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Sample records for laser tracking microrheometry

  1. Fast Fluorescence Laser Tracking Microrheometry, I: Instrument Development

    PubMed Central

    Jonas, Maxine; Huang, Hayden; Kamm, Roger D.; So, Peter T. C.

    2008-01-01

    To gain insight into cellular mechanotransduction pathways, we have developed a fluorescence laser tracking microrheometer (FLTM) to measure material rheological features on micrometer length scales using fluorescent microspheres as tracer particles. The statistical analysis of the Brownian motion of a particle quantifies the viscoelastic properties of the probe's environment, parameterized by the frequency-dependent complex shear modulus G*(ω). This FLTM has nanometer spatial resolution over a frequency range extending from 1 Hz to 50 kHz. In this work, we first describe the consecutive stages of instrument design, development, and optimization. We subsequently demonstrate the accuracy of the FLTM by reproducing satisfactorily the known rheological characteristics of purely viscous glycerol solutions and cross-linked polyacrylamide polymer networks. An upcoming companion article will illustrate the use of FLTM in studying the solid-like versus liquid-like rheological properties of fibroblast cytoskeletons in living biological samples. PMID:17965137

  2. Is microrheometry affected by channel deformation?

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Francesco; Netti, Paolo Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Microrheometry is very important for exploring rheological behaviours of several systems when conventional techniques fail. Microrheometrical measurements are usually carried out in microfluidic devices made of Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). Although PDMS is a very cheap material, it is also very easy to deform. In particular, a liquid flowing in a PDMS device, in some circumstances, can effectively deform the microchannel, thus altering the flow conditions. The measure of the fluid relaxation time might be performed through viscoelasticity induced particle migration in microfluidics devices. If the channel walls are deformed by the flow, the resulting measured value of the relaxation time could be not reliable. In this work, we study the effect of channel deformation on particle migration in square-shaped microchannel. Experiments are carried out in several PolyEthylene Oxyde solutions flowing in two devices made of PDMS and Poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA). The relevance of wall rigidity on particle migration is investigated, and the corresponding importance of wall rigidity on the determination of the relaxation time of the suspending liquid is examined. PMID:27098237

  3. Rotating magnetic particle microrheometry in biopolymer fluid dynamics: mucus microrheology.

    PubMed

    Besseris, George J; Yeates, Donovan B

    2007-09-14

    The polymer properties of canine mucus were investigated through the method of rotating magnetic particle microrheometry. Mucus is visualized as a physically entangled biopolymer of low polydispersity in a water-based solution. Mucus was modeled according to the constitutive law of a Doi-Edwards fluid. The magnetic-particle equation of rotational motion is analytically solved in the linear viscoelastic limit rendering theoretical flow profiles which are used to fit the experimental trace signals of the particle remanent-magnetic-field decay. The zero-shear-rate viscosity was found to be 18,000 P and the relaxation time at about 42 s. The molecular weight between entanglements for mucins was estimated at 1.7 MDa rendering an estimation of about seven physical cross-links per molecule. Rheological investigations were extended also to diluted and concentrated rations of the normal mucus simulating the conditions found in more physiological extremes.

  4. Precision laser automatic tracking system.

    PubMed

    Lucy, R F; Peters, C J; McGann, E J; Lang, K T

    1966-04-01

    A precision laser tracker has been constructed and tested that is capable of tracking a low-acceleration target to an accuracy of about 25 microrad root mean square. In tracking high-acceleration targets, the error is directly proportional to the angular acceleration. For an angular acceleration of 0.6 rad/sec(2), the measured tracking error was about 0.1 mrad. The basic components in this tracker, similar in configuration to a heliostat, are a laser and an image dissector, which are mounted on a stationary frame, and a servocontrolled tracking mirror. The daytime sensitivity of this system is approximately 3 x 10(-10) W/m(2); the ultimate nighttime sensitivity is approximately 3 x 10(-14) W/m(2). Experimental tests were performed to evaluate both dynamic characteristics of this system and the system sensitivity. Dynamic performance of the system was obtained, using a small rocket covered with retroreflective material launched at an acceleration of about 13 g at a point 204 m from the tracker. The daytime sensitivity of the system was checked, using an efficient retroreflector mounted on a light aircraft. This aircraft was tracked out to a maximum range of 15 km, which checked the daytime sensitivity of the system measured by other means. The system also has been used to track passively stars and the Echo I satellite. Also, the system tracked passively a +7.5 magnitude star, and the signal-to-noise ratio in this experiment indicates that it should be possible to track a + 12.5 magnitude star.

  5. Active tracking lasers for precision target stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riker, Jim F.

    2003-09-01

    Lasers have historically been considered in the context of weapons, but recent progress has also permitted us to consider using lasers for more subtle applications such as designation, tracking, and discrimination. In this paper, we will review the state of the art of active tracking, including effects such as laser beam quality, diffraction, atmospheric turbulence, and other aspects of laser interactions with its propagation environment. We will present the theory for using lasers in these lower power applications.

  6. Laser tracks in rainbow films on water

    SciTech Connect

    Startsev, Aleksandr V; Stoilov, Yurii Yu

    2012-08-31

    It is found that narrow non-diverging laser tracks, earlier studied in free soap films, can also arise in thin rainbow films, e.g., of petrol, on water. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  7. Precision CW laser automatic tracking system investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, K. T.; Lucy, R. F.; Mcgann, E. J.; Peters, C. J.

    1966-01-01

    Precision laser tracker capable of tracking a low acceleration target to an accuracy of about 20 microradians rms is being constructed and tested. This laser tracking has the advantage of discriminating against other optical sources and the capability of simultaneously measuring range.

  8. Laser tracking system with automatic reacquisition capability.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R E; Weiss, P F

    1968-06-01

    A laser based tracking system is described that has the capability of automatically performing an acquisition search to locate the target. This work is intended for precision launch phase tracking of the Saturn V launch vehicle. System tracking accuracies limited only by the atmosphere have been demonstrated, as has acquisition over a 1 degrees x 1 degrees field of view.

  9. Subnanoradian, Groundbased Tracking of Spaceborne Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treuhaft, R. N.

    1993-01-01

    Over the next few decades groundbased tracking of lasers on planetary spacecraft will supplement or replace tracking of radio transponders. This paper describes research on two candidate technologies for groundbased, angular, laser tracking: the infrared interferometer and the optical filled-aperture telescope. The motivation for infrared and optical tracking will be followed by a description of the current (10-50 nanoradian) and future (subnanororadian) stellar tracking demonstrations with the University of California-Berkeley Infrared Spatial Interferometer (ISI) and the University of California-San Diego Optical Ronchi Telescope.

  10. Laser tracking for vertical control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Peter; Torrence, Mark; Pavlis, Erricos; Kolenkiewicz, Ron; Smith, David

    1993-01-01

    The Global Laser Tracking Network has provided LAGEOS ranging data of high accuracy since the first MERIT campaign in late 1983 and we can now resolve centimeter-level three dimensional positions of participating observatories at monthly intervals. In this analysis, the station height estimates have been considered separately from the horizontal components, and can be determined by the strongest stations with a formal standard error of 2 mm using eight years of continuous observations. The rate of change in the vertical can be resolved to a few mm/year, which is at the expected level of several geophysical effects. In comparing the behavior of the stations to that predicted by recent models of post-glacial rebound, we find no correlation in this very small effect. Particular attention must be applied to data and survey quality control when measuring the vertical component, and the survey observations are critical components of the geodynamic results. Seasonal patterns are observed in the heights of most stations, and the possibility of secular motion at the level of several millimeters per year cannot be excluded. Any such motion must be considered in the interpretation of horizontal inter-site measurements, and can help to identify mechanisms which can cause variations which occur linearly with time, seasonally, or abruptly.

  11. Tracking and inspection for laser welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boillot, Jean-Paul; Uota, Koichi; Berthiaume, Etienne; Noruk, Jeffrey

    2003-03-01

    High precision, high productivity and high quality are the three absolute requirements in today's laser welding production. Automated laser welding places extreme demands on tool position accuracy. Accurate real-time tracking and inspection systems for laser materials processing make use of high-performance laser sensors. The reliability of the monitored signal can be significantly increased by using high resolution, digital CMOS sensors and high speed real-time image processing technologies. This paper presents the latest developments in high-performance optical joint tracking systems and optical inspection systems based on these technologies. Optical joint tracking systems allow for precise control of part fit-up, machine self-alignment, and adaptive process control; optical inspection systems allow for automated in-line verification, insuring laser welds meet quality standards and customer's specification. Geometric features of welds can be precisely measured and compared to allowable tolerances while undesirable attributes like surface porosities and external defects can be accurately detected.

  12. Semiconductor Laser Tracking Frequency Distance Gauge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, James D.; Reasenberg, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Advanced astronomical missions with greatly enhanced resolution and physics missions of unprecedented accuracy will require a spaceworthy laser distance gauge of substantially improved performance. The Tracking Frequency Gauge (TFG) uses a single beam, locking a laser to the measurement interferometer. We have demonstrated this technique with pm (10(exp -12) m) performance. We report on the version we are now developing based on space-qualifiable, fiber-coupled distributed-feedback semiconductor lasers.

  13. Semiconductor Laser Tracking Frequency Distance Gauge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, James D.; Reasenberg, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Advanced astronomical missions with greatly enhanced resolution and physics missions of unprecedented accuracy will require a spaceworthy laser distance gauge of substantially improved performance. The Tracking Frequency Gauge (TFG) uses a single beam, locking a laser to the measurement interferometer. We have demonstrated this technique with pm (10(exp -12) m) performance. We report on the version we are now developing based on space-qualifiable, fiber-coupled distributed-feedback semiconductor lasers.

  14. Binocular eye tracking with the Tracking Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, S B; Sheehy, C K; Roorda, A

    2016-01-01

    The development of high magnification retinal imaging has brought with it the ability to track eye motion with a precision of less than an arc minute. Previously these systems have provided only monocular records. Here we describe a modification to the Tracking Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope (Sheehy et al., 2012) that splits the optical path in a way that slows the left and right retinas to be scanned almost simultaneously by a single system. A mirror placed at a retinal conjugate point redirects half of each horizontal scan line to the fellow eye. The collected video is a split image with left and right retinas appearing side by side in each frame. Analysis of the retinal motion in the recorded video provides an eye movement trace with very high temporal and spatial resolution. Results are presented from scans of subjects with normal ocular motility that fixated steadily on a green laser dot. The retinas were scanned at 4° eccentricity with a 2° square field. Eye position was extracted offline from recorded videos with an FFT based image analysis program written in Matlab. The noise level of the tracking was estimated to range from 0.25 to 0.5arcmin SD for three subjects. In the binocular recordings, the left eye/right eye difference was 1-2arcmin SD for vertical motion and 10-15arcmin SD for horizontal motion, in agreement with published values from other tracking techniques.

  15. Binocular eye tracking with the Tracking Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, S.B.; Sheehy, C.K.; Roorda, A.

    2015-01-01

    The development of high magnification retinal imaging has brought with it the ability to track eye motion with a precision of less than an arc minute. Previously these systems have provided only monocular records. Here we describe a modification to the Tracking Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope (Sheehy et al. 2012) that splits the optical path in a way that slows the left and right retinas to be scanned almost simultaneously by a single system. A mirror placed at a retinal conjugate point redirects half of each horizontal scan line to the fellow eye. The collected video is a split image with left and right retinas appearing side by side in each frame. Analysis of the retinal motion in the recorded video provides an eye movement trace with very high temporal and spatial resolution. Results are presented from scans of subjects with normal ocular motility that fixated steadily on a green laser dot. The retinas were scanned at 4 degrees eccentricity with a 2 degree square field. Eye position was extracted offline from recorded videos with an FFT based image analysis program written in Matlab. The noise level of the tracking was estimated to range from 0.25 to 0.5 arc minutes SD for three subjects. In the binocular recordings, the left eye / right eye difference was 1 to 2 arc minutes SD for vertical motion and 10 to 15 arc minutes SD for horizontal motion, in agreement with published values from other tracking techniques. PMID:25676884

  16. A laser tracking dynamic robot metrology instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, G. A.; Mayer, J. R. R.

    1989-01-01

    Research work over several years has resulted in the development of a laser tracking instrument capable of dynamic 3-D measurements of robot end-effector trajectories. The instrument characteristics and experiments to measure the static and dynamic performance of a robot in an industrial manufacturing environment are described. The use of this technology for space applications is examined.

  17. Monitoring structure movement with laser tracking technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barazzetti, Luigi; Giussani, Alberto; Roncoroni, Fabio; Previtali, Mattia

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents the use of laser tracking technology for structure monitoring. In this field the use of this precise instrument is innovative and therefore new investigations are needed for civil structures, especially for applications carried out during unstable environmental conditions. On the other hand, as laser trackers are today very used in industrial applications aimed at collecting data at high speed with precisions superior to +/-0.05 mm, they seem quite promising for those civil engineering applications where numerous geodetic tools, often coupled with mechanical and electrical instruments, are usually used to inspect structure movements. This work illustrates three real civil engineering monitoring applications where laser tracking technology was used to detect object movements. The first one is a laboratory testing for the inspection of a beam (bending moment and shear). The second experiment is the stability inspection of a bridge. The last experiment is one of the first attempts where laser trackers tried to substitute traditional high precision geometric leveling for monitoring an important historical building: the Cathedral of Milan. The achieved results, pro and contra along with some practical issues are described.

  18. Optical Torques on Upconverting Particles for Intracellular Microrheometry.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sevilla, Paloma; Zhang, Yuhai; de Sousa, Nuno; Marqués, Manuel I; Sanz-Rodríguez, Francisco; Jaque, Daniel; Liu, Xiaogang; Haro-González, Patricia

    2016-12-14

    Precise knowledge and control over the orientation of individual upconverting particles is extremely important for full exploiting their capabilities as multifunctional bioprobes for interdisciplinary applications. In this work, we report on how time-resolved, single particle polarized spectroscopy can be used to determine the orientation dynamics of a single upconverting particle when entering into an optical trap. Experimental results have unequivocally evidenced the existence of a unique stable configuration. Numerical simulations and simple numerical calculations have demonstrated that the dipole magnetic interactions between the upconverting particle and trapping radiation are the main mechanisms responsible of the optical torques that drive the upconverting particle to its stable orientation. Finally, how a proper analysis of the rotation dynamics of a single upconverting particle within an optical trap can provide valuable information about the properties of the medium in which it is suspended is demonstrated. A proof of concept is given in which the laser driven intracellular rotation of upconverting particles is used to successfully determine the intracellular dynamic viscosity by a passive and an active method.

  19. Laser imaging for rapid Microbial Source Tracking.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Gong, Hao; Zhang, Xu; Patankar, Prithviraj P; Sadowsky, Michael J; Tseng, Charles C

    2010-01-01

    DNA fingerprinting, PCR and other genomic technologies have recently been used to determine sources of fecal bacteria in waterways. Here, we report on the development of a simple and automated optical method for potential use in Microbial Source Tracking (MST) of E. coli. The method employs laser imaging of bacterial colonies and high-resolution optical scattering image analysis for information extraction and classification. Cross validation is used to statistically evaluate the robustness of the classifiers. The entire image analysis procedure can be fully automated, making this a potentially useful tool for future MST studies.

  20. Tracking of Humans and Robots Using Laser Range Finders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bršcic, Drazen; Sasaki, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Hideki

    There exist various applications where tracking of humans or robots in an area is needed. An example of such applications are Intelligent Spaces, where humans and robots share a common space and their positions are tracked by a system of sensors in the space. In this paper a system for tracking both humans and robots that utilizes laser range finders as sensing devices is described. The details of the extraction of objects from the laser scan, data association and estimation are given, and results of tracking humans and robots are described. Calibration of the distributed laser range finders, which is important for the operation of the tracking system is also described, both in a manual and automated variant and experimental results are given. Finally, the inclusion of a laser range finder onboard the mobile robot in the tracking process is described and accompanied with experimental results. The distributed fusion of static and onboard sensors is also discussed.

  1. Sand dune tracking from satellite laser altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabboor, Mohammed

    Substantial problems arise from sand movement in arid and semi-arid countries. Sand poses a threat to infrastructure, agricultural and urban areas. These issues are caused by the encroachment of sand on roads and railway tracks, farmland, towns and villages, and airports, to name a few. Sand movement highly depends on geomorphology including vegetation cover, shape and height of the terrain, and grain size of the sand. However, wind direction and speed are the most important factors that affect efficient sand movement. The direction of the movement depends on the main direction of the wind, but it has been shown that a minimum wind speed is required, e.g. wind gusts, to initiate sand transport. This fact prevents a simple calculation of sand transport from conventional wind data as wind records rarely contain sub-minute intervals masking out any wind gusts. An alternative of predicting sand transport is the direct observation of sand advance by in situ measurements or via satellite. Until recently, satellite imagery was the only means to compare dune shape and position for predicting dune migration over several years. In 2003, the NASA laser altimetry mission ICESat became operational and monitors elevations over all surface types including sand dunes with an accuracy of about 10-20 cm. In this study, ICESat observations from repeat tracks (tracks overlapping eachother within 50 m) are used to derive sand dune advance and direction. The method employs a correlation of the elevation profiles over several dunes and was sucessfully validated with synthetic data. The accuracy of this method is 5 meters of dune advance. One of the most active areas exhibiting sand and dune movement is the area of the Arabian Peninsula. Approximately one-third of the Arabian Peninsula is covered by sand dunes. Different wind regimes (Shamal, Kaus) cause sand dune movement in the selected study area in the eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula between 20-25 degrees North and 45-55 degrees

  2. Application of the staring-edge tracking in laser radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lianhe; Wu, Jian

    1997-04-01

    The extended target that the size is larger that the diameter of the light beam can be tracked in the laser tracking radar designed on the basic of the method and the algorithm of the staring edge tracking. A moving aluminium plate is tracked by a coherent CO2 laser tracking radar facility with transmitter power 5W and the divergent angle of the transmitter light beam less than 0.18 mrad at a n approximate range of 1 km. The error signals of the azimuth and the elevation are generated from the quad detector. This successful experiment results indicates that the question that the traditional tracking method of quad detector is vain to the extended target has been overcome and testifies that our theory of the staring edge tracking is correct. This tracking method has many advantages. For example, is we choose the tracking position at the top of the target, then the ground target is not easy to lose. So it can avoid tracking the ground. On the other hand, the range of the laser radar using this method is longer than the range of the radar using the point tracking, because the target using narrow light beam illumination is taken as an extended Lambertian target.

  3. On the nature of laser polariton tracks in soap films

    SciTech Connect

    Startsev, Aleksandr V; Stoilov, Yurii Yu

    2004-06-30

    The results of the study of narrow laser tracks in soap films with the divergence below the diffraction-limited value are presented, and the mechanism of formation of narrow channels (spatial polariton solitons) based on laser dielectrophoresis in films is proposed. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  4. Tracking strategies for laser ranging to multiple satellite targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robbins, J. W.; Smith, D. E.; Kolenkiewicz, R.

    1994-01-01

    By the middle of the decade, several new Laser Geodynamic Satellites will be launched to join the current constellation comprised of the laser geodynamic satellite (LAGEOS) (US), Starlette (France), Ajisai (Japan), and Etalon I and II (USSR). The satellites to be launched, LAGEOS II and III (US & Italy), and Stella (France), will be injected into orbits that differ from the existing constellation so that geodetic and gravimetric quantities are sampled to enhance their resolution and accuracy. An examination of various possible tracking strategies adopted by the network of laser tracking stations has revealed that the recovery of precise geodetic parameters can be obtained over shorter intervals than is currently obtainable with the present constellation of satellites. This is particularly important in the planning of mobile laser tracking operations, given a network of permanently operating tracking sites. Through simulations, it is shown that laser tracking of certain satellite passes, pre-selected to provide optimal sky-coverage, provides the means to acquire a sufficient amount of data to allow the recovery of 1 cm station positions.

  5. Tracking strategies for laser ranging to multiple satellite targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robbins, J. W.; Smith, D. E.; Kolenkiewicz, R.

    1994-01-01

    By the middle of the decade, several new Laser Geodynamic Satellites will be launched to join the current constellation comprised of the laser geodynamic satellite (LAGEOS) (US), Starlette (France), Ajisai (Japan), and Etalon I and II (USSR). The satellites to be launched, LAGEOS II and III (US & Italy), and Stella (France), will be injected into orbits that differ from the existing constellation so that geodetic and gravimetric quantities are sampled to enhance their resolution and accuracy. An examination of various possible tracking strategies adopted by the network of laser tracking stations has revealed that the recovery of precise geodetic parameters can be obtained over shorter intervals than is currently obtainable with the present constellation of satellites. This is particularly important in the planning of mobile laser tracking operations, given a network of permanently operating tracking sites. Through simulations, it is shown that laser tracking of certain satellite passes, pre-selected to provide optimal sky-coverage, provides the means to acquire a sufficient amount of data to allow the recovery of 1 cm station positions.

  6. Field-Testing of an Active Laser Tracking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markov, V.; Khiznyak, A.; Woll, D.; Liu, S.

    Comprehensive space surveillance demands a more accurate technique in tracking multi-dimensional state vector (3D coordinate, velocity, vibration, etc.) of the space objects. RF radiometric techniques typically can not provide the needed accuracy, while passive optical (and laser) tracking systems can provide distance to the object and its angular position, but not a direct reading of velocity, the parameter of primary importance for space object tracking and characterization. Addressing this problem with active optical tracking techniques is challenging because of the great distances involved, the high velocity of the satellites, and the optical aberrations induced by the atmosphere. We have proposed a phase conjugation based laser tracking concept, and accomplished the first version of design and engineering of a prototype for an Active Laser Tracking System (ALTS). In its current state the ALTS is capable to demonstrate the very basics operational principles of the proposed active tracking technique. We then performed a number of experiments to prove operational capabilities of this prototype both at MetroLaser's lab environment and at Edwards AFB Test Range. In its current architecture the ALTS is comprised of two laser cavities, Master and Slave that are coupled through a Phase Conjugate Mirror (PCM) formed in a non-linear medium (NLM) set at Master laser cavity. By pumping NLM and forming PCM, Master laser establishes the cavities coupling mode and injects the photons in the slave cavity. It is essential that the specific features of the PCM not only serve to couple ALTS cavities, but also serves to compensate optical aberrations of the ALTS (gain media and optical elements of the laser resonator). Due to its ability to compensate optical aberrations, phase conjugate resonators are capable of sustaining oscillation with a remote target as an output coupler. The entire system comprises of several modules, including a laser, emitting/receiving telescope, gimbal

  7. Integrated laser/radar satellite ranging and tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.

    1974-01-01

    A laser satellite ranging system that is mounted upon and integrated with a microwave tracking radar is reported. The 1-pulse/sec ruby laser transmitter is attached directly to the radar's elevation axis and radiates through a new opening in the radar's parabolic dish. The laser photomultiplier tube receiver utilizes the radar's existing 20-cm diam f/11 boresight telescope and observes through a similar symmetrically located opening in the dish. The laser system possesses separate ranging system electronics but shares the radar's timing, computer, and data handling/recording systems. The basic concept of the laser/radar is outlined together with a listing of the numerous advantages over present singular laser range-finding systems. The developmental laser hardware is described along with preliminary range-finding results and expectations.

  8. Tracking capabilities of SPADs for laser ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zappa, F.; Ripamonti, Giancarlo; Lacaita, A.; Cova, Sergio; Samori, C.

    1993-01-01

    The spatial sensitivity of Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) can be exploited in laser ranging measurements to finely tune the laser spot in the center of the detector sensitive area. We report the performance of a SPAD with l00 micron diameter. It features a time resolution better than 80 ps rms when operated 4V above V(b) at minus 30 C, and a spatial sensitivity better than 20 microns to radial displacements of the laser spot. New SPAD structures with auxiliary delay detectors are proposed. These improved devices could allow a two dimensional sensitivity, that could be employed for the design of pointing servos.

  9. Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory laser tracking systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, M. R.; Lanham, N. W.; Lehr, C. G.; Wohn, J.

    1977-01-01

    The four SAO laser satellite-ranging systems, located in Brazil, Peru, Australia, and Arizona, have been in operation for more than five years and have provided ranging data at accuracy levels of a meter or better. The paper examines system hardware (laser transmitter, the electronics, mount, photoreceiver, minicomputer, and station timing) and software (prediction program, calibration programs, and data handling and quick-look programs) and also considers calibration, station operation, and system performance.

  10. Design of a novel laser tracking measuring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G. X.; Sui, X. W.; Zhao, S. Z.; Liu, L. Y.; Chen, X.; Li, X. H.; Lin, Y. B.

    2005-12-01

    A novel laser tracking measuring system based on the principle of multi-lateration is developed. The system consists of a four-quadrant silicon photoelectric cell measuring the position of reflected beam from the target with sensitivity of 200mv/mm, a rotational tracking mirrror with a solid angle of 35 degrees driven by two motors and a new type of closed-loop control with digital PID and analog PID. The experiment shows that it works reliably with tracking speed 0.7m/s, and the standard deviation of measurement is 1.2μm.

  11. Target acquisition and track in the laser docking sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clowes, Ted J.; Schuma, Richard F.

    1988-01-01

    A sensor designed to aid in the docking of spacecraft is under development for NASA. This sensor uses three lasers to track the prospective target and to determine the required parameters necessary to calculate the ideal approach maneuver. The system combines the inputs from several sensors, including polarization, continuous tone DME, and a CID to achieve the desired results.

  12. Geoid undulation computations at laser tracking stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Despotakis, Vasilios K.

    1987-01-01

    Geoid undulation computations were performed at 29 laser stations distributed around the world using a combination of terrestrial gravity data within a cap of radius 2 deg and a potential coefficient set up to 180 deg. The traditional methods of Stokes' and Meissl's modification together with the Molodenskii method and the modified Sjoberg method were applied. Performing numerical tests based on global error assumptions regarding the terrestrial data and the geopotential set it was concluded that the modified Sjoberg method is the most accurate and promising technique for geoid undulation computations. The numerical computations for the geoid undulations using all the four methods resulted in agreement with the ellipsoidal minus orthometric value of the undulations on the order of 60 cm or better for most of the laser stations in the eastern United States, Australia, Japan, Bermuda, and Europe. A systematic discrepancy of about 2 meters for most of the western United States stations was detected and verified by using two relatively independent data sets. For oceanic laser stations in the western Atlantic and Pacific oceans that have no terrestrial data available, the adjusted GEOS-3 and SEASAT altimeter data were used for the computation of the geoid undulation in a collocation method.

  13. Estimation filters for missile tracking with airborne laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemons, T. M., III; Chang, K. C.

    2006-05-01

    This paper examines the use of various estimation filters on the highly non-linear problem of tracking a ballistic missile during boost phase from a moving airborne platform. The aircraft receives passive bearing data from an IR sensor and range data from a laser rangefinder. The aircraft is assumed to have a laser weapon system that requires highly accurate bearing information in order to keep the laser on target from a distance of 100-200 km. The tracking problem is made more difficult due to the changing acceleration of the missile, especially during stage drop-off and ignition. The Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF), 'bootstrap' Particle Filter (PF), and the Gaussian Sum Particle Filter (GSPF) are explored using different values for sensor accuracy in bearing and range, and various degrees of uncertainty of the target and platform dynamic. Scenarios were created using Satellite Toolkit © for trajectories from a Southeast Asia launch with associated sensor observations. MATLAB © code modified from the ReBEL Toolkit © was used to run the EKF, UKF, PF, and GSPF sensor track filters. Mean Square Error results are given for tracking during the period when the target is in view of the radar and IR sensors. This paper provides insight into the accuracy requirements of the sensors and the suitability of the given estimators.

  14. Influence of Laser Power on the Shape of Single Tracks in Scanner Based Laser Wire Cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barroi, A.; Gonçalves, D. Albertazzi; Hermsdorf, J.; Kaierle, S.; Overmeyer, L.

    The shape of the cladding tracks is extremely important for producing layers or structures by adding them sequently. This paper shows the influence of the laser power of a diode laser in the range of 500 to 1000 W on the shapes of single tracks in scanner based laser wire cladding. The scanner was used to oscillate the beam perpendiculary to the welding direction. Stainless steel (ER 318 Si) wire with a 0.6 mm diameter was used as deposition material. Height, width, penetration, molten area and weld seam angles of single tracks were obtained from cross-sections at three different positions of each track. The influence of these different positions on the results depends on the traverse speed. The paper discusses this influence in respect to the heat dissipation in the substrate material.

  15. Baseline estimation from simultaneous satellite laser tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dedes, George C.

    1987-01-01

    Simultaneous Range Differences (SRDs) to Lageos are obtained by dividing the observing stations into pairs with quasi-simultaneous observations. For each of those pairs the station with the least number of observations is identified, and at its observing epochs interpolated ranges for the alternate station are generated. The SRD observables are obtained by subtracting the actually observed laser range of the station having the least number of observations from the interpolated ranges of the alternate station. On the basis of these observables semidynamic single baseline solutions were performed. The aim of these solutions is to further develop and implement the SRD method in the real data environment, to assess its accuracy, its advantages and disadvantages as related to the range dynamic mode methods, when the baselines are the only parameters of interest. Baselines, using simultaneous laser range observations to Lageos, were also estimated through the purely geometric method. These baselines formed the standards the standards of comparison in the accuracy assessment of the SRD method when compared to that of the range dynamic mode methods. On the basis of this comparison it was concluded that for baselines of regional extent the SRD method is very effective, efficient, and at least as accurate as the range dynamic mode methods, and that on the basis of a simple orbital modeling and a limited orbit adjustment. The SRD method is insensitive to the inconsistencies affecting the terrestrial reference frame and simultaneous adjustment of the Earth Rotation Parameters (ERPs) is not necessary.

  16. Site evaluation for laser satellite-tracking stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, N. H.; Mohr, P. A.

    1976-01-01

    Twenty-six locations for potential laser satellite-tracking stations, four of them actually already occupied in this role, are reviewed in terms of their known local and regional geology and geophysics. The sites are also considered briefly in terms of weather and operational factors. Fifteen of the sites qualify as suitable for a stable station whose motions are likely to reflect only gross plate motion. The others, including two of the present laser station sites (Arequipa and Athens), fail to qualify unless extra monitoring schemes can be included, such as precise geodetic surveying of ground deformation.

  17. Integrated laser/radar satellite ranging and tracking system.

    PubMed

    Hoge, F E

    1974-10-01

    A laser satellite ranging system that is mounted upon and integrated with a microwave tracking radar is reported. The 1-pulse sec/ruby laser transmitter is attached directly to the radar's elevation axis and radiates through a new opening in the radar's parabolic dish. The laser photomultiplier tube receiver utilizes the radar's existing 20-cm diam f11 boresight telescope and observes through a similar symmetrically located opening in the dish. The laser system possesses separate ranging system electronics but shares the radar's timing, computer, and data handling[equation]recording systems. The basic concept of the laser[equation]radar is outlined together with a listing of the numerous advantages over present singular laser rangefinding systems. The developmental laser hardware is described along with preliminary rangefinding results and expectations. The prototype system was assembled to investigate the feasibility of such systems and aid in the development of detailed specifications for an operational system. Both the feasibility and desirability of such systems integrations have been adequately demonstrated.

  18. Target tracking using infrared measurements and laser illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maybeck, Peter S.; Herrera, Theodore D.; Evans, Roger J.

    1994-07-01

    A missile target tracker is designed using a filter/correlator (with adaptive target shape identification) based on forward-looking infrared (FLIR) sensor measurements to track the center-of-intensity of the hardbody/plume combination, and another filter using Doppler and/or speckle information in the return from a low-power laser illuminator to estimate the offset between the intensity centroid and the hardbody center-of-mass. The Doppler information is shown to yield smaller bias and error variance from the tracker than the speckle information. Performance of trackers based on just Doppler or both Doppler and speckle information from the laser return is portrayed as a function of important parameters in the tracking environment.

  19. Precision Targeting With a Tracking Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    galvanometers placed at appropriate conjugates within the path of the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope. The input to the “master” control loop is...loop is the scaled position signals from the master galvanometers . The slave tracking mirrors are placed at conjugates to the center of rotation of the...slave systems), and analog-to-digital and digital-to- analog converters (ADC and DACs) to receive reflectometer signals and drive galvanometers . The

  20. Space debris tracking at San Fernando laser station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalán, M.; Quijano, M.; Pazos, A.; Martín Davila, J.; Cortina, L. M.

    2016-12-01

    For years to come space debris will be a major issue for society. It has a negative impact on active artificial satellites, having implications for future missions. Tracking space debris as accurately as possible is the first step towards controlling this problem, yet it presents a challenge for science. The main limitation is the relatively low accuracy of the methods used to date for tracking these objects. Clearly, improving the predicted orbit accuracy is crucial (avoiding unnecessary anti-collision maneuvers). A new field of research was recently instituted by our satellite laser ranging station: tracking decommissioned artificial satellites equipped with retroreflectors. To this end we work in conjunction with international space agencies which provide increasing attention to this problem. We thus proposed to share our time-schedule of use of the satellite laser ranging station for obtaining data that would make orbital element predictions far more accurate (meter accuracy), whilst maintaining our tracking routines for active satellites. This manuscript reports on the actions carried out so far.

  1. Rail Track Detection and Modelling in Mobile Laser Scanner Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oude Elberink, S.; Khoshelham, K.; Arastounia, M.; Diaz Benito, D.

    2013-10-01

    We present a method for detecting and modelling rails in mobile laser scanner data. The detection is based on the properties of the rail tracks and contact wires such as relative height, linearity and relative position with respect to other objects. Points classified as rail track are used in a 3D modelling algorithm. The modelling is done by first fitting a parametric model of a rail piece to the points along each track, and estimating the position and orientation parameters of each piece model. For each position and orientation parameter a smooth low-order Fourier curve is interpolated. Using all interpolated parameters a mesh model of the rail is reconstructed. The method is explained using two areas from a dataset acquired by a LYNX mobile mapping system in a mountainous area. Residuals between railway laser points and 3D models are in the range of 2 cm. It is concluded that a curve fitting algorithm is essential to reliably and accurately model the rail tracks by using the knowledge that railways are following a continuous and smooth path.

  2. Analysis and prediction of single laser tracks geometrical characteristics in coaxial laser cladding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Cheikh, Hussam; Courant, Bruno; Branchu, Samuel; Hascoët, Jean-Yves; Guillén, Ronald

    2012-03-01

    Direct Laser Fabrication is a promising new manufacturing technology coming from laser cladding process. From a coaxial nozzle, powder is fed through a laser beam on a substrate. The powder melting and solidification processes lead to the fabrication of a part layer by layer. In this work 316L stainless steel powder is used to form laser tracks on a low carbon steel substrate. The layer geometry is an important process characteristic to control the final part of fabrication. This paper presents analytical relationships between the laser tracks geometrical characteristics (width, height, area, penetration depth) and the processing parameters (laser power P, scanning speed V and powder mass flow Qm). Three values of each processing parameters are fixed and so 27 different experiments have been made and analyzed. The validity of these results is discussed studying the correlation coefficient R, the graphical analysis of the residuals and the uncertainty evaluations. Two kinds of models are studied to predict the form and the geometrical characteristics of the single laser tracks cross sections. The first one is an analytical model in which the distribution of the powder in the feed jet is supposed to govern the laser clad geometry. Three distributions are proposed: Gaussian, uniform and polynomial. In the second model the general form of the clad cross section is supposed to be a disk due to the surface tension forces. Analytical relationships are established between the radius and the center of the disk in one hand and the process parameters in the other hand. This way we show that we can reproduce the laser track geometry in all the area experimentally explored.

  3. Retinal Image-Based Eye-Tracking Using the Tracking Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehy, Christy Kathleen

    The tracking scanning laser ophthalmoscope (TSLO) was designed, built and characterized for high-resolution eye-tracking, imaging, and targeted retinal stimulus delivery. Eye-tracking is done via an image-based software program that monitors the image of the retina over time while simultaneously logging the displacements of the eye. Currently, this system is the most accurate, fast and functional eye-tracking system used in a standard ophthalmic instrument. The TSLO has the ability to non-invasively track the eye at 960 Hz (with an accuracy of 0.2 arcminutes or roughly 1 micron) and present stimuli to the retina at the resolution of single cone photoreceptors (0.66 arcminutes, which is roughly 3 microns). The combination of structural imaging and functional testing allows one to begin to more thoroughly understand retinal disease progression, as well probe specific retinal locations in order to test new treatment efficacies. This level of accuracy is unprecedented in the clinic and is crucial when monitoring minute changes in eye motion, structure, and function. Additionally, the system is capable of providing external eye-tracking for other high-resolution imaging systems, such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) and adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) systems through the active steering of an imaging beam. This feature allows the imaging raster or stimuli to stay on target during fixational eye motion. This dissertation steps through all of the above-mentioned uses of the TSLO and further elaborates on the optimal design and system test performance capabilities of the system.

  4. Precision targeting with a tracking adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Daniel X.; Ferguson, R. Daniel; Bigelow, Chad E.; Iftimia, Nicusor V.; Ustun, Teoman E.; Noojin, Gary D.; Stolarski, David J.; Hodnett, Harvey M.; Imholte, Michelle L.; Kumru, Semih S.; McCall, Michelle N.; Toth, Cynthia A.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.

    2006-02-01

    Precise targeting of retinal structures including retinal pigment epithelial cells, feeder vessels, ganglion cells, photoreceptors, and other cells important for light transduction may enable earlier disease intervention with laser therapies and advanced methods for vision studies. A novel imaging system based upon scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) with adaptive optics (AO) and active image stabilization was designed, developed, and tested in humans and animals. An additional port allows delivery of aberration-corrected therapeutic/stimulus laser sources. The system design includes simultaneous presentation of non-AO, wide-field (~40 deg) and AO, high-magnification (1-2 deg) retinal scans easily positioned anywhere on the retina in a drag-and-drop manner. The AO optical design achieves an error of <0.45 waves (at 800 nm) over +/-6 deg on the retina. A MEMS-based deformable mirror (Boston Micromachines Inc.) is used for wave-front correction. The third generation retinal tracking system achieves a bandwidth of greater than 1 kHz allowing acquisition of stabilized AO images with an accuracy of ~10 μm. Normal adult human volunteers and animals with previously-placed lesions (cynomolgus monkeys) were tested to optimize the tracking instrumentation and to characterize AO imaging performance. Ultrafast laser pulses were delivered to monkeys to characterize the ability to precisely place lesions and stimulus beams. Other advanced features such as real-time image averaging, automatic highresolution mosaic generation, and automatic blink detection and tracking re-lock were also tested. The system has the potential to become an important tool to clinicians and researchers for early detection and treatment of retinal diseases.

  5. Laser Tracker III: Sandia National Laboratories` third generation laser tracking system

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick, D.L.

    1995-03-01

    At Sandia Labs` Coyote Canyon Test Complex, it became necessary to develop a precision single station solution to provide time space position information (tspi) when tracking airborne test vehicles. Sandia`s first laser tracker came on line in 1968, replacing the fixed camera technique for producing trajectory data. This system shortened data reduction time from weeks to minutes. Laser Tracker 11 began operations in 1982, replacing the original tracker. It incorporated improved optics and electronics, with the addition of a microprocessor-based real-time control (rtc) system within the main servo loop. The rtc added trajectory prediction with the loss of adequate tracking signal and automatic control of laser beam divergence according to target range. Laser Tracker III, an even more advanced version of the systems, came on line in 1990. Unlike LTII, which is mounted in a trailer and must by moved by a tractor, LTIII is mounted on its own four-wheel drive carrier. This allows the system to be used at even the most remote locations. It also incorporated improved optics and electronics with the addition of absolute ranging, acquisition on the fly, and automatic transition from manual Joystick tracking to laser tracking for aircraft tests. LTIII provides a unique state of the art tracking capability for missile, rocket sled, aircraft, submunition, and parachute testing. Used in conjunction with LTII, the systems together can provide either simultaneous or extended range tracking. Mobility, accuracy, reliability, and cost effectiveness enable these systems to support a variety of testing at Department of Energy and Department of Defense ranges.

  6. Baseline monitoring using aircraft laser ranging. [spaceborne laser simulation and aircraft laser tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, W. B.; Hoge, F. E.; Martin, C. F.

    1982-01-01

    The use of aircraft laser ranging for the determination of baselines between ground based retroreflectors was investigated via simulations and with tests at Wallops Flight Center using the Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) on the Wallops C-54 aircraft ranging to a reflector array deployed around one of the Wallops runways. The aircraft altitude and reflector spacing were chosen on the basis of scaled down modeling of spacecraft tracking from 1000 km of reflectors separated by some 52 km, or of high altitude (10 km) aircraft tracking of reflectors separated by some 500 m. Aircraft altitudes flown for different passes across the runway reflector array varied from 800 m to 1350 m, with 32 reflectors deployed over an approximtely 300 m x 500 m ground pattern. The AOL transmitted 400 pulses/sec with a scan rate of 5/sec in a near circular pattern, so that the majority of the pulses were reflected by the runway surface or its environs rather than by retroreflectors. The return pulse characteristics clearly showed the high reflectivity of portions of the runway, with several returns indistinguishable in amplitude from reflector returns. For each pass across the reflector field, typically six to ten reflector hits were identified, consistent with that predicted by simulations and the observed transmitted elliptical pulse size.

  7. Laser vibrometer measurement of guided wave modes in rail track.

    PubMed

    Loveday, Philip W; Long, Craig S

    2015-03-01

    The ability to measure the individual modes of propagation is very beneficial during the development of guided wave ultrasound based rail monitoring systems. Scanning laser vibrometers can measure the displacement at a number of measurement points on the surface of the rail track. A technique for estimating the amplitude of the individual modes of propagation from these measurements is presented and applied to laboratory and field measurements. The method uses modal data from a semi-analytical finite element model of the rail and has been applied at frequencies where more than twenty propagating modes exist. It was possible to measure individual modes of propagation at a distance of 400 m from an ultrasonic transducer excited at 30 kHz on operational rail track and to identify the modes that are capable of propagating large distances.

  8. Precision Targeting with a Tracking adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    in Figure 2) but drives two galvanometers placed at appropriate conjugates within the path of the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope...reflectometer. The input to the "slave" control loop is the scaled position signals from the master galvanometers . The slave tracking mirrors are placed at...signals and drive galvanometers . The DSP has a loop rate of 62.5 kHz (compared to 16 kHz in the previously-used real-time processing board) for a

  9. Applying dual-laser spot positions measurement technology on a two-dimensional tracking measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hau-Wei; Chen, Chieh-Li

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents a two-dimensional tracking measurement system with a tracking module, which consists of two stepping motors, two laser diodes and a four separated active areas segmented position sensitive detector (PSD). The PSD was placed on a two-dimensional moving stage and used as a tracking target. The two laser diodes in the tracking module were directly rotated to keep the laser spots on the origin of the PSD. The two-dimensional position of the target PSD on the moving stage is determined from the distance between the two motors and the tracking angles of the two laser diodes, which are rotated by the two stepping motors, respectively. In order to separate the four positional values of the two laser spots on one PSD, the laser diodes were modulated by two distinct frequencies. Multiple-laser spot position measurement technology was used to separate the four positional values of the two laser spots on the PSD. The experimental results show that the steady-state voltage shift rate is about 0.2% and dynamic cross-talk rate is smaller than 2% when the two laser spots are projected on one PSD at the same time. The measurement errors of the x and y axial positions of the two-dimensional tracking system were less than 1% in the measuring range of 20 mm. The results demonstrate that multiple-laser spot position measurement technology can be employed in a two-dimensional tracking measurement system.

  10. Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's minicomputer vs. the laser. [computer predictions for laser tracking stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherniack, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Review of some of the problems encountered in replacing a CDC 6400, that was used for supplying a network of laser tracking stations with predictions, by an 8K Data General 1200 minicomputer with a teletype for I/O. Before the replacement, the predictions were expensive to compute and to transmit, and were clumsy logistically. The achieved improvements are described, along with every step it took to accomplish them, and the incurred costs.

  11. Advanced Lyapunov control of a novel laser beam tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikulin, Vladimir V.; Sofka, Jozef; Skormin, Victor A.

    2005-05-01

    Laser communication systems developed for mobile platforms, such as satellites, aircraft, and terrain vehicles, require fast wide-range beam-steering devices to establish and maintain a communication link. Conventionally, the low-bandwidth, high-steering-range part of the beam-positioning task is performed by gimbals that inherently constitutes the system bottleneck in terms of reliability, accuracy and dynamic performance. Omni-WristTM, a novel robotic sensor mount capable of carrying a payload of 5 lb and providing a full 180-deg hemisphere of azimuth/declination motion is known to be free of most of the deficiencies of gimbals. Provided with appropriate controls, it has the potential to become a new generation of gimbals systems. The approach we demonstrate describes an adaptive controller enabling Omni-WristTM to be utilized as a part of a laser beam positioning system. It is based on a Lyapunov function that ensures global asymptotic stability of the entire system while achieving high tracking accuracy. The proposed scheme is highly robust, does not require knowledge of complex system dynamics, and facilitates independent control of each channel by full decoupling of the Omni-WristTM dynamics. We summarize the basic algorithm and demonstrate the results obtained in the simulation environment.

  12. Optimization of probe-laser focal offsets for single-particle tracking.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ai-Tang; Chang, Yi-Ren; Chi, Sien; Hsu, Long

    2012-08-10

    In optical tweezers applications, tracking a trapped particle is essential for force measurement. One of the most popular techniques for single-particle tracking is achieved by analyzing the forward and backward light pattern, scattered by the target particle trapped by a trap laser beam, of an additional probe-laser beam with different wavelength whose focus is slightly apart from the trapping center. However, the optimized focal offset has never been discussed. In this paper, we investigate the tracking range and sensitivity as a function of the focal offset between the trapping and the probe-laser beams. As a result, the optimized focal offsets are a 3.3-fold radius ahead and a 2.0-fold radius behind the trapping laser focus in the forward tracking and the backward tracking, respectively. The experimental result agrees well with a theoretical prediction using the Mie scattering theory.

  13. Laser pulse peak holding circuit for low cost laser tracking applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, He; Zhang, Xiangjin; Chen, Yong

    2016-10-01

    In the low cost laser tracking applications, the width of the laser echo pulses received by four-quadrant photodetector from an illuminated target are narrow, and are only a few hundred or dozens of nanoseconds. In order to obtain the peak of these narrow laser pulses of nS level, by using peak holding technique, a simplified transconductance peak holding circuit model is constructed, taking into account of low cost applications with large number of requirements. The key parameters of the transconductance peak holding circuit such as response time, droop rate and bandwidth are analyzed for narrow laser pulse signals. The transconductance peak holding circuit is designed using a low-cost integrated chip OPA615, then is simulated by the software PSpice tools. Finally, a circuit board is manufactured for further tests. The results show that: the bandwidth of the circuit is about 76.4 MHz, response time is about 7 ns, and droop rate is about 5.7 mV/μs. The peaks of narrow laser pulses are effectively acquired, meeting the needs for the subsequent low speed and low cost A/D converter.

  14. Image-based synchronization of force and bead motion in active electromagnetic microrheometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chang-Young; Saleh, Omar A.

    2014-12-01

    In the past, electromagnetic tweezers have been used to make active microrheometers. An active microrheometer measures the dynamic mechanical properties of a material from the motion of embedded particles under external force, e.g. a sinusoidal magnetic force generated by a sinusoidal current on a coil. The oscillating amplitude and the phase lag of the motion are then used to estimate the material’s dynamic mechanical properties. The phase lag, in particular, requires precise synchronization of the particle motion with the external force. In previous works, synchronization difficulties have arisen from measuring two parameters with two instruments, one of them being a camera. We solved the synchronization issue by measuring two parameters with a single instrument, the camera alone. From captured images, particles can be tracked in three dimensions through an image-analysis algorithm while the current on the coil can be measured from the brightness of the image; this enables simultaneous synchronization of the phases of the driving current on the electromagnet coil and the motion of the magnetic probe particle. We calibrate the phase delay between the magnetic force and the particle’s motion in glycerol and confirm the calibration with a Hall probe. The technique is further tested by measuring the shear modulus of a polyacrylamide gel, and comparing the results to those obtained using a conventional rheometer.

  15. Mechanics of living cells measured by laser tracking microrheology.

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, S; Wirtz, D; Kuo, S C

    2000-01-01

    To establish laser-tracking microrheology (LTM) as a new technique for quantifying cytoskeletal mechanics, we measure viscoelastic moduli with wide bandwidth (5 decades) within living cells. With the first subcellular measurements of viscoelastic phase angles, LTM provides estimates of solid versus liquid behavior at different frequencies. In LTM, the viscoelastic shear moduli are inferred from the Brownian motion of particles embedded in the cytoskeletal network. Custom laser optoelectronics provide sub-nanometer and near-microsecond resolution of particle trajectories. The kidney epithelial cell line, COS7, has numerous spherical lipid-storage granules that are ideal probes for noninvasive LTM. Although most granules are percolating through perinuclear spaces, a subset of perinuclear granules is embedded in dense viscoelastic cytoplasm. Over all time scales embedded particles exhibit subdiffusive behavior and are not merely tethered by molecular motors. At low frequencies, lamellar regions (820 +/- 520 dyne/cm(2)) are more rigid than viscoelastic perinuclear regions (330 +/- 250 dyne/cm(2), p < 0.0001), but spectra converge at high frequencies. Although the actin-disrupting agent, latrunculin A, softens and liquefies lamellae, physiological levels of F-actin, alone (11 +/- 1.2 dyne/cm(2)) are approximately 70-fold softer than lamellae. Therefore, F-actin is necessary for lamellae mechanics, but not sufficient. Furthermore, in time-lapse of apparently quiescent cells, individual lamellar granules can show approximately 4-fold changes in moduli that last >10 s. Over a broad range of frequencies (0.1-30, 000 rad/s), LTM provides a unique ability to noninvasively quantify dynamic, local changes in cell viscoelasticity. PMID:10733956

  16. Solid state laser communications in space (SOLACOS) position, acquisition, and tracking (PAT) subsystem implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flemmig, Joerg; Pribil, Klaus

    1994-09-01

    This paper presents the concept and implementation aspects of the Pointing, Acquisition and Tracking Subsystem (PAT) which is developed in the frame of the SOLACOS (Solid State Laser Communications in Space) program.

  17. Laser-Based Pedestrian Tracking in Outdoor Environments by Multiple Mobile Robots

    PubMed Central

    Ozaki, Masataka; Kakimuma, Kei; Hashimoto, Masafumi; Takahashi, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an outdoors laser-based pedestrian tracking system using a group of mobile robots located near each other. Each robot detects pedestrians from its own laser scan image using an occupancy-grid-based method, and the robot tracks the detected pedestrians via Kalman filtering and global-nearest-neighbor (GNN)-based data association. The tracking data is broadcast to multiple robots through intercommunication and is combined using the covariance intersection (CI) method. For pedestrian tracking, each robot identifies its own posture using real-time-kinematic GPS (RTK-GPS) and laser scan matching. Using our cooperative tracking method, all the robots share the tracking data with each other; hence, individual robots can always recognize pedestrians that are invisible to any other robot. The simulation and experimental results show that cooperating tracking provides the tracking performance better than conventional individual tracking does. Our tracking system functions in a decentralized manner without any central server, and therefore, this provides a degree of scalability and robustness that cannot be achieved by conventional centralized architectures. PMID:23202171

  18. Laser-based pedestrian tracking in outdoor environments by multiple mobile robots.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Masataka; Kakimuma, Kei; Hashimoto, Masafumi; Takahashi, Kazuhiko

    2012-10-29

    This paper presents an outdoors laser-based pedestrian tracking system using a group of mobile robots located near each other. Each robot detects pedestrians from its own laser scan image using an occupancy-grid-based method, and the robot tracks the detected pedestrians via Kalman filtering and global-nearest-neighbor (GNN)-based data association. The tracking data is broadcast to multiple robots through intercommunication and is combined using the covariance intersection (CI) method. For pedestrian tracking, each robot identifies its own posture using real-time-kinematic GPS (RTK-GPS) and laser scan matching. Using our cooperative tracking method, all the robots share the tracking data with each other; hence, individual robots can always recognize pedestrians that are invisible to any other robot. The simulation and experimental results show that cooperating tracking provides the tracking performance better than conventional individual tracking does. Our tracking system functions in a decentralized manner without any central server, and therefore, this provides a degree of scalability and robustness that cannot be achieved by conventional centralized architectures.

  19. Research on the laser tracking system for measuring moving target based on APD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hua; Miao, Yinxiao; Gao, Yue

    2016-11-01

    In order to measure the coordinate of moving target, the laser tracking system for moving target was proposed, in which the receiver of four-quadrant APD was adopted as the detector and the DC motor was used to drive the reflector to move in two dimensions. The principle of the measurement system was analyzed first. Then the main part of the system was introduced. The tracking experiment showed that, this system could realized the function of automatic tracking and measuring the coordinate of moving target according to the pulsed laser ranging and angle sensors.

  20. Welding technology transfer task/laser based weld joint tracking system for compressor girth welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Looney, Alan

    1991-01-01

    Sensors to control and monitor welding operations are currently being developed at Marshall Space Flight Center. The laser based weld bead profiler/torch rotation sensor was modified to provide a weld joint tracking system for compressor girth welds. The tracking system features a precision laser based vision sensor, automated two-axis machine motion, and an industrial PC controller. The system benefits are elimination of weld repairs caused by joint tracking errors which reduces manufacturing costs and increases production output, simplification of tooling, and free costly manufacturing floor space.

  1. Real-time tracking of objects for space applications using a laser range scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blais, F.; Couvillon, R. A.; Rioux, M.; Maclean, S. G.

    1994-01-01

    Real-time tracking of multiple targets and three dimensional object features was demonstrated using a laser range scanner. The prototype was immune to ambient illumination and sun interference. Tracking error feedback was simultaneously obtained from individual targets, global predicted target position, and the human operator. A more complete study of calibration parameters and temperature variations on the scanner is needed to determine the exact performance of the sensor. Lissajous patterns used in three-dimensional real-time tracking prove helpful given their high resolution. The photogrammetry-based Advanced Space Vision System (ASVS) is discussed in combination with the laser range scanner.

  2. Acquisition and tracking control of satellite-borne laser communication systems and simulation of downlink fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoda, Masahiro

    2006-03-01

    Fluctuation in the intensity of a downlink (satellite-to-ground) laser beam is examined by first measuring the acquisition time and pointing error of a satellite-borne laser communication system. The downlink intensity fluctuation is then simulated using a computer model that takes into account the effects of acquisition and tracking control, satellite attitude perturbation, and intensity fluctuation due to atmospheric turbulence. The simulation shows that when the tracking control-loop is closed, the major portion of the angular variation due to satellite attitude variation is corrected by the tracking control; scarcely any angular error in beam pointing remains.

  3. Acquisition, tracking, and pointing systems of OICETS for free space laser communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jono, Takashi; Toyoda, Masahiro; Nakagawa, Keizo; Yamamoto, Akio; Shiratama, Koichi; Kurii, Toshihiro; Koyama, Yoshisada

    1999-07-01

    Optical Inter-orbit Communications Engineering Test Satellite (OICETS) is under development by NASDA to verify the laser communications technology in space. The in-orbit experiment will be done by establishing inter-orbit communication between the OICETS and European geostationary satellite ARTEMIS in cooperation with ESA. These satellites will be launched in to the orbit in 2000. Laser communications system in space is a promising technology for future space activities, but it has many research matters. Acquisition tracking and pointing system of a laser terminal performs a prominent role to keep the laser communication. This paper describes the ATP system strategy of the laser terminal.

  4. Active eye-tracking for an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope

    PubMed Central

    Sheehy, Christy K.; Tiruveedhula, Pavan; Sabesan, Ramkumar; Roorda, Austin

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a system that combines a tracking scanning laser ophthalmoscope (TSLO) and an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) system resulting in both optical (hardware) and digital (software) eye-tracking capabilities. The hybrid system employs the TSLO for active eye-tracking at a rate up to 960 Hz for real-time stabilization of the AOSLO system. AOSLO videos with active eye-tracking signals showed, at most, an amplitude of motion of 0.20 arcminutes for horizontal motion and 0.14 arcminutes for vertical motion. Subsequent real-time digital stabilization limited residual motion to an average of only 0.06 arcminutes (a 95% reduction). By correcting for high amplitude, low frequency drifts of the eye, the active TSLO eye-tracking system enabled the AOSLO system to capture high-resolution retinal images over a larger range of motion than previously possible with just the AOSLO imaging system alone. PMID:26203370

  5. Active eye-tracking for an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope.

    PubMed

    Sheehy, Christy K; Tiruveedhula, Pavan; Sabesan, Ramkumar; Roorda, Austin

    2015-07-01

    We demonstrate a system that combines a tracking scanning laser ophthalmoscope (TSLO) and an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) system resulting in both optical (hardware) and digital (software) eye-tracking capabilities. The hybrid system employs the TSLO for active eye-tracking at a rate up to 960 Hz for real-time stabilization of the AOSLO system. AOSLO videos with active eye-tracking signals showed, at most, an amplitude of motion of 0.20 arcminutes for horizontal motion and 0.14 arcminutes for vertical motion. Subsequent real-time digital stabilization limited residual motion to an average of only 0.06 arcminutes (a 95% reduction). By correcting for high amplitude, low frequency drifts of the eye, the active TSLO eye-tracking system enabled the AOSLO system to capture high-resolution retinal images over a larger range of motion than previously possible with just the AOSLO imaging system alone.

  6. Ocular dynamics and visual tracking performance after Q-switched laser exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwick, Harry; Stuck, Bruce E.; Lund, David J.; Nawim, Maqsood

    2001-05-01

    In previous investigations of q-switched laser retinal exposure in awake task oriented non-human primates (NHPs), the threshold for retinal damage occurred well below that of the threshold for permanent visual function loss. Visual function measures used in these studies involved measures of visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. In the present study, we examine the same relationship for q-switched laser exposure using a visual performance task, where task dependency involves more parafoveal than foveal retina. NHPs were trained on a visual pursuit motor tracking performance task that required maintaining a small HeNe laser spot (0.3 degrees) centered in a slowly moving (0.5deg/sec) annulus. When NHPs reliably produced visual target tracking efficiencies > 80%, single q-switched laser exposures (7 nsec) were made coaxially with the line of sight of the moving target. An infrared camera imaged the pupil during exposure to obtain the pupillary response to the laser flash. Retinal images were obtained with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope 3 days post exposure under ketamine and nembutol anesthesia. Q-switched visible laser exposures at twice the damage threshold produced small (about 50mm) retinal lesions temporal to the fovea; deficits in NHP visual pursuit tracking were transient, demonstrating full recovery to baseline within a single tracking session. Post exposure analysis of the pupillary response demonstrated that the exposure flash entered the pupil, followed by 90 msec refractory period and than a 12 % pupillary contraction within 1.5 sec from the onset of laser exposure. At 6 times the morphological threshold damage level for 532 nm q-switched exposure, longer term losses in NHP pursuit tracking performance were observed. In summary, q-switched laser exposure appears to have a higher threshold for permanent visual performance loss than the corresponding threshold to produce retinal threshold injury. Mechanisms of neural plasticity within the retina and at

  7. Measuring laser reflection cross-sections of small unmanned aerial vehicles for laser detection, ranging and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurenzis, Martin; Bacher, Emmanuel; Christnacher, Frank

    2017-05-01

    An increasing number of incidents are reported where small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are involved flying at low altitude. Thus UAVs are becoming more and more a serious threat in civilian and military scenarios leading to serious danger to safety or privacy issues. In this context, the detection and tracking of small UAV flying at low altitude in urban environment or near background structures is a challenge for state of the art detection technologies. In this paper, we focus on detection, tracking and identification by laser sensing technologies that are Laser Gated Viewing and scanning LiDAR. The laser reflection cross-sections (LRCS) has direct impact on the probability to detection and capability for range measurement. Here, we present methods to determine the laser reflection cross-sections by experimental and computational approaches.

  8. Orbital Element Generation for an Optical and Laser Tracking Space Object Catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, J.; Smith, C.; Greene, B.; Kucharski, D.; Sang, J.

    In this paper results are presented from an analysis assessing the data requirements for orbit element generation for a new high-accuracy catalogue for the Space Environment Research Centre, Australia. The analysis is dedicated to obtaining a robust set of rules for orbit element generation using orbital data from optical and laser tracking of debris and satellites. Optical and laser tracking data collected from several tracking campaigns carried out by EOS Space Systems, located on Mount Stromlo, Australia, is fitted to provide an updated orbital element. The element accuracy is determined for various data-availability scenarios, including: (1) fitting optical tracking data only; (2) fitting laser range data only; (3) fitting optical and laser tracking data. The orbit predictions from the new orbital element are compared with SGP4 propagation from two-line element data and accuracy is assessed by comparing with high accuracy ephemerides where available or subsequent accurate tracking data. The application of the catalogue to conjunction analyses is also discussed. This work forms part of the collaborative effort of the Space Environment Management Cooperative Research Centre which is developing new technologies and strategies to preserve the space environment (www.serc.org.au).

  9. AIRBORNE INERTIAL SURVEYING USING LASER TRACKING AND PROFILING TECHNIQUES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cyran, Edward J.; ,

    1986-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey through a contract with the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory has developed the Aerial Profiling of Terrain System. This is an airborne inertial surveying system designed to use a laser tracker to provide position and velocity updates, and a laser profiler to measure terrain elevations. The performance characteristics of the system are discussed with emphasis placed on the performance of the laser devices. The results of testing the system are summarized for both performance evaluation and applications.

  10. Matched Template Signal Processing for Continuous Wave Laser Tracking of Space Debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, S.; Ward, R.; Roberts, L.; Fleddermann, R.; Francis, S.; McClellend, D.; Shaddock, D.; Smith, C.

    2016-09-01

    The build up of space junk in Earth's orbit space is a growing concern as it shares the same orbit as many currently active satellites. As the number of objects increase in these orbits, the likelihood of collisions between satellites and debris will increase [1]. The eventual goal is to be able to maneuver space debris to avoid such collisions. We at SERC aim to accomplish this by using ground based laser facilities that are already being used to track space debris orbit. One potential method to maneuver space debris is using continuous wave lasers and applying photon pressure on the debris and attempt to change the orbit. However most current laser ranging facilities operates using pulsed lasers where a pulse of light is sent out and the time taken for the pulse to return back to the telescope is measured after being reflected by the target. If space debris maneuvering is carried out with a continuous wave laser then two laser sources need to be used for ranging and maneuvering. The aim of this research is to develop a laser ranging system that is compatible with the continuous wave laser; using the same laser source to simultaneously track and maneuver space debris. We aim to accomplish this by modulating the outgoing laser light with pseudo random noise (PRN) codes, time tagging the outgoing light, and utilising a matched filter at the receiver end to extract the various orbital information of the debris.

  11. Automatic Tracking Algorithm in Coaxial Near-Infrared Laser Ablation Endoscope for Fetus Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yan; Yamanaka, Noriaki; Masamune, Ken

    2014-07-01

    This article reports a stable vessel object tracking method for the treatment of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome based on our previous 2 DOF endoscope. During the treatment of laser coagulation, it is necessary to focus on the exact position of the target object, however it moves by the mother's respiratory motion and still remains a challenge to obtain and track the position precisely. In this article, an algorithm which uses features from accelerated segment test (FAST) to extract the features and optical flow as the object tracking method, is proposed to deal with above problem. Further, we experimentally simulate the movement due to the mother's respiration, and the results of position errors and similarity verify the effectiveness of the proposed tracking algorithm for laser ablation endoscopy in-vitro and under water considering two influential factors. At average, the errors are about 10 pixels and the similarity over 0.92 are obtained in the experiments.

  12. Influence of laser power on the penetration depth and geometry of scanning tracks in selective laser melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stopyra, Wojciech; Kurzac, Jarosław; Gruber, Konrad; Kurzynowski, Tomasz; Chlebus, Edward

    2016-12-01

    SLM technology allows production of a fully functional objects from metal and ceramic powders, with true density of more than 99,9%. The quality of manufactured items in SLM method affects more than 100 parameters, which can be divided into fixed and variable. Fixed parameters are those whose value before the process should be defined and maintained in an appropriate range during the process, e.g. chemical composition and morphology of the powder, oxygen level in working chamber, heating temperature of the substrate plate. In SLM technology, five parameters are variables that optimal set allows to produce parts without defects (pores, cracks) and with an acceptable speed. These parameters are: laser power, distance between points, time of exposure, distance between lines and layer thickness. To develop optimal parameters thin walls or single track experiments are performed, to select the best sets narrowed to three parameters: laser power, exposure time and distance between points. In this paper, the effect of laser power on the penetration depth and geometry of scanned single track was shown. In this experiment, titanium (grade 2) substrate plate was used and scanned by fibre laser of 1064 nm wavelength. For each track width, height and penetration depth of laser beam was measured.

  13. Performance and modeling of the GSFC pointing acquisition and tracking system for laser communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, N. D.; Chapman, W. W.; Johnson, T. S.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) laser communication pointing, acquisition, and tracking laboratory demonstration program is discussed. This program entails the construction of a flexible brass-board simulation tool, and a supporting computer simulation effort. The result of this program will be a viable test bed to support the design and specification of space-based laser communication terminals and, additionally, to address critical performance issues such as tracking robustness in the presence of background (e.g., stellar or earth) noise and/or internally generated thermal noise.

  14. Performance and modeling of the GSFC pointing acquisition and tracking system for laser communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, N. D.; Chapman, W. W.; Johnson, T. S.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) laser communication pointing, acquisition, and tracking laboratory demonstration program is discussed. This program entails the construction of a flexible brass-board simulation tool, and a supporting computer simulation effort. The result of this program will be a viable test bed to support the design and specification of space-based laser communication terminals and, additionally, to address critical performance issues such as tracking robustness in the presence of background (e.g., stellar or earth) noise and/or internally generated thermal noise.

  15. Comparison of eye-tracking success in laser in situ keratomileusis after flap creation with 2 femtosecond laser models.

    PubMed

    Luengo Gimeno, Federico; Chan, Cordelia M L; Li, Lim; Tan, Donald T H; Mehta, Jodhbir S

    2011-03-01

    To determine the efficiency of an eye tracker after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) flap creation with 1 of 2 femtosecond laser models. Tertiary referral center, Singapore National Eye Center, Singapore. Randomized clinical trial. The LASIK flap was created with an IntraLase (Group A) or a VisuMax (Group B) femtosecond laser. An Advanced Control Eye Tracker was initiated 3 times to obtain iris recognition. Eye tracking was considered successful if the eye movements could be followed despite the presence or absence of an opaque bubble layer (OBL). Univariate-multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Preoperatively, the mean values (ranges) of the 87 eyes were sphere, -5.64 diopters (D) ± 2.17 (SD) (-9.75 to -0.25 D); cylinder 1.65 ± 1.63 D (-3.75 to 0.00 D); optical zone, 6.34 ± 0.20 mm (5.6 to 7.0 mm); keratometry, 43.48 ± 1.32 D (40.1 to 42.8 D); flap thickness, 109.30 + 5.21 μm (90 to 115 μm). Eye tracking was successful in 38 (90.5%) of 42 eyes in Group A and 43 (95.6%) of 45 eyes in Group B. No specific type of OBL was seen in either group. The LASIK was completed in all eyes. There was a statistically significant association between positive tracking and a smaller optical zone (P=.03). There were no statistically significant differences in eye tracking between the 2 femtosecond lasers. Eye tracking was achieved in more than 90% of cases after LASIK flap creation with 1 of 2 femtosecond laser models, even in the presence of an OBL. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of reprogrammable high frame-rate detector devices for laser communication pointing, acquisition and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, Terita; Conner, Kenneth; Covington, Richard; Ngo, Hung; Rink, Christine

    2008-02-01

    A Two Terminal Laser Communication Test Bed has been developed at The Aerospace Corporation. This paper presents the design and preliminary results of a reprogrammable detector within the Test Bed for use in pointing, acquisition, and tracking between a Satellite-to-Satellite Laser Communication link. The detector may be commanded by an emulated spacecraft Command & Data Handling subsystem to switch between full-array scanning and "small sized" N x M pixel Field of View (FOV) for high-rate laser tracking. The approach follows a parallel path to implement the signal processing algorithm on two different hardware resources: a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and a Digital Signal Processor (DSP). The focus of this effort is to present a methodology for testing and evaluating various techniques for advanced focal plane array (FPA) hardware, as well as sensor FPA control, image processing and laser beam X & Y position algorithms.

  17. Acquisition and tracking system for a ground-based laser communications receiver terminal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, E. S.; Brixey, H. D.

    1981-01-01

    The paper presents design and performance characteristics of a ground terminal control system used for the acquistion, tracking, and illumination of the airborne terminal in a recent air-to-ground test of a 1 Gbps space laser communications link. The ground-based system consists of a gimbal assembly located in a rotating dome, which acts to direct the received optical signal to the brassboard receiver terminal located below the gimbal, which in turn performs functions of acquisition and tracking, beacon beam pointing, optical data reception at 1 Gbps, and optical data transmission at 20 kbps. Performance requirements on the acquisition and tracking system during the test included initial gimbal pointing with sufficient accuracy to acquire the link, sequencing through successive stages of acquisition and tracking and the establishment of fine tracking of sufficient accuracy and stability for link evaluation. The system was observed to react well within the established requirements during the test, despite atmospheric disturbances.

  18. A Real-Time Orbit Determination Method for Smooth Transition from Optical Tracking to Laser Ranging of Debris

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bin; Sang, Jizhang; Zhang, Zhongping

    2016-01-01

    A critical requirement to achieve high efficiency of debris laser tracking is to have sufficiently accurate orbit predictions (OP) in both the pointing direction (better than 20 arc seconds) and distance from the tracking station to the debris objects, with the former more important than the latter because of the narrow laser beam. When the two line element (TLE) is used to provide the orbit predictions, the resultant pointing errors are usually on the order of tens to hundreds of arc seconds. In practice, therefore, angular observations of debris objects are first collected using an optical tracking sensor, and then used to guide the laser beam pointing to the objects. The manual guidance may cause interrupts to the laser tracking, and consequently loss of valuable laser tracking data. This paper presents a real-time orbit determination (OD) and prediction method to realize smooth and efficient debris laser tracking. The method uses TLE-computed positions and angles over a short-arc of less than 2 min as observations in an OD process where simplified force models are considered. After the OD convergence, the OP is performed from the last observation epoch to the end of the tracking pass. Simulation and real tracking data processing results show that the pointing prediction errors are usually less than 10″, and the distance errors less than 100 m, therefore, the prediction accuracy is sufficient for the blind laser tracking. PMID:27347958

  19. Extended-cavity diode lasers with tracked resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiow, Sheng-Wey; Long, Quan; Vo, Christoph; Müller, Holger; Chu, Steven

    2007-11-01

    We present a painless, almost-free upgrade to present extended-cavity diode lasers (ECDLs) that improves the long-term mode-hop-free performance by stabilizing the resonance of the internal cavity to the external cavity. This stabilization is based on the observation that the frequency or amplitude noise of the ECDL is lowest at the optimum laser diode temperature or injection current. Thus, keeping the diode current at the level where the noise is lowest ensures mode-hop-free operation within one of the stable regions of the mode chart, even if these should drift due to external influences. This method can be applied directly to existing laser systems without modifying the optical setup. We demonstrate the method in two ECDLs stabilized to vapor cells at 852 and 895 nm wavelengths. We achieve long-term mode-hop-free operation and low noise at low power consumption, even with an inexpensive non-antireflection-coated diode.

  20. Extended-cavity diode lasers with tracked resonances.

    PubMed

    Chiow, Sheng-Wey; Long, Quan; Vo, Christoph; Müller, Holger; Chu, Steven

    2007-11-20

    We present a painless, almost-free upgrade to present extended-cavity diode lasers (ECDLs) that improves the long-term mode-hop-free performance by stabilizing the resonance of the internal cavity to the external cavity. This stabilization is based on the observation that the frequency or amplitude noise of the ECDL is lowest at the optimum laser diode temperature or injection current. Thus, keeping the diode current at the level where the noise is lowest ensures mode-hop-free operation within one of the stable regions of the mode chart, even if these should drift due to external influences. This method can be applied directly to existing laser systems without modifying the optical setup. We demonstrate the method in two ECDLs stabilized to vapor cells at 852 and 895 nm wavelengths. We achieve long-term mode-hop-free operation and low noise at low power consumption, even with an inexpensive non-antireflection-coated diode.

  1. Laser speckle tracking for monitoring and analysis of retinal photocoagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, Eric; Bliedtner, Katharina; Brinkmann, Ralf

    2014-02-01

    Laser coagulation of the retina is an established treatment for several retinal diseases. The absorbed laser energy and thus the induced thermal damage varies with the transmittance and scattering properties of the anterior eye media and with the pigmentation of the fundus. The temperature plays the most important role in the coagulation process. An established approach to measure a mean retinal temperature rise is optoacoustics, however it provides limited information on the coagulation. Phase sensitive OCT potentially offers a three dimensional temporally resolved temperature distribution but is very sensitive to slightest movements which are clinically hard to avoid. We develop an optical technique able to monitor and quantify thermally and coagulation induced tissue movements (expansions and contractions) and changes in the tissue structure by dynamic laser speckle analysis (LSA) offering a 2D map of the affected area. A frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser (532nm) is used for photocoagulation. Enucleated porcine eyes are used as targets. The spot is 100μm. A Helium Neon laser (HeNe) is used for illumination. The backscattered light of a HeNe is captured with a camera and the speckle pattern is analyzed. A Q-switched Nd:YLF laser is used for simultaneous temperature measurements with the optoacoustic approach. Radial tissue movements in the micrometer regime have been observed. The signals evaluation by optical flow algorithms and generalized differences tuned out to be able to distinguish between regions with and without immediate cell damage. Both approaches have shown a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity above 99% at their optimal threshold.

  2. Beamforming with a volumetric array of massless laser spark sources--Application in reflection tracking.

    PubMed

    Eskelinen, Joona; Hæggström, Edward; Delikaris-Manias, Symeon; Bolaños, Javier Gómez; Pulkki, Ville

    2015-06-01

    A volumetric array of laser-induced air breakdown sparks is used to produce a directional and steerable acoustic source. The laser breakdown array element is broadband, point-like, and massless. It produces an impulse-like waveform in midair, thus generating accurate spatio-temporal information for acoustic beamforming. A laser-spark scanning setup and the concept of a massless steerable source are presented and evaluated with a cubic array by using an off-line far field delay-and-sum beamforming method. This virtual acoustic array with minimal source influence can, for instance, produce narrow transmission beams to obtain localized and directional impulse response information by reflection tracking.

  3. Multiple target tracking and target attitude determination with a scanning laser radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flom, T.; Coombes, D.

    1974-01-01

    A scanning laser radar that can acquire and track single or multiple targets has recently been developed. Scan patterns have been designed for acquisition and tracking of one or more targets using a narrow laser beam. A synchronously scanned transmitter-receiver is used to acquire and track targets anywhere in a 376 x 376 element raster covering a 30 x 30 deg field. All scan patterns are electronically programmed, and the system automatically acquires and tracks the target or targets without the aid of an operator. The maximum tracking rate is 1.0 deg/sec (10.0 deg/sec) when used with a 1 kHz (10 kHz) scan rate. The estimated free space range against passive cooperative targets (corner cube reflectors) is 30 nautical miles. The laser radar has an accuracy of 10 cm (range) and 0.05 deg (angle). The developmental system is relatively small (1.5 cu ft), lightweight (60 lbs) and low-power-consuming (60 W).

  4. Assessment of laser tracking and data transfer for underwater optical communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Malcolm A.; Blanchard, Paul M.; Stace, Chris; Bhogul, Priya K.; White, Henry J.; Kelly, Anthony E.; Watson, Scott; Valyrakis, Manousos; Najda, Stephen P.; Marona, Lucja; Perlin, Piotr

    2014-10-01

    We report on an investigation into optical alignment and tracking for high bandwidth, laser-based underwater optical communication links. Link acquisition approaches (including scanning of narrow laser beams versus a wide-angle `beacon' approach) for different underwater laser-based communications scenarios are discussed. An underwater laserbased tracking system was tested in a large water flume facility using water whose scattering properties resembled that of a turbid coastal or harbour region. The lasers used were state-of-the-art, temperature-controlled, high modulation bandwidth gallium nitride (GaN) devices. These operate at blue wavelengths and can achieve powers up to ~100 mW. The tracking performance and characteristics of the system were studied as the light-scattering properties of the water were increased using commercial antacid (Maalox) solution, and the results are reported here. Optical tracking is expected to be possible even in high scattering water environments, assuming better components are developed commercially; in particular, more sensitive detector arrays. High speed data transmission using underwater optical links, based on blue light sources, is also reported.

  5. Automated tracking and laser micromanipulation of motile cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuhrmann, B.; Gögler, M.; Betz, T.; Ehrlicher, A.; Koch, D.; Käs, J.

    2005-03-01

    Control over neuronal growth is a prerequisite for the creation of defined in vitro neuronal networks as assays for the elucidation of interneuronal communication. Neuronal growth has been directed by focusing a near-infrared laser beam at a nerve cell's leading edge [A. Ehrlicher, T. Betz, B. Stuhrmann, D. Koch, V. Milner, M. G. Raizen, and J. Käs, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 16024 (2002)]. The setup reported by Ehrlicher et al. was limited to local laser irradiation and relied on a great deal of subjective interaction since the laser beam could only be steered manually. To overcome the drawbacks of the reported setup, we developed and here present a fully automated low-contrast edge detection software package, which responds to detected cell morphological changes by rapidly actuating laser steering devices, such as acousto-optical deflectors or moving mirrors, thus enabling experiments with minimum human interference. The resulting radiation patterns can be arbitrary functions of space, time, and cell morphology, and are calculated by experiment specific feedback routines. Data processing is repeated on the order of 1s allowing rapid reactions to morphological changes. The strengths of our program are the combination of real-time low contrast shape detection with complex feedback mechanisms, as well as easy adaptability due to a modular programming concept. In this article we demonstrate automated optical guidance; however, the software is easily adaptable to other problems requiring automated rapid responses of equipment to changes in the morphology of low contrast objects.

  6. Laser system for identification, tracking, and control of flying insects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flying insects are common vectors for transmission of pathogens and inflict significant harm on humans in large parts of the developing world. Besides the direct impact to humans, these pathogens also cause harm to crops and result in agricultural losses. Here, we present a laser-based system that c...

  7. Design and evaluation of an optically-tracked single-CCD laser range scanner.

    PubMed

    Pheiffer, Thomas S; Simpson, Amber L; Lennon, Brian; Thompson, Reid C; Miga, Michael I

    2012-02-01

    Acquisition of laser range scans of an organ surface has the potential to efficiently provide measurements of geometric changes to soft tissue during a surgical procedure. A laser range scanner design is reported here which has been developed to drive intraoperative updates to conventional image-guided neurosurgery systems. The scanner is optically-tracked in the operating room with a multiface passive target. The novel design incorporates both the capture of surface geometry (via laser illumination) and color information (via visible light collection) through a single-lens onto the same charge-coupled device (CCD). The accuracy of the geometric data was evaluated by scanning a high-precision phantom and comparing relative distances between landmarks in the scans with the corresponding ground truth (known) distances. The range-of-motion of the scanner with respect to the optical camera was determined by placing the scanner in common operating room configurations while sampling the visibility of the reflective spheres. The tracking accuracy was then analyzed by fixing the scanner and phantom in place, perturbing the optical camera around the scene, and observing variability in scan locations with respect to a tracked pen probe ground truth as the camera tracked the same scene from different positions. The geometric accuracy test produced a mean error and standard deviation of 0.25 ± 0.40 mm with an RMS error of 0.47 mm. The tracking tests showed that the scanner could be tracked at virtually all desired orientations required in the OR set up, with an overall tracking error and standard deviation of 2.2 ± 1.0 mm with an RMS error of 2.4 mm. There was no discernible difference between any of the three faces on the lasers range scanner (LRS) with regard to tracking accuracy. A single-lens laser range scanner design was successfully developed and implemented with sufficient scanning and tracking accuracy for image-guided surgery.

  8. A novel active disturbance rejection based tracking design for laser system with quadrant photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manojlović, Stojadin M.; Barbarić, Žarko P.; Mitrović, Srđan T.

    2015-06-01

    A new tracking design for laser systems with different arrangements of a quadrant photodetector, based on the principle of active disturbance rejection control is suggested. The detailed models of quadrant photodetector with standard add-subtract, difference-over-sum and diagonal-difference-over-sum algorithms for displacement signals are included in the control loop. Target moving, non-linearity of a photodetector, parameter perturbations and exterior disturbances are treated as a total disturbance. Active disturbance rejection controllers with linear extended state observers for total disturbance estimation and rejection are designed. Proposed methods are analysed in frequency domain to quantify their stability characteristics and disturbance rejection performances. It is shown through simulations, that tracking errors are effectively compensated, providing the laser spot positioning in the area near the centre of quadrant photodetector where the mentioned algorithms have the highest sensitivity, which provides tracking of the manoeuvring targets with high accuracy.

  9. Image-based tracking system for vibration measurement of a rotating object using a laser scanning vibrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dongkyu Khalil, Hossam; Jo, Youngjoon; Park, Kyihwan

    2016-06-28

    An image-based tracking system using laser scanning vibrometer is developed for vibration measurement of a rotating object. The proposed system unlike a conventional one can be used where the position or velocity sensor such as an encoder cannot be attached to an object. An image processing algorithm is introduced to detect a landmark and laser beam based on their colors. Then, through using feedback control system, the laser beam can track a rotating object.

  10. Noise adaptive fading Kalman filter for free-space laser communication beacon tracking.

    PubMed

    Li, Lixing; Huang, Yongmei; Wang, Qiang; Yang, Fasheng

    2016-10-20

    We proposed a prediction algorithm for laser communication pointing, acquisition, and tracking (PAT) subsystems in order to further improve PAT accuracy and reduce the effect of processing delay. In terms of this prediction algorithm, a fading Kalman filter is employed, with the observation noise obtained by the gray value distribution of the laser images. Moreover, to better fit the dynamics of a laser target, the two-stage dynamic model has been chosen as the state transition model for Kalman filtering. In addition, the two-stage dynamic model has been modified by accommodating its form to a change of time lag, thereby compensating the effect of time delay. A series of horizontal path (17 km) experiments under different atmospheric conditions were conducted in the fields. According to the experimental results, the algorithm we proposed could effectively reduce the tracking error and improve pointing accuracy.

  11. Laboratory model of a bidirectional diode laser data link with acquisition and tracking capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Alexandru F.; Leeb, Walter R.; Scholtz, Arpard L.

    1987-01-01

    A laboratory model of a bidirectional semiconductor laser data link package with acquisition and tracking capability was realized and tested. The system consists of two independent transceivers spaced at a distance of typically 20 m. The transceivers are built around a GaAlAs-laser (lambda = 0.85 micron) and a Ge-photodiode in one case and an InGaAsP-laser (lambda = 1.3 micron) and Si-detectors in the second case. The 0.85 micron beam carries a 10Mbit/s data stream, while the 1.3 micron beam transmits a low-data-rate signal at 160 kbit/s. One transceiver is mounted on a test jig which permits transverse movement over an area of 1 m x 1 m. At a transmitted optical power level of 0.5mW reliable data transmission, pointing, acquisition, and tracking NEA = 20 microrad were demonstrated.

  12. Comparison between conventional and laser method of imaging tracks on PCB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbucha, R.; Kocik, M.; Mizeraczyk, J.; Kozioł, G.; Borecki, J.

    2007-02-01

    The increasing demands for miniaturization and better functionality of electronic components and devices have a significant effect on the requirements facing the printed circuit board (PCB) industry. PCB manufactures are driving for producing high density interconnect (HDI) boards at significantly reduced cost and reduced implementation time. The interconnection complexity of the PCB is still growing and today calls for 50/50 μm or 25/25 μm technology are real. Existing technologies are unable to offer acceptable solution. Recently the Laser Direct Imaging (LDI) technology is considered as an answer for these challenges. LDI is a process of imaging electric circuits directly on PCB without the use of a phototool or mask. The exposure of the photo-sensitive resist is carried out using a laser beam that is scanned across photoresist surface and switched on and off by means of a computer control system according to the electrical circuit pattern. Usually the laser used in the LDI generates a UV line, which is suitable to the commonly available photoresists. Our laboratory system for Laser Direct Imaging is designed for tracks and spaces on PCB with minimum width distance of 50/50 μm. In comparison with conventional photolithography method, this technology is much better for 50/50 μm track and spaces. In our research we used photoresist with resolution 50 μm, but in case of using laser photoresists with better resolution (e.g. 25 μm) it will be possible to image tracks in super-fine-line technology (25/25 μm). The comparison between two technology of creating mosaic pattern tracks on PCB proved that laser imaging is promising technology in high density interconnects patterns, which are widely use in multilayered PCB and similar applications.

  13. Aerogel Track Morphology: Measurement, Three Dimensional Reconstruction and Particle Location using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kearsley, A. T.; Ball, A. D.; Wozniakiewicz, P. A.; Graham, G. A.; Burchell, M. J.; Cole, M. J.; Horz, F.; See, T. H.

    2007-01-01

    The Stardust spacecraft returned the first undoubted samples of cometary dust, with many grains embedded in the silica aerogel collector . Although many tracks contain one or more large terminal particles of a wide range of mineral compositions , there is also abundant material along the track walls. To help interpret the full particle size, structure and mass, both experimental simulation of impact by shots and numerical modeling of the impact process have been attempted. However, all approaches require accurate and precise measurement of impact track size parameters such as length, width and volume of specific portions. To make such measurements is not easy, especially if extensive aerogel fracturing and discoloration has occurred. In this paper we describe the application and limitations of laser confocal imagery for determination of aerogel track parameters, and for the location of particle remains.

  14. Three-stage tracking approach in development of a free-space laser communicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koujelev, Alexander S.; Dudelzak, Alexander E.

    2006-08-01

    We report the concept and preliminary test results of development of a three-stage beam tracking system for demonstration of a Gbps free-space laser communicator. The development goal has been high-speed optical inter-satellite communications. The tracking system consists of three sub-systems: the coarse tracker (a 10.5 cm-diameter motorized Maksutov telescope with acquisition sensor); the intermediate electro-optical tracker (a voice-coil and a Si-based position detector), and the nonlinear optical fine tracker (a nonlinear cell with a liquid crystal). Three-stage tracking allows for efficient compensation of jitter of up to kHz while maintaining a sub-microradian pointing precision. A combination of the tracking system with a signal feed / modulation unit has been designed to demonstrate a 2.5-10 Gbps-level performance at distances of about 5-7 km.

  15. Subpicometer Length Measurement Using Semiconductor Laser Tracking Frequency Gauge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thapa, Rajesh; Phillips, James D.; Rocco, Emanuele; Reasenburg, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    We have demonstrated heretofore unattained distance precision of 0:14pm (2pm) incremental and 14nm (2.9 micrometers) absolute in a resonant (nonresonant) interferometer at an averaging time of 1 s, using inexpensive telecommunications diode lasers. We have controlled the main source of error, that due to spurious reflection and the resulting amplitude modulation. In the resonant interferometer, absolute distance precision is well under lambda/6. Therefore, after an interruption, an absolute distance measurement can be used to return to the same interferometer order.

  16. Subpicometer Length Measurement Using Semiconductor Laser Tracking Frequency Gauge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thapa, Rajesh; Phillips, James D.; Rocco, Emanuele; Reasenburg, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    We have demonstrated heretofore unattained distance precision of 0:14pm (2pm) incremental and 14nm (2.9 micrometers) absolute in a resonant (nonresonant) interferometer at an averaging time of 1 s, using inexpensive telecommunications diode lasers. We have controlled the main source of error, that due to spurious reflection and the resulting amplitude modulation. In the resonant interferometer, absolute distance precision is well under lambda/6. Therefore, after an interruption, an absolute distance measurement can be used to return to the same interferometer order.

  17. Scanning mid-IR laser apparatus with eye tracking for refractive surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telfair, William B.; Yoder, Paul R., Jr.; Bekker, Carsten; Hoffman, Hanna J.; Jensen, Eric F.

    1999-06-01

    A robust, real-time, dynamic eye tracker has been integrated with the short pulse mid-infrared laser scanning delivery system previously described. This system employs a Q- switched Nd:YAG laser pumped optical parametric oscillator operating at 2.94 micrometers. Previous ablation studies on human cadaver eyes and in-vivo cat eyes demonstrated very smooth ablations with extremely low damage levels similar to results with an excimer. A 4-month healing study with cats indicated no adverse healing effects. In order to treat human eyes, the tracker is required because the eyes move during the procedure due to both voluntary and involuntary motions such as breathing, heartbeat, drift, loss of fixation, saccades and microsaccades. Eye tracking techniques from the literature were compared. A limbus tracking system was best for this application. Temporal and spectral filtering techniques were implemented to reduce tracking errors, reject stray light, and increase signal to noise ratio. The expanded-capability system (IRVision AccuScan 2000 Laser System) has been tested in the lab on simulated eye targets, glass eyes, cadaver eyes, and live human subjects. Circular targets ranging from 10-mm to 14-mm diameter were successfully tracked. The tracker performed beyond expectations while the system performed myopic photorefractive keratectomy procedures on several legally blind human subjects.

  18. Tracking ferroelectric domain growth using laser scattering tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Howard S.; De Mattei, Robert C.; Feigelson, Robert S.

    2017-09-01

    The movement and growth of macroscopic ferroelectric domains in a crystal under an electric field (poling voltage) have been studied using laser scattering tomography, a technique heretofore used mainly for studying microscopic defects in crystals. This technique involves scanning successive planes in a crystal with a laser beam and collecting the scattered light in a computer. The data collected can then be visualized as two- or three-dimensional static images or as a video to study structural changes as a function of time. An important feature of this method is that these images can be viewed along any axis in the crystal. Using this technique, we were able to generate images of domain wall nucleation and growth as a function of electric field strength and time. It also allowed for the observation of domain wall movement along any crystallographic direction including down the poling axis which is covered with opaque metallic electrodes. Details of the technique and its use during the poling of a strontium barium niobate crystal are discussed.

  19. Realization of heterodyne acquisition and tracking with diode lasers at lambda of 1.55 micron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueber, Martin F.; Leeb, Walter R.; Scholtz, Arpad L.

    1991-05-01

    We designed, realized, and tested a laboratory model of an optical intersatellite link employing InGaAs DFB semiconductor lasers operating at a wavelength of 1.55 micron. Heterodyne sensing was used for both the spatial acquisition and the spatial tracking processes. During the acquisition process spiral scanning of the transmitter area of uncertainty is performed. For each spatial search position the local oscillator laser is swept through a predefined frequency uncertainty range until the beat signal appears at the desired intermediate frequency (IF = 700 MHz). A heterodyne quadrant detector was realized by using a four-sided reflecting pyramid to split the superimposed beam. During tracking, the microcomputer reads the tracking sensor output signals, calculates the required antenna correction, and feeds the appropriate signals to the beam steering unit. Thus we realized a digital tracking loop, whereas the intermediate frequency is stabilized by means of an analog control loop. The typical tracking error measured for various system conditions amounts to less than 1/20 of the FOV, i.e. less than +/- 25 microrad.

  20. Tracking propagation of ultrashort intense laser pulses in gases via probing of ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Gizzi, L. A.; Betti, S.; Giulietti, A.; Giulietti, D.; Labate, L.; Levato, T.; Tomassini, P.; Galimberti, M.; Monot, P.; Ceccotti, T.; De Oliveira, P.; Martin, Ph.

    2009-05-15

    We use optical interferometry to study the propagation of femtosecond laser pulses in gases. We show the measurements of propagation in a nitrogen gas jet and we compare the results with propagation in He under the same irradiation conditions. We find that in the case of nitrogen, the detailed temporal structure of the laser pulse can be tracked and visualized by measuring the phase and the resulting electron-density map. A dramatically different behavior occurs in He gas jets, where no details of the temporal structure of the laser pulse are visible. These observations are explained in terms of the ionization dynamics of nitrogen compared to helium. These circumstances make N{sub 2} gas sensitive to variations in the electric field and, therefore, allow the laser-pulse temporal and spatial structures to be visualized in detail.

  1. Proposed SLR Optical Bench Required to Track Debris Using 1550 nm Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shappirio, M.; Coyle, D. B.; McGarry, J. F.; Bufton, J.; Cheek, J. W.; Clarke, G.; Hull, S. M.; Skillman, D. R.; Stysley, P. R.; Sun, X.; Young, R. P.; Zagwodzki, T.

    2015-01-01

    A previous study has indicated that by using approx.1550 nm wavelengths a laser ranging system can track debris objects in an "eye safe" manner, while increasing the expected return rate by a factor of approx. 2/unit area of the telescope. In this presentation we develop the optical bench required to use approx.1550nm lasers, and integration with a 532nm system. We will use the optical bench configuration for NGSLR as the baseline, and indicate a possible injection point for the 1550 nm laser. The presentation will include what elements may need to be changed for transmitting the required power on the approx.1550nm wavelength, supporting the alignment of the laser to the telescope, and possible concerns for the telescope optics.

  2. Vegetated landslide monitoring: target tracking with terrestrial laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, Martin; Carrea, Dario; Abellan, Antonio; Derron, Marc-Henri; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2013-04-01

    Monitoring landslides with terrestrial LiDAR is currently a well-known technique. One problem often encountered is the vegetation that produces shadow areas on the scans. Indeed, the points behind the obstacle are hidden and are absent from the point cloud. Thereby, locations monitored with terrestrial laser scanner are mostly rock instabilities and few vegetated landslides, being difficult or even impossible to survey vegetated slopes using this method. The Peney landslide (Geneva, Switzerland) is partially vegetated by bushes and trees, and in order to monitor its displacements during the drawdown of the Verbois reservoir located at its base, which activates the movement, an alternative solution has to be found. The Goal of this study are: (1) to illustrate a technique to monitor vegetated landslides with a terrestrial laser scanner and (2) to compare the both manual and automatic methods for displacement vectors extraction. We installed 14 targets, four of which are in stable areas which are considered as references. Targets are made of expanded polystyrene, two are spherical and 12 are cubic. They were installed on metallic poles ranging between 2 to 4 meters high. The LiDAR device was located on a fixed point on a pontoon on the reservoir opposite bank. The whole area, including the targets, needed three scans to be entirely covered and was scanned 10 times along on two weeks (duration of drawdown - filling). The acquired point clouds were cleaned and georeferenced. In order to determine the displacements for every target, two methods (manual and automatic) were used. The manual method consists on manual selection of, for example, the apex of the cubes, and so to have its 3D coordinates for a comparison in time. The automatic method uses an algorithm that recognises shapes trough time series. The obtained displacements were compared with classical measurement methods (theodolite and extensometer) showing good resemblance of results, indicating the validity of

  3. Location of snipers using three-dimensional infrared/laser tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squire, Mark D.

    1997-02-01

    We present a summary of the top level design of and recent imagery and analysis made with components of the TTC fast infrared sniper tracker (FIRST) system. The FIRST instrument will utilize a 7 cm aperture optical system, a 3 - 5 micron imaging camera, and a pulsed, eye-safe laser radar in order to detect, track, and range upon high angular velocity targets, especially bullets. The optical system is based on an ultra low inertia, high acceleration gimbal which enables large area step and star bullet detection at high coverage rates. Three dimensional track files generated by the FIRST system will be used to accurately back-project to the bullet's origin.

  4. Nano-hardness and microstructure of selective laser melted AlSi10Mg scan tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboulkhair, Nesma T.; Maskery, Ian; Tuck, Chris; Ashcroft, Ian; Everitt, Nicola

    2015-07-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) of aluminium alloys faces more challenges than other ongoing alloys such as stainless steels and titanium alloys because of the material's properties. It is important to study single scan tracks if high density large parts are to be made since they are the primary building blocks. In this study, the geometrical features of AlSi10Mg tracks indicated keyhole mode melting domination. Chemical composition mapping and nanoindentation showed enhanced nano-hardness in SLM material over conventional material with no spatial variation. This is due to a homogeneous elemental distribution and fine microstructure developed by fast solidification.

  5. Modal analysis of rotating plate using tracking laser Doppler vibrometer: algorithm modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Hossam; Kim, Dongkyu; Nam, Joonsik; Park, Kyihwan

    2015-07-01

    A modified algorithm for tracking laser Doppler vibrometer (TLDV) is introduced to measure the vibration of rotating objects. The proposed algorithm unlike the old algorithm for TLDV can be used when the speed of the object to be tracked varies continuously or alternating in a small range. The proposed algorithm is to use encoder only as a position sensor. The position from the encoder is used to calculate the driving signals to the galvanometers. To verify the proposed method, experimental modal analysis of the circular plate in stationary and rotating cases are made.

  6. Pointing, acquisition, and tracking system for the free-space laser communication system SILEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Toni Tolker

    1995-04-01

    The flight hardware for the European Semiconductor laser Intersatellite Link EXperiment, SILEX, is presently under integration. Qualification at equipment level has been performed during 1994 and performance testing at subsystem level is being undertaken. This paper describes the design requirements, the actual design, and the tests of the Pointing Acquisition and Tracking subsystem. It can be summarized in the following headlines: Mission overview, system tracking and pointing strategy, terminal design, PAT subsystem requirements, PAT equipment design, PAT subsystem design, and on ground verification approach.

  7. Laser tracking test under satellite microvibrational disturbances by OICETS ATP system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jono, Takashi; Toyoshima, Morio; Takahashi, Nobuhiro; Yamawaki, Toshihiko; Nakagawa, Keizo; Yamamoto, Akio

    2002-07-01

    Free-space laser communication systems offer many advantages such as high data rate, small sized equipment, low consumption electric power and others. There are, however, many development factors to construct a realistic laser communication system in space. Precise Acquisition, Tracking, and Pointing (ATP) functions are key issue to establish the laser communication system in space. OICETS (Optical Inter-orbit Communications Engineering Test Satellite) has been developed by National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) to verify an optical data link technology in space. ATP functions of the OICETS satellite for a laser inter-orbit link system must be controlled with an angular accuracy better than a few micro radian under vibrational disturbances of the host satellite. The microvibrational disturbances continually come from the satellite subsystem operations such as reaction wheels, solar paddle motors, scan sensors and so on. NASDA performed an on-ground microvibration test to evaluate vibration characteristics of the OICETS satellite and to verify laser tracking performances of the ATP system. The test was carried out by using a simulated OICETS satellite that consists of a mechanical structure model and an engineering model of the laser communication terminal. The mechanical structure model is equipped with some flight components and mass dummy components. The satellite is suspended from a lifting tackle by four straps and the free-free configuration was simulated using a suspension device. As a result, the incremental residual tracking error of 0.19 micro radians was measured due to the microvibration of the disturbing sources from the satellite platform.

  8. Atmospheric laser communication system with wide-angle tracking and adaptive compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carhart, G. W.; Vorontsov, M. A.; Beresnev, L. A.; Paicopolis, P. S.; Beil, F. K.

    2005-08-01

    An adaptive laser communication system capable of minimizing the impact of atmospherically induced tip-tilt and defocus distortions and tracking an optical antenna mounted on a mobile platform is presented. The laser communication system consists of two independently operating adaptive optical transceivers mounted on wide angle pan-tilt gimbals that each transmit and receive optical data propagating on a single bidirectional laser beam. Each optical antenna incorporates a 3-channel tip-tilt and defocus adaptive mirror constructed at the Army Research Laboratory. The adaptive mirror control system of each optical transceiver is based on phase control of the outgoing wavefront by stochastic parallel gradient descent optimization of the optical power received by the other optical transceiver. A tracking capability of an optical transceiver mounted on a mobile platform is implemnted by using the pan-tilt control signals of each adaptive mirror to define signals that drive the pan-tilt axes of the gimbal on which the adaptive mirror is mounted. System performance in the presence of laboratory generated turbulence is characterized and reported. Results demonstrate that the adaptive laser communication system can reduce signal fading induced by atmospheric tip-tilt distortions and improve the concentration of laser beam energy delivered to each optical transceiver and therefore reduce system bit error rates.

  9. A method to track cortical surface deformations using a laser range scanner.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Tuhin K; Dawant, Benoit M; Duay, Valerie; Cash, David M; Weil, Robert J; Thompson, Reid C; Weaver, Kyle D; Miga, Michael I

    2005-06-01

    This paper reports a novel method to track brain shift using a laser-range scanner (LRS) and nonrigid registration techniques. The LRS used in this paper is capable of generating textured point-clouds describing the surface geometry/intensity pattern of the brain as presented during cranial surgery. Using serial LRS acquisitions of the brain's surface and two-dimensional (2-D) nonrigid image registration, we developed a method to track surface motion during neurosurgical procedures. A series of experiments devised to evaluate the performance of the developed shift-tracking protocol are reported. In a controlled, quantitative phantom experiment, the results demonstrate that the surface shift-tracking protocol is capable of resolving shift to an accuracy of approximately 1.6 mm given initial shifts on the order of 15 mm. Furthermore, in a preliminary in vivo case using the tracked LRS and an independent optical measurement system, the automatic protocol was able to reconstruct 50% of the brain shift with an accuracy of 3.7 mm while the manual measurement was able to reconstruct 77% with an accuracy of 2.1 mm. The results suggest that a LRS is an effective tool for tracking brain surface shift during neurosurgery.

  10. Pointing and tracking errors due to localized deformation in inter-satellite laser communication links.

    PubMed

    Tan, Liying; Yang, Yuqiang; Ma, Jing; Yu, Jianjie

    2008-08-18

    Instead of Zernike polynomials, ellipse Gaussian model is proposed to represent localized wave-front deformation in researching pointing and tracking errors in inter-satellite laser communication links, which can simplify the calculation. It is shown that both pointing and tracking errors depend on the center deepness h, the radiuses a and b, and the distance d of the Gaussian distortion and change regularly as they increase. The maximum peak values of pointing and tracking errors always appear around h=0.2lambda. The influence of localized deformation is up to 0.7microrad for pointing error, and 0.5microrad for tracking error. To reduce the impact of localized deformation on pointing and tracking errors, the machining precision of optical devices, which should be more greater than 0.2?, is proposed. The principle of choosing the optical devices with localized deformation is presented, and the method that adjusts the pointing direction to compensate pointing and tracking errors is given. We hope the results can be used in the design of inter-satellite lasercom systems.

  11. High-speed, image-based eye tracking with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope

    PubMed Central

    Sheehy, Christy K.; Yang, Qiang; Arathorn, David W.; Tiruveedhula, Pavan; de Boer, Johannes F.; Roorda, Austin

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a high-speed, image-based tracking scanning laser ophthalmoscope (TSLO) that can provide high fidelity structural images, real-time eye tracking and targeted stimulus delivery. The system was designed for diffraction-limited performance over an 8° field of view (FOV) and operates with a flexible field of view of 1°–5.5°. Stabilized videos of the retina were generated showing an amplitude of motion after stabilization of 0.2 arcmin or less across all frequencies. In addition, the imaging laser can be modulated to place a stimulus on a targeted retinal location. We show a stimulus placement accuracy with a standard deviation less than 1 arcmin. With a smaller field size of 2°, individual cone photoreceptors were clearly visible at eccentricities outside of the fovea. PMID:23082300

  12. A fast single-pixel laser imager for VR/AR headset tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanović, Veljko; Kasturi, Abhishek; Yang, James; Hu, Frank

    2017-02-01

    In this work we demonstrate a highly flexible laser imaging system for 3D sensing applications such as in tracking of VR/AR headsets, hands and gestures. The system uses a MEMS mirror scan module to transmit low power laser pulses over programmable areas within a field of view and uses a single photodiode to measure the reflected light. User can arbitrarily select the number of pixels to scan over an area and can thus obtain images of target objects at arbitrarily fast rates. The work builds on the previously presented "MEMSEye" laser tracking technology which uses a fast steering MEMS scan module with a modulated laser, and a tuned photosensor to acquire and track a retroreflector-marked object. To track VR/AR headsets, hands and similar objects with multiple markers or no markers at all, a single-point tracking methodology is not sufficient. Cameras could be more appropriate in such multi-point imaging cases but suffer from low frame rates, dependence on ambient lighting, and relatively low resolution when without zooming and panning capability. A hybrid method can address the problem by providing a system with its own light source (laser beam), and with full programmability of the pixel locations and scans such that frame rates of >100 Hz are possible over specific areas of interest. With a modest 1 Mpixel rate of measurement, scanning a sub-region of the field of view with 64 x 64 pixels results in 200Hz update. Multiple such modules can be used to scan and image or track objects with multiple markers and fully obtain their position and attitude in a room with sub-5ms updates. Furthermore the room itself could be imaged and measured with wall markers or in conjunction with a camera for a total 3D scanning solution. Proof of concept demonstrator is presented here with pixel rates of only 30k-50k per second due to limitations of the present prototype electronics, resulting in refresh rates that are significantly lower than possible with the MEMS mirror scan

  13. Tracking of wet foam ageing by means of dynamic laser speckle and computer optical mouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, Jáder; Plata Planidina, Alexandra; Mejía-Ospino, Enrique; Cabanzo, Rafael

    2013-11-01

    Tracking of wet foam ageing by means of dynamic laser speckle and an optical flow sensor is presented. Using a computer optical mouse, like an optical flow sensor, a strong negative correlation between the average speed of the cursor and the coarsening of bubble was found. We used microscopic images to demonstrate that decreasing of speed is related with increasing of bubble size. The proposed setup allows sensitive measures, is not very expensive and highly portable.

  14. Flame front tracking by laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy and advanced image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Gharbieh, Rafeef; Hamarneh, Ghassan; Gustavsson, Thomas; Kaminski, Clemens

    2001-02-01

    This paper presents advanced image analysis methods for extracting information from high speed Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) data obtained from turbulent flames. The application of non-linear anisotropic diffusion filtering and of Active Contour Models (Snakes) is described to isolate flame boundaries. In a subsequent step, the detected flame boundaries are tracked in time using a frequency domain contour interpolation scheme. The implementations of the methods are described and possible applications of the techniques are discussed.

  15. Trial fabrication of acquisition, tracking and pointing subsystem for intersatellite laser communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arikawa, Hiroshi; Nakamori, Shigeharu

    1992-06-01

    The fabrication of an experimental acquisition, tracking, and pointing (AT&P) subsystem for NASDA's intersatellite laser communication (ILC) system is described, and the methods used in the ILC system are described. The results of tests of the fabricated AT&P system are presented along with a block diagram of the ILC equipment, the main target parameters of the ILC system, and the target specifications of the trial AT&P subsystem.

  16. Dual use of image based tracking techniques: Laser eye surgery and low vision prosthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juday, Richard D.

    1994-01-01

    With a concentration on Fourier optics pattern recognition, we have developed several methods of tracking objects in dynamic imagery to automate certain space applications such as orbital rendezvous and spacecraft capture, or planetary landing. We are developing two of these techniques for Earth applications in real-time medical image processing. The first is warping of a video image, developed to evoke shift invariance to scale and rotation in correlation pattern recognition. The technology is being applied to compensation for certain field defects in low vision humans. The second is using the optical joint Fourier transform to track the translation of unmodeled scenes. Developed as an image fixation tool to assist in calculating shape from motion, it is being applied to tracking motions of the eyeball quickly enough to keep a laser photocoagulation spot fixed on the retina, thus avoiding collateral damage.

  17. Dual Use of Image Based Tracking Techniques: Laser Eye Surgery and Low Vision Prosthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juday, Richard D.; Barton, R. Shane

    1994-01-01

    With a concentration on Fourier optics pattern recognition, we have developed several methods of tracking objects in dynamic imagery to automate certain space applications such as orbital rendezvous and spacecraft capture, or planetary landing. We are developing two of these techniques for Earth applications in real-time medical image processing. The first is warping of a video image, developed to evoke shift invariance to scale and rotation in correlation pattern recognition. The technology is being applied to compensation for certain field defects in low vision humans. The second is using the optical joint Fourier transform to track the translation of unmodeled scenes. Developed as an image fixation tool to assist in calculating shape from motion, it is being applied to tracking motions of the eyeball quickly enough to keep a laser photocoagulation spot fixed on the retina, thus avoiding collateral damage.

  18. Doublet Pulse Coherent Laser Radar for Tracking of Resident Space Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Rudd, Van; Shald, Scott; Sandford, Stephen; Dimarcantonio, Albert

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the development of a long range ladar system known as ExoSPEAR at NASA Langley Research Center for tracking rapidly moving resident space objects is discussed. Based on 100 W, nanosecond class, near-IR laser, this ladar system with coherent detection technique is currently being investigated for short dwell time measurements of resident space objects (RSOs) in LEO and beyond for space surveillance applications. This unique ladar architecture is configured using a continuously agile doublet-pulse waveform scheme coupled to a closed-loop tracking and control loop approach to simultaneously achieve mm class range precision and mm/s velocity precision and hence obtain unprecedented track accuracies. Salient features of the design architecture followed by performance modeling and engagement simulations illustrating the dependence of range and velocity precision in LEO orbits on ladar parameters are presented. Estimated limits on detectable optical cross sections of RSOs in LEO orbits are discussed.

  19. Dual Use of Image Based Tracking Techniques: Laser Eye Surgery and Low Vision Prosthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juday, Richard D.; Barton, R. Shane

    1994-01-01

    With a concentration on Fourier optics pattern recognition, we have developed several methods of tracking objects in dynamic imagery to automate certain space applications such as orbital rendezvous and spacecraft capture, or planetary landing. We are developing two of these techniques for Earth applications in real-time medical image processing. The first is warping of a video image, developed to evoke shift invariance to scale and rotation in correlation pattern recognition. The technology is being applied to compensation for certain field defects in low vision humans. The second is using the optical joint Fourier transform to track the translation of unmodeled scenes. Developed as an image fixation tool to assist in calculating shape from motion, it is being applied to tracking motions of the eyeball quickly enough to keep a laser photocoagulation spot fixed on the retina, thus avoiding collateral damage.

  20. Temperature and composition profile during double-track laser cladding of H13 tool steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, X.; Yu, G.; Mazumder, J.

    2010-01-01

    Multi-track laser cladding is now applied commercially in a range of industries such as automotive, mining and aerospace due to its diversified potential for material processing. The knowledge of temperature, velocity and composition distribution history is essential for a better understanding of the process and subsequent microstructure evolution and properties. Numerical simulation not only helps to understand the complex physical phenomena and underlying principles involved in this process, but it can also be used in the process prediction and system control. The double-track coaxial laser cladding with H13 tool steel powder injection is simulated using a comprehensive three-dimensional model, based on the mass, momentum, energy conservation and solute transport equation. Some important physical phenomena, such as heat transfer, phase changes, mass addition and fluid flow, are taken into account in the calculation. The physical properties for a mixture of solid and liquid phase are defined by treating it as a continuum media. The velocity of the laser beam during the transition between two tracks is considered. The evolution of temperature and composition of different monitoring locations is simulated.

  1. Image processing method and implementation for a laser automatic tracking extensometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Qiuhong; Du, Xiao; Liu, Yanna; Yan, Liping; Chen, Benyong

    2012-01-01

    A laser automatic tracking extensometer for material deformation measurement based on CCD is proposed. The image processing methods of the laser mark localization and the automatic tracking of the mark line on the specimen are studied for the extensometer. First, geometrical mean filter (GMF), harmonic mean filter (HMF) and inverse harmonic mean filter (IHMF) using for the image processing are compared in order to select a suitable mean filter for removing noises from the specimen images, and then the GMF is adopted for the de-noising of the images. Second, Sobel operator is introduced to detect the edges of the specimen images. At last, the specimen images are reduced to eliminate unwanted background information by pruning. Hough transformation of pretreated specimen images is also studied and linking images algorithm is proposed based on the image gray distribution and the connectivity principle. The laser mark localization and the automatic tracking of the mark line on the specimen are then implemented. The experimental results show that the linking image algorithm is prior to Hough transformation on both recognition effect and recognition efficiency.

  2. Tracking on non-active collaborative objects from San Fernando Laser station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalán, Manuel; Quijano, Manuel; Cortina, Luis M.; Pazos, Antonio A.; Martín-Davila, José

    2016-04-01

    The Royal Observatory of the Spanish Navy (ROA) works on satellite geodesy from the early days of the space age, when the first artificial satellite tracking telescope was installed in 1958: the Baker-Nunn camera. In 1975 a French satellite Laser ranging (SLR) station was installed and operated at ROA . Since 1980, ROA has been operating this instrument which was upgraded to a third generation and it is still keep into a continuous update to reach the highest level of operability. Since then ROA has participated in different space geodesy campaigns through the International Laser Service Stations (ILRS) or its European regional organization (EUROLAS), tracking a number of artificial satellites types : ERS, ENVISAT, LAGEOS, TOPEX- POSEIDON to name but a few. Recently we opened a new field of research: space debris tracking, which is receiving increasing importance and attention from international space agencies. The main problem is the relatively low accuracy of common used methods. It is clear that improving the predicted orbit accuracy is necessary to fulfill our aims (avoiding unnecessary anti-collision maneuvers,..). Following results obtained by other colleagues (Austria, China, USA,...) we proposed to share our time-schedule using our satellite ranging station to obtain data which will make orbital elements predictions far more accurate (sub-meter accuracy), while we still keep our tracking routines over active satellites. In this communication we report the actions fulfill until nowadays.

  3. Laser spot tracking based on modified circular Hough transform and motion pattern analysis.

    PubMed

    Krstinić, Damir; Skelin, Ana Kuzmanić; Milatić, Ivan

    2014-10-27

    Laser pointers are one of the most widely used interactive and pointing devices in different human-computer interaction systems. Existing approaches to vision-based laser spot tracking are designed for controlled indoor environments with the main assumption that the laser spot is very bright, if not the brightest, spot in images. In this work, we are interested in developing a method for an outdoor, open-space environment, which could be implemented on embedded devices with limited computational resources. Under these circumstances, none of the assumptions of existing methods for laser spot tracking can be applied, yet a novel and fast method with robust performance is required. Throughout the paper, we will propose and evaluate an efficient method based on modified circular Hough transform and Lucas-Kanade motion analysis. Encouraging results on a representative dataset demonstrate the potential of our method in an uncontrolled outdoor environment, while achieving maximal accuracy indoors. Our dataset and ground truth data are made publicly available for further development.

  4. Laser Spot Tracking Based on Modified Circular Hough Transform and Motion Pattern Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Krstinić, Damir; Skelin, Ana Kuzmanić; Milatić, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Laser pointers are one of the most widely used interactive and pointing devices in different human-computer interaction systems. Existing approaches to vision-based laser spot tracking are designed for controlled indoor environments with the main assumption that the laser spot is very bright, if not the brightest, spot in images. In this work, we are interested in developing a method for an outdoor, open-space environment, which could be implemented on embedded devices with limited computational resources. Under these circumstances, none of the assumptions of existing methods for laser spot tracking can be applied, yet a novel and fast method with robust performance is required. Throughout the paper, we will propose and evaluate an efficient method based on modified circular Hough transform and Lucas–Kanade motion analysis. Encouraging results on a representative dataset demonstrate the potential of our method in an uncontrolled outdoor environment, while achieving maximal accuracy indoors. Our dataset and ground truth data are made publicly available for further development. PMID:25350502

  5. Novel laser communications transceiver with internal gimbal-less pointing and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalfant, Charles H., III; Orlando, Fred J., Jr.; Gregory, Jeff T.; Sulham, Clifford; O'Neal, Chad B.; Taylor, Geoffrey W.; Craig, Douglas M.; Foshee, James J.; Lovett, J. Timothy

    2002-12-01

    This paper describes a novel laser communications transceiver for use in multi-platform satellite networks or clusters that provides internal pointing and tracking technique allowing static mounting of the transceiver subsystems and minimal use of mechanical stabilization techniques. This eliminates the need for the large, power hungry, mechanical gimbals that are required for laser cross-link pointing, acquisition and tracking. The miniature transceiver is designed for pointing accuracies required for satellite cross-link distances of between 500 meters to 5000 meters. Specifically, the designs are targeting Air Force Research Lab's TechSat21 Program, although alternative transceiver configurations can provide for much greater link distances and other satellite systems. The receiver and transmitter are connected via fiber optic cabling from a separate electronics subsystem containing the optoelectronics PCBs, thereby eliminating active optoelectronic elements from the transceiver's mechanical housing. The internal acquisition and tracking capability is provided by an advanced micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) and an optical design that provides a specific field-of-view based on the satellite cluster's interface specifications. The acquisition & tracking control electronics will utilize conventional closed loop tracking techniques. The link optical power budget and optoelectronics designs allow use of transmitter sources with output powers of near 100 mW. The transceiver will provide data rates of up to 2.5 Gbps and operate at either 1310 nm or 1550 nm. In addition to space-based satellite to satellite cross-links, we are planning to develop a broad range of applications including air to air communications between highly mobile airborne platforms and terrestrial fixed point to point communications.

  6. Analysis of morphology and residual porosity in selective laser melting of Fe powders using single track experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shutov, I. V.; Gordeev, G. A.; Kharanzhevskiy, E. V.; Krivilyov, M. D.

    2017-04-01

    Morphology and residual porosity of single tracks obtained by pulse selective laser melting (SLM) of Fe powder have been studied by metallography. Multiple cross sections of the stainless substrate with the single tracks deposited by SLM are examined and classified depending on processing parameters. A sustainable scanning strategy to reduce residual porosity is suggested for pulse laser annealing. The developed method is suitable both for improvement of processing regimes in commercial SLM machines and validation of numerical models in additive manufacturing of metal parts. The effect of the beam radius, pulse energy, its frequency and duration on a shape of the single track and its adhesion to the substrate is revealed.

  7. Motion of a Micro/Nanomanipulator using a Laser Beam Tracking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amari, Nabil; Folio, David; Ferreira, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study of the control problem of a laser beam illuminating and focusing a micro-object subjected to dynamic disturbances using light intensity for feedback only. The main idea is to guide and track the beam with a hybrid micro/nanomanipulator, which is driven by a control signal generated by processing the beam intensity sensed by a four-quadrant photodiode sensitive detector (PSD). Since the pointing location of the beam depends on real-time control issues related to temperature variation, vibrations, output intensity control, and collimation of the light output, the 2-D beam location to the PSD measurement output must be estimated in real-time. To this aim, a Kalman filter (KF) algorithm is designed to predict the beam location to perform efficient tracking and following control approach. Hence, a robust master/slave control strategy of the dual-stage micro and nanomanipulator system is presented based on sensitivity function decoupling design methodology. The decoupled feedback controller is synthesized and implemented in a 6-DoF micro/nanomanipulator allowing few centimeters displacement range with a nanometer resolution. A relevant case study, related to laser-beam tracking for imaging purposes, validates experimentally the proposed framework.

  8. Two-dimensional radial laser scanning for circular marker detection and external mobile robot tracking.

    PubMed

    Teixidó, Mercè; Pallejà, Tomàs; Font, Davinia; Tresanchez, Marcel; Moreno, Javier; Palacín, Jordi

    2012-11-28

    This paper presents the use of an external fixed two-dimensional laser scanner to detect cylindrical targets attached to moving devices, such as a mobile robot. This proposal is based on the detection of circular markers in the raw data provided by the laser scanner by applying an algorithm for outlier avoidance and a least-squares circular fitting. Some experiments have been developed to empirically validate the proposal with different cylindrical targets in order to estimate the location and tracking errors achieved, which are generally less than 20 mm in the area covered by the laser sensor. As a result of the validation experiments, several error maps have been obtained in order to give an estimate of the uncertainty of any location computed. This proposal has been validated with a medium-sized mobile robot with an attached cylindrical target (diameter 200 mm). The trajectory of the mobile robot was estimated with an average location error of less than 15 mm, and the real location error in each individual circular fitting was similar to the error estimated with the obtained error maps. The radial area covered in this validation experiment was up to 10 m, a value that depends on the radius of the cylindrical target and the radial density of the distance range points provided by the laser scanner but this area can be increased by combining the information of additional external laser scanners.

  9. Two-Dimensional Radial Laser Scanning for Circular Marker Detection and External Mobile Robot Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Teixidó, Mercè; Pallejà, Tomàs; Font, Davinia; Tresanchez, Marcel; Moreno, Javier; Palacín, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the use of an external fixed two-dimensional laser scanner to detect cylindrical targets attached to moving devices, such as a mobile robot. This proposal is based on the detection of circular markers in the raw data provided by the laser scanner by applying an algorithm for outlier avoidance and a least-squares circular fitting. Some experiments have been developed to empirically validate the proposal with different cylindrical targets in order to estimate the location and tracking errors achieved, which are generally less than 20 mm in the area covered by the laser sensor. As a result of the validation experiments, several error maps have been obtained in order to give an estimate of the uncertainty of any location computed. This proposal has been validated with a medium-sized mobile robot with an attached cylindrical target (diameter 200 mm). The trajectory of the mobile robot was estimated with an average location error of less than 15 mm, and the real location error in each individual circular fitting was similar to the error estimated with the obtained error maps. The radial area covered in this validation experiment was up to 10 m, a value that depends on the radius of the cylindrical target and the radial density of the distance range points provided by the laser scanner but this area can be increased by combining the information of additional external laser scanners. PMID:23443390

  10. Thermal behavior in single track during selective laser melting of AlSi10Mg powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Pei; Wei, Zhengying; Chen, Zhen; He, Yuyang; Du, Jun

    2017-09-01

    A three-dimensional model was developed to simulate the radiation heat transfer in the AlSi10Mg packed bed. The volume of fluid method (VOF) was used to capture the free surface during selective laser melting (SLM). A randomly packed powder bed was obtained using discrete element method (DEM) in Particle Flow Code (PFC). The proposed model has demonstrated a high potential to simulate the selective laser melting process (SLM) with high accuracy. In this paper, the effect of the laser scanning speed and laser power on the thermodynamic behavior of the molten pool was investigated numerically. The results show that the temperature gradient and the resultant surface tension gradient between the center and the edge of the molten pool increase with decreasing the scanning speed or increasing the laser power, thereby intensifying the Marangoni flow and attendant turbulence within the molten pool. However, at a relatively high scanning speed, a significant instability may be generated in the molten pool. The perturbation and instability in the molten pool during SLM may result in an irregular shaped track.

  11. Detection of visually unrecognizable braking tracks using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochazka, David; Bilík, Martin; Prochazková, Petra; Brada, Michal; Klus, Jakub; Pořízka, Pavel; Novotný, Jan; Novotný, Karel; Ticová, Barbora; Bradáč, Albert; Semela, Marek; Kaiser, Jozef

    2016-04-01

    Identification of the position, length and mainly beginning of a braking track has proven to be essential for determination of causes of a road traffic accident. With the introduction of modern safety braking systems and assistance systems such as the Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) or Electronic Stability Control (ESC), the visual identification of braking tracks that has been used up until the present is proving to be rather complicated or even impossible. This paper focuses on identification of braking tracks using a spectrochemical analysis of the road surface. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) was selected as a method suitable for fast in-situ element detection. In the course of detailed observations of braking tracks it was determined that they consist of small particles of tire treads that are caught in intrusions in the road surface. As regards detection of the "dust" resulting from wear and tear of tire treads in the environment, organic zinc was selected as the identification element in the past. The content of zinc in tire treads has been seen to differ with regard to various sources and tire types; however, the arithmetic mean and modus of these values are approximately 1% by weight. For in-situ measurements of actual braking tracks a mobile LIBS device equipped with a special module was used. Several measurements were performed for 3 different cars and tire types respectively which slowed down with full braking power. Moreover, the influence of different initial speed, vehicle mass and braking track length on detected signal is discussed here.

  12. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with integrated wide-field retinal imaging and tracking.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, R Daniel; Zhong, Zhangyi; Hammer, Daniel X; Mujat, Mircea; Patel, Ankit H; Deng, Cong; Zou, Weiyao; Burns, Stephen A

    2010-11-01

    We have developed a new, unified implementation of the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) incorporating a wide-field line-scanning ophthalmoscope (LSO) and a closed-loop optical retinal tracker. AOSLO raster scans are deflected by the integrated tracking mirrors so that direct AOSLO stabilization is automatic during tracking. The wide-field imager and large-spherical-mirror optical interface design, as well as a large-stroke deformable mirror (DM), enable the AOSLO image field to be corrected at any retinal coordinates of interest in a field of >25 deg. AO performance was assessed by imaging individuals with a range of refractive errors. In most subjects, image contrast was measurable at spatial frequencies close to the diffraction limit. Closed-loop optical (hardware) tracking performance was assessed by comparing sequential image series with and without stabilization. Though usually better than 10 μm rms, or 0.03 deg, tracking does not yet stabilize to single cone precision but significantly improves average image quality and increases the number of frames that can be successfully aligned by software-based post-processing methods. The new optical interface allows the high-resolution imaging field to be placed anywhere within the wide field without requiring the subject to re-fixate, enabling easier retinal navigation and faster, more efficient AOSLO montage capture and stitching.

  13. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with integrated wide-field retinal imaging and tracking

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, R. Daniel; Zhong, Zhangyi; Hammer, Daniel X.; Mujat, Mircea; Patel, Ankit H.; Deng, Cong; Zou, Weiyao; Burns, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a new, unified implementation of the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) incorporating a wide-field line-scanning ophthalmoscope (LSO) and a closed-loop optical retinal tracker. AOSLO raster scans are deflected by the integrated tracking mirrors so that direct AOSLO stabilization is automatic during tracking. The wide-field imager and large-spherical-mirror optical interface design, as well as a large-stroke deformable mirror (DM), enable the AOSLO image field to be corrected at any retinal coordinates of interest in a field of >25 deg. AO performance was assessed by imaging individuals with a range of refractive errors. In most subjects, image contrast was measurable at spatial frequencies close to the diffraction limit. Closed-loop optical (hardware) tracking performance was assessed by comparing sequential image series with and without stabilization. Though usually better than 10 μm rms, or 0.03 deg, tracking does not yet stabilize to single cone precision but significantly improves average image quality and increases the number of frames that can be successfully aligned by software-based post-processing methods. The new optical interface allows the high-resolution imaging field to be placed anywhere within the wide field without requiring the subject to re-fixate, enabling easier retinal navigation and faster, more efficient AOSLO montage capture and stitching. PMID:21045887

  14. A portable instrument for 3-D dynamic robot measurements using triangulation and laser tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, J.R.R. . Mechanical Engineering Dept.); Parker, G.A. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1994-08-01

    The paper describes the development and validation of a 3-D measurement instrument capable of determining the static and dynamic performance of industrial robots to ISO standards. Using two laser beams to track an optical target attached to the robot end-effector, the target position coordinates may be estimated, relative to the instrument coordinate frame, to a high accuracy using triangulation principles. The effect of variations in the instrument geometry from the nominal model is evaluated through a kinematic model of the tracking head. Significant improvements of the measurement accuracy are then obtained by a simple adjustment of the main parameters. Extensive experimental test results are included to demonstrate the instrument performance. Finally typical static and dynamic measurement results for an industrial robot are presented to illustrate the effectiveness and usefulness of the instrument.

  15. Double-prism scanner for testing tracking performance of inter-satellite laser communication terminals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Anhu; Liu, Liren; Sun, Jianfeng; Zhong, Xianghong; Xu, Deyan; Shen, Qiande; Zhou, Yu; Luan, Zhu; Wang, Lijuan

    2006-08-01

    The scanner of orthogonally tilting double prisms is researched for testing the performance of tracking performance in inter-satellite laser communications for the first time. With the reduction ratio of more than a hundred times from the change rate of deviation angle of beam to that of tilting angle of each prism, the scanner can reach the scanning accuracy of sub-microradian order but facilitates the mechanical structure design. The theoretical analysis performed, as well as the validation experiment, indicates the scanner can meet the requirements of the scanning accuracy superior to 0.5 μrad with the scanning range greater than 500 μrad.

  16. Laser-induced deposition of nanostructured copper tracks from solutions containing oxidising additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fateev, Sergey A.; Araslanova, Svetlana M.; Mironov, Vasilii S.; Gordeychuk, Dmitrii I.

    2015-05-01

    This paper involves the laser-induced chemical liquid phase deposition of metals (LCLD). Organic alcohols with low molecular weights, such as ethanol and ethylene glycol, were used as the reductants. The addition of KBrO3 demonstrates how inorganic oxidizing additives affect the process of copper laser deposition from aqueous solutions. Such additives increase the deposition speed, which is an important challenge in the LCLD method. The deposited copper structures were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive analysis (EDX), and impedance spectroscopy. The equivalent circuit of copper tracks was constructed using the impedance spectroscopy data. The studies revealed that the structures deposited from the solutions consist of densely agglomerated nanocrystals, which is in contrast to the microcrystalline deposit obtained in the absence of oxidizing additives.

  17. Study on robot motion control for intelligent welding processes based on the laser tracking sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bin; Wang, Qian; Tang, Chen; Wang, Ju

    2017-06-01

    A robot motion control method is presented for intelligent welding processes of complex spatial free-form curve seams based on the laser tracking sensor. First, calculate the tip position of the welding torch according to the velocity of the torch and the seam trajectory detected by the sensor. Then, search the optimal pose of the torch under constraints using genetic algorithms. As a result, the intersection point of the weld seam and the laser plane of the sensor is within the detectable range of the sensor. Meanwhile, the angle between the axis of the welding torch and the tangent of the weld seam meets the requirements. The feasibility of the control method is proved by simulation.

  18. Performance analysis of continuous tracking laser Doppler vibrometry applied to rotating structures in coast-down

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martarelli, M.; Castellini, P.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper a performance analysis of the so-called tracking continuous scanning laser Doppler vibrometry (TCSLDV) exploited in coast-down has been performed. This non-contact measurement system is able to scan continuously over a rotating surface during coast-down and to determine vibration operational deflection shapes (ODSs) and natural frequencies in short time, i.e. the temporal extent of the coast-down. The method is based on a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) whose laser beam is driven to scan continuously over the whole rotor surface synchronously with its rotation, so that the LDV output is modulated by the structure's ODSs. This technique has a full-field nature that enables it to measure simultaneously the time and spatial dependence of the vibration in a unique measurement. However, the TCSLDV presents some criticalities in practical applications, especially when applied to rotary transient and fast processes. In fact, if the vibration is transient and decays very fast, then the laser beam could not have had the time to scan the complete structure surface and the modulation of the ODS could be partial. An analytical model reproducing a representative experiment has been developed in order to evaluate the sensitivity of results to testing conditions. The laser beam trajectory in both the fixed and rotating reference systems has been synthesized showing its dependence on experimental parameters as the rotation speed variation during coast-down. It has been demonstrated the decrease in speed induces the deformation of the laser trajectory influencing the LDV output time history, spectrum and consequently the recovered ODS.

  19. Characterization of hydrogel microstructure using laser tweezers particle tracking and confocal reflection imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotlarchyk, M. A.; Botvinick, E. L.; Putnam, A. J.

    2010-05-01

    Hydrogels are commonly used as extracellular matrix mimetics for applications in tissue engineering and increasingly as cell culture platforms with which to study the influence of biophysical and biochemical cues on cell function in 3D. In recent years, a significant number of studies have focused on linking substrate mechanical properties to cell function using standard methodologies to characterize the bulk mechanical properties of the hydrogel substrates. However, current understanding of the correlations between the microstructural mechanical properties of hydrogels and cell function in 3D is poor, in part because of a lack of appropriate techniques. Here we have utilized a laser tracking system, based on passive optical microrheology instrumentation, to characterize the microstructure of viscoelastic fibrin clots. Trajectories and mean square displacements were observed as bioinert PEGylated (PEG: polyethylene glycol) microspheres (1, 2 or 4.7 µm in diameter) diffused within confined pores created by the protein phase of fibrin hydrogels. Complementary confocal reflection imaging revealed microstructures comprised of a highly heterogeneous fibrin network with a wide range of pore sizes. As the protein concentration of fibrin gels was increased, our quantitative laser tracking measurements showed a corresponding decrease in particle mean square displacements with greater resolution and sensitivity than conventional imaging techniques. This platform-independent method will enable a more complete understanding of how changes in substrate mechanical properties simultaneously influence other microenvironmental parameters in 3D cultures.

  20. Method to simulate the object tracking with photon-counting laser ranging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xian; Xing, JiChuan; Huang, Hao

    2015-11-01

    We provide a new method to simulate the process of tracking the noncooperative object that moves beyond visual range with a photon-counting laser ranging system. Based on fundamentals of photon-counting laser ranging techniques and parameters of the experimental prototype, we generate echo events according to their probability. Then, we accumulate the echo data in a certain period of time and accurately extract the object's trajectory with mean-shift and random sample consensus algorithms. Depending on the trajectory during the accumulation period, we predict the relative movement of the object in succeeding cycles by using self-tuning α-β filtering and carefully pick out photon echo signals and apply the polynomial fitting to them to compute the trajectory of the object. The simulation shows that the error between the theoretical trajectory and the extracted trajectory is decreasing all the time, which suggests that we can track the object precisely as the time goes by. The simulation in this paper provides a new way for applications like satellite orientation, identification, troubleshooting, etc.

  1. Characterization of hydrogel microstructure using laser tweezers particle tracking and confocal reflection imaging.

    PubMed

    Kotlarchyk, M A; Botvinick, E L; Putnam, A J

    2010-05-19

    Hydrogels are commonly used as extracellular matrix mimetics for applications in tissue engineering and increasingly as cell culture platforms with which to study the influence of biophysical and biochemical cues on cell function in 3D. In recent years, a significant number of studies have focused on linking substrate mechanical properties to cell function using standard methodologies to characterize the bulk mechanical properties of the hydrogel substrates. However, current understanding of the correlations between the microstructural mechanical properties of hydrogels and cell function in 3D is poor, in part because of a lack of appropriate techniques. Here we have utilized a laser tracking system, based on passive optical microrheology instrumentation, to characterize the microstructure of viscoelastic fibrin clots. Trajectories and mean square displacements were observed as bioinert PEGylated (PEG: polyethylene glycol) microspheres (1, 2 or 4.7 μm in diameter) diffused within confined pores created by the protein phase of fibrin hydrogels. Complementary confocal reflection imaging revealed microstructures comprised of a highly heterogeneous fibrin network with a wide range of pore sizes. As the protein concentration of fibrin gels was increased, our quantitative laser tracking measurements showed a corresponding decrease in particle mean square displacements with greater resolution and sensitivity than conventional imaging techniques. This platform-independent method will enable a more complete understanding of how changes in substrate mechanical properties simultaneously influence other microenvironmental parameters in 3D cultures.

  2. Remote measurement utilizing NASA's scanning laser Doppler systems. Volume 1. Laser Doppler wake vortex tracking at Kennedy Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, M. C.; Wilson, D. J.; Howle, R. E.; Edwards, B. B.; Craven, C. E.; Jetton, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    Test operations of the Scanning Laser Doppler System (SLDS) at Kennedy International Airport (KIA) during August 1974 through June 1975 are reported. A total of 1,619 data runs was recorded with a totally operational system during normal landing operations at KIA. In addition, 53 data runs were made during cooperative flybys with the C880 for a grand total of 1672 recorded vortex tracks. Test crews were in attendance at KIA for 31 weeks, of which 25 weeks were considered operational and the other six were packing, unpacking, setup and check out. Although average activity equates to 67 recorded landing operations per week, two periods of complete runway inactivity spanned 20 days and 13 days, respectively. The operation frequency therefore averaged about 88 operations per week.

  3. Simultaneous Detection and Tracking of Pedestrian from Panoramic Laser Scanning Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Wen; Vallet, Bruno; Schindler, Konrad; Paparoditis, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    Pedestrian traffic flow estimation is essential for public place design and construction planning. Traditional data collection by human investigation is tedious, inefficient and expensive. Panoramic laser scanners, e.g. Velodyne HDL-64E, which scan surroundings repetitively at a high frequency, have been increasingly used for 3D object tracking. In this paper, a simultaneous detection and tracking (SDAT) method is proposed for precise and automatic pedestrian trajectory recovery. First, the dynamic environment is detected using two different methods, Nearest-point and Max-distance. Then, all the points on moving objects are transferred into a space-time (x, y, t) coordinate system. The pedestrian detection and tracking amounts to assign the points belonging to pedestrians into continuous trajectories in space-time. We formulate the point assignment task as an energy function which incorporates the point evidence, trajectory number, pedestrian shape and motion. A low energy trajectory will well explain the point observations, and have plausible trajectory trend and length. The method inherently filters out points from other moving objects and false detections. The energy function is solved by a two-step optimization process: tracklet detection in a short temporal window; and global tracklet association through the whole time span. Results demonstrate that the proposed method can automatically recover the pedestrians trajectories with accurate positions and low false detections and mismatches.

  4. A new real-time retinal tracking system for image-guided laser treatment.

    PubMed

    Solouma, Nahed H; Youssef, Abou-Bakr M; Badr, Yehia A; Kadah, Yasser M

    2002-09-01

    A new system is proposed for tracking sensitive areas in the retina for computer-assisted laser treatment of choroidal neovascularization (CNV). The system consists of a fundus camera using red-free illumination mode interfaced to a computer that allows real-time capturing of video input. The first image acquired is used as the reference image and utilized by the treatment physician for treatment planning. A grid of seed contours over the whole image is initiated and allowed to deform by splitting and/or merging according to preset criteria until the whole vessel tree is demarcated. Then, the image is filtered using a one-dimensional Gaussian filter in two perpendicular directions to extract the core areas of such vessels. Faster segmentation can be obtained for subsequent images by automatic registration to compensate for eye movement and saccades. An efficient registration technique is developed whereby some landmarks are detected in the reference frame then tracked in the subsequent frames. Using the relation between these two sets of corresponding points, an optimal transformation can be obtained. The implementation details of proposed strategy are presented and the obtained results indicate that it is suitable for real-time location determination and tracking of treatment positions.

  5. Doublet Pulse Coherent Laser Radar for Orbital Debris Tracking of Resident Space Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, N.; Rudd, V.,; DiMarcantonio, A.; Sandford, S.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, the development of a long range ladar system known as ExoSPEAR at NASA Langley Research Center for tracking rapidly moving resident space objects is discussed. Based on 100 W, nanosecond class, near-IR laser, this ladar system with coherent detection technique is currently being investigated for short dwell time measurements of resident space objects (RSOs) in LEO and beyond for space surveillance applications. This unique ladar architecture is configured using a continuously agile doublet-pulse waveform scheme coupled to a closed-loop tracking and control loop approach to simultaneously achieve mm class range precision and mm/s velocity precision and hence obtain unprecedented track accuracies. Salient features of the design architecture followed by performance simulations illustrating the dependence of range and velocity precision in LEO orbits on ladar power aperture product will be presented. Estimated limits on detectable optical cross sections of RSOs in LEO orbits will be analyzed. The suitability of this ladar for precision orbit determination will be discussed.

  6. Tracking through laser-induced clutter for air-to-ground directed energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belen'kii, Mikhail; Brinkley, Timothy; Hughes, Kevin; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2003-09-01

    The agility and speed with which directed energy can be retargeted and delivered to the target makes a laser weapon highly desirable in tactical battlefield environments. A directed energy system can effectively damage and possibly destroy relatively soft targets on the ground. In order to accurately point a high-energy beam at the target, the directed energy system must be able to acquire and track targets of interest in highly cluttered environments, under different weather, smoke, and camouflage conditions and in the presence of turbulence and thermal blooming. To meet these requirements, we proposed a concept of a multi spectral tracker, which integrates three sensors: SAR radar, a passive MWIR optical tracker, and a range-gated laser illuminated tracker. In this paper we evaluated the feasibility of the integrated optical tracker and arrived to the following conclusions: a) the contrast enhancement by mapping the original pixel distribution to the desired one enhances the target identification capability, b) a reduction of the divergence of the illuminating beam reduces rms pointing error of a laser tracker, c) a clutter removal algorithm based on active contours is capable of capturing targets in highly cluttered environments, d) the daytime rms pointing error caused by anisoplanatism of the track point to the aim point is comparable to the diffraction-limited beam spot size, f) the peak intensity shift from the optical axis caused by thermal blooming at 5 km range for the air-to-ground engagement scenario is on the order of 8 μrad, and it is 10 μrad at 10 km range, and e) the thermal blooming reduces the peak average power in a 2 cm bucket at 5 km range by a factor of 8, and it reduces the peak average power in the bucket at 10 km range by a factor of 22.

  7. Improving accuracy of overhanging structures for selective laser melting through reliability characterization of single track formation on thick powder beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Sankhya; Hattel, Jesper H.

    2016-04-01

    Repeatability and reproducibility of parts produced by selective laser melting is a standing issue, and coupled with a lack of standardized quality control presents a major hindrance towards maturing of selective laser melting as an industrial scale process. Consequently, numerical process modelling has been adopted towards improving the predictability of the outputs from the selective laser melting process. Establishing the reliability of the process, however, is still a challenge, especially in components having overhanging structures. In this paper, a systematic approach towards establishing reliability of overhanging structure production by selective laser melting has been adopted. A calibrated, fast, multiscale thermal model is used to simulate the single track formation on a thick powder bed. Single tracks are manufactured on a thick powder bed using same processing parameters, but at different locations in a powder bed and in different laser scanning directions. The difference in melt track widths and depths captures the effect of changes in incident beam power distribution due to location and processing direction. The experimental results are used in combination with numerical model, and subjected to uncertainty and reliability analysis. Cumulative probability distribution functions obtained for melt track widths and depths are found to be coherent with observed experimental values. The technique is subsequently extended for reliability characterization of single layers produced on a thick powder bed without support structures, by determining cumulative probability distribution functions for average layer thickness, sample density and thermal homogeneity.

  8. Two-Step Laser Ranging for Precise Tracking of a Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chui, Talso; Penanen, Konstantin

    2005-01-01

    A document proposes a two-step laser ranging technique for precise tracking of a coasting interplanetary spacecraft to determine the degree to which leakage of fuel, solar wind, and/or solar-radiation pressure causes it to deviate from a purely gravitational trajectory. Such a determination could contribute to the precision of a test of a theory of gravitation. In the technique, a proof mass would be released from the spacecraft. By use of laser ranging equipment on the spacecraft and retroreflectors attached to the proof mass, the relative position of the spacecraft and proof mass would be determined. Meanwhile, the position of the spacecraft relative to the Earth would be determined by ranging by use of a laser transponder. The vector sum of the two sets of ranging measurements would be the position of the proof mass relative to the Earth. Unlike the acceleration of the spacecraft, the acceleration of the proof mass should not include a residual component attributable to leakage of fuel. In addition, the effects of solar radiation and solar wind on the proof mass could be minimized by releasing the proof mass into the shadow of the spacecraft.

  9. Stereo vision-based tracking of soft tissue motion with application to online ablation control in laser microsurgery.

    PubMed

    Schoob, Andreas; Kundrat, Dennis; Kahrs, Lüder A; Ortmaier, Tobias

    2017-08-01

    Recent research has revealed that image-based methods can enhance accuracy and safety in laser microsurgery. In this study, non-rigid tracking using surgical stereo imaging and its application to laser ablation is discussed. A recently developed motion estimation framework based on piecewise affine deformation modeling is extended by a mesh refinement step and considering texture information. This compensates for tracking inaccuracies potentially caused by inconsistent feature matches or drift. To facilitate online application of the method, computational load is reduced by concurrent processing and affine-invariant fusion of tracking and refinement results. The residual latency-dependent tracking error is further minimized by Kalman filter-based upsampling, considering a motion model in disparity space. Accuracy is assessed in laparoscopic, beating heart, and laryngeal sequences with challenging conditions, such as partial occlusions and significant deformation. Performance is compared with that of state-of-the-art methods. In addition, the online capability of the method is evaluated by tracking two motion patterns performed by a high-precision parallel-kinematic platform. Related experiments are discussed for tissue substitute and porcine soft tissue in order to compare performances in an ideal scenario and in a setup mimicking clinical conditions. Regarding the soft tissue trial, the tracking error can be significantly reduced from 0.72 mm to below 0.05 mm with mesh refinement. To demonstrate online laser path adaptation during ablation, the non-rigid tracking framework is integrated into a setup consisting of a surgical Er:YAG laser, a three-axis scanning unit, and a low-noise stereo camera. Regardless of the error source, such as laser-to-camera registration, camera calibration, image-based tracking, and scanning latency, the ablation root mean square error is kept below 0.21 mm when the sample moves according to the aforementioned patterns. Final

  10. An Analysis of Debris Orbit Prediction Accuracy from Short-arc Orbit Determination Using Optical and Laser Tracking Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, J.; Sang, J.; Smith, C.; Zhang, K.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper results are presented from a short-arc orbit determination study using optical and laser tracking data from the Space Debris Tracking System located at Mount Stromlo, Australia. Fifteen low-Earth orbit debris objects were considered in the study with perigee altitudes in the range 550850 km. In most cases, a 2-day orbit determination was considered using 2 passes of optical and 2 passes of laser tracking data. A total of 33 1-day and 26 2-day orbit prediction cases were compared with residuals obtained by comparing the orbit prediction with subsequent tracking data. A comparison was made between the orbit prediction accuracies for 2 orbit determination variants: (1) Entire passes are used during the orbit determination process; (2) Only 5 seconds is used from the beginning of each pass. Overall, the short-arc orbit determination results in (slightly) worse 1 and 2 day orbit prediction accuracies when compared to using the full observation arcs; however, the savings in tracking load outweighs the reduction in accuracy. If the optical or laser data is left out of the 5-second pass orbit determination process, most cases diverged which shows the importance of 3-dimenional positioning. Two-line element data was used to constrain the orbit determination process resulting in better convergence rates, but the resulting orbit prediction accuracy was much worse. The results have important implications for an optical and laser debris tracking network with potential savings in tracking load. An experimental study will be needed to verify this statement.

  11. Rotating blade vibration analysis using photogrammetry and tracking laser Doppler vibrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwashavanhu, Benjamin; Oberholster, Abrie J.; Heyns, P. Stephan

    2016-08-01

    Online structural dynamic analysis of turbomachinery blades is conventionally done using contact techniques such as strain gauges for the collection of data. To transfer the captured data from the sensor to the data logging system, installation of telemetry systems is required. This is usually complicated, time consuming and may introduce electrical noise into the data. In addition, contact techniques are intrusive by definition and can introduce significant local mass loading. This affects the integrity of the captured measurements. Advances in technology now allow for the use of optical non-contact methods to analyse the dynamics of rotating structures. These include photogrammetry and tracking laser Doppler vibrometry (TLDV). Various investigations to establish the integrity of photogrammetry measurements for rotating structures involved a comparison to data captured using accelerometers. Discrepancies that were noticed were attributed to the intrusive nature of the contact measurement technique. As an extended investigation, the presented work focuses on the validation of photogrammetry applied to online turbomachinery blade measurements, using TLDV measurements. Through a frequency based characterisation approach of the dynamics of the two scanning mirrors inside the scanning head of a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV), TLDV is employed in developing a system that can be used to achieve a perfect circular scan with a Polytec SLDV, (PSV 300). Photogrammetry out-of-plane displacements of a laser dot focused on a specific point on a rotating blade are compared to displacements captured by the laser scanning system. It is shown that there is good correlation between the two measurement techniques when applied to rotating structures, both in the time and frequency domains. The presence of slight discrepancies between the two techniques after elimination of accelerometer based errors illustrated that the optical system noise floor of photogrammetry does

  12. Full-field tracking and measuring of particle motion in capillary vessels by using time-varying laser speckle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Luying; Wang, Bo; Wang, Yi

    2016-03-01

    We propose a random perturbation model to describe the variation of laser speckle patterns caused by moving particles in capillary vessels. When passing through probing volume, moving particles encode random perturbations into observed laser speckle patterns. We extract the perturbation envelopes of time-varying laser speckles for tracking the motion of single particle. And, the full-field transverse velocities of flowing particles are obtained by using cross-correlation between the perturbation envelopes. The proposed method is experimentally verified by the use of polymer-microsphere suspension in a glass capillary.

  13. Temperature tracking SPICE macro-model for laser and LED driven opto-coupler assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Deveney, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    SPICE 2G.6 compatible models were required for two opto-coupler assemblies in order to perform simulations to assess the design margins of the circuits in which they are used. Both of these assemblies are made up of discrete components, with one employing a laser diode as the light source, while the second uses a LED. Although, in use, these assemblies couple digital-like pulse trains, they are analog devices capable of operating over wider ranges of voltage than digital devices. Robust models which accurately simulate over these voltage ranges were desired. Also for ease of use, models that would track the operation of each of the assemblies over the entire specified temperature range were preferred. In addition to simulating the assembles in their intended mode of operation, it was necessary to reproduce an unwanted noise signal transfer that was observed in an early prototype circuit.

  14. Temperature tracking SPICE macro-model for laser and LED driven opto-coupler assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Deveney, M.F.

    1992-09-01

    SPICE 2G.6 compatible models were required for two opto-coupler assemblies in order to perform simulations to assess the design margins of the circuits in which they are used. Both of these assemblies are made up of discrete components, with one employing a laser diode as the light source, while the second uses a LED. Although, in use, these assemblies couple digital-like pulse trains, they are analog devices capable of operating over wider ranges of voltage than digital devices. Robust models which accurately simulate over these voltage ranges were desired. Also for ease of use, models that would track the operation of each of the assemblies over the entire specified temperature range were preferred. In addition to simulating the assembles in their intended mode of operation, it was necessary to reproduce an unwanted noise signal transfer that was observed in an early prototype circuit.

  15. Estimation of intra-operative brain shift using a tracked laser range scanner.

    PubMed

    Ding, Siyi; Miga, Michael I; Thompson, Reid C; Dumpuri, Prashanth; Cao, Aize; Dawant, Benoit M

    2007-01-01

    Intra-operative brain shift limits the usefulness of image-guided neurosurgery systems (IGNS), which are based on pre-operative images. Methods that are being developed to address this problem need intra-operative measurements as input. In this work, we present an intra-operative surface shift measurement technique that relies on a tracked 3D laser range scanner. This scanner acquires both 3D range data and 2D images, which are co-registered. We compare two methods to derive displacements at every point in the field of view. The first one relies on the registration of the 2D images; the second relies on the direct 3D registration of the 3D range data. Our results, based on five data sets, show that the 2D method is preferable.

  16. The effect of tracking performance due to temperature distribution of SiC reflectors in periscopic laser communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yiwei; Fu, Sen; Tao, Kunyu; Jiang, Yijun

    2015-10-01

    Effect of temperature gradient and uniform temperature on tracking performance of reflectors in periscopic laser communication terminals was studied. Zernike polynomials on elliptical area were used to fit wave-front aberration of elliptical reflectors in periscopic laser communication terminals due to temperature distribution. RMS value of the thermal deformation, tracking error and intensity on detectors degradation at receiving terminals caused by thermal deformation were studied in inter-satellite laser communication system. From the result we can know that effect of temperature gradient is the move of peak intensity and a little degradation. The tracking error reaches 2.9μrad when temperature gradient is 14°C/m. The uniform temperature will cause variation of intensity distribution on focus plane of detectors. When the difference between uniform temperature and reference temperature is small, the astigmatism causing by thermal distortion is very important. As the difference becomes bigger, the high-order modes of Zernike polynomials become very important. The distribution of intensity becomes irregular and the area is very big. This will reduce the tracking performance of detectors. This work will contribute to the thermal control of elliptical reflectors in periscopic laser communication terminals on satellites in orbit.

  17. Sub-diffraction Position Determination with Four Laser Diodes for Tracking/Trapping a Single Molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germann, James A.; Canfield, Brian K.; King, Jason K.; Davis, Lloyd M.

    2013-03-01

    Prolonged observation of single biological molecules by overcoming diffusion can reveal interesting new properties. Observation times may be increased by physically confining a particle, but this often leads to interactions that affect molecular properties. Another way of increasing observation time is to trap a single molecule in solution three-dimensionally. However, optimal trapping of single particles relies on rapid determination of particle position for feedback to counteract Brownian diffusion. In our experiment, a tetrahedral region with foci located at the vertices is created by combining four modulated 635 nm laser diodes with three beam splitters. Fluorescence is measured with a single-photon avalanche diode and separated into bins corresponding to each excitation focus. A maximum-likelihood estimation algorithm is used to determine particle position with sub-diffraction precision in real time. To test the tracking capability of the four-focus setup, fluorescently labeled latex beads were tracked in an aqueous glycerol solution. Two setups, a piezoelectric stage and a three-dimensional electrokinetic trap, are being implemented to maintain a single fluorescent latex bead in the middle of the tetrahedral region.

  18. Nondestructive 3D confocal laser imaging with deconvolution of seven whole stardust tracks with complementary XRF and quantitative analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, M.; Ebel, D.S.

    2009-03-19

    We present a nondestructive 3D system for analysis of whole Stardust tracks, using a combination of Laser Confocal Scanning Microscopy and synchrotron XRF. 3D deconvolution is used for optical corrections, and results of quantitative analyses of several tracks are presented. The Stardust mission to comet Wild 2 trapped many cometary and ISM particles in aerogel, leaving behind 'tracks' of melted silica aerogel on both sides of the collector. Collected particles and their tracks range in size from submicron to millimeter scale. Interstellar dust collected on the obverse of the aerogel collector is thought to have an average track length of {approx}15 {micro}m. It has been our goal to perform a total non-destructive 3D textural and XRF chemical analysis on both types of tracks. To that end, we use a combination of Laser Confocal Scanning Microscopy (LCSM) and X Ray Florescence (XRF) spectrometry. Utilized properly, the combination of 3D optical data and chemical data provides total nondestructive characterization of full tracks, prior to flattening or other destructive analysis methods. Our LCSM techniques allow imaging at 0.075 {micro}m/pixel, without the use of oil-based lenses. A full textural analysis on track No.82 is presented here as well as analysis of 6 additional tracks contained within 3 keystones (No.128, No.129 and No.140). We present a method of removing the axial distortion inherent in LCSM images, by means of a computational 3D Deconvolution algorithm, and present some preliminary experiments with computed point spread functions. The combination of 3D LCSM data and XRF data provides invaluable information, while preserving the integrity of the samples for further analysis. It is imperative that these samples, the first extraterrestrial solids returned since the Apollo era, be fully mapped nondestructively in 3D, to preserve the maximum amount of information prior to other, destructive analysis.

  19. The AlSi10Mg samples produced by selective laser melting: single track, densification, microstructure and mechanical behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Pei; Wei, Zhengying; Chen, Zhen; Du, Jun; He, Yuyang; Li, Junfeng; Zhou, Yatong

    2017-06-01

    This densification behavior and attendant microstructural characteristics of the selective laser melting (SLM) processed AlSi10Mg alloy affected by the processing parameters were systematically investigated. The samples with a single track were produced by SLM to study the influences of laser power and scanning speed on the surface morphologies of scan tracks. Additionally, the bulk samples were produced to investigate the influence of the laser power, scanning speed, and hatch spacing on the densification level and the resultant microstructure. The experimental results showed that the level of porosity of the SLM-processed samples was significantly governed by energy density of laser beam and the hatch spacing. The tensile properties of SLM-processed samples and the attendant fracture surface can be enhanced by decreasing the level of porosity. The microstructure of SLM-processed samples consists of supersaturated Al-rich cellular structure along with eutectic Al/Si situated at the cellular boundaries. The Si content in the cellular boundaries increases with increasing the laser power and decreasing the scanning speed. The hardness of SLM-processed samples was significantly improved by this fine microstructure compared with the cast samples. Moreover, the hardness of SLM-processed samples at overlaps was lower than the hardness observed at track cores.

  20. Facial acquisition by dynamic optical tracked laser imaging: a new approach.

    PubMed

    Schwenzer-Zimmerer, K; Boerner, B-I; Schwenzer, N F; Müller, A A; Juergens, P; Ringenbach, A; Schkommodau, E; Zeilhofer, H-F

    2009-09-01

    Three-dimensional capture of the surface of soft tissue is a desirable support for documentation and therapy planning in plastic and reconstructive surgery concerning the complex anatomy of the face, particularly cleft lip and palate (CLP). Different scanning systems are used for capturing facial surfaces. These systems are mostly based on a static linear measuring arrangement. Established systems work on the basis of coded white light or linear laser triangulation and digital stereophotogrammetric approaches. Shadowing effects occur with these devices. These effects may be avoided by a radical new approach first used in automotive industries that employs a mobile, flexible handheld laser scanner with simultaneous registration by optical tracking. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of this scanner for surgical procedures on the human face in operating theatre. Five babies aged about 3 months with cleft deformities (one CLP, one bilateral CLP, three isolated cleft lips) were captured directly: twice preoperatively, twice postoperatively and twice after 7 days. An industrial standard specimen and two plaster cast masks of CLP babies were taken and subsequently measured to assess reliability and validity of the device. Masks were measured to reflect the complex surface of the cleft deformity. Data evaluation was done with respect to completeness of the data sets, as well as reliability and validity of the system. Missing data caused by shadowing could be avoided in all images. Even complex areas with undercuts could be reproduced completely and precisely with an accuracy in the sub-millimetre range.

  1. The method of axial drift compensation of laser differential confocal microscopy based on zero-tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yajie; Cui, Han; Wang, Yun; Qiu, Lirong; Zhao, Weiqian

    2015-08-01

    Laser differential confocal microscopy (DCM) has advantages of high axial resolution and strong ability of focus identification. However, the imaging mechanism of point scanning needs long measurement time, in the process due to itself mechanical instability and the influence of environment vibration the axial drift of object position is inevitable, which will reduce lateral resolution of the DCM. To ensure the lateral resolution we propose an axial drift compensation method based on zero-tracking in this paper. The method takes advantage of the linear region of differential confocal axial response curve, gets axial drift by detecting the laser intensity; uses grating sensor to monitor the real-time axial drift of lifting stage and realizes closed-loop control; uses capacitive sensor of objective driver to measure its position. After getting the axial drift of object, the lifting stage and objective driver will be driven to compensate position according to the axial drift. This method is realized by using Visual Studio 2010, and the experiment demonstrates that the compensation precision of the proposed method can reach 6 nm. It is not only easy to implement, but also can compensate the axial drift actively and real-timely. Above all, this method improves the system stability of DCM effectively.

  2. Observation of Wavelength Dependant Features of Latent Tracks in Polyallydiglycol Detector Irradiated with Nd:YAG(UV) Pulsed Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baig, M. R.; ALSalhi, M. S.; AL-Faraikh, A. H.; Al-Ghamdi, S. S.

    2011-10-01

    Samples of CR-39 polyallydiglycol polymer after irradiation with Am-241 alpha particles were exposed to Nd:YAG(UV) laser pulses with different wavelengths (λ = 355nm and λ = 266nm with same repetition rate of 10Hz and pulse duration of 8 nano seconds). In order to investigate the changes occurred in the original morphology of the latent tracks, samples were etched in 6M NaOH at 70° C for different periods. Our results indicate significant changes in track sizes, shapes and chain-like structures. The enlargement of average track diameters leading to overlapping of tracks as a function of exposure time and energy was observed. The increase in circular annealed central area around the laser pulses and disappearance of tracks from this area as a function of energy was observed. The results can best be explained by considering that absorption of UV photons by organic molecules which give rise to electronic excitation. It is believed that when a polymer is excited with photons of higher energy, the decomposition and ablation is predominantly photochemical, being caused by the excitation and dissociation of bonds. The result is scission of bonds and the production of a large number of small volatile fragments during the absorption of the UV radiation. Surface morphology and microstructure changes observed are wavelength and exposure time dependent.

  3. Tissue thickness estimation for high precision head-tracking using a galvanometric laser scanner - a case study.

    PubMed

    Wissel, Tobias; Stüber, Patrick; Wagner, Benjamin; Dürichen, Robert; Bruder, Ralf; Schweikard, Achim; Ernst, Floris

    2014-01-01

    Marker-less optical head-tracking constitutes a comfortable alternative with no exposure to radiation for realtime monitoring in radiation therapy. Supporting information such as tissue thickness has the potential to improve spatial tracking accuracy. Here we study how accurate tissue thickness can be estimated from the near-infrared (NIR) backscatter obtained from laser scans. In a case study, optical data was recorded with a galvanometric laser scanner from three subjects. A tissue ground truth from MRI was robustly matched via customized bite blocks. We show that Gaussian Processes accurately model the relationship between NIR features and tissue thickness. They were able to predict the tissue thickness with less than 0.5 mm root mean square error. Individual scaling factors for all features and an additional incident angle feature had positive effects on this performance.

  4. Speed quantification and tracking of moving objects in adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy.

    PubMed

    Tam, Johnny; Roorda, Austin

    2011-03-01

    Microscopic features of the human retina can be resolved noninvasively using an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO). We describe an improved method to track and quantify the speed of moving objects in AOSLO videos, which is necessary for characterizing the hemodynamics of retinal capillaries. During video acquisition, the objects of interest are in constant motion relative to the background tissue (object motion). The background tissue is in constant motion relative to the AOSLO, due to continuous eye motion during video recordings (eye motion). The location at which AOSLO acquires data is also in continuous motion, since the imaging source is swept in a raster scan across the retina (raster scanning). We show that it is important to take into consideration the combination of object motion, eye motion, and raster scanning for accurate quantification of object speeds. The proposed methods performed well on both experimental AOSLO videos as well as synthetic videos generated by a virtual AOSLO. These methods improve the accuracy of methods to investigate hemodynamics using AOSLO imaging.

  5. A real-time single sperm tracking, laser trapping, and ratiometric fluorescent imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Linda Z.; Botvinick, Elliot L.; Nascimento, Jaclyn; Chandsawangbhuwana, Charlie; Berns, Michael W.

    2006-08-01

    Sperm cells from a domestic dog were treated with oxacarbocyanine DiOC II(3), a ratiometrically-encoded membrane potential fluorescent probe in order to monitor the mitochondria stored in an individual sperm's midpiece. This dye normally emits a red fluorescence near 610 nm as well as a green fluorescence near 515 nm. The ratio of red to green fluorescence provides a substantially accurate and precise measurement of sperm midpiece membrane potential. A two-level computer system has been developed to quantify the motility and energetics of sperm using video rate tracking, automated laser trapping (done by the upper-level system) and fluorescent imaging (done by the lower-level system). The communication between these two systems is achieved by a networked gigabit TCP/IP cat5e crossover connection. This allows for the curvilinear velocity (VCL) and ratio of the red to green fluorescent images of individual sperm to be written to the hard drive at video rates. This two-level automatic system has increased experimental throughput over our previous single-level system (Mei et al., 2005) by an order of magnitude.

  6. Speed quantification and tracking of moving objects in adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Johnny; Roorda, Austin

    2011-01-01

    Microscopic features of the human retina can be resolved noninvasively using an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO). We describe an improved method to track and quantify the speed of moving objects in AOSLO videos, which is necessary for characterizing the hemodynamics of retinal capillaries. During video acquisition, the objects of interest are in constant motion relative to the background tissue (object motion). The background tissue is in constant motion relative to the AOSLO, due to continuous eye motion during video recordings (eye motion). The location at which AOSLO acquires data is also in continuous motion, since the imaging source is swept in a raster scan across the retina (raster scanning). We show that it is important to take into consideration the combination of object motion, eye motion, and raster scanning for accurate quantification of object speeds. The proposed methods performed well on both experimental AOSLO videos as well as synthetic videos generated by a virtual AOSLO. These methods improve the accuracy of methods to investigate hemodynamics using AOSLO imaging. PMID:21456866

  7. Speed quantification and tracking of moving objects in adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Johnny; Roorda, Austin

    2011-03-01

    Microscopic features of the human retina can be resolved noninvasively using an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO). We describe an improved method to track and quantify the speed of moving objects in AOSLO videos, which is necessary for characterizing the hemodynamics of retinal capillaries. During video acquisition, the objects of interest are in constant motion relative to the background tissue (object motion). The background tissue is in constant motion relative to the AOSLO, due to continuous eye motion during video recordings (eye motion). The location at which AOSLO acquires data is also in continuous motion, since the imaging source is swept in a raster scan across the retina (raster scanning). We show that it is important to take into consideration the combination of object motion, eye motion, and raster scanning for accurate quantification of object speeds. The proposed methods performed well on both experimental AOSLO videos as well as synthetic videos generated by a virtual AOSLO. These methods improve the accuracy of methods to investigate hemodynamics using AOSLO imaging.

  8. A pulsated weak-resonant-cavity laser diode with transient wavelength scanning and tracking for injection-locked RZ transmission.

    PubMed

    Lin, Gong-Ru; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Liao, Yu-Sheng; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Liao, Zhi-Wang; Wang, Hai-Lin; Lin, Gong-Cheng

    2012-06-18

    By spectrally slicing a single longitudinal-mode from a master weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diode with transient wavelength scanning and tracking functions, the broadened self-injection-locking of a slave weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diode is demonstrated to achieve bi-directional transmission in a 200-GHz array-waveguide-grating channelized dense-wavelength-division-multiplexing passive optical network system. Both the down- and up-stream slave weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diodes are non-return-to-zero modulated below threshold and coherently injection-locked to deliver the pulsed carrier for 25-km bi-directional 2.5 Gbits/s return-to-zero transmission. The master weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diode is gain-switched at near threshold condition and delivers an optical coherent pulse-train with its mode linewidth broadened from 0.2 to 0.8 nm by transient wavelength scanning, which facilitates the broadband injection-locking of the slave weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diodes with a threshold current reducing by 10 mA. Such a transient wavelength scanning induced spectral broadening greatly releases the limitation on wavelength injection-locking range required for the slave weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diode. The theoretical modeling and numerical simulation on the wavelength scanning and tracking effects of the master and slave weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diodes are performed. The receiving power sensitivity for back-to-back transmission at bit-error-rate <10(-10) is -25.6 dBm, and the power penalty added after 25-km transmission is less than 2 dB for all 16 channels.

  9. Doublet Pulse Coherent Laser Radar for Tracking of Resident Space Objects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    static targets, spinning cones returns for testing speckle decorrelation, and retro returns suitable for satellite tracking . With precision ranging and...coherent signals, models targets as collection of point scatterers and tracks each scatterer position and velocity. Speckle effects were faithfully...excellent performance since speckle is limiting the doublet pulse spacing. Furthermore, acceleration is also tracked very well. In this case

  10. Note: Reliable and non-contact 6D motion tracking system based on 2D laser scanners for cargo transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young-Keun; Kim, Kyung-Soo

    2014-10-15

    Maritime transportation demands an accurate measurement system to track the motion of oscillating container boxes in real time. However, it is a challenge to design a sensor system that can provide both reliable and non-contact methods of 6-DOF motion measurements of a remote object for outdoor applications. In the paper, a sensor system based on two 2D laser scanners is proposed for detecting the relative 6-DOF motion of a crane load in real time. Even without implementing a camera, the proposed system can detect the motion of a remote object using four laser beam points. Because it is a laser-based sensor, the system is expected to be highly robust to sea weather conditions.

  11. De-warping of images and improved eye tracking for the scanning laser ophthalmoscope.

    PubMed

    Bedggood, Phillip; Metha, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    A limitation of scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) is that eye movements during the capture of each frame distort the retinal image. Various sophisticated strategies have been devised to ensure that each acquired frame can be mapped quickly and accurately onto a chosen reference frame, but such methods are blind to distortions in the reference frame itself. Here we explore a method to address this limitation in software, and demonstrate its accuracy. We used high-speed (200 fps), high-resolution (~1 μm), flood-based imaging of the human retina with adaptive optics to obtain "ground truth" information on the retinal image and motion of the eye. This information was used to simulate SLO video sequences at 20 fps, allowing us to compare various methods for eye-motion recovery and subsequent minimization of intra-frame distortion. We show that a) a single frame can be near-perfectly recovered with perfect knowledge of intra-frame eye motion; b) eye motion at a given time point within a frame can be accurately recovered by tracking the same strip of tissue across many frames, due to the stochastic symmetry of fixational eye movements. This approach is similar to, and easily adapted from, previously suggested strip-registration approaches; c) quality of frame recovery decreases with amplitude of eye movements, however, the proposed method is affected less by this than other state-of-the-art methods and so offers even greater advantages when fixation is poor. The new method could easily be integrated into existing image processing software, and we provide an example implementation written in Matlab.

  12. De-warping of images and improved eye tracking for the scanning laser ophthalmoscope

    PubMed Central

    Bedggood, Phillip; Metha, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    A limitation of scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) is that eye movements during the capture of each frame distort the retinal image. Various sophisticated strategies have been devised to ensure that each acquired frame can be mapped quickly and accurately onto a chosen reference frame, but such methods are blind to distortions in the reference frame itself. Here we explore a method to address this limitation in software, and demonstrate its accuracy. We used high-speed (200 fps), high-resolution (~1 μm), flood-based imaging of the human retina with adaptive optics to obtain “ground truth” information on the retinal image and motion of the eye. This information was used to simulate SLO video sequences at 20 fps, allowing us to compare various methods for eye-motion recovery and subsequent minimization of intra-frame distortion. We show that a) a single frame can be near-perfectly recovered with perfect knowledge of intra-frame eye motion; b) eye motion at a given time point within a frame can be accurately recovered by tracking the same strip of tissue across many frames, due to the stochastic symmetry of fixational eye movements. This approach is similar to, and easily adapted from, previously suggested strip-registration approaches; c) quality of frame recovery decreases with amplitude of eye movements, however, the proposed method is affected less by this than other state-of-the-art methods and so offers even greater advantages when fixation is poor. The new method could easily be integrated into existing image processing software, and we provide an example implementation written in Matlab. PMID:28369065

  13. An experimental-numerical investigation of heat distribution and stress field in single- and multi-track laser cladding by a high-power direct diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahmand, Parisa; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2014-11-01

    High-power direct diode laser (HPDDL) cladding offers several advantages in the laser surface modification and repair of high-value parts. The wider beam and uniform energy distribution in the direct diode laser provide a smooth heating and cooling cycle during the cladding process. Subsequently, lower dimensional distortion and thermally-induced stress occur during the process. In this paper, temperature evolution and molten pool dimensions as well as stress-and-strain fields were studied by utilizing experimental and numerical methods. A three-dimensional (3D) transient uncoupled thermo-elastic-plastic model was developed to simulate a thermal process during the single- and multi-track laser cladding and the thermally-induced residual stress in the laser cladding. The effect of latent heat and phase transformations are considered in the thermal analysis. The numerical results were validated by experimentally-measured values, and the maximum prediction error was 3.5%. The experimental results were collected by in-situ monitoring techniques (e.g., thermocouples and a high-speed CCD camera). The level of residual stresses at the cladded surfaces were measured by an X-ray diffractometer. In addition, the effect of scanning speed on the thermal and stress evolution was quantitatively discussed.

  14. Near field laser transmission with bidirectional beacon tracking for Tbps class wireless communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimoto, Yoshinori

    2010-02-01

    This paper discusses a new concept of free-space optical (FSO) communication terminals, characterized as the mutual tracking of near field Gaussian beams and the direct single mode fiber coupling to achieve Tera-bit/seconds (Tbps) class FSO link in short range outdoor environments. It first shows the required optical configurations including beacon transmitters, tracking sensors and fast steering mirrors to construct the mutual tracking system and then discusses their capabilities and performance for this specific near field operation in which conventional tracking system is not enough to assure stable and reliable link performance. It also presents one of the simplest realizations of the new FSO terminals and their test results.

  15. Tracking nuclear wave-packet dynamics in molecular oxygen ions with few-cycle infrared laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    De, S.; Bocharova, I. A.; Magrakvelidze, M.; Ray, D.; Cao, W.; Thumm, U.; Cocke, C. L.; Bergues, B.; Kling, M. F.; Litvinyuk, I. V.

    2010-07-15

    We have tracked nuclear wave-packet dynamics in doubly charged states of molecular oxygen using few-cycle infrared laser pulses. Bound and dissociating wave packets were launched and subsequently probed via a pair of 8-fs pulses of 790 nm radiation. Ionic fragments from the dissociating molecules were monitored by velocity-map imaging. Pronounced oscillations in the delay-dependent kinetic energy release spectra were observed. The occurrence of vibrational revivals permits us to identify the potential curves of the O{sub 2} dication which are most relevant to the molecular dynamics. These studies show the accessibility to the dynamics of such higher-charged molecules.

  16. Development of a lasercom testbed for the pointing, acquisition, and tracking subsystem of satellite-to-satellite laser communications link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanzillo, Jennifer N.; Dunbar, Christopher B.; Lee, Shinhak

    2008-02-01

    A lasercom pointing, acquisition, and tracking (PAT) testbed has been developed at The Aerospace Corporation. The current setup represents a GEO-to-GEO link, but depending on the target PAT subsystem, this testbed can be reconfigured. No communication aspects are currently implemented. The system operates in small beam space and consists of a far field space simulator, and two identical lasercom terminals implemented with representative hardware (fast steering mirrors, optical detectors, etc.) and differentiated only by two laser sources operating at visible wavelengths of 473 nm and 633 nm. In this paper, the design process will be examined, and aspects of the pointing accuracy will be discussed.

  17. Consideration of coordinated solar tracking of an array of compact solar-pumped lasers combined with photovoltaic cells for electricity generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motohiro, Tomoyoshi; Ichiki, Akihisa; Ichikawa, Tadashi; Ito, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Mizuno, Shintaro; Ito, Tadashi; Kajino, Tsutomu; Takeda, Yasuhiko; Higuchi, Kazuo

    2015-08-01

    A monochromatic laser light with a photon energy just above the band edge of photovoltaic cells can be converted into electricity with minimal thermal loss. To attain efficient conversion of sunlight to laser light, a coordinated solar tracking system for an array of originally designed compact solar-pumped lasers of 50 mm aperture diameter is being constructed. As for the feasibility of this system, a prototype with a holding capacity of 25 compact solar-pumped lasers has been fabricated. The primary requisite of this system is that the angular accuracy of tracking should be below 1 mrad for all 25 compact solar-pumped lasers to sustain their continuous lasing. To realize this, imperative challenges have been elucidated including thermal expansion under sunlight. A prototype fabricated with its main frame made of Super Invar alloy was found to fulfill the requisite by measurement using a three-dimensional coordinate measuring machine.

  18. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Inactivation of viruses with a very low power visible femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsen, K. T.; Tsen, Shaw-Wei D.; Chang, Chih-Long; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T.-C.; Kiang, Juliann G.

    2007-08-01

    We demonstrate for the first time that, by using a visible femtosecond laser, it is effective to inactivate viruses such as bacteriophage M13 through impulsive stimulated Raman scattering. By using a very low power visible femtosecond laser having a wavelength of 425 nm and a pulse width of 100 fs, we show that M13 phages were inactivated when the laser power density was greater than or equal to 50 MW cm-2. The inactivation of M13 phages was determined by plaque counts and depended on the pulse width as well as power density of the excitation laser.

  19. Modernization of the first-generation Intercosmos laser rangefinder at the Zvenigorod experimental satellite-tracking station of the Astronomical Council of the USSR Academy of Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveev, D. T.; Chepurnov, B. D.

    Test results obtained during 1980-1981 at the Zvenigorod station are presented for the Intercosmos laser rangefinder which was modified in various ways: e.g., optical components of the laser were replaced, and the mechanical Q-switch of the laser resonator was replaced by a phototropic Q-switch. Improved reliability was noted, and the ranging accuracy was increased by 1.5-2 times. It is concluded that the Zvenigorod tests indicate that the first-generation Intercosmos laser rangefinder can be effectively modernized at other Intercosmos tracking stations.

  20. Satellite Mounted Tracking Optics to Continuously Pump Sun-Pumped Laser.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Fresnel lens . Although this system could not simultaneously deliver the required power and correct for the 1/2 degrees tracking error, the necessary trade-offs needed for the simple lens system to work are presented. (Author)

  1. Detailed numerical modeling of electron injection in the Laser Wakefield Accelerator: Particle Tracking Diagnostics in PIC codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, R. A.; Gargaté, L.; Martins, S. F.; Peano, F.; Vieira, J.; Silva, L. O.; Mori, W. B.

    2007-11-01

    The field of laser plasma acceleration has witnessed significant development over recent years, with experimental demonstrations of the production of quasi mono-energetic electron bunches, with charges of ˜ 50 pC and energies of up to 1 GeV [1]. Fully relativistic PIC codes, such as OSIRIS [2] are the best tools for modeling these problems, but sophisticated visualization and data analysis routines [3] are required to extract physical meaning from the large volumes of data produced. We report on the new particle tracking diagnostics being added into the OSIRIS framework and its application to this problem, specifically targeting self-injection. Details on the tracking algorithm implementation and post processing routines are given. Simulation results from laser wakefield accelerator scenarios will be presented, with detailed analysis of the self injection of the electron bunches. [1] W.P. Leemans et al, Nature Phys. 2 696 (2006) [2] R. A. Fonseca et al., LNCS 2331, 342, (2002) [3] R. A. Fonseca, Proceedings of ISSS-7, (2005)

  2. Modelling the geometry of a moving laser melt pool and deposition track via energy and mass balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.; Li, Lin

    2004-07-01

    The additive manufacturing technique of laser direct metal deposition allows multiple tracks of full density metallic material to be built to form complex parts for rapid tooling and manufacture. Practical results and theoretical models have shown that the geometries of the tracks are governed by multiple factors. Original work with single layer cladding identified three basic clad profiles but, so far, models of multiple layer, powder-feed deposition have been based on only two of them. At higher powder mass flow rates, experimental results have shown that a layer's width can become greater than the melt pool width at the substrate surface, but previous analytical models have not been able to accommodate this. In this paper, a model based on this third profile is established and experimentally verified. The model concentrates on mathematical analysis of the melt pool and establishes mass and energy balances based on one-dimensional heat conduction to the substrate. Deposition track limits are considered as arcs of circles rather than of ellipses, as used in most established models, reflecting the dominance of surface tension forces in the melt pool, and expressions for elongation of the melt pool with increasing traverse speed are incorporated. Trends in layer width and height with major process parameters are captured and predicted layer dimensions correspond well to the experimental values.

  3. Infrared laser-induced gene expression for tracking development and function of single C. elegans embryonic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Anupriya; Shaham, Shai

    2017-01-01

    Visualizing neural-circuit assembly in vivo requires tracking growth of optically resolvable neurites. The Caenorhabditis elegans embryonic nervous system, comprising 222 neurons and 56 glia, is attractive for comprehensive studies of development; however, embryonic reporters are broadly expressed, making single-neurite tracking/manipulation challenging. We present a method, using an infrared laser, for reproducible heat-dependent gene expression in small sublineages (one to four cells) without radiation damage. We go beyond proof-of-principle, and use our system to label and track single neurons during early nervous-system assembly. We uncover a retrograde extension mechanism for axon growth, and reveal the aetiology of axon-guidance defects in sax-3/Robo and vab-1/EphR mutants. We also perform cell-specific rescues, determining DAF-6/patched-related site of action during sensory-organ development. Simultaneous ablation and labelling of cells using our system reveals roles for glia in dendrite extension. Our method can be applied to other optically/IR-transparent organisms, and opens the door to high-resolution systematic analyses of C. elegans morphogenesis. PMID:28098184

  4. Co-registration of Laser Altimeter Tracks with Digital Terrain Models and Applications in Planetary Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaeser, P.; Haase, I.; Oberst, J.; Neumann, G. A.

    2013-01-01

    We have derived algorithms and techniques to precisely co-register laser altimeter profiles with gridded Digital Terrain Models (DTMs), typically derived from stereo images. The algorithm consists of an initial grid search followed by a least-squares matching and yields the translation parameters at sub-pixel level needed to align the DTM and the laser profiles in 3D space. This software tool was primarily developed and tested for co-registration of laser profiles from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) with DTMs derived from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) stereo images. Data sets can be co-registered with positional accuracy between 0.13 m and several meters depending on the pixel resolution and amount of laser shots, where rough surfaces typically result in more accurate co-registrations. Residual heights of the data sets are as small as 0.18 m. The software can be used to identify instrument misalignment, orbit errors, pointing jitter, or problems associated with reference frames being used. Also, assessments of DTM effective resolutions can be obtained. From the correct position between the two data sets, comparisons of surface morphology and roughness can be made at laser footprint- or DTM pixel-level. The precise co-registration allows us to carry out joint analysis of the data sets and ultimately to derive merged high-quality data products. Examples of matching other planetary data sets, like LOLA with LRO Wide Angle Camera (WAC) DTMs or Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) with stereo models from the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) as well as Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) with Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) are shown to demonstrate the broad science applications of the software tool.

  5. UAV Infrared Search and Track (IRST)/Eyesafe Laser Range Finder (ELR) System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    boost phase. The coude path incorporated in this sensor provides a means for an external eyesafe laser rangefinder to share the aperture with...the narrow field of view passive MWIR sensor. The fabrication and installation of the coude path mechanical and optical components was completed...development of this laser and subsequently delivered it to NAVAIR for future integration into the IRST. The characteristics of the coude path, its original

  6. Robust Computer-Assisted Laser Treatment Using Real-Time Retinal Tracking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    retinal images with Indocyanine Green Figure 4: Examples of demarcation of the optic disc and the macula. Figure 3: Seed contours (left) and segmented...pair) as well as Indocyanine Green images (bottom pair). The results show an accurate mapping of laser shot locations between the reference (left...supported in part by IBE Technologies, Egypt. REFERENCES [1] S.L. Trokel, “Lasers in ophthalmology ,” Optics,Photonics News, pp. 11-13, Oct. 1992

  7. LDRD Final Report for''Tactical Laser Weapons for Defense'' SI (Tracking Code 01-SI-011)

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, R; Zapata, L

    2002-01-30

    The focus of this project was a convincing demonstration of two new technological approaches to high beam quality; high average power solid-state laser systems that would be of interest for tactical laser weapon applications. Two pathways had been identified to such systems that built on existing thin disk and fiber laser technologies. This SI was used as seed funding to further develop and vet these ideas. Significantly, the LLNL specific enhancements to these proposed technology paths were specifically addressed for devising systems scaleable to the 100 kW average power level. In the course of performing this work we have established an intellectual property base that protects and distinguishes us from other competitive approaches to the same end.

  8. Laser Ranging for Effective and Accurate Tracking of Space Debris in Low Earth Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchet, Guillaume; Haag, Herve; Hennegrave, Laurent; Assemat, Francois; Vial, Sophie; Samain, Etienne

    2013-08-01

    The paper presents the results of preliminary design options for an operational laser ranging system adapted to the measurement of the distance of space debris. Thorough analysis of the operational parameters is provided with identification of performance drivers and assessment of enabling design options. Results from performance simulation demonstrate how the range measurement enables improvement of the orbit determination when combined with astrometry. Besides, experimental results on rocket-stage class debris in LEO were obtained by Astrium beginning of 2012, in collaboration with the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur (OCA), by operating an experimental laser ranging system supported by the MéO (Métrologie Optique) telescope.

  9. Mathematical modeling and simulation analysis of a pointing, acquisition, and tracking system for laser-based intersatellite communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skormin, Victor A.; Herman, Carl R.; Tasullo, Mark A.; Nicholson, Donald J.

    1993-11-01

    A mathematical model of a pointing, acquisition, and tracking (PAT) system intended for laser-based intersatellite communication is developed and implemented in software in the form of a simulator. It represents major dynamic channels of the system and complex interaction of operational conditions, disturbances, and design parameters thus facilitating the solution of various analysis, design, and control problems. Application of computer graphics and animated schematics, driven by the model, provides accurate display of the most intricate phenomena behind the PAT operation. Coupled with a working laboratory prototype of the PAT system through a data communication board, the simulator is capable of displaying both simulated and real variables serving as a diagnostic tool. The simulator has been applied for development and verification of a novel jitter compensation scheme.

  10. Incorporation of a laser range scanner into image-guided liver surgery: surface acquisition, registration, and tracking.

    PubMed

    Cash, David M; Sinha, Tuhin K; Chapman, William C; Terawaki, Hiromi; Dawant, Benoit M; Galloway, Robert L; Miga, Michael I

    2003-07-01

    As image guided surgical procedures become increasingly diverse, there will be more scenarios where point-based fiducials cannot be accurately localized for registration and rigid body assumptions no longer hold. As a result, procedures will rely more frequently on anatomical surfaces for the basis of image alignment and will require intraoperative geometric data to measure and compensate for tissue deformation in the organ. In this paper we outline methods for which a laser range scanner may be used to accomplish these tasks intraoperatively. A laser range scanner based on the optical principle of triangulation acquires a dense set of three-dimensional point data in a very rapid, noncontact fashion. Phantom studies were performed to test the ability to link range scan data with traditional modes of image-guided surgery data through localization, registration, and tracking in physical space. The experiments demonstrate that the scanner is capable of localizing point-based fiducials to within 0.2 mm and capable of achieving point and surface based registrations with target registration error of less than 2.0 mm. Tracking points in physical space with the range scanning system yields an error of 1.4 +/- 0.8 mm. Surface deformation studies were performed with the range scanner in order to determine if this device was capable of acquiring enough information for compensation algorithms. In the surface deformation studies, the range scanner was able to detect changes in surface shape due to deformation comparable to those detected by tomographic image studies. Use of the range scanner has been approved for clinical trials, and an initial intraoperative range scan experiment is presented. In all of these studies, the primary source of error in range scan data is deterministically related to the position and orientation of the surface within the scanner's field of view. However, this systematic error can be corrected, allowing the range scanner to provide a rapid, robust

  11. Influences of single laser tracks' space on the rolling fatigue contact of gray cast iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi-kai; Zhou, Ti; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Hai-feng; Yang, Wan-shi; Zhou, Hong; Ren, Lu-quan

    2015-09-01

    To improve the fatigue wear resistance of gray cast iron, the surface is modified by Nd:YAG laser to imitate the unique surface of soil creatures (alternative soft and hard phases). After laser treatment, the remelting region is the named unit which is mainly characterized of compact and refinement grains. In the present work, the influence of the unit space on the fatigue wear resistance is experimentally studied. The optimum space is proven to be 2 mm according to the tested results and two kinds of delamination are observed on samples' worn surface. Subsequently, the mechanisms of fatigue wear resistance improvement are suggested: (i) for microscopic behavior, the bionic unit not only delays the initiation of microcracks, but also significantly obstructs the propagation of cracks; (ii) for macroscopic behavior, the hard phase resists the deformation and the soft phase releases the deformation.

  12. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Selective inactivation of micro-organisms with near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsen, K. T.; Tsen, Shaw-Wei D.; Sankey, Otto F.; Kiang, Juliann G.

    2007-11-01

    We demonstrate an unconventional and revolutionary method for selective inactivation of micro-organisms by using near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses. We show that if the wavelength and pulse width of the excitation femtosecond laser are appropriately selected, there exists a window in power density that enables us to achieve selective inactivation of target viruses and bacteria without causing cytotoxicity in mammalian cells. This strategy targets the mechanical (vibrational) properties of micro-organisms, and thus its antimicrobial efficacy is likely unaffected by genetic mutation in the micro-organisms. Such a method may be effective against a wide variety of drug resistant micro-organisms and has broad implications in disinfection as well as in the development of novel treatments for viral and bacterial pathogens.

  13. Correction of laser range tracking data for atmospheric refraction at elevations above 10 degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marini, J. W.; Murray, C. W., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    A formula for correcting laser measurements of satellite range for the effect of atmospheric refraction is given. The corrections apply above 10 deg elevation to satellites whose heights exceed 70 km. The meteorological measurements required are the temperature, pressure, and relative humidity of the air at the laser site at the time of satellite pass. The accuracy of the formula was tested by comparison with corrections obtained by ray-tracing radiosonde profiles. The standard deviation of the difference between the refractive retardation given by the formula and that calculated by ray-tracing was less than about 0.04% of the retardation or about 0.5 cm at 10 deg elevation, decreasing to 0.04 cm near zenith.

  14. Image Based Acquisition and Tracking for Multi-Access Laser Communications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    based systems, such as the ESA’s Artemis, the JAXA’s OICETs and the DOD’s TSAT [1-6], are investigating or have demonstrated lasercom links between a...Control of Optical Systems Conference, Breckenridge, CO Feb. 2003. [2] G. Fletcher, T Hicks, B. Laurent, ‘The SILEX Optical Interorbit Link ...Verification of the Pointing Error Distribution of an Optical Intersatellite Link ’, SPIE Free Space Laser Communication Technologies, Vol 885, 1998

  15. Lasers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schewe, Phillip F.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the nature of laser light. Topics include: (1) production and characteristics of laser light; (2) nine types of lasers; (3) five laser techniques including holography; (4) laser spectroscopy; and (5) laser fusion and other applications. (SK)

  16. Lasers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schewe, Phillip F.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the nature of laser light. Topics include: (1) production and characteristics of laser light; (2) nine types of lasers; (3) five laser techniques including holography; (4) laser spectroscopy; and (5) laser fusion and other applications. (SK)

  17. Tracking of buried layers during plasma-assisted femtosecond laser drilling of compound targets

    SciTech Connect

    Zhvaniya, I. A. Garmatina, A. A.; Makarov, I. A.; Gordienko, V. M.

    2016-07-28

    It was shown that drilling of multi-layered target placed in the air by tightly focused femtosecond laser radiation with high fluence (up to 1000 J/cm{sup 2}) can be monitored online using plasma-induced X-ray emission and second harmonic of incident laser radiation. The technique based on X-rays registration is appeared to be more flexible than the method based on detection of second harmonic since its accuracy depends crucially on the target type. We demonstrated that the X-ray signal clearly indicates the transition from one layer to another during the microdrilling of targets consisting of 2–4 layers of titanium foil when a laser beam is focused beneath the target surface at a depth comparable to the layer thickness. The diagnostics of microchannel production in the chicken eggshell was performed for the first time. It was found that the presence of albumen beneath the shell accounts for longtime generation of X-ray pulses.

  18. Tracking of buried layers during plasma-assisted femtosecond laser drilling of compound targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhvaniya, I. A.; Garmatina, A. A.; Makarov, I. A.; Gordienko, V. M.

    2016-07-01

    It was shown that drilling of multi-layered target placed in the air by tightly focused femtosecond laser radiation with high fluence (up to 1000 J/cm2) can be monitored online using plasma-induced X-ray emission and second harmonic of incident laser radiation. The technique based on X-rays registration is appeared to be more flexible than the method based on detection of second harmonic since its accuracy depends crucially on the target type. We demonstrated that the X-ray signal clearly indicates the transition from one layer to another during the microdrilling of targets consisting of 2-4 layers of titanium foil when a laser beam is focused beneath the target surface at a depth comparable to the layer thickness. The diagnostics of microchannel production in the chicken eggshell was performed for the first time. It was found that the presence of albumen beneath the shell accounts for longtime generation of X-ray pulses.

  19. Target tracking and pointing for arrays of phase-locked lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macasaet, Van P.; Hughes, Gary B.; Lubin, Philip; Madajian, Jonathan; Zhang, Qicheng; Griswold, Janelle; Kulkarni, Neeraj; Cohen, Alexander; Brashears, Travis

    2016-09-01

    Arrays of phase-locked lasers are envisioned for planetary defense and exploration systems. High-energy beams focused on a threatening asteroid evaporate surface material, creating a reactionary thrust that alters the asteroid's orbit. The same system could be used to probe an asteroid's composition, to search for unknown asteroids, and to propel interplanetary and interstellar spacecraft. Phased-array designs are capable of producing high beam intensity, and allow beam steering and beam profile manipulation. Modular designs allow ongoing addition of emitter elements to a growing array. This paper discusses pointing control for extensible laser arrays. Rough pointing is determined by spacecraft attitude control. Lateral movement of the laser emitter tips behind the optical elements provides intermediate pointing adjustment for individual array elements and beam steering. Precision beam steering and beam formation is accomplished by coordinated phase modulation across the array. Added cells are incorporated into the phase control scheme by precise alignment to local mechanical datums using fast, optical relative position sensors. Infrared target sensors are also positioned within the datum scheme, and provide information about the target vector relative to datum coordinates at each emitter. Multiple target sensors allow refined determination of the target normal plane, providing information to the phase controller for each emitter. As emitters and sensors are added, local position data allows accurate prediction of the relative global position of emitters across the array, providing additional constraints to the phase controllers. Mechanical design and associated phase control that is scalable for target distance and number of emitters is presented.

  20. Optical derotator alignment using image-processing algorithm for tracking laser vibrometer measurements of rotating objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Hossam; Kim, Dongkyu; Jo, Youngjoon; Park, Kyihwan

    2017-06-01

    An optical component called a Dove prism is used to rotate the laser beam of a laser-scanning vibrometer (LSV). This is called a derotator and is used for measuring the vibration of rotating objects. The main advantage of a derotator is that it works independently from an LSV. However, this device requires very specific alignment, in which the axis of the Dove prism must coincide with the rotational axis of the object. If the derotator is misaligned with the rotating object, the results of the vibration measurement are imprecise, owing to the alteration of the laser beam on the surface of the rotating object. In this study, a method is proposed for aligning a derotator with a rotating object through an image-processing algorithm that obtains the trajectory of a landmark attached to the object. After the trajectory of the landmark is mathematically modeled, the amount of derotator misalignment with respect to the object is calculated. The accuracy of the proposed method for aligning the derotator with the rotating object is experimentally tested.

  1. Experimental comparison of tracking algorithms in the presence of aircraft boundary-layer distortions for emulated free-space laser communication links.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Ross A; Murphy, Robert J; Williams, Timothy H; Wilcox, William E; Michael, Steven; Roth, Jeffrey M

    2009-01-01

    We report experiments comparing different focal plane array (FPA) tracking algorithms for emulated laser communication links between an aircraft and spacecraft. The links include look-angle-dependent phase disturbances caused by boundary-layer turbulence replicated by using a deformable mirror. Impairments from platform jitter, atmospheric scintillation, and propagation delay are also included. We study a hyperhemispherical dome geometry that provides a large field of regard but generates boundary-layer turbulence. Results from experiments comparing peak and centroid FPA tracking algorithms in various environments show that power delivered to the optical fiber varies with algorithm and look angle. An improvement in steady-state fiber-coupled power of up to 1.0 dB can be achieved through appropriate choice of algorithm. In a real system, this advantage could be realized by implementing a tracking processor that dynamically changes its tracking algorithm depending on look angle and other parameters correlated to boundary-layer turbulence.

  2. A ground track control algorithm for the Topographic Mapping Laser Altimeter (TMLA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaes, V.; Mcintosh, R.; Roszman, L.; Cooley, J.

    1993-01-01

    The results of an analysis of an algorithm that will provide autonomous onboard orbit control using orbits determined with Global Positioning System (GPS) data. The algorithm uses the GPS data to (1) compute the ground track error relative to a fixed longitude grid, and (2) determine the altitude adjustment required to correct the longitude error. A program was written on a personal computer (PC) to test the concept for numerous altitudes and values of solar flux using a simplified orbit model including only the J sub 2 zonal harmonic and simple orbit decay computations. The algorithm was then implemented in a precision orbit propagation program having a full range of perturbations. The analysis showed that, even with all perturbations (including actual time histories of solar flux variation), the algorithm could effectively control the spacecraft ground track and yield more than 99 percent Earth coverage in the time required to complete one coverage cycle on the fixed grid (220 to 230 days depending on altitude and overlap allowance).

  3. Kalman Filter Tracking of a Reflective Target Using Forward Looking Infrared Measurements and Laser Illumination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    intensity centroid v (ti) = discrete, white Gaussian measurement noise with statistics: E (v (ti)) 0 (4-65) R ti= tjE vti~vtj)) 0 i6 (4-66) where R is...Investigations ............................. 6-18 6.8.1 Low-Energy Laser Sensor Sensitivity ................ 6-18 6.8.2 Intensity Centroid Movement...7-5 7.3.1 One-State Center-of-Mass Filter .. .................. 7-5 7.3.2 "Apparent" Intensity Centroid Movement ............ 7-6 7.3.3

  4. The GRACE Follow-On Laser Ranging Instrument - On track for launch in 2017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görth, Alexander; LRI Team

    2016-04-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) is a highly successful satellite mission whose main purpose is to record the temporal and spatial variations of the gravitational field of the Earth. Its successor mission, GRACE Follow-On, is scheduled for launch in the summer of 2017. It will be the first space mission to host a laser-based intersatellite ranging system as a technology demonstrator: the laser ranging interferometer (LRI). The ranging sensitivity of the LRI is expected to be ≤80 nm/sqrt(Hz) which would exceed the original GRACE ranging noise by at least one order of magnitude. Additionally, the LRI will provide new precise data streams for the line-of-sight alignment of the two spacecraft. 
In January 2015 the LRI's critical design review, a major project milestone, was passed successfully. By the end of last year the production of flight hardware was completed. Currently, the LRI is being integrated into the spacecraft and important calibration measurements are performed.
 In my talk I will give an overview of the unique design of the LRI and give an update on the current status of the instrument.

  5. Development of measurement system for task oriented step tracking using laser range finder.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Tetsuya; Moriguchi, Toshiki; Yamada, Minoru; Uemura, Kazuki; Nishiguchi, Shu; Aoyama, Tomoki; Takahashi, Masaki

    2013-05-22

    Avoiding a fall requires fast and appropriate step responses, stepping speed as a fall risk indicator has only been assessed in older adults. We have developed a new measurement system that applies a laser range finder to assess temporal and spatial parameters of stepping performance such as step speed, length, and accuracy. This measurement system has higher portability, lower cost, and can analyze a larger number of temporal and spatial parameters than existing measurement systems. The aim of this study was to quantify the system for measuring reaction time and stride duration by compared to that obtained using a force platform. Ten healthy young adults performed steps in response to visual cues. The measurement system applied a laser range finder to measure the position and velocity of the center of each leg and of both legs.We applied the developed measurement system to the rhythmic stepping exercise and measured reaction time and stride duration. In addition, the foot-off time and foot-contact time were quantified using the measurement system, and compared to the foot-off time and foot-contact time quantified using a force platform. We confirmed that the measurement system can detect where a participant stood and measured reaction time and stride duration.Remarkable consistency was observed in the test-retest reliability of the foot-off time and foot-contact time quantified by the measurement system (p < 0.001). The foot-off time and foot-contact time quantified by the measurement system were highly correlated with the foot-off time and foot-contact time quantified by the force platform (reaction time: r = 0.997, stride duration: r = 0.879; p < 0.001). The new measurement system provided a valid measure of temporal step parameters in young healthy adults.The validity of the system to measure reaction time and stride duration was evaluated, and confirmed by applying to the rhythmic stepping exercise.

  6. Improving the signal-to-noise ratio of the beat note between a frequency comb and a tunable laser using a dynamically tracking optical filter.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Hugo; Deschênes, Jean-Daniel; Genest, Jérôme

    2016-09-15

    An acousto-optic filter is locked to a tunable continuous wave (CW) laser so that a frequency comb can be dynamically filtered around the wavelength of the CW source. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the heterodyne beat note between the comb and the CW laser is improved by a factor of up to 19 dB. Furthermore, a SNR of more than 56 dB in 100 kHz is obtained over an 85 nm wavelength span. This technique could enable wideband, agile, and cycle-slip-free phase tracking of a beat note across a full comb spectrum.

  7. Orbit determination of LAGEOS and STARLETTE and the position estimation of the European laser tracking stations at Kootwijk, Wettzell, Grasse and Metsahovi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakker, K. F.; Ambrosius, B. A. C.

    1983-01-01

    The positions of the European laser tracking stations were determined by separately processing LAGEOS and STARLETTE five-day and two-revolution data arcs. Range residual rms's and the recovered apparent range and timing biases of the five-day arc solutions are reported. Mutual differences between LAGEOS and STARLETTE solutions for station positions are given. Discrepancies between European, NASA, and Texas University baselines and solutions are discussed.

  8. Tracking isotopic signatures of CO2 at Jungfraujoch with laser spectroscopy: analytical improvements and exemplary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturm, P.; Tuzson, B.; Henne, S.; Emmenegger, L.

    2013-01-01

    We present the continuous data record of atmospheric CO2 isotopes measured by laser absorption spectroscopy for an almost four year period at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch (3580 m a.s.l.), Switzerland. The mean annual cycles derived from data of December 2008 to September 2012 exhibit peak-to-peak amplitudes of 11.0 μmol mol-1 for CO2, 0.60‰ for δ13C and 0.81‰ for δ18O. The high temporal resolution of the measurements also allow to capture variations on hourly and diurnal time scales. For CO2 the mean diurnal peak-to-peak amplitude is about 1 μmol mol-1 in spring, autumn and winter and about 2 μmol mol-1 in summer. The mean diurnal variability in the isotope ratios is largest during the summer months too, with an amplitude of about 0.1‰ both in the δ13C and δ18O, and a smaller or no discernible diurnal cycle during the other seasons. The day-to-day variability, however, is much larger and depends on the origin of the air masses arriving at Jungfraujoch. Backward Lagrangian particle dispersion model simulations revealed a close link between air composition and prevailing transport regimes and could be used to explain part of the observed variability in terms of transport history and influence region. A footprint clustering showed significantly different wintertime CO2, δ13C and δ18O values depending on the origin and surface residence times of the air masses. Based on the experiences gained from our measurements, several major updates on the instrument and the calibration procedures were performed in order to further improve the data quality. We describe the new measurement and calibration setup in detail and demonstrate the enhanced performance of the analyser. A precision of about 0.02‰ for both isotope ratios has been obtained for an averaging time of 10 min.

  9. Holographic tracking of quantized intra-film segments during interferometric laser processing of SiOx thin films(Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Stephen; Domke, Matthias; Huber, Heinz P.; Herman, Peter P.

    2017-03-01

    Interferometric femtosecond laser processing of thin dielectric films has recently opened the novel approach for quantized nanostructuring from inside the film, driven by the rapid formation of periodic thin nanoscale plasma disks of 20 to 45 nm width, separated on half-wavelength, λ/2nfilm, spacing (refractive index, nfilm). The nano-disk explosions enable intra-film cleaving of subwavelength cavities at single or multiple periodic depths, enabling the formation of intra-film blisters with nanocavities and the digital ejection at fractional film depths with quantized-depth thickness defined by the laser wavelength. For this paper, the physical mechanisms and ablation dynamics underlying the intra-film cleavage of SiOx thin films were investigated by laser pump-probe microscopy with high temporal dynamic range recorded in a wide time-frame between 100 fs and 10 μs. The long time scales revealed a new observation method as Newton's Rings (observed < 50 ns) gave way to holographic recording (> 50 ns) of the laser-ablated film fragments. For the first time to our knowledge, the holographic tracking reveals the clustering of large mechanically ejected nano-film planes into distinct speed groups according to the multiple of λ/2nfilm in the film. The observation verifies a new `quantized' form of photo-mechanical laser "lift-off".

  10. Modelling and precision of the localization of the robotic mobile platforms for constructions with laser tracker and SmartTrack sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, M.; Francu, C.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a way to expand the field of use of the laser tracker and SmartTrack sensor localization device used in lately for the localisation of the end effector of the industrial robots to the localization of the mobile construction robots. The research paper presents the equipment along with its characteristics, determines the relationships for the localization coordinates by comparison to the forward kinematics of the industrial robot's spherical arm (positioning mechanism in spherical coordinates) and the orientation mechanism with three revolute axes. In the end of the paper the accuracy of the mobile robot's localization is analysed.

  11. Piezo activated mode tracking system for widely tunable mode-hop-free external cavity mid-IR semiconductor lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wysocki, Gerard (Inventor); Tittel, Frank K. (Inventor); Curl, Robert F. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A widely tunable, mode-hop-free semiconductor laser operating in the mid-IR comprises a QCL laser chip having an effective QCL cavity length, a diffraction grating defining a grating angle and an external cavity length with respect to said chip, and means for controlling the QCL cavity length, the external cavity length, and the grating angle. The laser of claim 1 wherein said chip may be tuned over a range of frequencies even in the absence of an anti-reflective coating. The diffraction grating is controllably pivotable and translatable relative to said chip and the effective QCL cavity length can be adjusted by varying the injection current to the chip. The laser can be used for high resolution spectroscopic applications and multi species trace-gas detection. Mode-hopping is avoided by controlling the effective QCL cavity length, the external cavity length, and the grating angle so as to replicate a virtual pivot point.

  12. Prototype of a coherent tracking and detection receiver with wideband vibration compensation for free-space laser communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giggenbach, Dirk; Schex, Anton; Wandernoth, Bernhard

    1996-04-01

    The Optical Communications Group of the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR) has investigated the feasibility of a fiberless receiver telescope for high sensitive coherent optical space communication, resulting in an elegant pointing, acquisition and tracking (PAT) concept. To demonstrate the feasibility of this new concept, an optical receiver terminal that coherently obtains both the spatial error signal for tracking and the data signal with only one set of detectors has been built. The result is a very simple and compact setup with few optical surfaces. It does not require fibers for superpositioning and is capable to compensate for microaccelerations up to about one kilohertz.

  13. Source Tracking of Nitrous Oxide using A Quantum Cascade Laser System in the Field and Laboratory Environments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrous oxide is an important greenhouse gas and ozone depleting substance. Nitrification and denitrification are two major biological pathways that are responsible for soil emissions of N2O. However, source tracking of in-situ or laboratory N2O production is still challenging to...

  14. Source Tracking of Nitrous Oxide using A Quantum Cascade Laser System in the Field and Laboratory Environments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrous oxide is an important greenhouse gas and ozone depleting substance. Nitrification and denitrification are two major biological pathways that are responsible for soil emissions of N2O. However, source tracking of in-situ or laboratory N2O production is still challenging to...

  15. Design and Prove-Out of a Material Tracking System With a Pad Printer and Laser Etcher System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    of this system was a complete success. No bugs or errors were found during the trial run and all of the production steps were performed by actual...at Projectiles seconds Manual Trailer Tracking 63 65 64 Pour 1C0SA standard Pill Prufuctde* wth Explosive* Manual Traitor Traokinq 12 13 Take

  16. Angiographic analysis of retinal-choroidal anastomosis by confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy technology and corresponding (eye-tracked) spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Querques, Giuseppe; Atmani, Karim; Berboucha, Elya; Martinelli, Domenico; Coscas, Gabriel; Soubrane, Gisèle; Souied, Eric H

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the angiographic (confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy technology) and corresponding (eye-tracked) spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) features and to propose a classification for the progressive phases establishing retinal-choroidal anastomosis (RCA). We reviewed all consecutive eyes with RCA that underwent Heidelberg Retina Angiograph angiography and tracked Spectralis SD-OCT at the University Eye Clinic of Creteil between September 2007 and March 2009. Twenty-six eyes of 23 patients (8 men and 15 women, aged 70-88 years) showing RCA naïve to any treatment were included for analysis. In 6 of 7 eyes showing a discrete focal hyperfluorescence (focal staining), the corresponding (eye-tracked) SD-OCT scan showed a focal retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) erosion ("erosion sign") over a small, localized RPE elevation (which appeared filled with a hyperreflective material); in 7 of 8 eyes showing a typical "hot spot" in the late angiographic frames (focal leakage) and absence of a serosanguineous pigment epithelium detachment, the corresponding (eye-tracked) SD-OCT scan showed a focal RPE break leaving 2 free RPE flaps ("flap sign") at the level of a small, localized RPE elevation. In 10 of 11 eyes showing a typical hot spot in the late angiographic frames and presence of a serosanguineous pigment epithelium detachment, the corresponding (eye-tracked) SD-OCT scan showed, at the level of a large serosanguineous RPE detachment, a focal funnel-shaped RPE joining (kissing) an inverted focal funnel-shaped inner neuroepithelium ("kissing sign"). An early neovascularization (a discrete focal hyperfluorescence) arising from the choroid initially simply erodes the basement membrane/RPE (erosion sign; Phase 1) and later breaks the basement membrane/RPE (flap sign), infiltrating first into the outer retina forming an early RCA (Phase 2, a typical hot spot without a serosanguineous pigment epithelium detachment) and later

  17. SU-E-T-98: Towards Cell Nucleus Microdosimetry: Construction of a Confocal Laser-Scanning Fluorescence Microscope to Readout Fluorescence Nuclear Track Detectors (FNTDs).

    PubMed

    McFadden, C; Bartz, J; Akselrod, M; Sawakuchi, G

    2012-06-01

    To construct a custom confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) capable of resolving individual proton tracks in the volume of an Al2 O3 :C,Mg fluorescent nuclear track detector (FNTD). The spatial resolution of the FNTD technique is at the sub-micrometer scale. Therefore the FNTD technique has the potential to perform radiation measurements at the cell nucleus scale. The crystal volume of an FNTD contains defects which become fluorescent F2(+) centers after trapping delta electrons from ionizing radiation. These centers have an absorption band centered at 620 nm and an emission band in the near infrared. Events of energy deposition in the crystal are read-out using a CLSM with sub-micrometer spatial resolution. Excitation light from a 635 nm laser is focused in the crystal volume by an objective lens. Fluorescence is collected back through the same path, filtered through a dichroic mirror, and focused through a small pinhole onto an avalanche photodiode. Lateral scanning of the focal point is performed with a scanning mirror galvanometer, and axial scanning is performed using a stepper-motor stage. Control of electronics and image acquisition was performed using a custom built LabVIEW VI and further image processing was done using Java. The system was used to scan FNTDs exposed to a 6 MV x-ray beam and an unexposed FNTD. Fluorescence images above the unexposed background were obtained at scan depths ranging from 5 - 10 micrometer below the crystal surface using a 100 micrometer pinhole size. Further work needs to be done to increase the resolution and the signal to noise ratio of the images so that energy deposition events may be identified more easily. Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  18. Spatially tracking 13C labeled substrate (bicarbonate) accumulation in microbial communities using laser ablation isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, James J.; Doll, Charles G.; Bernstein, Hans C.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Cory, Alexandra B.; Hutchison, Janine R.; Lindemann, Stephen R.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2014-08-25

    This is a manuscript we would like to submit for publication in Environmental Microbiology Reports. This manuscript contains a description of a laser ablation isotope ratio mass spectrometry methodology developed at PNNL and applied to a microbial system at a PNNL project location – Hot Lake, Washington. I will submit a word document containing the entire manuscript with this Erica input request form.

  19. Retrodirective tracking of a moving target using phase conjugate light generated in a Fabry-Pérot Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami, K.; Komurasaki, K.; Okamura, H.

    2017-03-01

    This report describes the retrodirective tracking of a target moving at a constant speed using a Fabry-Pérot laser resonator-type self-starting phase conjugator. Three-dimensional pointing ability was confirmed with this system: the generated phase conjugate light can focus at a target position. To track the moving targets, target-reflected light is Doppler-shifted, which causes wash-out of the gain grating. To address this problem, numerical analysis and experiments showed that shortening the pulse width is an efficient means of eliminating the gain grating wash-out effect. For the measured target speeds of 0-80 mm/s, the phase conjugate light output is unaffected when the pulse width of 18 ns was used, in contrast to the case of 400 μs pulse width, where the phase conjugate light output rapidly decreased as the target speed approached 10 mm/s. Numerical simulation revealed that phase conjugate light can even be generated for fast-moving targets such as space debris in low-earth-orbit with pulses of several tens of picoseconds. Unlike conventional mechanical gimbal steering methods, this system is applicable for wireless energy transfer to rapidly moving objects.

  20. Preliminary results of tracked photorefractive keratectomy (T-PRK) for mild to moderate myopia with the autonomous technologies excimer laser at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguen, Ezra I.; Salz, James J.; Nesburn, Anthony B.

    1997-05-01

    Preliminary results of the correction of myopia up to -7.00 D by tracked photorefractive keratectomy (T-PRK) with a scanning and tracking excimer laser by Autonomous Technologies are discussed. 41 eyes participated (20 males). 28 eyes were evaluated one month postop. At epithelization day mean uncorrected vision was 20/45.3. At one month postop, 92.8 of eyes were 20/40 and 46.4% were 20/20. No eye was worse than 20/50. 75% of eyes were within +/- 0.5 D of emmetropia and 82% were within +/- 1.00 D of emmetropia. Eyes corrected for monovision were included. One eye lost 3 lines of best corrected vision, and had more than 1.00 D induced astigmatism due to a central corneal ulcer. Additional complications included symptomatic recurrent corneal erosions which were controlled with topical hypertonic saline. T-PRK appears to allow effective correction of low to moderate myopia. Further study will establish safety and efficacy of the procedure.

  1. [Lasers].

    PubMed

    Passeron, T

    2012-11-01

    Lasers are a very effective approach for treating many hyperpigmented lesions. They are the gold standard treatment for actinic lentigos and dermal hypermelanocytosis, such as Ota nevus. Becker nevus, hyperpigmented mosaicisms, and lentigines can also be successfully treated with lasers, but they could be less effective and relapses can be observed. However, lasers cannot be proposed for all types of hyperpigmentation. Thus, freckles and café-au-lait macules should not be treated as the relapses are nearly constant. Due to its complex pathophysiology, melasma has a special place in hyperpigmented dermatoses. Q-switched lasers (using standard parameters or low fluency) should not be used because of consistent relapses and the high risk of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Paradoxically, targeting the vascular component of the melasma lesion with lasers could have a beneficial effect. However, these results have yet to be confirmed. In all cases, a precise diagnosis of the type of hyperpigmentation is mandatory before any laser treatment, and the limits and the potential side effects of the treatment must be clearly explained to patients.

  2. Lasers.

    PubMed

    Passeron, T

    2012-12-01

    Lasers are a very effective approach for treating many hyperpigmented lesions. They are the gold standard treatment for actinic lentigos and dermal hypermelanocytosis, such as Ota nevus. Becker nevus, hyperpigmented mosaicisms, and lentigines can also be successfully treated with lasers, but they could be less effective and relapses can be observed. However, lasers cannot be proposed for all types of hyperpigmentation. Thus, freckles and café-au-lait macules should not be treated as the relapses are nearly constant. Due to its complex pathophysiology, melasma has a special place in hyperpigmented dermatoses. Q-switched lasers (using standard parameters or low fluency) should not be used because of consistent relapses and the high risk of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Paradoxically, targeting the vascular component of the melasma lesion with lasers could have a beneficial effect. However, these results have yet to be confirmed. In all cases, a precise diagnosis of the type of hyperpigmentation is mandatory before any laser treatment, and the limits and the potential side effects of the treatment must be clearly explained to patients.

  3. Terrestrial laser scanning point clouds time series for the monitoring of slope movements: displacement measurement using image correlation and 3D feature tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornemann, Pierrick; Jean-Philippe, Malet; André, Stumpf; Anne, Puissant; Julien, Travelletti

    2016-04-01

    Dense multi-temporal point clouds acquired with terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) have proved useful for the study of structure and kinematics of slope movements. Most of the existing deformation analysis methods rely on the use of interpolated data. Approaches that use multiscale image correlation provide a precise and robust estimation of the observed movements; however, for non-rigid motion patterns, these methods tend to underestimate all the components of the movement. Further, for rugged surface topography, interpolated data introduce a bias and a loss of information in some local places where the point cloud information is not sufficiently dense. Those limits can be overcome by using deformation analysis exploiting directly the original 3D point clouds assuming some hypotheses on the deformation (e.g. the classic ICP algorithm requires an initial guess by the user of the expected displacement patterns). The objective of this work is therefore to propose a deformation analysis method applied to a series of 20 3D point clouds covering the period October 2007 - October 2015 at the Super-Sauze landslide (South East French Alps). The dense point clouds have been acquired with a terrestrial long-range Optech ILRIS-3D laser scanning device from the same base station. The time series are analyzed using two approaches: 1) a method of correlation of gradient images, and 2) a method of feature tracking in the raw 3D point clouds. The estimated surface displacements are then compared with GNSS surveys on reference targets. Preliminary results tend to show that the image correlation method provides a good estimation of the displacement fields at first order, but shows limitations such as the inability to track some deformation patterns, and the use of a perspective projection that does not maintain original angles and distances in the correlated images. Results obtained with 3D point clouds comparison algorithms (C2C, ICP, M3C2) bring additional information on the

  4. Effects of the Selective Laser Melting manufacturing process on the properties of CoCrMo single tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monroy, Karla P.; Delgado, Jordi; Sereno, Lídia; Ciurana, Joaquim; Hendrichs, Nicolas J.

    2014-09-01

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is an additive technology that produces solid parts by selectively melting thin layers of metallic powder. SLM can produce significant differences in the final properties due to the melting-consolidation phenomena of the process, which can be controlled by the appropriate parameters. Therefore, the objective of this study was to create a link between the process conditions and the resulting properties by experimenting in an own-developed SLM machine using CoCrMo powder as material. The fabricated samples were characterized by density, hardness and microstructural properties. The experimental results proved the capability of the SLM technique to build high dense samples. The hardness results gave evidence of a superior outcome compared to conventional processes. Finally, it was found that grain size was defined by scanning speed. Based on the results, a better understanding of the processing principles given by the parameters was achieved and improved fabrication quality was promoted.

  5. Tracking isotopic signatures of CO2 at the high altitude site Jungfraujoch with laser spectroscopy: analytical improvements and representative results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturm, P.; Tuzson, B.; Henne, S.; Emmenegger, L.

    2013-07-01

    We present the continuous data record of atmospheric CO2 isotopes measured by laser absorption spectroscopy for an almost four year period at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch (3580 m a.s.l.), Switzerland. The mean annual cycles derived from data of December 2008 to September 2012 exhibit peak-to-peak amplitudes of 11.0 μmol mol-1 for CO2, 0.60‰ for δ13C and 0.81‰ for δ18O. The high temporal resolution of the measurements also allow us to capture variations on hourly and diurnal timescales. For CO2 the mean diurnal peak-to-peak amplitude is about 1 μmol mol-1 in spring, autumn and winter and about 2 μmol mol-1 in summer. The mean diurnal variability in the isotope ratios is largest during the summer months too, with an amplitude of about 0.1‰ both in the δ13C and δ18O, and a smaller or no discernible diurnal cycle during the other seasons. The day-to-day variability, however, is much larger and depends on the origin of the air masses arriving at Jungfraujoch. Backward Lagrangian particle dispersion model simulations revealed a close link between air composition and prevailing transport regimes and could be used to explain part of the observed variability in terms of transport history and influence region. A footprint clustering showed significantly different wintertime CO2, δ13C and δ18O values depending on the origin and surface residence times of the air masses. Several major updates on the instrument and the calibration procedures were performed in order to further improve the data quality. We describe the new measurement and calibration setup in detail and demonstrate the enhanced performance of the analyzer. A measurement precision of about 0.02‰ for both isotope ratios has been obtained for an averaging time of 10 min, while the accuracy was estimated to be 0.1‰, including the uncertainty of the calibration gases.

  6. CR-39 track detector calibration for H, He, and C ions from 0.1-0.5 MeV up to 5 MeV for laser-induced nuclear fusion product identification

    SciTech Connect

    Baccou, C. Yahia, V.; Labaune, C.; Depierreux, S.; Neuville, C.; Goyon, C.; Consoli, F.; De Angelis, R.; Ducret, J. E.; Boutoux, G.; Rafelski, J.

    2015-08-15

    Laser-accelerated ion beams can be used in many applications and, especially, to initiate nuclear reactions out of thermal equilibrium. We have experimentally studied aneutronic fusion reactions induced by protons accelerated by the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration mechanism, colliding with a boron target. Such experiments require a rigorous method to identify the reaction products (alpha particles) collected in detectors among a few other ion species such as protons or carbon ions, for example. CR-39 track detectors are widely used because they are mostly sensitive to ions and their efficiency is near 100%. We present a complete calibration of CR-39 track detector for protons, alpha particles, and carbon ions. We give measurements of their track diameters for energy ranging from hundreds of keV to a few MeV and for etching times between 1 and 8 h. We used these results to identify alpha particles in our experiments on proton-boron fusion reactions initiated by laser-accelerated protons. We show that their number clearly increases when the boron fuel is preformed in a plasma state.

  7. CR-39 track detector calibration for H, He, and C ions from 0.1-0.5 MeV up to 5 MeV for laser-induced nuclear fusion product identification.

    PubMed

    Baccou, C; Yahia, V; Depierreux, S; Neuville, C; Goyon, C; Consoli, F; De Angelis, R; Ducret, J E; Boutoux, G; Rafelski, J; Labaune, C

    2015-08-01

    Laser-accelerated ion beams can be used in many applications and, especially, to initiate nuclear reactions out of thermal equilibrium. We have experimentally studied aneutronic fusion reactions induced by protons accelerated by the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration mechanism, colliding with a boron target. Such experiments require a rigorous method to identify the reaction products (alpha particles) collected in detectors among a few other ion species such as protons or carbon ions, for example. CR-39 track detectors are widely used because they are mostly sensitive to ions and their efficiency is near 100%. We present a complete calibration of CR-39 track detector for protons, alpha particles, and carbon ions. We give measurements of their track diameters for energy ranging from hundreds of keV to a few MeV and for etching times between 1 and 8 h. We used these results to identify alpha particles in our experiments on proton-boron fusion reactions initiated by laser-accelerated protons. We show that their number clearly increases when the boron fuel is preformed in a plasma state.

  8. CR-39 track detector calibration for H, He, and C ions from 0.1-0.5 MeV up to 5 MeV for laser-induced nuclear fusion product identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baccou, C.; Yahia, V.; Depierreux, S.; Neuville, C.; Goyon, C.; Consoli, F.; De Angelis, R.; Ducret, J. E.; Boutoux, G.; Rafelski, J.; Labaune, C.

    2015-08-01

    Laser-accelerated ion beams can be used in many applications and, especially, to initiate nuclear reactions out of thermal equilibrium. We have experimentally studied aneutronic fusion reactions induced by protons accelerated by the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration mechanism, colliding with a boron target. Such experiments require a rigorous method to identify the reaction products (alpha particles) collected in detectors among a few other ion species such as protons or carbon ions, for example. CR-39 track detectors are widely used because they are mostly sensitive to ions and their efficiency is near 100%. We present a complete calibration of CR-39 track detector for protons, alpha particles, and carbon ions. We give measurements of their track diameters for energy ranging from hundreds of keV to a few MeV and for etching times between 1 and 8 h. We used these results to identify alpha particles in our experiments on proton-boron fusion reactions initiated by laser-accelerated protons. We show that their number clearly increases when the boron fuel is preformed in a plasma state.

  9. Interferometric star tracking.

    PubMed

    Decou, A B

    1974-02-01

    A new star-tracking technique based on interferometry is described and analyzed in detail. A heuristic comparison is made with traditional star-tracking methods that demonstrates several advantages in the interferometric approach for very high accuracy systems. A detailed error analysis is performed on several versions of the system that use all solid-state detection. One such system is shown to have a potential accuracy of +/-0.01 sec of arc using a small optical system and state-of-the-art components. Applications of the new system in large orbiting astronomical observatories and deep space laser communications systems are also discussed.

  10. Position and orientation tracking system

    DOEpatents

    Burks, B.L.; DePiero, F.W.; Armstrong, G.A.; Jansen, J.F.; Muller, R.C.; Gee, T.F.

    1998-05-05

    A position and orientation tracking system presents a laser scanning apparatus having two measurement pods, a control station, and a detector array. The measurement pods can be mounted in the dome of a radioactive waste storage silo. Each measurement pod includes dual orthogonal laser scanner subsystems. The first laser scanner subsystem is oriented to emit a first line laser in the pan direction. The second laser scanner is oriented to emit a second line laser in the tilt direction. Both emitted line lasers scan planes across the radioactive waste surface to encounter the detector array mounted on a target robotic vehicle. The angles of incidence of the planes with the detector array are recorded by the control station. Combining measurements describing each of the four planes provides data for a closed form solution of the algebraic transform describing the position and orientation of the target robotic vehicle. 14 figs.

  11. Position and orientation tracking system

    DOEpatents

    Burks, Barry L.; DePiero, Fred W.; Armstrong, Gary A.; Jansen, John F.; Muller, Richard C.; Gee, Timothy F.

    1998-01-01

    A position and orientation tracking system presents a laser scanning appaus having two measurement pods, a control station, and a detector array. The measurement pods can be mounted in the dome of a radioactive waste storage silo. Each measurement pod includes dual orthogonal laser scanner subsystems. The first laser scanner subsystem is oriented to emit a first line laser in the pan direction. The second laser scanner is oriented to emit a second line laser in the tilt direction. Both emitted line lasers scan planes across the radioactive waste surface to encounter the detector array mounted on a target robotic vehicle. The angles of incidence of the planes with the detector array are recorded by the control station. Combining measurements describing each of the four planes provides data for a closed form solution of the algebraic transform describing the position and orientation of the target robotic vehicle.

  12. Elemental bioimaging of thulium in mouse tissues by laser ablation-ICPMS as a complementary method to heteronuclear proton magnetic resonance imaging for cell tracking experiments.

    PubMed

    Reifschneider, Olga; Wentker, Kristina S; Strobel, Klaus; Schmidt, Rebecca; Masthoff, Max; Sperling, Michael; Faber, Cornelius; Karst, Uwe

    2015-04-21

    Due to the fact that cellular therapies are increasingly finding application in clinical trials and promise success by treatment of fatal diseases, monitoring strategies to investigate the delivery of the therapeutic cells to the target organs are getting more and more into the focus of modern in vivo imaging methods. In order to monitor the distribution of the respective cells, they can be labeled with lanthanide complexes such as thulium-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclodoecane-α,α,α,α-tetramethyl-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (Tm(DOTMA)). In this study, experiments on a mouse model with two different cell types, namely, tumor cells and macrophages labeled with Tm(DOTMA), were performed. The systemic distribution of Tm(DOTMA) of both cell types was investigated by means of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). Using the high resolution of 25 μm, distribution maps of Tm in different tissues such as tumor, liver, lung, and spleen as well as in explanted gel pellets were generated and the behavior of the labeled cells inside the tissue was investigated. Additionally, quantitative data were obtained using homemade matrix-matched standards based on egg yolk. Using this approach, limits of detection and quantification of 2.2 and 7.4 ng·g(-1), respectively, and an excellent linearity over the concentration range from 0.01 to 46 μg·g(-1) was achieved. The highest concentration of the label agent, 32.4 μg·g(-1), in tumor tissue was observed in the area of the injection of the labeled tumor cells. Regarding the second experiment with macrophages for cell tracking, Tm was detected in the explanted biogell pellet with relatively low concentrations below 60 ng·g(-1) and in the liver with a relatively high concentration of 10 μg·g(-1). Besides thulium, aluminum was detected with equal distribution behavior in the tumor section due to a contamination resulting from the labeling procedure, which includes the usage of an Al electrode.

  13. A rapid matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry-based method for single-plasmid tracking in an outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Lau, Anna F; Wang, Honghui; Weingarten, Rebecca A; Drake, Steven K; Suffredini, Anthony F; Garfield, Mark K; Chen, Yong; Gucek, Marjan; Youn, Jung-Ho; Stock, Frida; Tso, Hanna; DeLeo, Jim; Cimino, James J; Frank, Karen M; Dekker, John P

    2014-08-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) have spread globally and represent a serious and growing threat to public health. Rapid methods for tracking plasmids carrying carbapenemase genes could greatly benefit infection control efforts. Here, we demonstrate that real-time, direct tracking of a single plasmid in a bacterial strain responsible for an outbreak is possible using a commercial matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system. In this case, we retrospectively tracked the bla(KPC) carbapenemase gene-bearing pKpQIL plasmid responsible for a CRE outbreak that occurred at the NIH Clinical Center in 2011. An ∼ 11,109-Da MS peak corresponding to a gene product of the bla(KPC) pKpQIL plasmid was identified and characterized using a combination of proteomics and molecular techniques. This plasmid peak was present in spectra from retrospectively analyzed K. pneumoniae outbreak isolates, concordant with results from whole-genome sequencing, and absent from a diverse control set of bla(KPC)-negative clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates. Notably, the gene characterized here is located adjacent to the bla(KPC) Tn4401 transposon on the pKpQIL plasmid. Sequence analysis demonstrates the presence of this gene in other bla(KPC) Tn4401-containing plasmids and suggests that this signature MS peak may be useful in tracking other plasmids conferring carbapenem resistance. Plasmid identification using this MALDI-TOF MS method was accomplished in as little as 10 min from isolated colonies and 30 min from positive (spiked) blood cultures, demonstrating the potential clinical utility for real-time plasmid tracking in an outbreak. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Performance and characterization results of a lasercom testbed for the pointing, acquisition, and tracking subsystem of a satellite-to-satellite laser communications link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardema, Jason C.; Tanzillo, Jennifer N.; Lee, Shinhak; Dunbar, Christopher B.

    2008-08-01

    The Aerospace Corporation has developed a testbed for studying pointing, acquisition, and tracking systems for lasercom terminals. The testbed consists of two configurable terminals that are currently set up to represent a GEO-to- GEO link. Each terminal has the ability to point open-loop, execute scan patterns, and track a received beam. The system operates in small-beam space and consists of a far-field space simulator and two lasercom terminals operating at 473 nm and 633 nm with representative hardware (fast steering mirrors, optical detectors, etc.). This paper discusses the software developed for the testbed and the characterization of its performance, which includes open-loop pointing accuracy and residual tracking error in the presence of applied disturbances. Analytical predictions are compared to experimental results. Each terminal has the ability to progress from acquisition to tracking mode and the two terminals together demonstrate the cooperative acquisition process.

  15. Derailing Tracking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Reviews recent research on student achievement, self-concept, and curriculum and instruction showing the ineffectiveness of tracking and ability grouping. Certain court rulings show that tracking violates the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Innovative alternatives include cooperative learning, mastery learning, peer tutoring,…

  16. Beyond Tracking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Percy; And Others

    1992-01-01

    On the surface, educational tracking may seem like a useful tool for allowing students to work at their own pace, and to avoid discouraging competition, but abuses of the tracking idea have arisen through biased placement practices that have denied equal access to education for minority students. The articles in this issue explore a number of…

  17. Rover tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Tracks made by the Sojourner rover are visible in this image, taken by one of the cameras aboard Sojourner on Sol 3. The tracks represent the rover maneuvering towards the rock dubbed 'Barnacle Bill.' The rover, having exited the lander via the rear ramp, first traveled towards the right portion of the image, and then moved forward towards the left where Barnacle Bill sits. The fact that the rover was making defined tracks indicates that the soil is made up of particles on a micron scale.

    Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  18. Rover Tracks

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-07-07

    Tracks made by the Sojourner rover are visible in this image, taken by one of the cameras aboard Sojourner on Sol 3. The tracks represent the rover maneuvering towards the rock dubbed "Barnacle Bill." The rover, having exited the lander via the rear ramp, first traveled towards the right portion of the image, and then moved forward towards the left where Barnacle Bill sits. The fact that the rover was making defined tracks indicates that the soil is made up of particles on a micron scale. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00633

  19. Spaceborne laser radar.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flom, T.

    1972-01-01

    Development of laser systems to acquire and track targets in applications such as the rendezvous and docking of two spacecraft. A scan technique is described whereby a narrow laser beam is simultaneously scanned with an equally narrow receiver field-of-view without the aid of mechanical gimbals. Equations are developed in order to examine the maximum acquisition and tracking rates, and the maximum target range for a scanning laser radar system. A recently built prototype of a small, lightweight, low-power-consuming scanning laser radar is described.

  20. Fluorescent image tracking velocimeter

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, Franklin D.

    1994-01-01

    A multiple-exposure fluorescent image tracking velocimeter (FITV) detects and measures the motion (trajectory, direction and velocity) of small particles close to light scattering surfaces. The small particles may follow the motion of a carrier medium such as a liquid, gas or multi-phase mixture, allowing the motion of the carrier medium to be observed, measured and recorded. The main components of the FITV include: (1) fluorescent particles; (2) a pulsed fluorescent excitation laser source; (3) an imaging camera; and (4) an image analyzer. FITV uses fluorescing particles excited by visible laser light to enhance particle image detectability near light scattering surfaces. The excitation laser light is filtered out before reaching the imaging camera allowing the fluoresced wavelengths emitted by the particles to be detected and recorded by the camera. FITV employs multiple exposures of a single camera image by pulsing the excitation laser light for producing a series of images of each particle along its trajectory. The time-lapsed image may be used to determine trajectory and velocity and the exposures may be coded to derive directional information.

  1. Optical memory system having track following

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, D.; LaBudde, E.V.

    1984-02-14

    A high density optical storage system is disclosed which employs a laser beam for reading data in a track on a rotating optical disk containing a large number of concentric tracks. Track following is provided using a galvanometer-controlled mirror in the path of the beam which is angularly deflected during track following in response to detected track deviations, whereby the beam is controlled to accurately follow the track. Provision is also made for detecting the angular position of the mirror. A linear motor responsive to the detected angular position moves the mirror in a direction which reduces the deflection required to be provided by the mirror in order to maintain the beam accurately following the track. The mirror is also controlled in response to the rate of change of the linear motor velocity for providing greater system stability.

  2. Full penetration detection in Nd:YAG laser welding by analysis of oscillatory optical signals: application to overlap weld-seam tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hand, Duncan P.; Haran, Frank M.; Jones, Julian D. C.; Peters, Christopher

    1997-04-01

    We describe a non-intrusive optical sensor for process monitoring of Nd:YAG laser welding, using light returned through the core of the power delivery optical fiber. This sensor is referred to as the core power monitor (core PM), and uses the delivery fiber to collect the broadband light generated in the process, which is then divided into spectral bands (designated as UV/visible and IR). These optical signals exhibit a characteristic oscillatory intensity modulation within the frequency range 2 - 5 kHz, which is believed to arise from a combination of keyhole, and weld pool oscillations. The frequency content may be related to the size and shape of the welding keyhole, and an alarm system for overlap weeding has been developed based on this principle. This can detect both misalignment of the focused laser spot off the seam, and any excessive gap between the plates.

  3. High-sensitivity receiver for CO2 laser communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peyton, B.; Dinardo, A.; Kanischak, G.; Lange, R.; Arams, F. R.

    1973-01-01

    Wideband heterodyne receiver provides detection and demodulation of incident frequency modulated laser signal; search and acquisition circuitry to align two stations; tracking circuitry to maintain spatial alignment; and laser frequency monitor to frequency lock the transmit and local oscillator lasers.

  4. The Right Track for Vision Correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    More and more people are putting away their eyeglasses and contact lenses as a result of laser vision correction surgery. LASIK, the most widely performed version of this surgical procedure, improves vision by reshaping the cornea, the clear front surface of the eye, using an excimer laser. One excimer laser system, Alcon s LADARVision 4000, utilizes a laser radar (LADAR) eye tracking device that gives it unmatched precision. During LASIK surgery, laser During LASIK surgery, laser pulses must be accurately placed to reshape the cornea. A challenge to this procedure is the patient s constant eye movement. A person s eyes make small, involuntary movements known as saccadic movements about 100 times per second. Since the saccadic movements will not stop during LASIK surgery, most excimer laser systems use an eye tracking device that measures the movements and guides the placement of the laser beam. LADARVision s eye tracking device stems from the LADAR technology originally developed through several Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with NASA s Johnson Space Center and the U.S. Department of Defense s Ballistic Missile Defense Office (BMDO). In the 1980s, Johnson awarded Autonomous Technologies Corporation a Phase I SBIR contract to develop technology for autonomous rendezvous and docking of space vehicles to service satellites. During Phase II of the Johnson SBIR contract, Autonomous Technologies developed a prototype range and velocity imaging LADAR to demonstrate technology that could be used for this purpose.

  5. Fluorescence imaging of reactive oxygen species by confocal laser scanning microscopy for track analysis of synchrotron X-ray photoelectric nanoradiator dose: X-ray pump-optical probe.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jae Kun; Han, Sung Mi; Kim, Jong Ki

    2016-09-01

    Bursts of emissions of low-energy electrons, including interatomic Coulomb decay electrons and Auger electrons (0-1000 eV), as well as X-ray fluorescence produced by irradiation of large-Z element nanoparticles by either X-ray photons or high-energy ion beams, is referred to as the nanoradiator effect. In therapeutic applications, this effect can damage pathological tissues that selectively take up the nanoparticles. Herein, a new nanoradiator dosimetry method is presented that uses probes for reactive oxygen species (ROS) incorporated into three-dimensional gels, on which macrophages containing iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) are attached. This method, together with site-specific irradiation of the intracellular nanoparticles from a microbeam of polychromatic synchrotron X-rays (5-14 keV), measures the range and distribution of OH radicals produced by X-ray emission or superoxide anions ({\\rm{O}}_2^-) produced by low-energy electrons. The measurements are based on confocal laser scanning of the fluorescence of the hydroxyl radical probe 2-[6-(4'-amino)phenoxy-3H-xanthen-3-on-9-yl] benzoic acid (APF) or the superoxide probe hydroethidine-dihydroethidium (DHE) that was oxidized by each ROS, enabling tracking of the radiation dose emitted by the nanoradiator. In the range 70 µm below the irradiated cell, ^\\bullet{\\rm{OH}} radicals derived mostly from either incident X-ray or X-ray fluorescence of ION nanoradiators are distributed along the line of depth direction in ROS gel. In contrast, {\\rm{O}}_2^- derived from secondary electron or low-energy electron emission by ION nanoradiators are scattered over the ROS gel. ROS fluorescence due to the ION nanoradiators was observed continuously to a depth of 1.5 mm for both oxidized APF and oxidized DHE with relatively large intensity compared with the fluorescence caused by the ROS produced solely by incident primary X-rays, which was limited to a depth of 600 µm, suggesting dose enhancement as well as more

  6. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Counterintuitive angular shifts in the photoelectron momentum distribution for atoms in strong few-cycle circularly polarized laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martiny, C. P. J.; Abu-samha, M.; Madsen, L. B.

    2009-08-01

    We solve the three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation for a three-cycle circularly polarized laser pulse interacting with an atom. The photoelectron momentum distributions show counterintuitive shifts, similar to those observed in a recent experiment (Eckle et al 2008 Science 322 1525). The physical origin of the shifts is examined by a detailed investigation of the wave packet after the pulse. We show that the shifts arise as a consequence of an intimate interplay between the external field and the binding potential, and that the shifts occur also at lower intensities than used in the experiment, corresponding to the multiphoton regime. In contrast to the recent experiment we do not invoke the concept of a tunnelling time in our explanation of the shifts.

  7. Modern retinal laser therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kozak, Igor; Luttrull, Jeffrey K.

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal lasers are a standard source of light to produce retinal tissue photocoagulation to treat retinovascular disease. The Diabetic Retinopathy Study and the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study were large randomized clinical trials that have shown beneficial effect of retinal laser photocoagulation in diabetic retinopathy and have dictated the standard of care for decades. However, current treatment protocols undergo modifications. Types of lasers used in treatment of retinal diseases include argon, diode, dye and multicolor lasers, micropulse lasers and lasers for photodynamic therapy. Delivery systems include contact lens slit-lamp laser delivery, indirect ophthalmocope based laser photocoagulation and camera based navigated retinal photocoagulation with retinal eye-tracking. Selective targeted photocoagulation could be a future alternative to panretinal photocoagulation. PMID:25892934

  8. Boulder Tracks

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-07-15

    15 July 2004 The arrows in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture point to three boulders that left trails behind them as they rolled down the lower parts of a meteor crater's wall. In two cases, the tracks can be resolved into a series of small depressions, indicating the variable shape of the boulder as it unevenly proceeded down the slope. These features are located near 18.4°N, 120.1°W. The 75 meter scale bar is about 246 feet long. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA06450

  9. Boulder Track

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-408, 1 July 2003

    If a boulder rolls down a slope on an uninhabited planet, does it make a sound? While we do not know the sound made by a boulder rolling down a slope in the martian region of Gordii Dorsum, we do know that it made an impression. This full-resolution Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a series of depressions made on a dust-mantled slope as a boulder rolled down it, sometime in the recent past. The boulder track is located just right of center in this picture. The boulder sits at the end of the track. This picture was acquired in May 2003; it is located near 11.2oN, 147.8oW. North is toward the lower left, sunlight illuminates the scene from the right. The picture covers an area only 810 meters (about 886 yards) across.

  10. Fuzzy Logic Particle Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    A new all-electronic Particle Image Velocimetry technique that can efficiently map high speed gas flows has been developed in-house at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Particle Image Velocimetry is an optical technique for measuring the instantaneous two component velocity field across a planar region of a seeded flow field. A pulsed laser light sheet is used to illuminate the seed particles entrained in the flow field at two instances in time. One or more charged coupled device (CCD) cameras can be used to record the instantaneous positions of particles. Using the time between light sheet pulses and determining either the individual particle displacements or the average displacement of particles over a small subregion of the recorded image enables the calculation of the fluid velocity. Fuzzy logic minimizes the required operator intervention in identifying particles and computing velocity. Using two cameras that have the same view of the illumination plane yields two single exposure image frames. Two competing techniques that yield unambiguous velocity vector direction information have been widely used for reducing the single-exposure, multiple image frame data: (1) cross-correlation and (2) particle tracking. Correlation techniques yield averaged velocity estimates over subregions of the flow, whereas particle tracking techniques give individual particle velocity estimates. For the correlation technique, the correlation peak corresponding to the average displacement of particles across the subregion must be identified. Noise on the images and particle dropout result in misidentification of the true correlation peak. The subsequent velocity vector maps contain spurious vectors where the displacement peaks have been improperly identified. Typically these spurious vectors are replaced by a weighted average of the neighboring vectors, thereby decreasing the independence of the measurements. In this work, fuzzy logic techniques are used to determine the true

  11. Tracking system

    SciTech Connect

    Leroy, V. A.; Gaedtke, H. D.

    1985-10-15

    A system of tracking the sun each day of the year with compensation for changes in time of sunrise and time of sunset as well as sun declination on a day to day basis, declination being under control of a crank that makes one revolution per year. The equation of time is under control of a cam that also revolves once a year and resets the clock to reflect solar rather than mean solar time in order to properly follow the sun. The position of sun acquisition and loss are a function of the declination and the time is a function of the clock corrected via the cam for equation of time. Thus, when the declination is reset each day, it sets the position of acquisition and loss while the clock, now set for the change due to the equation of time, determines the time of acquisition and loss.

  12. On the Right Track.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieber, Ed

    1983-01-01

    Suggests thinking of "tracks" as clues and using them as the focus of outdoor activities in the urban environment. Provides 24 examples of possible track activities, including: seeds on the ground (track of a nearby tree), litter (track of a litterbug), and peeling paint (track of weathering forces). (JN)

  13. On the Right Track.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieber, Ed

    1983-01-01

    Suggests thinking of "tracks" as clues and using them as the focus of outdoor activities in the urban environment. Provides 24 examples of possible track activities, including: seeds on the ground (track of a nearby tree), litter (track of a litterbug), and peeling paint (track of weathering forces). (JN)

  14. Track Construction Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banke, Ron; Di Gennaro, Guy; Ediger, Rick; Garner, Lanny; Hersom, Steve; Miller, Jack; Nemeth, Ron; Petrucelli, Jim; Sierks, Donna; Smith, Don; Swank, Kevin; West, Kevin

    This book establishes guidelines for the construction and maintenance of tracks by providing information for building new tracks or upgrading existing tracks. Subjects covered include running track planning and construction, physical layout, available surfaces, and maintenance. General track requirements and construction specifications are…

  15. Compensating For Movement Of Eye In Laser Surgery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juday, Richard D.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual system for laser surgery of retina includes subsystem that tracks position of retina. Tracking signal used to control galvanometer-driven mirrors keeping laser aimed at desired spot on retina as eye moves. Alternatively or additionally, indication of position used to prevent firing of laser when eye moved too far from proper aiming position.

  16. Compensating For Movement Of Eye In Laser Surgery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juday, Richard D.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual system for laser surgery of retina includes subsystem that tracks position of retina. Tracking signal used to control galvanometer-driven mirrors keeping laser aimed at desired spot on retina as eye moves. Alternatively or additionally, indication of position used to prevent firing of laser when eye moved too far from proper aiming position.

  17. Effects of etching time on alpha tracks in solid state nuclear track detectors.

    PubMed

    Gillmore, Gavin; Wertheim, David; Crust, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs) are used extensively for monitoring alpha particle radiation, neutron flux and cosmic ray radiation. Radon gas inhalation is regarded as being a significant contributory factor to lung cancer deaths in the UK each year. Gas concentrations are often monitored using CR39 based SSNTDs as the natural decay of radon results in alpha particles which form tracks in these detectors. Such tracks are normally etched for about 4h to enable microscopic analysis. This study examined the effect of etching time on the appearance of alpha tracks in SSNTDs by collecting 2D and 3D image datasets using laser confocal microscope imaging techniques. Etching times of 2 to 4h were compared and marked differences were noted in resultant track area. The median equivalent diameters of tracks were 20.2, 30.2 and 38.9μm for etching at 2, 3 and 4h respectively. Our results indicate that modern microscope imaging can detect and image the smaller size tracks seen for example at 3h etching time. Shorter etching times may give rise to fewer coalescing tracks although there is a balance to consider as smaller track sizes may be more difficult to image. Thus etching for periods of less than 4h clearly merits further investigation as this approach has the potential to improve accuracy in assessing the number of tracks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Multi-beam laser altimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bufton, Jack L.; Harding, David J.; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis

    1993-01-01

    Laser altimetry provides a high-resolution, high-accuracy method for measurement of the elevation and horizontal variability of Earth-surface topography. The basis of the measurement is the timing of the round-trip propagation of short-duration pulses of laser radiation between a spacecraft and the Earth's surface. Vertical resolution of the altimetry measurement is determined primarily by laser pulsewidth, surface-induced spreading in time of the reflected pulse, and the timing precision of the altimeter electronics. With conventional gain-switched pulses from solid-state lasers and sub-nsec resolution electronics, sub-meter vertical range resolution is possible from orbital attitudes of several hundred kilometers. Horizontal resolution is a function of laser beam footprint size at the surface and the spacing between successive laser pulses. Laser divergence angle and altimeter platform height above the surface determine the laser footprint size at the surface, while laser pulse repetition-rate, laser transmitter beam configuration, and altimeter platform velocity determine the space between successive laser pulses. Multiple laser transitters in a singlaltimeter instrument provide across-track and along-track coverage that can be used to construct a range image of the Earth's surface. Other aspects of the multi-beam laser altimeter are discussed.

  19. Polarization Loss Compensation in a Laser Transceiver System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Jeffrey M.; Page, Norman A.

    2006-01-01

    JPL is developing a polarization-based sky tracking laser transceiver system in which some mirror coatings produce significant polarization losses that vary with tracking angle. We describe a useful method for dynamically compensating these effects.

  20. Solar tracking system

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2016-07-12

    Solar tracking systems, as well as methods of using such solar tracking systems, are disclosed. More particularly, embodiments of the solar tracking systems include lateral supports horizontally positioned between uprights to support photovoltaic modules. The lateral supports may be raised and lowered along the uprights or translated to cause the photovoltaic modules to track the moving sun.

  1. Digital tracking and control of retinal images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Steven F.; Jerath, Maya R.; Rylander, Henry G.; Welch, Ashley J.

    1994-01-01

    Laser-induced retinal lesions are used to treat a variety of eye disorders such as diabetic retinopathy and retinal tears. An instrumentation system has been developed to track a specific lesion coordinate on the retinal surface and provide corrective signals to maintain laser position on the coordinate. High-resolution retinal images are acquired via a CCD camera coupled to a fundus camera and video frame grabber. Optical filtering and histogram modification are used to enhance the retinal vessel network against the lighter retinal background. Six distinct retinal landmarks are tracked on the high contrast image obtained from the frame grabber using 2D blood vessel templates. An overview of the robotic laser system design is followed by implementation and testing of a development system for proof of concept and, finally, specifications for a real-time system are provided.

  2. Satellite tracking and earth dynamics research programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The SAO laser site in Arequipa continued routine operations throughout the reporting period except for the months of March and April when upgrading was underway. The laser in Orroral Valley was operational through March. Together with the cooperating stations in Wettzell, Grasse, Kootwikj, San Fernando, Helwan, and Metsahove the laser stations obtained a total of 37,099 quick-look observations on 978 passes of BE-C, Starlette, and LAGEOS. The Network continued to track LAGEOS at highest priority for polar motion and Earth rotation studies, and for other geophysical investigations, including crustal dynamics, Earth and ocean tides, and the general development of precision orbit determination. The Network performed regular tracking of BE-C and Starlette for refined determinations of station coordinate and the Earth's gravity field and for studies of solid earth dynamics. Monthly statistics of the passes and points are given by station and by satellite.

  3. 3D visualisation and analysis of single and coalescing tracks in Solid state Nuclear Track Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wertheim, David; Gillmore, Gavin; Brown, Louise; Petford, Nick

    2010-05-01

    Exposure to radon gas (222Rn) and associated ionising decay products can cause lung cancer in humans (1). Solid state Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs) can be used to monitor radon concentrations (2). Radon particles form tracks in the detectors and these tracks can be etched in order to enable 2D surface image analysis. We have previously shown that confocal microscopy can be used for 3D visualisation of etched SSNTDs (3). The aim of the study was to further investigate track angles and patterns in SSNTDs. A 'LEXT' confocal laser scanning microscope (Olympus Corporation, Japan) was used to acquire 3D image datasets of five CR-39 plastic SSNTD's. The resultant 3D visualisations were analysed by eye and inclination angles assessed on selected tracks. From visual assessment, single isolated tracks as well as coalescing tracks were observed on the etched detectors. In addition varying track inclination angles were observed. Several different patterns of track formation were seen such as single isolated and double coalescing tracks. The observed track angles of inclination may help to assess the angle at which alpha particles hit the detector. Darby, S et al. Radon in homes and risk of lung cancer : collaborative analysis of individual data from 13 European case-control studies. British Medical Journal 2005; 330, 223-226. Phillips, P.S., Denman, A.R., Crockett, R.G.M., Gillmore, G., Groves-Kirkby, C.J., Woolridge, A., Comparative Analysis of Weekly vs. Three monthly radon measurements in dwellings. DEFRA Report No., DEFRA/RAS/03.006. (2004). Wertheim D, Gillmore G, Brown L, and Petford N. A new method of imaging particle tracks in Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors. Journal of Microscopy 2010; 237: 1-6.

  4. Laser-jamming effectiveness analysis of combined-fiber lasers for airborne defense systems.

    PubMed

    Jie, Xu; Shanghong, Zhao; Rui, Hou; Shengbao, Zhan; Lei, Shi; Jili, Wu; Shaoqiang, Fang; Yongjun, Li

    2008-12-20

    The laser-jamming effectiveness of combined fiber lasers for airborne defense systems is analyzed in detail. Our preliminary experimental results are proof of the concept of getting a high-power laser through a beam combination technique. Based on combined fiber lasers, the jamming effectiveness of four-quadrant guidance and imaging guidance systems are evaluated. The simulation results have proved that for a four-quadrant guidance system, the tracking system takes only two seconds to complete tracking, and the new tracking target is the jamming laser; for the imaging guidance system, increasing the power of the jamming laser or the distance between the target and the jamming laser are both efficient ways to achieve a successful laser jamming.

  5. Geoid undulation computations at laser tracking stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Despotakis, Vasilios K.

    1989-01-01

    The accuracy of numerical computations of gravimetric undulations using recently proposed modifications of the classical Stokes formula is investigated. The basic formulations of the methods are outlined, and results from trial computations are presented in tables and graphs and compared with actual gravity data and/or GEOS-3/Seasat sea-surface heights. Although all of the methods gave similar results, the method of Sjoberg (1986) is recommended because of its superior theoretical precision. The importance of including terrain-corrected free-air anomalies in the computations is indicated.

  6. TrackEye tracking algorithm characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valley, Michael T.; Shields, Robert W.; Reed, Jack M.

    2004-10-01

    TrackEye is a film digitization and target tracking system that offers the potential for quantitatively measuring the dynamic state variables (e.g., absolute and relative position, orientation, linear and angular velocity/acceleration, spin rate, trajectory, angle of attack, etc.) for moving objects using captured single or dual view image sequences. At the heart of the system is a set of tracking algorithms that automatically find and quantify the location of user selected image details such as natural test article features or passive fiducials that have been applied to cooperative test articles. This image position data is converted into real world coordinates and rates with user specified information such as the image scale and frame rate. Though tracking methods such as correlation algorithms are typically robust by nature, the accuracy and suitability of each TrackEye tracking algorithm is in general unknown even under good imaging conditions. The challenges of optimal algorithm selection and algorithm performance/measurement uncertainty are even more significant for long range tracking of high-speed targets where temporally varying atmospheric effects degrade the imagery. This paper will present the preliminary results from a controlled test sequence used to characterize the performance of the TrackEye tracking algorithm suite.

  7. TrackEye tracking algorithm characterization.

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Jack W.; Shields, Rob W; Valley, Michael T.

    2004-08-01

    TrackEye is a film digitization and target tracking system that offers the potential for quantitatively measuring the dynamic state variables (e.g., absolute and relative position, orientation, linear and angular velocity/acceleration, spin rate, trajectory, angle of attack, etc.) for moving objects using captured single or dual view image sequences. At the heart of the system is a set of tracking algorithms that automatically find and quantify the location of user selected image details such as natural test article features or passive fiducials that have been applied to cooperative test articles. This image position data is converted into real world coordinates and rates with user specified information such as the image scale and frame rate. Though tracking methods such as correlation algorithms are typically robust by nature, the accuracy and suitability of each TrackEye tracking algorithm is in general unknown even under good imaging conditions. The challenges of optimal algorithm selection and algorithm performance/measurement uncertainty are even more significant for long range tracking of high-speed targets where temporally varying atmospheric effects degrade the imagery. This paper will present the preliminary results from a controlled test sequence used to characterize the performance of the TrackEye tracking algorithm suite.

  8. Multibeam Laser Altimeter for Planetary Topographic Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garvin, J. B.; Bufton, J. L.; Harding, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    Laser altimetry provides an active, high-resolution, high-accuracy method for measurement of planetary and asteroid surface topography. The basis of the measurement is the timing of the roundtrip propagation of short-duration pulses of laser radiation between a spacecraft and the surface. Vertical, or elevation, resolution of the altimetry measurement is determined primarily by laser pulse width, surface-induced spreading in time of the reflected pulse, and the timing precision of the altimeter electronics. With conventional gain-switched pulses from solid-state lasers and nanosecond resolution timing electronics, submeter vertical range resolution is possible anywhere from orbital altitudes of approximately 1 km to altitudes of several hundred kilometers. Horizontal resolution is a function of laser beam footprint size at the surface and the spacing between successive laser pulses. Laser divergence angle and altimeter platform height above the surface determine the laser footprint size at the surface, while laser pulse repetition rate, laser transmitter beam configuration, and altimeter platform velocity determine the spacing between successive laser pulses. Multiple laser transmitters in a single laser altimeter instrument that is orbiting above a planetary or asteroid surface could provide across-track as well as along-track coverage that can be used to construct a range image (i.e., topographic map) of the surface. We are developing a pushbroom laser altimeter instrument concept that utilizes a linear array of laser transmitters to provide contiguous across-track and along-track data. The laser technology is based on the emerging monolithic combination of individual, 1-sq cm diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser pulse emitters. Details of the multi-emitter laser transmitter technology, the instrument configuration, and performance calculations for a realistic Discovery-class mission will be presented.

  9. Gas-laser power monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russ, C. E., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Device attaches simply to front of laser housing for continuous monitoring of power output. Monitor is calibrated to read either total output or power generated in test volume. It is fabricated from four black-anodized aluminum parts; crown glass positioned at Brewster angle reflects 0.33 percent of beam onto photodiode calibrated for electrical output proportional to laser power. Unlike conventional calorimeter, monitor does not interrupt laser beams, and fast-response diode allows instantaneous tracking of power fluctuations.

  10. Can we track holes?

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, Todd S.; Kuzmova, Yoana

    2011-01-01

    The evidence is mixed as to whether the visual system treats objects and holes differently. We used a multiple object tracking task to test the hypothesis that figural objects are easier to track than holes. Observers tracked four of eight items (holes or objects). We used an adaptive algorithm to estimate the speed allowing 75% tracking accuracy. In Experiments 1–5, the distinction between holes and figures was accomplished by pictorial cues, while red-cyan anaglyphs were used to provide the illusion of depth in Experiment 6. We variously used Gaussian pixel noise, photographic scenes, or synthetic textures as backgrounds. Tracking was more difficult when a complex background was visible, as opposed to a blank background. Tracking was easier when disks carried fixed, unique markings. When these factors were controlled for, tracking holes was no more difficult than tracking figures, suggesting that they are equivalent stimuli for tracking purposes. PMID:21334361

  11. Can we track holes?

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Todd S; Kuzmova, Yoana

    2011-05-11

    The evidence is mixed as to whether the visual system treats objects and holes differently. We used a multiple object tracking task to test the hypothesis that figural objects are easier to track than holes. Observers tracked four of eight items (holes or objects). We used an adaptive algorithm to estimate the speed allowing 75% tracking accuracy. In Experiments 1-5, the distinction between holes and figures was accomplished by pictorial cues, while red-cyan anaglyphs were used to provide the illusion of depth in Experiment 6. We variously used Gaussian pixel noise, photographic scenes, or synthetic textures as backgrounds. Tracking was more difficult when a complex background was visible, as opposed to a blank background. Tracking was easier when disks carried fixed, unique markings. When these factors were controlled for, tracking holes was no more difficult than tracking figures, suggesting that they are equivalent stimuli for tracking purposes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Active illuminated space object imaging and tracking simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Yufang; Xie, Xiaogang; Luo, Wen; Zhang, Feizhou; An, Jianzhu

    2016-10-01

    Optical earth imaging simulation of a space target in orbit and it's extraction in laser illumination condition were discussed. Based on the orbit and corresponding attitude of a satellite, its 3D imaging rendering was built. General simulation platform was researched, which was adaptive to variable 3D satellite models and relative position relationships between satellite and earth detector system. Unified parallel projection technology was proposed in this paper. Furthermore, we denoted that random optical distribution in laser-illuminated condition was a challenge for object discrimination. Great randomicity of laser active illuminating speckles was the primary factor. The conjunction effects of multi-frame accumulation process and some tracking methods such as Meanshift tracking, contour poid, and filter deconvolution were simulated. Comparison of results illustrates that the union of multi-frame accumulation and contour poid was recommendable for laser active illuminated images, which had capacities of high tracking precise and stability for multiple object attitudes.

  13. Industrial Laser Marketplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belforte, David A.

    1992-05-01

    Many people in the semiconductor industry are upset because they claim we are not truly reporting their sales numbers. We have an ongoing problem of defining industrial lasers, so I though I would give you a definition so we are all on the same track. The second thing I want to explain is how we go about collecting the data.

  14. Calculating track thrust with track functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hsi-Ming; Procura, Massimiliano; Thaler, Jesse; Waalewijn, Wouter J.

    2013-08-01

    In e+e- event shapes studies at LEP, two different measurements were sometimes performed: a “calorimetric” measurement using both charged and neutral particles and a “track-based” measurement using just charged particles. Whereas calorimetric measurements are infrared and collinear safe, and therefore calculable in perturbative QCD, track-based measurements necessarily depend on nonperturbative hadronization effects. On the other hand, track-based measurements typically have smaller experimental uncertainties. In this paper, we present the first calculation of the event shape “track thrust” and compare to measurements performed at ALEPH and DELPHI. This calculation is made possible through the recently developed formalism of track functions, which are nonperturbative objects describing how energetic partons fragment into charged hadrons. By incorporating track functions into soft-collinear effective theory, we calculate the distribution for track thrust with next-to-leading logarithmic resummation. Due to a partial cancellation between nonperturbative parameters, the distributions for calorimeter thrust and track thrust are remarkably similar, a feature also seen in LEP data.

  15. To Track or Not to Track?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesson, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Background: This paper was written for a graduate level action research course at Muskingum University, located in New Concord, OH. Purpose: The purpose of this research was to determine which method of instruction best serves ALL high school students. Is it more advantageous to track ("ability group") students or not to track students…

  16. Digital tracking and control of retinal images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Steven F.; Jerath, Maya R.; Rylander, Henry G., III; Welch, Ashley J.

    1993-06-01

    Laser induced retinal lesions are used to treat a variety of eye diseases such as diabetic retinopathy and retinal detachment. An instrumentation system has been developed to track a specific lesion coordinate on the retinal surface and provide corrective signals to maintain laser position on the coordinate. High resolution retinal images are acquired via a CCD camera coupled to a fundus camera and video frame grabber. Optical filtering and histogram modification are used to enhance the retinal vessel network against the lighter retinal background. Six distinct retinal landmarks are tracked on the high contrast image obtained from the frame grabber using two-dimensional blood vessel templates. The frame grabber is hosted on a 486 PC. The PC performs correction signal calculations using an exhaustive search on selected image portions. An X and Y laser correction signal is derived from the landmark tracking information and provided to a pair of galvanometer steered mirrors via a data acquisition and control subsystem. This subsystem also responds to patient inputs and the system monitoring lesion growth. This paper begins with an overview of the robotic laser system design followed by implementation and testing of a development system for proof of concept. The paper concludes with specifications for a real time system.

  17. A tracking system for mobile FSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Akkoumi, Mouhammad K.; Refai, Hakki; Sluss, James J., Jr.

    2008-02-01

    Free-space optics (FSO), or Optical Wireless, is an unlicensed line-of-sight technology that uses modulated lasers to transmit information through the atmosphere. By using light beams, FSO can transmit and receive data, voice, and video, information through the air. FSO provides data rates ranging from 100Mbps to 2.5Gbps. In most applications, FSO transceivers normally remain in a static location to ensure continuous line of sight and to maintain accurate alignment. One current challenge facing FSO technology is the desire to implement mobility. As a potential solution, this study introduces an auto-tracking system that will achieve and maintain alignment between two mobile FSO nodes. This auto-tracking system can be used in many different applications, such as reducing the time needed to achieve alignment of an FSO link, and maintaining a link between an aircraft and a stationary command post to exchange real-time video and data with high-speed laser communications. After link initiation, the auto-tracking system application will send steering commands back to the positioning gimbal. These steering commands are determined by feedback from Position Sensing Diodes (PSDs). The proposed FSO auto-tracking system provides optical beam steering and capturing mechanisms to provide tracking between two transceivers, either fixed or mobile. In this paper, we illustrate the feasibility of such a system and present experimental results for a source aligned with a PSD in a mobile environment.

  18. Multiple frame cluster tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadaleta, Sabino; Klusman, Mike; Poore, Aubrey; Slocumb, Benjamin J.

    2002-08-01

    Tracking large number of closely spaced objects is a challenging problem for any tracking system. In missile defense systems, countermeasures in the form of debris, chaff, spent fuel, and balloons can overwhelm tracking systems that track only individual objects. Thus, tracking these groups or clusters of objects followed by transitions to individual object tracking (if and when individual objects separate from the groups) is a necessary capability for a robust and real-time tracking system. The objectives of this paper are to describe the group tracking problem in the context of multiple frame target tracking and to formulate a general assignment problem for the multiple frame cluster/group tracking problem. The proposed approach forms multiple clustering hypotheses on each frame of data and base individual frame clustering decisions on the information from multiple frames of data in much the same way that MFA or MHT work for individual object tracking. The formulation of the assignment problem for resolved object tracking and candidate clustering methods for use in multiple frame cluster tracking are briefly reviewed. Then, three different formulations are presented for the combination of multiple clustering hypotheses on each frame of data and the multiple frame assignments of clusters between frames.

  19. Renewable Energy Tracking Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Renewable energy generation ownership can be accounted through tracking systems. Tracking systems are highly automated, contain specific information about each MWh, and are accessible over the internet to market participants.

  20. Auto adaptative laser welding

    SciTech Connect

    Coste, F.; Fabbro, R.; Douay, D.; Sabatier, L.; Lacote, D.

    1996-12-31

    The weld preparation in a laboratory environment for laser welding concerning edge misalignments, edge or gap preparation is no longer valid for industrial configurations where these different parameters are not accurately controlled. Therefore in that case, the achievement of consistent qualities of processing, requires the use of sensors for seam tracking and gap recognition. The authors discuss here preliminary experiments involving the use of these elements in order to pilot a scanning head in view of strongly reducing the precision requirements for gap preparation. This set-up is the first step in the development of an auto-adaptative device for laser welding which will be composed of seam tracking and recognition sensors, scanning laser head and a filler wire device.

  1. Solar tracking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hammons, B.E.

    The invention relates to a solar tracking device which tracks the position of the sun using paired, partially-shaded photocells. Auxilliary photocells are used for initial acquisition of the sun and for the suppression of false tracking when the sun is obscured by clouds.

  2. Solar tracking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hammons, Burrell E.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a solar tracking device which tracks the position of the sun using paired, partially-shaded photocells. Auxiliary photocells are used for initial acquisition of the sun and for the suppression of false tracking when the sun is obscured by clouds.

  3. Track Dynamics Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-10-01

    better underptanding of track dynamics and performance. Analytical techniques were developed to predict track vibration mode3, chordal action effects ...buildup, and end connector tightening I] effectiveness . Double-pin track for heavy tanks was analyzed with these techniques, and designs for improved...o. Pin and Bushing Loads and Deflections . . . a 0 . . 6 Effects of Obstacle Negotiation . . . . . . . . . . 7 Thermal Analysis

  4. Microchip Lasers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-31

    physics that underlies their performance, typical operating parameters for the devices, and several of their applications . Keywords Composite-cavity...laser, Diode -pumped laser, Laser, Microchip laser, Miniature laser, Monolithic laser, Passively Q-switched laser, Q-switched laser, Saturable...cavity mirrors are deposited directly on the gain medium and the laser is pumped with a diode laser, either directly, as shown in Fig. 1, or via an

  5. Track finding efficiency in

    SciTech Connect

    Allmendinger, T.; Bhuyan, B.; Brown, D. N.; Choi, H.; Christ, S.; Covarelli, R.; Davier, M.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Hafner, A.; Kowalewski, R.; Long, O.; Lutz, A. M.; Martinelli, M.; Muller, D. R.; Nugent, I. M.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Purohit, M. V.; Prencipe, E.; Roney, J. M.; Simi, G.; Solodov, E. P.; Telnov, A. V.; Varnes, E.; Waldi, R.; Wang, W. F.; White, R. M.

    2012-12-10

    We describe several studies to measure the charged track reconstruction efficiency and asymmetry of the BaBar detector. The first two studies measure the tracking efficiency of a charged particle using τ and initial state radiation decays. The third uses the τ decays to study the asymmetry in tracking, the fourth measures the tracking efficiency for low momentum tracks, and the last measures the reconstruction efficiency of K$0\\atop{S}$ particles. The first section also examines the stability of the measurements vs. BaBar running periods.

  6. Object tracking with stereo vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Eric

    1994-01-01

    A real-time active stereo vision system incorporating gaze control and task directed vision is described. Emphasis is placed on object tracking and object size and shape determination. Techniques include motion-centroid tracking, depth tracking, and contour tracking.

  7. Birth Defects Research and Tracking

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit Button Information For… Media Policy Makers Research and Tracking Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... to help prevent them. Importance of Tracking and Research Tracking: Birth defects tracking systems identify babies born ...

  8. Space Station communications and tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, Reinhold H.

    1987-01-01

    A comprehensive description of the existing Space Station communications and tracking system requirements, architecture, and design concepts is provided. Areas which will require innovative solutions to provide cost-effective flight systems are emphasized. Among these are the space-to-space links, the differential global positioning system for determining relative position with free-flying vehicles, multitarget radar, packet/isochronous signal processing, and laser docking systems. In addition, the importance of advanced development, tests, and analyses is summarized.

  9. Optical Recognition And Tracking Of Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Liu, Hua-Kuang

    1988-01-01

    Separate objects moving independently tracked simultaneously. System uses coherent optical techniques to obtain correlation between each object and reference image. Moving objects monitored by charge-coupled-device television camera, output fed to liquid-crystal television (LCTV) display. Acting as spatial light modulator, LCTV impresses images of moving objects on collimated laser beam. Beam spatially low-pass filtered to remove high-spatial-frequency television grid pattern.

  10. Tracking dynamic team activity

    SciTech Connect

    Tambe, M.

    1996-12-31

    AI researchers are striving to build complex multi-agent worlds with intended applications ranging from the RoboCup robotic soccer tournaments, to interactive virtual theatre, to large-scale real-world battlefield simulations. Agent tracking - monitoring other agent`s actions and inferring their higher-level goals and intentions - is a central requirement in such worlds. While previous work has mostly focused on tracking individual agents, this paper goes beyond by focusing on agent teams. Team tracking poses the challenge of tracking a team`s joint goals and plans. Dynamic, real-time environments add to the challenge, as ambiguities have to be resolved in real-time. The central hypothesis underlying the present work is that an explicit team-oriented perspective enables effective team tracking. This hypothesis is instantiated using the model tracing technology employed in tracking individual agents. Thus, to track team activities, team models are put to service. Team models are a concrete application of the joint intentions framework and enable an agent to track team activities, regardless of the agent`s being a collaborative participant or a non-participant in the team. To facilitate real-time ambiguity resolution with team models: (i) aspects of tracking are cast as constraint satisfaction problems to exploit constraint propagation techniques; and (ii) a cost minimality criterion is applied to constrain tracking search. Empirical results from two separate tasks in real-world, dynamic environments one collaborative and one competitive - are provided.

  11. Development of Shanghai satellite laser ranging station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Fu-Min; Tan, De-Tong; Xiao, Chi-Kun; Chen, Wan-Zhen; Zhang, J.-H.; Zhang, Z.-P.; Lu, Wen-Hu; Hu, Z.-Q.; Tang, W.-F.; Chen, J.-P.

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: improvement of the system hardware; upgrading of the software; the observation status; preliminary daylight tracking capability; testing the new type of laser; and future plans.

  12. Laser Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauger, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Describes lasers and indicates that learning about laser technology and creating laser technology activities are among the teacher enhancement processes needed to strengthen technology education. (JOW)

  13. Laser Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauger, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Describes lasers and indicates that learning about laser technology and creating laser technology activities are among the teacher enhancement processes needed to strengthen technology education. (JOW)

  14. Laser apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koepf, G. A. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A laser apparatus having a pump laser device for producing pump laser energy upon being excited is disclosed. The pump laser device has a resonating cavity for oscillating and amplifying the pump laser energy. A source laser device is used for producing source laser energy upon being excited by the pump laser energy. The source laser device has a resonating cavity for oscillating and amplifying the source laser energy. The source laser's resonating cavity is coupled within a portion of the pump laser's resonating cavity.

  15. Laser Safety Inspection Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Barat, K

    2005-02-11

    opportunity to explain audit items to the laser user and thus the reasons for some of these items. Some examples are given from the audit criteria handout. As an explanatory key to the reader, an Operational Safety Procedure (OSP) as a formally reviewed safety procedure required for all Class 3B and Class 4 laser installations. An ''OSP Binder'' contains all safety documentation related to a given laser operation and serves as a central repository for documents, such as the OSP, interlock logs, lessons learned, contact information etc. ''Unattended Operation'' refers to approved procedures for unattended operation of the laser installation and may include operation beyond normal working hours. ''L-train'' is the LLNL training tracking system.

  16. Relay Mirror Experiment overview: a GBL pointing and tracking demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierks, Jeffrey S.; Ross, Susan E.; Brodsky, Aaron; Kervin, Paul W.; Holm, Richard W.

    1991-08-01

    The Relay Mirror Experiment (RME) has successfully demonstrated long-range, low-jitter tracking and pointing capabilities appropriate for ground-based laser (GBL) propagation. The RME program includes (1) a passively maneuverable, free-flying low-orbit spacecraft with a laser diode beacon and spoiled retroreflectors as acquisition aids; (2) a payload experiment package (PEP) consisting of sensors, optics, steerable mirrors, and control electronics. This subsystem accomplishes GBL tracking and pointing and the associated positioning of a space-based relay mirror sufficiently to relay an infrared beam between two ground sites. Design considerations for the control system included base motion disturbance and calibration; (3) two GBL sites each a tracking and pointing exercise in itself, using a combination of sensors and acquisition and tracking capabilities. One site includes a beam relay scoring capability.

  17. Effects of etching time on alpha tracks in Solid state Nuclear Track Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmore, Gavin; Wertheim, David; Crust, Simon

    2013-04-01

    Inhalation of radon gas is thought to be the cause of about 1100 lung cancer related deaths each year in the UK (1). Radon concentrations can be monitored using Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs) as the natural decay of radon results in alpha particles which form tracks in the detectors and these tracks can be etched in order to enable microscopic analysis. We have previously shown that confocal microscopy can be used for 3D visualisation of etched SSNTDs (2, 3). The aim of the study was to examine the effect of etching time on the appearance of alpha tracks in SSNTDs. Six SSNTDs were placed in a chamber with a luminous dial watch for a fixed period. The detectors were etched for between 30 minutes and 4.5 hours using 6M NaOH at a temperature of 90oC. A 'LEXT' OLS4000 confocal laser scanning microscope (Olympus Corporation, Japan) was used to acquire 2D and 3D image datasets of CR-39 plastic SSNTDs. Confocal microscope 3D images were acquired using a x50 or x100 objective lens. Data were saved as images and also spreadsheet files with height measurements. Software was written using MATLAB (The MathWorks Inc., USA) to analyse the height data. Comparing the 30 minute and 4 hour etching time detectors, we observed that there were marked differences in track area; the lower the etching time the smaller the track area. The degree to which etching may prevent visualising adjacent tracks also requires further study as it is possible that etching could result in some tracks being subsumed in other tracks. On the other hand if there is too little etching, track sizes would be reduced and hence could be more difficult to image; thus there is a balance required to obtain suitable measurement accuracy. (1) Gray A, Read S, McGale P and Darby S. Lung cancer deaths from indoor radon and the cost effectiveness and potential of policies to reduce them. BMJ 2009; 338: a3110. (2) Wertheim D, Gillmore G, Brown L, and Petford N. A new method of imaging particle tracks in

  18. Tracking in anatomic pathology.

    PubMed

    Pantanowitz, Liron; Mackinnon, Alexander C; Sinard, John H

    2013-12-01

    Bar code-based tracking solutions, long present in clinical pathology laboratories, have recently made an appearance in anatomic pathology (AP) laboratories. Tracking of AP "assets" (specimens, blocks, slides) can enhance laboratory efficiency, promote patient safety, and improve patient care. Routing of excess clinical material into research laboratories and biorepositories are other avenues that can benefit from tracking of AP assets. Implementing tracking is not as simple as installing software and turning it on. Not all tracking solutions are alike. Careful analysis of laboratory workflow is needed before implementing tracking to assure that this solution will meet the needs of the laboratory. Such analysis will likely uncover practices that may need to be modified before a tracking system can be deployed. Costs that go beyond simply that of purchasing software will be incurred and need to be considered in the budgeting process. Finally, people, not technology, are the key to assuring quality. Tracking will require significant changes in workflow and an overall change in the culture of the laboratory. Preparation, training, buy-in, and accountability of the people involved are crucial to the success of this process. This article reviews the benefits, available technology, underlying principles, and implementation of tracking solutions for the AP and research laboratory.

  19. Tracking Small Artists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, James C.; Klette, Reinhard; Chen, Chia-Yen

    Tracks of small animals are important in environmental surveillance, where pattern recognition algorithms allow species identification of the individuals creating tracks. These individuals can also be seen as artists, presented in their natural environments with a canvas upon which they can make prints. We present tracks of small mammals and reptiles which have been collected for identification purposes, and re-interpret them from an esthetic point of view. We re-classify these tracks not by their geometric qualities as pattern recognition algorithms would, but through interpreting the 'artist', their brush strokes and intensity. We describe the algorithms used to enhance and present the work of the 'artists'.

  20. Satellite tracking and Earth dynamics research programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Following an upgrading program, ranging performance capabilities of a satellite-tracking pulsed laser system were assessed in terms of range accuracy, range noise, data yield, and reliability. With a shorter laser pulse duration (2.5 to 3.0 NSEC) and a new analog pulse processing system, the systematic range errors were reduced to 3 to 5 cm and range noise was reduced to 5 to 16 cm and range noise was reduced to 5 to 15 cm on Starlette and BE-C, and 10 to 18 cm on LAGEOS. Maximum pulse repetition rate was increased to 30 pulses per minute and significant improvement was made in signal to noise ratio by installing a 3 A interference filter and by reducing the range gate window to 200 to 400 nsec. The solution to a problem involving leakage of a fraction of the laser oscillator pulse through the pulse chopper was outlined.

  1. Phase and frequency tracking considerations for heterodyne optical communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, J. E.

    Heterodyne optical communications systems represent a potential for substantial performance improvement over direct detection systems. Certain difficulties can arise, however, in heterodyne systems, in connection with a frequency instability of the employed laser. In general, frequency or phase tracking will be needed at the receiver to avoid significant degradations in communications performance and requirements for increased transmitter power unless very stable lasers are available. The present investigation is concerned with receiver phase and frequency tracking schemes suitable for heterodyne PSK and MFSK (multilevel frequency-shift-keying) systems in a space communications context, although this work is also applicable to fiberoptic systems.

  2. Satellite Tracking Astrometric Network (STAN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecchiato, Alberto; Gai, Mario

    2015-08-01

    The possibility of precise orbit tracking and determination of different types of satellites has been explored for at least some 25 years (Arimoto et al., 1990). Proposals in this sense made use mainly of astrometric observations, but multiple tracking techniques combining transfer and laser ranging was also suggested (Guo et al., 2009; Montojo et al., 2011), with different requirements and performances ranging from $\\sim100$~m to tenths of meters.In this work we explore the possible improvements and a novel implementation of a technique relying on large angle, high precision astrometry from ground for the determination of satellite orbits. The concept is based on combined observation of geostationary satellites and other near-Earth space objects from two or more telescopes, applying the triangulation principle over widely separated regions of the sky. An accuracy of a few $10^{-2}$~m can be attained with 1-meter-class telescopes and a field of vied of some arcminutes.We discuss the feasibility of the technique, some of the implementation aspects, and the limitations imposed by atmospheric turbulence. The potential benefits for satellite orbit control and navigation systems are presented, depending on the number and position of the contributing telescopes.We also discuss the possibility that, by reversing the roles of stars and satellites, the same kind of observations can be used for verification and maintenance of astrometric catalogs.

  3. Moldless casting by laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, Marc A.; Shannon, G. J.; Steen, William M.

    1997-09-01

    The principle of laser cladding involves the use of high power carbon-dioxide lasers and powder deposition technology to provide wear and corrosion resistant surface coatings to engineering components. By injecting metal powder into a laser generated melt pool on a moving substrate a solidified metal track can be produced. Deposition of successive tracks produces a multi-layer build. Laser direct casting (LDC) utilizes a coaxial nozzle enabling consistent omnidirectional deposition to produce 3D components from a selection of metal powders. The influence of the principal process parameters over the process features namely, powder catchment efficiency, beam shape and build rates are presented with several successfully generated 3D components. Nickel, stainless steel and satellite powders were deposited at laser powders of 0.4 to 1.4 kW and speeds of 500 to 1000 mm/min achieving build rates of 3 to 9 mm3/s. Fully dense metallurgical structures have been produced with no cracking or porosity and powder catchment efficiencies up to 85% have been achieved.

  4. An Adaptive H infinity Control Algorithm for Jitter Control and Target Tracking in a Directed Energy Weapon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-16

    was created to actively identify and attenuate tonal frequencies of the platform. With a stable beam , a second controller tracks and targets the laser...Controller with Target Tracking ...................................................... 61 4.3.3 Beam Control System Comparison...Figure 40 Beam Position with PI Target Tracking Controller ...................................................... 57 Figure 41 Jitter Angle and 300 ms

  5. UWB Tracking Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Julia; Arndt, Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Phan, Chau; Dusl, John; Ni, Jianjun; Rafford, Melinda

    2006-01-01

    An Ultra-Wideband (UWB) two-cluster Angle of Arrival (AOA) tracking prototype system is currently being developed and tested at NASA Johnson Space Center for space exploration applications. This talk discusses the software development efforts for this UWB two-cluster AOA tracking system. The role the software plays in this system is to take waveform data from two UWB radio receivers as an input, feed this input into an AOA tracking algorithm, and generate the target position as an output. The architecture of the software (Input/Output Interface and Algorithm Core) will be introduced in this talk. The development of this software has three phases. In Phase I, the software is mostly Matlab driven and calls C++ socket functions to provide the communication links to the radios. This is beneficial in the early stage when it is necessary to frequently test changes in the algorithm. Phase II of the development is to have the software mostly C++ driven and call a Matlab function for the AOA tracking algorithm. This is beneficial in order to send the tracking results to other systems and also to improve the tracking update rate of the system. The third phase is part of future work and is to have the software completely C++ driven with a graphics user interface. This software design enables the fine resolution tracking of the UWB two-cluster AOA tracking system.

  6. Large scale tracking algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Ross L.; Love, Joshua Alan; Melgaard, David Kennett; Karelitz, David B.; Pitts, Todd Alan; Zollweg, Joshua David; Anderson, Dylan Z.; Nandy, Prabal; Whitlow, Gary L.; Bender, Daniel A.; Byrne, Raymond Harry

    2015-01-01

    Low signal-to-noise data processing algorithms for improved detection, tracking, discrimination and situational threat assessment are a key research challenge. As sensor technologies progress, the number of pixels will increase signi cantly. This will result in increased resolution, which could improve object discrimination, but unfortunately, will also result in a significant increase in the number of potential targets to track. Many tracking techniques, like multi-hypothesis trackers, suffer from a combinatorial explosion as the number of potential targets increase. As the resolution increases, the phenomenology applied towards detection algorithms also changes. For low resolution sensors, "blob" tracking is the norm. For higher resolution data, additional information may be employed in the detection and classfication steps. The most challenging scenarios are those where the targets cannot be fully resolved, yet must be tracked and distinguished for neighboring closely spaced objects. Tracking vehicles in an urban environment is an example of such a challenging scenario. This report evaluates several potential tracking algorithms for large-scale tracking in an urban environment.

  7. Track Starter's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailey, Charles H.; Rankin, Kelly D.

    This guide was developed to serve both the novice and experienced starter in track and field events. Each year in the United States, runners encounter dozens of different starters' mannerisms as they travel to track meets in various towns and states. The goal of any competent and conscientious starter is to insure that all runners receive a fair…

  8. 2 Tracks for Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robin

    2012-01-01

    The academic work force has been transformed over the past several decades, less by design than out of expediency. In 1969, professors who were either tenured or tenure-track made up 78 percent of the faculty. Those working part time made up only 18.5 percent. By 2009, those proportions had almost flipped, with tenured and tenure-track making up…

  9. Incentives from Curriculum Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koerselman, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Curriculum tracking creates incentives in the years before its start, and we should therefore expect test scores to be higher during those years. I find robust evidence for incentive effects of tracking in the UK based on the UK comprehensive school reform. Results from the Swedish comprehensive school reform are inconclusive. Internationally, I…

  10. 2 Tracks for Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robin

    2012-01-01

    The academic work force has been transformed over the past several decades, less by design than out of expediency. In 1969, professors who were either tenured or tenure-track made up 78 percent of the faculty. Those working part time made up only 18.5 percent. By 2009, those proportions had almost flipped, with tenured and tenure-track making up…

  11. Photon track evolution.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A D

    2005-01-01

    Given the time scale of biological, biochemical, biophysical and physical effects in a radiation exposure of living tissue, the first physical stage can be considered to be independent of time. All the physical interactions caused by the incident photons happen at the same starting time. From this point of view it would seem that the evolution of photon tracks is not a relevant topic for analysis; however, if the photon track is considered as a sequence of several interactions, there are several steps until the total degradation of the energy of the primary photon. We can characterise the photon track structure by the probability p(E,j), that is, the probability that a photon with energy E suffers j secondary interactions. The aim of this work is to analyse the photon track structure by considering j as a step of the photon track evolution towards the total degradation of the photon energy. Low energy photons (<150 keV) are considered, with water phantoms and half-extended geometry. The photon track evolution concept is presented and compared with the energy deposition along the track and also with the spatial distribution of the several steps in the photon track.

  12. Can Tracking Improve Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duflo, Esther; Dupas, Pascaline; Kremer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Tracking students into different classrooms according to their prior academic performance is controversial among both scholars and policymakers. If teachers find it easier to teach a homogeneous group of students, tracking could enhance school effectiveness and raise test scores of both low- and high-ability students. If students benefit from…

  13. Incentives from Curriculum Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koerselman, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Curriculum tracking creates incentives in the years before its start, and we should therefore expect test scores to be higher during those years. I find robust evidence for incentive effects of tracking in the UK based on the UK comprehensive school reform. Results from the Swedish comprehensive school reform are inconclusive. Internationally, I…

  14. Optical multiple object tracking techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    1989-02-01

    Two multichannel multiple-object tracking techniques are reviewed. In the diffraction grating technique, the input scene is picked up by a TV camera and imaged onto a liquid-crystal light valve (LCLV), and the output side of the light valve is illuminated with a suitably polarized and collimated coherent laser beam to yield a reflected beam with polarization modulated according to the intensity of the incoherent input. This reflected beam passes through a beam splitter cube and an analyzer, resulting in an intensity modulated coherent image. An array of spectrum islands containing the information of the input appears after crossing a contact screen/lens combination. In the multiple-focus hololens technique, the scene of moving objects is sent into the LCTVSLM through a camera; a collimated laser beam is incident upon the LCTV screen; a low-pass filter is inserted between the LCTVSLM and the hololens for the removal of the high order diffractions due to the grid structure of the LCTV. The feasibility of the LCTVSLM and multiple-focus hololens technique is demonstrated.

  15. Optical multiple object tracking techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    1989-01-01

    Two multichannel multiple-object tracking techniques are reviewed. In the diffraction grating technique, the input scene is picked up by a TV camera and imaged onto a liquid-crystal light valve (LCLV), and the output side of the light valve is illuminated with a suitably polarized and collimated coherent laser beam to yield a reflected beam with polarization modulated according to the intensity of the incoherent input. This reflected beam passes through a beam splitter cube and an analyzer, resulting in an intensity modulated coherent image. An array of spectrum islands containing the information of the input appears after crossing a contact screen/lens combination. In the multiple-focus hololens technique, the scene of moving objects is sent into the LCTVSLM through a camera; a collimated laser beam is incident upon the LCTV screen; a low-pass filter is inserted between the LCTVSLM and the hololens for the removal of the high order diffractions due to the grid structure of the LCTV. The feasibility of the LCTVSLM and multiple-focus hololens technique is demonstrated.

  16. Augmented tracking and acquisition system for GBL satellite illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, Aaron; Goodrich, Alan; Lawson, David G.; Holm, Richard W.

    1991-08-01

    The Augmented Tracking and Acquisition System (ATAS) provides the tracking acquisition aids, line-of-sight stabilization, and active closed-loop beam centering functions at two ground-based laser tracking sites for the Relay Mirror Experiment (RME). Simultaneous, steady illumination of the RME spacecraft with both ground beacons allows for successful beam relay between the two sites off of the orbiting mirror. Described in this paper is an overview of the functions, control system architectures, major subsystem components (steering mirrors and sensors), and mission operation of the ATAS subsystems. A brief discussion of ATAS evolution is included to show that versatility is needed for success.

  17. TRACKED VEHICLE Rev 75

    SciTech Connect

    Raby, Eric Y.

    2007-05-08

    Revision 75 of the Tracked Vehicle software is a soft real-time simulation of a differentially steered, tracked mobile robot, which, because of the track flippers, resembles the iRobot PackBot (http://www.irobot.com/). Open source libraries are used for the physics engine (http://www.ode.org/), the display and user interface (http://www.mathies.com/cpw/), and the program command line and configuration file parameters (http://www.boost.org/). The simulation can be controlled by a USB joystick or the keyboard. The configuration file contains demonstration model parameters of no particular vehicle. This simulation can be used as a starting point for those doing tracked vehicle simulations. This simulation software is essentially a research tool which can be modified and adapted for certain types of tracked vehicle research. An open source license allows an individual researchers to tailor the code to their specific research needs.

  18. Nested Tracking Graphs

    DOE PAGES

    Lukasczyk, Jonas; Weber, Gunther; Maciejewski, Ross; ...

    2017-06-01

    Tracking graphs are a well established tool in topological analysis to visualize the evolution of components and their properties over time, i.e., when components appear, disappear, merge, and split. However, tracking graphs are limited to a single level threshold and the graphs may vary substantially even under small changes to the threshold. To examine the evolution of features for varying levels, users have to compare multiple tracking graphs without a direct visual link between them. We propose a novel, interactive, nested graph visualization based on the fact that the tracked superlevel set components for different levels are related to eachmore » other through their nesting hierarchy. This approach allows us to set multiple tracking graphs in context to each other and enables users to effectively follow the evolution of components for different levels simultaneously. We show the effectiveness of our approach on datasets from finite pointset methods, computational fluid dynamics, and cosmology simulations.« less

  19. Electrically tunable lens speeds up 3D orbital tracking

    PubMed Central

    Annibale, Paolo; Dvornikov, Alexander; Gratton, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    3D orbital particle tracking is a versatile and effective microscopy technique that allows following fast moving fluorescent objects within living cells and reconstructing complex 3D shapes using laser scanning microscopes. We demonstrated notable improvements in the range, speed and accuracy of 3D orbital particle tracking by replacing commonly used piezoelectric stages with Electrically Tunable Lens (ETL) that eliminates mechanical movement of objective lenses. This allowed tracking and reconstructing shape of structures extending 500 microns in the axial direction. Using the ETL, we tracked at high speed fluorescently labeled genomic loci within the nucleus of living cells with unprecedented temporal resolution of 8ms using a 1.42NA oil-immersion objective. The presented technology is cost effective and allows easy upgrade of scanning microscopes for fast 3D orbital tracking. PMID:26114037

  20. [Research on the laser atomization treatment machine].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bei-sheng; Tian, Rong-zhe; Zhang, Liang

    2005-07-01

    This text has introduces a new-type laser treatment device. It utilizes the ultrasound atomized gas passage as its optics and makes the laser beams together with the atomized medicine to be transmitted to the patient's respiratory track and lungs for treatment.

  1. The CO2 laser frequency stability measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, E. H., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Carbon dioxide laser frequency stability data are considered for a receiver design that relates to maximum Doppler frequency and its rate of change. Results show that an adequate margin exists in terms of data acquisition, Doppler tracking, and bit error rate as they relate to laser stability and transmitter power.

  2. Genetic algorithm tracking technique for particle image velocimetry and comparison with other tracking models

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, C.; Hassan, Y.A.; Ortiz-Villafuerte, J.; Schmidl, W.D.

    1996-12-31

    Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is a nonintrusive measurement technique, which can be used to study the structure of various fluid flows. PIV is a very efficient measurement technique since it can obtain both qualitative and quantitative spatial information about the flow field being studied. This information can be further processed into information such as vorticity and pathlines. Other flow measurement techniques (Laser Doppler Velocimetry, Hot Wire Anemometry, etc...) only provide quantitative information at a single point. A study on the performance of the Sub-Grid Genetic Tracking Algorithm for use in Particle Image Velocimetry was performed. A comparison with other tracking routines as the Cross Correlation, Spring Model and Neural Network tracking techniques was conducted. All four algorithms were used to track with synthetic data, and the results are compared with those obtained from a Large Eddy simulation computational fluid dynamics program. The simulated vectors were compared with the results from the four tracking techniques, to determine the yield and reliability of each tracking algorithm.

  3. Laser Doppler anemometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dennis A.

    1988-01-01

    The material in this NASA TM is to appear as a chapter on Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) in the AGARDograph entitled, A Survey of Measurements and Measuring Techniques in Rapidly Distorted Compressible Turbulent Boundary Layers. The application of LDA (specifically, the dual-beam, burst-counter approach) to compressible flows is discussed. Subjects treated include signal processing, particle light scattering and tracking, data reduction and sampling bias, and three-dimensional measurements.

  4. MATILDA Version 2: Rough Earth TIALD Model for Laser Probabilistic Risk Assessment in Hilly Terrain - Part I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-13

    cleared laser attack track . Based on the analysis additional restrictions may be imposed on the laser firing envelope permitted by the FFLFZ. Sixth and...Aircraft Display Axes: Aircraft Located in MICS Quadrants ..................................... 53  Figure 21: Attack Track Expectation Value: 500 m...and 250 m Resolution ................................. 58  Figure 22: Attack Track Expectation Value: 100 m and 25 m Resolution

  5. Analysis of latent tracks for MeV protons in CR-39

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, S.; Borghesi, M.; Romagnani, L.; Takahashi, S.; Zayats, A.; Malka, V.; Fritzler, S.; Schiavi, A.

    2007-02-01

    For protons of energy up to a few MeV, the temporal evolution of etched latent tracks in CR-39 nuclear track detector has been numerically modeled by assuming that the electronic energy loss of the protons governs the latent track formation. The technique is applied in order to obtain the energy spectrum of high intensity laser driven proton beams, with high accuracy. The precise measurement of the track length and areal track density have been achieved by scanning short etched, highly populated CR-39 employing atomic force microscope.

  6. Laser powered interorbital vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, M. T.; Cooper, J. J.; Eggleston, G. P.; Farkas, M. A.; Hunt, D. C.; King, J.; Nguyen, H.; Rahal, G.; Saw, K.; Tipton, R.

    1989-01-01

    A preliminary design of a low-thrust Laser Powered Interorbital Vehicle (LPIV) intended for cargo transportation between an Earth space station and a lunar base is presented. The selected mission utilizes a spiral trajectory, characteristic of a low-thrust spacecraft, requiring eight days for a lunar rendezvous and an additional nine days for return. The ship's configuration consists primarily of an optical train, two hydrogen plasma engines, a 37.1 m box-beam truss, a payload module, and propellant tanks. The total mass of the vehicle, fully loaded, is 63,300 kg. A single plasma, regeneratively cooled engine design is incorporated into the two 500 N engines. These are connected to the spacecraft by turntables that allow the vehicle to thrust tangential to the flight path. Proper collection and transmission of the laser beam to the thrust chambers is provided through the optical train. This system consists of a 23-m-diameter primary mirror, a convex parabolic secondary mirror, a beam splitter, and two concave parabolic tertiary mirrors. The payload bay is capable of carrying 18,000 kg of cargo and is located opposite the primary mirror on the main truss. Fuel tanks carrying a maximum of 35,000 kg of liquid hydrogen are fastened to tracks that allow the tanks to be moved perpendicular to the main truss. This capability is required to prevent the center of mass from moving out of the thrust vector line. The laser beam is located and tracked by means of an acquisition, pointing, and tracking system that can be locked onto the space-based laser station. Correct orientation of the spacecraft with the laser beam is maintained by control moment gyros and reaction control rockets. In addition, an aerobrake configuration was designed to provide the option of using the atmospheric drag in place of propulsion for a return trajectory.

  7. Efficient illumination for microsecond tracking microscopy.

    PubMed

    Dulin, David; Barland, Stephane; Hachair, Xavier; Pedaci, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The possibility to observe microsecond dynamics at the sub-micron scale, opened by recent technological advances in fast camera sensors, will affect many biophysical studies based on particle tracking in optical microscopy. A main limiting factor for further development of fast video microscopy remains the illumination of the sample, which must deliver sufficient light to the camera to allow microsecond exposure times. Here we systematically compare the main illumination systems employed in holographic tracking microscopy, and we show that a superluminescent diode and a modulated laser diode perform the best in terms of image quality and acquisition speed, respectively. In particular, we show that the simple and inexpensive laser illumination enables less than 1 μs camera exposure time at high magnification on a large field of view without coherence image artifacts, together with a good hologram quality that allows nm-tracking of microscopic beads to be performed. This comparison of sources can guide in choosing the most efficient illumination system with respect to the specific application.

  8. Long range position and Orientation Tracking System

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, G.A.; Jansen, J.F.; Burks, B.L.

    1996-02-01

    The long range Position and Orientation Tracking System is an active triangulation-based system that is being developed to track a target to a resolution of 6.35 mm (0.25 in.) and 0.009{degrees}(32.4 arcseconds) over a range of 13.72 m (45 ft.). The system update rate is currently set at 20 Hz but can be increased to 100 Hz or more. The tracking is accomplished by sweeping two pairs of orthogonal line lasers over infrared (IR) sensors spaced with known geometry with respect to one another on the target (the target being a rigid body attached to either a remote vehicle or a remote manipulator arm). The synchronization and data acquisition electronics correlates the time that an IR sensor has been hit by one of the four lasers and the angle of the respective mirror at the time of the hit. This information is combined with the known geometry of the IR sensors on the target to determine position and orientation of the target. This method has the advantage of allowing the target to be momentarily lost due to occlusions and then reacquired without having to return the target to a known reference point. The system also contains a camera with operator controlled lighting in each pod that allows the target to be continuously viewed from either pod, assuming their are no occlusions.

  9. Tracks of a Giant

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-08-25

    The giant, 70-meter-wide antenna at NASA Deep Space Network complex in Goldstone, Calif., tracks a spacecraft on Nov. 17, 2009. This antenna, officially known as Deep Space Station 14, is also nicknamed the Mars antenna.

  10. Maximum power tracking

    SciTech Connect

    O'Sullivan, G.

    1983-03-01

    By definition, a maximum power tracking device causes the photovoltaic array to operate on the locus of maximum power points within a specified accuracy. There are limitations to the application of maximum power tracking. A prerequisite is that the load be capable of absorbing all of the power availble at all times. Battery chargers, electrical heaters, water pumps, and most significantly, returning power to the utility grid, are prime examples of applications that are adaptable to maximum power tracking. Maximum power tracking is available to either dc or ac loads. An inverter equipped with a means of changing input voltage by controlling its input impedance can deliver maximum power to ac loads. The inverter can be fixed or variable frequency and fixed or variable voltage, but must be compatible with the ac load. The discussion includes applications, techniques, and cost factors.

  11. Ion track doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, D.; Chadderton, L. T.; Cruz, S. A.; Fahrner, W. R.; Hnatowicz, V.; Te Kaat, E. H.; Melnikov, A. A.; Varichenko, V. S.; Zaitsev, A. M.

    1994-10-01

    Longitudinal dopant distribution along ion tracks in soft (polymers [1?5]) and hard (diamond [6,7]) condensed carbonaceous matter have been studied by neutron depth profiling and cathodoluminesence. Both in-diffusion from the aqueous phase and energetic ion implantation were used in primary track doping. In-situ self-decoration of tracks and post-implantation with a secondary ion species were used in the specific case of ion implantation. Radial dopant distributions were also studied by means of a modified tomographic procedure. Decorative doping of ion bombarded solids is useful in probing track structure, and especially in pointing the way to potential development of nanometric-sized electronic devices.

  12. Reading the Rover Tracks

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-29

    The straight lines in Curiosity zigzag track marks are Morse code for JPL. The footprint is an important reference mark that the rover can use to drive more precisely via a system called visual odometry.

  13. Tracks in, Path out?

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-01

    This view from the navigation camera near the top of the mast on NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the tracks left by the rover as it drove southward and backward, dragging its inoperable right-front wheel.

  14. Energy Tracking Software Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan Davis; Nathan Bird; Rebecca Birx; Hal Knowles

    2011-04-04

    Acceleration has created an interactive energy tracking and visualization platform that supports decreasing electric, water, and gas usage. Homeowners have access to tools that allow them to gauge their use and track progress toward a smaller energy footprint. Real estate agents have access to consumption data, allowing for sharing a comparison with potential home buyers. Home builders have the opportunity to compare their neighborhood's energy efficiency with competitors. Home energy raters have a tool for gauging the progress of their clients after efficiency changes. And, social groups are able to help encourage members to reduce their energy bills and help their environment. EnergyIT.com is the business umbrella for all energy tracking solutions and is designed to provide information about our energy tracking software and promote sales. CompareAndConserve.com (Gainesville-Green.com) helps homeowners conserve energy through education and competition. ToolsForTenants.com helps renters factor energy usage into their housing decisions.

  15. Miniature Laser Tracker

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles S.

    2003-09-09

    This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

  16. Functional demonstration of accelerometer-assisted beacon tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Gerry G.; Portillo, Angel; Lee, Shinhak; Ceniceros, Juan M.

    2001-06-01

    NASA/JPL has been developing technologies to accurately point a laser beam from deep space with sub-micro-radian precision for data transmission systems. A novel approach to achieve this goal is based on using high bandwidth inertial sensors to compensate for jitter caused by spacecraft vibrations. The use of high bandwidth inertial sensors promises to enable the implementation of laser communication links anywhere within the solar system and beyond. A functional demonstration of closed-loop accelerometer- assisted beacon tracking under simulated spacecraft vibration was undertaken, in order to validate innovative concepts, technologies, sub-systems and algorithms that achieve the sub-micro-radian pointing accuracy necessary for optical communication systems from deep space. The laboratory demonstration included integration of the complete acquisition, tracking, and pointing system with inertial sensors (e.g. accelerometers). Double integration, bias and initial velocity estimation algorithms were developed, verified and implemented. Accelerometer performance was characterized and integrated to the system. A laser beacon was mounted on a platform that simulates spacecraft vibrations. Vibrations were introduced into the beacon and were simultaneously sampled by the accelerometer. These signals were used to close the pointing loop. Closed loop tracking of the vibrating beacon was achieved using the accelerometer information interlaced with a slow-rate reference update (laser beacon centroids). This presentation will describe the details of the functional demonstration of accelerometer-assisted beacon tracking and pointing in a laboratory environment under simulated spacecraft vibration.

  17. Vehicle Tracking and Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scorer, A. G.

    1998-09-01

    This paper covers the wide area and short range locational technologies that are available for vehicle tracking in particular and mobile user security in general. It also summarises the radio communications services that can deliver information to the user. It considers the use that can be made of these technologies, when combined with procedures for delivering a response, in the security field, notably in relation to personal security, high-value load protection and the after-theft tracking markets.

  18. Advanced Doppler tracking experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    The Doppler tracking method is currently the only technique available for broadband gravitational wave searches in the approx. 10(exp -4) to 10(exp -1) Hz low frequency band. A brief review is given of the Doppler method, a discussion of the main noise sources, and a review of experience with current spacecraft and the prospects for sensitivity improvements in an advanced Doppler tracking experiment.

  19. CHAMP Tracking and Accelerometer Data Analysis Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, Frank G.; Luthcke, S. B.; Rowlands, D. D.; Pavlis, D. E.; Colombo, O. L.; Ray, Richard D.; Thompson, B.; Nerem, R. S.; Williams, Teresa A.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The CHAMP (Challenging Minisatellite Payload) mission's unique combination of sensors and orbit configuration will enable unprecedented improvements in modeling and understanding the Earth's static gravity field and its temporal variations. CHAMP is the first of two missions (GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) to be launched in the later part of '01) that combine a new generation of GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers, a high precision three axis accelerometer, and star cameras for the precision attitude determination. In order to isolate the gravity signal for science investigations, it is necessary to perform a detailed reduction and analysis of the GPS and SLR tracking data in conjunction with the accelerometer and attitude data. Precision orbit determination based on the GPS and SLR (Satellite Laser Ranging) tracking data will isolate the orbit perturbations, while the accelerometer data will be used to distinguish the surface forces from those due to the geopotential (static, and time varying). In preparation for the CHAMP and GRACE missions, extensive modifications have been made to NASA/GSFC's GEODYN orbit determination software to enable the simultaneous reduction of spacecraft tracking (e.g. GPS and SLR), three axis accelerometer and precise attitude data. Several weeks of CHAMP tracking and accelerometer data have been analyzed and the results will be presented. Precision orbit determination analysis based on tracking data alone in addition to results based on the simultaneous reduction of tracking and accelerometer data will be discussed. Results from a calibration of the accelerometer will be presented along with the results from various orbit determination strategies. Gravity field modeling status and plans will be discussed.

  20. Laser Rangefinder and Remote Profilometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclauchlan, J. M.; Auyeung, J.; Tubbs, E. F.; Goss, W. G.; Psaltis, D.

    1985-01-01

    Proposed laser rangefinder and profilometer operates with precision of about 1mm at ranges of up to 100m. With scanning optics, device could track objects or accurately measure shapes of objects in field of view. New microprocessor-controlled design uses variable-length fiber-optic delay line as distance reference. New rangefinding method used in vision systems for industrial robots.

  1. MATERIAL TRACKING USING LANMAS

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, F.

    2010-06-07

    LANMAS is a transaction-based nuclear material accountability software product developed to replace outdated and legacy accountability systems throughout the DOE. The core underlying purpose of LANMAS is to track nuclear materials inventory and report transactions (movement, mixing, splitting, decay, etc.) to the Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS). While LANMAS performs those functions well, there are many additional functions provided by the software product. As a material is received onto a site or created at a site, its entire lifecycle can be tracked in LANMAS complete to its termination of safeguards. There are separate functions to track material movements between and within material balance areas (MBAs). The level of detail for movements within a MBA is configurable by each site and can be as high as a site designation or as detailed as building/room/rack/row/position. Functionality exists to track the processing of materials, either as individual items or by modeling a bulk process as an individual item to track inputs and outputs from the process. In cases where sites have specialized needs, the system is designed to be flexible so that site specific functionality can be integrated into the product. This paper will demonstrate how the software can be used to input material into an account and track it to its termination of safeguards.

  2. Formation of ion damage tracks. [in insulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tombrello, T. A.; Wie, C. R.; Itoh, N.; Nakayama, T.

    1984-01-01

    A new model is proposed to explain both localized damage regions and preferential etching of damage tracks caused by the passage of energetic ions in insulators. The formation of each region of extended defects is initiated by the Auger decay of a vacancy produced in an inner electronic shell of an atom of the insulator by an incident ion. This decay produces an intense source of ionization within a small volume around the decaying atom, which causes decomposition of the material in a manner similar to that observed in pulsed laser irradiation. The resulting chemical or crystalline modification of the material is the latent track, which can be preferentially etched due to its changed structure.

  3. ORION Low Cost Laser Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phipps, Claude R.

    1996-01-01

    We show that laser-target interaction physics demands the shortest laser pulse of which hardware is capable (but not less than 100 ps) in the ORION ground-based laser concept. We compare two leading ways to achieve such pulses - SRS/SBS cascade compression and grating compression - with the standard MOPA approach, and conclude that the first of these is most robust. However, the state of the art in laser devices will require a year or two to implement these ideas. We present a pulse format and beam footprint protocol which will solve the conflict between relativistic lookahead and beam tilt and should permit all-laser active acquisition and tracking in ORION.

  4. Wide field-of-view target tracking sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Daqun; Yang, Jame J.; Wang, Michael R.

    2009-05-01

    Surveillance and tracking of targets such as sensor fused warheads (SFWs) and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has been a challenging task, especially in the presence of multiple targets moving at a relatively fast speed. Due to the insufficient wavelength resolution, conventional radar technology may fail to resolve closely located targets or lack spatial resolution for specific target identification. There is a need for the development of an innovative sensor that is able to recognize and track closely related targets. To address this need, we have developed a target sensor that combines vision and laser ranging technologies for the detection and tracking of multiple targets with wide viewing angle and high spatial resolution. Using this sensor, regions-of-interest (ROIs) in the global scene are first selected, and then each ROI is subsequently zoomed with vision technique to provide high spatial resolution for target recognition or identification. Moreover, vision technique provides the azimuth and elevation angles of targets to a laser range finder for target distance determination. As a result, continuous three-dimensional target tracking can be potentially achieved with the proposed sensor. The developed sensor can be suitable for a wide variety of military and defense related applications. The design and construction of a proof-of-concept target tracking sensor is described. Basic performance of the constructed target tracking sensor including field-of-view, resolution, and target distance are presented. The potential military and defense related applications of this technology are highlighted.

  5. Navigation and geo-tracking system of UAV EO payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Zhen, Kang; Xue, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Xiajiang; Li, Yingjuan; Tang, Chao

    2016-01-01

    A multi-function system based on inertial measurement unit (IMU) is introduced, which can fulfill navigation, attitude measurement of LOS in payload, platform stabilization and tracking control. The IMU is integrated with electro-optical sensors and a laser range finder on gimbals, which performs attitude calculation and navigation by constructing navigation coordinates in a mathematic platform, and the platform navigation information is obtained by transformation matrix between platform and gimbal coordinates. The platform comprising of gyros, electro-optical sensors and servo mechanism is capable of stabilizing line of sight and could be used to geo-tracking in the relevant field of view (FOV).The system can determine geography coordinates of the host platform and target only with navigation information and laser ranging data. The geo-tracking system always locked the target image at the center of FOV by calculating spatial geometry and adjusting LOS attitude. This tracking is different from TV tracking and geographical reference image tracking, which may be influenced by fog and obscurant. When the UAV is flying over urban or mountain areas for rescue missions, it can avoid the loss of targets due to strong maneuver or LOS obscuration, and reduce the operation load and improve rescue efficiency.

  6. Development of laser technology in Poland: 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankiewicz, Zdzisław; Jabczyński, Jan K.; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2016-12-01

    The paper is an introduction to the volume of proceedings and a concise digest of works presented during the XIth National Symposium on Laser Technology (SLT2016) [1]. The Symposium is organized since 1984 every three years [2-8]. SLT2016 was organized by the Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology (IO, WAT) [9], Warsaw, with cooperation of Warsaw University of Technology (WUT) [10], in Jastarnia on 27-30 September 2016. Symposium Proceedings are traditionally published by SPIE [11-19]. The meeting has gathered around 150 participants who presented around 120 research and technical papers. The Symposium, organized every 3 years is a good portrait of laser technology and laser applications development in Poland at university laboratories, governmental institutes, company R&D laboratories, etc. The SLT also presents the current technical projects under realization by the national research, development and industrial teams. Topical tracks of the Symposium, traditionally divided to two large areas - sources and applications, were: laser sources in near and medium infrared, picosecond and femtosecond lasers, optical fiber lasers and amplifiers, semiconductor lasers, high power and high energy lasers and their applications, new materials and components for laser technology, applications of laser technology in measurements, metrology and science, military applications of laser technology, laser applications in environment protection and remote detection of trace substances, laser applications in medicine and biomedical engineering, laser applications in industry, technologies and material engineering.

  7. Stimulus-responsive track pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Masaru; Tamada, Masao; Asano, Masaharu; Omichi, Hideki; Kubota, Hitoshi; Katakai, Ryoichi; Spohr, Reimar; Vetter, Johann

    1993-03-01

    Ion track grafting enables the manufacture of chemically responsive track pores analogous to the discrete membrane channels found in biology. For this purpose etched ion tracks generated in CR-39 are surface-grafted by methacryloyl-L-alaninemethylester. In the future, the responsive track pores could be used to model the actively controlled channels in biomembranes and may lead to interesting technological applications.

  8. OCULUS Sea Track Fusion Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagiotou, Stylianos C.; Rizogiannis, Constantinos; Katsoulis, Stavros; Lampropoulos, Vassilis; Kanellopoulos, Sotirios; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2015-06-01

    Oculus Sea is a complete solution regarding maritime surveillance and communications at Local as well as Central Command and Control level. It includes a robust and independent track fusion service whose main functions include: 1) Interaction with the User to suggest the fusion of two or more tracks, confirm Track ID and Vessel Metadata creation for the fused track, and suggest de-association of two tracks 2) Fusion of same vessel tracks arriving simultaneously from multiple radar sensors featuring track Association, track Fusion of associated tracks to produce a more accurate track, and Multiple tracking filters and fusion algorithms 3) Unique Track ID Generator for each fused track 4) Track Dissemination Service. Oculus Sea Track Fusion Service adopts a system architecture where each sensor is associated with a Kalman estimator/tracker that obtains an estimate of the state vector and its respective error covariance matrix. Finally, at the fusion center, association and track state estimation fusion are carried out. The expected benefits of this system include multi-sensor information fusion, enhanced spatial resolution, and improved target detection.

  9. Vaccine resource tracking systems.

    PubMed

    Leach-Kemon, Katherine; Graves, Casey M; Johnson, Elizabeth K; Lavado, Rouselle F; Hanlon, Michael; Haakenstad, Annie

    2014-09-22

    From 1999 to 2010, annual disbursements of development assistance for health for vaccinations increased from $0.5 billion to $2.0 billion (all financial values USD 2010). In its 2012 Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP), the World Health Assembly recommended establishing a comprehensive vaccination resource tracking system to better understand the source and recipients of these funds, and ultimately their impact on outcomes. This systematic review aims to respond to the GVAP recommendation in reviewing and assessing the state of the data and literature on vaccination resource tracking. We scrutinized all relevant vaccination resource tracking systems identified in the literature and by practitioners in the field. We examined schemes used elsewhere in the health sector and by other sectors. Informant interviews were also conducted to determine what data exists and how it might be utilized. With this information, we completed a qualitative assessment of existing approaches to vaccination resources tracking. Tracking systems provide information about some vaccine-related activity in the majority of low- and middle-income countries. Data are generally available for the period of 2006-2010. Levels of granularity vary. Interviewees were concerned about the degree of rigor used to validate the data and the lack of verification. Data are often presented in tabular form, which may be unwieldy for non-technical audiences. The schemes currently in place to track the resources available for vaccinations were fairly advanced relative to other mechanisms in the health sector. Nonetheless, the coverage, validity, and accessibility of vaccination resource tracking data could be ameliorated. Establishing improved feedback loops and verification mechanisms that connect country-level administrators and the international organizations that support reporting efforts would enhance data quality.

  10. Fluorescent labeling and tracking of nanoclay.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Carlos A; Xia, Yining; Rubino, Maria; Auras, Rafael; Jayaraman, Krishnamurthy; Hotchkiss, Joseph

    2013-01-07

    We report a methodology developed to detect and track stable fluorescent-labeled nanoclay, in polymer-clay nanocomposite films, and in a contact solvent after migration testing. Fluorescein-5-maleimide (fluorescein) or tetramethylrhodamine-5-maleimide (rhodamine) was covalently bonded to organically modified montmorillonite (o-MMT). Fluorescein- and rhodamine-labeled nanoclay showed good thermal stability up to 220 °C and the rhodamine-labeled nanoclay remained stable at 250 °C. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to confirm the tagging and to detect the fluorescent-labeled nanoclays in various systems.

  11. Robust superpixel tracking.

    PubMed

    Fan Yang; Huchuan Lu; Ming-Hsuan Yang

    2014-04-01

    While numerous algorithms have been proposed for object tracking with demonstrated success, it remains a challenging problem for a tracker to handle large appearance change due to factors such as scale, motion, shape deformation, and occlusion. One of the main reasons is the lack of effective image representation schemes to account for appearance variation. Most of the trackers use high-level appearance structure or low-level cues for representing and matching target objects. In this paper, we propose a tracking method from the perspective of midlevel vision with structural information captured in superpixels. We present a discriminative appearance model based on superpixels, thereby facilitating a tracker to distinguish the target and the background with midlevel cues. The tracking task is then formulated by computing a target-background confidence map, and obtaining the best candidate by maximum a posterior estimate. Experimental results demonstrate that our tracker is able to handle heavy occlusion and recover from drifts. In conjunction with online update, the proposed algorithm is shown to perform favorably against existing methods for object tracking. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm facilitates foreground and background segmentation during tracking.

  12. A Shuttle based laser system for space communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzmaurice, Michael W.; Bruno, Ronald C.

    1988-01-01

    A key element of NASA-Goddard's plan for future laser space communications is the Space Shuttle-based Laser Technology Experiments Facility (LTEF), which will be designed to communicate with a cooperative laser system under development for the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) and will conduct a comprehensive set of acquisition, tracking, and communication experiments. Attention is presently given to the challenges faced by designers in achieving LTEF acquisition of the ACTS downlink beacon laser.

  13. Early experience with a highly mobile Lageos ranging system. [satellite tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverberg, E. C.; Dittmar, D.; Eanes, R.; Ricklefs, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    Two portions of the University of Texas Transportable Laser Ranging System (TLRS) are presented: the beam director and the burst mode single photon laser ranging system. The system, optimized for the Lageos target, has satellite track rates varying from approximately 1800 arcsec per sec on low targets to a few arcsec per sec on the highest. Using full aperture, approximately 3 millijoules of laser power per shot can be transmitted without exceeding the eye damage threshold, and a beam divergence of less than 30 arcsec is dictated by these parameters. Position loop response is optimized, and the instrument is capable of tracking the satellite from nearly any firm, flat position. The laser ranging system uses a multiple pulse laser, and power restrictions result in an average return of less than one photoelectron per shot. The use of a simple laser for ranging has virtually eliminated the high percentage of down time.

  14. Study on direct laser fabrication of Nd:YAG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guangxia; Xiong, Zheng; Lu, Yaojun; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2007-07-01

    Recently, the study on the direct laser fabrication by CO II laser is more than that by Nd: YAG laser. The primary goal of this research is to study technics and structure performance of metal component of laser rapid prototyping based on Nd: YAG laser and coaxial powder feeder. The experimental equipments consist of ROFIN 1.1KW YAG laser, a 3-axis CNC table, a coaxial powder nozzle and a powder recycler. Firstly, the single-track cladding experiment was conducted; the effect of laser power, scan velocity and Z-axis increment on the single-track cladding shape was studied with different processing parameters. Secondly, some tensile samples, which were built by direct laser fabrication (DLF) using the best processing parameters, were analyzed by tensile experiment, SEM and EDS. The effect of Nd: YAG laser rapid prototyping technology on the structure and performance was studied and compared with the results of CO II laser fabrication on the approximate condition. Lastly, some molding samples built by Nd: YAG laser were shown in the paper. In conclusion, the technics parameters have large effect on the molding result; the key technology of laser rapid prototyping is searching the best process parameters. The tensile samples built by Nd: YAG laser have the features of high intensity, fine crystalline grains and orientated solidification structure; moreover, the orientations of laser scanning have influence on tensile performance. Compared with the CO II laser rapid prototyping, its tensile strength is higher and its plasticity is lower.

  15. Laser principles.

    PubMed

    Bogdan Allemann, Inja; Kaufman, Joely

    2011-01-01

    Since the construction of the first laser in the 1960s, the role that lasers play in various medical specialities, including dermatology, has steadily increased. However, within the last 2 decades, the technological advances and the use of lasers in the field of dermatology have virtually exploded. Many treatments have only become possible with the use of lasers. Especially in aesthetic medicine, lasers are an essential tool in the treatment armamentarium. Due to better research and understanding of the physics of light and skin, there is now a wide and increasing array of different lasers and devices to choose from. The proper laser selection for each indication and treatment requires a profound understanding of laser physics and the basic laser principles. Understanding these principles will allow the laser operator to obtain better results and help avoid complications. This chapter will give an in-depth overview of the physical principles relevant in cutaneous laser surgery. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Nanoscale measurements of proton tracks using fluorescent nuclear track detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Sawakuchi, Gabriel O. Sahoo, Narayan; Ferreira, Felisberto A.; McFadden, Conor H.; Hallacy, Timothy M.; Granville, Dal A.; Akselrod, Mark S.

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: The authors describe a method in which fluorescence nuclear track detectors (FNTDs), novel track detectors with nanoscale spatial resolution, are used to determine the linear energy transfer (LET) of individual proton tracks from proton therapy beams by allowing visualization and 3D reconstruction of such tracks. Methods: FNTDs were exposed to proton therapy beams with nominal energies ranging from 100 to 250 MeV. Proton track images were then recorded by confocal microscopy of the FNTDs. Proton tracks in the FNTD images were fit by using a Gaussian function to extract fluorescence amplitudes. Histograms of fluorescence amplitudes were then compared with LET spectra. Results: The authors successfully used FNTDs to register individual proton tracks from high-energy proton therapy beams, allowing reconstruction of 3D images of proton tracks along with delta rays. The track amplitudes from FNTDs could be used to parameterize LET spectra, allowing the LET of individual proton tracks from therapeutic proton beams to be determined. Conclusions: FNTDs can be used to directly visualize proton tracks and their delta rays at the nanoscale level. Because the track intensities in the FNTDs correlate with LET, they could be used further to measure LET of individual proton tracks. This method may be useful for measuring nanoscale radiation quantities and for measuring the LET of individual proton tracks in radiation biology experiments.

  17. Technical manual: Description and operation Slaved Tracking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauhs, K. C.

    1984-08-01

    Physical and functional descriptions, operating procedures, and safety precautions for the Slaved Tracking System (STS) are presented. The STS is a mobile unit designed to provide close-up, high-quality motion pictures and video tapes of laydown bombs and rockets during the final phase of their trajectory to impact point. Radiometer devices mounted with the optics can also be used to track rocket exhaust emissions. The STS receives binary range and encoder information from Sandia's Laser Tracker System (LTS) to provide the STS with steering signals to track vehicle. These signals are transmitted by microwave or hard-wire communications lines. The communications link is shown. The STS yields optimum photographic coverage with a field-of-view of +-5 ft on targets traveling up to 2000 f/s at a cross range of 1500 ft. The boresight of the fixed optics points directly at a 12-in. gimballed tracking mirror that provides satisfactory photographic lighting under most conditions.

  18. Adaptive tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulpa, Krzysztof; Centkowski, Grzymislaw; Wojtkiewicz, Andrzej; Klembowski, Wieslaw

    The paper presents an efficient adaptive tracking system for surveillance ATC radar. The system was implemented in software on an INTEL-80286-based machine. The tracking filter was built as a cascade of the Kalman filters and maneuver correction FIR filter. It ensures fast adaptation to maneuvers, low prediction error, and low computational complexity. The maneuver detector, combined with a measurement error variance estimator, controls the filter gains according to the detected maneuver and selects the proper size of a plot-track correlation gate. The system features high accuracy and throughput. It can adapt to changes of false plot density, detection probability, and variance of measurement error, as well as to pilot-induced maneuvers.

  19. Tracks to therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    1999-01-01

    Studies of the structure of particle tracks have led to models of track effects based on radial dose and radiobiological target theory that have been very successful in describing and predicting track effects in physical, chemical, and biological systems. For describing mammalian cellular inactivation two inactivation modes are required, called gamma-kill and ion-kill, the first due to synergistic effects of delta rays from adjacent ion paths thus resembling the effects from gamma rays, and the second to the effects of single ion transits through a cell nucleus. The ion-kill effect is more severe, where the fraction of cells experiencing ion kill is responsible for a decrease in the oxygen enhancement ratio, and an increase in relative biological effectiveness, but these are accompanied by loss of repair, hence to a reduction in the efficiency of fractionation in high LET therapy, as shown by our calculations for radiobiological effects in the "spread out Bragg Peak".

  20. Track recording plastic compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarle, Gregory (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Improved nuclear track recording plastic compositions are provided which exhibit greatly decreased surface roughness when etched to produce visible tracks of energetic nuclear particles which have passed into and/or through said plastic. The improved compositions incorporate a small quantity of a phthalic acid ester into the major plastic component which is derived from the polymerization of monomeric di-ethylene glycol bis allyl carbonate. Di-substituted phthalic acid esters are preferred as the added component, with the further perference that the ester substituent has a chain length of 2 or more carbon atoms. The inclusion of the phthalic acid ester to an extent of from about 1-2% by weight of the plastic compositions is sufficient to drastically reduce the surface roughness ordinarily produced when the track recording plastic is contacted by etchants.

  1. Tracking system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, A. R.; Tabak, D.; Gifford, L. D.; Mednick, H. M.; Buchert, J.

    1969-01-01

    A digital computer program was generated which mathematically describes an optimal estimator-controller technique as applied to the control of antenna tracking systems used by NASA. Simulation studies utilizing this program were conducted using the IBM 360/91 computer. The basic ideas of applying optimal estimator-controller techniques to antenna tracking systems are discussed. A survey of existing tracking methods is given along with shortcomings and inherent errors. It is explained how these errors can be considerably reduced if optimal estimation and control are used. The modified programs generated in this project are described and the simulation results are summarized. The new algorithms for direct synthesis and stabilization of the systems including nonlinearities, are presented.

  2. Deep 6-DOF Tracking.

    PubMed

    Garon, Mathieu; Lalonde, Jean-Francois

    2017-11-01

    We present a temporal 6-DOF tracking method which leverages deep learning to achieve state-of-the-art performance on challenging datasets of real world capture. Our method is both more accurate and more robust to occlusions than the existing best performing approaches while maintaining real-time performance. To assess its efficacy, we evaluate our approach on several challenging RGBD sequences of real objects in a variety of conditions. Notably, we systematically evaluate robustness to occlusions through a series of sequences where the object to be tracked is increasingly occluded. Finally, our approach is purely data-driven and does not require any hand-designed features: robust tracking is automatically learned from data.

  3. Tracks to therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    1999-01-01

    Studies of the structure of particle tracks have led to models of track effects based on radial dose and radiobiological target theory that have been very successful in describing and predicting track effects in physical, chemical, and biological systems. For describing mammalian cellular inactivation two inactivation modes are required, called gamma-kill and ion-kill, the first due to synergistic effects of delta rays from adjacent ion paths thus resembling the effects from gamma rays, and the second to the effects of single ion transits through a cell nucleus. The ion-kill effect is more severe, where the fraction of cells experiencing ion kill is responsible for a decrease in the oxygen enhancement ratio, and an increase in relative biological effectiveness, but these are accompanied by loss of repair, hence to a reduction in the efficiency of fractionation in high LET therapy, as shown by our calculations for radiobiological effects in the "spread out Bragg Peak".

  4. Spirit Leaves Telling Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Scientists have found clues about the nature of martian soil through analyzing wheel marks from the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit in this image. The image was taken by Spirit's rear hazard-identification camera just after the rover drove approximately 1 meter (3 feet) northwest off the Columbia Memorial Station (lander platform) early Thursday morning. That the wheel tracks are shallow indicates the soil has plenty of strength to support the moving rover. The well-defined track characteristics suggest the presence of very fine particles in the martian soil (along with larger particles). Scientists also think the soil may have some cohesive properties.

  5. Simple front tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Glimm, J.; Grove, J.W.; Li, X.; Zhao, N.

    1999-04-01

    A new and simplified front tracking algorithm has been developed as an aspect of the extension of this algorithm to three dimensions. Here the authors emphasize two main results: (1) a simplified description of the microtopology of the interface, based on interface crossings with cell block edges, and (2) an improved algorithm for the interaction of a tracked contact discontinuity with an untracked shock wave. For the latter question, they focus on the post interaction jump at the contact, which is a purely 1D issue. Comparisons to other methods, including the level set method, are included.

  6. Cell tracking using nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Vaccaro, Dennis E; Yang, Meiheng; Weinberg, James S; Reinhardt, Christopher P; Groman, Ernest V

    2008-09-01

    Tracking cells in regenerative medicine is becoming increasingly important for basic cell therapy science, for cell delivery optimization and for accurate biodistribution studies. This report describes nanoparticles that utilize stable-isotope metal labels for multiple detection technologies in preclinical studies. Cells labeled with nanoparticles can be imaged by electron microscopy, fluorescence, and magnetic resonance. The nanoparticle-labeled cells can be quantified by neutron activation, thereby allowing, with the use of standard curves, the determination of the number of labeled cells in tissue samples from in vivo sources. This report describes the characteristics of these nanoparticles and methods for using these nanoparticles to label and track cells.

  7. Pulsed Laser Cladding of Ni Based Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascu, A.; Stanciu, E. M.; Croitoru, C.; Roata, I. C.; Tierean, M. H.

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to optimize the operational parameters and quality of one step Metco Inconel 718 atomized powder laser cladded tracks, deposited on AISI 316 stainless steel substrate by means of a 1064 nm high power pulsed laser, together with a Precitec cladding head manipulated by a CLOOS 7 axes robot. The optimization of parameters and cladding quality has been assessed through Taguchi interaction matrix and graphical output. The study demonstrates that very good cladded layers with low dilution and increased mechanical proprieties could be fabricated using low laser energy density by involving a pulsed laser.

  8. Inter-satellite laser link simulation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Lanjuan; Guan, Hui; Wang, Zhilin

    2015-11-01

    The characteristic of satellite communication link was firstly described and four application modes were put forward. By comparison, it is suggested that microwave link is used in satellite-to-ground communication and laser link is used in inter-satellite communication. Secondly the condition and composition of laser link establishment was analyzed and laser link model was set up, and the principle and composition of APT system was described. Finally, based on STK and MATLAB platform, the process of inter-satellite laser link establishment was designed, and setting the scene of TDRS capturing and tracking user's satellite as an example, simulation was realized and demonstrated.

  9. Laser Doppler And Range Systems For Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinman, P. W.; Gagliardi, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    Report discusses two types of proposed laser systems containing active transponders measuring distance (range) and line-of-sight velocity (via Doppler effect) between deep space vehicle and earth-orbiting satellite. Laser system offers diffraction advantage over microwave system. Delivers comparable power to distant receiver while using smaller transmitting and receiving antennas and less-powerful transmitter. Less subject to phase scintillations caused by passage through such inhomogeneous media as solar corona. One type of system called "incoherent" because range and Doppler measurements do not require coherence with laser carrier signals. Other type of system called "coherent" because successful operation requires coherent tracking of laser signals.

  10. Laser clock

    SciTech Connect

    Facklam, R.L.

    1983-05-26

    A laser clock includes a linear laser in one embodiment of the clock and a ring laser gyro in the other embodiment. The linear laser is frequency stabilized and utilizes a single active medium in the form of a low pressure gas, such as He-Ne, with a Doppler broadened gain curve. The ring laser gyro is a four frequency laser with a Faraday rotor. Detector and electronic circuitry associated with the laser of each embodiment detects a beat frequency and convert it to a clock signal.

  11. Mathematical model for light scanning system based on circular laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Peiquan; Yao, Shun; Lu, Fenggui; Tang, Xinhua; Zhang, Wei

    2005-11-01

    A novel light scanning system based on circular laser trajectory for welding robot is developed. With the help of image processing technique, intelligent laser welding could be realized. According to laser triangulation algorithm and Scheimpflug condition, mathematical model for circular laser vision is built. This scanning system projects circular laser onto welded seams and recovers the depth of the welded seams, escapes from shortcomings of less information, explains ambiguity and single tracking direction inherent in "spot" or "line" type laser trajectory. Three-dimensional (3D) model for welded seams could be recognized after depth recovery. The imaging error is investigated also.

  12. Initial alignment method for free space optics laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Yuta; Tashiro, Yuki; Izumi, Kiyotaka; Yoshida, Koichi; Tsujimura, Takeshi

    2016-08-01

    The authors have newly proposed and constructed an active free space optics transmission system. It is equipped with a motor driven laser emitting mechanism and positioning photodiodes, and it transmits a collimated thin laser beam and accurately steers the laser beam direction. It is necessary to introduce the laser beam within sensible range of the receiver in advance of laser beam tracking control. This paper studies an estimation method of laser reaching point for initial laser beam alignment. Distributed photodiodes detect laser luminescence at respective position, and the optical axis of laser beam is analytically presumed based on the Gaussian beam optics. Computer simulation evaluates the accuracy of the proposed estimation methods, and results disclose that the methods help us to guide the laser beam to a distant receiver.

  13. Two-Photon-Absorption Scheme for Optical Beam Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, Gerardo G.; Farr, William H.

    2011-01-01

    A new optical beam tracking approach for free-space optical communication links using two-photon absorption (TPA) in a high-bandgap detector material was demonstrated. This tracking scheme is part of the canonical architecture described in the preceding article. TPA is used to track a long-wavelength transmit laser while direct absorption on the same sensor simultaneously tracks a shorter-wavelength beacon. The TPA responsivity was measured for silicon using a PIN photodiode at a laser beacon wavelength of 1,550 nm. As expected, the responsivity shows a linear dependence with incident power level. The responsivity slope is 4.5 x 10(exp -7) A/W2. Also, optical beam spots from the 1,550-nm laser beacon were characterized on commercial charge coupled device (CCD) and complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) imagers with as little as 13.7 microWatts of optical power (see figure). This new tracker technology offers an innovative solution to reduce system complexity, improve transmit/receive isolation, improve optical efficiency, improve signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and reduce cost for free-space optical communications transceivers.

  14. Tracking Politics with POWER

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreira, Silvio; Batista, David S.; Carvalho, Paula; Couto, Francisco M.; Silva, Mario J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: POWER is an ontology of political processes and entities. It is designed for tracking politicians, political organizations and elections, both in mainstream and social media. The aim of this paper is to propose a data model to describe political agents and their relations over time. Design/methodology/approach: The authors propose a data…

  15. Tracking Speech Sound Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a procedure to aid in the clinical appraisal of child speech. The approach, based on the work by Dinnsen, Chin, Elbert, and Powell (1990; Some constraints on functionally disordered phonologies: Phonetic inventories and phonotactics. "Journal of Speech and Hearing Research", 33, 28-37), uses a railway idiom to track gains in…

  16. Energy Tracking Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Harrer, Benedikt W.; Close, Hunter G.; Daane, Abigail R.; DeWater, Lezlie S.; Robertson, Amy D.; Seeley, Lane; Vokos, Stamatis

    2016-01-01

    Energy is a crosscutting concept in science and features prominently in national science education documents. In the "Next Generation Science Standards," the primary conceptual learning goal is for learners to conserve energy as they "track" the transfers and transformations of energy within, into, or out of the system of…

  17. Dust Devil Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 8 May 2002) The Science This image, centered near 50.0 S and 17.7 W displays dust devil tracks on the surface. Most of the lighter portions of the image likely have a thin veneer of dust settled on the surface. As a dust devil passes over the surface, it acts as a vacuum and picks up the dust, leaving the darker substrate exposed. In this image there is a general trend of many of the tracks running from east to west or west to east, indicating the general wind direction. There is often no general trend present in dust devil tracks seen in other images. The track patterns are quite ephemeral and can completely change or even disappear over the course of a few months. Dust devils are one of the mechanisms that Mars uses to constantly pump dust into the ubiquitously dusty atmosphere. This atmospheric dust is one of the main driving forces of the present Martian climate. The Story Vrrrrooooooooom. Think of a tornado, the cartoon Tasmanian devil, or any number of vacuum commercials that powerfully suck up swirls of dust and dirt. That's pretty much what it's like on the surface of Mars a lot of the time. Whirlpools of wind called

  18. Registration and Tracking Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    Single No Partial Yes Appearance Tracking [66] Single No Partial Yes Layering [67] Multi No Full No Bramble [68] Multi Yes Full No EigenTracker [14...representations.” IEEE Trans. on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 24(1):75-89, 2002. [68] M. Isard and J. MacCormick. ” BraMBLe : A Bayesian Multiple-Blob

  19. Dust Devil Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 8 May 2002) The Science This image, centered near 50.0 S and 17.7 W displays dust devil tracks on the surface. Most of the lighter portions of the image likely have a thin veneer of dust settled on the surface. As a dust devil passes over the surface, it acts as a vacuum and picks up the dust, leaving the darker substrate exposed. In this image there is a general trend of many of the tracks running from east to west or west to east, indicating the general wind direction. There is often no general trend present in dust devil tracks seen in other images. The track patterns are quite ephemeral and can completely change or even disappear over the course of a few months. Dust devils are one of the mechanisms that Mars uses to constantly pump dust into the ubiquitously dusty atmosphere. This atmospheric dust is one of the main driving forces of the present Martian climate. The Story Vrrrrooooooooom. Think of a tornado, the cartoon Tasmanian devil, or any number of vacuum commercials that powerfully suck up swirls of dust and dirt. That's pretty much what it's like on the surface of Mars a lot of the time. Whirlpools of wind called

  20. Tracks Inside 'Endurance'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This picture from the front hazard-avoidance camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows rover wheel tracks on the inner slope of 'Endurance Crater.' Opportunity took the image on sol 188 (Aug. 4, 2004), before transmitting it and other data to the European Space Agency's Mars Express orbiter. The orbiter then relayed the data to Earth.

  1. TRACKING Trounces Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an adaptation of an article from School Board News, January 6, 2004 edition. The article describes the effort of de-tracking students of varying ability levels, made by officials of South Side High School, in Rockville Centre, New York, and Noble High School, in North Berwick, Maine. Officials from both schools say that the…

  2. Eliminating Tracking Successfully.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartzbaugh, Phil

    1988-01-01

    Describes a Fall 1984 cooperative learning project at a Phoenix, Arizona, junior high school involving three sections of mixed-ability student groupings in reading, English, and math. At year's end, all academic levels (particularly remedial students) in the mixed-ability classes fared better than their counterparts in the tracked classes. By…

  3. Spiral track oven

    SciTech Connect

    Drobilisch, Sandor

    1998-12-20

    Final report on development of a continuously operating oven system in which the parts are progressing automatically on a spiral track for in-line service installation for the production of electronic and/or other components to be heat cured or dried.

  4. Tracking Weather Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Helen E.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the use of weather satellites in providing an exciting, cohesive framework for students learning Earth and space science and in providing a hands-on approach to technology in the classroom. Discusses the history of weather satellites and classroom satellite tracking. (JRH)

  5. Pseudonoise code tracking loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laflame, D. T. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A delay-locked loop is presented for tracking a pseudonoise (PN) reference code in an incoming communication signal. The loop is less sensitive to gain imbalances, which can otherwise introduce timing errors in the PN reference code formed by the loop.

  6. Tracking in 4 dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartiglia, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Baldassarri, B.; Boscardin, M.; Cenna, F.; Dellacasa, G.; Betta, G.-F. Dalla; Ferrero, M.; Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Garbolino, S.; Grabas, H.; Monaco, V.; Obertino, M.; Pancheri, L.; Paternoster, G.; Rivetti, A.; Rolo, M.; Sacchi, R.; Sadrozinski, H.; Seiden, A.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Ravera, F.; Zatserklyaniy, A.

    2017-02-01

    In this contribution we will review the progresses toward the construction of a tracking system able to measure the passage of charged particles with a combined precision of ∼10 ps and ∼10 μm, either using a single type of sensor, able to concurrently measure position and time, or a combination of position and time sensors.

  7. TRACKING Trounces Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an adaptation of an article from School Board News, January 6, 2004 edition. The article describes the effort of de-tracking students of varying ability levels, made by officials of South Side High School, in Rockville Centre, New York, and Noble High School, in North Berwick, Maine. Officials from both schools say that the…

  8. Tracking the Invisible Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravois, John

    2006-01-01

    For decades it has been happening everywhere in academe, but nowhere in particular. The sweeping shift toward non-tenure-track academic labor has been one of the most worried-over trends in American higher education. But it has been charted mostly with broad-brush data, which give little indication of the trend's progress at the institutional…

  9. Asset tracking systems.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    Asset tracking systems are used in healthcare to find objects--medical devices and other hospital equipment--and to record the physical location of those objects over time. Interest in asset tracking is growing daily, but the technology is still evolving, and so far very few systems have been implemented in hospitals. This situation is likely to change over the next few years, at which point many hospitals will be faced with choosing a system. We evaluated four asset tracking systems from four suppliers: Agility Healthcare Solutions, Ekahau, Radianse, and Versus Technology. We judged the systems' performance for two "levels" of asset tracking. The first level is basic locating--simply determining where in the facility an item can be found. This may be done because the equipment needs routine inspection and preventive maintenance or because it is required for recall purposes; or the equipment may be needed, often urgently, for clinical use. The second level, which is much more involved, is inventory optimization and workflow improvement. This entails analyzing asset utilization based on historical location data to improve the use, distribution, and processing of equipment. None of the evaluated products is ideal for all uses--each has strengths and weaknesses. In many cases, hospitals will have to select a product based on their specific needs. For example, they may need to choose between a supplier whose system is easy to install and a supplier whose tags have a long battery operating life.

  10. Eliminating Tracking Successfully.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartzbaugh, Phil

    1988-01-01

    Describes a Fall 1984 cooperative learning project at a Phoenix, Arizona, junior high school involving three sections of mixed-ability student groupings in reading, English, and math. At year's end, all academic levels (particularly remedial students) in the mixed-ability classes fared better than their counterparts in the tracked classes. By…

  11. Tracking Speech Sound Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a procedure to aid in the clinical appraisal of child speech. The approach, based on the work by Dinnsen, Chin, Elbert, and Powell (1990; Some constraints on functionally disordered phonologies: Phonetic inventories and phonotactics. "Journal of Speech and Hearing Research", 33, 28-37), uses a railway idiom to track gains in…

  12. Getting back on Track

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringland, Pam

    2007-01-01

    This September saw the start of Back on Track, a pioneering pilot course for young people with mental health problems who would like to return to learning or work. The course is being run in Portsmouth by local further education (FE) colleges, with Highbury College the main provider, in collaboration with Headspace, the Portsmouth City Mental…

  13. Tracking Politics with POWER

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreira, Silvio; Batista, David S.; Carvalho, Paula; Couto, Francisco M.; Silva, Mario J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: POWER is an ontology of political processes and entities. It is designed for tracking politicians, political organizations and elections, both in mainstream and social media. The aim of this paper is to propose a data model to describe political agents and their relations over time. Design/methodology/approach: The authors propose a data…

  14. Energy Tracking Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Harrer, Benedikt W.; Close, Hunter G.; Daane, Abigail R.; DeWater, Lezlie S.; Robertson, Amy D.; Seeley, Lane; Vokos, Stamatis

    2016-01-01

    Energy is a crosscutting concept in science and features prominently in national science education documents. In the "Next Generation Science Standards," the primary conceptual learning goal is for learners to conserve energy as they "track" the transfers and transformations of energy within, into, or out of the system of…

  15. GEOS-3 Doppler difference tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenbaum, B.

    1977-01-01

    The Doppler difference method as applied to track the GEOS 3 spacecraft is discussed. In this method a pair of 2 GHz ground tracking stations simultaneously track a spacecraft beacon to generate an observable signal in which bias and instability of the carrier frequency cancel. The baselines are formed by the tracking sites at Bermuda, Rosman, and Merritt Island. Measurements were made to evaluate the effectiveness of the Doppler differencing procedure in tracking a beacon target with the high dynamic rate of the GEOS 3 orbit. Results indicate the precision of the differenced data to be at a level comparable to the conventional precise two way Doppler tracking.

  16. Blue Laser.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    HOLLOW CATHODE LASER FABRICATION 13 4. EXPERIENCE WITH THE BLUE LASER 18 4.1 Operational and Processing Experience 18 4.2 Performance Testing 20 5...34 -. - . •. SECTION 3 BLUE HOLLOW CATHODE LASER FABRICATION This section presents an overview of the steps taken in creating a HCL. There is...to the laser assembly. These steps can actually be considered as the final steps in laser fabrication because some of them involve adding various

  17. BNSF RAILROAD MAIN TRACK 1 AND THE UNION PACIFIC TRACK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BNSF RAILROAD MAIN TRACK 1 AND THE UNION PACIFIC TRACK CUTTING THROUGH BEDROCK AROUND SULLIVAN’S CURVE. VIEW TO THE WEST. 102 - Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railroad, Cajon Subdivision, Between Cajon Summit and Keenbrook, Devore, San Bernardino County, CA

  18. 9. BUILDING 65 ADDITION. LASER SAFETY TEAM. FLOOR PLAN, ELEVATIONS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. BUILDING 65 ADDITION. LASER SAFETY TEAM. FLOOR PLAN, ELEVATIONS, ETC. March 21, 1973 - Frankford Arsenal, Building No. 65, South of Tacony Street between Bridge Street & tracks of former Pennsylvania Railroad, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. GPS Metric Tracking Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    As Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) applications become more prevalent for land- and air-based vehicles, GPS applications for space vehicles will also increase. The Applied Technology Directorate of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has developed a lightweight, low-cost GPS Metric Tracking Unit (GMTU), the first of two steps in developing a lightweight, low-cost Space-Based Tracking and Command Subsystem (STACS) designed to meet Range Safety's link margin and latency requirements for vehicle command and telemetry data. The goals of STACS are to improve Range Safety operations and expand tracking capabilities for space vehicles. STACS will track the vehicle, receive commands, and send telemetry data through the space-based asset, which will dramatically reduce dependence on ground-based assets. The other step was the Low-Cost Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Transceiver (LCT2), developed by the Wallops Flight Facility (WFF), which allows the vehicle to communicate with a geosynchronous relay satellite. Although the GMTU and LCT2 were independently implemented and tested, the design collaboration of KSC and WFF engineers allowed GMTU and LCT2 to be integrated into one enclosure, leading to the final STACS. In operation, GMTU needs only a radio frequency (RF) input from a GPS antenna and outputs position and velocity data to the vehicle through a serial or pulse code modulation (PCM) interface. GMTU includes one commercial GPS receiver board and a custom board, the Command and Telemetry Processor (CTP) developed by KSC. The CTP design is based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) with embedded processors to support GPS functions.

  20. Tracking Virtual Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Leland S.; Beutter, Brent R.; Lorenceau, Jean D.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Current models of smooth pursuit eye movements assume that it is largely driven by retinal image motion. We tested this hypothesis by measuring pursuit of elliptical motion (3.2s, 0.9 Hz, 1.4 deg x 1.6 deg, 4 randomly interleaved phases) of either a small spot ("real" motion) or of a line-figure diamond viewed through apertures such that only the motion of four isolated oblique line segments was visible ("virtual" motion). Each segment moved sinusoidally along a linear trajectory yet subjects perceived a diamond moving along an elliptical path behind the aperture. We found, as expected, that real motion produced accurate tracking (N = 2) with mean gain (over horizontal and vertical) of 0.9, mean phase of -6 deg (lag), mean relative phase (H vs V) of 90 +/- 8 deg (RMS error). Virtual motion behind an X-shaped aperture (N= 4 with one naive) yielded a mean gain of 0.7, mean phase of -11 deg, mean relative phase of 87 +/- 15 deg. We also measured pursuit with the X-shaped aperture using a higher segment luminance which prevents the segments from being grouped into a coherently moving diamond while keeping the motion otherwise identical. In this incoherent case, the same four subjects no longer showed consistent elliptical tracking (RMS error in relative phase rose to 60 deg) suggesting that perceptual coherence is critical. Furthermore, to rule out tracking of the centroid, we also used vertical apertures so that all segment motion was vertical (N = 3). This stimulus still produced elliptical tracking (mean relative phase of 84 +/- 19 deg), albeit with a lower gain (0.6). These data show that humans can track moving objects reasonably accurately even when the trajectory can only be derived by spatial integration of motion signals. Models that merely seek to minimize retinal or local stimulus motion cannot explain these results.

  1. Laser applications in neurosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerullo, Leonard J.

    1985-09-01

    beam makes the laser superior to all conventional destructive instruments. 4)|The coagulative properties of certain chromophoric lasers has allowed a new attack on certain vascular tumors and malformations of the brain and spinal cord which had been operated only with trepidation or not at all. Early reports are sobering but encouraging. 5)|Finally, the use of the laser with tissue photosensitization, albeit it in its infancy, offers great promise. This is particularly true in the case of primary brain cancer, where the infiltration of tumorous tissue among normal pathways precludes the classical oncologic surgery practice of resection of a "safe margin". The ability to track and destroy these cells, without affecting adjacent cells, may be the greatest single contribution of the laser to neurosurgery in the future. The present applications of the laser are relatively crude by comparison with what is expected. Endoscopic laser surgery, both vascular and subarachnoid, will diminish morbidity and improve results. From the exotic treatment of aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations of the brain to the mundane care of herniated disks of the spine, it is anticipated that the laser will play an important role. The use of a laser, coupled with computerized imagining devices, will allow increasing precision in arrival to and treatment of deep seated lesions of the brain, brainstem, and spinal cord. The use of different wavelengths, perhaps in the X-ray and ultraviolet spectra, will allow increasing precision with decreasing invasion. Manipulation of wavelength, time, and treatment area will allow subcellular surgery, perhaps in the treatment of personality disorders and movement disorders as well as epilepsy. Tissue welding will allow heightened regenerative and recuperative powers to be exploited. The possibility of laser biostimulation must also be considered. In short, it appears that the future of the laser in neurosurgery is limited only by the imagination of the

  2. GEOS 3 STDN S band Doppler tracking investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenbaum, B.

    1979-01-01

    GEOS 3S Doppler band and laser ranging data, acquired from August 1975 to March 1976 in the spacecraft altimeter calibration area, are examined. An evaluation of two-way and three-way Doppler data, for the positioning of Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network S band stations is presented, as well as the Goddard Space Flight Center laser system that is used to reference the exact position of the Doppler stations. The two-way and three-way Doppler tracking devices, situated at Rosman and Bermuda, have yielded data for the recovery of GEOS 3 arc height with an uncertainty of only 1 m. Attention is given to the effects of beacon signal frequency instability, controlled by a temperature sensitive auxiliary crystal oscillator on board the spacecraft, and to the one-way range rate tracking noise that was found to be within a range of 2 to 10 cm/s. 1- and 2-way passes and their different arc meters are graphed, showing the Doppler tracking interval. It was concluded that other accurate computations and recovery of station coordinates could be performed employing tracking data from S band stations.

  3. A soft biomimetic tongue: model reconstruction and motion tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xuanming; Xu, Weiliang; Li, Xiaoning

    2016-04-01

    A bioinspired robotic tongue which is actuated by a network of compressed air is proposed for the purpose of mimicking the movements of human tongue. It can be applied in the fields such as medical science and food engineering. The robotic tongue is made of two kinds of silicone rubber Ecoflex 0030 and PDMS with the shape simplified from real human tongue. In order to characterize the robotic tongue, a series of experiments were carried out. Laser scan was applied to reconstruct the static model of robotic tongue when it was under pressurization. After each scan, the robotic tongue was scattered into dense points in the same 3D coordinate system and the coordinates of each point were recorded. Motion tracking system (OptiTrack) was used to track and record the whole process of deformation dynamically during the loading and unloading phase. In the experiments, five types of deformation were achieved including roll-up, roll-down, elongation, groove and twist. Utilizing the discrete points generated by laser scan, the accurate parameterized outline of robotic tongue under different pressure was obtained, which could help demonstrate the static characteristic of robotic tongue. The precise deformation process under one pressure was acquired through the OptiTrack system which contains a series of digital cameras, markers on the robotic tongue and a set of hardware and software for data processing. By means of tracking and recording different process of deformation under different pressure, the dynamic characteristic of robotic tongue could be achieved.

  4. The influence of laser re-melting on microstructure and hardness of gas-nitrided steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panfil, Dominika; Wach, Piotr; Kulka, Michał; Michalski, Jerzy

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, modification of nitrided layer by laser re-melting was presented. The nitriding process has many advantageous properties. Controlled gas nitriding was carried out on 42CrMo4 steel. As a consequence of this process, ɛ+γ' compound zone and diffusion zone were produced at the surface. Next, the nitrided layer was laser remelted using TRUMPF TLF 2600 Turbo CO2 laser. Laser tracks were arranged as single tracks with the use of various laser beam powers (P), ranging from 0.39 to 1.04 kW. The effects of laser beam power on the microstructure, dimensions of laser tracks and hardness profiles were analyzed. Laser treatment caused the decomposition of continuous compound zone at the surface and an increase in hardness of previously nitrided layer because of the appearance of martensite in re-melted and heat-affected zones

  5. 31. "FIGURE 310, TRACK LAYOUT (EDWARDS)". Test track footing and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. "FIGURE 3-10, TRACK LAYOUT (EDWARDS)". Test track footing and rail head cross sections. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. Space Telescope moving target tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strikwerda, T. E.; Strohbehn, K.; Fowler, K. R.; Skillman, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper formulates a Space Telescope (ST) moving target tracking algorithm and evaluates a practical implementation. The algorithm is shown to be satisfactory for tracking such moving objects as the moons of Mars.

  7. Remote sensing of water tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trochim, E. D.; Prakash, A.; Kane, D. L.; Romanovsky, V. E.

    2016-03-01

    Water tracks are an intrinsic part of the surficial drainage network in the foothills of the Brooks Range, Alaska. They preferentially transport water off hillslopes and represent the interplay between hydrology, vegetation, geomorphology, and permafrost characteristics. This research on mapping the location of water tracks builds on previous work which demonstrated that different types of water tracks exist due to difference primarily driven by geomorphology. We used a combination method where spectral classifications, texture, and topography were fed into random forests to identify the water track classes. The most accurate distributions were obtained for the organic-rich and wide water track classes. The distinct linear shapes of the water tracks could also be visualized for many of the classes, especially in areas where the water tracks were particularly discrete. The biggest challenges to mapping the water tracks were due to class imbalances and high variability within and overlapping between classes. This research presents a significant step forward in understanding periglacial landscape dynamics.

  8. Satellite-tracking and earth-dynamics research programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiffenbach, G. C.

    1973-01-01

    The following activities in Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's (SAO) earth-dynamics programs are covered: (1) satellite-tracking network operations; (2) satellite geodesy and geophysics programs; (3) atmospheric research. Approximately 46,000 successful range measurements were acquired by the SAO laser stations in Peru, South Africa, Brazil, and Arizona. The Peole satellite-tracking campaign conducted in conjunction with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales was completed in August 1973. The SAO network obtained 4482 validated returns of 310 arcs of Peole. These data are of particular value for obtaining more accurate gravity-field and zonal-harmonics coefficients.

  9. Acquisition, tracking, and pointing system for self-protection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Steven J.; Stockum, Larry A.; Chesser, Douglas E.; Miller, John E.

    1998-07-01

    A state-of-the-art acquisition/tracking/positioning (ATP) system for vehicle protection and area defense application is presently being developed. The ATP system, referred to as the high performance laser fire control system, has been designed to automatically acquire, track, rangefind and designate top attack weapons, such as mortars and artillery, as well as line-of-sight type weapons, such as anti-tank guided missiles and anti-tank projectiles. The ATP mission scenario requires full hemispherical coverage, extremely high acceleration capabilities, precision stabilization, and precision pointing.

  10. Perceptual style and tracking performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atchley, Paul

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between perceptual style and tracking of a target was examined. Four pilots were given the Embedded Figures Test to assess their degrees of field dependence or independence. Then they flew in a helicopter simulator and attempted to track an airborne target. A high negative correlation was found between perceptual style and tracking performance. Field-independent subjects were able to track the target for longer periods than field-dependent subjects.

  11. Perceptual style and tracking performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atchley, Paul

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between perceptual style and tracking of a target was examined. Four pilots were given the Embedded Figures Test to assess their degrees of field dependence or independence. Then they flew in a helicopter simulator and attempted to track an airborne target. A high negative correlation was found between perceptual style and tracking performance. Field-independent subjects were able to track the target for longer periods than field-dependent subjects.

  12. Satellite (IRLS) tracking of elk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buechner, H. K.

    1972-01-01

    The practicability of tracking free roaming animals in natural environments by satellite systems is reported. Satellite systems combine continuous tracking with simultaneous monitoring of physiological and environmental parameters through a combination of radio tracking and biotelemetric ground systems that lead to a better understanding of animal behavior and migration patterns.

  13. Laser Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Dopant level analysis is important to the laser system designer because it allows him to model the laser's performance. It also allows the end user to determine what went wrong when a laser fails to perform as expected. Under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, Scientific Materials Corporation has developed a process for producing uniform laser rods in which the amount of water trapped in the crystal during growth is reduced. This research led to the formation of a subsidiary company, Montana Analytical Services, which conducts analysis of laser rods for dopant ion concentrations. This is a significant advance in laser technology.

  14. Dinosaur Tracks and Traces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillette, David D.; Lockley, Martin G.

    1991-02-01

    The study of fossilized dinosaur remains, vertebrate paleontology is a well established discipline, but the discovery and rediscovery of numerous and varied dinosaur footprints and nest sites has spurred a renaissance in the associated field of ichnological research. Dinosaur Tracks and Traces is the first book ever to be devoted to this subject, and it represents the work of seventy noted dinosaur ichnologists. Contributors address the history of science and the relevance of dinosaur ichnology to the interpretation of dinosaur behaviour, paleoecology, paleoenvironments, and evolution. Several new preservation, conservation, and documentation techniques are also presented. The book is richly illustrated and is intended for students and professionals in the areas of paleontology, vertebrate zoology, geology, and paleoenvironmental analysis. The historical aspects of the book and the many site descriptions also make Dinosaur Tracks and Traces appealing to amateur fossil collectors and dinosaur enthusiasts.

  15. Longwall shearer tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulsen, P. D. (Inventor); Stein, R. J.; Pease, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    A tracking system for measuring and recording the movements of a longwall shearer vehicle includes an optical tracking assembly carried at one end of a desired vehicle path and a retroreflector assembly carried by the vehicle. Continuous horizontal and vertical light beams are alternately transmitted by means of a rotating Dove prism to the reflector assembly. A vertically reciprocating reflector interrupts the continuous light beams and converts these to discrete horizontal and vertical light beam images transmitted at spaced intervals along the path. A second rotating Dove prism rotates the vertical images to convert them to a second series of horizontal images while the first mentioned horizontal images are left unrotated and horizontal. The images are recorded on a film.

  16. Tracking optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, R. Daniel; Hammer, Daniel X.; Paunescu, Lelia Adelina; Beaton, Siobahn; Schuman, Joel S.

    2004-09-01

    An experimental tracking optical coherence tomography (OCT) system has been clinically tested. The prototype instrument uses a secondary sensing beam and steering mirrors to compensate for eye motion with a closed-loop bandwidth of 1 kHz and tracking accuracy, to within less than the OCT beam diameter. The retinal tracker improved image registration accuracy to <1 transverse pixel (<60 µm). Composite OCT images averaged over multiple scans and visits show a sharp fine structure limited only by transverse pixel size. As the resolution of clinical OCT systems improves, the capability to reproducibly map complex structures in the living eye at high resolution will lead to improved understanding of disease processes and improved sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic procedures.

  17. On particle track detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Gruhn, T. A.; Andrus, C. H.

    1973-01-01

    Aqueous sodium hydroxide is widely used to develop charged particle tracks in polycarbonate film, particularly Lexan. The chemical nature of the etching process for this system has been determined. A method employing ultra-violet absorbance was developed for monitoring the concentration of the etch products in solution. Using this method it was possible to study the formation of the etching solution saturated in etch products. It was found that the system super-saturates to a significant extent before precipitation occurs. It was also learned that the system approaches its equilibrium state rather slowly. It is felt that both these phenomena may be due to the presence of surfactant in the solution. In light of these findings, suggestions are given regarding the preparation and maintenance of the saturated etch solution. Two additional research projects, involving automated techniques for particle track analysis and particle identification using AgCl crystals, are briefly summarized.

  18. Motion Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Integrated Sensors, Inc. (ISI), under NASA contract, developed a sensor system for controlling robot vehicles. This technology would enable a robot supply vehicle to automatically dock with Earth-orbiting satellites or the International Space Station. During the docking phase the ISI-developed sensor must sense the satellite's relative motion, then spin so the robot vehicle can adjust its motion to align with the satellite and slowly close until docking is completed. ISI used the sensing/tracking technology as the basis of its OPAD system, which simultaneously tracks an object's movement in six degrees of freedom. Applications include human limb motion analysis, assembly line position analysis and auto crash dummy motion analysis. The NASA technology is also the basis for Motion Analysis Workstation software, a package to simplify the video motion analysis process.

  19. Tracking change over time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2011-01-01

    Landsat satellites capture images of Earth from space-and have since 1972! These images provide a long-term record of natural and human-induced changes on the global landscape. Comparing images from multiple years reveals slow and subtle changes as well as rapid and devastating ones. Landsat images are available over the Internet at no charge. Using the free software MultiSpec, students can track changes to the landscape over time-just like remote sensing scientists do! The objective of the Tracking Change Over Time lesson plan is to get students excited about studying the changing Earth. Intended for students in grades 5-8, the lesson plan is flexible and may be used as a student self-guided tutorial or as a teacher-led class lesson. Enhance students' learning of geography, map reading, earth science, and problem solving by seeing landscape changes from space.

  20. Fast tracking hospital construction.

    PubMed

    Quirk, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    Hospital leaders should consider four factors in determining whether to fast track a hospital construction project: Expectations of project length, quality, and cost. Whether decisions can be made quickly as issues arise. Their own time commitment to the project, as well as that of architects, engineers, construction managers, and others. The extent to which they are willing to share with the design and construction teams how and why decisions are being made.

  1. SOFIA tracking image simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Charles R.; Gross, Michael A. K.

    2016-09-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) tracking camera simulator is a component of the Telescope Assembly Simulator (TASim). TASim is a software simulation of the telescope optics, mounting, and control software. Currently in its fifth major version, TASim is relied upon for telescope operator training, mission planning and rehearsal, and mission control and science instrument software development and testing. TASim has recently been extended for hardware-in-the-loop operation in support of telescope and camera hardware development and control and tracking software improvements. All three SOFIA optical tracking cameras are simulated, including the Focal Plane Imager (FPI), which has recently been upgraded to the status of a science instrument that can be used on its own or in parallel with one of the seven infrared science instruments. The simulation includes tracking camera image simulation of starfields based on the UCAC4 catalog at real-time rates of 4-20 frames per second. For its role in training and planning, it is important for the tracker image simulation to provide images with a realistic appearance and response to changes in operating parameters. For its role in tracker software improvements, it is vital to have realistic signal and noise levels and precise star positions. The design of the software simulation for precise subpixel starfield rendering (including radial distortion), realistic point-spread function as a function of focus, tilt, and collimation, and streaking due to telescope motion will be described. The calibration of the simulation for light sensitivity, dark and bias signal, and noise will also be presented

  2. Uncorrelated Track Avoidance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    continual series of uncorrelated tracks when gathering observations. The constants of the motion for simple two-body motion for a satellite orbiting the Earth ...of the Earth -Centered Rotating System, Ẑ-component of inertial angular momentum (Hk), and the time rate of change of the right ascension of the...3 2.1 Earth -Centered Coordinate Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 III. Integrals of Satellite Motion

  3. PARTICLE BEAM TRACKING CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, O.A.

    1959-05-01

    >A particle-beam tracking and correcting circuit is described. Beam induction electrodes are placed on either side of the beam, and potentials induced by the beam are compared in a voltage comparator or discriminator. This comparison produces an error signal which modifies the fm curve at the voltage applied to the drift tube, thereby returning the orbit to the preferred position. The arrangement serves also to synchronize accelerating frequency and magnetic field growth. (T.R.H.)

  4. Tracking Online Trails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Man; Edgar-Nevill, Denis; Wang, Yongquan; Xu, Rongsheng

    Traceability is a key to the investigation of the internet criminal and a cornerstone of internet research. It is impossible to prevent all internet misuse but may be possible to identify and trace the users, and then take appropriate action. This paper presents the value of traceability within the email/-newsposting utilities, the technologies being using to hide identities, the difficulties in locating the traceable data and the challenges in tracking online trails.

  5. 3D imaging of particle tracks in Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wertheim, D.; Gillmore, G.; Brown, L.; Petford, N.

    2009-04-01

    Inhalation of radon gas (222Rn) and associated ionizing decay products is known to cause lung cancer in human. In the U.K., it has been suggested that 3 to 5 % of total lung cancer deaths can be linked to elevated radon concentrations in the home and/or workplace. Radon monitoring in buildings is therefore routinely undertaken in areas of known risk. Indeed, some organisations such as the Radon Council in the UK and the Environmental Protection Agency in the USA, advocate a ‘to test is best' policy. Radon gas occurs naturally, emanating from the decay of 238U in rock and soils. Its concentration can be measured using CR?39 plastic detectors which conventionally are assessed by 2D image analysis of the surface; however there can be some variation in outcomes / readings even in closely spaced detectors. A number of radon measurement methods are currently in use (for examples, activated carbon and electrets) but the most widely used are CR?39 solid state nuclear track?etch detectors (SSNTDs). In this technique, heavily ionizing alpha particles leave tracks in the form of radiation damage (via interaction between alpha particles and the atoms making up the CR?39 polymer). 3D imaging of the tracks has the potential to provide information relating to angle and energy of alpha particles but this could be time consuming. Here we describe a new method for rapid high resolution 3D imaging of SSNTDs. A ‘LEXT' OLS3100 confocal laser scanning microscope was used in confocal mode to successfully obtain 3D image data on four CR?39 plastic detectors. 3D visualisation and image analysis enabled characterisation of track features. This method may provide a means of rapid and detailed 3D analysis of SSNTDs. Keywords: Radon; SSNTDs; confocal laser scanning microscope; 3D imaging; LEXT

  6. Fast Track Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Fast Track Study supports the efforts of a Special Study Group (SSG) made up of members of the Advanced Project Management Class number 23 (APM-23) that met at the Wallops Island Management Education Center from April 28 - May 8, 1996. Members of the Class expressed interest to Mr. Vem Weyers in having an input to the NASA Policy Document (NPD) 7120.4, that will replace NASA Management Institute (NMI) 7120.4, and the NASA Program/Project Management Guide. The APM-23 SSG was tasked with assisting in development of NASA policy on managing Fast Track Projects, defined as small projects under $150 million and completed within three years. 'Me approach of the APM-23 SSG was to gather data on successful projects working in a 'Better, Faster, Cheaper' environment, within and outside of NASA and develop the Fast Track Project section of the NASA Program/Project Management Guide. Fourteen interviews and four other data gathering efforts were conducted by the SSG, and 16 were conducted by Strategic Resources, Inc. (SRI), including five interviews at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and one at the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL). The interviews were compiled and analyzed for techniques and approaches commonly used to meet severe cost and schedule constraints.

  7. Energy Tracking Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Harrer, Benedikt W.; Close, Hunter G.; Daane, Abigail R.; DeWater, Lezlie S.; Robertson, Amy D.; Seeley, Lane; Vokos, Stamatis

    2016-02-01

    Energy is a crosscutting concept in science and features prominently in national science education documents. In the Next Generation Science Standards, the primary conceptual learning goal is for learners to conserve energy as they track the transfers and transformations of energy within, into, or out of the system of interest in complex physical processes. As part of tracking energy transfers among objects, learners should (i) distinguish energy from matter, including recognizing that energy flow does not uniformly align with the movement of matter, and should (ii) identify specific mechanisms by which energy is transferred among objects, such as mechanical work and thermal conduction. As part of tracking energy transformations within objects, learners should (iii) associate specific forms with specific models and indicators (e.g., kinetic energy with speed and/or coordinated motion of molecules, thermal energy with random molecular motion and/or temperature) and (iv) identify specific mechanisms by which energy is converted from one form to another, such as incandescence and metabolism. Eventually, we may hope for learners to be able to optimize systems to maximize some energy transfers and transformations and minimize others, subject to constraints based in both imputed mechanism (e.g., objects must have motion energy in order for gravitational energy to change) and the second law of thermodynamics (e.g., heating is irreversible). We hypothesize that a subsequent goal of energy learning—innovating to meet socially relevant needs—depends crucially on the extent to which these goals have been met.

  8. Respiration tracking in radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Schweikard, Achim; Shiomi, Hiroya; Adler, John

    2004-10-01

    Respiratory motion is difficult to compensate for with conventional radiotherapy systems. An accurate tracking method for following the motion of the tumor is of considerable clinical relevance. We investigate methods to compensate for respiratory motion using robotic radiosurgery. In this system the therapeutic beam is moved by a robotic arm, and follows the moving target through a combination of infrared tracking and synchronized x-ray imaging. Infrared emitters are used to record the motion of the patient's skin surface. The position of internal gold fiducials is computed repeatedly during treatment, via x-ray image processing. We correlate the motion between external and internal markers. From this correlation model we infer the placement of the internal target during time intervals where no x-ray images are taken. Fifteen patients with lung tumors have recently been treated with a fully integrated system implementing this new method. The clinical trials confirm our hypothesis that internal motion and external motion are indeed correlated. In a preliminar study we have extended our work to tracking without implanted fiducials, based on algorithms for computing deformation motions and digitally reconstructed radiographs.

  9. Lasers of All Sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcou, Philippe; Forget, Sébastien Robert-Philip, Isabelle

    2015-10-01

    * Introduction * The Laser in All Its Forms * Gas lasers * Dye lasers * Solid-state lasers * Lasers for Every Taste * The rise of lasers * Lasers of all sizes * The colors of the rainbow... and beyond * Shorter and shorter lasers * Increasingly powerful lasers * Lasers: A Universal Tool? * Cutting, welding, and cleaning * Communicating * Treating illnesses * Measuring * Supplying energy? * Entertaining * Understanding * Conclusion

  10. Theoretical model and experimental verification on the PID tracking method using liquid crystal optical phased array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiangru; Xu, Jianhua; Huang, Ziqiang; Wu, Liang; Zhang, Tianyi; Wu, Shuanghong; Qiu, Qi

    2017-02-01

    Liquid crystal optical phased array (LC-OPA) has been considered with great potential on the non-mechanical laser deflector because it is fabricated using photolithographic patterning technology which has been well advanced by the electronics and display industry. As a vital application of LC-OPA, free space laser communication has demonstrated its merits on communication bandwidth. Before data communication, ATP (acquisition, tracking and pointing) process costs relatively long time to result in a bottle-neck of free space laser communication. Meanwhile, dynamic real time accurate tracking is sensitive to keep a stable communication link. The electro-optic medium liquid crystal with low driving voltage can be used as the laser beam deflector. This paper presents a fast-track method using liquid crystal optical phased array as the beam deflector, CCD as a beacon light detector. PID (Proportion Integration Differentiation) loop algorithm is introduced as the controlling algorithm to generate the corresponding steering angle. To achieve the goal of fast and accurate tracking, theoretical analysis and experimental verification are demonstrated that PID closed-loop system can suppress the attitude random vibration. Meanwhile, theoretical analysis shows that tracking accuracy can be less than 6.5μrad, with a relative agreement with experimental results which is obtained after 10 adjustments that the tracking accuracy is less than12.6μrad.

  11. Properties of multilayer coatings produced by coaxial laser cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovskiy, V. N.; Bykovskiy, D. P.; Dzhumaev, P. S.; Polskiy, V. I.; Prokopova, N. M.; Chirikov, S. N.

    2016-09-01

    This article contains results of the study of multilayer coatings produced by laser cladding on the substrate steel 34HMA using iron based powder PR-10R6M5 as the filler material. The coatings were produced with consistent application of the tracks with fixed overlapping. The dependencies between the characteristics of tracks and the technological mode of deposition were revealed. Properties of coatings were determined for various overlapping of tracks and directions of the cladding layers.

  12. A prototype of intersatellite laser communications terminals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liren; Zhu, Xiaolei; Hu, Yanzhi; Luan, Zhu; Wang, Lijuan; Liu, De'an; Gao, Ruichang; Xie, Latang; Yuan, Jiahu

    2005-08-01

    In this paper, a prototype of intersatellite laser communication terminal for a principle demonstration is reported, and the corresponding ground support equipments are described, too. The terminal has two main subsystems, the first is one for the laser communication and the second for the pointing, acquisition and tracking. Laser diodes are used for the communication link, and with the average laser power of more than 200mW and the data-rate up to 600Mbps. The PAT unit consists of a fine pointing mechanism and a coarse pointing assemble, which reaches a tracking accuracy of ~5μrad. The on-ground test equipments are included in a communication test bed with a long-distance beam propagation simulator, a PAT test bed with an optical satellite trajectory simulator, and a wavefront test bed with deferent lateral-shearing interferometers.

  13. Counter-sniper 3D laser radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Orr; LePage, Andrew J.; Wijntjes, Geert J.; Zehnpfennig, Theodore F.; Sackos, John T.; Nellums, Robert O.

    1999-01-01

    Visidyne, Inc., teaming with Sandia National Laboratories, has developed the preliminary design for an innovative scannerless 3-D laser radar capable of acquiring, tracking, and determining the coordinates of small caliber projectiles in flight with sufficient precision, so their origin can be established by back projecting their tracks to their source. The design takes advantage of the relatively large effective cross-section of a bullet at optical wavelengths. Kay to its implementation is the use of efficient, high- power laser diode arrays for illuminators and an imaging laser receiver using a unique CCD imager design, that acquires the information to establish x, y (angle-angle) and range coordinates for each bullet at very high frame rates. The detection process achieves a high degree of discrimination by using the optical signature of the bullet, solar background mitigation, and track detection. Field measurements and computer simulations have been used to provide the basis for a preliminary design of a robust bullet tracker, the Counter Sniper 3-D Laser Radar. Experimental data showing 3-D test imagery acquired by a lidar with architecture similar to that of the proposed Counter Sniper 3-D Lidar are presented. A proposed Phase II development would yield an innovative, compact, and highly efficient bullet-tracking laser radar. Such a device would meet the needs of not only the military, but also federal, state, and local law enforcement organizations.

  14. Research on intersatellite laser communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Satoru; Arikawa, Hiroshi; Nakamori, Shigeharu; Araki, Tomohiro

    1992-08-01

    An overview of the research on intersatellite laser communication is presented. Components for acquisition and tracking system, and aberration compensating systems were trial produced. The range of trial production is shown in the diagram of research model, and the combination of the research model driving mechanisms are shown. Two kinds of main mirrors for the optical antenna used for optical communication equipment were trial produced. Trial production specifications for optical antenna is shown. Laser Diode (LD) output synthesizer made of optical fibers were trial produced and tested.

  15. Laser microphone

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2000-11-14

    A microphone for detecting sound pressure waves includes a laser resonator having a laser gain material aligned coaxially between a pair of first and second mirrors for producing a laser beam. A reference cell is disposed between the laser material and one of the mirrors for transmitting a reference portion of the laser beam between the mirrors. A sensing cell is disposed between the laser material and one of the mirrors, and is laterally displaced from the reference cell for transmitting a signal portion of the laser beam, with the sensing cell being open for receiving the sound waves. A photodetector is disposed in optical communication with the first mirror for receiving the laser beam, and produces an acoustic signal therefrom for the sound waves.

  16. Feature-aided tracking (FAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Paul F.; Coursey, Amanda L.

    2004-08-01

    Association of observations and tracks is a fundamental component of most solutions to the tracking problem. Association is frequently formulated as a multiple hypothesis test. Typically, the test statistic, called the track score, is the likelihood or likelihood ratio of the observations conditioned upon the association hypotheses. Assuming that the test is reasonably efficient, further reduction in the association error probability necessitates the introduction of additional information into the track score. This additional information is embodied in quantities called track features which are to be included in the track score. In practice, the necessary conditional probabilities of the track features are unknown. The class of non-parametric hypothesis tests is designed to provide such a test in the absence of any probabilistic information about the data. However, the test statistics used in non-parametric tests cannot be used directly in the track score. The one probabilistic quantity generally available with non-parametric tests is the Type I error probability, the probability of failing to accept a true hypothesis. If the non-parametric test is distribution free then the Type I error probability is independent of the distribution of the track features. This paper presents a distribution free, non-parametric test of the track features that can be used to test the association hypotheses and a quantity that can be included in the track score is derived from the Type I error probability of the test.

  17. Back on Track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-06-01

    An artificial, laser-fed star now shines regularly over the sky of Paranal, home of ESO's Very Large Telescope, one of the world's most advanced large ground-based telescopes. This system provides assistance for the adaptive optics instruments on the VLT and so allows astronomers to obtain images free from the blurring effect of the atmosphere, regardless of the brightness and the location on the sky of the observed target. Now that it is routinely offered by the observatory, the skies seem much sharper to astronomers. In order to counteract the blurring effect of Earth's atmosphere, astronomers use the adaptive optics technique. This requires, however, a nearby reference star that has to be relatively bright, thereby limiting the area of the sky that can be surveyed. To surmount this limitation, astronomers now use at Paranal a powerful laser that creates an artificial star, where and when they need it. Two of the Adaptive Optics (AO) science instruments at the Paranal observatory, NACO and SINFONI, have been upgraded to work with the recently installed Laser Guide Star (LGS; see ESO 07/06) and have delivered their first scientific results. This achievement opens astronomers' access to a wealth of new targets to be studied under the sharp eyes of AO. "These unique results underline the advantage of using a Laser Guide Star with Adaptive Optics instruments, since they could not be obtained with Natural Guide Stars," says Norbert Hubin, head of the Adaptive Optics group at ESO. "This is also a crucial milestone towards the multi-laser systems ESO is designing for the VLT and the future E-ELT" (see e.g. ESO 19/07). ESO PR Photo 27a/07 ESO PR Photo 27a/07 An Ultra Luminous Merger (NACO-LGS/VLT) The Laser Guide Star System installed at Paranal uses the PARSEC dye laser developed by MPE-Garching and MPIA-Heidelberg, while the launch telescope and the laser laboratory was developed by ESO. "It is great to see the whole system working so well together," emphasises Richard

  18. Thermal tracking of sports players.

    PubMed

    Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B

    2014-07-29

    We present here a real-time tracking algorithm for thermal video from a sports game. Robust detection of people includes routines for handling occlusions and noise before tracking each detected person with a Kalman filter. This online tracking algorithm is compared with a state-of-the-art offline multi-target tracking algorithm. Experiments are performed on a manually annotated 2-minutes video sequence of a real soccer game. The Kalman filter shows a very promising result on this rather challenging sequence with a tracking accuracy above 70% and is superior compared with the offline tracking approach. Furthermore, the combined detection and tracking algorithm runs in real time at 33 fps, even with large image sizes of 1920 × 480 pixels.

  19. Thermal Tracking of Sports Players

    PubMed Central

    Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    We present here a real-time tracking algorithm for thermal video from a sports game. Robust detection of people includes routines for handling occlusions and noise before tracking each detected person with a Kalman filter. This online tracking algorithm is compared with a state-of-the-art offline multi-target tracking algorithm. Experiments are performed on a manually annotated 2-minutes video sequence of a real soccer game. The Kalman filter shows a very promising result on this rather challenging sequence with a tracking accuracy above 70% and is superior compared with the offline tracking approach. Furthermore, the combined detection and tracking algorithm runs in real time at 33 fps, even with large image sizes of 1920 × 480 pixels. PMID:25076219

  20. Recent Results from CHAMP Tracking and Accelerometer Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luthcke, S. B.; Rowlands, D. D.; Lemoine, F. G.; Nerem, R. S.; Thompson, B.; Pavlis, E.; Williams, T. A.; Colombo, O. L.; Chao, Benjamin F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The CHAMP mission's unique combination of sensors and orbit configuration will enable unprecedented improvements in modeling and understanding the Earth's static gravity field and its temporal variations. CHAMP is the first of two missions (GRACE to be launched in the early part of 02') that combine a new generation of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, a high precision three-axis accelerometer, and star cameras for the precision attitude determination. In order to isolate the gravity signal for science investigations, it is necessary to perform a detailed reduction and analysis of the GPS and Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) tracking data in conjunction with the accelerometer and attitude data. Precision orbit determination based on the GPS and SLR tracking data will isolate the orbit perturbations, while the accelerometer data will be used to distinguish the non-gravitational forces from those due to the geopotential (static, and time varying). In preparation for the CHAMP and GRACE missions, extensive modifications have been made to NASA/GSFC's GEODYN orbit determination software to enable the simultaneous reduction of spacecraft tracking (e.g. GPS and SLR), three-axis accelerometer and precise attitude data. Several weeks of CHAMP tracking and accelerometer data have been analyzed and the results will be presented. Precision orbit determination analysis based on tracking data alone in addition to results based on the simultaneous reduction of tracking and accelerometer data will be discussed. Results from a calibration of the accelerometer will be presented along with the results from various orbit determination strategies.

  1. Satellite-tracking and Earth dynamics research programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The activities carried out by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) are described. The SAO network continued to track LAGEOS at highest priority for polar motion and Earth rotation studies, and for other geophysical investigations, including crustal dynamics, Earth and ocean tides, and the general development of precision orbit determination. The network performed regular tracking of several other retroreflector satellites including GEOS-1, GEOS-3, BE-C, and Starlette for refined determinations of station coordinates and the Earth's gravity field and for studies of solid Earth dynamics. A major program in laser upgrading continued to improve ranging accuracy and data yield. This program includes an increase in pulse repetition rate from 8 ppm to 30 ppm, a reduction in laser pulse width from 6 nsec to 2 to 3 nsec, improvements in the photoreceiver and the electronics to improve daylight ranging, and an analog pulse detection system to improve range noise and accuracy. Data processing hardware and software are discussed.

  2. FREE-ELECTRON LASERS

    SciTech Connect

    Sessler, A.M.; Vaughan, D.

    1986-04-01

    We can now produce intense, coherent light at wavelengths where no conventional lasers exist. The recent successes of devices known as free-electron lasers mark a striking confluence of two conceptual developments that themselves are only a few decades old. The first of these, the laser, is a product of the fifties and sixties whose essential characteristics have made it a staple resource in almost every field of science and technology. In a practical sense, what defines a laser is its emission of monochromatic, coherent light (that is, light of a single wavelength, with its waves locked in step) at a wavelength in the infrared, visible, or ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum. A second kind of light, called synchrotron radiation, is a by-product of the age of particle accelerators and was first observed in the laboratory in 1947. As the energies of accelerators grew in the 1960s and 70s, intense, incoherent beams of ultraviolet radiation and x--rays became available at machines built for high-energy physics research. Today, several facilities operate solely as sources of synchrotron light. Unlike the well-collimated monochromatic light emitted by lasers, however, this incoherent radiation is like a sweeping searchlight--more accurately, like the headlight of a train on a circular track--whose wavelengths encompass a wide spectral band. Now, in several laboratories around the world, researchers have exploited the physics of these two light sources and have combined the virtues of both in a single contrivance, the free-electron laser, or FEL (1). The emitted light is laserlike in its narrow, sharply peaked spectral distribution and in its phase coherence, yet it can be of a wavelength unavailable with ordinary lasers. Furthermore, like synchrotron radiation, but unlike the output of most conventional lasers, the radiation emitted by free-electron lasers can be tuned, that is, its wavelength can be easily varied across a wide range. The promise of this

  3. PHOTOGRAPHIC TRACKING FOR HIGH ALTITUDE SATELLITES,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    TRACKING, *COMMUNICATION SATELLITES, ARTIFICIAL SATELLITES, TRACKING CAMERAS, COMMUNICATION SATELLITES, PHOTOGRAPHY, SATELLITE ATTITUDE, ORBITS, ERRORS, CORRECTIONS, HIGH ALTITUDE , ILLUMINATION, STARS.

  4. Laser sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbatenko, A. A.; Revina, E. I.

    2015-10-01

    The review is devoted to the major advances in laser sampling. The advantages and drawbacks of the technique are considered. Specific features of combinations of laser sampling with various instrumental analytical methods, primarily inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, are discussed. Examples of practical implementation of hybrid methods involving laser sampling as well as corresponding analytical characteristics are presented. The bibliography includes 78 references.

  5. Laser ignition

    DOEpatents

    Early, James W.; Lester, Charles S.

    2004-01-13

    Sequenced pulses of light from an excitation laser with at least two resonator cavities with separate output couplers are directed through a light modulator and a first polarzing analyzer. A portion of the light not rejected by the first polarizing analyzer is transported through a first optical fiber into a first ignitor laser rod in an ignitor laser. Another portion of the light is rejected by the first polarizing analyzer and directed through a halfwave plate into a second polarization analyzer. A first portion of the output of the second polarization analyzer passes through the second polarization analyzer to a second, oscillator, laser rod in the ignitor laser. A second portion of the output of the second polarization analyzer is redirected by the second polarization analyzer to a second optical fiber which delays the beam before the beam is combined with output of the first ignitor laser rod. Output of the second laser rod in the ignitor laser is directed into the first ignitor laser rod which was energized by light passing through the first polarizing analyzer. Combined output of the first ignitor laser rod and output of the second optical fiber is focused into a combustible fuel where the first short duration, high peak power pulse from the ignitor laser ignites the fuel and the second long duration, low peak power pulse directly from the excitation laser sustains the combustion.

  6. Near infrared lasers in flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Telford, William G

    2015-07-01

    Technology development in flow cytometry has closely tracked laser technology, the light source that flow cytometers almost exclusively use to excite fluorescent probes. The original flow cytometers from the 1970s and 1980s used large water-cooled lasers to produce only one or two laser lines at a time. Modern cytometers can take advantage of the revolution in solid state laser technology to use almost any laser wavelength ranging from the ultraviolet to the near infrared. Commercial cytometers can now be equipped with many small solid state lasers, providing almost any wavelength needed for cellular analysis. Flow cytometers are now equipped to analyze 20 or more fluorescent probes simultaneously, requiring multiple laser wavelengths. Instrument developers are now trying to increase this number by designing fluorescent probes that can be excited by laser wavelength at the "edges" of the visible light range, in the near ultraviolet and near-infrared region. A variety of fluorescent probes have been developed that excite with violet and long wavelength ultraviolet light; however, the near-infrared range (660-800 nm) has yet seen only exploitation in flow cytometry. Fortunately, near-infrared laser diodes and other solid state laser technologies appropriate for flow cytometry have been in existence for some time, and can be readily incorporated into flow cytometers to accelerate fluorescent probe development. The near infrared region represents one of the last "frontiers" to maximize the number of fluorescent probes that can be analyzed by flow cytometry. In addition, near infrared fluorescent probes used in biomedical tracking and imaging could also be employed for flow cytometry with the correct laser wavelengths. This review describes the available technology, including lasers, fluorescent probes and detector technology optimal for near infrared signal detection.

  7. Advanced technology for space communications and tracking systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishen, Kumar

    1988-10-01

    Technological advances in the communications and tracking areas being developed by NASA and applicable to future missions and associated space operations are discussed. The applications scenarios considered include the Space Shuttle, Space Station, lunar base, and Mars missions. Performance goals and conceptual designs are discussed, and the relevance of optical, laser, and millimeter wave-based implementations to the various applications are examined. Recommendations for future systems developments are addressed.

  8. A Combined Laser-Communication and Imager for Microspacecraft (ACLAIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, H.; Lesh, J.

    1998-01-01

    ACLAIM is a multi-function instrument consisting of a laser communication terminal and an imaging camera that share a common telescope. A single APS- (Active Pixel Sensor) based focal-plane-array is used to perform both the acquisition and tracking (for laser communication) and science imaging functions.

  9. Defect detection in laser powder deposition components by laser thermography and laser ultrasonic inspections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santospirito, SP; Łopatka, Rafał; Cerniglia, Donatella; Słyk, Kamil; Luo, Bin; Panggabean, Dorothée.; Rudlin, John

    2013-03-01

    Laser Powder Deposition (LDP) techniques are being adopted within aerospace and automotive manufacturing to produce innovative precision components. Non-destructive techniques (NDT) for detecting and quantifying flaws within these components enables performance and acceptance criteria to be verified, improving product safety and reducing ongoing maintenance and product repair costs. In this work, software enabled techniques are presented for in-process analysis of NDT laser ultrasonic signals and pulsed laser thermography images of sequential metallic LPD layers. LPD tracks can be as thin as 200μm while deposited at a rate of 500 mm/min, requiring ultrafast inspection and processing times. The research developed analysis algorithms that allow senior engineers to develop inspection templates and profiles for in-process inspection, as well as an end-to-end, user friendly interface for engineers to perform complete manual Laser Ultrasonic or Laser Thermographic inspections. Several algorithms are offered to quantify the flaw size. location and severity. The identified defects can be imported into a sentencing engine which then automatically compares analysis results against the user defined acceptance criteria so that the manufacturing products can be verified. Where both laser ultrasonic and laser thermographic NDT data is available further statistical tools could increase the confidence level of the inspection decision.

  10. Hierarchical fringe tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Romain G.; Elhalkouj, Thami; Boskri, Abdelkarim; Folcher, Jean-Pierre; Lagarde, Stéphane; Bresson, Yves; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; Lazrek, Mohamed; Rakshit, Suvendu

    2014-07-01

    The limiting magnitude is a key issue for optical interferometry. Pairwise fringe trackers based on the integrated optics concepts used for example in GRAVITY seem limited to about K=10.5 with the 8m Unit Telescopes of the VLTI, and there is a general "common sense" statement that the efficiency of fringe tracking, and hence the sensitivity of optical interferometry, must decrease as the number of apertures increases, at least in the near infrared where we are still limited by detector readout noise. Here we present a Hierarchical Fringe Tracking (HFT) concept with sensitivity at least equal to this of a two apertures fringe trackers. HFT is based of the combination of the apertures in pairs, then in pairs of pairs then in pairs of groups… The key HFT module is a device that behaves like a spatial filter for two telescopes (2TSF) and transmits all or most of the flux of a cophased pair in a single mode beam. We give an example of such an achromatic 2TSF, based on very broadband dispersed fringes analyzed by grids, and show that it allows piston measures from very broadband fringes with only 3 to 5 pixels per fringe tracker. We show the results of numerical simulation indicating that our device is a good achromatic spatial filter and allowing a first evaluation of its coupling efficiency, which is similar to this of a single mode fiber on a single aperture. Our very preliminary results indicate that HFT has a good chance to be a serious candidate for the most sensitive fringe tracking with the VLTI and also interferometers with much larger number of apertures. On the VLTI the first rough estimate of the magnitude gain with regard to the GRAVITY internal FT is between 2.5 and 3.5 magnitudes in K, with a decisive impact on the VLTI science program for AGNs, Young stars and planet forming disks.

  11. Tracking a Superstorm

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Oct. 29, 2012 – A day before landfall, Sandy intensified into a Category 2 superstorm nearly 1,000 miles wide. Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and NASA Center for Climate Simulation Video and images courtesy of NASA/GSFC/William Putman -- A NASA computer model simulates the astonishing track and forceful winds of Hurricane Sandy. Hurricane Sandy pummeled the East Coast late in 2012’s Atlantic hurricane season, causing 159 deaths and $70 billion in damages. Days before landfall, forecasts of its trajectory were still being made. Some computer models showed that a trough in the jet stream would kick the monster storm away from land and out to sea. Among the earliest to predict its true course was NASA’s GEOS-5 global atmosphere model. The model works by dividing Earth’s atmosphere into a virtual grid of stacked boxes. A supercomputer then solves mathematical equations inside each box to create a weather forecast predicting Sandy’s structure, path and other traits. The NASA model not only produced an accurate track of Sandy, but also captured fine-scale details of the storm’s changing intensity and winds. Watch the video to see it for yourself. For more information, please visit: gmao.gsfc.nasa.gov/research/atmosphericassim/tracking_hur... NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  12. QualiTrack: Highspeed TUI Tracking for Tabletop Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofer, Ramon; Nescher, Thomas; Kunz, Andreas

    In this paper, we present a new technology to track multiple active Tangible User Interfaces (TUI) on a projection table. We use a commercial high speed infrared tracking camera with modified firmware. With a special tracking method, we reach update rates of up to 250 Hz with low latencies. At this tracking rate, we are able to track the position, state and the orientation of more than 10 active TUIs on the table. For this, we use specified bit codes which are transmitted by the devices. We developed dedicated hardware (SyncUnit) and software to keep the devices and the high speed camera synchronized. The system of camera, SyncUnit, and devices is fully hardware controlled and delivers event coded tracking data for further usage in interactive applications.

  13. Human detection and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Pengxian; Wei, Yaxun

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents a method to segment moving human bodies. A self-adaptive background model is used to update the background image(so-called reference image). By calculating the Euclidean distance of corresponding points in the current and background image, we can check out the foreground objects. And the shadow can be detected and removed according to the characteristics of the shadow regions shown in HSV space. Finally, target tracking is implemented by calculating the relativity of color histogram between the moving areas in two succeeding images.

  14. Track Standing Wave Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    Journal of Mechanics, Transmissions and Automation in Design, 126, Vol. 106, pp. 126-132 _N4. (March 1984) 77 Lazan , B . J ., "Damping of Materials and...International Test Operations Procedure (ITOP), "Tracked Vehicle Physical Characteristics" (1984) . Keller, J . B ., "Large Amplitude Motion of a...this configuration were complet ed and tabulated results appear to be reasonable. ON 2 N 0’ J , . ". 0 "W’ -St. yNb j PREFACE The cooperation and

  15. Satellite Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Researchers at the Center for Aerospace Sciences of the University of North Dakota (UND), Grand Forks, used three NASA Computer programs (SANDTRACKS, ODG, NORAD) to develop a Satellite Tracking System for real time utilization of TIROS weather/environment satellite information. SANDTRACKS computes the satellite's position relative to the Earth. ODG allows plotting a view of Earth as seen by the satellite. NORAD computes sight direction, visibility times and maximum elevation angle during each orbit. With the system, UND's Earth System Science Institute will be able to routinely monitor agricultural and environmental conditions of the Northern Plains.

  16. Multiple collaborative kernel tracking.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhimin; Yang, Ming; Wu, Ying

    2007-07-01

    Those motion parameters that cannot be recovered from image measurements are unobservable in the visual dynamic system. This paper studies this important issue of singularity in the context of kernel-based tracking and presents a novel approach that is based on a motion field representation which employs redundant but sparsely correlated local motion parameters instead of compact but uncorrelated global ones. This approach makes it easy to design fully observable kernel-based motion estimators. This paper shows that these high-dimensional motion fields can be estimated efficiently by the collaboration among a set of simpler local kernel-based motion estimators, which makes the new approach very practical.

  17. Tracking speech sound acquisition.

    PubMed

    Powell, Thomas W

    2011-11-01

    This article describes a procedure to aid in the clinical appraisal of child speech. The approach, based on the work by Dinnsen, Chin, Elbert, and Powell (1990; Some constraints on functionally disordered phonologies: Phonetic inventories and phonotactics. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 33, 28-37), uses a railway idiom to track gains in the complexity of speech sound production. A clinical case study is reviewed to illustrate application of the procedure. The procedure is intended to facilitate application of an evidence-based procedure to the clinical management of developmental speech sound disorders.

  18. CW laser pumped emerald laser

    SciTech Connect

    Shand, M.L.; Lai, S.T.

    1984-02-01

    A CW laser-pumped emerald laser is reported. A 34 percent output power slope efficiency is observed with longitudinal pumping by a krypton laser in a nearly concentric cavity. The laser has been tuned from 728.8 to 809.0 nm. Losses in emerald are larger than those of alexandrite determined in a similar cavity. The present data also indicate that the excited state absorption minimum is shifted from that of alexandrite. 13 references.

  19. Atmosphere-tolerant acquisition, tracking, and pointing subsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shinhak; Ortiz, Gerardo G.

    2003-07-01

    For high rate communications such as optical communications, tracking loss can result in substantial reduction of average data rate and the total data volume of the transmitted data. For optical communications, which transmits laser beam through atmosphere, atmospheric induced fades of the beacon signal can vary significantly as observed in ground-to-ground optical experiments. In this paper, we propose a new scheme of compensating the atmospheric induced fading effects using inertial sensors. By measuring the platform vibrations, the beacon movements on the Focal Plane Array can be deduced even if the beacon is lost due to fading. By avoiding the new cycle of reacquisition and tracking, high rate communication can be maintained. The allowable period of beacon fade depends on the inertial sensor noise characteristics and acquisition and tracking Field-Of-View. We will present the results of our analysis for the planned Altair UAV-to-Ground optical communications demonstrations using an accelerometer.

  20. Cutaneous lasers.

    PubMed

    Fedok, Fred G; Garritano, Frank; Portela, Antonio

    2013-02-01

    There has been a remarkable development and evolution of laser technology, leading to adaptation of lasers for medical use and the treatment of skin problems and disorders. Many treatments that required incisional surgery and other invasive methods are now preferentially treated with a laser. Although laser advances have resulted in the availability of some amazing tools, they require the clinical skill and judgment of the clinician for their optimal use. This article provides a clinically oriented overview of many of the lasers valuable in facial plastic surgery. Basic science, clinical adaptations, and patient management topics are covered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Laser generating metallic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, Marc A.; Shannon, G. J.; Steen, William M.

    1997-04-01

    Recent developments in rapid prototyping have led to the concept of laser generating, the first additive manufacturing technology. This paper presents an innovative process of depositing multi-layer tracks, by fusing successive powder tracks, to generate three dimensional components, thereby offering an alternative to casting for small metal component manufacture. A coaxial nozzle assembly has been designed and manufactured enabling consistent omni-directional multi-layer deposition. In conjunction with this the software route from a CAD drawing to machine code generation has been established. The part is manufactured on a six axes machining center incorporating a 1.8 kW carbon-dioxide laser, providing an integrated opto-mechanical workstation. The part build-up program is controlled by a P150 host computer, linked directly to the DNC machining center. The direct manufacturing route is shown, including initial examples of simple objects (primitives -- cube, cylinder, cone) leading to more complex turbine blade generation, incorporating build-up techniques and the associated mechanical properties.

  2. Laser device

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Jill R.; Tremblay, Paul L.

    2004-11-23

    A laser device includes a target position, an optical component separated a distance J from the target position, and a laser energy source separated a distance H from the optical component, distance H being greater than distance J. A laser source manipulation mechanism exhibits a mechanical resolution of positioning the laser source. The mechanical resolution is less than a spatial resolution of laser energy at the target position as directed through the optical component. A vertical and a lateral index that intersect at an origin can be defined for the optical component. The manipulation mechanism can auto align laser aim through the origin during laser source motion. The laser source manipulation mechanism can include a mechanical index. The mechanical index can include a pivot point for laser source lateral motion and a reference point for laser source vertical motion. The target position can be located within an adverse environment including at least one of a high magnetic field, a vacuum system, a high pressure system, and a hazardous zone. The laser source and an electro-mechanical part of the manipulation mechanism can be located outside the adverse environment. The manipulation mechanism can include a Peaucellier linkage.

  3. Laser device

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Jill R.; Tremblay, Paul L.

    2007-07-10

    A laser device includes a target position, an optical component separated a distance J from the target position, and a laser energy source separated a distance H from the optical component, distance H being greater than distance J. A laser source manipulation mechanism exhibits a mechanical resolution of positioning the laser source. The mechanical resolution is less than a spatial resolution of laser energy at the target position as directed through the optical component. A vertical and a lateral index that intersect at an origin can be defined for the optical component. The manipulation mechanism can auto align laser aim through the origin during laser source motion. The laser source manipulation mechanism can include a mechanical index. The mechanical index can include a pivot point for laser source lateral motion and a reference point for laser source vertical motion. The target position can be located within an adverse environment including at least one of a high magnetic field, a vacuum system, a high pressure system, and a hazardous zone. The laser source and an electro-mechanical part of the manipulation mechanism can be located outside the adverse environment. The manipulation mechanism can include a Peaucellier linkage.

  4. Laser ignition

    DOEpatents

    Early, James W.; Lester, Charles S.

    2003-01-01

    In the apparatus of the invention, a first excitation laser or other excitation light source is used in tandem with an ignitor laser to provide a compact, durable, engine deployable fuel ignition laser system. Reliable fuel ignition is provided over a wide range of fuel conditions by using a single remote excitation light source for one or more small lasers located proximate to one or more fuel combustion zones. In a third embodiment, alternating short and long pulses of light from the excitation light source are directed into the ignitor laser. Each of the embodiments of the invention can be multiplexed so as to provide laser light energy sequentially to more than one ignitor laser.

  5. Missile tracking and range safety: Tracking Interferometer Pathfinder System (TIPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowgiallo, David J.; Rauen, Stephen; Peters, Wendy M.; Polisensky, Emil J.

    2013-05-01

    The tracking of missiles at close range proximity has been an ongoing challenge for many launch environments. The ability to provide accurate missile trajectory information is imperative for range safety and early termination of flight. In an effort to provide a potential solution to tracking issues that have plagued many traditional techniques, the Tracking Interferometer Pathfinder System (TIPS) was developed at the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. The paper herein describes the design, field test, and results of an interferometer deployed for missile tracking.

  6. Laser- based Insect Tracker (LIT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesquita, Leonardo; Sinha, Shiva; van Steveninck, Rob De Ruyter

    2011-03-01

    Insects are excellent model systems for studying learning and behavior, and the potential for genetic manipulation makes the fruitfly especially attractive. Many aspects of fruitfly behavior have been studied through video based tracking methods. However, to our knowledge no current system incorporates signals for behavioral conditioning in freely moving flies. We introduce a non-video based method that enables tracking of single insects over large volumes (> 8000cm3 at high spatial (<1mm) and temporal (<1ms) resolution for extended periods (>1 hour). The system uses a set of moveable mirrors that steer a tracking laser beam. Tracking is based on feedback from a four-quadrant sensor, sampling the beam after it bounces back from a retro reflector. Through the same mirrors we couple a high speed camera for flight dynamics analysis and an IR laser for aversive heat conditioning. Such heat shocks, combined with visual stimuli projected on a screen surrounding the flight arena, enable studies of learning and memory. By sampling the long term statistics of behavior, the system augments quantitative studies of behavioral phenotypes. Preliminary results of such studies will be presented.

  7. A simple apparatus for quick qualitative analysis of CR39 nuclear track detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Gautier, D. C.; Kline, J. L.; Flippo, K. A.; Gaillard, S. A.; Letzring, S. A.; Hegelich, B. M.

    2008-10-15

    Quantifying the ion pits in Columbia Resin 39 (CR39) nuclear track detector from Thomson parabolas is a time consuming and tedious process using conventional microscope based techniques. A simple inventive apparatus for fast screening and qualitative analysis of CR39 detectors has been developed, enabling efficient selection of data for a more detailed analysis. The system consists simply of a green He-Ne laser and a high-resolution digital single-lens reflex camera. The laser illuminates the edge of the CR39 at grazing incidence and couples into the plastic, acting as a light pipe. Subsequently, the laser illuminates all ion tracks on the surface. A high-resolution digital camera is used to photograph the scattered light from the ion tracks, enabling one to quickly determine charge states and energies measured by the Thomson parabola.

  8. A simple apparatus for quick qualitative analysis of CR39 nuclear track detectors.

    PubMed

    Gautier, D C; Kline, J L; Flippo, K A; Gaillard, S A; Letzring, S A; Hegelich, B M

    2008-10-01

    Quantifying the ion pits in Columbia Resin 39 (CR39) nuclear track detector from Thomson parabolas is a time consuming and tedious process using conventional microscope based techniques. A simple inventive apparatus for fast screening and qualitative analysis of CR39 detectors has been developed, enabling efficient selection of data for a more detailed analysis. The system consists simply of a green He-Ne laser and a high-resolution digital single-lens reflex camera. The laser illuminates the edge of the CR39 at grazing incidence and couples into the plastic, acting as a light pipe. Subsequently, the laser illuminates all ion tracks on the surface. A high-resolution digital camera is used to photograph the scattered light from the ion tracks, enabling one to quickly determine charge states and energies measured by the Thomson parabola.

  9. Dust Devil Tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, Dennis; Fenton, Lori; Neakrase, Lynn; Zimmerman, Michael; Statella, Thiago; Whelley, Patrick; Rossi, Angelo Pio; Balme, Matthew

    2016-11-01

    Dust devils that leave dark- or light-toned tracks are common on Mars and they can also be found on the Earth's surface. Dust devil tracks (hereinafter DDTs) are ephemeral surface features with mostly sub-annual lifetimes. Regarding their size, DDT widths can range between ˜1 m and ˜1 km, depending on the diameter of dust devil that created the track, and DDT lengths range from a few tens of meters to several kilometers, limited by the duration and horizontal ground speed of dust devils. DDTs can be classified into three main types based on their morphology and albedo in contrast to their surroundings; all are found on both planets: (a) dark continuous DDTs, (b) dark cycloidal DDTs, and (c) bright DDTs. Dark continuous DDTs are the most common type on Mars. They are characterized by their relatively homogenous and continuous low albedo surface tracks. Based on terrestrial and martian in situ studies, these DDTs most likely form when surficial dust layers are removed to expose larger-grained substrate material (coarse sands of ≥500 μm in diameter). The exposure of larger-grained materials changes the photometric properties of the surface; hence leading to lower albedo tracks because grain size is photometrically inversely proportional to the surface reflectance. However, although not observed so far, compositional differences (i.e., color differences) might also lead to albedo contrasts when dust is removed to expose substrate materials with mineralogical differences. For dark continuous DDTs, albedo drop measurements are around 2.5 % in the wavelength range of 550-850 nm on Mars and around 0.5 % in the wavelength range from 300-1100 nm on Earth. The removal of an equivalent layer thickness around 1 μm is sufficient for the formation of visible dark continuous DDTs on Mars and Earth. The next type of DDTs, dark cycloidal DDTs, are characterized by their low albedo pattern of overlapping scallops. Terrestrial in situ studies imply that they are formed when sand

  10. Cassini Archive Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, Diane; Sayfi, Elias; Tinio, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    The Cassini Archive Tracking System (CATS) is a computer program that enables tracking of scientific data transfers from originators to the Planetary Data System (PDS) archives. Without CATS, there is no systematic means of locating products in the archive process or ensuring their completeness. By keeping a database of transfer communications and status, CATS enables the Cassini Project and the PDS to efficiently and accurately report on archive status. More importantly, problem areas are easily identified through customized reports that can be generated on the fly from any Web-enabled computer. A Web-browser interface and clearly defined authorization scheme provide safe distributed access to the system, where users can perform functions such as create customized reports, record a transfer, and respond to a transfer. CATS ensures that Cassini provides complete science archives to the PDS on schedule and that those archives are available to the science community by the PDS. The three-tier architecture is loosely coupled and designed for simple adaptation to multimission use. Written in the Java programming language, it is portable and can be run on any Java-enabled Web server.

  11. Automated call tracking systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, C.

    1993-03-01

    User Services groups are on the front line with user support. We are the first to hear about problems. The speed, accuracy, and intelligence with which we respond determines the user`s perception of our effectiveness and our commitment to quality and service. To keep pace with the complex changes at our sites, we must have tools to help build a knowledge base of solutions, a history base of our users, and a record of every problem encountered. Recently, I completed a survey of twenty sites similar to the National Energy Research Supercomputer Center (NERSC). This informal survey reveals that 27% of the sites use a paper system to log calls, 60% employ homegrown automated call tracking systems, and 13% use a vendor-supplied system. Fifty-four percent of those using homegrown systems are exploring the merits of switching to a vendor-supplied system. The purpose of this paper is to provide guidelines for evaluating a call tracking system. In addition, insights are provided to assist User Services groups in selecting a system that fits their needs.

  12. NORAD satellite tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Joseph J. F.

    1987-01-01

    NORAD routinely tracks about 6000 orbiting objects. During the last 30 days of orbital time, prior to reentry, special perturbations are used in the orbital update procedure. Besides routine orbit determination, NORAD does special tasks such as predicting satellite orbit conjunctions within 20 km, ephimerides of weather satellites, satellite decay predictions and other studies. Since their mission is operational, they do not store the data from their analyses. The ballistic coefficient is not known for most of the orbiting objects. If a ballistic coefficient were derived that was consistent with one density model, it might give erroneous results if used with a different density model. Given the ballistic coefficient, density values could, in principle, be obtained from their tracking data. The densities would represent an integrated mean over the orbital path near perigee. They would be model dependent and would not necessarily represent the real density. In summary, the primary need is for reliable forecasts of solar flux (F10.7) and geomagnetic activity (Ap) in the 1 to 4 week time scale. Forecasts over longer time spans would also be useful for special projects.

  13. Neodymium YAG Lasers. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrigan, B.

    1980-07-01

    Federally funded research reports on lasing of neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet are cited. Studies on design, fabrication, quantum efficiency, light pulses, stabilization, and testing are covered. Optical pumping, mode locking, frequency conversion, and modulation of these lasers are discussed. Laser applications such as optical communication, range finding, and tracking are included. Safety hazards and radiation damage related to neodymium YAG lasers are also covered. This updated bibliography contains 181 citations, 15 of which are new entries to the previous edition.

  14. Comparison of Above Bandgap Laser and MeV Ion Induced Single Event Transients in High-Speed Si Photonic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laird, Jamie S.; Hirao, Toshio; Onoda, Shinobu; Itoh, Hisayoshi; Edmonds, Larry; Johnston, Allan

    2006-01-01

    We illustrate inherent differences between Single Event Transients generated by an above bandgap picosecond lasers and MeV heavy ions by comparing transient currents collected with an ion microbeam and picosecond laser with varying track waist.

  15. Comparison of Above Bandgap Laser and MeV Ion Induced Single Event Transients in High-Speed Si Photonic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laird, Jamie S.; Hirao, Toshio; Onoda, Shinobu; Itoh, Hisayoshi; Edmonds, Larry; Johnston, Allan

    2006-01-01

    We illustrate inherent differences between Single Event Transients generated by an above bandgap picosecond lasers and MeV heavy ions by comparing transient currents collected with an ion microbeam and picosecond laser with varying track waist.

  16. Fluorescent nuclear track images of Ag-activated phosphate glass irradiated with photons and heavy charged particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurobori, Toshio; Yanagida, Yuka; Kodaira, Satoshi; Shirao, Taichi

    2017-05-01

    In this paper we report about the demonstration of the nuclear track imaging capabilities of Ag-activated phosphate glass. A 375 nm laser and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) were respectively used for track excitation and detection. Specifically, the blue and orange radiophotoluminescent (RPL) tracks and dose distributions observed after irradiation with soft X-rays, gamma rays and heavy charged particles (HCPs) are examined. In addition, the origins of the reductions in RPL efficiency for high-dose X-ray irradiation and for irradiation with HCPs with high linear energy transfer (LET) values are investigated via a CLSM and a conventional fluorescent reader and discussed.

  17. Microprocessor-controlled laser tracker for atmospheric sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. A.; Webster, C. R.; Menzies, R. T.

    1985-01-01

    An optical tracking system comprising a visible HeNe laser, an imaging detector, and a microprocessor-controlled mirror, has been designed to track a moving retroreflector located up to 500 m away from an atmospheric instrument and simultaneously direct spectrally tunable infrared laser radiation to the retroreflector for double-ended, long-path absorption measurements of atmospheric species. The tracker has been tested during the recent flight of a balloon-borne tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer which monitors the concentrations of stratospheric species within a volume defined by a 0.14-m-diameter retroreflector lowered 500 m below the instrument gondola.

  18. Presentation on Improved Tracking Cameras

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-08

    Inside the dome building at Playalinda Beach, Bob Fore points to a map of camera sites during a presentation to the media on the improved tracking cameras and long-range optical tracking systems that will be used to capture ascent imagery during the return to flight of the Space Shuttle. The press opportunity also includes tours of the launch pad perimeter camera site at Launch Complex 39B and the other optical tracking site at the Merritt Island National Refuge.

  19. Presentation on Improved Tracking Cameras

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-08

    Inside the dome building at Playalinda Beach, Mike Litscher talks to media about the Distant Object Attitude Measurement System (DOAMS), part of the improved tracking cameras and long-range optical tracking systems that will be used to capture ascent imagery during the return to flight of the Space Shuttle. The press opportunity also includes tours of the launch pad perimeter camera site at Launch Complex 39B and the other optical tracking site at the Merritt Island National Refuge.

  20. Bayesian Tracking of Visual Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Nanning; Xue, Jianru

    Tracking objects in image sequences involves performing motion analysis at the object level, which is becoming an increasingly important technology in a wide range of computer video applications, including video teleconferencing, security and surveillance, video segmentation, and editing. In this chapter, we focus on sequential Bayesian estimation techniques for visual tracking. We first introduce the sequential Bayesian estimation framework, which acts as the theoretic basis for visual tracking. Then, we present approaches to constructing representation models for specific objects.

  1. REC Tracking Systems Design Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Meredith Wingate

    2004-02-03

    OAK-B135 The Design Guide is presented in three parts. Section II describes the need for REC tracking, the two principal tracking methods available, and, in simple terms, the operation of certificate-based systems. Section III presents the major issues in the design of certificate-based tracking systems and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of alternative solutions. Finally, Section IV offers design principles or recommendations for most of these issues.

  2. Eye tracking in infancy research.

    PubMed

    Gredebäck, Gustaf; Johnson, Scott; von Hofsten, Claes

    2010-01-01

    The current review offers a unique introduction to the use of corneal reflection eye tracking in infancy research. We provide a detailed description of how to calibrate, collect, and analyze infants' gaze in a series of experimental paradigms, focusing specifically on the analysis of visual tracking, point of gaze, and the latency of gaze shifts (prediction and reactive gaze shifts). The article ends with a critical discussion about the pros and cons of corneal reflection eye tracking.

  3. The global light system laser station prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Patrick R.

    2015-08-01

    We describe the design and fabrication of a prototype Global Light System (GLS) laser station for the JEM-EUSO project. The GLS will consist of a network of ground-based Ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and steered lasers to monitor and calibrate the cosmic ray detector planned for install on the International Space Station (ISS). The GLS units will generate optical signatures in the atmosphere that are comparable to tracks from cosmic ray extensive air showers (EASs). Unlike an EAS, the number, time, energy, location and direction (for lasers) of GLS events can be specified as JEM-EUSO passes 400 km overhead. Laser tracks from the GLS prototype will be recorded by prototype detectors in ground-to-ground tests. Distant tracks with low angular speed are of particular interest because these are the types of EAS tracks that will be measured by JEM-EUSO. To do these ground-to-ground tests, the prototype detectors will need to measure the laser through the atmosphere at low elevation viewing angles. The beam energy can be adjusted from 1 to 90 mJ to compensate for this additional atmospheric attenuation. The frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser produces 355 nm (7 ns pulse) light. This wavelength is near the center of the UV EAS fluorescence spectrum. The system is housed in a utility trailer that can be transported by a small truck for domestic campaigns or shipped in an industry standard 20 foot container for global deployment. In operation mode, the laser platform inside the trailer is isolated mechanically to maintain beam pointing accuracy. A retractable two stage steering head can point in any direction above the horizon. A slip ring eliminates cable wrap problems. The GLS prototype will be used to test the EUSO-TA detector and will also be used in preflight tests of the EUSO-balloon payload planned for a super pressure balloon mission.

  4. Making tracks: electronic excitation roles in forming swift heavy ion tracks.

    PubMed

    Itoh, N; Duffy, D M; Khakshouri, S; Stoneham, A M

    2009-11-25

    Swift heavy ions cause material modification along their tracks, changes primarily due to their very dense electronic excitation. The available data for threshold stopping powers indicate two main classes of materials. Group I, with threshold stopping powers above about 10 keV nm(-1), includes some metals, crystalline semiconductors and a few insulators. Group II, with lower thresholds, comprises many insulators, amorphous materials and high T(c) oxide superconductors. We show that the systematic differences in behaviour result from different coupling of the dense excited electrons, holes and excitons to atomic (ionic) motions, and the consequent lattice relaxation. The coupling strength of excitons and charge carriers with the lattice is crucial. For group II, the mechanism appears to be the self-trapped exciton model of Itoh and Stoneham (1998 Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 146 362): the local structural changes occur roughly when the exciton concentration exceeds the number of lattice sites. In materials of group I, excitons are not self-trapped and structural change requires excitation of a substantial fraction of bonding electrons, which induces spontaneous lattice expansion within a few hundred femtoseconds, as recently observed by laser-induced time-resolved x-ray diffraction of semiconductors. Our analysis addresses a number of experimental results, such as track morphology, the efficiency of track registration and the ratios of the threshold stopping power of various materials.

  5. An augmented reality assistance platform for eye laser surgery.

    PubMed

    Ee Ping Ong; Lee, Jimmy Addison; Jun Cheng; Beng Hai Lee; Guozhen Xu; Laude, Augustinus; Teoh, Stephen; Tock Han Lim; Wong, Damon W K; Jiang Liu

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a novel augmented reality assistance platform for eye laser surgery. The aims of the proposed system are for the application of assisting eye doctors in pre-planning as well as providing guidance and protection during laser surgery. We developed algorithms to automatically register multi-modal images, detect macula and optic disc regions, and demarcate these as protected areas from laser surgery. The doctor will then be able to plan the laser treatment pre-surgery using the registered images and segmented regions. Thereafter, during live surgery, the system will automatically register and track the slit lamp video frames on the registered retina images, send appropriate warning when the laser is near protected areas, and disable the laser function when it points into the protected areas. The proposed system prototype can help doctors to speed up laser surgery with confidence without fearing that they may unintentionally fire laser in the protected areas.

  6. Earth-Image Tracking in the IR for Deep Space Optical Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid; Chen, Yinging; Lee, Shinhak; Ortiz, Gerard G.

    2005-01-01

    Sub-microradian level laser beam pointing to an Earth-based receiver is required for deep space optical communications. This requires a beacon emanated from Earth towards the spacecraft. The beacon could be a laser or reflected sunlight from Earth. Earth image tracking in the visible is hampered by significant albedo variations and/or crescent Earth image yielding large central errors. Here, we report results of Earth-image tracking in the infrared (8 to 13 micron) region of the spectrum with the aim of substantially alleviating the two challenges mentioned earlier.

  7. The smart IV stand design through human tracking mobile robot system by CDS cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Seong-Hyeon; Choe, Jong-Hun; Seo, Suk-Hyun; Kim, Won-Hoe; Lee, Hong-Kyu; Park, Se-Ho

    2015-03-01

    Vision-based recognition of the object as a general interface gives us high cost and complicated problem. This research suggests human tracking system by Arduino, and Laser-CdS cell system track wire that pass laser line. In this paper, we review existing literature on application systems of recognition which involves many interdisciplinary studies. We conclude that our method can only reduce cost, but is easy way to trace people's location with the use of wire. Furthermore, we apply several recognition systems including CdS-based mobile robot that is applied IV stand used at the hospital effectively.

  8. Laser Crosslink Subsystem - An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deadrick, R. B.; Deckelman, W. F.

    1992-06-01

    The Laser Crosslink Subsystem (LCS) is a full duplex laser communications terminal in production at McDonnell Douglas Electronics Systems Company. The LCS will provide a data crosslink for geosynchronous satellites. This paper provides an overview of the system design and major elements followed by a brief program history. One LCS is installed on each satellite. The system utilizes a solid state diode pumped Neodymium YAG laser and direct pulse detection to provide 1.28 Mbps data transmission in one direction on the link and 4 Kbps in the other. A single eight inch gimballed telescope provides both the transmit and receive antenna function. After autonomously acquiring, the 200 Hz bandwidth fine tracking system maintains pointing of the 10 microrad optical beam. The LCS began development in 1981. Since then, each of its assemblies has completed-flight qualification testing. The first integrated production unit successfully completed environmental and performance qualification testing in 1990.

  9. 3D imaging of neutron tracks using confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmore, Gavin; Wertheim, David; Flowers, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Neutron detection and neutron flux assessment are important aspects in monitoring nuclear energy production. Neutron flux measurements can also provide information on potential biological damage from exposure. In addition to the applications for neutron measurement in nuclear energy, neutron detection has been proposed as a method of enhancing neutrino detectors and cosmic ray flux has also been assessed using ground-level neutron detectors. Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (or SSNTDs) have been used extensively to examine cosmic rays, long-lived radioactive elements, radon concentrations in buildings and the age of geological samples. Passive SSNTDs consisting of a CR-39 plastic are commonly used to measure radon because they respond to incident charged particles such as alpha particles from radon gas in air. They have a large dynamic range and a linear flux response. We have previously applied confocal microscopy to obtain 3D images of alpha particle tracks in SSNTDs from radon track monitoring (1). As a charged particle traverses through the polymer it creates an ionisation trail along its path. The trail or track is normally enhanced by chemical etching to better expose radiation damage, as the damaged area is more sensitive to the etchant than the bulk material. Particle tracks in CR-39 are usually assessed using 2D optical microscopy. In this study 6 detectors were examined using an Olympus OLS4100 LEXT 3D laser scanning confocal microscope (Olympus Corporation, Japan). The detectors had been etched for 2 hours 50 minutes at 85 °C in 6.25M NaOH. Post etch the plastics had been treated with a 10 minute immersion in a 2% acetic acid stop bath, followed by rinsing in deionised water. The detectors examined had been irradiated with a 2mSv neutron dose from an Am(Be) neutron source (producing roughly 20 tracks per mm2). We were able to successfully acquire 3D images of neutron tracks in the detectors studied. The range of track diameter observed was between 4

  10. Faculty achievement tracking tool.

    PubMed

    Pettus, Sarah; Reifschneider, Ellen; Burruss, Nancy

    2009-03-01

    Faculty development and scholarship is an expectation of nurse educators. Accrediting institutions, such as the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education, the National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission, and the Higher Learning Commission, all have criteria regarding faculty achievement. A faculty achievement tracking tool (FATT) was developed to facilitate documentation of accreditation criteria attainment. Based on criteria from accrediting organizations, the roles that are addressed include scholarship, service, and practice. Definitions and benchmarks for the faculty as an aggregate are included. Undergoing reviews from different accrediting organizations, the FATT has been used once for accreditation of the undergraduate program and once for accreditation of the graduate program. The FATT is easy to use and has become an excellent adjunct for the preparation for accreditation reports. In addition, the FATT may be used for yearly evaluations, advancement, and merit.

  11. Track-and-Trench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image shows the tracks and trench marks made by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity at Meridiani Planum, Mars. The rover can be seen to the lower left of the lander. The trench is visible to the upper left of the rover, which has traveled a total of 35.3 meters (116 feet) since leaving the lander on sol 7 (January 31, 2004). On sol 23 (February 16, 2004), the rover used one of its wheels to dig a trench measuring approximately 10 centimeters (4 inches) deep, 50 centimeters (20 inches) long, and 20 centimeters (8 inches) wide. This vertically projected image was created using a combination of images from the rover's navigation camera and hazard-avoidance cameras.

  12. Solar tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, P. R.; Scott, D. R. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A solar tracker for a solar collector is described in detail. The collector is angularly oriented by a motor wherein the outputs of two side-by-side photodetectors are discriminated as to three ranges: a first corresponding to a low light or darkness condition; a second corresponding to light intensity lying in an intermediate range; and a third corresponding to light above an intermediate range, direct sunlight. The first output drives the motor to a selected maximum easterly angular position; the second enables the motor to be driven westerly at the Earth rotational rate; and the third output, the separate outputs of the two photodetectors, differentially controls the direction of rotation of the motor to effect actual tracking of the Sun.

  13. Solar tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, P. R.; Scott, D. R.

    1981-04-01

    A solar tracker for a solar collector is described in detail. The collector is angularly oriented by a motor wherein the outputs of two side-by-side photodetectors are discriminated as to three ranges: a first corresponding to a low light or darkness condition; a second corresponding to light intensity lying in an intermediate range; and a third corresponding to light above an intermediate range, direct sunlight. The first output drives the motor to a selected maximum easterly angular position; the second enables the motor to be driven westerly at the Earth rotational rate; and the third output, the separate outputs of the two photodetectors, differentially controls the direction of rotation of the motor to effect actual tracking of the Sun.

  14. Intrinsic Feature Motion Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard, Jr., James S.

    2013-03-19

    Subject motion during 3D medical scanning can cause blurring and artifacts in the 3D images resulting in either rescans or poor diagnosis. Anesthesia or physical restraints may be used to eliminate motion but are undesirable and can affect results. This software measures the six degree of freedom 3D motion of the subject during the scan under a rigidity assumption using only the intrinsic features present on the subject area being monitored. This movement over time can then be used to correct the scan data removing the blur and artifacts. The software acquires images from external cameras or images stored on disk for processing. The images are from two or three calibrated cameras in a stereo arrangement. Algorithms extract and track the features over time and calculate position and orientation changes relative to an initial position. Output is the 3D position and orientation change measured at each image.

  15. Intelligent tracking techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willett, T. J.; Abruzzo, J.; Zagardo, V.; Shipley, J.; Kossa, L.

    1980-10-01

    This is the fifth quarterly report under a contract to investigate the design, test, and implementation of a set of algorithms to perform intelligent tracking and intelligent homing on FLIR and TV imagery. The system concept was described. The problem of target aspect determination in support of aimpoint selection was analyzed. Sequences of 875 line FLIR data were extracted from the data base and an example of aspect determination for a maneuvering target in the presence of obscurations was presented. An example was also presented for close in homing (less than 500 meters) and the emergence of interior features, target movement, and scale changes. Hardware implementation in terms of VLSI/VHSIC chips was analyzed.

  16. The "mommy tenure track".

    PubMed

    Draznin, Julia

    2004-04-01

    For years women have been fighting for equity in the academic work place, but this acceptance comes at a price. Balancing work and family obligations have proven to be an awkward task where maximal satisfaction and gratification in both are not easily attained. Junior-level faculty have the arduous charge of being most productive and prolific exactly during their child-raising years. If our society wants to produce and maintain women professionals, then academic institutions have to be more generous and tolerant in the short-term for a long-term gain. The author proposes a "mommy tenure track" in which primary caregivers of infants are allowed to temporarily postpone their tenure clock. She also cites innovative initiatives being carried out at one institution to help women, including young mothers, with their academic careers and promotions.

  17. Geo Issue Tracking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khakpour, Mohammad; Paulik, Christoph; Hahn, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Communication about remote sensing data quality between data providers and users as well as between the users is often difficult. The users have a hard time figuring out if a product has known problems over their region of interest and data providers have to spend a lot of effort to make this information available, if it exists. Scientific publications are one tool for communicating with the users base but they are static and mostly one way. As a data provider it is also often difficult to make feedback, received from users, available to the complete user base. The Geo Issue Tracking System (GeoITS) is an Open Source Web Application which has been developed to mitigate these problems. GeoITS combines a mapping interface (Google Maps) with a simple wiki platform. It allows users to give region specific feedback on a remote sensing product by drawing a polygon on the map and describing the problems they had using the remote sensing product in this area. These geolocated wiki entries are then viewable by other users as well as the data providers which can modify and extend the entries. In this way the conversations between the users and the data provider are no longer hidden in e.g. emails but open for all users of the dataset. This new kind of communication platform can enable better cooperation between users and data providers. It will also provide data providers with the ability to track problems their dataset might have in certain areas and resolve them with new product releases. The source code is available via http://github.com/TUW-GEO/geoits_dev A running instance can be tried at https://geoits.herokuapp.com/

  18. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A closeup of crawler-transporter (CT) number 2 shows the cab (left, above the tracks) that recently underwent modifications. The CT is transporting a Mobile Launch Platform (MLP) on a test run to the pad. The CT moves Space Shuttle vehicles, situated on the MLP, between the VAB and launch pad. Moving on four double-tracked crawlers, the CT uses a laser guidance system and a leveling system for the journey that keeps the top of a Space Shuttle vertical within plus- or minus-10 minutes of arc. The system enables the CT-MLP-Shuttle to negotiate the ramp leading to the launch pads and keep the load level. Unloaded, the CT weighs 6 million pounds. Seen on top of the MLP are two tail service masts that support the fluid, gas and electrical requirements of the orbiter’s liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen aft umbilicals.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-18

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A closeup of crawler-transporter (CT) number 2 shows the cab (left, above the tracks) that recently underwent modifications. The CT is transporting a Mobile Launch Platform (MLP) on a test run to the pad. The CT moves Space Shuttle vehicles, situated on the MLP, between the VAB and launch pad. Moving on four double-tracked crawlers, the CT uses a laser guidance system and a leveling system for the journey that keeps the top of a Space Shuttle vertical within plus- or minus-10 minutes of arc. The system enables the CT-MLP-Shuttle to negotiate the ramp leading to the launch pads and keep the load level. Unloaded, the CT weighs 6 million pounds. Seen on top of the MLP are two tail service masts that support the fluid, gas and electrical requirements of the orbiter’s liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen aft umbilicals.

  19. Cell tracking using a photoconvertible fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Hatta, Kohei; Tsujii, Hitomi; Omura, Tomomi

    2006-01-01

    The tracking of cell fate, shape and migration is an essential component in the study of the development of multicellular organisms. Here we report a protocol that uses the protein Kaede, which is fluorescent green after synthesis but can be photoconverted red by violet or UV light. We have used Kaede along with confocal laser scanning microscopy to track labeled cells in a pattern of interest in zebrafish embryos. This technique allows the visualization of cell movements and the tracing of neuronal shapes. We provide illustrative examples of expression by mRNA injection, mosaic expression by DNA injection, and the creation of permanent transgenic fish with the UAS-Gal4 system to visualize morphogenetic processes such as neurulation, placode formation and navigation of early commissural axons in the hindbrain. The procedure can be adapted to other photoconvertible and reversible fluorescent molecules, including KikGR and Dronpa; these molecules can be used in combination with two-photon confocal microscopy to specifically highlight cells buried in tissues. The total time needed to carry out the protocol involving transient expression of Kaede by injection of mRNA or DNA, photoconversion and imaging is 2-8 d.

  20. Laser Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Tunable diode lasers are employed as radiation sources in high resolution infrared spectroscopy to determine spectral characteristics of gaseous compounds. With other laser systems, they are produced by Spectra-Physics, and used to monitor chemical processes, monitor production of quantity halogen lamps, etc. The Laser Analytics Division of Spectra-Physics credits the system's reliability to a program funded by Langley in the 1970s. Company no longer U.S.-owned. 5/22/97