Sample records for laser surface cleaning

  1. Surface Cleaning of Iron Artefacts by Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Y. S.; Sárady, I.

    In this paper the general method and ethics of the laser cleaning technique for conservation are presented. The results of two experiments are also presented; experiment 1 compares cleaning of rust by an Nd:YAG laser and micro-blasting whilst experiment 2 deals with removing the wax coating from iron samples by a TEA CO2 laser. The first experiment showed that cleaning with a pulsed laser and higher photon energy obtained a better surface structure than micro blasting. The second experiment showed how differences in energy density affect the same surface.

  2. Laser cleaning of the contaminations on the surface of tire mould

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Yayun; Jia, Baoshen; Chen, Jing; Jiang, Yilan; Tang, Hongping; Wang, Haijun; Luan, Xiaoyu; Liao, Wei; Zhang, Chuanchao; Yao, Caizhen

    2017-07-01

    During the manufacturing of tires, surface pollutants on tire mould will lead to the production of unqualified tires. Tire moulds need to be regularly cleaned. Laser cleaning is recognized as a non-destructive, effective, precise and environmental friendly method. In this paper, laser cleaning was used to remove contaminants on tire mould surface. First, laser induced damage experiments were performed. The results showed that the roughness and hardness of the cast steel sample surface seldom changed under the energy range of 140.1-580.2 mJ laser irradiation 1 pulse and the energy range of 44.7-168.9 mJ laser irradiation 100 pulses. In the laser cleaning experiments, the cleaning thresholds and the optimal cleaning parameters were obtained. Results indicated that laser cleaning was safe and effective for tire mould contamination removal.

  3. Surface Analysis of the Laser Cleaned Metal Threads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokhan, M.; Hartog, F.; McPhail, D.

    The laser cleaning of the tarnished silver threads was carried out using Nd:YAG laser radiation at IR (1064 nm) and visible wavelengths (532 nm). The preliminary tests were made on the piece of silk with the silver embroidery with the clean and tarnished areas. FIBS and SIMS analysis were used for analysing the condition of the surface before and after laser irradiation. It was found that irradiation below 0.4 J/cm-2 and higher than 1.0 J/cm-2 fluences aggravates the process of tarnishing and leads to the yellowing effect. The results of preliminary tests were used for finding the optimum cleaning regime for the laser cleaning of the real museum artefact: "Women Riding Jacket" dated to the beginning of 18th century.

  4. Comparative study of pulsed laser cleaning applied to weathered marble surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, P.; Antúnez, V.; Ortiz, R.; Martín, J. M.; Gómez, M. A.; Hortal, A. R.; Martínez-Haya, B.

    2013-10-01

    The removal of unwanted matter from surface stones is a demanding task in the conservation of cultural heritage. This paper investigates the effectiveness of near-infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) laser pulses for the cleaning of surface deposits, iron oxide stains and different types of graffiti (black, red and green sprays and markers, and black cutting-edge ink) on dolomitic white marble. The performance of the laser techniques is compared to common cleaning methods on the same samples, namely pressurized water and chemical treatments. The degree of cleaning achieved with each technique is assessed by means of colorimetric measurements and X-ray microfluorescence. Eventual morphological changes induced on the marble substrate are monitored with optical and electronic microscopy. It is found that UV pulsed laser ablation at 266 nm manages to clean all the stains except the cutting-edge ink, although some degree of surface erosion is produced. The IR laser pulses at 1064 nm can remove surface deposits and black spray acceptably, but a yellowing is observed on the stone surface after treatment. An economic evaluation shows that pulsed laser cleaning techniques are advantageous for the rapid cleaning of small or inaccessible surface areas, although their extensive application becomes expensive due to the long operating times required.

  5. Cleaning of optical surfaces by excimer laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, K.; Wolff-Rottke, B.; Müller, F.

    1996-04-01

    The effect of particle removal from Al mirror surfaces by the influence of pulsed UV laser radiation has been studied. The investigations are closely related to the demands of astronomers, who are looking for a more effective way to clean future very large telescope (VLT) mirrors [1]. A systematic parameter study has been performed in order to determine the irradiation conditions which yield the highest dust removal efficiency (i.e. reflectivity increase) on contaminated samples. The particle removal rate increases with increasing laser fluence, being limited however by the damage threshold of the coating. Data indicate that on Al coated BK7 and Zerodur samples KrF laser radiation yields the optimum result, with cleaning efficiencies comparable to polymer film stripping. The initial reflectivity of the clean coating can nearly be restored, in particular when an additional solvent film on the sample surface is applied.

  6. Laser Ablation Cleaning of Self-Reacting Friction Stir Weld Seam Surfaces: A Preliminary Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.; Russell, C. K.; Brooke, S. A.; Parry, Q.; Lowrey, N. M.

    2014-01-01

    Anodized aluminum panels were cleaned by three lasers at three separate sites with a view to determining whether more economical laser cleaning might supplant current manual cleaning methods for preparation of surfaces to be welded by the self-reacting friction stir process. Uncleaned panels yielded welds exhibiting residual oxide defect (ROD) and failing at very low stresses along the trace of the weld seam. Manually cleaned panels yielded welds without ROD; these welds failed at nominal stress levels along an angled fracture surface not following the weld seam trace. Laser cleaned panels yielded welds failing at intermediate stress levels. The inadequacy of the laser cleaning processes leaves questions: Was the anodized aluminum test too stringent to represent actual cleaning requirements? Were the wrong laser cleaning techniques/parameters used for the study? Is the laser cleaning mechanism inadequate for effective preweld surface cleaning?

  7. Laser cleaning on Roman coins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drakaki, E.; Karydas, A. G.; Klinkenberg, B.; Kokkoris, M.; Serafetinides, A. A.; Stavrou, E.; Vlastou, R.; Zarkadas, C.

    Ancient metal objects react with moisture and environmental chemicals to form various corrosion products. Because of the unique character and high value of such objects, any cleaning procedure should guarantee minimum destructiveness. The most common treatment used is mechanical stripping, in which it is difficult to avoid surface damage when employed. Lasers are currently being tested for a wide range of conservation applications. Since they are highly controllable and can be selectively applied, lasers can be used to achieve more effective and safer cleaning of archaeological artifacts and protect their surface details. The basic criterion that motivated us to use lasers to clean Roman coins was the requirement of pulsed emission, in order to minimize heat-induced damages. In fact, the laser interaction with the coins has to be short enough, to produce a fast removal of the encrustation, avoiding heat conduction into the substrate. The cleaning effects of three lasers operating at different wavelengths, namely a TEA CO2 laser emitting at 10.6 μm, an Er:YAG laser at 2.94 μm, and a 2ω-Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm have been compared on corroded Romans coins and various atomic and nuclear techniques have also been applied to evaluate the efficiency of the applied procedure.

  8. The effects of short pulse laser surface cleaning on porosity formation and reduction in laser welding of aluminium alloy for automotive component manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlShaer, A. W.; Li, L.; Mistry, A.

    2014-12-01

    Laser welding of aluminium alloys typically results in porosity in the fusion zones, leading to poor mechanical and corrosion performances. Mechanical and chemical cleaning of surfaces has been used previously to remove contaminants for weld joint preparations. However, these methods are slow, ineffective (e.g. due to hydrogen trapping) or lead to environmental hazards. This paper reports the effects of short pulsed laser surface cleaning on porosity formation and reduction in laser welding of AC-170PX (AA6014) aluminium sheets (coated with Ti/Zr and lubricated using a dry lubricant AlO70) with two types of joints: fillet edge and flange couch, using an AA4043 filler wire for automotive component assembly. The effect of laser cleaning on porosity reduction during laser welding using a filler wire has not been reported before. In this work, porosity and weld fusion zone geometry were examined prior to and after laser cleaning. The nanosecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser cleaning was found to reduce porosity significantly in the weld fusion zones. For the fillet edge welds, porosity was reduced to less than 0.5% compared with 10-80% without laser cleaning. For flange couch welds, porosity was reduced to 0.23-0.8% with laser cleaning from 0.7% to 4.3% without laser cleaning. This has been found to be due to the elimination of contaminations and oxide layers that contribute to the porosity formation. The laser cleaning is based on thermal ablation. This research focuses on porosity reduction in laser welding of aluminium alloy. Weld quality was investigated for two joints, fillet edge and flange couch joints. The effect of laser cleaning on porosity reduction after welding was investigated. It was found that laser cleaning reduced porosity less than 1% in both joints. Weld dimensions and strength were evaluated and discussed for both types of joints.

  9. Corrosion behaviour of laser-cleaned AA7024 aluminium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, F. D.; Liu, H.; Suebka, C.; Liu, Y. X.; Liu, Z.; Guo, W.; Cheng, Y. M.; Zhang, S. L.; Li, L.

    2018-03-01

    Laser cleaning has been considered as a promising technique for the preparation of aluminium alloy surfaces prior to joining and welding and has been practically used in the automotive industry. The process is based on laser ablation to remove surface contaminations and aluminium oxides. However the change of surface chemistry and oxide status may affect corrosion behaviour of aluminium alloys. Until now, no work has been reported on the corrosion characteristics of laser cleaned metallic surfaces. In this study, we investigated the corrosion behaviour of laser-cleaned AA7024-T4 aluminium alloy using potentiodynamic polarisation, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET). The results showed that the laser-cleaned surface exhibited higher corrosion resistance in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution than as-received hot-rolled alloy, with significant increase in impedance and decrease in capacitance, while SVET revealed that the active anodic points appeared on the as-received surface were not presented on the laser-cleaned surfaces. Such corrosion behaviours were correlated to the change of surface oxide status measured by glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was suggested that the removal of the original less protective oxide layer consisting of MgO and MgAl2O4 on the as-received surfaces and the newly formed more protective oxide layer containing mainly Al2O3 and MgO by laser cleaning were responsible for the improvement of the corrosion performance.

  10. Laser cleaning treatment of burnt paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonopoulou-Athera, N.; Chatzitheodoridis, E.; Doulgerides, M.; Evangelatos, Ch.; Serafetinides, A. A.; Terlixi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Three samples taken from two paintings partly burned by fire are investigated for cleaning with lasers. The paintings belong to the collection of the National Gallery of Athens and were made by the great Greek artist Konstantinos Parthenis. To remove the damaged surface and achieve an acceptable restoration result, the optimum combination of fluence and wavelength are sought. Seven different wavelengths with a set of fluences where used, i.e., the five harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser (1064, 532, 355, 266, and 213 nm), a TEA 10.6 μm CO2 and a free running laser Er:YAG 2.94 μm. Characterization was performed prior and after the cleaning process by optical and electron microscopy and analysis (SEM/BSE EDS), as well as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The results of this work indicate that the wavelength in the visible spectrum (532 nm) with fluences between 0.1-0.4J/cm2 show the optimum cleaning. The optical microscopy observation shows that with these laser parameters the burnt layer was preferentially removed, exposing the original colors that Parthenis had used in these paintings. Electron microscopy imaging and chemical analysis revealed that the original texture and materials of these samples are preserved after irradiation. Since the damage varies along the surface of the painting, more experiments should be performed in order to find and optimize the full cleaning and characterization process for the homogeneous cleaning of the whole surface of the painting.

  11. Characterization of Laser Cleaning of Artworks

    PubMed Central

    Marczak, Jan; Koss, Andrzej; Targowski, Piotr; Góra, Michalina; Strzelec, Marek; Sarzyński, Antoni; Skrzeczanowski, Wojciech; Ostrowski, Roman; Rycyk, Antoni

    2008-01-01

    The main tasks of conservators of artworks and monuments are the estimation and analysis of damages (present condition), object conservation (cleaning process), and the protection of an object against further degradation. One of the physical methods that is becoming more and more popular for dirt removal is the laser cleaning method. This method is non-contact, selective, local, controlled, self-limiting, gives immediate feedback and preserves even the gentlest of relief - the trace of a paintbrush. Paper presents application of different, selected physical sensing methods to characterize condition of works of art as well as laser cleaning process itself. It includes, tested in our laboratories, optical surface measurements (e.g. colorimetry, scatterometry, interferometry), infrared thermography, optical coherent tomography and acoustic measurements for “on-line” evaluation of cleaning progress. Results of laser spectrometry analyses (LIBS, Raman) will illustrate identification and dating of objects superficial layers. PMID:27873884

  12. Cleaning of copper traces on circuit boards with excimer laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesner, D. A.; Mertin, M.; Lupp, F.; Kreutz, E. W.

    1996-04-01

    Cleaning of Cu traces on circuit boards is studied using pulsed excimer laser radiation (pulse width ˜ 20 ns, wavelength 248 nm), with the goal of improving the properties of the Cu surface for soldering and bonding. Traces with well-defined oxide overlayers are cleaned by irradiation in air using ≤ 10 3 laser pulses at fluences per pulse of ≤ 2 J cm -2. After treatment the surface morphology is analyzed using optical microscopy, optical profilometry, and scanning electron microscopy, while the chemical state of the surface is investigated with X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy. Ellipsometry is used to determine the oxide overlayer thickness. Prior to cleaning samples exhibit a contamination overlayer about 15-25 nm in thickness containing Cu 2O and C. Cleaning reduces the overlayer thickness to ≤ 10 nm by material removal. The process tends to be self-limiting, since the optical reflectivity of the oxidized Cu surface for laser radiation is smaller than that of the cleaned surface. Additionally, the interaction with the laser radiation results in surface segregation of a minor alloy component out of the bulk (e.g. Zn), which may help to passivate the surface for further chemical reactions.

  13. Surface modifications induced by pulsed-laser texturing—Influence of laser impact on the surface properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costil, S.; Lamraoui, A.; Langlade, C.; Heintz, O.; Oltra, R.

    2014-01-01

    Laser cleaning technology provides a safe, environmentally friendly and very cost effective way to improve cleaning and surface preparation of metallic materials. Compared with efficient cleaning processes, it can avoid the disadvantages of ductile materials prepared by conventional technologies (cracks induced by sand-blasting for example) and treat only some selected areas (due to the optical fibers). By this way, laser technology could have several advantages and expand the range of thermal spraying. Moreover, new generations of lasers (fiber laser, disc laser) allow the development of new methods. Besides a significant bulk reduction, no maintenance, low operating cost, laser fibers can introduce alternative treatments. Combining a short-pulse laser with a scanner allows new applications in terms of surface preparation. By multiplying impacts using scanning laser, it is possible to shape the substrate surface to improve the coating adhesion as well as the mechanical behaviour. In addition, during the interactions of the laser beam with metallic surfaces, several modifications can be induced and particularly thermal effects. Indeed, under ambient conditions, a limited oxidation of the clean surface can occur. This phenomenon has been investigated in detail for silicon but few works have been reported concerning metallic materials. This paper aims at studying the surface modifications induced on aluminium alloy substrates after laser texturing. After morphological observations (SEM), a deeper surface analysis will be performed using XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) measures and microhardness testing.

  14. Experimental investigation on cleaning of corroded ancient coins using a Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Huazhong; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiaowu; Shen, Zhonghua

    2017-05-01

    The objective of the work reported is to study experimentally on the removal of corrosion layer from the ancient coins using laser beam as the conservation tool. With the use of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser radiation at 1064 nm, dry laser cleaning, steam laser cleaning and chemical-assisted laser cleaning were used to find out a more suitable and efficient laser treatment for corrosion removal. Cleaning tests were performed on ancient Chinese coins. Experimental results shows that the dry laser cleaning was not successful at removing all types of corrosion crust. It was possible to remove the outer thicker layer of the corrosion products (typically known as patina), but failed on the thinner layer of cuprite. The steam laser cleaning could decrease the initial removal threshold and improve the removal efficiency especially for the oxidation with powdery structure. As for chemical-assisted laser treatment, the cleaning results demonstrate that the combination of laser and chemical reagent could provide a considerable improvement in corrosion removal compared with the conventional laser treatments. Most of the corrosion contaminant was stripped, even the cuprite layer. Moreover, no secondary pollution was formed on the cleaned surface. X-ray fluorescence was applied to determine the variation of composition of surface layer and bulk metal before and after the coins cleaned. It shows that all of the three laser treatments were efficient to reduce the chlorine concentration on the surface of the coins more than 75%.

  15. Laser cleaning of steel for paint removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G. X.; Kwee, T. J.; Tan, K. P.; Choo, Y. S.; Hong, M. H.

    2010-11-01

    Paint removal is an important part of steel processing for marine and offshore engineering. For centuries, a blasting techniques have been widely used for this surface preparation purpose. But conventional blasting always has intrinsic problems, such as noise, explosion risk, contaminant particles, vibration, and dust. In addition, processing wastes often cause environmental problems. In recent years, laser cleaning has attracted much research effort for its significant advantages, such as precise treatment, and high selectivity and flexibility in comparison with conventional cleaning techniques. In the present study, we use this environmentally friendly technique to overcome the problems of conventional blasting. Processed samples are examined with optical microscopes and other surface characterization tools. Experimental results show that laser cleaning can be a good alternative candidate to conventional blasting.

  16. Laser versus scalpel cleaning of crustose lichens on granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivas, T.; Pozo-Antonio, J. S.; López de Silanes, M. E.; Ramil, A.; López, A. J.

    2018-05-01

    This paper addresses the evaluation of the cleaning of crustose lichens developing on granite. The evaluation was performed considering the effectiveness of the cleanings and harmfulness exerted on the granite. The laser cleaning of lichen was compared with the most conventional procedure, scalpel. The combination of both procedures was also tested. The study, which was carried out with two different species of crustose lichen, was also focused on the influence of the intrinsic characteristics of the lichen on the effectiveness. The cleanings were evaluated by optic and electronic microscopies, FTIR and colour spectrophotometry. A previous characterization of the lichen and its interaction with the granite using those analytical techniques were also performed. The laser cleaning effectiveness depends on the coverage and the colour of the lichen; also, the prior mechanical weakening of the lichen by scalpel seemed to improve the laser cleaning. The darkest lichen was satisfactorily removed by laser and with the combined cleaning. Conversely, the lightest lichen was more difficult to extract with laser than the darkest lichen, being necessary to apply both methods sequentially. Despite laser and the combination of methods cleaned satisfactorily the surface, they were unable to eliminate the thalli into fissures.

  17. Method using laser irradiation for the production of atomically clean crystalline silicon and germanium surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Ownby, G.W.; White, C.W.; Zehner, D.M.

    1979-12-28

    This invention relates to a new method for removing surface impurities from crystalline silicon or germanium articles, such as off-the-shelf p- or n-type wafers to be doped for use as junction devices. The principal contaminants on such wafers are oxygen and carbon. The new method comprises laser-irradiating the contaminated surface in a non-reactive atmosphere, using one or more of Q-switched laser pulses whose parameters are selected to effect melting of the surface without substantial vaporization thereof. In a typical application, a plurality of pulses is used to convert a surface region of an off-the-shelf silicon wafer to an atomically clean region. This can be accomplished in a system at a pressure below 10-/sup 8/ Torr, using Q-switched ruber-laser pulses having an energy density in the range of from about 60 to 190 MW/cm/sup 2/.

  18. Method using laser irradiation for the production of atomically clean crystalline silicon and germanium surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Ownby, Gary W.; White, Clark W.; Zehner, David M.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to a new method for removing surface impurities from crystalline silicon or germanium articles, such as off-the-shelf p- or n-type wafers to be doped for use as junction devices. The principal contaminants on such wafers are oxygen and carbon. The new method comprises laser-irradiating the contaminated surface in a non-reactive atmosphere, using one or more of Q-switched laser pulses whose parameters are selected to effect melting of the surface without substantial vaporization thereof. In a typical application, a plurality of pulses is used to convert a surface region of an off-the-shelf silicon wafer to an automatically clean region. This can be accomplished in a system at a pressure below 10.sup.-8 Torr, using Q-switched ruby-laser pulses having an energy density in the range of from about 60 to 190 MW/cm.sup.2.

  19. New laser surface treatments: cleaning, derusting, deoiling, depainting, deoxidizing, and degreasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daurelio, Giuseppe; Chita, Giuseppe; Cinquepalmi, Massimo

    1997-08-01

    Many materials as substrates and surface products have been tested. Typically ferrous (Carbon Steels and Stainless Steels) and non ferrous (Al and Cu metals and its alloys) ones have been employed. Some epoxy, polyurethane, polyester and acrylic paints in different thickness and color have been tested. Many types of the surface rust and oxide on different bulk material have been undertaken to test. Similarly some different types of oils and greases, usually used in industry against the oxidation, have been studied. Anyway many types of dirt, grit, calcareous one and so on, present on industrial components, have been laser cleaned without using solvents, acid baths and other ones. Different types of laser sources have been employed: an axial fast flow, 1.5 KW CO2 c.w. and pulsed laser source, emitting a 10.6 micrometers beam; a portable CO2 laser, c.w. (1 to 25 W) and pulsed (1 to 100 Hz and 400 ms max pulse duration) source, emitting a 10.6 micrometers beam with a multi-articulated seven mirrors guiding device and focussing head; a portable Nd-YAG laser, Q-switched and normal-mode source. 1st harmonic 1.06 micrometers (6 ns pulse duration), 2nd harmonic 532 nm (120 microsecond(s) duration pulse- 1J max per-pulse) wavelengths, multi-articulated seven mirrors beam guiding device, 20 Hz repetition rate. This lets shots with 600 mJ max energy per pulse and 100 MW peak power per-pulse with a very low beam divergence, 0.5 mrad at full angle; a transverse fast flow 2.5 kW CO2 laser.

  20. IV INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ATOM AND MOLECULAR PULSED LASERS (AMPL'99): Surface oxide removal by a XeCl laser for decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentis, M. L.; Delaporte, Ph; Marine, W.; Uteza, O.

    2000-06-01

    The laser ablation performed with an automated excimer XeCl laser unit is used for large surface cleaning. The study focuses on metal surfaces that are oxidised and are representative of contaminated surfaces with radionuclides in a context of nuclear power plant maintenance. The unit contains an XeCl laser, the beam delivery system, the particle collection cell, and the system for real-time control of cleaning processes. The interaction of laser radiation with a surface is considered, in particular, the surface damage caused by cleaning radiation. The beam delivery system consists of an optical fibre bundle of 5 m long and allows delivering 150 W at 308 nm for laser surface cleaning. The cleaning process is controlled by analysing in real time the plasma electric field evolution. The system permits the cleaning of 2 to 6 m2 h-1 of oxides with only slight substrate modifications.

  1. Aluminum Surface Texturing by Means of Laser Interference Metallurgy

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Chen, Jian; Sabau, Adrian S; Jones, Jonaaron F.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of lightweight materials, such as aluminum alloys, in auto body structures requires more effective surface cleaning and texturing techniques to improve the quality of the structural components. The present work introduces a novel surface treatment method using laser interferometry produced by two beams of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser operating at 10Hz of frequency to clean aluminum surfaces, and meanwhile creating periodic and rough surface structures. The influences of beam size, laser fluence, wavelength, and pulse number per spot are investigated. High resolution optical profiler images reveal the change of the peak-to-valley height on the laser-treated surface.

  2. Spectroscopic Monitoring of the Laser Cleaning Applied to Ancient Marbles from Mediterranean Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazic, V.; Colao, F.; Fantoni, R.; Fiorani, L.; Palucci, A.; Striber, J.; Santagata, A.; Morone, A.; Spizzicchino, V.

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis by Nd:YAG laser emitting at 355nm were performed on different clean and dirty surfaces of marble fragments collected from ancient quarries in Greece, Turkey and Italy, in order to determine semi-quantitavely the atomic composition of the bulk material and encrustation. The method here developed for element concentrations retrieval could be applied during laser cleaning process to supply the information about the effective crust composition at different depths and the point where the process should be interrupted. The knowledge of the crust composition along successive layers is also important for determining the restoration procedures. The elements measured in the encrustations, such as Si, Al, Ca, C, Ti, Mn, Mg, Na, Ba, Sr and Cu are also present in the bulk, but at different concentrations whose determination allows for the process monitoring. The only element here observed in the crusts and not detected in the bulk materials is Chromium, whose progressive disappearance from LIBS spectra could be used as another indicator of the laser cleaning effectiveness. On a sample from Turkey also Vanadium was detected in the encrustation. The present LIBS measuring method was validated by SEM-EDX and ICP analyses. The clean marble surface and encrustations were further analysed by Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF), which could be used as an alternative technique for the on-line control of the cleaning effectiveness. Better discrimination between dirty and clean marble surface was obtained when 266nm excitation was applied instead of 355 nm. Characteristic LIF spectral signatures allows for the discrimination between different type of the natural stones, even under the water.

  3. Novel Laser Ablation Technology for Surface Decontamination

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Cheng, Chung H.

    2004-06-01

    Laser ablation for surface cleaning has been pursued for the removal of paint on airplanes. It has also been pursued for the cleaning of semiconductor surfaces. However, all these approaches have been pursued by laser ablation in air. For highly contaminated surface, laser ablation in air can easily cause secondary contamination. Thus it is not suitable to apply to achieve surface decontamination for DOE facilities since many of these facilities have radioactive contaminants on the surface. Any secondary contamination will be a grave concern. The objective of this project is to develop a novel technology for laser ablation in liquidmore » for surface decontamination. It aims to achieve more efficient surface decontamination without secondary contamination and to evaluate the economic feasibility for large scale surface decontamination with laser ablation in liquid. When laser ablation is pursued in the solution, all the desorbed contaminants will be confined in liquid. The contaminants can be precipitated and subsequently contained in a small volume for disposal. It can reduce the risk of the decontamination workers. It can also reduce the volume of contaminants dramatically.« less

  4. A comparative study on laser induced shock cleaning of radioactive contaminants in air and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Aniruddha; Prasad, Manisha; Bhatt, R. B.; Behere, P. G.; Biswas, D. J.

    2018-03-01

    Efficient removal of Uranium-di-oxide (UO2) particulates from stainless steel surface was effected by Nd-YAG laser induced plasma shock waves in air as well as in water environment. The propagation velocity of the generated shock wave was measured by employing the photo-acoustic probe deflection method. Monitoring of the alpha activity of the sample with a ZnS (Ag) scintillation detector before and after the laser exposure allowed the estimation of decontamination efficiency defined as the percentage removal of the initial activity. Experiments were carried out to study the effect of laser pulse energy, number of laser exposures, orientation of the sample, the separation between the substrate surface and the onset point of the shock wave on the de-contamination efficiency. The most optimised cleaning was found to occur when the laser beam impinged normally on the sample that was immersed in water and placed at a distance of ∼0.7 mm from the laser focal spot. Analysis of the cleaned surface by optical microscopes established that laser induced shock cleaning in no way altered the surface property. The shock force generated in both air and water has been estimated theoretically and has been found to exceed the Van der Waal's binding force for spherical contaminant particulate.

  5. Practical issues in laser cleaning of stone and painted artefacts: optimisation procedures and side effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouli, Paraskevi; Oujja, Mohamed; Castillejo, Marta

    2012-02-01

    In the last twenty years lasers have acquired an important role in the study and the preservation of Cultural Heritage (CH) objects and Monuments, as they have effectively illuminated a number of complex diagnostic and restoration problems. Their unique properties have enabled their use in a wide range of conservation applications, since they ensure interventions with precise control, material selectivity and immediate feedback. Surface cleaning, based on laser ablation, is a delicate, critical and irreversible process, which, given the multitude of materials that may be present on a CH object and the often fragile or precarious condition of the original surfaces, is fraught with many potential complications. Therefore it is crucial to choose the best possible laser cleaning methodology for each individual case, which involves optimising the laser parameters according to material properties, as well as the thorough knowledge of the ablation mechanisms involved. In this context the systematic investigation and elucidation of potential damage or side effects occurring upon cleaning is essential, as it delineates the possibilities and limitations of laser ablation and allows the fine-tuning of the operating parameters for a successful cleaning intervention. This paper is an overview of studies investigating the mechanisms which are responsible for the laser-induced discoloration effects. Emphasis is given on the yellowing coloration observed on stonework upon infrared (IR) ablation of pollution encrustations, while the various theories introduced to approach the different physical and/or chemical processes and mechanisms responsible for such side effects are discussed. In this respect the different laser cleaning methodologies, which are based on the use of laser systems with different pulse durations and wavelength characteristics, introduced in order to rectify or prevent discoloration on stonework are presented. In parallel, the darkening phenomena which occur upon

  6. Fiber laser cleaning of metal mirror surfaces for optical diagnostic systems of the ITER

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kuznetsov, A. P., E-mail: APKuznetsov@mephi.ru; Alexandrova, A. S.; Buzhinsky, O. I.

    2015-12-15

    The results of experimental studies into efficiency of removal of films with a complex composition from metal mirrors by pulsed fiber laser irradiation are presented. It is shown that the initial reflectivity of optical elements can be restored by the selection of modes of irradiation impacting the surface with the sputtered film. Effective cleaning is performed by radiation with a power density lower than 10{sup 7} W/cm{sup 2}. The removal of contaminations at such a relatively low power density occurs in a solid phase, owing to which the thermal effect on the mirror is insignificant.

  7. Laser cleaning of ITER's diagnostic mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, C. H.; Gentile, C. A.; Doerner, R.

    2012-10-01

    Practical methods to clean ITER's diagnostic mirrors and restore reflectivity will be critical to ITER's plasma operations. We report on laser cleaning of single crystal molybdenum mirrors coated with either carbon or beryllium films 150 - 420 nm thick. A 1.06 μm Nd laser system provided 220 ns pulses at 8 kHz with typical power densities of 1-2 J/cm^2. The laser beam was fiber optically coupled to a scanner suitable for tokamak applications. The efficacy of mirror cleaning was assessed with a new technique that combines microscopic imaging and reflectivity measurements [1]. The method is suitable for hazardous materials such as beryllium as the mirrors remain sealed in a vacuum chamber. Excellent restoration of reflectivity for the carbon coated Mo mirrors was observed after laser scanning under vacuum conditions. For the beryllium coated mirrors restoration of reflectivity has so far been incomplete and modeling indicates that a shorter duration laser pulse is needed. No damage of the molybdenum mirror substrates was observed.[4pt][1] C.H. Skinner et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. at press.

  8. SnTe microcrystals: Surface cleaning of a topological crystalline insulator

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Saghir, M., E-mail: M.Saghir@warwick.ac.uk, E-mail: G.Balakrishnan@warwick.ac.uk; Walker, M.; McConville, C. F.

    Investigating nanometer and micron sized materials thought to exhibit topological surface properties that can present a challenge, as clean surfaces are a pre-requisite for band structure measurements when using nano-ARPES or laser-ARPES in ultra-high vacuum. This issue is exacerbated when dealing with nanometer or micron sized materials, which have been prepared ex-situ and so have been exposed to atmosphere. We present the findings of an XPS study where various cleaning methods have been employed to reduce the surface contamination and preserve the surface quality for surface sensitive measurements. Microcrystals of the topological crystalline insulator SnTe were grown ex-situ and transferredmore » into ultra high vacuum (UHV) before being treated with either atomic hydrogen, argon sputtering, annealing, or a combination of treatments. The samples were also characterised using the scanning electron microscopy, both before and after treatment. It was found that atomic hydrogen cleaning with an anneal cycle (200 °C) gave the best clean surface results.« less

  9. Study and development of 22 kW peak power fiber coupled short pulse Nd:YAG laser for cleaning applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choubey, Ambar; Vishwakarma, S. C.; Vachhani, D. M.; Singh, Ravindra; Misra, Pushkar; Jain, R. K.; Arya, R.; Upadhyaya, B. N.; Oak, S. M.

    2014-11-01

    Free running short pulse Nd:YAG laser of microsecond pulse duration and high peak power has a unique capability to ablate material from the surface without heat propagation into the bulk. Applications of short pulse Nd:YAG lasers include cleaning and restoration of marble, stones, and a variety of metals for conservation. A study on the development of high peak power short pulses from Nd:YAG laser along with its cleaning and conservation applications has been performed. A pulse energy of 1.25 J with 55 μs pulse duration and a maximum peak power of 22 kW has been achieved. Laser beam has an M2 value of ~28 and a pulse-to-pulse stability of ±2.5%. A lower value of M2 means a better beam quality of the laser in multimode operation. A top hat spatial profile of the laser beam was achieved at the exit end of 200 μm core diameter optical fiber, which is desirable for uniform cleaning. This laser system has been evaluated for efficient cleaning of surface contaminations on marble, zircaloy, and inconel materials for conservation with cleaning efficiency as high as 98%. Laser's cleaning quality and efficiency have been analysed by using a microscope, a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) measurements.

  10. Development of a laser cleaning method for the first mirror surface of the charge exchange recombination spectroscopy diagnostics on ITER

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kuznetsov, A. P., E-mail: APKuznetsov@mephi.ru; Buzinskij, O. I.; Gubsky, K. L.

    A set of optical diagnostics is expected for measuring the plasma characteristics in ITER. Optical elements located inside discharge chambers are exposed to an intense radiation load, sputtering due to collisions with energetic atoms formed in the charge transfer processes, and contamination due to recondensation of materials sputtered from different parts of the construction of the chamber. Removing the films of the sputtered materials from the mirrors with the aid of pulsed laser radiation is an efficient cleaning method enabling recovery of the optical properties of the mirrors. In this work, we studied the efficiency of removal of metal oxidemore » films by pulsed radiation of a fiber laser. Optimization of the laser cleaning conditions was carried out on samples representing metal substrates polished with optical quality with deposition of films on them imitating the chemical composition and conditions expected in ITER. It is shown that, by a proper selection of modes of radiation exposure to the surface with a deposited film, it is feasible to restore the original high reflection characteristics of optical elements.« less

  11. Bio-Inspired Self-Cleaning Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kesong; Jiang, Lei

    2012-08-01

    Self-cleaning surfaces have drawn a lot of interest for both fundamental research and practical applications. This review focuses on the recent progress in mechanism, preparation, and application of self-cleaning surfaces. To date, self-cleaning has been demonstrated by the following four conceptual approaches: (a) TiO2-based superhydrophilic self-cleaning, (b) lotus effect self-cleaning (superhydrophobicity with a small sliding angle), (c) gecko setae-inspired self-cleaning, and (d) underwater organisms-inspired antifouling self-cleaning. Although a number of self-cleaning products have been commercialized, the remaining challenges and future outlook of self-cleaning surfaces are also briefly addressed. Through evolution, nature, which has long been a source of inspiration for scientists and engineers, has arrived at what is optimal. We hope this review will stimulate interdisciplinary collaboration among material science, chemistry, biology, physics, nanoscience, engineering, etc., which is essential for the rational design and reproducible construction of bio-inspired multifunctional self-cleaning surfaces in practical applications.

  12. Comparison of laser regimes for stamp cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radvan, Roxana N.; Dan, Suzana; Popovici, Nicoleta; Striber, J.; Savastru, Dan; Savastru, Roxana

    2001-10-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of the laser cleaning regimes applied to colored substrates with various chromatic characteristics, including colored paper and printed paper with different dpi (dots per inch) values. Tests are done under microscope with high precision techniques, using controlled Nd:YAG laser. The wavelength preponderantly used in the experiments is the Nd:YAG fundamental regime (1064 nm). Parallel experiments at 532 nm have been developed on difficult cases, or when the results were not satisfactory with 1064 nm. The main part of the work presents some results on stamp cleaning. Experimental results indicate that cleaning efficiency is correlated with the color of substrate, age of the ink on the stamp, color quality and paper quality.

  13. Surface preparation of Ti-3Al-2.5V alloy tubes for welding using a fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Aniruddha; Gupta, Mool C.

    2009-11-01

    Ti-3Al-2.5V tubes are widely used in aircraft hydraulic systems. Meticulous surface preparation before welding is necessary to obtain a sound weld involving these alloy tubes. Conventionally this is done by cleaning with environmentally malign toxic chemicals, such as, hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid. This paper describes the laser-cleaning process of the surface of these tubes with a fiber laser as a preparation for pulsed gas tungsten arc welding and results obtained. A simple one-dimensional heat equation has been solved to evaluate the temperature profile of the irradiated surface. It is shown that surface preparation by laser cleaning can be an environmentally friendly alternative process by producing acceptable welds with laser-processed tubes.

  14. Removal of dust particles from metal-mirror surfaces by excimer-laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Klaus R.; Wolff-Rottke, B.; Mueller, F.

    1995-07-01

    The effect of particle desorption from Al mirror surfaces by the influence of pulsed UV laser radiation has been studied. The investigations are closely related to the demands of astronomers, who are looking for a more effective way of cleaning the Al coatings of future very large telescope mirrors. A systematic parameter study has been performed in order to determine the irradiation conditions which yield the highest dust removal efficiency (i.e. reflectivity increase) on contaminated samples, taking particularly into account laser-induced damage and degradation effects of coating and substrate. The particle removal rate increases with increasing laser fluence, being limited however by the damage threshold of the coating. Therefore, parameters influencing the damage threshold of metal coatings like wavelength, pulse width, and number of pulses have been studied in detail. Data indicate that on Al coated BK7 and Zerodur samples KrF laser radiation yields the optimum result, with cleaning efficiencies comparable to polymer film stripping. The initial reflectivity of the clean coating can nearly be reinstalled, in particular when an additional solvent film on the sample surface is applied. Hence, laser desorption seems to be a viable method of cleaning large Al mirrors for telescopes.

  15. Laser paper cleaning: the method of cleaning historical books

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zekou, Evangelini; Tsilikas, Ioannis; Chatzitheodoridis, Elias; Serafetinides, Alexander A.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of cultural heritage treasures is the most important issue for transferring knowledge to the public through the next generation of students, academics, and researchers. Although this century is authenticating e-books and information by means of electronic text, still historical manuscripts as content as well as objects are the main original recourses of keeping a record of this transformation. The current work focuses on cleaning paper samples by the application of pulsed light, which is interventional. Experiments carried out using paper samples that are artificially colonized with Ulocladium chartarum. Paper is treated by Nd:YAG laser light. The available wavelength is 1064 nm, at various fluences, repetition rates and number of pulses. Two types of paper are stained with fungi colonies, which grow on substrates of clean paper, as well as on paper with ink text. The first type of paper is Whatman No.1056, which is closer to pure cellulose. The second type of paper is a page of a cultural heritage book published in 1926. Cleaning is performed using laser irradiation, thus defining the damage threshold of each sample. The treatment on paper Watman showed a yellowing, especially on areas with high concentration of fungi. The second sample was more durable to the exposure, performing the best results at higher fluences. Eventually, the paper samples are characterized, with optical microscopy and SEM/EDX analyses, prior to and after cleaning.

  16. Controllable superhydrophobic aluminum surfaces with tunable adhesion fabricated by femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yuxin; Wang, Cong; Dong, Xinran; Yin, Kai; Zhang, Fan; Xie, Zheng; Chu, Dongkai; Duan, Ji'an

    2018-06-01

    In this study, a facile and detailed strategy to fabricate superhydrophobic aluminum surfaces with controllable adhesion by femtosecond laser ablation is presented. The influences of key femtosecond laser processing parameters including the scanning speed, laser power and interval on the wetting properties of the laser-ablated surfaces are investigated. It is demonstrated that the adhesion between water and superhydrophobic surface can be effectively tuned from extremely low adhesion to high adhesion by adjusting laser processing parameters. At the same time, the mechanism is discussed for the changes of the wetting behaviors of the laser-ablated surfaces. These superhydrophobic surfaces with tunable adhesion have many potential applications, such as self-cleaning surface, oil-water separation, anti-icing surface and liquid transportation.

  17. Crude Oil Remote Sensing, Characterization and Cleaning with CW and Pulsed Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kukhtareva, Tatiana; Chirita, Arc; Gallegos, Sonia C.

    2014-01-01

    For detection, identification and characterization of crude oil we combine several optical methods of remote sensing of crude oil films and emulsions (coherent fringe projection illumination (CFP), holographic in-line interferometry (HILI), and laser induced fluorescence). These methods allow the three-dimensional characterization of oil spills, important for practical applications. Combined methods of CFP and HILI are described in the frame of coherent superposition of partial interference patterns. It is shown, that in addition to detection/identification laser illumination in the green-blue region can also degrade oil slicks. Different types of surfaces contaminated by oil spills are tested: oil on the water, oil on the flat solid surfaces and oil on the curved surfaces of pipes. For the detection and monitoring of the laser-induced oil degradation in pipes, coherent fiber bundles were used. Both continuous-wave (CW) and pulsed lasers are tested using pump-probe schemes. This finding suggests that properly structured laser clean-up can be an alternative environmentally-friendly method of decontamination, as compared to the currently used chemical methods that are dangerous to environment.

  18. Removal of dust particles from metal mirror surfaces by excimer laser radiation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Mann, K.; Wolff-Rottke, B.; Mueller, F.

    1995-12-31

    The effect of particle desorption from Al mirror surfaces by the influence of pulsed UV laser radiation has been studied. The investigations are closely related to the demands of astronomers, who are looking for a more effective way of cleaning the Al coatings of future very large telescope (VLT) mirrors. A systematic parameter study has been performed in order to determine the irradiation conditions which yield the highest dust removal efficiency (i.e. reflectivity increase) on contaminated samples, taking particularly into account laser induced damage and degradation effects of coating and substrate. The particle removal rate increases with increasing laser fluence,more » being limited however by the damage threshold of the coating. Therefore, parameters influencing the damage threshold of metal coatings like wavelength, pulse width and number of pulses have been studied in detail. Data indicate that on Al coated BK7 and Zerodur samples KrF laser radiation yields the optimum result, with cleaning efficiencies comparable to polymer film stripping. The initial reflectivity of the clean coating can nearly be reinstalled, in particular when an additional solvent film on the sample surface is applied. Hence, laser desorption seems to be a viable method of cleaning large Al mirrors for telescopes.« less

  19. Onset and evolution of laser induced periodic surface structures on indium tin oxide thin films for clean ablation using a repetitively pulsed picosecond laser at low fluence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farid, N.; Dasgupta, P.; O’Connor, G. M.

    2018-04-01

    The onset and evolution of laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) is of key importance to obtain clean ablated features on indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films at low fluences. The evolution of subwavelength periodic nanostructures on a 175 nm thick ITO film, using 10 ps laser pulses at a wavelength of 1032 nm, operating at 400 kHz, is investigated. Initially nanoblisters are observed when a single pulse is applied below the damage threshold fluence (0.45 J cm‑2) the size and distribution of nanoblisters are found to depend on fluence. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations support the hypothesis that conductive nanoblisters can enhance the local intensity of the applied electromagnetic field. The LIPSS are observed to evolve from regions where the electric field enhancement has occurred; LIPSS has a perpendicular orientation relative to the laser polarization for a small number (<5) of applied pulses. The LIPSS periodicity depends on nanoblister size and distribution; a periodicity down to 100 nm is observed at the lower fluence periphery of the Gaussian irradiated area where nanoblisters are smallest and more closely arranged. Upon irradiation with successive (>5) pulses, the orientation of the periodic structures appears to rotate and evolve to become aligned in parallel with the laser polarization at approximately the same periodicity. These orientation effects are not observed at higher fluence—due to the absence of the nanoblister-like structures; this apparent rotation is interpreted to be due to stress-induced fragmentation of the LIPSS structure. The application of subsequent pulses leads to clean ablation. LIPSS are further modified into features of a shorter period when laser scanning is used. Results provide evidence that the formation of conductive nanoblisters leads to the enhancement of the applied electromagnetic field and thereby can be used to precisely control laser ablation on ITO thin films.

  20. Possibilities of a metal surface radioactive decontamination using a pulsed CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milijanic, Scepan S.; Stjepanovic, Natasa N.; Trtica, Milan S.

    2000-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the laser radioactive decontamination of metal surfaces. It offers advantages over conventional methods: improved safety, reduction of secondary waste, reduced waste volume, acceptable cost. A main mechanism of cleaning in by lasers is ablation. In this work a pulsed TEA CO2 laser was used for surface cleaning, primarily in order to demonstrate that the ablation from metal surfaces with this laser is possible even with relatively low pulse energies, and secondary, that it could be competitive with other lasers because of much higher energy efficiencies. The laser pulse contains two parts, one strong and shot peak at the beginning, followed with a tail. The beam was focused onto a contaminated surface with a KBr lens. The surface was contaminated with 137Cs. Three different metals were used: stainless steel, copper and aluminum. The evaporated material was pumped out in air atmosphere and transferred to a filter. Presence of the activity on the filter was proved by a germanium detector-multichannel analyzer. Activity levels were measured by a GM counter. Calculated decontamination factors as well as collection factors have shown that ablation takes place with relatively high efficiency of decontamination. This investigation suggests that decontamination using the CO2 laser should be seriously considered.

  1. Evaluating the use of laser radiation in cleaning of copper embroidery threads on archaeological Egyptian textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Kareem, Omar; Harith, M. A.

    2008-07-01

    Cleaning of copper embroidery threads on archaeological textiles is still a complicated conservation process, as most textile conservators believe that the advantages of using traditional cleaning techniques are less than their disadvantages. In this study, the uses of laser cleaning method and two modified recipes of wet cleaning methods were evaluated for cleaning of the corroded archaeological Egyptian copper embroidery threads on an archaeological Egyptian textile fabric. Some corroded copper thread samples were cleaned using modified recipes of wet cleaning method; other corroded copper thread samples were cleaned with Q-switched Nd:YAG laser radiation of wavelength 532 nm. All tested metal thread samples before and after cleaning were investigated using a light microscope and a scanning electron microscope with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis unit. Also the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique was used for the elemental analysis of laser-cleaned samples to follow up the laser cleaning procedure. The results show that laser cleaning is the most effective method among all tested methods in the cleaning of corroded copper threads. It can be used safely in removing the corrosion products without any damage to both metal strips and fibrous core. The tested laser cleaning technique has solved the problems caused by other traditional cleaning techniques that are commonly used in the cleaning of metal threads on museum textiles.

  2. Significant OH production under surface cleaning and air cleaning conditions: Impact on indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Carslaw, N; Fletcher, L; Heard, D; Ingham, T; Walker, H

    2017-11-01

    We report measurements of hydroxyl (OH) and hydroperoxy (HO 2 ) radicals made by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy in a computer classroom (i) in the absence of indoor activities (ii) during desk cleaning with a limonene-containing cleaner (iii) during operation of a commercially available "air cleaning" device. In the unmanipulated environment, the one-minute averaged OH concentration remained close to or below the limit of detection (6.5×10 5  molecule cm -3 ), whilst that of HO 2 was 1.3×10 7  molecule cm -3 . These concentrations increased to ~4×10 6 and 4×10 8  molecule cm -3 , respectively during desk cleaning. During operation of the air cleaning device, OH and HO 2 concentrations reached ~2×10 7 and ~6×10 8  molecule cm -3 respectively. The potential of these OH concentrations to initiate chemical processing is explored using a detailed chemical model for indoor air (the INDCM). The model can reproduce the measured OH and HO 2 concentrations to within 50% and often within a few % and demonstrates that the resulting secondary chemistry varies with the cleaning activity. Whilst terpene reaction products dominate the product composition following surface cleaning, those from aromatics and other VOCs are much more important during the use of the air cleaning device. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Self-cleaning efficiency of artificial superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, Bharat; Jung, Yong Chae; Koch, Kerstin

    2009-03-03

    The hierarchical structured surface of the lotus (Nelumbo nucifera, Gaertn.) leaf provides a model for the development of biomimetic self-cleaning surfaces. On these water-repellent surfaces, water droplets move easily at a low inclination of the leaf and collect dirt particles adhering to the leaf surface. Flat hydrophilic and hydrophobic, nanostructured, microstructured, and hierarchical structured superhydrophobic surfaces were fabricated, and a systematic study of wettability and adhesion properties was carried out. The influence of contact angle hysteresis on self-cleaning by water droplets was studied at different tilt angles (TA) of the specimen surfaces (3 degrees for Lotus wax, 10 degrees for n-hexatriacontane, as well as 45 degrees for both types of surfaces). At 3 degrees and 10 degrees TA, no surfaces were cleaned by moving water applied onto the surfaces with nearly zero kinetic energy, but most particles were removed from hierarchical structured surfaces, and a certain amount of particles were captured between the asperities of the micro- and hierarchical structured surfaces. After an increase of the TA to 45 degrees (larger than the tilt angles of all structured surfaces), as usually used for industrial self-cleaning tests, all nanostructured surfaces were cleaned by water droplets moving over the surfaces followed by hierarchical and microstructures. Droplets applied onto the surfaces with some pressure removed particles residues and led to self-cleaning by a combination of sliding and rolling droplets. Geometrical scale effects were responsible for superior performance of nanostructured surfaces.

  4. Laser cleaning of works of art: evaluation of the thermal stress induced by Er:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Cruz, A.; Andreotti, A.; Ceccarini, A.; Colombini, M. P.

    2014-06-01

    The Er:YAG laser has proven particularly efficient in cleaning procedures of works of art. The removal of the superficial deposits is achieved through melting, thermal decomposition and evaporation. However, the energy absorbed by vibrational modes is dissipated as heat, increasing the temperature of the surface coating that could cause damage on the object. The aim of this study was to evaluate the temperature increase induced by a Er:YAG MonaLaser (LLC., Orlando, FL, USA). To that purpose, we designed a dedicated device to perform the tests in an inert atmosphere or with a wetting agent, to measure the radiant energy per laser pulse. Tests were carried out both on graphite, which absorbs IR radiation and showed a very intense flash emission, and on different kind of samples representative of materials with different levels of conductivity and thermal diffusivity. Results obtained showed that the temperature increase in the irradiated surface depends on the substrate but never causes the damage of the organic and inorganic material. The use of a solvent as wetting agent has been also tested.

  5. Pedestal cleaning for high laser pulse contrast ratio with a 100 TW class laser system.

    PubMed

    Fourmaux, S; Payeur, S; Buffechoux, S; Lassonde, P; St-Pierre, C; Martin, F; Kieffer, J C

    2011-04-25

    Laser matter interaction at relativistic intensities using 100 TW class laser systems or higher is becoming more and more widespread. One of the critical issues of such laser systems is to let the laser pulse interact at high intensity with the solid target and avoid any pre-plasma. Thus, a high Laser Pulse Contrast Ratio (LPCR) parameter is of prime importance. We present the LPCR characterization of a high repetition 100 TW class laser system. We demonstrate that the generated Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) degrades the overall LPCR performance. We propose a simple way to clean the pulse after the first amplification stage by introducing a solid state saturable absorber which results in a LPCR improvement to better than 10(10) with only a 30% energy loss at a 10 Hz repetition rate. We finally correlated this cleaning method with experimental results.

  6. Method for cleaning and passivating a metal surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, George B. (Inventor); Carpenter, Norman F. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A cleaning solvent useful in the cleaning of metal surfaces, e.g. nickle-iron alloys, contains sulfamic acid, citric acid, a solvent for hydrocarbon residues, and a surfactant. Metal surfaces are cleaned by contacting the surface with the cleaning solvent and then passivated by contact with aqueous solutions of citric acid or sodium nitrite or a combination of the two.

  7. Plasma surface cleaning using microwave plasmas

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Tsai, C.C.; Haselton, H.H.; Nelson, W.D.

    1993-11-01

    In a microwave electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma source, reactive plasmas of oxygen and its mixture with argon are used for plasma-cleaning experiments. Aluminum test samples (0.95 {times} 1.9 cm) were coated with thin films ({le} 20 {mu}m in thickness) of Shell Vitrea oil and cleaned by using such reactive plasmas. The plasma cleaning was done in various discharge conditions with fixed microwave power, rf power, biased potential, gas pressures (0.5 and 5 mtorr), and operating time up to 35 min. The status of plasma cleaning has been monitored by using mass spectroscopy. Mass loss of the samples after plasmamore » cleaning was measured to estimate cleaning rates. Measured clean rates of low pressure (0.5 mtorr) argon/oxygen plasmas were as high as 2.7 {mu}/min. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to determine cleanliness of the sample surfaces and confirm the effectiveness of plasma cleaning in achieving atomic levels of surface cleanliness. In this paper, significant results are reported and discussed.« less

  8. Surface cleaning for negative electron affinity GaN photocathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Jianliang; Yin, Yingpeng; Gao, Youtang; Niu, Jun; Qian, Yunsheng; Chang, Benkang

    2012-10-01

    In the preparation process for negative electron affinity (NEA) GaN photocathode, the surface cleanness is very important to activation, it influences the sensitivity and stability of NEA GaN photocathode. The traditional corrosion methods based on oxidizing and dissolving can't remove oxygen (O) and carbon (C) on GaN surface effectively. How to get an ideal atom clean surface is still an important question at present. The cleaning techniques for GaN photocathode was studied by using NEA photocathode activation system and XPS surface analysis system. The experiment sample is p-type GaN doped with Mg, doped concentration is 1.37×1017 cm-3, the transfer rate is 3.08 cm2/V-S, and the thickness of activation layer is 0.51 μm, the substrate is 300 μm thick sapphire. The sample was dealed with chemical cleaning depuration at first. And to get the atom clean surface, the vacuum heat cleaning process was needed. The methods of chemical cleaning and the vacuum heating cleaning were given in detail. According to the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of GaN surface after chemical cleaning and the vacuum degree curve of the activation chamber during the heat cleaning, the cleaning effect and the cleaning mechanism were discussed. After the effective chemical cleaning and the heating of 700 Centigrade degree about 20 minutes in ultrahigh vacuum system, the oxides and carbon contaminants on cathode surface can be removed effectively, and the ideal atom clean surface can be obtained. The purpose of heating depuration process is that not only to get the atom clean GaN surface, but also to guarantee the contents of Ga, N on GaN surface stabilize and to keep the system ultra-high vacuum degree. Because of the volatilization of oxide and carbon impurity on the cathode surface, the vacuum degree curve drops with the rising of temperature on the whole.

  9. Shear stress cleaning for surface departiculation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musselman, R. P.; Yarbrough, T. W.

    1986-01-01

    A cleaning technique widely used by the nuclear utility industry for removal of radioactive surface contamination has proven effective at removing non-hazardous contaminant particles as small as 0.1 micrometer. The process employs a controlled high velocity liquid spray inside a vapor containment enclosure to remove particles from a surface. The viscous drag force generated by the cleaning fluid applies a shear stress greater than the adhesion force that holds small particles to a substrate. Fluid mechanics and field tests indicate general cleaning parameters.

  10. Self-cleaning of Surfaces: the Role of Surface Wettability and Dust Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Yun-Yun; Zhang, Li-Zhi; Qi, Rong-Hui; Cai, Rong-Rong

    2016-12-01

    The self-cleaning property is usually connected to superhydrophobic surfaces (SHSs) where the dust particles can be easily removed by the rolling motion of droplets. It seems that superhydrophobicity (its durability is questionable nowadays) is a necessity. However here, it is disclosed that self-cleaning can also be realized on an ordinary surface by droplet impinging. The effects of surface wettability and the types of dust particles are considered. The self-cleaning is realized by two steps: (1) the pickup of particles by the water-air interface of an impinging droplet, (2) the release of the impinging droplets from the surface. It can be observed that only the trailing edges of the droplets can pick up particles when the droplets recoil from the inclined surfaces. The hydrophilic surface can also achieve self-cleaning under some conditions. This interesting finding may be helpful for the successful implementation of self-cleaning with common surfaces.

  11. Laser Surface Preparation for Adhesive Bonding of Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcher, Marcus A.; List, Martina S.; Wohl, Christopher J.; Ghose, Sayata; Watson, Kent A.; Hopkins, John W.; Connell, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Adhesively bonded structures are potentially lighter in weight than mechanically fastened ones, but existing surface treatments are often considered unreliable. Two main problems in achieving reproducible and durable adhesive bonds are surface contamination and variability in standard surface preparation techniques. In this work three surface pretreatments were compared: laser etching with and without grit blasting and conventional Pasa-Jell treatment. Ti-6Al-4V surfaces were characterized by contact angle goniometry, optical microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Laser -etching was found to produce clean surfaces with precisely controlled surface topographies and PETI-5 lap shear strengths and durabilities were equivalent to those produced with Pasa-Jell.

  12. Investigation of aluminum surface cleaning using cavitating fluid flow

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ralys, Aurimas; Striška, Vytautas; Mokšin, Vadim

    This paper investigates efficiency of specially designed atomizer used to spray water and cavitate microbubbles in water flow. Surface cleaning system was used to clean machined (grinded) aluminum surface from abrasive particles. It is established that cleaning efficiency depends on diameter of the diffuser, water pressure and distance between nozzle and metal surface. It is obtained that the best cleaning efficiency (100%) is achieved at pressure 36 bar, when diameter of diffuser is 0.4 mm and distance between nozzle and surface is 1 mm. It is also established that satisfactory cleaning efficiency (80%) is achieved not only when atomizer ismore » placed closer to metal surface, but also at larger (120 mm) distances.« less

  13. METHOD OF CLEANING METAL SURFACES

    DOEpatents

    Winkler, H.W.; Morfitt, J.W.; Little, T.H.

    1959-05-19

    Cleaning fluids for removing deposits from metal surfaces are described. The cleaning agents of the invention consist of aqueous nitric acid and an amhydrous nitrate salt of a metal which is lower in the electromotive series than the element of the deposit to be removed. In general, the salt content of thc cleaning agents ranged from 10 to 90%, preferably from 10 to 40% by weight; and the balance of the composition comprises nitric acid of any strength from extremely dilute up to concentrated strength.

  14. Laser Surface Preparation and Bonding of Aerospace Structural Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcher, M. A.; Wohl, C. J.; Hopkins, J. W.; Connell, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Adhesive bonds are critical to the integrity of built-up structures. Disbonds can often be detected but the strength of adhesion between surfaces in contact is not obtainable without destructive testing. Typically the number one problem in a bonded structure is surface contamination, and by extension, surface preparation. Standard surface preparation techniques, including grit blasting, manual abrasion, and peel ply, are not ideal because of variations in their application. Etching of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) panels using a neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser appears to be a highly precise and promising way to both clean a composite surface prior to bonding and provide a bond-promoting patterned surface akin to peel ply without the inherent drawbacks from the same (i.e., debris and curvature). CFRP surfaces prepared using laser patterns conducive to adhesive bonding were compared to typical prebonding surface treatments through optical microscopy, contact angle goniometry, and post-bonding mechanical testing.

  15. Environmentally Clean Mitigation of Undesirable Plant Life Using Lasers

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Rubenchik, A M; McGrann, T J; Yamamoto, R M

    This concept comprises a method for environmentally clean destruction of undesirable plant life using visible or infrared radiation. We believe that during the blossom stage, plant life is very sensitive to electromagnetic radiation, with an enhanced sensitivity to specific spectral ranges. Small doses of irradiation can arrest further plant growth, cause flower destruction or promote plant death. Surrounding plants, which are not in the blossoming stage, should not be affected. Our proposed mechanism to initiate this effect is radiation produced by a laser. Tender parts of the blossom possess enhanced absorptivity in some spectral ranges. This absorption can increase themore » local tissue temperature by several degrees, which is sufficient to induce bio-tissue damage. In some instances, the radiation may actually stimulate plant growth, as an alternative for use in increased crop production. This would be dependent on factors such as plant type, the wavelength of the laser radiation being used and the amount of the radiation dose. Practical, economically viable realization of this concept is possible today with the advent of high efficiency, compact and powerful laser diodes. The laser diodes provide an efficient, environmentally clean source of radiation at a variety of power levels and radiation wavelengths. Figure 1 shows the overall concept, with the laser diodes mounted on a movable platform, traversing and directing the laser radiation over a field of opium poppies.« less

  16. Plasma surface cleaning in a microwave plasma source

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Tsai, C.C.; Nelson, W.D.; Haselton, H.H.

    1994-03-01

    A microwave electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma source has been operated to produce reactive plasmas of oxygen and its mixture with argon. Aluminum samples (0.95 cm by 1.9 cm) were coated with thin films (<20 {mu}m in thickness) of Shell Vitrea oil and cleaned by using such reactive plasmas. The plasma cleaning was done in discharge conditions of microwave power up to 1300 W, radio frequency power up to 200 W, biased potential up to 400 V, gas pressures up to 5 mtorr, and operating time up to 35 min. The surface texture of the postcleaned samples has been examinedmore » visually. Mass loss of the samples after plasma cleaning was measured to estimate cleaning rates. Measured clean rates of low-pressure (0.5-mtorr) argon/oxygen plasmas were as high as 2.7 {mu}m/min. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to determine cleanliness of the sample surfaces after plasma cleaning. The XPS study on polished samples confirmed the effectiveness of plasma cleaning in achieving atomic level of surface cleanliness. In this technical memorandum plasma properties, cleaning phenomena, and significant results are reported and discussed.« less

  17. The influence of surface contamination on the ion emission from nanosecond-pulsed laser ablation of Al and Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, S.; Dogar, A. H.; Qayyum, H.; Rehman, Z. U.; Qayyum, A.

    2018-04-01

    Ions emitted from planar Al and Cu targets irradiated with a 1064 nm pulsed laser were investigated with the help of a time-resolving Langmuir probe. It was found that the intensity of the ions emitted from a target area rapidly decreases with the increasing number of laser shots, and seems to reach saturation after about 10 laser shots. The saturated intensity of Al and Cu ions was approximately 0.1 and 0.3 times the intensity of the respective ions measured at the first laser shot, respectively. The higher target ion intensity for the first few shots is thought to be due to the enhanced ionization of target atoms by vacuum-ultraviolet radiations emitted from the thermally excited/ionized surface contaminants. The reduction of target ion intensity with an increasing number of laser shots thus indicates the removal of contaminants from the irradiated surface area. Laser-cleaned Al and Cu surfaces were then allowed to be recontaminated with residual vacuum gases and the ion intensity was measured at various time delays. The prolonged exposure of the cleaned target to vacuum residual gases completely restores the ion intensity. Regarding surface contaminants removal, laser shots of higher intensities were found to be more effective than a higher number of laser shots having lower intensities.

  18. Laser Surface Preparation for Adhesive Bonding of Aerospace Structural Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcher, M. A.; Wohl, C. J.; Hopkins, J. W.; Connell, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Adhesive bonds are critical to the integrity of built-up structures. Disbonds can often be detected but the strength of adhesion between surfaces in contact is not obtainable without destructive testing. Typically the number one problem in a bonded structure is surface contamination, and by extension, surface preparation. Standard surface preparation techniques, including grit blasting, manual abrasion, and peel ply, are not ideal because of variations in their application. Etching of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) panels using a neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser appears to be a highly precise and promising way to both clean a composite surface prior to bonding and provide a bond-promoting patterned surface akin to peel ply without the inherent drawbacks from the same (i.e., debris and curvature). CFRP surfaces prepared using laser patterns conducive to adhesive bonding were compared to typical pre-bonding surface treatments through optical microscopy, contact angle goniometry, and post-bonding mechanical testing.

  19. Impact of different cleaning processes on the laser damage threshold of antireflection coatings for Z-Backlighter optics at Sandia National Laboratories

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Field, Ella; Bellum, John; Kletecka, Damon

    We have examined how different cleaning processes affect the laser-induced damage threshold of antireflection coatings for large dimension, Z-Backlighter laser optics at Sandia National Laboratories. Laser damage thresholds were measured after the coatings were created, and again 4 months later to determine which cleaning processes were most effective. There is a nearly twofold increase in laser-induced damage threshold between the antireflection coatings that were cleaned and those that were not cleaned. Aging of the coatings after 4 months resulted in even higher laser-induced damage thresholds. Also, the laser-induced damage threshold results revealed that every antireflection coating had a high defectmore » density, despite the cleaning process used, which indicates that improvements to either the cleaning or deposition processes should provide even higher laser-induced damage thresholds.« less

  20. Impact of different cleaning processes on the laser damage threshold of antireflection coatings for Z-Backlighter optics at Sandia National Laboratories

    DOE PAGES

    Field, Ella; Bellum, John; Kletecka, Damon

    2014-11-06

    We have examined how different cleaning processes affect the laser-induced damage threshold of antireflection coatings for large dimension, Z-Backlighter laser optics at Sandia National Laboratories. Laser damage thresholds were measured after the coatings were created, and again 4 months later to determine which cleaning processes were most effective. There is a nearly twofold increase in laser-induced damage threshold between the antireflection coatings that were cleaned and those that were not cleaned. Aging of the coatings after 4 months resulted in even higher laser-induced damage thresholds. Also, the laser-induced damage threshold results revealed that every antireflection coating had a high defectmore » density, despite the cleaning process used, which indicates that improvements to either the cleaning or deposition processes should provide even higher laser-induced damage thresholds.« less

  1. Self-cleaning effect in high quality percussion ablating of cooling hole by picosecond ultra-short pulse laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wanqin; Yu, Zhishui

    2018-06-01

    Comparing with the trepanning technology, cooling hole could be processed based on the percussion drilling with higher processing efficiency. However, it is widely believed that the ablating precision of hole is lower for percussion drilling than for trepanning, wherein, the melting spatter materials around the hole surface and the recast layer inside the hole are the two main issues for reducing the ablating precision of hole, especially for the recast layer, it can't be eliminated completely even through the trepanning technology. In this paper, the self-cleaning effect which is a particular property just for percussion ablating of holes has been presented in detail. In addition, the reasons inducing the self-cleaning effect have been discussed. At last, based on the self-cleaning effect of percussion drilling, high quality cooling hole without the melting spatter materials around the hole surface and recast layer inside the hole could be ablated in nickel-based superalloy by picosecond ultra-short pulse laser.

  2. Optical cell cleaning with NIR femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchugonova, Aisada; Breunig, Hans Georg; Batista, Ana; König, Karsten

    2015-03-01

    Femtosecond laser microscopes have been used as both micro and nanosurgery tools. The optical knock-out of undesired cells in multiplex cell clusters shall be further reported on in this study. Femtosecond laser-induced cell death is beneficial due to the reduced collateral side effects and therefore can be used to selectively destroy target cells within monolayers, as well as within 3D tissues, all the while preserving cells of interest. This is an important characteristic for the application in stem cell research and cancer treatment. Non-precise damage compromises the viability of neighboring cells by inducing side effects such as stress to the cells surrounding the target due to the changes in the microenvironment, resulting from both the laser and laser-exposed cells. In this study, optimum laser parameters for optical cleaning by isolating single cells and cell colonies are exploited through the use of automated software control. Physiological equilibrium and cellular responses to the laser induced damages are also investigated. Cell death dependence on laser focus, determination and selectivity of intensity/dosage, controllable damage and cell recovery mechanisms are discussed.

  3. Ultrasonic cleaning of interior surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Odell, D. MacKenzie C.

    1996-01-01

    An ultrasonic cleaning method for cleaning the interior surfaces of tubes. The method uses an ultrasonic generator and reflector each coupled to opposing ends of the open-ended, fluid-filled tube. Fluid-tight couplings seal the reflector and generator to the tube, preventing leakage of fluid from the interior of the tube. The reflector and generator are operatively connected to actuators, whereby the distance between them can be varied. When the distance is changed, the frequency of the sound waves is simultaneously adjusted to maintain the resonant frequency of the tube so that a standing wave is formed in the tube, the nodes of which are moved axially to cause cavitation along the length of the tube. Cavitation maximizes mechanical disruption and agitation of the fluid, dislodging foreign material from the interior surface.

  4. Ultrasonic cleaning of interior surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Odell, D. MacKenzie C.

    1994-01-01

    An ultrasonic cleaning apparatus for cleaning the interior surfaces of tubes. The apparatus includes an ultrasonic generator and reflector each coupled to opposing ends of the open-ended, fluid-filled tube. Fluid-tight couplings seal the reflector and generator to the tube, preventing leakage of fluid from the interior of the tube. The reflector and generator are operatively connected to actuators, whereby the distance between them can be varied. When the distance is changed, the frequency of the sound waves is simultaneously adjusted to maintain the resonant frequency of the tube so that a standing wave is formed in the tube, the nodes of which are moved axially to cause cavitation along the length of the tube. Cavitation maximizes mechanical disruption and agitation of the fluid, dislodging foreign material from the interior surface.

  5. Cleaning painted surfaces: evaluation of leaching phenomenon induced by solvents applied for the removal of gel residues.

    PubMed

    Casoli, Antonella; Di Diego, Zaira; Isca, Clelia

    2014-12-01

    Cleaning is one of the most important, delicate, and at the same time controversial processes in the conservation treatment of paintings. Although a strict definition of cleaning would be the removal of dirt, grime, or other accretions (surface cleaning), in the conservation field, cleaning is used in the broader meaning to include thinning/removing altered or “unwanted layers” of materials without damaging or altering the physicochemical properties of the surfaces to be preserved. The cleaning of unvarnished paintings is one of the most critical issues that are currently discussed. Several studies exist regarding different cleaning tools, such as gels, soaps, enzymes, ionic liquids, and foams, as well as various dry methods and lasers, but only a few have been performed on the risk associated with the use of water and organic solvents for the cleaning treatments in relation to the original paint binder. The aim of the study is to verify analytically the behavior of water gelling agents during cleaning treatments and the interaction of the following elements: water or organic solvents applied for the removal of gel residues with the original lipid paint binder. For this purpose, the study was conducted on a fragment of canvas painting (sixteenth to seventeenth century) of Soprintendenza per i Beni Storici, Artistici ed Etnoantropologici del Friuli Venezia Giulia (Superintendence for the Historical, Artistic and Ethno-anthropological Heritage of Friuli Venezia Giulia), Udine by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy.

  6. High throughput laser texturing of super-hydrophobic surfaces on steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemini, Laura; Faucon, Marc; Romoli, Luca; Kling, Rainer

    2017-03-01

    Super-hydrophobic surfaces are nowadays of primary interest in several application fields, as for de-icing devices in the automotive and aerospace industries. In this context, laser surface texturing has widely demonstrated to be an easy one-step method to produce super-hydrophobic surfaces on several materials. In this work, a high average power (up to 40W), high repetition-rate (up to 1MHz), femtosecond infrared laser was employed to produce super-hydrophobic surfaces on 316L steel. The set of process and laser parameters for which the super-hydrophobic behavior is optimized, was obtained by varying the laser energy and repetition rate. The morphology of the textured surfaces was firstly analyzed by SEM and confocal microscope analyses. The contact angle was measured over time in order to investigate the effect of air environment on the hydrophobic properties and define the period of time necessary for the super-hydrophobic properties to stabilize. An investigation on the effect of after-processing cleaning solvents on the CA evolution was carried to assess the influence of the after-processing sample handling on the CA evaluation. Results show that the highest values of contact angle, that is the best hydrophobic behavior, are obtained at high repetition rate and low energy, this way opening up a promising scenario in terms of upscaling for reducing the overall process takt-time.

  7. Self-cleaning of superhydrophobic surfaces by spontaneously jumping condensate drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisdom, Katrina; Watson, Jolanta; Watson, Gregory; Chen, Chuan-Hua

    2012-11-01

    The self-cleaning function of superhydrophobic surfaces is conventionally attributed to the removal of contaminating particles by impacting or rolling water droplets, which implies the action of external forces such as gravity. Here, we demonstrate a new self-cleaning mechanism, whereby condensate drops spontaneously jump upon coalescence on a superhydrophobic surface, and the merged drop self-propels away from the surface along with the contaminants. The jumping-condensate mechanism is shown to autonomously clean superhydrophobic cicada wings, where the contaminating particles cannot be removed by external wind flow. Our findings offer new insights for the development of self-cleaning materials.

  8. Ultrasonic cleaning of interior surfaces

    DOEpatents

    MacKenzie, D.; Odell, C.

    1994-03-01

    An ultrasonic cleaning apparatus is described for cleaning the interior surfaces of tubes. The apparatus includes an ultrasonic generator and reflector each coupled to opposing ends of the open-ended, fluid-filled tube. Fluid-tight couplings seal the reflector and generator to the tube, preventing leakage of fluid from the interior of the tube. The reflector and generator are operatively connected to actuators, whereby the distance between them can be varied. When the distance is changed, the frequency of the sound waves is simultaneously adjusted to maintain the resonant frequency of the tube so that a standing wave is formed in the tube, the nodes of which are moved axially to cause cavitation along the length of the tube. Cavitation maximizes mechanical disruption and agitation of the fluid, dislodging foreign material from the interior surface. 3 figures.

  9. Bioinspired Surface for Low Drag, Self-Cleaning, and Antifouling: Shark Skin, Butterfly and Rice Leaf Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bixler, Gregroy D.

    In this thesis, first presented is an overview of inorganic-fouling and biofouling which is generally undesirable for many medical, marine, and industrial applications. A survey of nature's flora and fauna are studied in order to discover new antifouling methods that could be mimicked for engineering applications. New antifouling methods will presumably incorporate a combination of physical and chemical controls. Presented are mechanisms and experimental results focusing on laminar and turbulent drag reducing shark skin inspired riblet surfaces. This includes new laser etched and riblet film samples for closed channel drag using water, oil, and air as well as in wind tunnel. Also presented are mechanisms and experimental results focusing on the newly discovered rice and butterfly wing effect surfaces. Morphology, drag, self-cleaning, contact angle, and contact angle hysteresis data are presented to understand the role of sample geometrical dimensions, wettability, viscosity, and velocity. Hierarchical liquid repellent coatings combining nano- and micro-sized features and particles are utilized to recreate or combine various effects. Such surfaces have been fabricated with photolithography, soft lithography, hot embossing, and coating techniques. Discussion is provided along with new conceptual models describing the role of surface structures related to low drag, self-cleaning, and antifouling properties. Modeling provides design guidance when developing novel low drag and self-cleaning surfaces for medical, marine, and industrial applications.

  10. Cleaning, disinfection and sterilization of surface prion contamination.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, G; Dehen, C; Perrin, A; Thomas, V; Igel-Egalon, A; Burke, P A; Deslys, J P; Comoy, E

    2013-12-01

    Prion contamination is a risk during device reprocessing, being difficult to remove and inactivate. Little is known of the combined effects of cleaning, disinfection and sterilization during a typical reprocessing cycle in clinical practice. To investigate the combination of cleaning, disinfection and/or sterilization on reducing the risk of surface prion contamination. In vivo test methods were used to study the impact of cleaning alone and cleaning combined with thermal disinfection and high- or low-temperature sterilization processes. A standardized test method, based on contamination of stainless steel wires with high titres of scrapie-infected brain homogenates, was used to determine infectivity reduction. Traditional chemical methods of surface decontamination against prions were confirmed to be effective, but extended steam sterilization was more variable. Steam sterilization alone reduced the risk of prion contamination under normal or extended exposure conditions, but did show significant variation. Thermal disinfection had no impact in these studies. Cleaning with certain defined formulations in combination with steam sterilization can be an effective prion decontamination process, in particular with alkaline formulations. Low-temperature, gaseous hydrogen peroxide sterilization was also confirmed to reduce infectivity in the presence and absence of cleaning. Prion decontamination is affected by the full reprocessing cycle used on contaminated surfaces. The correct use of defined cleaning, disinfection and sterilization methods as tested in this report in the scrapie infectivity assay can provide a standard precaution against prion contamination. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Morphometric analysis of root canal cleaning after rotary instrumentation with or without laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesan, Melissa A.; Geurisoli, Danilo M. Z.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Barbin, Eduardo L.; Pecora, Jesus D.

    2002-06-01

    The present study examined root canal cleaning, using the optic microscope, after rotary instrumentation with ProFile.04 with or without laser application with different output energies. Cleaning and shaping can be accomplished manually, with ultra-sonic and sub-sonic devices, with rotary instruments and recently, increasing development in laser radiation has shown promising results for disinfection and smear layer removal. In this study, 30 palatal maxillary molar roots were examined using an optic microscope after rotary instrumentation with ProFile .04 with or without Er:YAG laser application (KaVo KeyLaser II, Germany) with different output energies (2940 nm, 15 Hz, 300 pulses, 500 milli-sec duration, 42 J, 140 mJ showed on the display- input, 61 mJ at fiberoptic tip-output and 140 mJ showed on the display-input and 51 mJ at fiberoptic tip-output). Statistical analysis showed no statistical differences between the tested treatments (ANOVA, p>0.05). ANOVA also showed a statistically significant difference (p<0.01) between the root canal thirds, indicating that the middle third had less debris than the apical third. We conclude that: 1) none of the tested treatments led to totally cleaned root canals; 2) all treatments removed debris similarly, 3) the middle third had less debris than the apical third; 4) variation in output energy did not increase cleaning.

  12. Influence of lasing parameters on the cleaning efficacy of laser-activated irrigation with pulsed erbium lasers.

    PubMed

    Meire, Maarten A; Havelaerts, Sophie; De Moor, Roeland J

    2016-05-01

    Laser-activated irrigation (LAI) using erbium lasers is an irrigant agitation technique with great potential for improved cleaning of the root canal system, as shown in many in vitro studies. However, lasing parameters for LAI vary considerably and their influence remains unclear. Therefore, this study sought to investigate the influence of pulse energy, pulse frequency, pulse length, irradiation time and fibre tip shape, position and diameter on the cleaning efficacy of LAI. Transparent resin blocks containing standardized root canals (apical diameter of 0.4 mm, 6% taper, 15 mm long, with a coronal reservoir) were used as the test model. A standardized groove in the apical part of each canal wall was packed with stained dentin debris. The canals were filled with irrigant, which was activated by an erbium: yttrium aluminium garnet (Er:YAG) laser (2940 nm, AT Fidelis, Fotona, Ljubljana, Slovenia). In each experiment, one laser parameter was varied, while the others remained constant. In this way, the influence of pulse energy (10-40 mJ), pulse length (50-1000 μs), frequency (5-30 Hz), irradiation time (5-40 s) and fibre tip shape (flat or conical), position (pulp chamber, canal entrance, next to groove) and diameter (300-600 μm) was determined by treating 20 canals per parameter. The amount of debris remaining in the groove after each LAI procedure was scored and compared among the different treatments. The parameters significantly (P < 0.05, Kruskal-Wallis) affecting debris removal from the groove were fibre tip position, pulse length, pulse energy, irradiation time and frequency. Fibre tip shape and diameter had no significant influence on the cleaning efficacy.

  13. Cleanliness audit of clinical surfaces and equipment: who cleans what?

    PubMed

    Anderson, R E; Young, V; Stewart, M; Robertson, C; Dancer, S J

    2011-07-01

    Current guidelines recommend regular cleaning of clinical equipment. We monitored items on a surgical ward for predominant user, hand-touch frequency, cleaning responsibilities and measurement of organic soil. Equipment was assessed in triplicate against a cleanliness benchmark of 100 relative light units (RLU) using the Hygiena® ATP system. There were 44 items, of which 21 were cleaned by clinical support workers (CSWs), five by domestic staff; three by nurses, three by doctors, and 12 with no designated cleaning responsibility. Geometric mean RLUs ranged from 60 to 550/100 cm² for small items such as hand-gel containers, bed control, blood pressure cuff and clinical notes; with similar values of 80-540/100 cm² RLU for larger items such as electrocardiogram machine, defibrillator, trolleys and tables. Overall geometric mean was 249/100 cm² RLU for all surfaces, with 84% (37 of 44) items exceeding the 100RLU benchmark. Of 27 items cleaned by clinical staff, 24 (89%) failed the benchmark. Of 12 sites with no cleaning specification, 11 (92%) failed the benchmark. Three of seven 'clean' sites (<100/100 cm² RLU) were cleaned by domestic staff. Average log(10) RLU of surfaces cleaned by domestics were 64% lower compared with surfaces cleaned by CSWs (95% confidence interval: 35%, 80%; P=0.019). In conclusion, clinical equipment frequently demonstrates high levels of organic soil, whether or not items have assigned cleaning responsibility. These findings suggest that cleaning practices for clinical equipment may require review, along with education of staff with specific cleaning responsibilities. Copyright © 2011 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Self-cleaning of superhydrophobic surfaces by self-propelled jumping condensate

    PubMed Central

    Wisdom, Katrina M.; Qu, Xiaopeng; Liu, Fangjie; Watson, Gregory S.; Chen, Chuan-Hua

    2013-01-01

    The self-cleaning function of superhydrophobic surfaces is conventionally attributed to the removal of contaminating particles by impacting or rolling water droplets, which implies the action of external forces such as gravity. Here, we demonstrate a unique self-cleaning mechanism whereby the contaminated superhydrophobic surface is exposed to condensing water vapor, and the contaminants are autonomously removed by the self-propelled jumping motion of the resulting liquid condensate, which partially covers or fully encloses the contaminating particles. The jumping motion off the superhydrophobic surface is powered by the surface energy released upon coalescence of the condensed water phase around the contaminants. The jumping-condensate mechanism is shown to spontaneously clean superhydrophobic cicada wings, where the contaminating particles cannot be removed by gravity, wing vibration, or wind flow. Our findings offer insights for the development of self-cleaning materials. PMID:23630277

  15. Effectiveness of Surface Cleaning and Disinfection in a Brazilian Healthcare Facility

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Junior, Aires G.; Ferreira, Adriano M.; Frota, Oleci P.; Rigotti, Marcelo A.; Barcelos, Larissa da S.; Lopes de Sousa, Alvaro Francisco; de Andrade, Denise; Guerra, Odanir G.; R. Furlan, Mara C.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Failures in the processes of cleaning and disinfecting health service surfaces may result in the spread and transfer of pathogens that are often associated with healthcare-related infections and outbreaks. Aims: To assess the effectiveness of environmental surface cleaning and disinfection in a hospital clinic. Method: The study was conducted in a nursing ward with 45 beds. A total of 80 samples from five high-touch surfaces were evaluated before and after cleaning and disinfection, using the following methods: visual inspection, adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence assay, aerobic colony count, Staphylococcus aureus colony count, and evaluation of resistance to methicillin. The data analysis used nonparametric comparative and correlative tests to observe any differences in the pre- and post- cleaning and disinfection results for the surfaces assessed. Results: Effective cleaning and disinfection had a significant effect on only two surfaces when measured for the presence of adenosine triphosphate, the inner bathroom door handle (p=0.007) and the toilet bowl (p=0.01). When evaluated for Staphylococcus aureus colony count, the toilet flush handle also demonstrated a significant effect (p=0.04). Conclusion: The effectiveness of cleaning and disinfection of the surfaces tested was not satisfactory. An educational intervention is recommended for the cleaning and disinfection staff and the nursing team at the healthcare facility. Relevance to Clinical Practice: The data in the study revealed that daily hospital cleaning and disinfection in the sampled sites are not sufficient in medical and surgical wards. Hospital cleanliness must be reevaluated from the point of view of materials, such as an adequate supply of clean cloths, in addition to establishing more precise cleanliness protocols and accurate monitoring systems. PMID:29643951

  16. Effectiveness of Surface Cleaning and Disinfection in a Brazilian Healthcare Facility.

    PubMed

    Santos-Junior, Aires G; Ferreira, Adriano M; Frota, Oleci P; Rigotti, Marcelo A; Barcelos, Larissa da S; Lopes de Sousa, Alvaro Francisco; de Andrade, Denise; Guerra, Odanir G; R Furlan, Mara C

    2018-01-01

    Failures in the processes of cleaning and disinfecting health service surfaces may result in the spread and transfer of pathogens that are often associated with healthcare-related infections and outbreaks. To assess the effectiveness of environmental surface cleaning and disinfection in a hospital clinic. The study was conducted in a nursing ward with 45 beds. A total of 80 samples from five high-touch surfaces were evaluated before and after cleaning and disinfection, using the following methods: visual inspection, adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence assay, aerobic colony count, Staphylococcus aureus colony count, and evaluation of resistance to methicillin. The data analysis used nonparametric comparative and correlative tests to observe any differences in the pre- and post- cleaning and disinfection results for the surfaces assessed. Effective cleaning and disinfection had a significant effect on only two surfaces when measured for the presence of adenosine triphosphate, the inner bathroom door handle ( p =0.007) and the toilet bowl ( p =0.01). When evaluated for Staphylococcus aureus colony count, the toilet flush handle also demonstrated a significant effect ( p =0.04). The effectiveness of cleaning and disinfection of the surfaces tested was not satisfactory. An educational intervention is recommended for the cleaning and disinfection staff and the nursing team at the healthcare facility. The data in the study revealed that daily hospital cleaning and disinfection in the sampled sites are not sufficient in medical and surgical wards. Hospital cleanliness must be reevaluated from the point of view of materials, such as an adequate supply of clean cloths, in addition to establishing more precise cleanliness protocols and accurate monitoring systems.

  17. Active cleaning technique for removing contamination from optical surfaces in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, R. L.; Gillette, R. B.; Cruz, G. A.

    1973-01-01

    An active cleaning technique for removing contaminants from optical surfaces in space was investigated with emphasis on the feasibility of using plasma exposure as a means of in-situ cleaning. The major work accomplished includes: (1) development of an in-situ reflectometer for use in conjunction with the contaminant film deposition/cleaning facility; (2) completion of Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) filter treatment experiments to assess the effects of plasma exposure on the UV transmittance; (3) attempts to correlate the atomic oxygen flux with cleaning rate; (4) completion of in-situ butadien contamination/plasma cleaning/UV reflectance measurement experiments; (5) carbon cleaning experiments using various gases; (6) completion of silicone contamination/cleaning experiments; and (7) experiments conducted at low chamber pressures to determine cleaning rate distribution and contamination of surfaces adjacent to those being cleaned.

  18. Hard surface biocontrol in hospitals using microbial-based cleaning products.

    PubMed

    Vandini, Alberta; Temmerman, Robin; Frabetti, Alessia; Caselli, Elisabetta; Antonioli, Paola; Balboni, Pier Giorgio; Platano, Daniela; Branchini, Alessio; Mazzacane, Sante

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs) are one of the most frequent complications occurring in healthcare facilities. Contaminated environmental surfaces provide an important potential source for transmission of many healthcare-associated pathogens, thus indicating the need for new and sustainable strategies. This study aims to evaluate the effect of a novel cleaning procedure based on the mechanism of biocontrol, on the presence and survival of several microorganisms responsible for HAIs (i.e. coliforms, Staphyloccus aureus, Clostridium difficile, and Candida albicans) on hard surfaces in a hospital setting. The effect of microbial cleaning, containing spores of food grade Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus megaterium, in comparison with conventional cleaning protocols, was evaluated for 24 weeks in three independent hospitals (one in Belgium and two in Italy) and approximately 20000 microbial surface samples were collected. Microbial cleaning, as part of the daily cleaning protocol, resulted in a reduction of HAI-related pathogens by 50 to 89%. This effect was achieved after 3-4 weeks and the reduction in the pathogen load was stable over time. Moreover, by using microbial or conventional cleaning alternatively, we found that this effect was directly related to the new procedure, as indicated by the raise in CFU/m2 when microbial cleaning was replaced by the conventional procedure. Although many questions remain regarding the actual mechanisms involved, this study demonstrates that microbial cleaning is a more effective and sustainable alternative to chemical cleaning and non-specific disinfection in healthcare facilities. This study indicates microbial cleaning as an effective strategy in continuously lowering the number of HAI-related microorganisms on surfaces. The first indications on the actual level of HAIs in the trial hospitals monitored on a continuous basis are very promising, and may pave the way for a novel and cost-effective strategy

  19. Hard Surface Biocontrol in Hospitals Using Microbial-Based Cleaning Products

    PubMed Central

    Vandini, Alberta; Temmerman, Robin; Frabetti, Alessia; Caselli, Elisabetta; Antonioli, Paola; Balboni, Pier Giorgio; Platano, Daniela; Branchini, Alessio; Mazzacane, Sante

    2014-01-01

    Background Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs) are one of the most frequent complications occurring in healthcare facilities. Contaminated environmental surfaces provide an important potential source for transmission of many healthcare-associated pathogens, thus indicating the need for new and sustainable strategies. Aim This study aims to evaluate the effect of a novel cleaning procedure based on the mechanism of biocontrol, on the presence and survival of several microorganisms responsible for HAIs (i.e. coliforms, Staphyloccus aureus, Clostridium difficile, and Candida albicans) on hard surfaces in a hospital setting. Methods The effect of microbial cleaning, containing spores of food grade Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus megaterium, in comparison with conventional cleaning protocols, was evaluated for 24 weeks in three independent hospitals (one in Belgium and two in Italy) and approximately 20000 microbial surface samples were collected. Results Microbial cleaning, as part of the daily cleaning protocol, resulted in a reduction of HAI-related pathogens by 50 to 89%. This effect was achieved after 3–4 weeks and the reduction in the pathogen load was stable over time. Moreover, by using microbial or conventional cleaning alternatively, we found that this effect was directly related to the new procedure, as indicated by the raise in CFU/m2 when microbial cleaning was replaced by the conventional procedure. Although many questions remain regarding the actual mechanisms involved, this study demonstrates that microbial cleaning is a more effective and sustainable alternative to chemical cleaning and non-specific disinfection in healthcare facilities. Conclusions This study indicates microbial cleaning as an effective strategy in continuously lowering the number of HAI-related microorganisms on surfaces. The first indications on the actual level of HAIs in the trial hospitals monitored on a continuous basis are very promising, and may pave the

  20. Increasing the hydrophobicity degree of stonework by means of laser surface texturing: An application on Zimbabwe black granites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantada, A.; Penide, J.; Riveiro, A.; del Val, J.; Quintero, F.; Meixus, M.; Soto, R.; Lusquiños, F.; Pou, J.

    2017-10-01

    Tailoring the wetting characteristics of materials has gained much interest in applications related to surface cleaning in both industry and home. Zimbabwe black granite is a middle-to-fine-grained natural stone commonly used as countertops in kitchens and bathrooms. In this study, the laser texturing of Zimbabwe black granite surfaces is investigated with the aim to enhance its hydrophobic character, thus reducing the attachment of contaminants on the surface. Two laser sources (λ = 1064 and 532 nm) were used for this purpose. The treatment is based on the irradiation of the stone by a laser focused on the surface of the targeting sample. The influence of different laser processing parameters on the surface characteristics of granite (wettability, roughness, and chemistry) was statistically assessed. Most suitable laser processing parameters required to obtain the highest hydrophobicity degree were identified. It has been possible to identify the 532 nm laser wavelength as the most effective one to increase the hydrophobic degree of Zimbabwe black granite surface. The phenomenon governing wettability changes was found to be the surface roughness patterns, given the unaltered chemical surface composition after laser processing.

  1. Cleaning of printed circuit assemblies with surface-mounted components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzigian, J. S.

    The need for ever-increasing miniaturization of airborne instrumentation through the use of surface mounted components closely placed on printed circuit boards highlights problems with traditional board cleaning methods. The reliability of assemblies which have been cleaned with vapor degreasing and spray cleaning can be seriously compromised by residual contaminants leading to solder joint failure, board corrosion, and even electrical failure of the mounted parts. In addition, recent government actions to eliminate fully halogenated chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) and chlorinated hydrocarbons from the industrial environment require the development of new cleaning materials and techniques. This paper discusses alternative cleaning materials and techniques and results that can be expected with them. Particular emphasis is placed on problems related to surface-mounted parts. These new techniques may lead to improved circuit reliability and, at the same time, be less expensive and less environmentally hazardous than the traditional systems.

  2. Effects of erbium, chromium:YSGG laser irradiation on root surface: morphological and atomic analytical studies.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Y; Yu, D G; Kinoshita, J; Hossain, M; Yokoyama, K; Murakami, Y; Nomura, K; Takamura, R; Matsumoto, K

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the morphological and atomic changes on the root surface by stereoscopy, field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) after erbium, chromium:yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser irradiation in vitro. There have been few reports on morphological and atomic analytical study on root surface by Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation. Eighteen extracted human premolar and molar teeth were irradiated on root surfaces at a vertical position with water-air spray by an Er,Cr:YSGG laser at the parameter of 5.0 W and 20 Hz for 5 sec while moving. The samples were then morphologically observed by stereoscopy and FE-SEM and examined atomic-analytically by SEM-EDX. Craters having rough but clean surfaces and no melting or carbonization were observed in the samples. An atomic analytical examination showed that the calcium ratio to phosphorus showed no significant changes between the control and irradiated areas (p > 0.01). These results showed that the Er,Cr:YSGG laser has a good cutting effect on root surface and causes no burning or melting after laser irradiation.

  3. Exploring surface cleaning strategies in hospital to prevent contact transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Lei, Hao; Jones, Rachael M; Li, Yuguo

    2017-01-18

    Cleaning of environmental surfaces in hospitals is important for the control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and other hospital-acquired infections transmitted by the contact route. Guidance regarding the best approaches for cleaning, however, is limited. In this study, a mathematical model based on ordinary differential equations was constructed to study MRSA concentration dynamics on high-touch and low-touch surfaces, and on the hands and noses of two patients (in two hospitals rooms) and a health care worker in a hypothetical hospital environment. Two cleaning interventions - whole room cleaning and wipe cleaning of touched surfaces - were considered. The performance of the cleaning interventions was indicated by a reduction in MRSA on the nose of a susceptible patient, relative to no intervention. Whole room cleaning just before first patient care activities of the day was more effective than whole room cleaning at other times, but even with 100% efficiency, whole room cleaning only reduced the number of MRSA transmitted to the susceptible patient by 54%. Frequent wipe cleaning of touched surfaces was shown to be more effective that whole room cleaning because surfaces are rapidly re-contaminated with MRSA after cleaning. Wipe cleaning high-touch surfaces was more effective than wipe cleaning low-touch surfaces for the same frequency of cleaning. For low wipe cleaning frequency (≤3 times per hour), high-touch surfaces should be targeted, but for high wipe cleaning frequency (>3 times per hour), cleaning should target high- and low-touch surfaces in proportion to the surface touch frequency. This study reproduces the observations from a field study of room cleaning, which provides support for the validity of our findings. Daily whole room cleaning, even with 100% cleaning efficiency, provides limited reduction in the number of MRSA transmitted to susceptible patients via the contact route; and should be supplemented with frequent targeted

  4. Nonhazardous solvent composition and method for cleaning metal surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Googin, J.M.; Simandl, R.F.; Thompson, L.M.

    1993-05-04

    A solvent composition for displacing greasy and oily contaminants as well as water and/or aqueous residue from metallic surfaces, especially surfaces of radioactive materials so that such surfaces can be wiped clean of the displaced contaminants, water and/or aqueous residue. The solvent composition consists essentially of a blend of nonpolar aliphatic hydrocarbon solvent having a minimum flash point of about 140 F and 2 to 25 volume percent of a polar solvent having a flash point sufficiently high so as to provide the solvent composition with a minimum flash point of at least 140 F. The solvent composition is nonhazardous so that when it is used to clean the surfaces of radioactive materials the waste in the form of paper or cloth wipes, lab coats and the like used in the cleaning operation is not considered to be mixed waste composed of a hazardous solvent and a radioactive material.

  5. Effect of laser beam conditioning on fabrication of clean micro-channel on stainless steel 316L using second harmonic of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sanasam Sunderlal; Baruah, Prahlad Kr; Khare, Alika; Joshi, Shrikrishna N.

    2018-02-01

    Laser micromachining of metals for fabrication of micro-channels generate ridge formation along the edges accompanied by ripples along the channel bed. The ridge formation is due to the formation of interference pattern formed by back reflections from the beam splitter and other optical components involved before focusing on the work piece. This problem can be curtailed by using a suitable aperture or Iris diaphragm so as to cut the unwanted portion of the laser beam before illuminating the sample. This paper reports an experimental investigation on minimizing this problem by conditioning the laser beam using an Iris diaphragm and using optimum process parameters. In this work, systematic experiments have been carried out using the second harmonic of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser to fabricate micro-channels. Initial experiments revealed that formation of ridges along the sides of micro-channel can easily be minimized with the help of Iris diaphragm. Further it is noted that a clean micro-channel of depth 43.39 μm, width up to 64.49 μm and of good surface quality with average surface roughness (Ra) value of 370 nm can be machined on stainless steel (SS) 316L by employing optimum process condition: laser beam energy of 30 mJ/pulse, 11 number of laser scans and scan speed of 169.54 μm/s with an opening of 4 mm diameter of Iris diaphragm in the path of the laser beam.

  6. Low temperature self-cleaning properties of superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fajun; Shen, Taohua; Li, Changquan; Li, Wen; Yan, Guilong

    2014-10-01

    Outdoor surfaces are usually dirty surfaces. Ice accretion on outdoor surfaces could lead to serious accidents. In the present work, the superhydrophobic surface based on 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-Perfluorodecanethiol (PFDT) modified Ag/PDMS composite was prepared to investigate the anti-icing property and self-cleaning property at temperatures below freezing point. The superhydrophobic surface was deliberately polluted with activated carbon before testing. It was observed that water droplet picked up dusts on the cold superhydrophobic surface and took it away without freezing at a measuring temperature of -10 °C. While on a smooth PFDT surface and a rough surface base on Ag/PDMS composite without PFDT modification, water droplets accumulated and then froze quickly at the same temperature. However, at even lower temperature of -12 °C, the superhydrophobic surface could not prevent the surface water from icing. In addition, it was observed that the frost layer condensed from the moisture pay an important role in determining the low temperature self-cleaning properties of a superhydrophobic surface.

  7. Nonhazardous solvent composition and method for cleaning metal surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Googin, John M.; Simandl, Ronald F.; Thompson, Lisa M.

    1993-01-01

    A solvent composition for displacing greasy and oily contaminants as well as water and/or aqueous residue from metallic surfaces, especially surfaces of radioactive materials so that such surfaces can be wiped clean of the displaced contaminants, water and/or aqueous residue. The solvent composition consists essentially of a blend of nonpolar aliphatic hydrocarbon solvent having a minimum flash point of about 140.degree. F. and 2 to 25 volume percent of a polar solvent having a flash point sufficiently high so as to provide the solvent composition with a minimum flash point of at least 140.degree. F. The solvent composition is nonhazardous so that when it is used to clean the surfaces of radioactive materials the waste in the form of paper or cloth wipes, lab coats and the like used in the cleaning operation is not considered to be mixed waste composed of a hazardous solvent and a radioactive material.

  8. Bioinspired superhydrophobic, self-cleaning and low drag surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhushan, Bharat

    2013-09-01

    Nature has evolved objects with desired functionality using commonly found materials. Nature capitalizes on hierarchical structures to achieve functionality. The understanding of the functions provided by objects and processes found in nature can guide us to produce nanomaterials, nanodevices, and processes with desirable functionality. This article provides an overview of four topics: (1) Lotus Effect used to develop superhydrophobic and self-cleaning/antifouling surfaces with low adhesion, (2) Shark Skin Effect to develop surfaces with low fluid drag and anti-fouling characteristics, and (3-4) Rice Leaf and Butterfly Wing Effect to develop superhydrophobic and self-cleaning surfaces with low drag. Rice Leaf and Butterfly Wings combine the Shark Skin and Lotus Effects.

  9. Efficiency of surface cleaning by a glow discharge for plasma spraying coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadyrmetov, A. M.; Kashapov, N. F.; Sharifullin, S. N.; Saifutdinov, A. I.; Fadeev, S. A.

    2016-06-01

    The article presents the results of experimental studies of the quality of cleaning steel surfaces by a glow discharge for plasma spraying. Shows the results of measurements of the angle of surface wetting and bond strength of the plasma coating to the surface treated. The dependence of the influence of the glow discharge power, chamber pressure, distance between the electrodes and the processing time of the surface on cleaning efficiency. Optimal fields of factors is found. It is shown increase joint strength coating and base by 30-80% as a result of cleaning the substrate surface by a glow discharge plasma spraying.

  10. Thermal measurement of root surface temperatures during application of intracanal laser energy in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodis, Harold E.; White, Joel M.; Neev, Joseph

    1993-07-01

    The use of laser energy to clean, shape, and sterilize a root canal system space involves the generation of heat due to the thermal effect of the laser on the organic tissue contents and dentin walls of that space. If heat generation is above physiologic levels, irreparable damage may occur to the periodontal ligament and surrounding bone. This study measured temperature rise on the outer root surfaces of extracted teeth during intracanal laser exposure. Thirty single rooted, recently extracted teeth free of caries and restorations were accessed pulps extirpated and divided into three groups. Each root canal system was treated with a 1.06 micrometers pulsed Nd:YAG laser with quartz contact probes. Temperatures were recorded for all surfaces (mesial distal, buccal, lingual, apical) with infrared thermography utilizing a detector response time of 1 (mu) sec, sensitivity range (infrared) of 8 to 12 micrometers and a scan rate of 30 frames/sec.

  11. Laser Tailoring the Surface Chemistry and Morphology for Wear, Scale and Corrosion Resistant Superhydrophobic Coatings.

    PubMed

    Boinovich, Ludmila B; Emelyanenko, Kirill A; Domantovsky, Alexander G; Emelyanenko, Alexandre M

    2018-06-04

    A strategy, combining laser chemical modification with laser texturing, followed by chemisorption of the fluorinated hydrophobic agent was used to fabricate the series of superhydrophobic coatings on an aluminum alloy with varied chemical compositions and parameters of texture. It was shown that high content of aluminum oxynitride and aluminum oxide formed in the surface layer upon laser treatment allows solving the problem of enhancement of superhydrophobic coating resistance to abrasive loads. Besides, the multimodal structure of highly porous surface layer leads to self-healing ability of fabricated coatings. Long-term behavior of designed coatings in "hard" hot water with an essential content of calcium carbonate demonstrated high antiscaling resistance with self-cleaning potential against solid deposits onto the superhydrophobic surfaces. Study of corrosion protection properties and the behavior of coatings at long-term contact with 0.5 M NaCl solution indicated extremely high chemical stability and remarkable anticorrosion properties.

  12. Active optical system for advanced 3D surface structuring by laser remelting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pütsch, O.; Temmler, A.; Stollenwerk, J.; Willenborg, E.; Loosen, P.

    2015-03-01

    Structuring by laser remelting enables completely new possibilities for designing surfaces since material is redistributed but not wasted. In addition to technological advantages, cost and time benefits yield from shortened process times, the avoidance of harmful chemicals and the elimination of subsequent finishing steps such as cleaning and polishing. The functional principle requires a completely new optical machine technology that maintains the spatial and temporal superposition and manipulation of three different laser beams emitted from two laser sources of different wavelength. The optical system has already been developed and demonstrated for the processing of flat samples of hot and cold working steel. However, since particularly the structuring of 3D-injection molds represents an application example of high innovation potential, the optical system has to take into account the elliptical beam geometry that occurs when the laser beams irradiate a curved surface. To take full advantage of structuring by remelting for the processing of 3D surfaces, additional optical functionality, called EPS (elliptical pre-shaping) has to be integrated into the existing set-up. The development of the beam shaping devices not only requires the analysis of the mechanisms of the beam projection but also a suitable optical design. Both aspects are discussed in this paper.

  13. The construction, fouling and enzymatic cleaning of a textile dye surface.

    PubMed

    Onaizi, Sagheer A; He, Lizhong; Middelberg, Anton P J

    2010-11-01

    The enzymatic cleaning of a rubisco protein stain bound onto Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) biosensor chips having a dye-bound upper layer is investigated. This novel method allowed, for the first time, a detailed kinetic study of rubisco cleanability (defined as fraction of adsorbed protein removed from a surface) from dyed surfaces (mimicking fabrics) at different enzyme concentrations. Analysis of kinetic data using an established mathematical model able to decouple enzyme transfer and reaction processes [Onaizi, He, Middelberg, Chem. Eng. Sci. 64 (2008) 3868] revealed a striking effect of dyeing on enzymatic cleaning performance. Specifically, the absolute rate constants for enzyme transfer to and from a dye-bound rubisco stain were significantly higher than reported previously for un-dyed surfaces. These increased transfer rates resulted in higher surface cleanability. Higher enzyme mobility (i.e., higher enzyme adsorption and desorption rates) at the liquid-dye interface was observed, consistent with previous suggestions that enzyme surface mobility is likely correlated with overall enzyme cleaning performance. Our results show that reaction engineering models of enzymatic action at surfaces may provide insight able to guide the design of better stain-resistant surfaces, and may also guide efforts to improve cleaning formulations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Picosecond Dynamics Of The GaAs (110) Surface Studied With Laser Photoemission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haight, R.; Silberman, J. A.; Lilie, M. I.

    1988-08-01

    A novel laser system and detection scheme is described which has been developed to investigate the transient dynamics of photoexcited electrons at material surfaces and interfaces with photoemission. The excited carrier population on the surface of GaAs (110) and the related Cr/GaAs (110) surface has been studied with 1-2 picosecond time resolution. Studies reveal a rapid rise and fall of the photexcited carrier population at the clean semiconductor surface within 15 picoseconds of excitation. For times greater than 15 picoseconds the carrier density decays slowly. Studies of the photoexcited surface after deposition of small numbers of Cr atoms reveal a remarkable decrease in the carrier density observed at the surface for a coverage as low as .006 monolayer.

  15. Investigation of the effect of contaminations and cleaning processes on the surface properties of brazing surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.; Wiesner, S.

    2017-03-01

    The quality of brazed joints is determined by different factors such as the atmosphere and the parameters during brazing as well as the condition of the brazing surfaces. Residues of lubricants used during machining of the components and the subsequent cleaning processes can contaminate the faying surfaces and can hence influence the flow ability of the molten filler metals. Besides their influence on the filler metal flow, the residues can result in the formation of carbonic phases in the joint leading to a possible reduction of the corrosion resistance and the mechanical properties. The first step of the current study with the aim of avoiding these defects is to identify the influence of critical contaminations and cleaning methods on the quality of the brazed joints. In a first step, contaminations on AISI304 and Inconel alloy 625 due to different cooling lubricants and the effect of several cleaning methods, in particular plasma cleaning, have been investigated. Information about the surface energy of contaminated and cleaned surfaces was gained by measuring contact angle of testing fluids. Additionally, the lubricants and the resulting contamination products have been analyzed considering the influence of a heat treatment.

  16. Laser-induced periodic annular surface structures on fused silica surface

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Liu, Yi; Brelet, Yohann; Forestier, Benjamin

    2013-06-24

    We report on the formation of laser-induced periodic annular surface structures on fused silica irradiated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses. This surface morphology emerges after the disappearance of the conventional laser induced periodic surface structures, under successive laser pulse irradiation. It is independent of the laser polarization and universally observed for different focusing geometries. We interpret its formation in terms of the interference between the reflected laser field on the surface of the damage crater and the incident laser pulse.

  17. Solid Lubrication Fundamentals and Applications. Properties of Clean Surfaces: Adhesion, Friction, and Wear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1998-01-01

    This chapter presents the adhesion, friction, and wear behaviors of smooth, atomically clean surfaces of solid-solid couples, such as metal-ceramic couples, in a clean environment. Surface and bulk properties, which determine the adhesion, friction, and wear behaviors of solid-solid couples, are described. The primary emphasis is on the nature and character of the metal, especially its surface energy and ductility. Also, the mechanisms of friction and wear for clean, smooth surfaces are stated.

  18. Self-Cleaning Surfaces: A Third-Year Undergraduate Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Ronald S.; Wu, Alex H. F.; Zhang, Hua; Coffey, Jacob; Huddle, Thomas; Lafountaine, Justin S.; Lim, Zhi-Jun; White, Eugene A.; Tuong, Nam T.; Lamb, Robert N.

    2009-01-01

    Superhydrophobic (non water-wettable) surfaces can possess the ability to self-clean (the so-called "lotus effect"). The task of devising the apparatus and method for quantifying this self-cleaning effect was offered as a project in a third-year undergraduate laboratory course. Using commonly available equipment the students devised a…

  19. Clean Air Markets - Monitoring Surface Water Chemistry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about how EPA uses Long Term Monitoring (LTM) and Temporily Integrated Monitoring of Ecosystems (TIME) to track the effect of the Clean Air Act Amendments on acidity of surface waters in the eastern U.S.

  20. Directional self-cleaning superoleophobic surface.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hong; Law, Kock-Yee

    2012-08-14

    In this work, we report the creation of a grooved surface comprising 3 μm grooves (height ~4 μm) separated by 3 μm from each other on a silicon wafer by photolithography. The grooved surface was then modified chemically with a fluorosilane layer (FOTS). The surface property was studied by both static and dynamic contact angle measurements using water, hexadecane, and a polyethylene wax ink as the probing liquids. Results show that the grooved surface is both superhydrophobic and superoleophobic. Its observed contact angles agree well with the calculated Cassie-Baxter angles. More importantly, we are able to make a replica of the composite wax ink-air interface and study it by SEM. Microscopy results not only show that the droplet of the wax ink "sits" on air in the composite interface but also further reveal that the ink drop actually pins underneath the re-entrant structure in the side wall of the grooved structure. Contact angle measurement results indicate that wetting on the grooved surface is anisotropic. Although liquid drops are found to have lower static and advancing contact angles in the parallel direction, the drops are found to be more mobile, showing smaller hysteresis and lower sliding angles (as compared to the FOTS wafer surface and a comparable 3-μm-diameter pillar array FOTS surface). The enhanced mobility is attributable to the lowering of the resistance against an advancing liquid because 50% of the advancing area is made of a solid strip where the liquid likes to wet. This also implies that the contact line for advancing is no longer smooth but rather is ragged, having the solid strip area leading the wetting and the air strip area trailing behind. This interpretation is supported by imaging the geometry of the contact lines using molten ink drops recovered from the sliding angle experiments in both the parallel and orthogonal directions. Because the grooved surface is mechanically stronger against mechanical abrasion, the self-cleaning

  1. Cleaning of titanium substrates after application in a bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Fingerle, Mathias; Köhler, Oliver; Rösch, Christina; Kratz, Fabian; Scheibe, Christian; Davoudi, Neda; Müller-Renno, Christine; Ziegler, Christiane; Huster, Manuel; Schlegel, Christin; Ulber, Roland; Bohley, Martin; Aurich, Jan C

    2015-03-10

    Plain and microstructured cp-titanium samples were studied as possible biofilm reactor substrates. The biofilms were grown by exposition of the titanium samples to bacteria in a flow cell. As bacteria the rod shaped gram negative Pseudomonas fluorescens and the spherical gram negative Paracoccus seriniphilus were chosen. Afterward, the samples were cleaned in subsequent steps: First, with a standard solvent based cleaning procedure with acetone, isopropanol, and ultrapure water and second by oxygen plasma sputtering. It will be demonstrated by means of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, fluorescence microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy that oxygen plasma cleaning is a necessary and reliant tool to fully clean and restore titanium surfaces contaminated with a biofilm. The microstructured surfaces act beneficial to biofilm growth, while still being fully restorable after biofilm contamination. Scanning electron microscopy images additionally show, that the plasma process does not affect the microstructures. The presented data show the importance of the cleaning procedure. Just using solvents does not remove the biofilm and all its components reliably while a cleaning process by oxygen plasma regenerates the surfaces.

  2. Development of megasonic cleaning for silicon wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, A.

    1980-01-01

    A cleaning and drying system for processing at least 2500 three in. diameter wafers per hour was developed with a reduction in process cost. The system consists of an ammonia hydrogen peroxide bath in which both surfaces of 3/32 in. spaced, ion implanted wafers are cleaned in quartz carriers moved on a belt past two pairs of megasonic transducers. The wafers are dried in the novel room temperature, high velocity air dryer in the same carriers used for annealing. A new laser scanner was used effectively to monitor the cleaning ability on a sampling basis.

  3. Critical Surface Cleaning and Verification Alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, Donald M.; McCool, A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    As a result of federal and state requirements, historical critical cleaning and verification solvents such as Freon 113, Freon TMC, and Trichloroethylene (TCE) are either highly regulated or no longer 0 C available. Interim replacements such as HCFC 225 have been qualified, however toxicity and future phase-out regulations necessitate long term solutions. The scope of this project was to qualify a safe and environmentally compliant LOX surface verification alternative to Freon 113, TCE and HCFC 225. The main effort was focused on initiating the evaluation and qualification of HCFC 225G as an alternate LOX verification solvent. The project was scoped in FY 99/00 to perform LOX compatibility, cleaning efficiency and qualification on flight hardware.

  4. Femtosecond laser-induced surface wettability modification of polystyrene surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bing; Wang, XinCai; Zheng, HongYu; Lam, YeeCheong

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we demonstrated a simple method to create either a hydrophilic or hydrophobic surface. With femtosecond laser irradiation at different laser parameters, the water contact angle (WCA) on polystyrene's surface can be modified to either 12.7° or 156.2° from its original WCA of 88.2°. With properly spaced micro-pits created, the surface became hydrophilic probably due to the spread of the water droplets into the micro-pits. While with properly spaced micro-grooves created, the surface became rough and more hydrophobic. We investigated the effect of laser parameters on WCAs and analyzed the laser-treated surface roughness, profiles and chemical bonds by surface profilometer, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). For the laser-treated surface with low roughness, the polar (such as C—O, C=O, and O—C=O bonds) and non-polar (such as C—C or C—H bonds) groups were found to be responsible for the wettability changes. While for a rough surface, the surface roughness or the surface topography structure played a more significant role in the changes of the surface WCA. The mechanisms involved in the laser surface wettability modification process were discussed.

  5. The effect of different cleaning methods on the surface and temperature of failed titanium implants: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Hakki, Sema S; Tatar, Gulsah; Dundar, Niyazi; Demiralp, Burak

    2017-04-01

    The aims of this in vitro study are to compare the efficacy of different cleaning methods in removing debris of failed implants and to detect thermal changes of the implants treated by various scaling instruments. Twenty-seven failed implants and two unused implants as control were included to this study-group 1: plastic curette (P), group 2: titanium curette (T), group 3: carbon curette (C), group 4: titanium brush (TB), group 5: Er:YAG laser (laser 1 (L1) 100 mJ/pulse at 10 Hz), group 6: Er:YAG laser (laser 2 (L2) 150 mJ/pulse at 10 Hz), group 7: Er:YAG laser (laser 3 (L3) 200 mJ/pulse at 10 Hz), group 8: ultrasonic scaler appropriate for titanium (US), group 9: air abrasive method (AA) + citric acid, and group 10: implantoplasty (I). The changes on the treated/untreated titanium surfaces and remnant debris were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Temperature of the implants before and after treatment was detected using a thermocouple. The use of air abrasive and citric acid combination and Er:YAG laser groups was found as the best methods for the decontamination of titanium surfaces of failed implant. When the hand instruments were compared, titanium curette was found better than both the plastic and the carbon curettes which leave plastics and carbon remnants on the titanium surface. The temperature was higher after hand instrumentation when compared to other experimental groups (p < 0.05). Within the limitations of the present in vitro model, it can be concluded that the best method for decontamination of the implant surface is the use of air abrasives and Er:YAG laser.

  6. Efficacy of low-pressure foam cleaning compared to conventional cleaning methods in the removal of bacteria from surfaces associated with convenience food.

    PubMed

    Lambrechts, A A; Human, I S; Doughari, J H; Lues, J F R

    2014-09-01

    Food borne illnesses and food poisoning are cause for concern globally. The diseases are often caused by food contamination with pathogenic bacteria due largely to poor sanitary habits or storage conditions. Prevalence of some bacteria on cleaned and sanitised food contact surfaces from eight convenience food plants in Gauteng (South Africa) was investigated with the view to evaluate the efficacy of the cleaning methods used with such food contact surfaces. The microbial load of eight convenience food manufacturing plants was determined by sampling stainless steel food contact surfaces after they had been cleaned and sanitised at the end of a day's shift. Samples were analysed for Total Plate Count (TPC), Escherichia coli, Salmonella species, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria species. Results showed that 59 % of the total areas sampled for TPC failed to comply with the legal requirements for surfaces, according to the Foodstuffs, Cosmetics and Disinfectants Act (< 100 cfu.cm(-2)). S. aureus and Salmonella were not detected, but Listeria was detected in 23 % and E. coli in 1.3 % of the samples. Fifty percent (50 %) of the plants applied conventional cleaning methods for cleaning and sanitation and 50 % used the low-pressure foam (LPF) method. There was significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) between the mean TPC values of the conventional cleaning method (14 358.82) compared to that of LPF method (2 386.51) but no significant difference (P > 0.05) in terms of Listeria species isolates obtained from both cleaning methods. The LPF method proved to be the superior cleaning option for lowering TPC counts. Regardless of cleaning method used, pathogens continued to flourish on various surfaces, including dry stainless steel, posing a contamination hazard for a considerable period depending on the contamination level and type of pathogen. Intensive training for proper chemical usage and strict procedural compliance among workers for efficient cleaning procedures is

  7. High contrast research in the Nd:glass laser system based on optical parametric amplification temporal cleaning device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaoming; Leng, Yuxin; Sui, Zhan; Li, Yanyan; Zhang, Zongxin; Xu, Yi; Guo, Xiaoyang; Liu, Yanqi; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2014-02-01

    We demonstrate high amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) contrast pulses in a Nd:glass laser system based on the hybrid double chirped pulse amplification (double CPA) scheme. By an OPA temporal cleaning device, ~100 uJ/46 fs/ 1011 clean pulses are generated and amplified in the next Nd:glass laser. After compressor, >150 mJ/~0.5 ps/1 Hz pulses can be obtained. The ASE temporal contrast of amplified pulses is ~1011 with energy gain ~2.5×104 in the Nd:glass amplifiers.

  8. Surface Structure and Surface Electronic States Related to Plasma Cleaning of Silicon and Germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jaewon

    This thesis discusses the surface structure and the surface electronic states of Si and Ge(100) surfaces as well as the effects of oxidation process on the silicon oxide/Si(100) interface structure. The H-plasma exposure was performed in situ at low temperatures. The active species, produced in the H-plasma by the rf-excitation of H_2 gas, not only remove microcontaminants such as oxygen and carbon from the surface, but also passivate the surface with atomic hydrogen by satisfying the dangling bonds of the surface atoms. The surfaces were characterized by Angle Resolved UV-Photoemission Spectroscopy (ARUPS) and Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED). In the case of Si(100), H-plasma exposure produced ordered H-terminated crystallographic structures with either a 2 x 1 or 1 x 1 LEED pattern. The hydride phases, found on the surfaces of the cleaned Si(100), were shown to depend on the temperature of the surface during H-plasma cleaning. The electronic states for the monohydride and dihydride phases were identified by ARUPS. When the plasma cleaned surface was annealed, the phase transition from the dihydride to monohydride was observed. The monohydride Si-H surface bond was stable up to 460^circC, and the dangling bond surface states were identified after annealing at 500^circC which was accompanied by the spectral shift. The H-terminated surface were characterized to have a flat band structure. For the Ge(100) surface, an ordered 2 x 1 monohydride phase was obtained from the surface cleaned at 180 ^circC. After plasma exposure at <=170^circC a 1 x 1 surface was observed, but the ARUPS indicated that the surface was predominantly composed of disordered monohydride structures. After annealing above the H-dissociation temperatures, the shift in the spectrum was shown to occur with the dangling bond surface states. The H-terminated surfaces were identified to be unpinned. The interface structure of silicon oxide/Si(100) was studied using ARUPS. Spectral shifts were

  9. Removal of graffiti paintings from the Mansion de Mattis site in Corato (Bari), Italy: Laser deveiling or complete cleaning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daurelio, G.; Andriani, E. S.; Albanese, A.; Catalano, I. M.; Teseo, G.; Marano, D.

    2008-10-01

    Nowadays one the main problem of stone monuments conservation is not only the natural environment deterioration but the defaced, in particular esthetic, due to graffiti. This paper presents the different stages of the cleaning graffiti research: the laboratory study phase, in which the aims were to investigate the laser cleaning effect on substrate and testing user-friendly and efficient solutions for in situ application; the application phase in which the study results were applied in the restoration of Palazzo de Mattis facade. The graffiti cleaning were carried out by using a Q-Switch Nd:YAG laser source (λ=1064 nm with pulse duration, t=8 ns, f=2 to 20 Hz, energy per impulse up to 280 mJ) in dry, wet and Very wet modes adopting the Daurelio technique n.1 (blade spot laser). The Q-Switch Nd:Yag laser source has demonstrated to be the most suitable for a fully or, according to new restoring theory, "de veiling" graffiti ablation.

  10. Air powder abrasive treatment as an implant surface cleaning method: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Tastepe, Ceylin S; van Waas, Rien; Liu, Yuelian; Wismeijer, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the air powder abrasive treatment as an implant surface cleaning method for peri-implantitis based on the existing literature. A PubMed search was conducted to find articles that reported on air powder abrasive treatment as an implant surface cleaning method for peri-implantitis. The studies evaluated cleaning efficiency and surface change as a result of the method. Furthermore, cell response toward the air powder abrasive-treated discs, reosseointegration, and clinical outcome after treatment is also reported. The PubMed search resulted in 27 articles meeting the inclusion criteria. In vitro cleaning efficiency of the method is reported to be high. The method resulted in minor surface changes on titanium specimens. Although the air powder abrasive-treated specimens showed sufficient levels of cell attachment and cell viability, the cell response decreased compared with sterile discs. Considerable reosseointegration between 39% and 46% and improved clinical parameters were reported after treatment when applied in combination with surgical treatment. The results of the treatment are influenced by the powder type used, the application time, and whether powder was applied surgically or nonsurgically. The in vivo data on air powder abrasive treatment as an implant surface cleaning method is not sufficient to draw definitive conclusions. However, in vitro results allow the clinician to consider the method as a promising option for implant surface cleaning in peri-implantitis treatment.

  11. Surface cleaning and pure nitridation of GaSb by in-situ plasma processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotow, Takahiro; Fujikawa, Sachie; Fujishiro, Hiroki I.; Ogura, Mutsuo; Chang, Wen Hsin; Yasuda, Tetsuji; Maeda, Tatsuro

    2017-10-01

    A clean and flat GaSb surface without native oxides has been attained by H2 plasma cleaning and subsequent in-situ N2 plasma nitridation process at 300 oC. The mechanisms of thermal desorption behavior of native oxides on GaSb have been studied by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) analysis. The suitable heat treatment process window for preparing a clean GaSb surface is given. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) analysis indicates that native oxides were completely removed on the GaSb surface after H2 plasma exposure and the pure nitridation of the clean GaSb surface was obtained at a relatively low temperature of 300 °C. This pure nitridation of GaSb have a possibility to be used as a passivation layer for high quality GaSb MOS devices.

  12. Visualization of flow during cleaning process on a liquid nanofibrous filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bílek, P.

    2017-10-01

    This paper deals with visualization of flow during cleaning process on a nanofibrous filter. Cleaning of a filter is very important part of the filtration process which extends lifetime of the filter and improve filtration properties. Cleaning is carried out on flat-sheet filters, where particles are deposited on the filter surface and form a filtration cake. The cleaning process dislodges the deposited filtration cake, which is loose from the membrane surface to the retentate flow. The blocked pores in the filter are opened again and hydrodynamic properties are restored. The presented optical method enables to see flow behaviour in a thin laser sheet on the inlet side of a tested filter during the cleaning process. The local concentration of solid particles is possible to estimate and achieve new information about the cleaning process. In the article is described the cleaning process on nanofibrous membranes for waste water treatment. The hydrodynamic data were compared to the images of the cleaning process.

  13. Laser treatment of white China surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osvay, K.; Képíró, I.; Berkesi, O.

    2006-04-01

    The surface of gloss fired porcelain with and without raw glaze coating was radiated by a CO 2 laser working at 10.6 μm, a choice resulted from spectroscopic studies of suspensions made of China. The shine of the untreated sample was defined as the distribution of micro-droplets on the surface. The surface alterations due to laser heating were classified by the diameter of the completely melted surface, the ring of the surface at the threshold of melting, and the size of microscopic cracks. The diameter of the laser treated area was in the range of 3 mm, while the incident laser power and the duration of laser heating were varied between 1 and 10 W and 1-8 min, respectively. The different stages of surface modifications were attributed primarily to the irradiating laser power and proved to be rather insensitive to the duration of the treatment. We have found a range of parameters under which the white China surface coated with raw glaze and followed by laser induced melting exhibited very similar characteristics to the untreated porcelain. This technique seems prosperous for laser assisted reparation of small surface defects of unique China samples after the firing process.

  14. Production of stable superhydrophilic surfaces on 316L steel by simultaneous laser texturing and SiO2 deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajab, Fatema H.; Liu, Zhu; Li, Lin

    2018-01-01

    Superhydrophilic surfaces with liquid contact angles of less than 5 ° have attracted much interest in practical applications including self-cleaning, cell manipulation, adhesion enhancement, anti-fogging, fluid flow control and evaporative cooling. Standard laser metal texturing method often result in unstable wetting characteristics, i.e. changing from super hydrophilic to hydrophobic in a few days or weeks. In this paper, a simple one step method is reported for fabricating a stable superhydrophilic metallic surface that lasted for at least 6 months. Here, 316L stainless steel substrates were textured using a nanosecond laser with in-situ SiO2 deposition. Morphology and chemistry of laser-textured surfaces were characterised using SEM, XRD, XPS and an optical 3D profiler. Static wettability analysis was carried out over a period of 6 months after the laser treatment. The effect of surface roughness on wettability was also studied. Results showed that the wettability of the textured surfaces could be controlled by changing the scanning speed of laser beam and number of passes. The main reason for the realisation of the stable superhydrophilic surface is the combination of the melted glass particles mainly Si and O with that of stainless steel in the micro-textured patterns. This study presents a useful method

  15. Method for Cleaning Laser-Drilled Holes on Printed Wiring Boards by Plasma Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirogaki, Toshiki; Aoyama, Eiichi; Minagi, Ryu; Ogawa, Keiji; Katayama, Tsutao; Matsuoka, Takashi; Inoue, Hisahiro

    We propose a new method for cleaning blind via holes after laser drilling of PWBs using oxygen plasma treatment. This report dealt with three kinds of PWB materials: epoxy resin and two kinds of aramid fiber reinforced plastics (AFRP: Technora or Kevlar fiber reinforcement). We observed the drilled holes after plasma treatment using both an optical and a scanning electric microscope (SEM). It was confirmed that adequate etching took place in the drilled holes by plasma treatment. We also compared the hole wall and hole bottom after plasma treatment with ones after chemical etching. It was clear that there was no damage to the aramid fiber tip on the hole wall, and that a smooth roughness of the hole wall was obtained by means of plasma treatment. As a result, we demonstrated that the plasma treatment is effective in cleaning the laser drilled holes of PWBs.

  16. SAGE SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE: SYSTEM IMPROVEMENTS FOR SELECTING INDUSTRIAL SURFACE CLEANING ALTERNATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes computer software, called SAGE, that can provide not only cleaning recommendations but also general information on various surface cleaning options. In short, it is an advisory system which can provide users with vital information on the cleaning process optio...

  17. Photocatalytic Solutions Create Self-Cleaning Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    A Stennis Space Center researcher investigating the effectiveness of photocatalytic materials for keeping the Center's buildings free of grime turned to a solution created by PURETi Inc. of New York City. Testing proved successful, and NASA and the company now share a Dual Use Technology partnership. PURETi's coatings keep surfaces clean and purify surrounding air, eliminating pollution, odors, and microbes.

  18. Producing lasting amphiphobic building surfaces with self-cleaning properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facio, Dario S.; Carrascosa, Luis A. M.; Mosquera, María J.

    2017-06-01

    Nowadays, producing building surfaces that prevent water and oil uptake and which present self-cleaning activity is still a challenge. In this study, amphiphobic (superhydrophobic and oleophobic) building surfaces were successfully produced. A simple and low-cost process was developed, which is applicable to large-scale building surfaces, according the following procedure: (1) by spraying a SiO2 nanocomposite which produces a closely-packed nanoparticle uniform topography; (2) by functionalizing the previous coating with a fluorinated alkoxysilane, producing high hydrophobicity and oleophobicity. The formation of a Cassie-Baxter regime, in which air pockets could be trapped between the aggregates of particles, was confirmed by topographic study. The building surface demonstrated an excellent self-cleaning performance. Finally, the surface presented lasting superhydrophobicity with high stability against successive attachment/detachment force cycles. This high durability can be explained by the effective grafting of the silica nanocomposite coating skeleton with the substrate, and with the additional fluorinated coating produced by condensation reactions.

  19. Robust self-cleaning surfaces that function when exposed to either air or oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yao; Sathasivam, Sanjayan; Song, Jinlong; Crick, Colin R.; Carmalt, Claire J.; Parkin, Ivan P.

    2015-03-01

    Superhydrophobic self-cleaning surfaces are based on the surface micro/nanomorphologies; however, such surfaces are mechanically weak and stop functioning when exposed to oil. We have created an ethanolic suspension of perfluorosilane-coated titanium dioxide nanoparticles that forms a paint that can be sprayed, dipped, or extruded onto both hard and soft materials to create a self-cleaning surface that functions even upon emersion in oil. Commercial adhesives were used to bond the paint to various substrates and promote robustness. These surfaces maintained their water repellency after finger-wipe, knife-scratch, and even 40 abrasion cycles with sandpaper. The formulations developed can be used on clothes, paper, glass, and steel for a myriad of self-cleaning applications.

  20. Surface micro- and nano-texturing of stainless steel by femtosecond laser for the control of cell migration.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Calderon, M; Manso-Silván, M; Rodríguez, A; Gómez-Aranzadi, M; García-Ruiz, J P; Olaizola, S M; Martín-Palma, R J

    2016-11-02

    The precise control over the interaction between cells and the surface of materials plays a crucial role in optimizing the integration of implanted biomaterials. In this regard, material surface with controlled topographic features at the micro- and nano-scales has been proved to affect the overall cell behavior and therefore the final osseointegration of implants. Within this context, femtosecond (fs) laser micro/nano machining technology was used in this work to modify the surface structure of stainless steel aiming at controlling cell adhesion and migration. The experimental results show that cells tend to attach and preferentially align to the laser-induced nanopatterns oriented in a specific direction. Accordingly, the laser-based fabrication method here described constitutes a simple, clean, and scalable technique which allows a precise control of the surface nano-patterning process and, subsequently, enables the control of cell adhesion, migration, and polarization. Moreover, since our surface-patterning approach does not involve any chemical treatments and is performed in a single step process, it could in principle be applied to most metallic materials.

  1. Surface micro- and nano-texturing of stainless steel by femtosecond laser for the control of cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Calderon, M.; Manso-Silván, M.; Rodríguez, A.; Gómez-Aranzadi, M.; García-Ruiz, J. P.; Olaizola, S. M.; Martín-Palma, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    The precise control over the interaction between cells and the surface of materials plays a crucial role in optimizing the integration of implanted biomaterials. In this regard, material surface with controlled topographic features at the micro- and nano-scales has been proved to affect the overall cell behavior and therefore the final osseointegration of implants. Within this context, femtosecond (fs) laser micro/nano machining technology was used in this work to modify the surface structure of stainless steel aiming at controlling cell adhesion and migration. The experimental results show that cells tend to attach and preferentially align to the laser-induced nanopatterns oriented in a specific direction. Accordingly, the laser-based fabrication method here described constitutes a simple, clean, and scalable technique which allows a precise control of the surface nano-patterning process and, subsequently, enables the control of cell adhesion, migration, and polarization. Moreover, since our surface-patterning approach does not involve any chemical treatments and is performed in a single step process, it could in principle be applied to most metallic materials. PMID:27805063

  2. Superhydrophobic surfaces fabricated by femtosecond laser with tunable water adhesion: from lotus leaf to rose petal.

    PubMed

    Long, Jiangyou; Fan, Peixun; Gong, Dingwei; Jiang, Dafa; Zhang, Hongjun; Li, Lin; Zhong, Minlin

    2015-05-13

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with tunable water adhesion have attracted much interest in fundamental research and practical applications. In this paper, we used a simple method to fabricate superhydrophobic surfaces with tunable water adhesion. Periodic microstructures with different topographies were fabricated on copper surface via femtosecond (fs) laser irradiation. The topography of these microstructures can be controlled by simply changing the scanning speed of the laser beam. After surface chemical modification, these as-prepared surfaces showed superhydrophobicity combined with different adhesion to water. Surfaces with deep microstructures showed self-cleaning properties with extremely low water adhesion, and the water adhesion increased when the surface microstructures became flat. The changes in surface water adhesion are attributed to the transition from Cassie state to Wenzel state. We also demonstrated that these superhydrophobic surfaces with different adhesion can be used for transferring small water droplets without any loss. We demonstrate that our approach provides a novel but simple way to tune the surface adhesion of superhydrophobic metallic surfaces for good potential applications in related areas.

  3. Laser micro-structuring of surfaces for applications in materials and biomedical science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarzyński, Antoni; Marczak, Jan; Strzelec, Marek; Rycyk, Antoni; CzyŻ, Krzysztof; Chmielewska, Danuta

    2016-12-01

    Laser radiation is used, among others, for surface treatment of various materials. At the Institute of Optoelectronics, under the direction of the late Professor Jan Marczak, a number of works in the field of laser materials processing were performed. Among them special recognition deserves flagship work of Professor Jan Marczak: implementation in Poland laser cleaning method of artworks. Another big project involved the direct method of laser interference lithography. These two projects have already been widely discussed in many national and international scientific conferences. They will also be discussed at SLT2016. In addition to these two projects in the Laboratory of Lasers Applications many other works have been carried out, some of which will be separately presented at the SLT2016 Conference. These included laser decorating of ceramics and glass (three projects completed in cooperation with the Institute of Ceramics and Building Materials), interference structuring medical implants (together with the Warsaw University of Technology), testing the adhesion of thin layers (project implemented together with IFTR PAS), structuring layers of DLC for growing endothelial cells (together with IMMS PAS), engraving glass for microfluidic applications, metal marking, sapphire cutting and finally the production of microsieves for separating of blood cells.

  4. Surface Analysis Evaluation of Handwipe Cleaning for the Space Shuttle RSRM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesley, Michael W.; Anderson, Erin L.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the role of surface-sensitive spectroscopy (electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, or ESCA) in the selection of solvents to replace 1,1,1-trichloroethane in handwipe cleaning of bonding surfaces on NASA's Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). Removal of common process soils from a wide variety of metallic and polymeric substrates was characterized. The cleaning efficiency was usually more dependent on the type of substrate being cleaned and the specific process soil than on the solvent used. A few substrates that are microscopically rough or porous proved to be difficult to clean with any cleaner, and some soils were very tenacious and difficult to remove from any substrate below detection limits. Overall, the work showed that a wide variety of solvents will perform at least as well as 1,1,1-trichloroethane.

  5. Laser removal of sludge from steam generators

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, Henry D.

    1990-01-01

    A method of removing unwanted chemical deposits known as sludge from the metal surfaces of steam generators with laser energy is provided. Laser energy of a certain power density, of a critical wavelength and frequency, is intermittently focused on the sludge deposits to vaporize them so that the surfaces are cleaned without affecting the metal surface (sludge substrate). Fiberoptic tubes are utilized for laser beam transmission and beam direction. Fiberoptics are also utilized to monitor laser operation and sludge removal.

  6. Mechanisms of single bubble cleaning.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Fabian; Mettin, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of collapsing bubbles close to a flat solid is investigated with respect to its potential for removal of surface attached particles. Individual bubbles are created by nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses focused into water close to glass plates contaminated with melamine resin micro-particles. The bubble dynamics is analysed by means of synchronous high-speed recordings. Due to the close solid boundary, the bubble collapses with the well-known liquid jet phenomenon. Subsequent microscopic inspection of the substrates reveals circular areas clean of particles after a single bubble generation and collapse event. The detailed bubble dynamics, as well as the cleaned area size, is characterised by the non-dimensional bubble stand-off γ=d/Rmax, with d: laser focus distance to the solid boundary, and Rmax: maximum bubble radius before collapse. We observe a maximum of clean area at γ≈0.7, a roughly linear decay of the cleaned circle radius for increasing γ, and no cleaning for γ>3.5. As the main mechanism for particle removal, rapid flows at the boundary are identified. Three different cleaning regimes are discussed in relation to γ: (I) For large stand-off, 1.8<γ<3.5, bubble collapse induced vortex flows touch down onto the substrate and remove particles without significant contact of the gas phase. (II) For small distances, γ<1.1, the bubble is in direct contact with the solid. Fast liquid flows at the substrate are driven by the jet impact with its subsequent radial spreading, and by the liquid following the motion of the collapsing and rebounding bubble wall. Both flows remove particles. Their relative timing, which depends sensitively on the exact γ, appears to determine the extension of the area with forces large enough to cause particle detachment. (III) At intermediate stand-off, 1.1<γ<1.8, only the second bubble collapse touches the substrate, but acts with cleaning mechanisms similar to an effective small γ collapse: particles are removed by

  7. Laser surface treatment of pre-prepared Rene 41 surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Akhtar, S.; Karatas, C.

    2012-11-01

    Laser controlled melting of pre-prepared Rene 41 surface is carried out. A carbon film composing of uniformly distributed 5% TiC carbide particles is formed at the surface prior to laser treatment process. The carbon film provides increased absorption of the incident radiation and facilitates embedding of TiC particles at the surface region of the workpiece during the treatment process. Nitrogen at high pressure is used as assisting gas during the controlled melting. It is found that laser treated layer extents 40 μm below the surface with almost uniform thickness. Fine grains and ultra-short dendrites are formed at the surface region of the laser treated layer. Partially dissolved TiC particles and γ, γ' and γ'N phases are observed in the treated layer.

  8. Application of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for cleaning verification in pharmaceutical manufacture.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Damion K; Cauchi, Michael; Piletsky, Sergey; Mccrossen, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Cleaning verification is the process by which pharmaceutical manufacturing equipment is determined as sufficiently clean to allow manufacture to continue. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a very sensitive spectroscopic technique capable of detection at levels appropriate for cleaning verification. In this paper, commercially available Klarite SERS substrates were employed in order to obtain the necessary enhancement of signal for the identification of chemical species at concentrations of 1 to 10 ng/cm2, which are relevant to cleaning verification. The SERS approach was combined with principal component analysis in the identification of drug compounds recovered from a contaminated steel surface.

  9. Surface oxidation of GaN(0001): Nitrogen plasma-assisted cleaning for ultrahigh vacuum applications

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Gangopadhyay, Subhashis; Schmidt, Thomas, E-mail: tschmidt@ifp.uni-bremen.de; Kruse, Carsten

    The cleaning of metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxial GaN(0001) template layers grown on sapphire has been investigated. Different procedures, performed under ultrahigh vacuum conditions, including degassing and exposure to active nitrogen from a radio frequency nitrogen plasma source have been compared. For this purpose, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, reflection high-energy electron diffraction, and scanning tunneling microscopy have been employed in order to assess chemical as well as structural and morphological surface properties. Initial degassing at 600 °C under ultrahigh vacuum conditions only partially eliminates the surface contaminants. In contrast to plasma assisted nitrogen cleaning at temperatures as low as 300 °C, active-nitrogen exposure at temperaturesmore » as high as 700 °C removes the majority of oxide species from the surface. However, extended high-temperature active-nitrogen cleaning leads to severe surface roughening. Optimum results regarding both the removal of surface oxides as well as the surface structural and morphological quality have been achieved for a combination of initial low-temperature plasma-assisted cleaning, followed by a rapid nitrogen plasma-assisted cleaning at high temperature.« less

  10. Failure of Cleaning Verification in Pharmaceutical Industry Due to Uncleanliness of Stainless Steel Surface.

    PubMed

    Haidar Ahmad, Imad A; Blasko, Andrei

    2017-08-11

    The aim of this work is to identify the parameters that affect the recovery of pharmaceutical residues from the surface of stainless steel coupons. A series of factors were assessed, including drug product spike levels, spiking procedure, drug-excipient ratios, analyst-to-analyst variability, intraday variability, and cleaning procedure of the coupons. The lack of a well-defined procedure that consistently cleaned the coupon surface was identified as the major contributor to low and variable recoveries. Assessment of cleaning the surface of the coupons with clean-in-place solutions (CIP) gave high recovery (>90%) and reproducible results (Srel≤4%) regardless of the conditions that were assessed previously. The approach was successfully applied for cleaning verification of small molecules (MW <1,000 Da) as well as large biomolecules (MW up to 50,000 Da).

  11. Surface Finish after Laser Metal Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rombouts, M.; Maes, G.; Hendrix, W.; Delarbre, E.; Motmans, F.

    Laser metal deposition (LMD) is an additive manufacturing technology for the fabrication of metal parts through layerwise deposition and laser induced melting of metal powder. The poor surface finish presents a major limitation in LMD. This study focuses on the effects of surface inclination angle and strategies to improve the surface finish of LMD components. A substantial improvement in surface quality of both the side and top surfaces has been obtained by laser remelting after powder deposition.

  12. Plasma cleaning of nanoparticles from EUV mask materials by electrostatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lytle, W. M.; Raju, R.; Shin, H.; Das, C.; Neumann, M. J.; Ruzic, D. N.

    2008-03-01

    Particle contamination on surfaces used in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) mask blank deposition, mask fabrication, and patterned mask handling must be avoided since the contamination can create significant distortions and loss of reflectivity. Particles on the order of 10nm are problematic during MLM mirror fabrication, since the introduced defects disrupt the local Bragg planes. The most serious problem is the accumulation of particles on surfaces of patterned blanks during EUV light exposure, since > 25nm particles will be printed without an out-of-focus pellicle. Particle contaminants are also a problem with direct imprint processes since defects are printed every time. Plasma Assisted Cleaning by Electrostatics (PACE) works by utilizing a helicon plasma as well as a pulsed DC substrate bias to charge particle and repel them electrostatically from the surface. Removal of this nature is a dry cleaning method and removes contamination perpendicular from the surface instead of rolling or sweeping the particles off the surface, a benefit when cleaning patterned surfaces where contamination can be rolled or trapped between features. Also, an entire mask can be cleaned at once since the plasma can cover the entire surface, thus there is no need to focus in on an area to clean. Sophisticated particle contamination detection system utilizing high power laser called DEFCON is developed to analyze the particle removal after PACE cleaning process. PACE has shown greater than 90 % particle removal efficiencies for 30 to 220 nm PSL particles on ruthenium capped quartz. Removal results for silicon surfaces and quartz surfaces show similar removal efficiencies. Results of cleaning 80 nm PSL spheres from silicon substrates will be shown.

  13. Simultaneous imaging/reflectivity measurements to assess diagnostic mirror cleaning.

    PubMed

    Skinner, C H; Gentile, C A; Doerner, R

    2012-10-01

    Practical methods to clean ITER's diagnostic mirrors and restore reflectivity will be critical to ITER's plasma operations. We describe a technique to assess the efficacy of mirror cleaning techniques and detect any damage to the mirror surface. The method combines microscopic imaging and reflectivity measurements in the red, green, and blue spectral regions and at selected wavelengths. The method has been applied to laser cleaning of single crystal molybdenum mirrors coated with either carbon or beryllium films 150-420 nm thick. It is suitable for hazardous materials such as beryllium as the mirrors remain sealed in a vacuum chamber.

  14. Cleaning Hospital Room Surfaces to Prevent Health Care–Associated Infections

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jennifer H.; Sullivan, Nancy; Leas, Brian F.; Pegues, David A.; Kaczmarek, Janice L.; Umscheid, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    The cleaning of hard surfaces in hospital rooms is critical for reducing health care–associated infections. This review describes the evidence examining current methods of cleaning, disinfecting, and monitoring cleanliness of patient rooms, as well as contextual factors that may affect implementation and effectiveness. Key informants were interviewed, and a systematic search for publications since 1990 was done with the use of several bibliographic and gray literature resources. Studies examining surface contamination, colonization, or infection with Clostridium difficile, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, or vancomycinresistant enterococci were included. Eighty studies were identified—76 primary studies and 4 systematic reviews. Forty-nine studies examined cleaning methods, 14 evaluated monitoring strategies, and 17 addressed challenges or facilitators to implementation. Only 5 studies were randomized, controlled trials, and surface contamination was the most commonly assessed outcome. Comparative effectiveness studies of disinfecting methods and monitoring strategies were uncommon. Future research should evaluate and compare newly emerging strategies, such as self-disinfecting coatings for disinfecting and adenosine triphosphate and ultraviolet/fluorescent surface markers for monitoring. Studies should also assess patient-centered outcomes, such as infection, when possible. Other challenges include identifying high-touch surfaces that confer the greatest risk for pathogen transmission; developing standard thresholds for defining cleanliness; and using methods to adjust for confounders, such as hand hygiene, when examining the effect of disinfecting methods. PMID:26258903

  15. Nanostructured Gd3+-TiO2 surfaces for self-cleaning application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saif, M.; El-Molla, S. A.; Aboul-Fotouh, S. M. K.; Ibrahim, M. M.; Ismail, L. F. M.; Dahn, Douglas C.

    2014-06-01

    Preparation of self-cleaning surfaces based on lanthanide modified titanium dioxide nanoparticles has rarely been reported. In the present work, gadolinium doped titanium dioxide thin films (x mol Gd3+-TiO2 where x = 0.000, 0.005, 0.008, 0.010, 0.020 and 0.030 mol) were synthesized by sol-gel method and deposited using doctor-blade method. These films were characterized by studying their structural, optical and electrical properties. Doping with gadolinium decreases the band gap energy and increase conductivity of thin films. The photo self-cleaning activity in term of quantitative determination of the active oxidative species (rad OH) produced on the thin film surfaces was evaluated using fluorescent probe method. The results show that, the highly active thin film is the 0.020 Gd3+-TiO2. The structural, morphology, optical, electrical and photoactivity properties of Gd3+-TiO2 thin films make it promising surfaces for self-cleaning application. Mineralization of commercial textile dye (Remazol Red RB-133, RR) and durability using 0.020Gd3+-TiO2 film surface was studied.

  16. 40 CFR 761.369 - Pre-cleaning the surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pre-cleaning the surface. 761.369 Section 761.369 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE...

  17. Cleaning and passivation of copper surfaces to remove surface radioactivity and prevent oxide formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoppe, E. W.; Seifert, A.; Aalseth, C. E.; Bachelor, P. P.; Day, A. R.; Edwards, D. J.; Hossbach, T. W.; Litke, K. E.; McIntyre, J. I.; Miley, H. S.; Schulte, S. M.; Smart, J. E.; Warren, G. A.

    2007-08-01

    High-purity copper is an attractive material for constructing ultra-low-background radiation measurement devices. Many low-background experiments using high-purity copper have indicated surface contamination emerges as the dominant background. Radon daughters plate out on exposed surfaces, leaving a residual 210Pb background that is difficult to avoid. Dust is also a problem; even under cleanroom conditions, the amount of U and Th deposited on surfaces can represent the largest remaining background. To control these backgrounds, a copper cleaning chemistry has been developed. Designed to replace an effective, but overly aggressive concentrated nitric acid etch, this peroxide-based solution allows for a more controlled cleaning of surfaces. The acidified hydrogen peroxide solution will generally target the Cu +/Cu 2+ species which are the predominant surface participants, leaving the bulk of copper metal intact. This preserves the critical tolerances of parts and eliminates significant waste disposal issues. Accompanying passivation chemistry has also been developed that protects copper surfaces from oxidation. Using a high-activity polonium surface spike, the most difficult-to-remove daughter isotope of radon, the performance of these methods are quantified.

  18. Correlating Cleaning Thoroughness with Effectiveness and Briefly Intervening to Affect Cleaning Outcomes: How Clean Is Cleaned?

    PubMed

    Clifford, Robert; Sparks, Michael; Hosford, Eve; Ong, Ana; Richesson, Douglas; Fraser, Susan; Kwak, Yoon; Miller, Sonia; Julius, Michael; McGann, Patrick; Lesho, Emil

    2016-01-01

    The most efficient approach to monitoring and improving cleaning outcomes remains unresolved. We sought to extend the findings of a previous study by determining whether cleaning thoroughness (dye removal) correlates with cleaning efficacy (absence of molecular or cultivable biomaterial) and whether one brief educational intervention improves cleaning outcomes. Before-after trial. Newly built community hospital. 90 minute training refresher with surface-specific performance results. Dye removal, measured by fluorescence, and biomaterial removal and acquisition, measured with culture and culture-independent PCR-based assays, were clandestinely assessed for eight consecutive months. At this midpoint, results were presented to the cleaning staff (intervention) and assessments continued for another eight consecutive months. 1273 surfaces were sampled before and after terminal room cleaning. In the short-term, dye removal increased from 40.3% to 50.0% (not significant). For the entire study period, dye removal also improved but not significantly. After the intervention, the number of rooms testing positive for specific pathogenic species by culturing decreased from 55.6% to 36.6% (not significant), and those testing positive by PCR fell from 80.6% to 53.7% (P = 0.016). For nonspecific biomaterial on surfaces: a) removal of cultivable Gram-negatives (GN) trended toward improvement (P = 0.056); b) removal of any cultivable growth was unchanged but acquisition (detection of biomaterial on post-cleaned surfaces that were contaminant-free before cleaning) worsened (P = 0.017); c) removal of PCR-based detection of bacterial DNA improved (P = 0.046), but acquisition worsened (P = 0.003); d) cleaning thoroughness and efficacy were not correlated. At this facility, a minor intervention or minimally more aggressive cleaning may reduce pathogen-specific contamination, but not without unintended consequences.

  19. Facile Dry Surface Cleaning of Graphene by UV Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin Hong; Haidari, Mohd Musaib; Choi, Jin Sik; Kim, Hakseong; Yu, Young-Jun; Park, Jonghyurk

    2018-05-01

    Graphene has been considered an ideal material for application in transparent lightweight wearable electronics due to its extraordinary mechanical, optical, and electrical properties originating from its ordered hexagonal carbon atomic lattice in a layer. Precise surface control is critical in maximizing its performance in electronic applications. Graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition is widely used but it produces polymeric residue following wet/chemical transfer process, which strongly affects its intrinsic electrical properties and limits the doping efficiency by adsorption. Here, we introduce a facile dry-cleaning method based on UV irradiation to eliminate the organic residues even after device fabrication. Through surface topography, Raman analysis, and electrical transport measurement characteristics, we confirm that the optimized UV treatment can recover the clean graphene surface and improve graphene-FET performance more effectively than thermal treatment. We propose our UV irradiation method as a systematically controllable and damage-free post process for application in large-area devices.

  20. Laser Surface Treatment of Sintered Alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagemann, R.; Noelke, C.; Kaierle, S.; Wesling, V.

    Sintered alumina ceramics are used as refractory materials for industrial aluminum furnaces. In this environment the ceramic surface is in permanent contact with molten aluminum resulting in deposition of oxidic material on its surface. Consequently, a lower volume capacity as well as thermal efficiency of the furnaces follows. To reduce oxidic adherence of the ceramic material, two laser-based surface treatment processes were investigated: a powder- based single-step laser cladding and a laser surface remelting. Main objective is to achieve an improved surface quality of the ceramic material considering the industrial requirements as a high process speed.

  1. Tolerance of Salmonella Enteritidis and Staphylococcus aureus to surface cleaning and household bleach.

    PubMed

    Kusumaningrum, H D; Paltinaite, R; Koomen, A J; Hazeleger, W C; Rombouts, F M; Beumer, R R

    2003-12-01

    Effective cleaning and sanitizing of food preparation sites is important because pathogens are readily spread to food contact surfaces after preparation of contaminated raw products. Tolerance of Salmonella Enteritidis and Staphylococcus aureus to surface cleaning by wiping with regular, microfiber, and antibacterial-treated cloths was investigated. Wiping with cleaning cloths resulted in a considerable reduction of microorganisms from surfaces, despite the greater difficulty in removing S. aureus than Salmonella Enteritidis. Depending on the cloth type, S. aureus were reduced on surfaces from initial numbers of approximately 10(5) CFU/100 cm2 to numbers from less than 4 CFU/100 cm2 (below the detection limit) to 100 CFU/100 cm2. Directly after the cloths were used to clean the contaminated surfaces, they contained high numbers of bacteria (10(4) to 10(5) CFU/100 cm2), except for the disposable antibacterial-treated cloths, in which no bacteria could be detected. The tolerance of these pathogens to sodium hypochlorite was studied in the suspension test and in cloths. S. aureus showed a better tolerance for sodium hypochlorite than Salmonella Enteritidis. Inactivation of microorganisms in cloths required a higher concentration of sodium hypochlorite than was needed in the suspension test. Repeated exposure to sodium hypochlorite, however, resulted in an increase in susceptibility to this compound. This study provides essential information about the transfer of bacteria when wiping surfaces and highlights the need for a hygiene procedure with cleaning cloths that sufficiently avoids cross-contamination in the household environment.

  2. Fluid drag reduction and efficient self-cleaning with rice leaf and butterfly wing bioinspired surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bixler, Gregory D.; Bhushan, Bharat

    2013-08-01

    Researchers are continually inspired by living nature to solve complex challenges. For example, unique surface characteristics of rice leaves and butterfly wings combine the shark skin (anisotropic flow leading to low drag) and lotus leaf (superhydrophobic and self-cleaning) effects, producing the so-called rice and butterfly wing effect. In this paper, we present an overview of rice leaf and butterfly wing fluid drag and self-cleaning studies. In addition, we examine two other promising aquatic surfaces in nature known for such properties, including fish scales and shark skin. Morphology, drag, self-cleaning, contact angle, and contact angle hysteresis data are presented to understand the role of wettability, viscosity, and velocity. Liquid repellent coatings are utilized to recreate or combine various effects. Discussion is provided along with conceptual models describing the role of surface structures related to low drag, self-cleaning, and antifouling properties. Modeling provides design guidance when developing novel low drag and self-cleaning surfaces for applications in the medical, marine, and industrial fields.

  3. Correlating Cleaning Thoroughness with Effectiveness and Briefly Intervening to Affect Cleaning Outcomes: How Clean Is Cleaned?

    PubMed Central

    Hosford, Eve; Ong, Ana; Richesson, Douglas; Fraser, Susan; Kwak, Yoon; Miller, Sonia; Julius, Michael; McGann, Patrick; Lesho, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The most efficient approach to monitoring and improving cleaning outcomes remains unresolved. We sought to extend the findings of a previous study by determining whether cleaning thoroughness (dye removal) correlates with cleaning efficacy (absence of molecular or cultivable biomaterial) and whether one brief educational intervention improves cleaning outcomes. Design Before-after trial. Setting Newly built community hospital. Intervention 90 minute training refresher with surface-specific performance results. Methods Dye removal, measured by fluorescence, and biomaterial removal and acquisition, measured with culture and culture-independent PCR-based assays, were clandestinely assessed for eight consecutive months. At this midpoint, results were presented to the cleaning staff (intervention) and assessments continued for another eight consecutive months. Results 1273 surfaces were sampled before and after terminal room cleaning. In the short-term, dye removal increased from 40.3% to 50.0% (not significant). For the entire study period, dye removal also improved but not significantly. After the intervention, the number of rooms testing positive for specific pathogenic species by culturing decreased from 55.6% to 36.6% (not significant), and those testing positive by PCR fell from 80.6% to 53.7% (P = 0.016). For nonspecific biomaterial on surfaces: a) removal of cultivable Gram-negatives (GN) trended toward improvement (P = 0.056); b) removal of any cultivable growth was unchanged but acquisition (detection of biomaterial on post-cleaned surfaces that were contaminant-free before cleaning) worsened (P = 0.017); c) removal of PCR-based detection of bacterial DNA improved (P = 0.046), but acquisition worsened (P = 0.003); d) cleaning thoroughness and efficacy were not correlated. Conclusion At this facility, a minor intervention or minimally more aggressive cleaning may reduce pathogen-specific contamination, but not without unintended consequences. PMID

  4. Multiperiod-grating surface-emitting lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Surface-emitting distributed feedback (DFB) lasers are disclosed with hybrid gratings. A first-order grating is provided at one or both ends of the active region of the laser for retroreflection of light back into the active region, and a second-order or nonresonant grating is provided at the opposite end for coupling light out perpendicular to the surfaces of the laser or in some other selected direction. The gratings may be curved to focus light retroreflected into the active region and to focus light coupled out to a point. When so focused to a point, the DFB laser may be part of a monolithic read head for a laser recorded disk, or an optical coupler into an optical fiber.

  5. Comparison of high‐intensity sound and mechanical vibration for cleaning porous titanium cylinders fabricated using selective laser melting

    PubMed Central

    Seiffert, Gary; Sutcliffe, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Orthopedic components, such as the acetabular cup in total hip joint replacement, can be fabricated using porous metals, such as titanium, and a number of processes, such as selective laser melting. The issue of how to effectively remove loose powder from the pores (residual powder) of such components has not been addressed in the literature. In this work, we investigated the feasibility of two processes, acoustic cleaning using high‐intensity sound inside acoustic horns and mechanical vibration, to remove residual titanium powder from selective laser melting‐fabricated cylinders. With acoustic cleaning, the amount of residual powder removed was not influenced by either the fundamental frequency of the horn used (75 vs. 230 Hz) or, for a given horn, the number of soundings (between 1 and 20). With mechanical vibration, the amount of residual powder removed was not influenced by the application time (10 vs. 20 s). Acoustic cleaning was found to be more reliable and effective in removal of residual powder than cleaning with mechanical vibration. It is concluded that acoustic cleaning using high‐intensity sound has significant potential for use in the final preparation stages of porous metal orthopedic components. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 117–123, 2017. PMID:26426906

  6. Comparative evaluation of surface topography of tooth prepared using erbium, chromium: Yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet laser and bur and its clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Verma, Mahesh; Kumari, Pooja; Gupta, Rekha; Gill, Shubhra; Gupta, Ankur

    2015-01-01

    Erbium, chromium: Yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet (Er, Cr: YSGG) laser has been successfully used in the ablation of dental hard and soft tissues. It has been reported that this system is also useful for preparing tooth surfaces and etching, but no consensus exist in the literature regarding the advantage of lasers over conventional tooth preparation technique. Labial surfaces of 25 extracted human maxillary central incisors were divided into two halves. Right half was prepared with diamond bur and left half with Er, Cr; YSGG laser and a reduction of 0.3-0.5 mm was carried out. Topography of prepared surfaces of five teeth were examined under scanning electron microscope (SEM). The remaining samples were divided into 4 groups of 10 specimens each based on the surface treatment received: One group was acid etched and other was nonetched. Composite resin cylinders were bonded on prepared surfaces and shear bond strength was assessed using a universal testing machine. The SEM observation revealed that the laser prepared surfaces were clean, highly irregular and devoid of a smear layer. Bur prepared surfaces were relatively smooth but covered with smear layer. Highest bond strength was shown by laser prepared acid etched group, followed by bur prepared the acid etched group. The bur prepared nonacid etched group showed least bond strength. Er, Cr: YSGG laser can be used for preparing tooth and bond strength value achieved by laser preparation alone without surface treatment procedure lies in the range of clinical acceptability.

  7. Excimer laser irradiation of metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinsman, Grant

    In this work a new method of enhancing CO2 laser processing by modifying the radiative properties of a metal surface is studied. In this procedure, an excimer laser (XeCl) or KrF) exposes the metal surface to overlapping pulses of high intensity, 10(exp 8) - 10(exp 9) W cm(exp -2), and short pulse duration, 30 nsec FWHM (Full Width Half Maximum), to promote structural and chemical change. The major processing effect at these intensities is the production of a surface plasma which can lead to the formation of a laser supported detonation wave (LSD wave). This shock wave can interact with the thin molten layer on the metal surface influencing to a varying degree surface oxidation and roughness features. The possibility of the expulsion, oxidation and redeposition of molten droplets, leading to the formation of micron thick oxide layers, is related to bulk metal properties and the incident laser intensity. A correlation is found between the expulsion of molten droplets and a Reynolds number, showing the interaction is turbulent. The permanent effects of these interactions on metal surfaces are observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transient calorimetric measurements and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Observed surface textures are related to the scanning procedures used to irradiate the metal surface. Fundamental radiative properties of a metal surface, the total hemispherical emissivity, the near-normal spectral absorptivity, and others are examined in this study as they are affected by excimer laser radiation. It is determined that for heavily exposed Al surface, alpha' (10.6 microns) can be increased to values close to unity. Data relating to material removal rates and chemical surface modification for excimer laser radiation is also discussed. The resultant reduction in the near-normal reflectivity solves the fundamental problem of coupling laser radiation into highly reflective and conductive metals such as copper and aluminum. The

  8. Examining factors that influence the effectiveness of cleaning antineoplastic drugs from drug preparation surfaces: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hon, Chun-Yip; Chua, Prescillia Ps; Danyluk, Quinn; Astrakianakis, George

    2014-06-01

    Occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs has been documented to result in various adverse health effects. Despite the implementation of control measures to minimize exposure, detectable levels of drug residual are still found on hospital work surfaces. Cleaning these surfaces is considered as one means to minimize the exposure potential. However, there are no consistent guiding principles related to cleaning of contaminated surfaces resulting in hospitals to adopt varying practices. As such, this pilot study sought to evaluate current cleaning protocols and identify those factors that were most effective in reducing contamination on drug preparation surfaces. Three cleaning variables were examined: (1) type of cleaning agent (CaviCide®, Phenokil II™, bleach and chlorhexidine), (2) application method of cleaning agent (directly onto surface or indirectly onto a wipe) and (3) use of isopropyl alcohol after cleaning agent application. Known concentrations of antineoplastic drugs (either methotrexate or cyclophosphamide) were placed on a stainless steel swatch and then, systematically, each of the three cleaning variables was tested. Surface wipes were collected and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to determine the percent residual of drug remaining (with 100% being complete elimination of the drug). No one single cleaning agent proved to be effective in completely eliminating all drug contamination. The method of application had minimal effect on the amount of drug residual. In general, application of isopropyl alcohol after the use of cleaning agent further reduced the level of drug contamination although measureable levels of drug were still found in some cases.

  9. Vertical cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with injection laser pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDaniel, D. L., Jr.; McInerney, J. G.; Raja, M. Y. A.; Schaus, C. F.; Brueck, S. R. J.

    1990-05-01

    Continuous-wave GaAs/GaAlAs edge-emitting diode lasers were used to pump GaAs/AlGaAs and InGaAs/AlGaAs vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with resonant periodic gain (RPG) at room temperature. Pump threshold as low as 11 mW, output powers as high as 27 mW at 850 nm, and external differential quantum efficiencies of about 70 percent were observed in GaAs/AlGaAs surface -emitters; spectral brightness 22 times that of the pump laser was also observed. Output powers as high as 85 mW at 950 nm and differential quantum efficiencies of up to 58 percent were recorded for the InGaAs surface-emitting laser. This is the highest quasi-CW output power ever reported for any RPG VCSEL, and the first time such a device has been pumped using an injection laser diode.

  10. Cleaning mechanism of particle contaminants on large aperture optical components by using air knife sweeping technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Longfei; Liu, Hao; Miao, Xinxiang; Lv, Haibing; Yuan, Xiaodong; Zhou, Hai; Yao, Caizhen; Zhou, Guorui; Li, Qin

    2017-05-01

    The cleaning mechanism of optical surface particle contaminants in the light pneumatic tube was simulated based on the static equations and JKR model. Cleaning verification experiment based on air knife sweeping system and on-line monitoring system in high power laser facility was set up in order to verify the simulated results. Results showed that the removal ratio is significantly influenced by sweeping velocity and angle. The removal ratio can reach to 94.3% by using higher input pressure of the air knife, demonstrating that the air knife sweeping technology is useful for maintaining the surface cleanliness of optical elements, and thus guaranteeing the long-term stable running of the high power laser facility.

  11. Scanning electron microscopy comparison of the cleaning efficacy of a root canal system by Nd:YAG laser and rotary instruments.

    PubMed

    Samiei, Mohammad; Pakdel, Seyyed Mahdi Vahid; Rikhtegaran, Sahand; Shakoei, Sahar; Ebrahimpour, Delaram; Taghavi, Pedram

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the cleaning efficacy of a root canal system by Nd:YAG laser and rotary instruments. Sixty single-rooted human teeth were divided into four experimental groups (n=15). In the first group the teeth were prepared with a step-back technique using conventional K-files. In the second and third groups, tooth preparation was carried out using Nd:YAG laser and rotary NiTi instruments, respectively. Teeth in the fourth group were prepared by combined laser and rotary methods. The smear layer remaining on canal walls was then assessed by scanning electron microscopy in the coronal, middle, and apical portions. The comparison of smear layer removal efficacy between groups was carried out by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. The mean grades of smear layer removal in rotary-laser, rotary, laser and step-back techniques were 1.34 ± 0.18, 2.2 ± 0.28, 1.91 ± 0.25, and 2.42 ± 0.19, respectively. On the whole, differences between rotary-laser and rotary groups, step-back, and the three other techniques (rotary, laser, and rotary-laser) were significant at p=0.034. Based on the findings of this study, the cleaning efficacy of rotary, laser, and rotary-laser techniques were better than the step-back technique and the combined laser and rotary technique was the most efficient method.

  12. 75 FR 18500 - Guidance on Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ... of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental... Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and... coal mining operations under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and the...

  13. Two-Dimensional Laser-Speckle Surface-Strain Gauge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barranger, John P.; Lant, Christian

    1992-01-01

    Extension of Yamaguchi's laser-speckle surface-strain-gauge method yields data on two-dimensional surface strains in times as short as fractions of second. Laser beams probe rough spot on surface of specimen before and after processing. Changes in speckle pattern of laser light reflected from spot indicative of changes in surface strains during processing. Used to monitor strains and changes in strains induced by hot-forming and subsequent cooling of steel.

  14. Laser anti-corrosion treatment of metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iakovlev, Alexey; Ruzankina, Julia; Kascheev, Sergey; Vasilyev, Oleg; Parfenov, V.; Grishkanich, Alexsandr

    2017-02-01

    Metal corrosion is the main problem of all metal constructions and buildings. Annual losses resulting from corrosion in industrialized countries are estimated in the range from 2% to 4 % of gross national product. We used a CW fiber laser with the wavelength of 1064 nm and a power up to 18,4 W for laser irradiation of metal surfaces. We report on the optimal treatment of the metal corrosion with laser power density in the range of 93,3÷ 95,5 W/cm2. After the process of laser treatment of steel surface we observe decreased roughness of steel and a small change in its chemical composition. There was an active research of new ways to improve the surface properties of metals and to increase the corrosion resistance. One of the breakthrough methods to protect the material against corrosion is laser treatment. We used a CW fiber laser operating at 1064 nm with up to 18,4 W output power. Experimentally, the samples (steel plates) were irradiated by laser for 35 seconds. Surface treatment of metal was provided at a room temperature and a relative air humidity of 55%. The impact of laser radiation on the surface has contributed to a small change of its chemical composition. It forms protective fluoride coating on the metal surface. The laser radiation significantly increased the concentration of fluorine in the metal from 0.01 atom. % to 5.24 atom. %. The surface roughness of steel has changed from 3.66 μ to 2.66 μ. Protective coatings with best resistance to corrosion were obtained with laser power density in a range of 93.3 W/cm2 to 95.5 W/cm2.

  15. Comparison of high-intensity sound and mechanical vibration for cleaning porous titanium cylinders fabricated using selective laser melting.

    PubMed

    Seiffert, Gary; Hopkins, Carl; Sutcliffe, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Orthopedic components, such as the acetabular cup in total hip joint replacement, can be fabricated using porous metals, such as titanium, and a number of processes, such as selective laser melting. The issue of how to effectively remove loose powder from the pores (residual powder) of such components has not been addressed in the literature. In this work, we investigated the feasibility of two processes, acoustic cleaning using high-intensity sound inside acoustic horns and mechanical vibration, to remove residual titanium powder from selective laser melting-fabricated cylinders. With acoustic cleaning, the amount of residual powder removed was not influenced by either the fundamental frequency of the horn used (75 vs. 230 Hz) or, for a given horn, the number of soundings (between 1 and 20). With mechanical vibration, the amount of residual powder removed was not influenced by the application time (10 vs. 20 s). Acoustic cleaning was found to be more reliable and effective in removal of residual powder than cleaning with mechanical vibration. It is concluded that acoustic cleaning using high-intensity sound has significant potential for use in the final preparation stages of porous metal orthopedic components. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 117-123, 2017. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Comparative Mirror Cleaning Study: 'A Study on Removing Particulate Contamination'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, Karrie

    2007-01-01

    The cleanliness of optical surfaces is recognized as an industry-wide concern for the performance of optical devices such as mirrors and telescopes, microscopes and lenses, lasers and interferometers, and prisms and optical filters. However, no standard has been established for optical cleaning and there is no standard definition of a 'clean' optical element. This study evaluates the effectiveness of commonly used optical cleaning techniques based on wafer configuration, contamination levels, and the number and size of removed particles. It is concluded that cleaning method and exposure time play a significant factor in obtaining a high removal percentage. The detergent bath and solvent rinse method displayed an increase in effective removal percentage as the contamination exposure increased. Likewise, CO2 snow cleaning showed a relatively consistent cleaning effectiveness. The results can help ensure mission success to flight projects developed for the NASA Origins Program. Advantages and disadvantages of each of the optical cleaning methods are described.

  17. Mouse Cleaning Apparatus and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn L. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The method of using the mouse pad cleaning apparatus is disclosed and claimed. The method comprises the steps of uncovering the mouse cleaning surface, applying the mouse and ball of the mouse to the cleaning surface, moving the mouse in a rotational pattern on the mouse cleaning surface, removing the mouse form the mouse cleaning surface, washing the cleaning surface, and covering the mouse cleaning surface. A mouse pad cleaning apparatus comprising a plurality of substrates, each said substrate having adhesive thereon, said plurality of substrates residing in and affixed to a receptacle. A single substrate having adhesive, which may be washable or non-washable, thereon may be employed. The washable adhesive may be an organopolysiloxane or gelatinous elastomer.

  18. Monitoring and improving the effectiveness of surface cleaning and disinfection.

    PubMed

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2016-05-02

    Disinfection of noncritical environmental surfaces and equipment is an essential component of an infection prevention program. Noncritical environmental surfaces and noncritical medical equipment surfaces may become contaminated with infectious agents and may contribute to cross-transmission by acquisition of transient hand carriage by health care personnel. Disinfection should render surfaces and equipment free of pathogens in sufficient numbers to prevent human disease (ie, hygienically clean). Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Method of nitriding niobium to form a superconducting surface

    DOEpatents

    Kelley, Michael J.; Klopf, John Michael; Singaravelu, Senthilaraja

    2014-08-19

    A method of forming a delta niobium nitride .delta.-NbN layer on the surface of a niobium object including cleaning the surface of the niobium object; providing a treatment chamber; placing the niobium object in the treatment chamber; evacuating the chamber; passing pure nitrogen into the treatment chamber; focusing a laser spot on the niobium object; delivering laser fluences at the laser spot until the surface of the niobium object reaches above its boiling temperature; and rastering the laser spot over the surface of the niobium object.

  20. SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY: GaAs surface wet cleaning by a novel treatment in revolving ultrasonic atomization solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaijin, Li; Liming, Hu; Ye, Wang; Ye, Yang; Hangyu, Peng; Jinlong, Zhang; Li, Qin; Yun, Liu; Lijun, Wang

    2010-03-01

    A novel process for the wet cleaning of GaAs surface is presented. It is designed for technological simplicity and minimum damage generated within the GaAs surface. It combines GaAs cleaning with three conditions consisting of (1) removal of thermodynamically unstable species and (2) surface oxide layers must be completely removed after thermal cleaning, and (3) a smooth surface must be provided. Revolving ultrasonic atomization technology is adopted in the cleaning process. At first impurity removal is achieved by organic solvents; second NH4OH:H2O2:H2O = 1:1:10 solution and HCl: H2O2:H2O = 1:1:20 solution in succession to etch a very thin GaAs layer, the goal of the step is removing metallic contaminants and forming a very thin oxidation layer on the GaAs wafer surface; NH4OH:H2O = 1:5 solution is used as the removed oxide layers in the end. The effectiveness of the process is demonstrated by the operation of the GaAs wafer. Characterization of the oxide composition was carried out by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Metal-contamination and surface morphology was observed by a total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and atomic force microscope. The research results show that the cleaned surface is without contamination or metal contamination. Also, the GaAs substrates surface is very smooth for epitaxial growth using the rotary ultrasonic atomization technology.

  1. Laser Surface Modification of H13 Die Steel using Different Laser Spot Sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aqida, S. N.; Naher, S.; Brabazon, D.

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents a laser surface modification process of AISI H13 tool steel using three sizes of laser spot with an aim to achieve reduced grain size and surface roughness. A Rofin DC-015 diffusion-cooled CO2 slab laser was used to process AISI H13 tool steel samples. Samples of 10 mm diameter were sectioned to 100 mm length in order to process a predefined circumferential area. The parameters selected for examination were laser peak power, overlap percentage and pulse repetition frequency (PRF). Metallographic study and image analysis were done to measure the grain size and the modified surface roughness was measured using two-dimensional surface profilometer. From metallographic study, the smallest grain sizes measured by laser modified surface were between 0.51 μm and 2.54 μm. The minimum surface roughness, Ra, recorded was 3.0 μm. This surface roughness of the modified die steel is similar to the surface quality of cast products. The grain size correlation with hardness followed the findings correlate with Hall-Petch relationship. The potential found for increase in surface hardness represents an important method to sustain tooling life.

  2. Surface wettability of silicon substrates enhanced by laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Shih-Feng; Hsiao, Wen-Tse; Chen, Ming-Fei; Huang, Kuo-Cheng; Hsiao, Sheng-Yi; Lin, Yung-Sheng; Chou, Chang-Pin

    2010-11-01

    Laser-ablation techniques have been widely applied for removing material from a solid surface using a laser-beam irradiating apparatus. This paper presents a surface-texturing technique to create rough patterns on a silicon substrate using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser system. The different degrees of microstructure and surface roughness were adjusted by the laser fluence and laser pulse duration. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a 3D confocal laser-scanning microscope are used to measure the surface micrograph and roughness of the patterns, respectively. The contact angle variations between droplets on the textured surface were measured using an FTA 188 video contact angle analyzer. The results indicate that increasing the values of laser fluence and laser pulse duration pushes more molten slag piled around these patterns to create micro-sized craters and leads to an increase in the crater height and surface roughness. A typical example of a droplet on a laser-textured surface shows that the droplet spreads very quickly and almost disappears within 0.5167 s, compared to a contact angle of 47.9° on an untextured surface. This processing technique can also be applied to fabricating Si solar panels to increase the absorption efficiency of light.

  3. Study of phase-locked diode laser array and DFB/DBR surface emitting laser diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsin, Wei

    New types of phased-array and surface-emitting lasers are designed. The importance and approaches (or structures) of different phased array and surface emitting laser diodes are reviewed. The following are described: (1) a large optical cavity channel substrate planar laser array with layer thickness chirping; (2) a vertical cavity surface emitter with distributed feedback (DFB) optical cavity and a transverse junction buried heterostructure; (3) a microcavity distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) surface emitter; and (4) two surface emitting laser structures which utilized lateral current injection schemes to overcome the problems occurring in the vertical injection scheme.

  4. [INVITED] Laser treatment of Inconel 718 alloy and surface characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Ali, H.; Al-Aqeeli, N.; Karatas, C.

    2016-04-01

    Laser surface texturing of Inconel 718 alloy is carried out under the high pressure nitrogen assisting gas. The combination of evaporation and melting at the irradiated surface is achieved by controlling the laser scanning speed and the laser output power. Morphological and metallurgical changes in the treated surface are analyzed using the analytical tools including optical, electron scanning, and atomic force microscopes, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Microhardnes and friction coefficient of the laser treated surface are measured. Residual stress formed in the surface region is determined from the X-ray diffraction data. Surface hydrophobicity of the laser treated layer is assessed incorporating the sessile drop method. It is found that laser treated surface is free from large size asperities including cracks and the voids. Surface microhardness increases significantly after the laser treatment process, which is attributed to the dense layer formation at the surface under the high cooling rates, dissolution of Laves phase in the surface region, and formation of nitride species at the surface. Residual stress formed is compressive in the laser treated surface and friction coefficient reduces at the surface after the laser treatment process. The combination of evaporation and melting at the irradiated surface results in surface texture composes of micro/nano-poles and pillars, which enhance the surface hydrophobicity.

  5. 40 CFR 761.372 - Specific requirements for relatively clean surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific requirements for relatively clean surfaces. 761.372 Section 761.372 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING...

  6. PHOTONICS AND NANOTECHNOLOGY Laser nanostructuring of materials surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavestovskaya, I. N.

    2010-12-01

    This paper reviews results of experimental and theoretical studies of surface micro- and nanostructuring of metals and other materials irradiated directly by short and ultrashort laser pulses. Special attention is paid to direct laser action involving melting of the material (with or without ablation), followed by ultrarapid surface solidification, which is an effective approach to producing surface nanostructures. Theoretical analysis of recrystallisation kinetics after irradiation by ultrashort laser pulses makes it possible to determine the volume fraction of crystallised phase and the average size of forming crystalline structures as functions of laser treatment regime and thermodynamic properties of the material. The present results can be used to optimise pulsed laser treatment regime in order to ensure control nanostructuring of metal surfaces.

  7. Evaluating use of neutral electrolyzed water for cleaning near-patient surfaces.

    PubMed

    Stewart, M; Bogusz, A; Hunter, J; Devanny, I; Yip, B; Reid, D; Robertson, C; Dancer, S J

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to monitor the microbiological effect of cleaning near-patient sites over a 48-hour period with a novel disinfectant, electrolyzed water. One ward dedicated to acute care of the elderly population in a district general hospital in Scotland. Lockers, left and right cotsides, and overbed tables in 30 bed spaces were screened for aerobic colony count (ACC), methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) before cleaning with electrolyzed water. Sites were rescreened at varying intervals from 1 to 48 hours after cleaning. Microbial growth was quantified as colony-forming units (CFUs) per square centimeter and presence or absence of MSSA and MRSA at each site. The study was repeated 3 times at monthly intervals. There was an early and significant reduction in average ACC (360 sampled sites) from a before-cleaning level of 4.3 to 1.65 CFU/cm(2) at 1 hour after disinfectant cleaning ( P < .0001). Average counts then increased to 3.53 CFU/cm(2) at 24 hours and 3.68 CFU/cm(2) at 48 hours. Total MSSA/MRSA (34 isolates) decreased by 71% at 4 hours after cleaning but then increased to 155% (53 isolates) of precleaning levels at 24 hours. Cleaning with electrolyzed water reduced ACC and staphylococci on surfaces beside patients. ACC remained below precleaning levels at 48 hours, but MSSA/MRSA counts exceeded original levels at 24 hours after cleaning. Although disinfectant cleaning quickly reduces bioburden, additional investigation is required to clarify the reasons for rebound contamination of pathogens at near-patient sites.

  8. [Surface Cleaning and Disinfection in the Hospital. Improvement by Objective Monitoring and Intervention].

    PubMed

    Woltering, R; Hoffmann, G; Isermann, J; Heudorf, U

    2016-11-01

    Background and Objective: An assessment of cleaning and disinfection in hospitals by the use of objective surveillance and review of mandatory corrective measures was undertaken. Methods: A prospective examination of the cleaning and disinfection of surfaces scheduled for daily cleaning in 5 general care hospitals by use of an ultraviolet fluorescence targeting method (UVM) was performed, followed by structured educational and procedural interventions. The survey was conducted in hospital wards, operating theatres and intensive care units. Cleaning performance was measured by complete removal of UVM. Training courses and reinforced self-monitoring were implemented after the first evaluation. 6 months later, we repeated the assessment for confirmation of success. Results: The average cleaning performance was 34% (31/90) at base-line with significant differences between the 5 hospitals (11-67%). The best results were achieved in intensive care units (61%) and operating theatres (58%), the worst results in hospital wards (22%). The intervention significantly improved cleaning performance up to an average of 69% (65/94; +34.7%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 21.2-48.3; p<0.05), with differences between the hospitals (20-95%). The largest increase was achieved in hospital wards (+45%; CI 29.2-60.8; p<0.05). Improvements in operating theatres (+22.9%; CI 10.9-56.7) and intensive care units (+5.6%; CI 25.8-36.9) were statistically not significant. Conclusions: The monitoring of cleaning and disinfection of surfaces by fluorescence targeting is appropriate for evaluating hygiene regulations. An intervention can lead to a significant improvement of cleaning performance. As part of a strategy to improve infection control in hospitals, fluorescence targeting enables a simple inexpensive and effective surveillance of the cleaning performance and corrective measures. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Laser surface processing with controlled nitrogen-argon concentration levels for regulated surface life time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obeidi, M. Ahmed; McCarthy, E.; Brabazon, D.

    2018-03-01

    Laser surface modification can be used to enhance the mechanical properties of a material, such as hardness, toughness, fatigue strength, and corrosion resistance. Surface nitriding is a widely used thermochemical method of surface modification, in which nitrogen is introduced into a metal or other material at an elevated temperature within a furnace. It is used on parts where there is a need for increased wear resistance, corrosion resistance, fatigue life, and hardness. Laser nitriding is a novel method of nitriding where the surface is heated locally by a laser, either in an atmosphere of nitrogen or with a jet of nitrogen delivered to the laser heated site. It combines the benefits of laser modification with those of nitriding. Recent work on high toughness tool steel samples has shown promising results due to the increased nitrogen gas impingement onto the laser heated region. Increased surface activity and nitrogen adsorption was achieved which resulted in a deeper and harder surface compared to conventional hardening methods. In this work, the effects of the laser power, pulse repetition frequency, and overlap percentage on laser surface treatment of 316 L SST steel samples with an argon-nitrogen jet will be presented. Resulting microstructure, phase type, microhardness, and wear resistance are presented.

  10. Laser surface processing on sintered PM alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, Wilfred; Daurelio, Giuseppe; Ludovico, Antonio D.

    1997-08-01

    Usually the P.M. alloys are heat treated like case hardening, gas nitriding or plasma nitriding for a better wear resistance of the product surface. There is an additional method for gaining better tribological properties and this is the surface hardening (or remelting or alloying) of the P.M. alloy by laser treatment on a localized part of the product without heating the whole sample. This work gives a cured experimentation about the proper sintering powder alloys for laser surface processing from the point of view of wear, fatigue life and surface quality. As concerns the materials three different basic alloy groups with graduated carbon contents were prepared. Regarding these sintered powder alloys one group holds Fe, Mo and C and other group holds Fe, Ni, Mo and C and the last one holds Fe, Ni, Cu, Mo and C contents. Obviously each group has a different surface hardness, different porosity distribution, different density and diverse metallurgical structures (pearlite or ferrite-pearlite, etc.). ON the sample surfaces a colloidal graphite coating, in different thicknesses, has been sprayed to increase laser energy surface absorption. On some other samples a Mo coating, in different thicknesses, has been produced (on the bulk alloy) by diverse deposition techniques (D.C. Sputtering, P.V.D. and Flame Spraying). Only a few samples have a Mo coating and also an absorber coating, that is a bulk material- Mo and a colloidal graphite coating. All these sintered alloys have been tested by laser technology; so that, many laser working parameters (covering gas, work-speed, focussed and defocussed spot, rastered and integrated beam spots, square and rectangular beam shapes and so on) have been experimented for two different processes at constant laser power and at constant surface temperature (by using a temperature surface sensor and a closed controlled link). For all experiments a transverse fast axial flow CO2 2.5 kW c.w. laser source has been employed.

  11. Single-mode surface plasmon distributed feedback lasers.

    PubMed

    Karami Keshmarzi, Elham; Tait, R Niall; Berini, Pierre

    2018-03-29

    Single-mode surface plasmon distributed feedback (DFB) lasers are realized in the near infrared using a two-dimensional non-uniform long-range surface plasmon polariton structure. The surface plasmon mode is excited onto a 20 nm-thick, 1 μm-wide metal stripe (Ag or Au) on a silica substrate, where the stripe is stepped in width periodically, forming a 1st order Bragg grating. Optical gain is provided by optically pumping a 450 nm-thick IR-140 doped PMMA layer as the top cladding, which covers the entire length of the Bragg grating, thus creating a DFB laser. Single-mode lasing peaks of very narrow linewidth were observed for Ag and Au DFBs near 882 nm at room temperature. The narrow linewidths are explained by the low spontaneous emission rate into the surface plasmon lasing mode as well as the high quality factor of the DFB structure. The lasing emission is exclusively TM polarized. Kinks in light-light curves accompanied by spectrum narrowing were observed, from which threshold pump power densities can be clearly identified (0.78 MW cm-2 and 1.04 MW cm-2 for Ag and Au DFB lasers, respectively). The Schawlow-Townes linewidth for our Ag and Au DFB lasers is estimated and very narrow linewidths are predicted for the lasers. The lasers are suitable as inexpensive, recyclable and highly coherent sources of surface plasmons, or for integration with other surface plasmon elements of similar structure.

  12. The efficacy of cleaning products on food industry surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lalla, Fairuz; Dingle, Peter

    2004-09-01

    The increased incidence of foodborne illness and the growing use of chemical sanitizers in the food industry led the authors to an investigation of alternative, chemical-free methods of sanitizing surfaces using fiber cloths with hot water. The sanitizing performance of kitchen fiber cloths and all-purpose fiber cloths sanitized with hot water at 167 degrees F (75 degrees C) was compared with that of generic cloths such as antibacterial cloths and cleaning cloths sanitized with hot water at 167 degrees F (75 degrees C) or chemical sanitizers--quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) and hypochlorite. The QAC sanitizer resulted in the lowest overall concentrations of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The sanitizing performance of the kitchen fiber cloths was similar to that of the antibacterial cloths (S. aureus: p = .144; E. coli: p = .120) and cleaning cloths (S. aureus: p = .297; E. coli: p = .062) sanitized with QAC. Use of the fiber cloths resulted in lower concentrations of bacteria on stainless-steel kitchen surfaces, compared with the use of the generic cloths sanitized with hot water at 167 degrees F (75 degrees C). Concentrations of bacteria on the surfaces after use of the all-purpose fiber cloths were similar to concentrations of bacteria after use of the generic cloths sanitized with hypochlorite.

  13. Does improving surface cleaning and disinfection reduce health care-associated infections?

    PubMed

    Donskey, Curtis J

    2013-05-01

    Contaminated environmental surfaces provide an important potential source for transmission of health care-associated pathogens. In recent years, a variety of interventions have been shown to be effective in improving cleaning and disinfection of surfaces. This review examines the evidence that improving environmental disinfection can reduce health care-associated infections. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  14. Carbon dioxide laser polishing of fused silica surfaces for increased laser-damage resistance at 1064 nm.

    PubMed

    Temple, P A; Lowdermilk, W H; Milam, D

    1982-09-15

    Mechanically polished fused silica surfaces were heated with continuous-wave CO(2) laser radiation. Laser-damage thresholds of the surfaces were measured with 1064-nm 9-nsec pulses focused to small spots and with large-spot, 1064-nm, 1-nsec irradiation. A sharp transition from laser-damage-prone to highly laser-damage-resistant took place over a small range in CO(2) laser power. The transition to high damage resistance occurred at a silica surface temperature where material softening began to take place as evidenced by the onset of residual strain in the CO(2) laser-processed part. The small-spot damage measurements show that some CO(2) laser-treated surfaces have a local damage threshold as high as the bulk damage threshold of SiO(2). On some CO(2) laser-treated surfaces, large-spot damage thresholds were increased by a factor of 3-4 over thresholds of the original mechanically polished surface. These treated parts show no obvious change in surface appearance as seen in bright-field, Nomarski, or total internal reflection microscopy. They also show little change in transmissive figure. Further, antireflection films deposited on CO(2) laser-treated surfaces have thresholds greater than the thresholds of antireflection films on mechanically polished surfaces.

  15. Recent studies of laser science in paintings conservation and research.

    PubMed

    Pouli, Paraskevi; Selimis, Alexandros; Georgiou, Savas; Fotakis, Costas

    2010-06-15

    The removal of aged and deteriorated molecular overlayers from the surface of paintings is a delicate and critical intervention in Cultural Heritage (CH) conservation. This irreversible action gets particularly complicated given the multitude of materials that may be present within a painted work of art (often in ultrathin layers or traces), as well as the exceptional sensitivity of the original surfaces to environmental conditions such as heat, light, and so on. Lasers hold an important role among the available cleaning methodologies, as they enable high control and accuracy, material selectivity, and immediate feedback. Still, prior to their implementation, it is imperative to optimize the cleaning parameters, so to ensure that any potential implications to the remaining materials are minimal and well understood. Toward this aim, research at IESL-FORTH is focused on both refining and continuously updating the laser-cleaning protocols (by introducing novel laser technologies into the field, i.e., ultrashort laser pulses), as well as on investigating and studying the nature and extent of laser-induced physicochemical alterations to the involved materials. In this Account, extended work for the understanding of ultraviolet (UV) laser ablation of polymers is presented. Emphasis is placed on the use of model systems (polymers doped with chromophores of known photochemistry) to examine the in-depth laser-induced modifications at the processed surfaces and thus to illustrate the dependence of their nature and extent on laser parameters and material properties. Furthermore, studies for the potential use of femtosecond UV pulses to overcome certain limitations involved with the nanosecond ablation of molecular overlayers from CH surfaces are highlighted. In particular, it is demonstrated that in the femtosecond regime any chemical modifications are, qualitatively and quantitatively, highly defined, limited and nearly independent of the material properties, such as the

  16. Combined surface hardening and laser patterning approach for functionalising stainless steel surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Giron, A.; Romano, J. M.; Liang, Y.; Dashtbozorg, B.; Dong, H.; Penchev, P.; Dimov, S. S.

    2018-05-01

    The paper reports a laser patterning method for producing surfaces with dual scale topographies on ferritic stainless steel plates that are hardened by low temperature plasma surface alloying. Nitrogen and carbon based gasses were used in the alloying process to obtain surface layers with an increased hardness from 172 HV to 1001 HV and 305 HV, respectively. Then, a nanosecond infrared laser was used to pattern the plasma treated surfaces and thus to obtain super-hydrophobicity, by creating cell- or channel-like surface structures. The combined surface hardening and laser patterning approach allowed super-hydrophobic surfaces to be produced on both nitrided and carburised stainless steel plates with effective contact angles higher than 150°. The hardened layers on nitrided samples had cracks and was delaminated after the laser patterning while on plasma carburised samples remained intact. The results showed that by applying the proposed combined approach it is possible to retain the higher hardness of the nitrided stainless steel plates and at the same time to functionalise them to obtain super-hydrophobic properties.

  17. An assessment of cleaning and sampling methods for food-contact surfaces in premises preparing and selling high-risk foods.

    PubMed Central

    Tebbutt, G. M.

    1991-01-01

    The performance of agar-contact plates and an alginate-swab method for sampling food surfaces before and after cleaning was compared. Contact plates were more convenient, and were at least as sensitive as the swabbing method. To assess cleaning efficiency repeated sampling was carried out in selected premises, and several cleaning methods were introduced for trial periods. Some surfaces, notably wood and polypropylene, were particularly difficult to clean. For these scrubbing with a nylon brush was the best method. Other surfaces were more easily cleaned, and generally the methods introduced as part of this study were better than the original method used in the premises. Paper proved to be unpopular, and cleaning solutions applied with it did no better than those cleaned with a multiuse cloth kept soaking in a detergent and hypochlorite solution. PMID:1850362

  18. Laser modification of macroscopic properties of metal surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrubiec, Franciszek

    1995-03-01

    Surface laser treatment of metals comprises a number of diversified technological operations out of which the following can be considered the most common: oxidation and rendering surfaces amorphous, surface hardening of steel, modification of selected physical properties of metal surface layers. In the paper basic results of laser treatment of a group of metals used as base materials for electric contacts have been presented. The aim of the study was to test the usability of laser treatment from the viewpoint of requirements imposed on materials for electric contacts. The results presented in the paper refer to two different surface treatment technologies: (1) modification of infusible metal surface layer: tungsten and molybdenum through laser fusing of their surface layer and its crystallization, and (2) modification of surface layer properties of other metals through laser doping of their surface layer with foreign elements. In the paper a number of results of experimental investigations obtained by the team under the author's supervision are presented.

  19. Measurement of efficiency in calculus removal with a frequency-doubled Alexandrite laser on pigs' jaws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilgrim, Christian G.; Rechmann, Peter; Goldin, Dan S.; Hennig, Thomas

    2000-03-01

    Periodontal therapy aims in a most sufficient cleaning of tooth surfaces from supra- and subgingival calculus. As a standard dental procedure teeth are treated with ultrasonic devices. The competence of the frequency doubled Alexandrite laser for a highly effective and selective removal of calculus has been repeatedly proved. Aim of the study presented here was to determine the efficiency at simulated clinical conditions of the frequency doubled Alexandrite laser (laboratory prototype, q-switched, fiber guided, wavelength 377 nm, pulse duration 1 microsecond, pulse repetition rate 70 Hz, water cooling) by quantifying it's calculus removing efficiency. The evaluated data were compared to those obtained with an ultrasonic calculus remover. In the first part of the study sample material consisted of 23 pigs' jaws. They were divided into two groups. The teeth of one group were cleaned on their buccal surfaces using an ultrasonic device (Sonosoft Lux, KaVo, Biberach, Germany; tip #9). Than hand-guided cleaning was performed until no further improvement in cleanness was visible. Cleaning time was measured. Photographic documentation was taken before and after the treatment. The teeth in the second group were cleaned engaging a frequency doubled Alexandrite laser. Treatment time was measured and photographs were taken in the same way. In the second part of the study 21 surfaces of human teeth set up in an artificial pocket model were treated with both systems again. Measurements followed the same protocol. The results strongly support the use of the frequency doubled Alexandrite laser for calculus removal.

  20. Designing Pulse Laser Surface Modification of H13 Steel Using Response Surface Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aqida, S. N.; Brabazon, D.; Naher, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a design of experiment (DOE) for laser surface modification process of AISI H13 tool steel in achieving the maximum hardness and minimum surface roughness at a range of modified layer depth. A Rofin DC-015 diffusion-cooled CO2 slab laser was used to process AISI H13 tool steel samples. Samples of 10 mm diameter were sectioned to 100 mm length in order to process a predefined circumferential area. The parameters selected for examination were laser peak power, overlap percentage and pulse repetition frequency (PRF). The response surface method with Box-Behnken design approach in Design Expert 7 software was used to design the H13 laser surface modification process. Metallographic study and image analysis were done to measure the modified layer depth. The modified surface roughness was measured using two-dimensional surface profilometer. The correlation of the three laser processing parameters and the modified surface properties was specified by plotting three-dimensional graph. The hardness properties were tested at 981 mN force. From metallographic study, the laser modified surface depth was between 37 μm and 150 μm. The average surface roughness recorded from the 2D profilometry was at a minimum value of 1.8 μm. The maximum hardness achieved was between 728 and 905 HV0.1. These findings are significant to modern development of hard coatings for wear resistant applications.

  1. Recommended values of clean metal surface work functions

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Derry, Gregory N., E-mail: gderry@loyola.edu; Kern, Megan E.; Worth, Eli H.

    2015-11-15

    A critical review of the experimental literature for measurements of the work functions of clean metal surfaces of single-crystals is presented. The tables presented include all results found for low-index crystal faces except cases that were known to be contaminated surfaces. These results are used to construct a recommended value of the work function for each surface examined, along with an uncertainty estimate for that value. The uncertainties are based in part on the error distribution for all measured work functions in the literature, which is included here. The metals included in this review are silver (Ag), aluminum (Al), goldmore » (Au), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), iridium (Ir), molybdenum (Mo), niobium (Nb), nickel (Ni), palladium (Pd), platinum (Pt), rhodium (Rh), ruthenium (Ru), tantalum (Ta), and tungsten (W)« less

  2. Effect of laser parameters on surface roughness of laser modified tool steel after thermal cyclic loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau Sheng, Annie; Ismail, Izwan; Nur Aqida, Syarifah

    2018-03-01

    This study presents the effects of laser parameters on the surface roughness of laser modified tool steel after thermal cyclic loading. Pulse mode Nd:YAG laser was used to perform the laser surface modification process on AISI H13 tool steel samples. Samples were then treated with thermal cyclic loading experiments which involved alternate immersion in molten aluminium (800°C) and water (27°C) for 553 cycles. A full factorial design of experiment (DOE) was developed to perform the investigation. Factors for the DOE are the laser parameter namely overlap rate (η), pulse repetition frequency (f PRF) and peak power (Ppeak ) while the response is the surface roughness after thermal cyclic loading. Results indicate the surface roughness of the laser modified surface after thermal cyclic loading is significantly affected by laser parameter settings.

  3. A study of the effectiveness of particulate cleaning protocols on intentionally contaminated niobium surfaces

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Reece, Charles E.; Ciancio, Elizabeth J.; Keyes, Katharine A.

    2009-11-01

    Particulate contamination on the surface of SRF cavities limits their performance via the enhanced generation of field-emitted electrons. Considerable efforts are expended to actively clean and avoid such contamination on niobium surfaces. The protocols in active use have been developed via feedback from cavity testing. This approach has the risk of over-conservatively ratcheting an ever increasing complexity of methods tied to particular circumstances. A complementary and perhaps helpful approach is to quantitatively assess the effectiveness of candidate methods at removing intentional representative particulate contamination. Toward this end, we developed a standardized contamination protocol using water suspensions of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}more » and SS 316 powders applied to BCP’d surfaces of standardized niobium samples yielding particle densities of order 200 particles/mm{sup 2}. From these starting conditions, controlled application of high pressure water rinse, ultrasonic cleaning, or CO{sub 2} snow jet cleaning was applied and the resulting surfaces examined via SEM/scanning EDS with particle recognition software. Results of initial parametric variations of each will be reported.« less

  4. Simulation of laser beam reflection at the sea surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwenger, Frédéric; Repasi, Endre

    2011-05-01

    A 3D simulation of the reflection of a Gaussian shaped laser beam on the dynamic sea surface is presented. The simulation is suitable for both the calculation of images of SWIR (short wave infrared) imaging sensor and for determination of total detected power of reflected laser light for a bistatic configuration of laser source and receiver at different atmospheric conditions. Our computer simulation comprises the 3D simulation of a maritime scene (open sea/clear sky) and the simulation of laser light reflected at the sea surface. The basic sea surface geometry is modeled by a composition of smooth wind driven gravity waves. The propagation model for water waves is applied for sea surface animation. To predict the view of a camera in the spectral band SWIR the sea surface radiance must be calculated. This is done by considering the emitted sea surface radiance and the reflected sky radiance, calculated by MODTRAN. Additionally, the radiances of laser light specularly reflected at the wind-roughened sea surface are modeled in the SWIR band considering an analytical statistical sea surface BRDF (bidirectional reflectance distribution function). This BRDF model considers the statistical slope statistics of waves and accounts for slope-shadowing of waves that especially occurs at flat incident angles of the laser beam and near horizontal detection angles of reflected irradiance at rough seas. Simulation results are presented showing the variation of the detected laser power dependent on the geometric configuration of laser, sensor and wind characteristics.

  5. Gold cleaning methods for preparation of cell culture surfaces for self-assembled monolayers of zwitterionic oligopeptides.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Junko; Kageyama, Tatsuto; Myasnikova, Dina; Onishi, Kisaki; Kobayashi, Yuka; Taruno, Yoko; Kanai, Takahiro; Fukuda, Junji

    2018-05-01

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) have been used to elucidate interactions between cells and material surface chemistry. Gold surfaces modified with oligopeptide SAMs exhibit several unique characteristics, such as cell-repulsive surfaces, micropatterns of cell adhesion and non-adhesion regions for control over cell microenvironments, and dynamic release of cells upon external stimuli under culture conditions. However, basic procedures for the preparation of oligopeptide SAMs, including appropriate cleaning methods of the gold surface before modification, have not been fully established. Because gold surfaces are readily contaminated with organic compounds in the air, cleaning methods may be critical for SAM formation. In this study, we examined the effects of four gold cleaning methods: dilute aqua regia, an ozone water, atmospheric plasma, and UV irradiation. Among the methods, UV irradiation most significantly improved the formation of oligopeptide SAMs in terms of repulsion of cells on the surfaces. We fabricated an apparatus with a UV light source, a rotation table, and HEPA filter, to treat a number of gold substrates simultaneously. Furthermore, UV-cleaned gold substrates were capable of detaching cell sheets without serious cell injury. This may potentially provide a stable and robust approach to oligopeptide SAM-based experiments for biomedical studies. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of initial surface parameters on the final quality of laser micro-polished surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Michael; Bordatchev, Evgueni V.; Knopf, George K.

    2012-03-01

    Laser micro-polishing (LμP) is a new laser-based microfabrication technology for improving surface quality during a finishing operation and for producing parts and surfaces with near-optical surface quality. The LμP process uses low power laser energy to melt a thin layer of material on the previously machined surface. The polishing effect is achieved as the molten material in the laser-material interaction zone flows from the elevated regions to the local minimum due to surface tension. This flow of molten material then forms a thin ultra-smooth layer on the top surface. The LμP is a complex thermo-dynamic process where the melting, flow and redistribution of molten material is significantly influenced by a variety of process parameters related to the laser, the travel motions and the material. The goal of this study is to analyze the impact of initial surface parameters on the final surface quality. Ball-end micromilling was used for preparing initial surface of samples from H13 tool steel that were polished using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The height and width of micromilled scallops (waviness) were identified as dominant parameter affecting the quality of the LμPed surface. By adjusting process parameters, the Ra value of a surface, having a waviness period of 33 μm and a peak-to-valley value of 5.9 μm, was reduced from 499 nm to 301 nm, improving the final surface quality by 39.7%.

  7. Cleaning Hospital Room Surfaces to Prevent Health Care-Associated Infections: A Technical Brief.

    PubMed

    Han, Jennifer H; Sullivan, Nancy; Leas, Brian F; Pegues, David A; Kaczmarek, Janice L; Umscheid, Craig A

    2015-10-20

    The cleaning of hard surfaces in hospital rooms is critical for reducing health care-associated infections. This review describes the evidence examining current methods of cleaning, disinfecting, and monitoring cleanliness of patient rooms, as well as contextual factors that may affect implementation and effectiveness. Key informants were interviewed, and a systematic search for publications since 1990 was done with the use of several bibliographic and gray literature resources. Studies examining surface contamination, colonization, or infection with Clostridium difficile, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, or vancomycin-resistant enterococci were included. Eighty studies were identified-76 primary studies and 4 systematic reviews. Forty-nine studies examined cleaning methods, 14 evaluated monitoring strategies, and 17 addressed challenges or facilitators to implementation. Only 5 studies were randomized, controlled trials, and surface contamination was the most commonly assessed outcome. Comparative effectiveness studies of disinfecting methods and monitoring strategies were uncommon. Future research should evaluate and compare newly emerging strategies, such as self-disinfecting coatings for disinfecting and adenosine triphosphate and ultraviolet/fluorescent surface markers for monitoring. Studies should also assess patient-centered outcomes, such as infection, when possible. Other challenges include identifying high-touch surfaces that confer the greatest risk for pathogen transmission; developing standard thresholds for defining cleanliness; and using methods to adjust for confounders, such as hand hygiene, when examining the effect of disinfecting methods.

  8. The effect of cleaning substances on the surface of denture base material.

    PubMed

    Žilinskas, Juozas; Junevičius, Jonas; Česaitis, Kęstutis; Junevičiūtė, Gabrielė

    2013-12-11

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of substances used for hygienic cleaning of dentures on the surface of the denture base material. Meliodent Heat Cure (Heraeus-Kulzer, Germany) heat-polymerized acrylic resin was used to produce plates with all the characteristics of removable denture bases (subsequently, "plates"). Oral-B Complete toothbrushes of various brush head types were fixed to a device that imitated tooth brushing movements; table salt and baking soda (frequently used by patients to improve tooth brushing results), toothpaste ("Colgate Total"), and water were also applied. Changes in plate surfaces were monitored by measuring surface reflection alterations on spectrometry. Measurements were conducted before the cleaning and at 2 and 6 hours after cleaning. No statistically significant differences were found between the 3 test series. All 3 plates used in the study underwent statistically significant (p<0.05 changed)--the reflection became poorer. The plates were most affected by the medium-bristle toothbrush with baking soda--the total reflection reduction was 4.82 ± 0.1%; among toothbrushes with toothpaste, the hard-type toothbrush had the greatest reflection-reducing effect--4.6 ± 0.05%, while the toothbrush with table salt inflicted the least damage (3.5 ± 0.16%) due to the presence of rounded crystals between the bristles and the resin surface. Toothbrushes with water had a uniform negative effect on the plate surface - 3.8 9 ± 0.07%. All substances used by the patients caused surface abrasion of the denture base material, which reduced the reflection; a hard toothbrush with toothpaste had the greatest abrasive effect, while soft toothbrushes inflicted the least damage.

  9. Appearance of the minority dz2 surface state and disappearance of the image-potential state: Criteria for clean Fe(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eibl, Christian; Schmidt, Anke B.; Donath, Markus

    2012-10-01

    The unoccupied surface electronic structure of clean and oxidized Fe(001) was studied with spin-resolved inverse photoemission and target current spectroscopy. For the clean surface, we detected a dz2 surface state with minority spin character just above the Fermi level, while the image-potential surface state disappears. The opposite is observed for the ordered p(1×1)O/Fe(001) surface: the dz2-type surface state is quenched, while the image-potential state shows up as a pronounced feature. This behavior indicates enhanced surface reflectivity at the oxidized surface. The appearance and disappearance of specific unoccupied surface states prove to be decisive criteria for a clean Fe(001) surface. In addition, enhanced spin asymmetry in the unoccupied states is observed for the oxidized surface. Our results have implications for the use of clean and oxidized Fe(001) films as spin-polarization detectors.

  10. Control of laser-ablated aluminum surface wettability to superhydrophobic or superhydrophilic through simple heat treatment or water boiling post-processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, Chi-Vinh; Chun, Doo-Man

    2018-03-01

    Recently, controlling the wettability of a metallic surface so that it is either superhydrophobic or superhydrophilic has become important for many applications. However, conventional techniques require long fabrication times or involve toxic chemicals. Herein, through a combination of pulse laser ablation and simple post-processing, the surface of aluminum was controlled to either superhydrophobic or superhydrophilic in a short time of only a few hours. In this study, grid patterns were first fabricated on aluminum using a nanosecond pulsed laser, and then additional post-processing without any chemicals was used. Under heat treatment, the surface became superhydrophobic with a contact angle (CA) greater than 150° and a sliding angle (SA) lower than 10°. Conversely, when immersed in boiling water, the surface became superhydrophilic with a low contact angle. The mechanism for wettability change was also explained. The surfaces, obtained in a short time with environmentally friendly fabrication and without the use of toxic chemicals, could potentially be applied in various industry and manufacturing applications such as self-cleaning, anti-icing, and biomedical devices.

  11. Surface nanotexturing of tantalum by laser ablation in water

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Barmina, E V; Simakin, Aleksandr V; Shafeev, Georgii A

    2009-01-31

    Surface nanotexturing of tantalum by ablation with short laser pulses in water has been studied experimentally using three ablation sources: a neodymium laser with a pulse duration of 350 ps, an excimer laser (248 nm) with a pulse duration of 5 ps and a Ti:sapphire laser with a pulse duration of 180 fs. The morphology of the nanotextured surfaces has been examined using a nanoprofilometer and field emission scanning electron microscope. The results demonstrate that the average size of the hillocks produced on the target surface depends on the laser energy density and is {approx}200 nm at an energy densitymore » approaching the laser-melting threshold of tantalum and a pulse duration of 350 ps. Their surface density reaches 10{sup 6} cm{sup -2}. At a pulse duration of 5 ps, the average hillock size is 60-70 nm. Nanotexturing is accompanied by changes in the absorption spectrum of the tantalum surface in the UV and visible spectral regions. The possible mechanisms of surface nanotexturing and potential applications of this effect are discussed. (nanostructures)« less

  12. Surface treatment of CFRP composites using femtosecond laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, V.; Sharma, S. P.; de Moura, M. F. S. F.; Moreira, R. D. F.; Vilar, R.

    2017-07-01

    In the present work, we investigate the surface treatment of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites by laser ablation with femtosecond laser radiation. For this purpose, unidirectional carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy matrix composites were treated with femtosecond laser pulses of 1024 nm wavelength and 550 fs duration. Laser tracks were inscribed on the material surface using pulse energies and scanning speeds in the range 0.1-0.5 mJ and 0.1-5 mm/s, respectively. The morphology of the laser treated surfaces was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy. We show that, by using the appropriate processing parameters, a selective removal of the epoxy resin can be achieved, leaving the carbon fibers exposed. In addition, sub-micron laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) are created on the carbon fibers surface, which may be potentially beneficial for the improvement of the fiber to matrix adhesion in adhesive bonds between CFRP parts.

  13. [Importance of cleaning and disinfection of critical surfaces in dental health services. Impact of an intervention program].

    PubMed

    Véliz, Elena; Vergara, Teresa; Pearcy, Mercedes; Dabanch, Jeannette

    Introduction Dental care has become a challenge for healthcare associated infection prevention programs, since the environment, within other factors, plays an important role in the transmission chain. Materials and Methods An intervention program was designed for the Dental Unit of Hospital Militar de Santiago, between years 2014 and 2015. The program contemplated 3 stages: diagnostic, intervention and evaluation stage. Objective To improve the safety of critical surfaces involved in dental healthcare. Results During the diagnostic stage, the cleaning and disinfection process was found to be deficient. The most contaminated critical surface was the instrument holder unit, then the clean area and lamp handle. The surfaces that significantly reduced their contamination, after the intervention, were the clean area and the instrument carrier unit. Conclusion Training in the processes of cleaning and disinfecting surfaces and dental equipment is one of the cost-effective strategies in preventing healthcare-associated infections (HCAI), with simple and easy-to-apply methods.

  14. Improvements In A Laser-Speckle Surface-Strain Gauge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lant, Christian T.

    1996-01-01

    Compact optical subsystem incorporates several improvements over optical subsystems of previous versions of laser-speckle surface-strain gauge: faster acquisition of data, faster response to transients, reduced size and weight, lower cost, and less complexity. Principle of operation described previously in "Laser System Measures Two-Dimensional Strain" (LEW-15046), and "Two-Dimensional Laser-Speckle Surface-Strain Gauge" (LEW-15337).

  15. Thermal and microstructural effects of nanosecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser irradiation on tooth root surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder-Smith, Petra B. B.; Arrastia-Jitosho, Anna-Marie A.; Grill, G.; Liaw, Lih-Huei L.; Berns, Michael W.

    1995-05-01

    Plaque, calculus and altered cementum removal by scaling and root planing is a fundamental procedure in periodontal treatment. However, the residual smear layer contains cytotoxic and inflammatory mediators which adversely affect healing. Chemical smear layer removal is also problematic. In previous investigations effective smear layer removal was achieved using long pulsed irradiation at 1.06 (mu) . However, laser irradiation was not adequate as an alternative to scaling and root planing procedures and concurrent temperature rises exceeded thermal thresholds for pulpal and periodontal safety. It was the aim of this study to determine whether nanosecond pulsed irradiation at 1.06 (mu) could be used as an alternative or an adjunct to scaling and root planing. Sixty freshly extracted teeth were divided as follows: 5 control, 5 root planed only, 25 irradiated only, 25 root planed and irradiated. Irradiation was performed at fluences of 0.5 - 2.7 J/cm2, total energy densities of 12 - 300 J/cm2, frequencies of 2 - 10 Hz using the Medlite (Continuum) laser. Irradiation-induced thermal events were recorded using a thermocouple within the root canal and a thermal camera to monitor surface temperatures. SEM demonstrated effective smear layer removal with minimal microstructural effects. Surface temperatures increased minimally (< 3 C) at all parameters, intrapulpal temperature rises remained below 4 C at 2 and 5 Hz, F < 0.5 J/cm2. Without prior scaling and root planing, laser effects did not provide an adequately clean root surface.

  16. Receiving and use of streams of monodisperse ice granules for cleaning and deactivation of surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukharov, A.; Balashov, A.; Timohin, A.; Ivanov, A.; Holin, B.

    2017-11-01

    The most generally useful methods for cleaning and processing of surfaces are the sand-jets and shot blasting jets. Installations of this kind are used for cleaning of corrosion surfaces, the oil-dirt deposits, paint coatings. However the use of these installations follows to high investment and operational expenditure, larger risk of operators disease, the negative affect for a environment. These problems can be solved with the use of new cleaning method through application of mono-disperse (identical by the size and the form) ice granules of 300 - 1000 microns, accelerated by air stream in the nozzle device to the speed of 10 - 100 m/s. In view of the extreme complexity of the receiving such particles by means of cooling and the subsequent freezing of water drops are necessary additional experimental researches. For study of thermal processes of receiving mono-disperse ice granules the experimental installation was created and experiments on deactivation and cleaning of surfaces with pollution of various types are made. Experiments showed that by means of a stream of the accelerated ice granules it is rather successfully possible to delete oil-dirt deposits, outdated paint coats and rust. Besides, efficient deactivation of radioactive surfaces is possible. The coefficient deactivation of γ activity is highest.

  17. Laser treatment of a neodymium magnet and analysis of surface characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Ali, H.; Rizwan, M.; Kassas, M.

    2016-08-01

    Laser treatment of neodymium magnet (Nd2Fe14B) surface is carried out under the high pressure nitrogen assisting gas. A thin carbon film containing 12% WC carbide particles with 400 nm sizes are formed at the surface prior to the laser treatment process. Morphological and metallurgical changes in the laser treated layer are examined using the analytical tools. The corrosion resistance of the laser treated surface is analyzed incorporating the potentiodynamic tests carried out in 0.05 M NaCl+0.1 M H2SO4 solution. The friction coefficient of the laser treated surface is measured using the micro-scratch tester. The wetting characteristics of the treated surface are assessed incorporating the sessile water drop measurements. It is found that a dense layer consisting of fine size grains and WC particles is formed in the surface region of the laser treated layer. Corrosion resistance of the surface improves significantly after the laser treatment process. Friction coefficient of laser treated surface is lower than that of the as received surface. Laser treatment results in superhydrophobic characteristics at the substrate surface. The formation of hematite and grain size variation in the treated layer slightly lowers the magnetic strength of the laser treated workpiece.

  18. Amplification of pressure waves in laser-assisted endodontics with synchronized delivery of Er:YAG laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Lukač, Nejc; Jezeršek, Matija

    2018-05-01

    When attempting to clean surfaces of dental root canals with laser-induced cavitation bubbles, the resulting cavitation oscillations are significantly prolonged due to friction on the cavity walls and other factors. Consequently, the collapses are less intense and the shock waves that are usually emitted following a bubble's collapse are diminished or not present at all. A new technique of synchronized laser-pulse delivery intended to enhance the emission of shock waves from collapsed bubbles in fluid-filled endodontic canals is reported. A laser beam deflection probe, a high-speed camera, and shadow photography were used to characterize the induced photoacoustic phenomena during synchronized delivery of Er:YAG laser pulses in a confined volume of water. A shock wave enhancing technique was employed which consists of delivering a second laser pulse at a delay with regard to the first cavitation bubble-forming laser pulse. Influence of the delay between the first and second laser pulses on the generation of pressure and shock waves during the first bubble's collapse was measured for different laser pulse energies and cavity volumes. Results show that the optimal delay between the two laser pulses is strongly correlated with the cavitation bubble's oscillation period. Under optimal synchronization conditions, the growth of the second cavitation bubble was observed to accelerate the collapse of the first cavitation bubble, leading to a violent collapse, during which shock waves are emitted. Additionally, shock waves created by the accelerated collapse of the primary cavitation bubble and as well of the accompanying smaller secondary bubbles near the cavity walls were observed. The reported phenomena may have applications in improved laser cleaning of surfaces during laser-assisted dental root canal treatments.

  19. Biocompatibility enhancement of rare earth magnesium alloy by laser surface processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Shilin; Wang, Yuqing; Liu, Haifeng; Guan, Yingchun

    2018-01-01

    Although magnesium and magnesium alloys are considered biocompatible and biodegradable, insufficient biocompatibility in body fluid environment is still the major drawback of magnesium alloys for their successful applications as biodegradable orthopaedic implants. In this work, magnesium alloy surface with both enhanced corrosion resistance and better cell adhesion property was directly fabricated by laser surface processing. Laser surface melting was used to improve corrosion resistance of Mg-6Gd-0.6Ca alloy. After laser surface melting, laser surface texturing was utilized on melted surface for better cell adhesion property. The corrosion resistance of laser-treated and as-received samples were evaluated using electrochemical technique. The effect of laser surface treatment on phase and microstructure evolution was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. This work investigated the effect of laser treatment on cell distribution across the surface of magnesium alloy substrates. Osteoblast was cultured on the laser-treated surface and as-received surface. Cell morphology was observed with a scanning electron microscopy, and cell viability was evaluated by optical density measurement.

  20. Applications of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonse, Jörn; Kirner, Sabrina V.; Höhm, Sandra; Epperlein, Nadja; Spaltmann, Dirk; Rosenfeld, Arkadi; Krüger, Jörg

    2017-02-01

    Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS, ripples) are a universal phenomenon that can be observed on almost any material after the irradiation by linearly polarized laser beams, particularly when using ultrashort laser pulses with durations in the picosecond to femtosecond range. During the past few years significantly increasing research activities have been reported in the field of LIPSS, since their generation in a single-step process provides a simple way of nanostructuring and surface functionalization towards the control of optical, mechanical or chemical properties. In this contribution current applications of LIPSS are reviewed, including the colorization of technical surfaces, the control of surface wetting, the tailoring of surface colonization by bacterial biofilms, and the improvement of the tribological performance of nanostructured metal surfaces.

  1. Cleaning with Bulk Nanobubbles.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jie; An, Hongjie; Alheshibri, Muidh; Liu, Lvdan; Terpstra, Paul M J; Liu, Guangming; Craig, Vincent S J

    2016-11-01

    The electrolysis of aqueous solutions produces solutions that are supersaturated in oxygen and hydrogen gas. This results in the formation of gas bubbles, including nanobubbles ∼100 nm in size that are stable for ∼24 h. These aqueous solutions containing bubbles have been evaluated for cleaning efficacy in the removal of model contaminants bovine serum albumin and lysozyme from surfaces and in the prevention of the fouling of surfaces by these same proteins. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces were investigated. It is shown that nanobubbles can prevent the fouling of surfaces and that they can also clean already fouled surfaces. It is also argued that in practical applications where cleaning is carried out rapidly using a high degree of mechanical agitation the role of cleaning agents is not primarily in assisting the removal of soil but in suspending the soil that is removed by mechanical action and preventing it from redepositing onto surfaces. This may also be the primary mode of action of nanobubbles during cleaning.

  2. Clean synthesis of YOF:Er3+, Yb3+ upconversion colloidal nanoparticles in water through liquid phase pulsed laser ablation for imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anjana, R.; Kurias, K. M.; Jayaraj, M. K.

    2017-10-01

    Upconversion luminescent nanomaterials have great outlook towards imaging applications. These materials have high chemical and thermal stability, low auto fluorescence, high photo stability and IR excitation does not cause photo damage to living cells and penetrate deeply into tissue. Most of the reported nanoparticles are synthesized through chemical methods in which surface modification is needed for dispersing nanoparticles in water. In this paper we report clean and simple synthesis of upconversion luminescent yttrium oxyfluoride (YOF) nanoparticles through laser ablation in deionized water. YOF:Er3+, Yb3+ pellets were used for ablation. Er3+ is the emission centre Yb3+ is the sensitizer. Obtained colloidal solution is transparent to day light and showing red emission on exciting with 980 nm IR laser. By controlling ablation parameters particles of size less than 10 nm dispersed uniformly in water can be obtained through this surfactant free method. The synthesized nanoparticles can be used for cell imaging.

  3. Laser scatter feature of surface defect on apples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Xiuqin; Ying, Yibin; Cen, YiKe; Huang, Haibo

    2006-10-01

    A machine vision system for real-time fruit quality inspection was developed. The system consists of a chamber, a laser projector, a TMS-7DSP CCD camera (PULNIX Inc.), and a computer. A Meteor-II/MC frame grabber (Matrox Graphics Inc.) was inserted into the slot of the computer to grab fruit images. The laser projector and the camera were mounted at the ceiling of the chamber. An apple was put in the chamber, the spot of the laser projector was projected on the surface of the fruit, and an image was grabbed. 2 breed of apples was test, Each apple was imaged twice, one was imaged for the normal surface, and the other for the defect. The red component of the images was used to get the feature of the defect and the sound surface of the fruits. The average value, STD value and comentropy Value of red component of the laser scatter image were analyzed. The Standard Deviation value of red component of normal is more suitable to separate the defect surface from sound surface for the ShuijinFuji apples, but for bintang apples, there is more work need to do to separate the different surface with laser scatter image.

  4. Apparatus for in situ cleaning of carbon contaminated surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Grunow, Philip; Graham, Jr., Samuel

    2004-08-10

    Activated gaseous species generated adjacent a carbon contaminated surface affords in-situ cleaning. A device for removing carbon contamination from a surface of the substrate includes (a) a housing defining a vacuum chamber in which the substrate is located; (b) a source of gaseous species; and (c) a source of electrons that are emitted to activate the gaseous species into activated gaseous species. The source of electrons preferably includes (i) a filament made of a material that generates thermionic electron emissions; (ii) a source of energy that is connected to the filament; and (iii) an electrode to which the emitted electrons are attracted. The device is particularly suited for photolithography systems with optic surfaces, e.g., mirrors, that are otherwise inaccessible unless the system is dismantled.

  5. Cleaning verification: Exploring the effect of the cleanliness of stainless steel surface on sample recovery.

    PubMed

    Haidar Ahmad, Imad A; Tam, James; Li, Xue; Duffield, William; Tarara, Thomas; Blasko, Andrei

    2017-02-05

    The parameters affecting the recovery of pharmaceutical residues from the surface of stainless steel coupons for quantitative cleaning verification method development have been studied, including active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) level, spiking procedure, API/excipient ratio, analyst-to-analyst variability, inter-day variability, and cleaning procedure of the coupons. The lack of a well-defined procedure that consistently cleaned coupon surface was identified as the major contributor to low and variable recoveries. Assessment of acid, base, and oxidant washes, as well as the order of treatment, showed that a base-water-acid-water-oxidizer-water wash procedure resulted in consistent, accurate spiked recovery (>90%) and reproducible results (S rel ≤4%). By applying this cleaning procedure to the previously used coupons that failed the cleaning acceptance criteria, multiple analysts were able to obtain consistent recoveries from day-to-day for different APIs, and API/excipient ratios at various spike levels. We successfully applied our approach for cleaning verification of small molecules (MW<1000Da) as well as large biomolecules (MW up to 50,000Da). Method robustness was greatly influenced by the sample preparation procedure, especially for analyses using total organic carbon (TOC) determination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Study of surface cleaning methods and pyrolysis temperatures on nanostructured carbon films using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kerber, Pranita; Porter, Lisa M.; McCullough, Lynne A.

    2012-11-15

    Nanostructured carbon (ns-C) films fabricated by stabilization and pyrolysis of diblock copolymers are of interest for a variety of electrical/electronic applications due to their chemical inertness, high-temperature insensitivity, very high surface area, and tunable electrical resistivity over a wide range [Kulkarni et al., Synth. Met. 159, 177 (2009)]. Because of their high porosity and associated high specific surface area, controlled surface cleaning studies are important for fabricating electronic devices from these films. In this study, quantification of surface composition and surface cleaning studies on ns-C films synthesized by carbonization of diblock copolymers of polyacrylonitrile-b-poly(n-butyl acrylate) at two different temperatures weremore » carried out. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used for elemental analysis and to determine the efficacy of various surface cleaning methods for ns-C films and to examine the polymer residues in the films. The in-situ surface cleaning methods included HF vapor treatment, vacuum annealing, and exposure to UV-ozone. Quantitative analysis of high-resolution XPS scans showed 11 at. % nitrogen was present in the films pyrolyzed at 600 Degree-Sign C, suggesting incomplete denitrogenation of the copolymer films. The nitrogen atomic concentration decreased significantly for films pyrolyzed at 900 Degree-Sign C confirming extensive denitrogenation at that temperature. Furthermore, quantitative analysis of nitrogen subpeaks indicated higher loss of nitrogen atoms residing at the edge of graphitic clusters relative to that of nitrogen atoms within the graphitic clusters, suggesting higher graphitization with increasing pyrolysis temperature. Of the surface cleaning methods investigated, in-situ annealing of the films at 300 Degree-Sign C for 40 min was found to be the most efficacious in removing adventitious carbon and oxygen impurities from the surface.« less

  7. Craterlike structures on the laser cut surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulyatyev, V. B.; Orishich, A. M.

    2017-10-01

    Analysis of the laser cut surface morphology remain topical. It is related with the fact that the surface roughness is the main index of the cut quality. The present paper deals with the experimental study of the relatively unstudied type of defects on the laser cut surface, dimples, or craters. According to the measurement results, amount of craters per unit of the laser cut surface area rises as the sheet thickness rises. The crater diameter rises together with the sheet thickness and distance from the upper sheet edge. The obtained data permit concluding that the defects like craters are observed predominantly in the case of thick sheets. The results agree with the hypothesis of crater formation as impact structures resulting from the melt drops getting on the cut channel walls upon separation from the cut front by the gas flow.

  8. Thin film contamination effects on laser-induced damage of fused silica surfaces at 355 nm

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Burnham, A. K.; Cordillot, C.; Fornier, A.

    1998-07-28

    Fused silica windows were artificially contaminated to estimate the resistance of target chamber debris shields against laser damage during NIF operation. Uniform contamination thin films (1 to 5 nm thick) were prepared by sputtering various materials (Au, Al, Cu, and B 4C). The loss of transmission of the samples was first measured. They were then tested at 355 nm in air with an 8-ns Nd:YAG laser. The damage morphologies were characterized by Nomarski optical microscopy and SEM. Both theory and experiments showed that metal contamination for films as thin as 1 nm leads to a substantial loss of transmission. Themore » laser damage resistance dropped very uniformly across the entire surface (e.g. 6 J/cm 2 for 5 nm of Cu). The damage morphology characterization showed that contrary to clean silica, metal coated samples did not produce pits on the surface. B 4C coated silica, on the other hand, led to a higher density of such damage pits. A model for light absorption in the thin film was coupled with a simple heat deposition and diffusion model to perform preliminary theoretical estimates of damage thresholds. The estimates of the loss due to light absorption and reflection pointed out significant .differences between metals (e.g. Al and Au). The damage threshold predictions were in qualitative agreement with experimental measurements.« less

  9. SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY A new cleaning process for the metallic contaminants on a post-CMP wafer's surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baohong, Gao; Yuling, Liu; Chenwei, Wang; Yadong, Zhu; Shengli, Wang; Qiang, Zhou; Baimei, Tan

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents a new cleaning process using boron-doped diamond (BDD) film anode electrochemical oxidation for metallic contaminants on polished silicon wafer surfaces. The BDD film anode electrochemical oxidation can efficiently prepare pyrophosphate peroxide, pyrophosphate peroxide can oxidize organic contaminants, and pyrophosphate peroxide is deoxidized into pyrophosphate. Pyrophosphate, a good complexing agent, can form a metal complex, which is a structure consisting of a copper ion, bonded to a surrounding array of two pyrophosphate anions. Three polished wafers were immersed in the 0.01 mol/L CuSO4 solution for 2 h in order to make comparative experiments. The first one was cleaned by pyrophosphate peroxide, the second by RCA (Radio Corporation of America) cleaning, and the third by deionized (DI) water. The XPS measurement result shows that the metallic contaminants on wafers cleaned by the RCA method and by pyrophosphate peroxide is less than the XPS detection limits of 1 ppm. And the wafer's surface cleaned by pyrophosphate peroxide is more efficient in removing organic carbon residues than RCA cleaning. Therefore, BDD film anode electrochemical oxidation can be used for microelectronics cleaning, and it can effectively remove organic contaminants and metallic contaminants in one step. It also achieves energy saving and environmental protection.

  10. Regular subwavelength surface structures induced by femtosecond laser pulses on stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Qi, Litao; Nishii, Kazuhiro; Namba, Yoshiharu

    2009-06-15

    In this research, we studied the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures on the stainless steel surface using femtosecond laser pulses. A 780 nm wavelength femtosecond laser, through a 0.2 mm pinhole aperture for truncating fluence distribution, was focused onto the stainless steel surface. Under different experimental condition, low-spatial-frequency laser-induced periodic surface structures with a period of 526 nm and high-spatial-frequency laser-induced periodic surface structures with a period of 310 nm were obtained. The mechanism of the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures on the stainless steel surface is discussed.

  11. Laboratory demonstration model: Active cleaning technique device. [for removal of contaminants from an optical surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, R. L.; Gillette, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    The technique which utilizes exposure to a plasma to remove contaminants from a surface was incorporated into a laboratory model which demonstrates active cleaning by both plasma cleaning and ion sputtering modes of operation. The development phase is reported and includes discussion of the plasma tube configuration, device design, and performance tests. A general description of the active cleaning device is provided which includes information on the main power/plasma discharge sensors, and the power, gas supply, and ion accelerator systems. Development of the active cleaning species at high vacuum conditions is described and results indicate that plasma cleaning occurs in the region of a visible plume which extends from the end of the plasma tube. Recommendations are made for research to determine the plasma cleaning mechanism and the plasma species responsible for the cleaning, as well limitations on the type of contaminants that can be removed.

  12. Metal surface nitriding by laser induced plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomann, A. L.; Boulmer-Leborgne, C.; Andreazza-Vignolle, C.; Andreazza, P.; Hermann, J.; Blondiaux, G.

    1996-10-01

    We study a nitriding technique of metals by means of laser induced plasma. The synthesized layers are composed of a nitrogen concentration gradient over several μm depth, and are expected to be useful for tribological applications with no adhesion problem. The nitriding method is tested on the synthesis of titanium nitride which is a well-known compound, obtained at present by many deposition and diffusion techniques. In the method of interest, a laser beam is focused on a titanium target in a nitrogen atmosphere, leading to the creation of a plasma over the metal surface. In order to understand the layer formation, it is necessary to characterize the plasma as well as the surface that it has been in contact with. Progressive nitrogen incorporation in the titanium lattice and TiN synthesis are studied by characterizing samples prepared with increasing laser shot number (100-4000). The role of the laser wavelength is also inspected by comparing layers obtained with two kinds of pulsed lasers: a transversal-excited-atmospheric-pressure-CO2 laser (λ=10.6 μm) and a XeCl excimer laser (λ=308 nm). Simulations of the target temperature rise under laser irradiation are performed, which evidence differences in the initial laser/material interaction (material heated thickness, heating time duration, etc.) depending on the laser features (wavelength and pulse time duration). Results from plasma characterization also point out that the plasma composition and propagation mode depend on the laser wavelength. Correlation of these results with those obtained from layer analyses shows at first the important role played by the plasma in the nitrogen incorporation. Its presence is necessary and allows N2 dissociation and a better energy coupling with the target. Second, it appears that the nitrogen diffusion governs the nitriding process. The study of the metal nitriding efficiency, depending on the laser used, allows us to explain the differences observed in the layer features

  13. Laser-induced desorption of atomic and molecular fragments from a tin dioxide surface modified by a thin organic covering of copper phthalocyanine

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Komolov, A. S., E-mail: akomolov07@ya.ru; Komolov, S. A.; Lazneva, E. F.

    2012-01-15

    The systematic features of laser-induced desorption from an SnO{sub 2} surface exposed to 10-ns pulsed neodymium laser radiation are studied at the photon energy 2.34 eV, in the range of pulse energy densities 1 to 50 mJ/cm{sup 2}. As the threshold pulse energy 28 mJ/cm{sup 2} is achieved, molecular oxygen O{sub 2} is detected in the desorption mass spectra from the SnO{sub 2} surface; as the threshold pulse energy 42 mJ/cm{sup 2} is reached, tin Sn, and SnO and (SnO){sub 2} particle desorption is observed. The laser desorption mass spectra from the SnO{sub 2} surface coated with an organic coppermore » phthalocyanine (CuPc) film 50 nm thick are measured. It is shown that laser irradiation causes the fragmentation of CuPc molecules and the desorption of molecular fragments in the laser pulse energy density range 6 to 10 mJ/cm{sup 2}. Along with the desorption of molecular fragments, a weak desorption signal of the substrate components O{sub 2}, Sn, SnO, and (SnO){sub 2} is observed in the same energy range. Desorption energy thresholds of substrate atomic components from the organic film surface are approximately five times lower than thresholds of their desorption from the atomically clean SnO{sub 2} surface, which indicates the diffusion of atomic components of the SnO{sub 2} substrate to the bulk of the deposited organic film.« less

  14. Low-reflectance laser-induced surface nanostructures created with a picosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarbada, Shashank; Huang, Zhifeng; Shin, Yung C.; Ruan, Xiulin

    2016-04-01

    Using high-speed picosecond laser pulse irradiation, low-reflectance laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) have been created on polycrystalline silicon. The effects of laser fluence, scan speed, overlapping ratio and polarization angle on the formation of LIPSS are reported. The anti-reflective properties of periodic structures are discussed, and the ideal LIPSS for low surface reflectance is presented. A decrease of 35.7 % in average reflectance of the silicon wafer was achieved over the wavelength range of 400-860 nm when it was textured with LIPSS at high scan speeds of 4000 mm/s. Experimental results of broadband reflectance of silicon wafers textured with LIPSS have been compared with finite difference time domain simulations and are in good agreement, showing high predictability in reflectance values for different structures. The effects of changing the LIPSS profile, fill factor and valley depth on the surface reflectance were also analyzed through simulations.

  15. The influence of the focus position on laser machining and laser micro-structuring monocrystalline diamond surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Mingtao; Guo, Bing; Zhao, Qingliang; Fan, Rongwei; Dong, Zhiwei; Yu, Xin

    2018-06-01

    Micro-structured surface on diamond is widely used in microelectronics, optical elements, MEMS and NEMS components, ultra-precision machining tools, etc. The efficient micro-structuring of diamond material is still a challenging task. In this article, the influence of the focus position on laser machining and laser micro-structuring monocrystalline diamond surface were researched. At the beginning, the ablation threshold and its incubation effect of monocrystalline diamond were determined and discussed. As the accumulated laser pulses ranged from 40 to 5000, the laser ablation threshold decreased from 1.48 J/cm2 to 0.97 J/cm2. Subsequently, the variation of the ablation width and ablation depth in laser machining were studied. With enough pulse energy, the ablation width mainly depended on the laser propagation attributes while the ablation depth was a complex function of the focus position. Raman analysis was used to detect the variation of the laser machined diamond surface after the laser machining experiments. Graphite formation was discovered on the machined diamond surface and graphitization was enhanced after the defocusing quantity exceeded 45 μm. At last, several micro-structured surfaces were successfully fabricated on diamond surface with the defined micro-structure patterns and structuring ratios just by adjusting the defocusing quantity. The experimental structuring ratio was consistent with the theoretical analysis.

  16. Colour changes by laser irradiation of reddish building limestones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossi, C. M.; Benavente, D.

    2016-10-01

    We have used X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) as a novel method to investigate the causes of colour changes in a reddish limestone under irradiation by a Q-switched Nd:YAG 1064 nm laser. We irradiated clean dry and wet surfaces of Pidramuelle Roja, a building stone frequently used in the Asturian heritage, at fluences ranging from 0.12 to 1.47 J cm-2. We measured the colour coordinates and undertook XPS analysis of the state of oxidation of iron both before and after irradiation. Visible colour changes and potential aesthetic damage occurred on dry surfaces from a fluence of 0.31 J cm-2, with the stone showing a greening effect and very intense darkening. The colour change on dry surfaces was considerably higher than on wet surfaces, which at the highest fluence (1.47 J cm-2) was also above the human visual detection threshold. The use of XPS demonstrated that the change in colour (chroma and hue) is associated with a reduction in the iron oxidation state on dry surfaces during laser irradiation. This points out to a potential routinary use of XPS to analyse causes of colour changes during laser cleaning in other types of coloured building stones.

  17. Femtosecond Laser Texturing of Surfaces for Tribological Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kirner, Sabrina V.; Griepentrog, Michael; Spaltmann, Dirk

    2018-01-01

    Laser texturing is an emerging technology for generating surface functionalities on basis of optical, mechanical, or chemical properties. Taking benefit of laser sources with ultrashort (fs) pulse durations features outstanding precision of machining and negligible rims or burrs surrounding the laser-irradiation zone. Consequently, additional mechanical or chemical post-processing steps are usually not required for fs-laser surface texturing (fs-LST). This work aimed to provide a bridge between research in the field of tribology and laser materials processing. The paper reviews the current state-of-the-art in fs-LST, with a focus on the tribological performance (friction and wear) of specific self-organized surface structures (so-called ripples, grooves, and spikes) on steel and titanium alloys. On the titanium alloy, specific sickle-shaped hybrid micro-nanostructures were also observed and tribologically tested. Care is taken to identify accompanying effects affecting the materials hardness, superficial oxidation, nano- and microscale topographies, and the role of additives contained in lubricants, such as commercial engine oil. PMID:29762544

  18. Femtosecond Laser Texturing of Surfaces for Tribological Applications.

    PubMed

    Bonse, Jörn; Kirner, Sabrina V; Griepentrog, Michael; Spaltmann, Dirk; Krüger, Jörg

    2018-05-15

    Laser texturing is an emerging technology for generating surface functionalities on basis of optical, mechanical, or chemical properties. Taking benefit of laser sources with ultrashort (fs) pulse durations features outstanding precision of machining and negligible rims or burrs surrounding the laser-irradiation zone. Consequently, additional mechanical or chemical post-processing steps are usually not required for fs-laser surface texturing (fs-LST). This work aimed to provide a bridge between research in the field of tribology and laser materials processing. The paper reviews the current state-of-the-art in fs-LST, with a focus on the tribological performance (friction and wear) of specific self-organized surface structures (so-called ripples, grooves, and spikes) on steel and titanium alloys. On the titanium alloy, specific sickle-shaped hybrid micro-nanostructures were also observed and tribologically tested. Care is taken to identify accompanying effects affecting the materials hardness, superficial oxidation, nano- and microscale topographies, and the role of additives contained in lubricants, such as commercial engine oil.

  19. Fast wettability transition from hydrophilic to superhydrophobic laser-textured stainless steel surfaces under low-temperature annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, Chi-Vinh; Chun, Doo-Man

    2017-07-01

    Recently, the fabrication of superhydrophobic metallic surfaces by means of pulsed laser texturing has been developed. After laser texturing, samples are typically chemically coated or aged in ambient air for a relatively long time of several weeks to achieve superhydrophobicity. To accelerate the wettability transition from hydrophilicity to superhydrophobicity without the use of additional chemical treatment, a simple annealing post process has been developed. In the present work, grid patterns were first fabricated on stainless steel by a nanosecond pulsed laser, then an additional low-temperature annealing post process at 100 °C was applied. The effect of 100-500 μm step size of the textured grid upon the wettability transition time was also investigated. The proposed post process reduced the transition time from a couple of months to within several hours. All samples showed superhydrophobicity with contact angles greater than 160° and sliding angles smaller than 10° except samples with 500 μm step size, and could be applied in several potential applications such as self-cleaning and control of water adhesion.

  20. Surface treatment with linearly polarized laser beam at oblique incidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutu, I.; Petre, C.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Taca, M.; Alexandrescu, E.; Ivanov, I.

    2002-07-01

    An effective method for surface heat treatment with 10.6 μm linear polarized laser beam at oblique incidence is reported. A circular focused laser spot on the workpiece surface, simultaneously with 2.2-4 times increasing of the absorption are obtained in the 70-80° range of the incidence angle. The main element of the experimental setup is the astigmatic focusing head which focalize the laser beam into an elliptical spot of ellipticity ɛ>3 at normal incidence. At a proper incidence angle (obtained by the focusing head tilting) the focused laser spot on the work piece surface gets a circular form and p-state of polarization is achieved. We performed laser heat treatment (transformation hardening, surface remelting) of the uncoated surface, as well as the alloying and cladding processes by powder injection. An enhancement of the processing efficiency was obtained; in this way the investment and operation costs for surface treatment with CO 2 laser can be significantly reduced. Several technical advantages concerning the pollution of the focusing optical components, powder jet flowing and reflected radiation by the work piece surface are obtained.

  1. Atomic diffusion in laser surface modified AISI H13 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aqida, S. N.; Brabazon, D.; Naher, S.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a laser surface modification process of AISI H13 steel using 0.09 and 0.4 mm of laser spot sizes with an aim to increase surface hardness and investigate elements diffusion in laser modified surface. A Rofin DC-015 diffusion-cooled CO2 slab laser was used to process AISI H13 steel samples. Samples of 10 mm diameter were sectioned to 100 mm length in order to process a predefined circumferential area. The parameters selected for examination were laser peak power, pulse repetition frequency (PRF), and overlap percentage. The hardness properties were tested at 981 mN force. Metallographic study and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) were performed to observe presence of elements and their distribution in the sample surface. Maximum hardness achieved in the modified surface was 1017 HV0.1. Change of elements composition in the modified layer region was detected in the laser modified samples. Diffusion possibly occurred for C, Cr, Cu, Ni, and S elements. The potential found for increase in surface hardness represents an important method to sustain tooling life. The EDXS findings signify understanding of processing parameters effect on the modified surface composition.

  2. Beam cleaning of an incoherent laser via plasma Raman amplification

    DOE PAGES

    Edwards, Matthew R.; Qu, Kenan; Mikhailova, Julia M.; ...

    2017-09-25

    We show that backward Raman amplification in plasma can efficiently compress a temporally incoherent pump laser into an intense coherent amplified seed pulse, provided that the correlation time of the pump is longer than the inverse plasma frequency. One analytical theory for Raman amplification using pump beams with different correlation functions is developed and compared to numerical calculations and particle-in-cell simulations. Since incoherence on scales shorter than the instability growth time suppresses spontaneous noise amplification, we point out a broad regime where quasi-coherent sources may be used as efficient low-noise Raman amplification pumps. As the amplified seed is coherent, Ramanmore » amplification provides an additional a beam-cleaning mechanism for removing incoherence. At near-infrared wavelengths, finite coherence times as short as 50 fs allow amplification with only minor losses in efficiency.« less

  3. Beam cleaning of an incoherent laser via plasma Raman amplification

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Edwards, Matthew R.; Qu, Kenan; Mikhailova, Julia M.

    We show that backward Raman amplification in plasma can efficiently compress a temporally incoherent pump laser into an intense coherent amplified seed pulse, provided that the correlation time of the pump is longer than the inverse plasma frequency. One analytical theory for Raman amplification using pump beams with different correlation functions is developed and compared to numerical calculations and particle-in-cell simulations. Since incoherence on scales shorter than the instability growth time suppresses spontaneous noise amplification, we point out a broad regime where quasi-coherent sources may be used as efficient low-noise Raman amplification pumps. As the amplified seed is coherent, Ramanmore » amplification provides an additional a beam-cleaning mechanism for removing incoherence. At near-infrared wavelengths, finite coherence times as short as 50 fs allow amplification with only minor losses in efficiency.« less

  4. Reduction of Clostridium Difficile and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus contamination of environmental surfaces after an intervention to improve cleaning methods

    PubMed Central

    Eckstein, Brittany C; Adams, Daniel A; Eckstein, Elizabeth C; Rao, Agam; Sethi, Ajay K; Yadavalli, Gopala K; Donskey, Curtis J

    2007-01-01

    Background Contaminated environmental surfaces may play an important role in transmission of some healthcare-associated pathogens. In this study, we assessed the adequacy of cleaning practices in rooms of patients with Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) colonization or infection and examined whether an intervention would result in improved decontamination of surfaces. Methods During a 6-week period, we cultured commonly touched surfaces (i.e. bedrails, telephones, call buttons, door knobs, toilet seats, and bedside tables) in rooms of patients with CDAD and VRE colonization or infection before and after housekeeping cleaning, and again after disinfection with 10% bleach performed by the research staff. After the housekeeping staff received education and feedback, additional cultures were collected before and after housekeeping cleaning during a 10-week follow-up period. Results Of the 17 rooms of patients with VRE colonization or infection, 16 (94%) had one or more positive environmental cultures before cleaning versus 12 (71%) after housekeeping cleaning (p = 0.125), whereas none had positive cultures after bleach disinfection by the research staff (p < 0.001). Of the 9 rooms of patients with CDAD, 100% had positive cultures prior to cleaning versus 7 (78%) after housekeeping cleaning (p = 0.50), whereas only 1 (11%) had positive cultures after bleach disinfection by research staff (p = 0.031). After an educational intervention, rates of environmental contamination after housekeeping cleaning were significantly reduced. Conclusion Our findings provide additional evidence that simple educational interventions directed at housekeeping staff can result in improved decontamination of environmental surfaces. Such interventions should include efforts to monitor cleaning and disinfection practices and provide feedback to the housekeeping staff. PMID:17584935

  5. Surface Modification of ICF Target Capsules by Pulsed Laser Ablation

    DOE PAGES

    Carlson, Lane C.; Johnson, Michael A.; Bunn, Thomas L.

    2016-06-30

    Topographical modifications of spherical surfaces are imprinted on National Ignition Facility (NIF) target capsules by extending the capabilities of a recently developed full surface (4π) laser ablation and mapping apparatus. The laser ablation method combines the precision, energy density and long reach of a focused laser beam to pre-impose sinusoidal modulations on the outside surface of High Density Carbon (HDC) capsules and the inside surface of Glow Discharge Polymer (GDP) capsules. Sinusoidal modulations described in this paper have sub-micron to 10’s of microns vertical scale and wavelengths as small as 30 μm and as large as 200 μm. The modulatedmore » patterns are created by rastering a focused laser fired at discrete capsule surface locations for a specified number of pulses. The computer program developed to create these raster patterns uses inputs such as laser beam intensity profile, the material removal function, the starting surface figure and the desired surface figure. The patterns are optimized to minimize surface roughness. Lastly, in this paper, simulated surfaces are compared with actual ablated surfaces measured using confocal microscopy.« less

  6. Surface laser marking optimization using an experimental design approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brihmat-Hamadi, F.; Amara, E. H.; Lavisse, L.; Jouvard, J. M.; Cicala, E.; Kellou, H.

    2017-04-01

    Laser surface marking is performed on a titanium substrate using a pulsed frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser ( λ= 532 nm, τ pulse=5 ns) to process the substrate surface under normal atmospheric conditions. The aim of the work is to investigate, following experimental and statistical approaches, the correlation between the process parameters and the response variables (output), using a Design of Experiment method (DOE): Taguchi methodology and a response surface methodology (RSM). A design is first created using MINTAB program, and then the laser marking process is performed according to the planned design. The response variables; surface roughness and surface reflectance were measured for each sample, and incorporated into the design matrix. The results are then analyzed and the RSM model is developed and verified for predicting the process output for the given set of process parameters values. The analysis shows that the laser beam scanning speed is the most influential operating factor followed by the laser pumping intensity during marking, while the other factors show complex influences on the objective functions.

  7. An Investigation of Laser Induced Surface Damage in glass.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    ROA-RI60 669 RN INVESTIGATION OF LASER INDUCED SURFACE DAMAG IN In1 1 6lo GLASS (U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA R D UYAK JUN 85IUNCLASSIFIED...ii -0 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California bor OCT THESIS AN INVESTIGATION OF LASER INDUCED SURFACE DAMAGE IN GLASS by )Richard David Uyak ,L...Subtitle) EPORT 6 PERIOD COVERED %An Investigation of Laser Induced Master’s Thesis Surface Damage in Glass June 1985S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT MUMMER 7

  8. Experimental investigation of the laser ablation process on wood surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panzner, M.; Wiedemann, G.; Henneberg, K.; Fischer, R.; Wittke, Th.; Dietsch, R.

    1998-05-01

    Processing of wood by conventional mechanical tools like saws or planes leaves behind a layer of squeezed wood only slightly adhering to the solid wood surface. Laser ablation of this layer could improve the durability of coatings and glued joints. For technical applications, thorough knowledge about the laser ablation process is necessary. Results of ablation experiments by excimer lasers, Nd:YAG lasers, and TEA-CO 2 lasers on surfaces of different wood types and cut orientations are shown. The process of ablation was observed by a high-speed camera system and optical spectroscopy. The influence of the experimental parameters are demonstrated by SEM images and measurement of the ablation rate depending on energy density. Thermal effects like melting and also carbonizing of cellulose were found for IR- and also UV-laser wavelengths. Damage of the wood surface after laser ablation was weaker for excimer lasers and CO 2-TEA lasers. This can be explained by the high absorption of wood in the ultraviolet and middle infrared spectral range. As an additional result, this technique provides an easy way for preparing wood surfaces with excellently conserved cellular structure.

  9. Black silicon with self-cleaning surface prepared by wetting processes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a simple method to prepare a hydrophobic surface on black silicon, which is fabricated by metal-assisted wet etching. To increase the reaction rate, the reaction device was placed in a heat collection-constant temperature type magnetic stirrer and set at room temperature. It was demonstrated that the micro- and nanoscale spikes on the black silicon made the surface become hydrophobic. As the reaction rate increases, the surface hydrophobicity becomes more outstanding and presents self-cleaning until the very end. The reflectance of the black silicon is drastically suppressed over a broad spectral range due to the unique geometry, which is effective for the enhancement of absorption. PMID:23941184

  10. Robust Non-Wetting PTFE Surfaces by Femtosecond Laser Machining

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Fang; Lehr, Jorge; Danielczak, Lisa; Leask, Richard; Kietzig, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Nature shows many examples of surfaces with extraordinary wettability, which can often be associated with particular air-trapping surface patterns. Here, robust non-wetting surfaces have been created by femtosecond laser ablation of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The laser-created surface structure resembles a forest of entangled fibers, which support structural superhydrophobicity even when the surface chemistry is changed by gold coating. SEM analysis showed that the degree of entanglement of hairs and the depth of the forest pattern correlates positively with accumulated laser fluence and can thus be influenced by altering various laser process parameters. The resulting fibrous surfaces exhibit a tremendous decrease in wettability compared to smooth PTFE surfaces; droplets impacting the virgin or gold coated PTFE forest do not wet the surface but bounce off. Exploratory bioadhesion experiments showed that the surfaces are truly air-trapping and do not support cell adhesion. Therewith, the created surfaces successfully mimic biological surfaces such as insect wings with robust anti-wetting behavior and potential for antiadhesive applications. In addition, the fabrication can be carried out in one process step, and our results clearly show the insensitivity of the resulting non-wetting behavior to variations in the process parameters, both of which make it a strong candidate for industrial applications. PMID:25110862

  11. Study of Surface Cleaning Methods and Pyrolysis Temperature on Nano-Structured Carbon Films using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kerber, Pranita B.; Porter, Lisa M.; McCullough, L. A.

    2012-10-12

    Nanostructured carbon (ns-C) films fabricated by stabilization and pyrolysis of di-block copolymers are of interest for a variety of electrical/electronic applications due to their chemical inertness, high-temperature insensitivity, very high surface area, and tunable electrical resistivity over a wide range [Kulkarni et al., Synth. Met. 159, (2009) 177]. Because of their high porosity and associated high specific surface area, controlled surface cleaning studies are important for fabricating electronic devices from these films. In this study, quantification of surface composition and surface cleaning studies on ns-C films synthesized by carbonization of di-block copolymers of polyacrylonitrile-b-poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PAN-b-PBA) at two different temperaturesmore » were carried out. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used for elemental analysis and to determine the efficacy of various surface cleaning methods for ns-C films and to examine the polymer residues in the films. The in-situ surface cleaning methods included: HF vapor treatment, vacuum annealing, and exposure to UV-ozone. Quantitative analysis of high-resolution XPS scans showed 11 at. % of nitrogen present in the films pyrolyzed at 600 °C, suggesting incomplete denitrogenation of the copolymer films. The nitrogen atomic concentration reduced significantly for films pyrolyzed at 900 °C confirming extensive denitrogenation at that temperature. Furthermore, quantitative analysis of nitrogen sub-peaks indicated higher loss of nitrogen atoms residing at the edge of graphitic clusters relative to that of nitrogen atoms within the graphitic cluster, suggesting higher graphitization with increasing pyrolysis temperature. Of the surface cleaning methods investigated, in-situ annealing of the films at 300 °C for 40 min was found to be the most efficacious in removing adventitious carbon and oxygen impurities from the surface.« less

  12. Short range laser obstacle detector. [for surface vehicles using laser diode array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuriger, W. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A short range obstacle detector for surface vehicles is described which utilizes an array of laser diodes. The diodes operate one at a time, with one diode for each adjacent azimuth sector. A vibrating mirror a short distance above the surface provides continuous scanning in elevation for all azimuth sectors. A diode laser is synchronized with the vibrating mirror to enable one diode laser to be fired, by pulses from a clock pulse source, a number of times during each elevation scan cycle. The time for a given pulse of light to be reflected from an obstacle and received is detected as a measure of range to the obstacle.

  13. Dynamic change of surface microbiota with different environmental cleaning methods between two wards in a hospital.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang-Hua; Tu, Chi-Chao; Kuo, Han-Yueh; Zeng, Rong-Fong; Yu, Cheng-Sheng; Lu, Henry Horng-Shing; Liou, Ming-Li

    2017-01-01

    Terminal disinfection and daily cleaning have been performed in hospitals in Taiwan for many years to reduce the risks of healthcare-associated infections. However, the effectiveness of these cleaning approaches and dynamic changes of surface microbiota upon cleaning remain unclear. Here, we report the surface changes of bacterial communities with terminal disinfection and daily cleaning in a medical intensive care unit (MICU) and only terminal disinfection in a respiratory care center (RCC) using 16s ribosomal RNA (rRNA) metagenomics. A total of 36 samples, including 9 samples per sampling time, from each ward were analysed. The clinical isolates were recorded during the sampling time. A large amount of microbial diversity was detected, and human skin microbiota (HSM) was predominant in both wards. In addition, the colonization rate of the HSM in the MICU was higher than that in the RCC, especially for Moraxellaceae. A higher alpha-diversity (p = 0.005519) and a lower UniFrac distance was shown in the RCC due to the lack of daily cleaning. Moreover, a significantly higher abundance among Acinetobacter sp., Streptococcus sp. and Pseudomonas sp. was shown in the RCC compared to the MICU using the paired t test. We concluded that cleaning changes might contribute to the difference in diversity between two wards.

  14. Mechanically durable superoleophobic aluminum surfaces with microstep and nanoreticula hierarchical structure for self-cleaning and anti-smudge properties.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shan; Bhushan, Bharat

    2016-01-01

    Superoleophobic aluminum surfaces are of interest for self-cleaning, anti-smudge (fingerprint resistance), anti-fouling, and corrosion resistance applications. In the published literature on superoleophobic aluminum surfaces, mechanical durability, self-cleaning, and anti-smudge properties data are lacking. Microstep structure has often been used to prepare superhydrophobic aluminum surfaces which produce the microstructure. The nanoreticula structure has also been used, and is reported to be able to trap air-pockets, which are desirable for a high contact angle. In this work, the microstep and nanoreticula structures were produced on aluminum surfaces to form a hierarchical micro/nanostructure by a simple two-step chemical etching process. The hierarchical structure, when modified with fluorosilane, made the surface superoleophobic. The effect of nanostructure, microstructure, and hierarchical structure on wettability and durability were studied and compared. The superoleophobic aluminum surfaces were found to be wear resistant, self-cleaning, and have anti-smudge and corrosion resistance properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Long-term effects of seven cleaning methods on light transmittance, surface roughness, and flexural modulus of polyurethane retainer material.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Manika; Wible, Emily; Ramir, Tyler; Altun, Sibel; Viana, Grace; Evans, Carla; Lukic, Henry; Megremis, Spiro; Atsawasuwan, Phimon

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the long-term effects of seven different cleaning methods on light transmittance, surface roughness, and flexural modulus of a polyurethane retainer material. Polyurethane retainer specimens (Vivera®, Align Technology Inc) (70 specimens, n = 10 per method, 50.8 mm × 12.7 mm × 1.0 mm) were exposed to seven cleaning methods twice a week for 6 months. Before treatment and after 6 months, light transmittance, surface roughness, and flexural modulus of the specimens were quantified. Qualitative assessment of randomly selected specimens from each solution was performed at baseline and after 6 months using a scanning electron microscope. Statistical analyses were performed at the .05 significance level. Of the three test variables, light transmittance through the specimens was the only one that changed significantly from baseline to 6 months for all cleaning solutions, with all of them causing a decrease. However, except for 0.6% sodium hypochlorite showing a change in surface roughness values and 2.5% vinegar and toothbrushing showing an increase in flexural modulus, none of the other four cleaning methods resulted in significant changes in surface roughness or flexural modulus values for the polyurethane specimens between baseline and after 6 months. Of the seven cleaning methods, Invisalign® cleaning crystals, Polident®, and Listerine® showed the least amount of change in light transmittance values for the polyurethane specimens over 6 months, and they had no effect on surface roughness and flexural modulus values.

  16. A Facile in Situ and UV Printing Process for Bioinspired Self-Cleaning Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    González Lazo, Marina A.; Katrantzis, Ioannis; Dalle Vacche, Sara; Karasu, Feyza; Leterrier, Yves

    2016-01-01

    A facile in situ and UV printing process was demonstrated to create self-cleaning synthetic replica of natural petals and leaves. The process relied on the spontaneous migration of a fluorinated acrylate surfactant (PFUA) within a low-shrinkage acrylated hyperbranched polymer (HBP) and its chemical immobilization at the polymer-air interface. Dilute concentrations of 1 wt. % PFUA saturated the polymer-air interface within 30 min, leading to a ten-fold increase of fluorine concentration at the surface compared with the initial bulk concentration and a water contact angle (WCA) of 108°. A 200 ms flash of UV light was used to chemically crosslink the PFUA at the HBP surface prior to UV printing with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) negative template of red and yellow rose petals and lotus leaves. This flash immobilization hindered the reverse migration of PFUA within the bulk HBP upon contacting the PDMS template, and enabled to produce texturized surfaces with WCA well above 108°. The synthetic red rose petal was hydrophobic (WCA of 125°) and exhibited the adhesive petal effect. It was not superhydrophobic due to insufficient concentration of fluorine at its surface, a result of the very large increase of the surface of the printed texture. The synthetic yellow rose petal was quasi-superhydrophobic (WCA of 143°, roll-off angle of 10°) and its self-cleaning ability was not good also due to lack of fluorine. The synthetic lotus leaf did not accurately replicate the intricate nanotubular crystal structures of the plant. In spite of this, the fluorine concentration at the surface was high enough and the leaf was superhydrophobic (WCA of 151°, roll-off angle below 5°) and also featured self-cleaning properties. PMID:28773860

  17. Method for in-situ cleaning of carbon contaminated surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Grunow, Philip; Graham, Jr., Samuel

    2006-12-12

    Activated gaseous species generated adjacent a carbon contaminated surface affords in-situ cleaning. A device for removing carbon contamination from a surface of the substrate includes (a) a housing defining a vacuum chamber in which the substrate is located; (b) a source of gaseous species; and (c) a source of electrons that are emitted to activate the gaseous species into activated gaseous species. The source of electrons preferably includes (i) a filament made of a material that generates thermionic electron emissions; (ii) a source of energy that is connected to the filament; and (iii) an electrode to which the emitted electrons are attracted. The device is particularly suited for photolithography systems with optic surfaces, e.g., mirrors, that are otherwise inaccessible unless the system is dismantled. A method of removing carbon contaminants from a substrate surface that is housed within a vacuum chamber is also disclosed. The method employs activated gaseous species that react with the carbon contaminants to form carbon containing gaseous byproducts.

  18. Oregano essential oil as an antimicrobial additive to detergent for hand washing and food contact surface cleaning.

    PubMed

    Rhoades, J; Gialagkolidou, K; Gogou, M; Mavridou, O; Blatsiotis, N; Ritzoulis, C; Likotrafiti, E

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the potential use of oregano essential oil as an antimicrobial agent in liquid soap for hand washing and for food contact surface cleaning. Oregano essential oil (O.E.O.) was emulsified in liquid detergent solution. This was challenge tested against a commercial antimicrobial soap in hand washing trials using natural flora. Soap with O.E.O. was as effective as the commercial antimicrobial soap at reducing aerobic plate count on the hands and more effective than plain soap with no additives. Cloths wetted with soap with O.E.O. were used to clean three different surfaces contaminated with four bacterial pathogens. For three of the four pathogens, the addition of 0·5% v/v O.E.O. to the soap solution enhanced cleaning performance and also reduced bacterial survival on the cloth after cleaning. Oregano essential oil (0·5%) is effective as an antimicrobial additive to detergent solutions for hand washing and surface cleaning. This preliminary study has shown that oregano essential oil is a potential alternative to antimicrobials used in various detergents, such as chloroxylenol and triclosan, which can have adverse environmental and health effects. Further development could lead to a commercial product. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Laser Induced Aluminum Surface Breakdown Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yen-Sen; Liu, Jiwen; Zhang, Sijun; Wang, Ten-See (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Laser powered propulsion systems involve complex fluid dynamics, thermodynamics and radiative transfer processes. Based on an unstructured grid, pressure-based computational aerothermodynamics; platform, several sub-models describing such underlying physics as laser ray tracing and focusing, thermal non-equilibrium, plasma radiation and air spark ignition have been developed. This proposed work shall extend the numerical platform and existing sub-models to include the aluminum wall surface Inverse Bremsstrahlung (IB) effect from which surface ablation and free-electron generation can be initiated without relying on the air spark ignition sub-model. The following tasks will be performed to accomplish the research objectives.

  20. [Cleaning and disinfection of surfaces in hospitals: Data on structure, process and result in the Frankfurt/Main Metropolitan Area].

    PubMed

    Hausemann, A; Hofmann, H; Otto, U; Heudorf, Ursel

    2015-06-01

    In addition to hand hygiene and reprocessing of medical products, cleaning and disinfection of surfaces is also an important issue in the prevention of germ transmission and by implication infections. Therefore, in 2014, the quality of the structure, process and result of surface preparation of all hospitals in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, was monitored. All 17 hospitals transferred information on the quality of structure. Process quality was obtained through direct observation during cleaning and disinfection of rooms and their plumbing units. Result quality was gained using the fluorescent method, i.e. marking surfaces with a fluorescent liquid and testing if this mark has been sufficiently removed by cleaning. Structure quality: in all hospitals the employees were trained regularly. In 12 of them, the foremen had the required qualifications, in 6 hospitals unclarity as to the intersection of the cleaning and care services remained. In 14 hospitals only visible contamination was cleaned on the weekends, whereas complete cleaning was reported to take place in 12 hospitals on Saturdays and in 2 hospitals on Sundays. The contractually stipulated cleaning (observations specified in brackets) averaged 178 m(2)/h (148 m(2)/h) per patient room and 69 m(2)/h (33 m(2)/h) for bathrooms. Process quality: during process monitoring, various hand contact surfaces were prepared insufficiently. Result quality: 63 % of fluorescent markings were appropriately removed. The need for improvement is given especially in the area of the qualification of the foremen and a in a clear definition of the intersection between cleaning and care services, as well as in the regulations for weekends and public holidays.

  1. Morphology of Er:YAG-laser-treated root surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Ulrich; Stock, Karl; Hibst, Raimund

    1997-12-01

    From previous studies it could be demonstrated that an efficient ablation of dental calculus is possible using an Er:YAG laser with a special contact fiber tip. After improving of the design and the efficiency of light transmission of the contact tip laser treated tooth root surfaces were investigated due to morphological changes in comparison to conventional root scaling and planing. Surface modifications were observed histologically under the light microscope and by means of a Scanning Electron Microscope. During laser treatment the intrapulpal temperature increase was measured. The results show that the improved contact tip a microstructured surface can be generated, which shows no signs of thermal effects even when a laser pulse repetition rate of 15 Hz was used. Temperature increase was limited to 4 K at a repetition rate of 10 Hz and to 5.5 K at a repetition rate of 15 Hz.

  2. One-step fabrication of robust superhydrophobic and superoleophilic surfaces with self-cleaning and oil/water separation function.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Wang, Hu-Jun; Liang, Yun-Hong; Li, Xiu-Juan; Ren, Lu-Quan; Cui, Zhen-Quan; Luo, Cheng

    2018-03-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces have great potential for application in self-cleaning and oil/water separation. However, the large-scale practical applications of superhydrophobic coating surfaces are impeded by many factors, such as complicated fabrication processes, the use of fluorinated reagents and noxious organic solvents and poor mechanical stability. Herein, we describe the successful preparation of a fluorine-free multifunctional coating without noxious organic solvents that was brushed, dipped or sprayed onto glass slides and stainless-steel meshes as substrates. The obtained multifunctional superhydrophobic and superoleophilic surfaces (MSHOs) demonstrated self-cleaning abilities even when contaminated with or immersed in oil. The superhydrophobic surfaces were robust and maintained their water repellency after being scratched with a knife or abraded with sandpaper for 50 cycles. In addition, stainless-steel meshes sprayed with the coating quickly separated various oil/water mixtures with a high separation efficiency (>93%). Furthermore, the coated mesh maintained a high separation efficiency above 95% over 20 cycles of separation. This simple and effective strategy will inspire the large-scale fabrication of multifunctional surfaces for practical applications in self-cleaning and oil/water separation.

  3. Formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures on niobium by femtosecond laser irradiation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Pan, A.; Dias, A.; Gomez-Aranzadi, M.

    2014-05-07

    The surface morphology of a Niobium sample, irradiated in air by a femtosecond laser with a wavelength of 800 nm and pulse duration of 100 fs, was examined. The period of the micro/nanostructures, parallel and perpendicularly oriented to the linearly polarized fs-laser beam, was studied by means of 2D Fast Fourier Transform analysis. The observed Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Structures (LIPSS) were classified as Low Spatial Frequency LIPSS (periods about 600 nm) and High Spatial Frequency LIPSS, showing a periodicity around 300 nm, both of them perpendicularly oriented to the polarization of the incident laser wave. Moreover, parallel high spatial frequency LIPSS were observedmore » with periods around 100 nm located at the peripheral areas of the laser fingerprint and overwritten on the perpendicular periodic gratings. The results indicate that this method of micro/nanostructuring allows controlling the Niobium grating period by the number of pulses applied, so the scan speed and not the fluence is the key parameter of control. A discussion on the mechanism of the surface topology evolution was also introduced.« less

  4. Surface measuring technique. [using a laser to scan the surface of a reflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiers, R. B., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Measurement of the surface contour of a large electrostatically formed concave reflector using a modified Foucault or knife edge test is described. The curve of the actual electrostatically formed reflector surface is compared to a curve representing a reference sphere. Measurements of surface slope and deviation are calculated every 15 cm along the reflector's horizontal and vertical diameters. Characterization of surface roughness on a small scale compared to the laser spot size at the reflector are obtained from the increased laser spot size at a distant projection screen.

  5. Cleaning Processes across NASA Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, John M.

    2010-01-01

    All significant surfaces of the hardware must be pre-cleaned to remove dirt, grit, scale, corrosion, grease, oil and other foreign matter prior to any final precision cleaning process. Metallic parts shall be surface treated (cleaned, passivated, pickled and/or coated) as necessary to prevent latent corrosion and contamination.

  6. Interaction of dimethylamine with clean and partially oxidized copper surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelber, J. A.; Rogers, J. W.; Banse, B. A.; Koel, B. E.

    1990-05-01

    The interaction of dimethylamine (DMA) with partially oxidized polycrystalline copper [Cu(poly)] and clean and partially oxidized Cu(110) between 110 and 500 K has been examined using electron stimulated desorption (ESD), high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD). ESD mass spectra of the DMA adsorbed on O/Cu(poly) between 112 and 230 K consistently display peaks at 44 amu [(CH 3) 2N] + and 46 amu [(CH 3) 2NH-H] +, but no significant parent peak at 45 amu [(CH 3) 2NH] +, even though this last feature is prominent in the gas-phase mass spectrum. OH - is not observed at temperatures below 184 K and the yield at higher temperatures is much less than that of O +. HREELS of DMA on clean and oxygen covered Cu(110) obtained at temperatures between 100 and 320 K show characteristic vibrational spectra for molecular DMA and no OH(a) vibrational modes. TPD results show that the desorption profiles of all the major peaks in the DMA mass spectrum follow that of the parent peak with no evidence for production of H 2O. The ESD, HREELS and TPD results all indicate that DMA is molecularly and reversibly adsorbed, with no significant formation of surface hydroxyl species. The results indicate that preferential adsorption of amines from amine/epoxy mixtures onto metal oxide surfaces could passivate the surface and prevent subsequent bonding to the epoxy resin.

  7. Laser-based nanoengineering of surface topographies for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlie, Sabrina; Fadeeva, Elena; Koroleva, Anastasia; Ovsianikov, Aleksandr; Koch, Jürgen; Ngezahayo, Anaclet; Chichkov, Boris. N.

    2011-04-01

    In this study femtosecond laser systems were used for nanoengineering of special surface topographies in silicon and titanium. Besides the control of feature sizes, we demonstrated that laser structuring caused changes in material wettability due to a reduced surface contact area. These laser-engineered topographies were tested for their capability to control cellular behavior of human fibroblasts, SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, and MG-63 osteoblasts. We found that fibroblasts reduced cell growth on the structures, while the other cell types proliferated at the same rate. These findings make laser-surface structuring very attractive for biomedical applications. Finally, to explain the results the correlation between topography and the biophysics of cellular adhesion, which is the key step of selective cell control, is discussed.

  8. Nanosecond laser ablated copper superhydrophobic surface with tunable ultrahigh adhesion and its renewability with low temperature annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, An; Liu, Wenwen; Xue, Wei; Yang, Huan; Cao, Yu

    2018-03-01

    Recently, metallic superhydrophobic surfaces with ultrahigh adhesion have got plentiful attention on account of their significance in scientific researches and industrial applications like droplet transport, drug delivery and novel microfluidic devices. However, the long lead time and transience hindered its in-depth development and industrial application. In this work, nanosecond laser ablation was carried out to construct grid of micro-grooves on copper surface, whereafter, by applying fast ethanol assisted low-temperature annealing, we obtained surface with superhydrophobicity and ultrahigh adhesion within hours. And the ultrahigh adhesion force was found tunable by varying the groove spacing. Using ultrasonic cleaning as the simulation of natural wear and tear in service, the renewability of superhydrophobicity was also investigated, and the result shows that the contact angle can rehabilitate promptly by the processing of ethanol assisted low-temperature annealing, which gives a promising fast and cheap circuitous strategy to realize the long wish durable metallic superhydrophobic surfaces in practical applications.

  9. Environmentally compatible hand wipe cleaning solvents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, Catherine P.; Kovach, Michael P.

    1995-01-01

    Several solvents of environmental concern have previously been used for hand wipe cleaning of SRB surfaces, including 1,1,1-trichloroethane, perchloroethylene, toluene, xylene, and MEK. USBI determined the major types of surfaces involved, and qualification requirements of replacement cleaning agents. Nineteen environmentally compatible candidates were tested on 33 material substrates with 26 types of potential surface contaminants, involving over 7,000 individual evaluations. In addition to the cleaning performance evaluation, bonding, compatibility, and corrosion tests were conducted. Results showed that one cleaner was not optimum for all surfaces. In most instances, some of the candidates cleaned better than the 1,1,1-trichloroethane baseline control. Aqueous cleaners generally cleaned better, and were more compatible with nonmetallic materials, such as paints, plastics, and elastomers. Organic base cleaners were better on metal surfaces. Five cleaners have been qualified and are now being implemented in SRB hand wipe cleaning operations.

  10. Surface separation investigation of ultrafast pulsed laser welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianyong; Carter, Richard M.; Thomson, Robert R.; Hand, Duncan P.

    2016-03-01

    Techniques for joining materials, especially optical materials such as glass to structural materials such as metals, or to other optical materials, while maintaining their surface and optical properties are essential for a wide range of industrial applications. Adhesive bonding is commonly used but leads to many issues including optical surface contamination and outgassing. It is possible to generate welds using an ultra-short pulsed laser process, whereby two flat material surfaces are brought into close contact and the laser is focused through the optical material onto the interface. Highly localised melting and rapid resolidification form a strong bond between the two surfaces whilst avoiding significant heating of the surrounding material, which is important for joining materials with different thermal expansion coefficients. Previous reports on ultrafast laser welding have identified a requirement for the surface separation gap to be less than 500nm in order to avoid cracking or ablation at the interface. We have investigated techniques for increasing this gap (to reduce weld fit-up problems), and tested by bonding two surfaces with a weld-controlled gap. These gaps were generated either by a series of etched grooves on the surface of one of the substrates, or by using a cylindrical lens as a substrate. By careful optimisation of parameters such as laser power, process speed and focal position, we were able to demonstrate successful welding with a gap of up to 3μm.

  11. [INVITED] Laser gas assisted treatment of Ti-alloy: Analysis of surface characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Ali, H.; Karatas, C.

    2016-04-01

    Laser gas assisted treatment of Ti6Al4V alloy surface is carried out and nitrogen/oxygen mixture with partial pressure of PO2/PN2=1/3 is introduced during the surface treatment process. Analytical tools are used to characterize the laser treated surfaces. The fracture toughness at the surface and the residual stress in the surface region of the laser treated layer are measured. Scratch tests are carried out to determine the friction coefficient of the treated surface. It is found that closely spaced regular laser scanning tracks generates a self-annealing effect in the laser treated layer while lowering the stress levels in the treated region. Introducing high pressure gas mixture impingement at the surface results in formation of oxide and nitride species including, TiO, TiO2, TiN and TiOxNy in the surface region. A dense layer consisting of fine size grains are formed in the surface region of the laser treated layer, which enhances the microhardness at the surface. The fracture toughness reduces after the laser treatment process because of the microhardness enhancement at the surface. The residual stress formed is comprehensive, which is in the order of -350 MPa.

  12. Friction-induced surface activity of some hydrocarbons with clean and oxide-covered iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1973-01-01

    Sliding friction studies were conducted on a clean and oxide-covered iron surface with exposure of that surface to various hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbons included ethane, ethylene ethyl chloride, methyl chloride, and vinyl chloride. Auger cylindrical mirror analysis was used to follow interactions of the hydrocarbon with the iron surface. Results with vinyl chloride indicate friction induced surface reactivity, adsorption to surface oxides, friction sensitivity to concentration and polymerization. Variation in the loads employed influence adsorption and accordingly friction. In contrast with ethyl and vinyl chloride, friction induced surface reactivity was not observed with ethane and ethylene.

  13. Laser etching of polymer masked leadframes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, C. K.; Man, H. C.; Yue, T. M.; Yuen, C. W.

    1997-02-01

    A typical electroplating production line for the deposition of silver pattern on copper leadframes in the semiconductor industry involves twenty to twenty five steps of cleaning, pickling, plating, stripping etc. This complex production process occupies large floor space and has also a number of problems such as difficulty in the production of rubber masks and alignment, generation of toxic fumes, high cost of water consumption and sometimes uncertainty on the cleanliness of the surfaces to be plated. A novel laser patterning process is proposed in this paper which can replace many steps in the existing electroplating line. The proposed process involves the application of high speed laser etching techniques on leadframes which were protected with polymer coating. The desired pattern for silver electroplating is produced by laser ablation of the polymer coating. Excimer laser was found to be most effective for this process as it can expose a pattern of clean copper substrate which can be silver plated successfully. Previous working of Nd:YAG laser ablation showed that 1.06 μm radiation was not suitable for this etching process because a thin organic and transparent film remained on the laser etched region. The effect of excimer pulse frequency and energy density upon the removal rate of the polymer coating was studied.

  14. Characterization of a Laser Surface-Treated Martensitic Stainless Steel.

    PubMed

    Al-Sayed, S R; Hussein, A A; Nofal, A A; Hassab Elnaby, S I; Elgazzar, H

    2017-05-29

    Laser surface treatment was carried out on AISI 416 machinable martensitic stainless steel containing 0.225 wt.% sulfur. Nd:YAG laser with a 2.2-KW continuous wave was used. The aim was to compare the physical and chemical properties achieved by this type of selective surface treatment with those achieved by the conventional treatment. Laser power of different values (700 and 1000 W) with four corresponding different laser scanning speeds (0.5, 1, 2, and 3 m•min-1) was adopted to reach the optimum conditions for impact toughness, wear, and corrosion resistance for laser heat treated (LHT) samples. The 0 °C impact energy of LHT samples indicated higher values compared to the conventionally heat treated (CHT) samples. This was accompanied by the formation of a hard surface layer and a soft interior base metal. Microhardness was studied to determine the variation of hardness values with respect to the depth under the treated surface. The wear resistance at the surface was enhanced considerably. Microstructure examination was characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopes. The corrosion behavior of the LHT samples was also studied and its correlation with the microstructures was determined. The corrosion data was obtained in 3.5% NaCl solution at room temperature by means of a potentiodynamic polarization technique.

  15. Nanoparticles based laser-induced surface structures formation on mesoporous silicon by picosecond laser beam interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbi, A.; Petit, A.; Melhem, A.; Stolz, A.; Boulmer-Leborgne, C.; Gautier, G.; Defforge, T.; Semmar, N.

    2016-06-01

    In this study, laser induced periodic surface structures were formed on mesoporous silicon by irradiation of Nd:YAG picosecond pulsed laser beam at 266 nm wavelength at 1 Hz repetition rate and with 42 ps pulse duration. The effects of laser processing parameters as laser beam fluence and laser pulse number on the formation of ripples were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to image the surface morphologies and the cross section of samples after laser irradiation. At relatively low fluence ∼20 mJ/cm2, ripples with period close to the laser beam wavelength (266 nm) and with an always controlled orientation (perpendicular to the polarization of ps laser beam) appeared after a large laser pulse number of 12,000. It has been found that an initial random distribution of SiOx nanoparticles is periodically structured with an increase of the laser pulse number. Finally, it is experimentally demonstrated that we formed a 100 nm liquid phase under the protusion zones including the pores in the picosecond regime.

  16. Wet cleaning and surface characterization of Si 1- xGe x virtual substrates after a CMP step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbadie, A.; Hartmann, J. M.; Besson, P.; Rouchon, D.; Martinez, E.; Holliger, P.; Di Nardo, C.; Campidelli, Y.; Billon, T.

    2008-08-01

    New reactants such as ozone dissolved in ultra-pure water have been widely used the last few years instead of the original Radio Corporation of America (RCA) cleaning (which is a combination of the Standard Cleaning 1 (SC1) and the Standard Cleaning 2 (SC2)). In a first part of the study (Microelectron. Eng. 83 (2006) 1986), we had quantified the efficiency of a new cleaning sequence (that calls upon HF and H 2O/O 3 solutions) on polished Si 1- xGe x virtual substrates ( x = 0.2-0.5). We are discussing here the surface morphology and wetability together with the oxide thickness and structure typically obtained after this so-called "DDC-SiGe" wet cleaning. Flat surface morphologies are found after cleaning whatever the Ge content (from 20 to 50%). Typical root mean square roughness is around 0.4 nm. We have used X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy to determine the characteristics of the surface termination after this "DDC-SiGe" cleaning. An oxide mainly composed of SiO 2 is formed, with a low fraction of Ge sub-oxide and GeO 2. The distribution of chemical species is not that different from the one obtained after the use of a SC1 cleaning. However, the chemical oxide formed is slightly thicker. Such a HF/O 3 cleaning leads, when used on thick Ge layers grown on Si, to the formation of a really thin Ge sub-oxide. Our oxidation model assumes a competition in O 3 solutions between the oxidation rates of Si and Ge atoms (faster for Si) and the dissolution of the Ge oxide formed in solution. This mechanism, which implies the formation of a slightly porous oxide, is different from the one seeming to occur in SC1-based solutions. Indeed, the addition of surfactant in a SC1 solution modifies the oxidation rate compared to standard SC1 or O 3-based solutions, suggesting a diffusion of reactants towards the interface between the SiGe and the oxide in formation, assisted by the reactions of species within the cleaning solutions.

  17. Interaction of laser pulse with confined plasma during exit surface nanosecond laser damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Feit, Michael D.; Demos, Stavros G.

    2013-12-01

    Interpretation of spatial and time resolved images of rear surface ns laser damage in dielectrics requires understanding of the dynamic interaction of the incoming laser beam with the confined expanding plasma in the material. The detailed kinetics of the plasma, involving both expansion and retraction, depends on details of reflection and absorption in the hot material. The growth of the hot region is treated using a model previously developed to understand laser peening. The pressure is found to scale as the square root of laser intensity and drops off slowly after energy deposition is complete. For the conditions of our experimental observations in fused silica, our model predicts a pressure of about 9 GPa and a surface expansion velocity of about 1.5 km/sec, in good agreement with experimental observation.

  18. Bio-Inspired Functional Surfaces Based on Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Structures.

    PubMed

    Müller, Frank A; Kunz, Clemens; Gräf, Stephan

    2016-06-15

    Nature developed numerous solutions to solve various technical problems related to material surfaces by combining the physico-chemical properties of a material with periodically aligned micro/nanostructures in a sophisticated manner. The utilization of ultra-short pulsed lasers allows mimicking numerous of these features by generating laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS). In this review paper, we describe the physical background of LIPSS generation as well as the physical principles of surface related phenomena like wettability, reflectivity, and friction. Then we introduce several biological examples including e.g., lotus leafs, springtails, dessert beetles, moth eyes, butterfly wings, weevils, sharks, pangolins, and snakes to illustrate how nature solves technical problems, and we give a comprehensive overview of recent achievements related to the utilization of LIPSS to generate superhydrophobic, anti-reflective, colored, and drag resistant surfaces. Finally, we conclude with some future developments and perspectives related to forthcoming applications of LIPSS-based surfaces.

  19. Microscopical and chemical surface characterization of CAD/CAM zircona abutments after different cleaning procedures. A qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To describe and characterize the surface topography and cleanliness of CAD/CAM manufactured zirconia abutments after steaming and ultrasonic cleaning. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 12 ceramic CAD/CAM implant abutments of various manufacturers were produced and randomly divided into two groups of six samples each (control and test group). Four two-piece hybrid abutments and two one-piece abutments made of zirconium-dioxide were assessed per each group. In the control group, cleaning by steam was performed. The test group underwent an ultrasonic cleaning procedure with acetone, ethyl alcohol and antibacterial solution. Groups were subjected to scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) to verify and characterize contaminant chemical characterization non-quantitatively. RESULTS All zirconia CAD/CAM abutments in the present study displayed production-induced wear particles, debris as well as organic and inorganic contaminants. The abutments of the test group showed reduction of surface contamination after undergoing an ultrasonic cleaning procedure. However, an absolute removal of pollutants could not be achieved. CONCLUSION The presence of debris on the transmucosal surface of CAD/CAM zirconia abutments of various manufacturers was confirmed. Within the limits of the study design, the results suggest that a defined ultrasonic cleaning process can be advantageously employed to reduce such debris, thus, supposedly enhancing soft tissue healing. Although the adverse long-term influence of abutment contamination on the biological stability of peri-implant tissues has been evidenced, a standardized and validated polishing and cleaning protocol still has to be implemented. PMID:25932314

  20. Surface cleaning techniques and efficient B-field profiles for lithium ion sources on extraction ion diodes

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Cuneo, M.E.; Menge, P.R.; Hanson, D.L.

    Application of ion beams to Inertial Confinement Fusion requires efficient production, transport and focusing of an intense, low microdivergence beam of an appropriate range ion. At Sandia, the authors are studying the production of lithium ion beams in extraction applied-B ion diodes on the SABRE accelerator (5 MV, 250 kA). Evidence on both SABRE (1 TW) and PBFA-II (20 TW) indicates that the lithium beam turns off and is replaced by a beam of mostly protons and carbon, possibly due to electron thermal and stimulated desorption of hydrocarbon surface contamination with subsequent avalanche ionization. Turn-off of the lithium beam ismore » accompanied by rapid impedance collapse. Surface cleaning techniques are being developed to reduce beam contamination, increase the total lithium energy and reduce the rate of diode impedance collapse. Application of surface cleaning techniques has increased the production of lithium from passive LiF sources by a factor of 2. Improved diode electric and magnetic field profiles have increased the diode efficiency and production of lithium by a factor of 5, without surface cleaning. Work is ongoing to combine these two advances which are discussed here.« less

  1. Cleaning and passivation of copper surfaces to remove surface radioactivity and prevent oxide formation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hoppe, Eric W.; Seifert, Allen; Aalseth, Craig E.

    High-purity copper is an attractive material for constructing ultra-low-background radiation measurement devices. Many low-background experiments using high-purity copper have indicated surface contamination emerges as the dominant background. Radon daughters plate out on exposed surfaces, leaving a residual 210Pb background that is difficult to avoid. Dust is also a problem; even under cleanroom conditions, the amount of U and Th deposited on surfaces can represent the largest remaining background. To control these backgrounds, a copper cleaning chemistry has been developed. Designed to replace an effective, but overly aggressive concentrated nitric acid etch, this peroxide-based solution allows for a more controlled cleaningmore » of surfaces. The acidified hydrogen peroxide solution will generally target the Cu+/Cu2+ species which are the predominant surface participants, leaving the bulk of copper metal intact. This preserves the critical tolerances of parts and eliminates significant waste disposal issues. Accompanying passivation chemistry has also been developed that protects copper surfaces from oxidation. Using a high-activity polonium surface spike, the most difficult-to-remove daughter isotope of radon, the performance of these methods are quantified. © 2001 Elsevier Science. All rights reserved« less

  2. First principles study of gallium cleaning for hydrogen-contaminated α-Al2O3(0001) surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rui; Rendell, Alistair P

    2013-05-15

    The use of gallium for cleaning hydrogen-contaminated Al2O3 surfaces is explored by performing first principles density functional calculations of gallium adsorption on a hydrogen-contaminated Al-terminated α-Al2O3(0001) surface. Both physisorbed and chemisorbed H-contaminated α-Al2O3(0001) surfaces with one monolayer (ML) gallium coverage are investigated. The thermodynamics of gallium cleaning are considered for a variety of different asymptotic products, and are found to be favorable in all cases. Physisorbed H atoms have very weak interactions with the Al2O3 surface and can be removed easily by the Ga ML. Chemisorbed H atoms form stronger interactions with the surface Al atoms. Bonding energy analysis and departure simulations indicate, however, that chemisorbed H atoms can be effectively removed by the Ga ML. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Surface emitting ring quantum cascade lasers for chemical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szedlak, Rolf; Hayden, Jakob; Martín-Mateos, Pedro; Holzbauer, Martin; Harrer, Andreas; Schwarz, Benedikt; Hinkov, Borislav; MacFarland, Donald; Zederbauer, Tobias; Detz, Hermann; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; Schrenk, Werner; Acedo, Pablo; Lendl, Bernhard; Strasser, Gottfried

    2018-01-01

    We review recent advances in chemical sensing applications based on surface emitting ring quantum cascade lasers (QCLs). Such lasers can be implemented in monolithically integrated on-chip laser/detector devices forming compact gas sensors, which are based on direct absorption spectroscopy according to the Beer-Lambert law. Furthermore, we present experimental results on radio frequency modulation up to 150 MHz of surface emitting ring QCLs. This technique provides detailed insight into the modulation characteristics of such lasers. The gained knowledge facilitates the utilization of ring QCLs in combination with spectroscopic techniques, such as heterodyne phase-sensitive dispersion spectroscopy for gas detection and analysis.

  4. Laser Surface Alloying of Aluminum for Improving Acid Corrosion Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiru, Woldetinsay Gutu; Sankar, Mamilla Ravi; Dixit, Uday Shanker

    2018-04-01

    In the present study, laser surface alloying of aluminum with magnesium, manganese, titanium and zinc, respectively, was carried out to improve acid corrosion resistance. Laser surface alloying was conducted using 1600 and 1800 W power source using CO2 laser. Acid corrosion resistance was tested by dipping the samples in a solution of 2.5% H2SO4 for 200 h. The weight loss due to acid corrosion was reduced by 55% for AlTi, 41% for AlMg alloy, 36% for AlZn and 22% for AlMn alloy. Laser surface alloyed samples offered greater corrosion resistance than the aluminum substrate. It was observed that localized pitting corrosion was the major factor to damage the surface when exposed for a long time. The hardness after laser surface alloying was increased by a factor of 8.7, 3.4, 2.7 and 2 by alloying with Mn, Mg, Ti and Zn, respectively. After corrosion test, hardness was reduced by 51% for AlTi sample, 40% for AlMg sample, 41.4% for AlMn sample and 33% for AlZn sample.

  5. Laser-assisted decontamination—A wavelength dependent study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilaya, J. Padma; Raote, Pallavi; Kumar, Aniruddha; Biswas, Dhruba J.

    2008-09-01

    We present here the experimental results on cleaning of radioactive dielectric particulates, loosely deposited on stainless steel, by coherent light of 1064 nm wavelength and its three harmonics occurring at 532 nm, 355 nm and 266 nm, derived from an Nd-YAG laser. For the initial few exposures, the decontamination factor has been found to be highest when exposed to 1064 nm radiation. With increasing number of exposures, however, the radiation with reducing wavelength assumes a more important role as a cleaning agent. The observation of almost no cleaning with 1064 nm and much reduced cleaning with its harmonics when the contamination is deposited on a transparent substrate confirms the dominant role played by metal substrate towards expelling the loose particulates from its surface.

  6. Visible light surface emitting semiconductor laser

    DOEpatents

    Olbright, Gregory R.; Jewell, Jack L.

    1993-01-01

    A vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser is disclosed comprising a laser cavity sandwiched between two distributed Bragg reflectors. The laser cavity comprises a pair of spacer layers surrounding one or more active, optically emitting quantum-well layers having a bandgap in the visible which serve as the active optically emitting material of the device. The thickness of the laser cavity is m .lambda./2n.sub.eff where m is an integer, .lambda. is the free-space wavelength of the laser radiation and n.sub.eff is the effective index of refraction of the cavity. Electrical pumping of the laser is achieved by heavily doping the bottom mirror and substrate to one conductivity-type and heavily doping regions of the upper mirror with the opposite conductivity type to form a diode structure and applying a suitable voltage to the diode structure. Specific embodiments of the invention for generating red, green, and blue radiation are described.

  7. Theoretical Aspects of Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Structure Formation,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    r AD-A134 875 UNCLASSIFIED THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF LASER -INUUCtl) PtKlUUlt bUKhALt STRUCTURE FORMATION(U) ROCHESTER UNIV NY DEPT OF CHEMISTRY M...UR0CHESTER/DC/83/TR-43 2. COVT ACCESSION NO A. TITLE (and Subllllm) Theoretical Aspects of Laser -Induced Periodic Surface Structure Formation 7...publication in Laser -Controlled Chemical Processing of Surfaces, ed. by A. W. Johnson and D. J. Ehrlich (Elsevier, New York) 19 KEY WORDS (Continue

  8. Picosecond laser micro/nano surface texturing of nickel for superhydrophobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. C.; Wang, B.; Xie, H.; Zheng, H. Y.; Lam, Y. C.

    2018-03-01

    A single step direct picosecond laser texturing process was demonstrated to be able to obtain a superhydrophobic surface on a nickel substrate, a key material for mold fabrication in the manufacture of various devices, including polymeric microfluidic devices. A two-scale hierarchical surface structure of regular 2D array micro-bumps with nano-ripples was produced on a nickel surface. The laser textured surface initially showed superhydrophilicity with almost complete wetting of the structured surface just after laser treatment, then quickly changed to nearly superhydrophobic with a water contact angle (WCA) of 140° in less than 1 d, and finally became superhydrophobic with a WCA of more than 150° and a contact angle hysteresis (CAH) of less than 5°. The mechanism involved in the process is discussed in terms of surface morphology and surface chemistry. The ultra-fast laser induced NiO catalytic effect was thought to play a key role in modifying the surface chemistry so as to lower the surface energy. The developed process has the potential to improve the performance of nickel mold in the fabrication of microfluidic devices.

  9. Mimicking lizard-like surface structures upon ultrashort laser pulse irradiation of inorganic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermens, U.; Kirner, S. V.; Emonts, C.; Comanns, P.; Skoulas, E.; Mimidis, A.; Mescheder, H.; Winands, K.; Krüger, J.; Stratakis, E.; Bonse, J.

    2017-10-01

    Inorganic materials, such as steel, were functionalized by ultrashort laser pulse irradiation (fs- to ps-range) to modify the surface's wetting behavior. The laser processing was performed by scanning the laser beam across the surface of initially polished flat sample material. A systematic experimental study of the laser processing parameters (peak fluence, scan velocity, line overlap) allowed the identification of different regimes associated with characteristic surface morphologies (laser-induced periodic surface structures, grooves, spikes, etc.). Analyses of the surface using optical as well as scanning electron microscopy revealed morphologies providing the optimum similarity to the natural skin of lizards. For mimicking skin structures of moisture-harvesting lizards towards an optimization of the surface wetting behavior, additionally a two-step laser processing strategy was established for realizing hierarchical microstructures. In this approach, micrometer-scaled capillaries (step 1) were superimposed by a laser-generated regular array of small dimples (step 2). Optical focus variation imaging measurements finally disclosed the three dimensional topography of the laser processed surfaces derived from lizard skin structures. The functionality of these surfaces was analyzed in view of wetting properties.

  10. Formation of surface nanolayers in chalcogenide crystals using coherent laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozga, K.; Fedorchuk, A. O.; El-Naggar, A. M.; Albassam, A. A.; Kityk, V.

    2018-03-01

    We have shown a possibility to form laser modified surface nanolayers with thickness up to 60 nm in some ternary chalcogenide crystals (Ag3AsS3, Ag3SbS3, Tl3SbS3) The laser treatment was performed by two coherent laser beams split in a space. As the inducing lasers we have applied continuous wave (cw) Hesbnd Cd laser at wavelength 441 nm and doubled frequency cw Nd: YAG laser at 532 nm. The spectral energies of these lasers were higher with respect to the energy gaps of the studied crystals. The optical anisotropy was appeared and defected by monitoring of birefringence at probing wavelength of cw Hesbnd Ne laser at λ = 3390 nm. The changes of the laser stimulated near the surface layer morphology was monitored by TEM and AFM methods as well as by the reflected optical second harmonic generation at fundamental wavelength of microsecond CO2 laser generating at wavelength 10600 nm. This technique may open a new approach for the formation of the near the surface nanolayers in chalcogenides using external cw laser illumination.

  11. Simulation of laser beam reflection at the sea surface modeling and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwenger, Frédéric; Repasi, Endre

    2013-06-01

    A 3D simulation of the reflection of a Gaussian shaped laser beam on the dynamic sea surface is presented. The simulation is suitable for the pre-calculation of images for cameras operating in different spectral wavebands (visible, short wave infrared) for a bistatic configuration of laser source and receiver for different atmospheric conditions. In the visible waveband the calculated detected total power of reflected laser light from a 660nm laser source is compared with data collected in a field trial. Our computer simulation comprises the 3D simulation of a maritime scene (open sea/clear sky) and the simulation of laser beam reflected at the sea surface. The basic sea surface geometry is modeled by a composition of smooth wind driven gravity waves. To predict the view of a camera the sea surface radiance must be calculated for the specific waveband. Additionally, the radiances of laser light specularly reflected at the wind-roughened sea surface are modeled considering an analytical statistical sea surface BRDF (bidirectional reflectance distribution function). Validation of simulation results is prerequisite before applying the computer simulation to maritime laser applications. For validation purposes data (images and meteorological data) were selected from field measurements, using a 660nm cw-laser diode to produce laser beam reflection at the water surface and recording images by a TV camera. The validation is done by numerical comparison of measured total laser power extracted from recorded images with the corresponding simulation results. The results of the comparison are presented for different incident (zenith/azimuth) angles of the laser beam.

  12. Improved laser damage threshold for chalcogenide glasses through surface microstructuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florea, Catalin; Sanghera, Jasbinder; Busse, Lynda; Shaw, Brandon; Aggarwal, Ishwar

    2011-03-01

    We demonstrate improved laser damage threshold of chalcogenide glasses with microstructured surfaces as compared to chalcogenide glasses provided with traditional antireflection coatings. The surface microstructuring is used to reduce Fresnel losses over large bandwidths in As2S3 glasses and fibers. The treated surfaces show almost a factor of two of improvement in the laser damage threshold when compared with untreated surfaces.

  13. Post-processing of fused silica and its effects on damage resistance to nanosecond pulsed UV lasers.

    PubMed

    Ye, Hui; Li, Yaguo; Zhang, Qinghua; Wang, Wei; Yuan, Zhigang; Wang, Jian; Xu, Qiao

    2016-04-10

    HF-based (hydrofluoric acid) chemical etching has been a widely accepted technique to improve the laser damage performance of fused silica optics and ensure high-power UV laser systems at designed fluence. Etching processes such as acid concentration, composition, material removal amount, and etching state (etching with additional acoustic power or not) may have a great impact on the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of treated sample surfaces. In order to find out the effects of these factors, we utilized the Taguchi method to determine the etching conditions that are helpful in raising the LIDT. Our results show that the most influential factors are concentration of etchants and the material etched away from the viewpoint of damage performance of fused silica optics. In addition, the additional acoustic power (∼0.6  W·cm-2) may not benefit the etching rate and damage performance of fused silica. Moreover, the post-cleaning procedure of etched samples is also important in damage performances of fused silica optics. Different post-cleaning procedures were, thus, experiments on samples treated under the same etching conditions. It is found that the "spraying + rinsing + spraying" cleaning process is favorable to the removal of etching-induced deposits. Residuals on the etched surface are harmful to surface roughness and optical transmission as well as laser damage performance.

  14. Laser Surface Preparation and Bonding of Aerospace Structural Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcher, Marcus A.; Wohl, Christopher J.; Connell, John W.

    2009-01-01

    A Nd:YAG laser was used to etch patterns conducive to adhesive bonding onto CFRP surfaces. These were compared to typical pre-bonding surface treatments including grit blasting, manual abrasion, and peel ply. Laser treated composites were then subjected to optical microscopy, contact angle measurements, and post-bonding mechanical testing.

  15. Bio-Inspired Functional Surfaces Based on Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Structures

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Frank A.; Kunz, Clemens; Gräf, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Nature developed numerous solutions to solve various technical problems related to material surfaces by combining the physico-chemical properties of a material with periodically aligned micro/nanostructures in a sophisticated manner. The utilization of ultra-short pulsed lasers allows mimicking numerous of these features by generating laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS). In this review paper, we describe the physical background of LIPSS generation as well as the physical principles of surface related phenomena like wettability, reflectivity, and friction. Then we introduce several biological examples including e.g., lotus leafs, springtails, dessert beetles, moth eyes, butterfly wings, weevils, sharks, pangolins, and snakes to illustrate how nature solves technical problems, and we give a comprehensive overview of recent achievements related to the utilization of LIPSS to generate superhydrophobic, anti-reflective, colored, and drag resistant surfaces. Finally, we conclude with some future developments and perspectives related to forthcoming applications of LIPSS-based surfaces. PMID:28773596

  16. Laser ablation system, and method of decontaminating surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Ferguson, Russell L.; Edelson, Martin C.; Pang, Ho-ming

    1998-07-14

    A laser ablation system comprising a laser head providing a laser output; a flexible fiber optic cable optically coupled to the laser output and transmitting laser light; an output optics assembly including a nozzle through which laser light passes; an exhaust tube in communication with the nozzle; and a blower generating a vacuum on the exhaust tube. A method of decontaminating a surface comprising the following steps: providing an acousto-optic, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser light ablation system having a fiber optically coupled output optics assembly; and operating the laser light ablation system to produce an irradiance greater than 1.times.10.sup.7 W/cm.sup.2, and a pulse width between 80 and 170 ns.

  17. Characterization of a Laser Surface-Treated Martensitic Stainless Steel

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sayed, S. R.; Hussein, A. A.; Nofal, A. A.; Hassab Elnaby, S. I.; Elgazzar, H.

    2017-01-01

    Laser surface treatment was carried out on AISI 416 machinable martensitic stainless steel containing 0.225 wt.% sulfur. Nd:YAG laser with a 2.2-KW continuous wave was used. The aim was to compare the physical and chemical properties achieved by this type of selective surface treatment with those achieved by the conventional treatment. Laser power of different values (700 and 1000 W) with four corresponding different laser scanning speeds (0.5, 1, 2, and 3 m·min−1) was adopted to reach the optimum conditions for impact toughness, wear, and corrosion resistance for laser heat treated (LHT) samples. The 0 °C impact energy of LHT samples indicated higher values compared to the conventionally heat treated (CHT) samples. This was accompanied by the formation of a hard surface layer and a soft interior base metal. Microhardness was studied to determine the variation of hardness values with respect to the depth under the treated surface. The wear resistance at the surface was enhanced considerably. Microstructure examination was characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopes. The corrosion behavior of the LHT samples was also studied and its correlation with the microstructures was determined. The corrosion data was obtained in 3.5% NaCl solution at room temperature by means of a potentiodynamic polarization technique. PMID:28772955

  18. Characterization of laser-induced plasmas associated with energetic laser cleaning of metal particles on fused silica surfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Harris, Candace D.; Shen, Nan; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; ...

    2015-11-04

    Here, time-resolved plasma emission spectroscopy was used to characterize the energy coupling and temperature rise associated with single, 10-ns pulsed laser ablation of metallic particles bound to transparent substrates. Plasma associated with Fe(I) emission lines originating from steel microspheres was observed to cool from >24,000 to ~15,000 K over ~220 ns asmore » $$\\tau$$ -0.28, consistent with radiative losses and adiabatic gas expansion of a relatively free plasma. Simultaneous emission lines from Si(II) associated with the plasma etching of the SiO2 substrate were observed yielding higher plasma temperatures, ~35,000 K, relative to the Fe(I) plasma. Lastly, the difference in species temperatures is consistent with plasma confinement at the microsphere-substrate interface as the particle is ejected, and is directly visualized using pump-probe shadowgraphy as a function of pulsed laser energy.« less

  19. Low-temperature wafer direct bonding of silicon and quartz glass by a two-step wet chemical surface cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chenxi; Xu, Jikai; Zeng, Xiaorun; Tian, Yanhong; Wang, Chunqing; Suga, Tadatomo

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate a facile bonding process for combining silicon and quartz glass wafers by a two-step wet chemical surface cleaning. After a post-annealing at 200 °C, strong bonding interfaces with no defects or microcracks were obtained. On the basis of the detailed surface and bonding interface characterizations, the bonding mechanism was explored and discussed. The amino groups terminated on the cleaned surfaces might contribute to the bonding strength enhancement during the annealing. This cost-effective bonding process has great potentials for silicon- and glass-based heterogeneous integrations without requiring a vacuum system.

  20. Cleaning devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Horst W. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Cleaning devices are described which include a vacuum cleaner nozzle with a sharp rim for directing incoming air down against the floor; a vacuum cleaner wherein electrostatically charged brushes that brush dirt off a floor, are electrically grounded to remove charges that could tend to hold dirt to the brushes; a vacuum cleaner head having slots that form a pair of counter-rotating vortices, and that includes an outlet that blows a stream of air at the floor region which lies between the vortices; a cleaning device that sweeps a group of brushes against the ground along a first direction, and then sweeps them along the same ground area but in a second direction angled from the first by an amount such as 90.degree., to sweep up particles lying in crevices extending along any direction; a device that gently cleans a surface to remove bacteria for analysis, including an inclined wall along which cleaning fluid flows onto the surface, a vacuum chamber for drawing in the cleaning fluid, and a dividing wall spaced slightly from the surface to separate the fluid source from the vacuum cleaner chamber; and a device for providing pulses of pressured air including a chamber to which pressured air is supplied, a ball that circulates around the chamber to repeatedly close an outlet, and an air source that directs air circumferentially to move the ball around the chamber.

  1. In situ diagnosis of pulsed UV laser surface ablation of tungsten carbide hardmetal by using laser-induced optical emission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tiejun; Lou, Qihong; Wei, Yunrong; Huang, Feng; Dong, Jingxing; Liu, Jingru

    2001-12-01

    Surface ablation of cobalt cemented tungsten carbide hardmetal with pulsed UV laser has been in situ diagnosed by using the technique of laser-induced optical emission spectroscopy. The dependence of emission intensity of cobalt lines on number of laser shots was investigated at laser fluence of 2.5 J/cm 2. As a comparison, the reliance of emission intensity of cobalt lines as a function of laser pulse number by using pure cobalt as ablation sample was also studied at the same laser condition. It was found that for surface ablation of tungsten carbide hardmetal at laser fluence of 2.5 J/cm 2, the intensities of cobalt lines fell off dramatically in the first 300 consecutive laser shots and then slowed down to a low stable level with even more shots. For surface ablation of pure cobalt at the same laser condition, the intensities of cobalt lines remained constant more or less even after 500 laser shots and then reduced very slowly with even more shots. It was concluded that selective evaporation of cobalt at this laser fluence should be responsible for the dramatic fall-off of cobalt lines with laser shots accumulation for surface ablation of tungsten carbide hardmetal. In contrast, for surface ablation of pure cobalt, the slow reduction of cobalt lines with pulse number accumulation should be due to the formation of laser-induced crater effect.

  2. Precision cleaning apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Schneider, T.W.; Frye, G.C.; Martin, S.J.

    1998-01-13

    A precision cleaning apparatus and method are disclosed. The precision cleaning apparatus includes a cleaning monitor further comprising an acoustic wave cleaning sensor such as a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), a flexural plate wave (FPW) sensor, a shear horizontal acoustic plate mode (SH--APM) sensor, or a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH--SAW) sensor; and measurement means connectable to the sensor for measuring in-situ one or more electrical response characteristics that vary in response to removal of one or more contaminants from the sensor and a workpiece located adjacent to the sensor during cleaning. Methods are disclosed for precision cleaning of one or more contaminants from a surface of the workpiece by means of the cleaning monitor that determines a state of cleanliness and any residual contamination that may be present after cleaning; and also for determining an effectiveness of a cleaning medium for removing one or more contaminants from a workpiece. 11 figs.

  3. Precision cleaning apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Schneider, Thomas W.; Frye, Gregory C.; Martin, Stephen J.

    1998-01-01

    A precision cleaning apparatus and method. The precision cleaning apparatus includes a cleaning monitor further comprising an acoustic wave cleaning sensor such as a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), a flexural plate wave (FPW) sensor, a shear horizontal acoustic plate mode (SH--APM) sensor, or a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH--SAW) sensor; and measurement means connectable to the sensor for measuring in-situ one or more electrical response characteristics that vary in response to removal of one or more contaminants from the sensor and a workpiece located adjacent to the sensor during cleaning. Methods are disclosed for precision cleaning of one or more contaminants from a surface of the workpiece by means of the cleaning monitor that determines a state of cleanliness and any residual contamination that may be present after cleaning; and also for determining an effectiveness of a cleaning medium for removing one or more contaminants from a workpiece.

  4. Linearly Polarized Dual-Wavelength Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Lamb, Jr., Laser Physics Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1974, pp. 125-126. 7A. E. Siegman , Lasers University Sciences Books, Sausalito, CA, 1986, pp...AFRL-RY-WP-TP-2008-1171 LINEARLY POLARIZED DUAL-WAVELENGTH VERTICAL-EXTERNAL-CAVITY SURFACE-EMITTING LASER (Postprint) Li Fan, Mahmoud...LINEARLY POLARIZED DUAL-WAVELENGTH VERTICAL-EXTERNAL- CAVITY SURFACE-EMITTING LASER (Postprint) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER IN-HOUSE 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  5. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering activity of niobium surface after irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ivanov, Victor G.; Georgi Nadjakov Institute of Solid State Physics, BAS, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee, 1784 Sofia; Vlakhov, Emil S.

    2015-11-28

    The chemical modification of the niobium (Nb) surface after irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses was investigated by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The physical-chemical analyses indicated that the laser treatment results in oxidation of the Nb surface, as well as in the formation of Nb hydrides. Remarkably, after the samples' washing in ethanol, a strong Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) signal originating from the toluene residual traces was evidenced. Further, it was observed that the laser irradiated Nb surface is able to provide a SERS enhancement of ∼1.3 × 10{supmore » 3} times for rhodamine 6G solutions. Thus, for the first time it was shown that Nb/Nb oxide surfaces could exhibit SERS functionality, and so one can expect applications in biological/biochemical screening or for sensing of dangerous environmental substances.« less

  6. Laser bioengineering of glass-titanium implants surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lusquiños, F.; Arias-González, F.; Penide, J.; del Val, J.; Comesaña, R.; Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Boutinguiza, M.; Pascual, M. J.; Durán, A.; Pou, J.

    2013-11-01

    Osseointegration is the mean challenge when surgical treatments fight against load-bearing bone diseases. Absolute bone replacement by a synthetic implant has to be completed not only from the mechanics point of view, but also from a biological approach. Suitable strength, resilience and stress distribution of titanium alloy implants are spoiled by the lack of optimal biological characteristics. The inert quality of extra low interstitial titanium alloy, which make it the most attractive metallic alloy for biomedical applications, oppose to an ideal surface with bone cell affinity, and capable to stimulate bone attachment bone growth. Diverse laser treatments have been proven as effective tools to modify surface properties, such as wettability in contact to physiological fluids, or osteoblast guided and slightly enhanced attachment. The laser surface cladding can go beyond by providing titanium alloy surfaces with osteoconduction and osteoinduction properties. In this research work, the laser radiation is used to produce bioactive glass coatings on Ti6Al4V alloy substrates. Specific silicate bioactive glass compositions has been investigated to achieve suitable surface tension and viscosity temperature behavior during processing, and to provide with the required release of bone growth gene up regulation agents in the course of resorption mediated by physiological fluids. The produced coatings and interfaces, the surface osteoconduction properties, and the chemical species release in simulated physiological fluid were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), hot stage microscopy (HSM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X ray fluorescence (XRF), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).

  7. Ultrahigh vacuum and low-temperature cleaning of oxide surfaces using a low-concentration ozone beam

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Pratt, A.; Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD; Graziosi, P.

    We present a novel method of delivering a low-concentration (<15%) ozone beam to an ultra-high vacuum environment for the purpose of cleaning and dosing experimental samples through oxidation processing. The system described is safe, low-cost, and practical and overcomes the limitations of ozone transport in the molecular flow environment of high or ultrahigh vacuum whilst circumventing the use of pure ozone gas which is potentially highly explosive. The effectiveness of this method in removing surface contamination is demonstrated through comparison of high-temperature annealing of a simple oxide (MgO) in ozone and oxygen environments as monitored using quadrupole mass spectroscopy andmore » Auger electron spectroscopy. Additionally, we demonstrate the potential of ozone for obtaining clean complex oxide surfaces without the need for high-temperature annealing which may significantly alter surface structure.« less

  8. Characterization of Nonlinear Effects in Optically Pumped Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers ( VCSELs ) are an exciting...lines A-3 X AFIT/GEOiENP/93 D-01 Abstract The nonlinear characteristics of optically pumped Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers ( VCSELs ) are...uniformity of the VCSEL fabrication. xi Characterization of Nonlinear Effects in Optically Pumped Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers

  9. Surface Cleaning Techniques: Ultra-Trace ICP-MS Sample Preparation and Assay of HDPE

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Overman, Nicole R.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Addleman, Raymond S.

    2013-06-01

    The world’s most sensitive radiation detection and assay systems depend upon ultra-low background (ULB) materials to reduce unwanted radiological backgrounds. Herein, we evaluate methods to clean HDPE, a material of interest to ULB systems and the means to provide rapid assay of surface and bulk contamination. ULB level material and ultra-trace level detection of actinide elements is difficult to attain, due to the introduction of contamination from sample preparation equipment such as pipette tips, sample vials, forceps, etc. and airborne particulate. To date, literature available on the cleaning of such polymeric materials and equipment for ULB applications and ultra-trace analysesmore » is limited. For these reasons, a study has been performed to identify an effective way to remove surface contamination from polymers in an effort to provide improved instrumental detection limits. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) was utilized to assess the effectiveness of a variety of leachate solutions for removal of inorganic uranium and thorium surface contamination from polymers, specifically high density polyethylene (HDPE). HDPE leaching procedures were tested to optimize contaminant removal of thorium and uranium. Calibration curves for thorium and uranium ranged from 15 ppq (fg/mL) to 1 ppt (pg/mL). Detection limits were calculated at 6 ppq for uranium and 7 ppq for thorium. Results showed the most effective leaching reagent to be clean 6 M nitric acid for 72 hour exposures. Contamination levels for uranium and thorium found in the leachate solutions were significant for ultralow level radiation detection applications.« less

  10. Laser Embossing of Micro-and Submicrometer Surface Structures in Copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhardt, Martin; Lorenz, Pierre; Frost, Frank; Zimmer, Klaus

    Micro- and submicrometer structures have been transferred from nickel foils into solid copper surfaces by laser microembossing. The developed arrangement for laser microembossing allows a large-area replication using multi- pulse laser scanning scheme, guaranties a low contamination of the embossed surface and enables the utilization of thick workpieces. In the micrometer range the replicated patterns feature a high accuracy regarding the shape. A significant difference between the master and the replication pattern could be observed for the laser embossing of submicrometer patterns. In conclusion, the results show that the proposed laser embossing process is a promising method with a number of applications in microengineering.

  11. Evaluation of surface roughness of enamel after various bonding and clean-up procedures on enamel bonded with three different bonding agents: An in-vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Amit; Singh, Atul; Gupta, Tarun

    2017-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare the enamel surface roughness before bonding and after debonding, to find correlation between the adhesive remnant index and its effect on enamel surface roughness and to evaluate which clean-up method is most efficient to provide a smoother enamel surface. Material and Methods 135 premolars were divided into 3 groups containing 45 premolars in each group. Group I was bonded by using moisture insensitive primer, Group II by using conventional orthodontic adhesive and Group III by using self-etching primer. Each group was divided into 3 sub-groups on the basis of type of clean-up method applied i,e scaling followed by polishing, tungsten carbide bur and Sof-Lex disc. Enamel surface roughness was measured and compared before bonding and after clean-up. Results Evaluation of pre bonding and post clean-up enamel surface roughness (Ra value) with the t test showed that Post clean-up Ra values were greater than Pre bonding Ra values in all the groups except in teeth bonded with self-etching primer cleaned with Sof-Lex disc. Reliability of ARI score taken at different time interval tested with Kruskal Wallis test suggested that all the readings were reliable. Conclusions No clean-up procedure was able to restore the enamel to its original smoothness. Self-etching primer and Sof-Lex disc clean-up method combination restored the enamel surface roughness (Ra value) closest to its pre-treatment value. Key words:Enamel surface roughness, clean-up method, adhesive remnant index. PMID:28512535

  12. Rice- and butterfly-wing effect inspired self-cleaning and low drag micro/nanopatterned surfaces in water, oil, and air flow.

    PubMed

    Bixler, Gregory D; Bhushan, Bharat

    2014-01-07

    In search of new solutions to complex challenges, researchers are turning to living nature for inspiration. For example, special surface characteristics of rice leaves and butterfly wings combine the shark skin (anisotropic flow leading to low drag) and lotus leaf (superhydrophobic and self-cleaning) effects, producing the so-called rice and butterfly wing effect. In this paper, we study four microstructured surfaces inspired by rice leaves and fabricated with photolithography techniques. We also present a method of creating such surfaces using a hot embossing procedure for scaled-up manufacturing. Fluid drag, self-cleaning, contact angle, and contact angle hysteresis data are presented to understand the role of sample geometrical dimensions. Conceptual modeling provides design guidance when developing novel low drag, self-cleaning, and potentially antifouling surfaces for medical, marine, and industrial applications.

  13. Rice- and butterfly-wing effect inspired self-cleaning and low drag micro/nanopatterned surfaces in water, oil, and air flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bixler, Gregory D.; Bhushan, Bharat

    2013-12-01

    In search of new solutions to complex challenges, researchers are turning to living nature for inspiration. For example, special surface characteristics of rice leaves and butterfly wings combine the shark skin (anisotropic flow leading to low drag) and lotus leaf (superhydrophobic and self-cleaning) effects, producing the so-called rice and butterfly wing effect. In this paper, we study four microstructured surfaces inspired by rice leaves and fabricated with photolithography techniques. We also present a method of creating such surfaces using a hot embossing procedure for scaled-up manufacturing. Fluid drag, self-cleaning, contact angle, and contact angle hysteresis data are presented to understand the role of sample geometrical dimensions. Conceptual modeling provides design guidance when developing novel low drag, self-cleaning, and potentially antifouling surfaces for medical, marine, and industrial applications.

  14. Laser-Based Surface Modification of Microstructure for Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenfeng; Sun, Ting; Cao, Yu; Li, Shaolong; Liu, Chang; Tang, Qingru

    2018-05-01

    Bonding repair is a powerful feature of carbon fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRP). Based on the theory of interface bonding, the interface adhesion strength and reliability of the CFRP structure will be directly affected by the microscopic features of the CFRP surface, including the microstructure, physical, and chemical characteristics. In this paper, laser-based surface modification was compared to Peel-ply, grinding, and polishing to comparatively evaluate the surface microstructure of CFRP. The surface microstructure, morphology, fiber damage, height and space parameters were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser confocal microscopy (LCM). Relative to the conventional grinding process, laser modification of the CFRP surface can result in more uniform resin removal and better processing control and repeatability. This decreases the adverse impact of surface fiber fractures and secondary damage. The surface properties were significantly optimized, which has been reflected such things as the obvious improvement of surface roughness, microstructure uniformity, and actual area. The improved surface microstructure based on laser modification is more conducive to interface bonding of CFRP structure repair. This can enhance the interfacial adhesion strength and reliability of repair.

  15. CTE:YAG laser applications in dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shori, Ramesh K.; Fried, Daniel; Featherstone, John D. B.; Kokta, Milan R.; Duhn, Clifford W.

    1998-04-01

    The suitability of CTE:YAG laser radiation was investigated for caries preventive laser treatments and caries ablation. Although, CTE:YAG laser radiation at 2.69 micrometer is less highly absorbed by dental hard tissues than other erbium laser wavelengths, namely 2.79 and 2.94 micrometer, it can readily be transmitted through a conventional low hydroxyl fiber with minimal loss. These studies show that reasonable ablation rates and efficiencies are obtainable with both free running (200 microseconds) and Q-switched (100 ns) laser pulses on both dentin and enamel with the application of a relatively thick layer of water to the tissue surface. The water served to remove tissue char and debris from the ablation site leaving a clean crater. However, mechanical forces produced during the energetic ablative process resulted in peripheral mechanical damage to the tissue. Surface dissolution studies on enamel indicated that CTE:YAG radiation inhibited surface dissolution by organic acid by 60 - 70% compared to unirradiated controls, albeit, at fluences an order of magnitude higher than those required for CO2 laser radiation. This layer system may be suitable for dental hard tissue applications if mechanical damage can be mitigated. This work was supported by NIH/NIDR Grants R29DE12091 and R01DE09958.

  16. Laser-induced contamination control for high-power lasers in space-based LIDAR missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Jorge; Pettazzi, Federico; Tighe, Adrian; Wernham, Denny

    2017-11-01

    In the framework of the ADM-Aeolus satellite mission, successful test campaigns have been performed in ESTEC's laser laboratory, and the efficiency of several mitigation techniques against Laser-Induced Contamination (LIC) have been demonstrated for the ALADIN laser. These techniques include the standard contamination control methods of materials identification with particular tendency to cause LIC, reduction of the outgassing of organic materials by vacuum bake-out and shielding of optical surfaces from the contamination sources. Also novel mitigation methods such as in-situ cleaning via partial pressures, or the usage of molecular absorbers were demonstrated. In this context, a number of highly sensitive optical measurement techniques have been developed and tested to detect and monitor LIC deposits at nanometre level.

  17. Hierarchical laser-induced periodic surface structures induced by femtosecond laser on the surface of a ZnO film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shaojun; Jiang, Lan; Han, Weina; Hu, Jie; Li, Xiaowei; Wang, Qingsong; Lu, Yongfeng

    2018-05-01

    We realize hierarchical laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSSs) on the surface of a ZnO thin film in a single step by the irradiation of femtosecond laser pulses. The structures are characterized by the high-spatial-frequency LIPSSs (HSFLs) formed on the abnormal bumped low-spatial-frequency LIPSSs (LSFLs). Localized electric-field enhancement based on the initially formed LSFLs is proposed as a potential mechanism for the formation of HSFLs. The simulation results through the finite-difference time-domain method show good agreement with experiments. Furthermore, the crucial role of the LSFLs in the formation of HSFLs is validated by an elaborate experimental design with preprocessed HSFLs.

  18. Laser-assisted electrochemical micromachining of mould cavity on the stainless steel surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaohai; Wang, Shuming; Wang, Dong; Tong, Han

    2018-02-01

    In order to fabricate the micro mould cavities with complex structures on 304 stainless steel, laser-assisted electrochemical micromachining (EMM) based on surface modification by fiber laser masking was studied,and a new device of laser-assisted EMM was developed. Laser marking on the surface of 304 stainless steel can first be realized by fiber laser heating scanning. Through analysis of X ray diffraction analysis (XRD), metal oxide layer with predefined pattern can be formed by laser marking, and phase transformation can also occur on the 304 stainless steel surface, which produce the laser masking layer with corrosion resistance. The stainless steel surface with laser masking layer is subsequently etched by EMM, the laser masking layer severs as the temporary protective layer without relying on lithography mask, the fabrication of formed electrodes is also avoided, so micro pattern cavities can fast be fabricated. The impacts on machining accuracy during EMM with laser masking were discussed to optimize machining parameters, such as machining voltage, electrolyte concentration, duty cycle of pulse power supply and electrode gap size, the typical mould cavities 23μm deep were fabricated under the optimized parameters.

  19. A study of laser surface treatment in bonded repair of composite aircraft structures.

    PubMed

    Li, Shaolong; Sun, Ting; Liu, Chang; Yang, Wenfeng; Tang, Qingru

    2018-03-01

    Surface pre-treatment is one of the key processes in bonded repair of aircraft carbon fibre reinforced polymer composites. This paper investigates the surface modification of physical and chemical properties by laser ablation and conventional polish treatment techniques. Surface morphology analysed by laser scanning confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that a laser-treated surface displayed higher roughness than that of a polish-treated specimen. The laser-treated laminate exhibited more functional groups in the form of O 1 s/C 1 s atomic ratio of 30.89% for laser-treated and 20.14% for polish-treated as evidenced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy observation. Contact angle goniometry demonstrated that laser treatment can provide increased surface free energy and wettability. In the light of mechanical interlocking, molecular bonding and thermodynamics theories on adhesion, laser etching process displayed enhanced bonding performance relative to the polishing surface treatment. These properties resulted in an increased single lap shear strength and a cohesive failure mode for laser etching while an adhesive failure mode occurred in polish-treated specimen.

  20. A study of laser surface treatment in bonded repair of composite aircraft structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shaolong; Sun, Ting; Liu, Chang; Yang, Wenfeng; Tang, Qingru

    2018-03-01

    Surface pre-treatment is one of the key processes in bonded repair of aircraft carbon fibre reinforced polymer composites. This paper investigates the surface modification of physical and chemical properties by laser ablation and conventional polish treatment techniques. Surface morphology analysed by laser scanning confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that a laser-treated surface displayed higher roughness than that of a polish-treated specimen. The laser-treated laminate exhibited more functional groups in the form of O 1 s/C 1 s atomic ratio of 30.89% for laser-treated and 20.14% for polish-treated as evidenced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy observation. Contact angle goniometry demonstrated that laser treatment can provide increased surface free energy and wettability. In the light of mechanical interlocking, molecular bonding and thermodynamics theories on adhesion, laser etching process displayed enhanced bonding performance relative to the polishing surface treatment. These properties resulted in an increased single lap shear strength and a cohesive failure mode for laser etching while an adhesive failure mode occurred in polish-treated specimen.

  1. A study of laser surface treatment in bonded repair of composite aircraft structures

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ting; Liu, Chang; Yang, Wenfeng; Tang, Qingru

    2018-01-01

    Surface pre-treatment is one of the key processes in bonded repair of aircraft carbon fibre reinforced polymer composites. This paper investigates the surface modification of physical and chemical properties by laser ablation and conventional polish treatment techniques. Surface morphology analysed by laser scanning confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that a laser-treated surface displayed higher roughness than that of a polish-treated specimen. The laser-treated laminate exhibited more functional groups in the form of O 1 s/C 1 s atomic ratio of 30.89% for laser-treated and 20.14% for polish-treated as evidenced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy observation. Contact angle goniometry demonstrated that laser treatment can provide increased surface free energy and wettability. In the light of mechanical interlocking, molecular bonding and thermodynamics theories on adhesion, laser etching process displayed enhanced bonding performance relative to the polishing surface treatment. These properties resulted in an increased single lap shear strength and a cohesive failure mode for laser etching while an adhesive failure mode occurred in polish-treated specimen. PMID:29657748

  2. The threshold effects of Nd and Ho: YAG laser-induced surface modification on demineralization of dentin surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kinney, J H; Haupt, D L; Balooch, M; White, J M; Bell, W L; Marshall, S J; Marshall, G W

    1996-06-01

    Laser irradiation alters the structure of dentin and produces surface layers that give the appearance of being more enamel-like. The laser-modified surface may be more resistant to demineralization; hence, many investigators are proposing continued development of the laser as a possible preventive treatment for caries. The purpose of this study was to explore the morphological changes that occur in dentin when treated at threshold illuminance with two clinically interesting laser wavelengths, and to evaluate the effectiveness of the laser-treated surface at resisting demineralization in an acid-gel solution. The Nd: YAG laser (wavelength 1060 nm) produced significant recrystallization and grain growth of the apatite, without the formation of second phases such as beta-tricalcium phosphate. This recrystallized surface layer showed resistance to demineralization; however, the layer did not provide protection of the underlying dentin from demineralization because of cracks and macroscopic voids that allowed for penetration of the demineralizing gel. The Ho: YAG laser-treated surface (wavelength 2100 nm) did not show significant evidence of recrystallization and grain growth, and only a trace amount of an acid-resistant layer was observed with demineralization. It is speculated that the Ho:YAG laser is coupling with absorbed water, and that the heat transfer from the water to the mineral phase is inefficient. For the purposes of creating a demineralization-resistant layer, threshold illuminance with both Nd: YAG and Ho: YAG was ineffective.

  3. Laser-induced selective copper plating of polypropylene surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratautas, K.; Gedvilas, M.; Stankevičiene, I.; JagminienÄ--, A.; Norkus, E.; Li Pira, N.; Sinopoli, S.; Emanuele, U.; Račiukaitis, G.

    2016-03-01

    Laser writing for selective plating of electro-conductive lines for electronics has several significant advantages, compared to conventional printed circuit board technology. Firstly, this method is faster and cheaper at the prototyping stage. Secondly, material consumption is reduced, because it works selectively. However, the biggest merit of this method is potentiality to produce moulded interconnect device, enabling to create electronics on complex 3D surfaces, thus saving space, materials and cost of production. There are two basic techniques of laser writing for selective plating on plastics: the laser-induced selective activation (LISA) and laser direct structuring (LDS). In the LISA method, pure plastics without any dopant (filler) can be used. In the LDS method, special fillers are mixed in the polymer matrix. These fillers are activated during laser writing process, and, in the next processing step, the laser modified area can be selectively plated with metals. In this work, both methods of the laser writing for the selective plating of polymers were investigated and compared. For LDS approach, new material: polypropylene with carbon-based additives was tested using picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses. Different laser processing parameters (laser pulse energy, scanning speed, the number of scans, pulse durations, wavelength and overlapping of scanned lines) were applied in order to find out the optimal regime of activation. Areal selectivity tests showed a high plating resolution. The narrowest width of a copper-plated line was less than 23 μm. Finally, our material was applied to the prototype of the electronic circuit board on a 2D surface.

  4. The Cleaning of the Parthenon West Frieze by Means of Combined IR- and UV-Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frantzikinaki, K.; Marakis, G.; Panou, A.; Vasiliadis, C.; Papakonstantinou, E.; Pouli, P.; Ditsa, T.; Zafiropulos, Vassilis; Fotakis, Costas

    This chapter deals with the cleaning of the Parthenon West Frieze by means of an innovative laser cleaning methodology. Following a comparative study of various cleaning methods, laser cleaning was proven to be the most efficient method for the removal of loose deposits and black crusts. The laser system employed is a Q-switched Nd:YAG system emitting at the fundamental and the third harmonic frequencies designed and developed by FORTH-IESL. The system emits in two wavelength beams individually or in combination. This feature, along with possible modification of the laser parameters - energy density, number of pulses, the contribution of each beam to the final combined beam - for each individual case of encrustation and substrate (marble, monochromatic layers), leads to a safe and controlled cleaning result. The project commenced in 2002 and was completed in January 2005. Since then, the Parthenon West Frieze is on display at the Acropolis Museum in Athens, Greece.

  5. Surface smoothing of indium tin oxide film by laser-induced photochemical etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, JoonHyun; Kim, Young-Hwan; Kwon, Seok Joon; Park, Joon-Suh; Park, Kyoung Wan; Park, Jae-Gwan; Han, Il Ki

    2017-12-01

    Surface smoothing of indium tin oxide (ITO) film by laser irradiation was demonstrated. The ITO surface was etched by choline radicals, which were activated by laser irradiation at a wavelength of 532 nm. The RMS surface roughness was improved from 5.6 to 4.6 nm after 10 min of laser irradiation. We also showed the changes in the surface morphology of the ITO film with various irradiation powers and times.

  6. Modern technologies for improving cleaning and disinfection of environmental surfaces in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Boyce, John M

    2016-01-01

    Experts agree that careful cleaning and disinfection of environmental surfaces are essential elements of effective infection prevention programs. However, traditional manual cleaning and disinfection practices in hospitals are often suboptimal. This is often due in part to a variety of personnel issues that many Environmental Services departments encounter. Failure to follow manufacturer's recommendations for disinfectant use and lack of antimicrobial activity of some disinfectants against healthcare-associated pathogens may also affect the efficacy of disinfection practices. Improved hydrogen peroxide-based liquid surface disinfectants and a combination product containing peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide are effective alternatives to disinfectants currently in widespread use, and electrolyzed water (hypochlorous acid) and cold atmospheric pressure plasma show potential for use in hospitals. Creating "self-disinfecting" surfaces by coating medical equipment with metals such as copper or silver, or applying liquid compounds that have persistent antimicrobial activity surfaces are additional strategies that require further investigation. Newer "no-touch" (automated) decontamination technologies include aerosol and vaporized hydrogen peroxide, mobile devices that emit continuous ultraviolet (UV-C) light, a pulsed-xenon UV light system, and use of high-intensity narrow-spectrum (405 nm) light. These "no-touch" technologies have been shown to reduce bacterial contamination of surfaces. A micro-condensation hydrogen peroxide system has been associated in multiple studies with reductions in healthcare-associated colonization or infection, while there is more limited evidence of infection reduction by the pulsed-xenon system. A recently completed prospective, randomized controlled trial of continuous UV-C light should help determine the extent to which this technology can reduce healthcare-associated colonization and infections. In conclusion, continued efforts to

  7. Matrix addressable vertical cavity surface emitting laser array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orenstein, M.; von Lehmen, A. C.; Chang-Hasnain, C.; Stoffel, N. G.; Harbison, J. P.

    1991-02-01

    The design, fabrication and characterization of 1024-element matrix-addressable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) arrays are described. A strained InGaAs quantum-well VCSEL structure was grown by MBE, and an array of 32 x 32 lasers was defined using a proton implantation process. A matrix addressing architecture was employed, which enables the individual addressing of each of the 1024 lasers using only 64 electrical contacts. All the lasers in the array, measured after the laser definition step, were operating with fairly homogeneous characteristics; threshold current of 6.8 mA and output quantum differential efficiency of about 8 percent.

  8. Cavitation effects in ultrasonic cleaning baths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glasscock, Barbara H.

    1995-01-01

    In this project, the effect of cavitation from aqueous ultrasonic cleaning on the surfaces of metal and non-metal sample coupons was studied. After twenty cleaning cycles, the mass loss from the aluminum coupons averaged 0.22 mg/sq cm surface area and 0.014 mg/sq cm for both stainless steel and titanium. The aluminum coupons showed visual evidence of minor cavitation erosion in regions of previously existing surface irregularities. The non-metal samples showed some periods of mass gain. These effects are believed to have minor impact on hardware being cleaned, but should be evaluated in the context of specific hardware requirements. Also the ultrasonic activity in the large cleaning baths was found to be unevenly distributed as measured by damage to sheets of aluminum foil. It is therefore recommended that items being cleaned in an ultrasonic bath be moved or conveyed during the cleaning to more evenly distribute the cavitation action provide more uniform cleaning.

  9. Microreplication of laser-fabricated surface and three-dimensional structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koroleva, Anastasia; Schlie, Sabrina; Fadeeva, Elena; Gittard, Shaun D.; Miller, Philip; Ovsianikov, Aleksandr; Koch, Jürgen; Narayan, Roger J.; Chichkov, Boris N.

    2010-12-01

    The fabrication of defined surface topographies and three-dimensional structures is a challenging process for various applications, e.g. in photonics and biomedicine. Laser-based technologies provide a promising approach for the production of such structures. The advantages of femtosecond laser ablation and two-photon polymerization for microstructuring are well known. However, these methods cannot be applied to all materials and are limited by their high cost and long production time. In this study, biomedical applications of an indirect rapid prototyping, molding microreplication of laser-fabricated two- and three-dimensional structures are examined. We demonstrate that by this method any laser-generated surface topography as well as three-dimensional structures can be replicated in various materials without losing the original geometry. The replication into multiple copies enables fast and perfect reproducibility of original microstructures for investigations of cell-surface interactions. Compared to unstructured materials, we observe that microstructures have strong influence on morphology and localization of fibroblasts, whereas neuroblastoma cells are not negatively affected.

  10. [Examination of laser-treated tooth surfaces after exposure to acid].

    PubMed

    Beeking, P O; Herrmann, C; Zuhrt, R

    1990-12-01

    In principle it is possible to homogenize the enamel surface by melting structural elements with the continuous wave CO2 laser. An experimental caries model was used for testing the acid resistance of the laser exposed tooth surfaces. Laser-treatment and measured exposure to acid produced zones of homogeneous smelting with microcracks and disintegration symptoms. Underneath the melted region the heat leakage obviously causes photo-thermic++ effects determined by increased resistance to acid.

  11. Avalanche boron fusion by laser picosecond block ignition with magnetic trapping for clean and economic reactor

    DOE PAGES

    Hora, H.; Korn, G.; Eliezer, S.; ...

    2016-10-11

    Measured highly elevated gains of proton–boron (HB11) fusion (Picciottoet al., Phys. Rev. X4, 031030 (2014)) confirmed the exceptional avalanche reaction process (Lalousiset al., Laser Part. Beams 32, 409 (2014); Horaet al., Laser Part. Beams33, 607 (2015)) for the combination of the non-thermal block ignition using ultrahigh intensity laser pulses of picoseconds duration. The ultrahigh accelerationabovemore » $$10^{20}~\\text{cm}~\\text{s}^{-2}$$ for plasma blocks was theoretically and numerically predicted since 1978 (Hora,Physics of Laser Driven Plasmas(Wiley, 1981), pp. 178 and 179) and measured (Sauerbrey, Phys. Plasmas3, 4712 (1996)) in exact agreement (Horaet al., Phys. Plasmas14, 072701 (2007)) when the dominating force was overcoming thermal processes. This is based on Maxwell’s stress tensor by the dielectric properties of plasma leading to the nonlinear (ponderomotive) force $$f_{\\text{NL}}$$ resulting in ultra-fast expanding plasma blocks by a dielectric explosion. Combining this with measured ultrahigh magnetic fields and the avalanche process opens an option for an environmentally absolute clean and economic boron fusion power reactor. Finally, this is supported also by other experiments with very high HB11 reactions under different conditions (Labauneet al., Nature Commun.4, 2506 (2013)).« less

  12. Formation of organic layer on femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasumaru, Naoki; Sentoku, Eisuke; Kiuchi, Junsuke

    2017-05-01

    Two types of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) formed on titanium by femtosecond (fs) laser pulses (λ = 800 nm, τ = 180 fs, ν = 1 kHz) in air were investigated experimentally. At a laser fluence F above the ablation threshold, LIPSS with a minimum mean spacing of D < λ⁄2 were observed perpendicular to the laser polarization direction. In contrast, for F slightly below than the ablation threshold, ultrafine LIPSS with a minimum value of D < λ/10 were formed parallel to the polarization direction. The surface roughness of the parallel-oriented LIPSS was almost the same as that of the non-irradiated surface, unlike the high roughness of the perpendicular-oriented LIPSS. In addition, although the surface state of the parallel-oriented LIPSS was the same as that of the non-irradiated surface, the perpendicular-oriented LIPSS were covered with an organic thin film similar to a cellulose derivative that cannot be easily formed by conventional chemical synthesis. The results of these surface analyses indicate that these two types of LIPSS are formed through different mechanisms. This fs-laser processing technique may become a new technology for the artificial synthesis of cellulose derivatives.

  13. Surface transmission enhancement of ZnS via continuous-wave laser microstructuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Major, Kevin J.; Florea, Catalin M.; Poutous, Menelaos K.; Busse, Lynda E.; Sanghera, Jasbinder S.; Aggarwal, Ishwar D.

    2014-03-01

    Fresnel reflectivity at dielectric boundaries between optical components, lenses, and windows is a major issue for the optics community. The most common method to reduce the index mismatch and subsequent surface reflection is to apply a thin film or films of intermediate indices to the optical materials. More recently, surface texturing or roughening has been shown to approximate a stepwise refractive index thin-film structure, with a gradient index of refraction transition from the bulk material to the surrounding medium. Short-pulse laser ablation is a recently-utilized method to produce such random anti-reflective structured surfaces (rARSS). Typically, high-energy femtosecond pulsed lasers are focused on the surface of the desired optical material to produce periodic or quasi-periodic assemblies of nanostructures which provide reduced surface reflection. This technique is being explored to generate a variety of structures across multiple optical materials. However, femtosecond laser systems are relatively expensive and more difficult to maintain. We present here a low power and low-cost alternative to femtosecond laser ablation, demonstrating random antireflective structures on the surface of Cleartran ZnS windows produced with a continuous-wave laser. In particular, we find that irradiation with a low-powered (<10 mW), defocused, CW 325nm-wavelength laser produces a random surface with significant roughness on ZnS substrates. The transmission through the structured ZnS windows is shown to increase by up to 9% across a broad wavelength range from the visible to the near-infrared.

  14. Self-cleaning antimicrobial surfaces by bio-enabled growth of SnO2 coatings on glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Rute; Natalio, Filipe; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Berger, Rüdiger; Tremel, Wolfgang

    2013-03-01

    Conventional vapor-deposition techniques for coatings require sophisticated equipment and/or high-temperature resistant substrates. Therefore bio-inspired techniques for the fabrication of inorganic coatings have been developed in recent years. Inspired by the biology behind the formation of the intricate skeletons of diatoms orchestrated by a class of cationic polyamines (silaffins) we have used surface-bound spermine, a naturally occurring polyamine, to promote the fast deposition of homogeneous, thin and transparent biomimetic SnO2 coatings on glass surfaces. The bio-enabled SnO2 film is highly photoactive, i.e. it generates superoxide radicals (O2&z.rad;-) upon sunlight exposure resulting in a strong degradation of organic contaminants and a strong antimicrobial activity. Upon illumination the biomimetic SnO2 coating exhibits a switchable amphiphilic behavior, which - in combination with its photoactivity - creates a self-cleaning surface. The intrinsic self-cleaning properties could lead to the development of new protective, antifouling coatings on various substrates.Conventional vapor-deposition techniques for coatings require sophisticated equipment and/or high-temperature resistant substrates. Therefore bio-inspired techniques for the fabrication of inorganic coatings have been developed in recent years. Inspired by the biology behind the formation of the intricate skeletons of diatoms orchestrated by a class of cationic polyamines (silaffins) we have used surface-bound spermine, a naturally occurring polyamine, to promote the fast deposition of homogeneous, thin and transparent biomimetic SnO2 coatings on glass surfaces. The bio-enabled SnO2 film is highly photoactive, i.e. it generates superoxide radicals (O2&z.rad;-) upon sunlight exposure resulting in a strong degradation of organic contaminants and a strong antimicrobial activity. Upon illumination the biomimetic SnO2 coating exhibits a switchable amphiphilic behavior, which - in combination with its

  15. Laser surface alloying on aluminum and its alloys: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Yiming; Gu, Guochao; Yu, Huijun; Chen, Chuanzhong

    2018-01-01

    Aluminum and its alloys have been widely used in aerospace, automotive and transportation industries owing to their excellent properties such as high specific strength, good ductility and light weight. Surface modification is of crucial importance to the surface properties of aluminum and its alloys since high coefficient of friction, wear characteristics and low hardness have limited their long term performance. Laser surface alloying is one of the most effective methods of producing proper microstructure by means of non-equilibrium solidification which results from rapid heating and cooling. In this paper, the influence of different processing parameters, such as laser power and scanning velocity is discussed. The developments of various material systems including ceramics, metals or alloys, and metal matrix composites (MMCs) are reviewed. The microstructure, hardness, wear properties and other behaviors of laser treated layer are analyzed. Besides, the existing problems during laser surface treatment and the corresponding solutions are elucidated and the future developments are predicted.

  16. Lotus-on-chip: computer-aided design and 3D direct laser writing of bioinspired surfaces for controlling the wettability of materials and devices.

    PubMed

    Lantada, Andrés Díaz; Hengsbach, Stefan; Bade, Klaus

    2017-10-16

    In this study we present the combination of a math-based design strategy with direct laser writing as high-precision technology for promoting solid free-form fabrication of multi-scale biomimetic surfaces. Results show a remarkable control of surface topography and wettability properties. Different examples of surfaces inspired on the lotus leaf, which to our knowledge are obtained for the first time following a computer-aided design with this degree of precision, are presented. Design and manufacturing strategies towards microfluidic systems whose fluid driving capabilities are obtained just by promoting a design-controlled wettability of their surfaces, are also discussed and illustrated by means of conceptual proofs. According to our experience, the synergies between the presented computer-aided design strategy and the capabilities of direct laser writing, supported by innovative writing strategies to promote final size while maintaining high precision, constitute a relevant step forward towards materials and devices with design-controlled multi-scale and micro-structured surfaces for advanced functionalities. To our knowledge, the surface geometry of the lotus leaf, which has relevant industrial applications thanks to its hydrophobic and self-cleaning behavior, has not yet been adequately modeled and manufactured in an additive way with the degree of precision that we present here.

  17. Research on temperature field of KDP crystal under ion beam cleaning.

    PubMed

    Li, Furen; Xie, Xuhui; Tie, Guipeng; Hu, Hao; Zhou, Lin

    2016-06-20

    KH2PO4 (KDP) crystal is a kind of excellent nonlinear optical component used as a laser frequency conversion unit in a high-power laser system. However, KDP crystal has raised a huge challenge in regards to its fabrication for high precision: KDP crystal has special physical and chemical characteristics. Abrasive-free water-dissolution magnetorheological finishing is used in KDP figuring in our lab. But the iron powders of MRF fluid are easily embedded into the soft surface of KDP crystal, which will greatly decrease the laser-induced damage resistance. This paper proposes to utilize ion beam figuring (IBF) technology to figure and clean the surface of a KDP component. Although IBF has many good performances, the thermal effect control is a headachy problem for the KDP process. To solve this problem, we have established its thermal effect models, which are used to calculate a component's surface temperature and thermal gradient in the whole process. By this way, we can understand how to control a temperature map and its gradient in the IBF process. Many experiments have been done to validate and optimize this method. Finally, a KDP component with the size of 200×200×12  mm is successfully processed by this method.

  18. Method for Selective Cleaning of Mold Release from Composite Honeycomb Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pugel, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Honeycomb structures are commonly employed as load- and force-bearing structures as they are structurally strong and lightweight. Manufacturing processes for heat-molded composite honeycomb structures commence with the placement of pre-impregnated composite layups over metal mandrels. To prevent permanent bonding between the composite layup and the metal mandrels, an agent, known as a mold release agent, is used. Mold release agents allow the molded composite material to be removed from mandrels after a heat-forming process. Without a specific removal process, mold release agents may continue to adhere to the surface of the composite material, thereby affecting the bonding of other materials that may come into contact with the composite surface in later stages of processing A constituent common to commercially available household cleaning agents is employed for the removal of mold release agents common to the manufacturing of heat-formed composite materials. The reliability of the solvent has been proven by the longevity and reliability of commercial household cleaners. At the time of this reporting, no one has attempted using constituent for this purpose. The material to be cleaned is immersed in the solution, vertically removed so that the solution is allowed to drain along cell walls and into a solvent bath, and then placed on a compressed airflow table for drying.

  19. Root Surface Bio-modification with Erbium Lasers- A Myth or a Reality??

    PubMed Central

    Lavu, Vamsi; Sundaram, Subramoniam; Sabarish, Ram; Rao, Suresh Ranga

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this literature review was to critically review the evidence available in the literature regarding the expediency of erbium family of lasers for root bio modification as a part of periodontal therapy. The literature search was performed on the Pubmed using MeSH words such as "lasers/therapeutic use, scaling, dental calculus, tooth root/anatomy and histology, ultrasonic therapy". The studies were screened and were grouped as follows: those evaluating a) efficacy for calculus removal with the Erbium family of laser b) root surface changes following Er YAG and Er Cr YSGG application c) comparative studies of the Er YAG, Er Cr YSGG lasers versus conventional methods of root surface modification d) Bio compatibility of root surface following Erbium laser treatment e) Studies on the combined efficacy of laser root modification with conventional methods towards root surface bio-modification f) Studies on effectiveness of root surface bio-modification prior to root coverage procedures. In conclusion, the erbium family has a proven anti-bacterial action, predictable calculus removal, minimal root substance removal, and appears to favor cell attachment. The Erbium family of lasers appears to be a useful adjunct for the management of periodontal disease. PMID:25713635

  20. Nanosecond laser coloration on stainless steel surface.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan; Shi, Xinying; Huang, Zhongjia; Li, Taohai; Zhang, Meng; Czajkowski, Jakub; Fabritius, Tapio; Huttula, Marko; Cao, Wei

    2017-08-02

    In this work, we present laser coloration on 304 stainless steel using nanosecond laser. Surface modifications are tuned by adjusting laser parameters of scanning speed, repetition rate, and pulse width. A comprehensive study of the physical mechanism leading to the appearance is presented. Microscopic patterns are measured and employed as input to simulate light-matter interferences, while chemical states and crystal structures of composites to figure out intrinsic colors. Quantitative analysis clarifies the final colors and RGB values are the combinations of structural colors and intrinsic colors from the oxidized pigments, with the latter dominating. Therefore, the engineering and scientific insights of nanosecond laser coloration highlight large-scale utilization of the present route for colorful and resistant steels.

  1. Direct femtosecond laser surface structuring of crystalline silicon at 400 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nivas, Jijil JJ; Anoop, K. K.; Bruzzese, Riccardo; Philip, Reji; Amoruso, Salvatore

    2018-03-01

    We have analyzed the effects of the laser pulse wavelength (400 nm) on femtosecond laser surface structuring of silicon. The features of the produced surface structures are investigated as a function of the number of pulses, N, and compared with the surface textures produced by more standard near-infrared (800 nm) laser pulses at a similar level of excitation. Our experimental findings highlight the importance of the light wavelength for the formation of the supra-wavelength grooves, and, for a large number of pulses (N ≈ 1000), the generation of other periodic structures (stripes) at 400 nm, which are not observed at 800 nm. These results provide interesting information on the generation of various surface textures, addressing the effect of the laser pulse wavelength on the generation of grooves and stripes.

  2. Planarization of Isolated Defects on ICF Target Capsule Surfaces by Pulsed Laser Ablation

    DOE PAGES

    Alfonso, Noel; Carlson, Lane C.; Bunn, Thomas L.

    2016-08-09

    Demanding surface quality requirements for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules motivated the development of a pulsed laser ablation method to reduce or eliminate undesirable surface defects. The pulsed laser ablation technique takes advantage of a full surface (4π) capsule manipulation system working in combination with an optical profiling (confocal) microscope. Based on the defect topography, the material removal rate, the laser pulse energy and its beam profile, a customized laser raster pattern is derived to remove the defect. The pattern is a table of coordinates and number of pulses that dictate how the defect will be vaporized until its heightmore » is level with the capsule surface. This paper explains how the raster patterns are optimized to minimize surface roughness and how surface roughness after laser ablation is simulated. The simulated surfaces are compared with actual ablated surfaces. Large defects are reduced to a size regime where a tumble finishing process produces very high quality surfaces devoid of high mode defects. The combined polishing processes of laser ablation and tumble finishing have become routine fabrication steps for National Ignition Facility capsule production.« less

  3. Laser texturing of Hastelloy C276 alloy surface for improved hydrophobicity and friction coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Ali, H.

    2016-03-01

    Laser treatment of Hastelloy C276 alloy is carried out under the high pressure nitrogen assisting gas environment. Morphological and metallurgical changes in the laser treated layer are examined using the analytical tools including, scanning electron and atomic force microscopes, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Microhardness is measured and the residual stress formed in the laser treated surface is determined from the X-ray data. The hydrophibicity of the laser treated surface is assessed using the sessile drop method. Friction coefficient of the laser treated layer is obtained incorporating the micro-tribometer. It is found that closely spaced laser canning tracks create a self-annealing effect in the laser treated layer and lowers the thermal stress levels through modifying the cooling rates at the surface. A dense structure, consisting of fine size grains, enhances the microhardness of the surface. The residual stress formed at the surface is compressive and it is in the order of -800 MPa. Laser treatment improves the surface hydrophobicity significantly because of the formation of surface texture composing of micro/nano-pillars.

  4. UV and IR laser radiation's interaction with metal film and teflon surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedenev, A. V.; Alekseev, S. B.; Goncharenko, I. M.; Koval', N. N.; Lipatov, E. I.; Orlovskii, V. M.; Shulepov, M. A.; Tarasenko, V. F.

    2003-04-01

    The interaction of Xe ([lambda] [similar] 1.73 [mu]m) and XeCl (0.308 [mu]m) laser radiation with surfaces of metal and TiN-ceramic coatings on glass and steel substrates has been studied. Correlation between parameters of surface erosion versus laser-specific energy was investigated. Monitoring of laser-induced erosion on smooth polished surfaces was performed using optical microscopy. The correlation has been revealed between characteristic zones of thin coatings damaged by irradiation and energy distribution over the laser beam cross section allowing evaluation of defects and adhesion of coatings. The interaction of pulsed periodical CO2 ([lambda] [similar] 10.6 [mu]m), and Xe ([lambda] [similar] 1.73 [mu]m) laser radiation with surfaces of teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene—PTFE) has been studied. Monitoring of erosion track on surfaces was performed through optical microscopy. It has been shown that at pulsed periodical CO2-radiation interaction with teflon the sputtering of polymer with formation of submicron-size particles occurs. Dependencies of particle sizes, form, and sputtering velocity on laser pulse duration and target temperature have been obtained.

  5. Laser surface modification of Ti and TiC coatings on magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. M.; Lee, S. G.; Park, J. S.; Kim, H. G.

    2014-12-01

    In order to enhance the surface properties of magnesium alloy, a highly intense laser surface melting process following plasma spraying of Ti or TiC on AZ31 alloy were employed. When laser surface melting was applied to Ti coated magnesium alloy, the formation of fine Ti particle dispersed surface layer on the substrate occurred. The corrosion potential of the AZ31 alloy with Ti dispersed surface was significantly increased in 3.5 wt % NaCl solution. Additionally, an improved hardness was observed for the laser treated specimens as compared to the untreated AZ31 alloy. Laser melting process following plasma thermal deposition was also applied for obtaining in situ TiC coating layer on AZ31 alloy. The TiC coating layer could be successfully formed via in situ reaction between pure titanium and carbon powders. Incomplete TiC formation was observed in the plasma sprayed specimen, while completely transformed TiC layer was found after post laser melting process. It was also confirmed that the laser post treatment induced enhanced adhesion strength between the coating and the substrate.

  6. Study on elucidation of bactericidal effects induced by laser beam irradiation Measurement of dynamic stress on laser irradiated surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furumoto, Tatsuaki; Kasai, Atsushi; Tachiya, Hiroshi; Hosokawa, Akira; Ueda, Takashi

    2010-09-01

    In dental treatment, many types of laser beams have been used for various surgical treatments, and the influences of laser beam irradiation on bactericidal effect have been investigated. However, most of the work has been performed by irradiating to an agar plate with the colony of bacteria, and very few studies have been reported on the physical mechanism of bactericidal effects induced by laser beam irradiation. This paper deals with the measurement of dynamic stress induced in extracted human enamel by irradiation with Nd:YAG laser beams. Laser beams can be delivered to the enamel surface through a quartz optical fiber. Dynamic stress induced in the specimen using elastic wave propagation in a cylindrical long bar made of aluminum alloy is measured. Laser induced stress intensity is evaluated from dynamic strain measured by small semiconductor strain gauges. Carbon powder and titanium dioxide powder were applied to the human enamel surface as absorbents. Additionally, the phenomenon of laser beam irradiation to the human enamel surface was observed with an ultrahigh speed video camera. Results showed that a plasma was generated on the enamel surface during laser beam irradiation, and the melted tissues were scattered in the vertical direction against the enamel surface with a mushroom-like wave. Averaged scattering velocity of the melted tissues was 25.2 m/s. Induced dynamic stress on the enamel surface increased with increasing laser energy in each absorbent. Induced dynamic stresses with titanium dioxide powder were superior to those with carbon powder. Induced dynamic stress was related to volume of prepared cavity, and induced stress for the removal of unit volume of human enamel was 0.03 Pa/mm 3.

  7. INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SEMICONDUCTOR INJECTION LASERS SELCO-87: Surface effects in laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beister, G.; Maege, J.; Richter, G.

    1988-11-01

    Changes in the current-voltage characteristics below the threshold current were observed in gain-guided stripe laser diodes after preliminary lasing. This effect was not fully understood. Similar changes in the laser characteristics appeared as a result of etching in a gaseous medium. The observed changes were attributed tentatively to surface currents.

  8. AlxGa1-xAs Single-Quantum-Well Surface-Emitting Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jae H.

    1992-01-01

    Surface-emitting solid-state laser contains edge-emitting Al0.08Ga0.92As single-quantum-well (SQW) active layer sandwiched between graded-index-of-refraction separate-confinement-heterostructure (GRINSCH) layers of AlxGa1-xAs, includes etched 90 degree mirrors and 45 degree facets to direct edge-emitted beam perpendicular to top surface. Laser resembles those described in "Pseudomorphic-InxGa1-xAs Surface-Emitting Lasers" (NPO-18243). Suitable for incorporation into optoelectronic integrated circuits for photonic computing; e.g., optoelectronic neural networks.

  9. Laser surface structuring of AZ31 Mg alloy for controlled wettability.

    PubMed

    Gökhan Demir, Ali; Furlan, Valentina; Lecis, Nora; Previtali, Barbara

    2014-06-01

    Structured surfaces exhibit functional properties that can enhance the performance of a bioimplant in terms of biocompatibility, adhesion, or corrosion behavior. In order to tailor the surface property, chemical and physical methods can be used in a sequence of many steps. On the other hand, laser surface processing can provide a single step solution to achieve the designated surface function with the use of simpler equipment and high repeatability. This work provides the details on the surface structuring of AZ31, a biocompatible and biodegradable Mg alloy, by a single-step laser surface structuring based on remelting. The surfaces are characterized in terms of topography, chemistry, and physical integrity, as well as the effective change in the surface wetting behavior is demonstrated. The results imply a great potential in local or complete surface structuring of medical implants for functionalization by the flexible positioning of the laser beam.

  10. Supersonic Gas-Liquid Cleaning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, Frank

    1996-01-01

    The Supersonic Gas-Liquid Cleaning System Research Project consisted mainly of a feasibility study, including theoretical and engineering analysis, of a proof-of-concept prototype of this particular cleaning system developed by NASA-KSC. The cleaning system utilizes gas-liquid supersonic nozzles to generate high impingement velocities at the surface of the device to be cleaned. The cleaning fluid being accelerated to these high velocities may consist of any solvent or liquid, including water. Compressed air or any inert gas is used to provide the conveying medium for the liquid, as well as substantially reduce the total amount of liquid needed to perform adequate surface cleaning and cleanliness verification. This type of aqueous cleaning system is considered to be an excellent way of conducting cleaning and cleanliness verification operations as replacements for the use of CFC 113 which must be discontinued by 1995. To utilize this particular cleaning system in various cleaning applications for both the Space Program and the commercial market, it is essential that the cleaning system, especially the supersonic nozzle, be characterized for such applications. This characterization consisted of performing theoretical and engineering analysis, identifying desirable modifications/extensions to the basic concept, evaluating effects of variations in operating parameters, and optimizing hardware design for specific applications.

  11. Antibacterial Effect of Diode Laser in Pulpectomy of Primary Teeth.

    PubMed

    Bahrololoomi, Zahra; Fekrazad, Reza; Zamaninejad, Shiva

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Laser irradiation has been suggested as an adjunct to traditional methods of canal preparation but few studies are available on the antibacterial effect of diode laser in pulpectomy of primary teeth. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the antibacterial effect of diode laser in pulpectomy of primary teeth, in addition to define the optimal and harmless diode lasing conditions in the root canal. Methods: A total of 125 single rooted primary teeth were selected. After traditional canal cleaning, they were divided in 2 groups. Sixty-five specimens after culturing of Enterococcus faecalis into the canals, were divided in 3 groups: (1) traditional canal cleaning with 0.5% NaOCl irrigation, (2) method of group 1+ 1.5 W diode laser (980 nm, pulse), (3) without treatment (5 specimens). Then the specimens were cultured and after colony counting under light microscope, were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. For 60 specimens, temperature rise of apical and cervical parts of the external root surface were measured using 2 thermocouple type K, when radiating a 1.5 W diode laser into the canal. Results: In the first experiment, the diode laser group showed tmost reduction in bacterial count. And in the second experiment, the mean temperature rise of external root surface was less than the threshold of periodontal ligament (PDL) damage. Conclusion: Diode laser with a power output of 1.5 W, is effective in reduction of E. faecalis bacterial count without damaging periodontal structures.

  12. Subnanosecond-laser-induced periodic surface structures on prescratched silicon substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hongo, Motoharu; Matsuo, Shigeki

    2016-06-01

    Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) were fabricated on a prescratched silicon surface by irradiation with subnanosecond laser pulses. Low-spatial-frequency LIPSS (LSFL) were observed in the central and peripheral regions; both had a period Λ close to the laser wavelength λ, and the wavevector orientation was parallel to the electric field of the laser beam. The LSFL in the peripheral region seemed to be growing, that is, expanding in length with increasing number of pulses, into the outer regions. In addition, high-spatial-frequency LIPSS, Λ ≲ λ /2, were found along the scratches, and their wavevector orientation was parallel to the scratches.

  13. Laser surface alloying of coins for authenticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhu; Watkins, Kenneth G.; Steen, William M.; Hatherley, P. G.

    1997-08-01

    This paper presents an exploratory investigation on verifying the feasibility of using a laser surface alloying technique to produce designs in the surface of coinage blanks. The specific aim of the work concerns the production of design features in coins that are difficult to produce by other techniques and which hence act as a barrier to forgery and features which permit automatic recognition in vending machines, particularly as a means of establishing the authenticity of the coins. Coins in many countries today are commonly manufactured from metal composites, where one substrate metal or alloy is coated with another by a process of electrodeposition or by mechanical bonding. The technique here described entails the use of a high power CO2 laser to bring about localized melting of the two layers. Visible distinction between alloyed and unalloyed regions or difference in other physical properties such as conductivity or magnetic properties can be obtained. The work also involved a fundamental study of the influence of the thermal properties of the materials on the CO2 laser alloying process. It was found that the thermal properties such as thermal conductivity of the substrate materials and the difference of the melting points between the coating layer and the substrate materials played an important role in the process. Laser control variables required for localized alloying for different substrate and coatings types were determined. The influence of both thermal properties and laser control variables on alloy type and alloy depth were investigated. Initial work on coin validation showed promising results of an automatic recognition of laser treated coins.

  14. Laser Surface Alloying of Copper, Manganese, and Magnesium with Pure Aluminum Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiru, Woldetinsay G.; Sankar, M. Ravi; Dixit, Uday S.

    2016-03-01

    Laser surface alloying is one of the recent technologies used in the manufacturing sector for improving the surface properties of the metals. Light weight materials like aluminum alloys, titanium alloys, and magnesium alloys are used in the locomotive, aerospace, and structural applications. In the present work, an experimental study was conducted to improve the surface hardness of commercially pure aluminum plate. CO2 laser is used to melt pre-placed powders of pure copper, manganese, and magnesium. Microstructure of alloyed surface was analyzed using optical microscope. The best surface alloying was obtained at the optimum values of laser parameters, viz., laser power, scan speed, and laser beam diameter. In the alloyed region, microhardness increased from 30 HV0.5 to 430 HV0.5, while it was 60 HV0.5 in the heat-affected region. Tensile tests revealed some reduction in the strength and total elongation due to alloying. On the other hand, corrosion resistance improved.

  15. Cheap non-toxic non-corrosive method of glass cleaning evaluated by contact angle, AFM, and SEM-EDX measurements.

    PubMed

    Dey, Tania; Naughton, Daragh

    2017-05-01

    Glass surface cleaning is the very first step in advanced coating deposition and it also finds use in conserving museum objects. However, most of the wet chemical methods of glass cleaning use toxic and corrosive chemicals like concentrated sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ), piranha (a mixture of concentrated sulfuric acid and 30% hydrogen peroxide), and hydrogen fluoride (HF). On the other hand, most of the dry cleaning techniques like UV-ozone, plasma, and laser treatment require costly instruments. In this report, five eco-friendly wet chemical methods of glass cleaning were evaluated in terms of contact angle (measured by optical tensiometer), nano-scale surface roughness (measured by atomic force microscopy or AFM), and elemental composition (measured by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy or SEM-EDX). These glass cleaning methods are devoid of harsh chemicals and costly equipment, hence can be applied in situ in close proximity with plantation such as greenhouse or upon subtle objects such as museum artifacts. Out of these five methods, three methods are based on the chemical principle of chelation. It was found that the citric acid cleaning method gave the greatest change in contact angle within the hydrophilic regime (14.25° for new glass) indicating effective cleansing and the least surface roughness (0.178 nm for new glass) indicating no corrosive effect. One of the glass sample showed unique features which were traced backed to the history of the glass usage.

  16. Effects of laser-aided circumferential supracrestal fiberotomy on root surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Won; Park, Ki-Ho; Chung, Jong-Hyuk; Kim, Su-Jung

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate and compare the effects of circumferential supracrestal fiberotomy in vivo (using diode, CO(2), and Er∶YAG lasers) on the morphology and chemical composition of the root surface. Forty healthy premolar teeth, intended for extraction for orthodontic reasons, were used in this study. Root surfaces were treated using different laser methods, as follows: (1) control; (2) Er∶YAG laser (2.94 µm, 100 mJ, 10 Hz); (3) diode laser (808 nm, 1.2 W, continuous wave); and (4) CO(2) laser (10.6 µm, 3 W, continuous wave). Subsequently, the teeth were removed and subjected to scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examination and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectrometric analysis. SEM analysis indicated that no thermal changes, including melting or carbonization, were observed following the lasing procedures. EDX analysis showed that the laser procedures resulted in similar mineral contents (weight % of calcium and phosphate) as compared to those in the control group. Based on these findings, we concluded that laser-aided procedures, when used at appropriate laser settings, preserve the original morphology and chemical composition of cementum.

  17. Ultrafast laser-induced reproducible nano-gratings on a molybdenum surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dar, Mudasir H.; Saad, Nabil A.; Sahoo, Chakradhar; Naraharisetty, Sri Ram G.; Rao Desai, Narayana

    2017-02-01

    Wavelength-dependent reproducible nano-gratings were produced on a bulk molybdenum surface upon irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses at near normal incidence in ambient air and water environments. The surface morphology of the irradiated surfaces was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The ripple spacing was observed to decrease by half when the surface was irradiated with the second harmonic of the fundamental 800 nm radiation. Careful choice of the laser parameters such as fluence, scanning speed, polarization and wavelength were observed to be important for the formation of smooth periodic ripples. The mechanism of formation of polarization-dependent periodic ripples is explained based on the interference model. We also demonstrated the use of a laser direct writing technique for the fabrication of periodic subwavelength structures that have potential applications in photonic devices.

  18. Effectiveness of granite cleaning procedures in cultural heritage: A review.

    PubMed

    Pozo-Antonio, J S; Rivas, T; López, A J; Fiorucci, M P; Ramil, A

    2016-11-15

    Most of the Cultural Heritage built in NW Iberian Peninsula is made of granite which exposition to the environment leads to the formation of deposits and coatings, mainly two types: biological colonization and sulphated black crusts. Nowadays, another form of alteration derives from graffiti paints when these are applied as an act of vandalism. A deep revision needs to be addressed considering the severity of these deterioration forms on granite and the different cleaning effectiveness achieved by cleaning procedures used to remove them. The scientific literature about these topics on granite is scarcer than on sedimentary carbonate stones and marbles, but the importance of the granite in NW Iberian Peninsula Cultural Heritage claims this review centred on biological colonization, sulphated black crusts and graffiti on granite and their effectiveness of the common cleaning procedures. Furthermore, this paper carried out a review of the knowledge about those three alteration forms on granite, as well as bringing together all the major studies in the field of the granite cleaning with traditional procedures (chemical and mechanical) and with the recent developed technique based on the laser ablation. Findings concerning the effectiveness evaluation of these cleaning procedures, considering the coating extraction ability and the damage induced on the granite surface, are described. Finally, some futures research lines are pointed out. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Trends in high power laser applications in civil engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wignarajah, Sivakumaran; Sugimoto, Kenji; Nagai, Kaori

    2005-03-01

    This paper reviews the research and development efforts made on the use of lasers for material processing in the civil engineering industry. Initial investigations regarding the possibility of using lasers in civil engineering were made in the 1960s and '70s, the target being rock excavation. At that time however, the laser powers available were too small for any practical application utilization. In the 1980's, the technology of laser surface cleaning of historically important structures was developed in Europe. In the early 1990s, techniques of laser surface modification, including glazing and coloring of concrete, roughening of granite stones, carbonization of wood were pursued, mainly in Japan. In the latter part of the decade, techniques of laser decontamination of concrete surfaces in nuclear facilities were developed in many countries, and field tests were caried out in Japan. The rapid advances in development of diode lasers and YAG lasers with high power outputs and efficiencies since the late 1990's have led to a revival of worldwide interest in the use of lasers for material processing in civil engineering. The authors believe that, in the next 10 years or so, the advent of compact high power lasers is likely to lead to increased use of lasers of material processing in the field of civil engineering.

  20. A surfactant free preparation of ultradispersed surface-clean Pt catalyst with highly stable electrocatalytic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Lu; Zhao, Yueping; Zhao, Yufeng; Huang, Shifei; Yang, Yunxia; Tong, Qi; Gao, Faming

    2018-02-01

    High efficiency platinum-based catalyst demands the ultrafine size and well dispersion of Pt nanoparticles (NPs), with clean surface and strong interactions between the supports. In this work, we demonstrate a simple strategy for the preparation of ultra-dispersed surface-clean Pt catalyst with high stability, in which the Pt nanoparticles (NPs) with 1.8 ± 0.6 nm in size are anchored tightly on a 3D hierarchical porous graphitized carbon (3D-HPG) through galvanic replacement reaction. The as-obtained catalyst can undergo 2000 voltage cycles with negligible activity decay and no apparent structure and size changes for MOR during the durability test, and its mass activity for ORR only reduce 18.3% after 5000 cycles. The excellent performance is attributed to strong anchoring effect between carbon support and Pt nanoparticles.

  1. Surface treatment of alumina-based ceramics using combined laser sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triantafyllidis, D.; Li, L.; Stott, F. H.

    2002-01-01

    Alumina-based refractory materials are extensively used as linings in incinerators and furnaces. These materials are subject to molten salt corrosion and chemical degradation because of the existence of porosity and material inhomogeneity. Efforts to improve the performance of these materials have so far concentrated mainly on the optimisation of the manufacturing processes (e.g. producing denser refractory bricks) and in-service monitoring. Laser surface treatment has also been used to improve performance. The main problem identified with laser surface treatment is solidification cracking due to the generation of very large temperature gradients. The aim of this paper is to investigate the surface modification of alumina-based ceramics by using two combined laser sources in order to control the thermal gradients and cooling rates during processing so that crack formation can be eliminated. The material under investigation is 85% alumina refractory ceramic, used as lining material in incineration plants. The surface morphology and cross-section of the treated samples are analysed using optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and compared with single laser beam treated samples.

  2. Surface microstructure and chemistry of polyimide by single pulse ablation of picosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Qifeng; Chen, Ting; Liu, Jianguo; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2018-03-01

    Polyimide (PI) surface was ablated by the single pulse of picosecond laser, and the effects of laser wavelength (λ= 355 nm and 1064 nm) and fluence on surface microstructure and chemistry were explored. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis found that different surface microstructures, i.e., the concave of concentric ring and the convex of porous circular disk, were generated by 355 nm and 1064 nm picosecond laser ablation, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization indicated that due to the high peak energy density of picosecond laser, oxygen and nitrogen from the ambient were incorporated into the PI surface mainly in the form of Cdbnd O and Csbnd Nsbnd C groups. Thus, both of the O/C and N/C atomic content ratios increased, but the increase caused by 1064 nm wavelength laser was larger. It inferred that the differences of PI surface microstructures and chemistry resulted from different laser parameters were related to different laser-matter interaction effects. For 355 nm picosecond laser, no obvious thermal features were observed and the probable ablation process of PI was mainly governed by photochemical effect; while for 1064 nm picosecond laser, obvious thermal feature appeared and photothermal effect was thought to be dominant.

  3. Adsorption, polymerization and decomposition of acetaldehyde on clean and carbon-covered Rh(111) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, Imre; Farkas, Arnold Péter; Szitás, Ádám; Kónya, Zoltán; Kiss, János

    2017-10-01

    The adsorption and dissociation of acetaldehyde were investigated on clean and carbon-covered Rh(111) single crystal surfaces by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), temperature programmed desorption (TPD), high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) and work function (Δφ) measurements. Acetaldehyde is a starting material for the catalytic production of many important chemicals and investigation of its reactions motivated by environmental purposes too. The adsorption of acetaldehyde on clean Rh(111) surface produced various types of adsorption forms. η1-(O)-CH3CHOa and η2-(O,C)-CH3CHOa are developing and characterized by HREELS. η1-CH3CHOa partly desorbed at Tp = 150 K, another part of these species are incorporated in trimer and linear 2D polimer species. The desorption of trimers (at amu 132) were observed in TPD with a peak maximum at Tp = 225 K. Above this temperature acetaldehyde either desorbed or bonded as a stable surface intermediate (η2-CH3CHOa) on the rhodium surface. The molecules decomposed to adsorbed products, and only hydrogen and carbon monoxide were analyzed in TPD. Surface carbon decreased the uptake of adsorbed acetaldehyde, inhibited the formation of polymers, nevertheless, it induced the Csbnd O bond scission and CO formation with 40-50 K lower temperature after higher acetaldehyde exposure.

  4. Gradient induced liquid motion on laser structured black Si surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradisanos, I.; Fotakis, C.; Anastasiadis, S. H.; Stratakis, E.

    2015-09-01

    This letter reports on the femtosecond laser fabrication of gradient-wettability micro/nano-patterns on Si surfaces. The dynamics of directional droplet spreading on the surface tension gradients developed is systematically investigated and discussed. It is shown that microdroplets on the patterned surfaces spread at a maximum speed of 505 mm/s, which is the highest velocity demonstrated so far for liquid spreading on a surface tension gradient in ambient conditions. The application of the proposed laser patterning technique for the precise fabrication of surface tension gradients for open microfluidic systems, liquid management in fuel cells, and drug delivery is envisaged.

  5. Surface roughness measurement in the submicrometer range using laser scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. H.; Quan, Chenggen; Tay, C. J.; Shang, H. M.

    2000-06-01

    A technique for measuring surface roughness in the submicrometer range is developed. The principle of the method is based on laser scattering from a rough surface. A telecentric optical setup that uses a laser diode as a light source is used to record the light field scattered from the surface of a rough object. The light intensity distribution of the scattered band, which is correlated to the surface roughness, is recorded by a linear photodiode array and analyzed using a single-chip microcomputer. Several sets of test surfaces prepared by different machining processes are measured and a method for the evaluation of surface roughness is proposed.

  6. Optimization of the cleaning process on a pilot filtration setup for waste water treatment accompanied by flow visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bílek, Petr; Hrůza, Jakub

    2018-06-01

    This paper deals with an optimization of the cleaning process on a liquid flat-sheet filter accompanied by visualization of the inlet side of a filter. The cleaning process has a crucial impact on the hydrodynamic properties of flat-sheet filters. Cleaning methods avoid depositing of particles on the filter surface and forming a filtration cake. Visualization significantly helps to optimize the cleaning methods, because it brings new overall view on the filtration process in time. The optical method, described in the article, enables to see flow behaviour in a thin laser sheet on the inlet side of a tested filter during the cleaning process. Visualization is a strong tool for investigation of the processes on filters in details and it is also possible to determine concentration of particles after an image analysis. The impact of air flow rate, inverse pressure drop and duration on the cleaning mechanism is investigated in the article. Images of the cleaning process are compared to the hydrodynamic data. The tests are carried out on a pilot filtration setup for waste water treatment.

  7. Surface Modification of Carbon Fiber Polymer Composites after Laser Structuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabau, Adrian S.; Chen, Jian; Jones, Jonaaron F.; Hackett, Alexandra; Jellison, Gerald D.; Daniel, Claus; Warren, David; Rehkopf, Jackie D.

    The increasing use of Carbon Fiber-reinforced Polymer matrix Composites (CFPC) as a lightweight material in automotive and aerospace industries requires the control of surface morphology. In this study, the composites surface was prepared by ablating the resin on the top fiber layer of the composite using an Nd:YAG laser. The CFPC specimens with T700S carbon fiber and Prepreg — T83 resin (epoxy) were supplied by Plasan Carbon Composites, Inc. as 4 ply thick, 0/90° plaques. The effect of laser fluence, scanning speed, and wavelength was investigated on the removal rate of the resin without an excessive damage of the fibers. In addition, resin ablation due to the power variation created by a laser interference technique is presented. Optical property measurements, optical micrographs, 3D imaging, and high-resolution optical profiler images were used to study the effect of the laser processing on surface morphology.

  8. Study of positron annihilation with core electrons at the clean and oxygen covered Ag(001) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joglekar, P.; Shastry, K.; Olenga, A.; Fazleev, N. G.; Weiss, A. H.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we present measurements of the energy spectrum of electrons emitted as a result of Positron Annihilation Induce Auger Electron Emission from a clean and oxygen covered Ag (100) surface using a series of incident beam energies ranging from 20 eV down to 2 eV. A peak was observed at ~ 40 eV corresponding to the N23VV Auger transition in agreement with previous PAES studies. Experimental results were investigated theoretically by calculations of positron states and annihilation probabilities of surface-trapped positrons with relevant core electrons at the clean and oxygen covered Ag(100) surface. An ab-initio investigation of stability and associated electronic properties of different adsorption phases of oxygen on Ag(100) has been performed on the basis of density functional theory and using DMOl3 code. The computed positron binding energy, positron surface state wave function, and positron annihilation probabilities of surface trapped positrons with relevant core electrons demonstrate their sensitivity to oxygen coverage, elemental content, atomic structure of the topmost layers of surfaces, and charge transfer effects. Theoretical results are compared with experimental data. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation Grant # DMR-0907679.

  9. Antireflective surface structures on optics for high energy lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busse, Lynda E.; Florea, Catalin M.; Shaw, L. Brandon; Frantz, Jesse; Bayya, Shyam; Poutous, Menelaos K.; Joshi, Rajendra; Aggarwal, Ishwar D.; Sanghera, Jas S.

    2014-02-01

    We report results for antireflective surface structures (ARSS) fabricated directly into the surface of optics and lenses which are important as high energy (multi-kW) laser components, including fused silica windows and lenses, YAG crystals and ceramics and spinel ceramics. Very low reflection losses as well as high laser damage thresholds have been measured for optics with ARSS. Progress to scale up the process for large size windows will also be presented..

  10. Laser Surface Hardening of Groove Edges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, A.; Hamdani, A. H.; Akhter, R.; Aslam, M.

    2013-06-01

    Surface hardening of groove-edges made of 3Cr13 Stainless Steel has been carried out using 500 W CO2 laser with a rectangular beam of 2.5×3 mm2. The processing speed was varied from 150-500 mm/min. It was seen that the hardened depth increases with increase in laser interaction time. A maximum hardened depth of around 1mm was achieved. The microhardness of the transformed zone was 2.5 times the hardness of base metal. The XRD's and microstructural analysis were also reported.

  11. Applications of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) in surface analysis.

    PubMed

    Vadillo, J M; Palanco, S; Romero, M D; Laserna, J J

    1996-07-01

    The applicability of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) for surface analysis is presented in terms of its lateral and depth resolution. A pulsed N(2) laser at 337.1 nm (3.65 J/cm(2)) was used to irradiate solar cells employed for photovoltaic energy production. Laser produced plasmas were collected and detected using a charge-coupled device. An experimental device developed in the laboratory permits an exact synchronization of sample positioning using an XY motorized system with laser pulses. Multielement analysis with lateral resolution of up to 30 microm is feasible with the present system. Three-dimensional capabilities of the system are used for studies on the distribution of carbon impurities at the surface of the solar cells.

  12. Heat Flow In Cylindrical Bodies During Laser Surface Transformation Hardening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandven, Ole A.

    1980-01-01

    A mathematical model for the transient heat flow in cylindrical specimens is presented. The model predicts the temperature distribution in the vicinity of a moving ring-shaped laser spot around the periphery of the outer surface of a cylinder, or the inner surface of a hollow cylinder. It can be used to predict the depth of case in laser surface transformation hardening. The validity of the model is tested against experimental results obtained on SAE 4140 steel.

  13. Laser gas assisted texturing and formation of nitride and oxynitride compounds on alumina surface: Surface response to environmental dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Ali, H.; Al-Sharafi, A.; Al-Aqeeli, N.

    2018-03-01

    Laser gas assisted texturing of alumina surface is carried out, and formation of nitride and oxynitride compounds in the surface vicinity is examined. The laser parameters are selected to create the surface topology consisting of micro/nano pillars with minimum defect sites including micro-cracks, voids and large size cavities. Morphological and hydrophobic characteristics of the textured surface are examined using the analytical tools. The characteristics of the environmental dust and its influence on the laser textured surface are studied while mimicking the local humid air ambient. Adhesion of the dry mud on the laser textured surface is assessed through the measurement of the tangential force, which is required to remove the dry mud from the surface. It is found that laser texturing gives rise to micro/nano pillars topology and the formation of AlN and AlON compounds in the surface vicinity. This, in turn, lowers the free energy of the textured surface and enhances the hydrophobicity of the surface. The liquid solution resulted from the dissolution of alkaline and alkaline earth metals of the dust particles in water condensate forms locally scattered liquid islands at the interface of mud and textured surface. The dried liquid solution at the interface increases the dry mud adhesion on the textured surface. Some dry mud residues remain on the textured surface after the dry mud is removed by a pressurized desalinated water jet.

  14. Characteristics and mechanism of laser-induced surface damage initiated by metal contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Shuang; Sun, Mingying; Shi, Shuaixu; Li, Zhaoyan; Zhang, Ya-nan; Liu, Zhigang

    2015-08-01

    In high power laser facility, contaminants on optics surfaces reduce damage resistance of optical elements and then decrease their lifetime. By damage test experiments, laser damage induced by typical metal particles such as stainless steel 304 is studied. Optics samples with metal particles of different sizes on surfaces are prepared artificially based on the file and sieve. Damage test is implemented in air using a 1-on-1 mode. Results show that damage morphology and mechanism caused by particulate contamination on the incident and exit surfaces are quite different. Contaminants on the incident surface absorb laser energy and generate high temperature plasma during laser irradiation which can ablate optical surface. Metal particles melt and then the molten nano-particles redeposit around the initial particles. Central region of the damaged area bears the same outline as the initial particle because of the shielding effect. However, particles on the exit surface absorb a mass of energy, generate plasma and splash lots of smaller particles, only a few of them redeposit at the particle coverage area on the exit surface. Most of the laser energy is deposited at the interface of the metal particle and the sample surface, and thus damage size on the exit surface is larger than that on the incident surface. The areas covered by the metal particle are strongly damaged. And the damage sites are more serious than that on the incident surface. Besides damage phenomenon also depends on coating and substrate materials.

  15. Surface modification of titanium nitride film by a picosecond Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gakovic, B.; Trtica, M.; Batani, D.; Desai, T.; Panjan, P.; Vasiljevic-Radovic, D.

    2007-06-01

    The interaction of a picosecond Nd:YAG laser (wavelength 532 nm, pulse duration 40 ps) with a polycrystalline titanium nitride (TiN) film was studied. The TiN thin film was deposited by physical vapour deposition on a silicon substrate. The titanium nitride/silicon system was modified with an energy fluence from 0.2 to 5.9 J cm-2. Multi-pulse irradiation was performed in air by a focused laser beam. Surface modifications were analysed after 1 100 successive laser pulses. Depending on the laser pulse energy and pulse count, the following phenomena were observed: (i) increased surface roughness, (ii) titanium nitride film cracking, (iii) silicon substrate modification, (iv) film exfoliation and (v) laser-induced periodical surface structures on nano- (NPSS) and micro-dimensions (MPSS).

  16. Modeling laser-induced periodic surface structures: Finite-difference time-domain feedback simulations

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Skolski, J. Z. P., E-mail: j.z.p.skolski@utwente.nl; Vincenc Obona, J.; Römer, G. R. B. E.

    2014-03-14

    A model predicting the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSSs) is presented. That is, the finite-difference time domain method is used to study the interaction of electromagnetic fields with rough surfaces. In this approach, the rough surface is modified by “ablation after each laser pulse,” according to the absorbed energy profile, in order to account for inter-pulse feedback mechanisms. LIPSSs with a periodicity significantly smaller than the laser wavelength are found to “grow” either parallel or orthogonal to the laser polarization. The change in orientation and periodicity follow from the model. LIPSSs with a periodicity larger than the wavelengthmore » of the laser radiation and complex superimposed LIPSS patterns are also predicted by the model.« less

  17. Thermomechanical modelling of laser surface glazing for H13 tool steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabir, I. R.; Yin, D.; Tamanna, N.; Naher, S.

    2018-03-01

    A two-dimensional thermomechanical finite element (FE) model of laser surface glazing (LSG) has been developed for H13 tool steel. The direct coupling technique of ANSYS 17.2 (APDL) has been utilised to solve the transient thermomechanical process. A H13 tool steel cylindrical cross-section has been modelled for laser power 200 W and 300 W at constant 0.2 mm beam width and 0.15 ms residence time. The model can predict temperature distribution, stress-strain increments in elastic and plastic region with time and space. The crack formation tendency also can be assumed by analysing the von Mises stress in the heat-concentrated zone. Isotropic and kinematic hardening models have been applied separately to predict the after-yield phenomena. At 200 W laser power, the peak surface temperature achieved is 1520 K which is below the melting point (1727 K) of H13 tool steel. For laser power 300 W, the peak surface temperature is 2523 K. Tensile residual stresses on surface have been found after cooling, which are in agreement with literature. Isotropic model shows higher residual stress that increases with laser power. Conversely, kinematic model gives lower residual stress which decreases with laser power. Therefore, both plasticity models could work in LSG for H13 tool steel.

  18. Impact of an Environmental Cleaning Intervention on the Presence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci on Surfaces in Intensive Care Unit Rooms

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Eric R.; Platt, Richard; Bass, Richard; Onderdonk, Andrew B.; Yokoe, Deborah S.; Huang, Susan S.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To evaluate the adequacy of discharge room cleaning and the impact of a cleaning intervention on the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) on environmental surfaces in intensive care unit (ICU) rooms. DESIGN Prospective environmental study. SETTING AND SAMPLE Convenience sample of ICU rooms in an academic hospital. METHODS AND INTERVENTION The intervention consisted of (1) a change from the use of pour bottles to bucket immersion for applying disinfectant to cleaning cloths, (2) an educational campaign, and (3) feedback regarding adequacy of discharge cleaning. Cleaning of 15 surfaces was evaluated by inspecting for removal of a preapplied mark, visible only with an ultraviolet lamp (“black light”). Six surfaces were cultured for MRSA or VRE contamination. Outcomes of mark removal and culture positivity were evaluated by χ2 testing and generalized linear mixed models, clustering by room. RESULTS The black-light mark was removed from 44% of surfaces at baseline, compared with 71% during the intervention (P <.001). The intervention increased the likelihood of removal of black-light marks after discharge cleaning (odds ratio, 4.4; P < .001), controlling for ICU type (medical vs surgical) and type of surface. The intervention reduced the likelihood of an environmental culture positive for MRSA or VRE (proportion of cultures positive, 45% at baseline vs 27% during the intervention; adjusted odds ratio, 0.4; P = .02). Broad, flat surfaces were more likely to be cleaned than were doorknobs and sink or toilet handles. CONCLUSIONS Increasing the volume of disinfectant applied to environmental surfaces, providing education for Environmental Services staff, and instituting feedback with a black-light marker improved cleaning and reduced the frequency of MRSA and VRE contamination. PMID:18624666

  19. Surface pre-treatment of aluminium by cleaning, chemical ething and conversion coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaki, Mohammad Hafizudden Mohd; Mohd, Yusairie; Isa, Nik Norziehana Che

    2017-12-01

    Surface pre-treatment is one of the critical treatments for surface modification of aluminium (Al). In this study, pre-treatment of Al surface involved three stages; (1) cleaning (polishing and degreasing), (2) chemical etching (alkaline and acid) and (3) conversion coating (ie: zincate treatment). Cleaning process of Al was conducted by polishing and degreasing with acetone while etching process was done by immersion in 1.25 M NaOH solution (i.e: alkaline etching) followed with acid etching using 8 M HNO3 solution. The zincate treatment was conducted via electroless coating method by immersion of Al into a bath solution containing 0.5 M Zn(NO3)2, 0.1 M HNO3 and 0.2 M NaBH4 (reducing agent) for one hour. Different temperatures (ie: 25 °C, 50 °C, 75 °C, 90 °C) of bath solutions at pH 4 were used to investigate the effect of temperature on zincate treatment. Surface morphology and chemical composition of the pre-treated Al were characterized using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Energy Dispersion X-ray analysis (EDX), respectively. The results showed that oxide layer on Al surface decreased after chemical etching process. Temperature of zincate solution has significantly affected the conversion coating process of aluminium. It was found that zinc oxide (ZnO) and zinc borate (ZnO.B2O3) were dominantly formed after zincate treatment at high temperature (ie:90 °C) with curved blade-like structure and composition of Zn, B and O with 13.70 wt.%, 3.52 wt.% and 54.39 wt.%, respectively. However, zincate treatment at low temperature (ie:<50 °C) has produced low metallic Zn.

  20. Laser shock wave assisted patterning on NiTi shape memory alloy surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyitliyev, Dovletgeldi; Li, Peizhen; Kholikov, Khomidkhodza; Grant, Byron; Karaca, Haluk E.; Er, Ali O.

    2017-02-01

    An advanced direct imprinting method with low cost, quick, and less environmental impact to create thermally controllable surface pattern using the laser pulses is reported. Patterned micro indents were generated on Ni50Ti50 shape memory alloys (SMA) using an Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm combined with suitable transparent overlay, a sacrificial layer of graphite, and copper grid. Laser pulses at different energy densities which generates pressure pulses up to 10 GPa on the surface was focused through the confinement medium, ablating the copper grid to create plasma and transferring the grid pattern onto the NiTi surface. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and optical microscope images of square pattern with different sizes were studied. One dimensional profile analysis shows that the depth of the patterned sample initially increase linearly with the laser energy until 125 mJ/pulse where the plasma further absorbs and reflects the laser beam. In addition, light the microscope image show that the surface of NiTi alloy was damaged due to the high power laser energy which removes the graphite layer.

  1. Femtosecond laser-induced surface structures on carbon fibers.

    PubMed

    Sajzew, Roman; Schröder, Jan; Kunz, Clemens; Engel, Sebastian; Müller, Frank A; Gräf, Stephan

    2015-12-15

    The influence of different polarization states during the generation of periodic nanostructures on the surface of carbon fibers was investigated using a femtosecond laser with a pulse duration τ=300  fs, a wavelength λ=1025  nm, and a peak fluence F=4  J/cm². It was shown that linear polarization results in a well-aligned periodic pattern with different orders of magnitude concerning their period and an alignment parallel and perpendicular to fiber direction, respectively. For circular polarization, both types of uniform laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) patterns appear simultaneously with different dominance in dependence on the position at the fiber surface. Their orientation was explained by the polarization-dependent absorptivity and the geometrical anisotropy of the carbon fibers.

  2. Active cleaning technique device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, R. L.; Gillette, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    The objective of this program was to develop a laboratory demonstration model of an active cleaning technique (ACT) device. The principle of this device is based primarily on the technique for removing contaminants from optical surfaces. This active cleaning technique involves exposing contaminated surfaces to a plasma containing atomic oxygen or combinations of other reactive gases. The ACT device laboratory demonstration model incorporates, in addition to plasma cleaning, the means to operate the device as an ion source for sputtering experiments. The overall ACT device includes a plasma generation tube, an ion accelerator, a gas supply system, a RF power supply and a high voltage dc power supply.

  3. Frictional Performance Assessment of Cemented Carbide Surfaces Textured by Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, S.; Llanes, L.; Klein, S.; Gachot, C.; Rosenkranz, A.; Bähre, D.; Mücklich, F.

    2017-10-01

    Cemented carbides are advanced engineering materials often used in industry for manufacturing cutting tools or supporting parts in tribological system. In order to improve service life, special attention has been paid to change surface conditions by means of different methods, since surface modification can be beneficial to reduce the friction between the contact surfaces as well as to avoid unintended damage. Laser surface texturing is one of the newly developed surface modification methods. It has been successfully introduced to fabricate some basic patterns on cemented carbide surfaces. In this work, Direct Laser Interference Patterning Technique (DLIP) is implemented to produce special line-like patterns on a cobalt (Co) and nickel (Ni) based cemented tungsten carbide grade. It is proven that the laser-produced patterns have high geometrical precision and quality stability. Furthermore, tribology testing using a nano-tribometer unit shows that friction is reduced by the line-like patterns, as compared to the polished one, under both lubricated and dry testing regimes, and the reduction is more pronounced in the latter case.

  4. High power diode lasers for solid-state laser pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linden, Kurt J.; Mcdonnell, Patrick N.

    1994-01-01

    The development and commercial application of high power diode laser arrays for use as solid-state laser pumps is described. Such solid-state laser pumps are significantly more efficient and reliable than conventional flash-lamps. This paper describes the design and fabrication of diode lasers emitting in the 780 - 900 nm spectral region, and discusses their performance and reliability. Typical measured performance parameters include electrical-to-optical power conversion efficiencies of 50 percent, narrow-band spectral emission of 2 to 3 nm FWHM, pulsed output power levels of 50 watts/bar with reliability values of over 2 billion shots to date (tests to be terminated after 10 billion shots), and reliable operation to pulse lengths of 1 ms. Pulse lengths up to 5 ms have been demonstrated at derated power levels, and CW performance at various power levels has been evaluated in a 'bar-in-groove' laser package. These high-power 1-cm stacked-bar arrays are now being manufactured for OEM use. Individual diode laser bars, ready for package-mounting by OEM customers, are being sold as commodity items. Commercial and medical applications of these laser arrays include solid-state laser pumping for metal-working, cutting, industrial measurement and control, ranging, wind-shear/atmospheric turbulence detection, X-ray generation, materials surface cleaning, microsurgery, ophthalmology, dermatology, and dental procedures.

  5. Process for laser machining and surface treatment

    DOEpatents

    Neil, George R.; Shinn, Michelle D.

    2004-10-26

    An improved method and apparatus increasing the accuracy and reducing the time required to machine materials, surface treat materials, and allow better control of defects such as particulates in pulsed laser deposition. The speed and quality of machining is improved by combining an ultrashort pulsed laser at high average power with a continuous wave laser. The ultrashort pulsed laser provides an initial ultrashort pulse, on the order of several hundred femtoseconds, to stimulate an electron avalanche in the target material. Coincident with the ultrashort pulse or shortly after it, a pulse from a continuous wave laser is applied to the target. The micromachining method and apparatus creates an initial ultrashort laser pulse to ignite the ablation followed by a longer laser pulse to sustain and enlarge on the ablation effect launched in the initial pulse. The pulse pairs are repeated at a high pulse repetition frequency and as often as desired to produce the desired micromachining effect. The micromachining method enables a lower threshold for ablation, provides more deterministic damage, minimizes the heat affected zone, minimizes cracking or melting, and reduces the time involved to create the desired machining effect.

  6. Influence of surface light scattering in hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses on laser beam transmittance.

    PubMed

    Shiraya, Tomoyasu; Kato, Satoshi; Minami, Keiichiro; Miyata, Kazunori

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to experimentally examine the changes in the transmittances of photocoagulation lasers when surface light scattering increases in AcrySof intraocular lenses (IOLs). SA60AT IOLs (Alcon) were acceleratingly aging for 0, 3, 5, and 10 years to simulate surface light scattering, and the surface light-scattering intensities of both IOL surfaces were measured using a Scheimpflug photographer. The powers of laser beams that passed from a laser photocoagulator through the aged IOLs were measured at 532, 577, and 647 nm. Changes in the laser power and transmittance with the years of aging and the intensities of surface light scattering were examined. Although the intensity of surface light scattering increased with the years of aging, the laser power did not change with the years of aging (P > 0.30, Kruskal-Wallis test). There were no significant changes in the laser transmittance with the years of aging or the laser wavelength (P > 0.30 and 0.57, respectively). The intensity of surface light scattering revealed no significant association with the laser transmittance at any wavelength (P > 0.37, liner regression). The increases in the surface light scattering of the AcrySof IOLs would not influence retinal photocoagulation treatments for up to 10 years after implantation.

  7. Towards the development of a rapid, portable, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy based cleaning verification system for the drug nelarabine.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Damion K; Salton, Neale A; Preston, Chris; Piletsky, Sergey

    2010-09-01

    Cleaning verification is a scientific and economic problem for the pharmaceutical industry. A large amount of potential manufacturing time is lost to the process of cleaning verification. This involves the analysis of residues on spoiled manufacturing equipment, with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) being the predominantly employed analytical technique. The aim of this study was to develop a portable cleaning verification system for nelarabine using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). SERS was conducted using a portable Raman spectrometer and a commercially available SERS substrate to develop a rapid and portable cleaning verification system for nelarabine. Samples of standard solutions and swab extracts were deposited onto the SERS active surfaces, allowed to dry and then subjected to spectroscopic analysis. Nelarabine was amenable to analysis by SERS and the necessary levels of sensitivity were achievable. It is possible to use this technology for a semi-quantitative limits test. Replicate precision, however, was poor due to the heterogeneous drying pattern of nelarabine on the SERS active surface. Understanding and improving the drying process in order to produce a consistent SERS signal for quantitative analysis is desirable. This work shows the potential application of SERS for cleaning verification analysis. SERS may not replace HPLC as the definitive analytical technique, but it could be used in conjunction with HPLC so that swabbing is only carried out once the portable SERS equipment has demonstrated that the manufacturing equipment is below the threshold contamination level.

  8. Picosecond Pulsed Laser Ablation for the Surface Preparation of Epoxy Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmieri, Frank; Ledesma, Rodolfo; Fulton, Tayler; Arthur, Alexandria; Eldridge, Keishara; Thibeault, Sheila; Lin, Yi; Wohl, Chris; Connell, John

    2017-01-01

    As part of a technical challenge under the Advanced Composites Program, methods for improving pre-bond process control for aerospace composite surface treatments and inspections, in conjunction with Federal Aviation Administration guidelines, are under investigation. The overall goal is to demonstrate high fidelity, rapid and reproducible surface treatment and surface characterization methods to reduce uncertainty associated with the bonding process. The desired outcomes are reliable bonded airframe structure, and reduced timeline to certification. In this work, laser ablation was conducted using a q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser capable of nominal pulse durations of 8 picoseconds (ps). Aerospace structural carbon fiber reinforced composites with an epoxy resin matrix were laser treated, characterized, processed into bonded assemblies and mechanically tested. The characterization of ablated surfaces were conducted using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), water contact angle (WCA) goniometry, micro laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (uLIBS), and electron spin resonance (ESR). The bond performance was assessed using a double cantilever beam (DCB) test with an epoxy adhesive. The surface characteristics and bond performance obtained from picosecond ablated carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRPs) are presented herein.

  9. Surface hardening using cw CO2 laser: laser heat treatment, modelation, and experimental work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muniz, German; Alum, Jorge

    1996-02-01

    In the present work are given the results of the application of laser metal surface hardening techniques using a cw carbon dioxide laser as an energy source on steel 65 G. The laser heat treatment results are presented theoretically and experimentally. Continuous wave carbon dioxide laser of 0.6, 0.3, and 0.4 kW were used. A physical model for the descriptions of the thermophysical laser metal interactions process is given and a numerical algorithm is used to solve this problem by means of the LHT code. The results are compared with the corresponding experimental ones and a very good agreement is observed. The LHT code is able to do predictions of transformation hardening by laser heating. These results will be completed with other ones concerning laser alloying and cladding presented in a second paper.

  10. [Surface modifications of titanium implant material with excimer laser for more effective osseointegration].

    PubMed

    Pelsoczi, Kovács István; Bereznai, Miklós; Tóth, Zsolt; Turzó, Kinga; Radnai, Márta; Bor, Zsolt; Fazekas, András

    2004-12-01

    The biointegration of dental and orthopaedic implants depends mainly on the morphology and physical-chemical properties of their surfaces. Accordingly, the development of the desired microstructure is a relevant requirement in the bulk manufacture. Besides the widely used sandblasting plus acid etching and plasma-spray coating techniques, the laser surface modification method offers a plausible alternative. In order to analyze the influence of the laser treatment, the surfaces of titanium samples were exposed to excimer laser irradiation. The aim of this study was to develop surfaces that provide optimal conditions for bone-implant contact, bone growth, formation and maintenance of gingival attachment. For this purpose, holes were ablated on the surface of samples by nanosecond (18 ns, ArF) and also sub-picosecond (0,5 ps, KrF) laser pulses. Using pulses of ns length, due to melt ejection, crown-like protrusions were formed at the border of the holes, which made them sensitive to mechanical effects. To avoid these undesirable crown-like structures ultrashort KrF excimer laser pulses were successfully applied. On the other hand, titanium samples were laser-polished in favour of formation and connection of healthy soft tissues. Irradiation by a series of nanosecond laser pulses resulted in an effective smoothening as detected by atomic force microscopy (AFM). By inhibiting plaque accumulation this favours formation of gingival attachment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies showed that laser treatment, in addition to micro-structural and morphological modification, results in decreasing of surface contamination and thickening of the oxide layer. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the original alpha-titanium crystalline structure of the laser-polished titanium surface was not altered by the irradiation.

  11. Characteristics of hierarchical micro/nano surface structure formation generated by picosecond laser processing in water and air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajab, Fatema H.; Whitehead, David; Liu, Zhu; Li, Lin

    2017-12-01

    Laser surface texturing or micro/nano surface structuring in the air has been extensively studied. However, until now, there are very few studies on the characteristics of laser-textured surfaces in water, and there was no reported work on picosecond laser surface micro/nano-structuring in water. In this work, the surface properties of picosecond laser surface texturing in water and air were analysed and compared. 316L stainless steel substrates were textured using a picosecond laser. The surface morphology and the chemical composition were characterised using Philips XL30 FEG-SEM, EDX and confocal laser microscopy. The wettability of the textured surfaces was determined using a contact angle analyser FTA 188. Results showed that a variety of hierarchical micro/nano surface patterns could be controlled by a suitable adjustment of laser parameters. Not only surface morphology but also remarkable differences in wettability, optical reflectivity and surface oxygen content were observed for different types of surface textures produced by laser surface texture in water and air. The possible mechanisms of the changes in the behaviour of laser-textured surfaces are discussed.

  12. Laser surface modification of AZ31B Mg alloy for bio-wettability.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yee-Hsien; Vora, Hitesh D; Dahotre, Narendra B

    2015-02-01

    Magnesium alloys are the potential degradable materials for load-bearing implant application due to their comparable mechanical properties to human bone, excellent bioactivity, and in vivo non-toxicity. However, for a successful load-bearing implant, the surface of bio-implant must allow protein absorption and layer formation under physiological environment that can assist the cell/osteoblast growth. In this regard, surface wettability of bio-implant plays a key role to dictate the quantity of protein absorption. In light of this, the main objective of the present study was to produce favorable bio-wettability condition of AZ31B Mg alloy bio-implant surface via laser surface modification technique under various laser processing conditions. In the present efforts, the influence of laser surface modification on AZ31B Mg alloy surface on resultant bio-wettability was investigated via contact-angle measurements and the co-relationships among microstructure (grain size), surface roughness, surface energy, and surface chemical composition were established. In addition, the laser surface modification technique was simulated by computational (thermal) model to facilitate the prediction of temperature and its resultant cooling/solidification rates under various laser processing conditions for correlating with their corresponding composition and phase evolution. These predicted thermal properties were later used to correlate with the corresponding microstructure, chemical composition, and phase evolution via experimental analyses (X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive spectroscopy). © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  13. Mechanism of single-pulse ablative generation of laser-induced periodic surface structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shugaev, Maxim V.; Gnilitskyi, Iaroslav; Bulgakova, Nadezhda M.; Zhigilei, Leonid V.

    2017-11-01

    One of the remarkable capabilities of ultrashort polarized laser pulses is the generation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS). The origin of this phenomenon is largely attributed to the interference of the incident laser wave and surface electromagnetic wave that creates a periodic absorption pattern. Although, commonly, LIPSS are produced by repetitive irradiation of the same area by multiple laser pulses in the regime of surface melting and resolidification, recent reports demonstrate the formation of LIPSS in the single-pulse irradiation regime at laser fluences well above the ablation threshold. In this paper, we report results of a large-scale molecular dynamics simulation aimed at providing insights into the mechanisms of single-pulse ablative LIPSS formation. The simulation performed for a Cr target reveals an interplay of material removal and redistribution in the course of spatially modulated ablation, leading to the transient formation of an elongated liquid wall extending up to ˜600 nm above the surface of the target at the locations of the minima of the laser energy deposition. The upper part of the liquid wall disintegrates into droplets while the base of the wall solidifies on the time scale of ˜2 ns, producing a ˜100 -nm-tall frozen surface feature extending above the level of the initial surface of the target. The properties of the surface region of the target are modified by the presence of high densities of dislocations and vacancies generated due to the rapid and highly nonequilibrium nature of the melting and resolidification processes. The insights into the LIPSS formation mechanisms may help in designing approaches for increasing the processing speed and improving the quality of the laser-patterned periodic surface structures.

  14. Correction of small imperfections on white glazed china surfaces by laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Képíró, I.; Osvay, K.; Divall, M.

    2007-07-01

    A laser-assisted technique has been developed for correction of small diameter (1 mm) and shallow (0.5 mm) imperfections on the surface of gloss fired porcelain. To study the physics and establish the important parameters, artificially made holes in a porcelain sample have been first filled with correction material, then covered with raw glaze and treated by a pulsed, 7 kHz repetition rate CO 2 laser at 10.6 μm. The modification of the surface and the surrounding area have been quantified and studied with a large range of parameters of incident laser power (1-10 W), width of the laser pulses (10-125 μs) and duration of laser heating (60-480 s). Although the shine of the treated area, defined as the distribution of micro-droplets on the surface, is very similar to the untreated surfaces, the surroundings of the treated area usually show cracks. The measurement of both the spatial temperature distribution and the temporal cooling rate of the treated surface has revealed that a simple melting process always results in high gradient temperature distribution within the irradiated zone. Its inhomogeneous and fast cooling always generate at least micro-cracks on the surface within a few seconds after the laser was turned off. The duration and intensity of the laser irradiation have been then optimized in order to achieve the fastest possible melting of the surface, but without producing such high temperature gradients. To eliminate the cracks, more elaborated pre-heating and slowed-cooling-rate processes have been tried with prosperous results. These achievements complete our previous study, making possible to repair the most common surface imperfections and holes of gloss fired china samples.

  15. Enhancing the antibacterial performance of orthopaedic implant materials by fibre laser surface engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Chi-Wai; Carson, Louise; Smith, Graham C.; Morelli, Alessio; Lee, Seunghwan

    2017-05-01

    Implant failure caused by bacterial infection is extremely difficult to treat and usually requires the removal of the infected components. Despite the severe consequence of bacterial infection, research into bacterial infection of orthopaedic implants is still at an early stage compared to the effort on enhancing osseointegration, wear and corrosion resistance of implant materials. In this study, the effects of laser surface treatment on enhancing the antibacterial properties of commercially pure (CP) Ti (Grade 2), Ti6Al4V (Grade 5) and CoCrMo alloy implant materials were studied and compared for the first time. Laser surface treatment was performed by a continuous wave (CW) fibre laser with a near-infrared wavelength of 1064 nm in a nitrogen-containing environment. Staphylococcus aureus, commonly implicated in infection associated with orthopaedic implants, was used to investigate the antibacterial properties of the laser-treated surfaces. The surface roughness and topography of the laser-treated materials were analysed by a 2D roughness testing and by AFM. The surface morphologies before and after 24 h of bacterial cell culture were captured by SEM, and bacterial viability was determined using live/dead staining. Surface chemistry was analysed by XPS and surface wettability was measured using the sessile drop method. The findings of this study indicated that the laser-treated CP Ti and Ti6Al4V surfaces exhibited a noticeable reduction in bacterial adhesion and possessed a bactericidal effect. Such properties were attributable to the combined effects of reduced hydrophobicity, thicker and stable oxide films and presence of laser-induced nano-features. No similar antibacterial effect was observed in the laser-treated CoCrMo.

  16. Portable Handheld Laser Small Area Supplemental Coatings Removal System, Version 2.0

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-17

    awkward posture can cause unnecessary stress at the shoulder ( acromioclavicular joint and the glenohumeral joint) and may contribute to bursitis or...order to point the laser at the surface to be cleaned. This awkward posture can cause unnecessary stress at the shoulder ( acromioclavicular joint and

  17. Effect of ND:YAG laser irradiation and root planing on the root surface: structural and thermal effects.

    PubMed

    Wilder-Smith, P; Arrastia, A M; Schell, M J; Liaw, L H; Grill, G; Berns, M W

    1995-12-01

    Effects of ND:YAG laser irradiation on untreated and root planed tooth roots were investigated to determine whether a cleaning effect and/or removal of smear layer could be achieved without concomitant microstructural or thermal damage. Sixty (60) healthy extracted teeth were either untreated, irradiated only, root planed only, or irradiated and root planed. Intra-pulpal and surface temperatures were monitored during irradiation, then SEM was performed. Smear layer elimination was achieved without inducing hard tissue microstructural damage at 5W, using pulse durations and intervals of 0.1 s, a fluence of 0.77 J/cm2, and a total energy density of approximately 700 J/cm2. However, these results were not consistent in all samples. At these parameters, intra-pulpal temperature increases of 9 to 22 degrees C and surface temperature increases of 18 to 36 degrees C were recorded. Thus, despite their effectiveness for smear layer removal, these parameters may not be appropriate for clinical use as an adjunct to conventional periodontal therapy.

  18. Surface roughness analysis after laser assisted machining of hard to cut materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przestacki, D.; Jankowiak, M.

    2014-03-01

    Metal matrix composites and Si3N4 ceramics are very attractive materials for various industry applications due to extremely high hardness and abrasive wear resistance. However because of these features they are problematic for the conventional turning process. The machining on a classic lathe still requires special polycrystalline diamond (PCD) or cubic boron nitride (CBN) cutting inserts which are very expensive. In the paper an experimental surface roughness analysis of laser assisted machining (LAM) for two tapes of hard-to-cut materials was presented. In LAM, the surface of work piece is heated directly by a laser beam in order to facilitate, the decohesion of material. Surface analysis concentrates on the influence of laser assisted machining on the surface quality of the silicon nitride ceramic Si3N4 and metal matrix composite (MMC). The effect of the laser assisted machining was compared to the conventional machining. The machining parameters influence on surface roughness parameters was also investigated. The 3D surface topographies were measured using optical surface profiler. The analysis of power spectrum density (PSD) roughness profile were analyzed.

  19. Glow discharge cleaning of vacuum switch tubes

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hayashi, T.; Toya, H.

    1991-10-01

    This paper reports that glow discharge cleaning has ben advancing as a means of degassing vacuum chambers constructed for a large accelerator or for nuclear fusion research. To clean the whole surface of parts inside a vacuum switch tube (VST), a new technique is tried which generates glow discharge between the inner electrodes and copper grid surrounding it. Photographic observation reveals that the glow discharge spreads out and cleans the whole surface inside the VST. A breakdown test between the inner electrodes shows the effect of the cleaning with this technique. Higher breakdown voltage between the inner electrodes is attainedmore » by performing this glow discharge cleaning in argon rather than hydrogen gas. The difference of the cleaning effect seems to be attributed to that of the energy transfer from ion species to the absorbed molecules and microprotrusions on the surfaces.« less

  20. Developing a more useful surface quality metric for laser optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turchette, Quentin; Turner, Trey

    2011-02-01

    Light scatter due to surface defects on laser resonator optics produces losses which lower system efficiency and output power. The traditional methodology for surface quality inspection involves visual comparison of a component to scratch and dig (SAD) standards under controlled lighting and viewing conditions. Unfortunately, this process is subjective and operator dependent. Also, there is no clear correlation between inspection results and the actual performance impact of the optic in a laser resonator. As a result, laser manufacturers often overspecify surface quality in order to ensure that optics will not degrade laser performance due to scatter. This can drive up component costs and lengthen lead times. Alternatively, an objective test system for measuring optical scatter from defects can be constructed with a microscope, calibrated lighting, a CCD detector and image processing software. This approach is quantitative, highly repeatable and totally operator independent. Furthermore, it is flexible, allowing the user to set threshold levels as to what will or will not constitute a defect. This paper details how this automated, quantitative type of surface quality measurement can be constructed, and shows how its results correlate against conventional loss measurement techniques such as cavity ringdown times.

  1. Bistable Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser. Structures on GaAs and Si Substrates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    vertical - cavity surface - emitting lasers ( VCSELs ) [1,5,6 of publications below], fabrication processes to realize low...May 91 through 1 June 94 R&T Number: Contract / Grant Number: N00014-91-J-1952 Contract / Grant Title: Bistable Vertical - Cavity Surface - Emitting Laser ...T.J. Rogers, B.G. Streetman, S.C. Smith, and R.D. Burnham, "Cascadabity of an Optically Iathing Vertical - Cavity Surface - Emitting Laser

  2. Formation of various types of nanostructures on germanium surface by nanosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikolutskiy, S. I.; Khasaya, R. R.; Khomich, Yu V.; Yamshchikov, V. A.

    2018-03-01

    The paper describes the formation of micro- and nanostructures in different parts of irradiation zone on germanium surface by multiple action of nanosecond pulses of ArF-laser. It proposes a simple method using only one laser beam without any optional devices and masks for surface treatment. Hexa- and pentagonal cells with submicron dimensions along the surface were observed in peripheral zone of irradiation spot by atomic-force microscopy. Nanostructures in the form of bulbs with rounded peaks with lateral sizes of 40-120 nm were obtained in peripheral low-intensity region of the laser spot. Considering experimental data on material processing by nanosecond laser pulses, a classification of five main types of surface reliefs formed by nanosecond laser pulses with energy density near or slightly above ablation threshold was proposed.

  3. Simulation of a polarized laser beam reflected at the sea surface: modeling and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwenger, Frédéric

    2015-05-01

    A 3-D simulation of the polarization-dependent reflection of a Gaussian shaped laser beam on the dynamic sea surface is presented. The simulation considers polarized or unpolarized laser sources and calculates the polarization states upon reflection at the sea surface. It is suitable for the radiance calculation of the scene in different spectral wavebands (e.g. near-infrared, SWIR, etc.) not including the camera degradations. The simulation also considers a bistatic configuration of laser source and receiver as well as different atmospheric conditions. In the SWIR, the detected total power of reflected laser light is compared with data collected in a field trial. Our computer simulation combines the 3-D simulation of a maritime scene (open sea/clear sky) with the simulation of polarized or unpolarized laser light reflected at the sea surface. The basic sea surface geometry is modeled by a composition of smooth wind driven gravity waves. To predict the input of a camera equipped with a linear polarizer, the polarized sea surface radiance must be calculated for the specific waveband. The s- and p-polarization states are calculated for the emitted sea surface radiance and the specularly reflected sky radiance to determine the total polarized sea surface radiance of each component. The states of polarization and the radiance of laser light specularly reflected at the wind-roughened sea surface are calculated by considering the s- and p- components of the electric field of laser light with respect to the specular plane of incidence. This is done by using the formalism of their coherence matrices according to E. Wolf [1]. Additionally, an analytical statistical sea surface BRDF (bidirectional reflectance distribution function) is considered for the reflection of laser light radiances. Validation of the simulation results is required to ensure model credibility and applicability to maritime laser applications. For validation purposes, field measurement data (images and

  4. In situ probing of pulsed laser melting and laser-induced periodic surface structures formation by dynamic reflectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, T. T. D.; Semmar, N.

    2017-09-01

    The melting process and nanostructure formation induced by nanosecond and picosecond laser pulses on bulk silicon and copper thin film were studied by ex situ analysis and in situ real time reflectivity. Three different probing wavelengths (633, 473 and 326 nm) were used during the pump laser processing and were correlated to the beam parameters (pulse duration, laser fluence and number of laser shots) and copper thin film thickness. On a silicon surface using a KrF laser beam (27 ns, 1 Hz, 248 nm), the melting threshold was determined close to 700 mJ cm-2 and the melting duration increased from 10 to 130 ns as the fluence increased from 700 to 1750 mJ cm-2. Nanostructures with a spatial period close to the laser wavelength were formed on both copper thin film and silicon substrate after nanosecond Nd:YAG laser (10 ns, 266 nm, 1 Hz) irradiation. In the picosecond regime, using an Nd:YAG laser (40 ps, 266 nm, 1 Hz), different nanostructures, from spikes to laser-induced periodic surface structures, were formed on 500 nm copper thin film and were analyzed with respect to the drop in dynamic reflectivity changes versus the number of laser shots.

  5. Analysis of Surface Roughness at Overlapping Laser Shock Peening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, F. Z.; Zhang, Z. D.; Zhou, J. Z.; Lu, J. Z.; Zhang, Y. K.

    2016-02-01

    The overlapping effects on surface roughness are studied when samples are treated by laser shock peening (LSP). Surface roughness of overlapped circular laser spot is calculated by ISO 25178 height parameters. The usually used overlapping styles namely isosceles-right-triangle-style (AAP) and equilateral-triangle-style (AAA) are carefully investigated when the overlapping degree in x-axis (ηx) is below 50%. Surface roughness of isosceles-right-triangle-style attains its minimum value at ηx of 29.3%, and attains its maximum value at ηx of 43.6%. Surface roughness of equilateral-triangle-style attains its minimum value at ηx of 42.3%, and attains its maximum value at ηx of 32%. Experimental results are well consistent with theoretical analysis.

  6. A comparative scanning electron microscopy study between hand instrument, ultrasonic scaling and erbium doped:Yttirum aluminum garnet laser on root surface: A morphological and thermal analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Mitul Kumar; Prakash, Shobha

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Scaling and root planing is one of the most commonly used procedures for the treatment of periodontal diseases. Removal of calculus using conventional hand instruments is incomplete and rather time consuming. In search of more efficient and less difficult instrumentation, investigators have proposed lasers as an alternative or as adjuncts to scaling and root planing. Hence, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of erbium doped: Yttirum aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser scaling and root planing alone or as an adjunct to hand and ultrasonic instrumentation. Subjects and Methods: A total of 75 freshly extracted periodontally involved single rooted teeth were collected. Teeth were randomly divided into five treatment groups having 15 teeth each: Hand scaling only, ultrasonic scaling only, Er:YAG laser scaling only, hand scaling + Er:YAG laser scaling and ultrasonic scaling + Er:YAG laser scaling. Specimens were subjected to scanning electron microscopy and photographs were evaluated by three examiners who were blinded to the study. Parameters included were remaining calculus index, loss of tooth substance index, roughness loss of tooth substance index, presence or absence of smear layer, thermal damage and any other morphological damage. Results: Er:YAG laser treated specimens showed similar effectiveness in calculus removal to the other test groups whereas tooth substance loss and tooth surface roughness was more on comparison with other groups. Ultrasonic treated specimens showed better results as compared to other groups with different parameters. However, smear layer presence was seen more with hand and ultrasonic groups. Very few laser treated specimens showed thermal damage and morphological change. Interpretation and Conclusion: In our study, ultrasonic scaling specimen have shown root surface clean and practically unaltered. On the other hand, hand instrument have produced a plane surface, but removed more

  7. In-situ tomographic observation of tissue surface during laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haruna, Masamitsu; Konoshita, Ryuh; Ohmi, Masato; Kunizawa, Naomi; Miyachi, Mayumi

    2001-07-01

    In laser ablation of tissues, tomography of the tissue surface is necessary for measurement of the crater depth and observation of damage of the surrounding tissue. We demonstrate here OCT images of craters made by UV laser ablation of different tissues. The maximum depth of a crater is found among several OCT images, and then the ablation rate is determined. The conventional OCT of the spatial resolution of 15 μm was used in our experiment, but OCT of the resolution of the order of 1 μm is required because the ablation rate is usually a few microns per pulse. Such a high-resolution OCT is also demonstrated in this paper, where the light source is a halogen lamp. Combination of laser ablation and OCT will lead to in situ tomographic observation of tissue surface during laser ablation, which should allow us to develop new laser surgeries.

  8. Interference effects in laser-induced plasma emission from surface-bound metal micro-particles

    DOE PAGES

    Feigenbaum, Eyal; Malik, Omer; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; ...

    2017-04-19

    Here, the light-matter interaction of an optical beam and metal micro-particulates at the vicinity of an optical substrate surface is critical to the many fields of applied optics. Examples of impacted fields are laser-induced damage in high power laser systems, sub-wavelength laser machining of transmissive materials, and laser-target interaction in directed energy applications. We present a full-wave-based model that predicts the laser-induced plasma pressure exerted on a substrate surface as a result of light absorption in surface-bound micron-scale metal particles. The model predictions agree with experimental observation of laser-induced shallow pits, formed by plasma emission and etching from surface-bound metalmore » micro-particulates. It provides an explanation for the prototypical side lobes observed along the pit profile, as well as for the dependence of the pit shape on the incident laser and particle parameters. Furthermore, the model highlights the significance of the interference of the incident light in the open cavity geometry formed between the micro-particle and the substrate in the resulting pit shape.« less

  9. Interference effects in laser-induced plasma emission from surface-bound metal micro-particles.

    PubMed

    Feigenbaum, Eyal; Malik, Omer; Rubenchik, Alexander M; Matthews, Manyalibo J

    2017-05-01

    The light-matter interaction of an optical beam and metal micro-particulates at the vicinity of an optical substrate surface is critical to the many fields of applied optics. Examples of impacted fields are laser-induced damage in high power laser systems, sub-wavelength laser machining of transmissive materials, and laser-target interaction in directed energy applications. We present a full-wave-based model that predicts the laser-induced plasma pressure exerted on a substrate surface as a result of light absorption in surface-bound micron-scale metal particles. The model predictions agree with experimental observation of laser-induced shallow pits, formed by plasma emission and etching from surface-bound metal micro-particulates. It provides an explanation for the prototypical side lobes observed along the pit profile, as well as for the dependence of the pit shape on the incident laser and particle parameters. Furthermore, the model highlights the significance of the interference of the incident light in the open cavity geometry formed between the micro-particle and the substrate in the resulting pit shape.

  10. Enhancement of biocompatibility of nickel-titanium by laser surface modification technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Ka Wai

    Nickel Titanium is a relatively new biomaterial that has attracted research interest for biomedical application. The good biocompatibility with specific functional properties of shape memory effect and superelasticity creates a smart material for medical applications. However, there are still concerns on nickel ion release of this alloy if it is going to be implanted for a long time. Nickel ion is carcinogenic and also causes allergic response and degeneration of muscle tissue. The subsequent release of Ni+ ions into the body system is fatal for the long term application of this alloy in the human body. To improve the long term biocompatibility and corrosion properties of NiTi, different surface treatment techniques have been investigated but no optimum technique has been established yet. This project will investigate the feasibility of applying laser surface alloying technique to improve the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of NiTi in simulated body fluid condition. This thesis summarizes the result of laser surface modification of NiTi with Mo, Nb and Co using CO2 laser. The modified layer, which is free of microcracks and pores, acts as physical barrier to reduce nickel release and enhance the surface properties. The hardness values of the Mo-alloyed NiTi, Nb-alloyed NiTi and Co-alloyed NiTi surface were found to be three to four times harder than the NiTi substrate. Corrosion polarization tests also showed that the alloyed NiTi are significantly more resistant than the NiTi alloy. The release of Ni ions can be greatly reduced after laser surface alloying NiTi with Mo, Nb and Co. The improvement in wettability characteristics, the growth of the apatite on the specimen's surface and the adhesion of cell confirm the good biocompatibility after laser surface alloying. It is concluded that laser surface alloying is one of the potential technique not only to improve the corrosion resistance with low nickel release rate, but also retain the good

  11. Dual Electrolytic Plasma Processing for Steel Surface Cleaning and Passivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, L.; Zhang, P.; Shi, J.; Liang, J.; Tian, W. B.; Zhang, Y. M.; Sun, Z. M.

    2017-10-01

    To remove the rust on rebars and passivate the fresh surfaces, electrodes reversing electrolytic plasma processing (EPP) was proposed and conducted in a 10 wt.% Na2CO3 aqueous solution. The morphology and the composition of the surface were investigated by SEM and XPS. Experimental results show that the rust on the surface was removed effectively by cathode EPP, and a passive film containing Cr2O3 was achieved by the succeeding anode EPP treatment, by a simple operation of reversing the bias. The corrosion resistance was evaluated in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl aqueous solution using an electrochemical workstation. In comparison, the corrosion resistance was improved by the succeeding anode EPP treatment, which is evidenced by a positive shift of the open-circuit potential, an increase in the electrochemical impedance representing the inner layer by 76.8% and the decrease in the corrosion current density by 49.6%. This is an effective and environment-friendly technique to clean and passivate rebars and similar steel materials.

  12. Robust and Superhydrophobic Surface Modification by a "Paint + Adhesive" Method: Applications in Self-Cleaning after Oil Contamination and Oil-Water Separation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Baiyi; Qiu, Jianhui; Sakai, Eiichi; Kanazawa, Nobuhiro; Liang, Ruilu; Feng, Huixia

    2016-07-13

    Conventional superhydrophobic surfaces have always depended on expensive, sophisticated, and fragile roughness structures. Therefore, poor robustness has turned into the bottleneck for large-scale industrial applications of the superhydrophobic surfaces. To handle this problem, a superhydrophobic surface with firm robustness urgently needs to be developed. In this work, we created a versatile strategy to fabricate robust, self-cleaning, and superhydrophobic surfaces for both soft and hard substrates. We created an ethanol based suspension of perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane-mdodified calcium carbonate nanoparticles which can be sprayed onto both hard and soft substrates to form superhydrophobic surfaces. For all kinds of substrates, spray adhesive was directly coated onto abluent substrate surfaces to promote the robustness. These superhydrophobic surfaces showed remarkable robustness against knife scratch and sandpaper abrasion, while retaining its superhydrophobicity even after 30 abrasion cycles with sandpaper. What is more, the superhydrophobic surfaces have shown promising potential applications in self-cleaning and oil-water separation. The surfaces retained their self-cleaning property even immersed in oil. In addition to oil-water separation, the water contents in oil after separation of various mixtures were all below 150 ppm, and for toluene even as low as 55 ppm. Furthermore, the as-prepared device for oil-water separation could be cycled 6 times and still retained excellent oil-water separation efficiency.

  13. Multiple wavelength tunable surface-emitting laser arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang-Hasnain, Connie J.; Harbison, J. P.; Zah, Chung-En; Maeda, M. W.; Florez, L. T.; Stoffel, N. G.; Lee, Tien-Pei

    1991-06-01

    Techniques to achieve wavelength multiplexing and tuning capabilities in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are described, and experimental results are given. The authors obtained 140 unique, uniformly separated, single-mode wavelength emissions from a 7 x 20 VCSEL array. Large total wavelength span (about 430 A) and small wavelength separation (about 3 A) are obtained simultaneously with uncompromised laser performance. All 140 lasers have nearly the same threshold currents, voltages, and resistances. Wavelength tuning is obtained by using a three-mirror coupled-cavity configuration. The three-mirror laser is a two-terminal device and requires only one top contact. Discrete tuning with a range as large as 61 A is achieved with a small change in drive current of only 10.5 mA. The VCSEL output power variation is within 5 dB throughout the entire tuning range.

  14. Cleaning of inner vacuum surfaces in the Uragan-3M facility by radio-frequency discharges

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lozin, A. V., E-mail: alexlozin@meta.ua; Moiseenko, V. E.; Grigor’eva, L. I.

    2013-08-15

    A method for cleaning vacuum surfaces by a low-temperature (T{sub e} ∼ 10 eV) relatively dense (n{sub e} ≈ 10{sup 12} cm{sup −3}) plasma of an RF discharge was developed and successfully applied at the Uragan-3M torsatron. The convenience of the method is that it can be implemented with the same antenna system and RF generators that are used to produce and heat the plasma in the operating mode and does not require retuning the frequencies of the antennas and RF generators. The RF discharge has a high efficiency from the standpoint of cleaning vacuum surfaces. After performing a seriesmore » of cleanings by the low-temperature RF discharge plasma (about 20000 pulses), (i) the intensity of the CIII impurity line was substantially reduced, (ii) a quasi-steady operating mode with a duration of up to 50 ms, a plasma density of n{sub e} ≈ 10{sup 12} cm{sup −3}, and an electron temperature of up to T{sub e} ∼ 1 keV was achieved, and (iii) mass spectrometric analysis of the residual gas in the chamber indicated a significant reduction in the impurity content.« less

  15. Method and apparatus for reducing cleaning blade wear

    DOEpatents

    Grannes, Steven G.; Rhoades, Charles A.; Hebbie, Terry L.

    1992-01-01

    An improved cleaning blade construction (10) for eliminating erosion troughs (6) in the upper surface (15) of a cleaning blade member (14) by introducing pressurized fluid through a pressure manifold chamber (16) formed in the upper surface (15) of the cleaning blade member (14). The pressurized fluid will prevent carryback material (7) from passing through a wear groove (6) formed in the cleaning blade member.

  16. Kinetic model of mass transfer through gas liquid interface in laser surface alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnedovets, A. G.; Portnov, O. M.; Smurov, I.; Flamant, G.

    1997-02-01

    In laser surface alloying from gas atmosphere neither surface concentration nor the flux of the alloying elements are known beforehand. They should be determined from the combined solution of heat and mass transfer equations with an account for the kinetics of interaction of a gas with a melt. Kinetic theory description of mass transfer through the gas-liquid interface is applied to the problem of laser surface alloying of iron from the atmosphere of molecular nitrogen. The activation nature of gas molecules dissociation at the surface is considered. It is shown that under pulsed-periodic laser action the concentration profiles of the alloying element have maxima situated close to the surface of the metal. The efficiency of surface alloying increases steeply under laser-plasma conditions which results in the formation of highly supersaturated gas solutions in the metal.

  17. Cytocompatibility of Direct Laser Interference-patterned Titanium Surfaces for Implants.

    PubMed

    Hartjen, Philip; Nada, Ola; Silva, Thiago Gundelwein; Precht, Clarissa; Henningsen, Anders; Holthaus, Marzellus GROßE; Gulow, Nikolai; Friedrich, Reinhard E; Hanken, Henning; Heiland, Max; Zwahr, Christoph; Smeets, Ralf; Jung, Ole

    2017-01-01

    In an effort to generate titanium surfaces for implants with improved osseointegration, we used direct laser interference patterning (DLIP) to modify the surface of pure titanium grade 4 of four different structures. We assessed in vitro cytoxicity and cell attachment, as well as the viability and proliferation of cells cultured directly on the surfaces. Attachment of the cells to the modified surfaces was comparably good compared to that of cells on grit-blasted and acid-etched reference titanium surfaces. In concordance with this, viability and proliferation of the cells directly cultured on the specimens were similar on all the titanium surfaces, regardless of the laser modification, indicating good cytocompatibility. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  18. Surface patterning of multilayer graphene by ultraviolet laser irradiation in biomolecule sensing devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Tien-Li; Chen, Zhao-Chi

    2015-12-01

    The study presents a direct process for surface patterning of multilayer graphene on the glass substrate as a biosensing device. In contrast to lithography with etching, the proposed process provides simultaneous surface patterning of multilayer graphene through nanosecond laser irradiation. In this study, the multilayer graphene was prepared by a screen printing process. Additionally, the wavelength of the laser beam was 355 nm. To perform the effective laser process with the small heat affected zone, the surface patterns on the sensing devices could be directly fabricated using the laser with optimal control of the pulse overlap at a fluence threshold of 0.63 J/cm2. The unique patterning of the laser-ablated surface exhibits their electrical and hydrophilic characteristics. The hydrophilic surface of graphene-based sensing devices was achieved in the process with the pulse overlap of 90%. Furthermore, the sensing devices for controlling the electrical response of glucose by using glucose oxidase can be used in sensors in commercial medical applications.

  19. Biocompatibility of the micro-patterned NiTi surface produced by femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Chunyong; Wang, Hongshui; Yang, Jianjun; Li, Baoe; Yang, Yang; Li, Haipeng

    2012-11-01

    Biocompatibility of the micro-patterned NiTi surface produced by femtosecond laser (FSL) was studied in this work. The surface characteristics of the laser treated NiTi alloys were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atom force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS). The biocompatibility was evaluated by in vitro cell culture test. The results showed that, grooves, ripples, which covered by nanoparticles were formed on the sample surfaces, and the Ni/Ti ratio on the alloy surface increased with increasing laser energy. The crystal structure was not changed by laser treatment. However, the cell culture test proved that the micro-patterns induced by FSL were beneficial to improve the biocompatibility of NiTi alloys: the growth of osteoblasts oriented along the grooves, a large amount of synapses and filopodias were formed due to the ripples, holes and nanoparticles on the alloy surface, and the proliferation rate and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) content of cells were increased after FSL treatment. However, due to the toxicity of Ni ions on cell growth, the NiTi alloy surface should not be treated by laser fluence of more than 3.82 J/cm2 to obtain the ideal biocompatibility.

  20. UV laser-ablated surface textures as potential regulator of cellular response.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Prafulla; Lai, Karen; Sung, Hak-Joon; Murthy, N Sanjeeva; Kohn, Joachim

    2010-06-01

    Textured surfaces obtained by UV laser ablation of poly(ethylene terephthalate) films were used to study the effect of shape and spacing of surface features on cellular response. Two distinct patterns, cones and ripples with spacing from 2 to 25 μm, were produced. Surface features with different shapes and spacings were produced by varying pulse repetition rate, laser fluence, and exposure time. The effects of the surface texture parameters, i.e., shape and spacing, on cell attachment, proliferation, and morphology of neonatal human dermal fibroblasts and mouse fibroblasts were studied. Cell attachment was the highest in the regions with cones at ∼4 μm spacing. As feature spacing increased, cell spreading decreased, and the fibroblasts became more circular, indicating a stress-mediated cell shrinkage. This study shows that UV laser ablation is a useful alternative to lithographic techniques to produce surface patterns for controlling cell attachment and growth on biomaterial surfaces.

  1. Femtosecond laser pulse modification of amorphous silicon films: control of surface anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuleiko, D. V.; Potemkin, F. V.; Romanov, I. A.; Parhomenko, I. N.; Pavlikov, A. V.; Presnov, D. E.; Zabotnov, S. V.; Kazanskii, A. G.; Kashkarov, P. K.

    2018-05-01

    A one-dimensional surface relief with a 1.20  ±  0.02 µm period was formed in amorphous hydrogenated silicon films as a result of irradiation by femtosecond laser pulses (1.25 µm) with a fluence of 0.15 J cm‑2. Orientation of the formed structures was determined by the polarization vector of the radiation and the number of acting pulses. Nanocrystalline silicon phases with volume fractions from 40 to 67% were detected in the irradiated films according to the analysis of Raman spectra. Observed micro- and nanostructuring processes were caused by surface plasmon–polariton excitation and near-surface region nanocrystallization, respectively, in the high-intensity femtosecond laser field. Furthermore, the formation of Si-III and Si-XII silicon polymorphous modifications was observed after laser treatment with a large exposure dose. The conductivity of the film increased by three orders of magnitude at proper conditions after femtosecond laser nanocrystallization compared to the conductivity of the untreated amorphous surface. The conductivity anisotropy of the irradiated regions was also observed due to the depolarizing contribution of the surface structure, and the non-uniform intensity distribution in the cross-section of the laser beam used for modification.

  2. Microprocessing of human hard tooth tissues surface by mid-infrared erbium lasers radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belikov, Andrey V.; Shatilova, Ksenia V.; Skrypnik, Alexei V.

    2015-03-01

    A new method of hard tooth tissues laser treatment is described. The method consists in formation of regular microdefects on tissue surface by mid-infrared erbium laser radiation with propagation ratio M2<2 (Er-laser microprocessing). Proposed method was used for preparation of hard tooth tissues surface before filling for improvement of bond strength between tissues surface and restorative materials, microleakage reduction between tissues surface and restorative materials, and for caries prevention as a result of increasing microhardness and acid resistance of tooth enamel.

  3. Surface plasma wave assisted second harmonic generation of laser over a metal film

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Chauhan, Santosh; Parashar, J., E-mail: j.p.parashar@gmail.com

    2015-01-15

    Second harmonic generation of laser mode converted surface plasma wave (SPW) over a corrugated metal film is studied. The laser, impinged on the metal film, under attenuated total reflection configuration, excites SPW over the metal–vacuum interface. The excited SPW extends over a much wider surface area than the laser spot cross-section. It exerts a second harmonic ponderomotive force on metal electrons, imparting them velocity that beats with the surface ripple to produce a nonlinear current, driving resonant second harmonic surface plasma wave.

  4. Large-area homogeneous periodic surface structures generated on the surface of sputtered boron carbide thin films by femtosecond laser processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, R.; Oliveira, V.; Oliveira, J. C.; Kubart, T.; Vilar, R.; Cavaleiro, A.

    2015-03-01

    Amorphous and crystalline sputtered boron carbide thin films have a very high hardness even surpassing that of bulk crystalline boron carbide (≈41 GPa). However, magnetron sputtered B-C films have high friction coefficients (C.o.F) which limit their industrial application. Nanopatterning of materials surfaces has been proposed as a solution to decrease the C.o.F. The contact area of the nanopatterned surfaces is decreased due to the nanometre size of the asperities which results in a significant reduction of adhesion and friction. In the present work, the surface of amorphous and polycrystalline B-C thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering was nanopatterned using infrared femtosecond laser radiation. Successive parallel laser tracks 10 μm apart were overlapped in order to obtain a processed area of about 3 mm2. Sinusoidal-like undulations with the same spatial period as the laser tracks were formed on the surface of the amorphous boron carbide films after laser processing. The undulations amplitude increases with increasing laser fluence. The formation of undulations with a 10 μm period was also observed on the surface of the crystalline boron carbide film processed with a pulse energy of 72 μJ. The amplitude of the undulations is about 10 times higher than in the amorphous films processed at the same pulse energy due to the higher roughness of the films and consequent increase in laser radiation absorption. LIPSS formation on the surface of the films was achieved for the three B-C films under study. However, LIPSS are formed under different circumstances. Processing of the amorphous films at low fluence (72 μJ) results in LIPSS formation only on localized spots on the film surface. LIPSS formation was also observed on the top of the undulations formed after laser processing with 78 μJ of the amorphous film deposited at 800 °C. Finally, large-area homogeneous LIPSS coverage of the boron carbide crystalline films surface was achieved within a large range

  5. Surface changes of composite and compomer materials following irradiation with an Er:YAG laser and a frequency doubled alexandrite laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilgrim, Christian G.; Rechmann, Peter; Hennig, Thomas; Goldin, Dan S.

    1999-05-01

    Er:YAG laser as well as the frequency doubled Alexandrite laser have been suggested for the use in periodontal therapy and so for the elimination of calculus and the treatment of infected root cement. Intended is the laser application inside the gingival pocket. In consequence, both these lasers may be used in areas close to cervical or approximal location, or even on the fillings' surfaces. Light cured composite and compomer materials are in use for these types of fillings among others. Aim of the study presented here was to compare the effect of an Er:YAG laser (wavelength 2.94 μm, pulse duration 250 μs, free running. fluence 4.5 J/cm2 and 21.4 J/cm2) on compomers and composites with the result following irradiation with a frequency doubled Alexandrite laser (wavelength 377 nm, pulse duration 200 ns, fluence 3 Jcm-2 and 6 J/cm2). The surface of standardized compomer and composite samples were irradiated with both laser wavelengths (either frequency doubled Alexandrite or Er:YAG laser) using the same standardized application protocol. Scanning electron microscopic investigation showed that irradiation with both lasers causes surface changes in composites and compomers removing calculus with these lasers.

  6. Evidence for self-cleaning in gecko setae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, W. R.; Autumn, K.

    2005-01-01

    A tokay gecko can cling to virtually any surface and support its body mass with a single toe by using the millions of keratinous setae on its toe pads. Each seta branches into hundreds of 200-nm spatulae that make intimate contact with a variety of surface profiles. We showed previously that the combined surface area of billions of spatulae maximizes van der Waals interactions to generate large adhesive and shear forces. Geckos are not known to groom their feet yet retain their stickiness for months between molts. How geckos manage to keep their feet clean while walking about with sticky toes has remained a puzzle until now. Although self-cleaning by water droplets occurs in plant and animal surfaces, no adhesive has been shown to self-clean. In the present study, we demonstrate that gecko setae are a self-cleaning adhesive. Geckos with dirty feet recovered their ability to cling to vertical surfaces after only a few steps. Self-cleaning occurred in arrays of setae isolated from the gecko. Contact mechanical models suggest that self-cleaning occurs by an energetic disequilibrium between the adhesive forces attracting a dirt particle to the substrate and those attracting the same particle to one or more spatulae. We propose that the property of self-cleaning is intrinsic to the setal nanostructure and therefore should be replicable in synthetic adhesive materials in the future. adhesion | contact mechanics | locomotion | reptilia | nanotechnology

  7. Laser Surface Treatment and Modification of Aluminum Alloy Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbass, Muna Khethier

    2018-02-01

    The present work aimed to study the laser surface treatment and modification of Al-4.0%Cu-1.0%Mg alloy matrix composite reinforced with 10%SiC particles produced by stir casting. The specimens of the base alloy and composite were irradiated with an Nd:YAG laser of 1000 mJ, 1064 nm and 3 Hz . Dry wear test using the pin-on -disc technique at different sliding times (5-30 min) at a constant applied load and sliding speed were performed before and after laser treatment. Micro hardness and wear resistance were increased for all samples after laser hardening treatment. The improvement of these properties is explained by microstructural homogenization and grain refinement of the laser treated surface. Modification and refinement of SiC particles and grain refinement in the microstructure of the aluminum alloy matrix (α-Al) were observed by optical and SEM micrographs. The highest increase in hardness was 21.4% and 26.2% for the base alloy and composite sample respectively.

  8. Aluminium surface treatment with ceramic phases using diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labisz, K.; Tański, T.; Brytan, Z.; Pakieła, W.; Wiśniowski, M.

    2016-07-01

    Ceramic particles powder feeding into surface layer of engineering metal alloy is a well-known and widely used technique. New approach into the topic is to obtain finely distributed nano-sized particles involved in the aluminium matrix using the traditional laser technology. In this paper are presented results of microstructure investigation of cast aluminium-silicon-copper alloys surface layer after heat treatment and alloying with ceramic carbides of WC and ZrO2 using high-power diode laser. The surface layer was specially prepared for the reason of reducing the reflectivity, which is the main problem in the up-to-date metal matrix composites production. With scanning electron microscopy, it was possible to determine the deformation process and distribution of WC and ZrO2 ceramic powder phase. Structure of the surface after laser treatment changes, revealing three zones—remelting zone, heat-affected zone and transition zone placed over the Al substrate. The structural changes of ceramic powder, its distribution and morphology as well as microstructure of the matrix material influence on functional properties, especially wear resistance and hardness of the achieved layer, were investigated.

  9. Cleanliness for the NIF 1ω Laser Amplifiers

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Spaeth, M. L.; Manes, K. R.; Honig, J.

    During the years before the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser system, a set of generally accepted cleaning procedures had been developed for the large 1ω amplifiers of an inertial confinement fusion laser, and up until 1999 similar procedures were planned for NIF. Several parallel sets of test results were obtained from 1992 to 1999 for large amplifiers using these accepted cleaning procedures in the Beamlet physics test bed and in the Amplifier Module Prototype Laboratory (AMPLAB), a four-slab-high prototype large amplifier structure. Both of these showed damage to their slab surfaces that, if projected to operating conditions for NIF, wouldmore » lead to higher than acceptable slab-refurbishment rates. Finally, this study tracks the search for the smoking gun origin of this damage and describes the solution employed in NIF for avoiding flashlamp-induced aerosol damage to its 1ω amplifier slabs.« less

  10. Cleanliness for the NIF 1ω Laser Amplifiers

    DOE PAGES

    Spaeth, M. L.; Manes, K. R.; Honig, J.

    2017-03-23

    During the years before the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser system, a set of generally accepted cleaning procedures had been developed for the large 1ω amplifiers of an inertial confinement fusion laser, and up until 1999 similar procedures were planned for NIF. Several parallel sets of test results were obtained from 1992 to 1999 for large amplifiers using these accepted cleaning procedures in the Beamlet physics test bed and in the Amplifier Module Prototype Laboratory (AMPLAB), a four-slab-high prototype large amplifier structure. Both of these showed damage to their slab surfaces that, if projected to operating conditions for NIF, wouldmore » lead to higher than acceptable slab-refurbishment rates. Finally, this study tracks the search for the smoking gun origin of this damage and describes the solution employed in NIF for avoiding flashlamp-induced aerosol damage to its 1ω amplifier slabs.« less

  11. Laser material micro-working (LMμW): some new surface processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daurelio, G.; D'Alonzo, M.

    2007-05-01

    On the last recent years many new Laser Surface Processes have been studied and tested in the field of the L.M. μW. - Laser Material Micro Working. Still today many of these "young" processes are to study and more and more searches are dedicated to they. These are the Marking, Texturing, Fine Texturing, Filling, Polishing, Micro Shot-Penning, Silking and Colouring. This experimental work reports the results obtained in the field of the Laser Surface Fine Texturing on AISI 304 and 430 Stainless Steels by using a Marking System, that is a Nd:YAG Laser, VECTORMARK type by TRUMPH ( D ). So some new laser surface finishes, called by Authors, - Effetto tessuto, con trama e ordito (Woven effect, with weft and warp) - Effetto pelle scamosciata ( Effect shammy leather ) - Effetto pelle uncinata ( Effect hooked skin ) - Effetto pelle unghiata ( Effect skin looking like scratch ) - Effetto pelle damascata ( Effect damask skin ) - Effetto speculare , ottonato ( Specular effect, looking like brass ) Effetto speculare, bronzato ( specular effect looking like bronze ) - Effetto speculare, argenteo ( specular, looking like silver effect ) - Effetto speculare, ramato ( Specular effect, looking like copper ), Effetto Speculare, dorato ( Specular effect, looking like gold ) - Effetto speculare , dorato, a raggiera ( Specular effect, looking like gold, to aureole) , were carried out. The work is still in progress.

  12. Development of a compact vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser end-pumped actively Q-switched laser for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Li, Shuo; Chen, Rongzhang; Nelsen, Bryan

    2016-03-15

    This paper reports the development of a compact and portable actively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and its applications in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The laser was end-pumped by a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). The cavity lases at a wavelength of 1064 nm and produced pulses of 16 ns with a maximum pulse energy of 12.9 mJ. The laser exhibits a reliable performance in terms of pulse-to-pulse stability and timing jitter. The LIBS experiments were carried out using this laser on NIST standard alloy samples. Shot-to-shot LIBS signal stability, crater profile, time evolution of emission spectra, plasma electron density and temperature, andmore » limits of detection were studied and reported in this paper. The test results demonstrate that the VCSEL-pumped solid-state laser is an effective and compact laser tool for laser remote sensing applications.« less

  13. Generation and erasure of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on nanoparticle-covered silicon by a single laser pulse.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Wu, Qiang; Chen, Zhandong; Zhang, Bin; Tang, Baiquan; Yao, Jianghong; Drevensek-Olenik, Irena; Xu, Jingjun

    2014-01-15

    We experimentally show that the generation and erasure of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on nanoparticle-covered silicon inducted by irradiation with a single laser pulse (800 nm, 120 fs, linear polarization) depend on the pulse fluence. We propose that this is due to competition between periodic surface structuring originating from the interference of incident light with surface plasmon polaritons and surface smoothing associated with surface melting. Experimental results are supported by theoretical analysis of transient surface modifications based on combining the two-temperature model and the Drude model.

  14. Laser-induced surface-plasmon desorption of dye molecules from aluminum films

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lee, I.; Callcott, T.A.; Arakawa, E.T.

    1992-03-01

    Rhodamine 8 molecules were desorbed without fragmentation from the surface of an Al film by surface-plasmon-induced desorption. Surface plasmons were excited In the Al film by the second harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser in an attenuated-to-tal-reflection (ATR) geometry. The desorbed neutrals were Ionized by a XeCl excimer laser and detected by a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The desorption yields of both Al and rhodamine B showed a dependence with incidence angle which peaked at the plasmon resonance angle. The thresholds for desorption of Al and rhodamine B occur at the same laser fluence. Two models are proposed to explain these observations.more » 31 refs., 4 figs.« less

  15. Pump-probe imaging of laser-induced periodic surface structures after ultrafast irradiation of Si

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Murphy, Ryan D.; Torralva, Ben; Adams, David P.

    2013-09-30

    Ultrafast pump-probe microscopy has been used to investigate laser-induced periodic surface structure (LIPSS) formation on polished Si surfaces. A crater forms on the surface after irradiation by a 150 fs laser pulse, and a second, subsequent pulse forms LIPSS within the crater. Sequentially delayed images show that LIPSS with a periodicity slightly less than the fundamental laser wavelength of 780 nm appear on Si surfaces ∼50 ps after arrival of the second pump laser pulse, well after the onset of melting. LIPSS are observed on the same timescale as material removal, suggesting that their formation involves material ejection.

  16. Plasma cleaning of ITER edge Thomson scattering mock-up mirror in the EAST tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Rong; Moser, Lucas; Wang, Baoguo; Peng, Jiao; Vorpahl, Christian; Leipold, Frank; Reichle, Roger; Ding, Rui; Chen, Junling; Mu, Lei; Steiner, Roland; Meyer, Ernst; Zhao, Mingzhong; Wu, Jinhua; Marot, Laurent

    2018-02-01

    First mirrors are the key element of all optical and laser diagnostics in ITER. Facing the plasma directly, the surface of the first mirrors could be sputtered by energetic particles or deposited with contaminants eroded from the first wall (tungsten and beryllium), which would result in the degradation of the reflectivity. The impurity deposits emphasize the necessity of the first mirror in situ cleaning for ITER. The mock-up first mirror system for ITER edge Thomson scattering diagnostics has been cleaned in EAST for the first time in a tokamak using radio frequency capacitively coupled plasma. The cleaning properties, namely the removal of contaminants and homogeneity of cleaning were investigated with molybdenum mirror insets (25 mm diameter) located at five positions over the mock-up plate (center to edge) on which 10 nm of aluminum oxide, used as beryllium proxy, were deposited. The cleaning efficiency was evaluated using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, reflectivity measurements and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Using argon or neon plasma without magnetic field in the laboratory and with a 1.7 T magnetic field in the EAST tokamak, the aluminum oxide films were homogeneously removed. The full recovery of the mirrors’ reflectivity was attained after cleaning in EAST with the magnetic field, and the cleaning efficiency was about 40 times higher than that without the magnetic field. All these results are promising for the plasma cleaning baseline scenario of ITER.

  17. Reduction of Trapped-Ion Anomalous Heating by in situ Surface Plasma Cleaning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-29

    the trap chip temperature. To load ions, we initially cool 88Sr atoms into a remotely-located magneto - optical trap (MOT), then use a resonant push beam... trap heating rates [10]. Furthermore, some previous experiments have shown an improvement in the heating rates of surface-electrode ion traps after...rate when the trap chip is held at 4 K is not significantly improved by the plasma cleaning. While the observed frequency scaling is not the same in

  18. Laser induced periodic surface structures formation by nanosecond laser irradiation of poly (ethylene terephthalate) reinforced with Expanded Graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Beltrán, René I.; Hernandez, Margarita; Paszkiewicz, Sandra; Szymczyk, Anna; Rosłaniec, Zbigniew; Ezquerra, Tiberio A.; Castillejo, Marta; Moreno, Pablo; Rebollar, Esther

    2018-04-01

    We report on the formation of Laser Induced Periodic Surface Structures in poly (ethylene terephthalate) and poly (ethylene terephthalate)/Expanded Graphite films by laser irradiation with nanosecond pulses at 266 nm. The characterization studies show that the quality of the ripples depends strongly on the irradiation time and fluence and the optimal conditions for obtaining LIPSS are affected by the amount of the expanded graphite present in the film due to the differences in crystallinity, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of the nanocomposites. Physicochemical modifications in the materials were inspected by Raman spectroscopy, the colloidal probe technique and contact angle measurements using different liquids. Results show that there is an increase of the hydrophilicity of the surfaces after laser irradiation together with an increase of the surface free energy and in particular of its polar component. Additionally, the adhesion force estimated by the colloidal probe technique increases after laser nanostructuring.

  19. Modulation of dry tribological property of stainless steel by femtosecond laser surface texturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhuo; Zhao, Quanzhong; Wang, Chengwei; Zhang, Yang

    2015-06-01

    We reported on the modification of tribological properties of stainless steel by femtosecond laser surface microstructuring. Regular arranged micro-grooved textures with different spacing were produced on the AISI 304L steel surfaces by an 800-nm femtosecond laser. The tribological properties of smooth surface and textured surface were investigated by carrying out reciprocating ball-on-flat tests against Al2O3 ceramic balls under dry friction. Results show that the spacing of micro-grooves had a significant impact on friction coefficient of textured surfaces. Furthermore, the wear behaviors of smooth and textured surface were also investigated. Femtosecond laser surface texturing had a marked potential for modulating friction and wear properties if the micro-grooves were distributed in an appropriate manner.

  20. Laser surface texturing for high control of interference fit joint load bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obeidi, M. Ahmed; McCarthy, E.; Brabazon, D.

    2017-10-01

    Laser beams attract the attention of researchers, engineers and manufacturer as they can deliver high energy with finite controlled processing parameters and heat affected zone (HAZ) on almost all kind of materials [1-3]. Laser beams can be generated in the broad range of wavelengths, energies and beam modes in addition to the unique property of propagation in straight lines with less or negligible divergence [3]. These features made lasers preferential for metal treatment and surface modification over the conventional machining and heat treatment methods. Laser material forming and processing is prosperous and competitive because of its flexibility and the creation of new solutions and techniques [3-5]. This study is focused on the laser surface texture of 316L stainless steel pins for the application of interference fit, widely used in automotive and aerospace industry. The main laser processing parameters applied are the power, frequency and the overlapping laser beam scans. The produced samples were characterized by measuring the increase in the insertion diameter, insertion and removal force, surface morphology and cross section alteration and the modified layer chemical composition and residual stresses.

  1. Effects of laser shock peening with contacting foil on micro laser texturing surface of Ti6Al4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Fengze; Zhang, Zidong; Ren, Xudong; Lu, Jinzhong; Huang, Shu

    2018-02-01

    Ti6Al4V samples with micro-dimple arrays were subjected to laser shock peening in contact with foil (HCLSP). The surface roughness, micro-hardness, the residual stress distribution and the surface morphology of the micro-dimple arrays were studied to evaluate the effects of HCLSP. Moreover, the surface topography of the foils in contact was also analyzed. The gap existence between the foil and the to-be treated surface led the mechanism of HCLSP to be different compared to regular laser shock peening. The surface roughness reduction, the work-hardening effects, the compressive residual stress and the micro crack enclosure were achieved. A simplified ball-hitting-surface model was utilized to analyze the HCLSP impact. The model could well explain the experimental results. When treated by the HCLSP with H62 foil at the laser power density of 4.24 GW/cm2, the Ti6Al4V samples with micro-dimple arrays exhibit well surface topography and mechanical performance.

  2. Wavelength dependence of picosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maragkaki, Stella; Derrien, Thibault J.-Y.; Levy, Yoann; Bulgakova, Nadezhda M.; Ostendorf, Andreas; Gurevich, Evgeny L.

    2017-09-01

    The physical mechanisms of the laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) formation are studied in this paper for single-pulse irradiation regimes. The change in the LIPSS period with wavelength of incident laser radiation is investigated experimentally, using a picosecond laser system, which provides 7-ps pulses in near-IR, visible, and UV spectral ranges. The experimental results are compared with predictions made under the assumption that the surface-scattered waves are involved in the LIPSS formation. Considerable disagreement suggests that hydrodynamic mechanisms can be responsible for the observed pattern periodicity.

  3. Surface-plasmon--ion interaction in laser ablation of ions from a surface

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ritchie, R.H.; Manson, J.R.; Echenique, P.M.

    1994-01-15

    Experimental work by Shea and Compton suggests that Ag[sup +] ions emitted from a roughened Ag surface irradiated by a nanosecond or picosecond laser beam may absorb the full energy of the Ag surface plasmon (SP). We have modeled this process as an inverse bremsstrahlung-type absorption of the SP quantum by an Ag[sup +] ion which undergoes a collision with the surface. We estimate the absorption probability and find it to be consistent with the Shea-Compton results.

  4. Ultrashort laser pulses and electromagnetic pulse generation in air and on dielectric surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sprangle, P; Peñano, J R; Hafizi, B; Kapetanakos, C A

    2004-06-01

    Intense, ultrashort laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere have been observed to emit sub-THz electromagnetic pulses (EMPS). The purpose of this paper is to analyze EMP generation from the interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with air and with dielectric surfaces and to determine the efficiency of conversion of laser energy to EMP energy. In our self-consistent model the laser pulse partially ionizes the medium, forms a plasma filament, and through the ponderomotive forces associated with the laser pulse, drives plasma currents which are the source of the EMP. The propagating laser pulse evolves under the influence of diffraction, Kerr focusing, plasma defocusing, and energy depletion due to electron collisions and ionization. Collective effects and recombination processes are also included in the model. The duration of the EMP in air, at a fixed point, is found to be a few hundred femtoseconds, i.e., on the order of the laser pulse duration plus the electron collision time. For steady state laser pulse propagation the flux of EMP energy is nonradiative and axially directed. Radiative EMP energy is present only for nonsteady state or transient laser pulse propagation. The analysis also considers the generation of EMP on the surface of a dielectric on which an ultrashort laser pulse is incident. For typical laser parameters, the power and energy conversion efficiency from laser radiation to EMP radiation in both air and from dielectric surfaces is found to be extremely small, < 10(-8). Results of full-scale, self-consistent, numerical simulations of atmospheric and dielectric surface EMP generation are presented. A recent experiment on atmospheric EMP generation is also simulated.

  5. Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on steel and titanium alloy for tribological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonse, J.; Koter, R.; Hartelt, M.; Spaltmann, D.; Pentzien, S.; Höhm, S.; Rosenfeld, A.; Krüger, J.

    2014-10-01

    Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS, ripples) were generated on stainless steel (100Cr6) and titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) surfaces upon irradiation with multiple femtosecond laser pulses (pulse duration 30 fs, central wavelength 790 nm). The experimental conditions (laser fluence, spatial spot overlap) were optimized in a sample-scanning geometry for the processing of large surface areas (5 × 5 mm2) covered homogeneously by the nanostructures. The irradiated surface regions were subjected to white light interference microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealing spatial periods around 600 nm. The tribological performance of the nanostructured surface was characterized by reciprocal sliding against a ball of hardened steel in paraffin oil and in commercial engine oil as lubricants, followed by subsequent inspection of the wear tracks. For specific conditions, on the titanium alloy a significant reduction of the friction coefficient by a factor of more than two was observed on the laser-irradiated (LIPSS-covered) surface when compared to the non-irradiated one, indicating the potential benefit of laser surface structuring for tribological applications.

  6. Surface Structuring with Polarization-Singular Femtosecond Laser Beams Generated by a q-plate

    PubMed Central

    Nivas, Jijil JJ; Cardano, Filippo; Song, Zhenming; Rubano, Andrea; Fittipaldi, Rosalba; Vecchione, Antonio; Paparo, Domenico; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Bruzzese, Riccardo; Amoruso, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    In the last few years femtosecond optical vortex beams with different spatial distributions of the state of polarization (e.g. azimuthal, radial, spiral, etc.) have been used to generate complex, regular surface patterns on different materials. Here we present an experimental investigation on direct femtosecond laser surface structuring based on a larger class of vector beams generated by means of a q-plate with topological charge q = +1/2. In fact, voltage tuning of q-plate optical retardation allows generating a family of ultrashort laser beams with a continuous spatial evolution of polarization and fluence distribution in the focal plane. These beams can be thought of as a controlled coherent superposition of a Gaussian beam with uniform polarization and a vortex beam with a radial or azimuthal state of polarization. The use of this family of ultrashort laser beams in surface structuring leads to a further extension of the achievable surface patterns. The comparison of theoretical predictions of the vector beam characteristics at the focal plane and the generated surface patterns is used to rationalize the dependence of the surface structures on the local state of the laser beam, thus offering an effective way to either design unconventional surface structures or diagnose complex ultrashort laser beams. PMID:28169342

  7. Surface Structuring with Polarization-Singular Femtosecond Laser Beams Generated by a q-plate.

    PubMed

    Nivas, Jijil Jj; Cardano, Filippo; Song, Zhenming; Rubano, Andrea; Fittipaldi, Rosalba; Vecchione, Antonio; Paparo, Domenico; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Bruzzese, Riccardo; Amoruso, Salvatore

    2017-02-07

    In the last few years femtosecond optical vortex beams with different spatial distributions of the state of polarization (e.g. azimuthal, radial, spiral, etc.) have been used to generate complex, regular surface patterns on different materials. Here we present an experimental investigation on direct femtosecond laser surface structuring based on a larger class of vector beams generated by means of a q-plate with topological charge q = +1/2. In fact, voltage tuning of q-plate optical retardation allows generating a family of ultrashort laser beams with a continuous spatial evolution of polarization and fluence distribution in the focal plane. These beams can be thought of as a controlled coherent superposition of a Gaussian beam with uniform polarization and a vortex beam with a radial or azimuthal state of polarization. The use of this family of ultrashort laser beams in surface structuring leads to a further extension of the achievable surface patterns. The comparison of theoretical predictions of the vector beam characteristics at the focal plane and the generated surface patterns is used to rationalize the dependence of the surface structures on the local state of the laser beam, thus offering an effective way to either design unconventional surface structures or diagnose complex ultrashort laser beams.

  8. Surface Structuring with Polarization-Singular Femtosecond Laser Beams Generated by a q-plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nivas, Jijil Jj; Cardano, Filippo; Song, Zhenming; Rubano, Andrea; Fittipaldi, Rosalba; Vecchione, Antonio; Paparo, Domenico; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Bruzzese, Riccardo; Amoruso, Salvatore

    2017-02-01

    In the last few years femtosecond optical vortex beams with different spatial distributions of the state of polarization (e.g. azimuthal, radial, spiral, etc.) have been used to generate complex, regular surface patterns on different materials. Here we present an experimental investigation on direct femtosecond laser surface structuring based on a larger class of vector beams generated by means of a q-plate with topological charge q = +1/2. In fact, voltage tuning of q-plate optical retardation allows generating a family of ultrashort laser beams with a continuous spatial evolution of polarization and fluence distribution in the focal plane. These beams can be thought of as a controlled coherent superposition of a Gaussian beam with uniform polarization and a vortex beam with a radial or azimuthal state of polarization. The use of this family of ultrashort laser beams in surface structuring leads to a further extension of the achievable surface patterns. The comparison of theoretical predictions of the vector beam characteristics at the focal plane and the generated surface patterns is used to rationalize the dependence of the surface structures on the local state of the laser beam, thus offering an effective way to either design unconventional surface structures or diagnose complex ultrashort laser beams.

  9. Laser induced periodic surface structures on pyrolytic carbon prosthetic heart valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepak, Bogusz D.; Łecka, Katarzyna M.; Płonek, Tomasz; Antończak, Arkadiusz J.

    2016-12-01

    Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) can appear in different forms such as ripples, grooves or cones. Those highly periodic wavy surface features which are frequently smaller than incident light wavelength bring possibility of nanostructuring of many different materials. Furthermore, by changing laser parameters one can obtain wide spectrum of periodicities and geometries. The aim of this research was to determine possibility of nanostructuring pyrolytic carbon (PyC) heart valve leaflets using different irradiation conditions. The study was performed using two laser sources with different pulse duration (15 ps, 450 fs) as well as different wavelengths (1064, 532, 355 nm). Both low and high spatial frequency LIPSS were observed for each set of irradiation parameters. In case femtosecond laser pulses we obtained deep subwavelength ripple period which was even ten times smaller than applied wavelength. Obtained ripple period was ranging from 90 up to 860 nm. Raman spectra revealed the increase of disorder after laser irradiation which was comparable for both pico- and femtosecond laser.

  10. Evaluation of a laser road surface tester.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and usefulness of pavement distress data derived from a laser road surface tester (RST) operating on Virginia's interstate highway system. The evaluation was conducted by comparing rut depth, rou...

  11. Surface modification of tooth root canal after application of an X-ray opaque waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostálová, T.; Jelínková, H.; Šulc, J.; Němec, M.; Koranda, P.; Bartoňová, M.; Radina, P.; Miyagi, M.; Shi, Y.-W.; Matsuura, Y.

    The interest in endodontic use of dental laser systems has been increasing. With the development of thin and flexible delivery systems for various wavelengths, laser applications in endodontics may become even more desirable. The aim of this study is to check the X-ray opacity of a hollow waveguide and to observe the results after laser root canal treatment. The root canal systems of 10 molars were treated endodontically by laser. For the laser radiation source, an Er:YAG laser system generating a wavelength of 2940 nm and an Alexandrite laser system generating a wavelength of 375 nm were used. The hollow waveguide used was checked under X-ray . A root canal surface treated by laser radiation was analyzed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The special hollow glass waveguide used was visible in the root canal system under X-ray imaging. Surface modification of the root canal after laser treatment was not found. After conventional treatment the root canal was enlarged. The surface was covered with a smear layer. After application of both laser systems, the smear layer was removed. The resulting canal surface was found to be clean and smooth. Under SEM observation open dentinal tubules were visible. No cracks were present, nor were surface modifications observed.

  12. EFFECTS OF LASER RADIATION ON MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Thresholds of surface plasma formation by the interaction of laser pulses with a metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borets-Pervak, I. Yu; Vorob'ev, V. S.

    1995-04-01

    An analysis is made of a model of the formation of a surface laser plasma which takes account of the heating and vaporisation of thermally insulated surface microdefects. This model is used in an interpretation of experiments in which such a plasma has been formed by irradiation of a titanium target with microsecond CO2 laser pulses. A comparison with the experimental breakdown intensities is used to calculate the average sizes of microdefects and their concentration: the results are in agreement with the published data. The dependence of the delay time of plasma formation on the total energy in a laser pulse is calculated.

  13. Metal surface coloration by oxide periodic structures formed with nanosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veiko, Vadim; Karlagina, Yulia; Moskvin, Mikhail; Mikhailovskii, Vladimir; Odintsova, Galina; Olshin, Pavel; Pankin, Dmitry; Romanov, Valery; Yatsuk, Roman

    2017-09-01

    In this work, we studied a method of laser-induced coloration of metals, where small-scale spatially periodic structures play a key role in the process of color formation. The formation of such structures on a surface of AISI 304 stainless steel was demonstrated for the 1.06 μm fiber laser with nanosecond duration of pulses and random (elliptical) polarization. The color of the surface depends on the period, height and orientation of periodic surface structures. Adjustment of the polarization of the laser radiation or change of laser incidence angle can be used to control the orientation of the structures. The formation of markings that change their color under the different viewing angles becomes possible. The potential application of the method is metal product protection against falsification.

  14. Surface-plasmon distributed-feedback quantum cascade lasers operating pulsed, room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousseksou, A.; Chassagneux, Y.; Coudevylle, J. R.; Colombelli, R.; Sirtori, C.; Patriarche, G.; Beaudoin, G.; Sagnes, I.

    2009-08-01

    We report distributed-feedback surface-plasmon quantum cascade lasers operating at λ ≈7.6μm. The distributed feedback is obtained by the sole patterning of the top metal contact on a surface plasmon waveguide. Single mode operation with more than 30dB side mode suppression ratio is obtained in pulsed mode and at room temperature. A careful experimental study confirms that by varying the grating duty cycle, one can reduce the waveguide losses with respect to standard, unpatterned surface-plasmon devices. This allows one to reduce the laser threshold current of more than a factor of 2 in the 200-300K temperature range. This approach may lead to a fabrication technology for midinfrared distributed-feedback lasers based on a very simple processing.

  15. In situ x-ray surface diffraction chamber for pulsed laser ablation film growth studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tischler, J. Z.; Eres, G.; Lowndes, D. H.; Larson, B. C.; Yoon, M.; Chiang, T.-C.; Zschack, Paul

    2000-06-01

    Pulsed laser deposition is highly successful for growing complex films such as oxides for substrate buffer layers and HiTc oxide superconductors. A surface diffraction chamber has been constructed to study fundamental aspects of non-equilibrium film growth using pulsed laser deposition. Due to the pulsed nature of the ablating laser, the deposited atoms arrive on the substrate in short sub-millisecond pulses. Thus monitoring the surface x-ray diffraction following individual laser pulses (with resolution down to ˜1 ms) provides direct information on surface kinetics and the aggregation process during film growth. The chamber design, based upon a 2+2 surface diffraction geometry with the modifications necessary for laser ablation, is discussed, and initial measurements on homo-epitaxial growth of SrTiO3 are presented.

  16. [Effects of Nd: YAG laser irradiation on the root surfaces and adhesion of Streptococcus mutans].

    PubMed

    Yuanhong, Li; Zhongcheng, Li; Mengqi, Luo; Daonan, Shen; Shu, Zhang; Shu, Meng

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of treatment with different powers of Nd: YAG laser irradiation on root surfaces and Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) adhesion. Extracted teeth because of severe periodontal disease were divided into the following four groups: control group, laser group 1, laser group 2, and laser group 3. After scaling and root planning, laser group 1, laser group 2, and laser group 3 were separately treated with Nd: YAG laser irradiation (4/6/8 W, 60 s); however, the control group did not receive the treatment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to determine the morphology. S. mutans were cultured with root slices from each group. Colony forming unit per mL (CFU·mL⁻¹) was used to count and compare the amounts of bacteria adhesion among groups. SEM was used to observe the difference of bacteria adhesion to root surfaces between control group (scaling) and laser group 2 (6 W, 60 s), thereby indicating the different bacteria adhesions because of different treatments. Morphology alterations indicated that root surfaces in control group contain obvious smear layer, debris, and biofilm; whereas the root surfaces in laser group contain more cracks with less smear layer and debris. The bacteria counting indicated that S. mutans adhesion to laser group was weaker than that of control group (P<0.05). No statistical significance among the laser groups (P>0.05) was observed. Morphology alterations also verified that S. mutans adhesion to laser group 2 (6 W, 60 s) was weaker than that of control group (scaling). This study demonstrated that Nd: YAG laser irradiation treatment after scaling can reduce smear layer, debris, and biofilm on the root surfaces as compared with conventional scaling. The laser treatment reduces the adhesion of S. mutans as well. However, Nd: YAG laser irradiation can cause cracks on the root surfaces. In this experiment, the optimum laser power of 6 W can thoroughly remove the smear layer and debris, as well as

  17. Effect of annealing on the laser induced damage of polished and CO2 laser-processed fused silica surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doualle, T.; Gallais, L.; Cormont, P.; Donval, T.; Lamaignère, L.; Rullier, J. L.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the effect of different heat treatments on the laser-induced damage probabilities of fused silica samples. Isothermal annealing in a furnace is applied, with different temperatures in the range 700-1100 °C and 12 h annealing time, to super-polished fused silica samples. The surface flatness and laser damage probabilities at 3 ns, 351 nm are measured before and after the different annealing procedures. We have found a significant improvement of the initial laser damage probabilities of the silica surface after annealing at 1050 °C for 12 h. A similar study has been conducted on CO2 laser-processed sites on the surface of the samples. Before and after annealing, we have studied the morphology of the sites, the evolution of residual stress, and the laser-induced damage threshold measured at 351 nm, 3 ns. In this case, we observe that the laser damage resistance of the laser created craters can reach the damage level of the bare fused silica surface after the annealing process, with a complete stress relieve. The obtained results are then compared to the case of local annealing process by CO2 laser irradiation during 1 s, and we found similar improvements in both cases. The different results obtained in the study are compared to numerical simulations made with a thermo-mechanical model based on finite-element method that allows the simulation of the isothermal or the local annealing process, the evolution of stress and fictive temperature. The simulation results were found to be very consistent with experimental observations for the stresses evolution after annealing and estimation of the heat affected area during laser-processing based on the density dependence with fictive temperature. Following this work, the temperature for local annealing should reach 1330-1470 °C for an optimized reduction of damage probability and be below the threshold for material removal, whereas furnace annealing should be kept below the annealing point to avoid sample

  18. Temperature evaluation of dental implant surface irradiated with high-power diode laser.

    PubMed

    Rios, F G; Viana, E R; Ribeiro, G M; González, J C; Abelenda, A; Peruzzo, D C

    2016-09-01

    The prevalence of peri-implantitis and the absence of a standard approach for decontamination of the dental implant surface have led to searches for effective therapies. Since the source of diode lasers is portable, has reduced cost, and does not cause damage to the titanium surface of the implant, high-power diode lasers have been used for this purpose. The effect of laser irradiation on the implants is the elevation of the temperature surface. If this elevation exceeds 47 °C, the bone tissue is irreversibly damaged, so for a safety therapy, the laser parameters should be controlled. In this study, a diode laser of GaAsAl was used to irradiate titanium dental implants, for powers 1.32 to 2.64 W (real) or 2.00 to 4.00 W (nominal), in continuous/pulsed mode DC/AC, with exposure time of 5/10 s, with/without air flow for cooling. The elevation of the temperature was monitored in real time in two positions: cervical and apical. The best results for decontamination using a 968-nm diode laser were obtained for a power of 1.65 and 1.98 W (real) for 10 s, in DC or AC mode, with an air flow of 2.5 l/min. In our perspective in this article, we determine a suggested approach for decontamination of the dental implant surface using a 968-nm diode laser.

  19. Effect of environmental dust particles on laser textured yttria-stabilized zirconia surface in humid air ambient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Ali, H.; Al-Sharafi, A.; Al-Sulaiman, F.; Karatas, C.

    2018-05-01

    Zirconium nitride is used as a selective surface for concentrated solar heating applications and one of the methods to form a zirconium nitride is texturing of zirconia surface by a high intensity laser beam under high pressure nitrogen gas environment. Laser texturing also provides hydrophobic surface characteristics via forming micro/nano pillars at the surface; however, environmental dust settlement on textured surface influences the surface characteristics significantly. In the present study, laser texturing of zirconia surface and effects of the dust particles on the textured surface in a humid air ambient are investigated. Analytical tools are used to assess the morphological changes on the laser textured surface prior and after the dust settlement in the humid air ambient. It is found that laser textured surface has hydrophobic characteristics. The mud formed during condensate of water on the dust particles alters the characteristics of the laser textured surface. The tangential force required to remove the dry mud from the textured surface remains high; in which case, the dried liquid solution at the mud-textured surface interface is responsible for the strong adhesion of the dry mud on the textured surface. The textured surface becomes hydrophilic after the dry mud was removed from the surface by a desalinated water jet.

  20. Laser surface texturing of polymers for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riveiro, Antonio; Maçon, Anthony L. B.; del Val, Jesus; Comesaña, Rafael; Pou, Juan

    2018-02-01

    Polymers are materials widely used in biomedical science because of their biocompatibility, and good mechanical properties (which, in some cases, are similar to those of human tissues); however, these materials are, in general, chemically and biologically inert. Surface characteristics, such as topography (at the macro-, micro, and nanoscale), surface chemistry, surface energy, charge or wettability are interrelated properties, and they cooperatively influence the biological performance of materials when used for biomedical applications. They regulate the biological response at the implant/tissue interface (e.g., influencing the cell adhesion, cell orientation, cell motility, etc.). Several surface processing techniques have been explored to modulate these properties for biomedical applications. Despite their potentials, these methods have limitations that prevent their applicability. In this regard, laser-based methods, in particular laser surface texturing (LST), can be an interesting alternative. Different works have showed the potentiality of this technique to control the surface properties of biomedical polymers and enhance their biological performance; however, more research is needed to obtain the desired biological response. This work provides a general overview of the basics and applications of LST for the surface modification of polymers currently used in the clinical practice (e.g. PEEK, UHMWPE, PP, etc.). The modification of roughness, wettability, and their impact on the biological response is addressed to offer new insights on the surface modification of biomedical polymers.

  1. Laser Wire Stripper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    NASA-developed space shuttle technology is used in a laser wire stripper designed by Raytheon Company. Laser beams cut through insulation on a wire without damaging conductive metal, because laser radiation that melts plastic insulation is reflected by the metal. The laser process is fast, clean, precise and repeatable. It eliminates quality control problems and the expense of rejected wiring.

  2. Walnut Hulls Clean Aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colberg, W. R.; Gordon, G. H.; Jackson, C. H.

    1984-01-01

    Hulls inflict minimal substrate damage. Walnut hulls found to be best abrasive for cleaning aluminum surfaces prior to painting. Samples blasted with walnut hulls showed no compressive stress of surface.

  3. Multipulse nanosecond laser irradiation of silicon for the investigation of surface morphology and photoelectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardar, Maryam; Chen, Jun; Ullah, Zaka; Jelani, Mohsan; Tabassum, Aasma; Cheng, Ju; Sun, Yuxiang; Lu, Jian

    2017-12-01

    We irradiate the single crystal boron-doped silicon (Si) with different number of laser pulses at constant fluence (7.5 J cm-2) in ambient air using Nd:YAG laser and examine its surface morphology and photoelectric properties in details. The results obtained from optical micrographs reveal the increase in heat affected zone (HAZ) and melted area of laser irradiated Si with increasing number of laser pulses. The SEM micrographs evidence the formation of various surface morphologies like laser induced periodic surface structures, crater, microcracks, clusters, cavities, pores, trapped bubbles, nucleation sites, micro-bumps, redeposited material and micro- and nano-particles on the surface of irradiated Si. The surface profilometry analysis informs that the depth of crater is increased with increase in number of incident laser pulses. The spectroscopic ellipsometry reveals that the multipulse irradiation of Si changes its optical properties (refractive index and extinction coefficient). The current-voltage (I-V) characteristic curves of laser irradiated Si show that although the multipulse laser irradiation produces considerable number of surface defects and damages, the electrical properties of Si are well sustained after the multipulse irradiation. The current findings suggest that the multipulse irradiation can be an effective way to tune the optical properties of Si for the fabrication of wide range of optoelectronic devices.

  4. Fabrication of multi-functional silicon surface by direct laser writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Ashwani Kumar; Soni, R. K.

    2018-05-01

    We present a simple, quick and one-step methodology based on nano-second laser direct writing for the fabrication of micro-nanostructures on silicon surface. The fabricated surfaces suppress the optical reflection by multiple reflection due to light trapping effect to a much lower value than polished silicon surface. These textured surfaces offer high enhancement ability after gold nanoparticle deposition and then explored for Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) for specific molecular detection. The effect of laser scanning line interval on optical reflection and SERS signal enhancement ability was also investigated. Our results indicate that low optical reflection substrates exhibit uniform SERS enhancement with enhancement factor of the order of 106. Furthermore, this methodology provide an alternative approach for cost-effective large area fabrication with good control over feature size.

  5. Effect of scanning velocity on femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on HgCdTe crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Hongan; Dai, Ye; Wang, Haodong; Yan, Xiaona; Ma, Guohong

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a femtosecond laser line-scanning irradiation was used to induce the periodic surface microstructure on HgCdTe crystal. Low spatial frequency laser induced periodic surface structures of 650-770 nm and high spatial frequency laser induced periodic surface structures of 152-246 nm were respectively found with different scanning speeds. The evolution process from low spatial frequency laser induced periodic surface structures to high spatial frequency laser induced periodic surface structures is characterized by scanning electron microscope. Their spatial periods deduced by using a two-dimensional Fourier transformation partly agree with the predictions of the Sipe-Drude theory. Confocal micro-Raman spectral show that the atomic arrangement of induced low spatial frequency laser-induced structures are basically consistent with the crystal in the central area of laser-scanning line, however a new peak at 164 cm-1 for the CdTe-like mode becomes evident due to the Hg vaporization when strong laser ablation happens. The obtained surface periodic ripples may have applications in fabricating advanced infrared detector.

  6. Direct laser writing of microstructures on optically opaque and reflective surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rekštytė, S.; Jonavičius, T.; Malinauskas, M.

    2014-02-01

    Direct laser writing (DLW) based on ultra-localized polymerization is an efficient way to produce three-dimensional (3D) micro/nano-structures for diverse applications in science and industry. It is attractive for its flexibility to materialize CAD models out of wide spectrum of materials on the desired substrates. In case of direct laser lithography, photo-crosslinking can be achieved by tightly focusing ultrashort laser pulses to a photo- or thermo-polymers. Selectively exposing material to laser radiation allows creating fully 3D structures with submicrometer spatial resolution. In this paper we present DLW results of hybrid organic-inorganic material SZ2080 on optically opaque and reflective surfaces, such as silicon and various metals (Cr, Ti, Au). Our studies prove that one can precisely fabricate 2D and 3D structures with lower than 1 μm spatial resolution even on glossy or rough surfaces (surface roughness rms 0.068-0.670 μm) using sample translation velocities of up to 1 mm/s. Using femtosecond high pulse repetition rate laser, sample translation velocity can reach over 1 mm/s ensuring repeatable submicrometer structuring resolution.

  7. Membrane cleaning with ultrasonically driven bubbles.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Fabian; Lauterborn, Sonja; Mettin, Robert; Lauterborn, Werner

    2017-07-01

    A laboratory filtration plant for drinking water treatment is constructed to study the conditions for purely mechanical in situ cleaning of fouled polymeric membranes by the application of ultrasound. The filtration is done by suction of water with defined constant contamination through a membrane module, a stack of five pairs of flat-sheet ultrafiltration membranes. The short cleaning cycle to remove the cake layer from the membranes includes backwashing, the application of ultrasound and air flushing. A special geometry for sound irradiation of the membranes parallel to their surfaces is chosen. Two frequencies, 35kHz and 130kHz, and different driving powers are tested for their cleaning effectiveness. No cleaning is found for 35kHz, whereas good cleaning results are obtained for 130kHz, with an optimum cleaning effectiveness at moderate driving powers. Acoustic and optic measurements in space and time as well as analytical considerations and numerical calculations reveal the reasons and confirm the experimental results. The sound field is measured in high resolution and bubble structures are high-speed imaged on their nucleation sites as well as during their cleaning work at the membrane surface. The microscopic inspection of the membrane surface after cleaning shows distinct cleaning types in the cake layer that are related to specific bubble behaviour on the membrane. The membrane integrity and permeate quality are checked on-line by particle counting and turbidity measurement of the permeate. No signs of membrane damage or irreversible membrane degradation in permeability are detected and an excellent water permeate quality is retained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Measuring microhardness of laser exposed tooth surface].

    PubMed

    Florin, R; Herrmann, C; Bernhardt, W

    1990-02-01

    In principle it is possible to homogenize the enamel surface by melting structural elements with the continuous wave CO2 laser. Using the precision instrument NEOPHOT 2 (Carl Zeiss JENA) the microhardness of extracted laserexposed premolares were tested so as to clarify the functional strain capasity and the mechanical characteristics of laserexposed regions of enamel surfaces. The proven higher hardness in the centre of the laserinduced fusing zones (in comparison with adjacent enamel) objectify an attainable refining of the enamel surface that probably causes an increase in the caries-preventive resistance.

  9. Residual Viral and Bacterial Contamination of Surfaces after Cleaning and Disinfection

    PubMed Central

    Tuladhar, Era; Hazeleger, Wilma C.; Koopmans, Marion; Zwietering, Marcel H.; Beumer, Rijkelt R.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental surfaces contaminated with pathogens can be sources of indirect transmission, and cleaning and disinfection are common interventions focused on reducing contamination levels. We determined the efficacy of cleaning and disinfection procedures for reducing contamination by noroviruses, rotavirus, poliovirus, parechovirus, adenovirus, influenza virus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella enterica from artificially contaminated stainless steel surfaces. After a single wipe with water, liquid soap, or 250-ppm free chlorine solution, the numbers of infective viruses and bacteria were reduced by 1 log10 for poliovirus and close to 4 log10 for influenza virus. There was no significant difference in residual contamination levels after wiping with water, liquid soap, or 250-ppm chlorine solution. When a single wipe with liquid soap was followed by a second wipe using 250- or 1,000-ppm chlorine, an extra 1- to 3-log10 reduction was achieved, and except for rotavirus and norovirus genogroup I, no significant additional effect of 1,000 ppm compared to 250 ppm was found. A reduced correlation between reduction in PCR units (PCRU) and reduction in infectious particles suggests that at least part of the reduction achieved in the second step is due to inactivation instead of removal alone. We used data on infectious doses and transfer efficiencies to estimate a target level to which the residual contamination should be reduced and found that a single wipe with liquid soap followed by a wipe with 250-ppm free chlorine solution was sufficient to reduce the residual contamination to below the target level for most of the pathogens tested. PMID:22941071

  10. Residual viral and bacterial contamination of surfaces after cleaning and disinfection.

    PubMed

    Tuladhar, Era; Hazeleger, Wilma C; Koopmans, Marion; Zwietering, Marcel H; Beumer, Rijkelt R; Duizer, Erwin

    2012-11-01

    Environmental surfaces contaminated with pathogens can be sources of indirect transmission, and cleaning and disinfection are common interventions focused on reducing contamination levels. We determined the efficacy of cleaning and disinfection procedures for reducing contamination by noroviruses, rotavirus, poliovirus, parechovirus, adenovirus, influenza virus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella enterica from artificially contaminated stainless steel surfaces. After a single wipe with water, liquid soap, or 250-ppm free chlorine solution, the numbers of infective viruses and bacteria were reduced by 1 log(10) for poliovirus and close to 4 log(10) for influenza virus. There was no significant difference in residual contamination levels after wiping with water, liquid soap, or 250-ppm chlorine solution. When a single wipe with liquid soap was followed by a second wipe using 250- or 1,000-ppm chlorine, an extra 1- to 3-log(10) reduction was achieved, and except for rotavirus and norovirus genogroup I, no significant additional effect of 1,000 ppm compared to 250 ppm was found. A reduced correlation between reduction in PCR units (PCRU) and reduction in infectious particles suggests that at least part of the reduction achieved in the second step is due to inactivation instead of removal alone. We used data on infectious doses and transfer efficiencies to estimate a target level to which the residual contamination should be reduced and found that a single wipe with liquid soap followed by a wipe with 250-ppm free chlorine solution was sufficient to reduce the residual contamination to below the target level for most of the pathogens tested.

  11. Relaxation dynamics of femtosecond-laser-induced temperature modulation on the surfaces of metals and semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Yoann; Derrien, Thibault J.-Y.; Bulgakova, Nadezhda M.; Gurevich, Evgeny L.; Mocek, Tomáš

    2016-06-01

    Formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) is a complicated phenomenon which involves periodic spatial modulation of laser energy absorption on the irradiated surface, transient changes in optical response, surface layer melting and/or ablation. The listed processes strongly depend on laser fluence and pulse duration as well as on material properties. This paper is aimed at studying the spatiotemporal evolution of a periodic modulation of the deposited laser energy, once formed upon irradiation of metal (Ti) and semiconductor (Si) surfaces. Assuming that the incoming laser pulse interferes with a surface electromagnetic wave, the resulting sinusoidal modulation of the absorbed laser energy is introduced into a two-dimensional two-temperature model developed for titanium and silicon. Simulations reveal that the lattice temperature modulation on the surfaces of both materials following from the modulated absorption remains significant for longer than 50 ps after the laser pulse. In the cases considered here, the partially molten phase exists 10 ps in Ti and more than 50 ps in Si, suggesting that molten matter can be subjected to temperature-driven relocation toward LIPSS formation, due to the modulated temperature profile on the material surfaces. Molten phase at nanometric distances (nano-melting) is also revealed.

  12. An investigation of phase transformation and crystallinity in laser surface modified H13 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aqida, S. N.; Brabazon, D.; Naher, S.

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a laser surface modification process of AISI H13 tool steel using 0.09, 0.2 and 0.4 mm size of laser spot with an aim to increase hardness properties. A Rofin DC-015 diffusion-cooled CO2 slab laser was used to process AISI H13 tool steel samples. Samples of 10 mm diameter were sectioned to 100 mm length in order to process a predefined circumferential area. The parameters selected for examination were laser peak power, overlap percentage and pulse repetition frequency (PRF). X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) was conducted to measure crystallinity of the laser-modified surface. X-ray diffraction patterns of the samples were recorded using a Bruker D8 XRD system with Cu K α ( λ=1.5405 Å) radiation. The diffraction patterns were recorded in the 2 θ range of 20 to 80°. The hardness properties were tested at 981 mN force. The laser-modified surface exhibited reduced crystallinity compared to the un-processed samples. The presence of martensitic phase was detected in the samples processed using 0.4 mm spot size. Though there was reduced crystallinity, a high hardness was measured in the laser-modified surface. Hardness was increased more than 2.5 times compared to the as-received samples. These findings reveal the phase source of the hardening mechanism and grain composition in the laser-modified surface.

  13. Laser processing of metallic biomaterials: An approach for surface patterning and wettability control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razi, Sepehr; Mollabashi, Mahmoud; Madanipour, Khosro

    2015-12-01

    Q -switched Nd:YAG laser is used to manipulate the surface morphology and wettability characteristic of 316L stainless steel (SS) and titanium biomaterials. Water and glycerol are selected as wettability testing liquids and the sessile drop method is used for the contact angle measurements. Results indicate that on both of the metals, wettability toward water improves significantly after the laser treatment. Different analyses including the study of the surface morphology, free energy and oxidation are assessed in correlation with wettability. Beside the important role of the laser-induced surface patterns, the increase in the surface roughness, oxygen content and the polar component of the surface energy, are detected as the most important physical and chemical phenomena controlling the improvement in the wettability. However, all the processed hydrophilic surfaces that are exposed to air become hydrophobic over time. The time dependency of the surface wettability is related to the chemical activities on the treated surfaces and the reduction of oxygen/carbon (O/C) ratio on them. The behavior is further studied with investigating the effect of the keeping environment and changes of the components of the surface tension. Results show that the pulsed laser treatment is a versatile approach to create either hydrophobic or super hydrophilic surfaces for industrial and medical applications.

  14. Plasma discharge self-cleaning filtration system

    DOEpatents

    Cho, Young I.; Fridman, Alexander; Gutsol, Alexander F.; Yang, Yong

    2014-07-22

    The present invention is directed to a novel method for cleaning a filter surface using a plasma discharge self-cleaning filtration system. The method involves utilizing plasma discharges to induce short electric pulses of nanoseconds duration at high voltages. These electrical pulses generate strong Shockwaves that disintegrate and dislodge particulate matter located on the surface of the filter.

  15. Single-shot femtosecond laser ablation of gold surface in air and isopropyl alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryashov, S. I.; Saraeva, I. N.; Lednev, V. N.; Pershin, S. M.; Rudenko, A. A.; Ionin, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    Single-shot IR femtosecond-laser ablation of gold surfaces in ambient air and liquid isopropyl alcohol was studied by scanning electron microscopy characterization of crater topographies and time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy of ablative plumes in regimes, typical for non-filamentary and non-fragmentation laser production of nanoparticle sols. Despite one order of magnitude shorter (few nanoseconds) lifetimes and almost two orders of magnitude lower intensities of the quenched ablative plume emission in the alcohol ambient at the same peak laser fluence, craters for the dry and wet conditions appeared with rather similar nanofoam-like spallative topographies and the same thresholds. These facts envision the underlying surface spallation as one of the basic ablation mechanisms relevant for both dry and wet advanced femtosecond laser surface nano/micro-machining and texturing, as well as for high-throughput femtosecond laser ablative production of colloidal nanoparticles by MHz laser-pulse trains via their direct nanoscale jetting from the nanofoam in air and fluid environments.

  16. Pulse-analysis-pulse investigation of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on silicon in air.

    PubMed

    Oboňa, J Vincenc; Skolski, J Z P; Römer, G R B E; in t Veld, A J Huis

    2014-04-21

    A new approach to experimentally investigate laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSSs) is introduced. Silicon was iteratively exposed to femtosecond laser pulses at λ = 800 nm and normal incidence in ambient air and at a fluence slightly over the single-pulse modification threshold. After each laser pulse, the topography of the surface was inspected by confocal microscopy. Subsequently, the sample was reproducibly repositioned in the laser setup, to be exposed to the next laser pulse. By this approach, the initiation and spatial evolution ("growth") of the LIPSSs were analyzed as function of the number of pulses applied. It was found that, after the first laser pulses, the ridges of the LIPSSs elevate, and valleys between the ridges deepen, by a few tens of nanometers relative to the initial surface. An electromagnetic model, discussed in earlier works, predicted that the spatial periodicity of LIPSSs decreases with the number of laser pulses applied. This implies material transport and reorganization of the irradiated material on the surface, due to each laser pulse. However, our experiments show a negligible shift of the lateral positions of the LIPSSs on the surface.

  17. High-speed measurements of steel-plate deformations during laser surface processing.

    PubMed

    Jezersek, Matija; Gruden, Valter; Mozina, Janez

    2004-10-04

    In this paper we present a novel approach to monitoring the deformations of a steel plate's surface during various types of laser processing, e.g., engraving, marking, cutting, bending, and welding. The measuring system is based on a laser triangulation principle, where the laser projector generates multiple lines simultaneously. This enables us to measure the shape of the surface with a high sampling rate (80 Hz with our camera) and high accuracy (+/-7 microm). The measurements of steel-plate deformations for plates of different thickness and with different illumination patterns are presented graphically and in an animation.

  18. Method of control position of laser focus during surfacing teeth of cutters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvezdin, V. V.; Hisamutdinov, R. M.; Rakhimov, R. R.; Israfilov, I. H.; Akhtiamov, R. F.

    2017-09-01

    Providing the quality laser of surfacing the edges of teeth requires control not only the energy of the radiation parameters, but also the position of the focal spot. The control channel of position of laser focus during surfacing, which determines the parameters of quality of the deposited layer, was calculated in the work. The parameters of the active opto-electronic system for the subsystem adjust the focus position relative to the deposited layer with a laser illumination of the cutting edges the teeth cutters were calculated, the model of a control channel based on thermal phenomena occurring in the zone of surfacing was proposed.

  19. 3D thermal model of laser surface glazing for H13 tool steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabir, I. R.; Yin, D.; Naher, S.

    2017-10-01

    In this work a three dimensional (3D) finite element model of laser surface glazing (LSG) process has been developed. The purpose of the 3D thermal model of LSG was to achieve maximum accuracy towards the predicted outcome for optimizing the process. A cylindrical geometry of 10mm diameter and 1mm length was used in ANSYS 15 software. Temperature distribution, depth of modified zone and cooling rates were analysed from the thermal model. Parametric study was carried out varying the laser power from 200W-300W with constant beam diameter and residence time which were 0.2mm and 0.15ms respectively. The maximum surface temperature 2554°K was obtained for power 300W and minimum surface temperature 1668°K for power 200W. Heating and cooling rates increased with increasing laser power. The depth of the laser modified zone attained for 300W power was 37.5µm and for 200W power was 30µm. No molten zone was observed at 200W power. Maximum surface temperatures obtained from 3D model increased 4% than 2D model presented in author's previous work. In order to verify simulation results an analytical solution of temperature distribution for laser surface modification was used. The surface temperature after heating was calculated for similar laser parameters which is 1689°K. The difference in maximum surface temperature is around 20.7°K between analytical and numerical analysis of LSG for power 200W.

  20. Enhanced optical absorbance and fabrication of periodic arrays on nickel surface using nanosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jinxiang; Liang, Hao; Zhang, Jingyuan; Wang, Yibo; Liu, Yannan; Zhang, Zhiyan; Lin, Xuechun

    2017-04-01

    A hundred-nanosecond pulsed laser was employed to structure the nickel surface. The effects of laser spatial filling interval and laser scanning speed on the optical absorbance capacity and morphologies on the nickel surface were experimentally investigated. The black nickel surface covered with dense micro/nanostructured broccoli-like clusters with strong light trapping capacity ranging from the UV to the near IR was produced at a high laser scanning speed up to v=100 mm/s. The absorbance of the black nickel is as high as 98% in the UV range of 200-400 nm, more than 97% in the visible spectrum, ranging from 400 to 800 nm, and over 90% in the IR between 800 and 2000 nm. In addition, when the nickel surface was irradiated in two-dimensional crossing scans by laser with different processing parameters, self-organized and shape-controllable structures of three-dimensional (3D) periodic arrays can be fabricated. Compared with ultrafast laser systems previously used for such processing, the nanosecond fiber laser used in this work is more cost-effective, compact and allows higher processing rates. This nickel surface structured technique may be applicable in optoelectronics, batteries industry, solar/wave absorbers, and wettability materials.

  1. Issues Related to Cleaning Complex Geometry Surfaces with ODC-Free Solvents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, Blake F.; Wurth, Laura A.; Nayate, Pramod D.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Implementing ozone depleting chemicals (ODC)-free solvents into full-scale reusable solid rocket motor cleaning operations has presented problems due to the low vapor pressures of the solvents. Because of slow evaporation, solvent retention is a problem on porous substrates or on surfaces with irregular geometry, such as threaded boltholes, leak check ports, and nozzle backfill joints. The new solvents are being evaluated to replace 1,1,1-trichloroethane, which readily evaporates from these surfaces. Selection of the solvents to be evaluated on full-scale hardware was made based on results of subscale tests performed with flat surface coupons, which did not manifest the problem. Test efforts have been undertaken to address concerns with the slow-evaporating solvents. These concerns include effects on materials due to long-term exposure to solvent, potential migration from bolthole threads to seal surfaces, and effects on bolt loading due to solvent retention in threads. Tests performed to date have verified that retained solvent does not affect materials or hardware performance. Process modifications have also been developed to assist drying, and these can be implemented if additional drying becomes necessary.

  2. Improved Main Shaft Seal Life in Gas Turbines Using Laser Surface Texturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNickle, Alan D.; Etsion, Izhak

    2002-10-01

    This paper presents a general overview of the improved main shaft seal life in gas turbines using laser surface texturing (LST). The contents include: 1) Laser Surface Texturing System; 2) Seal Schematic with LST applied; 3) Dynamic Rig Tests; 4) Surface Finish Definitions; 5) Wear Test Rig; 6) Dynamic Test Rig; 7) Seal Cross Section-Rig Test; and 8) Typical Test Results. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  3. Laser-modified titanium surfaces enhance the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bressel, Tatiana A B; de Queiroz, Jana Dara Freires; Gomes Moreira, Susana Margarida; da Fonseca, Jéssyca T; Filho, Edson A; Guastaldi, Antônio Carlos; Batistuzzo de Medeiros, Silvia Regina

    2017-11-28

    Titanium surfaces have been modified by various approaches with the aim of improving the stimulation of osseointegration. Laser beam (Yb-YAG) treatment is a controllable and flexible approach to modifying surfaces. It creates a complex surface topography with micro and nano-scaled patterns, and an oxide layer that can improve the osseointegration of implants, increasing their usefulness as bone implant materials. Laser beam irradiation at various fluences (132, 210, or 235 J/cm 2 ) was used to treat commercially pure titanium discs to create complex surface topographies. The titanium discs were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and measurement of contact angles. The surface generated at a fluence of 235 J/cm 2 was used in the biological assays. The behavior of mesenchymal stem cells from an umbilical cord vein was evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, a mineralization assay, and an alkaline phosphatase activity assay and by carrying out a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for osteogenic markers. CHO-k1 cells were also exposed to titanium discs in the MTT assay. The best titanium surface was that produced by laser beam irradiation at 235 J/cm 2 fluence. Cell proliferation analysis revealed that the CHO-k1 and mesenchymal stem cells behaved differently. The laser-processed titanium surface increased the proliferation of CHO-k1 cells, reduced the proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells, upregulated the expression of the osteogenic markers, and enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity. The laser-treated titanium surface modulated cellular behavior depending on the cell type, and stimulated osteogenic differentiation. This evidence supports the potential use of laser-processed titanium surfaces as bone implant materials, and their use in regenerative medicine could promote better outcomes.

  4. Femtosecond laser induced surface modification for prevention of bacterial adhesion on 45S5 bioactive glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaikh, Shazia; Singh, Deepti; Subramanian, Mahesh; Kedia, Sunita; Singh, Anil Kumar; Singh, Kulwant; Gupta, Nidhi; Sinha, Sucharita

    2018-02-01

    Bacterial attachment and biofilm formation on implant surface has been a major concern in hospital and industrial environment. Prevention of bacterial infections of implant surface through surface treatment could be a potential solution and hence this has become a key area of research. In the present study, the antibacterial and biocompatible properties of femtosecond laser surface treated 45S5 bioactive glass (BG) have been investigated. Adhesion and sustainability of both gram positive S. aureus and gram negative P.aeruginosa and E. coli nosocomial bacteria on untreated and laser treated BG samples has been explored. An imprint method has been used to visualize the growth of bacteria on the sample surface. We observed complete bacterial rejection potentially reducing risk of biofilm formation on laser treated surface. This was correlated with surface roughness, wettability and change in surface chemical composition of the samples before and after laser treatment. Biocompatibility of the laser treated BG was demonstrated by studying the anchoring and growth of human cervix cell line INT407. Our results demonstrate that, laser surface modification of BG enables enhanced bacterial rejection without affecting its biocompatibility towards growth of human cells on it. These results open a significantly potential approach towards use of laser in successfully imparting desirable characteristics to BG based bio-implants and devices.

  5. EFFECTS OF LASER RADIATION ON MATTER: Growth of periodic structures on the surface of germanium subjected to pulsed laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsukov, D. O.; Gusakov, G. M.; Frolov, A. I.

    1991-12-01

    An experimental investigation was made of the dynamics of growth of periodic surface structures due to the interaction with pulsed laser radiation. Samples of Ge were subjected to laser pulses (λ = 1.06 μm, τ = 70 ns) with energy densities in the range 0.5-5.5 J/cm2. An investigation was made of the dynamics of the first-order diffraction of probe (λ = 0.53 μm) laser pulses with a time resolution 4 ns when p- and s-polarized laser radiation was incident at angles close to normal. A strong nonlinearity of the growth of such periodic surface structures was observed. The energy density from which such growth began depended on the quality of the polished Ge surface. The parameters of the dynamics of the growth of these structures were estimated.

  6. EFFECTS OF LASER RADIATION ON MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Transient deformation of the surface of a thermocapillary liquid by laser heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozniakowski, K.

    1995-02-01

    Deformation self-focusing of a laser beam (0.6328 μm, 5 mW) on the surface of a strongly absorbing viscous liquid was studied experimentally. It was found that the approach described can be used to evaluate the surface tension.

  7. Laser micropolishing of AISI 304 stainless steel surfaces for cleanability and bacteria removal capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Giorgi, Chiara; Furlan, Valentina; Demir, Ali Gökhan; Tallarita, Elena; Candiani, Gabriele; Previtali, Barbara

    2017-06-01

    In this work, laser micropolishing (LμP) was employed to reduce the surface roughness and waviness of cold-rolled AISI 304 stainless steel sheets. A pulsed fibre laser operating in the ns regime was used and the influence of laser parameters in a N2-controlled atmospheres was evaluated. In the optimal conditions, the surface remelting induced by the process allowed to reduce the surface roughness by closing cracks and defects formed during the rolling process. Other conditions that did not improve the surface quality were analysed for defect typology. Moreover, laser treatments allowed the production of more hydrophobic surfaces, and no surface chemistry modification was identified. Surface cleanability was investigated with Escherichia coli (E. coli), evaluating the number of residual bacteria adhering to the substrate after a washing procedure. These results showed that LμP is a suitable way to lower the average surface roughness by about 58% and average surface waviness by approximately 38%. The LμP process proved to be effective on the bacteria cleanability as approximately five times fewer bacteria remained on the surfaces treated with the optimized LμP parameters compared to the untreated surfaces.

  8. Surface patterning of CRFP composites using femtosecond laser interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, V.; Moreira, R. D. F.; de Moura, M. F. S. F.; Vilar, R.

    2018-03-01

    We report on the surface patterning of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites using femtosecond laser interferometry. The effect of experimental processing parameters, such as the pulse energy and scanning speed, on the quality of the patterns is studied. Using the appropriate processing parameters, a selective removal of the epoxy resin can be achieved, leaving the carbon fibers exposed and textured with the desired pattern. The period of the patterns can be controlled by changing the distance between the two interfering beams. On the other hand, the amplitude of the patterns can be controlled by changing the pulse energy or the number of laser pulses applied. In addition, sub-micron ripples are created on the carbon fibers surface allowing multiscale surface modification which may contribute to improve bonding between CFRP parts.

  9. Laser-induced surface modification of biopolymers – micro/nanostructuring and functionalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stankova, N. E.; Atanasov, P. A.; Nedyalkov, N. N.; Tatchev, Dr; Kolev, K. N.; Valova, E. I.; Armyanov, St. A.; Grochowska, K.; Śliwiński, G.; Fukata, N.; Hirsch, D.; Rauschenbach, B.

    2018-03-01

    The medical-grade polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer is a widely used biomaterial in medicine for preparation of high-tech devices because of its remarkable properties. In this paper, we present experimental results on surface modification of PDMS elastomer by using ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared ns-laser system and investigation of the chemical composition and the morphological structure inside the treated area in dependence on the processing parameters – wavelength, laser fluence and number of pulses. Remarkable chemical transformations and changes of the morphological structure were observed, resulting in the formation of a highly catalytically active surface, which was successfully functionalized via electroless Ni and Pt deposition by a sensitizing-activation free process. The results obtained are very promising in view of applying the methods of laser-induced micro- and nano-structuring and activation of biopolymers’ surface and further electroless metal plating to the preparation of, e.g., multielectrode arrays (MEAs) devices in neural and muscular surface interfacing implantable systems.

  10. Analyses of surface coloration on TiO 2 film irradiated with excimer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, H. Y.; Qian, H. X.; Zhou, W.

    2008-01-01

    TiO 2 film of around 850 nm in thickness was deposited on a soda-lime glass by PVD sputtering and irradiated using one pulse of krypton-fluorine (KrF) excimer laser (wavelength of 248 nm and pulse duration of 25 ns) with varying fluence. The color of the irradiated area became darker with increasing laser fluence. Irradiated surfaces were characterized using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Surface undergoes thermal annealing at low laser fluence of 400 and 590 mJ/cm 2. Microcracks at medium laser fluence of 1000 mJ/cm 2 are attributed to surface melting and solidification. Hydrodynamic ablation is proposed to explain the formation of micropores and networks at higher laser fluence of 1100 and 1200 mJ/cm 2. The darkening effect is explained in terms of trapping of light in the surface defects formed rather than anatase to rutile phase transformation as reported by others. Controlled darkening of TiO 2 film might be used for adjustable filters.

  11. Enhancement of surface area and wettability properties of boron doped diamond by femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structuring

    DOE PAGES

    Granados, Eduardo; Calderon, Miguel Martinez; Krzywinski, Jacek; ...

    2017-08-28

    We demonstrate the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) in boron-doped diamond (BDD) by irradiation with femtosecond near-IR laser pulses. The results show that the obtained LIPSS are perpendicular to the laser polarization, and the ripple periodicity is on the order of half of the irradiation wavelength. The surface structures and their electrochemical properties were characterized using Raman micro-spectroscopy, in combination with scanning electron and atomic force microscopies. The textured BDD surface showed a dense and large surface area with no change in its structural characteristics. The effective surface area of the textured BDD electrode was approximately 50% largermore » than that of a planar substrate, while wetting tests showed that the irradiated area becomes highly hydrophilic. Lastly, our results indicate that LIPSS texturing of BDD is a straightforward and simple technique for enhancing the surface area and wettability properties of the BDD electrodes, which could enable higher current efficiency and lower energy consumption in the electrochemical oxidation of toxic organics.« less

  12. Enhancement of surface area and wettability properties of boron doped diamond by femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structuring

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Granados, Eduardo; Calderon, Miguel Martinez; Krzywinski, Jacek

    We demonstrate the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) in boron-doped diamond (BDD) by irradiation with femtosecond near-IR laser pulses. The results show that the obtained LIPSS are perpendicular to the laser polarization, and the ripple periodicity is on the order of half of the irradiation wavelength. The surface structures and their electrochemical properties were characterized using Raman micro-spectroscopy, in combination with scanning electron and atomic force microscopies. The textured BDD surface showed a dense and large surface area with no change in its structural characteristics. The effective surface area of the textured BDD electrode was approximately 50% largermore » than that of a planar substrate, while wetting tests showed that the irradiated area becomes highly hydrophilic. Lastly, our results indicate that LIPSS texturing of BDD is a straightforward and simple technique for enhancing the surface area and wettability properties of the BDD electrodes, which could enable higher current efficiency and lower energy consumption in the electrochemical oxidation of toxic organics.« less

  13. Boulder damage symposium annual thin film laser damage competition

    DOE PAGES

    Stolz, Christopher J.

    2012-11-28

    Optical instruments and laser systems are often fluence-limited by multilayer thin films deposited on the optical surfaces. When comparing publications within the laser damage literature, there can be confusing and conflicting laser damage results. This is due to differences in testing protocols between research groups studying very different applications. In this series of competitions, samples from multiple vendors are compared under identical testing parameters and a single testing service. Unlike a typical study where a hypothesis is tested within a well-controlled experiment with isolated variables, this competition isolates the laser damage testing variables so that trends can be observed betweenmore » different deposition processes, coating materials, cleaning techniques, and multiple coating suppliers. The resulting series of damage competitions has also been designed to observe general trends of damage morphologies and mechanisms over a wide range of coating types (high reflector and antireflector), wavelengths (193 to 1064 nm), and pulse lengths (180 fs to 13 ns). A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity were used in each of the competitions so only a summary of the deposition process, coating materials, layer count and spectral results are presented. Laser resistance was strongly affected by substrate cleaning, coating deposition method, and coating material selection whereas layer count and spectral properties had minimal impact.« less

  14. Laser-induced periodic surface structures formation: investigation of the effect of nonlinear absorption of laser energy in different materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Yoann; Bulgakova, Nadezhda M.; Mocek, Tomáš

    2017-05-01

    To get insight into laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) formation, the relaxation of a modulation in the temperature profile is investigated numerically on surfaces of two different kinds of materials (metals and dielectrics; gold and fused silica as examples) upon irradiation by ultrashort laser pulses. The temperature modulation is assumed to originate from the interference between the incoming laser pulse and the surface electromagnetic wave, which is considered as the main mechanism of LIPSS formation. For comparative studies of laser energy dissipation, a simplified 2D approach is used. It is based on the two-temperature model (TTM) and considers the mechanisms of nonlinear absorption of laser light (multiphoton ionization in fused silica; temperature-dependent thermophysical and optical properties in gold) and relaxation (electron trapping to excitonic states in fused silica). The TTM is coupled with the Drude model, considering the evolution of optical properties as a function of free-carrier density and/or temperature. The development and decay of the lattice temperature modulation, which can govern the LIPSS formation, is followed during electron-lattice thermalization time and beyond. It is shown that strong temperature gradients can form along the surfaces of both kinds of materials under study within the fluence range typical for LIPSS formation. Considerable changes in optical properties of these materials are found as a function of time, including metals, for which a constant reflectivity is usually assumed. Effects of nonlinear absorption on the surface temperature dynamics are reported.

  15. Lateral scattered light used to study laser light propagation in turbid media phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdes, Claudia; Solarte, Efrain

    2010-02-01

    Laser light propagation in soft tissues is important because of the growing biomedical applications of lasers and the need to optically characterize the biological media. Following previous developments of the group, we have developed low cost models, Phantoms, of soft tissue. The process was developed in a clean room to avoid the medium contamination. Each model was characterized by measuring the refractive index, and spectral reflectance and transmittance. To study the laser light propagation, each model was illuminated with