Ca content. Thus, a nanosecond pulsed laser operating at 5.85 μm proved an effective less-invasive caries treatment.

  4. Paper un-printing: using lasers to remove toner-print in order to reuse office paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal-Ayala, D. R.; Allwood, J. M.; Counsell, T. A. M.

    2011-12-01

    In this article, lasers in the ultraviolet, visible and infrared light spectra working with pulse widths in the nanosecond range are applied to a range of toner-paper combinations to determine their ability to remove toner. If the laser energy fluence can be chosen to stay below the ablation threshold of paper at the same time that it surpasses that of toner, paper could be cleaned and re-used instead of being recycled or disposed into a landfill. This could significantly reduce the environmental impact of paper production and use. Although there are a variety of paper conservation studies which have investigated the effects of laser radiation on blank and soiled paper, none has previously explored toner-print removal from paper by laser ablation. Colour analysis under the L ∗ a ∗ b ∗ colour space and SEM examination of the outcome indicate that it is possible to remove toner from paper without damaging and discolouring the substrate. Best results are obtained when employing visible radiation at a wavelength of 532 nm working with a pulse width of 4 ns and energy fluences under 1.6 J/cm2. This means that it is technically feasible to remove toner-print for paper re-use.

  5. Serial removal of caries lesions from tooth occlusal surfaces using near-IR image-guided IR laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Kenneth H.; Tom, Henry; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have established that caries lesions can be imaged with high contrast without the interference of stains at near-IR wavelengths greater than 1300-nm. It has been demonstrated that computer controlled laser scanning systems utilizing IR lasers operating at high pulse repetition rates can be used for serial imaging and selective removal of caries lesions. In this study, we report our progress towards the development of algorithms for generating rasterized ablation maps from near-IR reflectance images for the removal of natural lesions from tooth occlusal surfaces. An InGaAs camera and a filtered tungsten-halogen lamp producing near-IR light in the range of 1500-1700-nm were used to collect crosspolarization reflectance images of tooth occlusal surfaces. A CO2 laser operating at a wavelength of 9.3- μm with a pulse duration of 10-15-μs was used for image-guided ablation.

  6. Ultraviolet-Diode Pump Solid State Laser Removal of Titanium Aluminium Nitride Coating from Tungsten Carbide Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    See, Tian Long; Chantzis, Dimitrios; Royer, Raphael; Metsios, Ioannis; Antar, Mohammad; Marimuthu, Sundar

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the titanium aluminium nitride (TiAlN) coating removal from tungsten carbide (WC-Co) substrate using a diode pump solid state (DPSS) ultraviolet (UV) laser with maximum average power of 90 W, wavelength of 355 nm and pulse width of 50 ns. The TiAlN coating of 1.5 μm thickness is removed from the WC-Co substrate with laser fluence of 2.71 J/cm2 at 285.6 number of pulses (NOP) and with NOP of 117.6 at 3.38 J/cm2 fluence. Titanium oxide formation was observed on the ablated surface due to the re-deposition of ablated titanium residue and also attributed to the high temperature observed during the laser ablation process. Crack width of around 0.2 μm was observed over both TiAlN coating and WC-Co substrate. The crack depth ranging from 1 to 10 μm was observed and is related to the thickness of the melted carbide. The crack formation is a result of the thermal induced stresses caused by the laser beam interaction with the material as well as the higher thermal conductivity of cobalt compared to WC. Two cleaning regions are observed and is a consequence of the Gaussian distribution of the laser beam energy. The surface roughness of the ablated WC-Co increased with increasing laser fluence and NOP.

  7. Comparison of removal torques between laser-treated and SLA-treated implant surfaces in rabbit tibiae

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Nam-Seok; Li, Lin-Jie

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to compare removal torques and surface topography between laser treated and sandblasted, large-grit, acid-etched (SLA) treated implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS Laser-treated implants (experimental group) and SLA-treated implants (control group) 8 mm in length and 3.4 mm in diameter were inserted into both sides of the tibiae of 12 rabbits. Surface analysis was accomplished using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM; Hitachi S-4800; Japan) under ×25, ×150 and ×1,000 magnification. Surface components were analyzed using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Rabbits were sacrificed after a 6-week healing period. The removal torque was measured using the MGT-12 digital torque meter (Mark-10 Co., Copiague, NY, USA). RESULTS In the experimental group, the surface analysis showed uniform porous structures under ×25, ×150 and ×1,000 magnification. Pore sizes in the experimental group were 20-40 mm and consisted of numerous small pores, whereas pore sizes in the control group were 0.5-2.0 mm. EDS analysis showed no significant difference between the two groups. The mean removal torque in the laser-treated and the SLA-treated implant groups were 79.4 Ncm (SD = 20.4; range 34.6-104.3 Ncm) and 52.7 Ncm (SD = 17.2; range 18.7-73.8 Ncm), respectively. The removal torque in the laser-treated surface implant group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P=.004). CONCLUSION In this study, removal torque values were significantly higher for laser-treated surface implants than for SLA-treated surface implants. PMID:25177474

  8. Creeping hair: an isolated hair burrowing in the uppermost dermis resembling larva migrans.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Rie; Higashi, Kushio; Ohta, Miyuki; Sugimoto, Yasushi; Ikoma, Yukiko; Horiguchi, Yuji

    2006-01-01

    A 55-year-old Japanese male presented with a slowly moving linear erythema that looked like an eruption of creeping disease, or cutaneous larva migrans. The eruption extended linearly along Langer's line of the lateral side of the abdomen to the lower back, leaving wave-like erythema. In the top third of the erythematous eruption, close examination demonstrated a black thin line, which was revealed to be a hair shaft by a shallow incision of the skin. After removal of the hair, the eruption diminished immediately, leaving a slight pigmentation. An ingrown pubic hair seemed to have migrated with the lower end forward along Langer's line, because of the arrangement of hair cuticle and the force of body motion. Linearly moving erythematous eruptions that look like that of larva migrans should be differentiated from creeping hair by close examination detecting burrowing hair.

  9. Help! It's Hair Loss!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hair Loss KidsHealth / For Kids / Hair Loss What's in ... is alopecia (say: al-uh-PEE-shuh). The Hair-y Story The hair on your head is ...

  10. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Female Pattern Hair Loss Share | The most common type of hair loss seen in women is androgenetic alopecia, also ... men, it does not have to be complete hair loss. This is seen as hair thinning predominantly ...

  11. Hair loss in women.

    PubMed

    Tosti, A; Piraccini, B M; Sisti, A; Duque-Estrada, B

    2009-10-01

    Hair loss in women is a very common clinical complaint, and is usually associated with severe emotional distress. In this article, the authors review the most common clinical causes of hair loss in women, and emphasize the role of hormonal changes in the regulation of hair loss and hair growth.

  12. Hair Cosmetics: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Gavazzoni Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis

    2015-01-01

    Hair cosmetics are an important tool that helps to increase patient's adhesion to alopecia and scalp treatments. This article reviews the formulations and the mode of action of hair cosmetics: Shampoos, conditioners, hair straightening products, hair dyes and henna; regarding their prescription and safetiness. The dermatologist's knowledge of hair care products, their use, and their possible side effects can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources and help dermatologists to better treat hair and scalp conditions according to the diversity of hair types and ethnicity. PMID:25878443

  13. Selective removal of cholesterol ester in atherosclerotic plaque using nanosecond pulsed laser at 5.75 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, K.; Tsukimoto, H.; Hazama, H.; Awazu, K.

    2008-02-01

    Laser angioplasty, for example XeCl excimer laser angioplasty, has gained more attention in addition to conventional methods of surgical and interventional treatment of atherosclerotic diseases such as bypass operation and balloon dilatation. Low degrees of thermal damage after ablation of atherosclerotic lesions have been achieved by XeCl excimer laser at 308 nm. However, in most cases, laser ablation is not selective and normal arterial wall is also damaged. To avoid complications such as severe dissections or perforation of the arterial wall in an angioplasty, a laser light source with high ablation efficiency but low arterial wall injury is desirable. At atherosclerotic lesions, cholesterol accumulates on the tunica intima by establishing an ester bond with fatty acids such as oleic acid, and thus cholesterol ester is the main component of atherosclerotic plaques. Mid-infrared pulsed laser at 5.75 μm is selectively well absorbed in C=O stretching vibration mode of ester bonds. The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of nanosecond pulsed laser at 5.75 μm irradiation of cholesterol ester in atherosclerotic plaques. In this study, we used a mid-infrared tunable solid-state laser which is operated by difference frequency generation method, with a wavelength of 5.75 μm, a pulse width of 5 nsec and a pulse duration of 10 Hz. It was confirmed that non-invasive interaction to normal thoracic aortas could be induce by the parameters, the wavelength of 5.75 μm, the average power densities of 35 W/cm2 and the irradiation time under 10 sec. This study shows that nanosecond pulsed laser irradiations at 5.75 μm provide an alternative laser light source as an effectively cutting, less traumatic tool for removal of atherosclerotic plaque.

  14. Wooly hair nevus*

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Karen de Almeida Pinto; Fernandes, Karina de Almeida Pinto; Vargas, Thiago Jeunon de Sousa; Melo, Daniel Fernandes

    2017-01-01

    Woolly hair nevus is a rare condition characterized by a structural anomaly of the hair, restricted to certain areas of the scalp. The hair becomes coiled and slightly hypopigmented. The term woolly hair refers to changes that affect all the scalp and has a hereditary character. We present a case of woolly hair nevus, that developed at the age of 2 years, associated with dental diastema and verrucous epidermal nevus. PMID:29267480

  15. Wooly hair nevus.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Karen de Almeida Pinto; Fernandes, Karina de Almeida Pinto; Vargas, Thiago Jeunon de Sousa; Melo, Daniel Fernandes

    2017-01-01

    Woolly hair nevus is a rare condition characterized by a structural anomaly of the hair, restricted to certain areas of the scalp. The hair becomes coiled and slightly hypopigmented. The term woolly hair refers to changes that affect all the scalp and has a hereditary character. We present a case of woolly hair nevus, that developed at the age of 2 years, associated with dental diastema and verrucous epidermal nevus.

  16. [Hair and their environment].

    PubMed

    Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E

    2015-02-01

    Hair is influenced by the effects of the daily environment. Some toxic xenobiotics slow down or block the cell renewal of the hair matrix, thus inhibiting hair growth. The ultraviolet light obviously influences the physical structure and physiology of the hair follicle. Tobacco is similarly responsible for negative influences on the evolution of various alopecias. Several cosmetic procedures for maintaining and making hair more attractive are not always harmless, and they occasionally represent a possible origin for alopecia.

  17. Can laser treatment improve quality of life of hirsute women?

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Narges; Ayyoubi, Sharad; Naghipour, Mohammadreza; Hassanzadeh, Rasool; Mohtasham-Amiri, Zahra; Zaresharifi, Shirin; Gharaei Nejad, Kaveh

    2017-01-01

    Background Hirsutism can have negative impacts on psychosocial aspects of women’s lives and reduce their quality of life (QOL). The aim of this study was to assess the QOL of these women during laser treatment. Patients and methods Eighty-eight women with unwanted facial hair underwent laser therapy. Each patient completed a questionnaire consisting of a modified Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and visual analog scale (VAS) before the first, third, and fifth sessions of laser therapy. Interval between the sessions was 4–6 weeks. Statistical analyses were done using SPSS software version18. Results The DLQI scores before treatment, and at third and fifth sessions were 7.75±2.36, 5.55±1.88, and 4.14±0.64, respectively (P<0.0001). Also, VAS scores had a decreasing trend between the first and second treatment sessions as the mean patient VAS score fell from 10±0.04 to 5.53±2.41 (P<0.0001). The DLQI scores were significantly different according to areas of hair growth and number of involved areas. There were no significant differences with regard to response to treatment and mean of DLQI score according to the level of education, marital status, and employment status. Conclusion Hair removal with laser therapy can improve the QOL in hirsute women. Also, socioeconomic status does not affect the satisfaction rate of laser therapy for hair removal. PMID:29089786

  18. Megasessions for Robotic Hair Restoration.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Joa O Carlos; Pereira Filho, Joa O Carlos; Cabrera Pereira, Joa O Pedro

    2016-11-01

    A robotic system can select and remove individual hair follicles from the donor area with great precision and without fatigue. This report describes the use of the robotic system in a megasession for hair restoration. Patients were instructed to cut their hair to 1.0 to 1.2 mm before surgery. The robot selected and removed 600 to 800 grafts per hour so the follicular units (FU)s could be transplanted manually to recipient sites. The robot arm consists of a sharp inner punch and a blunt outer punch which together separate FUs from the sur- rounding tissue. Stereoscopic cameras controlled by image processing software allow the system to identify the angle and direction of hair growth. The physician and one assistant control the harvesting with a hand-held remote control and computer monitor while the patient is positioned in an adjustable chair. When the robot has harvested all the FUs they are removed by technicians with small forceps. Hairline design, creation of recipient sites, and graft placement are performed manually by the physician. Clinical photographs before and after surgery show that patients experience excellent outcomes with the robotic megasession. Phy- sician fatigue during graft extraction is reduced because the robot performs the repetitive movements without fatigue. Variability of graft extraction is minimized because the robot's optical system can be programmed to choose the best FUs. The transection rate is reduced because the robot's graft extraction system uses two needles, a sharp one to piece the skin and a blunt needle to dissect the root without trauma. A robotic megasession for hair restoration is minimally invasive, does not result in linear scars in the donor area, and is associated with minimal fatigue and discomfort for both patient and physician. Healing is rapid and patients experience a high level of satisfaction with the results. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(11):1407-1412..

  19. Laser-Activated Shape Memory Polymer Microactuator for Thrombus Removal Following Ischemic Stroke: Preliminary In Vitro Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Small, W; Metzger, M F; Wilson, T S

    2004-09-23

    Due to the narrow (3-hour) treatment window for effective use of the thrombolytic drug recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA), there is a need to develop alternative treatments for ischemic stroke. We are developing an intravascular device for mechanical thrombus removal using shape memory polymer (SMP). We propose to deliver the SMP microactuator in its secondary straight rod form (length = 4 cm, diameter = 350 {micro}m) through a catheter distal to the vascular occlusion. The microactuator, which is mounted on the end of an optical fiber, is then transformed into its primary corkscrew shape by laser heating (diode laser, {lambda}more » = 800 nm) above its soft phase glass transition temperature (T{sub gs} = 55 C). Once deployed, the microactuator is retracted and the captured thrombus is removed to restore blood flow. The SMP is doped with indocyanine green (ICG) dye to increase absorption of the laser light. Successful deployment of the microactuator depends on the optical properties of the ICG-doped SMP and the optical coupling efficiency of the interface between the optical fiber and the SMP. Spectrophotometry, thermal imaging, and computer simulation aided the initial design effort and continue to be useful tools for optimization of the dye concentration and laser power. Thermomechanical testing was performed to characterize the elastic modulus of the SMP. We have demonstrated laser-activation of the SMP microactuator in air at room temperature, suggesting this concept is a promising therapeutic alternative to rt-PA.« less

  20. Depilatory laser: a potential causative factor for inguinal hyperhidrosis: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Obeid, Grace; Helou, Josiane; Maatouk, Ismael; Moutran, Roy; Tomb, Roland

    2013-10-01

    Hyperhidrosis has recently been described as a novel adverse effect of laser-assisted hair removal in the axillary area. Inguinal Hyperhidrosis (IH) is a localized and, typically, a primary form of hyperhidrosis affecting the groin area in individuals before age 25. IH has been reported in the literature after traumas and as a dysfunction of the central sympathetic nervous system. To the best of our knowledge, IH has never been reported as secondary to laser-assisted hair removal. Herein, we report three cases of IH following depilatory laser of the inguinal zone. Three female patients with no relevant medical history presented with the complaint of excessive sweating in the inguinal area after undergoing full bikini depilatory laser sessions. Although never described before, depilatory laser seems to trigger the occurrence of hyperhidrosis in the inguinal zone.

  1. Comparison between sequentional treatment with diode and alexandrite lasers versus alexandrite laser alone in the treatment of hirsutism.

    PubMed

    Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Naieni, Farahnaz Fatemi; Siadat, Amir Hossein; Rad, Leila

    2011-11-01

    Laser systems that are commonly used for the treatment of hirsutism include the ruby laser (694 nm), the diode laser (800 nm), the alexandrite laser (755 nm) and the Nd:YAG laser (1084 nm). The diode laser and alexandrite laser are considered effective in treatment of hirsutism in dark-skinned patients. The response of hairs to these laser systems is variable and not complete. In this study, we compared the efficacy of these two laser systems for permanent hair removal. This was a randomized, controlled clinical trial that was performed with women of the age range 15-45 years old. After obtaining informed consent, the samples were randomized into two groups using random allocation software. The first group was treated with alexandrite laser alone (four sessions, two months apart). The second group was treated sequentially with diode laser for the first two sessions and alexandrite laser for the next two sessions. Overall, 111 patients (57 patients in the alexandrite laser group and 54 patients in the sequential diode-alexandrite laser group) were evaluated. There was no significant difference regarding mean of hair reduction between the two groups during the courses of treatment. Except for the first session, there was no significant difference regarding percent of patient satisfaction between the two groups (P value >0.05). Comparison between the two groups showed no significant difference one month, three months and six months after the last treatment (P value >0.05). Regarding the results of our study, there is no significant difference between sequential treatment with diode and alexandrite lasers versus alexandrite laser alone in the treatment of hirsutism. We suggest that in further studies, the efficacy of sequential treatment with other laser systems is evaluated against single treatment methods.

  2. Penile hair tourniquet resulting in hypospadias failure

    PubMed Central

    Jesus, Lisieux E.; Bragança, Jailma J.; Rocha, Julia M.; Dekermacher, Samuel; Anderson, Kleber M.

    2014-01-01

    Penile hair tourniquet (PHT) is a painless form of penile ischemia, typically seen in toddlers with long-haired mothers, caused by entanglement of hair on the balano-prepucial sulcus, normally associated with circumcision. Its association with hypospadias has been reported only once. A school-aged boy admitted for surgery to treat hypospadias failure was incidentally detected to have PHT and severe hourglass deformity of the penis. Urethral anastomosis and glanuloplasty were done after removal of the constricting ring, without complications. Normal erections were reported during follow up. Treatment may involve urethral reconstruction and penile reimplantation in extreme cases. PMID:25097325

  3. Cheyletiellosis in long-haired cats.

    PubMed

    Ottenschot, T R; Gil, D

    1978-10-15

    Among 41 catteries, the majority of which were investigated because of problems of chronic pruritus, 27 proved to be infected by Cheyletiella mites. The skin lesions consisted of small erythematous papules with crusts and some loose hairs. After removal of the loose hairs Cheyletiella mites could be collected with adhesive tape for microscopic examination. Human involvement (papular urticaria) was observed in 20% of the cases. Bathing with Lindane was an effective mode of treatment.

  4. Visualization of removal of trapped air from the apical region in simulated root canals by laser-activated irrigation using an Er,Cr:YSGG laser.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Harry Huiz; De Moor, Roeland J G; Suharto, Djoko

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this visualization study was to obtain a better understanding of the mechanism by which trapped air is removed from the apical region of simulated root canals by activation of an irrigant using an erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser during endodontic procedures. A high-speed imaging system with high temporal and spatial resolution was used to visualize laser-induced shock waves in a resin block model with a curved root canal (inner diameter at the apex 0.08 mm, taper 4 %, crown height 10 mm, overall length 40 mm) and a glass cylinder model with a straight root canal (inner diameter 1 mm, crown height 10 mm, overall length 40 mm). The study utilized MZ3 and RFT3 tips in each model, without water or air spray, and with an average power of 1 W at 35 Hz. Laser-activated irrigation overcame the airlock effect by releasing air trapped in the air column. The mechanism underlying the removal of trapped air from the apical region using an Er,Cr:YSGG laser in a dry root canal is via the disruption of the surface tension at the solution-air interface. This disruption, caused by bubble implosion (cavitation), displaces air in the form of bubbles from the apical region toward the solution, which allows the solution to travel apically.

  5. Reduction of the 355-nm laser-induced damage initiators by removing the subsurface cracks in fused silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Minghong; Qi, Hongji; Zhao, Yuanan; Yi, Kui

    2012-01-01

    The 355 nm laser-induced damage thresholds (LIDTs) of polished fused silica with and without the residual subsurface cracks were explored. HF based wet etching and magnetorheological finishing was used to remove the subsurface cracks. To isolate the effect of subsurface cracks, chemical leaching was used to eliminate the photoactive impurities in the polishing layer. Results show that the crack number density decreased from~103 to <1cm-2, and the LIDT was improved as high as 2.8-fold with both the subsurface cracks and the polishing layer being removed. Subsurface cracks play a significant role in laser damage at fluencies between 15~31 J/cm2 (355nm, 8ns). HF Etching of the cracks was shown to increase the damage performance as nearly high as that of the samples in which subsurface cracks are well controlled.

  6. Comparison of Microleakage under Rebonded Stainless Steel Orthodontic Brackets Using Two Methods of Adhesive Removal: Sandblast and Laser.

    PubMed

    Tudehzaeim, Mohamad Hossein; Yassaei, Soghra; Taherimoghadam, Shohreh

    2015-02-01

    Debonding is a common occurrence in orthodontic treatment and a considerable number of orthodontists prefer to rebond the detached brackets because of economic issues. The aim of this study was to compare the microleakage beneath rebonded stainless steel brackets using two methods of adhesive removal namely sandblast and laser. Sixty human premolar teeth were randomly divided into three groups. Following bonding the brackets, group 1 served as the control group. Brackets in groups 2 and 3 were debonded, and adhesive removal from the bracket bases was done by means of sandblasting and Er-YAG laser, respectively. After rebonding, teeth in each group were stained with 2% methylene blue for 24 hours, sectioned and examined under a stereomicroscope. Marginal microleakage at the adhesive-enamel and bracket-adhesive interfaces in the occlusal and gingival margins was determined. Statistical analysis was done using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Comparison of the microleakage scores among the three groups revealed no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05). At the enamel-adhesive interface, the gingival margins in all groups showed higher microleakage while in the adhesive-bracket interface, the occlusal margin exhibited greater microleakage. Er-YAG laser irradiation and sandblasting for adhesive removal from the debonded brackets yielded clinically acceptable microleakage scores.

  7. Comparison of Microleakage under Rebonded Stainless Steel Orthodontic Brackets Using Two Methods of Adhesive Removal: Sandblast and Laser

    PubMed Central

    Tudehzaeim, Mohamad Hossein; Yassaei, Soghra; Taherimoghadam, Shohreh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Debonding is a common occurrence in orthodontic treatment and a considerable number of orthodontists prefer to rebond the detached brackets because of economic issues. The aim of this study was to compare the microleakage beneath rebonded stainless steel brackets using two methods of adhesive removal namely sandblast and laser. Materials and Methods: Sixty human premolar teeth were randomly divided into three groups. Following bonding the brackets, group 1 served as the control group. Brackets in groups 2 and 3 were debonded, and adhesive removal from the bracket bases was done by means of sandblasting and Er-YAG laser, respectively. After rebonding, teeth in each group were stained with 2% methylene blue for 24 hours, sectioned and examined under a stereomicroscope. Marginal microleakage at the adhesive-enamel and bracket-adhesive interfaces in the occlusal and gingival margins was determined. Statistical analysis was done using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: Comparison of the microleakage scores among the three groups revealed no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05). At the enamel-adhesive interface, the gingival margins in all groups showed higher microleakage while in the adhesive-bracket interface, the occlusal margin exhibited greater microleakage. Conclusion: Er-YAG laser irradiation and sandblasting for adhesive removal from the debonded brackets yielded clinically acceptable microleakage scores. PMID:26056521

  8. Removal of Verrucaria nigrescens from Carrara marble artefacts using Nd:YAG lasers: comparison among different pulse durations and wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osticioli, I.; Mascalchi, M.; Pinna, D.; Siano, S.

    2015-03-01

    The periodical removal of biodeteriogens is a fundamental need for the preservation of outdoor stone cultural heritage, which is stimulating significant efforts toward the development of low-impact conservation strategies. In the present work, the potential of laser removal of Verrucaria nigrescens Pers. from Carrara marble and the evaluation of the associated biocide effect on the organism residues embedded in the surface texture and through the outer porosities of the stone substrate were investigated. The fundamental wavelength of Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), commonly used in stone cleaning, and its second harmonic (532 nm) were comparatively tested. The phenomenology of laser treatments carried out in different irradiation conditions was characterized using optical, epifluorescence, and electron microscopes along with chlorophyll fluorescence with pulsed amplitude-modulated imaging. The results achieved show that 532 nm can provide significant advantages with respect to 1,064 nm. The potential of the latter against the biodeteriogens appears rather limited because of the low optical absorption, whereas the former can allow effective and practicable laser treatments, which disclose a significant application perspective.

  9. Taking Care of Your Hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... Educators Search English Español Taking Care of Your Hair KidsHealth / For Teens / Taking Care of Your Hair ... role in how healthy it looks. Caring for Hair How you take care of your hair depends ...

  10. Minimizing hair dispersal: Is this an opportunity for improvement in health care-acquired infection prevention?

    PubMed

    Mantyh, Christopher R; Xi, Hugo; Pearson, Lena; Perl, Trish M

    2017-03-01

    We performed a study to understand common practices in surgical site hair removal and barriers to guideline compliance in surgical site hair removal. We found most health care providers in the United States do not remove hair outside of the operating room. Our findings reveal minimizing hair dispersal in the operating room, including improved and innovative ways for collecting clipped loose hair, is a significant area for improvement in surgical quality and health care-acquired infection prevention. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hair straightener poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002706.htm Hair straightener poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair straightener poisoning occurs when someone swallows products that ...

  12. Hair spray poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) ...

  13. A study of cavity preparation by Er:YAG laser--observation of hard tooth structures by laser scanning microscope and examination of the time necessary to remove caries.

    PubMed

    Shigetani, Yoshimi; Okamoto, Akira; Abu-Bakr, Neamat; Iwaku, Masaaki

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe and measure the morphological changes that occur in the hard tissue after the application of Er:YAG laser. Another objective was to evaluate and compare the duration of application of both the laser apparatus and a conventional cutting device. In this study, sound and newly extracted carious tissues were used. The morphological changes in hard tooth structures produced by Er:YAG laser irradiation were examined by using a laser scanning microscope. Results showed that appropriate laser irradiation was 100 mJ/pulse for dentin, and 200 mJ/pulse for enamel. Also, the laser scanning microscope images were less damaged than the SEM images due to pretreatment of the specimens. The time taken to remove carious enamel by laser irradiation was slightly longer than the compared rotary cutting device; however, no differences between the two methods were observed in case of carious dentin removal.

  14. Body hair counts during hair length reduction procedures: a comparative study between Computer Assisted Image Analysis after Manual Processing (CAIAMP) and Trichoscan(™).

    PubMed

    Van Neste, D J J

    2015-08-01

    To compare two measurement methods for body hair. Calibration of computer assisted image analysis after manual processing (CAIAMP) showed variation <4% for thickness and <2.3% for densities. Images from 6 body sites with 'good natural contrast between hair and skin' were taken before hair dye, after hair dye or after hair length reduction without hair extraction or destruction. Data in the same targets were compared with Trichoscan(™) quoted for 'unambiguous evaluation of the hair growth after shaving'. CAIAMP detected a total of 337 hair and showed no statistically significant differences with the three procedures confirming 'good natural contrast between hair and skin' and that reduction methods did not affect hair counts. While CAIAMP found a mean number of 19 thick hair (≥30 μm) before dye, 18 after dye and 20 after hair reduction, Trichoscan(™) found in the same sites respectively 44, 73 and 61. Trichoscan(™) generated counts differed statistically significantly from CAIAMP-data. Automated analyses were considered un-specifically influenced by hair medulla and natural or artificial skin background. Quality control including all steps of human intervention and measurement technology are mandatory for body hair measurements during experimental or clinical trials on body hair grooming, shaving or removal. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Heat profiles of laser-irradiated nails.

    PubMed

    Paasch, Uwe; Nenoff, Pietro; Seitz, Anna-Theresa; Wagner, Justinus A; Kendler, Michael; Simon, Jan C; Grunewald, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Onychomycosis is a worldwide problem with no tendency for self-healing, and existing systemic treatments achieve disease-free nails in only 35 to 76% of cases. Recently, treatment of nail fungus with a near-infrared laser has been introduced. It is assumed that fungal eradication is mediated by local heat. To investigate if laser treatment has the potential to eradicate fungal hyphae and arthrospores, laser heat application and propagation needs to be studied in detail. This study aimed to measure nail temperatures using real-time videothermography during laser irradiation. Treatment was performed using 808- and 980-nm linear scanning diode lasers developed for hair removal, enabling contact-free homogeneous irradiation of a human nail plate in one pass. Average and peak temperatures increased pass by pass, while the laser beam moved along the nail plates. The achieved mean peak temperatures (808 nm: 74.1 to 112.4°C, 980 nm: 45.8 to 53.5°C), as well as the elevation of average temperatures (808 nm: 29.5 to 38.2°C, 980 nm: 27.1 to 32.6°C) were associated with pain that was equivalent to that of hair removal procedures and was not significantly different for various wavelengths. The linear scanning laser devices provide the benefits of contact-free homogeneous heating of the human nail while ensuring adequate temperature rises.

  16. Heat profiles of laser-irradiated nails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paasch, Uwe; Nenoff, Pietro; Seitz, Anna-Theresa; Wagner, Justinus A.; Kendler, Michael; Simon, Jan C.; Grunewald, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Onychomycosis is a worldwide problem with no tendency for self-healing, and existing systemic treatments achieve disease-free nails in only 35 to 76% of cases. Recently, treatment of nail fungus with a near-infrared laser has been introduced. It is assumed that fungal eradication is mediated by local heat. To investigate if laser treatment has the potential to eradicate fungal hyphae and arthrospores, laser heat application and propagation needs to be studied in detail. This study aimed to measure nail temperatures using real-time videothermography during laser irradiation. Treatment was performed using 808- and 980-nm linear scanning diode lasers developed for hair removal, enabling contact-free homogeneous irradiation of a human nail plate in one pass. Average and peak temperatures increased pass by pass, while the laser beam moved along the nail plates. The achieved mean peak temperatures (808 nm: 74.1 to 112.4°C, 980 nm: 45.8 to 53.5°C), as well as the elevation of average temperatures (808 nm: 29.5 to 38.2°C, 980 nm: 27.1 to 32.6°C) were associated with pain that was equivalent to that of hair removal procedures and was not significantly different for various wavelengths. The linear scanning laser devices provide the benefits of contact-free homogeneous heating of the human nail while ensuring adequate temperature rises.

  17. Laser paint removal on the outside walls of the Church Abbey Saint Adoeno in Bisceglie (BAT), Italy: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daurelio, G.; Catalano, I. M.; Bassi, P.

    2010-09-01

    It is the oldest church in the city after the cathedral. It is among the purest examples of Romanesque. It was founded in 1074 and expenses for its construction helped the inhabitants of the agricultural hamlets of the Cirignano, Pacciano and Zappino. The church was dedicated to St. Adoeno Dado, bishop of Rouen, protector of Norman, because , according to tradition, the building also participated Norman soldiers. San Adoeno church has a façade at cusp with a truncated tympanum , crowned by an eagle. In the centre of the façade there is a rose ornament surrounded by four lions and a statue of St. Adoeno ( Figs. A to I ). On the outside walls of this Abbey many graffiti, produced by different coloured spray paints were found. After the usual photographical tests some Laser Paint Removal trials were executed to verify the damage threshold of the calcareous stony substrate as well as the possibility to ablate these paints by a Nd - YAG laser in Q-Switch mode. Even if all the classical four laser paint ablation techniques were employed some paints showed a great difficulty to be removed from the substrate. For these ones it was necessary to increase at maximum both the energy per pulse and the fluence value for obtaining some acceptable result but the substrate looked turned pale. It was decided to remove a small amount of these paints and subject to chemical analysis for determining whether they were acrylic based. At the same time it was investigated on the type of limestone substrate that appeared more porous and less hard on the surface than the common local limestone marble basin, that is, Trani or Bisceglie. So, on the light of these investigations, the possible solution for this hard laser ablation problem was carried out with an acceptable final result.

  18. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... susceptible women, but is most commonly seen after menopause. In female pattern hair loss some excess loss of hair is noted, but ... all. Spironolactone pills help many women, especially whose hair loss starts before menopause but takes many months. Hormone replacement pills, such ...

  19. Strontium-90 in hair.

    PubMed

    HOPKINS, B J; TUTTLE, L W; PORIES, W J; STRAIN, W H

    1963-03-15

    The hair of rats injected with strontium-90 retains a significant amount of the radionuclide. Although the strontium-90 content of hair is variable in these rats and appears to be subject to a variety of influences, determination of the radionuclide content of hair may offer a nondestructive method of estimating strontium-90 in bone.

  20. New Treatments for Hair Loss.

    PubMed

    Vañó-Galván, S; Camacho, F

    2017-04-01

    The treatment of hair loss is an important part of clinical dermatology given the prevalence of the problem and great impact on patients' quality of life. Many new treatments have been introduced in recent years. This review summarizes the main ones in 4 groups: a) For androgenetic alopecia, we discuss new excipients for oral minoxidil, dutasteride, and finasteride as well as new forms of topical application; prostaglandin agonists and antagonists; low-level laser therapy; and regenerative medicine with Wnt signaling activators and stem cell therapy. b) For alopecia areata, Janus kinase inhibitors are reviewed. c) For frontal fibrosing alopecia, we discuss the use of antiandrogens and, for some patients, pioglitazone. d) Finally, we mention new robotic devices for hair transplant procedures and techniques for optimal follicular unit extraction. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. An overview of unwanted female hair.

    PubMed

    Blume-Peytavi, U

    2011-12-01

    Unwanted facial hair (UFH) is an important but often overlooked issue, with over 40% of women experiencing some degree of UFH. In the female population a wide spectrum of unwanted hair concerns is represented - from biologically normal but undesirable to excessive unwanted hair with an underlying pathology. While women may seek to manage unwanted hair across their bodies, UFH is a particular concern, due to its negative impact on perceived femininity. There may not always be a direct correlation between degree of severity diagnosed objectively by the physician and level of concern and impact upon the patient. This review discusses the spectrum of facial hair experience and outlines the clinical approach to unwanted hair management including UFH. It highlights the importance of a treatment regimen which should respond to the causation factors and needs of the individual. This will lead to a holistic treatment approach including evaluation of the implementation of emotional coping strategies and on-going support, lifestyle modifications, pharmacological interventions (to address underlying pathologies) and the use of cosmetic hair removal methods as either a stand-alone or adjunct treatment as appropriate to the individual. © 2011 The Author. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  2. Towards a body hair atlas of women of caucasian ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Schweiger, D; Hoff, A; Scheede, S; Fischer, F; Tilsner, J; Lüttke, J; Neumann, Y; Hagens, R

    2016-08-01

    A preliminary study was conducted in 17 female volunteers (mean age 29.8 years) to gain deeper insights into the characteristics of terminal Caucasian female body hair of different body parts. The focus on Caucasian women was driven by the high number of different scalp hair phenotypes in this ethnicity and intended to identify relevant differences between body areas to improve body hair removal approaches. Multiple growth parameters and structural parameters were assessed for hair on the upper arm, forearm, upper leg, lower leg, axilla and intimate area and compared to scalp data. In particular, macroscopic and much less microscopic or hair surface properties differ strikingly in the investigated body areas. Hair density on the body is much lower than on scalp with the highest hair density in the axilla and intimate area. Multihair follicular units are described for scalp but were also found to a smaller proportion in the axilla and the intimate area. Substantial percentages of hair triplets are only found on the scalp and intimate area. Hair diameter is highest in the intimate area, followed by axillary and lower leg hair and correlates with a faster hair growth rate. The angle of emerging hair is smallest in the intimate area, axilla and on the lower leg. Hair shafts on the lower leg and in the axilla have most overlapping cuticle layers, but independent of body region, no significant differences in the mean thickness of cuticle layers were detectable. In addition, no differences were found in the mean distance between cuticle layer edges along the hair shaft and the hair surface roughness. Hair on the scalp, forearm, upper arm and upper leg had an almost round shape, whereas hair of the lower leg, intimate area and axilla had more elliptical shape. Hairs on the arm showed the highest luminance values and no visible medulla. The darkest hairs were in the axilla and intimate area containing the highest level of visible medulla in hair shafts. To our knowledge

  3. From Hair in India to Hair India.

    PubMed

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2017-01-01

    In all cultures, human hair and hairdo have been a powerful metaphor. Tracing back the importance and significance of human hair to the dawn of civilization on the Indian subcontinent, we find that all the Vedic gods are depicted as having uncut hair in mythological stories as well as in legendary pictures. The same is true of the Hindu avatars, and the epic heroes of the Ramayana, and the Mahabharata. Finally, there are a number of hair peculiarities in India pertinent to the creed and religious practices of the Hindu, the Jain, and the Sikh. Shiva Nataraja is a depiction of the Hindu God Shiva as the cosmic dancer who performs his divine dance as creator, preserver, and destroyer of the universe and conveys the Indian conception of the never-ending cycle of time. The same principle manifests in the hair cycle, in which perpetual cycles of growth, regression, and resting underly the growth and shedding of hair. Finally, The Hair Research Society of India was founded as a nonprofit organisation dedicated to research and education in the science of hair. Notably, the HRSI reached milestones in the journey of academic pursuit with the launch of the International Journal of Trichology, and with the establishment of the Hair India conference. Ultimately, the society aims at saving the public from being taken for a ride by quackery, and at creating the awareness that the science of hair represents a subspecialty of Dermatology. In analogy again, the dwarf on which the Nataraja dances represents the demon of egotism, and thus symbolizes Shiva's, respectively, the HRSI's victory over ignorance.

  4. From Hair in India to Hair India

    PubMed Central

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2017-01-01

    In all cultures, human hair and hairdo have been a powerful metaphor. Tracing back the importance and significance of human hair to the dawn of civilization on the Indian subcontinent, we find that all the Vedic gods are depicted as having uncut hair in mythological stories as well as in legendary pictures. The same is true of the Hindu avatars, and the epic heroes of the Ramayana, and the Mahabharata. Finally, there are a number of hair peculiarities in India pertinent to the creed and religious practices of the Hindu, the Jain, and the Sikh. Shiva Nataraja is a depiction of the Hindu God Shiva as the cosmic dancer who performs his divine dance as creator, preserver, and destroyer of the universe and conveys the Indian conception of the never-ending cycle of time. The same principle manifests in the hair cycle, in which perpetual cycles of growth, regression, and resting underly the growth and shedding of hair. Finally, The Hair Research Society of India was founded as a nonprofit organisation dedicated to research and education in the science of hair. Notably, the HRSI reached milestones in the journey of academic pursuit with the launch of the International Journal of Trichology, and with the establishment of the Hair India conference. Ultimately, the society aims at saving the public from being taken for a ride by quackery, and at creating the awareness that the science of hair represents a subspecialty of Dermatology. In analogy again, the dwarf on which the Nataraja dances represents the demon of egotism, and thus symbolizes Shiva's, respectively, the HRSI's victory over ignorance. PMID:28761257

  5. The dynamics of femtosecond pulsed laser removal of 20 nm Ni films from an interface

    SciTech Connect

    Schrider, Keegan J.; Yalisove, Steven M.; Torralva, Ben

    2015-09-21

    The dynamics of femtosecond laser removal of 20 nm Ni films on glass substrates was studied using time-resolved pump-probe microscopy. 20 nm thin films exhibit removal at two distinct threshold fluences, removal of the top 7 nm of Ni above 0.14 J/cm{sup 2}, and removal of the entire 20 nm film above 0.36 J/cm{sup 2}. Previous work shows the top 7 nm is removed through liquid spallation, after irradiation the Ni melts and rapidly expands leading to tensile stress and cavitation within the Ni film. This work shows that above 0.36 J/cm{sup 2} the 20 nm film is removed in two distinct layers, 7 nm and 13 nm thick. The topmore » 7 nm layer reaches a speed 500% faster than the bottom 13 nm layer at the same absorbed fluence, 500–2000 m/s and 300–700 m/s in the fluence ranges studied. Significantly different velocities for the top 7 nm layer and bottom 13 nm layer indicate removal from an interface occurs by a different physical mechanism. The method of measuring film displacement from the development of Newton's rings was refined so it could be shown that the 13 nm layer separates from the substrate within 70 ps and accelerates to its final velocity within several hundred picoseconds. We propose that removal of the bottom 13 nm is consistent with heterogeneous nucleation and growth of vapor at the Ni-glass interface, but that the rapid separation and acceleration of the 13 nm layer from the Ni-glass interface requires consideration of exotic phases of Ni after excitation.« less

  6. Lasers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schewe, Phillip F.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the nature of laser light. Topics include: (1) production and characteristics of laser light; (2) nine types of lasers; (3) five laser techniques including holography; (4) laser spectroscopy; and (5) laser fusion and other applications. (SK)

  7. Hair Transplantation Controversies.

    PubMed

    Avram, Marc R; Finney, Robert; Rogers, Nicole

    2017-11-01

    Hair transplant surgery creates consistently natural appearing transplanted hair for men. It is increasingly popular procedure to restore natural growing hair for men with hair loss. To review some current controversies in hair transplant surgery. Review of the English PubMed literature and specialty literature in hair transplant surgery. Some of the controversies in hair transplant surgery include appropriate donor harvesting technique including elliptical donor harvesting versus follicular unit extraction whether manual versus robotic, the role of platelet-rich plasma and low-level light surgery in hair transplant surgery. Hair transplant surgery creates consistently natural appearing hair. As with all techniques, there are controversies regarding the optimal method for performing the procedure. Some of the current controversies in hair transplant surgery include optimal donor harvesting techniques, elliptical donor harvesting versus follicular unit extraction, the role of low-level light therapy and the platelet-rich plasma therapy in the procedure. Future studies will further clarify their role in the procedure.

  8. [Hormones and hair growth].

    PubMed

    Trüeb, R M

    2010-06-01

    With respect to the relationship between hormones and hair growth, the role of androgens for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and hirsutism is best acknowledged. Accordingly, therapeutic strategies that intervene in androgen metabolism have been successfully developed for treatment of these conditions. Clinical observations of hair conditions involving hormones beyond the androgen horizon have determined their role in regulation of hair growth: estrogens, prolactin, thyroid hormone, cortisone, growth hormone (GH), and melatonin. Primary GH resistance is characterized by thin hair, while acromegaly may cause hypertrichosis. Hyperprolactinemia may cause hair loss and hirsutism. Partial synchronization of the hair cycle in anagen during late pregnancy points to an estrogen effect, while aromatase inhibitors cause hair loss. Hair loss in a causal relationship to thyroid disorders is well documented. In contrast to AGA, senescent alopecia affects the hair in a diffuse manner. The question arises, whether the hypothesis that a causal relationship exists between the age-related reduction of circulating hormones and organ function also applies to hair and the aging of hair.

  9. Laser-induced hydrogen radical removal in UV MALDI-MS allows for the differentiation of flavonoid monoglycoside isomers.

    PubMed

    Yamagaki, Tohru; Watanabe, Takehiro; Tanaka, Masaki; Sugahara, Kohtaro

    2014-01-01

    Negative-ion matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight mass spectra and tandem mass spectra of flavonoid mono-O-glycosides showed the irregular signals that were 1 and/or 2 Da smaller than the parent deprotonated molecules ([M - H](-)) and the sugar-unit lost fragment ions ([M - Sugar - H](-)). The 1 and/or 2 Da mass shifts are generated with the removing of a neutral hydrogen radical (H*), and/or with the homolytic cleavage of the glycosidic bond, such as [M - H* - H](-), [M - Sugar - H* - H](-), and [M - Sugar - 2H* - H](-). It was revealed that the hydrogen radical removes from the phenolic hydroxy groups on the flavonoids, not from the sugar moiety, because the flavonoid backbones themselves absorb the laser. The glycosyl positions depend on the extent of the hydrogen radical removals and that of the homolytic cleavage of the glycosidic bonds. Flavonoid mono-glycoside isomers were distinguished according to their TOF MS and tandem mass spectra.

  10. Hair cosmetics: dyes.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Tapia, A; Gonzalez-Guerra, E

    2014-11-01

    Hair plays a significant role in body image, and its appearance can be changed relatively easily without resort to surgical procedures. Cosmetics and techniques have therefore been used to change hair appearance since time immemorial. The cosmetics industry has developed efficient products that can be used on healthy hair or act on concomitant diseases of the hair and scalp. Dyes embellish the hair by bleaching or coloring it briefly, for temporary periods of longer duration, or permanently, depending on the composition of a dye (oxidative or nonoxidative) and its degree of penetration of the hair shaft. The dermatologist's knowledge of dyes, their use, and their possible side effects (contact eczema, cancer, increased porosity, brittleness) can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources that also treat hair and scalp conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  11. A laser-powered hydrokinetic system for caries removal and cavity preparation.

    PubMed

    Hadley, J; Young, D A; Eversole, L R; Gornbein, J A

    2000-06-01

    Laser systems have been developed for the cutting of dental hard tissues. The erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet, or Er,Cr:YSGG, laser system used in conjunction with an air-water spray has been shown to be efficacious in vitro for cavity preparation. The authors randomly selected subjects for cavity preparation with conventional air turbine/bur dental surgery or an Er,Cr:YSGG laser-powered system using a split-mouth design. They prepared Class I, III and V cavities, placed resin restorations and evaluated subjects on the day of the procedure and 30 days and six months postoperatively for pulp vitality, recurrent caries, pain and discomfort, and restoration retention. Sixty-seven subjects completed the study. There were no statistical differences between the two treatment groups for the parameters measured with one exception; there was a statistically significant decrease in discomfort levels for the laser system at the time of cavity preparation for subjects who declined to receive local anesthetic. The Er,Cr:YSGG laser system is effective for preparation of Class I, III and V cavities and resin restorations are retained by lased tooth surfaces. Hard-tissue cutting lasers are being introduced for use in operative dentistry. In this study, an Er,Cr:YSGG laser has been shown to be effective for cavity preparation and restoration replacement.

  12. Analysis of laser surgery in non-melanoma skin cancer for optimal tissue removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanjul-Vélez, Félix; Salas-García, Irene; Arce-Diego, José Luis

    2015-02-01

    Laser surgery is a commonly used technique for tissue ablation or the resection of malignant tumors. It presents advantages over conventional non-optical ablation techniques, like a scalpel or electrosurgery, such as the increased precision of the resected volume, minimization of scars and shorter recovery periods. Laser surgery is employed in medical branches such as ophthalmology or dermatology. The application of laser surgery requires the optimal adjustment of laser beam parameters, taking into account the particular patient and lesion. In this work we present a predictive tool for tissue resection in biological tissue after laser surgery, which allows an a priori knowledge of the tissue ablation volume, area and depth. The model employs a Monte Carlo 3D approach for optical propagation and a rate equation for plasma-induced ablation. The tool takes into account characteristics of the specific lesion to be ablated, mainly the geometric, optical and ablation properties. It also considers the parameters of the laser beam, such as the radius, spatial profile, pulse width, total delivered energy or wavelength. The predictive tool is applied to dermatology tumor resection, particularly to different types of non-melanoma skin cancer tumors: basocellular carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and infiltrative carcinoma. The ablation volume, area and depth are calculated for healthy skin and for each type of tumor as a function of the laser beam parameters. The tool could be used for laser surgery planning before the clinical application. The laser parameters could be adjusted for optimal resection volume, by personalizing the process to the particular patient and lesion.

  13. Heat generated by Er:YAG laser in the pulp chamber of teeth submitted to removal of dental tissue and composite resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanin, Fatima; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Pecora, Jesus D.; Pinheiro, Antonio; Spano, Julio; Barbin, Eduardo; Marchesan, Melissa A.

    2004-05-01

    The knowledge about and control of thermal energy produced by Er:YAG laser after irradiating hard dental tissues and compound resin is important because the pulp, like all vital biological tissue, has a certain capacity for supporting stimulus. The objective of this study was to analyze the thermal variation generated by Er:YAG laser (λ=2.94μm) during the preparation of a Class I cavity in the dental structure and in the removal of microhybrid Z100 (3M) compound resin. An evaluation was made of 30 maxillary human pre-molar teeth from the bank of the Endodontic Laboratory Center of Ribeirao Preto Dental School, Brasil. The sample was divided into 6 groups of 5 teeth each: Group 1, preparation of Class I cavity with Er:YAG laser (350mJ, 3Hz, 343 impulses, 120J, 113 seconds); Group 2, preparation of Class I cavity with Er:YAG laser (350mJ, 4Hz, 343 impulses, 120J, 81 seconds); Group 3, preparation of Class I cavity with Er:YAG laser (350mJ, 6Hz, 343 impulses, 120J, 58 seconds); Group 4, removal of compound resin from Class I preparation with Er:YAG laser (350mJ, 3Hz, 258 impulses, 90J, 85 seconds); Group 5, removal of compound resin from Class I preparation with Er:YAG laser (350mJ, 4Hz, 258 impulses, 90J, 67 seconds); Group 6, removal of compound resin from Class I preparation with Er:YAG laser (350mJ, 6Hz, 258 impulses, 42 seconds). The laser used was KaVo Key 2 (Biberach, Germany), λ=2,94μm, P=3 Watts, pulse duration of 250μs, with air-water cooling. The increase in temperature during dental preparation and the removal of the compound resin was evaluated by means of a Tektronix DMM916 Thermocouple (Consitec, Brasil). The results showed that the application of laser for the removal of the hard dental tissues and for the removal of compound resins with the pulse frequencies 3, 4 and 6 Hz did not generate heating greater than 3.1°C and remained within the histopathological limits permitted for pulp tissue (5.5°C) and there was a significant statistical

  14. Sialolith removal in the submandibular region using surgical diode laser: report of two cases and literature review.

    PubMed

    Haas, Orion Luiz; Scolari, Neimar; da Silva Meirelles, Lucas; Favoretto, André Xavier; de Oliveira, Rogério Belle

    2018-03-01

    Sialolithiasis is defined as the presence of one or more calcified structures within the duct of a major or minor salivary gland. It occurs as a result of deposition of calcium salts around an accumulation of organic debris in the duct lumen. The main signs and symptoms are edema and bacterial infection with abscess formation. This study aimed to report two cases of submandibular sialolithiasis treated surgically with diode laser and conduct a review of the literature by means of a systematic search. In the two cases, the calculi were located in the distal part of the submandibular duct and could be palpated intraorally. Surgery was performed in an outpatient setting under local anesthesia. A linear incision was made in the floor of the mouth, in the region of the opening of Wharton's duct, to expose and remove the calculi. Laser cutting was performed using a diode laser module coupled to a 400-μm optical fiber emitting at a wavelength of 980 nm (infrared), 2.5 W output power, and in continuous pulse mode. The use of diode laser is a safe and minimally invasive option for this type of procedure. Offering advantages such as enhanced coagulation properties and high-quality incision, absence of bleeding, low risk of nerve damage, and few comorbidities.

  15. A Fluorescence-Guided Laser Ablation System for Removal of Residual Cancer in a Mouse Model of Soft Tissue Sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Lazarides, Alexander L; Whitley, Melodi J; Strasfeld, David B; Cardona, Diana M; Ferrer, Jorge M; Mueller, Jenna L; Fu, Henry L; Bartholf DeWitt, Suzanne; Brigman, Brian E; Ramanujam, Nimmi; Kirsch, David G; Eward, William C

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of soft tissue sarcoma (STS) generally involves tumor excision with a wide margin. Although advances in fluorescence imaging make real-time detection of cancer possible, removal is limited by the precision of the human eye and hand. Here, we describe a novel pulsed Nd:YAG laser ablation system that, when used in conjunction with a previously described molecular imaging system, can identify and ablate cancer in vivo. Mice with primary STS were injected with the protease-activatable probe LUM015 to label tumors. Resected tissues from the mice were then imaged and treated with the laser using the paired fluorescence-imaging/ laser ablation device, generating ablation clefts with sub-millimeter precision and minimal underlying tissue damage. Laser ablation was guided by fluorescence to target tumor tissues, avoiding normal structures. The selective ablation of tumor implants in vivo improved recurrence-free survival after tumor resection in a cohort of 14 mice compared to 12 mice that received no ablative therapy. This prototype system has the potential to be modified so that it can be used during surgery to improve recurrence-free survival in patients with cancer.

  16. Selective removal of demineralized enamel using a CO2 laser coupled with near-IR reflectance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Saltiel, Daniel; Fried, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    Detection and diagnosis of early dental caries lesions can be difficult due to variable tooth coloration, staining of the teeth and poor contrast between sound and demineralized enamel. These problems can be overcome by using near-infrared (NIR) imaging. Previous studies have demonstrated that lasers can be integrated with NIR imaging devices, allowing image-guided ablation. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that NIR light at 1500 - 1700 nm can be used to guide a 9.3-μm CO2 laser for the selective ablation of early demineralization on tooth occlusal surfaces. The occlusal surfaces of ten sound human molars were used in this in-vitro study. Shallow simulated caries lesions of varying depth and position were produced on tooth occlusal surfaces using a demineralization solution. Sequential NIR reflectance images at 1500 - 1700 nm were used to guide the laser for selective ablation of the lesion areas. Digital microscopy and polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) were used to assess the selectivity of removal. This study demonstrates that high contrast NIR reflectance images can be used for the image-guided laser ablation of early demineralization from tooth occlusal surfaces.

  17. The Combination of Expanded Scalp Flap and 800 nm Diode Laser in the Reconstruction of Forehead Defect.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Li, Weiyang; Liu, Chaohua; Yang, Qing; Xue, Ping; Liu, Hengxin; Cui, Jiangbo; Ding, Jianke; Su, Yingjun; Ma, Xianjie

    2018-05-03

    Skin grafting is often the first choice for closing forehead defects. However, the aesthetics of skin grafting-reconstructed forehead defects are still not accepted by a large number of patients. With the technological advancement of laser hair removal, scalp flaps have been considered as donors for reconstruction of forehead defects. We evaluated 10 cases of forehead defect reconstructions with expanded scalp flaps followed by hair removal by an 800 nm diode laser. All flaps survived uneventfully and underwent 4-6 laser treatments for hair removal. The appearances of the reconstructed foreheads were similar to that of the adjacent skin, and all patients were satisfied with the treatment outcomes during the 6-24 months of follow-up. It is concluded that the combined treatments of expanded scalp flaps and diode laser hair removal are effective for repairing forehead defects.Level of Evidence IV This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  18. Influence of pulse repetition rate on temperature rise and working time during composite filling removal with the Er:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Correa-Afonso, Alessandra M; Pécora, Jesus Djalma; Palma-Dibb, Regina G

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of Er:YAG laser energy for composite resin removal and the influence of pulse repetition rate on the thermal alterations occurring during laser ablation. Composite resin filling was placed in cavities (1.0 mm deep) prepared in bovine teeth and the specimens were randomly assigned to five groups according to the technique used for composite filling removal. In group I (controls), the restorations were removed using a high-speed diamond bur. In the other groups, the composite fillings were removed using an Er:YAG laser with different pulse repetition rates: group 2-2 Hz; group 3-4 Hz; group 4-6 Hz; and group 5-10 Hz. The time required for complete removal of the restorative material and the temperature changes were recorded. Temperature rise during composite resin removal with the Er:YAG laser occurred in the substrate underneath the restoration and was directly proportional to the increase in pulse repetition rate. None of the groups had a temperature increase during composite filling removal of more than 5.6 degrees C, which is considered the critical point above which irreversible thermal damage to the pulp may result. Regarding the time for composite filling removal, all the laser-ablated groups (except for group 5 [10 Hz]) required more time than the control group for complete elimination of the material from the cavity walls. Under the tested conditions, Er:YAG laser irradiation was efficient for composite resin ablation and did not cause a temperature increase above the limit considered safe for the pulp. Among the tested pulse repetition rates, 6 Hz produced minimal temperature change compared to the control group (high-speed bur), and allowed composite filling removal within a time period that is acceptable for clinical conditions.

  19. Cortisol analysis of hair of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Yamanashi, Yumi; Morimura, Naruki; Mori, Yusuke; Hayashi, Misato; Suzuki, Juri

    2013-12-01

    In addition to behavioral evaluations, stress assessments are also important for measuring animal welfare. Assessments of long-term stress are particularly important given that prolonged stress can affect physical health and reproduction. The use of hair cortisol as a marker of long-term stress has been increasing, but there has not yet been any report on the use of such methods with chimpanzees. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish and validate a methodology for analyzing hair cortisol in captive chimpanzees. In the first experiment, hair was removed from the arms of nine chimpanzees living in the Kumamoto Sanctuary (KS) and the regrown hair was sampled 3 months later. Fecal samples were collected periodically during the hair-growth period. The results showed that hair cortisol level was positively correlated with the rate of receiving aggression. Although the correlation between hair and fecal cortisol levels was not significant, the individual with the highest hair cortisol concentration also had the highest fecal cortisol concentration. These results suggest that hair cortisol may reflect long-term stress in chimpanzees. In the second experiment, we investigated the physiological factors affecting hair cortisol concentrations. We cut hair from the arms, sides, and backs of 25 chimpanzees living at the KS and the Primate Research Institute. The results revealed that cortisol varied based on source body part and hair whiteness. Therefore, we recommend that hair should always be collected from the same body part and that white hair should be avoided as much as possible. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification and analysis of damaged or porous hair.

    PubMed

    Hill, Virginia; Loni, Elvan; Cairns, Thomas; Sommer, Jonathan; Schaffer, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Cosmetic hair treatments have been referred to as 'the pitfall' of hair analysis. However, most cosmetic treatments, when applied to the hair as instructed by the product vendors, do not interfere with analysis, provided such treatments can be identified by the laboratory and the samples analyzed and reported appropriately for the condition of the hair. This paper provides methods for identifying damaged or porous hair samples using digestion rates of hair in dithiothreitol with and without proteinase K, as well as a protein measurement method applied to dithiothreitol-digested samples. Extremely damaged samples may be unsuitable for analysis. Aggressive and extended aqueous washing of hair samples is a proven method for removing or identifying externally derived drug contamination of hair. In addition to this wash procedure, we have developed an alternative wash procedure using 90% ethanol for washing damaged or porous hair. The procedure, like the aqueous wash procedure, requires analysis of the last of five washes to evaluate the effectiveness of the washing procedure. This evaluation, termed the Wash Criterion, is derived from studies of the kinetics of washing of hair samples that have been experimentally contaminated and of hair from drug users. To study decontamination methods, in vitro contaminated drug-negative hair samples were washed by both the aqueous buffer method and a 90% ethanol method. Analysis of cocaine and methamphetamine was by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Porous hair samples from drug users, when washed in 90% ethanol, pass the wash criterion although they may fail the aqueous wash criterion. Those samples that fail both the ethanolic and aqueous wash criterion are not reported as positive for ingestion. Similar ratios of the metabolite amphetamine relative to methamphetamine in the last wash and the hair is an additional criterion for assessing contamination vs. ingestion of methamphetamine. Copyright © 2014

  1. Histologic and SEM evaluation of caries removal and restoration in enamel and dentin using a pulsed fiber optic delivered Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Joel M.; Goodis, Harold E.; Kudler, Joel J.; Eakle, W. S.; Neev, Joseph

    1994-09-01

    The pulsed Nd:YAG laser has been proposed as an alternative to the dental handpiece for caries removal in enamel and dentin. The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate, in vitro, the process of caries removal and restoration in enamel and dentin. The effectiveness of this device was investigated utilizing scanning electron microscopy to determine the behavior of dentin after laser treatment of artificially created carious lesions in dentin. Histologic sections of extracted teeth after laser treatment and restoration demonstrated successful caries removal and restoration using the pulsed fiber optic delivered Nd:YAG laser as compared to both high and low speed rotary instrumentation. The adjacent enamel and dentin were unaffected by the laser irradiation although slight carbonization was seen on the dentin surface. Thermocouples placed in the pulp chamber during caries removal confirmed previous studies that showed laser parameters up to 1 W and 10 Hz being the same as conventional caries removal in the amount of heat generated which reaches the pulp. The addition of air/water coolant decreased pulpal temperature.

  2. Use of Q-switched alexandrite laser (755 nm, 100 nsec) for removal of traumatic tattoo of different origins.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Arias, G A; Casals-Andreu, M; Camps-Fresneda, A

    1999-01-01

    Q-switched laser systems have been used for removal of tattoo-related carbon, graphite, and other particles. We assessed elimination of traumatic tattoos of different origin with Q-switched alexandrite laser in nine patients. Fluence threshold was determined and a spot test was made. Q-switched alexandrite laser, with a fluence range 4.5-8.0 J/cm(2) (mean, 7.16 +/- 1.18), was used at 4-5-week intervals. Total treatment ranged from 3-12 sessions (mean, 6.1 +/- 3.6 sessions). Double-pulse technique was used in black/black-bluish areas, but single-shot was applied to slate-gray pigment. More than 95% lightening was achieved in five patients after 5.2 +/- 2.3 sessions, and >75% lightening in six subjects after 6.1 +/- 3.1 sessions of treatment. Blacktop, surgical pen, and gravel tattoos presented a better response than gunpowder/fireworks tattoos (>95% vs. 68.7 +/- 23.9% clearance), or tattoos of unknown origin (>95% vs. 62.5 +/- 53% clearance). Epidermal splattering and pinpoint bleeding were observed in one case. No pigmentary alteration or scarring was seen. The Q-switched alexandrite laser is a useful system for removal of traumatic tattoos of diverse origin. The best response (>95% clearance) was achieved in blacktop, surgical pen, and gravel tattoos, although an acceptable degree of lightening may be obtained in tattoos due to gunpowder or fireworks. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Remote control radioactive-waste removal system uses modulated laser transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcher, E. E.; Kopia, L. P.; Rowland, C. W.; Sinclair, A. R.

    1971-01-01

    Laser remote control system consists of transmitter, auto tracker, and receiver. Transmitter and tracker, packaged together and bore sighted, constitute control station, receiver is slave station. Model has five command channels and optical link operating range of 110 m.

  4. Selective removal of natural caries lesions from dentin and tooth occlusal surfaces using a diode-pumped Er:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jew, Jamison; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Selective removal of caries lesions with high precision is best accomplished using lasers operating at high pulse repetition rates utilizing small spot sizes. Conventional flash-lamp pumped Er:YAG lasers are poorly suited for this purpose, but new diode-pumped solid-state (DPSS) Er:YAG lasers have become available operating at high pulse repetition rates. Microradiography was used to determine the mineral content of the demineralized dentin of 200-μm thick sections with natural caries lesions prior to laser ablation. The purpose of this study was to explore the use of a DPSS Er:YAG laser for the selective removal of demineralized dentin and natural occlusal lesions on extracted teeth.

  5. Quantification of online removal of refractory black carbon using laser-induced incandescence in the single particle soot photometer

    DOE PAGES

    Aiken, Allison C.; McMeeking, Gavin R.; Levin, Ezra J. T.; ...

    2016-04-05

    Refractory black carbon (rBC) is an aerosol that has important impacts on climate and human health. rBC is often mixed with other species, making it difficult to isolate and quantify its important effects on physical and optical properties of ambient aerosol. To solve this measurement challenge, a new method to remove rBC was developed using laser-induced incandescence (LII) by Levin et al. in 2014. Application of the method with the Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) is used to determine the effects of rBC on ice nucleating particles (INP). Here, we quantify the efficacy of the method in the laboratory usingmore » the rBC surrogate Aquadag. Polydisperse and mobility-selected samples (100–500 nm diameter, 0.44–36.05 fg), are quantified by a second SP2. Removal rates are reported by mass and number. For the mobility-selected samples, the average percentages removed by mass and number of the original size are 88.9 ± 18.6% and 87.3 ± 21.9%, respectively. Removal of Aquadag is efficient for particles >100 nm mass-equivalent diameter (d me), enabling application for microphysical studies. However, the removal of particles ≤100 nm d me is less efficient. Absorption and scattering measurements are reported to assess its use to isolate brown carbon (BrC) absorption. Scattering removal rates for the mobility-selected samples are >90% on average, yet absorption rates are 53% on average across all wavelengths. Therefore, application to isolate effects of microphysical properties determined by larger sizes is promising, but will be challenging for optical properties. Lastly, the results reported also have implications for other instruments employing internal LII, e.g., the Soot Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SP-AMS).« less

  6. Rapid and Selective Removal of Composite From Tooth Surfaces With a 9.3 μm CO2 Laser Using Spectral Feedback

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kenneth H.; Hirasuna, Krista; Fried, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective Dental composite restorative materials are color matched to the tooth and are difficult to remove by mechanical means without excessive removal or damage to peripheral enamel and dentin. Lasers are ideally suited for selective ablation to minimize healthy tissue loss when replacing existing restorations, sealants, or removing composite adhesives such as residual composite left after debonding orthodontic brackets. Methods In this study, a carbon dioxide laser operating at 9.3-μm with a pulse duration of 10–20-microsecond and a pulse repetition rate of ~200 Hz was integrated with a galvanometer based scanner and used to selectively remove composite from tooth surfaces. Spectra of the plume emission were acquired after each laser pulse and used to differentiate between the ablation of dental enamel or composite. Microthermocouples were used to monitor the temperature rise in the pulp chamber during composite removal. The composite was placed on tooth buccal and occlusal surfaces and the carbon dioxide laser beam was scanned across the surface to selectively remove the composite without excessive damage to the underlying sound enamel. The residual composite and the damage to the underlying enamel was evaluated using optical microscopy. Results The laser was able to rapidly remove composite from tooth buccal and occlusal surfaces with minimal damage to the underlying sound enamel and without excessive heat accumulation in the tooth. Conclusion This study demonstrated that composite can be selectively removed from tooth surfaces at clinically relevant rates using a CO2 laser operating at 9.3-μm with high pulse repetition rates with minimal heat deposition and damage to the underlying enamel. PMID:21956630

  7. Rapid and selective removal of composite from tooth surfaces with a 9.3 µm CO2 laser using spectral feedback.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kenneth H; Hirasuna, Krista; Fried, Daniel

    2011-09-01

    Dental composite restorative materials are color matched to the tooth and are difficult to remove by mechanical means without excessive removal or damage to peripheral enamel and dentin. Lasers are ideally suited for selective ablation to minimize healthy tissue loss when replacing existing restorations, sealants, or removing composite adhesives such as residual composite left after debonding orthodontic brackets. In this study, a carbon dioxide laser operating at 9.3-µm with a pulse duration of 10-20-microsecond and a pulse repetition rate of ∼200 Hz was integrated with a galvanometer based scanner and used to selectively remove composite from tooth surfaces. Spectra of the plume emission were acquired after each laser pulse and used to differentiate between the ablation of dental enamel or composite. Microthermocouples were used to monitor the temperature rise in the pulp chamber during composite removal. The composite was placed on tooth buccal and occlusal surfaces and the carbon dioxide laser beam was scanned across the surface to selectively remove the composite without excessive damage to the underlying sound enamel. The residual composite and the damage to the underlying enamel was evaluated using optical microscopy. The laser was able to rapidly remove composite from tooth buccal and occlusal surfaces with minimal damage to the underlying sound enamel and without excessive heat accumulation in the tooth. This study demonstrated that composite can be selectively removed from tooth surfaces at clinically relevant rates using a CO(2) laser operating at 9.3-µm with high pulse repetition rates with minimal heat deposition and damage to the underlying enamel. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Ethnic hair disorders.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Scott F; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    The management of hair and scalp conditions is difficult in any patient, especially given the emotional and psychological implications of hair loss. This undertaking becomes even more challenging in the ethnic patient. Differences in hair care practices, hair shaft morphology, and follicular architecture add complexity to the task. It is imperative that the physician be knowledgeable about these practices and the phenotypic differences seen in ethnic hair in order to appropriately diagnose and treat these patients. In this chapter, we will discuss cultural practices and morphologic differences and explain how these relate to the specific disorders seen in ethnic populations. We will also review the most prominent of the ethnic hair conditions including acquired trichorrhexis nodosa, traction alopecia, central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, pseudofolliculitis barbae, dissecting cellulitis, and acne keloidalis nuchae. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Ioannides, Dimitrios; Lazaridou, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss, or female pattern androgenetic alopecia, is a nonscarring alopecia with a multi-factorial etiology that mostly affects postmenopausal women and is characterized by a reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp. The clinical picture is characterized by a diffuse rarefaction of scalp hair over the mid-frontal scalp and a more-or-less intact frontal hairline without any signs of inflammation or scarring. Although the disease poses only a cosmetic concern, it is chronic and may have a significant negative psychological impact on the affected person. The aim of treating female pattern hair loss is to reduce hair loss and, to a certain extent, succeed in promoting hair regrowth. Various treatment methods are available, but it remains unclear which are the most effective. Early initiation of treatment and the combination of various modalities seem to be more efficacious than monotherapy. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. The hair follicle enigma.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Bruno A

    2017-06-01

    The hair follicle is a mini-organ endowed with a unique structure and cyclic behaviour. Despite the intense research efforts which have been devoted at deciphering the hair follicle biology over the past 70 years, one must admit that hair follicle remains an enigma. In this brief review, various aspects of hair follicle biology will be addressed, and more importantly, unsolved questions and new possible research tracks will be highlighted, including hair follicle glycobiology and exosome-mediated cell-cell interactions. Even though bricks of knowledge are solidly being acquired, an integrative picture remains to emerge. One can predict that computer science, algorithms and bioinformatics will assist in fostering our understanding hair biology. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A Hairy Affair: Ophthalmia nodosa Due to Caterpillar Hairs.

    PubMed

    Doshi, Pratik Y; Usgaonkar, Ugam; Kamat, Pradnya

    2018-01-01

    To study different clinical presentations, course, and final outcomes of ophthalmia nodosa, a rare disease caused by hairs of the caterpillar. A total of 29 eyes of 17 patients with the disease presenting to our institute in 2013 were included. Patients presented with foreign body sensation (94%), photophobia (88%), lacrimation (82%), redness (94%), and eyelid edema (82%). Hairs were found in the conjunctiva (89.6%), cornea (65.5%), and even anterior chamber (3.4%). There was a conjunctival nodule in two eyes (6.8%). Resolution of symptoms occurred in 3-21 days. Treatment included topical steroids, cycloplegia, and removal of hairs with forceps. More than one sitting was required in 17 eyes (62.9%) due to reactional inflammation, precluding visualization of all the hairs. Ophthalmia nodosa is a relatively rare condition with subtle findings, which can be missed, causing considerable discomfort to the patient if the hairs are not removed.

  12. Coleman cuts Nespoli's hair in the JPM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-15

    ISS026-E-017741 (15 Jan. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Catherine (Cady) Coleman assists European Space Agency astronaut Paolo Nespoli with a haircut in the Kibo laboratory on the International Space Station. The two Expedition 26 flight engineers used a vacuum cleaner (partially out of frame) to remove free-floating hair particles from the air.

  13. Coleman cuts Nespoli's hair in the JPM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-15

    ISS026-E-017736 (15 Jan. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Catherine (Cady) Coleman assists European Space Agency astronaut Paolo Nespoli with a haircut in the Kibo laboratory on the International Space Station. The two Expedition 26 flight engineers used a vacuum cleaner (partially out of frame) to remove free-floating hair particles from the air.

  14. Coleman cuts Kondratyev's hair in the JPM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-15

    ISS026-E-017689 (15 Jan. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Catherine (Cady) Coleman assists cosmonaut Dmitry Kondratyev of Russia's Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) with a haircut in the Kibo laboratory on the International Space Station. The two Expedition 26 flight engineers used a vacuum cleaner (partially out of frame) to remove free-floating hair particles from the air.

  15. Nespoli cuts Kondratyev's hair in the JPM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-15

    ISS026-E-017715 (15 Jan. 2011) --- European Space Agency astronaut Paolo Nespoli assists cosmonaut Dmitry Kondratyev of Russia's Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) with a haircut in the Kibo laboratory on the International Space Station. The two Expedition 26 flight engineers used a vacuum cleaner to remove free-floating hair particles from the air.

  16. Coleman cuts Kondratyev's hair in the JPM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-15

    ISS026-E-017718 (15 Jan. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Catherine (Cady) Coleman assists cosmonaut Dmitry Kondratyev of Russia's Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) with a haircut in the Kibo laboratory on the International Space Station. Kondratyev and Coleman used a vacuum cleaner to remove free-floating hair particles from the air.

  17. Coleman cuts Kondratyev's hair in the JPM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-15

    ISS026-E-017725 (15 Jan. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Catherine (Cady) Coleman assists cosmonaut Dmitry Kondratyev of Russia's Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) with a haircut in the Kibo laboratory on the International Space Station. The two Expedition 26 flight engineers used a vacuum cleaner to remove free-floating hair particles from the air.

  18. Hair transplantation update.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Nicole E

    2015-06-01

    Contemporary hair transplant surgery offers results that are natural and undetectable. It is an excellent treatment option for male and female pattern hair loss. Patients are encouraged to also use medical therapy to help protect their surgical results and prevent ongoing thinning of the surrounding hairs. The two major techniques of donor elliptical harvesting and follicular unit extraction are discussed here. ©2015 Frontline Medical Communications.

  19. Hair cell regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Edge, Albert SB; Chen, Zheng-Yi

    2017-01-01

    The mammalian inner ear largely lacks the capacity to regenerate hair cells, the sensory cells required for hearing and balance. Recent studies in both lower vertebrates and mammals have uncovered genes and pathways important in hair cell development and have suggested ways that the sensory epithelia could be manipulated to achieve hair cell regeneration. These approaches include the use of inner ear stem cells, transdifferentiation of nonsensory cells, and induction of a proliferative response in the cells that can become hair cells. PMID:18929656

  20. MRI of human hair.

    PubMed

    Mattle, Eveline; Weiger, Markus; Schmidig, Daniel; Boesiger, Peter; Fey, Michael

    2009-06-01

    Hair care for humans is a major world industry with specialised tools, chemicals and techniques. Studying the effect of hair care products has become a considerable field of research, and besides mechanical and optical testing numerous advanced analytical techniques have been employed in this area. In the present work, another means of studying the properties of hair is added by demonstrating the feasibility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the human hair. Established dedicated nuclear magnetic resonance microscopy hardware (solenoidal radiofrequency microcoils and planar field gradients) and methods (constant time imaging) were adapted to the specific needs of hair MRI. Images were produced at a spatial resolution high enough to resolve the inner structure of the hair, showing contrast between cortex and medulla. Quantitative evaluation of a scan series with different echo times provided a T*(2) value of 2.6 ms for the cortex and a water content of about 90% for hairs saturated with water. The demonstration of the feasibility of hair MRI potentially adds a new tool to the large variety of analytical methods used nowadays in the development of hair care products.

  1. Hair cell ribbon synapses

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Andreas; Lysakowski, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Hearing and balance rely on the faithful synaptic coding of mechanical input by the auditory and vestibular hair cells of the inner ear. Mechanical deflection of their stereocilia causes the opening of mechanosensitive channels, resulting in hair cell depolarization, which controls the release of glutamate at ribbon-type synapses. Hair cells have a compact shape with strong polarity. Mechanoelectrical transduction and active membrane turnover associated with stereociliar renewal dominate the apical compartment. Transmitter release occurs at several active zones along the basolateral membrane. The astonishing capability of the hair cell ribbon synapse for temporally precise and reliable sensory coding has been the subject of intense investigation over the past few years. This research has been facilitated by the excellent experimental accessibility of the hair cell. For the same reason, the hair cell serves as an important model for studying presynaptic Ca2+ signaling and stimulus-secretion coupling. In addition to common principles, hair cell synapses differ in their anatomical and functional properties among species, among the auditory and vestibular organs, and among hair cell positions within the organ. Here, we briefly review synaptic morphology and connectivity and then focus on stimulus-secretion coupling at hair cell synapses. PMID:16944206

  2. Extraction and analysis of cortisol from human and monkey hair.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Jerrold; Novak, Melinda; Hamel, Amanda; Rosenberg, Kendra

    2014-01-24

    The stress hormone cortisol (CORT) is slowly incorporated into the growing hair shaft of humans, nonhuman primates, and other mammals. We developed and validated a method for CORT extraction and analysis from rhesus monkey hair and subsequently adapted this method for use with human scalp hair. In contrast to CORT "point samples" obtained from plasma or saliva, hair CORT provides an integrated measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system activity, and thus physiological stress, during the period of hormone incorporation. Because human scalp hair grows at an average rate of 1 cm/month, CORT levels obtained from hair segments several cm in length can potentially serve as a biomarker of stress experienced over a number of months. In our method, each hair sample is first washed twice in isopropanol to remove any CORT from the outside of the hair shaft that has been deposited from sweat or sebum. After drying, the sample is ground to a fine powder to break up the hair's protein matrix and increase the surface area for extraction. CORT from the interior of the hair shaft is extracted into methanol, the methanol is evaporated, and the extract is reconstituted in assay buffer. Extracted CORT, along with standards and quality controls, is then analyzed by means of a sensitive and specific commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit. Readout from the EIA is converted to pg CORT per mg powdered hair weight. This method has been used in our laboratory to analyze hair CORT in humans, several species of macaque monkeys, marmosets, dogs, and polar bears. Many studies both from our lab and from other research groups have demonstrated the broad applicability of hair CORT for assessing chronic stress exposure in natural as well as laboratory settings.

  3. Coping with cancer - hair loss

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer treatment - alopecia; Chemotherapy - hair loss; Radiation - hair loss ... Many chemotherapy drugs attack fast-growing cells. This is because cancer cells divide rapidly. Since the cells in hair ...

  4. Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Cancer.gov

    Hair loss, also called alopecia, is a side effect of cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Learn how to cope with and manage hair loss. Listen to tips from others who have experienced hair loss.

  5. Fibrin adhesive in conjunction with epithelial ingrowth removal after laser in situ keratomileusis: long-term results.

    PubMed

    Hardten, David R; Fahmy, Mona M; Vora, Gargi K; Berdahl, John P; Kim, Terry

    2015-07-01

    To describe the long-term results of fibrin adhesive use in the management of epithelial ingrowth after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Private practice, Minneapolis, Minnesota, and an academic medical center, Durham, North Carolina, USA. Retrospective case series. Patients with a history of LASIK had epithelial ingrowth removal with mechanical debridement and fibrin glue application. Visual outcomes and the presence or absence of epithelial ingrowth were evaluated again after 3 months and at the last follow-up. The main outcome measures were recurrence of epithelial ingrowth and visual acuity. Thirty-nine eyes of 38 patients were evaluated. After epithelial ingrowth removal and application of fibrin glue, 31 eyes (79.5%) had no recurrence of ingrowth at the final follow-up and 5 eyes (12.8%) had mild epithelial ingrowth not requiring removal. Three eyes (7.7%) had significant epithelial ingrowth at the 3-month follow-up that required subsequent removal and fibrin application. At the 3-month follow-up visit, 76.9% of eyes achieved 20/25 or better corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) and 69.2% of eyes achieved 20/40 or better uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA). At the last follow-up visit (mean 26.6 ± 17.0 months [SD]), 84.6% of eyes had 20/25 or better CDVA and 74.4% of eyes had 20/40 or better UDVA. Fibrin adhesive in conjunction with manual epithelial removal prevented a clinically significant recurrence of epithelial ingrowth in the majority of eyes. Larger randomized studies are needed to compare the success of this technique with that of others. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Laser micropolishing of AISI 304 stainless steel surfaces for cleanability and bacteria removal capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Giorgi, Chiara; Furlan, Valentina; Demir, Ali Gökhan; Tallarita, Elena; Candiani, Gabriele; Previtali, Barbara

    2017-06-01

    In this work, laser micropolishing (LμP) was employed to reduce the surface roughness and waviness of cold-rolled AISI 304 stainless steel sheets. A pulsed fibre laser operating in the ns regime was used and the influence of laser parameters in a N2-controlled atmospheres was evaluated. In the optimal conditions, the surface remelting induced by the process allowed to reduce the surface roughness by closing cracks and defects formed during the rolling process. Other conditions that did not improve the surface quality were analysed for defect typology. Moreover, laser treatments allowed the production of more hydrophobic surfaces, and no surface chemistry modification was identified. Surface cleanability was investigated with Escherichia coli (E. coli), evaluating the number of residual bacteria adhering to the substrate after a washing procedure. These results showed that LμP is a suitable way to lower the average surface roughness by about 58% and average surface waviness by approximately 38%. The LμP process proved to be effective on the bacteria cleanability as approximately five times fewer bacteria remained on the surfaces treated with the optimized LμP parameters compared to the untreated surfaces.

  7. Portable Handheld Laser Small Area Supplemental Coatings Removal System, Version 2.0

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-17

    awkward posture can cause unnecessary stress at the shoulder ( acromioclavicular joint and the glenohumeral joint) and may contribute to bursitis or...order to point the laser at the surface to be cleaned. This awkward posture can cause unnecessary stress at the shoulder ( acromioclavicular joint and

  8. Soldering mask laser removal from printed circuit boards aiming copper recycling.

    PubMed

    Raele, Marcus Paulo; De Pretto, Lucas Ramos; Zezell, Denise Maria

    2017-10-01

    Management of waste of electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) is a key issue for modern societies; furthermore, it contains valuable materials that can be recycled, especially in printed circuit boards (PCB), which have approximately one-third of their weight in copper. In this study we demonstrated the use of laser to strip the covering soldering mask on PCB's, thus exposing the copper underneath so that extraction techniques may take place. Using a Q-Switched Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064nm and 532nm we tested the procedure under different energy conditions. The laser stripping of the soldering mask was achieved with satisfactory results by irradiation with 225mJ at 1064nm. However, when using similar parameters at 532nm the process of the coating ejection was not promoted properly, leading to a faulty detachment. Infrared laser PCB stripping presents itself to be technically viable and environmental friendly, since it uses no chemicals inputs, offering one more option to WEEE treatment and recycling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hydrodynamics of material removal by melt expulsion: Perspectives of laser cutting and drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poprawe, Reinhart; Schulz, Wolfgang; Schmitt, Robert

    With the introduction of fiber-guided radiation at 1 μ wavelength emitting in the milti-kW range at better beam quality than CO2-lasers the most established application in laser processing, namely laser fusion cutting, came back into the industrial and scientific focus. Laser sources with extraordinary optical and economical properties - disk and fiber lasers - in a stormy way enter the market of cutting machines so far reserved for the 10 μ radiation source and led to a volatile situation. The new laser sources can already address a market-relevant class of applications, namely, fusion cutting of steel up to a sheet thickness of 2 mm with pronounced advantages in productivity. However, there is a significant lack of cut quality for larger sheet thickness. The main reason for the drawback and its physical background are given. With the availability of cutting machines with 1 μ fiber-guided radiation the race for the worldwide market regarding the larger sheet thickness is opened and the priority issues to improve the cut quality are related to the three levels: wavelength, beam delivery and the application stage of the machine. The stability model called QuCut is presented which for the first time allows to analyze stability of cutting with fiber-guided radiation. Experimental ripple patterns and ripple spectra resolved with respect to the cutting depth are well reproduced by the new stability model. A number of different experimental methods towards an improved understanding of the dynamics in laser drilling are developed, however, there are gaps related to in-situ observation which is obscured by the hole walls. There are four novel experimental methods resolving the dynamics from a μms-down to a ns-time scale having a spatial resolution with respect to transient drilling depth on the μm scale. As result, the different mechanisms contributing to recast formation and dynamical features of drilling are revealed in more detail. In particular, the action of

  10. Removal Enhancement of Basic Blue 41 BY RGO-TiO2 Nanocomposite Synthesized Using Pulsed Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi, Fatemeh; Kimiagar, Salimeh; Shahbazi, Mozhgan; Vojoudi, Hossein

    Graphene oxide (GO) and GO-TiO2 nanocomposite was produced then reduced under pulse laser irradiation (RGO-TiO2). Basic blue 41 (bb41) dye was removed from aqueous solutions by using RGO-TiO2 nanocomposites. The UV-Vis absorption and FTIR analysis were utilized to confirm the reduction of GO-TiO2 to RGO-TiO2. The results showed complete reduction of GO. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis were applied to approve the RGO-TiO2 nanocomposite structure. The effect of pH on the bb41 removal by RGO-TiO2 was studied varying the pH from 1 to 11. The optimum pH and adsorbent dosage were found to be 9 and 0.2g/L with 98% efficiency, respectively. The calculated coefficients demonstrated that the Langmuir model was fixed to the experimental data. The results indicated that RGO-TiO2 could be engaged as an exceptional sorbent to remove bb41 dye which is in aqueous solution.

  11. Healthy hair: what is it?

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Rodney D

    2007-12-01

    Shiny hair with a smooth texture and clean-cut ends or tapered tips is generally perceived to be healthy. Hair texture and shine relate to hair surface properties, whereas the integrity of hair ends relates to the hair cortex. Hair can be straight, wavy or curly, blonde, black, brown, red, gray white, and its natural variations are important to our identity. Manipulation of the normal structure of the hair shaft is epidemic and dictated by culture, fashion, and above all, celebrity. Although cosmetic procedures are intrinsically safe, there is potential for damage to the hair. Loss of lustre, frizz, split ends, and other hair problems are particularly prevalent among people who repeatedly alter the natural style of their hair or among people with hair that is intrinsically weak. This may be due to individual or racial variation or less commonly an inherited structural abnormality in hair fiber formation. Hair health is also affected by common afflictions of the scalp as well as age-related phenomena such as graying and androgenetic alopecia. Hair products that improve the structural integrity of hair fibers and increase tensile strength are available, as are products that increase hair volume, reduce frizz, improve hair manageability, and stimulate new hair growth.

  12. Chapter 6: Hair collection

    Treesearch

    Katherine C. Kendall; Kevin S. McKelvey

    2008-01-01

    The identification of species from hair samples is probably as old as humanity, but did not receive much scientific attention until efficient and relatively inexpensive methods for amplifying DNA became available. Prior to this time, keys were used to identify species through the microscopic analysis of hair shaft morphology (Moore et al. 1974; also see Raphael 1994...

  13. Hair Loss Myths.

    PubMed

    DiMarco, Gabriella; McMichael, Amy

    2017-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hair loss is a common complaint seen in dermatology clinics. From frustration and attempts at self-help, patients with hair loss may present to the dermatologist with false beliefs, or myths, about the causes of their condition and what treatments are effective.

    METHODS: We identified 12 common myths about hair loss, categorized as myths about minoxidil treatment, vitamin and mineral supplements, natural topical treatments, and hair care practices. We performed a PubMed search to find evidence to support or refute each myth.

    RESULTS: We found that there is little evidence to support many of these common hair loss myths. In some cases, randomized controlled trials have investigated the effects of particular therapies and point to the effectiveness of certain hair loss treatments.

    DISCUSSION: In many cases, there have not been sufficient randomized controlled trials to evaluate the effect of different therapies and hair care practices on hair loss. It is best to guide patients toward treatments with a long track record of efficacy and away from those where little is known scientifically.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(7):690-694.

    .

  14. Hair and Physiological Baldness

    PubMed Central

    Mercantini, Edward S.

    1965-01-01

    Human hair is one of the structures of the body about which little is generally known. Disease affecting the hair is often minimized or ignored by physicians because of lack of knowledge of this rudimentary organ. However, the patient's attitude toward hair loss is very different from the doctor's and he feels great concern about such loss. The development, growth and morphology of human hair are briefly presented. Experimental work which will increase our knowledge of hair growth and loss is reviewed. The various forms of physiological alopecia from birth onward are discussed, with special emphasis on the least-known type of physiological baldness, “male-pattern baldness” in the adult female. PMID:14312445

  15. Utilizing electromagnetic radiation for hair growth: a critical review of phototrichogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kalia, Sunil; Lui, Harvey

    2013-01-01

    Hair loss has a high prevalence in the general population and can have significant medical and psychological sequelae. Pattern hair loss and alopecia areata represent the major reasons patients present to dermatologists in relation to hair loss. Because conventional treatment options are generally incompletely effective, novel methods for hair grown induction are being developed. The role of using electromagnetic radiation, including low-level laser therapy for the management of hair loss through phototrichogenesis, is reviewed in this article. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Endobronchial Forceps-Assisted and Excimer Laser-Assisted Inferior Vena Cava Filter Removal: The Data, Where We Are, and How It Is Done.

    PubMed

    Chen, James X; Montgomery, Jennifer; McLennan, Gordon; Stavropoulos, S William

    2018-06-01

    The recognition of inferior vena cava filter related complications has motivated increased attentiveness in clinical follow-up of patients with inferior vena cava filters and has led to development of multiple approaches for retrieving filters that are challenging or impossible to remove using conventional techniques. Endobronchial forceps and excimer lasers are tools for designed to aid in complex inferior vena cava filter removals. This article discusses endobronchial forceps-assisted and excimer laser-assisted inferior vena cava filter retrievals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Protease activity, localization and inhibition in the human hair follicle.

    PubMed

    Bhogal, R K; Mouser, P E; Higgins, C A; Turner, G A

    2014-02-01

    In humans, the process of hair shedding, referred to as exogen, is believed to occur independently of the other hair cycle phases. Although the actual mechanisms involved in hair shedding are not fully known, it has been hypothesized that the processes leading to the final step of hair shedding may be driven by proteases and/or protease inhibitor activity. In this study, we investigated the presence of proteases and protease activity in naturally shed human hairs and assessed enzyme inhibition activity of test materials. We measured enzyme activity using a fluorescence-based assay and protein localization by indirect immunohistochemistry (IHC). We also developed an ex vivo skin model for measuring the force required to pull hair fibres from skin. Our data demonstrate the presence of protease activity in the tissue material surrounding club roots. We also demonstrated the localization of specific serine protease protein expression in human hair follicle by IHC. These data provide evidence demonstrating the presence of proteases around the hair club roots, which may play a role during exogen. We further tested the hypothesis that a novel protease inhibitor system (combination of Trichogen) and climbazole) could inhibit protease activity in hair fibre club root extracts collected from a range of ethnic groups (U.K., Brazil, China, first-generation Mexicans in the U.S.A., Thailand and Turkey) in both males and females. Furthermore, we demonstrated that this combination is capable of increasing the force required to remove hair in an ex vivo skin model system. These studies indicate the presence of proteolytic activity in the tissue surrounding the human hair club root and show that it is possible to inhibit this activity with a combination of Trichogen and climbazole. This technology may have potential to reduce excessive hair shedding. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  18. Numerical simulation of the hair formation -modeling of hair cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajihara, Narumichi; Nagayama, Katsuya

    2018-01-01

    In the recent years, the fields of study of anti-aging, health and beauty, cosmetics, and hair diseases have attracted significant attention. In particular, human hair is considered to be an important aspect with regard to an attractive appearance. To this end, many workers have sought to understand the formation mechanism of the hair root. However, observing growth in the hair root is difficult, and a detailed mechanism of the process has not yet been elucidated. Hair repeats growth, retraction, and pause cycles (hair cycle) in a repetitive process. In the growth phase, hair is formed through processes of cell proliferation and differentiation (keratinization). During the retraction phase, hair growth stops, and during the resting period, hair fall occurs and new hair grows. This hair cycle is believed to affect the elongation rate, thickness, strength, and shape of hair. Therefore, in this study, we introduce a particle model as a new method to elucidate the unknown process of hair formation, and to model the hair formation process accompanying the proliferation and differentiation of the hair root cells in all three dimensions. In addition, to the growth period, the retraction and the resting periods are introduced to realize the hair cycle using this model.

  19. Laser all-ceramic crown removal and pulpal temperature--a laboratory proof-of-principle study.

    PubMed

    Rechmann, P; Buu, N C H; Rechmann, B M T; Finzen, F C

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this proof-of-principle laboratory pilot study was to evaluate the temperature increase in the pulp chamber in a worst case scenario during Er:YAG laser debonding of all-ceramic crowns. Twenty extracted molars were prepared to receive all-ceramic IPS E.max CAD full contour crowns. The crowns were bonded to the teeth with Ivoclar Multilink Automix. Times for laser debonding and temperature rise in the pulp chamber using micro-thermocouples were measured. The Er:YAG was used with 560 mJ/pulse. The irradiation was applied at a distance of 5 mm from the crown surface. Additional air-water spray for cooling was utilized. Each all-ceramic crown was successfully laser debonded with an average debonding time of 135 ± 35 s. No crown fractured, and no damage to the underlying dentin was detected. The bonding cement deteriorated, but no carbonization at the dentin/cement interface occurred. The temperature rise in the pulp chamber averaged 5.4° ± 2.2 °C. During 8 out of the 20 crown removals, the temperature rise exceeded 5.5 °C, lasting 5 to 43 s (average 18.8 ± 11.6 s). A temperature rise of 11.5 °C occurred only once, while seven times the temperature rise was limited to 6.8 ± 0.5 °C. Temperature rises above 5.5 °C occurred only when the laser was applied from one side and additional cooling from the side opposite the irradiation. Er:YAG laser energy can successfully be used to efficiently debond all-ceramic crowns from natural teeth. Temperature rises exceeding 5.5 °C only occur when an additional air/water cooling from a dental syringe is inaccurately directed. To avoid possible thermal damage and to allow further heat diffusion, clinically temperature-reduced water might be applied.

  20. Scanning electron microscopy investigation of PMMA removal by laser irradiation (Er:YAG) in comparison with an ultrasonic system and curettage in hip joint revision arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Klaus; Gutknecht, Norbert

    2010-07-01

    The cement often left in the femur socket during hip joint revision arthroplasty is usually removed by curettage. Another method for removing the cement is to use an ultrasonic system, and yet another alternative may be to use a laser system. The aim of these investigations was to determine the pulse rate and pulse energy of the Er:YAG laser for sufficient cement ablation. We also compared the results obtained using the laser with those obtained using an ultrasonic device or curettage by histological and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigation of the border zone between the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and unfixed specimens of femoral bone. Therefore we prepared 30 unfixed human femur stems after hip joint replacement and prepared ten sagittal sections from each femur stem (in total 300 sections). Of these 300 specimens, 180 were treated with the Er:YAG laser, 60 with the ultrasonic system and 60 by curettage. The high pulse energy of 500 mJ and a pulse rate of 4 Hz provided the highest PMMA ablation rate, although the boundary surface between PMMA and femoral bone was not as fine-grained as found in samples treated at 15 Hz and 250 mJ. However, the treatment time for the same cement ablation rate with the latter settings was twice that at 4 Hz and 500 mJ. Compared to the boundary surfaces treated with the ultrasonic device or curettage, the laser-treated samples had a more distinct undifferentiated boundary surface between PMMA and femoral bone. After development of the Er:YAG-laser to provide higher pulse energies, it may in the future be an additional efficient method for the removal of PMMA in revision arthroplasty. The Er:YAG laser should be combined with an endoscopic and a rinsing suction system so that PMMA can be removed from the femoral shaft under direct vision.

  1. Hair segmentation using adaptive threshold from edge and branch length measures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ian; Du, Xian; Anthony, Brian

    2017-10-01

    Non-invasive imaging techniques allow the monitoring of skin structure and diagnosis of skin diseases in clinical applications. However, hair in skin images hampers the imaging and classification of the skin structure of interest. Although many hair segmentation methods have been proposed for digital hair removal, a major challenge in hair segmentation remains in detecting hairs that are thin, overlapping, of similar contrast or color to underlying skin, or overlaid on highly-textured skin structure. To solve the problem, we present an automatic hair segmentation method that uses edge density (ED) and mean branch length (MBL) to measure hair. First, hair is detected by the integration of top-hat transform and modified second-order Gaussian filter. Second, we employ a robust adaptive threshold of ED and MBL to generate a hair mask. Third, the hair mask is refined by k-NN classification of hair and skin pixels. The proposed algorithm was tested using two datasets of healthy skin images and lesion images respectively. These datasets were taken from different imaging platforms in various illumination levels and varying skin colors. We compared the hair detection and segmentation results from our algorithm and six other hair segmentation methods of state of the art. Our method exhibits high value of sensitivity: 75% and specificity: 95%, which indicates significantly higher accuracy and better balance between true positive and false positive detection than the other methods. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Hair camouflage: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Saed, Stephanie; Ibrahim, Omer; Bergfeld, Wilma F

    2016-12-01

    Hair is venerated, cherished, and desired in societies throughout the world. Both women and men express their individual identities through their hairstyles. Healthy hair contributes to successful social assimilation, employment, and overall quality of life. Therefore, hair loss can have detrimental effects on almost every aspect of a person's life. In this review, we discuss the myriad of options that aid in concealing and camouflaging hair loss to facilitate a healthier-appearing scalp. Camouflage options for patients who suffer from hair loss include full or partial wigs, hair extensions, concealing powders and sprays, surgical tattoos, and hair transplants. We describe these modalities in detail and discuss their respective advantages and disadvantages.

  3. Hair camouflage: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Saed, Stephanie; Ibrahim, Omer; Bergfeld, Wilma F

    2017-03-01

    Hair is venerated, cherished, and desired in societies throughout the world. Both women and men express their individual identities through their hairstyles. Healthy hair contributes to successful social assimilation, employment, and overall quality of life. Therefore, hair loss can have detrimental effects on almost every aspect of a person's life. In this review, we discuss the myriad of options that aid in concealing and camouflaging hair loss to facilitate a healthier-appearing scalp. Camouflage options for patients who suffer from hair loss include full or partial wigs, hair extensions, concealing powders and sprays, surgical tattoos, and hair transplants. We describe these modalities in detail and discuss their respective advantages and disadvantages.

  4. Microtubules in root hairs.

    PubMed

    Traas, J A; Braat, P; Emons, A M; Meekes, H; Derksen, J

    1985-06-01

    The microtubules of root hairs of Raphanus sativus, Lepidium sativum, Equisetum hyemale, Limnobium stoloniferum, Ceratopteris thalictroides, Allium sativum and Urtica dioica were investigated using immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Arrays of cortical microtubules were observed in all hairs. The microtubules in the hairs show net axial orientations, but in Allium and Urtica helical microtubule patterns are also present. Numerical parameters of microtubules in Raphanus, Equisetum and Limnobium were determined from dry-cleave preparations. The results are discussed with respect to cell wall deposition and cell morphogenesis.

  5. Complications in hair restoration.

    PubMed

    Lam, Samuel M

    2013-11-01

    Hair restoration requires a high level of specialized skill on the part of both the surgeon and the assistant team. Recipient-site problems can manifest from either surgeon or assistant error. The surgeon can create an unnatural hairline due to lack of knowledge of natural hair-loss patterns or badly executed recipient sites. He must also be cognizant of how hairs naturally are angled on the scalp to re-create a pattern that appears natural when making recipient sites. Assistants can also greatly contribute to the success or failure of surgery in their task of graft dissection and graft placement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Scrotal hair in infants].

    PubMed

    Sentchordi Montane, L; Quintanar Rioja, A; Ayala Bernardo de Quirós, L; Martínez Granero, M A; Bonet Serra, B

    2008-02-01

    The presence of pubic hair is exceptional in healthy infants of both sexes. In most of the cases described in the literature, the process was self-limited and no etiology was found. Nevertheless, in some patients, this finding has been associated with other manifestations of hyperandrogenism related to potentially serious diseases such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia or virilizing tumors. In the present article, we describe seven infants followed-up in the Pediatric Endocrine Clinic because of scrotal hair. In all patients, the process was self-limited and resolved spontaneously and no hormonal or developmental alterations were observed. Key words: Scrotal hair, infants, virilization.

  7. Comparison of Three Epithelial Removal Techniques in PRK: Mechanical, Alcohol-assisted, and Transepithelial Laser.

    PubMed

    Shapira, Yinon; Mimouni, Michael; Levartovsky, Shmuel; Varssano, David; Sela, Tzahi; Munzer, Gur; Kaiserman, Igor

    2015-11-01

    To compare the visual and refractive results obtained after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) in patients who underwent one of three different epithelial removal techniques. The authors reviewed the medical files of consecutive eyes with myopia and myopic astigmatism that were treated during a 10-year period by mechanical PRK, alcohol-assisted PRK, or transepithelial PRK (in the phototherapeutic keratectomy mode), and observed for more than 1 year. A total of 3,417 patients (3,417 eyes) were included in this study. At 3 and 6 months postoperatively, the outcome of alcohol-assisted PRK was superior both in efficacy (P < .01) and safety (P < .001) to those of both mechanical PRK and transepithelial PRK, which were similar. At more than 1 year postoperatively, the mean efficacy index was still high for alcohol-assisted PRK, but low for the transepithelial PRK, corresponding to a mean uncorrected visual acuity of more than one Snellen line lower than those of the other two techniques (P < .0001). All three techniques showed a regression toward myopia more than 1 year postoperatively, with significant undercorrection obtained in eyes treated with transepithelial PRK (P < .0001). Significant differences were detected in both the visual outcomes and the refractive results of the three epithelial removal techniques. The long-term outcomes were best for alcohol-assisted PRK. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. The interpretation of hair analysis for drugs and drug metabolites.

    PubMed

    Cuypers, Eva; Flanagan, Robert J

    2018-02-01

    Head hair analysis for drugs and drug metabolites has been used widely with the aim of detecting exposure in the weeks or months prior to sample collection. However, inappropriate interpretation of results has likely led to serious miscarriages of justice, especially in child custody cases. The aim of this review is to assess critically what can, and perhaps more importantly, what cannot be claimed as regards the interpretation of hair test results in a given set of circumstances in order to inform future testing. We searched the PubMed database for papers published 2010-2016 using the terms "hair" and "drug" and "decontamination", the terms "hair" and "drug" and "contamination", the terms "hair" and "drug-facilitated crime", the terms "hair" and "ethyl glucuronide", and the terms "hair", "drug testing" and "analysis". Study of the reference lists of the 46 relevant papers identified 25 further relevant citations, giving a total of 71 citations. Hair samples: Drugs, drug metabolites and/or decomposition products may arise not only from deliberate drug administration, but also via deposition from a contaminated atmosphere if drug(s) have been smoked or otherwise vaporized in a confined area, transfer from contaminated surfaces via food/fingers, etc., and transfer from sweat and other secretions after a single large exposure, which could include anesthesia. Excretion in sweat of endogenous analytes such as γ-hydroxybutyric acid is a potential confounder if its use is to be investigated. Cosmetic procedures such as bleaching or heat treatment of hair may remove analytes prior to sample collection. Hair color and texture, the area of the head the sample is taken from, the growth rate of individual hairs, and how the sample has been stored, may also affect the interpretation of results. Toxicological analysis: Immunoassay results alone do not provide reliable evidence on which to base judicial decisions. Gas or liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection

  9. Smear Layer Removal in the Apical Third of Root Canals by Two Chelating Agents and Laser: A Comparative in vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Hengameh; Asnaashari, Mohammad; Darmiani, Soheila; Birang, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Smear layer (SL) is produced as a result of mechanical instrumentation of the canal(s). Despite the controversies regarding its removal, the evidence-based trend has shifted towards removing and eliminating the SL. Different methods have been used to remove the SL and the aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the ability of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), 18% etidronate and Er: YAG on effective removal of the SL. Methods and Materials: Fifty straight single-rooted teeth were divided into three experimental groups (n=15) and one control group of five. The canals were instrumented with HERO 642 rotary files up to 30/0.06. In group 1, canals were irradiated with Er: YAG laser; in groups 2 and 3, canals were irrigated with 17% EDTA and 18% etidronate, respectively. In group 4 (control) distilled water was used for canal irrigation. The amount of remaining SL was quantified according to Hulsmann’s method with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data was analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests (P<0.05). Results: The results showed statistically significant differences in terms of SL removal among the groups (P<0.05). The amount of removed SL by EDTA was significantly greater followed by Er: YAG laser and 18% etidronate. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, EDTA was more effective in removing SL compared to Er: YAG and etidronate. PMID:25031596

  10. Assessing Health-Related Quality of Life with Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy (APDT) and Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) after Third Molar Removal.

    PubMed

    Batinjan, Goran; Filipović Zore, Irina; Rupić, Ivana; Bago Jurič, Ivona; Zore, Zvonimir; Gabrić Pandurić, Dragana

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) and low level laser therapy (LLLT) on wound healing, pain intensity, swelling problems, halitosis and the postoperative usage of analgesics after surgical removal of lower third molars. One hundred and fifty patients, randomly divided into three groups were selected (50 per each group). The P1 group received the APDT after a third molar surgery, the P2 group received the LLLT and the C group (control group) was without any additional therapy after surgery. A photoactive substance was applied in the APDT study group before suturing. After 60 seconds the photosensitive substance was thoroughly washed with saline water and the laser light was applied in two intervals (30 seconds each). The irradiation power was 50 mW while the wavelength was 660 nm. The laser therapy in P2 group was performed before suturing and the laser light was applied also in two intervals (90 seconds each), the irradiation power was 90 mW while the wavelength was the same as in the first group - 660 nm. Postoperative follow-ups were scheduled on the third and the seventh day in patients who received laser therapy. The results of the postoperative evaluation showed that there was a statistically significant difference in the postoperative wound healing, pain intensity, swelling problems, halitosis and analgesics intake between patients in all three groups (p<0.001). The patients that were subjected to APDT (P1) had the least postoperative problems. After the laser therapy (P1 and P2) wound healing was without any complications, opposite from the patients from the C group (p<0.001). Postoperative application of a laser therapy significantly reduced patient's use of analgesics over the observed period of time (p<0.001). Both modalities of laser therapy significantly reduced postoperative problems after surgical removal of third lower molars with the best results in both laser groups.

  11. Dental hard tissue modification and removal using sealed transverse excited atmospheric-pressure lasers operating at lambda=9.6 and 10.6 um

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Daniel; Ragadio, Jerome N.; Akrivou, Maria; Featherstone, John D.; Murray, Michael W.; Dickenson, Kevin M.

    2001-04-01

    Pulsed CO2 lasers have been shown to be effective for both removal and modification of dental hard tissue for the treatment of dental caries. In this study, sealed transverse excited atmospheric pressure (TEA) laser systems optimally tuned to the highly absorbed 9.6 micrometers wavelength were investigated for application on dental hard tissue. Conventional TEA lasers produce an initial high energy spike at the beginning of the laser pulse of submicrosecond duration followed by a long tail of about 1 - 4 microsecond(s) . The pulse duration is well matched to the 1 - 2 microsecond(s) thermal relaxation time of the deposited laser energy at 9.6 micrometers and effectively heats the enamel to the temperatures required for surface modification at absorbed fluences of less than 0.5 J/cm2. Thus, the heat deposition in the tooth and the corresponding risk of pulpal necrosis from excessive heat accumulation is minimized. At higher fluences, the high peak power of the laser pulse rapidly initiates a plasma that markedly reduces the ablation rate and efficiency, severely limiting applicability for hard tissue ablation. By lengthening the laser pulse to reduce the energy distributed in the initial high energy spike, the plasma threshold can be raised sufficiently to increase the ablation rate by an order of magnitude. This results in a practical and efficient CO2 laser system for caries ablation and surface modification.

  12. Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental ... with certain abnormalities of the nails and the teeth. Later in childhood, hair loss may be due ...

  13. Penile strangulation by hair.

    PubMed

    Acimi, Smail

    2014-07-01

    To know the causes and results of treatment of complications from a penile strangulation by hair in seven boys. From April 2000 to December 2012, seven boys presenting serious penile complications by hair strangulation have been operated in two centers. All seven boys had transection of the urethra at the coronal level. And none of our patients were at the stage of necrosis or amputation of the glans. The age of the patients at surgery ranged from 34 to 134 months (mean 96 months). Four children presented urethrocutaneous fistulas (57% of cases), and the innervation and vascularization of the glans remained poor after repair in three patients. The penile strangulation by hair was due to a simple accident. However, several predisposing factors were discovered in our patients: lack of cleanliness; a moist environment with nocturnal enuresis; the presence of pubic hair in young children reported in the four children, and a coronal sulcus not covered by the foreskin in circumcised children.

  14. Myc and Fgf Are Required for Zebrafish Neuromast Hair Cell Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Goo; Huang, Mingqian; Obholzer, Nikolaus D; Sun, Shan; Li, Wenyan; Petrillo, Marco; Dai, Pu; Zhou, Yi; Cotanche, Douglas A; Megason, Sean G; Li, Huawei; Chen, Zheng-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Unlike mammals, the non-mammalian vertebrate inner ear can regenerate the sensory cells, hair cells, either spontaneously or through induction after hair cell loss, leading to hearing recovery. The mechanisms underlying the regeneration are poorly understood. By microarray analysis on a chick model, we show that chick hair cell regeneration involves the activation of proliferation genes and downregulation of differentiation genes. Both MYC and FGF are activated in chick hair cell regeneration. Using a zebrafish lateral line neuromast hair cell regeneration model, we show that the specific inhibition of Myc or Fgf suppresses hair cell regeneration, demonstrating that both pathways are essential to the process. Rapid upregulation of Myc and delayed Fgf activation during regeneration suggest a role of Myc in proliferation and Fgf in differentiation. The dorsal-ventral pattern of fgfr1a in the neuromasts overlaps with the distribution of hair cell precursors. By laser ablation, we show that the fgfr1a-positive supporting cells are likely the hair cell precursors that directly give rise to new hair cells; whereas the anterior-posterior fgfr1a-negative supporting cells have heightened proliferation capacity, likely to serve as more primitive progenitor cells to replenish lost precursors after hair cell loss. Thus fgfr1a is likely to mark compartmentalized supporting cell subtypes with different capacities in renewal proliferation and hair cell regeneration. Manipulation of c-MYC and FGF pathways could be explored for mammalian hair cell regeneration.

  15. Myc and Fgf Are Required for Zebrafish Neuromast Hair Cell Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Obholzer, Nikolaus D.; Sun, Shan; Li, Wenyan; Petrillo, Marco; Dai, Pu; Zhou, Yi; Cotanche, Douglas A.; Megason, Sean G.; Li, Huawei; Chen, Zheng-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Unlike mammals, the non-mammalian vertebrate inner ear can regenerate the sensory cells, hair cells, either spontaneously or through induction after hair cell loss, leading to hearing recovery. The mechanisms underlying the regeneration are poorly understood. By microarray analysis on a chick model, we show that chick hair cell regeneration involves the activation of proliferation genes and downregulation of differentiation genes. Both MYC and FGF are activated in chick hair cell regeneration. Using a zebrafish lateral line neuromast hair cell regeneration model, we show that the specific inhibition of Myc or Fgf suppresses hair cell regeneration, demonstrating that both pathways are essential to the process. Rapid upregulation of Myc and delayed Fgf activation during regeneration suggest a role of Myc in proliferation and Fgf in differentiation. The dorsal-ventral pattern of fgfr1a in the neuromasts overlaps with the distribution of hair cell precursors. By laser ablation, we show that the fgfr1a-positive supporting cells are likely the hair cell precursors that directly give rise to new hair cells; whereas the anterior-posterior fgfr1a-negative supporting cells have heightened proliferation capacity, likely to serve as more primitive progenitor cells to replenish lost precursors after hair cell loss. Thus fgfr1a is likely to mark compartmentalized supporting cell subtypes with different capacities in renewal proliferation and hair cell regeneration. Manipulation of c-MYC and FGF pathways could be explored for mammalian hair cell regeneration. PMID:27351484

  16. Comparison of positive-pressure, passive ultrasonic, and laser-activated irrigations on smear-layer removal from the root canal surface.

    PubMed

    Sahar-Helft, Sharonit; Sarp, Ayşe Sena Kabaş; Stabholtz, Adam; Gutkin, Vitaly; Redenski, Idan; Steinberg, Doron

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of three irrigation techniques for smear-layer removal with 17% EDTA. Cleaning and shaping the root canal system during endodontic treatment produces a smear layer and hard tissue debris. Three irrigation techniques were tested for solution infiltration of this layer: positive-pressure irrigation, passive ultrasonic irrigation, and laser-activated irrigation. Sixty extracted teeth were divided into six equal groups; 17% EDTA was used for 60 sec irrigation of five of the groups. The groups were as follows: Group 1, treated only with ProTaper™ F3 Ni-Ti files; Group 2, positive-pressure irrigation, with a syringe; Group 3, passive ultrasonic irrigation, inserted 1 mm short of the working length; Group 4, passive ultrasonic irrigation, inserted in the upper coronal third of the root; Group 5, Er:YAG laser-activated irrigation, inserted 1 mm short of the working length; and Group 6, Er:YAG laser-activated irrigation, inserted in the upper coronal third of the root. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the smear layer is removed most efficiently using laser-activated irrigation at low energy with 17% EDTA, inserted either at the working length or only in the coronal upper third of the root. Amounts of Ca, P, and O were not significantly different on all treated dentin surfaces. Smear-layer removal was most effective when the root canals were irrigated using Er:YAG laser at low energy with 17% EDTA solution. Interestingly, removal of the smear layer along the entire canal was similar when the laser was inserted in the upper coronal third and at 1 mm short of the working length of the root canal. This effect was not observed with the ultrasonic and positive-pressure techniques.

  17. Improving the ablation efficiency of excimer laser systems with higher repetition rates through enhanced debris removal and optimized spot pattern.

    PubMed

    Arba-Mosquera, Samuel; Klinner, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the reasons for the required increased radiant exposure for higher-repetition-rate excimer lasers and determine experimentally possible compensations to achieve equivalent ablation profiles maintaining the same single-pulse energies and radiant exposures for laser repetition rates ranging from 430 to 1000 Hz. Schwind eye-tech-solutions GmbH and Co. KG, Kleinostheim, Germany. Experimental study. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) plates were photoablated. The pulse laser energy was maintained during all experiments; the effects of the flow of the debris removal, the shot pattern for the correction, and precooling the PMMA plates were evaluated in terms of achieved ablation versus repetition rate. The mean ablation performance ranged from 88% to 100%; the variability between the profile measurements ranged from 1.4% to 6.2%. Increasing the laser repetition rate from 430 Hz to 1000 Hz reduced the mean ablation performance from 98% to 91% and worsened the variability from 1.9% to 4.3%. Increasing the flow of the debris removal, precooling the PMMA plates to -18°C, and adapting the shot pattern for the thermal response of PMMA to excimer ablation helped stabilize the variability. Only adapting the shot pattern for the thermal response of PMMA to excimer ablation helped stabilize the mean ablation performance. The ablation performance of higher-repetition-rate excimer lasers on PMMA improved with improvements in the debris removal systems and shot pattern. More powerful debris removal systems and smart shot patterns in terms of thermal response improved the performance of these excimer lasers. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hair cuttime on ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-22

    Caption: ISS043E044174 (03/22/2015) --- Its haircut time onboard the International Space Station as Expedition 43 Commander and NASA astronaut Terry Virts handles the scissors while ESA (European Space Agency) astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti holds the vacuum to immediately pull the fine hair strands into the safe container so they don't float away into the station. Hair trims are a regular occurrence during an astronaut's six month tour.

  19. A 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating the ability of a marine complex supplement to promote hair growth in men with thinning hair.

    PubMed

    Ablon, Glynis

    2016-12-01

    Male pattern baldness, or androgenetic alopecia, affects approximately 50% of the adult population and can cause poor self-image, low self-esteem and have a significant negative impact on the quality of life. An oral nutraceutical supplement based on a marine complex formulation has previously been reported to significantly increase the number of terminal hairs in women with thinning hair. The objective of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to confirm the beneficial effects of a similar marine complex supplement in adult male subjects with thinning hair (Viviscal ® Man; Lifes2good, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Healthy adult male subjects with thinning hair associated with clinically diagnosed male pattern hair loss were enrolled and randomized to receive study drug or placebo twice daily. At Day 90, subjects indicated a significant improvement in three of six quality of life measures as well as a significant overall improvement in quality of life. After 180 days, significant increases were observed for total hair count, total hair density, and terminal hair density (for each, P = 0.001). The investigator assessments revealed significant improvements in terminal and vellus hair count and terminal hair density. Hair pull test results were significantly lower (fewer hairs removed) for study drug vs. placebo at Days 90 (P < 0.05) and 180 (P < 0.01). There were no reports of treatment-emergent adverse events. The results of this study showed for the first time that a dietary supplement containing a marine complex and other ingredients can decrease hair shedding and promote hair growth in men with thinning hair. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Hair dyeing, hair washing and hair cortisol concentrations among women from the healthy start study.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Sheila K; Larsen, Sofus C; Olsen, Nanna J; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Heitmann, Berit L

    2017-03-01

    Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) has been suggested as a promising marker for chronic stress. However, studies investigating the influence of hair dyeing and hair washing frequency on HCC have shown inconsistent results. To examine associations between HCC and hair dyeing status or weekly hair washing frequency among women. This cross-sectional study was based on data from 266 mothers participating in the Healthy Start intervention study. HCC was measured in the proximal end of the hair (1-2cm closest to the scalp) while hair dyeing status, frequency of hair washing and covariates were reported by the women. Linear regression analyses were applied to assess the associations between HCC and hair dyeing or weekly frequency of hair washing. No statistically significant difference (p=0.91) in HCC was found between women who dyed hair (adjusted mean: 137pg/mg [95% CI: 122,153]) and women with natural hair color (adjusted mean: 139pg/mg [95% CI: 123,155]). Frequency of hair washing was not associated with HCC (β: -3.7 [95% CI: -9.0, 1.5; P=0.20]). This study of 266 Danish women provides no evidence in support of an association between HCC and hair dyeing status or hair washing frequency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Advances and challenges in hair restoration of curly Afrocentric hair.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Nicole E; Callender, Valerie D

    2014-04-01

    Although the biochemical composition of hair is similar among racial and ethnic groups, the hair structure between them varies, and individuals with curly hair pose specific challenges and special considerations when a surgical option for alopecia is considered. Hair restoration in this population should therefore be approached with knowledge on the clinical characteristics of curly hair, hair grooming techniques that may influence the management, unique indications for the procedure, surgical instrumentation used, and the complications that may arise. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hair decontamination procedure prior to multi-class pesticide analysis.

    PubMed

    Duca, Radu-Corneliu; Hardy, Emilie; Salquèbre, Guillaume; Appenzeller, Brice M R

    2014-06-01

    Although increasing interest is being observed in hair analysis for the biomonitoring of human exposure to pesticides, some limitations still have to be addressed for optimum use of this matrix in that specific context. One main possible issue concerns the need to differentiate chemicals biologically incorporated into hair from those externally deposited on hair surface from contaminated air or dust. The present study focuses on the development of a washing procedure for the decontamination of hair before analysis of pesticides from different chemical classes. For this purpose, three different procedures of artificial contamination (with silica, cellulose, and aqueous solution) were used to simulate pesticides deposition on hair surface. Several washing solvents (four organic: acetone, dichloromethane, methanol, acetonitrile; and four aqueous: water, phosphate buffer, shampoo, sodium dodecylsulfate) were evaluated for their capacity to remove artificially deposited pesticides from hair surface. The most effective washing solvents were sodium dodecylsulfate and methanol for aqueous and organic solvents, respectively. Moreover, after a first washing with sodium dodecylsulfate or methanol, the majority of externally deposited pesticides was removed and a steady-state was reached since significantly lower amounts were removed by additional second and third washings. Finally, the effectiveness of a decontamination procedure comprising washing with sodium dodecylsulfate and methanol was successively demonstrated. In parallel, it was determined that the final procedure did not affect the chemicals biologically incorporated, as hair strands naturally containing pesticides were used. Such a procedure appears to remove in one-shot the fraction of chemicals located on hair surface and does not require repeated washing steps. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Fullerene nanomaterials potentiate hair growth.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhiguo; Lenk, Robert; Dellinger, Anthony; MacFarland, Darren; Kumar, Krishan; Wilson, Stephen R; Kepley, Christopher L

    2009-06-01

    Hair loss is a common symptom resulting from a wide range of disease processes and can lead to stress in affected individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of fullerene nanomaterials on hair growth. We used shaved mice as well as SKH-1 "bald" mice to determine if fullerene-based compounds could affect hair growth and hair follicle numbers. In shaved mice, fullerenes increase the rate of hair growth as compared with mice receiving vehicle only. In SKH-1 hairless mice fullerene derivatives given topically or subdermally markedly increased hair growth. This was paralleled by a significant increase in the number of hair follicles in fullerene-treated mice as compared with those mice treated with vehicle only. The fullerenes also increased hair growth in human skin sections maintained in culture. These studies have wide-ranging implications for those conditions leading to hair loss, including alopecia, chemotherapy, and reactions to various chemicals.

  4. The Lore of the Hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunes, Nicolas; Yagi, Kent; Stein, Leo

    2016-03-01

    Stars can be hairy beasts, especially in theories that go beyond Einstein's. In the latter, a scalar field can be sourced and anchored to a neutron star, and if the later is in a binary system, the scalar field will emit dipole radiation. This radiation removes energy from the binary, forcing the orbit to adiabatically decay much more rapidly than due to the emission of gravitational waves as predicted in General Relativity. The detailed radio observation of binary pulsars has constrained the orbital decay of compact binaries stringently, so much so that theories that predict neutron stars with scalar hair are believed to be essentially ruled out. In this talk I will explain why this ``lore'' is actually incorrect, providing a counter-example in which scalar hair is sourced by neutron stars, yet dipole radiation is absent. I will then describe what binary systems need to be observed to constrain such theories with future astrophysical observations. I acknowledge support from NSF CAREER Grant PHY-1250636.

  5. Dental hard tissue modification and removal using sealed TEA lasers operating at λ=9.6 and 10.6 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Daniel; Murray, Michael W.; Featherstone, John D. B.; Akrivou, Maria; Dickenson, Kevin M.; Duhn, Clifford W.; Ojeda, Orlando P.

    1999-05-01

    Pulsed CO2 lasers have been shown to be effective for both removal and modification of dental hard tissue for the treatment of dental caries. In this study, sealed TEA laser systems optimally tuned to the highly absorbed 9.6 μm wavelength were investigated for application on dental hard tissue. Conventional TEA lasers produce a laser pulse wit a 100-200 ns gain switched spike followed by a long tail of about 1-4 μs in duration. the pulse duration is well matched to the 1-2 μs thermal relaxation time of the deposited laser energy at 9.6 μm and effectively heats the enamel to temperatures required for surface modification for caries prevention at absorbed fluences of less than 0.5 J/cm2. Thus, the heat deposition in the tooth and the corresponding risk, of pulpal necrosis form excessive heat accumulation is minimized. At higher fluences the high peak power of the gain-switched spike rapidly initiates a plasma that markedly reduces the ablation rate and efficiency, severely limiting applicability for hard tissue ablation. By slightly stretching the pulse to reduce the energy distributed in the initial 100-200 ns of the laser pulse, the plasma threshold can be raised sufficiently to increase the ablation rate by an order of magnitude. This results in a practical and efficient CO2 laser system for caries ablation and surface modification.

  6. Hard tooth tissue removal by short and long Er:YAG or Er,Cr:YSGG mid-infrared laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelínková, H.; Dostálová, T.; Remeš, M.; Šulc, J.; Němec, M.; Fibrich, M.

    2017-02-01

    Hard dental tissue removal by laser radiation is an alternative treatment to conventional dental-drilling procedures. The advantages of this therapy are fast and localized treatment of hard dental tissue and painlessness. The most effective systems for those purposes are Er-lasers generating radiation at wavelengths of around 3 μm. The aim of this study was qualitative and quantitative examination of human dentin and ivory tissue removal by pulsed free-running (FR) and Q-switched (QSW) Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser radiations. From the obtained results it follows that generally Er:YAG laser has lower threshold for the tissue removal in both FR and QSW regimes. Furthermore, the FR Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG radiation can be effective for both dentin and ivory ablation and can prepare smooth cavities without side effects. The QSW regime is useful preferably for precise ablation of a starting tooth defect and for the part of the tooth very close to the gum. This regime is excellent for micro-preparation or for tooth treatment of children.

  7. Removal of Dental Implants Using the Erbium,Chromium:Yttrium-Scandium-Gallium-Garnet Laser and the Conventional Trephine Bur: An in Vitro Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Hajji, Mohammad; Franzen, Rene; Grümer, Stefan; Modabber, Ali; Nasher, Riman; Prescher, Andreas; Gutknecht, Norbert

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the conventional trephine bur and the Erbium,chromium: yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser in removing implants in terms of the volume of removed bone, duration of the procedure, and morphological changes on the bone surface. Three human mandibles were utilized, and four implants were inserted in each mandible using a drilling handpiece and burs. The implants were divided into two groups (n = 6) in which two implants from each mandible were removed using a trephine bur running at 1200 rounds per minute (rpm) with water irrigation. The remaining implants (n = 6) were removed with Er,Cr:YSGG laser (power 6 W, frequency 20 Hz, pulse duration 50 μs, water 60, air 30). The volume of bone loss was calculated by filling the holes with mercury and measuring its volume. The preparation time was measured with a digital stopwatch and the postoperative bone surfaces were examined under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The laser group exhibited a smaller amount of bone loss than the trephine bur group, whereas the latter required a shorter time of preparation. SEM revealed empty trabecular spaces with no signs of carbonization and well-defined edges in the laser group, whereas the trephine group displayed a surface covered with a smear layer and microcracks. The Er,Cr:YSGG laser provides superior results over the trephine bur in terms of bone preservation, thermal damage, and cutting efficiency.

  8. Image-guided removal of occlusal caries lesions with a λ= 9.3-µm CO2 laser using near-IR transillumination

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Leon C.; Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Simon, Jacob C.; Fried, Daniel; Darling, Cynthia L.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that near-IR transillumination is well suited for imaging deep occlusal lesions. The purpose of this study was to determine if near-IR images can be used to guide a CO2 laser for the selective removal of natural occlusal lesions on extracted teeth. Near-IR occlusal transillumination images of extracted human teeth with natural occlusal caries lesions were acquired using an InGaAs camera and near-IR light at wavelengths from 1290 to 1470-nm from a filtered tungsten halogen source. A CO2 laser operating at 9.3-µm with a pulse duration of 10–15-µs and a pulse repetition rate of 100–300-Hz was used for caries removal. Optical Coherence tomography was used to confirm lesion presence and serial scans were used to assess selective removal. Teeth were also sectioned for histological examination using polarized light microscopy. This study suggests that near-infrared transillumination is a promising method for the image guided laser ablation of occlusal caries lesions but the use of serial near-IR transillumination imaging for monitoring lesion removal was limited. PMID:25914498

  9. Image-guided removal of occlusal caries lesions with a λ= 9.3-μm CO2 laser using near-IR transillumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Leon C.; Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Simon, Jacob C.; Fried, Daniel; Darling, Cynthia L.

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that near-IR transillumination is well suited for imaging deep occlusal lesions. The purpose of this study was to determine if near-IR images can be used to guide a CO2 laser for the selective removal of natural occlusal lesions on extracted teeth. Near-IR occlusal transillumination images of extracted human teeth with natural occlusal caries lesions were acquired using an InGaAs camera and near-IR light at wavelengths from 1290 to 1470-nm from a filtered tungsten halogen source. A CO2 laser operating at 9.3-μm with a pulse duration of 10-15-μs and a pulse repetition rate of 100-300-Hz was used for caries removal. Optical Coherence tomography was used to confirm lesion presence and serial scans were used to assess selective removal. Teeth were also sectioned for histological examination using polarized light microscopy. This study suggests that near-infrared transillumination is a promising method for the image guided laser ablation of occlusal caries lesions but the use of serial near-IR transillumination imaging for monitoring lesion removal was limited.

  10. Efficacy of laser-driven irrigation versus ultrasonic in removing an airlock from the apical third of a narrow root canal.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Harry Huiz; Gutknecht, Norbert

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that air entrapment occurs in the apical third of a root canal during irrigation. A second objective was to test the null hypothesis that there is no difference between laser-driven irrigation (an erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet laser) and passive ultrasonic irrigation in removing an airlock from the apical third. One hundred twenty extracted human teeth with single narrow root canals were randomised into two experimental groups (n = 40) and two control groups (n = 20). The specimens were shaped using hand instruments up to a size 30/0.02 file. The teeth were irrigated with a mixture of saline, radiopaque contrast and ink in solution. In the passive ultrasonic irrigation group, the irrigant was activated with an ultrasonic device for 60 s. In the laser group, the irrigant was activated with a laser for 60 s. It was concluded that if the insertion of irrigation needle is shorter than the working length, air entrapment may develop in the apical third, but the use of laser-driven irrigation is completely effective in removing it. © 2013 The Authors. Australian Endodontic Journal © 2013 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  11. Excessive or unwanted hair in women

    MedlinePlus

    Hypertrichosis; Hirsutism; Hair - excessive (women); Excessive hair in women; Hair - women - excessive or unwanted ... much of this hormone, you may have unwanted hair growth. In most cases, the exact cause is ...

  12. Aging changes in hair and nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004005.htm Aging changes in hair and nails To use the sharing ... you age, your hair and nails begin to change. HAIR CHANGES AND THEIR EFFECTS Hair color change . ...

  13. The biology of hair diversity.

    PubMed

    Westgate, Gillian E; Botchkareva, Natalia V; Tobin, Desmond J

    2013-08-01

    Hair diversity, its style, colour, shape and growth pattern is one of our most defining characteristics. The natural versus temporary style is influenced by what happens to our hair during our lifetime, such as genetic hair loss, sudden hair shedding, greying and pathological hair loss in the various forms of alopecia because of genetics, illness or medication. Despite the size and global value of the hair care market, our knowledge of what controls the innate and within-lifetime characteristics of hair diversity remains poorly understood. In the last decade, drivers of knowledge have moved into the arena of genetics where hair traits are obvious and measurable and genetic polymorphisms are being found that raise valuable questions about the biology of hair growth. The recent discovery that the gene for trichohyalin contributes to hair shape comes as no surprise to the hair biologists who have believed for 100 years that hair shape is linked to the structure and function of the inner root sheath. Further conundrums awaiting elucidation include the polymorphisms in the androgen receptor (AR) described in male pattern alopecia whose location on the X chromosome places this genetic contributor into the female line. The genetics of female hair loss is less clear with polymorphisms in the AR not associated with female pattern hair loss. Lifestyle choices are also implicated in hair diversity. Greying, which also has a strong genetic component, is often suggested to have a lifestyle (stress) influence and hair follicle melanocytes show declining antioxidant protection with age and lowered resistance to stress. It is likely that hair research will undergo a renaissance on the back of the rising information from genetic studies as well as the latest contributions from the field of epigenetics. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  14. [A preliminary study on the forming quality of titanium alloy removable partial denture frameworks fabricated by selective laser melting].

    PubMed

    Liu, Y F; Yu, H; Wang, W N; Gao, B

    2017-06-09

    Objective: To evaluate the processing accuracy, internal quality and suitability of the titanium alloy frameworks of removable partial denture (RPD) fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) technique, and to provide reference for clinical application. Methods: The plaster model of one clinical patient was used as the working model, and was scanned and reconstructed into a digital working model. A RPD framework was designed on it. Then, eight corresponding RPD frameworks were fabricated using SLM technique. Three-dimensional (3D) optical scanner was used to scan and obtain the 3D data of the frameworks and the data was compared with the original computer aided design (CAD) model to evaluate their processing precision. The traditional casting pure titanium frameworks was used as the control group, and the internal quality was analyzed by X-ray examination. Finally, the fitness of the frameworks was examined on the plaster model. Results: The overall average deviation of the titanium alloy RPD framework fabricated by SLM technology was (0.089±0.076) mm, the root mean square error was 0.103 mm. No visible pores, cracks and other internal defects was detected in the frameworks. The framework fits on the plaster model completely, and its tissue surface fitted on the plaster model well. There was no obvious movement. Conclusions: The titanium alloy RPD framework fabricated by SLM technology is of good quality.

  15. [Tufted hair folliculitis].

    PubMed

    Trüeb, R M; Pericin, M; Hafner, J; Burg, G

    1997-04-01

    A case of tufted hair folliculutis presenting as circumscribed, tender and inflamed areas in the occiput with residual tufted follicles in a 28-year old man is reported. Tufted hair folliculitis is a characteristic localized scarring bacterial folliculitis of the scalp due to Staphylococcus aureus. Histopathological studies reveal perifollicular inflammation around the upper portions of the follicles sparing the hair root level. Within areas of inflammation, several follicles converge toward a common follicular duct with a widely dilated opening. Currently, tufted hair folliculitis is considered a variant of folliculitis decalvans of Quinquaud. Staphylococcal infection is believed to be an initial causative factor, and underlying differences in follicular anatomy or host response may be important in determining which reaction pattern occurs in an affected individual. The development of atrophy with loss of adnexal structures (in folliculitis decalvans) or of hair tufts (in tufting folliculitis) may depend upon the depth and destructive potential of the inflammatory process. The therapeutic approach is problematic; prolonged treatment with oral antibiotics may stabilize the disease, but good and at times more definitive results (as in the presented case) have been reported after radical surgical excision of the involved areas.

  16. Dermatotoxicologic clinical solutions: hair dying in hair dye allergic patients?

    PubMed

    Edwards, Ashley; Coman, Garrett; Blickenstaff, Nicholas; Maibach, Howard

    2015-03-01

    This article describes how to identify allergic contact dermatitis resulting from hair dye, and outlines interventions and prevention principles for those who wish to continue dyeing their hair despite being allergic. Hair dye chemicals thought to be the most frequent sensitizers are discussed with instructions for health care providers on how to counsel patients about techniques to minimize exposure to allergenic substances. This framework should allow many patients to continue dyeing their hair without experiencing adverse side effects.

  17. A new path in defining light parameters for hair growth: Discovery and modulation of photoreceptors in human hair follicle.

    PubMed

    Buscone, Serena; Mardaryev, Andrei N; Raafs, Bianca; Bikker, Jan W; Sticht, Carsten; Gretz, Norbert; Farjo, Nilofer; Uzunbajakava, Natallia E; Botchkareva, Natalia V

    2017-09-01

    Though devices for hair growth based on low levels of light have shown encouraging results, further improvements of their efficacy is impeded by a lack of knowledge on the exact molecular targets that mediate physiological response in skin and hair follicle. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of selected light-sensitive receptors in the human hair follicle and to study the impact of UV-free blue light on hair growth ex vivo. The expression of Opsin receptors in human skin and hair follicles has been characterized using RT-qPCR and immunofluorescence approaches. The functional significance of Opsin 3 was assessed by silencing its expression in the hair follicle cells followed by a transcriptomic profiling. Proprietary LED-based devices emitting two discrete visible wavelengths were used to access the effects of selected optical parameters on hair growth ex vivo and outer root sheath cells in vitro. The expression of OPN2 (Rhodopsin) and OPN3 (Panopsin, Encephalopsin) was detected in the distinct compartments of skin and anagen hair follicle. Treatment with 3.2 J/cm 2 of blue light with 453 nm central wavelength significantly prolonged anagen phase in hair follicles ex vivo that was correlated with sustained proliferation in the light-treated samples. In contrast, hair follicle treatment with 3.2 J/cm 2 of 689 nm light (red light) did not significantly affect hair growth ex vivo. Silencing of OPN3 in the hair follicle outer root sheath cells resulted in the altered expression of genes involved in the control of proliferation and apoptosis, and abrogated stimulatory effects of blue light (3.2 J/cm 2 ; 453 nm) on proliferation in the outer root sheath cells. We provide the first evidence that (i) OPN2 and OPN3 are expressed in human hair follicle, and (ii) A 453 nm blue light at low radiant exposure exerts a positive effect on hair growth ex vivo, potentially via interaction with OPN3. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:705-718, 2017. © 2017 Wiley

  18. Hair Cortisol Concentrations Are Associated with Hair Growth Rate.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Lianbin; Sunesara, Imran; Rehm, Kristina E; Marshall, Gailen D

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest in hair cortisol concentrations as a valuable biomarker for the assessment of metabolic diseases and chronic psychological stress. Fifty-three volunteers were recruited, and hair segments proximal to the scalp were collected from each individual. A cost-effective ball mill was used for the preparation of hair samples, and ELISA was performed to analyze cortisol concentrations. Results indicate that the frequency of hair washing affects the hair cortisol concentration. The group that washed their hair every day had significantly lower cortisol concentrations than the group that washed it less often. However, no significant differences were detected between cosmetic-treated and nontreated hair samples. The study also shows that hair cortisol concentrations in the first 3 cm of hair segments proximal to the scalp corresponded to average hair growth rate based on 1 cm/month. Thus, hair cortisol concentrations of segments 3 cm proximal to the scalp may represent cumulative stress exposure over the previous 3 months. These findings will allow more widespread research to validate the utility of hair cortisol as a potential biomarker to assess chronic stress. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Ethyl glucuronide: unusual distribution between head hair and pubic hair.

    PubMed

    Kintz, Pascal; Villain, Marion; Vallet, Emilie; Etter, Mathieu; Salquebre, Guillaume; Cirimele, Vincent

    2008-03-21

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a minor metabolite of ethanol that can be detected in hair. In some specific situations, head hair can be missing, and therefore, alternative anatomical locations of hair are of interest. In this study, paired hair specimens (head hair and pubic hair) from eight social drinkers were analyzed for EtG. Each sample was decontaminated by two dichloromethane bathes (5 ml) for 2 min. After cutting into small pieces, about 50 mg of hair was incubated in 2 ml water in the presence of 10 ng of EtG-d5, used as internal standard and submitted to ultra-sonication for 2 h. The aqueous phase was extracted by SPE using Oasis MAX columns. The hair extract was separated on an ACQUITY BEH HILIC column using a gradient of acetonitrile and formate buffer. Detection was based on two daughter ions: transitions m/z 221-85 and 75 and m/z 226-75 for EtG and the IS, respectively. This laboratory is using a positive cut-off at 50 pg/mg. All eight head hair specimens were negative for EtG at a limit of quantitation fixed at 10 pg/mg. Surprisingly, EtG was identified at high concentrations in pubic hair, in the range 12-1370 pg/mg. It appears, therefore, that it is not possible to document the drinking status of a subject by simply switching from head hair to pubic hair.

  20. "Wave" signal-smoothing and mercury-removing device for laser ablation quadrupole and multiple collector ICPMS analysis: application to lead isotope analysis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhaochu; Zhang, Wen; Liu, Yongsheng; Gao, Shan; Li, Ming; Zong, Keqing; Chen, Haihong; Hu, Shenghong

    2015-01-20

    A novel "wave" signal-smoothing and mercury-removing device has been developed for laser ablation quadrupole and multiple collector ICPMS analysis. With the wave stabilizer that has been developed, the signal stability was improved by a factor of 6.6-10 and no oscillation of the signal intensity was observed at a repetition rate of 1 Hz. Another advantage of the wave stabilizer is that the signal decay time is similar to that without the signal-smoothing device (increased by only 1-2 s for a signal decay of approximately 4 orders of magnitude). Most of the normalized elemental signals (relative to those without the stabilizer) lie within the range of 0.95-1.0 with the wave stabilizer. Thus, the wave stabilizer device does not significantly affect the aerosol transport efficiency. These findings indicate that this device is well-suited for routine optimization of ICPMS, as well as low repetition rate laser ablation analysis, which provides smaller elemental fractionation and better spatial resolution. With the wave signal-smoothing and mercury-removing device, the mercury gas background is reduced by 1 order of magnitude. More importantly, the (202)Hg signal intensity produced in the sulfide standard MASS-1 by laser ablation is reduced from 256 to 0.7 mV by the use of the wave signal-smoothing and mercury-removing device. This result suggests that the mercury is almost completely removed from the sample aerosol particles produced by laser ablation with the operation of the wave mercury-removing device. The wave mercury-removing device that we have designed is very important for Pb isotope ratio and accessory mineral U-Pb dating analysis, where removal of the mercury from the background gas and sample aerosol particles is highly desired. The wave signal-smoothing and mercury-removing device was applied successfully to the determination of the (206)Pb/(204)Pb isotope ratio in samples with low Pb content and/or high Hg content.

  1. Compact 1.5-GHz intra-burst repetition rate Yb-doped all-PM-fiber laser system for ablation-cooled material removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akcaalan, Onder; Kalaycioglu, Hamit; Ilday, F. Omer

    Although fs fiber laser systems are powerful technologies for material and tissue processing, limited ablation rates and high energy are drawbacks. Recently, we identified a new regime of laser-material interaction, ablation-cooled laser material removal, where the repetition rate has to be high enough so that the targeted spot size cannot cool down substantially by heat conduction which scales down ablation threshold by several orders of magnitude and reduces thermal effects to the bulk of the target. This opens the door to simplified laser systems for processing. In order to exploit this regime in tissue processing, a compact all-PM-fiber laser amplifier system with an intra-burst repetition rate of 1.5 GHz is developed on a 40 x 65 cm platform. The system is able to produce bursts ranging from 20-ns to 65-ns duration with 20 uJ to 80 uJ total energy, respectively, and pulses with up to 2 uJ individual energy and burst repetition rate ranging from 25 kHz to 200 kHz. The seed signal is generated by a home-built all-normal dispersion oscillator with 385 MHz repetition rate and converted to approximately 1.5 GHz by a multiplier. Amplified pulses are compressed to approximately 250-fs, the shortest pulse width for burst-mode fiber laser systems known to date.

  2. Testing human hair for drugs of abuse. IV. Environmental cocaine contamination and washing effects.

    PubMed

    Wang, W L; Cone, E J

    1995-01-05

    Active cocaine use results in sequestration of parent drug in hair. In addition, hair has unique physicochemical properties that permit absorption of cocaine from the environment. When hair is tested for evidence of cocaine, it is important to consider whether the positive test resulted from active drug use or environmental contamination. In a series of laboratory experiments, it was found that exposure of 'cut' hair to cocaine vapor ('crack' smoke) and to aqueous solutions of cocaine hydrochloride resulted in significant contamination of hair samples. Similar results were obtained with two subjects who were exposed to cocaine vapor in an unventilated room. The amount of contamination adsorbed by hair depended upon both time and extent of exposure. Washing the hair samples with methanol removed > 70% of the cocaine contaminant after cocaine vapor exposure, but was less effective (< 50%) following contamination with aqueous cocaine. Shampoo treatment cycles (overnight soaking) progressively removed increasing amounts of cocaine from the contaminated hair, but residual cocaine remained after 10 cycles. Studies were also performed to determine the usefulness of benzoylecgonine as a marker of active cocaine administration. Small amounts of benzoylecgonine (ca. 1 ng/mg) were formed in hair as a result of environmental contamination with cocaine. Also, it was found that benzoylecgonine could be adsorbed from illicit cocaine contaminated with benzoylecgonine. It was concluded that positive hair test results should be interpreted cautiously due to the possibility of environmental contamination from cocaine and related constituents.

  3. Measurements of morphology and refractive indexes on human downy hairs using three-dimensional quantitative phase imaging.

    PubMed

    Lee, SangYun; Kim, Kyoohyun; Lee, Yuhyun; Park, Sungjin; Shin, Heejae; Yang, Jongwon; Ko, Kwanhong; Park, HyunJoo; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    We present optical measurements of morphology and refractive indexes (RIs) of human downy arm hairs using three-dimensional (3-D) quantitative phase imaging techniques. 3-D RI tomograms and high-resolution two-dimensional synthetic aperture images of individual downy arm hairs were measured using a Mach–Zehnder laser interferometric microscopy equipped with a two-axis galvanometer mirror. From the measured quantitative images, the RIs and morphological parameters of downy hairs were noninvasively quantified including the mean RI, volume, cylinder, and effective radius of individual hairs. In addition, the effects of hydrogen peroxide on individual downy hairs were investigated.

  4. Fumonisin mycotoxins in human hair.

    PubMed

    Sewram, Vikash; Mshicileli, Ndumiso; Shephard, Gordon S; Marasas, Walter F O

    2003-01-01

    This study shows for the first time the accumulation of fumonisin mycotoxins in human hair of population clusters exposed to contaminated maize, and thus the feasibility of human hair analysis for the assessment of past fumonisin exposure. Composite hair samples were obtained from the Bizana, Butterworth and Centane districts within the Transkei region of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Following methanol extraction and strong anion exchange clean up, the fumonisins FB(1), FB(2) and FB(3) were detected using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS). Hair from Centane and Butterworth showed mean levels of FB(1) of 26.7 and 23.5 microg kg(-1) hair, respectively. FB(2) was only detected in hair from Centane and in one sampling point in Butterworth, with mean levels of 6.5 and 5.7 microg kg(-1) hair, respectively. Hair samples from Bizana, on the other hand, were found to contain higher levels of FB(1) (mean 33.0 microg kg(-1) hair) and FB(2) (mean 11.1 microg kg(-1) hair). No samples contained more than trace levels of FB(3). Recoveries from spiked hair samples using this method ranged from 81% to 101%, demonstrating the applicability of hair analysis in assessing human exposure to fumonisin mycotoxins.

  5. Trichotillomania (Hair-Pulling Disorder)

    MedlinePlus

    Trichotillomania (hair-pulling disorder) Overview Trichotillomania (trik-o-til-o-MAY-nee-uh), also called hair-pulling disorder, is a mental disorder that involves recurrent, irresistible urges to pull out hair from your scalp, eyebrows or other areas of ...

  6. Why Does Hair Turn Gray?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Why Does Hair Turn Gray? KidsHealth / For Kids / Why Does Hair Turn Gray? Print en español ¿Por qué se ... ever watched someone try to cover up gray hair by dyeing it? Or maybe you wonder why ...

  7. The Growth of Human Hair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Helen J.

    1984-01-01

    Suggests a simple technique for collecting and observing human hair roots to compare structure, function, and variation. Students extract their own hair samples and view them using a 40-power microscope objective. Differences between active/inactive phases of hair growth are readily observed. (The activity can be adapted for younger students.) (DH)

  8. Hair Follicle Miniaturization in a Woolly Hair Nevus: A Novel "Root" Perspective for a Mosaic Hair Disorder.

    PubMed

    Veraitch, Ophelia; Perez, Alfonso; Hoque, Shamali R; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Fleck, Roland A; Fenton, David A; Stefanato, Catherine M

    2016-03-01

    Woolly hair nevus is a mosaic disorder characterized by unruly, tightly curled hair in a circumscribed area of the scalp. This condition may be associated with epidermal nevi. We describe an 11-year-old boy who initially presented with multiple patches of woolly hair and with epidermal nevi on his left cheek and back. He had no nail, teeth, eye, or cardiac abnormalities. Analysis of plucked hairs from patches of woolly hair showed twisting of the hair shaft and an abnormal hair cuticle. Histopathology of a woolly hair patch showed diffuse hair follicle miniaturization with increased vellus hairs.

  9. Interventions for female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    van Zuuren, Esther J; Fedorowicz, Zbys; Schoones, Jan

    2016-05-26

    L was not assessed. Only one study addressed adverse events (137 participants) (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.45 to 2.34; low quality evidence). In two studies (219 participants) there was no clinically meaningful difference in change of hair count, whilst one study (12 participants) favoured finasteride (low quality evidence).Two studies (141 participants) evaluated low-level laser comb therapy compared to a sham device. According to the participants, the low-level laser comb was not more effective than the sham device (RR 1.54, 95% CI 0.96 to 2.49; and RR 1.18, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.89; moderate quality evidence). However, there was a difference in favour of low-level laser comb for change from baseline in hair count (MD 17.40, 95% CI 9.74 to 25.06; and MD 17.60, 95% CI 11.97 to 23.23; low quality evidence). These studies did not assess QoL and did not report adverse events per treatment arm and only in a generic way (low quality evidence). Low-level laser therapy against sham comparisons in two separate studies also showed an increase in total hair count but with limited further data.Single studies addressed the other comparisons and provided limited evidence of either the efficacy or safety of these interventions, or were unlikely to be examined in future trials. Although there was a predominance of included studies at unclear to high risk of bias, there was evidence to support the efficacy and safety of topical minoxidil in the treatment of FPHL (mainly moderate to low quality evidence). Furthermore, there was no difference in effect between the minoxidil 2% and 5% with the quality of evidence rated moderate to low for most outcomes. Finasteride was no more effective than placebo (low quality evidence). There were inconsistent results in the studies that evaluated laser devices (moderate to low quality evidence), but there was an improvement in total hair count measured from baseline.Further randomised controlled trials of other widely-used treatments, such as spironolactone

  10. Exogenous contamination of uranium in human scalp hair.

    PubMed

    Muikku, Maarit; Heikkinen, Tarja

    2012-06-01

    The use of human scalp hair as a bioindicator of occupational or environmental exposure has been the subject of some debate over the years. One problem is how to distinguish internal contamination from external contamination. In this study, possibility that elevated levels of natural uranium in human hair are partly due to the exogenously bound uranium from uranium-rich household water was tested. Hair samples from six adult volunteers were cut and then exposed externally to uranium by using washing water with highly elevated levels of natural uranium. After that, and before making the analysis using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), the samples were washed using two commonly used washing procedures in order to remove external contamination. No quantitative information was gained in the tests, but it was shown that the use of uranium-rich water when washing hair affects the uranium concentration in hair. Although the samples were cleaned according to widely used washing procedures before the analysis, the uranium concentrations in hair were about three orders of magnitude higher after the tests. The possibility of external contamination should be kept in mind, especially when considering hair as an excretion pathway for estimating internal dose.

  11. Spider Vein Removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... available to remove them? Answers from Lawrence E. Gibson, M.D. Several options are available to remove ... develop in the same area. With Lawrence E. Gibson, M.D. Scovell, S. Laser and light therapy of ...

  12. Hair organ regeneration via the bioengineered hair follicular unit transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Asakawa, Kyosuke; Toyoshima, Koh-ei; Ishibashi, Naoko; Tobe, Hirofumi; Iwadate, Ayako; Kanayama, Tatsuya; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Nakao, Kazuhisa; Toki, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Shotaro; Ogawa, Miho; Sato, Akio; Tsuji, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Organ regenerative therapy aims to reproduce fully functional organs to replace organs that have been lost or damaged as a result of disease, injury, or aging. For the fully functional regeneration of ectodermal organs, a concept has been proposed in which a bioengineered organ is developed by reproducing the embryonic processes of organogenesis. Here, we show that a bioengineered hair follicle germ, which was reconstituted with embryonic skin-derived epithelial and mesenchymal cells and ectopically transplanted, was able to develop histologically correct hair follicles. The bioengineered hair follicles properly connected to the host skin epithelium by intracutaneous transplantation and reproduced the stem cell niche and hair cycles. The bioengineered hair follicles also autonomously connected with nerves and the arrector pili muscle at the permanent region and exhibited piloerection ability. Our findings indicate that the bioengineered hair follicles could restore physiological hair functions and could be applicable to surgical treatments for alopecia. PMID:22645640

  13. Comparison of methanol and isopropanol as wash solvents for determination of hair cortisol concentration in grizzly bears and polar bears.

    PubMed

    Kroshko, Thomas; Kapronczai, Luciene; Cattet, Marc R L; Macbeth, Bryan J; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Obbard, Martyn E; Janz, David M

    2017-01-01

    Methodological differences among laboratories are recognized as significant sources of variation in quantification of hair cortisol concentration (HCC). An important step in processing hair, particularly when collected from wildlife, is the choice of solvent used to remove or "wash" external hair shaft cortisol prior to quantification of HCC. The present study systematically compared methanol and isopropanol as wash solvents for their efficiency at removing external cortisol without extracting internal hair shaft cortisol in samples collected from free-ranging grizzly bears and polar bears. Cortisol concentrations in solvents and hair were determined in each of one to eight washes of hair with each solvent independently. •There were no significant decreases in internal hair shaft cortisol among all eight washes for either solvent, although methanol removed detectable hair surface cortisol after one wash in grizzly bear hair whereas hair surface cortisol was detected in all eight isopropanol washes.•There were no significant differences in polar bear HCC washed one to eight times with either solvent, but grizzly bear HCC was significantly greater in hair washed with isopropanol compared to methanol.•There were significant differences in HCC quantified using different commercial ELISA kits commonly used for HCC determinations.

  14. Hair tonic poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... health care provider tells you to. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the person swallowed the hair tonic, give them water or milk right away, ...

  15. Hair bleach poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... health care provider tells you to. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the person swallowed the hair bleach, give them water or milk right away, ...

  16. Davis combs her hair

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-08-28

    STS085-327-011 (7 - 19 August 1997) --- Astronaut N. Jan Davis spends a moment of her off-duty time aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery brushing her hair. Davis, payload commander, never strayed far from the payload operations checklist, seen attached to nearby mid-deck wall.

  17. Comparison of removal torques between laser-etched and modified sandblasted acid-etched Ti implant surfaces in rabbit tibias

    PubMed Central

    Al Awamleh, Abdel Ghani Ibrahim

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of two different implant surface treatments on initial bone connection by comparing the Removal Torque Values (RTQs) at 7 and 10 days after chemically modified, sandblasted, large-grit and acid-etched (modSLA), and Laser-etched (LE) Ti implant placements. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty modSLA and 20 LE implants were installed on the left and right tibias of 20 adult rabbits. RTQs were measured after 7 and 10 days in 10 rabbits each. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) photographs of the two implants were observed by using Quanta FEG 650 from the FEI company (Hillsboro, OR, USA). Analyses of surface elements and components were conducted using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, Horiba, Kyoto, Japan). RESULTS The mean RTQs were 12.29 ± 0.830 and 12.19 ± 0.713 Ncm after 7 days (P=.928) and 16.47 ± 1.324 and 16.17 ± 1.165 Ncm after 10 days (P=.867) for LE and modSLA, respectively, indicating no significant inter-group differences. Pore sizes in the LE were 40 µm and consisted of numerous small pores, whereas pore sizes in the modSLA were 5 µm. In the EDS analysis, Ti, O, and C were the only three elements found in the LE surfaces. Na, Ca, Cl, and K were also observed in modSLA, in addition to Ti, O, and C. CONCLUSION The implants showed no significant difference in biomechanical bond strength to bone in early-stage osseointegration. LE implant can be considered an excellent surface treatment method in addition to the modSLA implant and can be applied to the early loading of the prosthesis clinically. PMID:29503717

  18. Hair shafts in trichoscopy: clues for diagnosis of hair and scalp diseases.

    PubMed

    Rudnicka, Lidia; Rakowska, Adriana; Kerzeja, Marta; Olszewska, Małgorzata

    2013-10-01

    Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) analyzes the structure and size of growing hair shafts, providing diagnostic clues for inherited and acquired causes of hair loss. Types of hair shaft abnormalities observed include exclamation mark hairs (alopecia areata, trichotillomania, chemotherapy-induced alopecia), Pohl-Pinkus constrictions (alopecia areata, chemotherapy-induced alopecia, blood loss, malnutrition), comma hairs (tinea capitis), corkscrew hairs (tinea capitis), coiled hairs (trichotillomania), flame hairs (trichotillomania), and tulip hairs (in trichotillomania, alopecia areata). Trichoscopy allows differential diagnosis of most genetic hair shaft disorders. This article proposes a classification of hair shaft abnormalities observed by trichoscopy. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Scanning LDV for vibration measurement of filiform hairs in crickets in response to induced airflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santulli, C.; Finn, T. J.; Seidel, R.; Jeronimidis, G.

    2006-06-01

    Cercal hairs represent in cricket a wind sensitive escape system, able to detect the airflow generated from predating species. These sensors have been studied as a biomimetic concept to allow the development of MEMS for biomedical use. In particular, the behaviour of the hairs, including airflow response, resonant frequency and damping, has been investigated up to a frequency of 20 kHz. The microscopic nature of the hairs, the complex vibrations of excited hairs and the high damping of the system suggested that the use of Laser Doppler vibrometry could possibly improve the test performance. Two types of tests were performed: in the first case the hairs were indirectly excited using the signal obtained from a vibrating aluminium plate, whilst in the second case the hairs were directly excited using a white noise chirp. The results from the first experiment indicated that the hairs move in-phase with the exciting signal up to frequencies in the order of 10 kHz, responding to the vibration modes of the plate with a signal attenuation of 12 to 20 dB. The chirp experiment revealed the presence of rotational resonant modes at 6850 and 11300 Hz. No clear effect of hair length was perceivable on the vibration response of the filiform sensors. The obtained results proved promising to support the mechanical and vibration characterisation of the hairs and suggest that scanning Laser vibrometry can be used extensively on highly dampened biological materials.

  20. Pharmacologic interventions in aging hair

    PubMed Central

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2006-01-01

    The appearance of hair plays an important role in people’s overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today’s increasing life-expectations, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and is delivering active products directed towards meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of healthy and beautiful hair. Hair aging comprises weathering of the hair shaft, decrease of melanocyte function, and decrease in hair production. The scalp is subject to intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Intrinsic factors are related to individual genetic and epigenetic mechanisms with interindividual variation: prototypes are familial premature graying, and androgenetic alopecia. Currently available pharmacologic treatment modalities with proven efficacy for treatment of androgenetic alopecia are topical minoxidil and oral finasteride. Extrinsic factors include ultraviolet radiation and air pollution. Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress also plays a role in hair aging. Topical anti-aging compounds include photoprotectors and antioxidants. In the absence of another way to reverse hair graying, hair colorants remain the mainstay of recovering lost hair color. Topical liposome targeting for melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles are currently under investigation. PMID:18044109

  1. Prospective study of removing solar lentigines in Asians using a novel dual-wavelength and dual-pulse width picosecond laser.

    PubMed

    Negishi, Kei; Akita, Hirotaka; Matsunaga, Yukiko

    2018-04-02

    Quality-switched (QS) lasers are known to be an effective treatment for removing solar lentigines, however, high incidence of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) is a concern in darker skin types. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a dual-wavelength and dual-pulse width picosecond Nd:YAG laser for removing solar lentigines in Asians. This was a prospective, IRB-approved study. Twenty cases with solar lentigines on the face were enrolled for treatment and evaluated at 1- and 3-month after the final treatment. Results were assessed by blinded evaluators using a 5-grade percentage improvement scale and Melanin index (MI) measured by a reflectance spectrophotometer. A patient self-assessment questionnaire was also administered using a 5-grade improvement scale. Additional treatment was performed if the improvement was less than 75% or the lentigo partially remained after 4 weeks. Histological evaluation was performed to compare the differences between the current picosecond laser and a QS Nd:YAG laser 532-nm using light and electron microscopy. Forty-three lesions in 20 females, skin type III or IV, age 53.7 ± 9.75 were treated and evaluated. The laser setting was: 532-nm, 750 picoseconds, average fluence of 0.35 ± 0.06 J/cm [2] using a spot size of 3 or 4 mm. Forty lesions (93.02%) achieved over 75% clearance with a single treatment and the other three lesions (6.98%) needed two treatments. PIH occurred only in 4.65% of lesions. The average score of the blinded evaluators' assessment was 4.77 and 4.58 on a 5-grade percentage improvement scale. The patients' self-assessment rating was 4.76 and 4.67 on a 5-grade scale at 1- and 3-month follow-up, respectively. The improvement rate of relative MI (MI in the lesion minus that of the normal area) was 77.60 ± 36.27% and 76.93 ± 20.95% at 1-and 3-month follow-up. Histology showed vacuolar formation by both lasers in the epidermis that were different sizes

  2. IV INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ATOM AND MOLECULAR PULSED LASERS (AMPL'99): Surface oxide removal by a XeCl laser for decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentis, M. L.; Delaporte, Ph; Marine, W.; Uteza, O.

    2000-06-01

    The laser ablation performed with an automated excimer XeCl laser unit is used for large surface cleaning. The study focuses on metal surfaces that are oxidised and are representative of contaminated surfaces with radionuclides in a context of nuclear power plant maintenance. The unit contains an XeCl laser, the beam delivery system, the particle collection cell, and the system for real-time control of cleaning processes. The interaction of laser radiation with a surface is considered, in particular, the surface damage caused by cleaning radiation. The beam delivery system consists of an optical fibre bundle of 5 m long and allows delivering 150 W at 308 nm for laser surface cleaning. The cleaning process is controlled by analysing in real time the plasma electric field evolution. The system permits the cleaning of 2 to 6 m2 h-1 of oxides with only slight substrate modifications.

  3. Hair Follicle Bulb as a Biodosimeter for Low-Level VX Vapor Exposure: Initial Studies Validating the Presence of Potential Protein Biomarkers of Exposure in the Sprague-Dawley Rat Whisker Follicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    lead to false positive segmental hair analysis results.13 Due to the increased risk of false positives associated with segmental hair analysis ...to 200 mg of hair (to allow confirmation testing). 7 The segments are typically washed to remove external contaminants and the chemicals in the hair ...further confirmation. The method overcomes the false positives associated with traditional segmental hair analysis such. By measuring the

  4. Effect of low-level laser therapy on the post-surgical inflammatory process after third molar removal: study protocol for a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Oliveira Sierra, Simone; Melo Deana, Alessandro; Mesquita Ferrari, Raquel Agnelli; Maia Albarello, Priscilla; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil; Santos Fernandes, Kristianne Porta

    2013-11-06

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been shown to modulate the inflammatory process without adverse effects , by reducing pain and swelling and promoting the repair of damaged tissues. Because pain, swelling and muscle spasm are complications found in virtually all patients following oral surgery for the removal of impacted teeth, this model has been widely used to evaluate the effects of LLLT on the inflammatory process involving bone and, connective tissue and the muscles involved in mastication. After meeting the eligibility criteria, 60 patients treated at a Specialty Dental Center for the removal of impacted lower third molars will be randomly divided into five groups according to the type of laser therapy used at the end of surgery (intraoral irradiation with 660 nm laser; extraoral irradiation with 660 nm laser; intraoral irradiation with 808 nm laser; extraoral irradiation with 808 nm laser and no irradiation). To ensure that patients are blinded to the type of treatment they are receiving, the hand piece of the laser apparatus will be applied both intraorally and extraorally to all participants, but the device will be turned on only at the appropriate time, as determined by the randomization process. At 2 and 7 days after surgery, the patients will be evaluated by three blinded evaluators who will measure of swelling, mouth opening (muscle spasm evaluation) and pain (using two different pain scales). The 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) will be used to assess QOL. All data will be analyzed with respect to the normality of distribution using the Shapiro-Wilk test. Statistically significant differences between the experimental groups will be determined using analysis of variance, followed by a suitable post hoc test, when necessary. The significance level will be set at α = 0.05. The lack of standardization in studies with regard to the samples, methods and LLLT parameters complicates the determination of the actual effect of laser therapy on

  5. Subsurface thermal coagulation of tissues using near infrared lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chun-Hung Jack

    Noninvasive laser therapy is currently limited primarily to cosmetic dermatological applications such as skin resurfacing, hair removal, tattoo removal and treatment of vascular birthmarks. In order to expand applications of noninvasive laser therapy, deeper optical penetration of laser radiation in tissue as well as more aggressive cooling of the tissue surface is necessary. The near-infrared laser wavelength of 1075 nm was found to be the optimal laser wavelength for creation of deep subsurface thermal lesions in liver tissue, ex vivo, with contact cooling, preserving a surface tissue layer of 2 mm. Monte Carlo light transport, heat transfer, and Arrhenius integral thermal damage simulations were conducted at this wavelength, showing good agreement between experiment and simulations. Building on the initial results, our goal is to develop new noninvasive laser therapies for application in urology, specifically for treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Various laser balloon probes including side-firing and diffusing fibers were designed and tested for both transvaginal and transurethral approaches to treatment. The transvaginal approach showed the highest feasibility. To further increase optical penetration depth, various types and concentrations of optical clearing agents were also explored. Three cadavers studies were performed to investigate and demonstrate the feasibility of laser treatment for SUI.

  6. Excellent Aesthetic and Functional Outcome After Fractionated Carbon Dioxide Laser Skin Graft Revision Surgery: Case Report and Review of Laser Skin Graft Revision Techniques.

    PubMed

    Ho, Derek; Jagdeo, Jared

    2015-11-01

    Skin grafts are utilized in dermatology to reconstruct a defect secondary to surgery or trauma of the skin. Common indications for skin grafts include surgical removal of cutaneous malignancies, replacement of tissue after burns or lacerations, and hair transplantation in alopecia. Skin grafts may be cosmetically displeasing, functionally limiting, and significantly impact patient's quality-of-life. There is limited published data regarding skin graft revision to enhance aesthetics and function. Here, we present a case demonstrating excellent aesthetic and functional outcome after fractionated carbon dioxide (CO2) laser skin graft revision surgery and review of the medical literature on laser skin graft revision techniques.

  7. Long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser in the treatment of facial hypertrichosis during topical minoxidil therapy.

    PubMed

    Benmously Mlika, Rym; Ben Hamida, Myriam; Hammami, Houda; Dorbani Ben Thabet, Imen; Rouatbi, Mondher; Mokhtar, Inçaf

    2013-08-01

    Hypertrichosis is a well-recognized adverse effect of therapy with either oral or topical minoxidil. We report a case of fronto-temporal hypertrichosis occurring in an 8-year-old girl treated for patchy alopecia areata of the frontal area of the scalp with 2% minoxidil solution. After failure of 5-months minoxidil-discontinuation, hair removal with Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm line) (Smartepil II, Deka) was tested leading to complete resolution within 2 sessions.

  8. A laser microsurgical method of cell wall removal allows detection of large-conductance ion channels in the guard cell plasma membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miedema, H.; Henriksen, G. H.; Assmann, S. M.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Application of patch clamp techniques to higher-plant cells has been subject to the limitation that the requisite contact of the patch electrode with the cell membrane necessitates prior enzymatic removal of the plant cell wall. Because the wall is an integral component of plant cells, and because cell-wall-degrading enzymes can disrupt membrane properties, such enzymatic treatments may alter ion channel behavior. We compared ion channel activity in enzymatically isolated protoplasts of Vicia faba guard cells with that found in membranes exposed by a laser microsurgical technique in which only a tiny portion of the cell wall is removed while the rest of the cell remains intact within its tissue environment. "Laser-assisted" patch clamping reveals a new category of high-conductance (130 to 361 pS) ion channels not previously reported in patch clamp studies on plant plasma membranes. These data indicate that ion channels are present in plant membranes that are not detected by conventional patch clamp techniques involving the production of individual plant protoplasts isolated from their tissue environment by enzymatic digestion of the cell wall. Given the large conductances of the channels revealed by laser-assisted patch clamping, we hypothesize that these channels play a significant role in the regulation of ion content and electrical signalling in guard cells.

  9. A novel cosmetic approach to treat thinning hair.

    PubMed

    Davis, M G; Thomas, J H; van de Velde, S; Boissy, Y; Dawson, T L; Iveson, R; Sutton, K

    2011-12-01

    Many of today's treatments associated with 'thinning hair', such as female pattern hair loss and telogen effluvium, are focused on two of the key aspects of the condition. Over-the-counter or prescription medications are often focused on improving scalp hair density while high-quality cosmetic products work to prevent further hair damage and minimize mid-fibre breakage. Fibre diameter is another key contributor to thinning hair, but it is less often the focus of medical or cosmetic treatments. To examine the ability of a novel leave-on technology combination [caffeine, niacinamide, panthenol, dimethicone and an acrylate polymer (CNPDA)] to affect the diameter and behaviour of individual terminal scalp hair fibres as a new approach to counteract decreasing fibre diameters. Testing methodology included fibre diameter measures via laser scan micrometer, assessment of fibre mechanical and behavioural properties via tensile break stress and torsion pendulum testing, and mechanistic studies including cryoscanning electron microscopy and autoradiographic analysis. CNPDA significantly increased the diameter of individual, existing terminal scalp hair fibres by 2-5 μm, which yields an increase in the cross-sectional area of approximately 10%. Beyond the diameter increase, the CNPDA-thickened fibres demonstrated the altered mechanical properties characteristic of thicker fibres: increased suppleness/pliability (decreased shear modulus) and better ability to withstand force without breaking (increased break stress). Although cosmetic treatments will not reverse the condition, this new approach may help to mitigate the effects of thinning hair. © 2011 Procter & Gamble. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  10. Hair Styling Appliances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Key tool of Redken Laboratories new line of hair styling appliances is an instrument called a thermograph, a heat sensing device originally developed by Hughes Aircraft Co. under U.S. Army and NASA funding. Redken Laboratories bought one of the early models of the Hughes Probeye Thermal Video System or TVS which detects the various degrees of heat emitted by an object and displays the results in color on a TV monitor with colors representing different temperatures detected.

  11. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service or...

  12. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service or...

  13. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service or...

  14. Normal and aging hair biology and structure 'aging and hair'.

    PubMed

    Goodier, Molly; Hordinsky, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Much like an individual's hairstyle, hair fibers along the scalp see a number of changes over the course of one's lifetime. As the decades pass, the shine and volume synonymous with youthful hair may give way to thin, dull, and brittle hair commonly associated with aging. These changes are a result of a compilation of genetic and environmental elements influencing the cells of the hair follicle, specifically the hair follicle stem cells and melanocytes. Telomere shortening, decrease in cell numbers, and particular transcription factors have all been implicated in this process. In turn, these molecular alterations lead to structural modifications of the hair fiber, decrease in melanin production, and lengthening of the telogen phase of the hair cycle. Despite this inevitable progression with aging, there exists an array of treatments such as light therapy, minoxidil, and finasteride which have been designed to mitigate the effects of aging, particularly balding and thinning hair. Although each works through a different mechanism, all aim to maintain or potentially restore the youthful quality of hair. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Dark Matter Hairs Around Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-11-23

    This illustration shows Earth surrounded by filaments of dark matter called "hairs," which are proposed in a study in the Astrophysical Journal by Gary Prézeau of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California. A hair is created when a stream of dark matter particles goes through the planet. According to simulations, the hair is densest at a point called the "root." When particles of a dark matter stream pass through the core of Earth, they form a hair whose root has a particle density about a billion times greater than average. The hairs in this illustration are not to scale. Simulations show that the roots of such hairs can be 600,000 miles (1 million kilometers) from Earth, while Earth's radius is only about 4,000 miles (6,400 kilometers). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20176

  16. Cortisol levels in hair of East Greenland polar bears

    PubMed Central

    Bechshøft, TØ; Sonne, C; Dietz, R; Born, EW; Novak, MA; Henchey, E; Meyer, JS

    2010-01-01

    To demonstrate the ability to assess long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity in polar bears (Ursus maritimus), a pilot study was conducted in which cortisol concentrations was analyzed in hair from 7 female (3–19 years) and 10 male (6-19 years) East Greenland polar bears sampled 1994–2006. Hair was chosen as matrix as it is non-invasive, seasonally harmonized, and has been validated as an index of long-term changes in cortisol levels. Samples were categorized according to contamination: Eight were clean (2 females, 6 males), 5 had been contaminated with bear blood (2 F, 3 M), and 4 with bear fat (3 F, 1 M). There was no significant difference in cortisol concentration between the three categories after external contamination was removed. However, contaminated hair samples should be cleaned before cortisol determination. Average hair cortisol concentration was 8.90 pg/mg (range: 5.5 to 16.4 pg/mg). There was no significant correlation between cortisol concentration and age (p = 0.81) or sampling year (p = 0.11). However, females had higher mean cortisol concentration than males (females mean: 11.0 pg/mg, males: 7.3 pg/mg; p = 0.01). The study showed that polar bear hair contains measurable amounts of cortisol and that cortisol in hair may be used in studies of long-term stress in polar bears. PMID:21144554

  17. Effect of diode laser and ultrasonics with and without ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid on smear layer removal from the root canals: A scanning electron microscope study.

    PubMed

    Amin, Khalid; Masoodi, Ajaz; Nabi, Shahnaz; Ahmad, Parvaiz; Farooq, Riyaz; Purra, Aamir Rashid; Ahangar, Fayaz Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of diode laser and ultrasonics with and without ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the smear layer removal from root canals. A total of 120 mandibular premolars were decoronated to working the length of 12 mm and prepared with protaper rotary files up to size F3. Group A canals irrigated with 1 ml of 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) followed by 3 ml of 3% NaOCl. Group B canals irrigated with 1 ml of 17% EDTA followed by 3 ml of 3% NaOCl. Group C canals lased with a diode laser. Group D canals were initially irrigated with 0.8 ml of 17% EDTA the remaining 0.2 ml was used to fill the root canals, and diode laser application was done. Group E canals were irrigated with 1 ml distilled water with passive ultrasonic activation, followed by 3 ml of 3% NaOCl. Group F canals were irrigated with 1 ml EDTA with passive ultrasonic activation, followed by 3 ml of 3% NaOCl. Scanning electron microscope examination of canals was done for remaining smear layer at coronal middle and apical third levels. Ultrasonics with EDTA had the least smear layer scores. Diode laser alone performed significantly better than ultrasonics.

  18. Laboratory model for the study and treatment of traumatic tattoos with the Q-switched ruby laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, Richard T.; Lach, Elliot

    1994-09-01

    The outcome of laser tattoo removal is dependent on the type of laser and characteristics of the tattoo. A rabbit model was developed to study the Q-switched ruby laser in the treatment of traumatic tattooing. On the backs of white New Zealand rabbits, three 3 cm patches were dermabraded and dressed with carbon black and antibiotic ointment. After a healing period of eight weeks, pre-treatment biopsies were obtained, and the rabbits were treated with the Q- switched ruby laser at various fluence settings with a pulse width of 34 nsec. At set intervals, further biopsies were obtained and studied with light and electron microscopic analysis, and photodocumentation was performed. Grossly, clearance of the tattooed areas was noted in the laser treated specimens. More effective clearance was observed with higher fluence treatment. No infections occurred, and hair regrowth was noted in all cases, though the rate seemed to be altered by laser treatment.

  19. Long-term Comparison of a Large Spot Vacuum Assisted Handpiece vs the Small Spot Size Traditional Handpiece of the 800 nm Diode Laser.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Nour J; Rizk, Alain G; Ibrahimi, Omar A; Tannous, Zeina S

    2017-09-01

    BACKGROUND The 800 nm long-pulsed diode laser machine is safe and effective for permanent hair reduction. Traditionally, most long-pulsed diode lasers used for hair removal had a relatively small spot size. Recently, a long-pulsed diode laser with a large spot size and vacuum assisted suction handpiece was introduced. The treatment parameters of each type of handpiece differ. Short and long-term clinical efficacy, treatment associated pain, and patient satisfaction are important factors to be considered. This study aims to conduct a direct head to head comparison of both handpieces of the 800nm long-pulsed diode laser by evaluating long term hair reduction, treatment associated pain and patient satisfaction. Thirteen subjects were enrolled in this prospective, self-controlled, single-center study of axillary laser hair removal. The study involved 4 treatments using a long pulsed diode laser with a large spot size HS handpiece (single pass), HS handpiece (double pass), and a small spot size ET handpiece according to a randomized choice. The treatment sessions were done at 4-8 week intervals with follow up visits taken at 6 and 12 months after the last treatment session. Hair clearance and thickness analysis were assessed using macro hair count photographs taken at baseline visit, at each treatment session visit and at follow up visits. Other factors including pain, treatment duration, and patients' preference were secondary study endpoints. At 6 months follow up visits after receiving four laser treatments, there was statistically significant hair clearance in the three treatment arms with 66.1 % mean percentage hair reduction with the ET handpiece, 43.6% with the HSS (single pass) and 64.1 % with the HSD (double). However, at one year follow up, the results significantly varied from the 6 months follow up. The mean percentage hair reduction was 57.8% with the ET handpiece treated axillas (n=9), 16.5% with the HSS (single pass) handpiece treated axillas (n=7), and

  20. Hair corticosterone measurement in mouse models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Rebecca L; Browne, Caroline A; Lucki, Irwin

    2017-09-01

    In diabetes, glucocorticoid secretion increases secondary to hyperglycemia and is associated with an extensive list of disease complications. Levels of cortisol in humans, or corticosterone in rodents, are usually measured as transitory biomarkers of stress in blood or saliva. Glucocorticoid concentrations accumulate in human or animal hair over weeks and could more accurately measure the cumulative stress burden of diseases like chronic diabetes. In this study, corticosterone levels were measured in hair in verified rodent models of diabetes mellitus. To induce type 1 diabetes, C57BL/6J mice were injected with streptozotocin and blood and hair samples were collected 28days following induction. Leptin receptor deficient (db/db) mice were used as a spontaneous model of type 2 diabetes and blood and hair samples were collected at 8weeks of age, after the development of hyperglycemia and obesity. Corticosterone levels from serum, new growth hair and total growth hair were analyzed using an enzyme immunoassay. Corticosterone levels in new growth hair and serum were significantly elevated in both models of diabetes compared to controls. In contrast, corticosterone levels in old hair growth did not differ significantly between diabetic and non-diabetic animals. Thus, hair removal and sampling of new hair growth was a more sensitive procedure for detecting changes in hair corticosterone levels induced by periods of hyperglycemia lasting for 4weeks in mice. These results validate the use of hair to measure long-term changes in corticosterone induced by diabetes in rodent models. Further studies are now needed to validate the utility of hair cortisol as a tool for measuring the stress burden of individuals with diabetes and for following the effects of long-term medical treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Effect of Material Removal on the Corrosion Resistance and Biocompatibility of Nitinol Laser-Cut and Wire-Form Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, Jennifer Fino; Trépanier, Christine; Vien, Lot; Pelton, Alan R.

    2011-07-01

    Laser cutting and wire forming are two of the most commonly used processes in the manufacture of Nitinol medical devices. This study explores how varying the amount of material removed during the final surface treatment steps affects the corrosion resistance of Z-type stents that have either been laser-cut from tube or shape set from wire. All parts were subjected to a typical heat treatment process necessary to achieve an Austenite finish (Af) temperature of 25 ± 5 °C, and were subsequently post-processed with an electrochemical passivation process. The total weight loss during post-processing was recorded and the process adjusted to create groups with less than 5%, less than 10%, and less than 25% amounts of weight loss. The parts were then crimped to 6 mm and allowed to expand back to their original diameter. The corrosion test results showed that on average both groups of Z-stents experienced an increase in the corrosion breakdown potential and a decrease in the standard deviation with increasing amounts of material removal. In addition, less material removal is required from the wire-form Z-stents as compared to the laser-cut Z-stents to achieve high corrosion resistance. Finally, 7 day nickel ion release tests performed on the wire-formed Z-stents showed a dramatic decrease from 0.0132 mg of nickel leached per day for the low weight loss group to approximately 0.001 mg/day for the medium and high weight loss groups.

  2. [Body hair and advertising in French magazines].

    PubMed

    Héas, S; Bodin, D; Robène, L; Misery, L

    2007-10-01

    Sociological analysis of advertising reveals the currently operative body codes within a society, and more fundamentally, depicts the (ideal) relationships between men and women, between generations, and so on. To demonstrate that sports advertising based largely on trichological stereotypes. The idealised portrayal of human relations in advertisements (N=700) taken from French magazines was analysed by means of systematic coding and use of analytical software. This approach allowed characterisation of each advertisement in relation to the entire sample, with identification of significant elements (dominant colour, stature of models, setting, etc.), and determination of frequency of appearance and occurrence as well as testing of dependency relations. There were significant differences in the portrayal of men and women in advertisements. In the 700 advertisements in the series we examined, male subjects very often had short hair (231 cases, 33%) or shaved heads (33 cases, 4.7%) while women were shown with long hair, either free (80 cases) or tied (73 cases). Women with short hair were rarely portrayed (4.3%), as were men with long hair (42 cases, 6%). Above all, with the exception of eyebrows and eyelashes, no other body hair was seen in male and female athletic figures in 238 advertisements, being visible in only 60 cases (8.6%). Facial stubble, and more particularly beards and moustaches, was fairly infrequent, despite the omnipresence of male models. The majority of advertising situations involving sporting figures show clear stereotyping. Body hair is a pertinent pointer to understanding of contemporary sports models. A clear overall male/female distinction was present throughout. Men were presented in these adverts as active figures, leaders, etc. while women tended to be passive, spectators, and in some cases, admiring onlookers. A degree of confusion between genders was noticeable as a result of the shaving and depilation trends currently in vogue in the

  3. Genetics Home Reference: uncombable hair syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions Uncombable hair syndrome Uncombable hair syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Uncombable hair syndrome is a condition that is characterized by ...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: cartilage-hair hypoplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions Cartilage-hair hypoplasia Cartilage-hair hypoplasia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Cartilage-hair hypoplasia is a disorder of bone growth characterized ...

  5. The proteomic profile of hair damage.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, R; Flagler, M J; Jones, L; Rufaut, N; Davis, M G

    2012-06-01

    Monilethrix is a congenital hair shaft disorder with associated fragility. Many of the changes seen in monilethrix hair on light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy are also seen in hair weathering and cosmetic damage to hair. We used monilethrix as a model to investigate the relationship between hair protein structure and hair strength and resistance to cosmetic insult. We applied proteomic techniques to identify novel peptide damage markers for chemical oxidative damage to hair. The findings suggest that specific sites in the protein structure of hair are targeted during oxidative damage from bleaching, a unique insight into how chemical damage compromises the structural integrity of the hair shaft at the molecular level. Applying proteomics to the study of congenital and acquired hair shaft disorders can deliver new insights into hair damage and novel strategies to strengthen hair. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. In vitro comparison of debonding force and intrapulpal temperature changes during ceramic orthodontic bracket removal using a carbon dioxide laser.

    PubMed

    Ma, T; Marangoni, R D; Flint, W

    1997-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a method to reduce the fracture of ceramic orthodontics brackets during debonding procedures. Lasers have been used to thermally soften the bonding resin, which reduces the tensile debonding force. Thermal effects of lasers may create adverse effects to the dental pulp. Previous studies have shown that no pulpal injury occurs when the maximum intrapulpal temperature rise stayed below 2 degrees C. This study investigated the effect of lasing time on intrapulpal temperature increase and tensile debonding force with a 18 watt carbon dioxide laser. Ceramic brackets were bonded to mandibular deciduous bovine teeth and human mandibular first premolars with a photoactivated bonding resin. Modified debonding pliers was used to accurately position the laser beam onto the ceramic bracket. Lasing time required to keep the maximum intrapulpal temperature rise below 2 degrees C was determined by the use of thermocouples inserted into the pulp chambers of the specimens. A tensile debonding force was applied on the control group without lasing and the experimental group was debonded after applying a predetermined lasing time with a carbon dioxide laser. It was found that there was a significance difference (P < 0.05) in tensile debonding force between the control group and the experimental group. It is feasible to use a laser for the debonding of ceramic brackets while keeping the intrapulpal temperature rise below the threshold of pulpal damage.

  7. Understanding breakage in curly hair.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Bragado, G A; Balooch, G; Dixon-Parks, F; Porter, C; Bryant, H

    2015-07-01

    In 2005, the L'Oréal Institute for hair and skin research carried out a multiethnic study to investigate hair breakage in women residing in the U.S.A. In this study it was reported that a large percentage (96%) of the African-American respondents experience breakage. A combination of structural differences and grooming-induced stresses seem to contribute to the higher breakage incidence in the African-American group as the chemical composition of African-American hair is not significantly different from other ethnic groups. Some authors have proposed that the repeated elongation, torsion and flexion actions may affect the components of the hair fibre. However, considering the different properties of cuticle and cortex, one would expect a different wearing mechanism of each, leading to the ultimate failure of hair. Knowing in detail how each part of the structure fails can potentially lead to better ways to protect the hair from physical insults. To investigate crack propagation and fracture mechanisms in African-American hair. Virgin hair of excellent quality was collected, with informed consent, from a female African-American volunteer. A series of controlled mechanical stresses was applied to 10-mm hair sections using a high-resolution mechanical stage (20 mN) up to the fracture of the fibre. The surface was monitored using scanning electron microscopy imaging during the stress application. X-ray tomographic microscopy images were acquired and quantified to detect changes in energy absorption as a function of applied stress that could be linked to increase in crack density. Analysis of the mechanical response of hair combined with the two imaging techniques led us to propose the following mechanism of hair breakage: cuticle sliding; failure of the cuticle-cortex interface; nucleation of intercellular cracks and growth of cracks at the cuticle-cortex junction; and propagation of intercellular cracks towards the surface of the hair and final breakage when these

  8. Hair loss in women.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Martínez, Francisco M

    2009-03-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a clinical problem that is becoming more common in women. Female alopecia with androgen increase is called female androgenetic alopecia (FAGA) and without androgen increase is called female pattern hair loss. The clinical picture of typical FAGA begins with a specific "diffuse loss of hair from the parietal or frontovertical areas with an intact frontal hairline." Ludwig called this process "rarefaction." In Ludwig's classification of hair loss in women, progressive type of FAGA, 3 patterns were described: grade I or minimal, grade II or moderate, and grade III or severe. Ludwig also described female androgenetic alopecia with male pattern (FAGA.M) that should be subclassified according to Ebling's or Hamilton-Norwood's classification. FAGA.M may be present in 4 conditions: persistent adrenarche syndrome, alopecia caused by an adrenal or an ovarian tumor, posthysterectomy, and as an involutive alopecia. A more recent classification (Olsen's classification of FPHL) proposes 2 types: early- and late-onset with or without excess of androgens in each. The diagnosis of FPHL is made by clinical history, clinical examination, wash test, dermoscopy, trichoscan, trichograms and laboratory test, especially androgenic determinations. Topical treatment of FPHL is with minoxidil, 2-5% twice daily. When FPHL is associated with high levels of androgens, systemic antiandrogenic therapy is needed. Persistent adrenarche syndrome (adrenal SAHA) and alopecia of adrenal hyperandrogenism is treated with adrenal suppression and antiandrogens. Adrenal suppression is achieved with glucocorticosteroids. Antiandrogens therapy includes cyproterone acetate, drospirenone, spironolactone, flutamide, and finasteride. Excess release of ovarian androgens (ovarian SAHA) and alopecia of ovarian hyperandrogenism is treated with ovarian suppression and antiandrogens. Ovarian suppression includes the use of contraceptives containing an estrogen, ethinylestradiol, and a

  9. Efficacy and safety of Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy for ureteroscopic removal of proximal and distal ureteral calculi.

    PubMed

    Khoder, Wael Y; Bader, Markus; Sroka, Ronald; Stief, Christian; Waidelich, Raphaela

    2014-08-08

    Laser lithotripsy is an established endourological modality. Ho:YAG laser have broadened the indications for ureteroscopic stone managements to include larger stone sizes throughout the whole upper urinary tract. Aim of current work is to assess efficacy and safety of Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy during retrograde ureteroscopic management of ureteral calculi in different locations. 88 patients were treated with ureteroscopic Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy in our institute. Study endpoint was the number of treatments until the patient was stone-free. Patients were classified according to the location of their stones as Group I (distal ureteric stones, 51 patients) and group II (proximal ureteral stones, 37). Group I patients have larger stones as Group II (10.70 mm vs. 8.24 mm, respectively, P = 0.020). Overall stone free rate for both groups was 95.8%. The mean number of procedures for proximal calculi was 1.1 ± 0.1 (1-3) and for distal calculi was 1.0 ± 0.0. The initial treatment was more successful in patients with distal ureteral calculi (100% vs. 82.40%, respectively, P = 0.008). No significant difference in the stone free rate was noticed after the second laser procedure for stones smaller versus larger than 10 mm (100% versus 94.1%, P = 0.13). Overall complication rate was 7.9% (Clavien II und IIIb). Overall and grade-adjusted complication rates were not dependent on the stone location. No laser induced complications were noticed. The use of the Ho:YAG laser appears to be an adequate tool to disintegrate ureteral calculi independent of primary location. Combination of the semirigid and flexible ureteroscopes as well as the appropriate endourologic tools could likely improve the stone clearance rates for proximal calculi regardless of stone-size.

  10. Efficacy and safety of Ho:YAG Laser Lithotripsy for ureteroscopic removal of proximal and distal ureteral calculi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Laser lithotripsy is an established endourological modality. Ho:YAG laser have broadened the indications for ureteroscopic stone managements to include larger stone sizes throughout the whole upper urinary tract. Aim of current work is to assess efficacy and safety of Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy during retrograde ureteroscopic management of ureteral calculi in different locations. Methods 88 patients were treated with ureteroscopic Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy in our institute. Study endpoint was the number of treatments until the patient was stone-free. Patients were classified according to the location of their stones as Group I (distal ureteric stones, 51 patients) and group II (proximal ureteral stones, 37). Group I patients have larger stones as Group II (10.70 mm vs. 8.24 mm, respectively, P = 0.020). Results Overall stone free rate for both groups was 95.8%. The mean number of procedures for proximal calculi was 1.1 ± 0.1 (1–3) and for distal calculi was 1.0 ± 0.0. The initial treatment was more successful in patients with distal ureteral calculi (100% vs. 82.40%, respectively, P = 0.008). No significant difference in the stone free rate was noticed after the second laser procedure for stones smaller versus larger than 10 mm (100% versus 94.1%, P = 0.13). Overall complication rate was 7.9% (Clavien II und IIIb). Overall and grade-adjusted complication rates were not dependant on the stone location. No laser induced complications were noticed. Conclusions The use of the Ho:YAG laser appears to be an adequate tool to disintegrate ureteral calculi independent of primary location. Combination of the semirigid and flexible ureteroscopes as well as the appropriate endourologic tools could likely improve the stone clearance rates for proximal calculi regardless of stone-size. PMID:25107528

  11. Robotic hair restoration.

    PubMed

    Rose, Paul T; Nusbaum, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The latest innovation to hair restoration surgery has been the introduction of a robotic system for harvesting grafts. This system uses the follicular unit extraction/follicular isolation technique method for harvesting follicular units, which is particularly well suited to the abilities of a robotic technology. The ARTAS system analyzes images of the donor area and then a dual-chamber needle and blunt dissecting punch are used to harvest the follicular units. The robotic technology is now being used in various locations around the world. This article discusses the use of the robotic system, its capabilities, and the advantages and disadvantages of the system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Lasers.

    PubMed

    Passeron, T

    2012-12-01

    Lasers are a very effective approach for treating many hyperpigmented lesions. They are the gold standard treatment for actinic lentigos and dermal hypermelanocytosis, such as Ota nevus. Becker nevus, hyperpigmented mosaicisms, and lentigines can also be successfully treated with lasers, but they could be less effective and relapses can be observed. However, lasers cannot be proposed for all types of hyperpigmentation. Thus, freckles and café-au-lait macules should not be treated as the relapses are nearly constant. Due to its complex pathophysiology, melasma has a special place in hyperpigmented dermatoses. Q-switched lasers (using standard parameters or low fluency) should not be used because of consistent relapses and the high risk of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Paradoxically, targeting the vascular component of the melasma lesion with lasers could have a beneficial effect. However, these results have yet to be confirmed. In all cases, a precise diagnosis of the type of hyperpigmentation is mandatory before any laser treatment, and the limits and the potential side effects of the treatment must be clearly explained to patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. [Lasers].

    PubMed

    Passeron, T

    2012-11-01

    Lasers are a very effective approach for treating many hyperpigmented lesions. They are the gold standard treatment for actinic lentigos and dermal hypermelanocytosis, such as Ota nevus. Becker nevus, hyperpigmented mosaicisms, and lentigines can also be successfully treated with lasers, but they could be less effective and relapses can be observed. However, lasers cannot be proposed for all types of hyperpigmentation. Thus, freckles and café-au-lait macules should not be treated as the relapses are nearly constant. Due to its complex pathophysiology, melasma has a special place in hyperpigmented dermatoses. Q-switched lasers (using standard parameters or low fluency) should not be used because of consistent relapses and the high risk of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Paradoxically, targeting the vascular component of the melasma lesion with lasers could have a beneficial effect. However, these results have yet to be confirmed. In all cases, a precise diagnosis of the type of hyperpigmentation is mandatory before any laser treatment, and the limits and the potential side effects of the treatment must be clearly explained to patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Investigation of hair dye deposition, hair color loss, and hair damage during multiple oxidative dyeing and shampooing cycles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guojin; McMullen, Roger L; Kulcsar, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Color fastness is a major concern for consumers and manufacturers of oxidative hair dye products. Hair dye loss results from multiple wash cycles in which the hair dye is dissolved by water and leaches from the hair shaft. In this study, we carried out a series of measurements to help us better understand the kinetics of the leaching process and pathways associated with its escape from the fiber. Hair dye leaching kinetics was measured by suspending hair in a dissolution apparatus and monitoring the dye concentration in solution (leached dye) with an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The physical state of dye deposited in hair fibers was evaluated by a reflectance light microscopy technique, based on image stacking, allowing enhanced depth of field imaging. The dye distribution within the fiber was monitored by infrared spectroscopic imaging of hair fiber cross sections. Damage to the ultrafine structure of the hair cuticle (surface, endocuticle, and cell membrane complex) and cortex (cell membrane complex) was determined in hair cross sections and on the hair fiber surface with atomic force microscopy. Using differential scanning calorimetry, we investigated how consecutive coloring and leaching processes affect the internal proteins of hair. Further, to probe the surface properties of hair we utilized contact angle measurements. This study was conducted on both pigmented and nonpigmented hair to gain insight into the influence of melanin on the hair dye deposition and leaching processes. Both types of hair were colored utilizing a commercial oxidative hair dye product based on pyrazole chemistry.

  15. Hair dosimetry following neutron irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lebaron-Jacobs, L; Gaillard-Lecanu, E; Briot, F; Distinguin, S; Boisson, P; Exmelin, L; Racine, Y; Berard, P; Flüry-Herard, A; Miele, A; Fottorino, R

    2007-05-01

    Use of hair as a biological dosimeter of neutron exposure was proposed a few years ago. To date, the (32)S(n,p)(32)P reaction in hair with a threshold of 2.5 MeV is the best choice to determine the fast neutron dose using body activation. This information is essential with regards to the heterogeneity of the neutron transfer to the organism. This is a very important parameter for individual dose reconstruction from the surface to the deeper tissues. This evaluation is essential to the adapted management of irradiated victims by specialized medical staff. Comparison exercises between clinical biochemistry laboratories from French sites (the CEA and COGEMA) and from the IRSN were carried out to validate the measurement of (32)P activity in hair and to improve the techniques used to perform this examination. Hair was placed on a phantom and was irradiated at different doses in the SILENE reactor (Valduc, France). Different parameters were tested: variation of hair type, minimum weight of hair sample, hair wash before measurement, delivery period of results, and different irradiation configurations. The results obtained in these comparison exercises by the different laboratories showed an excellent correlation. This allowed the assessment of a dose-activity relationship and confirmed the feasibility and the interest of (32)P measurement in hair following fast neutron irradiation.

  16. "Dissection" of a Hair Dryer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenstein, Stan; Simpson, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    The electrical design of the common hair dryer is based almost entirely on relatively simple principles learned in introductory physics classes. Just as biology students dissect a frog to see the principles of anatomy in action, physics students can "dissect" a hair dryer to see how principles of electricity are used in a real system. They can…

  17. The influence of hair lipids in ethnic hair properties.

    PubMed

    Martí, M; Barba, C; Manich, A M; Rubio, L; Alonso, C; Coderch, L

    2016-02-01

    Biochemical studies have mainly focused on the composition of hair. African hair exhibited lower moisturization and less radial swelling when flushing with water compared with Asian or Caucasian hair, and they assumed a possible lipid differentiation among human populations. This study consists in the lipid characterization of different ethnic hairs (Caucasian, Asian and African hairs) and the influence of these lipids in different hair properties such as humidity and mechanical properties. Evaluation of water sorption and desorption of the different ethnic hairs and with and without lipids is also studied mainly to determine permeation changes of the keratin fibres. Extractions of exogenous and endogenous lipids with different organic solvents were performed; lipid analysis and its quantification using thin-layer chromatography coupled to an automated flame ionization detector (TLC/FID) were performed. Absorption and desorption curves were obtained in a thermogravimetric balance equipped with a controlled humidity chamber, the Q5000SA Sorption Analyzer (TA Instruments, New Castle, IL, U.S.A.). Also, mechanical properties (breaking stress and breaking elongation) were analysed using a computer programmable dynamometer (Instron 5500R). Lipid extraction showed the highest amount of total lipids for the African hair which may come from external sebaceous lipids compared with Asian or Caucasian hair. Caucasian fibres were found to be the most hydrated fibre, and a decrease in moisture was found in the extracted fibres, again, which is more important for the Caucasian hair. A superior lineal mass was found for the Asian fibres which supported their higher strength. The results obtained from the analysis of the mechanical properties of delipidized fibres indicate a surprising increase in the strength of African and Caucasian fibres. Perhaps this increase in strength could be related to the humidity decrease in lipid-extracted hair fibres. Results of water uptake and

  18. Light Microscopy of the Hair: A Simple Tool to “Untangle” Hair Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Adya, Keshavmurthy A; Inamadar, Arun C; Palit, Aparna; Shivanna, Ragunatha; Deshmukh, Niranjan S

    2011-01-01

    Light microscopy of the hair forms an important bedside clinical tool for the diagnosis of various disorders affecting the hair. Hair abnormalities can be seen in the primary diseases affecting the hair or as a secondary involvement of hair in diseases affecting the scalp. Hair abnormalities also form a part of various genodermatoses and syndromes. In this review, we have briefly highlighted the light microscopic appearance of various infectious and non-infectious conditions affecting the hair. PMID:21769242

  19. Dark Matter Hairs Around Jupiter

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-11-23

    This illustration shows Jupiter surrounded by filaments of dark matter called "hairs," which are proposed in a study in the Astrophysical Journal by Gary Prézeau of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California. A hair is created when a stream of dark matter particles goes through the planet. According to simulations, the hair is densest at a point called the "root." When particles of a dark matter stream pass through the core of Jupiter, they form a hair whose root has a particle density about a trillion times greater than average. The size of Jupiter relative to the distance between Jupiter and the hair roots is to scale. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20178

  20. Genuine cosmic hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastor, David; Ray, Sourya; Traschen, Jennie

    2017-02-01

    We show that asymptotically future de Sitter (AFdS) spacetimes carry ‘genuine’ cosmic hair; information that is analogous to the mass and angular momentum of asymptotically flat spacetimes and that characterizes how an AFdS spacetime approaches its asymptotic form. We define new ‘cosmological tension’ charges associated with future asymptotic spatial translation symmetries, which are analytic continuations of the ADM mass and tensions of asymptotically planar AdS spacetimes, and which measure the leading anisotropic corrections to the isotropic, exponential de Sitter expansion rate. A cosmological Smarr relation, holding for AFdS spacetimes having exact spatial translation symmetry, is derived. This formula relates cosmological tension, which is evaluated at future infinity, to properties of the cosmology at early times, together with a ‘cosmological volume’ contribution that is analogous to the thermodynamic volume of AdS black holes. Smarr relations for different spatial directions imply that the difference in expansion rates between two directions at late times is related in a simple way to their difference at early times. Hence information about the very early universe can be inferred from cosmic hair, which is potentially observable in a late time de Sitter phase. Cosmological tension charges and related quantities are evaluated for Kasner-de Sitter spacetimes, which serve as our primary examples.

  1. Comparison of Carbon Dioxide Laser With Surgical Blade for Removal of Epulis Fissuratum. A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Abbas; Sobouti, Farhad; Torabi, Sara; Bakhshandehfard, Ali; Amirian, Armaghan; Shariati, Mahsa; Morshedi, Ehsan; Barati, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Epulis fissuratum is often formed as a result of a poor fitting denture. The conventional treatment for this fibrous hyperplastic tissue is to excise it using a scalpel and to close the wound by a continuous or an interrupted suture. The increased utilization of lasers in dentistry also includes the utilization of carbon dioxide (CO2) lasers in place of surgical scalpels in soft tissue surgeries. The objective of this study is to assess the feasibility of utilizing CO2 laser in place of scalpel in surgical treatment of epulis fissuratum. Methods: In this clinical trial research (IRCT code: IRCT2016071124969N2), 19 patients were selected with nearly symmetrical epulis fissuratums in the anterior part of the jaws. The hyperplastic tissue was evenly divided into two sections in each patient. One section was randomly selected and cut by CO2 laser and the other section by a surgical scalpel. The wound created by the scalpel was closed by appropriate number of interrupted sutures. Surgery duration and bleeding as well as vestibular depth, re-epithelialization and edema in both sections were noted and recorded after 7 and 14 days postoperatively. Results: The time of surgery and the amount of bleeding during surgery in the laser section was less and the vestibular depth was more than surgical scalpel section (P < 0.05). Surgical scalpel wound at day seventh healed significantly better than the section treated by the CO2 laser (P < 0.05). Wound in both sections healed similarly on day 14 and no statistical difference was observed. Edema presence was also equal in both sides after 7th and 14th following the surgery. Conclusion: According to the results it could be concluded that the use of CO2 laser may result in less surgery time, less bleeding during surgery, more vestibular depth, better re-epithelialization of the wound and less need for suturing. CO2 laser may be a clinically preferred method for surgical treatment of epulis fissuratum. PMID:28144443

  2. Single hair analysis of small molecules using MALDI-triple quadrupole MS imaging and LC-MS/MS: investigations on opportunities and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Poetzsch, Michael; Steuer, Andrea E; Roemmelt, Andreas T; Baumgartner, Markus R; Kraemer, Thomas

    2014-12-02

    Single hair analysis normally requires extensive sample preparation microscale protocols including time-consuming steps like segmentation and extraction. Matrix assisted laser desorption and ionization mass spectrometric imaging (MALDI-MSI) was shown to be an alternative tool in single hair analysis, but still, questions remain. Therefore, an investigation of MALDI-MSI in single hair analysis concerning the extraction process, usage of internal standard (IS), and influences on the ionization processes were systematically investigated to enable the reliable application to hair analysis. Furthermore, single dose detection, quantitative correlation to a single hair, and hair strand LC-MS/MS results were performed, and the performance was compared to LC-MS/MS single hair monitoring. The MALDI process was shown to be independent from natural hair color and not influenced by the presence of melanin. Ionization was shown to be reproducible along and in between different hair samples. MALDI image intensities in single hair and hair snippets showed good semiquantitative correlation to zolpidem hair concentrations obtained from validated routine LC-MS/MS methods. MALDI-MSI is superior to LC-MS/MS analysis when a fast, easy, and cheap sample preparation is necessary, whereas LC-MS/MS showed higher sensitivity with the ability of single dose detection for zolpidem. MALDI-MSI and LC-MS/MS segmental single hair analysis showed good correlation, and both are suitable for consumption monitoring of drugs of abuse with a high time resolution.

  3. Ecklonia cava promotes hair growth.

    PubMed

    Bak, S S; Ahn, B N; Kim, J A; Shin, S H; Kim, J C; Kim, M K; Sung, Y K; Kim, S K

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have reported the protective effects on skin elasticity of the edible marine seaweed Ecklonia cava, which acts through regulation of both antioxidative and anti-inflammatory responses. We evaluated the effect of E. cava and one of its components, dioxinodehydroeckol, on hair-shaft growth in cultured human hair follicles and on hair growth in mice. The MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay was used to check cell viability of human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) and outer root sheath (ORS) cells after treatment with E. cava and its metabolite, dioxinodehydroeckol. Hair-shaft growth was measured using the in vitro hair-follicle organ-culture system, in the presence or absence of E. cava and dioxinodehydroeckol. Anagen induction activity was examined by topical application of E. cava to the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 expression was measured by reverse transcriptase PCR and ELISA. The proliferation activity was found to be highest for the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of E. cava (EAFE) in DPCs and in ORS cells. Treatment with EAFE resulted in elongation of the hair shaft in cultured human hair follicles, and promoted transition of the hair cycle from the telogen to the anagen phase in the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice. In addition, EAFE induced an increase in IGF-1 expression in DPCs. Dioxinodehydroeckol, a component of E. cava, induced elongation of the hair shaft, an increase in proliferation of DPCs and ORS cells, and an increase in expression of IGF-1 in DPCs. These results suggest that E. cava containing dioxinodehydroeckol promotes hair growth through stimulation of DPCs and ORS cells. © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  4. Removal of graffiti paintings from the Mansion de Mattis site in Corato (Bari), Italy: Laser deveiling or complete cleaning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daurelio, G.; Andriani, E. S.; Albanese, A.; Catalano, I. M.; Teseo, G.; Marano, D.

    2008-10-01

    Nowadays one the main problem of stone monuments conservation is not only the natural environment deterioration but the defaced, in particular esthetic, due to graffiti. This paper presents the different stages of the cleaning graffiti research: the laboratory study phase, in which the aims were to investigate the laser cleaning effect on substrate and testing user-friendly and efficient solutions for in situ application; the application phase in which the study results were applied in the restoration of Palazzo de Mattis facade. The graffiti cleaning were carried out by using a Q-Switch Nd:YAG laser source (λ=1064 nm with pulse duration, t=8 ns, f=2 to 20 Hz, energy per impulse up to 280 mJ) in dry, wet and Very wet modes adopting the Daurelio technique n.1 (blade spot laser). The Q-Switch Nd:Yag laser source has demonstrated to be the most suitable for a fully or, according to new restoring theory, "de veiling" graffiti ablation.

  5. Harvesting electricity from human hair.

    PubMed

    Tulachan, Brindan; Singh, Sushil K; Philip, Deepu; Das, Mainak

    2016-01-01

    Electrical conductivity of human hair is a debatable issue among hair experts and scientists. There are unsubstantiated claims that hair conducts electricity. However, hair experts provided ample evidence that hair is an insulator. Although wet hair exhibited drastic reduction in resistivity; scientists regarded hair as a proton semiconductor at the best. Here, we demonstrate that hair filaments generate electricity on absorbing water vapor between 50 degrees and 80 degrees C. This electricity can operate low power electronic systems. Essentially, we are exposing the hydrated hair polymer to a high temperature (50 degrees-80 degrees C). It has long been speculated that when certain biopolymers are simultaneously hydrated and exposed to high temperature, they exhibit significant proton hopping at a specific temperature regime. This happens due to rapid movement of water molecules on the polymer surface. This lead us to speculate that the observed flow of current is partly ionic and partly due to "proton hopping" in the hydrated nano spaces of hair filament. Such proton hopping is exceptionally high when the hydrated hair polymer is exposed to a temperature between 50 degrees and 80 degrees C. Differential scanning calorimetry data further corroborated the results and indicated that indeed at this temperature range, there is an enormous movement of water molecules on the hair polymer surface. This enormously rapid movement of water molecules lead to the "making and breaking" of innumerable hydrogen bonds and thus resulting in hopping of the protons. What is challenging is "how to tap these hopping protons to obtain useful electricity?" We achieved this by placing a bundle of hair between two different electrodes having different electro negativities, and exposing it to water vapor (water + heat). The two different electrodes offered directionality to the hopping protons and the existing ions and thus resulting in the generation of useful current. Further, by

  6. Rapid analysis of Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in hair using direct analysis in real time ambient ionization orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Duvivier, Wilco F; van Beek, Teris A; Pennings, Ed J M; Nielen, Michel W F

    2014-04-15

    Forensic hair analysis methods are laborious, time-consuming and provide only a rough retrospective estimate of the time of drug intake. Recently, hair imaging methods using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) were reported, but these methods require the application of MALDI matrix and are performed under vacuum. Direct analysis of entire locks of hair without any sample pretreatment and with improved spatial resolution would thus address a need. Hair samples were attached to stainless steel mesh screens and scanned in the X-direction using direct analysis in real time (DART) ambient ionization orbitrap MS. The DART gas temperature and the accuracy of the probed hair zone were optimized using Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as a model compound. Since external contamination is a major issue in forensic hair analysis, sub-samples were measured before and after dichloromethane decontamination. The relative intensity of the THC signal in spiked blank hair versus that of quinine as the internal standard showed good reproducibility (26% RSD) and linearity of the method (R(2)  = 0.991). With the DART hair scan THC could be detected in hair samples from different chronic cannabis users. The presence of THC was confirmed by quantitative liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Zones with different THC content could be clearly distinguished, indicating that the method might be used for retrospective timeline assessments. Detection of THC in decontaminated drug user hair showed that the DART hair scan not only probes THC on the surface of hair, but penetrates deeply enough to measure incorporated THC. A new approach in forensic hair analysis has been developed by probing complete locks of hair using DART-MS. Longitudinal scanning enables detection of incorporated compounds and can be used as pre-screening for THC without sample preparation. The method could also be adjusted for the analysis of other drugs of abuse. Copyright

  7. Proteomic Analysis of Hair Follicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishioka, Noriaki; Terada, Masahiro; Yamada, Shin; Seki, Masaya; Takahashi, Rika; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Higashibata, Akira; Mukai, Chiaki

    2013-02-01

    Hair root cells actively divide in a hair follicle, and they sensitively reflect physical conditions. By analyzing the human hair, we can know stress levels on the human body and metabolic conditions caused by microgravity environment and cosmic radiation. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has initiated a human research study to investigate the effects of long-term space flight on gene expression and mineral metabolism by analyzing hair samples of astronauts who stayed in the International Space Station (ISS) for 6 months. During long-term flights, the physiological effects on astronauts include muscle atrophy and bone calcium loss. Furthermore, radiation and psychological effects are important issue to consider. Therefore, an understanding of the effects of the space environment is important for developing countermeasures against the effects experienced by astronauts. In this experiment, we identify functionally important target proteins that integrate transcriptome, mineral metabolism and proteome profiles from human hair. To compare the protein expression data with the gene expression data from hair roots, we developed the protein processing method. We extracted the protein from five strands of hair using ISOGEN reagents. Then, these extracted proteins were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. These collected profiles will give us useful physiological information to examine the effect of space flight.

  8. [Hair growth effect of minoxidil].

    PubMed

    Otomo, Susumu

    2002-03-01

    The length and size of hair are depend on the anagen term in its hair cycle. It has been reported that the some cell growth factors, such as VEGF, FGF-5S, IGF-1 and KGF, induce the proliferation of cells in the matrix, dermal papilla and dermal papillary vascular system and increase the amount of extra cellular matrix in dermal papilla and then maintain follicles in the anagen phase. On the other hand, negative factors, like FGF-5, thrombospondin, or still unknown ones, terminate the anagen phase. If the negative factors become dominant against cell proliferation factors according to fulfilling some time set by the biological clock for hair follicles, TGF beta induced in the matrix tissues evokes apoptosis of matrix cells and shifts the follicles from anagen to catagen. Androgenetic alopecia is caused by miniaturizing of hair follicles located in the frontal or crown part of scalp and are hereditarily more sensitive to androgen. In their hair cycles, the androgen shortens the anagen phase of follicles and shifts them to the catagen phase earlier than usual. The mode of action of hair growth effect of minoxidil is not completely elucidated, but the most plausible explanation proposed here is that minoxidil works as a sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) activator and prolongs the anagen phase of hair follicles in the following manner: minoxidil (1) induces cell growth factors such as VEGF, HGF, IGF-1 and potentiates HGF and IGF-1 actions by the activation of uncoupled SUR on the plasma membrane of dermal papilla cells, (2) inhibits of TGF beta induced apoptosis of hair matrix cells by opening the Kir 6.0 channel pore coupled with SUR on the mitochondrial inner membrane, and (3) dilates hair follicle arteries and increases blood flow in dermal papilla by opening the Kir 6.0 channel pore coupled with SUR on the plasma membrane of vascular smooth muscle cells.

  9. Stimulation of hair cells with ultraviolet light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azimzadeh, Julien B.; Fabella, Brian A.; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2018-05-01

    Hair bundles are specialized organelles that transduce mechanical inputs into electrical outputs. To activate hair cells, physiologists have resorted to mechanical methods of hair-bundle stimulation. Here we describe a new method of hair-bundle stimulation, irradiation with ultraviolet light. A hair bundle illuminated by ultraviolet light rapidly moves towards its tall edge, a motion typically associated with excitatory stimulation. The motion disappears upon tip-link rupture and is associated with the opening of mechanotransduction channels. Hair bundles can be induced to move sinusoidally with oscillatory modulation of the stimulation power. We discuss the implications of ultraviolet stimulation as a novel hair-bundle stimulus.

  10. The structure of people's hair.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fei-Chi; Zhang, Yuchen; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2014-01-01

    Hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting mainly of proteins in particular keratin. The structure of human hair is well known: the medulla is a loosely packed, disordered region near the centre of the hair surrounded by the cortex, which contains the major part of the fibre mass, mainly consisting of keratin proteins and structural lipids. The cortex is surrounded by the cuticle, a layer of dead, overlapping cells forming a protective layer around the hair. The corresponding structures have been studied extensively using a variety of different techniques, such as light, electron and atomic force microscopes, and also X-ray diffraction. We were interested in the question how much the molecular hair structure differs from person to person, between male and female hair, hair of different appearances such as colour and waviness. We included hair from parent and child, identical and fraternal twins in the study to see if genetically similar hair would show similar structural features. The molecular structure of the hair samples was studied using high-resolution X-ray diffraction, which covers length scales from molecules up to the organization of secondary structures. Signals due to the coiled-coil phase of α-helical keratin proteins, intermediate keratin filaments in the cortex and from the lipid layers in the cell membrane complex were observed in the specimen of all individuals, with very small deviations. Despite the relatively small number of individuals (12) included in this study, some conclusions can be drawn. While the general features were observed in all individuals and the corresponding molecular structures were almost identical, additional signals were observed in some specimen and assigned to different types of lipids in the cell membrane complex. Genetics seem to play a role in this composition as identical patterns were observed in hair from father and daughter and identical twins, however, not for fraternal twins. Identification and characterization

  11. Essentials of Hair Care often Neglected: Hair Cleansing

    PubMed Central

    Draelos, Zoe D

    2010-01-01

    Why does the selection of hair cleansing products and conditioners seem complex? Why are there clear, opalescent, green, blue, glittery, cheap, expensive, thick, thin, fragrant, and unscented varieties of shampoos and conditioners? Why the whole cleansing process cannot be simplified by using the same bar soap used on the body for the hair? Does the shampoo selected really make a difference? What can a conditioner accomplish? PMID:21188020

  12. Development of a smart, anti-water polyurethane polymer hair coating for style setting.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Liu, Y J; Hu, J; Ji, F L; Lv, J; Chen, S J; Zhu, Y

    2016-06-01

    be recovered 94% at 75°C, once its shape is changed by an external force. The treated hair can withstand warm water rinsing for at least five cycles, and it can keep 65% of its original setting style after water rinsing. The polyurethane polymer could be totally removed by shampooing the hair and hot towel covering for 5-10 min. This research provides an effective way for the development of new intelligent shaping agents. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  13. Protein Analysis with Human Hair

    ScienceCinema

    Hart, Brad; Anex, Deon; Parker, Glendon

    2018-01-16

    In an important breakthrough for the forensic science community, researchers have developed the first-ever biological identification method that exploits the information encoded in proteins of human hair.

  14. Protein Analysis with Human Hair

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, Brad; Anex, Deon; Parker, Glendon

    In an important breakthrough for the forensic science community, researchers have developed the first-ever biological identification method that exploits the information encoded in proteins of human hair.

  15. Quantitative Phosphoproteomic Analysis of Soybean Root Hairs Inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Tran H.; Brechenmacher, Laurent; Aldrich, Joshua T.

    2012-11-11

    Root hairs are single hair-forming cells on roots that function to increase root surface area, enhancing water and nutrient uptake. In leguminous plants, root hairs also play a critical role as the site of infection by symbiotic nitrogen fixing rhizobia, leading to the formation of a novel organ, the nodule. The initial steps in the rhizobia-root hair infection process are known to involve specific receptor kinases and subsequent kinase cascades. Here, we characterize the phosphoproteome of the root hairs and the corresponding stripped roots (i.e., roots from which root hairs were removed) during rhizobial colonization and infection to gain insightmore » into the molecular mechanism of root hair cell biology. We chose soybean (Glycine max L.), one of the most important crop plants in the legume family, for this study because of its larger root size, which permits isolation of sufficient root hair material for phosphoproteomic analysis. Phosphopeptides derived from root hairs and stripped roots, mock inoculated or inoculated with the soybean-specific rhizobium Bradyrhizobium japonicum, were labeled with the isobaric tag 8-plex ITRAQ, enriched using Ni-NTA magnetic beads and subjected to nRPLC-MS/MS analysis using HCD and decision tree guided CID/ETD strategy. A total of 1,625 unique phosphopeptides, spanning 1,659 non-redundant phosphorylation sites, were detected from 1,126 soybean phosphoproteins. Among them, 273 phosphopeptides corresponding to 240 phosphoproteins were found to be significantly regulated (>1.5 fold abundance change) in response to inoculation with B. japonicum. The data reveal unique features of the soybean root hair phosphoproteome, including root hair and stripped root-specific phosphorylation suggesting a complex network of kinase-substrate and phosphatase-substrate interactions in response to rhizobial inoculation.« less

  16. Restenosis after hot-tip laser-balloon angioplasty: histologic evaluation of the samples removed by Simpson atherectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbieri, Enrico; Tanganelli, Pietro; Taddei, Giuseppe; Perbellini, Antonio; Attino, Vito; Destro, Gianni; Zardini, Piero

    1991-05-01

    Laser balloon angioplasty has been used in recent years to treat peripheral artery disease. Despite a primary success the technique is plagued by a high restenosis rate. Directional atherectomy was performed in a small group of patients affected by primitive stenosis or restenosis after an invasive procedure. Light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy have identified the cellular component of intimal hyperplasia as smooth muscle cells in an active synthetic phenotype. The arterial healing process after invasive procedures seems to develop similarly independently of the device employed.

  17. Low-cost/high-efficiency lasers for medical applications in the 14XX-nm regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, J. J.; McIntyre, E.; Rafferty, C.; Yanushefski, L.; Bean, D. M.

    2011-03-01

    Laser therapy is becoming an increasingly popular method of treating numerous dermatological conditions. The widespread use of these devices is often limited by the cost and size. Low cost, portable lasers would expand the laser market further into homes, general practitioners, dermatologists, plastic surgeons, and 3rd world countries. There are numerous light devices currently on the market for hair removal and growth, acne reduction, and wrinkles. These devices are varied, from LEDs to intense pulsed light (IPL) to lasers. One particular disease is leishmaniasis, caused by a parasite carried by sand flies, most often occurring in third world countries. While there are drug therapies available, they sometimes require hospitalization for several days and are very expensive. An RF device has been FDA approved for treatment of leishmaniasis, but costs about $20,000 which is too expensive for widespread use. Since the method is heating the lesion, the same affect could be achieved using an infrared laser. Diode lasers have the capability to be produced in mass quantity for low costs, as shown by the ubiquity of diode lasers in the telecom industry and household appliances. Unfortunately, many diode lasers suffer from poor efficiency, particularly in wavelengths for dermatology. Advances are being made to improve wall plug efficiency of lasers to reduce waste heat and increase output power. In this paper, those efforts being made to develop manufacturing partners to lower the cost while increasing the production volume of long wavelength lasers will be discussed along with performance data and clinical results.

  18. Wild boar hair (Sus scrofa) as a non-invasive indicator of mercury pollution.

    PubMed

    Sobańska, Marta A

    2005-03-01

    This paper investigates the usefulness of wild boar (Sus scrofa) hair as a non-invasive indicator of mercury pollution. Samples were collected in two hunting seasons (1998/1999 and 1999/2000) by hunters from four differently polluted regions of Poland. Mercury content was determined by AAS methods. Different washing procedures were compared. De-ionised water was found to be suitable for the removal of exogenous mercury sources in hair analysis. Metal distribution along hair was analysed. It was found that problems arising from differences in distribution of metal along a single hair strand as well as differences in the hair colour can be eliminated through the careful homogenisation of the samples before analysis. The influences of physiological, ecological and environmental factors that might significantly affect the obtained results (age, gender, season, location of habitat and diet of the sampled animals) were estimated and taken into account. The present study revealed that female hair contained a higher amount of mercury than male hair. Moreover the highest mercury content was found in young individuals between 1 and 2 years of age. A positive correlation of the present results with environmental data taken from the State Offices showed an influence of environmental pollution on the mercury level in wild boar hair.

  19. Does the hair influence heat extraction from the head during head cooling under heat stress?

    PubMed Central

    SHIN, Sora; PARK, Joonhee; LEE, Joo-Young

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of head hair on thermoregulatory responses when cooling the head under heat stress. Eight young males participated in six experimental conditions: normal hair (100–130 mm length) and cropped hair (5 mm length) with three water inlet temperatures of 10, 15, and 20°C. The head and neck of subjects were cooled by a liquid perfused hood while immersing legs at 42°C water for 60 min in a sitting position at the air temperature of 28°C with 30% RH. The results showed that heat removal from the normal hair condition was not significantly different from the cropped hair condition. Rectal and mean skin temperatures, and sweat rate showed no significant differences between the normal and cropped hair conditions. Heat extraction from the head was significantly greater in 10°C than in 15 or 20°C cooling (p<0.05) for both normal and cropped hair, whereas subjects preferred the 15°C more than the 10 or 20°C cooling regimen. These results indicate that the selection of effective cooling temperature is more crucial than the length of workers’ hair during head cooling under heat stress, and such selection should be under the consideration of subjective perceptions with physiological responses. PMID:26165361

  20. Contactless decontamination of hair samples: cannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Restolho, José; Barroso, Mário; Saramago, Benilde; Dias, Mário; Afonso, Carlos A M

    2017-02-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) have already been shown to provide efficient extraction media for several systems, and to capture volatile compounds, namely opiates. In this work, a novel, contactless, artefact-free extraction procedure for the removal of Δ 9 -tetrahrydrocannabinol (THC) from the surface of human hair is presented. To prepare in vitro cannabinoids-contaminated hair, samples were flushed with hashish smoke for 7 h. The decontamination experiments were carried at 100 °C for 24 h, according to the procedure previously described. Fifty-three ILs were screened and presented decontamination efficiencies ranging from 0 to 96 %. Although the majority of the ILs presented efficiencies above 90%, the 1-ethanol-3-methyl tetrafluoroborate (96%) was chosen for further process optimization. The Design of Experiments results demonstrated that all studied variables were significant for the process and the obtained optimum conditions were: 100 °C, 13 h and 175 mg of IL. In the work of Perrotin-Brunel et al. (J. Mol. Struct. 2011, 987, 67), it is demonstrated that, at 100 °C, full conversion of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) into THC is obtained after 60 min. Since our decontamination takes place over 13 h at 100 °C, full conversion of THCA into THC is expected. Additionally, our method was compared with the method proposed by Cairns et al. (Forensic Sci. Int. 2004, 145, 97), through the analysis of 15 in vitro contaminated hair samples. The results demonstrated that with our method a mean extraction efficiency of 11 % higher was obtained. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Cortisol levels in hair of East Greenland polar bears.

    PubMed

    Bechshøft, T Ø; Sonne, C; Dietz, R; Born, E W; Novak, M A; Henchey, E; Meyer, J S

    2011-01-15

    To demonstrate the ability to assess long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity in polar bears (Ursus maritimus), a pilot study was conducted in which cortisol concentrations was analyzed in hair from 7 female (3-19 years) and 10 male (6-19 years) East Greenland polar bears sampled in 1994-2006. The hair was chosen as matrix as it is non-invasive, seasonally harmonized, and has been validated as an index of long-term changes in cortisol levels. The samples were categorized according to contamination: eight were clean (2 females, 6 males), 5 had been contaminated with bear blood (2 F, 3 M), and 4 with bear fat (3 F, 1 M). There was no significant difference in cortisol concentration between the three categories after external contamination was removed. However, contaminated hair samples should be cleaned before cortisol determination. Average hair cortisol concentration was 8.90 pg/mg (range: 5.5 to 16.4 pg/mg). There was no significant correlation between cortisol concentration and age (p=0.81) or sampling year (p=0.11). However, females had higher mean cortisol concentration than males (females mean: 11.0 pg/mg, males: 7.3 pg/mg; p=0.01). The study showed that polar bear hair contains measurable amounts of cortisol and that cortisol in hair may be used in studies of long-term stress in polar bears. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Highly efficient and compatible shampoo for use after hair transplant.

    PubMed

    Schweiger, Dorothea; Schoelermann, Andrea M; Filbry, Alexander; Hamann, Tina; Moser, Claudia; Rippke, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Sensitive or hyperreactive skin is a common condition defined by prickling, burning, pain, and pruritus. Although this skin problem was initially described on the face, the scalp is often affected. A sensitive scalp can react with irritation to harsh surfactants or other additives which are often present in shampoos. For this reason, we developed a new rinse-off hypertolerant shampoo specifically designed for the hypersensitive and problematic scalp. The shampoo formulation is based on an extremely mild surfactant system and contains bisabolol, an anti-irritant and anti-inflammatory ingredient of chamomile. The shampoo is free of additives such as perfumes, silicones, colorants, parabens, paraffins, and betaine. Since skin can remain in a hyperreactive state after wounding, the status after hair transplantation was chosen as a model system to test the shampoo. Scalp condition and compatibility of each volunteer were analyzed by a plastic surgeon directly after hair transplant and after stitch removal. The plastic surgeons also rated whether they would recommend the further use of the test shampoo. Additionally, volunteers completed a self-assessment questionnaire. Following hair transplantation, regular use of the shampoo resulted in a significant reduction in the extent of scabbing and erythema. This was confirmed by dermatological scalp examinations performed by the plastic surgeon as well as in volunteers' self-assessments. The plastic surgeon highly recommended the further use of the test shampoo after hair transplant to all study participants. Application of the test shampoo demonstrated excellent skin compatibility and product efficacy after hair transplant. The test shampoo significantly reduced the extent of scabs and erythema. Therefore, the shampoo is ideally suited for use after hair transplantation and for the treatment of sensitive scalp. The excellent skin compatibility is because of the mild surfactant system, the calming ingredient bisabolol, and

  3. Hair Manganese as an Exposure Biomarker among Welders

    PubMed Central

    Reiss, Boris; Simpson, Christopher D.; Baker, Marissa G.; Stover, Bert; Sheppard, Lianne; Seixas, Noah S.

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying exposure and dose to manganese (Mn) containing airborne particles in welding fume presents many challenges. Common biological markers such as Mn in blood or Mn in urine have not proven to be practical biomarkers even in studies where positive associations were observed. However, hair Mn (MnH) as a biomarker has the advantage over blood and urine that it is less influenced by short-term variability of Mn exposure levels because of its slow growth rate. The objective of this study was to determine whether hair can be used as a biomarker for welders exposed to manganese. Hair samples (1cm) were collected from 47 welding school students and individual air Mn (MnA) exposures were measured for each subject. MnA levels for all days were estimated with a linear mixed model using welding type as a predictor. A 30-day time-weighted average MnA (MnA30d) exposure level was calculated for each hair sample. The association between MnH and MnA30d levels was then assessed. A linear relationship was observed between log-transformed MnA30d and log-transformed MnH. Doubling MnA30d exposure levels yields a 20% (95% confidence interval: 11–29%) increase in MnH. The association was similar for hair washed following two different wash procedures designed to remove external contamination. Hair shows promise as a biomarker for inhaled Mn exposure given the presence of a significant linear association between MnH and MnA30d levels. PMID:26409267

  4. Hair Manganese as an Exposure Biomarker among Welders.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Boris; Simpson, Christopher D; Baker, Marissa G; Stover, Bert; Sheppard, Lianne; Seixas, Noah S

    2016-03-01

    Quantifying exposure and dose to manganese (Mn) containing airborne particles in welding fume presents many challenges. Common biological markers such as Mn in blood or Mn in urine have not proven to be practical biomarkers even in studies where positive associations were observed. However, hair Mn (MnH) as a biomarker has the advantage over blood and urine that it is less influenced by short-term variability of Mn exposure levels because of its slow growth rate. The objective of this study was to determine whether hair can be used as a biomarker for welders exposed to manganese. Hair samples (1cm) were collected from 47 welding school students and individual air Mn (MnA) exposures were measured for each subject. MnA levels for all days were estimated with a linear mixed model using welding type as a predictor. A 30-day time-weighted average MnA (MnA30d) exposure level was calculated for each hair sample. The association between MnH and MnA30d levels was then assessed. A linear relationship was observed between log-transformed MnA30d and log-transformed MnH. Doubling MnA30d exposure levels yields a 20% (95% confidence interval: 11-29%) increase in MnH. The association was similar for hair washed following two different wash procedures designed to remove external contamination. Hair shows promise as a biomarker for inhaled Mn exposure given the presence of a significant linear association between MnH and MnA30d levels. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  5. Highly efficient and compatible shampoo for use after hair transplant

    PubMed Central

    Schweiger, Dorothea; Schoelermann, Andrea M; Filbry, Alexander; Hamann, Tina; Moser, Claudia; Rippke, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Background Sensitive or hyperreactive skin is a common condition defined by prickling, burning, pain, and pruritus. Although this skin problem was initially described on the face, the scalp is often affected. A sensitive scalp can react with irritation to harsh surfactants or other additives which are often present in shampoos. For this reason, we developed a new rinse-off hypertolerant shampoo specifically designed for the hypersensitive and problematic scalp. Methods The shampoo formulation is based on an extremely mild surfactant system and contains bisabolol, an anti-irritant and anti-inflammatory ingredient of chamomile. The shampoo is free of additives such as perfumes, silicones, colorants, parabens, paraffins, and betaine. Since skin can remain in a hyperreactive state after wounding, the status after hair transplantation was chosen as a model system to test the shampoo. Scalp condition and compatibility of each volunteer were analyzed by a plastic surgeon directly after hair transplant and after stitch removal. The plastic surgeons also rated whether they would recommend the further use of the test shampoo. Additionally, volunteers completed a self-assessment questionnaire. Results Following hair transplantation, regular use of the shampoo resulted in a significant reduction in the extent of scabbing and erythema. This was confirmed by dermatological scalp examinations performed by the plastic surgeon as well as in volunteers’ self-assessments. The plastic surgeon highly recommended the further use of the test shampoo after hair transplant to all study participants. Conclusion Application of the test shampoo demonstrated excellent skin compatibility and product efficacy after hair transplant. The test shampoo significantly reduced the extent of scabs and erythema. Therefore, the shampoo is ideally suited for use after hair transplantation and for the treatment of sensitive scalp. The excellent skin compatibility is because of the mild surfactant system

  6. Nutrition and hair: deficiencies and supplements.

    PubMed

    Finner, Andreas M

    2013-01-01

    Hair follicle cells have a high turnover. A caloric deprivation or deficiency of several components, such as proteins, minerals, essential fatty acids, and vitamins, caused by inborn errors or reduced uptake, can lead to structural abnormalities, pigmentation changes, or hair loss, although exact data are often lacking. The diagnosis is established through a careful history, clinical examination of hair loss activity, and hair quality and confirmed through targeted laboratory tests. Examples of genetic hair disorders caused by reduced nutritional components are zinc deficiency in acrodermatitis enteropathica and copper deficiency in Menkes kinky hair syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficacy of fractional lasers in treating alopecia: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Perper, Marina; Aldahan, Adam S; Fayne, Rachel A; Emerson, Christopher P; Nouri, Keyvan

    2017-11-01

    Hair loss stemming from different types of alopecia, such as androgenic alopecia and alopecia areata, negatively affects over half the population and, in many circumstances, causes serious psychosocial distress. Current treatment options for alopecia, such as minoxidil, anthralin, and intralesional corticosteroids, vary efficacy and side effect profiles. It is known that low-level laser/light therapies (LLLT), or photobiomodulations, such as the US FDA-cleared HairMax Lasercomb®, He-Ne laser, and excimer laser, are relatively affordable, user-friendly, safe, and effective forms of treatment for hair loss. While less is known about the effectiveness of fractional lasers for combating hair loss, research suggests that by creating microscopic thermal injury zones, fractional lasers may cause an increase in hair growth from a wound healing process, making them potential therapeutic options for alopecia. A literature review was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of fractional lasers on hair regrowth. The specific fractional laser therapies include the 1550-nm nonablative fractional erbium-glass laser, the ablative fractional 2940-nm erbium:YAG laser, and the ablative fractional CO 2 fractional laser. Additional randomized controlled trials are necessary to further evaluate the effectiveness of the lasers, as well as to establish appropriate parameters and treatment intervals.

  8. Trichoscopic Findings of Hair Loss in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin; Kim, Joo-Ik; Kim, Han-Uk; Yun, Seok-Kweon

    2015-01-01

    Background Trichoscopic findings of hair loss have been well described for the differential diagnosis of alopecia; however, critical findings were not thoroughly investigated or compared among all ethnic groups, including Asians. Objective We aimed to find any characteristic trichoscopic findings in Korean alopecia patients and to verify whether those findings are closely related to previously reported observations. Methods Three hundred and twenty-seven patients with hair loss of various causes and 160 normal scalps were analyzed. Trichoscopic examination was performed with a polarized-light handheld dermoscope. Results A total of 35 patterns of trichoscopic features were represented, and certain features were significantly common or observed exclusively in a particular type of alopecia as follows: yellow dots, exclamation mark hairs, and proximal tapering hairs (alopecia areata), trichoptilosis and pointed hairs (trichotillomania), corkscrew hairs, septate hyphae hairs, and comma hairs (tinea capitis), diffuse white area, fibrotic white dots, and tufting hairs (primary cicatricial alopecia), hair diameter diversity and peripilar sign (androgenetic alopecia), and short nonvellus hairs (telogen effluvium). Conclusion The characteristic trichoscopic features for the differential diagnosis of alopecia in Koreans, shown as follicular, perifollicular, and hair shaft patterns, are similar to those of Caucasians; however, the frequencies of the pigment patterns are different between Koreans and Caucasians because of the contrast effect of the skin and hair color. Therefore, racial difference should be considered in the trichoscopic evaluation for differential diagnosis. PMID:26512168

  9. Soft Hair on Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawking, Stephen W.; Perry, Malcolm J.; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.

  10. Hair loss in elderly women.